Chapter 4 – Machinery JAN 2016
Chapter 4 – Machinery
JAN 2016
This latest edition incorporates all rule changes. The latest revisions are shown with a
vertical line. The section title is framed if the section is revised completely. Changes after
the publication of the rule are written in red colour.
Unless otherwise specified, these Rules apply to ships for which the date of contract for
construction as defined in IACS PR No.29 is on or after 1st of January 2016. New rules or
amendments entering into force after the date of contract for construction are to be applied
if required by those rules. See Rule Change Notices on TL website for details.
"General Conditions" of the respective latest edition will be applicable (see Rules for
Classification and Surveys).
If there is a difference between the rules in English and in Turkish, the rule in English is to
be considered as valid. This publication is available in print and electronic pdf version.
Once downloaded, this document will become UNCONTROLLED. Please check the
website below for the valid version.
http:/www.turkloydu.org
All rights are reserved by Türk Loydu, and content may not be reproduced, disseminated,
published, or transferred in any form or by any means, except with the prior written
permission of TL.
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Contents
Machinery
Page
Section 1 – General Rules and Instructions
A. General ................................................................................................................................................................. 1-3
B. Documents for Approval ........................................................................................................................................ 1-5
C. Ambient Conditions ............................................................................................................................................... 1-6
D. Design Principles ................................................................................................................................................... 1-7
E.
Engine and Boiler Room Equipment ...................................................................................................................... 1-27
F.
Safety Equipment And Protective Measures ......................................................................................................... 1-28
G. Communication and Signaling Equipment ............................................................................................................. 1-28
H. Essential Equipments ............................................................................................................................................ 1-29
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
A. General .................................................................................................................................................................. 2-3
B. Documents For Approval ....................................................................................................................................... 2-4
C. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 2-5
D. Crankshaft Design ................................................................................................................................................. 2-7
E.
Tests and Trials ..................................................................................................................................................... 2-28
F.
Safety Devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 2-42
G. Auxiliary Systems .................................................................................................................................................. 2-48
H.
Starting Equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 2-51
I.
Control Equipment................................................................................................................................................. 2-55
J.
Alarms ................................................................................................................................................................... 2-55
K.
Engine Alignment/Seating ..................................................................................................................................... 2-56
L.
Air Compressors.................................................................................................................................................... 2-58
M. Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems ............................................................................................................................ 2-61
N.
Gas-Fuelled Engines ............................................................................................................................................. 2-63
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
A. General .................................................................................................................................................................. 3-2
B. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 3-2
C. Design and Construction Principles ....................................................................................................................... 3-3
D. Tests ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3-6
E.
Trials ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3-7
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
A. General……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .............. 4-2
B. Design And Installations……………………………………………………………………………………. ..................... 4-2
C. Tests……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………......... 4-4
D. Shop Approvals…………………………………………………………………………………………………. ................ 4-6
E.
Gas Turbines …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ................... 4-7
Contents
Section 5 – Main Shafting
A. General ................................................................................................................................................................. 5-2
B. Approved Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 5-3
C. Design Quality ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-4
D. Alingment and Vibration ........................................................................................................................................ 5-14
E.
Inspection, Testing and Certification ...................................................................................................................... 5-15
F.
Special Requirements for Fibre Laminate Shafts .................................................................................................. 5-16
Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
A. General ................................................................................................................................................................. 6-2
B. Calculations Of Torsional Vibration ....................................................................................................................... 6-4
C. Permissible Stresses For Torsional Vibration ........................................................................................................ 6-5
D. Torsional Vibration Measurements ........................................................................................................................ 6-10
E.
Prohibited Ranges Of Operation ............................................................................................................................ 6-11
F.
Auxiliary Machineries ............................................................................................................................................. 6-12
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
A. General .................................................................................................................................................................. 7-2
B. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 7-5
C. Calculation Of The Load Bearing Capacity Of Gear Teeth .................................................................................... 7-6
D. Gear Shafts ........................................................................................................................................................... 7-29
E.
Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................. 7-29
F.
Balancing And Testing ........................................................................................................................................... 7-30
G. Design And Construction Of Couplings ................................................................................................................. 7-31
Section 8 – Propellers
A. General .................................................................................................................................................................. 8-2
B. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 8-4
C. Dimensions and Design of Propellers .................................................................................................................... 8-5
D. Controllable Pitch Propellers ................................................................................................................................. 8-8
E.
Propeller Mounting ................................................................................................................................................ 8-9
F.
Balancing and Testing ........................................................................................................................................... 8-14
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A. Steering Gears ...................................................................................................................................................... 9-2
B. Rudder Propeller Units (Azimuth Thrusters) ......................................................................................................... 9-24
C. Lateral Thrust Units (Bow Thrusters) ................................................................................................................... 9-29
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
A. Hydraulic Systems ................................................................................................................................................. 10-2
B. Fire Door Control Systems .................................................................................................................................... 10-10
C. Stabilizers .............................................................................................................................................................. 10-13
Contents
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
A.
Windlasses ............................................................................................................................................................ 11-2
B. Winches ................................................................................................................................................................. 11-10
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
A.
General.................................................................................................................................................................. 12-3
B. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 12-6
C. Manufacturing Principles ....................................................................................................................................... 12-9
D. Design Calculations ............................................................................................................................................... 12-11
E.
Equipment and Installation .................................................................................................................................... 12-33
F.
Testing of Boilers ................................................................................................................................................... 12-42
G. Hot Water Generators ........................................................................................................................................... 12-44
H. Flue Gas Economizers .......................................................................................................................................... 12-45
Section 13 – Thermal Oil Sytems
A.
General.................................................................................................................................................................. 13-2
B. Heaters .................................................................................................................................................................. 13-3
C. Vessels .................................................................................................................................................................. 13-7
D. Design of Circulating System and Equipment Items .............................................................................................. 13-9
E.
Marking.................................................................................................................................................................. 13-10
F.
Fire Precautions .................................................................................................................................................... 13-10
G. Testing................................................................................................................................................................... 13-10
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
A.
General.................................................................................................................................................................. 14-2
B. Materials ................................................................................................................................................................ 14-4
C. Manufacturing Principles ....................................................................................................................................... 14-5
D. Design Calculations ............................................................................................................................................... 14-8
E.
Equipment and Installation .................................................................................................................................... 14-12
F.
Tests...................................................................................................................................................................... 14-14
G. Gas Cylinders ........................................................................................................................................................ 14-15
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
A.
General.................................................................................................................................................................. 15-2
B. Oil Firing Equipment For Boilers And Thermal Oil Heaters ................................................................................... 15-3
C. Oil Burners For Hot Water Heaters, Oil-Fired Heaters and Small Heating Appliances .......................................... 15-8
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
A.
General.................................................................................................................................................................. 16-4
B. Materials and Testing ............................................................................................................................................ 16-7
C. Calculation of Wall Thickness and Elasticity.......................................................................................................... 16-22
D. Principles for the Construction of Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps ............................................................ 16-27
Contents
E.
Steam Lines .......................................................................................................................................................... 16-44
F.
Boiler Feed Water and Circulating Arrangement, Condensate Recirculation ........................................................ 16-45
G. Fuel Oil Systems ................................................................................................................................................... 16-47
H. Lubricating Oil Systems ......................................................................................................................................... 16-53
I.
Cooling Seawater Equipment ................................................................................................................................ 16-56
K. Cooling Freshwater Systems ................................................................................................................................. 16-58
L.
Compressed Air Lines ........................................................................................................................................... 16-60
M. Exhaust Gas Lines ................................................................................................................................................ 16-60
N. Bilge Systems ........................................................................................................................................................ 16-61
O. Equipment for the Treatment and Storage of Bilge Water and Fuel and Residues ............................................... 16-70
P.
Ballast Systems ..................................................................................................................................................... 16-71
Q. Thermal Oil System ............................................................................................................................................... 16-72
R. Air, Overflow and Sounding Pipes ......................................................................................................................... 16-73
S.
Drinking Water System .......................................................................................................................................... 16-77
T.
Sewage and Gravity Drain System ........................................................................................................................ 16-78
U. Hose Assemblies and Compensators.................................................................................................................... 16-84
V.
Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic and Thermal Oils and Oil Residues ............................................. 16-87
Section 17 – Spare Parts
A.
General………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ........ 17-2
B. Lists of Minimum Recommended Spare Parts....................................................................................................... 17-2
Section 18 – Fire Protection and Fire Fighting Equipment
A.
General………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ..................... 18-4
B. Fire Protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. ......................... 18-5
C. Fire Detection………………………………………………………………………………………………........................ 18-10
D. Scope of Fire Extinguishing Equipment………………………………………………………….. ................................ 18-15
E.
F.
General Water Fire Extinguishing Equipment (Fire And Deckwash System….……… .......................................... 18-17
Portable and Mobile Fire Extinguishers, Portable Foam Applicators and
Water Fog Applicators…………………………………………………………………………………… ......................... 18-24
G. High-Pressure Co2 Fire Extinguishing Systems……………………………………………… .................................... 18-26
H. Low-Pressure Co2 Fire Extinguishing Systems………………………………………………. .................................... 18-35
I.
Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems Using Gases Other than Co2 for Machinery
Spaces and Cargo Pump Rooms……………………………………………………………… .................................... 18-38
J.
Other Fire Extinguishing Systems………………………………………………………………….. .............................. 18-43
K. Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems………………………………..………………………………… .............................. 18-43
L.
Pressure Water Spraying Systems……………………………………………………………….. ................................ 18-46
M. Fire Extinguishing Systems for Paint Lockers, Flammable Liquid Lockers,
Galley Range Exhaust Ducts and Deep Fat Cooking Equipment…………………………. ..................................... 18-52
N. Waste Incineration………………………………….………………………………………………….. ........................... 18-54
O. Fire Extinguishing Equipment for Helicopter Landing Decks………………............................................................ 18-54
P.
Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Packaged Form…………………………………………........................................ 18-55
Q. Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes……………………………………………………………………… ............................. 18-67
Contents
Section 19 – Machinery for Ice Class Notation
A. General......................................................................................................................………………. ...................... 19-2
B. Output of Propulsion Machinery............................................................................………… ................................... 19-2
C. Propellers, Shafts and Gears.................................................................................………… .................................. 19-2
D. Miscellanneous Machinery Requirements..........................................................………… ..................................... 19-4
Section 20 – Tankers
A. General .................................................................................................................................................................. 20-2
B. General Requirements for Tankers ....................................................................................................................... 20-3
C. Tankers for the Carriage of Oil And other Flammable Liquids Having
A Flash Point of 60°C or Below ............................................................................................................................. 20-12
D. Inert Gas Systems for Tankers .............................................................................................................................. 20-18
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-1
SECTION 1
GENERAL RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS
Page
A.
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................................... 1- 3
1. Scope
2. Definitions
B.
C.
DOCUMENTS FOR APPROVAL ......................................................................................................................... 1- 5
AMBIENT CONDITIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 1- 6
1. Operating Conditions, General
D.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES ......................................................................................................................................... 1- 7
1. General
2. Engine Mounts, Rigid and Resilient
3. Dimensioning
4. Vibration
5. Proofs
6. Materials and Welding
7. Means of Escape from Machinery Spaces
8. Measurement, Testing and Certification
9. Corrosion Protection
10. Availability of Machinery
11. Control and Regulating Equipments
12. Propulsion Plant
13. Turning Appliances
14. Operating and Maintenance Instructions
15. Markings, Identification of Machinery Parts
16. Fuels
17. Refrigerating Installations
18. Machinery Space Ventilation
19. Hot Surfaces and Fire Protection
E.
ENGINE AND BOILER ROOM EQUIPMENT .................................................................................................... 1- 27
1. Operating and Monitoring Equipment
2. Accessibility of Machinery and Boilers
3. Engine Control Rooms
4. Lighting
5. Bilge Wells / Bilges
6. Ventilation
7. Noise Abatement
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-2
F.
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES ................................................................................. 1- 28
1. General
G.
COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................ 1- 28
1. Oral Communication
2. Engineer Alarm
3. Engine Telegraph
4. Shaft Revolution Indicator
5. Design of Communication and Signalling Equipment
H.
ESSENTIAL EQUIPMENTS .............................................................................................................................. 1- 29
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
A.
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
General
1.8
1-3
All passenger ships shall comply with TL
guideline “Qualitative Failure Analysis for Propulsion
1.
Scope
1.1
The Rules and instructions for machinery
and Steering on Passenger Ships”. Passenger ships
having a length of 120 m or more or having three or
installations apply to the propulsion systems of the ships
more main vertical fire zones shall also comply with
MSC.216 (82) and MSC.1/1214 (1).
classed by Türk Loydu (TL), including all the auxiliary
machinery and equipment necessary for the operation
2.
Definitions
and safety of the ship.
Basic concept and definitions applied in this section are
They also apply to machinery which TL is to confirm as
described in following items:
being equivalent to classed machinery.
1.2
Rigid support
Apart from the machinery and equipment
In case of metal-to-metal contact where the
detailed below, the requirements are also individually
engine mounts to the frame, rigidly. Main
applicable to other machinery and equipment where this
engines and auxiliaries are fixed onto their
is necessary to the safety of the ship or its cargo.
seatings (or their foundations) with utilizing bolts
and nuts.
1.3
Designs which deviate from the Rules for
Machinery may be approved provided that such designs
-
Yielding support
have been examined by TL for suitability and have been
A support that incorporates a sliding or flexible
recognized as equivalent.
joint or stilt to accommodate early pressure and
thus delays damage and distortion of the
1.4
been
support. Friction or hydraulic devices may be
developed on novel principles and/or which have not yet
Machinery
installations
which
have
used so that a support, when subjected to a load
been sufficiently tested in shipboard service require the
above its set load, yields mechanically rather
TL's special approval
than by distorting. This supports are also called
as, resilient mount, shock absorber, vibration
Such machinery may be marked by the notation EXP
insulator, rubber insulator, damper etc.
affixed to the character of classification and be
subjected to an intensive survey, if sufficiently reliable
proof
cannot
be
provided
of
its
suitability
-
and
Means of escape
Means of escape in case of fire means the
equivalence in accordance with item. 1.3
provision of a safe routes from the lowest part of
the machinery room floor plates to a place of
1.5
In the instances mentioned in 1.3 and 1.4 TL is
safety, enabling the person to escape from fire or
entitled to require additional documentation to be
smoke by his / her own unaided efforts.
submitted and special trials to be carried out.
1.6
In addition to the Rules, TL reserves the right to
Octave band
It means the range of frequencies from a given
impose further requirements in respect of all types of
frequency to double that frequency.
machinery where this is necessitated by new findings or
operational experience, or TL may permit deviations
-
from the Rules where these are specially warranted.
Machinery room (engine room)
Engine room is a machinery space intended for
the main engines and, in case of ships with
1.7
National Rules or Regulations outside the TL's
electric propulsion plants, the main generator.
Rules remain unaffected.
(1)
Applicable to passenger ship with keel laying on or
after 1 July 2010.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-4
-
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
A
Machinery spaces
ship with electric power and other kinds of
Machinery spaces are all machinery spaces of
energy, as well as functioning of the systems
Category A and all other spaces containing
and arrangements subject to survey by TL.
propelling machinery, boilers, fuel oil units,
steam
-
and
internal
combustion
engines,
-
Equipment
generators and major electrical machinery, oil
Equipment comprises all type of filters, heat
filling
stabilising,
exchangers, separators, purifiers, tanks and
ventilation and air conditioning machinery, and
other arrangements ensuring normal operation of
similar spaces, and trunks to such spaces.
a machinery installation.
stations,
refrigerating,
Machinery spaces of Category A
-
Propulsion plant
Machinery spaces of Category A are the spaces
Propulsion plant is the total machinery and
and trunks containing:
arrangements which generate, convert and
transmit the power for ensuring the cruising of

Internal combustion engines (ICE) used for
ship in safe at all specified rates of speed and
main propulsion,
comprising propellers, shafting, maing gearing
and

ICE used for purposes other than main
main
machinery,
including
electric
propulsion units.
propulsion where such machinery has in the
aggregate a total power output of not less
-
than 375 kW,
Main active means of the ship’s steering It is a
propulsion and steering unit being part of the
propulsion plant.

Any oil fired boiler or fuel oil unit,

Gas generators, incinerators, waste disposal
a
units, etc., which use oil fired equipment.
propulsion and steering of a ship at low speed or
-
Auxiliary active means of the ship’s steering It is
propulsion
and
steering
unit
ensuring
steering of a ship at zero speed when the ship is
-
The “dead ship”– “blackout” condition
equipped with main means of propulsion and
The "dead ship" condition and the blackout
steering, and is used either in combination with
condition have same meaning such that the
the latter or when the main means of propulsion
entire
and steering are inoperative.
machinery
installation
including
the
electrical power supply is out of operation and
that auxiliary sources of energy such as starting
-
Remote control
air, battery supplied starting current etc. are not
Remote control is the changing of the speed and
available for restoring the ship's electrical
direction of rotation as well as starting and
system,
stopping the machinery from a remote position.
restarting
auxiliary
operation
and
bringing the propulsion installation back into
operation.
-
-
Main machinery control room
-
It is the most essential place, as a heart of the
Main machinery
vessel, which containing the remote controls of
Main machinery is the engine being part of the
main and auxiliary machineries, Controllable
propulsion plant.
Pitch Propellers (CPP), main and auxiliary
Amplitude
-
Modulation
Signalling
System
Auxiliary machinery
(AMSS), indicating instruments, alarm devices
Auxiliary machinery is the machinery necessary
and means of communication.
for the operation of main engines, supply of the
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A,B
-
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions

Control station
Control station is a special place at where the
1-5
Cargo oil tanks and other spaces of oil
carriers,
simultaneous control of the main engine is

intended and, the indicating instruments, the
Ro-ro cargo spaces.
audial and visual alarm devices and the means
of communications are fitted. It is also defined
exclusively for purposes of Section 18 - Fire
B.
Documents for Approval
1.
Drawings showing the general layout of the
Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipments,
as intended by SOLAS.
machinery installation together with all drawings of parts
-
Technical condition monitoring system
subject to mandatory testing, to the extent specified in
It is a complex system of inspection facilities and
the following sections of Chapter 4 - Machinery, the
actuators interacting with the control item on
Rules for Machinery, are each to be submitted in
demand
triplicate to TL.
set
forth
by
the
appropriate
documentation. The system provides for the
identification of the type of the item technical
2.
condition and systematic observation (tracing) or
necessary for approval. Where necessary, design
its change on the basis the measurement of the
calculations for components and descriptions of the
controlled
plant are to be submitted.
(diagnostic)
parameters
and
The drawings must contain all the data
comparison of these values with the set
standards.
3.
Once the documents submitted have been
approved by TL they are binding on the execution of the
-
Technical condition diagnosis
work. And subsequent modifications require the TL's
It is a process of establishing causes for the
deviation
of
diagnostic
parameters
approval before being put into effect.
when
performing condition monitoring and/or detecting
4.
malfunctions, as a requirement, by stripless
submitted for review:
The following plans and particulars are to be
methods in order to provide maintenance and
repair on the actual condition basis.
-
Construction details of the machinery with
materials and dimensions,
-
Technical condition prediction
It is the process of determing the causes for
-
Engine layout diagram,
-
Machinery
changes at the controlled item or parameter for
the forthcoming time period, based on the trend
of the diagnostic parameter values during the
foundation
details
and
material
properties
preceding time period.
-
Hazardous area
Coordinates of the mass centre of machinery
and the foundation,
Areas where flammable or explosive gases,
vapour or dust are normally present or likely to
-
Type of installation and arrangement details,
be present are called as hazardous areas. These
areas, however, more specifically defined for
-
Corrosive
effects
and
environmental
certain machinery installations, storage spaces
operational conditions such as humidity, dust
and cargo spaces that present such hazard, e.g.:
or rust

Helicopter refuelling facilities,
-

Paint stores,
Mounting type such as resilient or shock
mount,
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-6
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions

Static and dynamic loads arisen from engine.
B,C
shipboard machinery, equipment and appliances shall
ensure faultless continuous operation under the ambient
C.
Ambient Conditions
conditions specified in Tables 1.1-1.4.
1.
Operating conditions, general
1.2
Account is to be taken of the effects on the
machinery installation of distortions of the ship's hull.
1.1
The selection, layout and arrangements of all
Table 1.1 Ambient conditions about inclinations
Angle of inclination [degrees] (2)
Athwartships
Installations, components
Dynamic
Static
Main and auxiliary machinery
For-and-aft
Static
(rolling)
15
22.5
Dynamic
(pitching)
5 (4)
7.5
10
10
Safety equipment, e.g. emergency power installations, emergency
fire pumps and their devices
Switch gear, electrical and electronic appliances (1) and remote
control systems
22.5 (3)
22.5 (3)
Notes :
(1) Up to an angle of inclination of 45° no undesired switching operations or operational changes may occur.
(2) Athwartships and fore-end-aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
(3) In ships for the carriage of liquefied gases and of chemicals the emergency power supply must also remain operable with
the ship flooded to a final athwartships inclination up to maximum of 30°.
(4) Where the length of the ship exceeds 100m, the fore-and-aft static angle of inclination may be taken as 500/L degrees
where L = length of the ship, in metres.
Table 1.2 Water temperatures
Coolant
Temperature (oC)
Seawater
+ 32 (1)
Charge air coolant inlet to charge air cooler
+ 32 (1)
(1) TL may approve lower water temperatures for ships operating only in special geographical areas.
Table 1.3 Air temperatures at an atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa and at a relative humidity of 60%
Installations, components
Location, arrangement
in enclosed spaces
Machinery and electrical
installations (1)
on machinery components, boilers in spaces,
subject to higher or lower temperatures
on the open deck
(1)
(2)
Temperature range [°C]
0
to +45 (2)
According to specific local
conditions
-25
to +45
Electronic appliances shall ensure satisfactory operation even at a constant air temperature of +55°C.
TL may approve lower air temperatures for ships designed only for service in special geographical areas.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C,D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-7
Table 1.4 Other ambient conditions
Location
Conditions
Ability to withstand oil vapour and salt-laden air
Trouble-Free operation within the temperature ranges stated in Table 1.3, and
with a relative humidity up to 100% at a reference temperature of 45°C
in all spaces
Tolerance to condensation is assumed
in specially protected control rooms
80% relative humidity at a reference temperature of 45°C
on the open deck
Ability to withstand temporary flooding with seawater and salt-laden spray
D.
Design Principles
If necessary, provision is to be made for heating devices
to ensure safe starting and taking up the load according
1.
General
1.1
Propulsion plant shall provide the sufficient
to the requirements of Section 16 – Pipe, Valves,
Fittings and Pumps and Chapter 5 - Electrical
Installation.
astern power to maintain manoeuvring of the ship in all
normal service conditions.
Spaces for emergency diesel generators must comply
with the same requirements mentioned above.
1.2
Propulsion
plant
shall
be
capable
of
maintaining in free route astern at least 70% of rated
1.5
ahead speed for a period of at least 30 minutes.
are started by compressed air, the set of equipment
On ships where internal combustion engines
for starting shall ensure the supply of air in quantity
By the rated ahead speed is meant a speed
sufficient for the initial start without external aid.
corresponding to the maximum continuous power of the
main machinery.
Where the ships are not fitted with an emergency
generator, or an emergency generator does not comply
The astern power shall be sufficient to take way off a
with the requirements of 1.4, the means for bringing
ship making a full ahead speed on an agreeable length,
main and auxiliary machinery into operation shall be
which must be confirmed during trials.
such that the initial charge of starting air or initial
electrical power and any power supplies for engine
1.3
In propulsion plants with reversing gears or
operation can be developed on board ship without
CPP propellers as well as in azimuthing thrusters,
external aid. For this purpose when an emergency air
precautions are to be taken against any possible
compressor or an electric generator is required, the
overload of main machinery en excess of permissible
machinery is to be powered by a hand-starting Internal
values.
Combustion Engine or a hand-operated compressor.
1.4
Emergency
diesel
generators
are
to
be
1.6
Emergency
generator
and
other
means
capable of being readily started in cold condition at
needed to restore the propulsion shall have a capacity
o
ambient temperature of 0 C. Where such starting is
such that the necessary propulsion starting energy is
impraticable or at lower temperatures at the space,
available within at most 30 minutes of black out or dead
provision shall be made for heating devices to ensure
ship condition. (See A.2).
safe starting and taking up the load by the diesel
generators.
Emergency generator stored starting energy is not to be
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-8
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
directly used to start the propulsion plant, the main
corrosive medium are to be made of an anticorrosive
source of electrical power and/or other essential
material or shall have corrosion-resistant coatings. Sea
auxiliaries (emergency generator excluded).
water cooling spaces of engines and the coolers are to
be provided with approved protectors by TL surveyors.
1.7
The power of main machinery in ships of river-
Parts which are exposed to corrosion in underwater or
sea navigation shall provide the ahead speed in loaded
underground systems are to be safeguarded by being
condition of at least 10 knots in calm water.
manufactured
of
corrosion-resistant
materials
or
provided with effective cathodic protection. Parts
1.8
Supercharged high-speed diesel engines (over
contacting with the moisturized or the asidic media are
750 rpm), which increased noise level makes direct
to be provided with effective anodic protection. Parts
local control difficult, may be admitted by TL for usage
contacting upon air are to be protected by metallic or
as main engines in sea-going vessels, if provision is
nonmetalic coating or mantling. However, the parts
made for remote control and monitoring so that constant
contacting with moisture and air should be protected
presence of the attending screw in the engine room
with applying suitable galvanising metods.
shall not be necessary.
1.15
1.9
The machinery with horizontal arrangement of
The machinery for driving generators must be
mounted on the same seatings as the generators.
the shaft is to be installed parallel to the centre line of
the ship. Installing such machinery in any other direction
1.16
is permitted if the construction of machinery provides for
to provide ambient reference conditions at test bed.
The engine manufacturer shall not be expected
operation under the conditions given in Table 1.1 ÷ 1.4.
1.17
1.10
Vibration standards of machinery are specified
The design of the main engines intended for
in the relative chapters for rigid (seatings) and yielding
installation aboard single-shaft ships shall provide, as a
supports (dampers) to which machinery can be attached
requirement, for a possibility of emergency operation at
under shipboard conditions.
reduced power in case of a failure of parts, the
replacement of which cannot be carried out aboard the
1.17.1
ship or demands much time.
first natural frequency of the “support + machinery”
Rigid supports are those supports where the
system exceeds the basic exciting frequency (working
1.11
In case of ships with twin-hulls, the failure of
the machinery installation of one hull shall not put the
frequency
of
engine
speed)
in
the
vibration
measurement direction by more than 25%.
machinery installation of the other hull out of action.
1.17.2
1.12
Long run of the propulsion plant at all
specified
rates
during
its
under
the
Yielding supports are the supports where the
first natural frequency is less than 25% of the engine
conditions
running speed. Yielding of the support is ensured by
corresponding to the assigned class shall not lead to
resilient mounting of the machinery or support (vibration
loverload. The substantiation of the required power is
insulators – shock absorbers, springs, rubber insulators,
subject to special consideration by TL.
etc.).
1.13
2.
Engine Mounts, Rigid and Resilient
stations and servicing flats to the means of escape from
2.1
The machinery and equipment constituting the
the machinery spaces and, of course to easy access for
propulsion plant are to be installed on strong and rigid
maintenance, servicing and repair.
seatings and securely attached thereto. Construction of
Main and auxiliary machineries are to be so
arranged as to provide passageways from the control
the seatings must comply with the requirements of
1.14
The machinery parts that are in contact with a
Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 19, B.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-9
2.2
Where the machinery is to be mounted on
vibrations in a frequency range from 2 to 300 Hz. The
shock
absorbers,
basic assumption is that the vibrations with oscillation
the
design
shall
confirm
the
requirements of Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 19, C.
frequencies below 2 Hz can be regarded as rigid-body
vibrations while the local oscillation frequencies above
3.
Dimensioning
300 Hz are just occurred. Where, in special cases,
these assumptions are not valid (e.g. where the
3.1
All parts must be capable of withstanding the
vibration is generated by a gear pump with a tooth
stresses and loads peculiar to shipboard service, e.g.
meshing frequency in the range above 300 Hz) the
those due to motions of the ship, vibrations, intensified
following provisions are to be applied in analogous
corrosive attack, temperature changes and wave
manner.
impact, and must be dimensioned in accordance with
the requirements set out in the relevant sections of
4.2
Chapter 4 – Machinery.
peak value, what is known as its root-mean-square
Velocity amplitude is expressed in terms of its
(RMS) value. The RMS value of a vibration signal is an
In
the
absence
of
requirements
governing
the
important measure of its amplitude. To calculate this
dimensions of parts, the recognized requirements of
value, the instantaneous amplitude values of the
engineering practice are to be applied.
waveform must be squared and these squared values
averaged over a certain length of time. This time interval
3.2
Where connections exist between systems or
must be at least one period of the wave in order to
plant items which are designed for different forces,
arrive at the correct value. The squared values are all
pressures and temperatures (stresses), safety devices
positive, and thus so is their average. Then the square
are to be fitted which prevent the overstressing of the
root of this average value is extracted to get the RMS
system or plant item designed for the lower design
value.
parameters. To preclude damage, such systems are to
be fitted with devices affording protection against
4.2.1
excessive pressures and temperatures and/or against
octave band, is assumed as the basic vibration
overflow.
parameter. Measuring of vibration in octave band is
RMS value of vibration rate, measured in 1/3-
allowed.
4.
Vibration
For most engineering applications, the greatest interest
4.1
Machinery, equipment and hull structures are
lies in the frequency range from 20 to 20,000 Hz.
normally subjected to vibration stresses. Design,
Although it is possible to analyse a source on a
construction and installation must in every case take
frequency by frequency basis, this is both impractical
account of these stresses.
and time-consuming. For this reason, a scale of octave
bands
and
one-third
octave
bands
has
been
The faultless long-term service of individual components
developed. Each band covers a specific range of
shall not be endangered by vibration stresses.
frequencies and excludes all others. The ratio of the
frequency of the highest note to the lowest note in an
TL may consider deviations from the angels of
octave is 2:1.
inclination defined in Table 1.1 taking into consideration
the type, size and service conditions of the ship.
If fn is the lower cut-off frequency and fn+1 is the upper
cut-off frequency, the ratio of band limits is given by:
For reciprocating machinery, the following statements
f n 1
 2k
fn
are only applicable for outputs over 100 kW and speeds
below 3000 rpm.
Where
The requirements in this section are related to the
k
= 1 for full octave bands, [-]
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(2)
1-10
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
= 1/3 for one-thirds octave bands
D
failures or malfunctions.
4.2.2
An octave has a centre frequency that is
2  1.4142 times of the lower cut-off frequency and
Table 1.5 Vibration and octave band noise levels for
1/3 octave band
has an upper cut-off frequency that is twice the lower
cut-off frequency (see 4.2.1). When vibration is
Lower cut-
measured in octave bands, the permissible values of
off
the parameter measured may be increased by
2  1.4142 times (3 dB) for bands with geometric
frequency
mean frequency values of 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5, 62.5, 125,
250, 500 Hz, 1 KHz, 2 KHz, 4 KHz and 8 KHz.
follows:
4.2.3
(3)
The relationship between the centre frequency
4.5
Upper cut-off Pressure
frequency
level
(Hz)
(Hz)
(dB)
56.2
62.5
70.8
41
112
125
141
45
224
250
282
48
447
500
562
50
891
1,000
1,122
46
1,778
2,000
2,239
42
3,548
4,000
4,467
40
7,079
8,000
8,913
38
Hz
Centre frequency, fo is determined by the formula (3), as
f0  2  fn
Centre
frequency
Attention has to be paid to vibration stresses
and band pressure level for one-third octave band is
over the whole relevant operating range of the vibration
shown in Table 1.5.
generator.
4.2.4
Vibration parameters are measured in absolute
Where the vibration is generated by an engine, the
units or in decibels relatively to standard limiting value
considerations are to be extended to the whole
of speed or acceleration being equal to 5.0  10 mm/s,
available working speed range and, where appropriate,
-4
2
and 3.0  10 m/s , respectively
to the whole power range.
-5
4.3
Conversion of the measured values of vibration
4.6
The procedure described below is largely
rate into relative units is to be made using the following
standardized. Basically, a substitution quantity is formed
formula (4):
for the vibration stresses or the intensity of the exciter
spectrum (see 4.7). This quantity is then compared with
 V 
L  20  1og  e 
 V eo 


(4)
admissible. However, the mentioned procedure takes
only incomplete account of the physical facts.
Where;
Ve
permissible or guaranteed values to check that it is
=
the measured root-mean-square value of
The general design purpose is to evaluate the true
alternating stresses or alternating forces.
vibration rate, [mm/s]
No simple relationship exists between the actual
Voe
=
5.0  10-5 [mm/s]
stresses and the substitution quantities: vibration
amplitude, vibration velocity and vibration acceleration
4.4
For vibrations generated by main engine or
at external parts of the frame.
auxiliaries the intensity shall not exceed the predefined
limits by TL. The purpose is to protect the vibration
Nevertheless this procedure is adopted since it at
generators,
the
peripheral
present appears to be the only one which can be
equipment
and
additional,
implemented in a reasonable way. For these reasons
connected
hull
assemblies,
components
form
excessive vibration stresses liable to cause premature
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-11
it is expressly pointed out that the magnitude of the
Depending on the prevailing conditions, the effective
substitution quantities applied in relation to the relevant
value of the vibration velocity is given by formula (5) for
limits enables no conclusion to be drawn concerning the
purely sinusoidal oscillations or by formula (6) for any
reliability or loading of components so long as these
periodic oscillation.
limits are not exceeded.
4.8
The assessment of vibration stresses is
It is, in particular, inadmissible to compare the loading of
generally based on areas A, B and C, which are
components of different reciprocating machines by
enclosed by the boundary curves shown in Figure 1.1.
comparing the substitution quantities measured at the
engine frame.
The vibration standards provide three categories of
technical condition of ship machinery and equipment:
4.7
In assessing the vibration stresses imposed on
machinery, equipment and hull structures, the vibration
-
Area (A): Condition of machinery and equipment
velocity, V is generally used as a criterion for the
after manufacturing (construction of the ship) or
prevailing vibration stresses. The same criterion is used
repair at the commissioning,
to evaluate the intensity of the vibration spectrum
produced by a vibration exciter.
-
Area (B): Condition of machinery and equipment
during normal operation;
In the case of a purely sinusoidal oscillation, the
effective value of the vibration velocity Veff can be
-
calculated by the formula (5):
Veff 
1
2
v̂ 
1
2
aˆ

ω
Area (C): Condition of machinery and equipment
when
technical
maintenance
or
repair
is
required.
1
2
ŝω
(5)
The vibration standards A and B for several machineries
Where;
installed on rigid supports are specified in the relevant
tables and figures in this section.
ŝ
= vibration displacement amplitude,
v̂
= vibration velocity amplitude,
However, when the machinery is attached to yielding
supports, the values of permissible vibration standards
are increased. In order to determine the values of
veff
= effective value of vibration velocity,
â
= vibration acceleration amplitude,
permissible vibration rate, multiplication factor for the
particular type of machinery is to be applied.
The permissible standards according to the boundary
ω
= angular velocity of vibration.
curves of areas A, B and C displayed on Figure 1.1 are
presented in Table 1.6.
For any periodic oscillation with individual harmonic
components 1,2,...n, the effective value of the vibration
4.8.1
velocity can be calculated by the formula:
several harmonic components, the effective value
If the vibration to be assessed comprises
according to 4.7 must be applied. The assessment of
2
2
2
Veffi  Veff1
 Veff2
 ...  Veffn
(6)
this value is to take account of all important harmonic
components in the range from 2 to 300 Hz.
in which veffi is the effective value of the vibration
4.8.2
velocity of the i-th harmonic component. Using formula
machines,
(5), the individual values of veffi are to be calculated for
equipment and appliances for use on board ship shall
each harmonic.
as a minimum requirement be designed to withstand a
Area A can be used for the assessment of all
equipment
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
and
appliances.
Machines,
1-12
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
vibration stress corresponding to the boundary curve of
must be proved by measurement that directly connected
area A. Otherwise, with TL's consent, steps must be
peripheral appliances are not loaded above the limits for
taken (vibration damping etc.) to reduce the actual
area C.
vibration stress to the permissible level.
In these circumstances directly connected peripheral
appliances shall in every case be designed for at least
4.8.3
Because
they
act
as
vibration
exciters,
reciprocating machines must be separately considered.
the limit stresses of area C, and machines located
nearby for the limit loads of area B.
Both the vibration generated by reciprocating machines
and the stresses consequently imparted to directly
Proof is required that machines and appliances located
connected
governors,
in close proximity to the main exciter are not subjected
exhaust gas turbochargers and lubricating oil pumps)
to higher stresses than those defined by the boundary
and adjacent machines or plant (e.g. generators,
curve of area B.
peripheral
equipment
(e.g.
transmission systems and pipes) may, for the purpose
of these requirements and with due regard to the
If the permissible vibration stresses of individual directly
limitations stated in 4.6, be assessed using the
connected
substitution quantities presented in 4.7.
accordance with 4.8.4 lie below the stated values,
peripheral
appliances
or
machines
in
admissibility must be proved by measurement of
4.8.4
In every case the manufacturer of reciprocating
vibration stress which actually occurs
machines has to guarantee permissible vibration
stresses for the important directly connected peripheral
4.8.7
equipment.
machines lie outside are B' but are still within area C, it
If the vibration stresses
of reciprocating
is necessary to ensure that the vibration stresses on the
The manufacturer of the reciprocating machine is
directly connected peripheral appliances still remain
responsible to TL for proving that the vibration stresses
within area C. If this condition cannot be met, the
are within the permissible limits in accordance with 5.
important peripheral appliances must in accordance
with 5 be demonstrably designed for the higher
4.8.5
Where the vibration stresses of reciprocating
stresses.
machines lie within the A' area, separate consideration
or proofs relating to the directly connected peripheral
Suitable measures (vibration damping etc.) are to be
equipment (see 4.8.3) are not required. The same
taken to ensure reliable prevention of excessive
applies to machines and plant located in close proximity
vibration
to the generator (see 4.8.3).
appliances. The permissible stresses stated in 4.8.6
stresses
on
adjacent
machines
and
(the area B or a lower value specified by the
In these circumstances directly connected peripheral
manufacturer) continue to apply to these units.
appliances shall in every case be designed for at least
the limit stresses of area B', and machines located
4.8.8
nearby for the limit stresses of area B.
TL may approve higher values than those specified in
For directly connected peripheral appliances,
4.8.5, 4.8.6 and 4.8.7 where these are guaranteed by
If the permissible vibration stresses of individual directly
the manufacturer of the reciprocating machine in
connected peripheral appliances in accordance with
accordance with 4.8.4 and are proved in accordance
4.8.4 lie below the boundary curve of area B,
with 5.
admissibility must be proved by measurement of the
vibration stress which actually occurs.
Analogously, the same applies to adjacent machines
and appliances where the relevant manufacturer
4.8.6
If the vibration stresses
of reciprocating
machines lie outside area A' but are still within area B', it
guarantees higher values and provides proof of these in
accordance with 5.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-13
Figure 1.1 Regions for assesment of vibration loads
Table 1.6 Top limits for the areas indicating the assesment of vibration loads
ŝ
v̂
Veff
â
mm
mm/s
mm/s
9.80665 m/s
A
<1
< 20
< 14
< 0.7
B
<1
< 35
< 25
< 1.6
C
<1
< 63
< 45
< 4.0
A
<1
< 20
< 14
< 1.3
B
<1
< 40
< 28
< 2.6
Areas
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-14
4.8.9
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
For appliances, equipment and components
D
1.3 and Table 1.8.
which, because of their installation in steering gear
compartments or bow thruster compartments, are
4.10.2
exposed to higher vibration stresses, the admissibility of
with a capacity lower than 1000 kW, the vibration
the vibration stress may, notwithstanding 4.8.2, be
assessed according to the limits of area B. The design
of such equipment shall allow for the above mentioned
For the diesel-gen sets, shaft generators etc
standards for Categories A and B are by 4 dB lower
than the values stated in Figure 1.3 and Table 1.8.
increased stresses.
4.10.3
4.9
Vibration
standards
for
(ICE)
Internal
Vibration standards for diesel gen-sets, shafts
generators etc when installed on yielding supports are
Combustion Engines
to be increased 2 times.
4.9.1
4.11
Vibration standards for pumps
4.11.1
Vibration
Vibration standards are extended to cover ICE
with 100 kW and above in power and engine speed of
3,000 rpm and more.
of
pumps
is
assumed
to
be
permissible for Categories A and B, when the root4.9.2
Vibration of low-speed internal combustion
engines installed on rigid supports is considered
permissible for categories A and B, provided the rootmeans-square value of vibration rate and vibration
acceleration measured in the direction of X and Z (see
E.1) do not excees the values specified in Figure 1.2
and Table 1.7.
4.9.3
When the vibration is measured along the axis
Y (i.e., in transverse direction), the permissible vibration
mean-square values of vibration rate and vibration
acceleration do not exceed the value stated in Figure
1.4 and Table 1.9.
4.11.2
In case when pumps are installed on yielding
support, the permissible vibration standards are to be
increased by 1.4 times for Categories A and B.
4.12
Vibration
standards
for
centrifugal
separators
rate standards for Categories A and B are to be
4.12.1
increased by 1.4 times.
Vibration of centrifugal separators is assumed
to be permissible for Categories A and B, when the rootWhen the internal combustion engines are
mean-square values of vibration rate and vibration
installed on yielding supports (main medium-speed
acceleration do not exceed the value stated in Figure
diesel engines and diesel gen-sets), the permissible
1.5 and Table 1.9
4.9.4
vibration standards for Categories A and B in the
direction of axes X, Y and Z specified in Figure 1.2 and
4.12.2
The
vibration
standards
are
specified
Table 1.7 are to be increased by 1.4 times.
considering the installation of separators on shcok
absorbers.
4.10
Vibration standards for Diesel Gen-Sets and
Shaft Generators
4.10.1
4.13
Vibration
standards for fans and
gas
blowers of inert gas system
Vibration of diesel gen-sets, shaft generators
and turbo generators with the capacity of 1000 kW and
more, measured on the bearing housing, is assumed to
be permissible for Categories A and B, when the rootmean-square values of vibration rate and vibration
acceleration do not exceed the value stated in Figure
4.13.1
Vibration of the fans and the gas blowers of the
inert gas system is assumed to be permissible for
Categories A and B, when the root-mean-square values
of vibration rate and vibration acceleration do not
exceed the value stated in Figure 1.6 and Table 1.9
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-15
Figure 1.2 Vibration standards for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with a piston stroke (1- Under 30 cm, 2- 30 to 70 cm,
3- 71 to 140 cm, 4- 141 to 240 cm, 5- over 240 cm) - - - - Upper limit for Category A, ------Upper limit for Category B
Figure 1.3 Vibration standards for diesel gen-sets and shaft generators of 1000 kW and more capacity
- - - - - - -Upper band for Category A,
---------------Upper limit for Category B
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
4
4
4
4
4
4.5
5.6
7.1
8.9
11
14
16
16
16
16
16
12.5
10
8
6.3
5
2
2.5
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
25
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
mm/s
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
109
107
105
103
101
99
98
98
98
98
98
dB
Category A
1.6
Hz
1/3 – octave bands
frequencies
Geometric mean
7.1
8.9
11
14
18
22
22
22
22
22
20
16
12.5
10
8.0
6.3
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
mm/s
103
105
107
109
111
113
13
113
113
113
112
110
108
106
104
102
101
101
101
101
101
dB
Category B
Under 30
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
16
16
16
16
14
11
8.9
7.1
5.6
4.5
4
4
4
4
mm/s
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
109
107
105
103
101
99
98
98
98
98
dB
Category A
5.6
7.1
8.9
11
14
18
22
22
22
22
22
20
16
12.5
10
8.0
6.3
5.6
5.6
5.6
5.6
71 to 140
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
113
113
113
113
112
110
108
106
104
102
101
101
101
101
dB
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
16
16
16
16
14
11
8.9
7.1
5.6
4.5
4
4
4
mm/s
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
109
107
105
103
101
99
98
98
98
dB
Category A
4.5
5.6
7.1
8.9
11
14
18
22
22
22
22
22
20
16
12.5
10
8.0
6.3
5.6
5.6
5.6
mm/s
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
113
113
113
113
112
110
108
106
104
102
101
101
101
dB
Category B
Permissible values of vibration rate
Category B
mm/s
30 to 70
Engines with piston stroke, cm
2.5
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
16
16
16
16
14
11
8.9
7.1
5.6
4.6
4
4
mm/s
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
109
107
105
103
101
99
98
98
dB
Category A
3.6
4.5
5.6
7.1
8.9
11
14
18
22
22
22
22
22
20
16
12.5
10
8.0
6.3
5.6
5.6
mm/s
97
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
113
113
113
113
112
110
108
106
104
102
101
101
dB
Category B
141 to 240
2
2.5
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
16
16
16
16
14
11
8.9
7.1
5.6
4.5
4
mm/s
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
109
107
105
103
101
99
98
dB
Category A
2.8
3.6
4.5
5.6
7.1
8.9
11
14
18
22
22
22
22
22
20
16
12.5
10
8.0
6.3
5.6
mm/s
95
97
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
113
113
113
113
112
110
108
106
104
102
101
dB
Category B
Over 240
1-16
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
Table 1.7 Vibration standards for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE)
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
Table 1.7
Vibration standards for diesel gen-sets,
shaft generators and turbo generators of
4.13
Vibration
1-17
standards for fans and
gas
blowers of inert gas system
1000 kW and more capacity
4.13.1
Geometric mean
frequencies
1/3-octave
bands
HZ
1.6
2
2.5
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
25
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
320
Permissible value
Category A
Category B
Vibration of the fans and the gas blowers of the
inert gas system is assumed to be permissible for
Categories A and B, when the root-mean-square values
of vibration rate and vibration acceleration do not
mm/s
dB
mm/s
dB
1
1.3
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.9
3.6
4.5
5.6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5.6
4.5
3.6
2.9
2.3
1.9
86
88
90
92
93
95
97
99
101
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
101
99
97
95
93
92
1.6
1.9
2.4
3
3.7
4.6
5.7
7.1
8.9
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
8.9
7.1
5.7
4.6
3.7
3
90
92
94
96
97
99
101
103
105
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
105
103
101
99
97
96
exceed the value stated in Figure 1.6 and Table 1.9
4.13.2
The
vibration
standards
are
specified
considering the installation of fans and gas blowers on
shcok absorbers. In case of rigid mounting, these
standards are to be also applied.
4.14
Vibration standards for piston type air
compressors
4.14.1
Vibration of piston type air compressors is
assumed to be permissible for Categories A and B,
when the root-mean-square values of vibration rate and
vibration acceleration do not exceed the value stated in
Figure 1.7 and Table 1.10.
4.14.2
In case when the compressors are installed on
yielding support (shock absorbers), the permissible
vibration standards are to be increased by 4 dB for
Categories A and B.
4.11.2
In case when pumps are installed on yielding
support, the permissible vibration standards are to be
increased by 1.4 times for Categories A and B.
4.12
Vibration
standards
for
5.1
centrifugal
separators
4.12.1
5.
Proofs
Where in accordance with 4.8.4, 4.8.7 and
4.8.8 TL is asked to approve higher vibration stress
values, all that is normally required for this is the binding
guarantee of the admissible values by the manufacturer
Vibration of centrifugal separators is assumed
to be permissible for Categories A and B, when the rootmean-square values of vibration rate and vibration
acceleration do not exceed the value stated in Figure
or the supplier.
5.2
TL reserves the right to call for detailed proofs
(calculations, design documents, measurements etc.) in
cases where this is warranted.
1.5 and Table 1.9
5.3
4.12.2
The
vibration
standards
are
Type
testing
in
accordance
with
TL
is
specified
“Regulations for the Performance of the Type Tests Part
considering the installation of separators on shcok
1- Test Requirements for Electrical / Electronic
absorbers.
Equipment, Computers and Peripherals” regarded as
proof of admissibility of the tested vibration stress.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-18
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
Figure 1.4 Vibration standards for pumps, - - - -Upper limit for Category A
------Upper limit for Category B
Figure 1.5 Vibration standards for centrifugal separators - - - Upper limit for Category A ----- Upper limit for Category B
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
Figure 1.6 Vibration standards for fans
- - - Upper limit for Category A ----- Upper limit for Category B
Figure 1. 7 Vibration standards for piston compresors, - - - Upper limit for Category A ----- Upper limit for Category B
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-19
86
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
101
103
103
103
103
103
103
103
101
99
97
95
1
1.1
1.4
1.7
2.2
2.7
3.5
4.3
5.5
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5.5
4.3
3.5
2.7
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
25
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
86
1
2
dB
mm/s
Category A
2.5
1.6
Hz
1/3 – octave bands
frequencies
Geometric mean
Certrifugal separators
mm/s
1
86
1
1.2
89
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
104
102
100
98
2
2.5
3.3
4
5
6.3
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
8
6.3
5
4
102
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
3.2
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
102
100
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
6.4
5
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
98
96
100
98
4
6.4
96
98
94
3.2
100
96
3.2
5
94
92
90
88
dB
2.5
2
1.6
1.3
mm/s
Category B
4
92
90
88
86
2.5
2
1.6
1
1.3
88
1.4
86
dB
Category A
Permissible values of vibration rate
dB
Category B
mm/s
Pumps
2.6
3.3
4.1
5.2
6.7
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
6.7
5.2
4.1
3.3
2.6
2
1.6
1.3
1
1
mm/s
94
96
98
100
103
105
105
105
105
105
105
103
100
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
86
dB
Category A
Fans
4
5
6.4
8
10.3
13
13
13
13
13
13
10.3
8
6.4
5
4
3.2
2.5
2
1.6
1.3
mm/s
98
100
102
104
106
108
108
108
108
108
108
106
104
102
100
98
96
94
92
90
88
dB
Category B
1-20
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
Table 1.8 Vibration standards for pumps, centrifugal compressors and fans
D
5.4
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
TL may recognize long-term trouble free
operation as sufficient proof of the reliability and
Table 1.9
1-21
Vibration standards for piston type
air compressors
operational dependability.
5.5
The manufacturer of the reciprocating machine
is in every case responsible to TL for any proof which
may be required concerning the level of the vibration
Geometric mean
frequencies
1/3-octave
bands
HZ
1.6
2
2.5
3.2
4
5
6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
25
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
320
400
500
spectrum generated by reciprocating machinery.
6.
Materials and Welding
6.1
All components subject to the Rules for
Machinery must comply with the Rules for Materials and
welding contained in Chapter 2 - Material and Chapter 3 Welding.
The fabrication of welded components, the approval of
companies and the testing of welders are subject to
Chapter 3 - Welding.
6.2
The forged, cast and welded steel parts, as
well as cast iron parts of the machinery and its
assembly are to be manufactured with utilizing the heat
treatment method.
7.
7.1
Means of Escape from Machinery Spaces
Means of escape from machinery spaces,
8.2
Permissible value
Category A
Category B
mm/s
dB
mm/s
dB
2
2.5
3.1
4
5
6.2
7.9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
7.9
6.2
5
4
3.1
2.5
2
1.6
1.3
1
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
104
102
100
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
3.2
4
5.1
6.4
38
10
12.5
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
12.5
10
8
6.4
5.1
4
3.2
2.5
2.1
1.6
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
108
106
104
102
100
98
96
94
92
90
Measurements are to be performed in every
including ladders, corridors, doors and hatches, shall, if not
case under realistic service conditions at the point of
expressly provided otherwise, provide safe escape to the
installation. During verification, the output supplied by
lifeboat and liferaft embarking decks (see Chapter 1 - Hull,
the rated value. The measurement shall cover the entire
Section 21).
8.
the reciprocating machine shall be not less than 80% of
available speed range in order to facilitate the detection
Measurements, Testing and Certification
of any resonance phenomena.
8.3
8.1
TL may accept proofs based on measurements
Proof based on measurements is normally
which have not been performed at the point of
required only for reciprocating machines with an output
installation (e.g. test bed runs) or at the point of
of more than 100 kW, where the other conditions set out
installation but under different mounting conditions
from 2.8.5 to 2.8.7 are met. Where circumstances
provided that the transferability of the results can be
warrant this, TL may also require proofs based on
proved.
measurements for smaller outputs.
The results are normally regarded as transferable in the
case of flexibly mounted reciprocating machines of
customary design.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-22
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
If the reciprocating machine is not flexibly mounted, the
obtained as a result of measurement shall not differ
transferability of the results may still be acknowledged if
from the design values by more than 5%. Otherwise, the
the
calculation needs to be corrected accordingly.
essential
conditions
for
this
(similar
bed
construction, similar installation and pipe routing etc.)
are satisfied.
8.8
For new building ships or repaired ships, the
vibration level of the machinery and the equipment shall
8.4
The assessment of the vibration stresses
not exceed the upper limit of Category A, determined as
affecting or generated by reciprocating machines
to ensure sufficient margin for changing of vibration
normally related to the location in which the vibration
strength
stresses are greatest. Figure 1.8 indicates the points of
equipment.
and
reliability
of
ship
machinery
and
measurement which are normally required for an in-line
piston engine. The measurement has to be performed in
Under conditions of long-term service of the ship, the
all three directions. In justified cases exceptions can be
vibration level of the machinery and equipment shall not
made to the inclusion of all the measuring points.
exceed the upper limit of Category B, determined as to
ensure
8.5
The measurements may be performed with
vibration
strength
and
reliability
of
ship
machinery and equipment.
mechanical manually-operated instruments provided
that the instrument setting is appropriate to the
8.9
measured values bearing in mind the measuring
with the permissible vibration levels. Vibration levels of
accuracy.
machinery and equipment shall not exceed the
The measurement results shall be compared
standards both when the ships is lying and at specified
Directionally selective, linear sensors with a frequency
ahead speeds under different conditions.
range of at least 2 to 300 Hz should normally be used.
Non-linear sensors can also be used provided that the
Where vibration exceeds the standards, the suitable
measurements
solutions and analyses which are approved by TL
take
account
of
the
response
characteristic.
surveyor shall be taken to reduce it to permissible
levels.
With extremely slow-running reciprocating machines,
measurements in the 0.5 to 2 Hz range may also be
8.10
required. The results of such measurements within the
exceeding established standards may be permitted after
stated range cannot be evaluated in accordance with
confirming of approval from TL, when these rates are
2.8.
not continuous.
8.6
The records of the measurements for the
points at which the maximum stresses occur are to be
At non-specified rates of speed vibration
Withdrawal from the present standards is in each case
subject to special consideration by TL.
submitted to TL together with a tabular evaluation.
8.11
Machinery and its component parts are subject
The stresses are to be determined proceeding from
to constructional and material tests, pressure and
the greatest vibration or stress amplitudes measured
leakage tests, and trials. All the tests prescribed in the
in the respective section of the torsiogram or
following Sections are to be conducted under the
oscillogram.
supervision of TL.
When estimating the total stresses due to the vibration
8.12
of several orders, the registered parameters.
methods of testing may be agreed with TL instead of
In the case of parts produced in series, other
the tests prescribed, provided that the former are
8.7
The free resonance vibration frequencies
recognized as equivalent by TL.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-23
machinery including the associated ancillary equipment
is to be verified. All safety equipment is to be tested,
unless adequate testing has already been performed at
the manufacturer's works in the presence of the TL's
Representative.
In addition, the entire machinery installation is to be
tested during sea trials, as far as possible under the
intended service conditions.
9.
Corrosion Protection
Parts which are exposed to corrosion are to be
safeguarded by being manufactured of corrosionresistant materials or provided with effective corrosion
protection (see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 22).
10.
Availability of Machinery
10.1
Ship's machinery is to be so arranged and
equipped that it can be brought into operation from the
"dead ship" condition with the means available on
board.
To overcome the "dead ship" condition use may be
made of an emergency generator set provided that it is
ensured that the electrical power for emergency
services is available at all times. It is assumed that
means are available to start the emergency generator at
all times.
10.2
In case of “dead-ship” condition it must be
ensured that it will be possible for the propulsion system
and all necessary auxiliary machinery to be restarted
Figure 1.8 Schematic representation of in-line
within a period of 30 minutes (see Chapter 5 - Electrical
piston engine
Installation, Section 3, C.).
8.13
11.
Control and Regulating Equipments
testing those parts which are not expressly required to
11.1
Machinery must be so equipped that it can be
be tested according to the Rules.
controlled in accordance with operating requirements in
TL reserves the right, where necessary, to
increase the scope of the tests and also to subject to
such a way that the service conditions prescribed by the
8.14
Components subject to mandatory testing are
manufacturer can be met.
to be replaced with tested parts.
11.1.1
8.15
After installation on board of the main and
auxiliary machinery, the operational functioning of the
For the control equipment of main engine and
system essential for operation see Chapter 5 - Electrical
Installation, Section 9, B.3.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-24
11.2
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
D
In the event of failure or fluctuations of the
failure of a propulsion engine, operation can be
supply of electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic power to
maintained with the other engines, where appropriate by
regulating and control systems, or in case of a break in
a simple change-over system.
a regulating or control circuit, steps must be taken to
ensure that:
For multiple-shaft systems each shaft is to be provided
with a locking device by means of which dragging of the
-
The
appliances
remain
at
their
present
shaft can be prevented.
operational setting or, if necessary, are changed
to a setting which will have the minimum adverse
13.
Turning Appliances
effect on operation (fail-safe conditions),
13.1
-
The power output or engine speed of the
Machinery is to be equipped with the
necessary turning appliances.
machinery being controlled or regulated is not
increased, and
13.2
The turning appliances are to be of the self-
locking type. Electric motors are to be fitted with suitable
No unintentional start-up sequences are initiated.
retaining brakes.
11.3
13.3
Manual operation
An automatic interlocking device is to be
provided to ensure that the propulsion and auxiliary
Every functionally important, automatically or remote
prime movers cannot start up while the turning gear is
controlled system must also be capable of manual and
engaged. In case of manual turning installation warning
local operation respectively.
devices may be provided alternatively.
12.
Propulsion Plant
14.
12.1
Manoeuvering equipment
14.1
Operating and Maintenance Instructions
Manufacturers of machinery, boilers and
auxiliary equipment must supply a sufficient number of
Every engine control platform is to be equipped in such
operating and maintenance notices and manuals
a way that:
together with the equipment.
-
The propulsion plant can be adjusted to any
In addition, an easily legible board is to be mounted on
setting,
boiler operating platforms giving the most important
operating
instructions
-
The direction of propulsion can be reserved, and,
equipment.
-
The propulsion unit or the propeller shaft can be
15.
for
boilers
and
oil-firing
Marking, Identification of Machinery Parts
stopped.
In order to avoid unnecessary operating and switching
12.2
Remote controls
errors, all parts of the machinery whose function is not
immediately apparent are to be adequately marked and
The remote control of the propulsion plant from the
labeled.
bridge is subject to the provisions of Chapter 4-1,
Automation, Section 5, A.2.
16.
12.3
16.1
Multiple-shaft and multi-engine systems
Fuels
Liquid fuel oils employed for engines and
boilers are, in general, to have a flash point (2) of not
Steps are to be taken to ensure that, in the event of the
less than 60˚C.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-25
However, for engines driving emergency generators,
17.4
fuel oils having a flash point of less than 60˚C but not
although they are classified as toxic or caustic
less than 43˚C are acceptable.
refrigerants and those which, when mixed with air, have a
Refrigerants of Group 2 are also approved
lower explosion limit of at least 3.5 % by volume, such as
16.2
For ships assigned with a restricted navigation
R717, Ammonia and NH3.
notation in limited geographical areas or, or whenever
special precautions are taken to TL's approval, fuel oils
Ammonia is to be not used in refrigerating plants
having a flash point of less than 60˚C but not less than
operating with direct evaporation. In addition, the
43˚C may be used for engines and boilers, provided
regulations imposed by the competent authorities of the
that, from previously effected checks, it is evident that
country of registration are to be observed.
the temperature of spaces where fuel oil is stored or
employed will be at least 10˚C below the fuel oil flash
17.5
point at all times.
air, have alower explosion limit of less than 3.5 % by
Refrigerants of Group 3 which, when mixed with
volume are not approved by TL and permitted to be used
16.3
Fuel oil having flash points of less than 43˚C
in ships, e.g. ethane, ethylene.
may be employed on board provided that it is stored
outside machinery spaces and the arrangements
17.6
On board ship, reserve supplies of refrigerants
adopted are specially approved by TL.
may be stored only in steel bottles approved for this
purpose by the competent authorities of the country of
16.4
The use of gaseous fuels taken from the cargo
registration.
is subject to Chapter 10 – Liquefied Gas Tankers.
17.7
17.
Bottles containing refrigerant are to be securely
anchored in an upright position and protected against
Refrigerating Installations
overheating. The bottles may be stored only in well
Refrigerating installations for which no Refrigerating
ventilated spaces specially prepared for this purpose or in
Installation Certificate is to be issued are subject to the
refrigerating machinery spaces.
requirements in this section.
17.8
Refrigerating machinery spaces are to be
The provisions assume that the refrigerating
separated by bulkheads from other service spaces and
installations are permanently installed and belong to the
housing refrigerating machinery and the associated
ship.
equipment.
17.1
17.2
For refrigerating installations which are built
under the supervision and in accordance with TL.
17.9
Even if not installed in specially designated
spaces, refrigerating machinery is approved by TL to be
installed in such a way that sufficient space is left for
17.3
Refrigerants of Group 1 are approved to be
operation, servicing and repair.
used in ships since they are incombustible refrigerants
without significant hazard to human health, such as R22
17.10
(3), R134a, R404A, R407A, R407B, R407C, R410A and
subject to the following rules:
The rating of forced ventilation systems is
R507.
(3)
(2)
National regulations and Flag State regulations are
Based, up to 60°C, on determination of the flash
to be complied with and MARPOL Annex VI
point in a closed crucible (cup test).
Chapter III Reg.12; Installations which contain
hydro-chlorofluorocarbons shall be prohibited on
ships constructed on or after 1 January 2020.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-26
-
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
For refrigerating machinery spaces with Group 1
D
only be used with a metal or equivalent cladding
refrigerants, forced ventilation is required which
ensures at least 30 changes of air per hour.
The insulating materials used in refrigerated spaces
must be approved by TL. Where in-situ cellular plastic is
-
For refrigerating machinery spaces in which
used, the respective processing methods and also the
ammonia is used as refrigerant, the minimum
processing
capacity of the fan is to be determined by the
manufacturer are to be submitted for examination. The
following formula:
behaviour of insulating material in fire is to be proven,
recommendations
issued
by
the
on demand, by means of independent tests.
  60  3 m 2
V
(7)
18.
Machinery Space Ventilation
18.1
Machinery
However, the number of air changes per hour shall not
be less than 40.
spaces
are
to
be
sufficiently
ventilated so as to ensure that when machinery or
Where:

V
boilers therein are operating at full power in all weather
conditions, including heavy weather, a sufficient supply
= Capacity of fan, [m3/h]
of air is maintained to the spaces for the operation of
the machinery.
m
= Charge of refrigerant in system [kg].
18.2
This sufficient amount of air is to be supplied
In the case of refrigeration systems using ammonia
through suitably protected openings arranged in such a
installed in rooms with an effective sprinkler system, the
way that they can be used in all weather conditions,
minimum required capacity of the fans indicated above
taking into account Regulation 19 of the 1966 Load Line
may be reduced by 20 %.
Convention.
17.11
18.3
Provision must be made for the safe blow-off of
Special attention is to be paid both to air
refrigerants directly into the open air. Safety valves are
delivery and extraction and to air distribution in the
to be set to the maximum allowable working pressure
various spaces. The quantity and distribution of air are
and secured to prevent the setting from being altered
to be such as to satisfy machinery requirements for
inadvertently.
developing maximum continuous power.
17.12
18.4
Access doors or hinged hatch covers from
The ventilation is to be so arranged as to
companionways leading to cold rooms which are used
prevent any accumulation of flammable gases or
for operational purposes, such as refrigerated spaces or
vapours.
air cooler spaces, refrigerated provision stores and also
brine spaces must be capable of being opened from
19.
Hot Surfaces and Fire Protection
19.1
Surfaces, having temperature exceeding 60˚C,
inside, irrespective of their closed condition.
These spaces are to be fitted with an alarm which must
with which the crew are likely to come into contact
be connected to a station which is constantly monitored.
during operation are to be suitably protected or
insulated.
17.13
Insulating materials must be odourless and
must not, as far as possible, absorb any moisture.
19.2
Surfaces of machinery with temperatures
Insulating materials, along with their cladding, must
above 220˚C, e.g. steam, thermal oil and exhaust gas
have highly flame-resistant properties to recognized
lines, silencers, exhaust gas boilers and turbochargers,
standards. Polyurethane foams and insulating materials
are to be effectively insulated with non-combustible
which have comparable flame-resistant properties may
material or equivalently protected to prevent the ignition
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D,E
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
of combustible materials coming into contact with them.
1-27
protected by safety valves. Pressure gauges must be
installed in such a way that they can be isolated.
Where the insulation used for this purpose is oil
absorbent or may permit the penetration of oil, the
Lines leading to pressure gauges must be installed in
insulation is to be encased in steel sheathing or
such a way that the readings cannot be affected by
equivalent material.
liquid heads and hydraulic hammer.
19.3
2.
Accessibility of Machinery and Boilers
2.1
Machinery
Fire protection, detection and extinction is to
comply with the requirements of Section 18.
and
boiler
installations
and
apparatus must be accessible for operation and
E.
Engine and Boiler Room Equipment
maintenance.
1.
Operating and Monitoring Equipment
2.2
In the layout of machinery spaces (design of
foundation structures, lying of pipelines and cable
1.1
Instruments, warning and indicating systems
conduits etc.) and the design of machinery and
and operating appliances are to be clearly displayed
equipment (mountings for filters, coolers etc.), 2.1 is to
and conveniently sited. Absence of dazzle, particularly
be complied with.
on the bridge, is to be ensured.
3.
Engine Control Rooms
Operating and monitoring equipment is to be grouped in
such a way as to facilitate easy supervision and control
Engine control rooms are to be provided with at least
of all important parts of the installation.
two exist, one of which can also be used as an escape
route.
The following requirements are to be observed when
installing equipment and appliances:
-
Protection
against
4.
humidity
and
the
accumulation of dirt,
Lighting
All operating spaces must be adequately lit to ensure
that control and monitoring instruments can be easily
read. In this connection see the Rules for the Electrical
-
Avoidance of excessive temperature variations,
-
Adequate ventilation.
Installations Chapter 5 – Electrical Installation, Section
11.
5.
Bilge Wells / Bilges
hydraulic equipment or lines carrying steam or water the
5.1
Bilge
electrical equipment is to be protected from damage
accessible, easy to clean and either visible or
due to leakage. Redundant ventilation systems are to
adequately lit.
In consoles and cabinets containing electrical or
wells
and
bilges
must
be
readily
be provided for air-conditioned machinery and control
rooms.
5.2
Bilges beneath electrical machines must be so
designed as to prevent bilge water from penetrating into
1.2
Pressure gauges
the
machinery
at
all
angles
of
inclination
and
movements of the ship in service.
The scales of pressure gauges must extend up to the
specified test pressure. The maximum
permitted
5.3
For the following spaces bilge level monitoring
operating pressures are to be marked on the pressure
is to be provided and limit values being exceeded are to
gauges for boilers, pressure vessels and in systems
be indicated at a permanently manned alarm point:
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-28
-
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
E,F,G
Unmanned machinery rooms of category “A” and
Dead Man’s circuits are to be provided for rotating
other machinery rooms (class notation AUT) are
equipment.
to be equipped with at least 2 indicators for bilge
-
level monitoring. (For division of machinery
1.3
rooms of category “A” and other “machinery
designed in such a way that the discharged medium is
rooms” see A.2).
safely drained off.
Blowdown and drainage facilities are to be
Other unmanned machinery rooms, such as bow
1.4
thruster
floor-coverings must be used.
and
arranged
steering
below
irrespective
of
the
class
gear
compartments
load
waterline
are
notation
AUT
be
to
1.5
In operating spaces, anti-skid floor-plates and
Service
gangways,
operating
platforms,
equipped at least one indicator for bilge level
stairways and other areas open to access during
monitoring.
operation must be safeguarded by guard rails. The
outside edges platforms and floor areas are to be fitted
6.
Ventilation
with coamings unless some other means is adopted to
prevent persons and objects from sliding off.
The machinery ventilation is to be designed under
consideration of ambient conditions as mentioned in
1.6
Table 1.3. See, Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 16, E.2.4.
must be capable of safe operation and observation.
7.
1.7
Noise Abatement
Devices for blowing through water level gauges
Safety valves and shutoffs must be capable of
safe operation. Fixed steps, stairs or platforms are to be
“The Code on noise levels on board ships” (adopted by
fitted where necessary.
resolution MSC.337(91)) is to be applied.
1.8
Safety valves are to be installed to prevent the
occurrence of excessive operating pressures.
F.
Safety Equipment and Protective Measures
1.9
1.
General
steam or hot water are to be effectively insulated.
Machinery is to be installed and safeguarded in such a
way that the risk of accidents is largely ruled out.
Besides national regulations particular attention is to be
paid to following:
1.1
Moving parts, flywheels, chain and belt
drives, linkages and other components which could
constitute
an
accident
hazard
for
the
operating
personnel are to be fitted with guards to prevent
contact. The same applies to hot machine parts, pipes
and walls for which are not protected by insulation, e.g.
the pressure lines of air compressors.
1.2
Steam and feedwater lines, exhaust gas ducts,
boilers and other equipment and pipelines carrying
Insulating materials must be incombustible. Points at
which combustible liquids or moisture can penetrate into
the insulation are to be suitably protected, e.g. by
means of shielding.
G.
Communication and Signalling Equipment
1.
Oral Communication
Means of oral communication are to be provided
between the ship's manoeuvring station, the engine
room and the steering gear compartment, and these
When using hand cranks for starting internal
means shall allow fully satisfactory intercommunication
combustion engines, step are to be taken to ensure that
the crank disengages automatically when the engines
start.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
G,H
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
1-29
independent of the shipboard power supply under all
For details of the design of electrically operated
operating conditions (see also Rules for Electrical
command transmission, signaling and alarm systems,
Installations, Section 9, C.5).
see Section 18-Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing
Equipments and Chapter 5 - Electrical Installations,
2.
Engineer Alarm
Section 9.
From the engine room or the engine control room it
must be possible to activate an alarm in the engineers'
living
quarters
(see
also
Rules
for
H.
Essential Equipments
1.
Essential for ship operation are all main
Electrical
Installations, Section 9, C.5).
propulsion plants.
3.
Engine Telegraph
2.
Machinery operated from the engine room must be
Essential (operationally important) are the
following auxiliary machinery and plants, which:
equipped with a telegraph.
In the case of multiple-shaft installations, a telegraph
Are
necessary
for
propulsion
and
manoeuvrability of the ship,
must be provided for each unit.
-
Are required for maintaining ship safety,
emergency telegraph.
-
Serve the safety of human life,
4.
as well as
Local control stations are to be equipped with an
Shaft Revolution Indicator
The speed and direction of rotation of the propeller
-
shafts are to be indicated on the bridge and in the
Equipment according to special Characters of
Classification and Class Notations.
engine room. In the case of small propulsion units, the
indicator may be dispensed with.
3.
Essential auxiliary machinery and plants are
comprising e.g.:
Barred speed ranges are to be marked on the shaft
revolution
indicators
(see
Section
6
- Torsional
-
Generator units,
-
Steering gear plant,
-
Fuel oil supply units,
-
Lubricating oil pumps,
point on the control platform.
-
Cooling water/cooling media pumps,
The current status, "Ahead" or "Astern", of the reversing
-
Starting and control air compressor,
-
Starting installations for auxiliary and main
Vibration).
5.
Design of Communication and Signaling
Equipment
Reversing,
command
transmission
and
operating
controls etc. are to be grouped together at a convenient
control must be clearly indicated at the main engine
control platform.
engines,
Signaling devices must be clearly perceptible from all
parts of the engine room when the machinery is in full
-
Charging air blowers,
operation.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
1-30
Section 1 - General Rules and Instructions
H
-
Exhaust gas turbochargers,
-
Bilge and ballast pumps,
-
Controllable pitch propeller installation,
-
Heeling compensation systems,
-
Azimuth drives,
-
Fire pumps and fire fighting equipment,
-
Engine room ventilation fans,
-
Anchor windlass,
-
Steam, hot and warm water generation plants,
-
Transverse thrusters,
-
Thermal oil systems,
-
Ventilation fans for hazardous areas,
-
Oil firing equipment,
-
Turning gears for main engines,
-
Pressure vessels and heat exchangers in
-
Bow and stern ramps as well as shell openings,
-
Bulkhead door closing equipment.
-
Boiler feed water pump
essential systems,
-
Hydraulic pumps,
Fuel oil treatment units,
4.
-
Fuel oil transfer pumps,
For ships with equipment according to special
Characters of Classification and Notations certain typespecific plants may be classed as essential equipment.
-
Lubrication oil treatment units,
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-1
SECTION 2
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND AIR COMPRESSORS
Page
A.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 2- 3
1. Application
2. Definitions
B.
DOCUMENTS FOR APPROVAL .................................................................................................................... 2- 4
1. General
2. Engines Manufactured Under License
3. Design Modifications
4. Approval of Engine Components
C.
MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................................... 2- 5
1. Approved Materials
D.
CRANKSHAFT DESIGN ................................................................................................................................. 2- 7
1. General
2. Calculation of Stresses
3. Calculation of Stress Concentration Factors
4. Additional Bending Stresses
5. Calculation of Equivalent Alternating Stress
6. Calculation of Fatigue Strength
7. Calculation of Shrink-Fits of Semi-Built Crankshafts
8. Acceptability Criteria
E.
TESTS AND TRIALS ...................................................................................................................................... 2- 28
1. Manufacturing Inspections
2. Material and Non-Destructive Tests
3. Type Tests of Diesel Engines
4. Type Tests of Mass Produced Internal Combustion Engines
5. Works Trials
6. Shipboard Trials (Dock and Sea Trials)
F.
SAFETY DEVICES ......................................................................................................................................... 2- 42
1. Speed Control and Engine Protection Against Over Speed
2. Cylinder Overpressure Warning Device
3. Crankcase Airing and Venting
4. Crankcase Safety Devices
5. Safety Devices in the Starting Air System
6. Safety Devices in the Lubricating Oil System
7. Safety Devices in Scavenging Air Ducts
G.
AUXILIARY SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................................... 2- 48
1. General
2. Fuel Oil System
3. Filter Arrangements for Fuel Oil and Lubricating Oil Systems
4. Lubricating Oil System
5. Cooling System
6. Charge Air System
7. Exhaust Gas Lines
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-2
H.
STARTING EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................................ 2- 51
1. General
2. Starting With Compressed Air
3. Electrical Starting Equipment
4. Start-up of Emergency Generating Sets
5. Start-up of Emergency Fire-Extinguisher Sets
I.
CONTROL EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................................ 2- 55
1. General
2. Main Engines
3. Auxiliary Engines
J.
ALARMS ......................................................................................................................................................... 2- 55
1. General
2. Scope of Alarms
K.
ENGINE ALIGNMENT/SEATING ................................................................................................................... 2- 56
1. Crankshaft Alignment
2. Permissible Crank Web Deflection
3. Reference Values for Crank Web Deflection
L.
AIR COMPRESSORS ..................................................................................................................................... 2- 58
1. General
2. Materials
3. Crankshaft Dimensions
4. Construction and Equipment
5. Tests
M.
EXHAUST GAS CLEANING SYSTEMS ......................................................................................................... 2- 61
1. General
2. Approval
3. Layout
4. Materials
5. Chemically Reactive Agents
6. Shipboard Testing
N.
GAS-FUELLED ENGINES .............................................................................................................................. 2- 63
1. Scope and Application
2. Further Rules and Guidelines
3. Definitions
4. General and Operational Availability
5. Documents to be Submitted
6. General Requirements
7. Systems
8. Safety Equipment and Safety Systems
9. Tests
10. Machinery Spaces
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
A
A.
-
General
2-3
Method of gas exchange (naturally aspirated or
supercharged),
1.
Application

The maximum continuous power per cylinder at
The requirements in this Section apply to internal
maximum continuous speed and/or maximum
combustion engines used as main propulsion units and
continuous brake mean effective pressure (After
auxiliary units (including emergency units) as well as to
a large number of engines has been proved
air compressors.
successfully by service experience, an increase
in power up to maximum 10% may be permitted,
For the purpose of these requirements, internal
without any further type test, provided approval
combustion engines are:
for such power is given.),
-
Diesel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil,
-
Method of pressure charging (pulsating pressure
system or constant-pressure system),
-
-
Dual-fuel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil
and/or gaseous fuel,
-
Charge air cooling system,
Gas engines, fuelled with gaseous fuel.
-
Cylinder arrangement (in-line, Vee). (One type
test suffices for the whole range of engines
Requirements for dual-fuel engines and gas engines are
having different numbers of cylinders)
specified in N.
2.
Definitions
2.1
Diesel engine type
Low-Speed Engines; diesel engines having a
rated speed of less than 300 rpm.
-
Medium-Speed Engines; diesel engines having a
rated speed of 300 rpm and above, but less than
Engines are of the same type if they do not vary in any
1400 rpm.
detail included in the definition below. When two
engines are to be considered of the same type it is
-
assumed that they do not substantially differ in design
High-Speed Engines; diesel engines having a
rated speed of 1400 rpm and above.
and their design details, crankshaft, etc., and the
materials used meet Rule requirements and are
2.2
Rated power
2.2.1
The rated power is the maximum power
approved by TL.
The type specification of a Diesel engine is defined by
output at which the engine is designed to run
the following data:
continuously at its rated speed between the normal
maintenance intervals stated by the manufacturer.
-
Manufacturer's type designation,
-
Cylinder bore,
2.2.2
The rated power is to be specified in a way
that an overload power of 110% of the rated power can
be demonstrated at the corresponding speed for an
-
Stroke,
-
Method of injection,
uninterrupted period of 1 hour. Deviations from the
overload power value require the agreement of TL.
2.2.3
-
Fuels which can be used,
-
Working cycle (4-stroke, 2-stroke),
After running on the test bed, the fuel delivery
system of main engines is to be so adjusted that after
installation on board, overload power cannot be
delivered. The limitation of the fuel delivery system has
to be secured permanently.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-4
2.2.4
Subject to the prescribed conditions, diesel
A,B
Appraisal by final testing of engines selected
engines driving electrical generators are to be capable
at random after bench testing.
of overload operation even after installation on board.
It should be noted that all castings, forgings and other
2.2.5
Subject to the approval of TL, diesel engines
parts for use in the forgegoing machinery are also to be
for special vessels and special applications may be
produced
designed for a continuous power (fuel stop power)
inspection.
by
similar
methods
with
appropriate
which cannot be exceeded.
The specification for machinery produced by the
For main engines, a power diagram (Fig.
forgoing method must define the limits of manufacture
2.15) is to be prepared showing the power ranges within
of all component parts. The total production output is to
which the engine is able to operate continuously and for
be certified by the manufacturer and verified as may be
short periods under service conditions.
required, by the inspecting authority.
2.2.6
2.3
Ambient reference conditions
B.
Documents for Approval
1.
General
In determining the rated power of diesel engines used
on board ships with unrestricted service, the following
ambient conditions are to be applied by the engine
manufacturer:
For each engine type the drawings and documents
listed in Table 2.1 shall, wherever applicable, be
Atmospheric pressure………………………....……1 bar
submitted by the engine manufacturer to TL for
Suction air temperature……………………..…..…..45°C
approval (A) or for information (R).
Relative humidity of air……………………………...60%
Seawater temperature (Charging air
Where considered necessary, TL may request further
coolant inlet)……………………………...........……32°C
documents to be submitted. This also applies to the
documentation of design changes according to 3.
2.4
Mass production
2.
Engines Manufactured Under License
Mass production may be defined, in relation to
construction of marine engines for main and auxiliary
For each engine type manufactured under license, the
purposes, as that machinery which is produced:
licensee shall submit to TL, as a minimum requirement,
the following documents:
-
In quantity under strict quality control of
material and parts according to a programme
-
agreed by TL;
Comparison
of
all
the
drawings
and
documents as per Table 2.1 - where
applicable-indicating the relevant drawings
-
By the use of jigs and automatic machines
designed
to
machine
parts
to
used by the licensee and the licensor.
close
tolerances for interchangeability, and which
-
All drawings of modified components, if
are to be verified on a regular inspection
available, as per Table 2.1 together with the
basis;
licensor's declaration of consent to the
modifications,
-
By assembly with parts taken from stock and
requiring little or no fitting of the parts and
which is subject to;
-
A complete set of drawings shall be put at the
disposal of the local inspection office of TL as
a basis for the performance of tests and
-
Bench tests carried out on individual engines
on
a
programme
inspections.
basis;
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
B,C
3.
Design Modifications
C.
Following initial approval of an engine type by TL, only
2-5
Materials
1.
Approved Materials
resubmitted for examination which embody important
1.1
The mechanical characteristics of materials
design modification.
used for the components of diesel engines shall
4.
conform to the TL Material Rules. The materials
those documents listed in Table 2.1 are to be
Approval of Engine Components
approved for the various components are shown in
The approval of exhaust gas turbochargers, heat
Table 2.2 together with their minimum required
exchangers, engine-driven pumps, etc. is to be
characteristics and material certificates.
requested from TL by the respective manufacturer.
Table 2.1 Documents for approval
Serial
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
A/R
Description
Quantity
R
R
R
Details required for approval of an internal combustion engine
Engine transverse cross-section
Engine longitudinal section
Bedplate or crankcase
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
Thrust bearing assembly
Thrust bearing bedplate
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
Frame/frame box
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
Tie rod
Cylinder cover/head, assembly
Cylinder liner
Crankshaft for each number of cylinders, with data sheets for calculation of
crankshafts
Crankshaft assembly, for each number of cylinders
Crankshaft drawing (which must contain all data in respect of the geometrical
configurations of the crankshaft)
Thrust shaft or intermediate shaft (if integral with engines)
Shaft coupling bolts
Counterweights including fastening bolts (if not integral with crankshaft)
Connecting rod, details
Connecting rod assembly
Crosshead assembly
Piston rod assembly
Piston assembly
Camshaft drive, assembly
Material specifications of main parts with information on non-destructive material
tests and pressure tests
Arrangement of foundation (for main engines only)
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of starting air system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of fuel oil system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of lubricating oil system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of cooling water system
Schematic diagram of engine control and safety system
Schematic diagram of electronic components and systems
Shielding and insulation of exhaust pipes, assembly
Shielding of high-pressure fuel pipes, assembly
Arrangement of crankcase explosion relief valves
Operation and service manuals
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of hydraulic system (for valve lift) on
the engine
Type test program and type test report
High pressure parts for fuel oil injection system
Oil mist detection, monitoring and alarm system
3
3
3
R
A
R
R
A
7
8
9
10
11
R
A
R
R
R
A
12
13
A
A
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
A
A
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
A
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
R
A
A
A
A
A
A
R
A
A
R
A
36
37
38
A
A
A
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Remarks
(see below)
(11)
1
3
3
(9)
(3)
1
3
(9)
1
3
1
1
1
3
(1)
(1) (9)
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
3
(2)
(2)
(8)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(4)
(5)
(7)
(10)
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-6
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
C
Only for one cylinder.
Only necessary if sufficient details are not shown on the transverse cross section and longitudinal section.
If integral with engine and not integrated in the bedplate.
For all engines.
Only for engines with a bore > 200 mm., or a crankcase volume ≥ 0,6 m3.
And the system, where this is supplied by the engine manufacturer. If engines incorporate electronic control systems a failure mode and
effect analysis (FMEA) is to be submitted to demonstrate that failure of an electronic control system will not result in the loss of essential
services for the operation of the engine and that operation of the engines will not be lost or degraded beyond acceptable performance
criteria of the engine. The FMEA reports required will not be explicitly approved by TL.
Operation and service manuals are to contain maintenance requirements (servicing and repair) including details of any special tools and
gauges that are to be used with their fitting/settings together with any test requirements on completion of maintenance. The installation of
mechanical joints is to be in accordance with the manufacturer’s assembly instructions. Where special tools and gauges are required for
installation of the joints, these are to be supplied by the manufacturer.
For comparison with TL requirements for material, NDT and pressure testing as applicable.
The weld procedure specification is to include details of pre and post weld heat treatment welding consumables and fit-up conditions.
The documentation has to contain specifications of pressures, pipe dimensions and materials.
According to IACS UR M44 Rev.7, “Data Sheet” should be filled and submitted to TL.
A: Approval
R: Information
Table 2.2 Approved materials and type of test certificate
Approved materials
TL's
Rules (*)
Forged steel Rm ≥ 360 N/mm2
Section 5,
Rolled or forged steel rounds
2
Rm ≥ 360 N/mm
Special grade cast steel
2
Rm ≥ 440 N/mm and
Special grade forged steel
Rm ≥ 440 N/mm2
Section 5,
Cast steel
Section 6,
Section 6,
Section 5,
Nodular cast iron, preferably
ferritic grades
Rm ≥ 370 N/mm2
Section 7,
Lamellar cast iron
Rm ≥ 200 N/mm2
Section 7,
Components
Crankshafts
Connecting rods
Piston rods
Crossheads
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels
Tie rods
Bolts and studs
Throws and webs of built-up
crankshafts
Bearing transverse girders (weldable)
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels
Engine blocks
Bed plates
Cylinder blocks
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels
Valve bodies
Engine blocks
Bedplates
Cylinder blocks
Cylinder liners
Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels
Welded cylinder blocks
Welded bedplates
Welded frames
Welded housings
Test certificate (**)
A
B
C
X
X
X (4)
X (3)
X (4)
X (3)
X (4)
X (3)
X
X (4)
X (3)
X
X (1)
X (2)
X
-
-
X
X (3)
X (1)
X (3)
X (3)
X
X
X
X
X (4)
X (2)
X (4)
X (1)
X (1)
X (1)
X (4)
X (1)
X (1)
X (1)
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
Shipbuilding steel, all TL grades
for plate thickness ≤ 35 mm
Section 3,
Shipbuilding steel, TL grade B
for plate thickness > 35 mm
Structural steel, unalloyed, for
Section 3,
welded assemblies
(*)
All details refer to the TL Material Rules
(**)
Test certificates are to be issued in accordance with TL Material Rules, Test Procedures, with the following abbreviations:
A : TL Material Certificate, B: Manufacturer Inspection Certificate, C: Manufacturer Test Report
(1)
Only for cylinder bores > 300 mm.
(2)
For cylinder bores ≤ 300 mm.
(3)
Only for cylinder bores > 400 mm.
(4)
For cylinder bores ≤ 400 mm.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
C,D
1.2
Materials with properties deviating from the
Rules specified may be used only with TL's special
2-7
as between the journal and web are the areas exposed
to the highest stresses.
approval. TL requires proof of the suitability of such
The outlets of oil bores into crankpins and journals are
materials.
to be formed in such a way that the safety margin
against fatigue at the oil bores is not less than that
D.
acceptable in the fillets. The engine manufacturer, if
Crankshaft Design
requested by TL should submit a documentation
supporting his oil bore design.
1.
General
1.1
These Rules for the scantlings of crankshafts
Calculation of crankshaft strength consists initially in
are to be applied to diesel engines for main propulsion
determining the nominal alternating bending and nominal
and auxiliary purposes, where the engines are so
designed as to be capable of continuous operation at
their rated power when running at rated speed.
alternating torsional stresses which, multiplied by the
appropriate stress concentration factors using the theory of
constant energy of distortion (v. Mises' Criterion), result in
an equivalent alternating stress (uni-axial stress). This
equivalent alternating stress is then compared with the
Crankshafts which cannot satisfy these Rules will be
fatigue strength of the selected crankshaft material. This
subject to special consideration as far as detailed
comparison will then show whether or not the crankshaft
calculations or measurements can be submitted.
concerned is dimensioned adequately.
1.5
In case of:
For the calculation of crankshafts, the
documents and particulars listed in the following are to
be submitted:
-
Surface treated fillets,
-
Tested parameters influencing the fatigue
data
behaviour,
configuration of the crankshaft
-
-
Measured working stresses,
-
Crankshaft drawing which must contain all
in
respect
of
the
geometrical
Type designation and kind of engine (in-line
engine or V-type engine with adjacent
these data can be considered on special request.
connecting rods, forked connecting rod or
articulated type connecting rod)
1.2
Outside the end bearings, crankshafts
designed according to the requirements specified in
-
Operating and combustion method (2-stroke
this section may be adapted to the diameter of the
or
4-stroke
cycle,
direct
adjoining shaft by a generous fillet (r ≥ 0,06 · d) or a
precombustion chamber, etc.)
injection,
taper.
1.3
-
Number of cylinders
-
Rated power [kW]
-
Rated engine speed [min-1]
-
Sense of rotation (see Fig. 2.1)
-
Ignition sequence with the respective ignition
These Rules apply only to solid-forged and
semi-built crankshafts of forged or cast steel, with one
crank throw between main bearings
1.4
The scantlings of crankshafts are based on
an evaluation of safety against fatigue in the highly
stressed areas.
The calculation is also based on the assumption that the
intervals and, where necessary, V-angle αV
fillet transitions between the crankpin and web as well
(see Fig. 2.1)
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-8
-
Cylinder diameter [mm]
-
Stroke [mm]
D
Maximum cylinder pressure pmax [bar]

Charge air pressure [bar] (before inlet
valves or scavenge ports, whichever
-
Maximum cylinder pressure pmax [bar]
-
Charge air pressure [bar] (before inlet valves
applies)

Nominal compression ratio [–]
or scavenge ports, whichever applies)

-
Connecting rod length LH [mm]
-
Oscillating weight of one crank gear [kg] (in
Digitalized gas pressure curve presented at
equidistant intervals [bar/°CA]
-
Details of crankshaft material
case of V-type engines, where necessary, also

for the cylinder unit with master and articulated
type connecting rod or forked and inner
Material designation (according to DIN,
AISI, etc.)
connecting rod)

-
Mechanical properties of material (minimum
Digitalized gas pressure curve presented at
values obtained from longitudinal test
equidistant intervals (bar versus crank angle,
specimens)
but not more than 5° CA)
The minimum requirements of the Chapter 2 - Material
-
For engines with articulated-type connecting
and Chapter 3 - Welding must comply with:
rod (see Fig. 2.2)



-
-
Tensile strength [N/mm2]
-
Yield strength [N/mm2]
-
Reduction in area at fracture [%]
-
Elongation A5 [%]-
Distance to link point LA [mm]
Link angle αN [°]
Connecting rod length LN [mm]
Type of forging (free
For the cylinder with articulated-type
form forged, continuous grain flow forged,
connecting rod
drop-forged, etc., with description of the
forging process)
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
2-9
-
Heat treatment
-
Surface treatment of fillets, journals, oil bores
For crankthrows with two connecting-rods acting
and
flame
upon one crankpin the relevant bending moments
hardened, nitrided, rolled, shot peened, etc.
are obtained by superposition of the two triangular
with full details concerning hardening)
bending moment diagrams according to phase (see
pins
(induction
respectively (see Fig. 2.3).
hardened,
Fig. 2.4)

Hardness at surface [HV]

Hardness as a function of depth of
2.1.1.1
hardening

-
Extension of surface hardening
Particulars for alternating torsional stresses,
see 2.2.
Bending moments and radial forces
acting in web
The bending moment MBRF and the radial force QRF are
taken as acting in the centre of the solid web (distance
L1) and are derived from the radial component of the
connecting-rod force.
The alternating bending and compressive stresses due
to bending moments and radial forces are to be related
to the cross-section of the crank web. This reference
section results from the web thickness W and the web
width B (see fig. 2.6).
Mean stresses are neglected.
2.1.1.2
Bending acting in outlet of crankpin oil
bore
Fig. 2.2 Articulated-type connecting rod
The two relevant bending moments are taken in the
crankpin cross-section through the oil bore
2.
Calculation of Stresses
MBRO is the bending moment of the radial component of
2.1
Calculation of alternating stresses due to
the connecting-rod force
bending moments and shearing forces
MBTO is the bending moment of the tangential
2.1.1
component of the connecting-rod force
Assumptions
The calculation is based on a statically determinate
system, so that only one single crank throw is
considered of which the journals are supported in the
The alternating stresses due to these bending moments
are to be related to the crosssectional area of the axially
bored crankpin.
centre of adjacent bearings and which is subject to gas
As a rule the calculation is carried out in such a way that
and inertia forces. The bending length is taken as the
the individual radial forces acting upon the crank pin
length between the two main bearings (distance L3) see
owing to gas and inertia forces will be calculated for all
Figs. 2.3 and 2.4.
crank positions within one working cycle. A simplified
calculation of the radial forces may be used at the
The bending moments, MBR and MBT, are calculated in
discretion of TL.
the relevant section based on triangular bending
moment diagrams due to the radial component, FR and
tangential component, FT of the connecting-rod force,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-10
Fig. 2.3 Crankthrow for in line engine
D
Fig. 2.4 Crankthrow for Vee engine with 2
adjacent connecting-rods
In case of V-type engines, the bending moments
Using the forces calculated over one working cycle
progressively calculated from the gas and inertia forces
and taking into account of the distance from the main
of the two cylinders acting on one crankthrow are
bearing midpoint, the time curve of the bending
superposed according to phase. Different designs
moments MBRF, MBRO, MBTO and radial forces QRF - as
(forked connecting-rod, articulated-type connecting-rod
defined in 2.1.1.1 and 2.1.1.2 - will then be
or adjacent connecting-rods) shall be taken into
calculated.
account.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
Where there are cranks of different geometrical
Ke
2-11
= Empirical factor considering to some extent the
influence of adjacent crank and bearing restraint
configurations in one crankshaft, the calculation is to
cover all crank variants.
with:
The decisive alternating values will then be calculated
according to:
XN =±
Ke = 0.8 for 2-stroke engines
Ke = 1.0 for 4-stroke engines
1
X -X
2 max min
QRFN =±
where:
XN
= Alternating force, moment or stress
Xmax
= Maximum value within one working cycle
Xmin
= Minimum value within one working cycle
σQFN
1
Q
-Q
2 RF,max RF,min
= Nominal alternating compressive stress due
to radial force related to the web [N/mm²]
QRFN
= Alternating radial force related to the web
(see fig. 2.3 and 2.4) [N]
F=B.W
2.1.2
Calculation
of
nominal
alternating
bending and shearing stresses
2.1.2.1
Nominal
alternating
F
bending
and
compressive stresses in web cross section
= Area related to cross-section of web [mm²]
2.1.2.2
Nominal alternating bending stress in
outlet of crankpin oil bore
The calculation of the nominal alternating bending and
The calculation of nominal alternating bending stress is
compressive stresses is as follows:
as follows:
MBRFN 3
σBFN =±
10 Ke
Weqw
=
σBON
= Nominal alternating bending stress related to
MBON = Alternating bending moment calculated at the
outlet of crankpin oil bore,[Nm]
Nominal alternating bending stress related to
the web, [N/mm²]
MBON =±
MBRFN = Alternating bending moment related to the
centre of the web [Nm] (see fig. 2.3 and 2.4)
MBRFN =±
MBON 3
10
We
the crank pin diameter, [N/mm²]
QRFN 3
σQFN =±
10 Ke
F
σBFN
σBON =±
1
M
-M
2 BRF,max BRF,min
1
M
-M
2 BO,max BO,min
With
   cos
R sin
o
andψ [ ] angular position (see fig. 2.5)
Weqw = Section modulus related to cross-section of
web [mm3]
W
BW
6
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-12
βB
D
= Stress concentration factor for bending in
journal fillet [–] (determination, see 3.),
βQ
= Stress concentration factor for shearing [–]
(determination, see 3.).
2.1.4
Calculation
of
alternating
bending
stresses in outlet of crankpin oil bore
σBO =± γB σBON
σBO
= Alternating
bending
stress
in
outlet
of
2
crankpin oil bore, [N/mm ]
Fig. 2.5 Crankpin section through the oil bore
B
We
=
= Stress concentration factor for bending in
crankpin oil bore, [-] (determination -see item 3)
Section modulus related to cross-section of
3
axially bored crankpin, [mm ]:
2.2
π D
32
W
D
D
Calculation
of
of
alternating
torsional
stresses
2.2.1
2.1.3
Calculation
alternating
bending
stresses in fillets
General
The calculation for nominal alternating torsional stresses is
to be undertaken by the engine manufacturer according to
The calculation of stresses is to be carried out for the
crankpin fillet as well as for the journal fillet.
the information contained in 2.1.2.
The maximum value obtained from such calculations
will be used by TL when determining the equivalent
For the crankpin fillet:
alternating stress, according to 5. In the absence of
such a maximum value it will be necessary for TL to
σBH =± αB σBN
incorporate a fixed value in the calculation for the
BH
= Alternating bending stress in crankpin fillet
crankshaft dimensions on the basis of an estimation.
[N/mm2],
In case TL is entrusted with carrying out a forced
αB
= Stress concentration factor for bending in
crankpin fillet [–] (determination, see 3.).
vibration
calculation
on
behalf
of
the
engine
manufacturer to determine the torsional vibration
stresses to be expected in the engine and possibly in its
For the journal fillet (not applicable to semi-built
additionally to 1.5:
crankshafts):
-
σBG =± βB σBN +βQ σQN
BG
shafting, the following data are to be submitted to TL
Equivalent dynamic system of the engine
comprising
= Alternating stresses in journal fillet [N/mm2],

Mass moment of inertia of every mass
point [kgm2]

Inertialess torsional stiffnesses [Nm/rad]
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
-
-
Vibration dampers
2.2.2
of
nominal
alternating
torsional stresses

Type designation

Mass moments of inertia [kgm2]

Inertialess torsional stiffnesses [Nm/rad]

Damping coefficients [Nms]
The maximum and minimum alternating torques are to
be ascertained for every mass point of the system and
for the entire speed range by means of a harmonic
synthesis of the forced vibrations from the 1st order up
to and including the 15th order for 2-stroke cycle
engines and from the 0.5th order up to and including
the 12th order for 4-stroke cycle engines. Whilst doing
Flywheels

Calculation
2-13
so, allowance must be made for the damping that exist
in
Mass moment of inertia [kgm2]
the
system
and
for
unfavourable
conditions
(misfiring in one of the cylinders). The speed step
If the whole installation is to be considered, the above
information is to be extended by the following:
calculation shall be selected in such a way that any
resonance found in the operational speed range of the
engine shall be detected and the transient response
can be recorded with sufficient accuracy. Misfiring is
-
Coupling
defined as cylinder condition when no combustion
occurs but only compression cycle.

Dynamic characteristics and damping
data
The values received from such calculation are to be
submitted.
-
Gearing data
The nominal alternating torsional stress in every mass

Shaft diameter of gear shafts, thrust
shafts, intermediate shafts and propeller
shafts
-
point, which is essential to the assessment, results from
the following equation:

Diameter of thrust shafts, intermediate
1
M
-M
2 Tmax Tmin
MTN =±
shafts and propeller shafts
-
M
10 W
τ
Shafting
Propellers
Wp =

Propeller diameter
π D4 -D4BH
D
16
or


-
Number of blades
Wp =
Pitch and area ratio
Natural frequencies with their relevant modes
N
π
16
4
-D4BG
DG
= Nominal alternating torsional stress referred
2
to crankpin or journal [N/mm ],
of vibration and the vector sums for the
harmonics of the engine excitation.
-
= Maximum alternating torque [Nm],
Wp
= Polar section modulus related to cross
Estimated torsional vibration stresses in all
important elements of the system with particular reference
to clearly defined resonance speeds of rotation and
continuous
MTN
operating
ranges.
section of axially bored crankpin or bored
3
journal [mm ],
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-14
MTmax = Maximum value of the torque [Nm].
D
For the journal fillet (not applicable to semi-built
crankshafts):
MTmin = Minimum value of the torque [Nm].
β τ τ
The assessment of the crankshaft is based on the
torsional
stress
which
in
conjunction
with
the
G
= Alternating torsional stress in journal fillet
2
[N/mm ],
associated bending stress, results in the lowest
acceptability factor. Where barred speed ranges are
necessary, the torsional stresses within these ranges
βT
= Stress concentration factor for torsion in
journal fillet [–] (determination, see C.).
are to be neglected in the calculation of the
acceptability factor.
N
= Nominal alternating torsional stress related to
2
journal diameter [N/mm ],
Barred speed ranges are to be so arranged that
satisfactory operation is possible despite of their
existence. There are to be no barred speed ranges
For the outlet of crankpin oil bore:
above a speed ratio of ≥0,8 of the rated speed.
γ τ
σ
The approval of crankshafts is to be based on the
installation having the lowest acceptability factor.
Thus, for each installation, it is to be ensured by suitable
calculation that the approved nominal alternating
σTO
= Alternating stress in outlet of crankpin oil
bore due to torsion[N/mm2]
T
= Stress concentration factor for torsion in
outlet of crankpin oil bore[-] (determination-
torsional stress is not exceeded. This calculation is to
be submitted for assessment.
2.2.3
Calculation
of
see item C)

alternating
torsional
N
= Nominal alternating torsional stress related to
crankpin diameter [N/mm2]
stresses in fillets and outlet of crankpin oil bore
The calculation of stresses is to be carried out for both
3.1
For the crankpin fillet:
H
α τ
Calculation
of
Stress
Concentration
Factors
the crankpin and the journal fillet.
τ
3.
General
The stress concentration factors are evaluated by
means of the formulae according to items 3.2, 3.3 and
3.4 applicable to the fillets and crankpin oil bore of solid
= Alternating torsional stress in crankpin fillet
[N/mm2],
forged web-type crankshafts and to the crankpin fillets
of semi-built crankshafts only. It must be noticed that
stress concentration factor formulae concerning the oil
αT
= Stress concentration factor for torsion in
crankpin fillet [–] (determination, see C.).
bore are only applicable to a radially drilled oil hole. All
formulae
are
based
on
investigations
of
FVV
(Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen)
N
= Nominal alternating torsional stress related to
2
crankpin diameter [N/mm ]
for fillets and on investigations of ESDU (Engineering
Science Data Unit) for oil holes.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
Where the geometry of the crankshaft is outside the
2-15
RH
= Fillet radius of crankpin [mm],
TH
= Recess of crankpin [mm],
DG
= Journal diameter [mm].
DBG
= Diameter of axial bore in journal [mm],
RG
= Fillet radius of journal [mm],
TG
= Recess of journal fillet [mm],
E
= Pin eccentricity [mm],
S
= Pin overlap [mm],
boundaries of the analytical stress concentration factors
(SCF) the calculation method detailed in item D.3.5 may
be undertaken.
The stress concentration factors for bending (αB, βB) are
defined as the ratio of the maximum bending stress –
occurring in the fillets under bending load acting in the
central cross-section of a crank – to the nominal stress
related to the web cross-section.
The stress concentration factor for compression (βQ) in
the journal fillet is defined as the ratio of the maximum
equivalent stress (VON MISES) – occurring in the fillet
due to the radial force – to the nominal compressive
stress related to the web cross-section.
S=
The stress concentration factors for torsion (αT, βT) are
defined as the ratio of the maximum torsional stress
D+DG
-E
2
W(*)
= Web thickness [mm],
B(*)
= Web width [mm].
occurring under torsional load in the fillets to the
nominal stress related to the bored crankpin or journal
cross-section.
(*)In the case of 2 stroke semi-built crankshafts::
The stress concentration factors for bending (B) and
torsion (T) are defined as the ratio of the maximum
-
When TH > RH, the web thickness must be
considered as equal to:
principal stress – occurring at the outlet of the crankpin
oil-hole under bending and torsional loads – to the
Wred = W – (TH – RH) (refer to fig. 2.6)
corresponding nominal stress related to the axially
bored crankpin cross section.
When reliable measurements and/or calculations are
Web width B must be taken in way of crankpin
fillet radius centre according to fig. 2.6
available, which can allow direct assessment of stress
concentration factors, the relevant documents and their
The following related dimensions will be applied for the
analysis method have to be submitted to TL in order to
calculation of stress concentration factors in:
demonstrate
their
equivalence
to
present
rules
evaluation.
Table 2.3 Stress concentration factors
All crank dimensions necessary for the calculation of
stress concentration factors are shown in Fig. 2.6.
Crankpin Fillets
Journal Fillets
r = RH / D
r = RG / D
s = S/D
w = W/D crankshafts with overlap
Actual dimensions:
w = Wred/D crankshafts without overlap
D
DBH
b = B/D
= Crankpin diameter [mm],
dO = DO/D
= Diameter of axial bore in crankpin [mm],
dG = DBG/D
dH = DBH/D
tH = TH/D
DO
= Diameter of oil bore in crankpin [mm],
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
tG = TG/D
2-16
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
Fig. 2.6 Crank dimensions necessary for the calculation of stress concentration factors
Stress concentration factors are valid for the ranges of
0 ≤ dH ≤ 0.8
related dimensions for which the investigations have
been carried out. Ranges are as follows:
0 ≤ dO ≤ 0.2
s ≤ 0.5
Low range of s can be extended down to large negative
0.2 ≤ w ≤ 0.8
values provided that:
1.1 ≤ b ≤ 2.2
If calculated f (recess) < 1 then the factor f (recess) is
not to be considered (f (recess) = 1)
0.03 ≤ r ≤ 0.13
If s < - 0.5 then f (s,w) and f (r,s) are to be evaluated
0 ≤ dG ≤ 0.8
replacing actual value of s by - 0.5.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
3.2
Crankpin fillet
The stress concentration factor for bending αB is:
αB
= 2.6914  f(s,w)  f(w)  f(b)  f(r)  f(dG)  f(dH) 
fB(w)
= 2.2242  w 0,7548
fB(b)
= 0.5616 + 0.1197  b + 0.1176  b2
fB(r)
= 0.1908  r – 0.5568
2-17
f(recess)
2
fB(dG) = 1.0012 – 0.6441  dG + 1.2265  dG
2
f(s,w) = - 4.1883 + 29.2004  w – 77.5925  w +
3
4
91.9454  w – 40.0416  w + (1 – s) 
2
fB(dH) = 1.0022 – 0.1903  dH + 0.0073  dH
2
(9.5440 – 58.3480  w + 159.3415  w –
3
4
2
192.5846  w + 85.2916  w ) + (1 – s)  (-
f(recess) = 1 + (tH + tG)  (1.8 + 3.2  s)
2
3.8399 + 25.0444  w – 70.5571  w
3
4
+87.0328  w – 39.1832  w )
f(w)
The stress concentration factor for shearing βQ is:
0.7171
= 2.1790  w
βQ
= 3.0128  fQ(s)  fQ(w)  fQ(b)  fQ(r)  fQ(dH) 
f(recess)
f(b)
2
= 0.6840 – 0.0077  b + 0.1473  b
fQ(s)
f(r)
= 0.2081  r
= 0.4368 + 2.6130  (1 – s) – 1.5212  (1 – s)2
– 0.5231
fQ(w) = w / (0. 0637 + 0.9369  w)
f(dG)
f(dH)
= 0.9993 + 0.27  dG – 1.0211 
dG2
+ 0.5306 
= 0.9978 + 0.3145  dH – 1.5241 
dH2
dG3
fQ(b)
= - 0.5 + b
fQ(r)
= 0.5331  r – 0.2038
+ 2.4147
3
 dH
f(recess) = 1 + (tH + tG)  (1.8 + 3.2  s)
2
fQ(dH) = 0.9937 – 1.1949  dH + 1.7373  dH
The stress concentration factor for torsion (αT) is:
f(recess) = 1 + (tH + tG)  (1.8 + 3.2  s)
αT
= 0.8  f(r,s)  f(b)  f(w)
f(r,s)
= r
The stress concentration factor for torsion βT is:
[- 0.322 + 0.1015  (1 – s)]
if the diameters and fillet radii of crankpin and journal
2
3
f(b)
= 7.8955 – 10.654 . b + 5.3482  b – 0.857  b
f(w)
= w
3.3
– 0.145
are the same,
βT
Journal fillet (not applicable to semi-built
= αT
if crankpin and journal diameters and/or radii are of
different sizes
crankshaft)
βT
The stress concentration factor for bending βB is:
=
0.8  f(r,s)  f(b)  f(w)f(r,s), f(b) and
f(w) are to be determined in accordance with 3.2.
(see calculation of αT), however, the radius of the
βB
= 2.7146  fB(s,w)  fB(w)  fB(b)  fB(r)  fB(dG) 
journal fillet is to be related to the journal diameter:
fB(dH)  f(recess)
2
fB(s,w) = -1.7625 + 2.9821  w – 1.5276  w + (1 – s) 
2
2
(5.1169 – 5.8089  w + 3.1391  w ) + (1 – s)
2
 (- 2.1567 + 2.3297  w – 1.2952  w )
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
r=
RG
DG
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-18
3.4
D
Boundary Element Method (BEM) may be used instead
Outlet of crankpin oil bore
of FEM.
The stress concentration factor for bending (B) is:
3.5.2
B
= 3 - 5,88 dO + 34,6 dO
Model requirements
2
The basic recommendations and perceptions for
The stress concentration factor for torsion (T) is:
building the FE-model are presented in 3.5.2.1. It is
obligatory for the final FE-model to fulfill the requirement
T
= 4 - 6 dO + 30 dO
3.5
2
in 3.5.2.3.
Alternative method for calculation of
3.5.2.1
Element mesh recommendations
Stress Concentration Factors in the web fillet radii
of crankshafts by utilizing Finite Element Method
In order to fulfil the mesh quality criteria it is advised to
construct the FE model for the evaluation of Stress
3.5.1
Concentration Factors according to the following
General
recommendations:
The objective of the analysis is to develop Finite
Element Method (FEM) calculated figures as an
alternative to
-
the analytically calculated Stress
opposite side main bearing centerline
Concentration Factors (SCF) at the crankshaft fillets.
The analytical method is based on empirical formulae
developed from strain gauge measurements of
various
crank
geometries
and
accordingly
The model consists of one complete crank,
from the main bearing centerline to the
-
Element types used in the vicinity of the
fillets:
the
application of these formulae is limited to those

10 node tetrahedral elements

8 node hexahedral elements

20 node hexahedral elements
geometries.
The SCF’s calculated according to the rules of this
document are defined as the ratio of stresses calculated
by FEM to nominal stresses in both journal and pin
fillets. When used in connection with the present
-
Mesh properties in fillet radii. The following
method in this section or the alternative methods, von
applies to ±90 degrees in circumferential
Misses stresses shall be calculated for bending and
direction from the crank plane:
principal stresses for torsion.
-
Maximum element size a=r/4 through the
entire fillet as well as in the circumferential
The procedure as well as evaluation guidelines are valid
direction. When using 20 node hexahedral
for both solid cranks and semi-built cranks (except
elements,
journal fillets).
the
element
size
in
the
circumferential direction may be extended up
to 5a. In the case of multi-radii fillet r is the
The analysis is to be conducted as linear elastic FE
local fillet radius. (If 8 node hexahedral
analysis, and unit loads of appropriate magnitude are to
elements are used even smaller element size
be applied for all load cases.
is required to meet the quality criteria.)
The calculation of SCF at the oil bores is not covered by
this document.
It is advised to check the element accuracy of the FE
-
Recommended manner for element size in
fillet depth direction

First layer thickness equal to element size
of a

Second layer thickness equal to element
solver in use, e.g. by modeling a simple geometry and
comparing the stresses obtained by FEM with the
analytical solution for pure bending and torsion.
to size of 2a
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D

Third layer thickness equal to element to
3.5.2.3
2-19
Element mesh quality criteria
size of 3a
If the actual element mesh does not fulfill any of the
-
Minimum 6 elements across web thickness.
following criteria at the examined area for SCF
evaluation, then a second calculation with a refined
-
Generally the rest of the crank should be
mesh is to be performed.
suitable for numeric stability of the solver.
3.5.2.3.1 Principal stresses criterion
-
Counterweights only have to be modeled
only when influencing the global stiffness of
The quality of the mesh should be assured by
the crank significantly.
checking the stress component normal to the surface
of the fillet radius. Ideally, this stress should be zero.
-
Modeling of oil drillings is not necessary as
With principal stresses 1, 2 and 3 the following
long as the influence on global stiffness is
criterion is required:
negligible and the proximity to the fillet is
min |σ1|, |σ2|, |σ3|
more than 2r, see figure 2.7.
-
Drillings and holes for weight reduction have
0.03.
|σ1|, |σ2|, |σ3|
3.5.2.3.2 Averaged/unaveraged stresses criterion
to be modeled.
The criterion is based on observing the discontinuity of
-
Sub-modeling may be used as far as the
stress results over elements at the fillet for the
software requirements are fulfilled.
calculation of SCF:
-
Unaveraged nodal stress results calculated from
each element connected to a nodei should differ
less than by 5 % from the 100 % averaged nodal
stress results at this nodei at the examined
location.
3.5.3
Load cases
To substitute the analytically determined SCF in this
section, the following load cases have to be
3.5.2.2
Fig. 2.7 Oil bore proximity to fillet
calculated.
Material
3.5.3.1
Torsion
In FE analysis, Young’s Modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio
In analogy to the testing apparatus used for the
() are required, as strain is primarily calculated and
investigations made by FVV the structure is loaded pure
stress is derived from strain using those material
torsion. In the model surface warp at the end faces is
parameters.
suppressed.
Reliable values for material parameters have to be
Torque is applied to the central node located at the
used, either as quoted in literature or as measured on
crankshaft axis. This node acts as the master node with
representative material samples.
6 degrees of freedom and is connected rigidly to all
nodes of the end face.
For steel the following is advised:
Boundary and load conditions are valid for both in-line
5
E= 2.05·10 MPa and  =0.3.
and V-type engines.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
2-20
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
Fig. 2.8 Boundary and load conditions for the torsion load case
Fig. 2.9 Boundary and load conditions for the pure bending load case
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
For all nodes in both the journal and crank pin fillet
3.5.3.3
2-21
Bending with shear force (3-point bending)
principal stresses are extracted and the equivalent
torsional stress is calculated:
This load case is calculated to determine the SCF for pure
τ equiv
 σ1  σ2 σ2  σ3 σ1  σ3
 max
,
,

2
2
2





The
maximum
subsequent
value
taken
for
the
calculation of the SCF:
In analogy to the testing apparatus used for the
investigations made by FVV, the structure is loaded in
3-point bending. In the model, surface warp at the both
end faces is suppressed. All nodes are connected
rigidly to the centre node; boundary conditions are
τ equiv,α
ατ 
applied to the centre nodes. These nodes act as master
τn
nodes with 6 degrees of freedom.
τ equiv,β
βT 
where τ
transverse force (radial force, βQ) for the journal fillet.
The force is applied to the central node located at the
τN
pin centre-line of the connecting rod. This node is
is nominal torsional stress referred to the
crankpin and respectively journal as per D-2.2.2 with the
connected to all nodes of the pin cross sectional area.
Warping of the sectional area is not suppressed.
torsional torque T:
Boundary and load conditions are valid for in-line and V-
τN
T

Wp
type engines. V-type engines can be modeled with one
connecting rod force only. Using two connecting rod
forces will make no significant change in the SCF.
3.5.3.2
Pure bending (4 point bending)
The maximum equivalent von Mises stress 3P in the
In analogy to the testing apparatus used for the
journal fillet is evaluated. The SCF in the journal fillet
investigations made by FVV the structure is loaded in
can be determined in two ways as shown below.
pure bending. In the model surface warp at the end
faces is suppressed. The bending moment is applied to
3.5.3.3.1 Method 1
the central node located at the crankshaft axis. This
node acts as the master node with 6 degrees of
This method is analogue to the FVV investigation. The
freedom and is connected rigidly to all nodes of the end
results from 3-point and 4-point bending are combined
face. Boundary and load conditions are valid for both in-
as follows:
line- and V- type engines.
3P = N3P · βB + Q3P · βQ
For all nodes in both the journal and pin fillet von Mises
equivalent stresses σ
are extracted. The maximum
where:
value is used to calculate the SCF according to:
αβ 
βB 
3P
= As found by the FE calculation.
N3P
= Nominal bending stress in the web centre
σ equiv,α
σN
due to the force F3P [N] applied to the centre-
σ equiv,β
line of the actual connecting rod, see figure
σN
2.11.
Nominal stress σ is calculated as per D-2.1.2.1 with
βB
the bending moment M:
σN 
= As determined in paragraph 3.5.3.2.
M
Weqw
σ Q3P 
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Q 3P
B.W 
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-22
where Q3P is the radial (shear) force in the web due to
D
For symbols see D-3.1.
the force F3P [N] applied to the centre-line of the actual
connecting rod, see also figures 2.3 and 2.4.
When using this method the radial force and stress
determination in this section becomes superfluous. The
alternating bending stress in the journal fillet as per D-
3.5.3.3.2 Method 2
2.1.3 is then evaluated:
This method is not analogous to the FVV investigation.
σ BG A_  β BQ  σ BFN
In a statically determined system with one crank throw
supported by two bearings, the bending moment and
radial (shear) force are proportional. Therefore the
journal fillet SCF can be found directly by the 3-point
bending FE calculation. The SCF is then calculated
according to
β BQ 
σ 3P
σ N3P
Note that the use of this method does not apply to the
crankpin fillet and that this SCF must not be used in
connection with calculation methods other than those
assuming a statically determined system as in this
section.
Fig. 2.10 Boundary and load conditions for the 3-point bending load case of an inline engine
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
D
2-23
Fig. 2.11 Load applications for in-line and V-type engines
4.
Additional Bending Stresses
5.
Calculation
of
Equivalent
Alternating
Stress
In addition to the alternating bending stresses in
fillets (see 2.1.3) further bending stresses due to
5.1
General
misalignment and bedplate deformation as well as
due to axial and bending vibrations are to be
In the fillets, bending and torsion lead to two different
considered by applying add as given by the following
biaxial stress fields which can be represented by a Von
Mises equivalent stress with the additional assumptions
table:
that bending and torsion stresses are time phased and
Table 2.4 Additional stress
the corresponding peak values occur at the same
location (see Fig.2.13)
Type of engine
add [N/mm2]
Crosshead engines
± 30 (*)
Trunk piston engines
± 10
(*)
The additional stress of ± 30 N/mm² is
composed of two components:
(1)
An additional stress of ± 20 N/mm² resulting
from axial vibration
(2)
An additional stress of ± 10 N/mm² resulting
from misalignment / bedplate deformation
It is recommended that a value of ± 20 N/mm2 be used
for the axial vibration component for assessment
purposes where axial vibration calculation results of the
As a result the equivalent alternating stress is to be
calculated for the crankpin fillet as well as for the journal
fillet by using the Von Mises criterion.
At the oil hole outlet, bending and torsion lead to two
different stress fields which can be represented by an
equivalent principal stress equal to the maximum of
principal stress resulting from combination of these two
stress fields with the assumption that bending and
torsion are time phased (see Fig.2.14)
The above two different ways of equivalent stress
complete dynamic system (engine / shafting / gearing /
evaluation both lead to stresses which may be
propeller) are not available. Where axial vibration
compared to the same fatigue strength value of
calculation results of the complete dynamic system are
crankshaft
available, the calculated figures may be used instead.
criterion.
assessed
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
according
to
Von
Mises
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-24
5.2
D
Equivalent alternating stress
0,264+1,073D-0,2
G +
The equivalent alternating stress is calculated in
785-σB 196
1
+

4900
σB RG
accordance with the formulae given.
DW
= Allowable fatigue strength of crankshaft
For the crankpin fillet:
σV =±
2
[N/mm ],
σBH +σadd 2 +3τ2H
K
= Factor for different types of forged and cast
crankshafts without surface treatment.
For the journal fillet:
Values greater than 1 are only applicable to
σV =±
σBG +σadd 2 +3τ2G
fatigue strength in fillet area. [–],
For the outlet of crankpin oil bore:
1
σV =± σBO 1
3
2 1
= 1.05 for continuous grain flow forged or dropforged crankshafts,
9 σ
4 σ
= 1.0 for free form forged crankshafts (without
continuous grain flow),
V
= Equivalent alternating stress [N/mm2]
Factor for cast steel crankshafts with cold rolling
For other parameters, see D.2.1.3, D.2.2.3 and D.4.
6.
treatment in fillet area.
= 0.93 for cast steel crankshafts manufactured
Calculation of Fatigue Strength
by companies using a TL approved cold
rolling process.
The fatigue strength is to be understood as that value of
alternating bending stress which a crankshaft can
B
= Minimum
permanently withstand at the most highly stressed
tensile
strength
of
crankshaft
2
material [N/mm ].
points of the fillets: Where the fatigue strength for a
crankshaft
cannot
be
furnished
by
reliable
For other parameters see D.3.1.
measurements, the fatigue strength may be evaluated
by means of the following formulae:
When a surface treatment process is applied, it must be
approved by TL.
Related to the crankpin diameter:
However, it is to be considered that, the surfaces of the
σDW =±K 0,42σB +39,3 
0,264+1,073
.
+
785-σB 196 1
+

4900
σB RX
fillet, the outlet of the oil bore and inside the oil bore
(down to a minimum depth equal to 1.5 times the oil
bore diameter) shall be smoothly finished and for
calculation purposes RH, RG and RX are not to be taken
RX
= RH in the fillet area
RX
= Do/2 in the oil bore area
less than 2 mm.
Where no results of the fatigue tests conducted on full
size crank throws or crankshafts, which have been
subjected to surface treatment, are available, the K-
Related to the journal diameter:
factors for crankshafts without surface treatment are to
σDW =±K 0,42σB +39,3 
be used.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
In each case the experimental procedure for fatigue
DS
= Shrink diameter [mm],
LS
= Length of shrink-fit [mm],
DA
= Outside diameter of web [mm],
2-25
evaluation of specimens taken from a full size crankthrow
or fatigue strength of crankshaft assessment carried out
with full size crank throws or crankshafts are to be
submitted to TL for special consideration. The procedure
shall include information on method, type of specimens,
number of specimens (or crankthrows), number of tests,
or
survival probability, confidence number, etc.
twice the minimum distance x between
The survival probability for fatigue strength values
centreline of journals and outer contour of
derived from testing is to be to the satisfaction of TL and
web,
in principle not less than 80 %.
7.
whichever is less.
Acceptability Criteria
The sufficient dimensioning of a crankshaft is confirmed
by a comparison of the equivalent alternating stress and
y
= Distance between the adjacent generating
lines of journal and pin [mm].
the fatigue strength. This comparison has to be carried
out for the crankpin fillet, the journal fillet, the outlet of
y ≥ 0.05 DS
crankpin oil bore and is based on the formula:
Q=
Q
Where y is less than 0.1 . DS, special consideration is to
σDW
σV
be given to the effect of the stress due to the shrink on
the fatigue strength at the crankpin fillet.
= Acceptability factor [–]
Adequate dimensioning of the crankshaft is ensured if the
For other parameter, see D.3.1 (Fig. 2.6).
smallest of all acceptability factors satisfies the criteria:
Q ≥ 1.15
Fig. 2.12 Crank throw of semi-built crankshaft
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-26
8.
Calculation of Shrink-fits of Semi-Built
greater value calculated in accordance with 8.3.1 and
Crankshafts
8.3.2.
8.1
8.3.1
General
D
The calculation of the minimum oversize is to
be carried out for the crank throw with the absolute
All crank dimensions necessary for the calculation of
maximum torque Mmax. The torque Mmax corresponds to
the shrink-fit are shown in Fig. 2.12.
the maximum value of the torque MTmax, ascertained as
per D.2.2 for the various mass points of the crankshaft.
Regarding the radius of the transition from the journal to
the shrink diameter, the following must be observed:
Zmin ≥
RG ≥ 0.015  DG and RG ≥ 0.5  (DS – DG)
1-Q2A Q2S
4.103 SR Mmax


πμ Em DS LS 1-Q2A  1-Q2S
QA =
where the greater value is to be considered.
The actual oversize Z of the shrink-fit must be within the
QS =
limits Zmin and Zmax calculated in accordance with items
8.2. and 8.3.
8.2
Maximum
permissible
hole
in
the
= Minimum oversize [mm],
SR
= Safety factor against slipping, however a
value not less than 2 is to be taken [–],
The maximum permissible hole diameter in the journal
pin is calculated in accordance with the following
formula:
DBG =DS 1
4000S M
μπD L σ
QA, QS = Ratio of different diameters [–],

= Coefficient for static friction, see 8.2 [–],
Em
= Young's modulus [N/mm2].
8.3.2
= Safety factor against slipping, [-], however a
In addition to 8.3.1 the minimum oversize is
also to be calculated according to the following formula:
value not less than 2 is to be taken unless
Zmin ≥
documented by experiments.
Mmax
= Absolute maximum value of the torque MTmax
[Nm] in accordance with 2.2.2

SW
σSW DS
Em
= Minimum yield strength of material for crank
web [N/mm2].
= Coefficient for static friction [-],however a
value not greater than 0.2 is to be taken
unless documented by experiments.
SP
DBG
DS
Zmin
journal pin
SR
DS
DA
= Minimum yield strength of material for journal
8.4
Maximum permissible oversize of shrink-fit
The maximum permissible oversize is calculated in
accordance with the following formula:
pin [N/mm2]
Zmax ≤
This condition serves to avoid plasticity in the hole of
σSW DS 0.8DS
+
Em
1000
the journal pin.
8.3
Necessary minimum oversize of shrink-fit
The necessary minimum oversize is determined by the
Zmax
= Maximum oversize [mm].
The condition serves to restrict the shrinkage induced
mean stress in the fillet.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Torsional loading
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
Stress
Max 3
Max 1
Location of maximal
stresses
A
C
Mohr’s circle diagram
With σ2 = 0
B
1  3
 3  1
1  3
1   3
 equiv 
S.C.F. 
Location of maximal
stresses
Bending loading
2-27
Typical principal stress
System
Equivalent stress
and S.C.F.
B
2
 equiv
for T ,  T
n
B
B
Typical principal
Stress system
2  0
Mohr’s circle diagram
With σ3 = 0
.
 equiv   12  
Equivalent stress
And S.C.F
S .C .F . 
 equiv
2
2
  1 . 2
for  B ,  B ,  Q
n
Fig. 2.13 Definition of stress concentration factors in crankshafts fillets
Stres
s type
Nomina
l stress
tensor
Uniaxial distribution around the edge
Tension


  n
B
/ 3 1  2 cos
Mohr’s circle diagram
2  ) 
n 0
0 0 


 B max n for  k
Shear
    T  n sin 2 
0 n
n 0
 
 T   max / n for  
 
Tension+shear
D
B
3
 n 1 2  cos 2  3  


n
2 B n

4
k

2
 
sin  2   
 
n n 
n 0 


 max 
B
3

2
9  T n  
 
4B n  

 n 1 2 1  

 3  
1
for  tg 1  T n 
2
 2 B n 
Fig. 2.14 Stress concentration factors and stress distribution at the edge of oil drillings
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-28
E.
-
Tests and Trials
E
Trained personnel shall be available for
production of parts, assembly, testing and
1.
Engine
Manufacturer’s
Workshop
partly dismantling for shipping, if applicable.
and
Manufacturing Inspections
-
Storage, reassembly and testing processes
The manufacture of all engines with TL
for diesel engines at shipyards shall be such
classification is subject to supervision by TL and the
that the risk of damage to the engine or its
manufacturer’s works are to be audited by TL. The
parts is minimized.
1.1
scope should be agreed between manufacturer and TL.
Engine manufacturer’s workshops shall have
1.2
Where engine manufacturers have been
in place a Quality Management System
approved by the TL as "Suppliers of Mass Produced
recognized by TL.
Internal Combustion Engines", these engines are to be
tested in accordance with 4.
1.3
Every
workshop
where
engines
are
2.
Material and Non-destructive Tests
2.1
Material tests
assembled and tested are to be approved by TL if the
workshop is newly set up or a new production line is set
In the case of individually produced engines, the
up or a new engine type is introduced or a new
following parts are to be subjected to material tests in
production process is implemented.
the presence of the TL's representative:
1.4
Manufacturer’s works have to have suitable
a.
Crankshaft
b.
Crankshaft coupling flange for main power
production and testing facilities, competent staff and a
quality management system, which ensures a uniform
production quality of the products according to the
transmission (if not forged to crankshaft);
specification.
-
Manufacturing plants shall be equipped in
such a way that all materials and
components
can
be
machined
and
manufactured to a specified standard.
Production facilities and assembly lines,
including
machining
units,
welding
processes, special tools, special devices,
assembly and testing rigs as well as lifting
and transportation devices shall be suitable
for the type and size of engine, its
components, and the purpose intended.
Materials and components shall be
manufactured in compliance with all
production and quality instructions specified
by the manufacturer and recognised by TL.
-
c.
Crankshaft coupling bolts
d.
Pistons or piston crowns made of steel, cast
steel or nodular cast iron
e.
Piston rods
f.
Connecting rods including the associated
bearing covers
g.
Crossheads
h.
Cylinder liners made of steel or cast steel
i.
Cylinder covers made of steel or cast steel
j.
Welded
Suitable test bed facilities for load tests have
to be provided, if required also for dynamic
bedplates:
plates
and
bearings
response testing. All liquids used for testing
transverse girders made of forged or cast
purposes such as fuel oil, lubrication oil and
steel
cooling water shall be suitable for the
purpose intended, e.g. they shall be clean,
k.
Welded frames and crankcases
l.
Welded entablatures
preheated if necessary and cause no harm to
engine parts.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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2-29
m.
Tie rods
-
Cast or forged parts of semi-built crankshafts;
n.
Bolts and studs for
-
Connecting rods;

Cylinder covers,
-
Piston rods;

Crossheads,
-
Piston crowns of steel or cast steel;

Main bearings,
-
Tie rods (at each thread over a distance
corresponding to twice the threaded length);

Connecting rod bearings.
-
o.
Bolts which are subjected to alterning loads,
Camshaft drive gear wheels and chain
e.g.
wheels made of steel or cast steel.
2.1.1
accordance with Table 2.5.
Table 2.5 Material tests
Parts to be tested
Cylinder bore
Main bearing bolts,

Connecting rod bolts,

Crosshead bearing bolts,

Cylinder cover bolts,
(numbered according to the
list under E.2.1 above)
d ≤ 300 mm
300 < d ≤ 400 mm
-
Cylinder covers made of steel or cast steel;
-
Camshaft drive gear wheels made of steel or
a - f - j- k - l - m
a - f -h - i - j - k - l - m - n
d > 400 mm
2.1.2

Material tests are to be performed in
All parts
In addition, material tests are to be carried
cast steel.
Magnetic particle or dye penetrant tests are
2.2.1
out on pipes and parts of the starting air system and
to be performed in accordance with Table 2.6 at those
other pressure systems forming part of the engine see
points, to be agreed between the TL's surveyor and the
Section 16.B.
manufacturer, where experience shows that defects are
liable to occur.
2.1.3
Materials for charge air coolers are to be
supplied with manufacturer test reports.
2.2
Table 2.6 Magnetic particle tests
Non-destructive tests
Parts to be tested
Cylinder
In the case of individually manufactured engines, non-
(numbered according to the list
bore
under E.2.2)
destructive material tests are to be performed on the
≤ 400 mm
a-b-c-d-e
parts listed below in accordance with Tables 2.6 and 2.7:
> 400 mm
All parts
-
Steel castings for bedplates, e.g. bearing
Table 2.7 Ultrasonic tests
transverse girders, including their welded
joints;
Cylinder
bore
-
Solid forged crankshafts;
-
Cast, rolled or forged parts of fully built
crankshafts;
Parts to be tested
(numbered according to the list
under E.2.2)
≤ 400 mm
a-b-c-d-g-j
> 400 mm
a-b-c-d-e-f-g-j-k
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-30
2.2.2
Ultrasonic tests are to be carried out by the
-
E
TL has issued the necessary approval of
manufacturer in accordance with Table 2.7, and the
drawings on the basis of the documents to be
corresponding signed manufacturer's certificates are to
submitted in accordance with Section 2.B.
be submitted.
3.1.2
2.2.3
Welded
seams
of
important
engine
components may be required to be subjected to
The type approval test is subdivided into three stages,
namely:
approved methods of testing.
2.2.4
Where there is reason to doubt the faultless
-
quality of any engine component, non-destructive
values including test hours during the internal
addition to the tests mentioned above.
tests, which are to be presented to TL during
the type test.
Crankshafts welded together from forged
or cast parts are subject to the TL's special approval.
Both the manufacturers and the welding process
-
shall be approved. The materials and the welds are
Stage B - Type test
This test is to be performed in the presence of
to be tested.
2.3
Stage A - Internal tests
Functional tests and collection of operating
testing by approved methods may be required in
2.2.5
Scope of type approval testing
the TL's representative.
Pressure tests
-
The individual components of internal combustion
After conclusion of the tests, major
engines are to be subjected to pressure tests at the
components are to be presented for
pressures specified in Table 2.8. TL Certificates are to
inspection.
be issued for the result of the pressure tests.
3.
Type Tests of Diesel Engines
3.1
General
Stage C - Component inspection
The operating hours of the engine components to be
presented for inspection after type testing in accordance
with 3.4 are to be stated.
Engines for installation on board ship shall be type
3.2
Stage A - Internal tests
tested by TL. For this purpose a type approval test in
accordance with 3.1.2 is to be performed.
Functional tests and the collection of operating data are
to be performed during the internal tests. The engine is
3.1.1
Preconditions for type approval testing
to be operated at the load points important for the
engine manufacturer and the pertaining operating
Preconditions for type approval testing are that:
values are to be recorded. The load points are to be
selected according to the range of application of the
-
The engine to be tested conforms to the
specific requirements for the series and has
been suitably optimized;
-
The
inspections
and
engine.
For engines to be operated on heavy fuel oil suitability
measurements
for this shall be proved in an appropriate form.
necessary for reliable continuous operation
have been performed during works tests
3.2.1
Normal operating conditions
carried out by the engine manufacturer and
TL has been informed of the results of the
This includes the load points 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%
major inspections;
and 110% of the maximum rated power.
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2-31
Table 2.8 Pressure tests (1)
Test pressure, Pp [bar] (2)
Component
Cylinder cover, cooling water space (3)
7 bar
Cylinder liner, over whole length of cooling water space (5)
7 bar
Cylinder jacket, cooling water space
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Exhaust valve, cooling water space
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Piston crown, cooling water space (3)
(where the cooling space is sealed by piston rod or piston rod and skirt, test
after assembly)
7 bar
High pressure fuel injection system
Pump body,
pressure side
1.5·Pe,perm or Pe,perm + 300 bar
(whichever is less)
Valves
1.5·Pe,perm or Pe,perm + 300 bar
(whichever is less)
Pipes
1.5·Pe,perm or Pe,perm + 300 bar
(whichever is less)
Scavenge pump cylinder
4 bar
Piping, pumps, actuators,
etc. for hydraulic drive of
valves
Hydraulic system
1.5·Pe,perm
Exhaust gas turbocharger, cooling water space
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Exhaust gas line, cooling water space
Engine-driven compressor:
(cylinders, covers, intercoolers and after coolers)
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Air side
1.5·Pe,perm
Water side
4 bar but not less than 1.5 Pe,perm
Cooler, both sides (4)
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Engine-driven pumps:
(oil, water, fuel and bilge pumps)
4 bar, at least 1.5·Pe,perm
Starting and control air system
1.5·Pe,perm before installation
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
In general, items are to be tested by hydraulic pressure as indicated in the Table. Where design or testing features may
require modification of these test requirements, special consideration will be given.
Pe,perm [bar] = Maximum working pressure in the part concerned.
For forged steel cylinder covers test methods other than pressure testing may be accepted, e.g. suitable non-destructive
examination and dimensional control properly recorded.
Charge air coolers need only be tested on the water side.
For centrifugally cast cylinder liners, the pressure test can be replaced by a crack test.
-
Along the nominal (theoretical) propeller
curve and/or at constant speed for propulsion
engines,
-
-
At rated speed with constant governor setting
for generator drive, and
The engine manufacturer is to state whether the achievable
Engines with two or more turbochargers,
when the damaged turbocharger is shut off.
Note:
The limit points of the permissible operating range as
defined by the engine manufacturer are to be tested.
3.2.2
Emergency operation situations
For turbocharged engines the achievable output in case
of turbocharger failure is to be determined as follows:
output is continuous. If there is a time limit, the permissible
operating time is to be indicated.
3.3
Stage B - Type test
During the type test all the tests listed below under 3.3.1
to 3.3.3 are to be carried out in the presence of the TL's
representative. The results of individual tests are to be
recorded and signed by the TL's representative.
-
Engines with one turbocharger, when rotor is
blocked or removed,
Deviations from this program, if any, require TL's
agreement.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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3.3.1
Load points
3.3.1.4
Minimum
E
permissible
speed
for
intermittent operation
Load points at which the engine is to be operated are to
conform to the power/speed diagram in Fig. 2.15.
The
minimum
permissible
speed
for
intermittent
operation has to be adjcted.
The data to be measured and recorded when testing the
engine at various load points shall include all the
parameters necessary for an assessment.
The operating time per load point depends on the
-
At 100% torque corresponding to load point 4,
-
At 90% torque corresponding to load point 5.
3.3.1.5
Part-load operation
engine size and on the time for collection of the
operating values. The measurements shall in every
case only be performed after achievement of steadyIt means 75%, 50% and 25% of rated power and speed
state condition.
according to nominal propeller curve corresponding to
Normally an operating time of 0.5 hour can be assumed
points 6, 7 and 8 and at rated speed with constant
per load point.
governor setting corresponding to points 9, 10 and 11.
At 100% output (rated power) in accordance with
3.3.2
Emergency operation
3.3.1.1 an operating time of 2 hours is required. At least
two sets of readings are to be taken at an interval of
The maximum achievable power when operating in
1hour in each case.
accordance with 3.2.2, has to be performed.
If an engine can continue to operate without its
-
operational safety being affected in the event of a failure
At speed conforming to nominal propeller
curve,
of its independent cylinder lubrication, proof of this shall
be included in the type test.
3.3.1.1
Rated power (continuous power)
The rated power is defined as 100 % output at 100 %
torque and 100 % speed (rated speed) corresponding to
-
With constant governor setting for rated speed.
3.3.3
Functional tests
Functional tests are to be carried out as follows:
load point 1 (Fig. 2.15).
3.3.1.2
according to the nominal propeller curve,
100% power
The operation point 100 % output at maximum
-
starting
and
reversing
tests
for
reversible engines,
performed (Fig. 2.15).
Maximum permissible torque
The maximum permissible torque normally results at
-
Governor test,
-
Test of the safety system particularly for over
speed and failure of lubricating oil system.
110 % output at 100 % speed corresponding to load
point 3 or at maximum permissible power (normally 110
% at a speed according to the nominal propeller curve
corresponding to load point 3a.
Starting tests for non-reversible engines
and/or
allowable speed corresponding to load point 2 has to be
3.3.1.3
Ascertainment of lowest engine speed tests
-
Test of electronic components and systems
according to the test program approved by
TL.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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2-33
Fig. 2.15 Power / speed diagram
-
For electronically controlled diesel engines
cylinder for in-line engines and two cylinders for V-
integration tests to demonstrate that the
engines are to be presented for inspection as follows:Piston, removed and dismantled,
response of the complete mechanical, hydraulic
and electronic system is as predicted for all
intended operational modes. The scope of
these
tests
shall
be
proposed
by
-
Crosshead bearing, dismantled,
-
Crank bearing and main bearing, removed,
-
Cylinder liner in the installed condition,
-
Cylinder cover/head, valves disassembled,
the
manufacturer/licensor based on the FMEA
required in Table 2.1 and agreed by TL.
3.4
Stage C - Component inspection
Immediately after the test run the components of one
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-34
-
Camshaft, camshaft drive and crankcase with
-
opened covers,
The components of mass produced internal
combustion engines must be manufactured
on
Note:
machining
units
which
have
been
specially adjusted for that purpose and which
If deemed necessary by the TL's representative, further
are subjected to the inspections necessary to
dismantling of the engine may be required.
3.5
E
quality assurance.
Type approval test report
-
The engine components must completely
satisfy the engine manufacturer's quality
The results of the type test are to be incorporated in a
requirements, must be interchangeable and
report which is to be submitted to TL.
must be able to be fitted without reworking or
3.6
adaptation.
Type approval certificate
After successful conclusion of the test and appraisal of
4.1.3
Components supplied by subcontractors and
the required documents, TL issues a Type Approval
castings
and
Certificate.
manufacture of, or as spare parts for mass produced
forgings
which
are
used
in
the
engines are to be manufactured in the same way as
3.7
Power increase
described in 4.1.2. The inspections necessary for quality
If the rated power (continuous power) of a type tested
and operationally proven engine is increased by more
than 10%, a new type test is required. Approval of the
power increase includes examination of the relevant
drawings.
4.
assurance are to comply with 4.2.2.2.
4.2
Approval as supplier of mass produced
engines
Approval of an engine manufacturer as a supplier of
Type Tests of Mass Produced Internal
mass produced engines relates in every case to a
particular engine type / engine series, and application for
Combustion Engines
approval is to be made by the engine manufacturer to TL.
4.1
General
4.1.1
These requirements apply to engines with
Engine manufacturers who meet the requirements of
cylinder bores of ≤ 300 mm.
4.1.2 can be approved by TL as suppliers of mass
produced engines. When such approval has been
awarded, engines to be classified by TL may be
TL will decide which engine types / engine series
meet the requirements for the application of these
rules.
Manufacturer’s Works.
Approval requires that the internal quality assurance
Note: Omission of the test (i.e. for engines of well known
type) is subject to TL consideration.
4.1.2
supplied after testing in accordance with Tests in
procedures and manufacturing plant and processes of
the engine manufacturer concerned have been approved
by TL and that the manufacture of each individual engine
The mass produced internal combustion
conforms to the maker's quality requirements recognized
by TL and also that all the tests stipulated in the TL Rules
engines meet the following criteria:
can be performed by the engine manufacturer himself.
-
-
The engines are produced in considerable
Works Test Certificates are accepted for components
numbers.
subject to compulsory testing.
The materials and components used are
The testing of the complete engine to be classified is to
manufactured in compliance with all the
be performed in the presence of a TL Surveyor before it
production and quality controls specified by the
engine manufacturer and recognized by TL
is delivered.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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4.2.1
2-35
The engine manufacturer is to supply TL with full details
Documents for approval
of the above and of any changes introduced.
Approval requires that each engine type / engine series
conforms to the TL Rules of Construction and has been
approved.
For
this
purpose,
all
drawings
and
documents subject to compulsory examination are to be
submitted to TL in accordance with B.
Upon requesting approval for mass production of a type
The manufacturer must give full information about the
quality control of the parts supplied by subcontractors,
for which approval may be required.
TL performs works visits at regular intervals to verify
of internal combustion engine, the manufacturer must
that the conditions for approval continue to be fully
submit all the necessary data concerning this type of
fulfilled
engine according to Table 2.1 and list of subcontractors
methods and the quality assurance procedures).
(checking
manufacturing
processes
and
for the main parts.
4.2.2.2
4.2.2
assurance
4.2.2.1
Works
quality
assurance
system.
Recognition of the quality assurance system by TL
requires that:
-
Certificates
subject
to
are
acceptable
compulsory
for
inspection
manufactured by subcontractors. This is subject to
individually supervised by TL but is monitored by the
manufacturer's
Test
components
Engine manufacturers
The manufacture of mass produced engines is not
engine
Subcontractors
Mass production processes / quality
The duties, structure and organization of
quality controls or quality assurance
procedures are available, clearly defined and
described,
-
Quality control operations are recorded,
-
Proof can be supplied of the professional
expertise and independence of the personnel
employed in quality assurance,
the condition that manufacture is performed strictly in
compliance with the quality controls stipulated by the
engine manufacturer and that these are regularly
checked
by
the
engine
manufacturer's
quality
assurance department.
Where components subject to compulsory inspection
manufactured by subcontractors undergo no further
testing by the engine manufacturer, the quality control
arrangements of the subcontractor are checked by TL
as required and TL reserves the right to apply direct
and individual inspection procedures for parts supplied
by subcontractors when deemed necessary. The engine
manufacturer is responsible for ensuring agreements
with subcontractors which enable TL to carry out
checks.
-
-
The results of quality controls are recorded
and can, on request, be produced for
examination at any time,
The manufacturing, laboratory and testing
equipment is kept under continuous
supervision by the quality assurance
department,
4.2.3
Type testing
Approval of an engine type / engine series as a mass
produced engine requires previous type testing in the
presence of TL's representative.
The type testing of mass produced engines is subject to
-
As part of the internal quality assurance
the following requirements. Any exceptions require TL's
procedure, engines are selected at regular
agreement.
intervals from the production flow and are
subjected, after the trial run or an extended trial
4.2.3.1
Selection of engine for type testing
run in the works, to a thorough inspection in a
partially or fully dismantled condition
The engine for type testing is to be chosen from current
.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-36
mass production by agreement with the responsible TL
4.2.3.3.4 Minimum
Surveyor.
intermitted operation
4.2.3.2
Equipment for engines to be type tested
permissible
E
speed
for
Tests to be performed for 0.5 hours at 100 % torque
corresponding to performance point 4 and for 0.5 hours
The type test is to be performed on an engine
at 90 % torque corresponding to performance point 5
corresponding to the TL Rules and fitted with all the
prescribed equipment items. If testing with complete
4.2.3.3.5 Partial load operation
equipment according to the Rules is not possible on
the test bed, the missing equipment is to be
Test to be performed for 8 hours at condition i. e. 75 %,
presented and/or tested on another engine from the
50 % and 25 % of rated power at speeds according to
series.
nominal propeller curve corresponding to points 6, 7
and 8 and started from rated speed with constant
4.2.3.3
governor setting corresponding to points 9, 10 and 11
Type test program and duration
Unless
otherwise
agreed
between
the
engine
4.2.3.3.6 Intermitted load
manufacturer and TL, the type test is to be performed
according to the following program and for the times
(100 % power 
no load)
indicated.
4.2.3.3.7 Functional test
The performance points are required to conform to the
-
power / speed diagram in Fig. 2.15.
Starting test and, where applicable, reversing
manoeuvres (of direct reversing engines),
4.2.3.3.1 Rated power (continuous power)
-
Speed governor test,
-
Test of safety systems (overspeed device,
Test to be performed for 80 hours at condition i.e. 100
% power at 100 % torque and 100 % speed (rated
failure alarm of lubricating oil system),
speed) corresponding to performance point 1.
-
4.2.3.3.2 100 % power
Test of engine with turbocharger out of action
(where applicable),
Test to be performed for 1 hour at maximum permissible
speed corresponding to performance point 2.
-
Test of minimum on-load speed for main
propulsion engines and of idling speed for
auxiliary engines.
4.2.3.3.3 Maximum permissible torque
The testing conditions stated in 4.2.3.3.1 ÷
Test to be performed for 8 hours at condition i. e.
4.2.3.4
normally 110 % overload at 100 % speed corresponding
4.2.3.3.7 are to be combined in working cycles, which
to point 3 or maximum permissible power (normally 110
are to be repeated subsequently with the whole duration
%) at a speed according to nominal propeller curve
within the entire specified period.
corresponding to point 3a.
Note:
The overload is to be alternately carried out with:
For engines intended for various applications involving
differing power and speed conditions, the type approval
-
110% of rated output and 103% rpm
program and the testing periods are to be increased to cover
the entire output and speed range of the engine type, taking
-
110 % of rated output and 100% rpm.
into account the most severe values.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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The rated output for which the engine is to be tested is the
2-37
-
Torque or brake load,
-
Engine speed,
-
Engine power,
-
Maximum combustion pressure (indicated
output corresponding to that declared by the manufacturer
and agreed by TL, i.e. actual maximum power which the
engine is capable of delivering continuously between the
normal maintenance intervals stated by the manufacturer at
the rated speed and under the stated ambient conditions.
pressure diagram if possible),
For heavy-fuel engines, suitable proof is required of heavyfuel operation capacity.
-
approved smoke meter,
The testing program is to be agreed with TL.
4.2.3.5
Test report
4.2.3.5.1 A report on the result of testing is to be
Exhaust smoke (blackening index) with an
-
Lubricating oil pressure and temperature,
-
Cooling water pressure and temperature,
-
Exhaust gas temperature in exhaust manifold
compiled which shall be submitted to TL on completion
of the type approval.
and, if possible, at each cylinder outlet,
The report has to contain the following details:
Additional information for turbocharged engines:
-
-
Technical engine data
-
Turbocharger speed,
-
Air
Test conditions in accordance with 4.2.3.5.2
temperature
and
pressures
at
Operating parameters in accordance with
turbocharger and charge air cooler inlet and
4.2.3.5.3
outlet,
Results of follow-up inspection in accordance
-
with 4.2.3.5.4
Exhaust gas temperature and pressure at
exhaust gas turbine inlet and outlet,
4.2.3.5.2 Test conditions
-
Inlet temperature of charge air cooling water.
-
Ambient air temperature
4.2.3.5.4 Component inspection
-
Ambient air pressure
After the type test all major parts of the engine are to be
dismantled for inspection.
-
Relative humidity of air
The results of the component inspections are to be
-
External cooling water temperature at inlet
placed
on
record.
Important
parts
are
to
be
photographed.
-
Characteristics of fuel and lubricating oil
4.2.4
Continuous checks on manufacture
4.2.3.5.3 Operating parameters
Every approval as supplier of mass produced engines is
During the type test, at least the operating parameters
subject to the condition that TL has the right to check
listed below for the various loading points are to be
manufacture and quality assurance at any time and to
measured and recorded at regular intervals:
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-38
E
have random rechecks carried out to ensure that the
shall indicate the requirements and the actual values of
requirements stated in 4.2.2 are being observed. TL is
the
to be allowed access to all necessary documents.
composition of the material. It must be possible to
mechanical
characteristics
and
chemical
identify the components by reference to the Works
4.2.5
Period of validity
Certificates.
4.2.5.1
TL issues a Certificate with an approval
4.3.1.3
The engine
manufacturer
is
required
to
number attesting approval as a supplier of mass
guarantee that the spares and reserve parts subject to
produced engines. The approval is valid for 6 years
compulsory inspection under TL Rules conform to the
from date of issue and is based on the manufacturing
current Rules. The manufacturer has to mark the parts
and quality assurance procedures existing at the time of
so that they can be recognized as original spares.
the approval test.
Stamping of individual components by TL is not
required.
Validity may be renewed on application by the engine
manufacturer.
4.3.2. Bench tests
The engine manufacturer is obliged to notify
4.3.2.1 Each engine to be supplied with TL Class is to
TL of any significant design or functional changes as
be subjected to a bench test of the following scope
well as of all changes in operating characteristics. TL
under
will decide whether any supplementary tests additional
consent.
4.2.5.2
TL's
supervision.
Exceptions
require
TL's
to the type test need to be performed for maintenance
of the awarded approval.
4.2.5.3
4.3.2.2 Scope of works trials
TL reserve the right to restrict or withdraw
For all stages, the engine is going to be tested, the
approval and to demand an inspection of individual
pertaining operation values are to be measured and
components under its supervision should the conditions
recorded by the engine manufacturer. All results are to
necessary to approval be infringed by deficiencies in the
be compiled in an acceptance protocol to be issued by
manufacturer's quality assurance procedures or by
the engine manufacturer. The measurements shall in
defects affecting the engines.
every case only be performed when steady state
operation has been achieved. The readings for 100 %
4.3.
Testing
of
Mass
Produced
Engines
in
power (rated power at rated speed) are to be taken
Manufacturer's Works
twice at an interval of at least 30 minutes.
Engines for which a mass production approval has
4.3.2.2.1 Main engines for direct propeller drive
been issued and which are to be supplied with TL
Class are subject to the following requirements:
a)
100 % power (rated power) at 100 % speed
(rated speed) 60 minutes
4.3.1
Component tests
b)
4.3.1.1
inspection
All
components
under
TL
subject
Rules
are
to
compulsory
tested
by
the
110 % power at 103,2 % of the rated speed 45
minutes
Note:
manufacturer and marked with evidence of the tests
After running on test-bed, the power is normally limited to the
applied. Stamping of individual components by TL is not
rated power (100 % power), so that overload power cannot
required.
be given in service.
4.3.1.2 For tests on the materials of crankshaft and
c)
connecting
rods,
Acceptance
Test
nominal propeller curve
Certificates
(according to DIN 50 049 - 3.1.B) completed by the
90 %, 75 %, 50 %, 25 % power according to the
d)
determination
works are to be presented to the TL Surveyor which
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
of
minimum
on-load
speed
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
E
e)
starting and reversing manoeuvres, governor
–
test, testing of overspeed protection device
4.3.2.2.2 Main engines for electrical propeller drive
2-39
Works Test Certificates for:
–
testing of crankshaft material
–
testing of connecting rod material for engines
with
a
cylinder
bore
of
>
150
mm
The test is to be performed at rated speed with a
constant
governor
setting
under
the
following
– important attachments where demanded by
conditions:
the Surveyor
a)
100 % power (rated power) 60 minutes
4.3.4. Engine stamping
b)
110 % power 45 minutes
On completion of the tests, a TL Test Certificate
indicating the mass produced engine approval number
Note
is issued for each mass produced engine. Each engine
After running on test-bed, the power of diese engines driving
is stamped with the TL Test Certificate number, the test
generators must be adjusted such that overload power (110 %
date (month and year), the TL anchor stamp and the
power) can be given in service after installation on board, so
approval symbol "S".
that the governing characteristics including the activation of
generator protective devices can be fulfilled at all times.
c)
75 %, 50 % and 25 % power as well as idling
d)
starting tests and governor test, testing of
Example of stamping on a mass produced engine:
overspeed protection device
4.3.2.2.3 Auxiliary driving engines and the prime
4.4
Compliance and inspection certificate
movers of electric generators
For every engine liable to be installed on a ship classed
The scope of the tests as specified in 2.2.2.
by the Classification Society, the manufacturer is to
supply a statement certifying that the engine is identical
4.3.2.3 TL reserve the right to demand a special test
program according to the character of the installation.
4.3.2.4 For main engines and the prime movers of
electric generators the rated power is to be verified as
minimum power.
to the one which underwent the tests specified in 4.2.3
and give the inspection and test result. This statement is
to be made on a form agreed with TL. Each statement
bears a number which is to appear on the engine. A
copy of this statement is to be sent to TL.
5.
Works Trials
On occasion of the bench test the engine manufacturer
5.1
In general, engines are to be subjected to
has to present to the TL Surveyor the following
trials on the test bed at the manufacturer's works.
4.3.3. Engine documents to be submitted
documents:
3
For engines with cylinder volume ≤ 0,05 m , the tests
–
The engine manufacturer's confirmation that the
may be performed by the TL approved manufacturer.
engine presented for Classification meets the
engine manufacturer's quality requirements on
For TL Engine Test Certificate, the TL Approved
which the TL approval as supplier of mass
Manufacturer is to submit test reports to TL.
produced engines is based.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-40
5.2.1.4
3
For engines with cylinder volume > 0,05 m , the tests
E
Starting and reversing manoeuvres (see
H.2.4);
shall be performed under TL’s supervision.
5.2.1.5
The scope of these trials shall be as specified below.
Test of governor and independent over
speed protection device;
Omission or simplification of the type test may be
considered for engines of well known type.
5.2.1.6
Test of engine shutdown devices.
Exceptions to this require the agreement of TL.
5.2.2
Main engines for electrical propeller drive
5.2
The test is to be performed at rated speed with a
Scope of works trials
constant governor setting under conditions of:
During the trials the operating values corresponding to
each load point are to be measured and recorded by the
5.2.2.1
100% power (rated power):
engine manufacturer. All the results are to be compiled
in an acceptance protocol to be issued by the engine
for at least 60 minutes after reaching the
manufacturer.
steady-state condition;
In each case all measurements conducted at the
5.2.2.2
110% power:
various load points shall be carried out under steady
operating conditions. The readings for 100% power
for 30 minutes after reaching the steady-state
(rated power at rated speed) are to be taken twice at an
condition;
interval of at least 30 minutes.
Note:
5.2.1
Main engines for direct propeller drive
After the test bed trials the output of engines driving
generators is to be so adjusted that overload (110%) power
The load points have to be adjusted according to 5.2.1.1
can be supplied in service after installation on board in such
÷ 5.2.1.5, functional test have to be performed
a way that the governing characteristics and the requirements
according to 5.2.1.4 ÷ 5.2.1.6.
of the generator protection devices can be fulfilled at all
times (see A.2.2.4).
5.2.1.1
100% power (rated power) at 100% engine
speed (rated engine speed):
5.2.2.3
75%, 50% and 25% power and idle run;
for at least 60 minutes after reaching the steady-state
5.2.2.4
Start-up tests (see H.2.4);
5.2.2.5
Test of governor and independent over
condition
5.2.1.2 110% power at 103 % rated engine speed for
speed protection device;
30 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition:
5.2.2.6
Test of engine shutdown devices.
After the test bed trials the output shall normally be limited to
5.2.3
Auxiliary driving engines and engines
the rated power (100% power) so that the engine cannot be
driving electric generators
Note:
overloaded in service (see A.2.2.3).
The scope of tests has to be performed according to
5.2.1.3
90% (or normal continuous cruise power),
5.2.2.
75%, 50% and 25% power in accordance with the
nominal propeller curve;
For testing of diesel generator sets, see also the TL
Rules for Electrical Installations.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
E
5.3
Depending on the type of plant concerned,
TL reserves the right to call for a special test schedule.
2-41
6.1.1.5 In reverse direction of propeller rotation during
the dock or sea trials at a minimum speed of %70 rated
engine speed : 10 minutes;
5.4
In the case of engines driving electrical
generators, the rated power as specified by the
6.1.1.6
Test of the monitoring and safety systems.
6.1.2
Main
manufacturer is to be verified as minimum power.
5.5
propulsion
engines
driving
controllable pitch propellers or reversing gears
Integration tests
For electronically controlled diesel engines integration
tests shall be conducted to demonstrate that the
response of the complete mechanical, hydraulic and
electronic system is as predicted for all intended
6.1.1 applies as appropriate.
Controllable pitch propellers are to be tested with
various propeller pitches. Where provision is made
for operating in a combinatory mode, the combinatory
operational modes. The scope of these tests shall be
curves
proposed by the manufacturer/licensor based on the
measurements.
are
to
be
plotted
and
verified
by
generators
for
FMEA required in Table 2.1 and agreed by TL.
6.1.3
5.6
Main
engines
driving
propulsion
Component inspection
After the test run randomly selected components shall
The tests are to be performed at rated speed with a
be presented for inspection
constant governor setting under conditions of
The crankshaft web deflection is to be checked
6.1.3.1
6.
Shipboard Trials (Dock and Sea Trials)
After the conclusion of the running-in programme
100% power (rated propulsion power)
For at least 4 hours and at normal continuous cruise
propulsion power at least 2 hours.
6.1.3.2
110% power (rated propulsion power)
prescribed by the engine manufacturer engines are to
undergo the trials specified below.
For 30 minutes;
6.1
6.1.3.3
Scope of trials
In reverse direction of propeller rotation at a
minimum speed of 70 % of the nominal propeller speed
6.1.1
Main propulsion engines driving fixed
propellers
For 10 minutes;
The trials have to be carried out as follows:
6.1.3.4
Starting manoeuvres (see H.2.4);
6.1.3.5
Testing of the monitoring and safety systems.
6.1.1.1
At rated engine speed: for at least 4 hours
and at engine speed corresponding to normal cruise
power for at least 2 hours;
Note:
Tests are to be based on the rated electrical powers of the
electric propulsion motors.
6.1.1.2
At 103% rated engine speed for 30 minutes,
where the engine adjustment permits (see A.2.2.3);
6.1.4
Engines driving auxiliaries and electrical
generators
6.1.1.3
Determination
of
the
minimum
on-load
These engines are to be subjected to an operational
speed;
test for at least four hours. During the test the set
6.1.1.4
H.2.4);
Starting and reversing manoeuvres (see
concerned is required to operate at its power for an
extended period.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-42
E,F
In addition to the normal governor, each main
It is to be demonstrated that the engine is capable of
1.1.2
supplying 110% of its rated power, and in the case of
engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over which can
shipboard generating sets account shall be taken of the
be declutched in service or which drives a variable-pitch
times needed to actuate the generator's overload
propeller must be fitted with an independent over speed
protection system.
protection device so adjusted that the engine speed
cannot exceed the rated speed by more than 20%.
The ability of the machinery to reverse the
6.1.5
direction of thrust of the propeller in sufficient time, and
Equivalent equipment may be approved by TL.
so to bring the ship to rest within a reasonable distance
from
maximum
ahead
service
speed,
shall
be
1.2
Engines driving electric generators
1.2.1
Each diesel engine used to drive an electric
demonstrated and recorded.
6.1.6
The stopping times, ship headings and
main or emergency generator must be fitted with a
distances recorded on trials, together with the results
governor
of trials to determine the ability of ships having
variations in the electrical network in excess of ±10% of
which
will
prevent
transient
frequency
multiple propellers to navigate and manoeuvre with
the rated frequency with a recovery time to steady state
one or more propellers inoperative, shall be available
conditions not exceeding 5 seconds when the maximum
on board for the use of the master or designated
electrical step load is switched on or off.
personnel.
In the case when a step load equivalent to the rated
The suitability of main and auxiliary engines
output of the generator is switched off, a transient speed
to burn residual oils or other special fuels is to be
variation in excess of 10% of the rated speed may be
demonstrated if the machinery installation is designed to
acceptable, provided this does not cause the intervention
burn such fuels.
of the overspeed device as required by 1.1.1.
6.2
6.3
extended
The scope of the shipboard trials may be
in
consideration
of
special
operating
conditions such as towing, trawling, etc.
In addition to the normal governor, each
1.2.2
diesel engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over
must be equipped with an over speed protection device
independent of the normal governor which prevents the
6.4
engine speed from exceeding the rated speed by more
Earthing
than 15%.
It is necessary to ensure that the limits specified for
The diesel engine must be suitable and
main engines by the engine manufacturers for the
1.2.3
difference in electrical potential (Voltage) between the
designed for the special requirements of the ship's
crankshaft/shafting and the hull are not exceeded in
electrical system.
service. Appropriate earthing devices including limit
value monitoring of the permitted voltage potential are
Where connection of loads is envisaged in two stages,
to be provided.
the following procedure is to be applied: Sudden loading
from no-load to 50%, followed by the remaining 50% of
the
rated
generator
power,
duly
observing
the
F.
Safety Devices
requirements of 1.2.1 and 1.2.4.
1.
Speed Control and Engine Protection
Application of the load in more than two steps (see
Against Over speed
Fig.2.16) is acceptable on condition that:
1.1
-
Main and auxiliary engines
The design of the ship's electrical system
enables the use of such generator sets;
1.1.1
Each diesel engine not used to drive an
electric generator must be equipped with a speed
-
Load application in more than two steps is
governor or regulator so adjusted that the engine
considered in the design of the ship's electrical
speed cannot exceed the rated speed by more than
system and is approved when the drawings are
15%.
reviewed;
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
F
-
During shipboard trials the functional tests
2-43
The governors of the engines mentioned in
1.2.8
are carried out without objections. Here the loading of
1.2 must enable the rated speed to be adjusted over the
the ship’s electrical net while sequentially connecting
entire power range with a maximum deviation of 5%.
essential equipment after breakdown
and during
recovery of the net is to be taken into account.
-
The safety of the ship's electrical system in
the event of parallel generator operation
and failure
of a
generator is
to
be
demonstrated.
1.2.4
The rate of speed variation of the adjusting
1.2.9
mechanisms must permit satisfactory synchronization in
a sufficiently short time.
The speed characteristic should be as linear as possible
over the whole power range. The permanent deviation
Speed must be stabilized and in steady-state
condition within 5 seconds, inside the permissible range
from the theoretical linearity of the speed characteristic
for the permanent speed variation δr. The steady-state
may, in the case of generating sets intended for parallel
condition is considered to have been reached when the
operation, in no range exceed 1% of the rated speed.
residual speed variation does not exceed  1 % of the
speed associated with the set power.
1.2.10
For a.c. generating sets operating in parallel,
the governing characteristics of the prime movers shall
1.2.5
The characteristic curves of the governors of
diesel engines of generator sets operating in parallel
must not exhibit deviations larger than those specified in
the Rules for Electrical Installation.
Generator sets which are installed to serve
stand-by
circuits
satisfy
load the load on any generating set will not normally
differ from its proportionate share of the total load by
more than 15% of the rated power of the largest
1.2.6
must
be such that within the limits of 20% and 100% total
the
corresponding
machine or 25% of the rated power of the individual
machine in question, whichever is the less.
requirements even when the engine is cold. The startup and loading sequence is to be concluded in about 30
For an a.c. generating set intended to operate in
seconds.
parallel, facilities are to be provided to adjust the
governor sufficiently fine to permit an adjustment of
1.2.7
Emergency generator sets must satisfy the
above governor conditions even when:
-
Their
total
consumer
frequency.
load
is
applied
suddenly, or
-
load not exceeding 5% of the rated load at normal
Notes relating to 1.1 and 1.2:
-
relate to the conditions under which the engines are
Their total consumer load is applied in steps,
operated in the system concerned.
subject to:
-
The total load is supplied within 45 seconds
-
-
An independent over speed protection device means a
system all of whose component parts, including the
since power failure on the main switchboard
-
The rated power and the corresponding rated speed
drive, function independently of the normal governor.
The maximum step load is declared and
demonstrated
1.3
Use of electrical / electronic governors
The power distribution system is designed
1.3.1
The governor and the associated actuator
such that the declared maximum step loading
must, for controlling the respective engine, be suitable
is not exceeded
for
the
operating
conditions
laid
down
in
the
Construction Rules and for the requirements specified
-
The compliance of time delays and loading
sequence
with
the
above
demonstrated at ship’s trials.
is
to
be
by the engine manufacturer. For single propulsion
drives it has to be ensured that in case of a failure of the
governor or actuator the control of the engine can be
taken over by another control device.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-44
F
Fig. 2.16 Limiting curves for loading 4-stroke diesel engine step by step from no
load to rated power as function of the brake mean effective pressure
The regulating conditions required for each individual
-
There is a redundant governor assembly for
application as described in 1.1 and 1.2 are to be
manual
satisfied by the governor system.
protected power supply, or,
Electronic governors and the associated actuators are
-
subject to type testing.
change-over
with
a
separately
The engine has a manually operated fuel
admission
control
system
suitable
for
manoeuvring.
For the power supply, see the Rules for Electrical
In the event of a fault in the governor system the
Installation, Section 9, B.8.
operating condition of the engine must not become
1.3.2
Requirements applying to main engines
dangerous, that is, the engine speed and power must
not increase.
For propulsion installations, to ensure continuous speed
control or immediate resumption of control after a fault
at least one of the following requirements is to be
Alarms to indicate faults in the governor system are to
be fitted.
satisfied:
1.3.3
-
The governor system has an independent
back-up system, or,
Requirements
applying
to
auxiliary
engines for driving generators
Each auxiliary engine must be equipped with its own
governor system.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
F
2-45
In the event of a fault in the governor system, the fuel
3.2.4
admission in the injection pumps must be set to "0".
lubricating oil vapours from the crankcase must not be
Alarms to indicate faults in the governor system are to
admitted into the scavenge manifolds respectively the
be fitted.
air intake pipes of the engine.
In the case of two-stroke engines the
4.
Crankcase Safety Devices
observed (see TL Rules for Electrical Installation).
4.1
Relief valves
2.
4.1.1
Crank safety case devices shall be type
1.3.4
The special conditions necessary to start
operation from the dead ship condition are to be
Cylinder Overpressure Warning Device
approved. See TL “Type Testing Procedure for
2.1
All the cylinders of engines with a cylinder
Crankcase Explosion Relief Valves”.
bore of > 230 mm. are to be fitted with cylinder
Safety
valves
to
safeguard
against
overpressure warning devices. The response threshold
4.1.2
of these valves shall be set at not more than 40% above
overpressure in the crankcase are to be fitted to all
the combustion pressure at the rated power.
engines with a cylinder bore of > 200 mm. or a
2.2
3
crankcase volume of ≥ 0.6 m .
A warning device may be dispensed with if it
is ensured by an appropriate engine design or by
control functions that an increased cylinder pressure
cannot create danger.
All separated spaces within the crankcase, e.g. gear or
chain casings for camshafts or similar drives, if the
3
volume of these spaces exceeds 0.6 m , and scavenge
spaces in open connection to the cylinders are to be
equipped with additional safety devices.
3.
Crankcase Ventilation
3.1
The ventilation of crankcases and any
arrangement which could produce air intake within the
crankcase is not allowed. For gas engines, see TL Part
C, Chapter 10 – Liquefied Gas Carriers, Section 16.
4.1.3
Engines with a cylinder bore of > 200 mm.
≤250 mm. must be equipped with at least one safety
valve at each end of the crankcase. If the crankshaft
has more than 8 throws, an additional safety valve is to
be fitted near the middle of the crankcase.
3.2
Crankcase ventilation pipes
Engines with a cylinder bore of > 250 mm. ≤ 300 mm.
are
must have at least one safety valve close to every
provided, their clear opening is to be dimensioned as
second crank throw, subject to a minimum number of
small as possible, to minimize the inrush of air after a
two.
3.2.1
Where
crankcase
ventilation
pipes
crankcase explosion.
Engines with a cylinder diameter of > 300 mm. must
3.2.2
Where forced provision has been made for
extracting the lubricating oil vapours, e.g. for monitoring
have at least one safety valve close to each crank
throw.
the oil vapour concentration, the vacuum in the
4.1.4
crankcase is not to exceed 2.5 mbar.
Each safety valve must have a free relief area
of at least 45 cm2.
3.2.3
The crankcase ventilation pipes for each
engine are to be independent of any other engine.
The total free cross-sectional area of the safety valves
Exemptions may be approved if an interaction of the
fitted to an engine to safeguard against overpressure in
combined systems is inhibited by suitable means and
the crankcase may not be less than 115 cm2/m3 of
possible spread of fire is prevented.
crankcase volume.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-46
-
Relief area,
-
Month/year of manufacture,
-
Approved installation orientation.
4.2
Crankcase doors and sight holes
calculating the total free cross-sectional area,
4.2.1
Crankcase doors and their fittings shall be so
individual sections of < 45 cm2 are to be disregarded.
dimensioned as not to suffer permanent deformation
Notes relating to 4.1.2 and 4.1.4:
-
F
In estimating the gross volume of the crankcase, the
volume of the fixed parts which it contains may be
deducted.
-
A space communicating with the crankcase via a total
free cross-sectional area of > 115 cm2/m3 of volume
need not be considered as a separate space. In
due to the overpressure occurring during the response
-
Each safety valve required may be replaced by not
of the safety equipment. Crankcase doors are to be
more than two safety valves of smaller cross-sectional
fastened sufficiently securely for them not be readily
area provided that the free cross-sectional area of
displaced by a crankcase explosion.
2
each safety valve is not less than 45 cm .
4.2.2
4.1.5
The safety devices are to be quick acting and
self closing devices to relief a crankcase of pressure at
Crankcase doors and hinged inspection ports
are to be equipped with appropriate latches to
effectively prevent unintended closing.
a crankcase explosion. In service they shall be oil tight
A warning notice is to be fitted either on the
when closed and have to prevent air inrush into the
4.2.3
crankcase. The gas flow caused by the response of the
control stand or, preferably, on a crankcase door on
safety device must be deflected, e. g. by means of a
baffle plate, in such a way as not to endanger persons
standing nearby. Is has to be demonstrated that the
baffle plate does not adversely affect the operational
effectiveness of the device. For relief valves the discs
are to be made of ductile material capable of
withstanding the shock load at the full open position of
each side of the engine. The warning notice is to specify
that whenever overheating is suspected within the
crankcase, the crankcase doors or sight holes are not to
be opened before a reasonable time, sufficient to permit
adequate cooling after stopping the engine.
4.3
Oil mist detection/monitoring and alarm
system (Oil mist detector)
the valve.
4.3.1
Engines with a cylinder diameter > 300 mm
Relief valves shall be fully opened at a differential
or a rated power of 2250 kW and above are to be
pressure in the crankcase not greater than 0.2 bar.
fitted with crankcase oil mist detectors or engine
bearing
temperature
monitors
(all
bearings
i.e.
The relief valves are to be provided with a
journal and connecting rod bearings) or equivalent
flame arrester that permits crankcase pressure relief
devices (See also UI SC228). The oil mist detectors
and prevents passage of flame following a crankcase
are to be type tested in accordance with Type Testing
explosion.
Procedure for Crankcase Oil Mist Detection and
4.1.6
Alarm Equipment.
4.1.7
suitable
Safety devices are to be provided with
markings
that
include
the
following
Engine bearing temperature monitors or equivalent
devices used as safety devices have to be of a type
information:
-
Name and address of manufacturer,
-
Designation and size,
approved by TL for such purposes.
Measures applied to high speed engines where specific
design features to preclude the risk of crankcase
explosions are incorporated, can be accepted by TL as
equivalent device.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
F
4.3.2
For multiple engine installations each engine
4.3.11
2-47
Plans of showing details and arrangements
is to be provided with a separate oil mist detector and a
of the oil mist detector are to be submitted for
dedicated alarm.
approval.
4.3.3
The following particulars are to be included in the
Oil mist detectors are to be type approved.
Oil mist detection arrangements are to be tested in
accordance
with
“Type
Testing
Procedure
documentation:
for
Crankcase Oil Mist Detection and Alarm Equipment”
-
Schematic
detector
and comply with 4.3.2 to 4.3.13.
layout
crankcase
sample
engine
oil
mist
location
of
engine
points
and
piping
arrangement together with pipe dimensions
Alarms and shutdowns for the oil mist detection system
to detector/monitor.
are to be in accordance with Chapter 4-1 - Automation,
Section 4 and Section 8, also Table 2.9 and the system
of
showing
-
Evidence of study to justify the selected
arrangements are to comply with Chapter 4-1 -
location
Automation.
extraction rate (if applicable) in consideration
of
sample
points
and
sample
of the crankcase arrangements and geometry
4.3.4
The oil mist detector is to be installed in
and the predicted crankcase atmosphere
where oil mist can accumulate.
accordance with the engine designer’s and the system
manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations.
4.3.5
Function tests and equipment together with
detectors to demonstrate that the detection and alarm
system functionally operates are to be performed on the
engine test bed at manufacturer’s workshop and on
board under the conditions of "engine at standstill" and
"engine running at normal operating conditions" in
accordance with test procedures to be agreed with TL.
4.3.6
Alarms and shutdowns for the detector are to
be in accordance with Table 2.9.
4.3.7
Functional failures
equipment are to be alarmed.
at
the
devices
and
-
Maintenance and test manuals
-
Information about type approval of the
detection/monitoring system or functional
tests at the particular engine
4.3.12
A copy of the documentation supplied with
the system such as maintenance and test manuals are
to be provided on board ship.
4.3.13
The readings and the alarm information from
the oil mist detector are to be capable of being read
from a safe location away from the engine.
4.3.8
The oil mist detector has to indicate that the
Where alternative methods are provided for
installed lens, which is used in determination of the oil
4.3.14
mist concentration has been partly obscured to a
the prevention of build-up a potentially explosive
degree that will affect the reliability of the information
condition within the crankcase (independent of the
and alarm indication.
reason, e.g. oil mist, gas, hot spots, etc.), details are to
be submitted for consideration of TL. The following
4.3.9
Where the detector includes the use of
programmable electronic systems, the arrangements
information is to be included in the details to be
submitted for approval:
are in accordance with the requirements of TL Rules for
Electrical Installations, Section 10.
-
Engine particulars - type, power, speed,
stroke, bore and crankcase volume (including
4.3.10
Where
sequential
oil
mist
detection
/
volumes of all divisions integrated with
monitoring arrangements are provided, the sampling
crankcase, if existing),
frequency and time are to be as short as reasonably
practicable.
-
Details of arrangements preventing the buildup of potentially explosive conditions within the
crankcase,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
e.g.
bearing
temperature
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-48
monitoring, oil splash temperature, crankcase
pressure
monitoring,
arrangements,
crankcase
4.8 Where it is proposed to use the introduction of inert
recirculation
gas into the crankcase to minimise a potential
atmosphere
crankcase explosion, details of the arrangements
are to be submitted to TL for consideration.
monitoring,
-
Evidence that the arrangements are effective in
preventing the build-up of potentially explosive
conditions together with details of in service
experience
-
5.
Safety Devices in the Starting Air System
The following equipment is to be fitted to safeguard
starting air system against explosions due to failure of
starting valves:
Operating instructions and maintenance and
test instructions
4.4
F,G
5.1
An isolation non-return valve is to be fitted to
the starting air line serving each engine.
Active safety measures where it is proposed
to use alternative active technologies to minimise the
5.2
Engines with cylinder bores of > 230 mm. are
to be equipped with flame arresters as follows:
risk for a potential crankcase explosion, details of the
arrangement and the function description are to be
-
front of the start-up valve of each cylinder;
submitted to TL for approval.
4.5
Crankcase safety devices have to be type
-
to each engine.
Plans showing details and arrangements of
safety devices are to be submitted for approval.
4.7
On non-reversible engines, immediately in
front of the intake of the main starting air line
approved.
4.6
On directly reversible engines immediately in
5.3
Equivalent safety devices may be approved
by TL.
Safety devices are to be provided with a copy
6.
Safety Devices in the Lubricating Oil System
manufacturer’s installation and maintenance manual
that is pertinent to the size and type of valve being
Each engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over is to
supplied for installation on a particular engine. The
be fitted with devices which automatically shut down the
engine in the event of failure of the lubricating oil supply.
manual is to contain the following information:
-
This is not valid for engines serving solely for the drive
Description of valve with details of function
of emergency generator sets and emergency fire
pumps. For these engines an alarm has to be provided.
and design limits.
7.
-
Safety Devices in Scavenging Air Ducts
Copy of type test certification.
For two-stroke engines scavenging air ducts are to be
protected against overpressure by safety valves.
-
Installation instructions.
-
Maintenance in service instructions to include
G.
Auxiliary Systems
arrangements.
1.
General
Actions required after a crankcase explosion.
For piping systems and accessory filter arrangements
testing
-
and
renewal
of
any
sealing
Section 16 is to be applied, additionally.
A copy of this manual is to be kept on board of the ship.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
G
2.
Fuel Oil System
2.1
General
shielded.
2.1.1
Only pipe connections with metal sealing
2.2.3
2.2.2
2-49
If pressure variations of > 20 bar occur in fuel
feed and return lines, these lines are also to be
surfaces or equivalent pipe connections of approved
The high pressure fuel pipe and the outer
jacket pipe have to be permanent assembly.
design may be used for fuel injection lines.
2.1.2
Feed and return lines are to be designed in
such a way that no unacceptable pressure surges occur
in the fuel supply system. Where necessary, the
engines are to be fitted with surge dampers approved
by TL.
2.1.3
All components of the fuel system are to be
designed to withstand the maximum peak pressures
which will be expected in the system.
2.1.4
If fuel oil reservoirs or dampers with a limited
life cycle are fitted in the fuel oil system the life cycle
together with overhaul instructions is to be specified by
the engine manufacturer in the corresponding manuals.
2.1.5
Oil fuel lines are not to be located immediately
above or near units of high temperature, steam pipelines,
exhaust manifolds, silencers or other equipment required
to be insulated by 7.1. as for as practicable, oil fuel lines
are to be arranged far apart from hot surfaces, electrical
installations or other potential sources of ignition and are
to be screened or otherwise suitably protected to avoid
oil spray or oil leakage onto the sources of ignition. The
number of joints in such piping systems are to be kept to
a minimum.
2.2.4
provided as shielding, the hoses must be suitable for
this purpose and approved by TL.
2.3
Shielding
2.2.1
Regardless of the intended use and location
Fuel leak drainage
Appropriate design measures are to be introduced to
ensure generally that leaking fuel is drained efficiently
and cannot enter into the engine lube oil system.
2.4
Heating, thermal insulation, re-circulation
Fuel lines, including fuel injection lines, to engines
which are operated with preheated fuel are to be
insulated against heat losses and, as far as necessary,
provided with heating.
Means of fuel circulation are also to be provided.
2.5
Fuel oil emulsions
For engines operated on emulsion of fuel oil and other
liquids, it has to be ensured that engine operation can
be resumed after failures to the fuel oil treatment
system.
3.
2.2
Where, pipe sheaths in the form of hoses are
Filter Arrangements for Fuel Oil and
Lubricating Oil Systems
of internal combustion engines, all external fuel injection
lines (high pressure lines between injection pumps and
injection valves) are to be shielded by jacket pipes in
such a way that any leaking fuel is:
3.1
mounted directly on the engine are not to be located
above rotating parts or in the immediate proximity of hot
components.
3.2
-
Safely collected,
-
Drained away unpressurized, and
-
Efficiently monitored and alarmed.
Fuel and lubricating oil filters which are to be
Where the arrangement stated in 3.1 is
unfeasible, the rotating parts and the hot components
are to be sufficiently shielded.
3.3
Filters have to be so arranged that fluid
residues can be collected by adequate means. The
same applies to lubricating oil filters if oil can escape
when the filter is opened.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-50
3.4
Switch-over filters with two or more filter
chambers are to be fitted with devices which safely
ensure a relief of pressure before opening and venting
when a chamber is placed in service. Shutoff valves
shall normally be used for this purpose. It must be
4.2
The
equipment
G
of
engines
fitted
with
lubricating oil pumps is subject to Section 16, H.3.
4.2.1
Main lubricating oil pumps driven by the
engine are to be designed to maintain the supply of
lubricating oil over the entire operating range
clearly discernible which filter chambers are in service
and which are out of operation at any time.
4.2.2
Main engines which drive main lubricating oil
pumps are to be equipped with independently driven
3.5
Oil filters fitted parallel for the purpose of
stand-by pumps.
enabling cleaning without disturbing oil supply to
engines (e.g. duplex filters) are to be provided with
4.2.3
arrangements that will minimize the possibility of a filter
lubricating oil systems approval may be given for the
under pressure being opened by mistake. Filters/ filter
carriage on board of reserve pumps ready for mounting
chambers shall be provided with suitable means for:
provided that the arrangement of the main lubricating oil
In multi-engine installations having separate
pumps enables the change to be made with the means
-
Venting when put into operation.
available on board.
-
Depressurizing before being opened.
4.2.4
Lubricating oil systems for cylinder lubrication
which are necessary for the operation of the engine and
Valves or cocks with drain pipes led to a safe location
which are equipped with electronic dosing units have to
shall be used for this purpose.
be approved by TL.
For oil filters of generator diesel engines for ships with
5.
Cooling System
5.1
For the equipment of engines with cooling
more than a single generator set, requirements in
Section 16, H-3.4.1 may be applied.
water pumps and for the design of cooling water
3.6
For filters, requirements in Section 14 shall
be taken into consideration.
systems, see Section 16, I and K.
5.1.1
4.
Lubricating Oil System
4.1
General requirements relating to lubricating
Main cooling water pumps driven by the
engine are to be designed to maintain the supply of
cooling water over the entire operating range.
oil systems and to the cleaning, cooling etc. of the
5.1.2
lubricating oil are contained in Section 16, H. For piping
pumps are to be equipped with independently driven
arrangement 2.1.3 is to be applied.
stand-by pumps or with means for connecting the
Main engines which drive main cooling water
cooling water system to independently driven stand-by
4.1.1
Engines whose sumps serve as oil reservoirs
pumps.
must be so equipped that the oil level can be
established and, if necessary, topped up during
5.1.3
operation. Means must be provided for completely
main engine and with separate fresh cooling water
draining the oil sump.
systems approval may be given for the carriage on
In installations comprising more than one
board of reserve pumps ready for mounting provided
4.1.2
The oil drain pipes for each engine are to be
independent of any other engine.
that the arrangement of the main fresh cooling water
pumps enables the change to be made with the means
available on board. Shutoff valves must be provided
4.1.3
Drain lines from the engine sump to the drain
tank are to be submerged at their outlet ends.
enabling the main pumps to be isolated from the fresh
cooling water system.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
G,H
5.2
If cooling air is drawn from the engine room,
2-51
Means are to be provided for regulating the
6.2.2
the design of the cooling system is to be based on a
temperature of the charge air within the temperature
room temperature of at least 45°C.
range specified by the engine manufacturer.
The exhaust air of air-cooled engines may not cause
6.2.3
any unacceptable heating of the spaces in which the
air coolers are to be provided with sufficient means of
plant is installed. The exhaust air is normally to be led to
drainage.
The charge air lines of engines with charge
the open air through special ducts.
6.3
5.3
Where engines are installed in spaces which
oil-firing equipment is operated, Section 15, A.5. is also
The charge air receivers of crosshead engines which
have open connection to the cylinders are to be
to be complied with.
connected to an approved fire extinguishing system
which
6.
Charge Air System
6.1
Exhaust gas turbochargers
6.1.1
Fire extinguishing equipment
is
independent
of
the
engine
room
fire
extinguishing system. (See Section 18, Table 18.2)
7.
Exhaust Gas Lines
7.1
Exhaust gas lines are to be insulated and/or
The construction and testing of exhaust gas
turbochargers are subject to Section 4.
cooled in such a way that the surface temperature
6.1.2
Exhaust gas turbochargers may exhibit no
critical speed ranges over the entire operating range of
cannot exceed 220°C at any point.
Insulating materials must be non-combustible.
the engine.
7.2
6.1.3
The lubricating oil supply must also be
General rules relating to exhaust gas lines
are contained in Section 16, M.
ensured during start-up and run-down of the exhaust
gas turbochargers.
6.1.4
Even at low engine speeds, main engines
must be supplied with charge air in a manner to ensure
reliable operation.
H.
Starting Equipment
1.
General
Where necessary, two-stroke engines are to be
Engine starting equipment shall enable engines to be
equipped
started up from "dead ship" condition according to
with
directly
or
independently
driven
Section 1, D.10.1 using only the means available on
scavenging air blowers.
board.
6.1.5
If, in the lower speed range or when used for
manoeuvring, an engine can be operated only with a
2.
Starting With Compressed Air
stand-by charge air blower is to be installed or an
2.1
Main
equivalent device of approved design.
compressed air are to be equipped with at least two
charge air blower driven independently of the engine, as
6.1.6
With main engines emergency operation must
be possible in the event of a turbocharger failure.
which
are
started
with
starting air compressors. At least one of the air
compressors must be driven independently of the main
engine and must supply at least 50% of the total
capacity.
6.2
Charge air cooling
6.2.1
The construction and testing of charge air
coolers are subject to Section 14.
engines
2.2
The
total
capacity
of
the
starting
air
compressors is to be such that the starting air receivers
designed in accordance with 2.4 or 2.5, as applicable,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-52
H
can be charged from atmospheric pressure to their final
2.9
pressure within one hour.
fed by one receiver, it is to be ensured that the receiver
If starting air systems of different engines are
air pressure cannot fall below the highest of the different
Normally, compressors of equal capacity are to be
systems minimum starting air pressures.
installed. This does not apply to an emergency air
compressor which may be provided to meet the
2.10
Calculation of starting air capacity
2.10.1
Calculation of starting air capacity for
requirement stated in H.1.
2.3
If
the
main
engine
is
started
with
installations with reversible engines
compressed air, the available starting air is to be
divided between at least two starting air receivers of
Assuming an initial pressure of 30 bar and a final
approximately
pressure of 9 bar in the starting air receivers, the
equal
size
which
can
be
used
preliminary calculation of the starting air supply for a
independently of each other.
reversible main engine may be performed as follows:
2.4
The total capacity of air receivers is to be
sufficient to provide, without their being replenished, not
J  a 3
less than 12 consecutive starts alternating between
Ahead and Astern of each main engine of the reversible
type, and not less than six starts of each main nonreversible type engine connected to a controllable pitch


H
 z  b  p e, e  n A  0.9  Vh  c
D
J
3
= Total capacity of the starting air receivers [dm ],
D
= Cylinder bore [mm],
H
= Stroke [mm],
Vh
= Swept volume of one cylinder (in the case of
double-acting engines, the swept volume of
3
the upper portion of the cylinder) [dm ],
pe,zul
= Maximum permissible working pressure of
the starting air receiver [bar],
z
= Number of cylinders [–],
propeller or other device enabling the start without
opposite torque.
2.5
With multi-engine installations the number of
start-up operations per engine may, with TL agreement,
be reduced according to the concept of the propulsion
plant.
2.6
If starting air systems for auxiliaries or for
supplying
pneumatically
operated
regulating
and
manoeuvring equipment or tyfon units are to be fed from
the main starting air receivers, due attention is to be
pe,e =
paid to the air consumption of this equipment when
calculating the capacity of the main starting air
receivers.
2.7
Mean effective working pressure in cylinder at
rated power [bar].
The following values of "a" are to be used:
a = 0.4714
for two-stroke engines:
a = 0.4190
for four-stroke engines:
Other consumers with a high air consumption
apart from those mentioned in 2.6 may not be
connected to the main starting air system. Separate air
supplies are to be provided for these units. Deviations to
this require the agreement of TL.
2.8
If
auxiliary
engines
are
started
by
The following values of "b" are to be used:
b = 0.059
for two-stroke engines:
b = 0.056
for four-stroke engines:
compressed air, sufficient air capacity for three
consecutive starts of each auxiliary engine is to be
The following values of "c" are to be used:
provided.
c
= 1, where pe,zul = 30 bar
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
H
0.0584
c=
1-e
2-53
Where pe,zul > 30 bar, if a pressure-reducing valve is
0.11-0.05 ln pe,zul
fitted, which reduces the pressure pe,zul to the starting
pressure PA, the value of "c" shown in Fig. 2.17 is to be
where pe,zul > 30 bar, if no pressure-reducing valve is
used.
fitted.
e
= Euler's number (2.718....) [–]
pe,zul
[bar]
Fig. 2.17 The value of “c” where a pressure-reducing valve is fitted
The following values of nA are to be applied:
that needed for six start-up operations.
= 0.06 ⋅ no + 14 where no ≤ 1000
nA
2.11
For additional rules with ice class notation
see also Section 19, D.1.
and
= 0.25 ⋅ no - 176 where no > 1000
nA
no
=
rated speed [min-1]
3.
Electrical Starting Equipment
3.1
Where main engines are started electrically,
two mutually independent starter batteries are to be
installed. The batteries are to be so arranged that they
2.10.2
Calculation of starting air capacity for
installations with nonreversible engines
For
each
non-reversible
main
engine
cannot be connected in parallel with each other. Each
battery must enable the main engine to be started from
driving
a
controllable pitch propeller or where starting without
torque resistance is possible the calculated starting air
cold.
The total capacity of the starter batteries must be
sufficient for the execution within 30 minutes, without
supply may be reduced to 0.5 ⋅ J though not less than
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-54
recharging the batteries, of the same number of start-up
operations as is prescribed H.2.4 or H.2.5, as
appropriate, for starting with compressed air.
3.2
If two or more auxiliary engines are started
H
capacity of which is sufficient for at least three
successive starts see TL Rules for Electrical
Installations Section 7, O.6.
Additionally a second source of energy is to be provided
electrically, at least two mutually independent batteries
capable of three further starting operations within 30
are to be provided. Where starter batteries for the main
minutes. This requirement is not applicable if the set
engine are fitted, the use of these batteries is
can be started manually.
acceptable.
4.3
The capacity of the batteries must be sufficient for at
In order to guarantee the availability of the
starting equipment, steps are to be taken to ensure that:
least three start-up operations per engine.
-
Electrical and hydraulic starting systems are
If only one of the auxiliary engines is started electrically,
supplied with energy from the emergency
one battery is sufficient.
switchboard;
3.3
The starter batteries may only be used for
-
Compressed air starting systems are supplied
starting (and preheating where applicable) and for
via a non-return valve from the main and
monitoring equipment belonging to the engine.
auxiliary compressed air receivers or by an
emergency air compressor, the energy for
3.4
which
Steps are to be taken to ensure that the
provided
via
the
emergency
switchboard; and
batteries are kept charged and the charge level is
monitored.
is
-
The starting, charging and energy storage
equipment is located in the emergency
4.
Start-up of Emergency Generating Sets
4.1
Emergency generating sets are to be so
generator room.
4.4
Where automatic starting is not specified, reliable
designed that they can be started up readily even at a
manual starting systems may be used, e.g. by means of
temperature of 0°C.
hand
cranks,
spring-loaded
starters,
hand-operated
hydraulic starters or starters using ignition cartridges.
If the set can be started only at higher temperatures, or
Where direct manual starting is not possible,
where there is a possibility that lower ambient
4.5
temperatures may occur, heating equipment is to be
starting systems in accordance with 4.2 and 4.3 are to
be provided, in which case the starting operation may
fitted to ensure ready reliable starting.
The
operational
readiness
of
the
be initiated manually.
set
must
be
guaranteed under all weather and seaway conditions.
Fire flaps required in air inlet and outlet openings may
4.6
The starters of emergency generator sets
may be used only for the purpose of starting the
emergency generators sets.
only be closed in case of fire and are to be kept open at
5.
other times. Warning signs to this effect are to be
Sets
Start-up of Emergency Fire-Extinguisher
applied. No alarm is required in the case of automatic
fire flap actuation dependent on the operation of the set.
5.1
Air inlet and outlet openings must not be fitted with
are to be so designed that they can still be reliably
weatherproof covers.
started by hand at a temperature of 0°C.
4.2
Each emergency generating set required to
be capable of automatic starting is to be equipped with
an automatic starting system approved by TL, the
If the engine can be started only at higher temperatures,
Diesel engines driving emergency fire pumps
or where there is a possibility that lower temperatures
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
H,I,J
may occur, heating equipment is to be fitted to ensure
2-55
station area.
reliable starting.
2.3.2
If manual start-up using a head crank is not
5.2
The following stand-alone control equipment
is to be installed:
possible, the emergency fire-extinguisher set is to be fitted
with a starting device approved by TL which enables at
-
Speed/direction of rotation of main engine,
-
Speed/direction of rotation of shafting,
-
Propeller pitch (controllable pitch propeller),
-
Starting air pressure,
-
Control air pressure.
2.3.3
In the case of engine installations up to a
least 6 starts to be performed within 30 minutes, two of
these being carried out within the first 10 minutes.
I.
Control Equipment
1.
General
For unmanned machinery installations, Chapter 4-1 Automation is to be observed in addition to the following
requirements.
total output of 600 kW, simplifications can be agreed
with TL.
2.
Main Engines
2.1
Local control station
3.
Auxiliary Engines
To provide emergency operation of the propulsion plant
For auxiliary engines and emergency application
a local control station is to be installed from which the
engines the controls according to Table 2.9 are to be
plant can be operated and monitored.
provided as a minimum.
Indicators according to Table 2.9 are to be
2.1.1
clearly sited on the local main engine control station.
Temperature indicators are to be provided on
2.1.2
the local control station or directly on the engine.
In the case of gear and controllable pitch
2.1.3
propeller systems, the local control indicators and
control equipment required for emergency operation
J.
Alarms
1.
General
1.1
The following requirements apply to machinery
installations which have been designed for conventional
operation without any degree of automation.
are to be installed at the main engines local control
1.2
station.
Within the context of these Rules, the word
alarm is understood to mean the visual and audible
2.1.4
Critical speed ranges are to be marked in red
warning of abnormal operating parameters.
on the tachometers.
2.
2.2
Scope of Alarms
Machinery control room / control centre
Alarms have to be provided for main, auxiliary and
For
remotely
operated
or
controlled
machinery
emergency engines according to Table 2.9.
installations the indicators listed in Table 2.9 are to be
installed, see Chapter 4-1 - Automation
2.3
Bridge / navigation center
2.3.1
The essential operating parameters for the
propulsion system are to be provided in the control
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-56
J,K
Table 2.9 Alarm and indicators
Description
Propulsion
Auxiliary
Emergency
engines
engines
engines
Speed / direction of rotation
I
Engine overspeed (5)
Lubricating oil pressure at engine inlet
A, S
A, S
A, S
I, L(9), S
I, L(9), S
I, L(9)
I, H
I (5), H (5)
I (5), H (5)
I
I
Lubricating oil temperature at engine inlet
Fuel oil pressure at engine inlet
Fuel oil temperature at engine inlet (1)
I
I
Fuel oil leakage from high pressure pipes
A
A
A
Cylinder cooling water pressure at engine inlet
I, L
I(4), L (4)
I(4), L (4)
Cylinder cooling water /air temperature at engine outlet
I, H
I, H
I, H
H
H
H
I, H
I, H
Cylinder pressure (10)
Piston coolant pressure at engine inlet
I, L
Piston coolant temperature at engine outlet
I, H
Charge air pressure at cylinder inlet
I
Charge air temperature at charge air cooler inlet
I
Charge air temperature at charge air cooler outlet
I, H
Starting air pressure
I, L
Control air pressure
I, L
Exhaust gas temperature (2)
I, H (3)
Oil mist concentration in crankcase or alternative
I, H
monitoring system (6) (7) (8)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
For engines running on heavy fuel oil only.
Wherever the dimensions permit, at each cylinder outlet and at the turbo charger inlet
and outlet.
At turbo charger outlet only.
Cooling water pressure or flow.
Only for an engine output ≥220 kW.
For engines having an output >2250 kW or a cylinder bore >300 mm.
Alternative methods of monitoring may be approved by TL. See F-4.3.1.
Engine slowdown function for low speed engines and shutdown function for medium
and high speed engines to be provided.
I : Indicator
A : Alarm
H : Alarm for upper limit
L : Alarm for lower limit
S : Shutdown
(9) Only for an engine output > 37 kW
(10) Only for engines having cylinder bore > 230 mm.
K.
Engine Alignment / Seating
For the purpose of subsequent alignments, note is to be
taken of:
For engine alignment / seating see TL Additional Rules,
Seating of Propulsion Plant.
-
The draught / load condition of the vessel
1.
-
The condition of the engine-cold / preheated / hot
Crankshaft Alignment
The crankshaft alignment is to be checked every time
2.
Permissible Crank Web Deflection
an engine has been aligned on its foundation by
measurement of the crank web deflection and/or other
Where the engine manufacturer has not specified
suitable means.
values for the permissible crank web deflection,
assessment is to be based on TL's reference values.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
K
Fig. 2.18
3.
2-57
Reference values for crank web deflection
Reference Values for Crank Web Deflection
3.2
Notes on the measurement of crank web
deflections
3.1
Irrespective of the crank web deflection
figures quoted by the manufacturers of the various
Crank web deflections are to be measured at distance
engine types, reference values for assessing the crank
R + dw/2 from the crankpin centre line (see Fig. 2.19).
web deflection in relation to the deflection length ro can
Crank web deflection ∆a is only meaningful as
be taken from Fig. 2.19.
measured between opposite crank positions (see Fig.
Provided that these values are not exceeded, it may be
2.19), i.e. between 0-3 for evaluating vertical alignment
assumed that neither the crankshaft nor the crankshaft
and bearing location, and between 2-4 for evaluating
bearings are subjected to any unacceptable additional
lateral
stresses.
crankshaft and assessing the bearing wear.
bearing
displacement
when
aligning
the
For measuring point 0, which is obstructed by the
connecting rod, the mean value of the measurements
made at 1' and 1'' is to be applied.
3.3
Determining the crank web deflection
length ro
Fig. 2.19 Measurements of crank web deflections
-
Solid-forged and drop-forged crankshafts in Fig.
2.20, parts A, B and C;
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-58
-
Semi-built crankshafts, Fig 2.20, D.
K,L
Where there is a positive pin/journal overlap (s≥0)
according to Fig 2.20, C, the value in crank web
deflection length formula is to be replaced by:
Symbols:
2
2
*
W = (W - Ti - Ta ) + [0,5 (d k + d W - H) ]
R
= Crank radius, [mm]
H
= Stroke (2R), [mm]
dk
= Crank pin diameter, [mm]
dw
dN
For the conventional design, where
B/dw = 1.37 to 1.51
in
case
of
crankshafts, and
solid-forged
= Journal diameter, [mm]
B/dw = 1.51 to 1.63
in case of semi-built crankshafts,
= Shrink annulus diameter, [mm]
the influence of B in the normal calculations of ro is
already taken into account in the values of ∆a in Fig.
W
2.18. Where the values of B/dw depart from the above
= Axial web thickness, [mm]
(e.g. in the case of discs, oval webs etc.), the altered
B
= Web width at distance R/2, [mm]
stiffening effect of B is to be allowed for by a fictitious
web thickness W**, which is to be calculated by applying
Ti
= Depth of web undercut (on crank pin side), mm]
Ta
= Depth of web undercut (on journal side), [mm]
the following equations and is to be substituted for W in
crank web deflection length formula:
s
=
Pin/journal overlap [mm].

d k  d w   R
2
Where there is a negative pin/journal overlap (s<0), the
**
*
W = W  3 B/ d W - 0,44
for solid - forged
**
*
W = W  3 B/ d W - 0,57
for semi - built crankshafts
crankshafts
L.
Air Compressors
1.
General
1.1
Scope
deflection length ro in accordance with Fig. 2.20, A is
determined by applying the following crank web
deflection length formula:
r 0  0,5   H  d k
 2  d k

2 dw
 1
 1 
W

 W
 d w   W 
In case of web undercut, W in crank web deflection
length formula is to be replaced by the following value:
W* 
W
Ti  Ta 
These Rules apply to reciprocating compressors of the
normal marine types. Where it is intended to install
compressors
to
which
the
following
Rules
and
calculation formulae cannot be applied, TL requires
proof of their suitability for shipboard use.
2
In the case of semi-built crankshafts in accordance with
Fig. 2.20, D, the value dw under the root sign only in
crank web deflection length formula is to be replaced by
the following value.
1.2
Documents for approval
Drawings showing longitudinal and transverse crosssections, the crankshaft and the connecting rod are to be
submitted to TL in triplicate for each compressor type.
dW* =1/3(dN-dW)+dW
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
L
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
2-59
In general, the crankshafts and connecting rods of
reciprocating compressors shall be made of steel, cast
steel or nodular cast iron. The use of special cast iron
alloys is to be agreed with TL.
2.2
Material testing
Material tests are to be performed on crankshafts with a
calculated crank pin diameter > 50 mm. For crank pin
diameters of ≤ 50 mm. works certificates are sufficient.
3.
Crankshaft Dimensions
The diameters of journals and crank pins are
3.1
to be determined as follows:
d
0.126 ∙
D ∙p ∙C ∙C ∙ 2∙H
f∙L
where;
dk
=
Minimum pin/journal diameter, [mm]
D
=
Cylinder bore for single-stage compressors,
[mm]
=
DHd = cylinder bore of the second stage twostage compressors with separate pistons,
=
1.4 x DHd for two stage compressors with a
stepped piston as in Fig. 2.21,
=
2
2
DNd - DHd for two-stage compressors with
a differential piston as in Fig. 2.22.
pc
=
Design pressure PR, applicable up to 40 bar,
[bar]
H
=
Piston stroke, [mm]
L
=
Distance between main bearing center
Fig. 2.20 Solid-forged (A, B ve C) and semi-built (D)
where one crank is located between two
crankshafts
bearings. L is to be substituted by L1 = 0.85 ·
L where two cranks at different angles are
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-60
located between two main bearings, or by L2 =
L
Table 2.12 Values of Cw for nodular cast iron shafts
0.95 · L where 2 or 3 connecting rods are
mounted on one crank [mm].
f
= 1.0 where the cylinders are in line
= 1.2 where the cylinders are at 90°
Rm
370
400
500
600
700
≥800
Cw
1.20
1.10
1.08
0.98
0.94
0.90
4.
Construction and Equipment
4.1
General
4.1.1
Cooler dimensions are to be based on a
V or W
= 1.5 where the cylinders are at 60°
type
= 1.8 where the cylinders are at 45°
seawater temperature of at least 32°C in case of water
C1
= Coefficient according to Table 2.10, [-]
z
= Number of cylinders, [-]
Cw
= Material factor according to Table 2.11 or
cooling, and on an air temperature of at least 45°C in
case of air cooling, unless higher temperatures are
dictated by the temperature conditions attaching to the
2.12, [-]
ship's trade or by the location of the compressors or
cooling air intakes.
Where fresh water cooling is used, the cooling water
inlet temperature shall not exceed 40°C.
Unless
4.1.2
they
are
provided
with
open
discharges, the cooling water spaces of compressors
and coolers must be fitted with safety valves or rupture
discs of sufficient cross-sectional area.
High-pressure stage air coolers shall not be
4.1.3
Fig. 2.21
Fig. 2.22
located in the compressor cooling water space.
= Minimum tensile strength. [N/mm2]
Rm
Table 2.10 Values of C1
4.2
Safety valves and pressure gauges
4.2.1
Every compressor stage must be equipped
with a suitable safety valve which cannot be blocked
and which prevents the maximum permissible working
z
1
2
4
6
≥8
pressure from being exceeded by more than 10% even
C1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
when the delivery line has been shut off. The setting of
the
3.2
Where increased strength is achieved by a
safety
valve
must
be
secured
to
prevent
unauthorized alteration.
favourable configuration of the crankshaft, smaller
4.2.2
values of dk may be approved.
Each compressor stage must be fitted with a
suitable pressure gauge, the scale of which must
Table 2.11 Values of Cw for steel shafts
(1) (1)
Rm 400 440 480 520 560 600 640 ≥680 720 ≥760
Cw 1.03 0.94 0.91 0.85 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.64
(1) Only for drop-forged crankshafts
indicate the relevant maximum permissible working
pressure.
4.2.3
Where one compressor stage comprises
several cylinders which can be shut off individually,
each cylinder must be equipped with a safety valve and
a pressure gauge.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
L,M
4.3
Air
compressors
with
oil-lubricated
air
temperature,
2-61
5.
Tests
5.1
Pressure tests
5.1.1
Cylinders and cylinder liners are to be
pressure spaces
4.3.1
The
compressed
measured directly at the discharge from the individual
stages, may not exceed 160°C for multi-stage
compressors or 200°C for single-stage compressors.
For
discharge
pressures
of
up
to
10
bar,
subjected to hydraulic pressure tests at 1.5 times the
final pressure of the stage concerned.
temperatures may be higher by 20 °C.
5.1.2
The
compressed
air
chambers
of
the
Compressors with a power consumption of
intercoolers and aftercoolers of air compressors are to
more than 20 kW should be fitted with thermometers at
be subjected to hydraulic pressure tests at 1.5 times the
the individual discharge connections, wherever this is
final pressure of the stage concerned.
4.3.2
possible. If this is not practicable, they are to be
mounted at the inlet end of the pressure line. The
5.2
Final inspections and testing
thermometers are to be marked with the maximum
permissible temperatures.
4.3.3
Compressors are to be subjected to a performance test
After the final stage, all compressors are to
be equipped with a water trap and an aftercooler.
4.3.4
at the manufacturer's works under supervision of TL
and are to be presented for final inspection.
Water traps, aftercoolers and the compressed
air spaces between the stages must be provided with
M.
Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems
1.
General
discharge devices at their lowest points.
For automatically starting compressors, in the event of
failure
of
the
pressurized
lubrication
system,
independently driven compressors must shut down
Exhaust gas cleaning systems shall comply with the
automatically and a suitable automatic drain facility
applicable statutory requirements. In case of sea going
must be provided for the cooler and water traps (where
ships
appropriate also during operation).
Convention are to be observed. In case of wet exhaust
gas
4.4
Name plate
requirements
cleaning
stipulated
systems
in
(scrubber
the
MARPOL
systems)
IMO
Resolution MEPC.184(59) applies.
Every compressor is to carry a name plate with the
1.1
Application
following information:
The following requirements apply to exhaust gas cleaning
-
Manufacturer,
systems which reduce the amount of nitrogen oxides
(NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) or particulate matter from
-
the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines,
Year of construction,
incinerators or steam boilers.
-
3
Effective suction rate [m /h],
2.
-
Discharge pressure [bar],
-
Speed [rev/min],
-
Power consumption [kW].
Approval
Where an exhaust gas cleaning system is installed
details of the arrangement and a description of the
function are to be submitted to TL for approval.
2.1
Documents for approval
For approval, drawings showing the main dimensions of
the systems shall be submitted including documentation
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-62
concerning installation requirements and operational
3.4
M
Maximum gas pressure
features. An operation manual shall include instructions
for emergency operation, if applicable.
The maximum pressure in the system of the exhaust
pipes as specified by the manufacturer shall not be
2.2
Approval certificate
exceeded. Care is to be taken in particular where the
After successful appraisal of the required documents and
successful conclusion of the shipboard test in presence of
a Surveyor TL issues an Approval Certificate.
3.
exhaust gas cleaning system is located upstream of the
turbocharger of the combustion engine (e.g. Selective
Catalytic Reduction systems in conjunction with large
bore 2-stroke Diesel engines).
Layout
3.5
3.1
System layout and installation
Oscillation characteristics of the exhaust
gas column
Exhaust gas cleaning systems shall be independent for
The installation and operation of the exhaust gas
each combustion engine or combustion plant. General
cleaning system shall not have an adverse effect on the
requirements on the use of combustible materials and on
oscillation characteristics of a combustion engine’s
structural fire protection are to be observed. Thermal
exhaust gas column in order to avoid unsafe engine
expansion of the system and its mechanical connections
operation.
to both the ship’s structure and the exhaust pipes has to
be considered. The requirements for exhaust gas lines
set out in Section 16, M shall be taken into account. The
aftertreatment system is to be equipped with at least one
inspection port.
3.6
Deposition of soot
The deposition of soot within or in the proximity of the
exhaust gas cleaning system should be avoided. Where
Exhaust gas cleaning systems are to be accessible for
inspection and maintenance. A change or removal of
this may lead to additional fire hazards the deposition of
soot is not acceptable.
internal components shall be possible, where applicable.
3.7
3.2
Vibrations in piping system
Bypass
The design and installation of the exhaust gas cleaning
Where an exhaust gas cleaning system is installed with
system including the exhaust gas piping system shall
a single main propulsion engine a bypass, controlled by
account for vibrations induced by the ship’s machinery,
flap valves or other suitable cut-off devices, is required
the
in order to allow unrestricted engine operation in case of
transmitted through the ship’s structure in order to
system failure. The bypass shall be designed for the
prevent mechanical damage to the piping system.
maximum exhaust gas mass flow at full engine load.
Consideration should be given to the installation of
pulsation
of
the
exhaust
gas
or
vibrations
damping systems and/or compensators.
In case of an exhaust gas cleaning system installed on
an engine of a multi engine plant a bypass system may
be dispensed with.
3.3
3.8
Monitoring of the operating parameters
The main operating parameters of the exhaust gas
cleaning system have to be monitored and should serve
Additional pressure loss
as indicators for possible abnormalities. As a minimum,
The total pressure loss in the exhaust gas system,
including the additional pressure loss from the exhaust
the following operating parameters shall be monitored:
-
gas cleaning system, shall not exceed the maximum
Gas temperature upstream of the exhaust
gas cleaning system
allowable exhaust gas back pressure as specified by
the engine manufacturer at any load condition.
-
Gas temperature downstream of the exhaust
gas cleaning system
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
M,N
2-63
Pressure drop across the exhaust gas
These requirements are applicable to gas-fuelled
cleaning system
engines meeting the following criteria:
-
Engine exhaust gas back pressure
-
-
Position of flap valves
4.
Materials
-
Engines using natural gas as fuel engines
using gases other than natural gas will be
specially
considered
and
additional
respectively adapted requirements may apply
All materials of the exhaust gas cleaning system,
-
Engines burning fuel gas and fuel oil (dual-
connecting pipes and chemically reactive agent dosing
fuel engines), or single gas fuel engines
units shall be non-combustible. The requirements
(operating on gas-only)
relating to exhaust gas lines as contained in Section 16,
M are to be observed, as applicable.
-
Engines with low or high pressure gas supply
systems
5.
Chemically reactive agents
5.1
Reducing agent
1.2
Special design features will be considered on
a case by case basis, taking into account the basic
For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) type exhaust
engine design and the engine safety concept.
gas cleaning systems the reducing agent (Ammonia,
dissolved Ammonia, Urea or the like) has to be stored
2.
Further Rules and Guidelines
2.1
The basic gas-fuelled engine requirements
and pumped in tanks and pipes made of approved
materials for these types of agents, see Section 16.
For more details see UI MPC 105 and Resolution
defined in TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas as
Fuel for Ships, Section 6 are generally to be fulfilled
MEPC.198(62).
independent of the source of gas (boil-off from cargo or
5.2
gas fuel from storage tanks).
Ammonia slip
Where Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) type
exhaust gas cleaning systems are applied excessive
2.2
slip of ammonia has to be prevented.
engines as defined in these rules from A to N are to
Requirements
for
internal
combustion
be followed for gas-fuelled engines as far as
5.3
Washwater criteria
applicable.
Where the exhaust gases are washed with water,
discharged wash water has to comply with criteria as
specified in IMO Resolution MEPC.184(59).
6.
Shipboard testing
2.3
storage tanks.
2.4
The exhaust gas cleaning and bypass system is subject
to inspection and functional tests in each case in the
TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas as
Fuel for Ships apply to gas fuel supplied from gas fuel
TL Part C, Chapter 10 – Liquefied Gas
Carriers apply to gas fuel supplied from liquefied gas
carrier cargo boil-off.
presence of a Surveyor.
Note:
Use of gas as fuel for ships is currently not covered by
N.
international conventions (except boil-off from cargo covered
Gas-Fuelled Engines
by the IGC Code). Therefore, acceptance by the flag
1.
Scope and application
administration is necessary for each individual installation.
1.1
For internal combustion engines using gas as
Resolution MSC.285(86) ‘Interim Guidelines on Safety for
fuel the following requirements are to be observed.
Natural Gas-Fuelled Engine Installations in Ships’ gives
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-64
Overall
N
operational
availability
of
the
guidance on safety requirements for these installations. An
4.6
International Code of Safety for Gas fuelled Ships (IGF
gasfuelled engine installation shall not be reduced by
Code) is currently under development at IMO.
engine safety functions, such as automatic shutdown of
external gas supply, to a level lower than achieved by
3.
oil-fuelled
Definitions
engine
installations.
Furthermore,
gas
leakages anywhere in the gas storage system, gas
Definitions addressing gas as fuel as given in
supply system, or gas engine components shall not
TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships
cause automatic shutdown of other engines in order to
apply.
maintain essential functions such as main propulsion
3.1
power and electrical power generation.
Gas admission valve: Valve or injector on the
3.2
For single engine main propulsion plants the
engine which controls gas supply to the engine
4.7
according to the engine’s actual gas demand.
entire system, including gas supply, machinery space
safety concept, and gas engine design shall be evaluated
Safety concept: The safety concept is a
3.3
with regard to operational availability and redundancies.
document describing the safety philosophy with regard
to gas as fuel.
4.8
In general, dual-fuel engines suitable for
change-over to oil fuel mode in case of failure in the gas
It describes how risks associated with this type of fuel
supply system are considered to be the only gas fuelled
are controlled under normal operating conditions as well
engines practicable for single engine main propulsion
as
plants.
possible
failure
scenarios
and
their
control
measures.
4.
5.
Documents to be submitted
5.1
In addition to the documents defined in B and
General and operational availability
and
TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas as Fuel for
dependability of a gas-fuelled engine shall be equivalent
Ships, Section 6 the documents as listed in Table 2.13
to that of a conventional oil-fuelled marine diesel
shall be submitted for approval respectively review.
engine.
Following prior agreement with TL they shall be
4.1
The
safety,
operational
reliability,
submitted in paper form in triplicate.
4.2
The engine shall be capable of safe and
reliable operation throughout the entire power range
6.
General requirements
under all expected operation conditions.
Requirements as specified in the TL Additional Rules
4.3
Composition and minimum methane number
of gas fuel supplied to the engine shall be in accordance
for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships, Section 6 shall be
observed.
with the engine manufacturer’s specification. If gas
composition or methane number exceeds specified
6.1
Gas supply concept
6.1.1
Gas-fuelled
limits, no dangerous situation shall arise.
4.4
General requirements regarding redundancy
of essential systems (main propulsion, electrical power
generation, etc.) are to be considered. The same basic
requirements apply to gas-fuelled engine installations as
for oil-fuelled engine installations.
4.5
designed
according
engines
to
shall
Emergency
either
be
Shut-down
Concept (ESD) or Gas Safe Concept (definition and
requirements see TL Additional Rules for the Use of
Gas as Fuel for Ships.
Arrangements of the gas-fuelled installation
for sustained or restored operation following blackout
and dead ship condition shall be carefully evaluated.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
N
2-65
Table 2.13 Documents to be submitted for gas-fuelled engines
Item
Description
No.
1
General engine concept with regard to gas as fuel (description)
2
Engine specification sheet and technical data
3
Specification of permissible fuel gas properties
4
Engine safety concept, including system FMEA with regard to gas as fuel
5
Definition of hazardous areas
6
General installation manual for the engine type with regard to machinery space layout and equipment
7
Fuel gas system for the engine, including double wall piping system and ventilation system
(schematic layout, details, assembly, functional description)
8
Charge air system (schematic layout, functional description, assembly)
9
Engine exhaust gas system (schematic layout, assembly)
10
Explosion relief valves for crankcase, air intake manifold and exhaust manifold (specification,
arrangement, determination of minimum number and size required, operating parameters of protected
manifolds) refer also to 8.3.3.4
11
Engine control system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
12
Ignition system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
13
Combustion monitoring system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
14
Engine monitoring system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
15
Engine alarm and safety system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
16
Gas detection system for the engine (schematic layout, functional description)
17
Electronic components of engine control-, ignition-, alarm-, safety-, monitoring system, etc.
(specification, type approvals)
18
List of type approved equipment
19
List of explosion-proof electrical equipment incl. specification of certifications
20
Testing procedure for gas detection system
21
Testing procedure for gas tightness
22
General concept regarding training measures for operating personnel
6.1.2
The general design principle (ESD or Gas
6.3
Requirements for dual-fuel engines
applications with regard to engine room arrangements,
6.3.1
Dual-fuel engines are to be of the dual-fuel
engine room safety concept, redundancy concept,
type employing pilot fuel ignition and to be capable of
propulsion plant, etc.
immediate change-over to oil fuel only.
6.2
Requirements for single gas fuel engines
6.3.2
6.2.1
In general, single gas fuel engines are only
Safe Concept) will influence the range of acceptable
Only oil fuel is to be used when starting the
engine.
considered suitable for electric power generating plants.
6.3.3
Only oil fuel is, in principle, to be used when
the operation of an engine is unstable, and/or during
6.2.2
The application of single gas fuel engines for
manoeuvring and port operations.
mechanical propeller drives requires special evaluation
and consideration.
6.3.4
In case of shut-off of the gas fuel supply or
engine failure related to gas operation, engines are to
be capable of continuous operation by oil fuel only.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
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In general, engine power and speed shall not
N
7.3.2
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
automatic system shall provide for a change-over
7.3.3
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the
procedure with minimal fluctuations in engine power and
vent pipes.
6.3.5
be influenced during fuel change-over process. An
speed.
7.4
External gas supply system
to oil mode shall be possible at all operating
7.4.1
The external gas supply system shall be
conditions.
designed such that the required gas conditions and
6.3.6
The change-over process from gas mode
properties (temperature, pressure, etc.) as specified by
7.
the engine maker at engine inlet are adhered to under
Systems
all possible operating conditions.
Requirements as specified in the TL Additional Rules
for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships, Section 6 shall be
7.4.2
observed.
gas in liquid state is supplied to the engine, unless the
Arrangements are to be made to ensure that no
engine is designed to operate with gas in liquid state.
7.1
Cooling water system
7.1.1
Means are to be provided to degas the
7.4.3
cooling water system from fuel gas if the possibility is
given that fuel gas can leak directly into the cooling
In addition to the automatic shut off supply
valve a manually operated valve shall be installed in
series in the gas supply line to each engine.
water system.
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.5
Gas system on the engine
7.5.1
General requirements
7.5.1.1
Gas piping on an engine shall be designed
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the
vent pipes.
and installed taking due account of vibrations and
movements during engine operation.
7.2
Lubrication oil system
7.2.1
Means are to be provided to degas the
lubrication oil system from fuel gas if the possibility is
7.5.1.2
In case of rupture of a gas pipe or excessive
pressure loss, automatic shutdown of the gas supply
shall be activated.
given that fuel gas can leak directly into the lubrication
oil system.
7.2.2
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
7.2.3
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the
vent pipes.
7.5.2
Low pressure gas supply
7.5.2.1
Flame arresters shall be provided in the gas
supply system on the engine as determined by the
system FMEA.
7.5.2.2
7.3
Fuel oil system
7.3.1
Means are to be provided to degas the fuel
Gas admission valves shall be located
directly at each cylinder inlet. In general, mixing of fuel
oil system from fuel gas if the possibility is given that
fuel gas can leak directly into the fuel oil system.
gas with combustion air shall not take place before the
cylinder inlet.
7.5.2.3
Gas admission by a common gas admission
valve and mixing of gas with combustion air before the
cylinder inlet may be acceptable subject to an
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N
2-67
acceptable level of risk being determined in the safety
7.6.1.4
concept and system FMEA.
monitored. Misfiring and knocking combustion is to be
Combustion of each cylinder is to be
detected.
7.5.3
High pressure gas supply
7.6.1.5
7.5.3.1
Flame arresters shall be provided at the inlet
to the gas supply manifold of dual-fuel engines.
7.5.3.2
Safe and reliable operation of the ignition
system shall be demonstrated and documented by a
system FMEA.
The high pressure gas is to be blown directly
7.6.1.6
During stopping of the engine the fuel gas
into the cylinders without prior mixing with combustion
supply shall be shut off automatically before the ignition
air.
source.
7.5.3.3
High pressure gas pipes on the engine shall
7.6.2
Spark ignition
be carried out in double wall design with leakage
detection. The outer pipe is to be designed to withstand
For a spark ignition engine, if ignition has not been
serious leakage of the inner high pressure pipe. Gas
detected on each cylinder by the engine monitoring
pressure and temperature is to be considered.
system within an engine specific time after operation of
the
7.5.4
Gas admission valve
7.5.4.1
The gas admission valve shall be controlled
gas
admission
valve,
gas
supply
shall
be
automatically shut off and the starting sequence
terminated. Any unburned gas mixture is to be purged
from the exhaust system.
by the engine control system according to the actual
gas demand of the engine.
7.5.4.2
Uncontrolled
gas
admission
shall
be
prevented by design measures or indicated by suitable
detection and alarm systems. Measures to be taken
following detection and alarm are to be examined as
7.6.3
Ignition by pilot injection
7.6.3.1
Prior to admission of fuel gas the correct
operation of the pilot oil injection system on each
cylinder shall be verified.
part of the system FMEA.
7.6.3.2
An engine shall always be started using fuel
7.6
Ignition system
oil only.
7.6.1
General requirements
7.7
Electrical systems
Ignition systems commonly use either electrical spark
7.7.1
Care shall be taken to prevent any possible
plugs (single gas fuel engines) or pilot fuel oil injection
sources of ignition caused by electrical equipment,
(dual fuel engines).
7.6.1.1
electrical sensors, etc. installed in hazardous areas.
The ignition system has to ensure proper
ignition of the gas at all operating conditions and must
be able to provide sufficient ignition energy.
7.6.1.2
Before starting the engine, the engine has to
7.7.2
hazardous areas the explosion protection requirements
in the TL Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 1 are
to be observed.
be ventilated without injection or supplying any fuel.
7.7.3
7.6.1.3
Before activating the gas admission to the
engine, the ignition system has to be checked
automatically to verify correct functioning.
For electrical equipment and sensors in
Systems that shall remain operational when
the safety system triggers shut off of the gas supply are
to be determined by the system FMEA. Systems to be
considered shall include, but not be limited to, the
ventilation system, inert gas system and gas detection
system.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-68
7.8
Engine control-, monitoring-, alarm-, and
N
observed.
safety systems
The basic requirements of F.1.2.3 regarding
7.8.3.2
7.8.1
General requirements
design of the ship’s power management system apply.
7.8.1.1
General requirements regarding gas supply
7.8.3.3
Exemptions from minimum required step
and automatic activation of gas supply valves (double
loading
capability
block and bleed valves, master gas valve) to the engine
generators as shown in Fig. 2.16 can be agreed for
as defined in the TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas
gasfuelled engines of limited step loading capability.
of
engines
driving
electrical
as Fuel for Ships and TL Part C, Chapter 10 – Liquefied
Gas Carriers shall be observed.
7.9
Exhaust
gas
system
Exhaust
gas
pipes
and
ventilation
from
gas-fuelled
system
7.8.1.2
Knocking combustion and misfiring is to be
detected
and
combustion
conditions
are
to
be
7.9.1
automatically controlled to prevent knocking and
machinery are to be installed separately from each
misfiring.
other, taking into account structural fire protection
requirements.
7.8.1.3
The engine operating mode shall always be
clearly indicated to the operating personnel.
7.9.2
Machinery, including the exhaust gas system,
is to be ventilated:
7.8.1.4
Guidance for the scope of instrumentation for
monitoring, alarm, and safety systems is given in Table
-
Prior to each engine start,
-
After starting failure,
-
After each gas operation of gas-fuelled
2.14. Depending on engine design, safety concept, and
system FMEA examining all possible failure modes,
deviations from Table 2.14 may be agreed.
7.8.2
machinery not followed by an oil fuel
Gas detection
operation.
7.8.2.1
A continuous gas detection system shall be
provided (see TL Additional Rules for the Use of Gas as
7.9.3
Fuel for Ships, Section 5).
included in the automation system. Failures shall be
Control of the ventilation system shall be
alarmed.
7.8.2.2
The gas detection system shall be in
operation as long as fuel gas is supplied to the engine.
8.
Safety equipment and safety systems
As guidance, the gas detection system shall
Basic requirements as specified in the TL Additional
cover the spaces of the engine as specified in Table
Rules for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships shall be
2.14. Depending on engine design, safety concept, and
observed.
7.8.2.3
system FMEA deviations from Table 2.14 may be
agreed.
7.8.2.4
Manual gas detection may be installed in lieu
8.1
Safety concept and system FMEA
8.1.1
The safety concept shall describe the safety
of continuous gas detection for certain spaces if this is
philosophy with regard to gas as fuel and in particular
shown to be acceptable by the system FMEA.
address how risks associated with this type of fuel are
controlled. The safety concept shall also describe
7.8.3
Speed control and load acceptance
7.8.3.1
In general, the requirements in F.1 shall be
possible failure scenarios and the associated control
measures.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
N
2-69
Gas supply
Gas pressure
Gas temperature
Pressure of inert gas supply
Rupture of gas pipe or excessive gas leakage
Failure containment or vacuum of shielded gas
piping system
Gas detection
Gas concentration in air manifold
Gas concentration in crankcase
Gas concentration in exhaust manifold
Gas concentration in below each piston (3)
Gas concentration in shielded gas piping system
Gas concentration in engine room
Crankcase
Pressure
Temperature (4)
Oil mist concentration
Combustion monitoring
Misfiring each cylinder
Knocking each cylinder
Cylinder pressure
Load deviation
Spark ignition system or pilot injection system
failure
Exhaust gas
Exhaust gas temperature turbocharger inlet and
outlet
Exhaust gas temperature each cylinder
Deviation from exhaust gas mean temperature
Miscellaneous
Failure in gas combustion control system
X
I.L
A.S
X
X
A.S (2)
X
X
H
H
H
H
H.S (2)
H.S
X
X
X
X
H.S
H.S
H.S
X
X
X
X
X
X
A.S (2)
A.S (2)
H.L.S (2)
A.S (2)
X
X
X
X
A.S (2)
X
I.L.H.S (2)
L.H.S (2)
X
X
A.S (2)
X
Failure exhaust gas ventilation system
A
(3)
(4)
Comment
Gas safe
concept
I.H
A
:
:
:
:
:
:
Incl. failure of
sealing oil
cooling etc.
A.S (2)
Failure ventilation of shielded gas piping system
I
A
L
H
S
X
(1)
(2)
Shut off of gas
supply to
machinery space
(master gas valve)
(1)
I.L.H
I.L.H
Gas admission valve(s) failure
Engine shutdown
Shut off of gas
supply to
individual engine
(double block and
bleed valves) (1)
Indicator, alarm
shutdown (1)
Table 2.14 Indicative scope of instrumentation for gas-fuelled engines
A.S
Gas safe
concept
X
Externally or
manually
activated
Indicator
Alarm
Alarm for lower limit
Alarm for upper limit
Shutdown
Activation
In general, shut off gas supply and engine shutdown shall not be activated at initial trigger level without pre-alarm.
Automatic shutdown shall be replaced by automatic change-over to fuel oil mode for dual-fuel engines subjected to a
continued safe
Cross-Head type engines
Temperature of liners and bearings
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-70
8.1.2
In the system FMEA possible failure modes
N
(see 8.1).
related to gas as fuel shall be examined and evaluated
in detail with respect to their consequences on the
8.2.3
engine and the surrounding systems as well as their
inert gas injection
Removal of fuel gas from crankcase and
likelihood of occurrence and mitigating measures.
8.2.3.1
Verification tests are to be defined. Aspects to be
Means shall be provided to measure the fuel
gas concentration in the crankcase.
examined include, but shall not be limited to:
8.2.3.2
-
Suitable
measures,
such
as
inert
gas
Gas leakage, both engine internal and release
injection, shall be provided to remove fuel gas – air
of gas to the engine room – shut off of gas
mixtures from the crankcase at engine standstill.
supply (inter alia with respect to systems that
shall remain operational, refer 7.7.3)
8.2.3.3
Suitable means shall be available to purge
inert gas from the crankcase before opening the
-
Incomplete/ knocking combustion
crankcase for maintenance.
-
Deviation from the specified gas composition
8.2.3.4
Signs requiring a fuel and inert gas free
atmosphere in the crankcase before opening of
-
Malfunction of the ignition system
crankcase doors shall be placed in conspicuous
locations.
-
Uncontrolled gas admission to engine
Note:
-
-
Switch over process from gas to fuel and vice
Means for automatic injection of inert gas into the crankcase
versa for dual fuel engines
are recommended, e.g. in case of:
Explosions in crankcase, scavenging air
-
Engine emergency shutdown
-
Oil mist detection as well as bearing and liner
system and exhaust gas system
-
Uncontrolled gas air mixing process, if
temperature alarm
outside cylinder
-
Interfaces to other ship systems, e.g. control
-
Fire detection in engine room
8.3
Explosion relief valves
8.3.1
General requirements
8.3.1.1
Explosion relief devices shall close firmly
system, gas supply
8.2
8.2.1
Crankcase safety equipment
Piston failure
Piston failure and abnormal piston blow-by shall be
after an explosion event.
detected and alarmed.
8.3.1.2
The outlet of explosion relief devices shall
discharge to a safe location remote from any source of
8.2.2
Crankcase
8.2.2.1
Crankcase venting pipes are to be equipped
ignition. The arrangement shall minimize the risk of
injury to personnel.
with flame arrestors.
8.3.2
Crankcase explosion relief valves
potential of fuel gas accumulation in the crankcase is
8.3.2.1
For crankcase safety devices (e.g. explosion
to be carried out and included in the safety concept
relief valves, oil mist detection, etc.) the requirements
8.2.2.2
A detailed evaluation regarding the hazard
specified in F.4. are to be observed.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
N
8.3.2.2
Crankcase explosion relief valves are to be
-
provided at each crank throw.
8.3.2.3
2-71
Evidence for effectiveness of flame arrestor
at actual arrangement
The minimum required total relief area of
-
Evidence for effectiveness of pressure relief
crankcase explosion relief valves is to be evaluated by
at
engine maker considering explosions of fuel gas –air
sufficient relief pressure)
explosion
(sufficient
relief
velocity,
mixtures and oil mist.
Note:
8.3.3
Evidence can be provided by suitable tests or by theoretical
Other explosion relief valves
analysis.
8.3.3.1
As far as required in the TL Additional Rules
for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships, explosion relief
9.
Tests
9.1
Type approval test for gas-fuelled engines
9.1.1
Gas-fuelled engines shall be type approved
valves are to be provided for combustion air inlet
manifolds and exhaust manifolds.
8.3.3.2
Explosion relief valve shall generally be
approved by TL for the application on inlet manifolds
by TL.
and exhaust manifolds of gas-fuelled engines.
9.1.2
The scope of type approval testing stated in
For the approval of relief valves the following
E.4. applies as far as pertinent also to gas-fuelled
documentation is to be submitted (usually by the maker
engines. Additional or differing requirements reflecting
of explosion relief valve):
gas specific aspects are listed below. The type test
8.3.3.3
program is to be agreed with TL.
-
Drawings of explosion relief valve (sectional
drawings, details, assembly, etc.)
-
Specification data sheet of explosion relief
valve
(incl.
specification
of
operation
9.1.3
Tests:
-
Load acceptance test and load cut off
-
Fuel change-over procedures (for dual fuel
conditions such as max. working pressure,
max. working temperature, opening pressure,
engines)
effective relief area, etc.)
-
Test reports
8.3.3.4
In addition to the approval under 8.3.3.3 the
-
Combustion monitoring
-
Safety system
-
Alarm system
-
Monitoring system
valves (incl. number, type, locations, etc.)
-
Control system
Drawings of protected component (air inlet
-
Gas detection
-
Tightness tests of gas piping and double wall
arrangement
approved
for
of
explosion
each
relief
engine
valves
type.
shall
The
be
following
documents are to be submitted (usually by the engine
manufacturer):
-
-
Drawing of arrangement of explosion relief
manifold,
exhaust
manifold,
etc.)
(incl.
specification of max. working pressure, max.
working
temperature,
max.
pipes and ducts
permissible
explosion pressure, etc.)
-
Ignition system
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
2-72
-
Automatic gas shut off
10.2
N
Direction of air flow in machinery spaces
shall be directed in such way as to avoid flow of any
-
Turbocharger waste gate, by-pass, etc.
leaking gas towards potential sources of ignition.
-
Ventilation system
10.3
Machinery
spaces
shall
have
sufficient
openings to the outside to allow pressure relief from the
-
Start, stop, emergency stop
machinery space in case of an explosion event inside a
gas-fuelled engine installed in the space.
-
Verification tests resulting from the system
FMEA
10.4
Sign plates shall be fixed at adequate
locations to make notice of gas-fuelled machinery to
9.2
persons entering the relevant machinery spaces.
Works trials
Instructions regarding operation as well as behavior in
In addition to the requirements of E.5., the following
case of gas leaks and failure of machinery are to be
items shall be tested during works trials of gas fuelled
provided at prominent positions in machinery spaces.
engines:
11.
-
Tightness test of gas system
-
Testing of systems for combustion monitoring
Training
Personnel operating gas-fuelled engines aboard a
vessel shall be duly trained regarding operation of the
specific engine, gas supply systems, safety- and control
-
Testing of gas shut off and fuel change-over
systems, etc. installed on the vessel.
(dual-fuel engines) procedures
12.
9.3
Spare parts
Shipboard trials
Spare parts, which are of major importance for the
In addition to the requirements of E.6., during shipboard
safety and operational reliability of the gas-fuelled
trials the following items shall be tested:
engine, as well as parts with limited lifetime, shall be
provided on board in addition to those required in
-
Tightness test of gas system
Section 17.
-
Testing of systems for combustion monitoring
13.
-
Testing of gas shut off and fuel change-over
Acceptance criteria and procedure for conversion of
(dual-fuel engines) procedures
existing oil-fuelled diesel engines into gas-fuelled or
Retrofit
dual-fuel engines are to be individually agreed with
-
Testing of ventilation systems and gas
TL.
detection systems
10.
Machinery spaces
10.1
Sufficient air exchange and air flow shall be
ensured around the engine to prevent accumulation of
explosive, flammable, or toxic gas concentrations.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
3-1
SECTION 3
THERMAL TURBOMACHINERY / STEAM TURBINES
Page
A.
GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 3-2
1. Application
2. Definitions
3. Documents for Approval
B.
MATERIALS....................................................................................................................................................3-2
C.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES ..............................................................................................3-3
1. Approved Materials
1. Foundations
2. Jointing of Mating Surfaces
3. Bearing Lubrication
4. Piping Connections
5. Drains
6. Hot Surfaces
7. Turning Gear
8. Measurement of Rotor Clearances
9. Vibrations
10. Astern Running, Emergency Operation
11. Manoeuvring and Safety Equipment
12. Control and Monitoring Equipment
13. Condensers
D.
TESTS ..........................................................................................................................................................3-6
1. Material Testing
2. Testing of Turbine Rotors
3. Pressure and Tightness Tests
E.
TRIALS ..........................................................................................................................................................3-7
1. Factory Trials
2. Shipboard Trials
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
3-2
A.
A,B
the relevant strength characteristic is the
General
yield point at elevated temperatures; for
1.
higher temperatures it is the long-term creep
Application
strength
The requirements of these rules apply to propulsion and
auxiliary steam turbines. TL reserves the right to
authorize deviations from the Rules in the case of low-
-
-
Definitions
2.1
The rated power of a turbine is the maximum
continuously at its rated speed.
at
service
Details of the welding conditions applicable to
On request, strength calculation of rotors,
blade vibration,
-
Heat
flow
diagrams
for
each
turbine
installation and a set of operating instructions
for at least each turbine type are to be
The rated speed is the speed at which the
submitted.
turbine is designed to run its rated power.
2.3
hours
discs and blades and calculations relating to
power output at which the turbine is designed to run
2.2
100,000
welded components,
power turbines.
2.
for
temperature.
The over speed limit is the maximum
intermittent speed allowed for a turbine in service. It is
not to exceed the rated speed by more than 15% and is
3.2
For small auxiliary turbines with a steam inlet
temperature of up to 250°C it is generally sufficient to
submit sectional drawings of the turbines.
to be the maximum permissible setting of the over
speed governor.
3.
3.1
B.
Materials
1.
Approved Materials
1.1
Rotating components
1.1.1
Turbine rotors, discs and shafts are to be
Documents for Approval
For every steam turbine installation, the
documents listed below are to be submitted to TL in
triplicate for approval:
-
Assembly and sectional drawings of the
manufactured from forged steel.
turbines,
The rotors of small turbines may also be cast in special-
-
Detail drawings of rotors, casings, blades,
grade steel. Turbine blades, shrouds, binding and
guide blades, valves, bed frames and main
damping wires are to be made of corrosion-resistant
condenser,
materials.
Schematic diagram of control and safety
1.2
Stationary components
1.2.1
The casings of high-pressure turbines and
devices,
-
-
Details of operating characteristics; rated
the bodies of manoeuvring, quick-closing and throttle
power and corresponding rated rotational
valves are to be made of high-temperature steel or cast
speed, and the values of pressure and
steel. Depending upon pressure and temperature, the
temperature at each stage and critical
casings of intermediate and low-pressure turbines may
speeds,
also be made of nodular or grey cast iron.
Proof of a sufficient safety margin is required in
1.2.2
the components subject to the severest loads.
manufactured from steel, cast steel, nodular or grey
For temperatures up to approximately 400°C,
cast iron depending on the temperature and load.
Diaphragms
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(guide
vanes)
are
to
be
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
B,C
3-3
Welded construction may also be approved for steel or
operation are to be suitably guarded or insulated. Hot
cast steel components.
surfaces likely to exceed 220ºC, and which are likely to
come into contact with any leakage, under pressure or
1.2.3
Grey cast iron is not to be used for
otherwise, of fuel oil, lubricating oil or other flammable
temperatures exceeding 260°C.
liquid, are to be suitably insulated.
Nodular cast iron may be used up to a steam
7.
Turning Gear
7.1
Main propulsion turbines are to be equipped
temperature of 300°C.
with turning gear for both directions of rotation. The
C.
Design and Construction Principles
1.
Foundations
1.1
The
rotors of auxiliary turbines must at least be capable of
being turned by hand.
For vessels fitted with remote propulsion
7.2
foundations
of
geared
turbine
installations are to be so designed and constructed that
control, the turning gear status is to be indicated at each
remote propulsion control station.
only minor relative movement can occur between the
turbine and the gearing which can be compensated by
7.3
suitable couplings.
operation of the turbine when turning gear is
An interlock is to be fitted to prevent
engaged.
1.2
For the design of foundation also Guideline
for the Seating of Propulsion Plants and Auxiliary
Machinery and Section 2, K.1 have to be considered.
2.
Jointing of Mating Surfaces
8.
Measurement of Rotor Clearances
After assembly of each turbine in the manufacturer's
works, the rotor position and the clearances are to be
The mating flanges of casings must from a tight joint
determined. The clearances are to be specified in the
without the use of any interposed material.
operating instructions.
3.
Bearing Lubrication
9.
3.1
The lubrication of bearings must not be
The range of service speeds of turbine plant must not
impaired by adjacent hot parts or by steam.
Vibrations
give rise to unacceptable bending vibrations or to
vibrations
3.2
For the lubricating oil system, see Section
16, H.
4.
affecting
the
entire
installation.
(The
assessment may be based on ISO 10816-3 “Mechanical
vibration-Evaluation
of
machine
vibration
by
measurements on non-rotating parts” or an equivalent
Piping Connections
standard.)
Pipes are to be connected to the turbine in such a way
that no unacceptably high forces or moments can be
10.
Astern Running, Emergency Operation
10.1
Astern Power for Main Propulsion
transmitted to the turbine.
5.
Drains
Turbines and the associated piping systems are to be
equipped with adequate means of drainage.
6.
10.1.1
The main propulsion machinery must possess
sufficient power for running astern. The astern power is
considered to be sufficient if, given free running astern,
it is able to attain astern revolutions equivalent to at
Hot Surfaces
least 70% of the rated ahead revolutions for a period of
Hot surfaces likely to come into contact with crew during
at least 30 minutes.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
3-4
C
For main propulsion machinery with reverse
ahead and astern turbines is to be prevented by
gearing, controllable pitch propellers or an electrical
interlocks. Brief overlapping of the ahead and astern
transmission system, astern running must not cause
valves during manoeuvring can be allowed.
10.1.2
any overloading of the propulsion machinery.
11.1.2
Fluids for operating hydraulic manoeuvring
During astern running, the main condenser
equipment, quick-closing and control systems must be
and the ahead turbines are not to be excessively
suitable for all service temperatures and of low
overheated.
flammability.
10.2
Arrangements for Emergency Operation
11.1.3
10.2.1
In single screw ships fitted with cross
couplings or an electrical transmission system are to be
compound steam turbines, the arrangements are to be
fitted with a speed governor which, in the event of a
such as to enable safe operation when the steam
sudden loss of load, prevents the revolutions from
supply to any one of the turbines is isolated. For this
increasing to the trip speed.
10.1.3
Turbines for main propulsion machinery
equipped with controllable pitch propellers, disengaging
emergency operation purpose the steam may be led
directly to the lower pressure turbine and either the high
11.1.4
or medium pressure part may exhaust directly to the
electric generators - except those for electrical propeller
condenser. Adequate arrangements and controls are to
drive - resulting from a change from full load to no-load
be provided for these operating conditions so that the
may not exceed 5% on the resumption of steady
pressure and temperature of the steam will not exceed
running conditions. The transient speed increase
those which the turbines and condenser are designed
resulting from a sudden change from full load to no-load
for, thus enabling a long term safe operation under
conditions may not exceed 10% and must be separated
emergency conditions.
by a sufficient margin from the trip speed.
10.2.2
The necessary pipes and valves for these
The speed increase of turbines driving
11.2
Safety Devices
marked. A fit up test of all combinations of pipes and
11.2.1
Main propulsion turbines must be equipped
valves is to be presented to TL prior to the first sea
with quick-closing devices which automatically shut off
trials.
the steam supply in case of:
arrangements are to be readily available and properly
10.2.3
The
permissible
operating
conditions
(power/speeds) when operating without one of the
11.2.1.1
Over speed. Excess speeds of more than
15% above the rated value are to be prevented;
turbines (all combinations) are to be specified and
accessibly documented on board.
10.2.4
The
operation
of
the
turbines
under
emergency conditions is to be assessed by calculations
11.2.1.2
Unacceptable axial displacement of the rotor;
11.2.1.3
An unacceptable increase in the condenser
pressure;
for the potential influence on shaft alignment and gear
teeth loading conditions. Corresponding documentation
11.2.1.4
shall be submitted to TL for appraisal.
water level; and
11.
11.2.1.5
Manoeuvring and Safety Equipment
An unacceptable increase in the condenser
An unacceptable drop in the lubricating oil
pressure.
11.1
Manoeuvring and Control Equipment
11.2.2
11.1.1
The simultaneous admission of steam to the
In cases 11.2.1.1 and 11.2.1.2, the quick-
closing devices must be actuated by the turbine shafts.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
C
11.2.3
It must also be possible to trip the quick-
12.2
3-5
Scope and Design of Equipment
closing device manually at the turbine and from the
control platform.
Depending on the degree of automation involved, the
scope and design of the equipment is also subject to the
11.2.4
Re-setting of the quick-closing device may be
Rules in Chapter 4-1 - Automation.
effected only at the turbine or from the control platform
with the control valve in the closed position.
11.2.5
It is recommended that an alarm system
should be fitted which responds to excessive vibration
12.3
Control and Indicating Instruments
When the turning gear is engaged, this fact must be
indicated visually at the control platform.
velocities. (The assessment may be based on ISO
10816-3 “Mechanical vibration-Evaluation of machine
Turbine and pipeline drainage valves are either to
vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts” or an
operate automatically or are to be combined into
equivalent standard.)
groups which can be operated from the control
platform.
11.2.6
An interlock is to be provided to ensure that
the main turbine cannot be started up when the turning
12.4
Equipment for Auxiliary Turbines
gear is engaged.
Turbines driving auxiliary machines are to be provided
11.2.7
Steam bleeder and pass-in lines are to be
fitted with automatic devices which prevent steam from
with the necessary equipment on the basis of
paragraphs 12.2 and 12.3.
flowing into the turbine when the main steam admission
valve is closed.
11.2.8
Turbines driving auxiliary machines must at
13.
Condensers
13.1
Design
13.1.1
The condenser is to be so designed that the
least be equipped with quick-closing devices for
contingencies 11.2.1.1 and 11.2.1.4 An excessive rise
in the exhaust steam pressure must actuate the quickclosing device.
11.2.9
inlet steam speed not to prohibitive stressing of the
condenser tubes result. Excessive sagging of the tubes
It shall be possible to start up any turbine
only when the quick-closing device is ready for
and
vibration
are
to
be
avoided,
e.g.
by
the
incorporation of tube supporting plates.
operation.
13.1.2
11.3
The water chambers and steam space must
be provided with openings for inspection and cleaning.
Other Rules
Anti-corrosion protection is to be provided on the water
Depending on the degree of automation involved, the
side.
extent and design of the equipment is also subject to
the Rules in Chapter 4-1 - Automation.
13.1.3
In
the
case
of
single-plane
turbine
installations, suitable measures must be taken to
12.
Control and Monitoring Equipment
prevent condensate from flowing back into the low
pressure turbine.
12.1
Arrangement
13.2.
Cooling Water Supply
The control and monitoring equipment for each main
propulsion unit is to be located on the control
platform.
The supply of cooling water to the condenser is subject
to the Rules contained in Section 16, I.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
3-6
D
D.
Tests
2.3
1.
Material Testing
Turbine rotors are to be tested at a speed at least 15%
1.1
The following parts are subject to testing in
Cold overspeed test
above the rated speed for not less than 3 minutes. TL
accordance with the TL Material Rules:
may accept mathematical proof of the stresses in the
rotating parts at over speed as a substitute for the over
speed test itself provided that the design is such that
-
Rotating parts such as rotors, discs, shafts,
reliable calculations are possible and the rotor has been
shrink rings, blades, toothed coupling and
non-destructively tested to ascertain its freedom from
other dynamically loaded components as well
defects.
as valve spindles and cones;
-
3.
Pressure and Tightness Tests
3.1
All finished casing components are to be
Stationary parts such as casings, guide
blades, nozzles and nozzle chests, guide
vanes, turbine casing bolts, bed frames and
bearing pedestals;
subjected to hydrostatic testing in the presence of the
Surveyor.
-
Condenser tubes and tube plates.
1.2
In the case of small auxiliary turbines with a
The test pressure pp is calculated as follows:
pp = 1.5 pe,perm
steam inlet temperature of up to 250°C, the extent of the
tests may be limited to the disc and shaft materials.
2.
Testing of Turbine Rotors
2.1
Thermal stability test
where pe,perm ≤ 80 [bar]
pp = pe,perm + 40 bar where pe,perm > 80 [bar]
pe,perm [bar] Maximum allowable working pressure.
For the bodies of quick-closing, manoeuvring and
Rotors forged in one piece and welded rotors are to be
tested for axial stability by submitting them to a thermal
control valves, the test pressure is 1.5 times the
maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler
(approval pressure). The sealing efficiency of these
stability test.
valves when closed is to be tested at 1.1 pe,perm.
2.2
Balancing
3.2
2.2.1
Finished rotors, complete with blades and
associated rotating parts and ready for assembly, are to
Casing parts on the exhaust side of low
pressure turbines subject during operation to the
condenser pressure are to be tested at pp = 1.0 bar.
be dynamically balanced in the presence of the
Condensers are to be subjected to separate
Surveyor (The assessment may be based on ISO 1940-
3.3
1
hydrostatic testing on both the steam and the water
standard
“Mechanical
vibration-Balance
quality
requirements of rigid rotors” or an equivalent standard.).
2.2.2
The stabilizing test temperature is to be not
side. The test pressure pp shall be:
pp = 1.0 [bar]
on the steam side
pp = 1.5 pe,perm
on the water side
less than 28 °C above the maximum steam temperature
to which the rotor will be exposed, and not more than
the tempering temperature of the rotor material.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 3 – Thermal Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
E
E.
Trials
1.
Factory Trials
-
During
the
dock
3-7
or
sea
trials,
astern
revolutions equal to at least 70% of the rated
ahead rpm for about 20 minutes.
Where steam turbines are subjected to a trial run at the
factory, the satisfactory functioning of the manoeuvring,
safety and control equipment is to be verified during the
trial run, and such verification shall in any case take
place not later than the commissioning of the plant
During astern and subsequent forward operation, the
steam pressures and temperatures and the relative
expansion must not assume magnitudes liable to
endanger the operational safety of the plant.
aboard ship.
2.2
2.
Shipboard Trials
2.1
Main turbines are to be subjected to a dock
Turbines driving electric generators or
auxiliary machines are to be run for at least 4 hours
trial and thereafter, during a trial voyage, to the following
at their rated power and for 30 minutes at 110% rated
power.
tests:
2.2
-
Operation at rated rpm for at least 6 hours;
-
Reversing manoeuvres; and
TL reserves the right to call for additional
tests in individual cases.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
4-1
SECTION 4
TURBOMACHINERY / GAS TURBINES AND EXHAUST GAS TURBOCHARGERS
Page
A.
GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-2
1. Application
2. Definitions
3
B.
Type Approval
DESIGN AND INSTALLATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………. 4-2
1. General
2. Basic Design Considerations
3. Air Inlet
4. Hot Surfaces
5. Bearing Lubrication
6. Pipe and Duct Connections
C.
TESTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4-4
1. Material Tests
2. Testing of Components
3. Hydrostatic Tests
4. Over Speed Test
5. Dynamic Balancing
6. Bench Test
7. Containment Test
8. Type Test
9. Spare Parts
D.
SHOP APPROVALS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-6
1. Materials and Production
2. Mass Produced Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
3. Manufacturing of Exhaust Gas Turbochargers Under License Agreement
E.
GAS TURBINES ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
1. Governor and Over Speed Protective Devices
2. Miscellaneous Automatic Safety Devices
3. Alarming Devices
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
4-7
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
4-2
-
Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
A,B
Arrangement and flow diagrams of lubrication
and cooling systems
A.
General
1.
Application
-
Material
specifications
including
their
mechanical and chemical properties for the
rotating parts (shaft, wheels, blades) and the
Exhaust gas turbochargers fitted on diesel engines for
casing including welding details and welding
propulsion and auxiliary services are to be approved,
procedures for the rotating parts,
tested and certified in accordance with the requirements
of these rules.
-
Technical specification for the turbocharger
including the maximum continuous operating
2.
conditions (maximum permissible rotational
Definitions
speed
and
maximum
permissible
Turbocharger is designed to charge the diesel
temperature, as well as the permissible
engine cylinders with air at a higher pressure and hence
values regarding vibration excited by the
higher density than air at atmospheric pressure. The
engine). The maximum permissible values
term turbocharger also refers to superchargers, turbo
have to be defined by the manufacturer for a
blowers, scavenge blowers.
certain turbocharger type but shall not be less
2.1
than the 110 % MCR values for the specific
The Maximum Operating Speed is the
2.2
application,
maximum permissible speed for which the turbocharger
is designed to run continuously at the maximum
permissible operating temperature (speed at 110%
diesel
engine
output).
The
operational
speed
-
Operation and maintenance manuals,
-
Details
3.
-
address)
of
the
Details (name and address) of the licensees,
if applicable, who are authorized by the
Type Approval
licensor to produce and deliver turbochargers
of a certain type,
In general turbochargers are type approved. A type
Certificate valid for 5 years will be issued in accordance
with 3.1.
3.1
and
subcontractors for rotating parts and casings,
corresponds to the speed at 100% diesel engine output
at MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating) condition.
(name
-
Type test report carried out in accordance
with C.8.
Documentation to be submitted
-
Test report or verification by calculation of the
containment test, carried out in accordance
For every turbocharger type, the documents listed
with C.7.
below are to be submitted to TL in triplicate for type
approval:
-
-
-
B.
Design and Installation
dimensions,
1.
General
Drawings of rotating parts (shaft, wheels and
Turbochargers are to be designed to operate at least
blades),
under the ambient conditions given in Section 1, C.
Details of blade fixing,
2.
Basic Design Considerations
2.1
Basis
Cross-sectional
assembly
with
main
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
of
acceptance
and
subsequent
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
B
4-3
certification of a turbocharger is the drawing approval
Regulation 4, Paragraph 2.3, parts with surface
and the documented type test as well as the verification
temperatures above 220ºC are to be properly insulated
of the containment integrity.
in order to minimize the risk of fire if flammable oils,
lubrication oils, or fuel come into contact with these
The turbocharger casings are to be of a
2.2
surfaces.
specification suitable for stresses and temperatures to
which they are designed to be exposed. Cast iron may
4.2
only be considered for operating temperatures not
shielded with collars in such a way that either spraying
exceeding 232ºC. Ductile cast iron designed for high
temperature service is acceptable subject to review of
mechanical and metallurgical properties at design
temperatures. Cast steel may be considered for
operating temperatures not exceeding 427ºC. All
castings are to be properly heat-treated to remove
internal stresses. Deviations from the standard heat-
or dripping leak oil may not come into contact with hot
surfaces of more than 220ºC.
4.3
Hot components in range of passageways or
within the working area of turbochargers shall be
insulated or protected so that touching does not cause
burns.
treatment have to be approved separately by TL.
Casings are to be provided with suitable
2.3
Pipe connections have to be located or
5.
Bearing Lubrication
5.1
Bearing lubrication may not be impaired by
seals. Drains are to be fitted in places where water or oil
may collect.
exhaust gases or by adjacent hot components.
Rotors, bearings, discs, impellers and blades
2.4
are
to
be
designed
in
accordance
with
sound
5.2
Leakage oil and oil vapors are to be
engineering principles. Design criteria along with
evacuated in such a way that they do not come into
engineering analyses substantiating the suitability of the
contact with parts at temperatures equal or above their
design for the rated power and speed are to be
self-ignition temperature.
submitted for review.
5.3
For turbochargers which share a common
The turbocharger rotors also need to be
lubrication system with the diesel engine and which
designed according to the speed criteria for natural burst.
have got an electrical lubrication oil pump supply, it is
In general the burst speed of the turbine shall be lower
recommended to install an emergency lubrication oil
2.5
than the burst speed of the compressor in order to avoid
tank.
an excessive turbine over speed after compressor burst
due to loss of energy absorption in the compressor.
5.4
A gas flow from turbocharger to adjacent
components containing explosive gases, e.g. crankshaft
3.
Air Inlet
casing shall be prevented by an adequate ventilating
The air inlet of the turbocharger is to be fitted with a
system.
filter in order to minimize the entrance of harmful foreign
6.
material or water.
Pipe and Duct Connections
Pipe or duct connections to the turbocharger casing are
4.
Hot Surfaces
4.1
According to SOLAS Rules and Regulations,
to be made in such a way as to prevent the
Chapter II-2, Part B - Prevention of fire and explosion,
transmission of excessive loads or moments to the
turbochargers.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
4-4
C.
C
equal production control may be accepted for welded
Tests
joints. The testing shall be performed by the manufacturer
and the results together with details of the test method
1.
Material Tests
1.1
General
criteria and documented in a Certificate.
1.1.1
Material testing is required for casings, shaft,
1.5
Material certificates
The materials used for the components of exhaust gas
1.5.1
Material Certificates shall contain at least the
turbochargers shall be suitable for the intended purpose
following information:
are to be evaluated according to recognized quality
compressor and turbine wheel, including the blades.
and shall satisfy the minimum requirements of the
-
approved manufacturer’s specification.
Quantity, type of product, dimensions where
applicable, types of material, supply condition
1.1.2
and weight
All materials shall be manufactured by
sufficiently proven techniques according to state of the
art, whereby it is ensured that the required properties
-
Name of supplier together with order and job
numbers, if applicable
are achieved. Where new technologies are applied, a
preliminary proof of their suitability is to be submitted to
-
Construction number, where known
-
Manufacturing process,
expertise of independent testing bodies.
-
Heat numbers and chemical composition,
1.2
-
Supply
TL. According to the decision of TL, this may be done in
terms of special tests for procedures and/or by
presentation of the work's own test results as well as by
Condition of supply and heat treatment
condition
with
details
of
heat
treatment,
Materials are to be supplied in the prescribed heattreated condition. Where the final heat treatment is to be
-
Identifying marks,
-
Result of mechanical property tests carried
performed by the supplier, the actual condition in which
the material is supplied shall be clearly stated in the
out on material at ambient temperature.
relevant Certificate. The final verification of material
properties for components needs to be adapted and
coordinated
according
to
production
procedure.
Deviations from the heat treatment procedures have to
be approved by TL separately.
1.3
1.5.2
Depending on the produced component of
turbocharger material test certificates are to be issued
by TL respectively the manufacturer. The required
Certificates are indicated in Table 4. 1.
Chemical composition and mechanical
Table 4.1
properties
Materials and products have to satisfy the requirements
Turbocharger
components
relating to chemical composition and mechanical
Material certificates
Type of Certificate
Shaft
TL Certificate (acc. to DIN EN 10204
- 3.1 C)
approved in connection with the design in each case.
Rotors
(compressor and
turbine)
TL Certificate (acc. to DIN EN 10204
- 3.1 C)
1.4
Blades
TL Certificate (acc. to DIN EN 10204
- 3.1 C)
Casing
Manufacturer Inspection Certificate
(acc. to DIN EN 10204 - 3.1)
properties specified in the TL Material Rules or, where
applicable, in the relevant manufacturer’s specifications
Non-destructive testing
Non-destructive testing shall be applied for the wheels,
blades and welded joints of rotating parts.
Another
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
C
4-5
Test certificates are to be issued in
approved non-destructive testing method no over speed
accordance with TL Material rules. The materials are
test is required. Deviations are to be approved
to conform to specifications approved in connection
separately by TL.
1.5.3
with the approval of the type in each case.
5.
1.5.4
If the manufacturer is approved according to
D.2. as manufacturer of mass produced exhaust gas
turbochargers fitted on diesel engines having a
cylinder bore ≤ 300 mm, the material properties of
these parts may be covered by Manufacturer Inspection
Certificates and need not to be verified by a TL
Surveyor.
2.
Dynamic Balancing
Each shaft and bladed wheel as well as the complete
rotating assembly has to be dynamically balanced
individually in accordance with the approved quality
control procedure. For assessment of the balancing
conditions the DIN ISO 1940 or comparable regulations
may be referred to.
6.
Bench Test
6.1
Each turbocharger is to undergo a test run
Testing of Components
The following tests as outlined in 3-5 may
which is to be carried out for 20 minutes at overload
be carried out and certified by the manufacturer for all
condition (110% of the rated diesel engine output) on
exhaust
the engine for which the turbocharger is intended.
2.1
gas
turbochargers.
The
identification
of
components subject to testing must be ensured. On
request, the documentation of the tests, including those
6.2
of subcontractors' tests, are to be provided to the TL
test run of the turbocharger unit for 20 minutes at
Surveyor for examination.
maximum operating speed and operating temperature.
2.2
The tests as specified in 6 ÷ 8 are to be
performed in presence of a TL Surveyor.
6.3
This test run may be replaced by a separate
In case of sufficient verification of the
turbocharger's
performance
during
the
test,
a
subsequent dismantling is required only in case of
TL reserves the right to review the proper
abnormalities such as high vibrations or excessive noise
performance and the results of the tests at any time to
or other deviations of operational parameters such as
the satisfaction of the Surveyor.
temperatures,
2.3
speed,
pressures
to
the
expected
operational data.
3.
Hydrostatic Tests
The cooling spaces of each gas inlet and gas outlet
casing as well as the emergency lubrication oil system
are to be tested to 1.5 times the working pressure but
not less than 4 bar.
4.
6.4
On the other hand turbochargers shall be
presented to the TL Surveyor for inspection based upon
an agreed spot check basis.
6.5
If the manufacturer is approved as a
manufacturer
Over Speed Test
of
mass
produced
turbochargers
according to D.2., the bench test can be carried out on
4.1
Compressor and turbine wheels have to
an agreed sample basis. In this case the Surveyor's
undergo an over speed test for 3 minutes either at
attendance at the test is not required.
-
7.
Containment Test
7.1
The turbocharger has to fulfill containment
20 % above the maximum operating speed
at ambient temperature, or
-
10 % above the maximum operating speed
requirements in case of rotor burst. This requires that at
at operating temperature.
rotor burst no part may penetrate the casing of the
turbocharger. The following requirements are applicable
4.2
If each wheel is individually checked by TL
for a type approval of turbochargers.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
4-6
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
C,D
The minimum speeds for the containment test are
7.3
In general a TL Surveyor must be involved
defined as follows:
for the containment test. The documentation of the
physical containment test as well as the report of the
-
-
Compressor:
≥ 120 % of its maximum
simulation results must be submitted to TL within the
permissible speed
scope of the approval procedure.
Turbine:
8.
Type Test
8.1
The type test is to be carried out on a
≥ 140 % of its maximum
permissible speed or the natural burst speed
(whichever is lower)
standard turbocharger. Normally the type test is a one
The containment test has to be performed at working
hour hot running test at maximum permissible speed
temperature. The theoretical (design) natural burst
and maximum permissible temperature. After the test
speeds of compressor and turbine have to be submitted
the turbocharger is to be dismantled and examined.
for information.
8.2
Manufacturers who have facilities to test the
A numerical proof of sufficient containment
turbocharger on a diesel engine for which the
integrity of the casing based on calculations by means
turbocharger is to be approved, may consider to
of a simulation model may be accepted provided that
substitute the hot running test by a one hour test run at
7.2
overload (110 % of the rated diesel engine output).
-
The numerical simulation model has been
tested and it's applicability/accuracy has
9.
Spare Parts
been proven by direct comparison between
calculation results and practical containment
The rotating assembly parts (rotor, wheels and blades)
test for a
application (reference
as well as turbocharger casings have to be replaced by
containment test). This proof has to be
reference
spare parts which are manufactured by TL approved
provided once by the manufacturer, who
manufacturers according to the previously approved
wants to apply for acceptance of numerical
drawings and material specifications. The manufacturer
simulation,
must be recognized by the holder of the original type
approval.
-
The corresponding numerical simulation for
the containment is performed for the same
speeds, as specified for the containment test
D.
Shop Approvals
1.
Materials and Production
(see above),
-
The design of the turbocharger regarding the
geometry and kinematics is similar to that of
The manufacturers of the material as well as the pro-
one turbocharger which has passed the
duction procedures for the rotating parts and casings
containment test. In general totally new
have to be approved by TL.
designs will call for new containment tests,
2.
-
The application of the simulation model may
Mass
Produced
Exhaust
Gas
Turbochargers
give hints that containment speeds lower as
above specified may be more critical for the
2.1
casing's integrity, due to special design
turbochargers who operate a quality management
features and different kinematic behavior. In
system
such
of
turbochargers fitted on TL approved mass produced
containment for the casing shall be proven
diesel engines having a cylinder bore of ≤ 300 mm may
for the worst case.
apply for the shop approval by TL.
cases
the
integrity
properties
Manufacturers
and
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
are
of
manufacturing
mass-produced
exhaust
gas
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
D,E
Upon satisfactory shop approval, the material
2.2
4-7
The approval becomes invalid if the license
3.5
tests according to C.1. for these parts may be covered
agreement expires. The licensor is obliged to inform the
by a Manufacturer Inspection Certificate and need not
TL about the date of expiry.
to be verified by a Surveyor.
In addition a bench test according to C.6 may
2.3
E.
Gas Turbines
be carried out on a sample basis and need not to be
The documents for approval for main and auxiliary gas
verified by a TL Surveyor.
turbines have to be submitted to TL.
The shop approval is valid for 3 years with
2.4
1.
annual follow up audits.
Governor and Over Speed Protective
Devices
No TL certificate will be issued for mass-
2.5
produced turbochargers. Mass-produced turbochargers
will be mentioned with the serial number in the final
Main gas turbines are to be provided with
1.1
over speed protective devices to prevent the turbine
speed from exceeding more than 15% of the maximum
Certificate intended for the diesel engine.
continuous speed.
3.
Manufacturing
of
Exhaust
Gas
Where a main gas turbine incorporates a
1.2
Turbochargers Under License Agreement
reverse gear, electric transmission, controllable pitch
Manufacturers
3.1
who
are
manufacturing
exhaust gas turbochargers under a license agreement
propeller or other free-coupling arrangement, a speed
governor independent of the over speed protective
device is to be fitted and is to be capable of controlling
must have shop recognition of TL.
the speed of the unloaded gas turbine without bringing
The shop approval can be issued in addition
3.2
to
a
valid
license
agreement
if
the
the over speed protective device into action.
following
requirements are fulfilled:
2.
Miscellaneous Automatic Safety Devices
-
The manufactured turbochargers have a valid
2.1
Details
TL approval of the type for the licensor.
automatic
hazardous
-
of
safety
the
manufacturer’s
devices
conditions
to
arising
proposed
safeguard
in
the
against
event
of
The drawings and the material specification
malfunctions in the gas turbine installation are to be
as well as the working procedures comply
submitted to the Classification Society together with the
with
failure mode and effect analysis.
the
drawings
and
specifications
approved in connection with the turbocharger
approval of the type for the licensor.
2.2
quick
3.3
Upon satisfactory assessment in combination
with a bench test carried out on a sample basis with TL
Surveyor's attendance, the drawing approval and tests
according to C.7. and C.8.are not required. The scope
of the testing for materials and components has to be
Main gas turbines are to be equipped with a
closing
device
(shut-down
device)
which
automatically shuts off the fuel supply to the turbines at
least in case of:
-
Over speed,
-
Unacceptable lubricating oil pressure drop,
-
Loss of flame during operation,
-
Excessive vibration,
fulfilled unchanged according to C.2 to C.6.
3.4
The shop recognition is valid for three years
with annual follow up audits and can be granted, if
required
in
manufacturer
combination
of
with
an
mass-produced
approval
as
turbochargers.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
4-8
-
Section 4 – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
E
Excessive axial displacement of each rotor
2.4
(Except
provided for clearing all parts of the main gas turbine of
for
gas
turbines
with
rolling
bearings),
Automatic or interlocked means are to be
the accumulation of liquid fuel or for purging gaseous
fuel,
before
ignition
commences
on
starting
or
-
Excessive high temperature of exhaust gas,
recommences after failure to start.
-
Unacceptable lubricating oil pressure drop of
2.5
reduction gear,
emergency is to be provided at the manoeuvring
Hand trip gear for shutting off the fuel in an
station.
-
Excessive high vacuum pressure at the
compressor inlet.
Starting devices are to be so arranged that
2.6
firing operation is discontinued and main fuel valve is
2.3
The following turbine services are to be fitted
with automatic temperature controls so as to maintain
closed within pre-determined time, when ignition is
failed.
steady state conditions throughout the normal operating
range of the main gas turbine:
-
Lubricating oil supply,
-
Oil fuel supply (or automatic control of oil fuel
3.
Alarming Devices
3.1
Alarming devices listed in Table 4.2 are to be
provided.
viscosity as alternative),
Suitable alarms are to be operated by the
3.2
-
activation of shutdown devices.
Exhaust gas
Table 4.2 List of alarm and shutdown
Monitoring parameter
Alarm
Shutdown
Turbine speed
H
S
Lubricating oil pressure
L*
S
Lubricating oil pressure of reduction gear
L*
S
Differential pressure across lubricating oil filter
H
Lubricating oil temperature
H
Oil fuel supply pressure
L
Oil fuel temperature
H
Cooling medium temperature
H
Bearing temperature
H
Flame and ignition Failure
T
Automatic starting Failure
T
Vibration
H*
S
Axial displacement of rotor
H
S
Exhaust gas temperature
H*
S
Vacuum pressure at the compressor inlet
H*
S
Loss of control system
T
S
H = Alarm for high value
L = Alarm for low value
T = Alarm activated
S = Shut down
* Alarms are to be activated at the suitable setting points prior to arriving the critical condition for the activation of shutdown
devices.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-1
SECTION 5
MAIN SHAFTING
Page
A.
GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................................5-2
1. Scope
2. Documents for Approval
B.
APPROVED MATERIALS ........................................................................................................................................5-3
C.
DESIGN QUALITY ....................................................................................................................................................5-4
1. Goal
2. Shaft Dimensioning
3. Shaft Tapers and Propeller Nut Threads
4. Securing the Propeller Shaft
5. Couplings
6. Shaft Bearings
D.
ALIGNMENT AND VIBRATION .............................................................................................................................5-14
1. General
2. Fundamentals of Shaft Alignment
3. Torsional Vibrations
4. Axial Vibrations
5. Lateral Vibrations
E.
INSPECTION, TESTING AND CERTIFICATION ...................................................................................................5-15
1. General
2. Non-Destructive Tests and Inspections
3. Pressure Tests
F.
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FIBRE LAMINATE SHAFTS ............................................................................5-16
1. Theoretical Strength Calculation
2. Buckling Failure
3. Experimental Strength Investigation
4. Final Documentation
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-2
A
A.
General
approved by TL are classified and itemized as follows:
1.
Scope
2.1
1.1
The following rules apply to the standard and
­
Documents for propulsion shafting
General drawings of the entire shafting
established types of shafting for main and auxiliary
arrangement from the main engine coupling
propulsion system and their associated components
to the propeller,
such as couplings, clutches, shafts and other power
transmitting components for propulsion purposes as
­
Detail drawings of the propulsion shaft (thrust,
line, tube and tail shaft, as applicable),
well as for lateral thrusters. Novel designs require the
TL's special approval.
1.2
­
Detailed drawing and arrangement of the
couplings (integral, demountable, keyed, or
All kind of propulsion shafts and their
shrink-fit, coupling bolts (1) and keys),
associated components are to be superb designed and
constructed so that they can hold out the maximum
permissible stresses arising from every kind condition of
­
Engineering analyses and fitting instructions
for shrink-fit couplings,
the continuous, the transient and the peak operation.
1.3
In the case of ships with ice classes, the
­
Detailed drawing and arrangement of the
shaft bearings, the shaft seals and the shaft
strengthening factors given in Section 19 are to be
lubricating system,
complied with. TL reserves the right to call for propeller
shaft dimensions in excess of those specified in this
Section if the propeller arrangement results in increased
­
Detail drawings and arrangement of the stern
tube, the stern tube seals and the cast resin
bending stresses.
1.4
mount,
The introduced definitions apply to the
formulas in this section:
­
“Tail shaft” is the part of the shaft of a ship’s
stern tube from the forward end of the
propeller end bearing to the in-board shaft
seal.
­
2.
Power take-off to shaft generators,
propulsion boosters, or similar equipment,
(rated 100 kW and over, as applicable,
­
Materials,
2.1.1
The drawings must contain all the data
necessary for approval. Where necessary, design
“Propeller shaft” covers the tail shaft and
tube shaft.
“Line shaft” or “intermediate shaft” is the
part of the propulsion shaft in-board of the
vessel.
­
­
“Stern tube shaft” or “tube shaft” is the part
of the propulsion shaft passing through the
­
Rated power of main engine, reduction ratio
of gear and shaft rpm,
propeller extending through the stern tube.
­
­
calculations for components and descriptions of the
plant are to be submitted.
For the arrangement of the shaft bearings, an
2.1.2
alignment calculation, including alignment instructions,
has to be submitted for approval (see C.6.5 and D.2)
With consent of the TL for shafting with intermediate
“Thrust shaft” is the part of the propulsion
shaft transmitting thrust to the thrust bearing.
shafts d < 200 mm the alignment calculation may be
waived.
Documents for Approval
(1)
The documents, plans and particulars which are
Specific details regarding the interference fit of the
coupling bolts are to be submitted.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
A,B
2.1.3
The submitted documentation must contain
5-3
2.5
Design calculations
­
Propulsion
all the data necessary to enable the stresses to be
evaluated.
2.2
where
shaft
propulsion
alignment
shaft
is
calculations
sensitive
to
alignment, (See the requirements in C.2 and
Documents for clutches
D.2),
­
Construction details of torque transmitting
components,
housing
along
with
their
materials and dimensions,
­
­
Torsional vibration analyses,
Axial
and
lateral
(whirling)
vibration
calculations where there are barred speed
­
Rated power and engine speed,
­
Engineering analysis,
­
Clutch operating data.
B.
Approved Materials
2.3
Documents for flexible couplings
1.1
Propulsion shafts (tail, tube, intermediate and
ranges within the engine operating speed
range.
thrust shafts) together with flange, couplings, coupling
­
Construction details of torque transmitting
bolts, clutches and keys are to be made of forged steel
components,
or rolled bars, as convenient, in accordance with
housing
along
with
their
Chapter 2 - Material, Section 5, or other specifications
materials and dimensions,
as may be specially approved with a specific design.
Where appropriate, the couplings and their components
­
Rated power and engine speed,
­
Engineering analysis,
­
Static and dynamic torsional stiffness and
­
may be made of cast steel. Rolled round steel may be
used for plain, flangeless shafts. Where the materials
other than those mentioned here are proposed, full
details of chemical composition, heat treatment and
mechanical properties, as convenient, are to be
damping characteristics,
submitted for approval.
Allowable vibratory torque for continuous and
1.2
transient operation,
resistant stainless steel or other approved alloys and
Shaft liners may be of bronze, corrosion
are to be free from porosity and other defects.
­
Allowable power loss (overheating),
­
Allowable
two or more lengths, the joining of the separate pieces
misalignment
for
continuous
liner or by an approved rubber seal arrangement.
2.4
Documents for cardan shafts
­
Dimensions
­
is to be done by an approved method of welding
through not less than two thirds the thickness of the
operation.
­
Continuous liners are to be in one piece or, if made of
of
all
torque
1.3
transmitting
components and their materials,
Rated power, rated torque, and input speed
from engine,
-
Engineering analysis,
­
Operating data.
In general, the minimum specified ultimate
tensile strength of steels used for propulsion shafting
(shafts, flange couplings, bolts/fitted bolts) shall be
between 400 N/mm2 and 800 N/mm2.
1.4
Carbon steel material having a percentage
elongation more than 16 is permitted to be used in any
shafting component. However, the materials having an
elongation of less than 10% are not accepted to be
used in the non-fitted alloy steel coupling bolts even
they are manufactured to a recognized Standard.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-4
B,C
Alloy steels having a percentage elongation less than
driven by rotating machines such as diesel engines,
16 may be applied subject to TL approval.
turbines or electric motors.
1.5
For dynamically loaded parts of the shafting,
For shafts that are integral to equipment,
1.2
designed in accordance to the formulas in C and D
such as for gear boxes (see Section 7, Gears and
explicitly for the shafts themselves as well as for
Couplings), podded drives, electrical motors and/or
connecting / fitted bolts for flanged connections in
generators, thrusters, turbines and which in general
general quenched and tempered steels should be used
incorporate particular design features, additional criteria
with a tensile strength of more than 500 N/mm2.
in relation to acceptable dimensions have to be taken
into account. For the shafts in such equipment, the
However, the value of Rm used for calculation
following requirements may only be applied for shafts
of the material factor Cw in accordance with formula (2)
subject mainly to torsion and having traditional design
may not exceed.
features. Other limitations, such as design for stiffness,
1.6
high
­
415 N/mm2 for tail shafts and tube shafts
temperatures
1.3
following
600 N/mm2 for tail shafts and tube shafts
to
be
considered
Explicitly it will be emphasized that the
applications
are
not
covered
by
the
requirements in this Section:
(propeller shafts) in oil lubricated bearings or
in saltwater lubricated bearings but fitted with
continuous liner or equivalent,
­
are
(propeller shafts) in salt water lubricated
bearing fitted with non-continuous liners,
­
etc.
additionally.
760 N/mm2 for shafts made of carbon or
carbon manganese steel except tail shafts
­
­
Additional strengthening for shafts in ships
classed for navigation in ice (see Section 19).
Gearing shafts (see Section 7, Gears and
Couplings).
and tube shafts (propeller shafts),
­
2
800 N/mm for shafts made of alloy steel
except tail shafts and tube shafts (propeller
shafts),
­
Any further exceptions need the special
consent of TL.
­
Electric motor and generator rotor shafts.
­
Turbine rotor shafts (See Sections 3 and 4).
­
Diesel engine crankshafts (see Section 2).
1.4
Additionally, all parts of the shafting are to be
designed to comply with the requirements relating to
1.7
Where materials with greater specified or
actual tensile strengths than the limitations given above
torsional vibrations, as mentioned briefly in D.3 and in
detail in Section 6.
are used, reduced shaft dimensions are not acceptable
when derived from formulae (1) and (2).
1.5
In general, the dimensions of the shafting
shall be based on the total rated installed power.
Where in special cases wrought copper
Changes in diameter are to be effected by tapering or
alloys resistant to seawater are to be used for the
ample radiusing. Radii must be at least equal to the
shafting, the consent of TL shall be obtained.
change in diameter. For intermediate and thrust shafts,
1.8
the radius at forged flanges is to be at least 8% of the
calculated minimum diameter for a full shaft at the
C.
Design Quality
1.
Goal
1.1
The
relevant location. For the aft propeller shaft flange, the
radius is to be at least 12.5% of the calculated minimum
diameter for a full shaft at the relevant location.
following
requirements
apply
to
propulsion shafts such as intermediate and propeller
Fillets are to have a smooth finish and should not be
recessed in way of nuts and bolt heads.
shafts of traditional straight forged design and which are
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
C
5-5
For intermediate, thrust and propeller shaft couplings,
the fillet may be formed of multiradii in such a way that
da  d  F k
the stress concentration factor will not be greater than
that for a circular fillet with radius 8 % of the actual shaft
diameter.
d
1.6
=
C w Pw /n
d 
3
1  i 
 da 
 
(1)
4
Minimum required outer diameter of shaft,
[mm]
Where the geometry of a part is such that it
cannot be dimensioned in accordance with these
formulae, special evidence of the mechanical strength
da
=
Actual outer shaft diameter, [mm]
di
=
Actual inner diameter of shaft bore, where
of the part concerned is to be furnished to TL.
1.7
Any alternative calculation has to include all
relevant loads on the complete dynamic shafting system
under
all
permissible
operating
present. If the bore in the shaft is ≤ 0.4 da the
expression, [mm]
conditions.
d
1   i
 da
Consideration has to be given to the dimensions and
arrangements of all shaft connections. Moreover, an
alternative calculation has to take into account design
Pw =
4

  1.0

may be applied
Rated power of propulsion motor, gearbox
criteria for continuous and transient operating loads
and bearing losses must not be subtracted.
(dimensioning for fatigue strength) and for peak
[kW]
operating loads (dimensioning for yield strength). The
fatigue strength analysis may be carried out separately
n
=
Shaft speed at rated power [min-1]
for different load assumptions, for example:
Cw =
­
Low cycle fatigue criterion (typically <10 ),
i.e. the primary cycles represented by zero to
=
full load and back to zero, including reversing
torque if applicable. This is addressed by
Rm =
560
R m + 160
(2)
Actual specified minimum tensile strength of
the shaft material (see B), [N/mm2]
formula (1)
­
Material factor, [-]
4
High cycle fatigue criterion (typically >>107),
F
=
Design factor for the straight sections of
propulsion shaft for installation type [-]
i.e. torsional vibration stresses permitted for
continuous operation as well as reverse
bending stresses. The limits for torsional
Intermediate and thrust shafts
vibration stresses are given in D.3 and
Section 6. The influence of reverse bending
=
95 for turbine drives, electric drives and
diesel drives through slip couplings (hydraulic
or electric)
=
100 for all other diesel drives,
stresses is addressed by the safety margins
inherent in formula (1).
-
The accumulated fatigue due to torsional
vibration when passing through a barred
speed range or any other transient condition
with
associated
permitted
for
stresses
beyond
continuous
those
operation
is
addressed by the criterion for transient
stresses in D.3 and Section 6.
2.
Shaft Dimensioning
2.1
The minimum shaft diameter is to be
calculated by applying formula (1).
Propeller shafts (tail and tube)
k
=
100 for all other diesel drives,
=
Factor for the type of shaft, [-]
See Section 6, Table 6.1
3.
Shaft Tapers and Propeller Nut Threads
3.1
Keyways are in general not to be used in
installations with a barred speed range.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 5-6
Section 5 - Main Shafting
3.2
Keyways in the shaft taper for the propeller
should be so designed that the forward end of the
groove makes a gradual transition to the full shaft
section. In addition, the forward end of the keyway
should be spoon-shaped. The edges of the keyway at
the surface of the shaft taper for the propeller may not
be sharp. The forward end of the keyway must lie well
within the seating of the propeller boss. Threaded
holes to accommodate the securing screws for
propeller keys should either be in accordance with an
international standard (i.e. DIN 6885) or be located
only in the aft half of the keyway (see Fig. 5.1).
3.3
C
In general, tapers for securing flange
couplings which are jointed with adjusting springs
should have a conicity of between 1:12 and 1:20.
See Section 8 for details of propeller shaft tapers on
the propeller side.
3.4
The outside diameter of the threaded end for
the propeller retaining nut should not be less than 60% of
the calculated major taper diameter (A). (See Fig. 5.2)
Figure 5.1 Design of keyway in propeller shaft
Figure 5.2 Typical details of propeller shaft ends
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
C
4.
Securing the Propeller Shaft
4.1
Sealing
4.1.1
Propeller shafts running in oil or grease
5-7
permanent
tightness.
TL
reserves
to
demand
corresponding verifications
lubrication are to be fitted with seals of proven efficiency
and approved by TL at the stern tube ends (see Fig. 5.3
and see also the requirements applicable to the external
4.1.3
For protection of the sealing, a rope guard
should be provided. (See Fig. 5.3)
4.1.4
The propeller boss seating is to be effectively
protected against the ingress of seawater. The seal at
sealing of the stern tube in the context of the propeller
the propeller can be dispensed with if the propeller shaft
shaft survey prescribed in the Rules of Classification
is made of corrosion-resistant material. (See Fig. 5.3)
and
Surveys,
Section
3,
Surveys
-
General
Requirements).
4.1.5
In the case of classification standard IWS,
the seal must be fitted with a device by means of which
4.1.2
The securing at stern tube, shaft line or
propeller (e.g. chrome steel liner) but to guarantee a
the play of the bearing can be measured when the
vessel is afloat.
Figure 5.3 Typical Arrangements and Details of Fitting of Tail Shaft and Propeller
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-8
4.2.
C
or the thickness of the coupling bolt diameter
Shaft liners
calculated for the material having the same tensile
Propeller shafts which are not made of
4.2.1
strength as the corresponding shaft, whichever is
greater. The tensile strength of shaft material should
corrosion-resistant
material
and
which
run
in
not be assumed more than as defined in B-1.6.
seawater are to be protected against contact with
seawater by seawater-resistant metal liners or other
Special consideration will be given by TL for flanges
liners approved by TL and by proven seals at the
having non-parallel faces, but in no case is the
propeller. (See Fig. 5.3)
thickness of the flange to be less than the coupling bolt
diameter.
Metal liners in accordance with 4.2.1, which
4.2.2
run in seawater, are to be made in a single piece. With
Where propellers are attached to a forged flange on the
the expressed consent of TL the liner may consist of
propeller shaft, the flange should have a thickness of at
two or more parts, provided that the abutting edges of
least 25% of the calculated minimum diameter of the
the parts are additionally sealed and protected after
solid shaft at that relevant location and condition. These
fitting by a method approved by TL to guarantee water-
flanges may not be thinner than the Rule diameter of
tightness. Such a possibility are special coatings. Such
the fitted bolts if these are based on the same tensile
joints will be subject to special tests to prove their
strength as that of the shaft material.
effectiveness.
In the formulae (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8), the following
4.2.3
symbols are used:
Minimum wall thickness of shaft liners
Minimum wall thickness of the bronze liners to be fitted
A
2
Effective area of shrink-fit seating, [mm ]
=
to tail shafts in accordance with 4.2.1 is to be
cA
determined using the following formula:
=
Coefficient for shrink-fitted joints, depending
on the kind of driving unit [-]:
s  0.03.d  7.5
[mm]
(3)
= 1.0 for geared oil engine and turbine drives,
Where
= 1.2 for geared direct oil engine drives,
d
=
Shaft diameter under the liner [mm].
C
s
=
=
Minimum wall thickness at bearing [mm].
=
In case of the continuous liner, the wall thickness
d
between the bearings may be reduced to 0.75.s.
=
Conicity of shaft ends [-]:
difference between th e diameters at taper ends
length of taper
Shaft
diameter
in
area
of
clamp-type
coupling, [mm]
5.
Couplings
ds
=
Diameter of fitted bolts, [mm]
dk
=
Inner throat diameter of necked-down bolts,
The design of coupling bolts in the shaftline other than
that covered by this Section are to be considered and
[mm]
approved by TL individually.
5.1
The
thickness
of
coupling
flanges
on
D
=
Diameter of pitch circle of bolts, [mm]
E
=
2
Modules of elasticity, [N/mm ]
intermediate and thrust shafts and on the inboard end
of the propeller shaft must be equal to at least 20% of
the Rule diameter of the shaft at the relevant location
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
C
f
=
Coefficient for shrink-fitted joints, [-]
5-9
diameter, calculated according to formulae (4) is not to
be less than that given by the following formula:
Q
=
Peripheral force at the mean joint diameter of
a shrink fit, [N]
d s  0.65
n
=
-1
Shaft speed, [min ]
p
=
2
Contact pressure of shrink fits, [N/mm ]
Interface rated power transmitted by shaft, [kW]
=
Flange thickness in area of bolt pitch circle,
[mm]
S
=
Safety factor against slipping of shrink fits in
the shafting, [-]
=
3.0 for between engine and gearbox,
=
2.5 for all other applications,
(5)
where
Pw =
sfℓ
d 3 . (R m  160)
z.D.R m,b
d = Rule diameter (mm), i.e., minimum required
diameter of intermediate shaft made of material with
tensile
strength
Rm ,
taking
into
account
ice
strengthening requirements where applicable
while: Rm ≤ Rm,b ≤ 1.7.Rm, but not higher than 1000
N/mm2.
See also B,1.3.
5.3
Where, in special circumstances, the use of
fitted bolts is not feasible, TL may agree to the use of
an equivalent frictional resistance transmission.
T
=
Propeller thrust, [N]
z
=
Number of fitted or plain bolts, [-]
5.4
The minimum thread root diameter dk of the
connecting bolts used for clamp-type couplings is to be
determined using the formula:
Rm,b =
Tensile strength of fitted or plain bolt
2
material, [N/mm ]
μo
d s  12
=
Coefficient of static friction, [-]
=
0.15 for hydraulic schrink fits,
=
0.18 for dry shrink fits,
5.5
10 6 PW
n  z  D  R m,b
(6)
The shaft of necked-down bolts can be
designed to have a diameter more than 0.9 times the
thread root diameter. If, besides the torque, the
bolted connection is
also required to transmit
considerable additional forces, the size of the bolts
θ
=
Half conicity of shaft ends, [-]
=
C/2
must be increased accordingly.
5.6
5.2
Shrink fitted couplings
The bolts used to connect flange couplings are
normally to be designed as fitted bolts. The minimum
Where shafts are connected by keyless shrink fitted
diameter ds of fitted bolts at the coupling flange faces is
couplings (flange or sleeve type), the dimensioning of
to be determined by applying the formula:
these shrink fits shall be chosen in a way that the
maximum von Mises equivalent stress in all parts will
6
d s  16
10 PW
nzDR
not exceed 80 % of the yield strength of the specific
materials during operation and 95 % during mounting
mb
(4)
For intermediate, thrust and propeller shaft couplings
and dismounting.
For the calculation of the safety margin of the connection
having all fitted coupling bolts, the coupling bolt
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-10
against slippage, the maximum clearance will be applied.
C
also has to be considered.
This clearance has to be derived as the difference
between the lowest respectively highest diameters for the
Shaft bearings both inside and outside the stern tube
bore and the shaft according to the manufacturing
are to be so arranged that, when the plant is hot and
2
drawings. The contact pressure p [N/mm ] in the shrunk-
irrespective of the condition of loading of the ship, each
on joint to achieve the required safety margin may be
bearing is subjected to positive reaction forces.
determined by applying formulae (7) and (8).
By appropriate spacing of the bearings and by the


θ2  T 2  f  c2  Q2  T 2  θ  T
p
Af
alignment of the shafting in relation to the coupling
flange at the engine or gearing, care is to be taken to
(7)
ensure that no undue shear forces or bending moments
are exerted on the crankshaft or gear shafts when the
Note:
-
plant is at operational design temperature. By spacing
Sign following the root applies to conical shrunk joints
the bearings sufficiently far apart, steps are also to be
without an axial stop to absorb astern thrust
taken to ensure that the reaction forces of line or gear
shaft bearings are not appreciably affected should the
-
Sign following the root if the conical shrunk joint has an
alignment of one or more bearings be altered by hull
axial stop to absorb astern thrust.
deflections or by displacement or wear of the bearings
themselves.
T has to be introduced as positive value if the propeller
thrust increases the surface pressure at the taper.
Guide values for the maximum permissible distance
Change of direction of propeller thrust is to be neglected
between bearings ℓmax [mm] can be determined using
as far as power and thrust are essentially less.
formula (9):
 max  K 1  d
T has to be introduced as negative value if the propeller
thrust reduces the surface pressure at the taper, e.g. for
tractor propellers.
(9)
d
= Diameter of shaft between bearings, [mm]
K1
= 450 for oil-lubricated white metal bearings,
2
μ 
f   o   θ2
 S 
(8)
= 280 for grey cast iron, grease-lubricated
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred
stern tube bearings,
speed range it has to be confirmed by separate
calculation that the vibratory torque in the main
= 280
resonance is transmitted safely. For this proof the safety
against slipping for the transmission of torque shall be
respective influence of the thrust may be disregarded.
350
for
water-lubricated
rubber
(upper values for special designs only),
at least S = 2.0 (instead of S = 2.5), the coefficient “cA”
may be set to 1.0. For this additional proof the
–
bearings in stern tubes and shaft brackets
-1
Where the shaft speed exceeds 350 min
it is
recommended that the maximum bearing spacing in
accordance with formula (10) be observed in order to
avoid excessive loads due to bending vibrations.
6.
Shaft Bearings
6.1
Arrangement of shaft bearings
In limiting cases it is advisable to check the reaction
forces of the bearing by calculating the alignment of the
shafting. It is also required that a bending stress
Drawings showing the shaft bearings and stern tube
analysis should be made for the shafting system.
bearings must be submitted for approval separately, if
 max  K 2 
the design details are not visible on the shafting
arrangement drawings. The permissible bearing loads
must be indicated. The lowest permissible shaft speed
n
d
n
-1
= Shaft speed, [min ]
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 (10)
Section 5 - Main Shafting
C
K2
5-11
= 8400 for oil-lubricated white metal bearings,
6.2.2.2
= 5200 for grease-lubricated, grey cast iron
The length of synthetic rubber, reinforced resin or
bearings and for rubber bearings inside stern
plastic oil-lubricated propeller end bearings fitted with
tubes and tail shaft brackets.
an approved oil-seal gland is to be not less than two
Oil lubricated synthetic material bearings
times the required tail shaft diameter. The length of
In general, the distance between bearings should not be
bearing may be reduced, provided the nominal bearing
less than 60% of the maximum permissible distance as
2
pressure is not more than 0.60 N/mm , as determined
calculated using formula (9) or (10) respectively.
by static bearing reaction calculation taking into account
shaft and propeller weight which is deemed to be
6.2
exerted solely on the aft bearing, divided by the
Stern tube bearings
projected area of the bearing surface. The minimum
Inside the stern tube the propeller shaft
length, however, is not to be less than 1.5 times the
should normally be supported by two bearing points. In
actual diameter. Where the material has demonstrated
short stern tubes, the forward bearing may be
satisfactory
dispensed with, in which case at least one free-standing
consideration may be given to increased bearing
journal bearing should be provided.
pressure.
6.2.1
6.2.2
Where the propeller shaft inside the stern
6.2.2.3
testing
and
operating
experience,
Oil lubricated cast iron or bronze bearings
tube runs in oil-lubricated white metal bearings; or in
plastic
The length of oil-lubricated cast iron or bronze bearings
materials approved for use in oil-lubricated stern tube
which are fitted with an approved oil-seal gland is to be
bearings, the lengths of the after and forward
not less than four times the required tail shaft diameter.
synthetic
rubber
or
reinforced
resin
or
bearings should be approximately 2 · da and 0.8 · da
respectively.
6.2.2.4
Stern tube bearing oil lubricating system
sampling arrangement
The length of the after stern tube bearing may be
reduced to 1.5 · da where the contact load, which is
An arrangement for readily obtaining accurate oil
calculated from the static load and allowing for the
samples is to be provided. The sampling point is to be
weight of the propeller is less than 0.8 MPa in the case
taken from the lowest point in the oil lubricating system,
of shafts supported on white metal bearings and 0.6
as far as practicable. Also, the arrangements are to be
MPa in the case of bearings made of synthetic
such as to permit the effective removal of contaminants
materials.
from the oil lubricating system.
6.2.2.1
Oil lubricated white metal bearings
6.2.3
Where the propeller shafts inside the stern
tube runs in bearings made of lignum vitae, rubber or
The length of white-metal-lined, oil-lubricated propeller-
plastic approved for use in water-lubricated stern tube
end bearings fitted with an approved oil-seal gland is to
bearings, the length of the after bearing should equal
be not less than two times the required tail shaft
approximately 4 · da and at that of the forward bearing
diameter. The length of the bearing may be reduced,
should be approximately 1.5.da.
provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than
2
0.80 N/mm , as determined by static bearing reaction
A reduction of the bearing length may be approved if
calculation taking into account shaft and propeller
the bearing is shown by means of bench tests to have
weight which is deemed to be exerted solely on the aft
adequate load bearing capacity.
bearing, divided by the projected area of the bearing
surface. The minimum length, however, is not to be less
Note: In a closed fresh water system lubricated stern tube,
than 1.5 times the actual diameter.
the sample is to be drawn from the same agreed position in
the system which should be positively identified. The sample
should be representative of the water circulating within the
stern tube (also refer to IACS Rec. Recommended procedure
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-12
C
for the determination of contents of metals and other
For application of roller bearings the required minimum
contaminants in a closed fresh water system lubricated stern
loads as specified by the manufacturer are to be
tube).
observed.
6.2.4
Where the propeller shaft runs in grease-
lubricated, grey cast iron bushes the lengths of the after
The minimum L10a (acc. ISO 281) lifetime has to be
suitable with regard to the specified overhaul intervals.
and forward stern tube bearings should be approximately
2.5 · da and 1.0 · da respectively.
6.4
Bearing lubrication
The peripheral speed of propeller shafts shall not
6.4.1
Lubrication and matching of materials for the
exceed:
plain or roller bearing of the shafting system should
satify the operational demands of seagoing vessel.
­
2.5 to a maximum of 3 m/s for grey cast iron
bearings with grease lubrication
6.4.2
Lubricating oil or grease must be introduced
into the stern tube in such a way as to ensure a reliable
­
­
supply of oil or grease to the forward and after stern
6 m/s for rubber bearings
tube bearings.
3 to a maximum of 4 m/s for lignum vitae
With grease lubrication, the forward and after
bearings with water lubrication
bearings are each to be provided with a grease
Where propeller shafts are to run in anti-
connection. Wherever possible, a grease pump
friction bearings inside the stern tube, these should
driven by the shaft is to be used to secure a
wherever possible take the form of cylindrical roller
continuous supply of grease.
6.2.5
bearings with cambered rollers or races and with
Where the shaft runs in oil within the stern
increased bearing clearance. The camber must be large
6.4.3
enough to accommodate a 0.1% inclination of the shaft
tube, a header tank is to be fitted at a sufficient
relative to the bearing axis without adverse effects.
height above the ship's load line. Facilities are to be
provided for checking the level of oil in the tank at
For application of roller bearings care must be taken
any time.
that the minimum load requirements as specified by the
manufacturer
are
fulfilled
(axial
adjustment
recommended).
6.4.4
The temperature of the after stern tube
bearing is to be indicated. Alternatively, with propeller
shafts less than 400 mm in diameter the stern tube oil
6.3
Intermediate bearings
6.3.1
Plain bearings
temperature may be indicated. In this case the
temperature sensor is to be located in the vicinity of the
after stern tube bearing.
For intermediate bearings shorter bearing lengths or
In
the
case
of
ships
with
automated
higher specific loads as defined in 6.2.1 may be agreed
6.4.5
with TL.
machinery, Rules for Automation has to be complied
with.
6.3.2
Roller bearings
6.4.6
The length of the bearing, next to and
For the case of application of roller bearings for shaft
supporting the propeller, is to be not less than four times
lines the design is to be adequate for the specific
the required tail-shaft diameter. However, for bearings of
requirements.
rubber, reinforced resins, or plastic materials, the length
of the bearing, next to and supporting the propeller, may
For shaft lines significant deflections and inclinations
have to be taken into account. Those shall not have
adverse consequences.
be less than four times, but not less than two times the
required tail shaft diameter, provided the bearing design
is being substantiated by experimental tests to the
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
C
satisfaction of TL surveyor.
5-13
the measurements and of the documentation
has to be agreed with TL specifically for the
6.5
plant.
Stern tube connections
The requirements for the initial survey of this
Oil-lubricated stern tubes are to be fitted with filling,
6.6.2
testing and drainage connections as well as with a
system as well as for the checks at the occasion of
vent
annual and Class Renewal surveys are defined in the
pipe.
Where
the
propeller
shaft
runs
in
seawater, a flushing line is to be fitted in front of the
TL Classification and Survey Rules.
forward stern tube bearing in place of the filling
connection.
If the requirements according to 6.5.1 and
6.6.3
6.5.2 are fulfilled, the Class Notation CM-PS (Condition
6.6
Monitoring – Planned Maintenance System) may be
Condition monitoring of tube shaft
assigned
6.6.1
Where the propeller shaft runs within the
stern tube in oil the possibility exists to prolong the
6.7
Cast resin mounting
intervals between shaft withdrawals. For this purpose
the following design measures have to be provided:
The mounting of stern tubes and stern tube bearings
made of cast resin and also the seating of plummer
­
A device for measurement of the temperature
blocks on cast resin parts is to be carried out by
of the aft stern tube bearing (and regular
approved companies in the presence of a TL
documentation
surveyor.
of
measured
values),
compare 6.3.4
Only TL approved cast resins may be used for seatings.
­
A possibility to determine the oil consumption
within
the
stern
tube
(and
regular
documentation)
-
are to be observed.
An arrangement to measure the wear down
of the aft bearing
-
Installation instructions of the cast resin manufacturer
A system to take representative oil samples
6.8
Shaft locking devices
A locking device according to the Section 1, D.12.3 has
at the rear end of the stern tube under
to be provided at each shaft line of multiple shaft
running conditions for analysis of oil quality
systems.
(aging effects and content of H2O, iron,
copper, tin, silicon, bearing metal, etc.) and
The locking device must be designed to keep the locked
suitable receptacles to send samples to
shaft from rotating while the ship is operating with the
accredited laboratories. (The samples shall
be taken at least every six months.)
­
A written description of the right procedure to
take the oil samples
­
remaining shafts at reduced power. This reduced power
must ensure a ship speed that maintains the full
manoeuvering capability of the ship, in general not less
than 8 knots.
A test device to evaluate the water content in
If the locking device is not designed for the full power
the lubricating oil on board (to be used once
and
a month)
corresponding operational restriction must be shown to
ship
speed
of
the
remaining
the operator by adequate signs.
­
If roller bearings are provided, additional
vibration measurements have to be carried out
regularly and to be documented. The scope of
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 shafts,
the
Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-14
6.9
Propeller shaft brackets and elastic stern
-
C,D
Propulsion shafting of diameter greater than
300 mm.
tube couplings
For construction of propeller shaft brackets and elastic
­
Propulsion shafting with reduction gears
stern tube couplings, see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 10,
where the bull gear is driven by two or more
C and D respectively.
ahead pinions.
-
D.
Alignment and Vibration
1.
General
Propulsion shafting with power take-off or
with booster power arrangements.
­
Propulsion shafting for which the tail shaft
bearings are to be slope-bored.
In addition to the design requirements addressed
above, considerations are to be given to additional
The alignment calculations are to include bearing
stresses in the shafting system given rise to by shaft
reactions, shear forces and bending moments along the
alignment in relation to location and spacing of the shaft
shafting, slope boring details (if applicable) and detailed
bearings, and by axial, lateral and torsional vibrations.
description of alignment procedure.
2.
The alignment calculations are to be performed for
Fundamentals of Shaft Alignment
theoretically aligned cold and hot conditions of the shaft
It has to be verified by alignment calculation that the
with specified alignment tolerances.
requirements for shaft, -gearbox- and engine bearings
are fulfilled in all relevant working conditions of the drive
Calculations are to be performed for the maximum
line. At this all essential static, dynamic and thermal
allowable alignment tolerances and are to show that:
effects have to be taken into account.
­
Bearing loads under all operating conditions
The calculation reports to be submitted shall include the
are within the acceptable limits specified by
complete scope of used input data and have to disclose
the bearing manufacturer.
the resulting shaft deflection, bending stress and
bearing loads and must document the compliance of the
­
Bearing reactions are always positive (i.e.,
supporting the shaft).
specific maker requirements.
An instruction for the alignment procedure has to be
­
Shear forces and bending moments on the
issued describing the execution on board and listing the
shaft
permissible gap and sag values for open flange
association with other stresses in the shaft.
connections or jack-up loads for measuring the bearing
loads.
­
Forces
are
within
and
acceptable
moments
on
limits
in
propulsion
equipment are within the limits specified by
the machinery manufacturers.
The final alignment on board has to be checked by
suitable measurement methods in afloat condition in
presence of the TL Surveyor.
­
If he calculated relative misalignment slope
between the shaft and the tail shaft bearing is
In general, shaft alignment calculations, as well as a
-3
greater than 0.3·10 [rad], then consideration
shaft alignment procedure, are to be submitted for
is to be given to reducing the relative
reference. However, calculations for the following
misalignment slope by means of slope-boring
alignment-sensitive types of installations are to be
or bearing inclination.
submitted for review:
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
D,E
3.
Torsional Vibrations
E. Inspection, Testing And Certification
For torsional vibration calculations, see Sec.6.
4.
5-15
1.
Axial Vibrations
1.1
The designer or the builder is to evaluate the shafting
system to ensure that axial vibration characteristics in
association with diesel engine or propeller blade-rate
frequency forces will not result in deleterious effects
throughout the engine operating speed range, with
General
All component parts including shafts, couplings,
coupling bolts, clutches and keys of the propulsion
shafting system which assist in transmitting the torque
from the ship's propulsion plant are subject to the TL
Rules Chapter 2 - Material, Section 5, and must be tested
in the presence of the Surveyor. This requirement also
consideration also given to the possibility of the
covers metal propeller shaft liners. Where propeller
coupling of torsional and axial vibration, unless
shafts running in seawater are protected against
experience with similar shafting system installations
seawater penetration not by a metal liner but by plastic
makes it unnecessary. The axial vibrations may be
coatings, the coating technique used must be approved
controlled by axial vibration detuners to change the
by TL.
natural frequency of the system or by axial vibration
dampers to limit the amplitude of axial vibrations to an
1.2
acceptable level.
sample rods should be equal to 4.
When on the basis of axial vibration calculations the
1.3
designer or builder proposed to provide barred speed
a recognized Standard will not require material testing.
The ratio of length to diameter of the material
Coupling bolts manufactured and marked to
ranges within the engine operating speed range, the
calculations are to be submitted for information. The
2.
Non-destructive Tests and Inspections
barred speed ranges due to axial vibrations are to be
verified and established by measurement.
Shafting and couplings are to be surface examined by
the Surveyor.
5.
Lateral Vibrations
The
methods
indicated
in
these
requirements
The designer or the builder is to evaluate the shafting
concerning the magnetic particle test and ultrasonic
system to ensure that the amplitudes of lateral (whirling)
tests
vibration are of acceptable magnitude throughout the
components made of ferritic steel grades. For forged
engine operating speed range, unless experience with
similar
shafting
system
installations
makes
it
unnecessary.
are
limited
to
the
application
of
forged
components made of austenitic or austenitic-ferritic
steel grades the methods and acceptance criteria for
the ultrasonic and penetrant tests shall be agreed
upon with TL individually. This may be performed
When on the basis of lateral vibration calculations, the
designer or builder proposed to provide barred speed
based on standards or specifications from the
manufacturer or the orderer.
ranges within the engine operating speed range, the
The tests are to be performed in accordance with the
calculations are to be submitted for information. The
TL Rules Chapter 2 - Material, Section 1. Unless
barred speed ranges due to lateral vibration are to be
otherwise agreed it may also be performed according to
verified and established by measurement.
ISO 16810, EN 10228-3, SEP 1923, EN 10228-3 and/or
other
equivalent
and
recognized
manufacturer or orderer specifications.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 standards,
Section 5 - Main Shafting
5-16
Forgings for all shafts are to be ultrasonically examined
F.
to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor according
Shafts
E,F
Special Requirements for Fibre Laminate
to Chapter 2, Material, Section 5. Conformity with the
Chapter 2 - Material or equivalent, will be considered to
1.
Theoretical strength calculation
meet this requirement. Tail shafts in the finished
machine condition are to be subjected to magnetic
The strength calculation must at least cover the
particle,
following failure mode in conjunction with the given
dye
examinations.
penetrant
They
are
or
to
other
be
nondestructive
free
of
linear
corresponding load cases:
discontinuities greater than 3.2 mm, except that in the
following locations the shafts are to be free of all linear
-
Statical failure
discontinuities:
Dimensioning to be performed against nominal torque
For the tapered tail shafts, the forward one-third length
with a safety factor of 3.
of the taper, including the forward end of any keyway
and an equal length of the parallel part of the shaft
-
Failure due to fatigue (high cycle)
immediately forward of the taper are to be surface
As far as the shaft is not exposed to bending stresses
examined by TL Surveyor.
fatigue analysis may be carried out for nominal torque
For the flanged tail shafts, the Surveyor inspections are
plus 30 % torsional vibration torque.
intensively focused on the flange fillet area.
3.
Pressure Tests
3.1
Shaft liners
Buckling failure mode
Dimensioning may be estimated for a load of 3 times the
nominal torque and in accordance to the formulas in 2.
Prior to fitting but as far as possible in the finish-
For the strength analysis the nominal strength of the
machined condition, shaft liners are to be subjected to a
material has to be reduced by the factor 0,7 in order to
hydraulic tightness test at 2 bar pressure.
compensate
random
influence
factors
such
as
geometrical and production inaccuracies as well as
3.2
environmental factors (moisture, temperature).
Stern Tubes
Prior to fitting but as far as possible in the finish-
The calculation of the stress may be performed on the
machined condition, cast stern tubes and cast stern
basis of accepted analytical methods such as CLT
tube parts are to be subjected to a hydraulic tightness
(Classical Laminate Theory) or FEM models. With
test at 2 bar pressure. A further tightness test is to be
these stresses as input a set of failure modi in relation
carried out after fitting.
to fibre and interfibre failure must be checked. This
set of failure modi must be coherent, i.e. a complete
For stern tubes fabricated from welded steel plates, it
and accepted theory.
is sufficient to test for tightness during the pressure
tests applied to the hull spaces traversed by the stern
tube.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 5 - Main Shafting
F
2.
Mt
Buckling failure
5-17
=
Nominal torque at maximum continuous
rating [Nm]
For shafts made of anisotropic materials, such as winded
shafts of fibre laminate, buckling strength can be checked
3.
Experimental strength investigation
for the critical torque by the following formula:
Experimental strength investigation has to be provided
M tcrit  C s 
3
5/4
m
r
π

6000
t E
0,5
9/4
3/8
x


Ey


1 ν  ν 
xy
yz 

5/8
Nm
on request. Specifically:
-
Cs
= Factor depending on boundary
verification of material data
conditions
of support
Testing of samples, if necessary for
-
Prototype
testing/process
checking
for
verification of the theoretical analysis in
= 0,800 for free ends
presence of a TL Surveyor
= 0,925 ends simply supported
2
Ex
= Modulus of elasticity in x-direction [N/mm ]
Ey
= Modulus of elasticity in transverse direction
After a year or 3000 operating hours,
whichever is reached earlier, a visual
examination and optionally a crack or
delamination check of the fibre laminate
[N/mm2]
components is to be carried out by a TL
Surveyor.

= Unsupported length of shaft [mm]
rm,
= Average radius of the shaft with bore [mm]
4.
= 0,25(da + di)
t
xy
After finalising manufacturing of the components an
updated documentation in the form of a list of all definitive
= Thickness of shaft
= (d a -d i )  0,5
valid analyses and documents is to be submitted to TL.
The documentation must refer to the status quo and take
[mm]
into account all alterations or optimisations introduced
= Poisson's ratio of the laminate in longitudinal
direction
yz
= Poisson's ratio of the laminate in peripheral
direction
The design criteria is:
3,5 . Mt ≤ Mtcrit
Final documentation
during designing and manufacturing process as well as
the achieved and measured properties.
5.
If fire protection requirements are relevant
for the composite shafting, specifically in the cases of
penetration
of
fire
protection
bulkheads
and/or
redundant propulsion, appropriate provisions shall be
taken to ensure the required properties in consent
with TL.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-1
SECTION 6
TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS
Page
A.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 6- 2
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Documents for Approval
4. Symbols and Terms
B.
CALCULATIONS OF TORSIONAL VIBRATION..............................................................................................6- 4
C.
PERMISSIBLE STRESSES FOR TORSIONAL VIBRATION ...........................................................................6- 5
1. Shafting
2. Crankshafts
3. Gears
4. Flexible Couplings
5. Shaft Driven Generators
6. Connected Units
D.
TORSIONAL VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS ...............................................................................................6- 10
E.
PROHIBITED RANGES OF OPERATION ......................................................................................................6- 11
F.
AUXILIARY MACHINERIES ...........................................................................................................................6- 12
1. General
2. Generators
3. Bow Thrusters
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-2
A.
A
vibration loads are the additional loads due to torsional
General
vibrations. They result from the alternating torque which
1.
is superimposed on the mean torque.
Scope
This section applies to propulsion plants with the main
3.
Documents for approval
propulsion engines having a power of not less than 75
kW when diesels are used and of not less than 100 kW
No calculations shall be submitted if it is proved that the
when using turbo or electric drives, and to diesel
installation is similar to that approved earlier or that its
generators as well as to internal combustion engines
mass moments of inertia and its torsional stiffness
(ICE) driven auxiliary machineries having a primary
between masses do not differ from the basic ones by
engine power of not less than 100 kW.
±10 and ±5% respectively. Calculations might be limited
to determination of the natural frequencies if, at this
Torsional vibration calculations is to be overcome both for
stage of the calculation, it is established that the
the basic variant and for other variants and conditions
differences in the mass inertia moments and torsional
possible in the operation of the installation as follows:
stiffness between masses do not result in a change of
the natural frequency of any one of the modes under
-
Maximum power take-off and idling speed (with
consideration by more than 5%.
the propeller blades at zero position) for
installations
comprising
controllable
pitch
propeller (CPP) or azimuth thrusters,
Design drawings, plans and particulars of rotating or
harmonic moving system, partially or complete, are to
be submitted to TL in triplicate for approval. The
-
-
Individual and simultaneous operation of main
documents are required to contain the details of all
engines with a common reduction gear,
the installation components:
Reverse gear,
-
Particulars of engine, propeller, damper,
flexible coupling, reduction gear, generator,
-
Connection of additional power consumers if
etc.
their moments of inertia are commensurate
with the inertia moments with of the working
-
cylinder,
-
Running
Layout of all installation operation conditions
possible,
with
one
cylinder
misfiring,
for
-
Torsional vibration analysis for propulsion
installations containing flexible couplings and
shafting systems for all modes of operation
reduction gear, to be assumed not firing is the
including
cylinder the disconnection of which accounts to
misfiring,
the
condition
of
one-cylinder
the top degree for the increase of stresses and
alternating torques,
-
Natural frequency tables for all basic modes of
vibration having a resonance up to 12
-
th
order
Damper jammed or removed where single
inclusive within a range of between 0 and
main engine installations are concerned,
120% of the rated revolution speed with
relative amplitudes of masses and moments,
-
Any flexible coupling blocked due to breakage
and with scales of stresses (or torques) for all
of its elastic components (where single main
sections of the system,
engine drive is concerned)
2.
Resonance amplitudes of the first mass of the
system for each order of all vibration modes
Definitions
For the purposes of these requirements, torsional
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
A
Resonance stresses (or torques) in all system
-
6-3
MTmax =
Maximum value of the torque [Nm],
MTmin =
Minimum value of the torque [Nm],
n
Speed
components (such as shafts, reduction gear,
couplings, generators, compression-key joints)
for each order of all vibration modes,
-
=
under
consideration.
For
tugs,
Estimated temperature variation of the rubber
trawlers and other ships which main engines
components of flexible couplings as compared
run
to
the
maximum torque at speeds below the rated
manufacturer for each order of all vibration
speed throughout the speed range, n=no
modes,
shall be adopted and Formulas (9) and (10)
relevant
permissible
values
of
continuously
under
conditions
of
shall be used. For the main diesel generators
-
The alternating torsional stress amplitude is
of ships with electric propulsion plants, all the
understood as (max – min)/2 as it can be
specified values of no shall, by turn, be
measured on the shaft in a relevant condition
adopted as n, and in each of the ranges
over a repetitive rotation,
0.9<<1.05, Formulas (11) and (12) shall be
-1
used for partial loads [min ],
Conclusions
-
4.
cD
=
based
on
the
results
of
calculation.
no
=
Rated (nominal) speed [min-1],
Symbols and Terms
Rm
=
Tensile strength of shaft material [N/mm2],
=
2
600 N/mm for propeller shafts in general and
Size (or scale) factor [-],
for all other shafts (especially intermediate
 0.35 0.93 d
0.2
shafts) made of forged, low alloy carbon or
carbon manganese steel,
cK
=
Form factor for intermediate and propeller
shafts depending on details of design and
=
2
800 N/mm
for all shafts except propeller
construction of the applied mechanical joints
shafts made of forged high alloy steels.
in the shaft line. The value for cK is given in
Formula (3) should be applied in conjunction
with such steels and special design features
Table 6.1 depending on the design [-],
only
=
Material factor [-],
=
(Rm + 160 ) / 18
d0
=
Shaft diameter [mm],
D
=
Crankpin diameter [mm],
λ
=
Speed ratio = n/no [-]
DG
=
Journal diameter [mm],
N
=
Nominal alternating torsional stress referred
cW
WP
=
Polar moment of resistance related to crosssectional
area
consideration
of
and
the
section
determined
under
by
the
3
formulae (6) [mm ].
to the section under consideration to be
DBG
=
Diameter of bore in journal [mm],
MT
=
Nominal
alternating
torque
calculated by Formulae (7) [Nm],
2
determined by the formulae (8) [N/mm ],
which
is
2
=
Transient permissible stresses for speed
2
range to be rapidly passed through [N/mm ].
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-4
-
B
Forced vibratory loads (torques or stresses) :
B.
Calculations of Torsional Vibration
1.
A torsional vibration analysis covering the
vibration movement in all essential elements of
torsional vibration stresses to be expected in the main
the system with particular reference to clearly
shafting system including its branches is to be
defined resonance speeds for the whole
submitted to TL for examination. The following data
operating speed range. The results shall
shall be included in the analysis.
include the synthesized values (vectorial sum
Calculated torques/stresses during torsional
over all harmonics) for the torques/stresses.
Input data:
-
Equivalent torsional vibration system: Moments
of
inertia
and
inertialess
torsional
elasticities/stiffnesses for the complete system
-
Prime mover: Engine type, rated power, rated
speed, cycle number per revolution, design (in-
2.
normal operation (uniform pressure distribution over
all cylinders or small deviations in the pressure
distribution, e.g. ±5%) and misfiring operation (one
cylinder without ignition, compression of the cylinder
still existing).
line or V-type), number of cylinders, firing
order, cylinder diameter, stroke, stroke to
connecting rod ratio, oscillating mass of one
crank gear, excitation spectrum of engine in
the form of tangential coefficients (for new or
The calculations are to be performed both for
3.
Where the installation allows various operation
modes, the torsional vibration characteristics are to be
investigated for all possible modes, e.g. in installations
fitted with controllable pitch propellers for zero and full
pitch, with power take off gear integrated in the main
unconventional types of engines)
gear or at the forward crankshaft end for loaded and
-
-
Vibration dampers: Type, damping coefficient,
idling conditions of the generator unit, with clutches for
moments of inertia, dynamics stiffness,
engaged and disengaged branches.
Elastic couplings: Type, damping coefficient,
4.
moments of inertia, dynamics stiffness
also take account of the stresses/torques resulting
The calculation of torsional vibrations shall
from the superimposition of several harmonics in so
-
Reduction / Power Take Off (PTO) gears:
far as this has a bearing on the assessment of the
Type, moment of inertia for wheels and
system.
pinions, individual gear’s ratios per mesh,
effective stiffness
5.
If modifications are introduced into the system
which have a substantial effect on the torsional
-
-
Shafting:
Shaft
diameter
of
crankshafts,
vibrational
characteristics,
the
calculation
of
the
intermediate shafts, gear shafts, thrust shafts
torsional vibrations is to be adapted and re-submitted to
and propeller shafts,
TL for approval.
Propeller: Type, diameter, number of blades,
6.
pitch and expanded area ratio, moment of
inertia in air moment of inertia of entrained
water (for zero and full pitch for controllable
pitch propeller, CPP)
Where an electrical machine (e.g. static converter
controlled motors) can generate periodic excitation leading
to relevant torsional vibration stresses in the system as a
whole, this is to be taken into account in the calculation of
the forced torsional vibration. The manufacturer of the
electrical machine is responsible for defining the excitation
Output data / Results:
-
spectrum in a suitable manner for performing forced
Natural frequencies : With their relevant
torsional vibration calculations.
vibration forms (modes)
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
C
C.
Permissible Stresses for Torsional Vibration
1.
Shafting
1.1
In no part of the shafting may the alternating
6-5
torsional vibration stresses exceed the following values
of
1
for continuous operation or of
2
under transient
conditions. Figures 6.1 and 6.2 indicate the
1
and
2
limits as a reference for intermediate and propeller
shafts of common design and for the location deemed to
be most severely stressed (cK=0.45 or cK=0.55 for
propeller shafts, cK=0.8 and cK=1.0 for intermediate
shafts). The limits which depend on the design and the
location considered and may in particular cases lie
outside the indicated ranges according to Figures 6.1
and 6.2. They are to be determined in accordance with
Figure 6.2 Permissible torsional vibration stress for
equations (1) ÷ (4) and Table 6.1.
propeller shafts
Speed ranges in the
 ≤ 0.8 area, in which the
permissible values of 1 for continuous operation are
For speed ratio values 0.9 <  < 1.05 at continuous
operation:
exceeded shall be crossed through quickly (barred
speed ranges for continuous operation), provided that
τ 1   1.38  c W  c K  c D
2
[N/mm ]
(2)
the limit for transient operation 2 is not exceeded.
The total stresses at transient operations due to
For speed ratio values <0.9 at continuous operation;
torsional vibration within speed ranges prohibited for
continuous running, but which may only be rapidly
τ1   c W  c K  c D  (3  2λ )
2
2
[N/mm ]
(1)
passed through, shall not exceed the following formulas
for intermediate, thrust, propeller shafts and the shafts
of the generators driven by the main engine:
τ 2   1.7
6  τ1
cK cW
2
[N/mm ]
(3)
Alternatively, depending on the material and design the
following formula may be used instead of (3):
 2   1 .7
cW 
1
cK
R m  160
18
2
[N/mm ]
(4)
(5)
For direct coupled plants, in general, the materials with
Figure 6.1 Permissible torsional vibration stress for
2
a tensile strength of Rm ≥ 500 N/mm must be used, for
intermediate shafts
geared plants or other plants with low torsional vibration
2
level shafting materials with Rm ≥ 400 N/mm may be
accepted.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-6
For the purpose of the formulas (1), (2), (3), (4) the
C
Rules, special consideration will be given.
tensile strength calculation value applied shall not
exceed the mentioned limits in A.4
1.2
In the speed range 0.9 ≤ λ ≤ 1.05 the
2.
Crankshafts
2.1
Crankshafts applied for engines for ships
alternating torques in the shafting system may not
classed by TL shall be approved on the basis of the
exceed 75 % of the mean full-load torque transmitted by
Section 2, D. The manufacturer of the engine also
the shafting. With the consent of TL, 90 % of the mean
applies for approval of a maximal additional (vibratory)
torque may be permitted provided that the torque is only
shear stress, which is referred to the crank with the
transmitted by the frictional connections only or
highest load due to mean torque and bending forces.
the
integrally forged flanges.
Normally this approved additional shear stress may be
applied for first evaluation of the calculated vibratory
1.3
For the shafts of generators driven by the
stresses in the crankshaft via the torsional vibration
2
auxiliary engines, transient stress shall be calculated by
model. Common values are between 30 and 70 N/mm
formula (14).
for medium and high speed engines and between 25
and 40 N/mm
1.4
For propeller shafts, the material factor cW is
2
not to be taken as greater than 42.2 (Rm= 600 N/mm ).
1.5
For the controllable pitch propeller systems,
2
for two stroke engines, but special
confirmation of the value considered for judgement by
TL is necessary.
For further details see also Section 2, D.
the permissible values of 2 within a barred speed range
When the generally approved limit for the
may be exceeded provided that the system is operated
2.2
at a low pitch and the additional alternating shear
vibratory stresses for the crankshaft of the engine as
stresses remain below the
2
value for λ = 0.6
defined under 2.1 is exceeded, special considerations
may be applied to define a higher limit for the special
calculated by formula (3).
investigated case. For this detailed system calculations
Applying this alternative, which is subject to special
approval, requires an adequate design case by case.
Especially a fast crossing of barred speed range has to
be guaranteed additionally by adequate measures. In
such
cases
an
adequate
dimensioning
of
all
(combined axial / torsional model) and application of the
actual calculated data within the model in accordance
with Section 2, D, as quoted under 2.1 are necessary.
Such special considerations, especially the application
of combined axial and torsional vibration calculations,
may only be considered for direct coupled two stroke
connections in the shaft system for dynamic torque at
engine plants. For such evaluations, in no case the
resonance speed has to be proven individually.
acceptability factor in accordance with the Section 2, D
shall be less than 1,15 over the whole speed range.
1.6
For the calculation of the permissible limits of
stresses due to torsional vibration, Rm is not to be taken
2.3
2
as more than 800 N/mm in the case of alloy steel
to reduce the stresses in the crankshaft shall be suitable
2
intermediate and thrust shafts, or 600 N/mm in the
for use for diesel engines. TL reserve the right to call for
case
proof of this, compare also F.
of
carbon
and
carbon-manganese
steel
Torsional vibration dampers which are aiming
intermediate, thrust and propeller shafts.
Torsional vibration dampers shall be capable of being
1.7
Where the scantlings of coupling bolts and
straight shafting differ from the minimum required by the
checked for their performance ability in the assembled
condition or shall be capable of being dismounted with
reasonable
ease
for
checking
purposes.
This
requirement does not apply for small medium or high
speed engines, so far the exchange of the damper is a
part of the regular service of the engine and a fixed
exchange interval is part of the engine’s crankshaft
approval.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
C
6-7
Table 6.1 Form factors for intermediate and propeller shafts
cK
[–]
k
[-]
1.00
1.00
0.60
0.45
0.50
0.30 (7)
1.00
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.20
0.85
0.85
1.10
1.10
Shaft Type / Design
Intermediate shafts with
Integral coupling flange and straight sections (1)
Shrink fit couplings (2)
Keyway, tapered connection (not valid with bared speed ranges) (3) (4)
Keyway, cylindrical connection (3) (4)
Radial holes of standard design (for example OD shaft of CP plants) (5)
with longitudinal slots of standard design (for example OD shaft of CP plants) (6)
Thrust shafts external to engine
transmitting thrust, additionally to the torque, by means of a collar (bending)
in way of axial bearing where a roller bearing is used as a thrust bearing
Propeller shafts
between forward end of the aft most bearing and forward stern tube
with flange mounted or keyless taper fitted propellers (8)
with key fitted propellers (in general not to be used for plants with barred speed ranges) (8)
0.80
1.15
0.55
1.22
0.55
1.26
Note:
Transitions of diameters are to be designed with either a smooth taper or a blending radius. For guidance, a blending radius equal
to the change in diameter is recommended.
Footnotes
(1) Fillet radius is not to be less than 0.08d0.
(2) k and cK refer to the plain shaft section only. Where shafts may experience vibratory stresses close to the permissible stresses
for continuous operation, an increase in diameter to the shrink fit diameter is to be provided, e.g. a diameter increase of 1 to
2 % and a blending radius as described in the table note.
(3) At a distance of not less than 0.2d0 from the end of the keyway the shaft diameter may be reduced to the diameter calculated
with k=1.0.
(4) Keyways are in general not to be used in installations with a barred speed range.
(5) Diameter of radial bore (dh) not to exceed 0.3d0.
The intersection between a radial and an eccentric (rec) axial bore (see below) is not covered here.
(6)
(7)
(8)
Subject to limitations as slot length (l)/outside diameter < 0.8 and inner diameter (di)/outside diameter < 0.7 and slot width
(e)/outside diameter > 0.15. The end rounding of the slot is not to be less than (e)/2. An edge rounding should preferably be
avoided as this increases the stress concentration slightly.
The k and cK values are valid for 1, 2 and 3 slots, i.e. with slots at 360 respectively 180 and respectively 120 degrees apart.
cK = 0.3 is an approximation within the limitations in (6). More accurate estimate of the stress concentration factor (scf) may be
determined from 2.6 or by direct application of FE calculation. In which case:
cK = 1.45/scf
Note that the scf is defined as the ratio between the maximum local principal stress and √3 times the nominal torsional stress
(determined for the bored shaft without slots).
Applicable to the portion of the propeller shaft between the forward edge of the aftermost shaft bearing and the forward face
of the propeller hub (or shaft flange), but not less than 2.5 times the required diameter.
Explanation of k and cK
The factors k (for low cycle fatigue) and cK (for high cycle fatigue) take into account the influence of:
- The stress concentration factors (scf) relative to the stress concentration for a flange with fillet radius of 0.08d0 (geometric
stress concentration of approximately 1.45).
1.45
1.45
where the exponent x considers low cycle notch sensitivity.
- The notch sensitivity. The chosen values are mainly representative for soft steels (σB <600), while the influence of steep
stress gradients in combination with high strength steels may be underestimated.
- The size factor cD being a function of diameter only does not purely represent a statistical size influence, but rather a
combination of this statistical influence and the notch sensitivity.
The actual values for k and cK are rounded off.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-8
For main engine crankshafts of all the ships
2.4
C
For the crankshafts of main engines
except for ice class, and the crankshafts of engines
driving generators and other auxiliary machinery for
 2  2  1
2
[N/mm ]
(13)
essential services within the speed ratio values
0.9<<1.05, the total stresses due to torsional vibration
For the crankshafts of engines driving generators or
under conditions of continuous operation shall not
other auxiliary machinery for essential services
exceed the values determined by the following formulas:
 2  5  1
2
[N/mm ]
(14)
Polar moment of resistance related to the crosssectional area bored journal, WP
Wp 
π
16
 D G4  D 4BG


DG





2.6
Stress concentration factors of slots
The stress concentration factor (scf) at the end of slots
3
[mm ]
(6)
can be determined by means of the following empirical
formula
Nominal alternating torque, MT
MT   1 (MTmax  MTmin )
2
scf   t ( hole )  0 . 8 
[Nm]
(7)
(l  e ) / d 0

d  e
 1  i  
d0  d0

Nominal alternating torsional stress, N
This formula applies to:
1000  M T
τN  
WP
2
[N /mm ]
(8)
-
Slots at 120; 180 or 360 degrees apart
-
Slots with semicircular ends. A multi-radii slot
Permissible torsional stress as an alternative
τ1   τ N
2
[N/mm ]
(9)
end can reduce the local stresses, but this is not
included in this empirical formula.
or
-
τ 1   0.76  c W  c D
2
[N/mm ]
(10)
For speed ratio values <0.9 at continuous operation:
τ1  
Slots with no edge rounding (except chamfering),
as any edge rounding increases the scf slightly.
α
t(hole)
represents the stress concentration of radial
holes ( e = hole diameter) and can be determined as :
τ N  (3  2λ 2 ) [N/mm2]
1.38
(11)
 t ( hole )
 e
e
 2 .3  3 
 15  
d0
 d0
2

 e
  10  

 d0
2
  di 
  

  d0 
For speed ratio values 0.9<<1.05 at continuous
or simplified to t(hole)=2.3 .
operation:
τ1   0.55 c W  c D  (3  2λ 2 )
2.5
2
[N/mm ]
(12)
The total stress due to torsional vibration within
3.
Gears
3.1
For the case of continuous operation or
the speed ranges prohibited for continuous operation,
transient and rapid passage, the alternating torques in
but which may only be rapidly passed through, shall not
any reduction gear stage shall not exceed the
exceed the values determined by the following formulas:
permissible
values
established
conditions by the manufacturer.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 for
the
operating
2
Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
C
3.2
Where the values mentioned under C.3.1 are
6-9
speed range in accordance with E.1 is to be specified.
not available, the alternating torque in any reduction
gear step for the case of continuous operation shall
This requirement does not apply to gear stages which
satisfy the following conditions:
run without load (e.g. the idling stage of a reversing
gear or the idling gears of an unloaded shaft-driven
Within the service speed range 0.9 ≤ λ ≤ 1.05 :
M alternatin g  0.3  M nominal
generator). These are covered by the provisions in
accordance to C.3.6.
[Nm]
(15)
3.6
In installations where parts of the gear train run
Within the service speed range lower than indicated
without load, the torsional vibration torque in continuous
(<0.9), the permissible value of alternating torque will
operation shall not exceed 20 % of the nominal torque
be specially considered by TL in each case, but, in any
in order to avoid unacceptable stresses due to gear
case:
hammering. This applies not only to gear stages but
also to parts which are particularly subject to torsional
M alternatin g  1.3  M nominal
[Nm]
(16)
vibrations (e.g. multiple-disc clutch mountings). The
loaded parts of the gear system are also subject to the
For the case of rapid passage, the alternating torque
provisions of C.3.3.
value is subject to special consideration by TL in each
Higher alternating torques may be approved by TL if
case.
proof is submitted to TL that design measures have
3.3
In the service speed range 0.9 ≤ λ ≤ 1.05, any
alternating torque higher than 30% of the mean nominal
been taken and the design takes into account these
higher loadings see C.3.3.
torque should not occur in any loaded gear’s mesh.
In cases where the proposed transmission
Otherwise, the reference values for the permissible
3.7
bending stresses at the tooth root and for the tooth flank
torque loading on the gear teeth is less than the
(Hertzian) pressures are to be reduced accordingly. In
maximum allowable, special consideration will be given
general, the value for the maximum mean torque
to the acceptance of additional vibratory loading on the
transmitted by the gear stage has to be applied for
gears.
evaluation purposes as the mean nominal torque.
3.8
Where calculations indicate the possibility of
If the gearing is demonstrably designed for a higher
torque reversal, the operating speed range is to be
power, then, in agreement with TL, 30 % of the design
determined on the basis of observations during sea
torque of the concerned gear’s mesh concerned may be
trials.
applied as the load limit.
4.
Flexible couplings
speeds outside the operational speed range (i.e. when
4.1
Flexible
starting up or stopping the engine or within a barred
withstand the torsional vibration loads which occur in
speed range) shall not exceed twice the nominal mean
the operation of the ship. In this context, the total load
torque for which the gear has been designed.
resulting,
3.4
The alternating torques in the gear at resonant
in
couplings
accordance
must
with
be
designed
B.4.,
from
to
the
superimposition of several orders is to be taken into
3.5
Load reversal due to alternating torques is
account (see also Section 7)
normally permitted only while passing through the lower
speed range up to λ ≤ 0.35.
4.2
Flexible
couplings
must
be
capable
of
transmitting for a reasonable time the increased
In the special cases such a speed range of λ ≤ 0.35,
alternating torques which occurs under abnormal
when the gear hammering is unavoidable, a barred
operating
conditions
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 in
accordance
with
B.2.
A
Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-10
D
reasonable time is, in general, the time consumed until
5.2
the misfiring operation is detected and the propulsion
shaft-driven generators shall normally not exceed an
plant is transferred to a safe operating condition.
electrical value of  5°. The electrical vibration
The torsional vibration amplitude (angle) of
amplitude is obtained by multiplying the mechanical
Speed ranges within which, under abnormal operating
vibration amplitude by the number of pole pairs.
conditions, the continuous operation is not allowed must
Whether TL is able to permit higher values depends on
be indicated in accordance with E.2.
the configuration of the ship's electrical system.
4.3
For the case of continuous operation or
6.
Connected Units
coupling, relevant stresses in and temperatures of the
6.1
If
flexible component material due to torsional vibration
compressors) are coupled to the main propulsion
shall not exceed the permissible values established for
system with or without the ability to declutch, due
the operating conditions by the manufacturer.
attention is to be paid to these units when investigated
transient and rapid passage, the alternating torque in a
further
units
(e.g.
power
turbines
or
the torsional vibration loadings.
4.4
Where the values mentioned under C.4.3 are
not available, the torque, stress and temperature values
In the assessment of their dynamic loads, the limits as
permissible for continuous operation or transient and
defined by the respective manufacturers are to be
rapid passage shall be determined by the procedures
considered in addition to the criteria mentioned in C.1. If
approved by TL.
these limits are exceeded, the units concerned are to be
disengaged or prohibited ranges of operation in
Where calculations indicate that the limits
accordance with E.1 are to be declared. Disengaging of
recommended by the manufacturer may be exceeded
such units shall generally not lead to substantial
under misfiring conditions, a suitable means is to be
overloading of the main system in terms of exceeding
provided for detecting and indicating misfiring. Under
the 2 limit for shafting systems, the maximum torque for
these circumstances power and/or speed restrictions
flexible couplings and so on.
4.5
may be required. Where machinery is non-essential,
In especially critical cases, the calculations of
disconnection of the branch containing the coupling
6.2
would be an acceptable action in the event of misfiring.
forced torsional vibrations, including those for disturbed
operation (uncoupled set), as stated in B.1 are to be
5.
Shaft-driven generators
submitted to TL.
5.1
In installations with generators directly and
In such cases TL reserves the right to stipulate the
rigidly coupled to the engine (free crankshaft end) it is
performance of confirmatory measurements (compare.
necessary to ensure that the accelerations do not
D.) including such as related to disturbed operation.
exceed the values prescribed by the manufacturer in
any part of the generator.
D.
Torsional Vibration Measurements
acceleration, which is the product of the angular
1.
Where calculations indicate that the limits for
acceleration and the effective radius. The angular
torsional vibration within the range of working speeds
acceleration is determined by means of forced torsional
are exceeded, measurements, using an appropriate
vibrations calculations and is to be regarded as the
technique, may be taken from the machinery installation
synthesized value of all major orders. However, for
for the purpose of approval of torsional vibration
simplified consideration of excited resonant speeds, the
characteristics, or determining the need for restricted
value of the individual harmonics may be used instead
speed ranges, and the confirmation of their limits.
The applicable criterion in such cases is the tangential
for assessment.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
D,E
2.
Stresses shall be determined proceeding from
9.
6-11
When estimating the total stresses due to
the greatest vibration or stress amplitudes measured in
vibration of several orders, the approved parameters
the respective section of the torsiogram or oscillogram.
are to be undergone the harmonic analysis.
3.
Where calculations and/or measurements have
10.
Where existing propulsion plants are modified,
indicated the possibility of any excessive vibratory
TL reserves the right to require a renewed investigation
stress, torque or angular amplitude in the event of a
of the torsional vibration characteristics.
malfunction,
vibration
or
performance
monitoring,
directly or indirectly, may be required.
E.
Prohibited Ranges of Operation
operating conditions are imposed, notice boards are to
1.
Operating ranges, which because of the
be fitted at the control stations stating that the engine is
magnitude of the torsional vibration stresses and/or
not to be run continuously between the speed limits
torques, may only be passed through quickly (transient
obtained as above, and the engine tachometers are to
operation), are to be indicated as prohibited ranges of
be marked accordingly.
operation by red marks on the tachometer or in some
4.
Where restricted speed ranges under normal
other suitable manner at the operating station.
5.
During the ship's sea trials, the torsional
vibrations of the propulsion plant are to be measured
In normal operation the speed range λ ≥ 0.8 is to be
over
kept free of prohibited ranges of operation.
the
whole
operating
range.
Measuring
investigations should cover the normal as well as the
misfiring condition. Speed ranges, which have been
In specifying prohibited ranges of operation, it has to be
declared as barred speed ranges in accordance with
observed that the navigating and manoeuvring functions
E.1 for misfiring operation must not be investigated by
are not severely restricted. The width of the barred
measurements, as far as these ranges are finally
speed range is to be selected in a way that the stresses
declared as “barred” on the base of reliable and
in the shafting do not exceed the permissible τ1 limit for
approved calculations and adequately documented.
continuous operation with an adequate allowance
considering the inaccuracies of the tachometers and the
Measurements are required by TL for all plants
speed setting devices. For geared plants the barred
with a nominal torque exceeding 40 kNm. For other
speed ranges, if any, mostly refer to the gear meshes
plants not meeting this condition, TL reserves the right
and elastic couplings and are to be determined in the
to ask for measurements depending on the calculation
same way with reference to the permissible vibratory
results.
torques or permissible power loss for these components
6.
The
requirement
for
measurements
is
communicated to the yard/engine supplier with the
(see corresponding paragraphs C.4 and C.5)
approval letter for the torsional vibration calculation.
2.
Measures necessary to avoid overloading the
Where measurements of identical propulsion
propulsion plant under abnormal operating conditions
plants (especially sister vessels) are available, further
are to be displayed on an instruction plates to be affixed
torsional vibration measurements for repeat ships may,
to all operating stations from which the plant can be
with the consent of TL, be dispensed with.
controlled.
7.
8.
Free resonance vibration frequencies obtained
3.
Where the shaft stresses or torques in any
as a result of measurement shall not differ from the
components or temperature of the rubber components
design values by more than 5%. Otherwise, the
of flexible coupling arising due to the torsional vibration,
calculations are to be corrected accordingly.
exceed the relevant permissible values for continuous
running, the restricted speed ranges are assigned.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 6 – Torsional Vibrations
6-12
4.
No restricted ranges are permitted for the
E,F
thrusters must be designed in a way that the operating
speed range is free of unacceptable stresses due to
following speeds:
torsional vibrations in accordance with item C.
-
In a range of   0.7 for ice-class ships,
In a range of   0.8 for all ship except for iceclass,
-
Generators
2.1
For diesel generator sets with a mechanical
output of more than 150 kW torsional vibration
In the range of 0.9    1.05 for diesel
generators
2.
and
other
auxiliary
diesel
machineries in essential services
calculations must be submitted to TL for approval. The
investigations must include natural frequencies as well
as forced vibration calculations. The speed range 90%
to 105% of the nominal speed shall be investigated
under full load conditions (nominal excitation).
Where the main diesel generators of ships with electric
propulsion plants are concerned, all the fixed speed
2.2
values corresponding to the specified conditions of
coupling) the vibratory torque in the input part of the
partial loading shall alternatively be adopted for no.
generator’s shaft must not exceed 250% of the nominal
For rigidly coupled generators (without elastic
torque. For the purposes of this requirement, nominal
5.
If all the other methods of decreasing the
stresses (or torques) due to the torsional vibration are
proven to be ineffective, a vibration damper or a
vibration absorber (detuners) or an antivibrator may be
mounted where the values of permissible torsion stress
are exceed or undesirable as mentioned in C.
torque is the torque which can be calculated by applying
the actual data of the diesel engine (nominal output /
nominal speed).
Compliance of the limit of 250% for the nominal torque
within a nominal speed range of 90% to 105% shall be
proven. The calculation for this speed range should be
carried out by utilising the excitation corresponding to
The use of dampers or absorbers to limit vibratory
the nominal torque as defined above.
stress due to resonances which occur within the range
between 0.85    1.05 are to be considered. If fitted,
Exceeding the limit of 250% for the nominal torque may
these should be of a type which makes adequate
be considered in exceptional cases, provided that the
provision for dissipation of heat. Where necessary,
generator’s manufacturer has designed the generator
performance monitoring may be required
for a higher dynamical torque. But also in such cases a
highest value of 300 % of the actual nominal torque of
6.
Restricted
speed
ranges
in
one-cylinder
the gen-set as defined above must not be exceeded.
misfiring conditions on ships with single engine
propulsion are to enable safe navigation whereby
sufficient propulsion power is available to maintain
control of the ship.
7.
3.
Bow Thrusters
3.1
For bow thrusters as well as for further
essential auxiliary machinery driven by a diesel engine
There are normally to be no restricted speed
ranges imposed above a speed ratio of  = 0.8 under
normal operating conditions.
with a mechanical output higher than 150 kW, natural as
well as forced torsional vibration calculations shall be
submitted to TL for approval. The torsional vibration
calculations must be focused onto the actual load profile
of the set.
F.
Auxiliary Machineries
1.
General
3.2
For bow thrusters as well as for further essential
auxiliary machinery driven by electrical motor the
supplier must check that relevant excitation forces (i.e.
For the ship’s safety and operation, essential auxiliary
propeller blade frequency or similar) may not lead to
machineries such as diesel generators and bow
unacceptable torsional vibration loadings within the set.
In special cases TL may require the submission of
corresponding calculations.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-1
SECTION 7
GEARS, COUPLINGS
Page
A.
GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................................................7-2
1. Scope
2. Documents for Approval
B.
MATERIALS........................................................................................................................................................7-5
1. Approved Materials
2. Testing of Materials
C.
CALCULATION OF THE LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF GEAR TEETH .......................................................7-6
1. General
2. Symbols, Terms and Summary of Input Data
3. Geometrical Definitions
4. Nominal Tangential Load
5. General Influence Factors for Load Calculations
6. Surface Durability (Pitting)
7. Tooth Root Bending Stress
D.
GEAR SHAFTS .................................................................................................................................................7-29
1. Minimum Diameter
E.
EQUIPMENT .....................................................................................................................................................7-29
1. Oil Level Indicator
2. Pressure and Temperature Control
3. Lubricating Oil Pump
4. Gear Casing
5. Seating of Gears
F.
BALANCING AND TESTING ............................................................................................................................7-30
1. Balancing
2. Testing of Gears
G.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF COUPLINGS ..........................................................................................7-31
1. Tooth Couplings
2. Flexible Couplings
3. Flange and Clamp Type Couplings
4. Clutches
5. Testing of Clutches and Couplings
6. Controls and Alarms
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-2
A.
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
General
A
tooth working surfaces, failure of the gear rim, or
failures of the gear blank through web and hub.
1.
Scope
2.
1.1
These requirements apply to internal and
external
involute
spur
and
planetary
i.e.
helical
cylindrical gears having parallel axis as well as bevel
Documents for Approval
The documents to be submitted for approval shall
include in triplicate:
gears and, of course, all types of couplings used for
2.1
Assembly drawings,
down here may also be applied to the gears and
2.2
Detailed drawings of torque transmitting
couplings of auxiliary machinery other than that
components including material characteristics,
either main propulsion or essential auxiliary services as
specified in Section 1, H. The design requirements laid
mentioned in Section 1, H., if equivalent evidence of
2.3
mechanical strength is not available.
Documentation of the related system for
engaging and disengaging (for all new type of clutches),
1.2
Application of these requirements to the
auxiliary machinery couplings mentioned in 1.1 may
2.4
generally be restricted to a general approval of the
about gears to be indicated on technical drawings:
General
dimensions
and
characteristics
particular coupling type by TL. Regarding the design of
Assembly and sectional drawings together with the
elastic couplings for use in generator sets, reference is
necessary detail drawings and part lists are to be
made to G.2.6.
submitted to the TL in triplicate for approval. The
drawings must contain the following data necessary to
1.3
For the dimensional design of gears and
enable the load calculations to be checked,
couplings for ships with ice classes, see Section 19.
2.4.1
Tip diameter and tolerance,
any of the following conditions exit:
2.4.2
Facewidth,
-
Spur or helical gears with transverse contact
2.4.3
Angle of the back cone (and, if applicable,
ratios less than 1.0;
inner cone),
1.4
-
Formulae in this section are not valid when
Spur or helical gears with transverse contact
ratios greater than 2.5;
-
2.4.4
Bore diameter and tolerance (or diameter
and tolerance for the part of the shaft used for setting on
Interference between tooth tips and root
the cutting machine),
fillets;
-
2.4.5
Locating face(s),
2.4.6
Surface finish of the tooth flank and, if
Teeth are pointed;
applicable, of the root surface and of the fillets
Backlash is zero.
(according to ISO 1302).
The rating formulae in ISO 6336 are not applicable to
other types of gear tooth deterioration such as plastic
2.5
yielding, scuffing, case crushing, welding and wear, and
following information should preferably be given in the
are not applicable under vibratory conditions where
upper right-hand corner of the drawing :
Information to be given in a table : The
there may be an unpredictable profile breakdown. The
bending strength formulae are applicable to fractures at
2.5.1
the tooth fillet, but are not applicable to fractures on the
case of helical gears),
Module of diametral pitch (normal, in the
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
2.5.2
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
Number of teeth (for a sector : total number
7-3
2.6.3
Bearing length and diameter,
2.6.4
Length of gap between helices, if any,
2.6.5
Distance between inner ends of bearings,
its characteristics should be specified, preferably by a
2.6.6
Geometric form layout of tooth or cross-
figure),
sectional view of tooth or calculated data,
of teeth of the gear from which the sector is taken),
2.5.3
Basic
rack
(give
the
number
of
the
corresponding national standard or the pressure angle
o
of 20 . If the basic rack differs from the standard rack,
2.5.4
Value of helix angle,
2.6.7
Facewidths, net and total,
2.5.5
Helix direction (for double helix teeth, the
2.6.8
Width of tooth at highest stressed section,
2.6.9
Helix angle at reference and at pitch
helix direction should be shown by a symbol in
accordance with ISO 2203),
diameter,
2.5.6
Reference diameter,
2.5.7
Reference cone angle,
2.5.8
Cone distance,
2.5.9
Addendum modification coefficient (to be
2.6.10
Helix deviation,
2.6.11
Normal pressure angle,
2.6.12
Transverse pressure angle at reference
cylinder,
expressed in unit module)
2.6.13
2.5.10
Tooth thickness: basic value and upper
Transverse pressure angle at working pitch
cylinder,
and lower deviations (the basic value may be given in
three different ways : Wildhaber measurement,
2.6.14
Reference cone angle for gears,
2.6.15
Tip angle for gears,
2.6.16
Cone distance for gears,
2.6.17
Middle cone distance for gears,
2.6.18
Normal module,
measurement of constant chord, or measurement
over pins or balls. For the first method, the number of
teeth over which the measurement is to be carried
out should be stated, and, for the third method, the
diameter of the pins or balls),
2.5.11
All useful information on tolerances (see ISO
1328)
2.5.12
Centre distance of gear pair and tolerance,
2.6.19
Transverse module,
2.5.13
Number of teeth and drawing number of the
2.6.20
Bending moment arm for tooth root bending
stress for application of load at the point of single tooth
mating gear.
pair contact,
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
Technical data for gears:
2.6.21
Working pitch diameter of gears,
2.6.22
Tip diameter of gears,
2.6.23
Root diameters of gears,
Transmitted rated power for each gear,
Rotational speed, input in each gear drive at
rated power,
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-4
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
A
2.6.24
Reference diameters,
2.6.45
Balancing data,
2.6.25
Addendum,
2.6.46
Spline data,
2.6.26
Addendum modification coefficient of gears,
2.6.47
Shrink allowance for rims and hubs,
2.6.27
Dedendum,
2.6.48
Type of coupling between prime mover and
reduction gears,
2.6.28
Transverse diametral pitch,
2.6.49
Type
and
viscosity
of
lubricating
oil
2.6.29
Normal base pitch,
recommended by manufacturer,
2.6.30
Number of gear teeth,
2.7
Technical data for couplings:
2.6.31
Virtual number of spur teeth for gears,
2.7.1
Construction details of torque transmitting
components, housing, along with their dimensions and
2.6.32
Centre distance between mating gears,
materials,
2.6.33
Length of contact in plane of rotation,
2.7.2
Rated power and rotational speed,
2.6.34
Root fillet radius of gears in the critical
2.7.3
Engineering analyses,
2.7.4
Allowable power loss (overheating),
2.7.5
Allowable
section,
2.6.35
Axial lead modification or lead mismatch, if
any, for reference,
misalignment
for
continuous
operation,
2.6.36
Method of cutting and finishing gear teeth,
2.6.37
Tooth
thickness
modification
2.7.6
Rubber Shore Hardness,
2.7.7
Nominal torque TKN
2.7.8
Permissible
coefficient
(midface),
2.6.38
Sketch of basic rack tooth form,
2.6.39
Root radius, addendum, dedendum of basic
rack,
TKmax1
for
normal
transient conditions like starts/stops, passing through
resonances, electrical or mechanical engagements, ice
impacts, etc.
2.6.40
Degree of finish of tooth flank,
2.6.41
Grade of accuracy,
2.6.42
Tooth
hardness
2.7.9
Permissible torque TKmax2 for abnormal
impact loads like short circuits, emergency stops, etc.
range,
including
core
2.7.10
Permissible vibratory torque ± TKW
hardness and total depth of hardness, surface to core,
continuous operation
2.6.43
2.7.11
Mean peak-to-valley roughness of tooth root
Mass of rotating parts,
2.7.12
for
Permissible power loss PKV due to heat
dissipation
fillets
2.6.44
torque
Permissible rotational speed nmax
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A,B
2.7.13
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
Dynamic
torsional
stiffness
cTdyn,
radial
stiffness crdyn
7-5
made of grey cast iron (1) or nodular cast iron or may
be fabricated from welded steel plate with steel or cast
steel hubs.
2.7.14
Relative damping  respectively damping
characteristics
1.2
Couplings in the main propulsion plant must
be made of steel, cast steel or nodular cast iron with a
2.7.15
Permissible
axial,
radial
and
angular
displacement
mostly ferritic matrix. Grey cast iron or suitable cast
aluminium alloys may also be permitted for lightly
stressed external components of couplings and rotors
2.7.16
Permanent permissible twist.
and casings of hydraulic slip couplings.
2.8
Technical data for clutches:
1.3
2.8.1
Construction details of torque transmitting
requirements as those specified in 1.1 as regards the
components, housing along with their materials and
materials used. For the gears intended for the auxiliary
dimensions,
machinery other than that of the mentioned ones in
The gears of essential auxiliary machinery
according to Section 1, H. are subject to the same
Section 1, H. alternate materials may also be permitted.
2.8.2
Rated power and rotational speed,
1.4
2.8.3
Engineering analyses,
2.8.4
Maximum and minimum working pressure for
Flexible
coupling
bodies
for
important
auxiliary machinery according to Section 1, H. may
generally be made of grey cast iron, and for the outer
hydraulic or pneumatic systems [bar]
coupling bodies a suitable aluminium alloy may also be
used. However, for generator sets use should only be
made of coupling bodies preferably made of nodular
2.8.5
cast iron with a mostly ferritic matrix, of steel or of cast
Static and dynamic friction torque [kNm]
steel, to ensure that the coupling are well able to
2.8.6
withstand the shock torques occasioned by short
Time diagram for clutching procedure
circuits. TL reserves the right to impose similar
2.8.7
Operating manual with definition of the
requirements on the couplings of particular auxiliary
permissible switching frequency
drive units.
2.8.8
2.
Testing of Materials
2.1
All gear and coupling components which are
For special cases calculation of heat balance,
if requested by TL
2.9
Design
calculations
covering
the
life
estimation for bearings and also including the tooth
coupling and the spline connections.
2.10
involved in the transmission of torque and which are
considered for the main propulsion plant must be tested
in accordance with the TL's Rules for Materials. The
same applies to the materials used for gear components
with a major torque transmission function of gears and
Test reports
couplings in generator drives. Suitable proof should be
submitted for the materials used for the major
B.
Materials
1.
Approved Materials
components of the couplings and gears of all other
functionally important auxiliary machines in accordance
with Section 1, H. This documentation may substitute
for the form of a TL Material Test Certificate or for an
acceptance test certificate issued by the steelmaker.
1.1
Shafts, pinions, wheels and wheel rims of
gears in the main propulsion plant should preferably be
(1)
made of forged steel. Rolled steel bar may also be used
generally not exceed 60 m/s, that of cast iron coupling clamps
for plain, flangeless shafts. Gear wheel bodies may be
or bowls, 40 m/s.
The peripheral speed of cast iron gear wheels shall
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-6
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
C.
C
requirement that the accuracy of the teeth should
Calculation of The Load-Bearing Capacity
ensure sufficiently smooth gear operation combined
of Gear Teeth
with satisfactory exploitation of the dynamic loading
capacity of the teeth.
Note: The revisions of subsection C indicated with vertical
line are to be uniformly implemented from 1
st
January 2015
to any Marine Gear subject to approval and to any Type
For this purpose, the magnitude of the individual pitch
Approved Marine gear from the date of the first renewal after
error fp and of the total profile error Ff for peripheral
January 2015. For a Marine gear approved prior to 1st
speeds at the pitch circle up to 25 m/s should generally
January 2015 where no failure has occurred, and no changes
conform to at least quality 5 as defined in DIN 3962 or 4
in design / scantlings of the gear meshes or materials or
to ISO 1328, and in the case of higher peripheral
declared load capacity data has taken place the requirements
speeds generally to at least quality 4 as defined in DIN
of the revisions of subsection C indicated with vertical line
3962 or 3 to ISO 1328.
1
st
may be waived.
The total error of the tooth trace f Hβ should conform
1.
General
at least to quality 5 to DIN 3962, while the parallelism
of axis should at least meet the requirements of
1.1
The sufficient load-bearing capacity of the
quality 5 according to DIN 3964 or 4 according to ISO
gear-tooth system of main and auxiliary gears in ship
1328.
propulsion systems is to be demonstrated by loadbearing
capacity
calculations
according
to
the
Prior to running-in, the surface roughness RZ of the
international standards of ISO. ISO 6336, ISO 9083 and
tooth flanks of gears made by milling or by shaping
DIN 3990 cover the spur gear tooth systems. ISO 10300
should generally not exceed 10 m. In the case of gears
or DIN 3991 contains the standards and remarks for
where the tooth profile is achieved by e.g. grinding or
bevel gears. Table 7.1 describes the minimum safety
lapping, the surface roughness should generally not
margins for flank and root stress according to the
exceed 4 m. The tooth root radius ρao on the tool
utilizing places of gears in ships.
reference profile should be at least 0.25·mn.
1.2
For gears in the main propulsion plant proof
TL reserves the right to call for proof of the manufacturing
of the sufficient mechanical strength of the roots and
accuracy of the gear-cutting machines used and for testing
flanks of gear teeth in accordance with the formulae
of the method used to harden the gear teeth.
contained in this Section is linked to the
Table 7.1 Minimum safety margins for contact and root bending stress
Ref.
Application
Boundary conditions
SH
SF
1.3
0.024 mn + 0.916
1.8
0.02 mn + 1.48
Gearing in ship propulsion systems
and generator drive systems
Modulus mn ≤ 16
Modulus mn > 16
In the case of two mutually
independent main propulsion
systems up to an input torque
of 8 kNm
1.2
1.55
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.8
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
Gears in auxiliary drive systems
which are subjected to dynamic
load
Gears in auxiliary drive systems
used for dynamic positioning (class
notation DP)
Gears in auxiliary drive systems
which are subjected to static load
NL ≤ 104
Note:
If the fatigue bending stress of the tooth roots is increased by special technique approved by TL, e.g. by shot peening,
for case-hardened toothing with modulus mn ≤ 10 the minimum safety margin SF may be reduced up to 15% with the consent of
TL.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-7
Table 7.2 List of input data for evaluating load-bearing capacity
Shipyard
New building No.
Reg. No.
Manufacturer
Type
Cylindrical gear
Application
Bevel gear (1)
Nominal rated power
P
kW
No. of revolutions
n1
1/min
Application factor
KA
-
KHβ
Face-load
factors
distribution
KHβ-be(1)
-
KFβ
-
Geometry Data
Normal modul
Normal pressure angle
Centre distance
Shaft angle
Relative effective
facewidth
-
Internal dynamic factor
Kv
Load distribution factor
K
load
-
mn / mnm (1)
mm
KF
o
a
mm
Σ (1)
o
Pinion Wheel
Addendum
coefficient
modification
Thickness
coefficient
modification
Coefficient
radius
-
KH
Tool Data
z
αn
-
Transverse
distribution factors
Pinion Wheel
Number of teeth
Ice class
No. of planets
of
tool
tip
x / xhm (1)
-
xsm (1)
-
ρa0*
-
Addendum coefficient of
tool
ha0*
-
Dedendum coefficient of
tool
hf0*
-
hFfP0*
-
beh / b (1)
-
Utilized
dedendum
coefficient of tool
β
°
Protuberance
pr
mm
βm(1)
°
Protuberance angle
pr
°
Facewidth
b
mm
Machining allowance
q
mm
Tip diameter
da
mm
Bz0
mm
Root diameter
dfe
mm
Helix angle
Mean helix angle
Measure at tool
Backlash
tolerance
Lubrication Data
allowance
/
-
Quality
40
2
Quality according to DIN
2
valley
valley
Q
-
RzH
μm
RzF
μm
Initial equivalent
misalignment
Fβx
μm
Material Data
Normal pitch error
fpe
μm
Material type
Profile form error
ff
μm
Kin.viscosity 40°C
mm /s
Kin.viscosity 100°C
100
mm /s
Mean peak to
roughness of flank
Oil temperature
Oil
°C
Mean peak to
roughness of root
FZG load stage
-
Endurance limit
contact stress
for
Endurance limit
bending stress
for
σH lim
σF lim
N/mm
2
N/mm
2
Surface hardness
HV
Core hardness
HV
Heat treatment method
(1)
Date :
Signature :
-
Declaration for bevel gear.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-8
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
1.3.
The input data required to carry out load-
Fbt
=
C
Nominal tangential load on base cylinder in
bearing capacity evaluations are summarized in Table
the transverse section, [N]
7.2.
Ft
2.
=
Nominal
transverse tangential
load
at
reference cylinder, [N]
Symbols, Terms and Summary of Input
Data
2.1
0
tool
1
pinion
2
wheel
M in the mid of face width
n
normal plane
t
transverse plane
Parameters
a
=
Centre distance between mating gears [mm]
b
=
Common facewidth, [mm]
b1 , b2=
=
BZ0 =
d
=
Initial equivalent misalignment, [m]
fpe
=
Normal pitch error, [m]
ff
=
Profile form error, [m]
h
=
Tooth depth, [mm]
Symbols and terms used
Indices
beH
Fβx
=
Facewidth of pinion, wheel, [mm]
h1 , h2 =
Tooth depth of pinion, [mm]
ha0*
Addendum coefficient of tool, [-]
=
ha01, ha02=
Addendum of tool of pinion, wheel, [mm]
ha1 , ha2=
Addendum of pinion, wheel, [mm]
hf0*
Dedendum coefficient of tool, [-]
=
Effective facewidth (for bevel gears), [mm]
hf1 , hf2 =
Dedendum of pinion, wheel [mm]
tool, [mm]
hFfP0* =
Utilized dedendum coefficient of tool, [-]
Standard pitch diameter, (without subscript,
KA
=
Application factor, [-]
KFα
=
Transverse load distribution factor (root
Measure for shift of datum line (i.e. BZ at
at reference cylinder), [mm]
d1 , d2 =
da
=
Reference diameter of pinion, wheel [mm]
Tip diameter, [mm]
da1, da2 = Tip diameter of pinion, wheel, (refer to Figure
7.1) [mm]
stress), [-]
KFβ
=
Face load distribution factor (root stress), [-]
KHα
=
Transverse load distribution factor (contact
stress), [-]
db1, db2= Base diameter of pinion, wheel (refer to
Figure 7.1) [mm]
KHβ
=
Face
load
distribution
factor
stress), [-]
df
=
df1, df2=
Root diameter, [mm]
KHβ-be =
Bearing factor (bevel gears), [-]
K
=
Dynamic load factor, [-]
K
=
Load distribution factor. [-]
Root diameter of pinion, wheel (refer to
Figure 7.1) [mm]
dw1, dw2= Working pitch diameter of pinion, wheel, [mm]
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(contact
C
mn
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
=
x1 , x2 =
Normal modul, [mm]
Addendum
7-9
modification
coefficient
of
pinion, wheel, [-]
mnm
=
Mean normal modul (for bevel gear), [mm]
xhm
=
Mean addendum modification coefficient
(bevel gears) [-]
mt
=
Transverse modul, [mm]
n
=
Number of revolutions, [rpm]
xsm
=
Thickness modification coefficient (bevel
gears) [-]
n1 , n2 =
Rotational speed of pinion, wheel, [rpm]
NL
=
Number of load cycles, [-]
P
=
Transmitted power by the gear set at
Maximum Continuous Rate, [kW]
YF
=
Tooth form factor (root), [-]
YN
=
Live factor (root), [-]
Y rel T =
Relative notch sensitivy factor, [-]
YR rel T =
Relative surface condition factor, [-]
pr
=
Protuberance at tool, [mm]
Q
=
Toothing quality, according to DIN, [-]
q
=
Machining allowance, [mm]
Ra
=
Arithmetic mean roughness, [m]
YX
=
Size factor for tooth root stress, [-]
Rm
=
Mean cone distance[mm]
Yβ
=
Helix angle factor for tooth root stress, [o]
RzF
=
Mean peak to valley roughness of root [m]
z
=
Number of teeth, [-]
RzH
=
Mean peak to valley roughness of flank
z1 , z2 =
YS
=
Stress correction factor, [-]
YST
=
Stress correction factor for reference test
gears, [-]
Number of teeth of pinion, wheel, [-]
[m]
zn
reo
SF
SH
T
=
=
=
=
T 1 , T2 =
u
v
x
=
=
=
=
Virtual number of teeth, [-]
Cutter radius[mm]
zn1 , zn2 =
Virtual number of teeth of pinion, wheel, [-]
ZE
=
Elasticity factor, [-]
ZH
=
Zone factor (contact stress), [-]
ZL
=
Lubricant factor, [-]
ZN
=
Live factor (contact stress), [-]
Zv
=
Speed factor, [-]
(pitch) diameter, [m/s]
ZR
=
Roughness factor, [-]
Addendum modification coefficient, [-]
ZW
=
Work-hardening factor, [-]
Safety factor against the tooth breakage [-]
Safety factor against the pittings, [-]
Torque, [Nm]
Nominal torque of pinion, wheel, [Nm]
Gear ratio, [-]
Tangential (linear) velocity at reference
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-10
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
C
ZX
=
Size factor (contact stress), [-]
σFG
=
Root stress limit, [N/mm2]
Zβ
=
Helix angle factor (contact stress), [-]
σF0
=
Nominal tooth root stress, [N/mm2]
Zε
=
Contact ratio factor (contact stress), [-]
σF lim
=
Endurance limit for bending stress, [N/mm2]
αn
=
Normal pressure angle (without subscript,
σFP
=
Permissible tooth root stress, [N/mm2]
σH
=
Calculated contact stress, [N/mm2]
cylinder[°]
σHG
=
Modified contact stress limit, [N/mm2]
Transverse pressure angle at working pitch
σH lim
=
Endurance limit for contact stress, [N/mm2]
σHP
=
Permissible contact stress, [N/mm2]
σH0
=
Nominal contact stress, [N/mm2]
at reference cylinder), [°]
αt
αwt
=
=
Transverse pressure angle at reference
cylinder[°]
αpr
β
=
=
Protuberance angle, [°]
Helix angle (without subscript, at reference
3.
cylinder), [°]
βb
=
Helix angle at base cylinder, [°]
Geometrical Definitions
For internal gearing z2, a, d2 , da2 , db2 , dw2 and u are
negative. However, for external gears u is positive.
βm
=
Mean helix angle (bevel gears), [°]
The pinion is defined as the gear with the smaller

=
Transverse contact ratio, [-]
number of teeth. Therefore the absolute value of the
gear ratio, defined as follows, is always greater or equal

=
Overlap ratio, [-]

=
Total contact ratio, [-]
oil
=
Oil temperature, [oC]
to the unity:
u
z 2 d w2 d 2


z1 d w1 d1
In the equation of surface durability, b is the common
facewidth on the pitch diameter.
ν40
=
Kinematic viscosity of the oil at 40°C,
2
[mm /s]
In the equation of tooth root bending stress, b1 or b2 are
the facewidths at the respective tooth roots. In any
ν100
=
Kinematic viscosity of the oil at 100°C,
2
ρa0
=
case, b1 and b2 are not to be taken as greater than b by
[mm /s]
more than one normal module mn on either side.
Coefficient of tip radius of tool, [-]
The common facewidth b may be used also in the
equation of teeth root bending stress if significant
crowning or end relief have been applied.
ρc
=
Radius of curvature at pitch surface, [mm]
Σ
=
Shaft angle (bevel gears), [°]
σF
=
Root bending stress, [N/mm2]
tan(α t )  tan(α n ) cos(β )
σFE
=
Root stress, [N/mm2]
tan(β b )  tan(β )  cos(α t )
Additional geometrical definitions are given in the
following expressions:
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
d
d
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
z
,
,
7-11
∙m
cosβ
4.
d , cost
Nominal tangential load, Ft, tangential to the reference
,
Nominal Tangential Load,
cylinder and perpendicular to the relevant axial plane, is
d
calculated directly from the maximum continuous power
transmitted by the gear set by means of the following
2au
u 1
d
equations:
zn1,2  z1,2 (cos2 (βb )  cos(β))
T,
m t  m n cos(β )
Ft 
(where  is in degrees)
inv(α)  tan(α)  π α 180
5.
inv
x
2tan
z
inv
orcos
m z
z
2a




5.1
(where wt is in degrees)
1000  T
d
2

19,1  10 6 x P 2000  T1,2

n d
d1,2
General
Influence
Factors
for
Load
Application factor KA
The application factor KA takes into account the
increase in rated torque caused by the superimposed
dynamics and impact (transient) loads.
h a0 d1  d f1

mn
2m n
x1 
3010 P
n ,
Calculations
cos
 d  d b2
 arccos  b1

2α

α wt
x
z
The application factor KA for gears designed for infinite
life is defined as the ratio of between the maximum
x2 
h a0 d 2  d f2

mn
2m n
d
0.5 d

repetitive cyclic torque applied to the gear set and the
nominal rated torque.
.
0.5 d
m cos
d
.
asin
The application factor, KA, should be determined by
measurements or by system analysis acceptable to TL.
(The positive sign is to be used for external gears; the
Where a value determined in such a way cannot be
negative sign for internal gears.)
supplied, the values for the application factor of KA
εβ 
given in Table 7.3 approved by TL can be considered
b  sin(β )
π  mn
for several main and auxiliary system arrangements.
(For double helix, b is to be taken as the width of one
Where the vessel, on which the reduction gear is being
helix.)
used, is receiving an Ice Class notation, the Application
Factor or the Nominal Tangential Force should be
ε γ  εα  εβ
adjusted to reflect the ice load associated with the
ρc 
a  u  sin(α wt )
π  mn
v
d , n
6010
,
requested Ice Class, i.e. applying the design approach
in UR I3 when applicable.
5.2
Load distribution factor K
The load distribution factor K takes into account the
deviations in load distribution e.g. in gears with dual or
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-12
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
multiple load distribution or planetary gearing with more
-
C
6 planetary gears and over
K = 1.6
than three planet wheels.
In gear which have no load distribution K=1 is applied.
The load distribution factor K is defined at the ratio
between the maximum load through an actual path and
For all other cases K is to be agreed with TL.
the evenly shared load. The factor mainly depends on
accuracy and flexibility of the branches.
5.3
Internal dynamic factor K
The internal dynamic factor K takes into account the
Table 7.3 Application factors
internally generated dynamic loads due to vibrations of
System type
Main propulsion gears
KA factor
Turbines and electric drive systems
1.1
Diesel engine with hydraulic or
electromagnetic slip coupling
1.1
Diesel engine with high elasticity
couplings
1.3
Diesel engine with other couplings
1.5
Generator drives
1.5
Auxiliary machinery under static
load
Auxiliary system
pinion and wheel against each other.
The internal dynamic factor K is defined as the ratio
between the maximum load which dynamically acts on
the tooth flanks and the maximum externally applied
load (Ft*KA*K ).
The factor mainly depends on transmission errors
0.6-1.0
(depending on pitch and profile error), masses of pinion
and wheel, gear mesh stiffness variation as the gear
teeth pass through the meshing cycle, transmitted load
including application factor, pitch line velocity, dynamic
unbalance of gears and shaft, shaft and bearing
stiffness, and damping characteristics of the gear
Thruster drives
1.1(20000h) (1)
system.
Thruster drives with diesel engines
1.3 (20000h) (1)
The internal dynamic factor K is to be advised by the
Windlasses
0.6 (300h) (1)
2.0 (20h) (2)
manufacturer as supported by his measurements,
analysis or experience data. The internal dynamic factor
K can also be determined as follows:
Combined anchor and mooring 0.6 (1000h) (1)
2.0 (20h) (2)
winches
(1) Estimated running hours for low cycle fatigue layout
(2) Estimated maximum load for windlasses
For other types of system the KA is to be stipulated
separately
This method may be applied only to cases where all the
following conditions are satisfied:
-
Running velocity in the subcritical range, (i.e.):
The load distribution factor K should be determined by
u
vz
100 1 u
measurements or by system analysis acceptable to TL.
10 /
Where a value determined in such a way cannot be
supplied; the following values apply for epicyclic or
-
spur gears (β = 0°) and helical gears with β ≤
30°
planetary gears:
-
Up to 3 planetary gears
K = 1.0
-
4 planetary gears
K = 1.2
-
5 planetary gears
K = 1.3
-
pinion with relatively low number of teeth, z1<
50
-
solid disc wheels or heavy steel gear rim
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
This method may be applied to all types of gears if the
7-13
If
formula below is satisfied , as well as to helical gears
where β > 30°
u
v∙z
∙
100
1 u
thenK
vz
u
100 1 u
2.071
0.357
3m/s
5.3.2
0.2
v∙z
u
∙
100
1 u
For helical gears with overlap ratio εβ<1 the
For gears other than the above, reference is to be made
value Kv is determined by linear interpolation between
to Method B outlined in the reference standard ISO
values determined for spur gears (Kvα) and helical gears
6336-1.
(Kvβ) in accordance with:
5.3.1
K
For spur gears and for helical gears with
overlap ratio εβ ≥1
K
1
K

β K

K
β
Where:
K
F
K
b
K
∙
v∙z
∙K
100
u
1
Kvα is the Kv value for spur gears, in accordance with
u
5.3.1;
If KAFt/b is less than 100 N/mm, this value is assumed
to be equal to 100 N/mm.
Kvβ is the Kv value for helical gears, in accordance with
5.3.1.
Numerical values for the factor K1 are to be as specified
in the Table 7.4
Table 7.4 Values of the factor K1 for the calculation
of Kv
5.4
Face load distribution factors KHβ and KFβ
The face load distribution factors, KHβ for contact stress
and KFβ for tooth root bending stress, account for the
effects of non-uniform distribution of load across the
facewidth.
K1
ISO accuracy grades (1)
spur
gears
helical
gears
The face load distribution factor KHβ for contact stress
3
4
5
6
7
8
2.1
3.9
7.5
14.9
26.8
39.1
1.9
3.5
6.7
13.3
23.9
34.8
per unit facewidth is described as the ratio of maximum
load to mean load.
The face load distribution factor KFβ for tooth root
bending stress at tooth root per unit facewidth is
(1) ISO accuracy grades according to ISO 1328. In case of
described as the ratio of maximum bending stress to
mating gears with different accuracy grades, the grade
mean bending stress. The mean bending stress at tooth
corresponding to the lower accuracy should be used.
root relates to the considered facewidth b1 or b2.
For all accuracy grades the factor K2 is to be in
accordance with the following:
Each face load distribution factor can be expressed as a
function of other.
-
for spur gears, K2 = 0.0193
-
for helical gears, K2 = 0.0087
The face load distribution factors mainly depend on:
-
Gear tooth manufacturing accuracy,
-
Errors in mounting due to bore errors,
Factor K3 is to be in accordance with the following:
If
v∙z
u
∙
100
1 u
0.2thenK
2
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-14
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
-
-
Bearing clearances,
-
Wheel and pinion shaft alignment errors,
-
Elastic deflections of gear elements, shafts,
Bevel gears
K Hβ  1.5 0.85  KHβ be
Bb
The bearing factor, KH-be , representing the
bearings, housing and foundations which
influence of the bearing arrangement on the
support the gear elements,
faceload distribution, is given by Table 7.5.
Thermal expansion and distortion due to
-
Table 7.4 Bearing factor KH-be for bevel gears
operating temperature,
Compensating
-
design
elements
(tooth
crowning, end-relief, etc.).
In
C
case
of
flank
corrections
which
have
been
Mounting conditions of pinion and wheel
KH-be
Both members straddle mounted
1.10
One member straddle mounted
1.25
Neither member straddle mounted
1.50
determined by recognized calculation methods, the KHβ
and
KFβ values can be preset. Hereby the special
influence of ship operation on the load distribution has
5.4.2
Face load distribution factor for tooth root
bending stress KF
to be taken into account.
-
In case the hardest contact is at the end of
the facewidth KF is given by the following
The face load distribution factors, KHβ for contact stress,
equations:
KFβ for tooth root bending stress, are to be determined
 
according to the method C outlined in the ISO 6336-1
K Fβ  K Hβ
standard.
N
Alternative methods acceptable to TL may be also
applied.
N
b/h 
1  b/h  b/h 
2
2

1
2
1  h/b  h/b
   
Where:
5.4.1
Face load distribution factor for contact
(b/h) = (facewidth/tooth depth), the lesser of
stress KH
-
(b1/h1) or (b2/h2). For double helical gears,
the facewidth of only one helix is to be used,
Helical and spur gears
C KHβ 
i.e., (b = b/2) is to be substituted for (b) in
b  Fβy  C γ
the equation for N. When b/h<3 the value
2  Ft  K A  K γ  K ν
K Hβ  1  C KHβ  2
b/h=3 is to be used.
when
C KHβ  1
-
In case of gears where the ends of the
facewidth are lightly loaded or unloaded (end
K Hβ 
4  C KH β  2
when
C KHβ  1
relief or crowning)
K Fβ  K Hβ
Where:
Fβy  Fβx  y β
or
Fβy  Fβx  x β
Calculated values of KH  2 are to be reduced
by improvement accuracy and helix deviation.
-
Bevel gears
K Fβ 
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
K Hβ
K FO
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
for spiral bevel gears:
 r
K FO  0.211   eo
 Rm

-
Running in allowances
q

  0.789


The load distribution factors, KH and KF are to be
advised by the manufacturer as supported by his
reo = Cutter radius [mm]
measurements, analysis or experience data or are to be
Rm = Mean cone distance [mm]
determined according to the Method B outlined in the
ISO 6336-1 standard:
0.279
q
logsin(β m )
for straight or zero bevel gears:
5.5.1
Estimating of KH and KF
K FO  1
If ε ν  2 then
Limitations of KFO:
K Hα  K Fα  0.9  0.4
KFO = 1.00 if KFO < 1.00
If ε ν  2 then
KFO = 1.15 if KFO > 1.15
5.5
7-15
K Hα  K Fα 
Transverse load factors KHα and KFα
2(ε ν  1) C ν (f pbe  y a )b
εν
FtH
C ν (f pbe  y a )b 
εν 
 0.9  0.4

2 
FtH


for cylindrical gears:
The transverse load distribution factors KHα for contact
stress and KFα for tooth root bending stress, account for
FtH  Ft  K A  K ν  K hβ
the effects of pitch and profile errors on the transversal
load distribution between two or more pairs of teeth in
f pbe  f pb  cos(α t )
mesh.
for bevel gears:
In case of gears in main propulsion systems with a gear
tooth system of a quality described in 1.2
FmtH  Fmt  K A  K ν  K hβ
For bevel gears, fpt, , FmtH, Fmt and t (equivalent) are
KHα = KFα=1.0
to be substituted for fpbe, , FtH, Ft and t in the above
can be applied.
formulas.
For other gears, the transverse load distribution factors
5.5.2
Limitations of KH
are to be calculated in accordance with DIN/ISO
standards defined in 1.1.
K Hα  1
The face load distribution factors, KHα and KFα mainly
for cylindrical gears:
depend on :
K Hα 
-
Total mesh stiffness,
εν
ε α Zε2

K Hα  1

K Hα 
εν
ε α Zε2
for helical gears:
-
Total tangential load Ft, KA, K, K, KH
Zε 
-
Base pitch error,
-
Tip relief,
Z 
εβ
4  εα
(1  ε β ) 
3
εα
1

TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
if
if
  1
 < 1
7-16
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
6.2
for spur gears:
4  εα
3
Zε 
Contact stress
σ H  σ H01,2
where;
for bevel gears:
C
K A K γ K ν K Hβ K Hα  σ HP
(1)
HO1 and HO2 denote the basic value of contact
stress for pinion and wheel, significantly.
K Hα 
ε νγ

ε να Z2LS
K Hα 
ε νγ
ε να Z2LS
For the calculation of ZLS, see 6.8. The calculation of ZLS
For cylindrical gears:
F
σ H01  Z B Z H Z E Z ε Z β 1  u t
u b  d1
for pinion
F
σ H02  Z D Z H Z E Z ε Z β 1  u t
u b  d1
for wheel
is also described in ISO 10300-2, Annex A, Load
Sharing Factor, ZLS
5.5.3
Limitations of KF
Gear ratio u for external gears is positive and for
K Fα  1
K Fα 

εγ
K Fα  1

ε α Yε
K Fα 
0.75
εα
Yε  0.25 
if

Yε  0.25  0.75   0.75  0.375
 εα
εα

internal gears, u is negative.
εγ
For bevel gears:
ε α Yε
σ H01  Z MB Z H Z E Z LS Z K Z β
1  u ν Fmt
for pinion
u ν  bm  d ν1
 = 0
where;

 ε if 0<  <1

 β

dm1 = Mean pitch diameter of pinion of bevel gear,
d1 = Reference
diameter
of
pinion
of
virtual
(equivalent) cylindrical gears,
Yε  0.625
if
  1
Ft = Nominal transverse tangential load at reference
or further alternative for Y for cylindrical gears only
Yε  0.25
0.75 cos2 (βb )
εα
cylinder for pinion and wheel,
Fmt = Nominal transverse tangential load,
ℓbm = Length of middle line contact,
For bevel gears, ,  and  (equivalent) are to be
substituted for ,  and  in the above formulas.
u
= Gear ratio of bevel gear,
6.
Surface Durability (Pitting)
u
= Gear ratio of virtual (equivalent) cylindrical gear,
6.1
Scope and general remarks
ZB = Single pair tooth contact factor for pinion,
The criterion for surface durability is based on the
ZD = Single pair tooth contact factor for wheel,
Hertzian pressure on the operating pitch point or at the
inner point of single pair contact. The contact stress H
ZE = Elasticity factor,
is not to be exceeded the permissible contact stress HP
(Hertzian flank stress).
ZH = Zone factor,
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
ZK = Bevel gear factor (flank),
Table 7.5 Endurance limits for contract stress σH lim
ZLS = Load sharing (distribution) factor,
σHlim
Material
ZMB = Mid-zone factor,
Z
7-17
N/mm2
Case hardened carburized CrNiMo steel
= Contact ratio factor (pitting),
-
of ordinary grade
1500
-
of specially approved high quality grade
1650
Other case hardened (carburized) steels
Z
= Helix angle factor.
6.3
1500
Gas nitrided steels: hardened, tempered and
1250
gas nitrided, Surface hardness: 700-850 HV10
Through hardened steels: hardened, tempered
Permissible contact stress
and gas nitrided, Surface hardness: 500-650
1000
HV10
The permissible contact stress, σHP is to be evaluated
Through hardened steels: hardened, tempered
separately for pinion and wheel. The permissible
or normalized and nitro-carburized, Surface
contact stress, σHP shall include a safety margin SH as
given in Table 7.1 against the modified contact stress
Flame or induction hardened steels, Surface
hardness: 520-620 HV10
σHG The modified contact stress σHG is determined from
Alloyed through hardening steels, Surface
the material dependent endurance limit for bending
hardness: 195-360 HV10
stress σH
lim
as show in Table 7.6 (2) allowing for the
Through hardened carbon steels, Surface
hardness: 135-210 HV10
stress correction factors ZN, ZL, ZV, ZR, ZW, ZX.
Alloyed cast steels, Surface hardness: 198-358
σ HP
σ
 HG
SH
(2)
HV10
Cast carbon steels, Surface hardness: 135-210
HV10
σ HG  σ Hlim Z N Z L Z V Z R Z W Z X
950
hardness: 450-650 HV10
6.4
0.65·HV10+830
1.32·HV10+372
1.05·HV10+335
1.30 HV10+295
0.87·HV10+290
Single pair tooth contact factors, ZB, ZD and
mid-zone factor ZMB
where;
H lim
=
SH
= Safety factor for contact stress
ZL
= Lubrication factor
ZN
= Life factor for contact stress
ZR
= Roughness factor
Endurance limit for contact stress
The single pair tooth contact factors, ZB for pinion and
ZD for wheel, account for the influence of the tooth flank
curvature of contact stresses at the inner point of single
pair contact in relation to ZH.
The
factors
transform
the
contact
stresses
determined at the pitch point to contact stresses
considering the flank curvature at the inner point of
single pair contact.
ZV
= Velocity factor
ZW
= Hardness ratio factor
ZD for wheels, are to be determined as follows:
ZX
= Size factor for contact stress
For cylindrical (spur) gears when εβ = 0.0
(2)
With consent of TL for case hardened steel with or
The single pair tooth contact factor, ZB for pinions and
over proven quality higher endurance strength may be
permitted.
ZB = ZMB = M1 or 1, whichever is the larger value
ZD = ZMB = M2 or 1, whichever is the larger value
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-18
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
tan
M
d
d
1
2
∙
z
the material properties E (modulus of elasticity) and 
d
d

1
1 2
z
d
d
1
2
∙
z
d
d

1
1 ZE can be calculated as follows:
2
z
For bevel gears wt, da, db,  and z are to be
substituted by t, da, db,  and z, respectively, in
the above formulas.




with Poisson’s ratio of 0.3 and same E and  for pinion
and wheel, ZE may be obtained from the following :
where E denotes the Young’s modulus of elasticity. The
=0.3) is equal to
For helical gears having εβ·<1, the values of ZB, ZD are
determined by linear interpolation between ZB, ZD for
spur gears and ZB, ZD for helical gears having εβ·1.
and
ZB  1
Z D  M 2  ε β (M 2  1) and
ZD  1
Z
189.8 N/mm
For other material combinations, refer to the Table 7.7.
The value of E for combination of different materials for
pinion and wheel should be calculated as follows:
E
For internal gears, ZD shall be taken as equal to 1.
2E1E 2
E1  E 2
6.7
Zone factor, ZH
The zone factor, ZH, accounts for the influence on the
Hertzian pressure of tooth flank curvature at pitch point
and transforms the tangential load at the reference
cylinder to the normal force at the pitch cylinder. The
zone factor, ZH is to be calculated as follows:
For cylindrical (spurs and helical) gears:
Z
 1  ν 1  ν 22
π

E2
 E1
2
elasticity factor, ZE for steel gears (E = 206000 N/mm ,
ZB = ZD = 1
6.5
1
2
1
ZE  0.175 E
For cylindrical (helical) gears when εβ  1.0
Z B  M 1  ε β (M 1  1)
(Poisson’s ratio) on the contact stress. The zone factor,
ZE 
tan
M
C
2cosβ
cos  tan
Contact ratio factor (Pitting), Zε
The contact ratio factor, Zε, accounts for the influence of
the transverse contact ratio and the overlap ratio on the
specific surface load of gears. The contact ratio factor Z
is to be calculated as follows:
For spur gears:
Zε 
4  εα
3
For helical gears:
For  < 1
For bevel gears:
ZH  2 
cos(β νb )
sin(2α νt )
For   1
6.6
Elasticity factor, ZE
6.8
The elasticity factor, ZE, accounts for the influence of
Zε 
Zε 
εβ
4  εα
(1  ε β ) 
εα
3
1
εα
Bevel gear load distribution factor, ZLS
The load sharing factor, ZLS, accounts for the load
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-19
sharing between two or more pair of teeth in contact.
ZK = 0.8
Z LS  1
For ε ≤ 2
6.10
For ε > 2 and ε > 1

 
2

Z LS  1  2 1  

  ε νγ


Helix angle factor, Z
The helix angle factor, Zβ , accounts for the influence of




1.5

 1 4

ε 2νγ





0.5
helix angle on surface durability, allowing for such
variables as the distribution of load along the lines of
contact. Zβ is dependent only on the helix angle. The
For other cases; the calculation of ZLS is described in
helix angle factor, Zβ, is to be calculated as follows:
ISO 10300-2, Annex A, Load Sharing Factor, ZLS.
For cylindrical gears:
6.9
Bevel gear factor (flank), ZK
Zβ
The bevel gear factor (flank), ZK, accounts the
1
cosβ
difference between bevel and cylindrical loading and
adjusts the contact stresses so that the same
For bevel gears:
permissible stresses may apply.
Zβ
β
Table 7.6 Values of the elaticity factor ZE and young's modulus of elasticity E
PINION
WHEEL
Young’s
Young’s modulus Poisson’s
Material
Steel
of elasticity
ratio
(E1 N/mm2)

206000
modulus of
Material
elasticity
(E2 N/mm2)
Poisson’s
Elasticity
ratio
factor, ZE

N1/2 /mm
Steel
206000
189.8
Cast steel
202000
188.9
Nodular cast iron
173000
181.4
Cast tin bronze
103000
155.0
Tin bronze
113000
159.8
1260000.3
Lamellar
graphite
cast
11
iron (gray cast iron)
0.3
80
165.4-162.0
00
Cast steel
202000
Cast steel
202000
188.0
Nodular cast iron
173000
180.5
118000
161.4
173000
173.9
118000
156.6
Lamellar
graphite
cast
iron (gray cast iron)
Nodular cast iron
Nodular cast iron
Lamellar
173000
Lamellar
0.3
graphite
Steel
206000
graphite
iron (gray cast iron)
iron)
0.3
cast
iron (gray cast iron)
Lamellar
cast iron (gray cast 126000-118000
graphite
Nylon
0.3
cast
118000
7850
(mean value)
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
146.0-143.7
0.5
56.4
7-20
6.11
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
-
Endurance limit for contact stress,Hlim
C
Influence factors (ZR, ZV, ZL, ZW, ZX).
For a given material, σHlim is the limit of repeated contact
The life factor, ZN, is to be determined according to
stress which can be permanently endured. The value of
method B outlined in the ISO 6336-2 standard.
Hlim can be regarded as the level of contact stress
which the material will endure without pitting for at least
7
6.13
Influence factors on lubrication film, ZL, ZV
5x10 load cycles.
and ZR
For this purpose, pitting is defined as follows:
The lubricant factor, ZL, accounts for the influence of the
type of lubricant and its viscosity.
-
For not surface hardened gears:
Pitted area > 2% of total active flank area.
The velocity factor, ZV, accounts for the influence of the
pitch line velocity.
-
For surface hardened gears:
Pitted area > 0.5% of total active flank area,
The roughness factor, ZR, accounts for the influence of
or > 4% of one particular tooth flank area.
the surface roughness on the surface endurance
capacity.
The endurance limit depends mainly on:
The factors may be determined for the softer material
-
Material
composition,
cleanliness
and
where gear pairs are of different hardness. The factors
defects;
mainly depend on:
-
Mechanical properties;
-
Viscosity of lubricant in the contact zone;
-
Residual stresses;
-
The sum of the instantaneous velocities of
-
Hardening process, depth of hardened zone,
the tooth surfaces;
hardness gradient;
-
Load;
-
Relative radius of curvature at the pitch point;
-
Surface roughness of teeth flanks;
indicated in ISO 6336-5, for material quality MQ
-
Hardness of pinion and gear.
6.12
The lubricant factor, ZL, the speed factor, ZV, and the
-
Material structure (forged, rolled bar, cast).
The σHlim values correspond to a failure probability of
1% or less. Endurance limit for contact stress σHlim is to
be determined, in general, making reference to values
Life factor, ZN
roughness factor ZR can be calculated as follows:
The life factor, ZN, accounts for the higher permissible
contact stress in case a limited life (number of cycles) is
6.13.1
Lubricant factor, ZL
required.
The lubricant factor, ZL, is to be calculated from the
The factor mainly depends on:
-
Material and heat treatment;
-
Number of cycles;
following equation:
Z L  C ZL 
4(1  C ZL )

 1.2  134

ν 40

TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016




2
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
-
or
With
7-21
Hlim
is in the range of:
2
2
850 N/mm ≤ Hlim ≤ 1200 N/mm
Z L  C ZL 
4(1  C ZL )

 1.2  80

ν 50





σ
 850
C Zν  0.85  0.08   Hlim

350

2
-
With
Hlim
is in the range of:
2
Where Hlim is the allowable stress number (contact) of
Hlim > 1200 N/mm
the softer material.
C Zν  0.93
-
With
Hlim
is in the range of:




6.13.3
Roughness factor, ZR
2
Hlim < 850 N/mm
C ZL  0.83
The roughness factor, ZR, is to be calculated from the
following equation:
-
With
Hlim
is in the range of:

ZR   3
 R Z10

850 N/mm ≤ Hlim ≤ 1200 N/mm
2
2
σ
 850
C ZL  0.83  0.08   Hlim

350

-
With
Hlim




is in the range of:




C ZR
The peak-to-valley roughness determined for the pinion
Rz1 and for the wheel Rz2 are mean values for the peakto-valley roughness Rz measured on several tooth
2
Hlim > 1200 N/mm
flanks (Rz as defined in the ISO 6336-2)
C ZL  0.91
Rz =
Where:
R Z1 + R Z2
2
Where roughness values are not available, roughness
40
50
Nominal kinematic viscosity of oil at
of the pinion RZ1 = 6.3 μm and of the wheel RZ2 = 6.3
2
40ºC, in mm /s
μm may be used. RZ10 is to be given by:
Nominal kinematic viscosity of oil at
2
50ºC, in mm /s
6.13.2
R Z10  R Z  3 10
ρ red
Velocity factor, ZV
and the relative radius of curvature is to be given by:
The velocity factor, ZV, is to be calculated from the
following equation:
Z V  C Zν 
2(1  C Zν )
0.8  32
ν
Where Hlim is the allowable stress number (contact) of
ρ red 
ρ1ρ 2
ρ1  ρ 2
ρ red 
ρ ν1ρ ν2
ρ ν1  ρ ν2
for cylindrical gears
for bevel gears
ρ1  0.5  d b1  tan(α wt )
the softer material.
ρ ν1  0.5  d νb1  tan(α wt )
For bevel gears,  is to be substituted by mt in the
ρ 2  0.5  d b2  tan(α wt )
above formula.
-
With
Hlim
ρ ν2  0.5  d νb2  tan(α wt )
is in the range of:
Hlim < 850 N/mm
It must be noted that db1,2 has negative sign for internal
C Zν  0.85
gears. The roughness of the tooth surface Ra depends
2
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-22
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
C
on the manufacturing process and is rated as the
HB = Brinell hardness of the tooth flanks of the softer
arithmetic average deviation of the surface valleys and
gear of the pair
peaks expressed in micrometers. ISO standards use the
term CLA (Center Line Average). Both are interpreted
HV10
Vickers hardness with F=98.1 N
identical. If the stated roughness a value of Ra which is
also known as the arithmetic average / mean roughness
For unalloyed steel:
HB  HV10 
U
3.6
For alloyed steel:
HB  HV10 
U
3.4
(AA) or the centreline average roughness (CLA), the
following approximate relationship may be applied:
RZ
6
R a  R CLA  R AA 
Where RZ is either RZ1 for pinion or RZ2 for gear and
Hlim is the allowable stress number (contact) of the
RzH = equivalent roughness, μm
softer material.
-
With
Hlim
R
is in the range of:
∙
R
2
Hlim < 850 N/mm
C ZR  0.15
-
With
Hlim
10 .
R
∙

R
.
v∙
1500
.
ρred = relative radius of curvature
is in the range of:
2
850 N/mm < Hlim < 1200 N/mm2
6.14.2
Through-hardened pinion and wheel
CZR  0.32  2.0104  σ Hlim
When the pinion is substantially harder than the wheel,
-
With
Hlim
is in the range of:
the work hardening effect increases the load capacity of
2
6.14
Hlim > 1200 N/mm
the wheel flanks. ZW applies to the wheel only, not to the
C ZR  0.08
pinion.
Hardness ratio factor, ZW
If
The hardness ratio factor, ZW accounts for the increase
HB
HB
If1.2
of surface durability of a soft steel gear when meshing
with a surface hardened gear with a smooth surface in
1
Z
1.2Z
HB
HB
6.14.1
Surface-hardened pinion with throughhardened wheel
IfHB
If130
IfHB
If
130Z
HB
470Z
470Z
Z
1.2
1.2
3
R
3
R
.
HB 130
3

1700
R
.
HB
HB
1
1.7
0.00898
the following cases:
1
HB
HB
0.00829 ∙ u
1
1.7
0.00698 ∙ u
1
If gear ratio u>20 then the value u=20 is to be used.
.
In any case, if calculated ZW <1 then the value ZW = 1.0
is to be used.
6.15
Size factor, ZX
The size factor, ZX accounts for the influence of tooth
Where:
dimensions on permissible contact stress and reflects
the non-uniformity of material properties. The size factor
mainly depends on:
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-23
-
Material and heat treatment,
7.
-
Tooth and gear dimensions,
7.1
-
Ratio of case depth to tooth size,
The criterion for tooth root bending strength is the
Tooth Root Bending Stress
Scope and general remarks
permissible limit of local tensile strength in the root fillet.
-
Ratio of case depth to equivalent radius of
The tooth root stress, σF and the permissible tooth root
curvature.
stress, σFP are to be calculated separately for the pinion
and the wheel, whereby the existing maximum root
For through-hardened gears and for surface hardened
bending stress σF of the teeth should not exceed the
gears with minimum required effective case depth
permissible tooth root stress σFP of the teeth.
including root of 1.14 mm relative to tooth size and
radius curvature ZX =1. When the case depth is
The following formulas apply to gears having a rim
relatively shallow, then a smaller value of ZX should be
thickness greater than 3.5mn and further for all involute
chosen.
basic rack profiles, with or without protuberance,
however, with the following restrictions:
The size factors, ZX are to be obtained from Table 7.8.
6.16
-
The 30° tangents contact the tooth-root curve
generated by the basic rack of the tool,
Safety factor for contact stress, SH
The safety factor for contact stress, SH can be assumed
-
The result of rating calculations made by
following this method are acceptable for
by TL taking into account the type of application. Based
normal pressure angles up to 25° and
on the application type, the safety factors for contact
reference helix angles up to 30°.
stress, SH , are to be selected from Table 7.1.
Table 7.8 Size factor Zx for contact stress
Size factor for
contact stress
Zx
Material
1.0
For through-hardened pinion
treatment
All modules (mn)
For carburized and inductionhardened pinion heat treatment
mn  10
mn < 30
mn  30
For nitride pinion treatment
mn  7.5
1.08-0.011mn
mn < 30
1.0
1.0
1.05-0.005mn
0.9
0.75
mn  30
For bevel gears, the mn (normal module) is to be substituted
by mmn (normal module at mid-facewidth)
-
The basic rack of the tool has a root radius
ρfp > 0
-
The gear teeth are generated using a rack
type tool.
-
For larger pressure angles and large helix
angles, the calculated results should be
confirmed by experience as by method A of
ISO 6336-3.
7.2
Basic equations
7.2.1
Tooth root bending stress for pinion and
wheel
For cylindrical gears:

,
F
Y ∙ Y ∙ Yβ ∙ Y ∙ Y
b∙m
For bevel gears:
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
∙ K ∙ K ∙ K ∙ K

∙K
β

,
7-24
σ F1,2 
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
Fmt
YFα YSα Yε YK YLS K A K γ K ν K Fα K Fβ  σ FP1,2
b  m mn
C
The tooth form factors, YF and YF are to be
determined separately for the pinion and the wheel.
In the case of helical gears, the form factors for
where:
gearing are to be determined in the normal section,
i.e., for the virtual spur gear with virtual number of
YF, YF = Tooth form factor (root),
teeth, zn.
YS, YS = Stress correction factor,
The tooth form factor, YF, is to be calculated as follows:
Y
= Helix angle factor,
YB
= rim thickness factor,
YDT
= deep tooth factor,
Y
= Contact ratio factor,
YK
= Bevel gear factor,
YLS
= Load distribution (sharing) factor.
7.2.2
For cylindrical gears:
 h 
6   F   cos( α Fen )
 mn 


YF 
2
s 
 Fn   cos( α )
n
 mn 


For bevel gears:
Permissible tooth root bending stress for
Y Fa
pinion and wheel
σ FP1,2 
σ FE
Yd YN Yδre1T YRre1T YX
SF
 h 
6   Fa   cos( α Fan )
 m mn 



2
 s

 Fn   cos( α )
n
 m mn 


where:
hF, hFa
where:
= Bending moment arm for tooth root
bending stress for application of load at
FE
the outer point of single tooth pair contact,
= Bending endurance limit,
in mm,
Yd
= Design factor,
YN
= Life factor,
Yre1T
= Relative notch sensitivity factor,
YRre1T
= Relative surface factor,
YX
= Size factor,
SF
= Safety factor for tooth root bending stress.
sFn
= Tooth root normal chord in the critical
section (i.e. width of tooth at highest
stressed section), in mm,
Fen, Fan=
Normal load pressure angle at the outer
point of single tooth pair contact in the
7.2.3.
normal section, in degrees.
For determination of hF, hFa, sFn and Fen, Fan, it should
be refer to Figure 7.1.
For the calculation of hF, sFn and αFen, the procedure
Tooth form factor, YF, YF
outlined in ISO 6336-3 (Method B) is to be used.
The tooth form factors, YF and YF represent the
influence on nominal bending stress of the tooth form
7.2.4
Stress correction factor, YS, YSa
with load applied at the outer point of single pair tooth
contact.
The stress correction factor, YS and YSa is used to
convert the nominal bending stress to the local tooth
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
root stress, taking into account that not only bending
7-25
qs
=
Notch parameter,
F
=
Root fillet radius in the critical section at 30o
stresses arise at the root.
tangent, in mm
YS applies to the load application at the outer point of
single tooth pair contact. YS shall be determined
For the calculation of ρF the procedure
separately for the pinion and for the wheel.
The stress correction factor, YS, is to be determined with
the following equation (having a valid range: 1 qs  8):
qs 
s Fn
2ρF
outlined in ISO 6336-3 is to be used.
L
=
sFn/hF for cylindrical gears, in mm
La
=
sFn/hFa for bevel gears, in mm.
7.2.5
For cylindrical gears:


1


 1.21(2.3/L) 


Ys  (1.2  0.13L) qs
Helix angle factor, Y
The helix angle factor, Y converts the stress calculated
for a point loaded cantilever beam representing the
substitute gear tooth to the stress induced by a load
along an oblique load line into a cantilever plate which
For bevel gears:


1


 1.21(2.3/L ) 
a 

Ysa  (1.2  0.13La )  q s
represents a helical gear tooth.
where:
Figure 7.1
Measurements on cross-section of the tooth profile of a typical external cylindrical gear
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-26
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
C
The helix angle factor, Y is to be calculated as follows :
7.2.7
β
Yβ  1  ε β 
120
The deep tooth factor, YDT, adjusts the tooth root stress
where:
to take into account high precision gears and contact

: Reference helix angle in degrees for cylindrical
gears
Deep tooth factor, YDT
ratios within the range of virtual contact ratio 2.05 ≤
n
≤ 2.5 , where:
If  > 1.0 then
 = 1.0
If  > 30º
 =30º
then

 cos β
Factor YDT is to be determined as follows:
7.2.6
Rim thickness factor, YB
-
to de-rate thin rimmed gears. For critically loaded
-
if ISO accuracy grade ≤4 and 2.05 ≤ n ≤ 2.5
YDT = 2.366-0.666n
comprehensive analysis. Factor YB is to be determined
-
as follows:
n > 2.5
YDT = 0.7
The rim thickness factor, YB, is a simplified factor used
applications, this method should be replaced by a more
if ISO accuracy grade ≤ 4 and
In all other cases
YDT = 0.1
7.2.6.1
for external gears:
7.2.8
S
if
h
1.2Y
1
Bending endurance limit, FE
For a given material, σFE is the limit of repeated tooth
root stress that can be sustained. For most materials,
If0.5
S
h
h
1.6 ∙ ln 2.242
S
1.2Y
their stress cycles may be taken at 3x10
6
as the
beginning of the endurance limit, unless otherwise
specified.
where:
The endurance limit, σFE is defined as the unidirectional
sR = rim thickness of internal gears, mm
pulsating stress with a minimum stress of zero
(disregarding residual stresses due to heat treatment).
h
=
tooth height, mm
Other conditions such as e.g., alternating stress or pre-
The case SR / h ≤ 0.5 is to be avoided.
stressing are covered by the design factor Yd.
7.2.6.2
The endurance limit mainly depends on:
If
S
m
If1.75
for internal gears:
3.5Y
S
m
3.5Y
1
1.15 ∙ ln 8.342
where:
m
S
-
Material composition, cleanliness and defects
-
Mechanical properties,
-
Residual stress,
-
Hardening process, depth of hardened zone,
hardness gradient,
sR = rim thickness of internal gears, mm
The case SR / mn ≤ 1.75 is to be avoided.
Material structure (forged, rolled bar, cast).
The σFE values are to correspond to a failure probability
of 1% or less. The values of σFE are to be determined
from Table 7.9 or to be advised by the manufacturer,
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
together with technical justification for the proposed
7.2.10
7-27
Life factor, YN
values.
For gears treated with controlled shot peening process,
the value of σFE may be increased by 20%.
7.2.9
The life factor, YN, accounts for the higher tooth root
bending stress permissible in case a limited life (number
of cycles) is required.
Design factor, Yd
The life factor mainly depends on:
The design factor, Yd, takes into account the influence
of load reversing and shrink fit pre-stressing on the
-
Material and heat treatment;
-
Number of load cycles (service life);
-
Influence factors (Yre1T, YRre1T, YX).
tooth root strength, relative to the tooth root strength
with unidirectional load as defined for σFE.
The design factor, Yd, for load reversing, is to be
determined as follows:
Yd
=
1.0
in general;
The life factor, YN, is to be determined according to
Method B outlined in ISO 6336-3 standard.
Yd
= 0.9 for gears with part load in reversed
direction, such as main wheel in reversing
gearboxes;
Yd
7.2.11
Relative notch sensitivity factor, Yre1T
The relative notch sensitivity factor, Yre1T, indicates the
= 0.7 for idler gears.
extent to which the theoretically concentrated stress lies
Table 7.9 Endurance limits for tooth bending stress
above the fatigue endurance limit.
σFE
The factor mainly depends on material and relative
Material
stress gradient.
σFE
N/mm
2
The relative notch sensitivity factor, Yre1T, is to be
Case hardened carburized CrNiMo steel
-
of ordinary grade
920
-
of specially approved high quality grade
1050
Other case hardened (carburized) steels
Gas nitrided steels: hardened, tempered and
gas nitrided, Surface hardness: 700-850 HV10
840
920
where:
Through hardened steels: hardened, tempered
and gas nitrided, Surface hardness: 500-650
740
HV10
qs = notch parameter (see clause 7.2.4)
Through hardened steels: hardened, tempered
or normalized and nitro-carburized, Surface
780
ρ’ = slip-layer thickness, mm, from the following table
hardness: 450-650 HV10
Flame or induction hardened steels, Surface
hardness: 520-620 HV10
Alloyed through hardening steels, Surface
hardness: 195-360 HV10
Through hardened carbon steels, Surface
hardness: 135-210 HV10
Alloyed cast steels, Surface hardness: 198-358
HV10
Cast carbon steels, Surface hardness: 135-210
HV10
determined as follows :
0.25·HV10+580
0.78 HV10+400
0.50·HV10+320
0.68 HV10+325
0.50·HV10+225
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-28
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
ρ’, mm
Material
case hardened steels, flame or induction
through-hardened steels*,
yield point R =
If the roughness stated is an arithmetic mean
roughness, i.e. Ra value ( = CLA centreline
0.0030
hardened steels
500 N/mm²
0.0281
600 N/mm²
0.0194
800 N/mm²
0.0064
1000 N/mm²
0.0014
average value)
(= AA arithmetic average
value) the following approximate relationship
can be applied:
e
Ra = CLA = AA = Rz/6
0.1005
nitrided steels
C
7.2.13
Size factor, YX
*The given values of ρ’ can be interpolated for values of R
e
not stated above
The size factor, YX, takes into account the decrease of
the strength with increasing size. The size factor mainly
7.2.12
depends on:
Relative surface factor, YRre1T
The relative surface factor, YRre1T, takes into account the
-
Material and heat treatment;
-
Tooth and gear dimensions;
-
Ratio of case depth to tooth size.
dependence of the root strength on the surface
condition in the tooth root fillet, mainly the dependence
on the peak to valley surface roughness.
The relative surface factor, YRre1T is to be determined as
The size factor, YX, is to determined by Table 7.10.
defined on the following table:
Material
1.674
1.120
5.306
1.070
0.529 R
1
4.203 R
1.
case hardened
steels, through hardened steels
(B ≥ 800
N/mm2)
.
Normalised
steels
(B < 800
2
N/mm )
.
Table 7.10 Size factor YX
Case
Generally
Normalised and
through-
4.299
3.259 R
1
.
nitrided steels
YX
mn < 5
1.00
5< mn < 30
1.03 – 0.06*mn
mn  30
0.85
5 < mn < 25
1.05 – 0.01*mn
mn  25
0.80
hardened steels
Surface
hardened steels
1.025
Condition
7.2.14
Safety factor for tooth root bending
stress, SF
The safety factor for tooth root bending stress, SF, is to
Where:
be selected from Table 7.1 according to the type of
Rz
=
Mean peak to-valley roughness of tooth root
fillets, in m
B
=
application.
For gearing of duplicated independent propulsion or
auxiliary machinery, duplicated beyond that required for
2
Tensile strength, in N/mm
class, a reduced value can be assumed by TL
The method applied here is only valid when
scratches or similar defects deeper than 2*Rz
are not present.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D,E
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-29
D.
Gear Shafts
= 1.10 for gear shafts,
1.
Minimum Diameter
=
1.15 for gear shafts in the area of the
pinion or wheel body is this is keyed to
the shaft and for multiple-spline shafts.
The dimensions of shafts of reversing and reduction
gears are to be calculated by applying the following
formula.
increased bending stresses in the shaft are liable to
C w P/n
d a d  F k
3
d
1   i
 da



(5)
4
where:
d
Higher values of k may be specified by TL where
=
Minimum required outer diameter of shaft,
occur because of the bearing arrangement, the casing
design, the tooth pressure, etc.
E.
Equipment
1.
Oil Level Indicator
[mm]
For monitoring the lubricating oil level in main and
da
=
Actual outer shaft diameter, [mm]
auxiliary gears, equipment must be fitted to enable the
oil level to be determined.
di
=
Actual inner diameter of shaft bore, where
present. If the bore in the shaft is ≤ 0.4 da the
2.
Pressure and Temperature Control
expression, [mm]
d
1  i
 da

P
n
Temperature and pressure gauges are to be fitted to
4

  1.0


may be applied
oil temperature at the oil-cooler outlet before it enters
the gears.
=Driving power of shaft, [kW]
Shaft speed, [min-1]
=
monitor the lubricating oil pressure and the lubricating
Plain journal bearings are also to be fitted with
temperature indicators.
F
=
Factor for the type of drive, [-]
Where gears are fitted with anti-friction bearings, a
=
95 for turbine plants, electrical drives and
temperature indicator is to be mounted at a suitable
engines with slip couplings,
point. For gears rated up to 2000 kW, special
arrangements may be agreed with TL.
=
CW
100 for all other types of drive. TL reserves
=
the right to specify higher F values if this
Where ships are equipped with automated machinery,
appears necessary in view of the loading of
TL Rules Chapter 4-1 - Automation are to be complied
the plant.
with.
Material factor explained in Section 5, B.1.6
3.
Lubricating Oil Pumps
and C.2.1. However, for wheel shafts the
value substituted for Rm in the formula shall
Lubricating oil pumps driven by the gearing must be
2
not be higher than 800 N/mm . For pinion
mounted in such a way that they are accessible and can
shafts the actual tensile strength value may
be replaced.
generally be substituted for Rm. [-],
For the pumps to be fitted, see Section 16, H.3.3.
k
=
Factor for the type of the shaft [-],
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-30
4.
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
Gear Casings
E,F
= 6.3
for gear shafts, pinions and coupling
The casings of gear belonging to the main propulsion
members for engine gears,
and to essential auxiliaries must be fitted with
removable inspection covers to enable the toothing to
= 2.5
be inspected and the thrust bearing clearance to be
for torsion shafts and couplings, pinions
measured and the oil sump to be cleaned.
5.
and gear wheels belonging to turbine
transmissions.
Seating of Gears
The seating of gears on steel or cast resin adapters is to
conform to the TL's relevant Rules for seating of the
propulsion plants and the auxiliaries.
2.
Testing of Gears
2.1
Testing in the manufacturer's works
In the case of cast resin seating, the thrust must be
When the testing of materials and component tests
absorbed by means of stoppers. The same applies to
have been carried out, gearing systems for the main
cast resin seating of separate thrust bearings.
propulsion plant and for important auxiliaries in
accordance with Section 1, D.8 are to be presented to
F.
Balancing and Testing
1.
Balancing
TL for final inspection and operational testing in the
manufacturer's works. The final inspection is to be
combined with a trial run lasting several hours under
part or full-load conditions, on which occasion the tooth
1.1
Gear wheels, pinions, shafts, gear couplings
clearance and contact pattern of tooting are to be
and, where applicable, high-speed flexible couplings
checked. In the case of a trial at full-load, any necessary
must be assembled in a properly balanced condition.
running-in of the gears must have been completed
beforehand. Where no test facilities are available for the
1.2
The generally permissible residual imbalance
operational and on-load testing of large gear trains,
U per balancing plane of gears for which static or
these tests may also be performed on board ship on the
dynamic balancing is rendered necessary by the
occasion of the dock trials.
method of manufacture and by the operating and
loading conditions can be determined by applying the
Tightness tests are to be performed on those
formula:
components to which such testing is appropriate.
U 9.6
QG
zn
[kgmm]
(6)
where;
G
= Mass of component to be balanced, [kg]
n
= Operating speed of component to be
-1
balanced, [min ]
Reductions in the scope of the tests require the consent
of TL.
2.2
Tests during sea trials
2.2.1
Priority at sea trials, the teeth of gears
belonging to the main propulsion plant are to be
coloured with suitable dye to enable the contact
pattern to be established. During the sea trials, the
z
= Number of balancing planes, [-]
Q
= Degree of balance, [-]
gears are to be checked at all forward and reverse
speeds to establish their operational efficiency and
smooth running as well as the bearing temperatures
and the pureness or the contamination of lubricating
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
F,G
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
7-31
oil. On conclusion of the sea trials, the gearing is to
(Values close to 4.5 only with high manufacturing
be examined via the inspection openings and the
accuracy and little residual imbalance)
contact pattern checked. If possible the contact
pattern should be checked after conclusion of every
Where methods of calculation recognized by TL are
load step. Assessment of the contact pattern is to be
used for determining the Hertzian pressure on the flanks
based on the guide values for the proportional area
of tooth couplings with convex tooth flanks, the
of contact in the axial and radial directions of the
permissible Hertzian pressures are equal to 75% of the
teeth given in Table 7.11 and shall take account of
values of σHP shown in C.6.3 with influence factors ZNT
the running time and loading of the gears during the
to ZX set to 1.0:
sea trial.
p
=
the tooth flanks, [N/mm2]
Table 7.11 Percentage area of contact
Material /
manufacturing of
teeth
depth
(without tip
relief)
heat-treated,
hobbed, formed by
generating method
surface-hardened,
ground, shaved
2.2.2
Working
33% average
values
40% average
values
Actual contact pressure or loading capacity of
P
=
Driving power at coupling, [kW]
d
=
Pitch circle diameter, [mm]
Width of tooth
(without end
relief)
70%
80%
KA
=
Application factor in accordance with C.5.1,[-]
Z
=
Number of teeth, [-]
n
=
-1
Speed, [min ]
h
=
Working depth of teeth, [mm]
b
=
Load-bearing tooth width, [mm]
In the case of multistage gear trains and
planetary gears manufactured to a proven high degree
of accuracy, checking of the contact pattern after sea
trials may, with the consent of TL, be reduced in
dm =
Diameter of gyration, [mm]
scope.
2.2.3
For checking the gears of rudder propellers
as main propulsion, see Section 9, B.
GK
=
Mass of coupling sleeve, [kg]
σHP
=
Permissible Hertzian pressure according to
2
C.6.3. [N/mm ]
G.
Design and Construction of Couplings
1.
Tooth Couplings
1.1
Adequate loading capacity of the tooth flanks
pperm =
and tempered steel; Higher values apply to
high strength steels with superior tooth
manufacturing and surface finish quality.
[N/mm2]
of straight-flanked tooth couplings requires that the
following conditions be satisfied:
p  2.55 107
P  KA
 p perm
bh dzn
400-600 for the toothing made of quenched
=
800-1000 for the toothing made of hardened
steel (case or nitrogenised) Higher values
(7)
apply for superior tooth manufacturing and
surface finish quality.
for
1015 P
n 3d 2mG K
 4.5
(8)
=
0.7·ReH for ductile steel.
=
0.7·Rm for brittle steel.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
7-32
1.2
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
The coupling teeth are to be effectively lubricated.
2.5
G
If a flexible coupling is so designed that it
For this purpose a constant oil level maintained in the
exerts an axial thrust on the coupled members of the
coupling may generally be regarded as adequate where;
driving mechanism, provision must be made for the
absorption of this thrust. If torsional limit devices are
d  n 2  6.0  10 9 [mm/min2]
(9)
applicable, the functionality shall be verified.
2
For higher values of (d·n ), couplings in main propulsion
2.6
plants are to be provided with a circulating lubrication oil
must be capable of absorbing impact moments due to
system.
electrical short circuits up to a value of 6 times the
Flexible couplings for diesel generator sets
nominal torque of the coupling.
1.3
For the dimensional design of the coupling
sleeves, flanges and bolts of tooth couplings, the
2.7
formulae given in Section 5 are to be applied.
be so designed that the average shear stress in the
The flexible element of rubber couplings shall
rubber/metal bonding surface relating to TKN does not
2.
Flexible Couplings
2
exceed a value of 0.5 N/mm .
2.1
Flexible couplings must be approved for the
2.8
For the shear stress within the rubber
loads specified by the manufacturer and for use in main
element due to TKN it is recommended not to exceed a
propulsion plants and essential auxiliary machinery. In
value subjected to the Shore hardness according to
general, the flexible couplings are to be type approved.
Table 7.12.
For the further detailed requirements for type approvals
of flexible couplings are defined by Regulations for the
Performance of the Type Tests Part 7 – Test
Requirements
for
Mechanical
Components
and
Equipment.
Higher values can be accepted if appropriate strengths
of rubber materials have been documented by means of
relevant tests and calculations.
Table 7.12 Limits of shear stress
2.2 Flexible couplings in the main propulsion plant and
power-generating plants must be so dimensioned that they
are able to withstand for a reasonable time operation with
Shore hardness
Limits of shear stress
one engine cylinder out of service, see Section 16, C.6.3.
(-)
(N/mm2)
Additional dynamic loads for ships with ice classes are to
40
0.4
be taken into account. In this connection reference is made
50
0.5
to Section 19.
60
0.6
70
0.7
2.3
With regard to the routine supervision of
coupling types already approved by TL and in order to
prove adequate dynamic fatigue strength prior to the
issue of a general type approval for flexible couplings to
be introduced into shipbuilding for the first time, TL
reserves the right to call for the execution of special
dynamic loading tests appropriate to the design of the
coupling in question.
2.4
values
shall
be
derived
by
experiments
and
experiences.
3.
Flange and Clamp-Type Couplings
In the dimensional design of the coupling bodies,
With regard to the casings, flanges and bolts
of flexible couplings, the requirements specified in
Section 5, D are to be complied with.
For special materials, e.g. silicon, corresponding limit
flanges and bolts of flange and clamp-type couplings,
the requirements specified in Section 5 are to be
complied with.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
G
4.
Section 7 – Gears, Couplings
Clutches
4.3.4
7-33
Measures for a controlled switching of the
coupling and an adequate cooling in all working
4.1
Definition and application
conditions have to be provided.
Clutches are couplings which can be engaged and
4.3.5
disengaged
disengaging
mechanically,
hydraulically
or
Auxiliary
systems
for
engaging/
pneumatically.
If
hydraulic
or
pneumatic
systems
are
used
to
The following requirements apply for their use in shaft
engage/disengage a clutch within the propulsion system of
lines and as integrated part of gear boxes.
a ship with single propulsion plant an emergency operation
shall be possible. This may be done by a redundant power
Clutches intended for trolling operation are subject to
system
special consideration.
mechanical way, e.g. by installing connecting bolts. For
for
engagement/
disengagement
or
in
a
built-in clutches this would mean that normally the
4.2
Materials
connecting bolts shall be installed on the side of the driving
plant equipped with turning facilities.
The mechanical characteristics of materials used for the
elements of the clutch shall conform to the TL Rules
The procedure to establish emergency service has to be
Chapter 2 - Material.
described in the operating manual of the clutch and has
to be executed in a reasonable time.
4.3
Design requirements
4.3.1
Safety factors
5.
Testing of Clutches and Couplings
Couplings for ship's propulsion plants and couplings for
For the connections to the shafts on both sides of the
clutch and all torque transmitting parts the requirements
of Section 5 have to be considered. The mechanical
part of the clutch may be of multiple disc type. All
components shall be designed for static loads with a
friction safety factor between 1.8 and 2.5 in relation to
the nominal torque of the driving plant.
generator sets and transverse thrusters are to be
presented to the TL for final inspection and, where
appropriate, for the performance of functional and
tightness tests.
If a type approval is requested, the requirements will be
defined on a case by case basis by TL.
A dynamic switchable torque during engaging of 1.3
times the nominal torque of the driving plant has
For single approvals, the scope of tests may be reduced
generally to be considered. In case of combined
by agreement with TL.
multiple engine plants the actual torque requirements
As part of the sea trials, the installed clutches and
will be specially considered.
couplings shall be tested for correct functioning on
4.3.2
Ice class
board in presence of a TL Surveyor, according to the
Additional Rules and Guidelines.
For clutches used for the propulsion of ships with ice
class the reinforcements defined in Section 19, C.1
6.
Controls and Alarms
have to be considered.
Local operation of remotely controlled clutches for the
4.3.3
The multiple disc package shall be kept free
propulsion plants shall be possible.
of external axial forces.
The pressure of the clutch activating medium has to be
indicated locally. Alarms according to the TL Rules of
Automation have to be provided.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 8 – Propellers
8-1
SECTION 8
PROPELLERS
Page
A.
B.
C.
GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................................................8-2
1.
Scope
2.
Definitions
3.
Documents for Approval
MATERIALS....................................................................................................................................................... 8-4
1.
Normally Used Materials for Propeller Blades and Hubs
2.
Materials for the Stud Components of CPP and Assembled FPP
3.
Novel Materials
4.
Material Testing
DIMENSIONS AND DESIGN OF PROPELLERS ..............................................................................................8-5
1.
D.
E.
F.
Symbols and Terms
2.
Calculation of Blade Thickness
3.
Design of the Propellers
CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLERS .........................................................................................................8-8
1.
Hydraulic Control Equipment
2.
Pitch Control Mechanism
3.
Blade Retaining Bolts
4.
Indicators
5.
Failure of Control System
6.
Emergency Control
PROPELLER MOUNTING ................................................................................................................................. 8-9
1.
General
2.
Tapered (Cone) Mountings
3.
Flange Connections
BALANCING AND TESTING ...........................................................................................................................8-14
1.
Balancing
2.
Testing
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-2
A.
General
1.
Scope
A
projected blade outline. (See Figure 8.1)
-
propellers whose blades have a skew
These requirements apply to propellers intended for
angle other than zero.
propulsion. It covers fixed pitch and controllable pitch
propeller. Performance of propellers, intending to
improve the designed output, is to be demonstrated
-
o
than 25 .
the technical and material properties for propellers
are provided in Section 19.
Highly skewed propeller : A highly skewed
propeller is one whose skew angle is more
during sea trials. Additional requirements dealing with
intended for ships strengthened for navigation in ice
Skewed propeller : Skewed propellers are
-
Rake : Propeller rake (e) is the horizontal
distance between the line connecting the
blade tip to the blade root and the vertical line
2.
Definitions
crossing the propeller axis in the same point
where the prolongation of the first line
Basic concept and definitions applied in this section
crosses it, taken in correspondence of the
are described in following items:
-
blade tip (see Figure 8.2). Aft rakes are
(solid)
pitch
propeller
is
a
piece.
positive,
fore
rakes
are
considered negative.
propeller
(including hub and blades) cast in one
-
considered
Fixed (solid) pitch propeller, FPP : A fixed
-
Rake angle : Rake angle () is the angle
measured from the plane perpendicular to
shaft centreline to the tangent to the
Built-up propeller : A built-up propeller is a
generating
propeller cast in more than one piece. In
line
at
a
specified
radius
(propeller shaft line for the purpose of this
general, built up propellers have the blades
section, see Figure 8.2).
cast separately and fixed to the hub by a
system of bolts and studs.
-
Leading angle : The leading edge of a
:
propeller blade is the edge of the blade at
Controllable pitch propellers are built-up
side entering the water while the propeller
propellers which include in the hub a
rotates.
Controllable
pitch
propeller,
CPP
mechanism to rotate the blades in order to
have the possibility of controlling the
propeller
pitch
in
different
-
service
propeller blade is the edge of the blade
conditions.
-
opposite the leading edge.
Nozzle : A nozzle is a circular structural
casing enclosing the propeller.
-
Trailing angle : The trailing edge of a
-
Blade developed area : Blade developed
area is the area of the blade surface
expanded in one plane.
Ducted propeller : A ducted propeller is a
propeller installed in a nozzle.
-
-
Developed area ratio : Developed area
Skew angle : Skew angle () of a propeller
ratio
is
is the angle measured from ray “I” passing
developed area to the area of the ring
through the tip of blade at mid-chord line to
included between the propeller diameter
ray “II” tangent to the mid-chord line on the
and the hub diameter.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 the
ratio
of
the
total
blade
Section 8 – Propellers
A
8-3
contain all the details necessary to carry out an
examination in accordance with the following requirements.
3.2
In case of a conventional fixed pitch propeller
application, the following items shall be provided to TL
for approval:
-
Material properties of propeller,
-
Design characteristics of propeller, rating
(power, rpm etc),
-
Dimensions, allowable tolerances, blade and
hub details,
Figure 8. 1 Blade sections and maximum skew angle
-
Propeller drawing plans, sectional assembly,
-
Blade thickness calculations,
-
Data and procedures for fitting propeller to
the shaft.
3.3
In
case
of
controllable
pitch
propeller
systems, general drawings and sectional drawings are
to be submitted in triplicate in addition to the design
drawings for blade, boss and pitch control mechanism.
Documents submitted to TL for approval about
controllable pitch propellers are itemized as follows:
-
Same
documents
requested
for
fixed
propellers,
-
Hub and hub to tail shaft flange attachment
bolts,
-
Propeller
blade
flange,
bolts
and
pre-
tensioning procedures,
Figure 8. 2 Rake and rake angle
3.
3.1
-
Internal mechanism,
-
Pitch corresponding to maximum propeller
Documents for Approval
thrust and to normal service condition,
Design drawings, plans and particulars of
propellers in main propulsion systems having an engine
-
Hydraulic piping control system (control and
output of in excess of 300 kW and in transverse thrust
hydraulic diagrams are to be attached to a
systems of over 500 kW, are to be submitted to TL in
description of the functional characteristics)
triplicate for examination. The drawings are required to
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-4
-
Instrumentation and alarm system,
A,B
Propellers and vane wheels are to be made of
seawater-resistant cast copper alloys or cast steel
-
Strength calculations for internal mechanism.
2
alloys with a minimum tensile strength of 440 N/mm ,
according to the TL Rules for Materials and Welding.
In the case of new designs or controllable pitch
propeller systems which are being installed for the first
Table 8.1 Tensile strength of materials, Cw
time on vessel with the TL classification, a description of
the controllable pitch propeller system is also to be
provided.
Cw
Material
Description (1)
N/mm
Cu 1
Cast manganese bronze
440
When highly skewed propeller application or
Cu 2
Cast nickel manganese bronze
440
any other unconventional designs are in question, TL
Cu 3
Cast nickel aluminium bronze
590
guards
detailed
Cu 4
Cast manganese aluminium bronze
630
hydrodynamic load and stress analysis in addition to the
Fe 1
Unalloyed cast steel
440
foregoing. Where propeller blade designs are of the
Fe 2
Low-alloy cast steel
440
types for which the requirements do not provide
Fe 3
Martensitic cast chrome steel 13/1-6
600
Fe 4
Martensitic-austenitic cast steel 17/4
600
Fe 5
Ferritic-austenitic cast steel 24/8
600
Fe 6
Austenitic cast steel 18/8-11
500
3.4
further
requirements
including
a
simplified blade thickness calculations, such as
o
Highly skewed propeller with  > 50 ;
-
(1)
-
Highly skewed propellers not made of nickelaluminium-bronze material with 25o <   50o;
-
Controllable pitch propellers with  > 25o;
-
Cycloidal propellers;
For the chemical composition of the alloys, see
the TL's Rules for Materials and Welding.
For the purpose of the following design requirements
governing the thickness of the propeller blades, the
requisite resistance to seawater of a cast copper alloy
or cast steel alloy is considered to be achieved if the
alloy used is capable to withstand a fatigue test under
propeller load and stress analyses demonstrating
adequacy of blade strength are to be submitted.
alternating bending stresses comprising 108 load cycles
amounting to about 20% of the minimum tensile
strength and carried out in a 3% NaCl solution, and
Where propellers are to be fitted to the shaft
3.5
2
without keys, stress calculations for hub stresses and
holding capacity, along with fitting instructions, are to be
submitted to TL.
proved that the fatigue strength under alternating
bending stresses in natural seawater can be proven to
be not less than about 65% of the values established in
3% NaCl solution. Sufficient
fatigue strength under
alternating bending stresses must be proved by a
method recognized by TL.
B.
Materials
2.
1.
Normally used materials for propeller
Materials for the Stud Components of CPP
and Assembled FPP
blades and hubs
In general, steel (preferably nickel-steel) is to be used
Table 8.1 shows the properties of materials normally
for manufacturing the studs connecting steel blades to
used
for
propellers.
specification
is
composition
and
If
proposed,
an
the
mechanical
alternative
material
the hub of built-up or controllable pitch propellers, and
detailed
chemical
high tensile brass or stainless steel is to be used for
shall
studs connecting bronze blades
properties
be
submitted to TL for approval.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
B,C
The material of the studs securing detachable blades to
CDyn
8-5
= Dynamic factor in accordance with formula
the hub is to be of at least Grade 2 forged steel or
(3), [-]
equally satisfactory materials which should comply with
the TL regulations pertaining to metal materials, (see TL
Cw
= Characteristic value for propeller material
Rules Chapter 2 - Material.)
as shown in Table 8.1, corresponds to the
minimum
tensile
strength
Rm
of
the
The blade retaining bolts of assembled fixed propellers
propeller material where sufficient fatigue
or controllable pitch propellers are to be made of
strength
seawater-resistant materials, if they are not protected
stresses in accordance with item B.1 is
against contact with seawater.
3.
alternating
bending
proven. [-]
Novel Materials
d
=
for their reliability are applied, the suitability has to be
proven particularly to TL and the detailed chemical
composition and mechanical properties are to be
submitted for approval.
Pitch circle diameter of blade or propellerfastening bolts, [mm]
Where propeller materials with not sufficient experience
4.
under
dk
= Shaft diameter at mid-length of key, [mm]
dr
= Root diameter of blade or propellerfastening bolts, [mm]
Material Testing
ds
= Line shaft diameter, [mm]
D
=
Diameter of propeller, [mm]
=
2·R
=
Blade rake to aft according to Fig. 8.2,
=
R·tan() [mm]
=
Thrust stimulating factor in accordance
The material of propellers, vane wheels, propeller
bosses and all essential components involved in the
transmission of torque is to be tested in accordance with
TL Material and Welding regulations. This also applies
to components which are used to control the blades and
e
also to propellers in main propulsion systems with less
than 300 kW power and transverse thrust systems of
ET
less than 500 kW power.
with formula (5), [-]
C.
Dimensions and Design of Propellers
f1,f2,f3
= Factors in formulas (2), (3), (4), [-]
1.
Symbols and Terms
f1
= 7.2 for solid propellers,
A
= Effective area of a shrink fit, [mm2]
= 6.2 for separately cast blades of variablepitch or built-up propellers,
As
2
= Shear area of key, [mm ]
f2
B
= 0.4~0.6 for single-screw ships, the lower
cylindrical
value applying to stern shapes with a wide
sections at radii 0.25R, 0.35R and 0.6R in
propeller tip clearance and no rudder heel,
an expanded view, [mm]
and the larger value to sterns with little
= Developed
blade
width
of
clearance
CG
= Size factor in accordance with formula
(2), [-]
and
with
rudder
heel.
Intermediate values are to be selected
accordingly,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-6
f3
C
=
0.2 for twin-screw ships,
T
=
Rated propeller thrust, [N]
=
0.2 for propeller materials which satisfy
TM
=
Impact moment, [Nm]
VS
=
Speed of ship, [kn]
w
=
Wake factor, [-]
W0.35R
=
Section modulus of cylindrical section at
the requirements of B.1,
H
= Pressure side pitch of propeller blade at
radii 0.25R, 0.35R and 0.6R, [mm]
Hm
= Mean effective pressure side pitch of
0.35R, [mm3]
propeller blade for pitch varying with the
radius, [mm]
W0.6R
=
Section modulus of cylindrical section at
0.6R, [mm3]
=
(R  B  H)
(R  B)
Z
=
Total number of bolts used to retain one
blade or propeller, [-]
in which R, B and H are corresponding
measures of the various sections.
k
= Coefficient for various profile shapes in
z
=
α
=
Number of blades, [-]
Pitch angle of profile at radii 0.25R, 0.35R
and 0.6R, [o]
accordance with Table 8.2, [-]

LM
=

 0 .25  arctan  1 .27  H 
2/3 of the leading edge part of the blade

D

width at 0.9R, but at least 1/4 of the total


skew blades. [mm]
M


rated nominal power of driving engine Pw
n2
= Propeller speed at rated power, [min-1]
Pw
= Nominal power of driving engine, [kW]
ReH
= Yield strength, [N/mm2]
ReHs
= Specified yield strength of shaft material,
αA
=
factor

for
retaining
bolts
(see
VDI
2230
or
equivalent
Guidance values;
= Specified yield strength of key material,
= 0.2% proof stress of propeller material,
=

D
standards)

Maximum blade thickness of developed
cylindrical section at radii 0.25R (t0.25),
0.35R (t0.35) and 0.6R (t0.6), [mm]
=
=
1.2 for angle control
=
1.3 for bolt elongation control
=
1.6 for torque control
Angle included by face generatrix and
o
normal, [ ]
2
[N/mm ]
tb
Tightening
used
2
[N/mm ]
Rp0.2

depending on the method of tightening
2
[N/mm ]
ReHk
D
 0 .6  arctan  0 .53  H 
= Rated torque transmitted according to
and speed of propeller shaft, n2 [Nm]

 0 .35  arctan  0 .91  H 
blade width at 0.9R for propellers with high
Ψ
= Skew angle according to Fig. 8.1, [°]
σmax/σm
= Ratio of maximum to mean stress at side
of blade face. [-]
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
C
Table 8.2 Values of “k” for various profile shapes
0.25R 0.35R 0.6R
Segmental profiles with circular
arced suction side,
73
62
44
suction side,
Blade profiles as for Wageningen
B series propellers
77
66
47
80
66
44
Table 8.3 Material constants according to IACS UR
K3
Elasticity
Poisson’s Expansion
modulus
forged steel
Ratio
E [kgf/mm ]
ν [–]
2.1x104
1.0x104
2
Cast and
coefficient





 C Dyn 




σ

 max  1   f 
3 
 σm




  1.0
0.5  f 3



(3)
else C Dyn  1.0
0.29
12.0x10-6
such calculation exists, the stress ratio, σmax/σm, may be
calculated approximately according to formula (4)
12.0x10-6
Cu 1
1.1x10
0.33
-6
17.5x10
Cu 2
1.1x104
0.33
17.5x10-6
Cu 3
1.2x104
0.33
17.5x10-6
Cu 4
4
0.33
17.5x10-6
Note: For austenitic stainless steel see manufacturer’s
calculation according to 2.5. If, in exceptional cases, no
σ max
σm
 1  f2  E T
ET 
specification.
2.
satisfy the following condition:
σmax/σm is generally to be taken from the detailed
0.26
1.2x10
then the dynamic factor CDyn should
[mm/mmºC]
4
Cast iron
 max > 1.5
m
If
Segmental profiles with parabolic
Material
 


10 5  P W   2   D   cos( α )  sin( α ) 
  Hm 


 

n 2  B  z  C W  cos 2 (ε )
K1 
Values of k
Profile shape
8-7
4.3  10
2.2
Calculation of Blade Thickness
9
(4)
 VS  n 2  (1  w)  D
3
(5)
T
The blade thickness of controllable pitch
propellers are to be determined at radii 0.35R and 0.6R
At radii 0.25R (t0.25) and 0.6R (t0.6), the
2.1
by applying formula (1).
maximum blade thicknesses of solid propellers must, as
a minimum requirement, comply with formula (1).
t b  K o  k  K 1  C G  C Dyn
For the controllable pitch propellers of tugs, trawlers as
(1)
Where the size factor CG should satisfy the following
well as special-duty ships with similar operating
conditions, the diameter/pitch ratio D/Hm for the
maximum bollard pull is to be used in formula (1).
condition:

D
f1 

1000
0.85  C G 
12.2




  1.1


For other ships, the diameter/pitch ratio D/Hm applicable
to open-water navigation at maximum engine power
(2)
(MCR) can be used in formula (1).
2.3
Ko  1
n2
e  cos(α )

H
15000
The blade thicknesses calculated by applying
formula (1) are the lowest acceptable values for the
finish-machined
propellers
Specific values of k for several profile shapes are shown
processed
CNC-Computer
in Table 8.2
Machine.
by
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 or
for
the
Numerical
propeller
Control
Section 8 – Propellers
8-8
2.4
The fillet radii at the transition from the face
3.
C,D
Design of the propellers
(pressure side) and the back (suction side) of the blades
to the propeller boss should correspond, in the case of
3.1
three and four-bladed propellers, to about 3.5% of the
the
propeller diameter. For propellers with a larger number
The propeller has to be protected against to
electro-chemical
corrosion
according
to
the
requirements in TL Rules Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 22.
of blades, the maximum fillet radii should be aimed at,
but the radii shall not in any case be chosen than %40
of the blade root thickness, 0.4 · t0.25.
Designs applying variable fillet radii, aiming to achieve a
D.
Controllable Pitch Propeller
1.
Hydraulic Control Equipment
uniform stress distribution, may be accepted if an
Where
adequate proof of stress calculation is given case by
hydraulically, two mutually independent, power-driven
case. The resulting calculated maximum stress shall not
pump sets are to be installed. For propulsion plants up
exceed the values, occurring from a design with
to 200 kW, one power-driven pump set is sufficient
constant fillet radius in accordance to the first paragraph
provided that, in addition, a hand-operated pump is
of 2.4.
provided, capable for controlling the blade pitch and
the
pitch-control
mechanism
is
operated
being the blades to be moved from the ahead to the
2.5
For special designs such as propellers with
skew angle Ψ ≥ 25°, end plate propellers, tip fin
astern position in a duration as short as possible for
safe manoeuvring.
propellers, special profiles etc, special mechanical
The selection and arrangement of filters must ensure
strength calculations are to be submitted to TL.
an uninterrupted supply with filtered oil, also during
Furthermore, for re-calculation of the blade stress of
these special propeller designs, a complete file about
blade geometry data and the details on the measured
wake field shall be submitted to TL together with the
filter cleaning or exchange. In general, main filters
are to be arranged on the pressure side directly after
the pump. An additional coarse filtration of the
hydraulic oil at the suction side of pump should be
provided.
design documentation. All the data and measurements
shall be supplied in as compact as to be used in
Section 16, A. to D. is to be applied in an analogous
computers.
manner to hydraulic pipes and pumps.
Supplementary information can be requested by TL for
2.
Pitch control mechanism
approval.
For the pitch-control mechanism, proof is required that,
2.6
If the propeller is subjected to an essential
wear due to special operational conditions, e.g.
abrasion in tidal flats or dredgers, the thickness
determined in 2.1 has to be increased to ensure an
adequate life time. If the actual thickness in service
drops below 50% at the blade tip or 90% at other
radii of the rule thickness obtained from 2.1, effective
counter
measurements
have
to
be
taken,
respectively. For unconventional blade geometries as
when subjected to impact moments TM as defined by
formula (6), the individual components still have a safety
factor of 1.5 with respect to the yield strength of the
materials used. The resulting equivalent stresses at the
different components are to be compared with their yield
strength.
TM 
1.5  R P0.2  W 0.6R
 0.15  D

 LM

2

  0.75


defined in 2.5, the design thickness on the approved
drawings
shall
be
replaced
by
the
thickness
W0.6R can be calculated by applying formula (7).
requested in 2.1.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 (6)
Section 8 – Propellers
D,E
 
W0.6R  0.11 B  t 2b
(7)
0.6R
8-9
Hydraulic pitch control systems are to be
4.2
provided with means to monitor the oil level. For
3.
Blade Retaining Bolts
3.1
The blade retaining bolts shall be designed in
controlling the propeller pitch position, an oil pressure
gauge is to be fitted onto system. A suitable indicator for
such a way as to safely withstand the forces induced in
filter clogging must be provided. An oil temperature
indicator is to be fitted at a suitable position.
the event of plastic deformation at 0.35R caused by
force acting on the blade at 0.9R. At this occasion, the
bolt material shall have at least a safety margin of 1.5
against the yield strength.
Where ships are equipped with automated machinery,
the requirements of Chapter 4-1 - Automation are to be
compiled with.
The thread core diameter of the blade retaining bolts
5.
shall not be less than
Failure of the Control System
Suitable devices are to be fitted to ensure that an
M 0.35R  α A
d r  2.6
d  Z  R eH
(8)
alteration of the blade setting cannot overload the
propulsion plant or cause it to stall.
M 0.35R  W0.35R  R P0.2
Steps must taken to ensure that, in the event of failure
of the control system, the setting of the blades
W0.35R may be calculated analogously the formula (7) or
(9).
For nearly elliptically sections at the root area of the
-
Does not change or
-
Drifts to a final position slowly enough to
blade, the following formula may be used instead:

2
W0.35R  0.10 B  t b
3.2

allow the emergency control system to be put
The blade retaining bolts are to be tightened
in a controlled manner in such a way that the initial
tension on the bolts is about 60~70% of their yield
strength.
6.
Emergency Control
Controllable pitch propeller systems must be equipped
with
means
of
emergency
control
enabling
the
controllable pitch propeller to remain in operation in any
The shank of blade retaining bolts may be reduced to
not less than 0.9 times the root diameter of the threaded
part.
3.3
into operation.
(9)
0.35R
failure case of the remote control system. It is
recommended to provide a device enabling the
propeller blades to be locked in the “ahead” setting
position.
Blade retaining bolts must be secured
against unintentional loosening.
4.
4.1
E.
Propeller Mounting
1.
General
Indicators
Controllable pitch propeller systems are to
be provided with a direct acting indicator at engine room
Screw propeller hubs are to be properly adjusted and
showing the actual setting of the blades. Further blade
fitted on the propeller shaft cone.
position indicators are to be mounted on the bridge and
in the engine room (see also Chapter 4-1 - Automation,
The forward end of the hole in the hub is to have the
and Chapter 5 - Electrical Installations).
edge rounded to a radius of approximately 6 mm.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-10
E
In order to prevent any entry of sea water under the
It should be noted that the keyways are, in general, not
liner and onto the end of the propeller shaft, the
to be used in installations with slow speed, crosshead or
suitable arrangements under supervision of TL
two-stroke engines with a barred speed range.
surveyor are to be adopted for assembling the liner
and propeller boss.
3
As 
ds
R eHs
(10)
2.55  d k R eHk
The external stuffing gland is to be provided with a
seawater resistant rubber ring preferably without joints.
For symbols or terms see C.1.
The clearance between the liner and the internal air
space of the boss is to be as small as possible. The
2.2
Keyless fitting
2.2.1
Symbols and Terms
internal air space is to be filled with an appropriate
protective material which is insoluble in sea water and
non-corrodible or fitted with a rubber ring.
All free spaces between the propeller shaft cone,
propeller boss, nut and propeller cap are to be filled with
a material which is insoluble in sea water and noncorrodible. Arrangements are to be made to allow any
air present in these spaces to withdraw at the moment
of filling. It is recommended that these spaces be tested
under a pressure at least equal to that corresponding to
the immersion of the propeller in order to check the
Figure 8.3 Theoretical Contact Surface Between Hub
tightness obtained after filling.
and Shaft
2.
A
Tapered (Cone) Mountings
= 100% theoretical contact area (mm2)
between boss and shaft, as read from
2.1
drawings and disregarding oil grooves
Keyed fitting
=  . Ds . L
Where the tapered joint between the shaft and the
propeller is fitted with a key, the propeller is to be
mounted on the tapered shaft is such a way that
C
= Conicity of shaft ends, [-]
approximately 120% of the mean torque can be
=
transmitted from the shaft to the propeller by friction.
Keyed connections are in general not to be used in
installations with a barred speed range.
Db
=
differencein taper diameter
length of taper
Mean outer diameter of propeller hub
corresponding to Ds; mm (in.) Db is to Mbe
calculated as the mean of Dbm, Dbf and
For shape of keyway in the shaft and size of the key,
Dba, outer diameters of hub corresponding
see Section 5, Figure 5.1.
to Ds, the forward point of contact and the
aft point of contact, respectively, see
Figure 8.3
In general, the key material is to be of equal or higher
strength than the shaft material. The effective area of
the key in shear is to be not less than As, given below.
The effective area is to be the gross area subtracted by
Db
= (Dba+Dbm+Dbf) / 3
Dbm
= Mean outer diameter of propeller boss, in
materials removed by saw cuts, set screw holes,
mm
chamfer, etc., and is to exclude the portion of the key in
corresponding to Ds, see Figure 8.3.
way of spooning of the key way.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 (in.),
at
the
axial
position
Section 8 – Propellers
E
Ds
= Diameter of shaft at mid-point of the taper
P0
8-11
= Surface
in axial direction; mm (in.), taking into
pressure
(kgf/mm2)
between
mating surfaces at temperature 0°C
account the exclusion of forward and aft
counterbore length and the forward and aft
Pmax
= Maximum allowable surface pressure
edge radii, see Figure 8.3.
(kgf/mm2) at 0°C
K
= Db/Ds
Eb
= Modulus of elasticity (kgf/mm2) of boss
S
=
Factor of safety against friction slip at
35°C
material (see Table 8.3)
θ
=
taper (C) = 1/15, θ =1/30).
= Modulus of elasticity (kgf/mm2) of shaft
Es
material (see Table 8.3)
µ
Fv
= Shear force at interface = 2cQ/Ds (kgf)
Q
= Rated
torque
(kgf•mm)
transmitted
=
c
Coefficient of friction between mating
surfaces
t
=
The temperature at which the propeller
is mounted, [°C]
according to rated horsepower, H, and
speed of propeller shaft
Half taper of propeller shaft (C/2), (e.g.
T
=
Rated thrust (kgf)
Vs
=
Ship speed (knots) at rated horsepower
Wt
=
Push-up load (kgf) at temperature t°C

=
Pull-up length of propeller on taper, (mm)
 35
=
Pull-up length (mm) at temperature
= Constant,
c
= 1,0 for turbines, geared diesel drives,
electric drives and for direct diesel drives
with a hydraulic or an electromagnetic or
high elasticity coupling
c
= 1,2 for a direct diesel drive. The
Classification Society reserves the right
35°C
to increase the c constant if the
shrinkage has to absorb an extreme
high pulsating torque.
H
= Rated brake horsepower (PS)
N
= Propeller speed (r.p.m.) at rated brake
Pull-up length (mm) at temperature t°C
 max
=
Maximum allowable pull-up length (mm)
σE
=
Equivalent uniaxial stress (kgf/mm2) in the
boss according to the Mises-Hencky
P
= Mean propeller pitch (mm)
P35
=
pressure
=
at temperature 0°C
horsepower
Surface
t
(kgf/mm2)
criterion
between
αs
=
Coefficient
8.3)
=
Surface
pressure
linear
expansion
(mm/mm°C) of shaft material (see Table
mating surfaces at 35°C
Pt
of
(kgf/mm2)
between
mating surfaces at temperature t°C
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-12
αb
=
Coefficient
of
linear
expansion
-
E
The minimum pull-up length and contact
(mm/mm°C) of boss material (see Table
pressure at 35ºC to attain a safety factor
8.3)
against slip of 2.8,
vs
=
Poisson’s ratio for shaft material
vb
=
Poisson’s ratio for boss material
σy
=
Yield point or 0,2% proof stress (0,2%
offset yield strength) of propeller material (kgf/mm2)
-
The safety factor of against to the friction slip at
35°C is not to be less than 2.8 under the action
of rated torque (based on rated power, rpm)
plus torque due to the torsional vibrations.
-
The proposed pull-up length and contact
pressure at fitting temperature,
Where the connection between propeller shaft cone and
propeller is realised by hydraulic oil technique without
the use of a key, the taper of propeller shaft cone shall
-
The rated propeller ahead thrust.
not exceed 1/15.
Prior to final pull-up, the contact area between the
The formulas, etc., given herein are not applicable for
mating surfaces is to be checked and should not be less
propellers where a sleeve is introduced between shaft
than 70% of the theoretical contact area (100%). Non-
and boss.
contact bands extending circumferentially around the
boss or over the full length of the boss are not
The factor of safety against (s) slip of the propeller hub
acceptable.
o
on the tail shaft taper at 35 C is to be at least 2.8 under
the action of maximum continuous ahead rated torque
After final pull-up, the propeller is to be secured by a nut
on the propeller shaft. The nut should be secured to the
due to the torsional vibrations.
shaft.
For oil injection method of fit, the coefficient () of
friction shall be less equal than 0.13 for bronze-steel
The formulae given below, for the ahead condition, will
propeller hubs on steel shafts and for the bosses made
also give sufficient safety in the astern condition.
in copper-based alloy and steel, 0.15 for dry fitted shrink
joints bronze/steel, 0.18 for dry fitted shrink joints
The formulae are applicable for solid shafts only.
steel/steel.
The minimum mating surface pressure “P35” at a water
The maximum equivalent uni-axial stress in the boss at
o
temperature of 35 C is to be:
0°C based on the Von Mises-Hencky criterion (E)
should not exceed 70% of the yield point or 0.2% proofstress (0.2% offset yield strength) for the propeller
material based on the test piece value. For the cast iron
P35 
ST 
2
F  
 S  θ  μ 2  B   ν  
AB 
 T  

(11)
materials, the mentioned value should not exceed 30%
The rated propeller thrust, T, submitted by the designer
of the nominal tensile strength.
is to be used in these calculations. In the event that this
Stress calculations and fitting information shall be
is not submitted, one of the equations (12) and (13) for
submitted to TL and should include at least the following
estimating the propeller thrust may be used, subject to
items:
whichever yields the larger value of P35.
-
Theoretical contact surface area,
T  132
H
(12)
νs
The maximum permissible pull-up length at
o
0 C as limited by the maximum permissible
uni-axial stress specified above,
T  4.3  10
6
H
PN
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 (13)
Section 8 – Propellers
E
The shear force at interface, F is given by
Fν 
8-13
and the corresponding maximum permissible pull-up
length,
2cQ
 max at 0ºC
(14)
Ds
 max   35 
Constant B is given by:
is:
Pmax
P35
(22)
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred
B  μ o2  S2θ 2
(15)
speed range it has to be confirmed by separate
calculation that the vibratory torque in the main
The corresponding minimum pull-up length
 35 at 35ºC, is:
resonance is transmitted safely. For this proof the
safety against slipping for the transmission of torque
 35  P35 
K
Ds
2 θ
 1

Eb
shall be at least S=2.0 (instead of S=2.8), the

 K2 1
 1
 2
 ν b  
(1  ν s ) 
 K 1
 Es

(16)
coefficient cA may be set to 1.0. For this additional
proof the respective influence of the thrust from (11)
may be disregarded.
Db
Ds
(17)
2.3
The von Mises’ equivalent stress resulting from
Where the connection between propeller shaft cone and
the maximum specific pressure P and the tangential
propeller is realised by hydraulic oil technique without
stress in the bore of the propeller hub shall not exceed

on
75% of the yield strength or the 0.2% proof stress or
the tapered shaft is to be determined according to
yield strength of the propeller material in the installed
formula (10). Where appropriate, allowance is also to be
condition and 90% during mounting and dismounting
made for surface smoothing when calculating .
procedure.
the use of a key, the necessary pull up distance
The minimum pull-up length,
t
at temperature t, where
º
t < 35 C, is:
2.4
The cones (tapers) of propellers which are
mounted on the propeller shaft by means of the
hydraulic oil technique shall not be more than 1:15 or
 t   35 
not be less than 1:25. For keyed connections, the taper
Ds
(α b  α s )(35  t)
2θ
(18)
Values for b and s can be taken from Table 8.3. At
o
o
least the temperature range between 0 C and 35 C
shall not be more than 1:10.
2.5
The propeller nut must be strongly secured to
the propeller shaft.
has to be considered.
3.
Flange Connections
3.1
Flanged propellers and hubs of controllable
Hence, the corresponding minimum surface pressure, Pt
is:
Pt  P35 
t
 35
pitch propellers are to be connected to the flange of the
(19)
propeller shaft by means of fitted pins and retaining
bolts (necked down bolts for preference).
The minimum push-up load, Wt at temperature t is:
Wt  A  Pt  (μ  θ)
The
corresponding
(20)
maximum
permissible
mating
3.2
calculated by applying formula (4) given in Section 5,
C.5.2.
surface pressure, Pmax at 0ºC is:
3.3
0.7   y  (K  1)
2
Pmax 
3K 4  1
(21)
The diameter of the fitted pins is to be
The propeller retaining bolts are to be of
similar design to those described in D.3. However,
the thread core diameter shall not be less than:
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 8 – Propellers
8-14
E,F
required to undergo pressure, tightness and operational
M o.35R  α A
d r  4.4
d  Z  R eH
(23)
tests.
TL reserves the right to require non-destructive tests to
for symbols and terms see C.1.
be conducted to detect surface cracks or casting
3.4
The propeller retaining bolts have to be
defects.
secured against unintentional loosening.
2.2
Casted propeller boss caps, have to be tested
for tightness at the manufacturer’s workshop, so far they
F.
Balancing and Testing
also serve the purpose of corrosion protection.
1.
Balancing
TL reserves the right to require a tightness test of the aft
propeller boss sealing in assembled condition.
The finished propeller and the blades of controllable
If the propeller is mounted onto the shaft by a
pitch propellers and built fixed pitch propellers are
2.3
required to undergo static balancing. Thereby the mass
hydraulic shrink fit connection, a blue print test showing at
difference between blades of controllable-or built-up
least a 70% contact area has to be demonstrated to the
fixed-pitch propeller has to be not more than 1.5%.
satisfaction of the Surveyor. The blue print pattern should
not show any larger areas without contact, especially not at
2.
the forward cone end. The blue print pattern has to be
Testing
demonstrated using the original components.
2.1
Fixed
pitch
propellers,
controllable
pitch
propellers and controllable pitch propeller systems and
If alternatively a male/female calibre system is used,
vane wheels are to be presented to TL for final
between the calibres a contact area of at least 80% of
inspection and verification of the dimensions.
the cone area has to be demonstrated and certified.
After ten applications or five years, the blue print proof
In addition, controllable pitch propeller systems are
has to be renewed.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-1
SECTION 9
STEERING GEARS AND THRUSTERS
Page
A.
STEERING GEARS ........................................................................................................................................... 9-2
1. General
2. Materials and Welding
3. Steering Components and Design Principles
4. Dimensioning
5. Testing and Certification
6. Shipboard Trials
7. Requirements for Tankers
B.
RUDDER PROPELLER UNITS (AZIMUTH THRUSTERS) ............................................................................9-24
1. General
2. Materials
3. Rudder Propeller Components and Design Principles
4. Dimensioning
5. Further Requirements for Thrusters Compartments
6. Tests in the Manufacturer’s Work
7. Certification and Trials
C.
LATERAL THRUST UNITS (BOW THRUSTERS) .........................................................................................9-29
1. General
2. Materials
3. Dimensioning and Design
4. Tests in the Manufacturer’s Work
5. Shipboards Trials
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-2
A
A.
Steering Gears
1.2
Documents for approval
1.
General
All relevant assembly and general drawings of the
steering gears, diagrams of the hydraulic and electrical
1.1
equipments together with the detailed drawings of all
Scope
important
All vessels are to be provided with power-operated
means of steering. Such means, as a minimum, are to
be supported by duplication of power units, and by
redundancy in piping, electrical power supply, and
control circuitry. Steering is to be capable of being
load-transmitting
components
and
their
specifications are to be submitted to TL in triplicate for
approval.
TL demands a private report identifying the design
targets and objectives to be submitted for approval. The
report shall cover the followings:
readily regained in the event of the failure of a power
unit, a piping component, a power supply circuit or a
-
control circuit.
The design targets and objectives of the
analysis,
This section is applicable to ships for which steering
-
The standards applied to the design and
analysis,
is affected by means of a rudder and an electric,
hydraulic or electro-hydraulic steering gear. The
requirements contained in this subsection apply to
-
The assumptions in the design & analysis,
-
The components of the steering system and
the steering gear including all the equipment used to
operate the rudder, the steering station and all
its sub-systems,
transmission elements from the steering station to
the steering gear. For the rudder and manoeuvring
arrangement, see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 18. For
the purposes of these requirements, steering gears
-
Operational modes of each components,
-
Probable failure modes and acceptable
comprise all the equipment used to operate the
deviations from the intended or required
rudder from the rudder actuator to the steering
service and running principles,
station including the transmission elements.
-
Consideration of the local effects and their
The requirements set out in 1974 SOLAS Chapter II-1,
possible effects on the steering system in
Regulation 29 and 30, are integral part of this rule and
case of failure,
are to be applied in their full extent. In addition to the
mentioned requirements, TL also looks for the following
-
Trials
and
testing
necessary
to
prove
conclusions.
rules apply to new ocean-going vessels of 500 GRT and
upwards.
The report is to be submitted prior to approval of the
The requirements in this section may be applied to other
vessels at the discretion of TL.
Steering gears intended for ships strengthened for
design plans in detail. The report may be submitted in two
parts:
The first report covers a preliminary analysis as soon as
the initial arrangements of different compartments and
navigation in ice are to comply also with the additional
propulsion plant are known which can form the basis of
requirements in Section 19.
discussion. This shall include a structured assessment
of all essential systems supporting the propulsion plant
Additional requirements for azimuth thrusters are given
after a failure in equipment, fire or flooding in any
in B.
compartment casualty. The second report should
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
9-3
denote the final design with a detailed evaluation of any
hydraulic control pumps and their associated motors,
critical system identified in the preliminary report.
motor controllers, piping and cables required to control
Verification of the report contents shall be agreed
the steering gear power actuating system. For the
between the shipbuilder and TL.
purpose of the requirements, steering wheels, steering
levers, and rudder angle feedback linkages are not
The drawings and other documents must contain all the
considered to be part of the control system.
information relating to materials, working pressures,
pump delivery rates, drive motor ratings etc. necessary
Where the steering gear is so arranged that more than
to enable the documentation to be checked.
one
system
(either
power
or
control)
can
be
simultaneously operated, the risk of hydraulic locking
The plans and related documents submitted for
caused by single failure is to be considered.
approval are itemized as follows:
Steering gear control shall be provided for the main
-
Arrangement of steering gear machinery,
-
Hydraulic piping system diagram,
steering gear, both on the navigation bridge and in the
steering gear compartment;
-
-
Power supply system diagrams,
-
Motor control system diagrams,
Where the main steering gear is arranged in
accordance with 1.3.3, by two independent
control systems, both operable from the
navigation bridge. This does not require
duplication of the steering wheel or steering
-
Steering control system diagrams,
-
Instrumentation and alarm system diagrams,
lever. Where the control system consists of a
hydraulic telemotor, a second independent
system need not be fitted, except in a tanker,
chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10,000 tons
-
Drawings and details for rudder actuators,
-
Drawings and details for torque transmitting
gross tonnage and upwards;
-
For the auxiliary steering gear, in the steering
parts and parts subjected to internal hydraulic
gear compartment and, if power-operated, it
pressure,
shall also be operable from the navigation
bridge and shall be independent of the
-
Details
and
specifications
of
welding
control system for the main steering gear.
procedure,
Two independent steering gear control systems must be
-
Rated torque.
provided, each of which can be operated from the
navigation bridge separately and shall be so arranged that
1.3
Definitions and regulations
a mechanical or electrical failure in one of them will not
render the other one inoperative. These control systems
For the purpose of this section, the following definitions
are to allow rapid transfer of steering power units and of
apply:
control between the units (See 3.4.2.3 and 3.4.2.4).
1.3.1
Steering gear control system
Wires, terminals and the components for duplicated
steering gear control systems installed in units, control
Steering gear control system means the equipment by
boxes, switchboards or bridge consoles shall be
which orders are transmitted from the navigating bridge
separated as far as practicable.
to the steering gear power actuating system (units) and
the power actuating system is being controlled. Steering
Where physical separation is not practicable, separation
gear control systems comprise transmitters, receivers,
may be achieved by means of a fire retardant plate.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-4
A
Any main and auxiliary steering gear control
1.3.1.2.3 In the case of double follow-up control (see
system operable from the navigation bridge shall
Fig. 9.3), the amplifiers shall be designed and fed so as
comply with the following:
to be electrically and mechanically separated. In the
1.3.1.1
case of nonfollow- up control and follow-up control, it
1.3.1.1.1 If electric, it shall be served by its own
shall be ensured that the follow-up amplifiers are
separate circuit supplied from a steering gear power
protected selectively (see Fig. 9.4).
circuit
from
a
point
within
the
steering
gear
compartment, or directly from switchboard busbars
1.3.1.2.4 Control circuits for additional control systems,
supplying that steering gear power circuit at a point on
e.g. steering lever or autopilot shall be designed for all -
the switchboard adjacent to the supply to the steering
pole disconnection (see Fig. 9.2, 9.3 and 9.4).
gear power circuit;
1.3.1.2.5 The feed-back units and limit switches, if any,
1.3.1.1.2 Means shall be provided in the steering gear
for the steering gear control systems shall be separated
compartment for disconnecting any control system
electrically and mechanically connected to the rudder
operable from the navigation bridge from the steering
stock or actuator separately.
gear it serves;
1.3.1.2.6 Hydraulic system components in the power
1.3.1.1.3 The system shall be capable of being brought
actuating or hydraulic servo systems controlling the
into operation from a position on the navigation bridge;
power systems of the steering gear (e.g. solenoid
valves, magnetic valves) are to be considered as part of
1.3.1.1.4 In the event of a failure of electrical power
the steering gear control system and shall be duplicated
supply to the control system, an audible and visual
and separated.
alarm shall be given on the navigation bridge; and
Hydraulic system components in the steering gear
1.3.1.1.5 Short circuit protection only shall be provided
control system that are part of a power unit may be
for steering gear control supply circuits.
regarded as being duplicated and separated when there
are two or more separate power units provided and the
All components used in steering arrangements for
piping to each power unit can be isolated.
ship directional control are to be of sound reliable
construction to the satisfaction of TL. Special
1.3.1.3
consideration shall be given to the suitability of any
systems, see TL Electric Rules.
For failure detection and response of control
essential component which is not duplicated. Any
such essential component shall, where appropriate,
1.3.2
Main steering gear
utilize anti-friction bearings such as ball bearings,
roller bearings or sleeve bearings which shall be
Main steering gear means the machinery, rudder
permanently lubricated or provided with lubrication
actuator(s), the steering gear power units, if any, and
fittings.
ancillary equipment and the means of applying torque to
the rudder stock (e.g. tiller or quadrant) necessary for
1.3.1.2.1 All electric components of the steering gear
effecting movement of the rudder for the purpose of
control systems shall be duplicated. This does not
steering the ship under normal service conditions.
require duplication of the steering wheel or steering
lever.
1.3.1.2.2
1.3.3
If a joint steering mode selector switch (uniaxial
Steering gear power unit
Steering gear power unit means:
switch) is employed for both steering gear control systems,
the connections for the circuits of the control systems shall
-
In the case of electric steering gear, an
be divided accordingly and separated from each other by
electric motor and its associated electrical
an isolating plate or by air gap.
equipment,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
-
9-5
In the case of electro-hydraulic steering gear,
The main steering gear is so arranged that
an electric motor and its associated electrical
after a single failure in its piping system or in
equipment and connected pump,
one of the power units the defect can be
isolated so that steering capability can be
-
In the case of other hydraulic steering gear, a
maintained or speedily regained.
driving engine and connected pump.
In a ship fitted with multiple steering systems, such as
The steering gear is to be composed of two or more
but not limited to azimuthing propulsors or water jet
identical power units and is to be capable of operating
propulsion systems, an auxiliary steering gear need not
the rudder as required by 1.4.1;
be fitted, provided that:
-
-
For passenger ships, with any one unit out of
operation,
In a passenger ship, each of the steering
systems is fitted with two or more identical
power
-
units,
capable
of
satisfying
the
For cargo ships, operating with all power
requirements in 1.4.1 while any one of the
units.
power units is out of operation;
The power units are to be served by at least two power
-
circuits.
In a cargo ship, each of the steering systems
is fitted with one or more identical power
units, capable of satisfying the requirements
The power units are required to be type tested, see 5.1.
1.3.4
in 1.4.1 while operating with all power units;
-
Auxiliary steering gear
Each of the steering systems is arranged so
that after a single failure in its piping or in one
Auxiliary steering gear means the equipment other than
of the power units, ship steering capability
any part of the main steering gear necessary to steer
(but not individual steering system operation)
the ship in the event of failure of the main steering gear
can be maintained or speedily regained (e.g.
but not including the tiller, quadrant or components
by the possibility of positioning the failed
serving the same purpose.
steering system in a neutral position in an
emergency, if needed).
The main and auxiliary steering gears shall be so
arranged that the failure of one of them will not render
1.3.5
Power actuating system
the other one inoperative.
Power actuating system means the hydraulic equipment
Where the main steering gear comprises two or more
provided for supplying power to turn the rudder stock,
identical power units, an auxiliary steering gear need
comprising a steering gear power unit or units, together
not be fitted, provided that:
with the associated pipes and fittings, and a rudder
actuator. Where duplicated power actuating systems
-
-
In a passenger ship, the main steering gear
are expected by the requirements, the power actuating
is capable of operating the rudder as required
systems may share common mechanical components,
by 1.4.1 while any one of the power units is
i.e. tiller, quadrant and rudder stock, or components
out of operation;
serving the same purpose.
In a cargo ship, the main steering gear is
1.3.6
Maximum ahead service speed
capable of operating the rudder as required
by paragraph 1.4.1 while operating with all
Maximum ahead service speed means the greatest
power units;
speed which the vessel is designed to maintain in
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-6
A
service at sea at her deepest sea going draught at
Frictional losses in the steering gear including piping
maximum propeller RPM and corresponding engine
have to be considered within the determination of the
MCR.
maximum working pressure.
1.3.7
1.3.9
Rudder actuator
Design pressure
Rudder actuator means the component which converts
Design pressure for calculation to determine the
directly hydraulic pressure into mechanical action to
scantlings of piping and other steering gear components
move the rudder. This may be a hydraulic cylinder or a
subjected to internal hydraulic pressure is to be at least
hydraulic motor.
equal to the greater of the following:
For
all
vessels
with
non-duplicated
actuators,
-
1.25 times the maximum working pressure,
-
The relief valve setting as mentioned in 3.8.2.
1.3.10
Test pressure
isolating valves are to be fitted at the connection of
pipes to the actuator, and are to be directly fitted on
the actuator.
Steering gears may be composed of a single rudder
actuator for all vessels except the following:
The pressure to which the components are to undergo a
pressure test according to 5.4.
-
For oil carriers, fuel oil carriers, chemical
carriers and gas carriers of 100,000 tonnes
1.3.11
Hydraulic accumulators
deadweight and above, the steering gear is
to be comprised of two or more identical
Hydraulic accumulators having operating pressure
rudder actuators.
above 6.9 bars, are to be certified in accordance with
TL requirements Section 18, A
-
For oil carriers, fuel oil carriers, chemical
as pressure vessels
regardless of their diameters.
carriers and gas carriers of 10,000 gross
tonnages and above but less than 100,000
Each accumulator which may be isolated from the system
tonnes deadweight, the steering gear may be
is to be protected by its own relief valve or equivalent.
comprised of a single, non-duplicated rudder
Where a gas charging system is used, a relief valve is to
actuator, provided it complies with the
be provided on the gas side of the accumulator.
Additional Requirements of TL for Oil or Fuel
Oil Carriers, Chemical Carriers and Gas
1.3.12
Carriers
Traditional)
Declared
steering
angle
limits
(Non
Rudder actuators other than those covered by SOLAS
Declared steering angle limits are the operational limits
Chapter II-1, Regulation 29.17 and relating Guidelines
in terms of maximum steering angle, or equivalent,
should be designed in accordance with Class 1
according
Pressure Vessels (not withstanding any exemptions for
operation, also taking into account the vessels speed or
hydraulic cylinders).
propeller torque/speed or other limitation.
1.3.8
Maximum working pressure (Pp)
to
manufacturers
guidelines
for
safe
The declared steering angle limits are to be declared by
the directional control system manufacturer for each
Maximum working pressure means the maximum
expected pressure in the system when the steering gear
is operated to comply with 4.1.
ship specific non-traditional steering mean; ship's
manoeuvrability tests, such as res. MSC.137(76) are to
be carried out with steering angles not exceeding the
declared steering angle limits.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
1.4
Performance
The steering gear is to be capable of:
1.4.1
Putting the rudder from 35° on one side to
9-7
2.
Materials and welding
2.1
Approved materials
2.1.1
Ram cylinders; pressure housings of rotary
35° on the other side or where declared steering angle
vane type actuators; hydraulic power piping valves,
limits according to 1.3.12 is different, capable of
flanges and fittings; and all steering gear components
changing direction of the ship’s directional control
transmitting mechanical forces to the rudder stock (such
system from one side to the other at declared steering
as tillers, quadrants, or similar components) should be of
angle limits, with the ship running ahead at the
steel or other approved ductile material, duly tested in
maximum continuous rated shaft rpm and at the
accordance with the requirements of TL. In general, such
summer load waterline and, under the same conditions,
material should not have an elongation of less than 12%
from 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not
2
nor a tensile strength in excess of 650 N/mm .
more than 28 seconds or where declared steering angle
limits according to 1.3.12 is different, at declared
Pressure vessels should be generally made of steel,
steering angle limits at an average rotational speed of
cast steel or nodular cast iron (with a predominantly
not less than 2.3°/s, and
ferritic matrix).
Note: Also refer to items A.3.2.1.2 and 3.2.1.3.
With the consent of the TL, cast iron may be used for
certain components. Gray cast iron may be accepted for
1.4.2
With one of the power units inoperative, putting
the rudder from 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in
no more than 60 seconds or where declared steering
angle limits according to 1.3.12 is different, capable of
changing direction of the ship’s directional control system
redundant parts with low stress level, excluding
cylinders, upon special consideration. Gray cast iron or
other material having an elongation (L0 /d = 4) less than
12% in 50 mm is not to be used for these parts
from one side to the other at declared steering angle limits
at an average rotational speed, of not less than 0.5°/s, with
the ship running ahead at the summer load waterline at
one half of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots,
2.1.2
Casings which integrated house journal and
guide bearings on ships with a nozzle rudder and ice
class are not to be made of grey cast iron.
whichever is the greater.
2.1.3
Note: Also refer to items A.3.3.1.2 and 3.3.1.3.
The pipes of hydraulic steering gears are to be
made of seamless or longitudinally welded steel tubes. The
use of cold-drawn, unannealed tubes is not permitted.
1.5
Steering gear compartment
At points where they are exposed to danger or damage,
The steering gear is to be protected from the weather.
copper pipes for control lines are to be provided with a
Steering gear compartments are to be easily accessible
protective shielding and are to be safeguarded against
and, as far as practicable, separated from the machinery
spaces. Working access is to be provided to the steering
gear machinery and controls with handrails, gratings or
other non-slip surfaces to ensure suitable working
conditions in the event of hydraulic fluid leakage.
The steering gear compartment is to be provided with
visual compass readings.
hardening due to the vibration by the use of suitable
fastenings.
2.1.4
High-pressure hose assemblies may be used
for short pipe connections subject to compliance with
Section 16, U, if this is necessary due to vibrations or
flexibly mounted units.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-8
Materials
2.1.5
used
for
the
pressurized
3.
A
Steering Components and Design Principles
components including the seals must be suitable for the
The construction should be such as to minimize local
hydraulic oil in use.
concentrations of stress.
Oil seals between the non-moving parts, forming part of
All steering gear components transmitting mechanical
the exterior pressure boundary, shall be of the metal
forces to the rudder stock, which are not protected
upon metal type or of an equivalent type.
against
overload
by
structural
rudder
stops
or
mechanical buffers, are to have a strength at least
Oil seals between the moving parts, forming part of the
equivalent to that of the rudder stock in way of tiller.
external boundary, shall be fitted in duplicate so that the
failure of one seal does not render the actuator
3.1
Number of steering gears
inoperative. Alternative seal arrangements providing
be
Each ship must be equipped with at least one main and
acceptable provided protection against leakage can be
one auxiliary steering gear. Both steering gears are to
equivalent
protection
against
leakage
may
be independent of each other and, wherever possible,
assured.
act separately upon the rudderstock. TL may agree to
2.2
components being used jointly by the main and auxiliary
Testing of materials
steering gear.
2.2.1
The materials of essential load-transmitting
3.2
Main steering gear and rudder stock
be tested under supervision of TL in accordance with
3.2.1
The main steering gear and rudder stock shall
the requirements of Chapter 2 - Material.
be:
For pressurized oil pipes, the requirements according to
3.2.1.1
Section 16, Table 16.6 are to be observed.
the ship at maximum ahead at the ship’s service speed for
components of the steering gear as well as of the
pressurized casings of hydraulic steering gears are to
Of adequate strength and capable of steering
which the rudder has been designed in accordance with
2.2.2
In the case of small hand-operated main
steering gears and small manually operated auxiliary
steering gear TL may dispense with testing the
materials of individual components such as axiometer
gear shafts, etc.
2.3
Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 18. which shall be demonstrated;
3.2.1.2
Capable of putting the rudder over from 35°
on one side to 35° on the other side or where declared
steering angle limits according to 1.3.12 is different,
capable of changing direction of the ship’s directional
Welding features
control system from one side to the other at declared
For welded structures such as pressurized
steering angle limits, with the ship at its deepest
casings etc, the TL Rules Chapter 3 - Welding are to be
seagoing draught and running ahead at maximum
applied.
ahead service speed and, under the same conditions,
2.3.1
from 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not
2.3.2
The welding details and welding procedures
should be approved by TL.
more than 28 s. or where declared steering angle limits
according to 1.3.12 is different, at declared steering
angle limits at an average rotational speed of not less
All welded joints within the pressure boundary of a
rudder
actuator
or
connecting
parts
transmitting
than 2.3°/s
mechanical loads should be full penetration type or of
equivalent strength.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
demonstrate
In every tanker, chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10,000
compliance with item 3.2.1.2 during sea trials with the
GRT and upwards and in every other ship of 70,000
ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead
GRT and upwards, the main steering gear must consist
at the speed corresponding to the number of maximum
of two or more identical power unit.
3.2.1.3
Where
continuous
it
is
revolutions
impractical
of
the
to
9-9
main
engine
and
maximum design pitch, ships regardless of date of
3.2.2
construction may demonstrate compliance with this
rudderstock diameters up to 120 mm. calculated for
requirement by one of the following methods:
torsional loads in accordance with the Rules Chapter 1 -
Manual
operation
is
acceptable
for
Hull, Section 18, C.1. Not more than 25 turns of the
-
-
During sea trials the ship is at even keel and
handwheel shall be necessary to put the rudder form
the rudder fully submerged whilst running
one hard over position to the other. Taking account of
ahead at the speed corresponding to the
the efficiency of the system, the force required to
number of maximum continuous revolutions of
operate the handwheel should generally not exceed 200
the main engine and maximum design pitch; or
N.
Where full rudder immersion during sea trials
3.3
Auxiliary steering gear
3.3.1
The auxiliary steering gear shall be:
loading condition. The calculated ahead speed
3.3.1.1
Of adequate strength and capable of steering
shall result in a force and torque applied to the
the ship at navigable speed and of being brought
main steering gear which is at least as great as
speedily into action in an emergency;
cannot be achieved, an appropriate ahead
speed shall be calculated using the submerged
rudder blade area in the proposed sea trial
if it was being tested with the ship at its
deepest seagoing draught and running ahead
3.3.1.2
at the speed corresponding to the number of
on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60
maximum continuous revolutions of the main
s. or where declared steering angle limits according to
engine and maximum design pitch; or
1.3.12 is different, capable of changing direction of the
Capable of putting the rudder over from 15°
ship’s directional control system from one side to the
-
The rudder force and torque at the sea trial
other at declared steering angle limits at an average
loading condition have been reliably predicted
rotational speed, of not less than 0.5°/s, with the ship at
and extrapolated to the full load condition. The
its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead at 1/2
speed of the ship shall correspond to the
of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots,
number of maximum continuous revolutions of
whichever is the greater;
the main engine and maximum design pitch of
the propeller;
3.3.1.3
Where it is impractical to demonstrate
compliance with item 3.3.1.2 during sea trials with the
Operated by power where necessary to meet
ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead
the requirements of above paragraph and in any case
at one half of the speed corresponding to the number of
when TL requires a rudder stock of over 120 mm
maximum continuous revolutions of the main engine
diameter in way of the tiller, excluding strengthening for
and maximum design pitch or 7 knots, whichever is
navigation in ice; and
greater, ships regardless of date of construction,
3.2.1.4
including those constructed before 1 January 2009, may
3.2.1.5
maximum
So designed that they will not be damaged at
astern
speed;
however,
this
design
demonstrate compliance with this requirement by one of
the following methods:
requirement need not be proved by trials at maximum
astern speed and maximum rudder angle.
-
During sea trials the ship is at even keel and
the rudder fully submerged whilst running
The main steering gear shall be power-operated.
ahead at one half of the speed corresponding
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-10
to
-
the
number
of
maximum
A
continuous
In the event of a power failure to any one of the steering
revolutions of the main engine and maximum
gear power units, an audible and visual alarm shall be
design pitch or 7 knots, whichever is greater; or
given on the navigation bridge.
Where full rudder immersion during sea trials
3.4.2
cannot be achieved, an appropriate ahead
are equipped with two or more identical power units,
speed shall be calculated using the submerged
auxiliary steering gear need not be installed provided
rudder blade area in the proposed sea trial
that the following conditions are fulfilled.
Where power operated main steering gears
loading condition. The calculated ahead speed
shall result in a force and torque applied to the
3.4.2.1
auxiliary steering gear which is at least as
4.1 must be fulfilled while any one of the power units is
great as if it was being tested with the ship at
out of operation.
In passenger ships, requirements 3.2.1.2 and
its deepest seagoing draught and running
ahead at one half of the speed corresponding
3.4.2.2
to
designed that requirements 3.2.1.2 and 4.1 are fulfilled
the
number
of
maximum
continuous
revolutions of the main engine and maximum
On cargo ships, the power units must be so
while operating with all power units.
design pitch or 7 knots, whichever is greater; or
The main steering gear of tankers, chemical tankers or
-
The rudder force and torque at the sea trial
gas carriers of 10,000 GRT and upwards is to comprise
loading condition have been reliably predicted
either:
and extrapolated to the full load condition; and
-
Two
independent
and
separate
power
Operated by power where necessary to meet
actuating systems (power units, hydraulic
the requirements of paragraph 3.3.1.2 and in any case
pipes, power actuator), each capable of
when TL requires a rudder stock of over 230 mm
meeting the requirements as set out in 3.2.1
diameter in way of the tiller (having power of more than
and 4.1, or
3.3.1.4
2,500 kW propulsion power per thruster unit), excluding
strengthening for navigation in ice.
-
At
least
two
identical
power
actuating
systems which, acting simultaneously in
Hydraulically operated auxiliary steering gears must be
normal operation, are to be capable of
fitted with their own piping system independent of that of
meeting the requirements as set out in 3.2.1
the main steering gear. The pipe or hose connections of
and 4.1.
steering gears must be capable of being shut-off directly
at the pressurized casings.
3.4.2.3
In the event of failure of a single component of
the main steering gear including the piping, excluding the
Manual operation of auxiliary steering gear
rudder tiller or similar components as well as the cylinders,
systems is permitted up to a theoretical stock diameter
rotary vanes and casing, means must be provided for
of 230 mm referring to steel with a minimum nominal
quickly regaining control of one steering system.
3.3.2
2
upper yield stress ReH=235 N/mm .
For tankers, chemical tankers or gas carriers of 10,000
3.4
GRT and upwards, the steering capability must be
Power unit
regained within 45 seconds after a single failure.
3.4.1
Main and auxiliary steering gear power units
shall be arranged to restart automatically when power is
3.4.2.4
restored after a power failure and capable of being brought
possible to isolate the damaged system in such a way that
into operation from a position on the navigation bridge.
the second control system remains fully operable.
In the event of a loss of hydraulic oil, it must be
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
3.5
Rudder angle limitation and power gear
9-11
The design and setting of safety valves must be such
that their response threshold does not allow the
stops
maximum permissible working pressure to be exceeded
Power-operated steering gears are to be provided with
by more than 10% of the setting pressure of the valve.
positive arrangements, such as limit switches, for
stopping the gear before the rudder stops are reached.
The overload protection device must be secured to
These arrangements are to be synchronized with the
prevent re-adjustment by unauthorized persons. Means
rudder stock or the position of the gear itself and may
must be provided for checking the setting while in
be an integral part of rudder actuator. Arrangements to
service.
satisfy this requirement through the steering gear
The pressurized casings of hydraulic steering gears
control system are not permitted.
which also fulfil the function of the locking equipment
The rudder angle in normal service is to be limited by
devices fitted to the steering gear (e.g. limit switches) to
a rudder angle of 35° on both sides. Deviations from this
requirement are permitted only with the consent of TL.
3.6
mentioned in 3.7 are to be fitted with relief valves unless
they are so designed that the pressure generated when
the elastic-limit torque is applied to the rudderstock
cannot cause rupture, deformation or any other
damages of the pressurized casings.
End position limitation
3.8.2
For the limitation by means of stoppers of the end
positions of tillers and quadrants, see Chapter 1 - Hull,
Section 18, G.
and in which pressure can be generated from the power
source or from external forces, as required by SOLAS
II-1, Regulations 29.2.3 should comply with the
In the case of hydraulic steering gears without an end
position limitation of the tiller and similar components, a
mechanical end position limiting device must be fitted
following:
-
working pressure but lower than the design
pressure of the steering gear (definition of
Locking equipment
maximum working pressure and design
pressure in accordance to 4.1).
Steering gear systems are to be equipped with a locking
system effective in all rudder positions (see also
Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 18, G).
at the cylinders or rotary vane casings, special locking
equipment may be dispensed with.
The minimum discharge capacity of the relief
total capacity of the pumps, which can deliver
through them.
With this setting any higher peak pressure in the
In the case of steering gears with cylinder units which
have mutually independent operation, these shut-off
devices do not have to be fitted directly on the cylinders.
3.8.1
-
valves is not to be less than 1.1 times the
Where hydraulic plants are fitted with shut-offs directly
3.8
The relief valves are to be set to a pressure
value higher than 1.25 times of the maximum
within the rudder actuator.
3.7
Relief valves have to be provided for protecting
any part of the hydraulic system which can be isolated
Overload protection and relief valves
Power-operated steering gear systems are to be
systems than 1.1 times the setting pressure of the
valves is to be prohibited. In this regard, due
consideration should be given to extreme foreseen
ambient conditions in respect of oil viscosity.
TL may require, for the relief valves, discharge capacity
tests and/or shock tests.
equipped with overload protection (slip coupling, relief
valve) to ensure that the driving torque is limited to the
maximum permissible value.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-12
3.9
Controls
3.11
3.9.1
Control of the main and auxiliary steering
3.11.1
A
Piping and hoses
Pipes
of
the
hydraulic
steering
gear
gears must be exercised from a steering station on the
systems are to be installed in such a way as to
bridge. Controls must be mutually independent and so
ensure maximum protection while remaining readily
designed that the rudder cannot move unintentionally.
accessible.
Means must also be provided for exercising
The power piping for hydraulic steering gears is to be
control from the steering gear compartment. The
arranged so that transfer between units can be readily
transmission system must be independent of that
affected.
3.9.2
serving the main steering station.
Arrangements for bleeding air from the hydraulic system
3.9.3
Suitable equipment is to be installed to
are to be provided where necessary.
provide means of communication between the bridge,
all steering stations and the steering gear compartment.
Pipes are to be installed at a sufficient distance from the
ship’s shell. As far as possible, pipes should not pass
3.9.4
Failures of single control components (e.g.
through cargo spaces.
control system for variable displacement pump or flow
control valve) which may lead to loss of steering shall
Connections to other hydraulic systems are not
be monitored by an audible and visible alarm system on
permitted.
the navigating bridge, if loss of steering cannot be
prevented by other measures.
3.11.2
Piping, joints, valves, flanges and other
fittings are to comply with TL’s requirements for Class 1
3.10
components.
Rudder angle indication
The
design
pressure
is
to
be
in
accordance with paragraph 1.3.9.
3.10.1
The
rudder
position
must
be
clearly
indicated on the bridge and at all steering stations.
For the design and dimensions of pipes, valves, fittings,
Where the steering gear is operated electrically or
pressure vessels etc., see Section 14 and Section 16 A,
hydraulically, the rudder angle must be indicated by a
B, C, D and U.
device (rudder position indicator) which is actuated
either by the rudderstock itself or by parts which are
3.11.3
mechanically connected to it. In case of time-
may be installed between two points where flexibility is
dependent control of the main and auxiliary steering
required but should not be subjected to torsional
gear, the midship position of the rudder must be
deflection (twisting) under normal operating conditions.
indicated on the bridge by some additional means
In general, the hose should be limited to the length
(signal lamp or similar). In general, this indicator is still
necessary to provide for flexibility and for proper
to be fitted even if the second control system is a
operation of machinery.
Hose assemblies of type approved by TL
manually operated hydraulic system. See also Chapter
5 - Electrical Installations, Section 9, C.
Hoses should be high pressure hydraulic types
according to recognized standards and suitable for the
3.10.2
The actual rudder position during the service
fluids, pressures, and temperatures and ambient
must be indicated at the steering gear itself.
conditions in question.
It is recommended that an additional rudder angle
Burst pressure of hoses should not be less than 4 times
indicator should be fitted at the main engine control
of the design pressure.
station.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
3.12
9-13
Where the propulsion power exceeds 2,500kW per thruster
Oil level indicators, filters
unit, an alternative power supply, sufficient at least to
3.12.1
Each tanks of the hydraulic system are to be
fitted with oil level indicators.
supply the steering arrangements which complies with the
requirements of 1.4.2 and also its associated control
system and the steering system response indicator, shall
The lowest permissible oil level is to be
be provided automatically, within 45 s, either from the
monitored. Audible and visual alarms are to be provided
emergency source of electrical power or from an
for the navigation bridge and in the machinery space or
independent source of power located in the steering gear
machinery control room. The alarm on the navigation
compartment. This independent source of power shall be
bridge shall be an individual alarm.
used only for this purpose.
3.12.2
for
In every ship of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards, the
cleaning the operating fluid are to be fitted in the piping
alternative power supply shall have a capacity for at
system, to maintain the cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid
least 30 min of continuous operation and in any other
taking into consideration the type and design of the
ship for at least 10 min.
3.12.3
Filters
or
equivalent
arrangements
hydraulic system.
3.17
3.13
Seating
Storage tank
Seating of the steering gear has to be applied according
In hydraulically operated main steering gear systems,
to Section 2, K. In case of seating on cast resin the
an additional permanently installed storage tank is to be
forces according to the elastic limit torque of the
fitted which has a capacity sufficient to refill at least one
rudder shaft as well as the rudder bearing forces
of the control systems including the service tank.
have to be transmitted to the ship’s structure by
welded stoppers.
The storage tank is to be permanently connected by
pipes to the control systems so that the latter can be
3.18
Monitoring and alarm systems
3.18.1
Monitoring and alarm systems, including the
refilled from a position inside the steering gear
compartment.
rudder angle indicators, should be designed, built and
3.14
tested to the satisfaction of TL.
Arrangement
Steering gears are to be so installed that they are easily
3.18.2
accessible and to be maintainable.
single failure, may lead to loss steering, an audible and
Where the hydraulic locking, caused by a
visual alarm, which identifies the failed system, shall be
3.15
Electrical
provided on the navigating bridge.
Electrical installations
installations
should
comply
with
the
Audible and visual alarm should be activated whenever:
requirements of TL (see Chapter 5 - Electrical
Installations, Section 7, A).
-
Position of the variable displacement pump
control system does not correspond with
3.16
Alternative source of power
Where the alternative power source required by SOLAS
II-1 Regulations 29.14 is a generator, or an engine
driven pump, the automatic starting arrangements must
comply with the requirements relating to the automatic
given order; or
-
Incorrect position of 3-way full flow valve or
similar in constant delivery pump system is
detected.
starting arrangements of emergency generators.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-14
3.19
A
defined in 4.1.3. Transmitted torque Mmax is to be based
Operating instructions
on the relief valve setting and to be determined with the
3.19.1
Where applicable, the following standard
signboard should be fitted at a suitable place on
following equations (1a, b, c and 2), whichever is the
greater:
steering control post on the bridge or incorporated into
For ram type actuator:
operating instruction board:
CAUTION
Mmax  P  N  A  L2 /(C cos2θ)
IN SOME CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN 2 POWER UNITS
For rotary vane type actuator:
ARE RUNNING SIMULTANEOUSLY, THE RUDDER
MAY NOT RESPOND TO HELM. IF THIS HAPPENS,
STOP EACH PUMP IN TURN UNTIL CONTROL IS
REGAINED.
The above signboard is related to steering gears
provided with 2 identical power units intended for
simultaneous operation, and normally provided with
M max  P  N  A  L 2 /C
Mmax  P  N  A  L2 /(C cos2θ)
M max
simultaneously.
shall have minimum the above signboard, when
[Nm]
(1b)
[Nm]
(1c)
[Nm]
(2)
For all types of steering gears:
or mutually) control systems which are/may be operated
Existing vessels according to SOLAS 1986
(1a)
For linked cylinder type actuator:
either their own control systems or two separate (partly
3.19.2
[Nm]
D 
 t 
 Nu 


kr
 ny
kr  
 R eH





3
e
(3)
applicable.
Where;
4.
Power and Dimensioning
The power of the steering gear has to comply with the
requirements set out in 3.2 and 3.3, see also SOLAS
Chapter II-1, Part C, Reg.29.
A
2
= Area of piston or vane, [mm ]
C
= 10,000, Factor,
Dt
= Theoretical rudder stock diameter derived from
the required hydrodynamic rudder torque for
4.1
Steering torques
4.1.1
Minimum required rated torque
the ahead and astern running condition in
accordance with Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 18,
The rated torque of the steering gear is not to be less
C.1 and 14, D.10. [mm]
e
= 0.75 for ReH >235 N/mm2,
than the expected torque which is indicated on the
= 1.00 for ReH ≤ 235 N/mm2,
submitted rudder or steering plan as capable to operate
the rudder.
kr
with formula (3),
It should here be noted that the expected torque is not
the design torque for rudder scantlings.
= Material factor for rudder stock in accordance
L2
= Torque arm, equal the distance from the point
of application of the force on the arm to the
4.1.2
Transmitted effective torque
center of the rudder stock at zero (0) degrees
of rudder angle, [m]
Transmitted torque Mmax of the steering gear is not to be
greater than the maximum permissible torque Mperm, as
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
= 235 N/mm2, reference value for yield strength,
ny
2
[N/mm ]
N
4.2
9-15
Stresses and dynamic loads in steering
system
= Number of active pistons or vanes,
The maximum working pressure is the
4.2.1
maximum expected pressure in the system, when the
= 4.2, Factor,
Nu
steering gear is operated to comply with the power
requirements in 4.1.
ReH = Specified minimum yield strength of the
rudderstock material; but is not to be taken as
2
greater than 0.7Rm or 450 N/mm whichever is
2
less. [N/mm ]
Frictional
4.2.2
losses
in
the
steering
gear
including piping have to be considered within the
determination of the maximum working pressure (1).
The relief valves are to be set at this pressure value.
= Minimum tensile strength of the material
Rm
2
[N/mm ]
Design pressure Pd for calculations to
4.2.3
determine the scantlings of piping and other steering

= Maximum permissible rudder angle, (normally
35 degrees). [degrees]
gear
components
subjected
to
internal
hydraulic
pressure is to be at least 1.25 times the maximum
working pressure as defined above and has not to be
4.1.3
Maximum permissible torque for rudder
less than the setting of relief valves (see 3.8.2).
stock
Rudder actuators are to be designed in
4.2.4
The design calculations for those parts of the steering
accordance with the requirements of Section 14, except
gear which are not protected against overload are to be
that the maximum permissible stress S is not exceed
based on the maximum permissible torque of the
the lower of the following ratios:
rudderstock. The maximum permissible torque M perm
for the actual rudder stock diameter is to be
determined
in
accordance
with
the
following
equation:
M perm
U
A
or
Y
B
Where;


2  D 
 Nu 



kr
3
Y
[Nm]
=
(4)
Specified minimum yield strength or %2
proof stress of the material, at ambient
2
temperature, [N/mm ]
U
Where;
=
Specified minimum tensile strength of the
2
material at ambient temperature. [N/mm ]
D
=
Minimum actual rudderstock diameter. Value
of the actual rudderstock diameter need not
A
=
3.5, Factor for Steel,
=
4.0, Factor for Cast Steel,
=
5.0, Factor for Nodular Cast Iron
be greater than 1.145 Dt. [mm].
4.1.4
The working torque of the steering gear is to
be larger than the hydrodynamic torque QR of the
rudder according to Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 18, B.1.2,
B.2.2 and B.2.3 and cover the friction moments of the
related bearing arrangement.
(1)
design
This maximum pressure is comparable with the
pressure
according
Regulation 29, item 2.2 and 2.3.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
to
SOLAS
Chapter
II-1,
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-16
B
=
A
the following conditions in the area where the force is
1.7, Factor for Steel,
applied (see Figure 9.1):
=
2.0, Factor for Cast Steel,
Height of hub
=
H ≥ 1.0 D [mm]
3.0, Factor for Nodular Cast Iron
Outside diameter Da ≥ 1.8 D [mm]
For requirements relative to ships intended to carry oil,
chemicals, or liquefied gases in bulk of 10,000 GRT and
In special cases the outside diameter may be reduced to
over, but less than 100,000 tonnes deadweight, fitted
with non-duplicated rudder actuators, see the additional
D a  1.7  D
[mm]
(6)
requirements of TL for Oil or Fuel Carriers, Chemical
but the height of the hub must then be at least
Tankers and Gas Carriers.
The dynamic loading to be assumed in the
4.2.5
H  1.14  D
[mm]
(7)
fatigue and fracture mechanics analysis considering
SOLAS Chapter II-1, Regulation 29.2.2 and 29.17.2 and
relating Guidelines will be established at the discretion
of TL.
Both the case of high cycle and cumulative fatigue are
to be considered.
4.3
Equivalent rudder stock diameter
Figure 9.1 Hub dimensions
In the case of multi-surface rudders controlled by a
common steering gear the relevant diameter is to be
determined by applying the formula of equivalent rudder
stock diameter:
4.4.3
Where materials with a tensile strength
greater than 500 N/mm2 are used, the section of the
hub may be reduced by 10%.
D ti  3 D 3t1  D 3t2  ...  D 3tn
(5)
4.4.4
4.4
Design
of
the
power
transmission
tapered connections, the elastic-limit torque may be
transmitted by a combination of frictional resistance and
components
a
4.4.1
Where the force is transmitted by clamped or
Design calculations for the parts of the steering
positive
locking
mechanism
using
adequately
tightened bolts and a key.
gear which are not protected against overload are to be
based on the maximum permissible torque (elastic limit
For the maximum permissible (or elastic limit) torque
torque) of the rudderstock as mention in 4.1.3.
according to formula (4), the thread root diameter of the
bolts can be determined by applying the following formula:
Stresses in the components of steering gear determined
in this way are not to exceed the yield strength of the
materials used. Design of the parts of steering gear with
d k  9.76  D
1
z  k r  R eH, bolt
[mm]
overload protection is to be based on the loads
corresponding to the response threshold of the overload
protection.
4.4.2
Tiller and rotary vane hubs made of material
Where
Z
= Total number of bolts, [-]
2
with a tensile strength of up to 500 N/mm must satisfy
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(8)
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
ReH, bolt = .Specified minimum yield strength of the bolt
2
material. [N/mm ]
9-17
The requirements of TL relating to the testing of Class 1
pressure vessels, piping, and relating fittings including
hydraulic testing apply. See Section 14.
4.4.5
Split hubs of clamped joints must be joined
together with at least four bolts.
5.2
The key is not to be located at the joint in the clamp.
For testing of steering gear component materials, see
Material testing
2.2.
4.4.6
Where the oil injection process is utilized for
joining the rudder tiller or rotary vanes to the
5.3
Prototype tests of power units
elasticity theory are requested. Calculations are to be
5.3.1
The power units are required to undergo test
based on the elastic-limit torque allowing for a
on a test stand in the manufacturer's works.
rudderstock, the approved calculation methods with the
coefficient of friction μo = 0.15 for steel and 0.12 for
nodular cast iron. The von Mises’ equivalent stress
calculated from the specific pressure p and the
A prototype of each new design power unit pump is to
be subjected to a type test.
corresponding tangential load based on the dimensions
of the shrunk joint shall not exceed 80% of the yield
strength of materials.
4.4.7
The type test shall be for duration of not less than 100
hours.
Where circumferential tension components
are used to connect the rudder tiller or rotary vanes to
The test arrangements are to be such that the pump
the rudder stock, calculations are to be based on two
may run in idling conditions, and at maximum delivery
and a half times the maximum torque (but not more than
capacity at maximum working pressure.
the elastic limit torque) allowing for a coefficient of
friction of μo = 0.12. The von Mises’ equivalent stress
The testing is to be carried out in accordance with an
calculated from the contact pressure p and the
approved program, which shall include the following as
corresponding tangential load based on the dimensions
a minimum:
of the shrunk-on connection shall not exceed 80% of the
yield strength of the materials used.
-
The pump and stroke control (or directional
control valve) is to be operated continuously
When more than one circumferential tension component
from full flow and relief valve pressure in one
is used, the transmittable torque capacity of the
direction through idle to full flow and relief
connection is to be determined by adding the individual
valve pressure in the opposite direction.
torques of the sole tension components and applying a
reduction factor of 0.9.
-
5.
Testing and Certification
5.1
General
unit is to be checked for abnormal heating,
excessive vibration or other irregularities.
Following the test, the power unit pump is to
be disassembled and inspected in the
Steering gear components are to be inspected, tested
presence of a Surveyor.
and certified by TL surveyor at the plant of manufacture
in
accordance
with
the
following
requirements.
Hydraulic oil pumps are to be certified according to
Section 16 and 5.3.1.3.
Pump suction conditions are to simulate
lowest anticipated suction head. The power
-
During the test, idling periods are to be
alternated with periods at maximum delivery
capacity at maximum working pressure. The
passage from one condition to another
should occur at least as quickly as on board.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-18
-
A
During the whole test, any abnormal heating,
Tightness test are to be performed on components to
excessive vibration or other irregularities are
which this is appropriate.
not permitted.
5.5
-
After
the
test,
the
pump
should
Final inspection and operational test
be
disassembled and inspected.
Following testing of the individual components and after
completion of assembly, the steering gear is required to
Type tests may be waived for a power unit which has
undergo final inspection and an operational test. Among
been proven to be reliable in marine service.
other things the overload protection is to be adjusted at
this time.
5.3.1.1
For diesel engines, see Section 2.
6.
5.3.1.2
Shipboard Trials
For electric motors, see Chapter 5 - Electrical
Installations, Section 7-A.
The operational efficiency of the steering gear is to be
proved during the sea trials. For this purpose, the Z
5.3.1.3
For
hydraulic
pumps
and
motors,
the
“Guidelines for the Design, Construction and Testing of
manoeuvre corresponding to 3.2.1 and 3.3.1 is to be
executed as a minimum requirement.
Pumps” are to be applied analogously. When the drive
power is equal or more than 50 kW, this testing is to be
The steering gear should be tried out on the trial trip in
carried out in the presence of a TL Surveyor.
order to demonstrate to the Surveyor's satisfaction that
the requirements of the Rules have been met. The trial
5.3.2
All
components
transmitting
mechanical
is to include the operation of the following:
forces to the rudder stock should be tested according to
-
the requirements of TL.
The steering gear, including demonstration of
the performances required by SOLAS II-1
5.3.3
Regulation
After installation on board the vessel, the
and
29.4.2.
For
controllable pitch propellers, the propeller
complete piping system, including power units,
pitch is to be at the maximum design pitch
rudder actuators and piping, is to be subjected to the
approved for the maximum continuous ahead
required running and hydrostatic tests equal to 110%
of engine speed (rpm) at the main steering
of the relief valve setting, including a check of the
gear trial.
relief valve operation in the presence of TL Surveyor
(see 5.4 and 5.5).
29.3.2
-
The steering gear power units, including
transfer between steering gear power units.
5.4
Pressure and tightness tests
-
Pressure components are to undergo a pressure test.
The isolation of one power actuating system
checking the time for regaining steering
capability.
The test pressure, Pt
Pt =1.5·Pd
(9)
However, for working pressures above 200 bars, the
-
The hydraulic fluid recharging system.
-
The emergency power supply required by
SOLAS II-1 Regulation 29.14.
test pressure need not exceed over than P plus 100
bars, [bar]
-
For pressure testing of pipes, their valves and fittings
The steering gear controls, including transfer
of control and local control.
see Section 16, B.4 and U.5.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
-
The means of communication between the
7.2
9-19
Design and Arrangement of Steering Gear
wheelhouse, engine room, and the steering
gear compartment.
Every tanker of 10.000 GT and upwards is, subject to
the provisions of 7.3, comply with the following:
-
The alarms and indicators required by the
requirements in 3.18 and by SOLAS II-1
7.2.1
Regulations 29, 30, these tests may be
that in the event of loss of steering capability due to a
effected at dockside.
single failure in any part of one of the power actuating
The main steering gear is to be so arranged
systems of the main steering gear, excluding the tiller,
-
Where steering gear is designed to avoid
quadrant or components serving the same purpose, or
hydraulic
seizure of the rudder actuators, steering capability is to
locking
this
feature
shall
be
demonstrated.
be regained in not more than 45 s after the loss of one
power actuating system.
In order for ships to comply with the performance
requirements stated in regulations 29.3.2 and 29.4.2 of
7.2.2
The main steering gear is to comprise either:
meeting these performance requirements when at their
7.2.2.1
Two
deepest seagoing draught. In order to demonstrate this
actuating systems, each capable of putting the rudder
ability, the trials may be conducted in accordance with
over from 35º on one side to 35º on the other side with
Section 6.1.5.1 of ISO 19019 “Seagoing vessels and
the ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running
marine technology – Instructions for planning, carrying
ahead at maximum ahead service speed and, under the
out and reporting sea trials”.
same conditions, from 35º on either side to 30º on the
SOLAS II-1, they are to have steering gear capable of
independent
and
separate
power
other side in not more than 28 s.
On all occasions when trials are conducted with the
vessel not at the deepest seagoing draught, the loading
7.2.2.2
At
condition can be accepted on the conditions that either
systems
which,
the rudder is fully submerged (at zero speed waterline)
operation, are to be capable of putting the rudder over
and the vessel is in an acceptable trim condition, or the
from 35º on one side to 35º on the other side with the
rudder load and torque at the trial loading condition
ship at its deepest seagoing draught and running ahead
have been reliably predicted and extrapolated to the full
at maximum ahead service speed and, under the same
load condition, to the satisfaction of TL.
conditions, from 35º on either side to 30º on the other
least
two
acting
identical
power
simultaneously
actuating
in
normal
side in not more than 28 s. Where necessary to comply
In any case for the main steering gear trial, the speed of
with this requirement, interconnection of hydraulic
the ship corresponding to the number of maximum
power actuating systems is to be provided. Loss of
continuous revolution of main engine and maximum
hydraulic fluid from one system is to be capable of being
detected
design pitch applies.
and
the
defective
system
automatically
isolated so that the other actuating system or systems is
7.
Requirements for tankers
to remain fully operational.
7.1
General
7.2.3
Steering gear other than of the hydraulic type
is to achieve equivalent standards.
In addition to the requirements for main class, the
steering gear of tankers of 10.000 GT and above is to
comply with the following requirements.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-20
7.3
Alternative
Solution
for
Tankers
of
A
7.3.3.1.1.2 The relief valves setting.
10.000 GT and Upwards, but of Less Than 100.000
DWT
7.3.3.2
7.3.1
Analysis
7.3.3.2.1 The manufacturers of rudder actuators are to
General
submit detailed calculations showing the suitability of
For tankers 10.000 GT and upwards, but of less than
the design for the intended service.
100.000 DWT, solutions other than those set out in
7.2.1, which need not apply the single failure criterion to
7.3.3.2.2 A detailed stress analysis of the pressure
the rudder actuator or actuators, may be permitted
retaining parts of the actuator is to be carried out to
provided that an equivalent safety standard is achieved
determine the stresses at the design pressure.
and that:
7.3.3.2.3 Where considered necessary because of
Following loss of steering capability due to a
the design complexity or manufacturing procedures,
single failure of any part of the piping system or in one
a fatigue analysis and fracture mechanics analysis
of the power units, steering capability is to be regained
may be required. In connection with these analyses,
within 45 s, and
all foreseen dynamic loads are to be taken into
7.3.1.1
account.
Experimental
stress
analysis
may
be
Where the steering gear includes only a
required in addition to, or lieu of, theoretical
single rudder actuator, special consideration is given to
calculations depending on the complexity of the
stress analysis for the design including fatigue analysis
design.
7.3.1.2
and fracture mechanics analysis, as appropriate, to the
material
used,
to
the
installation
of
sealing
7.3.3.3
Allowable stresses
arrangements and to testing and inspection and to the
provision of effective maintenance.
7.3.3.3.1 For the purpose of determining the general
scantlings of parts of rudder actuators subject to internal
7.3.2
hydraulic pressure the allowable stresses are not to
Materials
exceed:
Parts
subject
to
internal
hydraulic
pressure
or
σm ≤ f
transmitting mechanical forces to the rudder stock are to
be made of duly tested ductile materials complying with
σℓ ≤ 1.5 f
recognized standards. Materials for pressure retaining
components are to be in accordance with recognized
σb ≤ 1.5 f
pressure vessel standards. These materials are not to
have an elongation of less than 12 % nor a tensile
2
strength in excess of 650 N/mm .
σℓ + σb ≤ 1.5 f
7.3.3
Design
σm + σb ≤ 1.5 f
7.3.3.1
Design pressure
where;
7.3.3.1.1 The design pressure is assumed to be at
σm
= Equivalent primary general membrane stress
σℓ
= Equivalent primary local membrane stress
σb
= Equivalent primary bending stress
f
= The lesser of σB/A or σy/B
least equal to the greater of the following:
7.3.3.1.1.1 1.25
times
pressure
expected
to
be
the
maximum
under
the
working
operating
conditions,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
A
σB
= Specified
minimum
tensile
strength
of
7.3.4.2.2 All
welded
9-21
joints
within
the
pressure
boundary of a rudder actuator or connecting parts
material at ambient temperature
transmitting mechanical loads are to be full penetration
= Specified minimum yield stress or 0.2 per
σy
type or equivalent strength.
cent proof stress of material at ambient
temperature
7.3.4.3
Oil seals
7.3.4.3.1 Oil seals between non-moving parts, forming
A and B are as follows:
part of the external pressure boundary, are to be of the
Steel
Cast steel
Nodular cast iron
4
2
4.6
2.3
5.8
3.5
A
B
metal upon metal type or of an equivalent type.
7.3.4.3.2 Oil seals between moving parts, forming part
of the external pressure boundary, are to be duplicated,
7.3.3.4
so that the failure of one seal does not render the
Burst test
actuator inoperative. Alternative arrangements providing
7.3.3.4.1 Pressure retaining parts not requiring fatigue
equivalent protection against leakage may be accepted
analysis and fracture mechanics analysis may be
at the discretion of TL.
accepted on the basis of a certified burst test at the
discretion of TL and the detailed stress analysis
7.3.4.4
Isolating valves
required by 7.3.3.2.2 need not be provided.
Isolating valves are to be fitted at the connection of pipes to
7.3.3.4.2 The minimum bursting pressure is to be
the actuator, and are to be directly mounted on the
calculated as follows:
actuator.
Pb  P  A 
σ Ba
7.3.4.5
σB
Relief valves
Relief valves for protecting the rudder actuator against
where;
over-pressure are to comply with the following:
Pb
= Minimum bursting pressure
7.3.4.5.1 The setting pressure is not to be less than
P
= Design pressure as defined in 7.3.3.1.1
1.25 times the maximum working pressure expected
under operating conditions,
A
= As from table in 7.3.3.3.
7.3.4.5.2 The minimum discharge capacity of the relief
σBa
valves is not to be less than the total capacity of all
= Actual tensile strength
pumps which provide power for the actuator, increased
σB
= Tensile strength as defined in 7.3.3.3.
by 10 %. Under such conditions the rise in pressure is
not to exceed 10 % of the setting pressure. In this
7.3.4
Construction details
7.3.4.1
General
regard, due consideration is to be given to extreme
foreseen ambient conditions in respect of oil viscosity.
The construction is to be such as to minimize local
concentrations of stress.
7.3.4.2
7.3.5
Non-destructive testing
The rudder actuator is to be subjected to suitable and
complete non-destructive testing to detect both surface
Welds
flows and volumetric flows. The procedure and
7.3.4.2.1 The welding details and welding procedures
acceptance criteria for non-destructive testing is to be in
are to be approved.
accordance with requirements of recognized standards.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-22
A
If found necessary, fracture mechanics analysis may be
pressure parts at 1.5 times the design pressure are to
used for determining maximum allowable flaw size.
be carried out.
7.3.6
7.3.6.2
Testing
When installed on board the ship, the rudder
actuator is to be subjected to a hydrostatic test and a
7.3.6.1
Tests, including hydrostatic tests, of all
running test.
Fig. 9.2 Principle scheme for double non follow-up control and autopilot or other additional control
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
Fig. 9.3 Principle scheme for double non follow-up control and autopilot or other additional control
Fig. 9.4 Principle scheme for double non follow-up control and autopilot or other additional control
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
9-23
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-24
B.
Rudder Propeller Units (Azimuth Thrusters)
-
B
Jet type thrusters, which consist of a pump
taking suction from the keel and discharge to
1.
General
1.1
Scope
either side,
-
Azimuth thrusters, which can be rotated
through 360° so that the thrust can be
The requirements in this sub-section are to be
developed in any direction. Cycloid propellers
applied to manoeuvring thrusters not intended to
can be considered a type of azimuth
assist in propulsion, and to azimuth and non-azimuth
thrusters.
thrusters intended for propulsion, manoeuvring or
dynamic positioning, or a combination of these
1.2.1.2
Propeller-type thrusters
duties. The requirements are also valid for the ships
manoeuvring station and all transmission elements,
Regardless of whether they are normally used for
from
propulsion, propellers intended to be operated for an
the
manoeuvring
station
to
the
azimuth
thrusters.
extended period of time during service in a condition
where the vessel is not free running approximately
Manoeuvring thrusters intended to assist manoeuvring
along the direction of the thrust are to be considered
and dynamic positioning thrusters where fitted may, at
thrusters for the purposes of this section.
the request of the owners, be certified in accordance
with the provisions of this section. In such cases,
1.2.2
Continuous duty thrusters
appropriate class notations will be assigned upon
verification of compliance with corresponding provisions
Continuous duty thrusters are designed for continuous
of this section.
operation, such as dynamic positioning thrusters,
propulsion assist, or main propulsion units.
Thrusters types not provided for in this section, such
as
cycloid
thrusters,
propellers,
will
be
pump
or
considered,
water-jet
based
on
type
1.2.3
Intermittent duty thrusters
the
manufacturer’s submittal on design and engineering
Intermittent duty thrusters are designed for operation at
analyses.
peak power or rpm levels, or both, for periods not
exceeding 1 hour followed by periods at the continuous
1.2
rating or less, with total running time not exceeding 8
Definitions
hours in 20 hours. Generally, such kind of thrusters is
For the purpose of this section, the following definitions
not meant to operate more than 1000 hours per year.
apply:
1.2.4
1.2.1
Class Notation DK 1, 2, 3
Thrusters
Self-propelled or non-self-propelled vessels, where
1.2.1.1
fitted with a system of thrusters, positioning instruments
General
and control systems to enable the vessel to maintain
Thrusters are devices capable of delivering side thrust
position at sea without external aid, at the discretion of
or
ship’s
the owners, may comply with the requirements in this
manoeuvrability, particularly in confined waters. There
section. Upon request by the owner and upon
are three major types of thrust units:
verification
thrusts
through
360°
to
improve
the
of
requirements,
-
compliance
the
class
with
notation
the
DK
applicable
(dynamic
The lateral or tunnel thrusters known as
positioning system) followed by a numeral of 1, 2 or 3,
‘bow-thrusters’, which consists of a propeller
to indicate the degree of redundancy of the system, will
installed in an athwart-ship tunnel;
be assigned
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
B
1.3
9-25
moments should be tested in the presence of
Documents for approval
a TL
Surveyor for verification of their material compliance
Assembly and sectional drawings as well as part
with the applicable requirements for Chapter 2 -
drawings of the gears and propellers giving all the data
Material,
necessary for the examination are to be submitted in
specifications as may be approved in connection with a
triplicate to TL for approval.
particular design. The materials of the following
or
such
other
appropriate
material
components shall be tested:
The general arrangement of the thruster installation, its
location of installation, along with its supporting auxiliary
-
Shaft, shaft flanges, keys,
watertight boundary fittings, etc., are to be submitted.
-
Gears (propulsion and steering),
The rated power/rpm and the rated thrust are to be
-
Propellers,
-
Impellers,
-
Couplings,
thrust for dynamic positioning is to be submitted to TL.
-
Coupling bolts.
In addition, plans of each component and of the
Bolts manufactured to a recognized standard and used
systems associated with the thruster are to be also
as coupling bolts does not need to be tested in the
submitted to TL.
presence of TL Surveyor.
2.
3.
machinery and systems, fuel oil tanks, foundations,
indicated.
Where
the
azimuth
thrusters
are
utilized,
the
mechanical and control systems to rotate the thruster
assembly are to be submitted to TL or the direction of
Materials
Rudder Propeller Components and Design
Principles
2.1
Approved materials
3.1
Ships with only one azimuth thruster
As a rule, essential torque transmitting components of
the thrusters are to be made of materials complying with
For ships that are arranged with only one azimuth
TL’s Rules of Materials.
thruster as the only means of propulsion and steering,
the thruster is to be provided with steering systems of a
For instance, material requirements for propellers are to
redundant design such that a single failure in one
be in accordance with Section 8, B, materials for
system does not affect the other system.
shafting to be in accordance with Section 5, B, materials
for gears to be in accordance with Section 7, B.1 and
3.2
Ships with two azimuth thrusters
materials for steering systems to be in accordance with
A.2.1, etc.
For ships that are arranged with two azimuth thrusters
as the only means of propulsion and steering, each
Where alternative material specifications are proposed,
thruster is to be provided with at least one steering
complete
mechanical
system. The steering system for each thruster is to be
properties similar to the material required by these
independent of the steering system for the other
requirements are to be submitted to TL for approval.
thruster.
2.2
3.3
chemical
composition
and
Testing of materials
Locking devices
All essential components of the rudder propeller
Each rudder propellers (or azimuth thrusters) are to be
involved in the transmission of torques and bending
provided
with
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
a
locking
device
to
prevent
the
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-26
B
unintentional rotation of the propeller and the turning
3.4.4
(slewing) mechanism of the unit which is out of service
for each rudder propeller. In case of any failure of the
at any time.
main steering system; the auxiliary steering device is at
An auxiliary steering device must be provided
least to be capable of moving the rudder propeller to
The locking device shall be designed to lock securely
midship position.
the non-operated rudder propeller unit while the ship is
cruising with maximum (full) power of remaining rudder
In a ship fitted with multiple steering systems, such as
propeller units, at a ship speed of not less than 7 knots.
but not limited to azimuthing propulsors or water jet
propulsion systems, an auxiliary steering gear need not
3.4
Performance and control
be fitted, provided that:
3.4.1
Each azimuth thruster is to be capable of
-
In a passenger ship, each of the steering
rotating at a speed of not less than 0.4 rpm (from 35
systems is fitted with two or more identical
degrees on either side to 30 degrees on the other
power
side in not more than 28 seconds) while steering the
requirements in A-1.4.1 while any one of the
ship with the ship running ahead at the maximum
power units is out of operation;
units,
capable
of
satisfying
the
continuous rated shaft rpm and at the summer load
waterline.
-
In a cargo ship, each of the steering systems
is fitted with one or more identical power
Where the azimuth thruster is arranged to rotate for the
units, capable of satisfying the requirements
crash stop or astern manoeuvre, the azimuth thruster is
in A-1.4.1 while operating with all power
to be capable of rotating at the speed of not less than
units;
2.0 rpm (180 degrees in not more than 15 seconds) to
account for the crash stop or astern manoeuvre.
-
that after a single failure in its piping or in one
Both the drive and the turning (slewing)
3.4.2
mechanism
controlled
of
each
from
a
rudder
propeller
manoeuvring
station
shall
be
on
the
Each of the steering systems is arranged so
of the power units, ship steering capability
(but not individual steering system operation)
can be maintained or speedily regained (e.g.
navigating bridge.
by the possibility of positioning the failed
The controls must be mutually independent and so
steering system in a neutral position in an
designed that the rudder propeller cannot be shifted or
emergency, if needed).
turned unintentionally.
3.4.5
Any
additional
mechanisms
for
combined
the
rudder
control
systems
propellers
are
Where the hydraulic systems of more than
or
one rudder propeller are combined, it must be possible
also
in case of any loss of hydraulic oil to isolate the
permitted.
damaged system in such a way that the other control
Means have to be provided, fulfilling the same
purpose as the steering angle limitation as in A.3.5.
systems remain fully operational.
3.5
Position indicators
(slewing) of the units at full power and ship speed to
3.5.1
The position of each rudder propeller must be
any angle.
clearly discernible on the navigating bridge and at each
These may be dispensed with in cases where no
danger for the ship is caused by unintentional turning
manoeuvring station.
3.4.3
The failure of a single element within the
The actual position must also be discernible
control and hydraulic system of one unit shall not lead to
3.5.2
the failure of the other units.
at the rudder propeller itself.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
B
3.6
9-27
In every ship of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards, the
Pipes
alternative power supply shall have a capacity for at
The pipes of hydraulic control systems are subject to
least 30 min of continuous operation and in any other
the provisions of A.3.11 wherever relevant.
ship for at least 10 min.
3.7
4.
Dimensioning
4.1
Gears
Oil level indicators, filters
Oil level indicators and filters are subject to the
provisions of A.3.12 wherever relevant.
For the design of gears see Section 7.
3.8
Lubrication
The turning gears are in general to take the form of spur
3.8.1
The lubricating oil supply is to be ensured by
gears or bevel gears.
a main pump and an independent standby pump.
4.2
3.8.2
Shaft line
In the case of separate lubricating system in
which the main lubricating oil pumps can be replaced
For the dimensioning of the propeller shaft, between
with the means available on board, the standby pump
propeller and gear wheel, see Section 5. For the
may be replaced by a spare pump. The mentioned
dimensioning of the remaining part of this shaft and all
spare pump is to be carried on board and is to be ready
other shafts see Section 7.
for mounting.
4.3
3.9
Propellers
Accessibility for inspection
For
Adequate access covers are to be provided to permit
the
design
of
propellers,
see
Section
8,
Propellers.
inspection of gear train without disassembling thruster
units.
4.4
Antifriction bearings and estimating of
their life
3.10
Alternative source of power
Full bearing identification and life calculations are to be
Where the alternative power source required by
submitted. Calculations are to include all gear forces,
SOLAS II-1 Regulations 29.14 is a generator, or an
thrust vibratory loads at maximum continuous rating, etc.
engine
driven
pump,
the
automatic
starting
arrangements must comply with the requirements
The minimum L10 (2) life for the antifriction bearings is
relating to the automatic starting arrangements of
not to be less than the following:
emergency generators.
-
20,000 hours for continuous duty thrusters
(propulsion and DPS-0,-1,-2,-3)
Where the propulsion power exceeds 2,500kW per
thruster unit, an alternative power supply, sufficient at
least to supply the steering arrangements which
-
5,000 hours for intermittent duty thrusters
complies with the requirements of A-1.4.2 and also its
associated control system and the steering system
Shorter life may be considered in conjunction with an
response indicator, shall be provided automatically,
approved
within 45 s, either from the emergency source of
reflecting calculated life.
bearing
inspection/replacement
program
electrical power or from an independent source of
power located in the steering gear compartment. This
The prediction of the life of a rolling-element bearing (ball,
independent source of power shall be used only for this
roller, needle) is a statistical calculation of the fatigue
purpose.
properties of the bearing components, in which life is
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-28
stated as the number of hours that a specified
4.6
B
Pipes
percentage of a large population of apparently-identical
bearings will survive under a specified load with a
For arrangement and design of pipes, valves, fittings
specified set of operating conditions. The usual life
and pressure vessels, see Section 14 and Section 16 A,
rating for industrial applications is called L10. The L10 life
B, C, D and U.
is the number of hours in service that 90% of a large
population of apparently-identical bearings will survive
5.
when subjected to the boundary conditions (load,
Compartments
Further
Requirements
for
Thruster
speed, lubrication, material and cleanliness) that are
specific to the application. Stated another way, 10% of
5.1
Ventilation
that population will have failed in the L10 number of
service hours.
Thruster compartments are to be provided with suitable
ventilation so as to allow simultaneously for crew
There is more than just one bearing life calculation
attendance and for thruster machinery to operate at
method, but in all cases the following bearing life
rated power in all weather conditions.
estimating formula is valid:
5.2
 
L 10   C 
P
10
3
Fire fighting systems
(10)
B a
N
In general, spaces where thrusters are located,
including enclosed modules, are to be protected with
Where:
fire fighting system in accordance with the requirements
in Section 18.
L
=
Estimated bearing life, [hours]
5.3
R
=
Bilge system
Radial rating of the bearing, [N]
Thrusters installed in normally unattended spaces are to
P
B
=
=
Dynamic equivalent radial load applied on the
be arranged such that bilge pumping can be effected
bearing (2), [N]
from outside the space.
6
10 /60 factor dependent on ISO method (i.e.
Alternatively, where bilge pumping can only be effected
life hours times rpm) [-]
from within the space, a bilge alarm to warn of high
bilge water level is to be fitted in a centralized control
a
=
Life adjustment factor [-]
station, the navigation bridge or other normally manned
control station.
=
1.0, when ambient conditions are omitted
For bilge systems in general, see Section 16.
N
=
Rotational speed [rpm].
Thrusters in enclosed modules (capsules) are to be
4.5
provided with a high water level alarm.
Support pipe
Dimensioning of the support pipe and its attachment to
At least one pump capable of bilging the module is to be
the ship's hull should take account of the loads due to
operable from outside the module.
the propeller and nozzle thrust including the dynamic
components.
(2)
6.
Tests in the Manufacturer's Work
6.1
Testing of power units
L10 Bearing life is described in ISO and ABMA
(American Bearing Manufacturer Association) Standards.
A.5.1 applies wherever relevant.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
B,C
6.2
Pressure and tightness test
9-29
C.
Lateral Thrust Units (Bow Thrusters)
A.5.2 applies wherever relevant.
1.
General
6.3
Final inspection and operational test
1.1
Scope
6.3.1
After inspection of the individual components
The requirements in this sub-section apply to the lateral
and completion of assembly, rudder propellers are to
thrust units, the control station and all the transmission
undergo a final inspection and operational test. The final
inspection shall be combined with a trial run lasting
several hours under part or full-load conditions. A check
is to be carried out on the tooth clearance and contact
pattern.
elements from the control station to the lateral thrust
units.
Refer to Section 19 for dimensioning and materials of
lateral thrust units for vessels with ice class.
1.2
6.3.2
Documents for approval
When no suitable test bed is available for the
operational and load testing of large rudder propellers,
Assembly and sectional drawings for lateral thrust units
the tests mentioned in 6.3.1 can be carried out on the
with an input power of 100 kW and more together with
occasion of the dock test.
detail drawings of the gear mechanism and propellers
containing all the data necessary for checking are each
6.3.3
Limitations on the scope of the test require
to be submitted to TL in triplicate for approval. For
propellers, this only applies to an input propulsive power
the consent of TL.
exceeding 500 kW.
7.
Certification and Trials
2.
7.1
Materials
Thrusters and associated equipment are to
be inspected, tested and certified by TL. Upon
Materials are subject, as appropriate, to the provisions
completion of the installation, performance tests are to
of Sections 5 and 7.
be carried out in the presence of TL Surveyor in a sea
trial. This is to include but not limited to running tests at
Section 8, Propellers applies analogously to the
intermittent or continuous rating, variation through
materials and the material testing of propellers.
design range of the magnitude and/or direction of thrust,
vessel turning tests and ship manoeuvring tests.
In case of an input power of less than 100 kW, the
properties of the materials used for shafts, gears and
The faultless operation, smooth running and
propellers must comply with Chapter 2 - Material,
bearing temperatures of the gears and control system
Section 1. Proof may take place by manufacturer's
are to be checked during the sea trials under all
inspection certificates.
7.2
steaming conditions.
After the conclusion of the sea trials, the toothing is to
be examined through the inspection openings and the
contact pattern is to be checked. The tooth contact
pattern is to be assessed on the basis of the reference
values for the percentage area of contact given in
3.
Dimensioning and Design
3.1
General requirements
Dimensioning of the relevant components of lateral
thrust units is governed by Section 5 and Section 7, that
of the propellers by Section 8.
Section 7, Table 7.11.
The pipe connections of hydraulic drive systems are
7.3
The scope of the check on contact pattern
following the sea trials may be limited with the Surveyor's
subject to the applicable requirements contained in
A.2.1.3 and A.2.1.4.
agreement provided that the checks on contact pattern
called for in 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 have been satisfactory.
Lateral thrust units must be capable of being operated
independently of other connected systems.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 9 – Steering Gears and Thrusters
9-30
C
Unmanned spaces located below the waterline, such as
Gears must comply with the safety margins for DP as
bow thruster compartment, emergency fire pump room,
specified in Section 7, Table 7.1. The lubrication system
etc., for which bilge pumping is required, are to be
for the gearbox must comply with Section 7, E.
arranged such that bilge pumping can be effected from
outside the space, or alternatively, a bilge alarm is to be
provided.
For units with controllable pitch propellers, the hydraulic
system must comply with Section 8, D.4.2.
Windmilling of the propeller during sea passages has to
be taken into account as an additional load case.
Otherwise effective countermeasures have to be
The selection and arrangement of filters has to ensure
an uninterrupted supply with filtered oil, also during filter
cleaning or exchange.
introduced to avoid windmilling, e.g. a shaft brake.
Where ships are equipped with automated machinery, the
In the propeller area, the thruster tunnel must be
thruster unit has to comply with the requirements for main
protected against damages caused by cavitation
gears and main propellers in Chapter 4-1 - Automation.
erosion by effective measures, such as stainless steel
4.
plating.
For monitoring the lubricating oil level, equipment shall
be fitted to enable the oil level to be determined.
Test in Manufacturer's Works
A.5 is applicable as appropriate.
For hydraulic pumps and motors with a drive power of
100 kW or more, the tests are to be conducted in the
For the electrical part of lateral thrust units, see Chapter
presence of a TL Surveyor.
5 - Electrical Installations, Section 7, B.
For lateral thrust units with an input power of less than
3.2
Additional requirements for lateral thrust
100 kW final inspection and function tests may be
carried out by the manufacturer, who will then issue the
units for dynamic positioning (DK)
relevant Manufacturer Inspection Certificate.
Bearings, sealings, lubrication, hydraulic system and all
5.
Shipboard Trials
other aspects of the design must be suitable for
continuous, uninterrupted operation.
Testing is to be carried out during sea trials during
which the operating times are to be established.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
10-1
SECTION 10
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS, FIRE DOORS AND STABILIZERS
Page
A.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................................. 10-2
1. General
2. Materials
3. Hydraulic-Operating Equipment for Hatch Covers
4. Hydraulically Operated Closing Appliances in the Ship’s Shell
5. Bulkhead Closures
6. Hoists
7. Tests in the Manufacturer’s Works
8. Shipboard Trials
B.
C.
FIRE DOOR CONTROL SYSTEMS ...............................................................................................................10-10
1.
General
2.
Materials
3.
Design
4.
Tests in the Manufacturer’s Works
5.
Shipboard Trials
STABILIZERS ................................................................................................................................................ 10-13
1.
General
2.
Design and Construction
3.
Performance Characteristics
4.
Shipboard Trials and Testing
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-2
A.
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
Hydraulic Systems
1.4.2
resulted
A
The hydraulic system failure is not to be
from
machinery
installation
and
1.
General
arrangement.
1.1
Scope
Provision is to be made for hand operation of the
systems in an emergency, unless an acceptable
The requirements in this section should be applied to
alternative is available.
hydraulic systems used, for example, to operate hatch
covers, closing appliances in the ship's shell and
Where hydraulic securing arrangements are applied, the
bulkheads, and hoists.
system is to be capable of being locked in the closed
position so that in the event of hydraulic system failure
The requirements are to be applied in analogous
the securing arrangements will remain locked.
manner to the ship's other hydraulic systems except
where covered by the requirements in Section 16.
Where pilot operated non-return valves are fitted to
hydraulic cylinders for locking purposes, the valves are
1.2
Definitions
to be connected directly to the actuating cylinder(s)
without intermediate pipes or hoses.
A power unit is the assembly formed by the hydraulic
pump and its driving motor control and safety valves, oil
Hydraulic circuits for securing and locking of bow, inner,
reservoir and oil conditioning equipment
stern or shell doors are to be arranged such that they
are isolated from other hydraulic circuits when securing
An actuator is a component which directly converts
and locking devices are in the closed position. For
hydraulic pressure into mechanical action
requirements
relating
to
hydraulic
steering
gear
arrangements, see Section 9, A.
1.3
Documents for approval
1.4.3
Hydraulic fluids are to be suitable for the
The diagram of the hydraulic system together with
intended purpose under all the ambient and the
drawings of the cylinders and/or hydraulic motors
operating service conditions.
containing all the data necessary for assessing the
system, e.g. operating data, descriptions, materials
1.4.4
used etc., are to be submitted in triplicate for approval.
pipelines and those of the hydraulic power systems of
Connecting of the steering gear hydraulic
CPP to any other hydraulic systems are not permitted.
1.4
Design principles
Connecting of pipelines of the engine room trunk
1.4.1
equipment
Hydraulic systems fitted in self-contained
not
associated
with
propulsion
and
closures hydraulic drive system to other hydraulic
systems is not permitted.
manoeuvring of the vessel (e.g., a crane) and
completely assembled by the equipment manufacturer
For the passenger ships and the special purposed
need not comply with this subsection. Such hydraulic
ships, the connections of the pipeline systems of power-
systems, however, are to comply with the accepted
operated watertight sliding doors to other hydraulic
industry standards.
systems are not permitted.
Hydraulic oil systems essential for the propulsion and
1.4.5
manoeuvring of the vessel are subject to further
servicing hydraulic anchor machinery and the other
requirements.
(CPP)
hydraulic systems is inevitable, the other hydraulic
hydraulic system and steering gear hydraulic systems
systems are to be driven by two separate pump units,
are also to comply with the requirements in Section 8, D
each of which shall ensure the anchor gear operation
and Section 9, A and B respectively.
with nominal pull and at nominal heaving-in speed.
Controllable
pitch
propeller
If any pipeline connection between the
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 A
1.4.6
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
For the passenger ships and the special
1.4.8
10-3
Safety or relief valves are to be fitted to
purposed ships, the hydraulic systems of the power
protect the system from overpressure. The relieving
operated
capacity is not to be less than full pump flow with a
sliding
doors
may
be
centralized
or
independent from each other.
maximum pressure rise in the system of not more than
1.1 times the rated pressure of relief valve setting.
1.4.6.1
The centralize systems shall be provided with
a low-level alarm for hydraulic fluid reservoirs serving
Valves are to meet the general requirements of
the system and a low-level gas pressure alarm for
certification in Section 16. Directional valves are to be
hydraulic accumulators. Other effective means of
treated as pipe fittings and are subject to pressure,
monitoring of the energy loss in hydraulic accumulators
temperature and fluid service restrictions specified by
may be also provided. These alarms shall be audible
the manufacturers.
and visual and are to be situated on the operating
console at the navigation bridge and at the engine room
1.4.9
control station.
the discharge side of all pumps. Where relief valves are
Over-pressure protection is to be provided on
fitted for this purpose they are to be fitted in closed
Centralize systems are to be so designed to minimize
circuit, i.e. arranged to discharge back to the system oil
the possibility of a failure in the operation of more than
tank.
one door caused by damage to a single part of the
system.
Suitable oil collecting arrangements for leaks shall be
fitted below hydraulic valves and cylinders.
1.4.6.2
An independent hydraulic system for each
watertight sliding door is to have a low gas pressure
Hydraulic oil tanks are not to be situated where
group alarm or other effective means of monitoring loss
spillage or leakage there from can constitute a
of stored energy in hydraulic accumulators situated at
hazard by dripping on heated surfaces in excess of
the operating console on the navigating bridge. Loss of
220°C
stored energy indication is to be provided at each local
operating position.
1.4.10
Arrangements for complete air escape during
filling the pipeline and machinery with hydraulic fluid, as
Hydraulic accumulators having operating pressures
well as for leakage replenishment and drainage should
above 690 kPa are to be certified in accordance with
be provided.
Section 14 as pressure vessels regardless of their
diameters. (See also Section 9, A.1.3.10)
Hydraulic tank vents are to meet the requirements in
Section 16. Vents from hydraulic oil tanks, other than
Each accumulator which may be isolated from the
double bottom or similar structural tanks, may be
system is to be protected by its own relief valve or
terminated in machinery and other enclosed spaces
equivalent. Where a gas charging system is used, a
provided that their outlets are so located that
relief valve is to be provided on the gas side of the
overflow there from will not impinge on electrical
equipment, heated surfaces or other sources of
accumulator.
ignition.
1.4.7
The hydraulic systems are to be provided
with the filters of appropriate capacity and filtration level
of the pressurized fluid.
1.4.11
Oil seals between the fixed parts assigning
the level of external pressure limit are to be “metal on
metal” type.
For the hydraulic systems of steering gear and
Oil seals between the moving parts of the hydraulic
couplings etc, suitable precautions and provisions are to
system are to be doubled in such a way that the
be utilized for cleaning the filter without causing any
failure of one seal would not disable the executive
interruption of the system operation.
actuator.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-4
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
Any other alternatives providing the equivalent leakage
1.4.18
protection may be accepted upon the special agreement
devices are to be provided.
A
Where it is necessary, appropriate cooling
with TL.
1.5
Dimensioning
Materials used for all parts of hydraulic seals are to be
compatible with the working fluid at the appropriate
See Section 14 for the design of pressure vessels, see
working temperature and pressure.
Section 16 for the dimensions of pipes and hose
assemblies.
1.4.12
Hydraulic systems shall be provided with a
sufficient amount of the instruments to monitor its
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
and other pressurized components, with working
2.1.1
Components fulfilling a major function in the
pressure above 1.5 MPa installed within machinery
power transmission system normally are to be made of
spaces are to be placed in separate room or
steel or cast steel in accordance with Chapter 2 -
shielded, as necessary, to prevent any oil or oil mist
Material. The use of other materials is subject to special
that may escape under pressure from coming into
agreement with TL.
operation.
1.4.13
Hydraulic power units, including pumps
contact with surfaces with temperatures in excess of
220°C, electrical equipment or other sources of
Cylinders are preferably to be made of steel, cast steel
ignition. Piping and other components are to have as
or nodular cast iron (with a predominantly ferritic
few joints as practicable.
matrix).
1.4.14
2.1.2
Hydraulic power installations with a design
Pipes are to be made of seamless or
pressure of less than 2.5 MPa and hydraulic power
longitudinally welded steel tubes according to their
packs of less than 5 kW are to be given special
operating pressure.
consideration by TL.
2.1.3
1.4.15
Hydraulic power installations with a design
pressure exceeding 35 MPa will be given special
The pressure-loaded walls of valves, fittings
pumps, motors etc. are subject to the requirements of
Section 16. B.
consideration by TL.
2.2
1.4.16
Testing of materials
Oils used for hydraulic power installations are
to have a flashpoint not lower than 150˚C and be
The following components are to be tested under the
suitable for the entire service temperature range.
supervision of TL in accordance with Chapter 2 Material:
The hydraulic oil is to be replaced in accordance with
Pressure pipes DN > 32 (see Section 16,
-
the specification of the installation manufacturer.
Table 16.6)
1.4.17
Whenever
practicable,
hydraulic
power
-
Cylinders, where the product of the pressure
units are to be located outside main engine or boiler
times the diameter:
rooms.
p  Di  20.000
Where this requirement is not complied with, shields or
similar devices are to be provided around the units in
Where;
order to avoid an accidental oil spray or jet on heated
surfaces which may ignite oil.
p
= Maximum permissible working pressure [bar],
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 A
Di
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
=
Inner diameter of tube [mm].
10-5
At the control stations, the controls governing the opening
and closing operations are to be appropriately marked.
-
For
testing
the
materials
of
hydraulic
accumulators, see Section 14, B.
3.1.4
Suitable equipment must be fitted in, or
immediately adjacent to, each power unit (cylinder or
Testing of materials by TL may be dispensed with in
similar) used to operate hatch covers to enable the
the case of cylinders for secondary applications
hatches to be closed slowly in the event of a power
provided
failure, e.g. due to a pipe rupture.
that
evidence
in
the
form
of
a
Manufacturer’s Test Certificate (e.g. to EN 10204 –
2.3) is supplied.
3.2
Pipes
3.
3.2.1
Pipes are to be installed and secured in such
Hydraulic Operating Equipment for Hatch
Covers
a way as to protect them from damage while enabling
them to be properly maintained from outside.
3.1
Design and construction
3.1.1
Doors and hatches fitted with gaskets and
The laying of such pipes through cargo spaces is to be
dogs are to be provided with means of indicating locally
restricted to the essential minimum. The piping system
and on the bridge whether they are open or secured
is to be fitted with relief valves to limit the pressure to
closed. For this purpose, all dogs are to be monitored
the maximum permissible working pressure.
Pipes may be led through tanks in pipe tunnels only.
individually. When all dogs are linked to a single acting
mechanism, then only the monitoring of a single dog is
3.2.2
required.
connectors for draining, cleaning and flushing
The piping system is to be fitted with
for
cleaning the hydraulic fluid.
3.1.2
Hydraulic operating equipment for hatch
covers may be served either by one common power
Equipment is to be provided to enable the hydraulic
station for all hatch covers or by several power stations
system to be purged.
individually assigned to a single hatch cover. Where a
common power station is used, at least two pump units
3.2.3
are to be fitted. Where the systems are supplied
accumulator must have permanent access to the
individually, change-over valves or fittings are required
relief valve of the connected system. The gas
so that operation can be maintained should one pump
chamber of the accumulator may be filled only with
unit fail.
inert gases. Gas and operating medium are to be
The
oil
chamber
of
the
hydraulic
separated by accumulator bags, diaphragms or
3.1.3
Movement of hatch covers may not be
similar.
initiated merely by the starting of the pumps. Special
control stations are to be provided for controlling the
3.2.4
opening and closing of hatch covers. The controls are to
used for hatch cover operation and other hydraulic
be so designed that, as soon as they are released,
systems is permitted only with the consent of TL.
Connection between the hydraulic system
movement of the hatch covers stops immediately.
3.2.5
For oil level indicators, see Section 9, A.3.12.
control stations. Should this, in exceptional cases, be
3.2.6
The hydraulic fluids must be suitable for the
impossible, opening and closing of the hatches is to
intended ambient and service temperatures.
The hatches should normally be visible from the
be signalled by an audible alarm. In addition, the
control
stations
must
then
be
equipped
with
3.3
Hose assemblies
indicators for monitoring the movement of the hatch
covers.
The construction of hose assemblies shall conform to
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-6
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
A
Section 16, U. The requirement that hose assemblies
4.2.4
The display system and the alarm system are
should be of flame (or fire) resistant construction may
to be of self-monitoring type. The alarm system is to be
be set aside for hose lines in spaces not subject to a fire
designed on the fail-safe principle. Separate indicator
hazard and in systems not important to the safety of the
lights are to be provided on the navigation bridge and
ship.
on each operating panel to show that the doors are
closed and that their locking devices are properly
3.4
positioned. Indicator lights are to be designed so that
Emergency operation
they cannot be manually turned off. The display panel
It is recommended that devices be fitted which are
on the navigation bridge is to be equipped with a mode
independent of the main system and which enable
selection function “harbour/sea voyage”, arranged so
hatch covers to be opened and closed in the event of
that an audible and visible alarm is given on the
failure of the main system. Such devices may, for
navigation bridge if, in the sea voyage condition, the
example, take the form of loose rings enabling hatch
doors are not closed or any of the securing devices are
covers to be moved by cargo winches, warping winches
not in the correct position. Display of the open/closed
etc.
position of every door and every securing and locking
device is to be provided at the operating panels. The
4.
Hydraulically
Operated
Closing
display panel is to be also provided with a lamp test
Appliances in the Ship's Shell
function.
4.1
4.2.5
Scope
The movement of shell doors etc. may not be
initiated merely by the starting of the pumps at the
The
following
requirements
apply
to
the
power
power station.
equipment of hydraulically operated closing appliances
in the ship's shell such as shell and landing doors which
4.2.6
Local control, inaccessible to unauthorized
are normally not operated while at sea. For the design
person, is to be provided for every closing appliance in
and arrangement of the closures, see Chapter 1 - Hull,
the ship's shell. As soon as the controls (push-buttons,
Section 6, F.
levers or similar) are released, movement of the
appliance must stop immediately.
4.2
Design
4.2.7
Closing appliances in the ship's shell should
Where bow doors and inner doors give access
normally be visible from the control stations. If the
to a vehicle deck, or where side shell doors or stern
movement cannot be observed, audible alarms are to
doors are located partially or totally below the freeboard
be fitted. In addition, the control stations are then to be
4.2.1
2
deck with a clear opening area greater than 6 m , an
equipped with indicators enabling the execution of the
arrangement for remote control from a position above
movement to be monitored.
the freeboard deck is to be provided allowing closing
and opening of the doors and associated securing and
4.2.8
locking of every door.
be fitted with devices which prevent them from moving
Closing appliances in the ship's shell are to
into their end positions at excessive speed. Such
4.2.2
The operating panels for doors are to be
off.
accessible to authorized persons only.
4.2.3
A notice plate giving instructions to the effect
that all securing devices are to be closed and locked
before leaving harbour is to be placed at each operating
panel and is to be supplemented by warning indicator
lights.
devices are not to cause the power unit to be switched
As far as is required, mechanical means must be provided
for locking closing appliances in the open position.
4.2.9
Every power unit driving horizontally hinged
or vertically operated closing appliances is to be fitted
with
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 A
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
throttle valves, load holding valves or similar devices to
10-7
intended ambient and service temperatures.
prevent sudden dropping of the closing appliance.
5.1.4
Drive unit
shared between at least two mutually independent
5.1.4.1
A selector switch with the switch positions
pump sets.
“local control” and “close all doors” is to be provided at
4.2.10
It is recommended that the driving power be
the central control station on the bridge. Under normal
4.3
Pipes, hose assemblies
conditions this switch should be set to “local control”.
Requirements 3.2 and 3.3 should be applied in
In the “local control” position, the doors may be locally
analogous manner to the pipes and hose lines of
opened and closed without automatic closure.
hydraulically operated closing appliances in the ship's
shell.
In the “close all doors” position, all doors are closed
automatically. They may be reopened by means of the
5.
Bulkhead Closures
5.1
General
to be possible to open the closed doors from the bridge.
5.1.1
Scope
5.1.4.2
local control device but must close again automatically
as soon as the local door controls are released. It is not
Closed or open bulkhead doors shall not be
set in motion automatically in the event of any power
5.1.1.1 The following requirements apply to the power
failures.
equipment of hydraulically operated watertight bulkhead
doors on passenger and cargo ships.
5.1.4.3
The control system is to be designed in such
a way that an individual fault inside the control system,
5.1.1.2 For the quantity, design and arrangement of
including the piping, does not have any adverse effect
the watertight doors, see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 11,
on the operation of other bulkhead doors.
A.5.
5.1.4.4
The controls for the power drive are to be
The SOLAS regulations, Chapter II-1 rules 15, 16 and
located at least 1.6 m. above the floor on both sides of
Subsection 25.9 are not affected by these provisions.
the bulkhead close to the door. The controls are to be
installed in such a way that a person passing through
5.1.2
Design
the door is able to hold both controls in the open
position.
Bulkhead doors shall be power-driving sliding doors
moving horizontally. Other designs require the approval
The controls must return to their original position
of TL and the provisions of additional safety measures,
automatically when released.
where necessary.
5.1.4.5
5.1.3
The direction of movement of the controls is
to be clearly marked and must be the same as the
Piping
direction of movement of the door.
5.1.3.1
Wherever applicable, the requirements for
pipes in hydraulic bulkhead closing systems are
5.1.4.6
In the event that an individual element fails
governed by the requirements in 3.2, with the restriction
inside the control system for the power drive,
that the use of flexible hoses assemblies is not
including
permitted.
cylinders on the door or similar components, the
the
piping
but
excluding
the
closing
operational ability of the manually-operated control
5.1.3.2
The hydraulic fluids must be suitable for the
system must not be impaired.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-8
5.1.4.7
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
The
movement
of
the
power
driven
5.2.1.4
A
All power driven doors must be capable of
bulkhead doors may not be initiated simply by
being closed simultaneously from the bridge with the
switching on the drive units but only by actuating
ship upright in no more than 60 seconds.
additional devices.
5.2.1.5
5.1.4.8
Closing speed of each individual door must
The control and monitoring equipment for the
have a uniform rate. Closing time for the power driven
drive units is to be housed in the central control station
(or hydraulically operated) doors should be not more
on the bridge and locally on the unit.
than 40 seconds and not less than 20 seconds while the
ship is in the upright condition.
5.1.5
Manual control
5.2.1.6
Power operated bulkhead closing systems
Each door must have a manual control system which is
may be fitted as an option with a central hydraulic drive
independent of the power drive.
for all doors or with mutually independent hydraulic or
electric drives for each individual door.
5.1.6
Indicators
5.2.1.7
Visual indicators to show whether each bulkhead door is
Bulkhead
closing
system
shall
not
be
connected to other systems.
fully open or closed are to be installed at the central
control station on the bridge.
5.2.2
Central hydraulic system - power drives
5.1.7
5.2.2.1
Two mutually independent power/pump units
Electrical equipment
are to be installed, if possible above the bulkhead or
For details of electrical equipment, see Chapter 5 -
freeboard deck and outside the machinery spaces.
Electrical Installations Sections 9, D. and 14, D.
5.2.2.2
5.2
Passenger vessels
Each pump unit must be capable of closing
all connected watertight doors simultaneously at full
speed.
In addition to the requirements in 5.1, the following
regulations are to be taken into consideration for
5.2.2.3
passenger vessels:
accumulators with sufficient capacity to operate all the
The
hydraulic
system
must
incorporate
connected doors three times, i.e. to close, open and
5.2.1
Design and location
reclose them, at the minimum allowable accumulator
pressure.
5.2.1.1
Bulkhead doors together with the power
plants and including the piping, electric cables and
5.2.3
Individual hydraulic drive
0.2 B from the perpendiculars which interest the hull
5.2.3.1
An independent power pump unit is to be
contour line when the ship is at load draught
fitted to each door for opening and closing the door.
control instruments must have a minimum distance of
(B=beam).
5.2.3.2
5.2.1.2
An accumulator is to be provided with
The bulkhead doors must be capable of
sufficient capacity to operate the door three times, i.e. to
being closed securely using the power drive as well as
close, open and reclose, at a minimum permissible
using the manual control even when the ship has a
accumulator pressure.
permanent heel of 15°.
5.2.4
Individual electric drive
calculated based on a static water pressure of at least 1
5.2.4.1
An independent electric drive unit is to be
m. above the door coaming.
fitted to each door for opening and closing the door.
5.2.1.3
The force required to close a door is to be
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 A
5.2.4.2
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
In the event of a failure of either the main
5.2.7.3
10-9
The installation of an additional, intermittent
power supply or the emergency power supply, the drive
visual alarm may be required in the passenger areas
unit is still to be capable of operating the door three
and in areas where there is a high level of background
times, i.e. close, open and reclose.
5.2.5
noise.
Manual control
5.2.7.4
5.2.5.1
Manual control shall be capable of being
With
a
central
hydraulic
system,
any
decreases in the level of oil service tank according to a
operated at the door from both sides of the bulkhead as
minimum acceptable reference level shall be signalled
well as from an easily reachable control station located
by means of an audible and visual alarm in the central
above the bulkhead or freeboard decks and outside the
control station on the navigation bridge.
machinery space.
5.2.7.5
5.2.5.2
The controls at doors should allow the doors
to be opened and closed.
5.2.5.3
An
alarm similar to specified in 5.2.7.4 is
also to be provided for the minimum acceptable
accumulator pressure of the central hydraulic system.
The control devices should be able to close
5.2.7.6
the door from above deck.
A decentralized hydraulic system which has
individual drive units on each door, the minimum
Manual drive mechanisms shall be capable
permitted accumulator pressure is to be signalled by
of closing a fully opened door within 90 seconds with
means of a group alarm at the central control station on
the ship upright.
the bridge.
5.2.5.5
Visual indicators are also to be fitted to the operating
5.2.5.4
A means of communication is to be
provided between the control stations for remote
stations for each individual door.
manual drive above the bulkhead or the freeboard
deck and the central control station on the navigation
bridge.
5.2.6
5.3
Cargo vessels
In addition to the specifications laid down in 5.1 the
Indicators
following requirements are to be observed for cargo
The indicators described in 5.1.6 are to be installed at
vessels:
the operating stations for manual control above the
bulkhead or the freeboard deck for each door.
5.3.1
Manual control
5.2.7
Alarms
5.3.1.1
The manual control must be capable of
5.2.7.1
While all the doors are being closed from the
being operated at the door from both sides of the
bridge, an audible alarm must sound at each door. This
bulkhead.
alarm must commence at least 5 seconds – but not
more than 10 seconds – before the door stars moving
5.3.1.2
The controls must allow the door to be
and must continue right throughout the door movement.
opened and closed.
5.2.7.2
5.3.2
When the door is being closed by a remote
Alarms
control system above the bulkhead or the freeboard
deck, the audible alarm system should be capable to
Whilst all the doors are being closed from the bridge, an
sound the alarm siren during the time the door is
audible alarm must be sounded all the time they are in
actually moving.
motion. Pre-warning is required.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-10
6.
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
Hoists
A,B
unit fails or a pipe ruptures, ensure that the hoist is
slowly lowered.
6.1
Definition
6.3
Pipes, hose assemblies
For the purposes of these requirements, hoists
include hydraulically operated appliances such as
Requirements 3.2 and 3.3 apply in analogous manner to
wheelhouse hoists, lifts, lifting platforms and similar
the pipes and hose lines of hydraulically operated
equipment.
hoists.
6.2
Design
7.
Tests in the Manufacturer's Works
6.2.1
Hoists may be supplied either by a combined
7.1
Testing of power units
power station or individually by several power stations
for each single lifting appliance.
Power units are required to undergo testing on a test
In the case of a combined power supply and
hydraulic drives whose piping system is connected to
other hydraulic systems, a second pump unit is to be
bed. The manufacturer test certificates for this testing
are to be presented at the final inspection of the
hydraulic system.
fitted.
7.2
6.2.2
Pressure and tightness tests
The movement of hoists shall not be capable
of being initiated merely by starting the pumps. The
Section 9, A.5.4 is applicable in analogous manner.
movement of hoists is to be controlled from special
operating stations. The controls are to be so arranged
8.
Shipboard Trials
that, as soon as they are released, the movement of the
After installation, the equipment is to undergo an
hoist ceases immediately.
operational test.
6.2.3
Local controls, inaccessible to unauthorized
persons, are to be fitted. The movement of hoists
The operational test of watertight doors is to include the
should be visible from the operating stations. If the
emergency operating system and determination of the
movement cannot be observed, audible and/or visual
closing times.
warning devices are to be fitted. In addition, the
operating stations are then to be equipped with
indicators for monitoring the movement of the hoist.
6.2.4
B.
Fire Door Control Systems
1.
General
1.1
Scope
Devices are to be fitted which prevent the
hoist from reaching its end position at excessive speed.
These devices are not to cause the power unit to be
switched off. As far as is necessary, mechanical means
shall be provided for locking the hoist in its end
The requirements of this section apply to power-
positions.
operated fire door control systems on passenger
If the locking devices cannot be observed from the
vessels. (These Rules meet the requirements for the
operating station, a visual indicator is to be installed at
control systems of fire doors laid down in Chapter II-2,
the operating station to show the locking status.
Regulation 9.4 of the International Convention for the
Safety of Life at Sea, SOLAS l974). The following
6.2.5
Requirement 3.1.4 is to be applied in
analogous manner to those devices which, if the power
requirements may be applied as appropriate to other fire
door control systems.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 B
1.2
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
Documents for approval
10-11
3.
Design
The electric and pneumatic diagrams together with
3.1
Each door must be capable of being opened
drawings of the cylinders containing all the data
and closed by a single person from both sides of the
necessary for assessing the system, e.g. operating
bulkhead.
data, descriptions, materials used etc., are to be
submitted in triplicate for approval.
3.2
Fire doors shall be capable of closing
automatically even against a permanent heeling angle
1.3
Dimensional design
of the ship of 3.5°.
See Section 14 for the design of pressure vessels; see
3.3
Section 16 for the dimensions of pipes.
upright condition of ship may be no more than 40
Closing time of the hinged doors in the
seconds and no less than 10 seconds from the start of
2.
Materials
the movement of the door when fully open to its closed
position for each individual door.
2.1
Approved materials
The closing speed of sliding doors is to be steady and,
Cylinders are to be made of corrosion resistant
with the ship upright, may be no more than 0.2 m/s and
materials.
no less than 0.1 m/s.
Stainless steel or copper is to be used for pipes.
Measures should be taken to ensure that any persons in
the door areas are protected from any physical harm .
The use of other materials is subject to the special
approval of TL.
3.4
All doors shall be capable of being closed
from the central control station either jointly or in groups.
It must be also possible to initiate closure at each
The use of hose lines is not permitted.
individual door. The closing switch is to take the form of
a locking switch.
Insulation material has to be of an approved type.
3.5
Visual indicators are to be installed at the
The quality properties of all critical components for
central control station to show that each fire door is fully
operation and safety must conform to recognized rules
closed.
and standards.
3.6
2.2
Power driven doors leading from “special
areas” (e.g. car decks, railway decks) in accordance
Material testing
with Chapter II-2, requirements 3.46 of the “1974
Suitable proof of the quality properties of the materials
used is to be furnished. This proof may take the form of
a TL Material Test Certificate or a material certificate
issued by the producer.
International Convention or the Safety of Life at Sea,
SOLAS” as amended or from comparable spaces to
control stations, stairwells and also to accommodation
and service spaces and which are closed when the ship
is at sea do not need to be equipped with indicators as
described in 3.5 and alarms are described in 3.12.
TL Surveyor reserves the right to order supplementary
tests of his own where he considers that the
3.7
circumstances justify this.
system are to be installed next to each door on both
Operating agents for the pneumatic control
sides of the bulkhead and by their operation. A door
See Section 14, B for details on the material testing of
which has been closed from the central control station
compressed air accumulators.
can be reopened. The controls must be so designed
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-12
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
that, when released, they return to their original position,
B
until the door is completely closed.
thereby causing the door to close again.
3.13
Fire doors are to be fitted with safety strips
In an emergency situation, it should be possible to
such that a closing door reopens as soon as contact is
operate the controls to interrupt immediately the
made with them. Following contact with the safety strip,
opening of the door and bring about its immediate
the opening travel of the door is to be no more than 1
closure.
meter.
A combination of the controls with the door handle may
3.14
be permitted.
components, shall be accessible for maintenance and
Local
door
controls,
including
all
adjustment.
The controls are to be so designed that an open door
can be closed locally. In addition, each door must be
3.15
capable of being locked locally in such a way that it can
design. Their capability to operate in the event of fire
be no longer opened by the remote control.
must be proven in accordance with the FTP-Code (2)
The control system shall be of approved
and under the supervision of TL.
3.8
The control unit at the door is to be
equipped with a device which will vent the pneumatic
The control system must conform to the following
system or cut off the electric energy of the door
minimum requirements.
control system, simultaneously shutting off the main
supply
line
and
thereby
allowing
emergency
operation by hand.
3.15.1
The door must still be capable of being
operated safely for 60 minutes at a minimum ambient
temperature of 200°C by means of the central energy
3.9
The door must close automatically when the
supply.
central power supply fail. The doors may not reopen
automatically when the central supply is restored.
3.15.2
The central energy supply for the other doors
not affected by fire may not be impaired.
Accumulator systems are to be located in the immediate
vicinity of the door being sufficient to allow the door to
3.15.3
be completely opened and closed at least ten more
the central energy supply must be shutoff automatically,
times, with using the local controls in the upright
and the local control system must be de-energized. The
condition of ship.
residual energy must be sufficient to close an open door
In ambient temperature in excess of 300°C,
completely during this process.
3.10
Measures are to be taken to ensure that the
door can still be operated by hand in the event of failure
The shutoff device must be capable of shutting off the
of the energy supply.
energy supply for one hour with a temperature variation
corresponding to the standardized time-temperature
3.11
Should the central energy supply fail in the
curve specified in Section II-2, Regulation 3, 1974
local control area of a door, the capability of the other
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea,
doors to function may not be adversely affected.
SOLAS, as amended.
3.12
3.16
Doors which are closed from the central
control station are to be fitted with an audible alarm.
The pneumatic system is to be protected
against overpressure.
Once the door close command has been given, this
alarm must start at least 5 seconds, but not more than
10 seconds before the door starts to move and continue
sounding
3.17
Drainage and venting facilities are to be
provided.
(2)
IMO. Res. MSC 61 (67).
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 B,C
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
3.18
Air filtering and drying facilities are to be
-
provided.
3.19
10-13
Material specifications for components of the
fin stabilizer system.
For the details of the electrical equipment,
-
Details of proposed testing and sea trials.
-
Details
see also Chapter 5 - Electrical Installations, Section
14, D.
of
any
limits
of
operation
for
stabilisation and induced forced roll, e.g., sea
4.
Test in the Manufacturer's Works
states,
ship
speed,
roll
amplitude
and
periodicity limitations.
The complete control system is to be subjected to a
type approval test. In addition the required construction
-
For the naval ships fitted stabilizer fin, a
according to 2 and 3 and the operability must be proven
design statement that details the stabilizer
for the complete drive.
performance in terms of a specified roll angle
that is not to be exceeded by more than a
5.
Shipboard Trials
stated percentage of rolls in a specified wave
environment at a specified ship speed and
After installation, the system and its equipment are to be
heading. This statement is to be agreed
subjected to an operational test including emergency
between the Designer and Owner/Operator
operation and verification of the closing times.
and recognize the requirements for shipbased operations, such as flight operations
and replenishment at sea (RAS) systems, in
C.
Stabilizers
terms of sea-keeping and platform heel/trim
conditions,
1.
General
the
requirements
of
continuous operation without failure under
the
1.1
and
Scope
ambient
reference
conditions
as
applicable. Details of any secondary function
of the fin stabilizer to induce ship roll, for
The requirements in this section apply to stabilizer
example to routinely test the fin stabilizer
drive units necessary for the operation and safety of
system (against its own induced roll), to
the ship.
facilitate weapon systems testing and to
support
1.2
Documents for approval
CBRN
Protection
pre-wetting
systems, are also to be included in the
design statement.
The following plans and particulars are to be submitted
to TL in triplicate for approval:
2.
Design and Construction
-
Plans of all load bearing, torque transmitting
2.1
Fin
components and hydraulic pressure retaining
foundations, supporting structure and watertight integrity
parts of the fin stabilizer system together with
shall confirm the design principles and the obligatory
proposed rated torque, all relief valve settings
constructional arrangement details.
stabilizer
scantlings,
arrangements,
and scantlings.
2.2
-
Fin stabilizer actuating systems are to be
Schematic plans of the hydraulic system(s),
consistent with the requirements of the steering gear
together with pipe material, relief valves and
system, as applicable.
working pressures.
2.3
-
Materials for components of fin stabilizers are
Details of safety and control and electrical
to be consistent with the requirements of the steering
engineering arrangements.
gear system, as applicable.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 10-14
2.4
Section 10 – Hydraulic Systems, Fire Doors and Stabilizers
Attention is to be given to any relevant
requirements of the Naval Authority.
C
system, a hand pump is to be provided, mounted in a
readily accessible position,
which is
capable of
centralising the fin in the absence of electrical power,
2.5
Section 9, A.2.1.3 and A.2.1.4 are applicable
in analogous manner to the pipe connections of
and being operated by no more than two men when the
ship is stopped.
hydraulic drive units.
3.
3.1
4.
Shipboard Trials and Testing
4.1
After installation on board the fin stabilizer
Performance Characteristics
After setting to work, the fin stabilizer system
unit is to be subject to hydrostatic and running tests.
is to be entirely automatic irrespective of ship speed or
sea state.
4.2
Testing and trials are to be carried out in
accordance with procedures that have been agreed
3.2
Where provision is made for an automatic
forced roll facility, the roll amplitude and period are to be
between the Shipyard, Owner/Operator and TL. The
testing is to demonstrate:
manually adjustable. Forced induction of rolling motion
is not to result in an unsafe condition for the ship,
-
The stabilizer system including the functional
equipment or the crew. The arrangements are also to
performances
satisfy the following:
statement required by 1.2,
-
An automatic forced roll facility is to be
specified
in
the
-
Extending and retracting the fins,
-
Alternative
design
selectable by a switch located on the
navigating
bridge
which
is
located
or
electrical
power
supply
arrangements where provided and functional
protected so as to prevent inadvertent
capability of the emergency hand pump
operation of this function.
arrangements,
-
Controls are to be provided on the navigating
-
Stabilizer controls,
-
The alarms and indicators,
-
Where the stabilizer system is designed to
bridge to manually adjust the amplitude and
periodicity of the induced rolling.
3.3
Failure of any part of the fin stabilizer unit or
its control system is not to result in an unsafe condition
avoid hydraulic locking, this feature is to be
which will have detrimental effect on the ship’s
demonstrated.
operating or sea-keeping capability.
4.3
3.4
In the event of failure of the fin actuating
Section
analogous manner.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 9,
A.5.4
is
applicable
in
and
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-1
SECTION 11
WINDLASS AND WINCHES
Page
A.
WINDLASSES.........................................................................................................................................................11- 2
1. General
2. Materials
3. Windlass components and design principles
4. Performance criteria and dimensioning
5. Tests in the manufacturer’s work
6. Shipboard trials
B. WINCHES..............................................................................................................................................................11- 10
1. Towing winches
2. Winches for cargo handling gear and other lifting equipment
3. Lifeboat winches
4. Winches for special equipment
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-2
A.
A
Applicable, including brakes, chain stopper (if
Windlasses
fitted) and foundation. This calculation is to
1.
consider forces acting on the windlass caused
General
by the loads specified in 4.1 to 4.9.
1.1
Scope
-
Hydraulic piping system diagram along with
The requirements in this section apply to bower anchor
system design pressure, relief valve setting, bill
windlasses, stern anchor windlasses, combined anchor
of materials, typical pipe joints, as applicable,
and mooring winches and chain stoppers. For anchors
and chains, see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 17.
-
Electric one line diagram along with cable
specification
1.2
protective
Documents for approval
and
size;
device
motor
rating
or
controller;
setting;
as
applicable,
The following plans showing the design specifications,
the standard of compliance, engineering analyses and
-
details of construction, as applicable, are to be
Control,
monitoring
and
instrumentation
arrangements,
submitted to TL for evaluation:
-
and load-bearing components demonstrating
stopper, general arrangement and sectional
their compliance with recognized standards or
drawings, circuit diagrams of the hydraulic,
codes of practice. Analyses for gears are to be
electrical and steam systems and detail
in accordance with a recognized standard,
drawings of the main shaft, cable lifter, brake,
stopper bar, chain pulley and axle are to be
submitted in triplicate for approval
-
Engineering analyses for torque-transmitting
For each type of anchor windlass and chain
-
Windlass
under
foundation
deck
structure,
supporting
including
structures,
and
holding down arrangements,
One copy of a description of the anchor
windlass including the proposed overload
protection and other safety devices is likewise
-
associated gears rated 100 kW and over,
to be submitted.
-
Plans and data for windlass electric motors with
Windlass design specifications; anchor and
-
Where an anchor windlass is to be approved
chain cable particulars; performance criteria;
for several strengths and types of chain
standard of compliance,
cable,
the
calculation
relating
to
the
maximum braking torque is to be submitted
-
Windlass arrangement plan showing all of the
and proof furnished of the power and hauling-
components of the anchoring/mooring system
in
such as the prime mover, shafting, cable lifter,
corresponding to all the relevant types of
anchors and chain cables; mooring winches,
anchor and chain cable.
speed
in
accordance
with
4.3
wires and fairleads, if they form part of the
windlass machinery; brakes; controls; etc,
-
Regarding seating of deck machinery see Sec.
2. K , driving engine alignment and seating
-
One copy of the strength calculations to verify
dimensions, materials, welding details, as
1.3
Confirmed standards of compliance
applicable, of all torque-transmitting (shafts,
gears, clutches, couplings, coupling bolts, etc.)
The design, construction and testing of windlasses are
and all load bearing (shaft bearings, cable
to conform to an acceptable standard or code of
lifter,
etc.)
practice. To be considered acceptable, the standard or
components of the windlass and of the winch,
code of practice is to specify criteria for stresses,
where
performance and testing.
sheaves,
drums,
bed-frames,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
A
Essential standards presently recognized by TL are
-
Up to 50 mm. diameter for grade K 1
follows:
-
(ordinary quality)
ISO 7825 :
Deck
machinery
general
-
Up to 42 mm. diameter for grade K 2 (special
requirements
-
ISO 4568 :
quality)
Windlasses
and
anchor
capstans Sea-going Vessels
2.
11-3
-
Up to 35 mm. diameter for grade K 3 (extra
special quality).
Materials
In special cases, nodular cast iron may also be used for
Materials used in the construction of torque-transmitting
larger chain diameters by arrangement with TL.
and load-bearing parts of windlasses are to comply with
the requirements for materials mentioned herein or of a
national
proposed
or
international
materials
are
material
to
be
standard.
indicated
in
Grey cast iron is permitted for stud link chain cables of
The
the
-
Up to 30 mm. diameter for grade K 1
construction plans and are to be approved in connection
(ordinary quality)
with the design. All such materials are to be certified by
the material manufacturers and are to be traceable to
-
Up to 25 mm. diameter for grade K 2 (special
the manufacturers’ certificates
quality)
2.1
Approved materials
2.1.1
Ram cylinders; pressure housings of rotary
-
Up to 21 mm. diameter for grade K 3 (extra
special quality).
vane type actuators; hydraulic power piping valves,
2.2
Testing of materials
shaft, drums , chain sprockets and the like should be of
2.2.1
The materials for forged, rolled and cast parts
steel or other approved ductile material, duly tested in
which are stressed by the pull of the chain when the
flanges and fittings; and all reduction gears
and
components transmitting mechanical forces to the main
accordance with the requirements of TL Chapter 2 Material. In general, such material should not have an
elongation of less than 12% nor a tensile strength in
cable lifter is disengaged (main shaft, cable lifter, brake
bands, brake spindles, brake bolts, tension straps,
stopper bar, chain pulley and axle) are to be tested
2
excess of 650 N/mm .
under the supervision of TL in accordance with Chapter
Pressure vessels should be generally made of steel,
2 - Material.
cast steel or nodular cast iron (with a predominantly
ferritic matrix).
In the case of anchor windlasses for chains up to 14
mm.
in
diameter,
a
Manufacturer
Inspection
With the consent of the TL, cast iron may be used for
Certificate issued by the producer may be accepted
certain components. Gray cast iron may be accepted for
as proof.
redundant parts with low stress level, excluding
cylinders, upon special consideration. Gray cast iron or
In the case of housing and frame of anchor windlasses
other material having an elongation (L0 /d = 4) less than
a
12% in 50 mm. is not to be used for these parts.
producer may be accepted as proof.
2.1.2
Cable lifters and chain pulleys are generally
to be made of cast steel. Nodular cast iron is permitted
for stud link chain cables of
Manufacturer
2.2.2
Inspection Certificate issued by the
In the case of hydraulic systems, the material
used for pipes (see Section 16, Table 16.6) as well as
for pressure vessels is also to be tested.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-4
3.
Windlass
Components
and
Design
A
In an emergency, hydraulic or electrically operated
couplings must be capable of being disengaged by
Principles
hand.
3.1
Type of drive
3.5
Braking equipment
Windlasses are normally to be driven by an
3.1.1
engine which is independent of other deck machinery.
Windlasses must be fitted with cable lifter brakes
The piping systems of hydraulic and steam-driven
which are capable of holding a load in accordance
windlass engines may be connected to other hydraulic
with 4.8.3 with the cable lifter disengaged. In
or steam systems provided that this is permissible for
addition, where the gear mechanism is not of self-
the latter. The windlasses must, however, be capable of
locking type, a device (e.g. gearing brake, lowering
being operated independently from other connected
brake, oil hydraulic brake) is to be fitted to prevent
systems.
paying out of the chain should the power unit fail
while the cable lifter is engaged.
3.1.2
Manual operation as the main driving
power can be allowed for anchors weighing up to 250
If brakes are power operated, additional means are to
kg.
be provided for manual operation. Manual operation
shall be possible under all working conditions, including
3.1.3
In case of hydraulic drives with a piping
failure of the power drive.
system connected to other hydraulic systems, a
secondary pump unit is recommended to be a standby
3.6
Pipes
pump.
For the design and dimensions of pipes, valves, fittings,
3.1.4
lifters
In the case of windlasses with two cable
both
cable
lifters
must
be
engageable
pressure vessels, etc. see Section 14 (Pressure
Vessels) and Section 16 (Pipes, Valves, Fittings and
simultaneously.
Pumps) A, B, C, D , E and U.
3.2
3.7
Reversing mechanism
Power-driven windlasses must be reversible. On
Cable lifters
Cable lifters shall have at least five snugs.
windlasses for ships with a Range of Service up to "K"
(or RSA 50) and on those powered by internal
3.8
Windlass as warping winch
combustion engines a reversing mechanism may be
dispensed with.
Combined
windlasses
and
warping
or
mooring
winches may not be subject to excessive loads even
3.3
when the maximum pull is exerted on the warping
Overload protection
rope.
For the protection of the mechanical parts in the event
of the windlass jamming, an overload protection (e.g.
3.9
Electrical equipment
slip coupling, relief valve) is to be fitted to limit the
maximum torque of the drive engine (cf. 4.3.3). The
The electrical equipment is to comply with the Chapter 5
setting of the overload protection is to be specified (e.g.
- Electrical Installations, Section 7, E.2.
in the operating instructions).
3.10
3.4
Hydraulic equipment
Couplings
For oil level indicators see the requirements of section
Windlasses are to be fitted
with disengageable
couplings between the cable lifter and the drive shaft.
9, A.3.12. For filters see the requirements of section 10,
A.3.2.2.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
A
4.
Performance Criteria and Dimensioning
Along with and notwithstanding the requirements of the
chosen
standard
of
compliance,
the
11-5
2
9.80665, Gravity [m/s ],
g
=
Zcont
= Nominal duty pull for anchorage depth up to
100 m [N].
following
requirements are also to be complied with. In lieu of
conducting engineering analyses and submitting them
Table
for review, approval of the windlass mechanical design
corresponding to the grade of chain
11.1
Continuous
duty
pull
factor
may be based on a type test, in which case the testing
procedure is to be submitted for consideration.
4.1
Grade
K1
K2
K3
f
3.75
4.25
4.75
Holding loads.
Calculations are to be made to show that, in the holding
condition (single anchor, brake fully applied and chain
cable lifter declutched), and under a load equal to 80%
of the specified minimum breaking strength of the chain
cable (see the requirements for the Construction of the
Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 17), the maximum stress in
each load bearing component will not exceed yield
strength (or 0.2% proof stress) of the material. For
installations fitted with a chain cable stopper, 45% of the
specified minimum breaking strength of the chain cable
may instead be used for the calculation.
The value of Zcont is based on the hoisting of one anchor
at a time, and that the effects of buoyancy and hawse
pipe efficiency (assumed to be 70%) have been
accounted for. In general, stresses in each torquetransmitting component are not to exceed 40% of yield
strength (or 0.2% proof stress) of the material under
these loading conditions.
Depending on the grade of the chain cable
4.3.2
and anchor depth, windlasses must be capable of
exerting the following nominal pull Z at a mean speed of
at least 9 meters per minute, for a specified design
anchorage depth greater than 100 meters:
4.2
Inertia loads.
2
The design of the drive train, including prime mover,
reduction gears, bearings, and clutches, shafts, wildcat
and bolting is to consider the dynamic effects of sudden
stopping and starting of the prime mover or chain cable
so as to limit inertial load.
4.3
Continuous duty pull
4.3.1
The windlass prime mover is to be able to
Zcont (see Table 11.2), corresponding to the grade
and diameter, d, of the chain cables, for a specified
design anchorage depths up to 100 meters, as
follows:
cont

(2)
Where:
h
= Specified design anchorage depth [m],
Z
= Nominal duty pull for anchorage depth
greater than 100 m [N].
exert for at least 30 minutes a continuous duty pull,
Z

Z  d  f  g  0.218  (h  100)
 f  g  d2
(1)
The calculation of nominal pull is to be based on a
minimum anchor depth of 100 m
Windlass prime mover must be met these conditions for
30 minutes without interruption
The pull of stern windlasses with an anchor rope can be
determined by reference to the anchor weight and the
diameter of the corresponding chain cable.
Where;
d
= Diameter of anchor chain [mm],
f
= Nominal pull factor [-],
4.3.3
Furthermore, the windlass prime mover is
to have sufficient power to exert, over a period of at
least two minutes, a pull (Zmax) equal to the greater of
1.5
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-6
times the continuous duty pull as defined in equation (2)
4.7
A
Chain cable stopper
for short term pull
Chain cable stopper, if fitted, along with its attachments
Z max  1.5  Z
(3)
is to be designed to withstand, without any permanent
deformation, 80% of the specified minimum breaking
A short-time overload of up to 20% is allowed in the
strength of the chain cable.
case of internal combustion engines at this specified
maximum torque condition.
4.8
Dimensioning of the load transmitting
components and chain stoppers
4.3.4
An additional reduction gear stage may be
fitted in order to achieve the maximum torque.
4.8.1
The basis for the design of the load-
transmitting components of windlasses and chain
4.3.5
With manually operated windlasses, steps
are to be taken to ensure that the anchor can be hoisted
stoppers are the anchors and chain cables specified in
the requirements for the Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 17.
at a mean speed of 0.033 m/s with the pull specified in
4.3.2. This is to be achieved without exceeding a
4.8.2
manual force of 150 N applied to a crank radius of about
that the anchor and chain can be safely stopped while
350 mm with the hand crank turned at about 30 rpm.
paying out the chain cable.
4.4
4.8.3
Hoisting speed
The cable lifter brake is to be so designed
The dimensional design of those parts of the
windlass which are subjected to the chain pull when the
The mean speed of the chain cable during hoisting of
cable lifter is disengaged (cable lifter, main shaft, braking
the anchor and cable is to be at least 9 meters per
equipment, bedframe and deck fastening) is to be based
minute. For testing purposes, the speed is to be
on a theoretical pull equal to 80% of the nominal breaking
measured over two shots of chain cable and initially with
load specified in the Rules for Materials for the chain in
at least three shots of chain (82.5 m in length) and the
question. The design of the main shaft is to take account of
anchor submerged and hanging free.
the braking forces, and the cable lifter brake shall not slip
when subjected to this load.
4.5
Overload capability
4.8.4
The theoretical pull may be reduced to 45%
The windlass prime mover is to be able to provide the
of the nominal breaking load for the chain provided that
necessary temporary overload capacity for breaking out
a chain stopper approved by TL is fitted.
the anchor. This temporary overload capacity or “short
term pull” is to be at least 1.5 times the continuous duty
4.8.5
pull applied for at least 2 minutes.
is to be based upon the force acting on the cable lifter
The design of all other windlass components
pitch circle and equal to the maximum pull specified in
4.6
4.3.3.
Brake capacity
At the theoretical pull specified in 4.8.3 and
The capacity of the windlass brake is to be sufficient
4.8.6
to stop the anchor and chain cable when paying out
4.8.4, the force exerted on the brake-handwheel shall
the chain cable. Where a chain cable stopper is not
fitted, the brake is to produce a torque capable of
withstanding a pull equal to 80% of the specified
minimum breaking strength of the chain cable without
not exceed 500 N.
4.8.7
The dimensional design of chain stoppers is
to be based on a theoretical pull equal to 80% of the
nominal breaking load of the chain.
any permanent deformation of strength members and
without brake slip. Where a chain cable stopper is
4.8.8
fitted, 45% of the breaking strength may instead be
must be below the minimum yield point of the materials
applied.
used.
The total stresses applied to components
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
A
4.8.9
The foundations and pedestals of windlasses
and chain stoppers are governed by the requirements
R yi 
for the Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 8 and 17.
4.9
Strength requirements to resist green sea
For ships of length 80 m or more, where the
Py  h  y i  A i
Iy
R i  R xi  R yi  R si
forces
4.9.1
11-7
[kN]
(5)
[kN]
(6)
Px
= Force acting normal to the shaft axis [kN],
Py
= Force acting parallel to the shaft axis, either
height of the exposed deck in way of the item is less
than
10
percent
of
ship’s
length
between
perpendicular (0.1L) or 22 m above the summer load
inboard or outboard whichever gives the
waterline, whichever is the lesser, the attachment of
greater force in bolt group i [kN],
the windlass located within the forward quarter length
of the ship are to resist the green sea forces. The
following pressures and associated areas are to be
h
= Shaft height above the windlass mounting
applied (Figure 11.1):
[cm],
200 kN/m2 normal to the shaft axis and away
-
from the forward perpendicular, over the
xi,yi
= x and y coordinates of bolt group i from the
centroid of all N bolt groups, positive in the
projected area in this direction
direction opposite to that of the applied force
150 kN/m2 parallel to the shaft axis and acting
-
[cm],
both inboard and outboard separately, over the
multiple of f times the projected area in this
direction
= Cross sectional area of bolts in group i
Ai
2
[cm ],
f
= 1+ B/H, but not greater than 2.5,
B
= Width of windlass measured parallel to the
Ix
= Σ Ai xi2
for N bolt groups [cm4],
Iy
= Σ Ai yi2
for N bolt groups [cm4],
Rsi
= Static reaction at bolt group i, due to weight
shaft axis [m],
H
= Overall height of the windlass [m].
Where mooring winches are integral with the anchor
of windlass [kN].
windlass, they are to be considered as part of the
windlass.
4.9.3
4.9.2
Forces in the bolts, chocks and stoppers
securing the windlass to the deck, caused by green sea
Shear forces Fxi and Fyi applied to the bolt
group i, and the resultant combined force Fi are to be
obtained from:
forces specified in 4.9.1, are to be calculated.
The windlass is supported by N bolt groups, each
Fxi 
Px  α  m w
N
containing one or more bolts (Figure 11.2)
The axial forces Ri in bolt group (or bolt) i, positive in
Fyi 
Py  α  m w
N
tension, is to be obtained from:
2
R xi 
Px  h  x i  A i
Ix
2
Fi  Fxi  Fyi
[kN]
(4)
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
[kN]
(7)
[kN]
(8)
[kN]
(9)
11-8
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
Figure 11.1 Windlass loading
Figure 11.2 Direction of forces and weight and sign convention
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
A

= Friction coefficient, to be taken as 0.5 [-],
11-9
Test certificates showing particulars of weights
5.3.2
of anchors, or size and weight of cable and of the test
mw
= Weight-force of windlass [kN],
loads applied are to be furnished. These certificates are
to be examined by TL’s Surveyors when the anchors
N
= Number of bolt groups [-].
and cables are placed on board the ship.
Axial tensile and compressive forces and lateral
5.3.3
forces calculated in 4.9.1, 4.9.2 and 4.9.3 are also to
required by the requirements for Materials.
Steel wire and fibre ropes are to be tested as
be considered in the design of the supporting
structure.
For holding power testing requirements
5.3.4
relating to high holding power anchors, see the
4.9.4
Tensile axial stresses in the individual bolts in
requirements for Chapter 2 - Material.
each bolt group i are to be calculated. The horizontal
forces Fxi and Fyi are normally to be reacted by shear
5.3.5
chocks.
inspection and operational testing at the maximum pull.
The windlasses should undergo the final
The hauling-in speed is to be verified with continuous
Where “fitted” bolts are designed to support these shear
application of the nominal pull. During the tests,
forces in one or both directions, the von Mises’
particular attention is to be given to the testing and,
equivalent stresses in the individual bolts are to be
wherever necessary, to the setting of braking and to the
calculated, and compared to the stress under proof
safety equipment.
load.
In the case of anchor windlasses for chains >14 mm. in
Where pourable resins are incorporated in the holing
diameter, this test should be performed in the presence
down arrangement, due account is to be taken in the
of the TL Surveyor.
calculations.
In the case of anchor windlasses for chains 14 mm.
The safety factor against bolt proof strength should be
diameter, the Manufacturer’s Inspection Certificate will
greater than 2.0.
be accepted.
5.
Tests in the Manufacturer's Works
5.3.6
5.1
Testing of driving engines
Where the manufacturing works does not
have adequate facilities, the aforementioned tests
including the adjustment of the overload protection can
be carried out on board ship. In these cases, functional
The requirements of Section 9, A.5.3 are applicable as
testing in the manufacturer's works is to be performed
appropriate.
under no-load conditions.
5.2
5.3.7
Pressure and tightness tests
After manufacturing, the chain stoppers are
required to undergo final inspection and operational
The requirements of Section 9, A.5.4 are applicable as
testing in the presence of TL surveyor.
appropriate. The set pressure of the relief valves shall
be taken as pc.
that
5.3
The design of the windlass is to be such
5.3.8
Final inspection and operational testing
the
following
requirements
or
equivalent
arrangements will minimize the probability of the
chain locker or forecastle being flooded in bad
5.3.1
All anchors and chain cables are to be tested
weather:
at establishments and on machines recognized by TL
and under the supervision of TL’s Surveyors or other
-
A watertight connection can be made between
Officers recognized by TL, and in accordance with the
the windlass bedplate, or its equivalent, and the
requirements for Materials.
upper end of the chain pipe, and,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-10
-
A,B
Access to the chain pipe is adequate to
6.8
permit the fitting of a cover or seal, of
required to demonstrate that the conditions specified in
sufficient strength and proper design, over
3.1.4 and 4.8.2 can be fulfilled.
As a minimum requirement, sea trials are
the chain pipe while the ship is at sea.
6.
Shipboard Trials
B.
Winches
6.1
Each windlass is to be tested under working
1.
Towing Winches
1.1
Design and testing of the towing winches are
conditions after installation onboard to demonstrate
satisfactory operation.
to comply with the requirements for the Construction
6.2
Each unit is to be independently tested for
braking, clutch functioning, lowering and hoisting of
and Testing of Towing Gears, in Chapter 1 - Hull,
Section 29, D.
chain cable and anchor, proper riding of the chain over
the chain lifter, proper transit of the chain through the
1.2
hawse pipe and the chain pipe, and effecting proper
governing the tension of the towline, provision shall be
stowage of the chain and the anchor.
made to enable checking the value of tension at every
Where automatic devices are used for
moment. The tension indicators shall be installed at the
6.3
It is to be confirmed that anchors properly
towing winch and on the bridge.
seat in the stored position and that chain stoppers
function as designed if fitted.
1.3
Sound warning alarm operating when the
maximum permissible length of the towline is veered out
6.4
The mean hoisting speed, as specified in 4.4,
is to be measured and verified, with each anchor and at
shall be provided. It is recommended to install a towline
length indicator.
least 82.5 m length of chain submerged and hanging
free.
1.4
The drums of the towing winches having
the multilayer rope winding with the ropes that can be
6.5
During trials on board ship, the windlass is to
be shown to be capable of:
subjected to the load in several layers shall have
flanges protruding above the upper layer of winding
by not less than 2.5 times the rope diameter. The
-
For all specified design anchorage depths:
drums shall also be provided with fairleads. If two or
raising the anchor from a depth of 82.5 m to
more drums are provided, the fairleads shall be
a depth of 27.5 m at a mean speed of 9
independent. Rope drum shall be fitted with a
coupling to ensure its disconnection from the driving
meters per minute; and
machinery.
-
For
specified
design
anchorage
depths
greater than 82.5 m: in addition to (a), raising
the
anchor
from
the
specified
design
Geometrical dimensions of the winch heads shall
provide the possibility for paying out the towline.
anchorage depth to a depth of 82.5 m at a
6.6
The design of the winch shall provide for
mean speed of 3 meters per minute.
1.5
Where the depth of water in the trial area is
paying-out of the towing line.
quick releasing of the drum in order to ensure free
inadequate, suitable equivalent simulating conditions
1.6
will be considered as an alternative.
The towing winches shall be provided with an
automatic brake ensuring holding of a line at a pull
6.7
The braking capacity is to be tested by
intermittently paying out and holding the chain cable by
equal to at least 1.25 times the rated one when the
driving energy disappears or is switched off.
means of the application of the brake.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
B
1.7
The rope drum of the winch shall be provided
with the brake capable of holding the drum, when the
11-11
to efforts caused by the above-mentioned loads, shall
not exceed 0.95 ReH of the element material.
effort in the rope is not less than the breaking load of
the towline without slipping and when the drum is
2.
disconnected from the drive. The drum brake controlled
Other Lifting Equipment
Winches for Cargo Handling Gear and
by any type of energy shall be provided with manual
control as well. The brake design shall ensure the
The design and testing of these winches are to comply
possibility of quick releasing for the purpose of loosing
with the Chapter 50 - Lifting Appliances.
paying out of the towline.
3.
1.8
Lifeboat Winches
The towing winch elements situated in lines
of force flow shall be checked for strength under the
rated rope pull applied to the middle layer of winding.
The design and testing of life boat winches are to
comply with LSA – Life Saving Appliance Code.
The reference stresses in the elements shall not exceed
0.4 ReH of the element material in this case.
1.9
4.
Winches for Special Equipment
The elements shall be checked for strength
when the drum is affected by efforts corresponding to
The winches for special equipment such as ramps,
the maximum torque of the drive, as well as when the
hoisting gear and hatch covers, shall comply with the
drum is affected by an effort equal to the towline
relevant requirements Chapter 50, Lifting Appliances
breaking force on the upper layer of winding. The
and LSA – Life Saving Appliance Code.
reference stresses in elements, which may be subjected
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 11 – Windlass and Winches
11-12
B
Table 11. 2 Anchor, Chain Cable and Ropes
Equipment
Numeral
Incl.
Excl.
Stockless bower
anchor
Number
Chain cable stud link bower
chain
Mass per
anchor
(kg)
Total
length (m)
Diameter (mm)
Gr-1
Gr-2
Gr3
Stream wire or
stream chain
Length Breaking
(m)
Load (kN)
Towline Ropes
Length
(m)
Mooring ropes
Breaking
Length Breaking
Number
Load (kN)
(m)
Load (kN)
 50
50 – 70
70 – 90
90 – 110
110 – 130
130 – 150
150 – 175
175 – 205
205 – 240
240 – 280
280 – 320
320 – 360
360 – 400
400 – 450
450 – 500
500 – 550
550 – 600
600 – 660
660 – 720
720 – 780
780 – 840
840 – 910
910 – 980
2
120
165
12.5
12.5
12.5
80
65
180
100
3
80
35
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
180
240
300
360
420
480
570
660
780
900
1020
1140
1290
1440
1590
1740
1920
2100
2280
2460
2640
2850
220
220
247.5
247.5
275
275
302.5
302.5
330
357.5
357.5
385
385
412.5
412.5
440
440
440
467.5
467.5
467.5
495
14
16
17.5
19
20.5
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
12.5
14
16
17.5
17.5
19
20.5
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
12.5
14
16
17.5
17.5
19
20.5
20.5
22
24
24
26
28
30
30
32
34
36
36
38
40
42
80
85
85
90
90
90
90
65
75
80
90
100
110
120
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
100
100
100
100
100
100
110
130
150
175
200
225
250
275
305
340
370
405
440
480
520
560
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
80
100
110
110
120
120
120
120
120
140
140
140
140
140
160
160
160
160
170
170
170
170
35
40
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
80
85
95
100
110
120
130
145
160
170
185
200
215
980 – 1060
3
3060
495
56
50
44
200
600
4
180
230
1060 – 1140
3
3300
495
58
50
46
200
645
4
180
1140 – 1220
1220 – 1300
1300 – 1390
1390 – 1480
1480 – 1570
3
3
3
3
3
3540
3780
4050
4320
4590
522.5
522.5
522.5
550
550
60
62
64
66
68
52
54
56
58
60
46
48
50
50
52
200
200
200
200
220
690
740
785
835
890
4
4
4
4
5
180
180
180
180
190
250
270
285
305
325
325
1570 – 1670
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4890
5250
5610
6000
6450
6900
7350
7800
8300
8700
9300
9900
10500
11100
11700
12300
12900
13500
14100
14700
15400
16100
16900
17800
18800
20000
21500
23000
24500
26000
27500
29000
31000
33000
35500
38500
42000
46000
550
577.5
577.5
577.5
605
605
605
632.5
632.5
632.5
660
660
660
687.5
687.5
687.5
715
715
715
742.5
742.5
742.5
742.5
742.5
742.5
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
770
70
73
76
78
81
84
87
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
107
111
114
117
120
122
124
127
130
132
62
64
66
68
70
73
76
78
81
84
84
87
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
107
111
111
114
117
120
124
127
132
137
142
147
152
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
73
76
78
78
81
84
87
87
90
92
95
97
97
100
102
107
111
114
117
122
127
132
132
137
142
147
152
157
162
220
940
5
190
335
220
220
220
240
240
240
260
260
260
280
280
280
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
1025
1110
1170
1260
1355
1455
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
1470
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
11
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
21
190
190
190
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
350
375
400
425
450
480
480
490
500
520
555
590
620
650
650
660
670
680
685
685
695
705
705
715
725
725
725
735
735
735
735
735
735
735
735
735
735
1670 – 1790
1790 – 1930
1930 – 2080
2080 – 2230
2230 – 2380
2380 – 2530
2530 – 2700
2700 – 2870
2870 – 3040
3040 – 3210
3210 – 3400
3400 – 3600
3600 – 3800
3800 – 4000
4000 – 4200
4200 – 4400
4400 – 4600
4600 – 4800
4800 – 5000
5000 – 5200
5200 – 5500
5500 – 5800
5800 – 6100
6100 – 6500
6500 – 6900
6900 – 7400
7400 – 7900
7900 – 8400
8400 – 8900
8900 – 9400
9400 – 10000
10000 – 10700
10700 – 11500
11500 – 12400
12400 – 13400
13400 – 14600
14600 – 16000
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-1
SECTION 12
STEAM BOILERS
Page
A.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 12-3
1. Scope
2. Additional Requirements
3. Documents for Approval
4. Definitions
5. Lowest Water Level-Highest Flue- Dropping Time
B.
MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................................... 12-6
1. General Requirements
2. Approved Materials
3. Material Testing
C.
MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................................. 12-9
1. Manufacturing Processes Applied to Boiler Materials
2. Welding
3. Riveting
4. Tube Expansion
5. Stays, Stay Tubes and Stay Bolts
6. Stiffeners, Straps and Lifting Eyes
7. Welding of Flat Unrimmed Ends to Boiler Shells
8. Nozzles and Flanges
9. Cleaning and Inspection Openings, Cut-outs and Covers
10. Boiler Drums, Shell Sections, Headers and Firetubes
11. Manual Operation
12. Power of Steam Propulsion Plant
D.
DESIGN CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 12-11
1. Design Principles
2. Cylindrical Shells Under Internal Pressure
3. Cylindrical Shells and Tubes With Outer Diameter o More than 200 mm Subject to External Pressure
4. Dished End Plates Under Internal and External Pressure
5. Flat Surfaces
6. Stays, Stay Tubes and Stay Bolts
7. Boiler and Superheater Tubes
8. Plain Rectangular Tubes and Sectional Headers
9. Straps and Girders
10. Bolts
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-2
E.
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
EQUIPMENT AND INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................... 12-33
1. General
2. Safety Valves
3. Water Level Indicators
4. Pressure Gauges
5. Temperature Gauges
6. Regulating Devices (Controllers)
7. Monitoring Devices (Alarms)
8. Safety Devices (Limiters)
9. Feed and Circulation Devices
10. Shut-off Devices
11. Scum Removal, Sludge Removal, Drain, Venting and Sampling Devices
12. Name Plate
13. Valves and Fittings
14. Installation of Boilers
F.
TESTING OF BOILERS .................................................................................................................................. 12-42
1. Non-Destructive Testing
2. Constructional Control and Checking
3. Hydrostatic Pressure Tests
4. Acceptance Test After Installation on Board
G.
HOT WATER GENERATORS ........................................................................................................................ 12-44
1. General
2. Pre-Pressurized Expansion Vessels
3. Feed Water Supply
4. Circulating Pumps
H.
FLUE GAS ECONOMIZERS........................................................................................................................... 12-45
1. Definitions
2. Materials
3. Design Calculations
4. Equipments
5. Name Plate
6. Tests
7. Operating Instructions
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
A.
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
General
1.4
12-3
Steam and hot water generators as defined
in 1.2 and 1.3 are subject to the requirements set out in
1.
Scope
B to F, for hot water generators the requirements set out
in G. apply additionally.
1.1
The boiler is a kind of pressure vessel,
associated piping systems and fittings.
Flue gas economizers are subject to the special
requirements set out in H. In respect of materials,
The boilers are to be of a design and construction
manufacture and design, the requirements specified in
adequate for the service for which they are intended.
B, C and D apply as appropriate.
For the purpose of these requirements, boiler
2.
Additional Requirements
2.1
As regards their construction equipment and
includes all closed vessels and piping systems used
for:
operation, steam boiler plants are also required to
-
-
Generating
steam
at
pressure
above
comply with the international and national standards,
atmospheric (steam generators), or
rules or codes approved by TL.
Raising the temperature of water above the
3.
Documents for Approval
boiling point corresponding to atmospheric
pressure (hot water generators).
Drawings of boilers containing all the data necessary for
their safety assessment are to be submitted to TL in
The boilers are to be so installed and protected as to
triplicate.
reduce to a minimum any danger to persons on board,
due regard being paid to moving parts, hot surfaces and
The following details, in particular, are to be specified:
other hazards.
-
General arrangement plan,
-
Design data: heating surface, evaporative
The design is to have regard to materials used in
construction, the purpose for which the equipment is
intended, the working conditions to which it will be
capacity, design and working pressure and
subjected and the environmental conditions on board
temperature, superheater header and tube
mean
1.2
The steam generator also includes any
wall
temperatures,
estimated
pressure drop through the superheaters,
equipment directly connected to the aforementioned
steam
vessels or piping systems in which the steam is
allowable steam output, feed, firing system,
superheated or cooled, external drums, the circulating
safety valves, controllers and limiters, draft
line and the casings of circulating pumps serving forced-
requirements at design conditions, number
circulation boilers.
and capacity of forced draft fans,
1.3
Hot water generators with an allowable
-
conditions,
heating
surfaces,
Materials of all pressurized parts and their
discharge temperature of not more than 120°C and all
welded attachments and full details of welds
systems incorporating steam or hot water generators
including filler materials,
which are heated solely by steam or hot liquids are not
subject to these requirements, but come under Section
-
Sectional assembly,
-
Seating arrangements,
-
Steam and water drums, and header details,
-
Waterwall details,
14-Pressure Vessels.
Raising the temperature of water above the boiling point
corresponding to atmospheric pressure (discharge
temperature > 120°C) – the generated hot water is to be
used in a system outside of the hot water generators.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-4
-
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
A
Steam and superheater tubing including the
temperature above 120˚C by means of heat
maximum expected mean wall temperature
resulting from combustion of fuel or from
of the tube wall, and the tube support
combustion gases.
arrangements,
Any equipment directly connected to the boiler,
-
Economizer arrangement, header details,
such as economisers, superheaters, and safety
and element details,
valves, is considered as part of the boiler, if it is
not separated from the steam generator by
-
Casing arrangement,
-
Typical weld joint designs,
-
Post-weld heat treatment and non destructive
means of any isolating valve. Piping connected
to the boiler is considered part of the boiler
upstream of the isolating valve and part of the
associated piping system downstream of the
isolating valve.
examination,
-
Automatic boiler oil burner unit
Boiler mountings including safety valves and
It is a device for combustion of fuel oil, the
relieving capacities, blow-off arrangements
operation of which is controlled automatically,
water gauges and try cocks, etc.
without
any
direct
attendance
of
the
operating personnel.
-
Integral piping,
-
Reheat section (when fitted),
-
Auxiliary boilers for essential services
Auxiliary boilers supply steam to the auxiliary
machinery, systems and equipment providing
-
Fuel oil burning arrangements including
propulsion of the ship, safety of navigation
burners and registers,
and proper carriage of goods, if no other
sources of power being available on board
-
Forced draft system,
the
ship
for
operating
the
mentioned
machinery, equipment and systems in case
-
the boilers fail to operate.
Boiler instrumentation, monitoring and control
systems.
-
4.
Steam generator
Steam generator is a heat exchanger and
Definitions
associated piping used for generating steam. In
Basic concept and definitions applied in this section are
general,
described in the following item:
-
in
these
requirements,
the
requirements for boilers are also applicable for
steam generators, unless otherwise indicated.
Fired pressure vessel
Fired pressure vessel is a pressure vessel
which is completely or partially exposed to
-
Superheaters, economisers, reheaters, de-
fire from burners or combustion gases.
superheaters
Unfired pressure vessel
with a boiler.
They are the heat exchangers associated
-
Any pressure vessel not to be exposed firing
from any burner or flame source.
-
Incinerator
Incinerator
-
is
a
shipboard
facility
for
Boiler
incinerating solid garbage approximating
Boiler is one or more fired pressure vessels
in
and associated piping systems used for
and
generating
operation
steam
or
hot
water
at
a
composition to
liquid
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
garbage
of
the
household
deriving
ship
(e.g.
garbage
from
the
domestic
A
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
garbage,
cargo-associated
garbage,
-
The allowable steam output
maintenance garbage, operational garbage,
The
cargo residue, and fishing gear), as well as
maximum quantity steam which can be
for burning sludge with a flash point above
produced
continuously
generator
operating
60˚C. These facilities may be designed to
use the heat energy produced.
-
12-5
Design pressure, PR
Design pressure PR is the approved steam
allowable
steam
output
is
the
by
the
steam
under
the
design
steam conditions.
-
The heating surface
The heating surface is that part of the boiler
pressure in bar (gauge pressure) in the
walls through which heat is supplied to the
saturated steam space prior to entry into the
system, i.e:
superheater. In once - through forced flow
boilers, the maximum allowable working

pressure is the pressure at the superheater
The area in m
2
measured on the side
exposed to fire or exhaust gas, or
outlet or, in the case of continuous boilers
without a superheater, the steam pressure at

the steam generator outlet.
In
the
case
of
electrical
heating,
the
equivalent heating surface is:
-
Maximum permissible working pressure, PB
860 P
H  18000
Maximum permissible working pressure PB is
the maximum pressure permissible at the top
Where P is the electric power in kW and H in
of the boiler or pressure vessel in its normal
2
m.
operating condition and at the designated
coincidental temperature specified for that
pressure. It is the least of the values found
5.
for PB for any pressure-bearing parts,
time
Lowest water level - highest flue- dropping
adjusted for the difference in static head that
-
may exist between the part considered and
5.1
the top of the boiler or pressure vessel. PB is
at least 150 mm above the highest flue also when the
not to exceed the design pressure PR.
ship heels 4° to either side.
Design temperature,
The highest flue (HF) shall remain wetted even when
The maximum temperature used in design is
not to be less than the mean metal
temperature (through the thickness) expected
under operating conditions.
-
The lowest water level (LWL) has to be located
the ship is at the static heeling angles laid down in
Section 1, Table 1.1.
The height of the water level is crucial to the response
of the water level limiters.
Design boiler capacity
It is the maximum amount of steam that can
be generated by the boiler at design
5.2
parameters during 1 hour on continuous
water level under conditions of interrupted feed and
The "dropping time" is the time taken by the
running.
allowable steam production, to drop from the lowest
water level to the level of the highest flue.
-
Steam boiler walls
Steam boiler walls are the walls of the steam
T
and water spaces located between the boiler
60  V
D  v'
isolating devices. The bodies of these
isolating devices form part of the boiler walls.
T
= Dropping time [min]
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-6
V
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
=
A,B
Volume of water in steam boiler between the
5.5
lowest water level and the highest flue [m3]
other heated boiler parts may not lead to any
The heat accumulated in furnaces and
inadmissible lowering of the water level due to
D
=
Allowable steam output [kg/h]
subsequent evaporation when the oil burner is
switched-off.
v'
=
Specific volume of
water
at saturation
temperature [m3/kg]
This requirement to an inadmissible lowering of the
water level is met for example, if it has been
The lowest water level is to be set so that the dropping
demonstrated by calculation or trial that, after shut-down
time is not less than 5 minutes.
of the burner from full-load condition or reduction of the
heat supply from the engine, the flue gas temperature or
5.3
The highest flue (HF)
exhaust gas temperature respectively is reduced to a
value below 400 °C at the level of the highest flue,
-
Is the highest point on the side of the heating
before, under the condition of interrupted feed water
surface which is in contact with the water and
supply, the water level has dropped from the lowest
which is exposed to flame radiation and
water level LWL to a level 50 mm above the highest flue
HF.
-
Is to be defined by the boiler manufacturer in
such a way that, after shut-down of the
The water level indicators have to be arranged in such a
burner from full-load condition or reduction of
way that the distance 50 mm above HF could be
the heat supply from the engine, the flue gas
identified.
temperature or exhaust gas temperature
respectively is reduced to a value below 400
5.6
°C at the level of the highest flue. This shall
indicated permanently on the boiler shell by means of a
be achieved before, under the condition of
water level pointer. The location of the pointer is to be
interrupted feed water supply, the water level
included in the documentation for the operator.
The lowest specified water level is to be
has dropped from the lowest water level to a
level 50 mm above HF.
Reference plates are to be attached additionally beside or behind the water level gauges pointing at the
The highest flue on water tube boilers with an upper
lowest water level.
steam drum is the top edge of the highest gravity tubes.
5.4
The requirements relating the highest flue do
B.
Materials
1.
General Requirements
1.1
The materials used for manufacturing of
not apply to
-
Water tube boiler risers up to 102 mm outer
diameter
steam boilers shall satisfy the TL technical requirements
-
Once-through forced flow boilers
and comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code Section I or TRD (Technical Rules for Steam
-
Superheaters
Boilers).
-
Flues and exhaust gas heated parts in which
1.2
the temperature of the heating gases does
constructed of materials conforming to specifications
not exceed 400 °C at maximum continuous
permitted by the applicable boiler or pressure vessel
power
code.
Pressure
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
parts
of
boilers
are
to
be
B
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Table 12.1
Material and product form
12-7
Approved materials
Limits of application
Steel plates and steel strips
-
Steel pipes
-
Material grades in accordance with
the Rules Chapter 2 - Material
Plates and strip of high-temperature steels to
Section 3
Seamless and welded pipes of ferritic steels to
Section 4, B and 4, C
Forgings and formed parts:
-
drums, headers and similar
hollow components without
-
longitudinal seam
-
Forgings for boilers, vessels and pipeline to
Section 5
covers, flanges, branch pipes,
end plates
-
Nuts and bolts
≤ 300°C
≤ 4 MPa
≤ M 30
-
Steel castings
≤ 300°C
Bolts and nuts to Section 4.
High-temperature bolts, e.g. to EN 10269
EN ISO 898 Part 1 and 2 or equivalent
standards
Cast steel for boilers, pressure vessels and
pipelines to Section 6, D.
Also GS 38 and GS 45 to EN 10293 and
GS 16 Mn5 and GS 20 Mn5 to EN 10293
≤ 300°C
≤ 4 MPa
Nodular cast iron
≤ DN 175 for valves and
Nodular cast iron to Section 7
fittings
≤ 200°C
≤ 1 MPa
≤ 200 mm diameter
Lamellar (grey) cast iron:
-
≤ 200°C
boiler parts
(only for unheated surfaces and
≤ 1 MPa
not for heaters in thermal oil
≤ DN 175
Grey cast iron grades to Section 7
≤ 5.2 MPa
systems)
smoke gas temperature
-
≤ 600°C
valves and fittings
(except valves subject to dynamic
loads)
water outlet temperature
≤ 245°C
≤ 10 MPa
-
exhaust gas economizers
smoke gas temperature
≤ 700°C
water outlet temperature
Grey cast iron of at least GG-25 grade to
Section 7
≤ 260°C
Valves and fittings of cast copper alloy
≤ 225°C
≤ 2.5 MPa
Cast copper alloys to Section 9.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-8
1.3
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Materials for non-pressure parts are to be of
3.2
B
The materials of boiler parts subject to
a weldable grade (to be verified by welding procedure
pressure, i.e. steam and water drums, shell and heads,
qualification, for example) if such parts are to be welded
headers, shell flange, tubes, tubesheets, etc. including
to pressure parts.
flue gas economizer tubes are required to have their
materials tested in the presence of TL Surveyor to verify
1.4
Materials exposed to high temperature
their compliance with the Rules Chapter 2 - Material (cf.
Table 12.1). Welding consumables, in these instances,
Materials of pressure parts subjected to service
are to have their mechanical strength verified by the
temperatures higher than room temperature are to have
testing of production test pieces.
mechanical and metallurgical properties suitable for
operating under stress at such temperatures. Material
3.3
specifications
in the case of:
concerned
are
to
have
specified
Material testing by TL may be dispensed with
mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, or
alternatively, the application of the materials is to be
3.3.1
limited by allowable stresses at elevated temperatures
such as stay bolts, stays of ≤ 100 mm. diameter,
as specified in the applicable boiler or pressure vessel
reinforcing plates, handhole and manhole covers,
standard.
forged flanges and nozzles up to DN 150 and
1.5
Materials exposed to low temperature
Small boiler parts made of unalloyed steels,
3.3.2
Smoke tubes (tubes subject to external
pressure).
Materials of pressure parts subjected to low service
temperatures are to have suitable notch toughness
For the parts mentioned in 3.3.1 and 3.3.2, the
properties.
operating
Permissible
temperatures,
materials,
the
allowable
properties of the materials are to be attested by
the
that
need
material certificates in accordance with EN 10204-
tests
be
conducted and the corresponding toughness criteria are
3.1.B.
to be as specified in the applicable pressure vessel
standard.
3.4
Special
regarding
2.
Approved Materials
the
agreements
testing
of
may
unalloyed
be
made
steels
to
recognized standards.
The requirements specified in 1 are recognized as
3.5
having been complied with if the materials shown in
tested by TL in accordance with Table 12.2.
The materials of valves and fittings must be
Table 12.1 are used.
Table 12.2 Testing of materials for valves and
Materials not specified in the TL's Rules Chapter 2 -
fittings
Material may be used provided that proof is supplied of
their suitability and material properties.
Type of material (1)
3.
Material testing
3.1
Materials, including welding consumables,
entered into the construction of boilers and pressure
vessels are to be certified by the material manufacturers
as meeting the material specifications concerned.
Certified mill test reports, traceable to the material
concerned, are to be presented to TL Surveyor for
information and verification in all cases.
Steel, cast steel
Steel,
cast steel nodular,
cast iron
Copper alloys
(1)
(2)
Service
temperature
[°C]
> 300
≤ 300
≤ 225
Testing required
for:
PB [MPa]
DN [mm]
DN > 32
PBxDN > 250 (2)
or
DN > 250
PBxDN > 150 (2)
No tests are required for grey cast iron.
Testing may be dispensed with if the nominal DN ≤ 32
mm.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
B,C
3.6
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-9
Parts not subject to material testing, such as
Sharp edges are to be chamfered. Tube holes should
external supports, lifting brackets, pedestals etc. must
be as close as possible to the radial direction,
be designed for the intended purpose and must be
particularly in the case of small wall thicknesses.
made of suitable materials.
Tube ends to be expanded are to be cleaned and
C.
Manufacturing Principles
1.
Manufacturing
checked
for
size
and
possible
defects.
Where
necessary, tube ends are to be annealed before being
Processes
Applied
to
Boiler Materials
expanded.
Smoke tubes with welded connection between tube and
Materials are to be checked for defects during the
manufacturing process. Care is to be taken to ensure
that different materials cannot be confused. During the
course of manufacture care is likewise required to
ensure that marks and inspection stamps on the
materials remain intact or are transferred in the
prescribed manner.
tube plate at the entry of the second path shall be roller
expanded before and after welding.
5.
Stays, Stay Tubes and Stay Bolts
5.1
Stays, stay tubes and stay bolts are to be so
arranged that they are not subjected to undue bending
or shear forces.
Boiler parts whose structure has been adversely
affected by hot or cold forming are to be subjected to
Stress concentrations at changes in cross-section, in
heat treatment in accordance with the Rules for
screw threads and at welds are to be minimized by
Materials.
suitable component geometry.
2.
5.2
Welding
Stay and stay bolts are to be welded by full
penetration preferably. Any vibrational stresses are to
Boilers are to be manufactured by welding. The
be considered for long stays.
execution of welds, welding procedure specifications
and procedure qualification records, post-weld heat
5.3
Stays are to be drilled at both ends in such a
treatment procedure, nondestructive examination plan
way that the holes extend at least 25 mm. into the water
and the approval of welding shops are to be in
or steam space. Where the ends have been upset, the
accordance with the Chapter 3 - Section 13, Welding of
continuous shank must be drilled to a distance of at
Steam Boilers.
least 25 mm. See Fig. 12.22.
Welder qualification records are to be submitted to the
5.4
Surveyor.
gusset stays and the longitudinal axis of the boiler shall
Wherever possible, the angle made by
not exceed 30°. Stress concentrations at the welds of
3.
Riveting
gusset stays are to be minimized by suitable component
Where, in special, unusual but obligatory cases, boiler
parts have to be riveted, relevant requirements are to be
welds. In firetube boilers, corner stays are to be located
at least 200 mm. from the fire tubes.
obtained from TL.
4.
geometry. Welds are to be executed as full-strength
5.5
Tube Expansion
Where flat surfaces exposed to flames are
stiffened by stay bolts, the distance between centres of
Tube holes must be carefully drilled and deburred.
the stay bolts shall not generally exceed 200 mm.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-10
6.
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Stiffeners, Straps and Lifting Eyes
9.3
C
Boiler vessels with an inside diameter of
more than 1200 mm. and those measuring over 800
6.1
Where flat and surfaces are stiffened by
mm. in diameter and 2000 mm. in length are to be
profile sections or ribs, the latter shall transmit their load
provided with means of access. Parts inside drums
directly (i.e. without welded-on straps) to the boiler shell.
must not obstruct inner inspection or must be capable of
being removed.
6.2
Doubling plates may not be fitted at the
pressure parts subject to flame radiation.
9.4
Inspection and access openings are required
to have the following minimum dimensions:
Where necessary to protect the walls of the boiler,
strengthening plates are to be fitted below supports and
Manholes
300 x 400 mm, for oval openings,
lifting brackets.
400 mm for round openings,
7.
In separate cases, if specially approved
Welding of Flat Unrimmed Ends to Boiler
Shells
by TL, the dimensions of manhole
openings may be reduced to 280 mm x
Flat unrimmed ends (disc ends) on shell boilers are
380 mm and to 380 mm for oval and
only permitted as socket-welded ends with a shell
round openings, respectively. The oval
projection of ≥ 15 mm. The end/shell, SB/SM, wall
manholes in cylindrical shells are to be
thickness ratio shall not be greater than 1.8. The end
so positioned that the minor axis of the
is to be welded to the shell with a full penetration
manhole
weld.
where the annular height is >150 mm,
is
longitudinally
arranged,
the opening is to measure 320x420
8.
Nozzles and Flanges
mm.
Nozzles and flanges are to be of rugged design and
Headholes
properly welded to the shell. The wall thickness of
220x320 mm, for oval openings,
or 320 mm for round openings.
nozzles must be sufficiently large safely to withstand
additional external loads. The wall thickness of welded-
Handholes
90x120 mm, for oval openings or 120
in nozzles shall be appropriate to the wall thickness of
mm for round openings. Where, due to
the part into which they are welded.
size or interior arrangement of a boiler,
it is impractical to provide a manhole or
Welding-neck flanges must be made of forged material
other suitable opening for direct access,
with favourable grain orientation.
there are to be two or more handholes
or
9.
Cleaning
and
Inspection
Openings,
other suitable openings through
which the interior can be inspected.
Cutouts and Covers
Considerations
shall
be
given
to
alternative provisions in other boiler
9.1
Boilers are to be provided with openings for
standards or codes.
inspection and cleaning of all internal surfaces.
Especially critical and high-stress welds, parts subjected
Sight holes
are required to have a diameter of at least
to flame radiation and areas of varying water level shall
50
be sufficiently accessible to inspection.
provided only when the design makes a
mm;
they
should,
however,
be
handhole impracticable.
9.2
The manholes are to be main concerned
types of openings. Where the provision of manholes is
9.5
not possible, arrangements shall be made for head
two hand holes arranged in the shell opposite to each
holes and hand holes.
other in the area of the raw (working) water level.
Vertical gas-tube boilers shall have at least
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C,D
9.6
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
All boiler parts such as may prevent or hinder
11.1.1
12-11
At boilers with a defined highest flue at their
free access to, and inspection of, internal surfaces are
heating surface (e.g. oil fired steam boilers and exhaust
to be of a removable type.
gas boilers with temperature of the exhaust gas > 400
°C) at least the water level limiters and at hot water
9.7
The edges of manholes and other openings,
e.g. for domes, are to be effectively strengthened is the
generators the temperature limiters have to remain
active.
plate has been unacceptably weakened by the cutouts.
The edges of openings closed with covers are to be
11.1.2
reinforced by flanging or by welding on edge-stiffeners if
exhaust gas < 400 °C may be operated without water
it is likely that the tightening of the crossbars etc. would
level limiters.
Exhaust gas boilers with temperatures of the
otherwise cause undue distortion of the edge of the
opening.
11.1.3
The monitoring of the oil content of the
condensate or of the ingress of foreign matters into the
9.8
Cover
plates,
manhole
stiffeners
and
crossbars must be made of ductile material (not grey
feeding water may not lead to a shut-down of the
feeding pumps during manual operation.
or malleable cast iron). Grey cast iron (at least GG20) may be used for handhole cover crossbars of
headers and sectional headers, provided that the
crossbars are not located in the heating gas flow.
Unless metal packings are used, cover plates must
be provided on the external side with a rim or spigot
to prevent the packing from being forced out. The
gap between this rim or spigot and the edge of the
11.1.4
The safety equipment not required for manual
operation may only be deactivated by means of a keyoperated switch. The actuation of the keyoperated
switch is to be indicated.
11.1.5
For detailed requirements in respect of
manual operation of the oil firing system, see Section
15.
opening is to be uniform round the periphery and may
not exceed 2 mm. for boilers with a working pressure
11.2
of less than 3.2 MPa, or 1 mm. where the pressure is
supervision of the steam boiler plant.
Manual operation demands constant and direct
3.2 MPa or over. The height of the rim or spigot must
be at least 5 mm. greater than the thickness of the
12.
Power of Steam Propulsion Plants
packing.
On ships propelled by steam, the plant is to be so
Only continuous rings may be used as
designed that, should one main boiler fail, sufficient
packing. The materials used must be suitable for the
propulsive capacity will remain to maintain adequate
given operating conditions.
manoeuvrability and to supply the auxiliary machinery.
9.9
10.
Boiler Drums, Shell Sections, Headers
And Firetubes
D.
Design Calculation
See Chapter 3 - Welding, Section 13.
1.
Design Principles
11.
1.1
Range of applicability of design formulae
1.1.1
The following strength calculations represent
11.1
Manual Operation
For
steam
boilers
which
are
operated
automatically means for operation and supervision are
the
to be provided which allow a manual operation with the
conditions
following minimum requirements by using an additional
allowance must be made for additional forces and
control level:
moments of significant magnitude.
minimum
requirements
with
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
mainly
for
static
normal
operating
loading.
Separate
12-12
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
1.1.2
D
Table 12.3 Design temperatures
The wall thicknesses arrived at by applying
the formulae are the minima required. The undersize
Allowance to be added
tolerances permitted by the Rules Chapter 2 - Material
Reference
temperature
are to be added to the calculated values.
1.2
Design pressure, Pc
1.2.1
In general, the design pressure is to be at
least
the
maximum
allowable
working
pressure.
Additional allowance is to be made for static pressures
of more than 5 kPa.
1.2.2
In designing once-through forced flow boilers,
the pressure to be applied is the maximum working
Unheated
parts
Contact
Radiation
0°C
25°C
50°C
15°C (1)
35°C
50°C
Saturation
temperature at
max. allowable
working pressure
Superheated
steam
temperature
Heated parts heated
mainly by
(1)
The temperature allowance may be reduced 7°C
provided that special measures are taken to ensure that the
design temperature cannot be exceeded.
pressure anticipated in main boiler sections at maximum
allowable continuous load.
1.4
1.2.3
The design pressure applicable to the
The design of structural components is to be based on
superheated steam lines from the boiler is the maximum
the allowable stress σperm [N/mm2]. In each case, the
working pressure values which adequate safety devices
minimum value produced by the following relations is
prevent from being exceeded.
applicable:
1.2.4
In the case of boiler parts which are
Allowable stresses
1.4.1
Rolled and forged steels
subject in operation to both internal and external
pressure, e.g. desuperheaters in boiler drums, the
For design temperatures up to 350°C
design may be based on the differential pressure,
provided that it is certain that in service both
pressures
will
invariably
occur
simultaneously.
R m,20o
where
Guaranteed
2.7
minimum
tensile strength at room
However, the design pressure of these parts is to be
temperature, [N/mm2]
at least 1.7 MPa. The design is also required to take
account of the loads imposed during the hydrostatic
R eH, t
1.6
pressure test.
where
R eH, t
Guaranteed yield point or
minimum 0.2% proof stress
at design temperature t,
1.3
Design temperature, t
[N/mm2]
Strength calculations are based on the temperature at
the centre of the wall thickness of the component in
question. The maximum temperature obtained from
calculation of the most stressed cross-sections of the
steam
superheater
is
to
be
taken
as
For design temperature over 350°C
R m,100000,t
where R m,105 , t Average
1.5
100,000
hours
creep strength at design
2
temperature t, [N/mm ]
design
temperature. The design temperature is made up of the
R eH, t
reference temperature and a temperature allowance in
1.6
where R eH, t
accordance with Table 12.3. The minimum value is to
be taken as 250°C.
Guaranteed yield point or
minimum 0.2% proof stress
at design temperature t,
2
[N/mm ]
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
1.4.2
-
-
-
Cast materials
Cast steel
R m,20o
R eH, t
R m,100000,t
3.2
2.0
2.0
R eH, t
4.8
3.0
Cylindrical Shells Under Internal Pressure
2.1
Scope
rings and headers up to a diameter ratio Da/Di of ≤ 1.7.
Diameter ratios of up to Da/Di ≤ 2 may be permitted
provided that the wall thickness is ≤ 80 mm.
2.2
Grey cast iron
R m,20 o
11.0
For further details and explanations, see Section 14.
1.4.3
2.
The following design requirements apply to drums, shell
Nodular cast iron
R m,20 o
12-13
Special arrangements may be agreed for
Symbols
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
s
= Wall thickness [mm],
Di
= Inside diameter [mm],
Da
= Outside diameter, [mm],
c
= Allowance for corrosion and wear [mm],
d
= Diameter of opening or cutout [mm].
high-ductility austenitic steels.
1.4.4
In the case of cylinder shells with cutouts and
Hole diameter for expanded tubes and for
2
in contact with water, a nominal load of 170 N/mm shall
expanded and seal-welded tubes (see Figure
not be exceeded in view of the protective magnetite
12.1a and 12.1b),
layer.
1.4.5
Inside tube diameter for welded-in pipe
Mechanical characteristic are to be taken
nipples and sockets (Figure 12.1c),
from the Rules Chapter 2 - Material or from the
standards specified therein.
t,tℓ,tu
= Pitch of tube holes (measured at centre of
wall thickness for circumferential seams)
1.5
[mm],
Allowance for corrosion and wear
The allowance for corrosion and wear, c, is to be 1
v
mm. For plate thicknesses of 30 mm. and over for
= Weakening factor [-],
for welds: The qualitative ratio of the welded
stainless materials, this allowance may be dispensed
joints to the plate (weld factor),
with.
for holes: Drilled in the plate: the ratio of the
weakened to the unweakened plate section,
1.6
Special cases
σperm
= Allowable stress (see 1.4) [N/mm2],
sA
= Necessary wall thickness at edge of opening
Where boiler parts cannot be designed in accordance
with
the
engineering
following
requirements
principles,
the
or
on
dimensions
general
in
individual case must be determined by tests, e.g. by
strain measurements.
or cutout [mm],
each
sS
= Wall thickness of branch pipe [mm],
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-14
b
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
= Supporting length of parent component [mm],
D
2.3.4
Weakening
effects
due
to
cut-outs
or
individual branch pieces are to be taken into account by
ℓ
= Width of ligament between two branch pipes
area compensation in accordance with the expression:
[mm],
pc
ℓs
= Supporting length of branch pipe [mm],
ℓ's
= Internal projection of branch pipe [mm],
Ap
= Area under pressure [mm2],
Aσ
=
10
2.3.1
1
  σ perm
2 
Construction
Supporting cross-sectional area [mm2].
Design calculations
The necessary wall thickness s is given by
the expression:
S c
 Aσ

Da  pc
(1)
20  σ perm  v  p c
(2)
Table 12.4 Weakening factor, v
Figure 12.1 Hole diameter and tube inside diameter
2.3
 Ap
 
Weakening factor v
Seamless shell rings
and drums
Shell rings and drums
with longitudinal weld
Weld factor see Chapter 3 Welding
Rows of holes (1) in:
longitudinal direction
(tℓ -d)/tℓ
Circumferential
direction
1.0
2·(tu-d)/tu
(1)
The value of v for rows of holes may not be made
greater than 1.0 in the calculation. For staggered pitches,
see Figure 12.27.
Refer also to Figures 12.1a ÷ 12.1c under item 2.2.
The area under pressure Ap and the supporting crosssectional area Aσ are defined in Figure 12.2.
2.3.2
In the case of heated drums and headers
with a maximum allowable working pressure of more
2
than 2.5 N/mm , special attention is to be given to
thermal stresses. For heated drums not located in the
first pass (gas temperature up to 1000°C max.), special
certification in respect of thermal stresses may be
waived subject to the following provisos: Wall thickness
up to 30 mm. and adequate cooling of the walls by
virtue of close tube arrangement.
Figure 12.2 Opening in cylindrical shells
The description "close tube arrangement" is applicable if
the ligament perpendicular to the direction of gas flow
and parallel to the direction of gas flow does not exceed
following formula.
50 mm and 100 mm respectively.
2.3.3
Supporting lengths may not exceed the values from
For the parent component:
Weakening factor v
The weakening factor v is shown in Table 12.4
b
(D i  s A  c)  (s A  c)
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
For the branch pipe:
2.4
 s  1.25  (d  s s  c)  (s s  c)
12-15
Minimum allowable wall thickness
For welded and seamless shell rings the minimum
Where a branch projects into the interior, the value
allowable wall thickness is 5 mm. For non-ferrous
introduced into the calculation as having a supporting
metals, stainless steels and cylinders diameters up to
function may not exceed ℓ's ≤ 0.5 ℓs .
200 mm, smaller wall thicknesses may be permitted.
The wall thickness of drums into which tubes is
Where materials with different mechanical strengths are
expanded is to be such as to provide a cylindrical
used for the parent component and the branch or
expansion length of at least 16 mm.
reinforcing plate, this fact is to be taken into account in
the calculation. However, the allowable stress in the
3.
reinforcement may not be greater than that for the
Outside Diameter of More than 200 mm Subject to
parent material in the calculation.
External Pressure
Disk-shaped reinforcements should not be thicker than
3.1
Cylindrical Shells and Tubes With an
Scope
the actual parent component thickness, and this
thickness is the maximum which may be allowed for in
The following requirements apply to the design plain
the calculation and the width of the reinforcement
and corrugated cylindrical shells and tubes with an
should be more than three times the as-built wall
outside diameter of more than 200 mm. which are
thickness at the edge of the opening / cut-out (sA)
subjected
to
external
pressure.
These
will
be
designated in the following as fire tubes if they are
Disk-shaped reinforcements are to be fitted on the
exposed to flame radiation.
outside.
3.2
Symbols
The wall thickness of the branch pipe should not be
more than twice the as-build wall thickness at the edge
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
s
= Wall thickness [mm],
d
= Mean diameter of plain tube [mm],
da
= Outside diameter of plain tube [mm],
di
= Minimum
of the cut-out (sA).
Cut-outs exert a mutual effect if the ligament is
  2  (D i  s A  c)  (s A  c)
The area compensation is then as shown in Figure 12.3.
inside
diameter
of
corrugated
firetube [mm],
ℓ
= Length
of
tube
distance
between
two
effective stiffeners [mm],
h
= Height of stiffening ring [mm],
b
= Thickness of stiffening ring [mm],
u
= Percentage out-of-roundness of tube [%],
a
= Greatest deviation from cylindrical shape
Figure 12.3 Mutual effect on openings
For
cut-outs
which
exert
a
mutual
effect
the
reinforcement by internal branch pipe projections or
reinforcement plates has also to be taken into account.
(see Figure 12.5) [mm],
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-16
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
= Allowable stress [N/mm2],
σperm
3.3.2
D
In the case of corrugated tubes of Fox and
Morrison types, the necessary wall thickness s is given
Et
= Modules of elasticity at design temperature
2
[N/mm ],
p
di
s c
 1 [mm]
20 σ perm
Sk
= Safety factor against elastic buckling [-],

= Transverse elongation factor (0.3 for steel)[-],
c
= Allowance for corrosion and wear in [mm].
3.3
3.4
Allowable stress
firetubes used in the calculations are to be as follows:
Plain firetubes, horizontal
Cylindrical shells and plain firetubes
Plain firetubes, vertical
Calculation of resistance to plastic deformation:
1 + 0.1 d
2  (s- c)


pc  10   perm 
d
d
1 + 0.03 
 u
s- c 1 + 5  d

(5)
Contrary to 1.4, the values for the allowable stress of
Design calculations
3.3.1
by the expression:
R eH, t
2.5
R eH, t
Corrugated firetubes
2.0
R eH, t
Tubes heated by exhaust gases
2.8
R eH, t
2.0
(3)
3.5
Design temperature
Contrary to 1.3, the design temperature to be used for
Calculation of resistance to elastic buckling:
firetubes is that shown in Table 12.5.


3

 s- c  

s- c








2
E
da
 da    2 - 1 + 2 n - 1 -  
+
pc  20  t 
n


2
2
2
3(1- 2) 
Sk 

 n  
 ( 2 - 1) 1 +  n  
1
+




n
 Z  

Z  





3.6
Stiffening
Apart from the firetube and firebox end-plates, the types
of structure shown in Figure 12.4 can also be regarded
as providing effective stiffening.
(4)
Where
Z
Table 12.5 Design temperatures for heated
components under external pressure
π  da
2
For tubes exposed to fire (firetubes):
under condition of n  2
and
n>Z
Plain tubes
t [C°]= saturation temperature+4s+30°C
The integer factor of n is to be so chosen as to reduce
Pc to its minimum value. The integer factor of n
Corrugated tubes
t [C°]= saturation temperature+3s+30°C
represents the number of buckled folds occurring round
For tubes heated by exhaust gases:
but at
least
250°C
the periphery in the event of failure. The integer factor of
n
can
be
estimated
by
applying
the
following
t [C°]= saturation temperature+2s+15°C
approximation formula:
3.7
Safety factor, Sk
2
 da  da
 
   sc
n  1.63  4 
The safety factor, Sk of 3.0 is to be used in the
calculation of resistance to elastic buckling. This value
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
is applicable where the out-of-roundness is more than
3.11
12-17
Maximum unstiffened length
1.5% or less. Where the out-of-roundness is more than
1.5% and up to 2%, the safety factor Sk to be applied is
For firetubes, the length between two stiffeners may not
4.0.
exceed 6d. The greatest unsupported length shall not
exceed 6 meters or, in the first pass from the front endplate, 5 meters. Stiffening of the type of shown in Figure
12.4 is to be avoided in the flame zone, i.e. up to
approximately 2d behind the lining.
The plain portion of corrugated firetubes need not be
separately calculated provided that its stressed length,
measured from the middle of the end-plate attachment
Figure 12.4
Effective stiffening
to the beginning of the first corrugation, does not
exceed 250 mm.
3.8
Modulus of elasticity
3.12
Out-of-roundness
Table 12.6 shows the modules of elasticity for steel in
relation to the design temperature.
The out-of-roundness [%]
Table 12.6 Elasticity modulus for steel
Design temperature
[°C]
Et (1)
2
[N/mm ]
20
250
300
400
500
600
206000
186400
181500
171700
161900
152100
(1)
d max  d min
 100
for new plain tubes is to be given the value u=1.5% in
the design formula.
In the case of used firetubes, the out-of-roundness is to
be determined by measurements of the diameters
according to Figure 12.5.
Intermediate values should be interpolated.
u
3.9
2(d max  d min )
u
4a
d
Allowance for corrosion and wear
 100
An allowance of 1 mm. for corrosion and wear is to
be added to the wall thickness s. In the case of
corrugated tubes, s is the wall thickness of the
finished tube.
3.10
Minimum allowable wall thickness and
maximum wall thickness
Figure 12.5 Parameters of out-of-roundness
The wall thickness of plain firetubes shall be at least 7
mm, that of corrugated firetubes at least 10 mm. For
3.1.3
Firetube spacing
small boilers, non-ferrous metals and stainless steels,
smaller wall thicknesses are permitted. The maximum
The clear distance between the firetube and boiler shell
wall thickness may not exceed 20 mm. Tubes which are
at the closest point shall be at least 100 mm. The
heated by flue gases <1000°C may have a maximum
distance between any two firetubes shall be at least 120
wall thickness of up to 30 mm.
mm.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-18
4.
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Dished end-plates Under Internal and
D
h
= Height of cylindrical portion in [mm],
R
= Inside radius of dished end [mm],
d
= Diameter of opening measured along a line
External Pressure
4.1
Scope
The following requirements apply to the
passing through the centres of the end-plate
design of unstayed, dished end-plates under internal or
and the opening. In the case of openings
external pressure (see Figure 12.6). The following
concentric with the end-plate, the maximum
requirements are to be complied with:
opening diameter [mm],
4.1.1
The radius R of the dished end may not exceed the
σperm
= Allowable stress (cf. 1.4) [N/mm2],

= Coefficient of stress in flange [-],
o
= Coefficient of stress in spherical section [-],
v
= Weakening factor [-],
c
= Allowance for corrosion and wear [mm],
Et
= Modules of elasticity at design temperature
outside end-plate diameter Da, and the knuckle radius r
may not be less than 0.1·Da.
The height H may not be less than 0.18 Da.
The height of the cylindrical portion, with the exception
of hemispherical end-plates, shall be 3.5 s, s being
taken as the thickness of the unpierced plate even if the
end-plate is provided with a manhole. The height of the
cylindrical portion need not, however, exceed the values
in Table 12.7.
[N/mm2],
Table 12.7 Height h of cylindrical portion
sA
Wall thickness, s
h
[mm]
[mm]
up to 50
150
over 50 up to 80
120
over 80 up to 100
100
over 100 up to 120
75
over 120
50
= Necessary wall thickness at edge of opening
[mm],
sS
= Wall thickness of branch pipe [mm],
b
= Supporting length of parent component [mm],
ℓ
= Width of ligament between two branch pipes
[mm],
4.1.2
These requirements also apply to welded
dished end plates. Due account is to be taken of the
ℓs
= Supporting length of branch pipe [mm],
ℓ's
= Internal projection of branch pipe [mm],
Ap
= Area subject to pressure [mm2],
Aσ
= Supporting cross-sectional area [mm2],
Sk
=
Safety factor against elastic buckling [-],
S'k
=
Safety factor against elastic buckling at test
weakening factor of the weld. (See 2.3.3)
4.2
pc
s
Da =
H
Symbols
= Design pressure [bar],
= Wall thickness of end-plate [mm],
Outside diameter of end-plate [mm],
= Height of end-plate curvature [mm],
pressure [-].
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Figure 12.6
4.3
12-19
Parameters for unstayed dished end plates
The values of  for unpierced end-plates also apply
Design calculation for internal pressure
to dished ends with openings whose edges are
4.3.1
The necessary wall thickness is given by the
located inside the spherical section and whose
maximum opening diameter is d  4 s, or whose
expression:
edges are adequately reinforced. The width of the
s
Da  pc  β
40  σ perm  v
(6)
c
ligament
between
two
adjacent,
non-reinforced
openings must be at least equal to the sum of the
opening radii measured along the line connecting the
The finished wall thickness of the cylindrical portion
centres of the openings. Where the width of the
must be at least equal to the required wall thickness of a
ligament is less than that defined above, the wall
cylindrical shell without weakening.
thickness is to be dimensioned as though no
ligaments were present, or the edges of the openings
4.3.2
Design coefficients β and βo
The design coefficients are shown in Figure 12.7 in
relation to the ratio H/Da and parameters d/(Da s)1/2 and
are to be adequately reinforced.
4.3.3
Reinforcement
of
openings
in
the
spherical section
s/Da.
Openings in the spherical are deemed to be adequately
For dished ends of the usual shapes, the height H can
reinforced if the following expression relating to the
relevant areas is satisfied.
be determined as follows:
1

   σ perm
10  A σ 2 
pc  A p
Shallow dished end (R = Da):
H  0,1935  D a + 0.55  s
(7)
Deep dished end, ellipsoidal shape (R = 0.8Da):
The area under pressure Ap and the supporting cross-
H  0.255  D a  0.36  s
sectional area Aσ are shown in Figure 12.8.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-20
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Figure 12.7 Values of coefficient  for the design of dished ends
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-21
dished end-plates under external pressure as to those
subject to internal pressure. However, the safety factor
used to determine the allowable stress in accordance
with 1.4.1 is to be increased by 20%.
A check is also required to determine
4.4.2
whether the spherical section of the end-plate is safe
against elastic buckling.
The following relationship is to be applied:
p c  3.66
Figure 12.8 Opening in dished end plates
Et  s  c 

2

(8)
Sk  R 
The modules of elasticity, Et for steel can be taken from
Table 12.6. The coefficient Sk against elastic buckling
For calculation of reinforcements and supporting lengths
and the required safety coefficient Sk' at the test
the formulae and prerequisites in 2.3.4 are applicable.
pressure are shown in Table 12.8.
The relationship between respective areas of cutouts
Table 12.8 Safety coefficients against elastic
exerting a mutual effect is show in Figure 12.9.
buckling
(1)
4.5
(s-c)/R
Sk (1)
S'k (1)
0.001
0.003
0.005
0.010
0.100
5.5
4.0
3.7
3.5
3.0
4.0
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.2
Intermediate values should be interpolated.
Weakening factor
The weakening factor can be taken from Table 12.4 in
2.3.3. Apart from this, with welded dished ends - except
Figure 12.9 Mutual effect on openings
for hemispherical ends - a value of v=1 may be applied
irrespective of the scope of the test provided that the
The edge of disk-shaped reinforcements may not
welded seam impinges on the area within the apex
extend beyond 0.8 Da
defined by 0.6 Da (cf. Figure 12.10).
In the case of tubular reinforcements, the following wall
thickness ratio is applicable:
ss  c
sA  c
 2.0
4.4
Design calculation for external pressure
4.4.1
The same formulae are to be applied to
Figure 12.10 Welding seam within the apex area
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-22
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
4.6
D
rectangular or elliptical plates, b always
Minimum allowable wall thickness
designating the shorter side or axis [mm],
The minimum allowable wall thickness for welding neck
end-plate is to be 5 mm. The smaller values for the
t1,t2
[mm],
permissible wall thickness as a minimum for non ferrous metals and stainless steels need to be approved
by TL.
= Pitch of uniformly spaced stays or stay bolts
e1,e2
= Distances between centres of non-uniformly
spaced stays and stay bolts [mm],
5.
Flat surfaces
5.1
Scope
f
2
= Cross-sectional area of ligament [mm ],
rK
= Inner corner radius of a flange, or radius of a
stress relieving groove [mm],
The following requirements apply to stayed and
unstayed flat, flanged end-plates and to flat surfaces
h
= Inner depth of a flat, welding-neck end-plate
which are simply supported, or bolted, or welded at their
[mm],
periphery and which are subjected to internal or external
C
pressure.
= Design coefficient, (for unstayed surfaces
see Table 12.11 and for stayed surfaces see
5.2
Table 12.12) [-],
Symbols
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
y
= Ratio [-],
s
= Wall thickness [mm],
σperm
= Allowable stress (see 1.4) [N/mm2],
s1
= Wall thickness in a stress relieving groove
c
= Allowance for corrosion and wear [mm].
[mm],
s2
Db
5.3
Design calculation of unstayed surfaces
header at the connection to a flat end-plate
5.3.1
Flat, circular, flanged, unpierced end-
with a stress relieving groove [mm],
plates
= Wall thickness of a cylindrical or square
= Inside diameter of a flat, flanged end-plate or
design diameter of an opening to be provided
with means of closure [mm],
Curvature of corner round of unstayed surfaces and
inside diameter of flanged endplate are shown in Figure
12.11.
D1,D2 = Diameter of circular plates [mm],
Dℓ
= Bolt-hole circle diameter of a plate subject
additionally to a bending moment [mm],
de
= Diameter of the largest circle which can be
Figure 12.11 Flat, circular and flanged end plate
described on a flat plate inside at least three
The necessary wall thickness s is given by the
anchorage points [mm],
expression:
da
= Outside diameter of expanded tubes [mm],
s  C  (D b  rK ) 
a, b
= Clear
supporting
or
design
widths
of
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
pc
10  σ perm
c
(9)
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
The height of the cylindrical portion h shall be at least
5.3.3
12-23
Rectangular and elliptical plates
3.5 s.
The required wall thickness s considering Figure 12.15
5.3.2
is given by the expression:
Circular plates
The necessary wall thickness s considering the Figures
s  Cby
12.12 to 12.14 is given by the expression:
s  C  Db 
pc
10  σ perm
c
pc
10  σ perm
c
(11)
(10)
Figure 12.15 Parameters of rectangular and elliptical
plates
5.3.4
Welding-neck end-plates
For welding-neck endplates of headers additional
requirements are to be found in 5.5.2.
The thickness of the plated s is determined by applying
formula (10) or (11) as appropriate.
In the case of end-plates with a stress relieving groove,
provision must be made for the effective relieving of the
welded seams. The wall thickness s1 in the stress
relieving groove must therefore satisfy the following
conditions, cf. Figure 12.17:
For round end-plates:
s1  0.77  s 2
For rectangular end-plates:
s1  0.55  s 2
Figure 12.12 Circular plates with flat sealing
Here s2 represents the wall thickness of the cylindrical
or rectangular header, in mm. In addition, provision
must be made to ensure that shear forces occurring in
the cross-section of the groove can be safely absorbed.
Figure 12.13 Circular plates with sealing ring
Figure 12.16
Welded-neck endplates
Figure 12.14 Circular welded-in endplates
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Figure 12.17
Welded-neck endplates
with
relieving
groove
12-24
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
It is therefore necessary that
s  C
for round end-plates:
s1 
 Db
 1.3
 rK 

10  2
 σ perm
pc
(12)
e1  e 2
2
pc

10  σ perm
c
(15)
For flat plates which are braced by corner
stays, supports or other means and flat plates between
for rectangular end-plates:
s1 
5.4.3
D
arrays of stays and tubes, cf. Figure 12.20.
 a  b  1.3


10  a  b  σ perm
pc
(13)
Radius rK shall be at least 0.2 s and not less than 5 mm.
Wall thickness s1 must be at least 5 mm.
Where welding-neck end-plates in accordance with
Figures 12.16 or Figures 12.17 are manufactured from
plates, the area of the connection to the shell is to be
tested for laminations, e.g. ultrasonically.
5.4
Design calculation of stayed surfaces
5.4.1
For flat surfaces which are uniformly braced
Figure 12.20 Braced flat plates
by stay bolts, circular stays or stay tubes, cf. Figure
The design calculation is to be based on the diameter de
12.18.
of a circle, or on the length of the shorter side b of a
The required wall thickness s inside the stayed areas is
rectangle which can be inscribed in the free unstiffened
given by the expression:
area, the least favorable position from the point of view
of stress being decisive in each case.
2
s  c C
5.4.2
2
p c  (t 1  t 2 )
(14)
10  σ perm
The required wall thickness s is given by the
expression:
For flat plates which are non-uniformly
braced by stay bolts, circular stays and stay tubes, cf.
Figures 12.19.
s  C  de 
pc
10  σ perm
c
(16)
or
s  Cby
pc
10  σ perm
c
(17)
The higher of the values determined by the formulae is
applicable.
Figure 12.18
Figure 12.19
Uniformly braced plates
Non-uniformly
braced plates
5.4.4
Flat annular plates with central longitudinal
staying, see Figure 12.21.
The required wall thickness s inside the stayed areas is
The required wall thickness s is given by the
given by the expression:
expression:
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
s  0.25  (D1  D 2  rK1  rK2 ) 
5.6
pc
10  σ perm
c
12-25
Ratio y
(18)
The ratio y takes account of the increase in stress, as
compared with round plates, as a function of the ratio of
the sides b/a of unstayed, rectangular and elliptical
plates and of the rectangles inscribed in the free,
unstayed areas of stayed, flat surfaces, cf. Table 12.10.
Table 12.10 Values of ratio y
Shape
Figure
12.21
Flat
annular
plate
with
central
longitudinal staying
5.5
Requirements for flanges
5.5.1
Application
of
the
1.0
0.75
0.5
0.25
≤ 0.1
Rectangle
1.10
1.26
1.40
1.52
1.56
Ellipse
1.00
1.15
1.30
-
-
(1)
above
formulae to
Ratio b/a (1)
Intermediate values are to be interpolated linearly.
5.7
Calculation coefficient C
flanged end-plate and to flanges as a means of
staying is subject to the proviso that the corner radii
The calculation coefficient C takes account of the type
of the flanges should have the following minimum
of support, the edge connection and the type of
values in relation to the outside diameter of the end-
stiffening. The value of C to be used in the calculation is
plate (cf. Table 12.9).
shown in Tables 12.11 and 12.12.
In addition, the flange radii rK (Figures 12.11, 12.20 and
Where different values of coefficient C are applicable to
12.21) must be equal to at least 1.3 times the wall
thickness.
parts of a plate due to different kinds of stiffening
according to Table 12.12, coefficient C is to be
determined by the arithmetical mean value.
Table 12.9 Minimum corner radii of flanges
5.8
Minimum ligament with expanded tubes
Outside diameter of end plate,
Corner radius of
The minimum ligament width depends on the expansion
Da
flanges, rK
technique used. The cross-section f of the ligament
[mm]
[mm]
between two tube holes for expanded tubes should be
up to 500
30
over 500 up to 1400
35
over 1400 up to 1600
40
over 1600 up to 1900
45
over 1900
50
for:
Steel
f  15  3.4  d a [mm2]
Copper
f  25  9.5  d a [mm2]
5.9
Minimum and maximum wall thickness
radius must be rK ≥ 1/3 s, subject to a minimum of 8
5.9.1
With expanded tubes, the minimum plate
mm., and the inside depth of the end-plate must be h ≥
thickness is 12 mm concerning safeguards against the
s, s for end-plates with openings being the thickness of
dislodging of expanded tubes, see 6.3.2.
5.5.2
In the case of welding-neck end-plates
without a stress relieving groove for headers, the flange
an unpierced end-plate of the same dimensions, cf.
Figure 12.16.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-26
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Table 12.11 Values of coefficient C for unstayed flat
D
6.
Stays, Stay Tubes and Stay Bolts
6.1
Scope
surfaces
Type of end-plate or cover
C
Flat, forged end-plates or end-plates with
machined recesses for headers and flat,
flanged end-plates
Encased plates tightly supported and bolted
at their circumference
Inserted, flat plates welded on both sided
Welding-neck end-plates with stress relieving
groove
Loosely supported plates, such as manhole
covers; in the case of closing appliances, in
addition to the working pressure, allowance is
also to be made for the additional force which
can be exerted when the bolts are tightened
(the permitted loading of the bolt or bolts
distributed over the cover area).
Inserted, flat plates welded on one side
Plates which are bolted at their circumference
and are thereby subjected to an additional
bending moment according to the ratio:
Dℓ/Db = 1.0
= 1.1
= 1.2
= 1.3
Intermediate values are to be interpolated
linearly.
The following requirements apply to longitudinal stays,
0.35
gusset stays, stay tubes, stay bolts and stiffening
girders of steel or copper and are subject to the
requirements set out in 5.
0.40
0.45
6.2
Symbols
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
F
= Load on a stay, stay tube or stay bolt [N],
A1
= Calculated required cross-sectional area of
stays, stay bolts and stay tubes [mm2],
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
A2
= Supported area of expanded tubes [mm2],
Ap
= Plate area supported by one stay, stay bolt or
stay tube [mm2],
da
= Outside diameter of tube, stay or stay bolt
[mm],
Table 12.12 Values of coefficient C for stayed
di
= Inside diameter of stay tube [mm],
ℓo
= Length of expanded section of tube [mm],
a1
= Weld height in direction of load according to
surfaces
Type of stiffening and/or end-plate
Boiler shell, header or combustion
chamber wall, stay plate or tube area
Stay bolts in arrays with maximum stay
bolt center distance of 200 mm.
Round stays and tubes outside tube
arrays irrespective of whether they are
welded-in, bolted or expanded
5.9.2
C
0.35
Figure 12.22 to Fig 12.24 [mm],
0.40
σperm
= Allowable stress [N/mm2].
0.45
The wall thickness of flat end-plates should
not exceed 30 mm. in the heated portion.
5.10
Reinforcement of openings
Where the edges of the openings are not reinforced,
special allowance is to be made when calculating
thickness for cutouts, branches etc. in flat surfaces
Figure 12.22
Figure 12.23
Figure 12.24
Parameters for welding of stays, stay tubes and
which lead to undue weakening of the plate.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
stay bolts
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
6.3
Design calculation
12-27
Where longitudinal stays, stay tubes or stay
6.3.3
bolts are welded in, the cross-section of the fillet weld
The supporting action of other boiler parts may be
subject to shear shell be at least 1.25 times the required
taken into consideration when calculating the size of
bolt or stay tube cross-section:
stays, stay tubes and stay bolts. Where the boundary
areas
of
flanged
end-plates
are
concerned,
d a  π  a1  1.25A1
(20)
calculation of the plate area Ap is to be based on the
flat surface extending to the beginning of the endplate flange.
In the case of flat end-plates, up to half the load may be
assumed to the supported by the directly adjacent boiler
wall.
6.4
Allowable stress
The allowable stress is to be determined in accordance
with 1.4.1. In departure from this, however, a value of
ReH,t/1.8 is to be expected in the area of the weld in the
case of stays, stay tubes and stay bolts made of rolled
For stays, stay bolts or stay tubes, the
6.3.1
necessary
cross-sectional
area
is
given
by
the
expression:
A1 
F
(19)
σ perm
6.5
Allowances for wall thickness
For the calculation of the necessary cross-section of
stays, stay tubes and stay bolts according to formula
(19) the allowance for corrosion and wear is to be
Where expanded tubes are used, a sufficient
6.3.2
and forged steels.
safety margin must be additionally applied to prevent
considered.
7.
Boiler and Superheater Tubes
7.1
Scope
the tubes from being pulled out of the tube plate. Such a
safety margin is deemed to be achieved if the allowable
load on the supporting area does not exceed the values
specified in Table 12.13.
pressure and, up to an outside tube diameter of 200
Table 12.13 Loading of expanded tube connections
Type of
expanded
connection
The design calculation applies to tubes under internal
Allowable load on
supporting area
2
[N/mm ]
mm, also to tubes subject to external pressure.
7.2
Symbols
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
Plain
(F / A2) ≤ 150
s
= Wall thickness [mm],
With groove
(F / A2) ≤ 300
da
= Outside diameter of tube [mm],
With flange
(F / A2) ≤ 400
σperm
= Allowable stress [N/mm2],
v
= Weld quality rating of longitudinally welded
For the purpose of the calculation, the supporting area
is given
tubes [-].
by the expression:
A 2 = (da - di )  o
7.3
subject to a maximum of:
A 2 = 0.1  d a   o
The necessary wall thickness s is given by the
For calculating the supporting area, the length of the
expanded section of tube (ℓo) may not be taken as
exceeding 40 mm.
Calculation of wall thickness
expression:
s
d p
a
20  σ
perm
c
vp
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(21)
c
12-28
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
7.4
Design temperature t
s
The design temperature is to be determined in
D
= Wall thickness [mm],
2 · m = Clear width of the rectangular tube parallel to
accordance with 1.3.
the wall in question [mm],
In the case of once through forced flow boilers, the
calculation of the tube wall thicknesses is to be
2·n
= Clear
conditions plus the necessary added temperature
allowances.
7.5
the
rectangular
tube
Z
= Coefficient according to formula (23) [mm2],
a
= Distance of relevant line of holes from centre
line of side [mm],
Allowable stress
The allowable stress is to be determined in accordance
with 1.4.1.
For tubes subject to external pressure, a value of
ReH,t/2.0 is to be applied.
7.6
of
perpendicular to the wall in question [mm],
based on the maximum temperature excepted in the
individual main sections of the boiler under operating
width
t
= Pitch of holes [mm],
d
= Hole diameter [mm],
v
= Weakening (ligament) factor for rows of holes
under tensile stress [-],
Welding factor v
v'
= Weakening factor for rows of holes under
bending stress [-],
For longitudinally welded tubes, the value of v to be
applied shall correspond to the approval test.
7.7
r
= Inner radius at corners [mm],
σperm
= Allowable stress [N/mm2].
Wall thickness allowances
In the case of tubes subject to relatively severe
8.2
Design calculation
added to the wall thickness calculated by applying
8.2.1
The wall thickness is to be calculated for the
formula (21). The allowable minus tolerance on the wall
centre of the side and for the ligaments between the
thickness (see 1.1.2) need only be taken into
holes. The maximum calculated wall thickness shall
consideration
govern the wall thickness of the entire rectangular tube.
mechanical or chemical attack an appropriate wall
thickness allowance shall be agreed which shall be
for
tubes
whose
outside
diameter
exceeds 76.1 mm.
The following method of calculation is based on the
7.8
Maximum wall thickness of boiler tubes
assumption that the tube connection stubs have been
properly mounted, so that the wall is adequately
The wall thickness of intensely heated boiler tube (e.g.
stiffened.
where the temperature of the heating gas exceeds
The required wall thickness is given by the
800°C) shall not be greater than 6.3 mm. This
8.2.2
requirement may be dispensed with in special cases,
expression:
e.g. for superheater support tubes.
8.
s
Plain Rectangular Tubes and Sectional
pc  n
20  σ perm  v

4.5  p c  Z
10  σ perm  v
(22)
Headers
If there are several different rows of holes, the
8.1
Symbols
necessary wall thickness is to be determined for each
row.
pc
=
Design pressure [bar],
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Z is calculated by applying the formula:
8.2.3
Z
12-29
3
3
1m n 
1

  (m 2  a 2 )
3  m  n  2
8.3
Weakening
factor,
(23)
ligament
efficiency
factor
Figure 12.25 Length of ligament for staggered rows
of holes
If there is only one row of holes, or if there
8.3.1
are several parallel rows not staggered in relation to
8.4
Stress at corners
each other, the weakening factors v and v' are to be
determined as follows:
In order to avoid undue stresses at corners, the
following conditions are to be satisfied for the higher
v
td
t
v  v 
v 
values of r than s/2 (r ≥ s/2), subjected to a minimum
of:
td
for holes where d < 0.6 · m
-
3 mm for rectangular tubes with a clear width
of up to 50 mm.
t
t  0.6m
for holes where d ≥ 0.6 · m
-
8 mm for rectangular tubes with a clear width
of 80 mm or over.
t
Intermediate values are to be interpolated linearly. The
In determining the values of v and v' for elliptical
radius shall be governed by the arithmetical mean value
holes, d is to be taken as the clear width of the holes in the
of the nominal wall thicknesses on both sides of the
longitudinal direction of the rectangular tube. However, for
corner. The wall thickness at corners may not be less
the purpose of deciding which formula is to be used for
than the wall thickness determined by applying formula
determining v', the value of d in the expressions d ≥ 0.6 · m
(22).
8.3.2
and d < 0.6 · m is to be the inner diameter of the hole
8.5
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
8.3.3
width
In calculating the weakening factor for
staggered rows of holes, t is to be substituted in the
formula by
t1 for
the
oblique
Minimum wall thickness and ligament
ligaments
8.5.1
The minimum wall thickness for expanded
tubes shall be 14 mm.
(Figure
12.25).
8.5.2
The width of a ligament between two
openings or tube holes may not be less than 1/4 of the
8.3.4
For oblique ligaments, Z is calculated by
distance between the tube centres.
applying the formula:
1m n
Z 
3  m  n
3
3
 1 2
  m cos α
 2

9.
Straps and Girders
9.1
Scope
The following requirements apply to steel girders used
for stiffening of flat plates.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-30
9.2
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
The required section modules of a girder is
9.4.2
General
D
given by:
The supporting girders are to be properly welded to the
combustion chamber crown at all points. They are to be
W
arranged in such a way that the welds can be
competently executed and the circulation of water is not
obstructed.
9.3
M max
1.3  σ perm  z

bh
2
(24)
6
The coefficient z for the section modules takes account
of the increase in the section modules due to the flat
plate forming part of the girder. It may in general be
Symbols
taken as z = 5/3.
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
F
= Load carried by one girder [N],
e
= Distance between centre lines of girders
For the height h, a value not exceeding 8  b is to be
inserted in the formula.
9.4.3
[mm],
M max 
ℓ
The maximum bending moment is given by
the expression:
= Free length between girder supports [mm],
F
8
(25)
where
b
h
W
M
= Thickness of girder [mm],
p
F  10c    e
= Depth of girder [mm],
10.
Bolts
10.1
Scope
(26)
3
= Section modules of one girder [mm ],
= Bending moment acting on girder at given
The following requirements related to bolts which, as
load [Nmm],
force-transmitting connecting elements, are subjected to
z
= Coefficient for section modules [-],
σperm
= Allowable stress (see 1.4) [N/mm2].
9.4
Design calculation
9.4.1
The simply supported girder shown in Figure
tensile stresses due to the internal pressure. Normal
operating conditions are assumed.
10.2
General
Necked-down bolts should be used for elastic bolted
12.26 is to be treated as a simply supported beam of
length ℓ. The support afforded by the plate material may
also be taken into consideration.
connections, particularly where the bolts are highly
stressed, or are exposed to service temperatures of
over 300°C, or have to withstand internal pressures of 8
N/mm2 or over. All bolts > M30 (30 mm diameter metric
thread) must be necked-down bolts. Necked-down bolts
are bolts to DIN 2510 (TS 1709) with a shank diameter
ds=0.9•dk (dk being the root diameter). In the calculation
special allowance is to be made for shank diameters <
0.9 dk.
Bolts with a shank diameter of less than 10 mm. are not
Figure 12.26 Unsupported girder
allowed.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Bolts may not be located in the path of heating
12-31
dk
= Root diameter of thread [mm],
connection.
n
= Number of bolts forming connection [-],
To achieve small sealing forces, the jointing material
σperm
= Allowable stress [N/mm2],

= Surface finish coefficient [-],
c
= Additional allowance [mm],
k1
= Sealing factor for service condition [mm],
working pressure and the service temperature.
ko
= Sealing factor for assembled condition [mm],
10.3
KD
= Sealing material deformation factor [N/mm2].
gases. At least 4 bolts must be used to form a
should be made as narrow as possible.
Where standard pipe flanges are used, the strength
requirements for the bolts are considered to be satisfied
if the bolts used comply with EN 1515-1 and EN 1515-2,
conform to the specifications contained
therein
in
respect of the materials used, the maximum allowable
Symbols
pc
= Design pressure [bar],
10.4
Design Calculation
p'
= Test pressure [bar],
10.4.1
Bolted joints are to be designed for the
FS
= Total load on bolted connection in service
following load conditions:
[N],
F'S
10.4.1.1
= Total load on bolted connection at test
pressure [N],
FSo
design temperature t),
10.4.1.2
= Total load on bolted connection in assembled
Service conditions (design pressure pc and
Load at test pressure (test pressure p',
t=20°C) and,
condition with no pressure exerted [N],
10.4.1.3
FB
= Load imposed on bolted connection by the
Assembled condition at zero pressure (p = 0
bar, t = 20°C).
working pressure [N],
The necessary root diameter of a bolt in a
10.4.2
FD
=
Force to close joint under service
bolted joint comprising n bolts is given by:
condition [N],
4  Fs
dk 
FDo
π  σ perm    n
= Force to close joint in assembled condition
c
(27)
[N],
The total load on a bolted joint is to be
10.4.3
FZ
= Additional force due to stresses in connecting
calculated as follows:
piping [N],
For service conditions:
10.4.3.1
Db
= Mean sealing or bolt pitch circle diameter
[mm],
di
ds
Fs  FB  FD  FZ
(28)
= Inside diameter of connected pipe [mm],
= Shank diameter of necked-down bolt [mm],
FB 
π
4
2
Db 
pc
10
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
(29)
12-32
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
FD  1.2  k 1  π  D b 
pc
(30)
10
D
The relevant values are shown in the Tables 12.16 and
12.17.
(Where the arrangement of the bolts deviates widely
from the circular, due allowance is to be made for the
10.4.4
special stresses occurring).
greatest root diameter of the thread determined in
The bolt design is to be based on the
accordance with the three load conditions specified in
The additional force FZ due to connected piping must be
items 10.4.1.1 to 10.4.1.3.
calculated from the stresses present in these pipes. FZ
is 0 in the case of bolted joints with no connected pipes.
10.5
Design temperature t
Where connecting pipes are installed in the normal
manner and the service temperatures are < 400°C, FZ
The design temperatures of the bolts depend on the
may be determined, as an approximation, by applying
type of joint and the insulation. In the absence of special
the expression:
proof
FZ 
π
4
10.4.3.2
Fs 
2
 di 
as
to
10
+ loose flange
F 
 FB  D   FZ
p c 
1.2 
design
steam temperature -30°C
Fixed flange
(31)
+ loose flange
For calculating the root diameter of the thread, FS is to
Fixed flange
be substituted by F'S in formula (27).
+ fixed flange
For the zero pressure, assembled condition:
FSo  FDo  FZ
(32)
FDo  k o  K D  π  D b
(33)
For calculating root diameter of the thread, FS is to be
substituted by FSo in formula (27).
In the zero pressure, assembled condition, the force FDo
is to be exerted on the bolts during assembly to affect
an intimate union with the sealing material and to close
the gap at the flange bearing surfaces.
If the force exerted on assembly FDo > FS this value may
materials with or without metal elements are used:
Factors ko, k1 and KD depend on the type, design and
steam temperature -15°C
temperature at insulated, bolted connections. For noninsulated bolted joints, a further temperature reduction
is not permitted because of the higher thermal stresses
imposed on the entire bolted joint.
10.6
Allowable stress
The values of the allowable stress σperm are shown in
Table 12.14.
Table 12.14 Allowable stress perm
Condition
Service condition
(34)
steam temperature -25°C
The temperature reductions allow for the drop in
be replaced by the following where malleable sealing
shape of the joint and the kind of fluid.
following
Loose flange
For the test pressure:
  0.2  FDo  0.8  FS  FDo
FDo
the
temperatures are to be applied:
pc
pp 
10.4.3.3
temperature,
For necked-
For full-
down bolts
shank bolts
R eH,t
1.5
Test pressure and
zero-pressure
assembled condition
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
R eH,20
1.1
R eH,t
1.6
R eH,20
1.2
D,E
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
10.7
Surface finish coefficient, 
10.7.1
Full-shank bolts are required to have a
surface finish of at least grade mg to EN ISO 898.
Necked-down bolts must be machined all over.
12-33
E.
Equipment and Installation
1.
General
1.1
The following requirements apply to steam
boilers which are not constantly and directly monitored
during operation. Note is also to be taken of the official
In the case of unmachined, plane-parallel
10.7.2
bearing surfaces,  = 0.75. Where the bearing
regulations of the flag country of the vessel, where
appropriate.
surfaces of the mating parts are machined, a value of
 = 1.0 may be used. Bearing surfaces which are not
plane-parallel (e.g. on angle sections) are not
permitted.
In the case of steam boilers which are
1.2
monitored constantly and directly during operation,
some easing of the following requirements may be
permitted, while maintaining the operational safety of
the vessels.
10.8
Additional allowance c
In the case of steam boilers which have a
1.3
The additional allowance c [mm] shall be as shown in
maximum water volume of 150 litres, a maximum
Table 12.15.
allowable working pressure of 1 MPa and where the
product of water volume and maximum allowable
water pressure is less than 50 (MPa x litres), an
Table 12.15 Allowance c
easing
Condition
c [mm]
For service conditions:
M 27 up to M 45
the
following
requirements
may
be
permitted.
1.4
up to M 24
of
With regard to the electrical installation and
3
equipment also the Rules for Classification and
5 – 0.1 dk
Construction, Chapter 5 - Electrical Installations and
1
M 48 and over
For test pressure
0
For assembled condition
0
Table 12.16 Deformation factors
Chapter 4-1 - Automation are to be observed.
2.
Safety Valves
2.1
Each steam generator which has its own steam
space is to be equipped with at least two type approved,
spring-loaded safety valves. At least one safety valve is
Deformation
Material
factor
to be set to respond if the maximum allowable working
pressure is exceeded.
KD
[N/mm2]
In combination, the safety valves are to be capable of
Aluminium, soft
92
discharging the maximum quantity of steam which can
Copper, soft
185
be produced by the steam generator during continuous
Soft iron
343
Steel, St 35
392
Alloy steel, 13 Cr Mo 44
441
Austenitic steel
491
operation without the maximum allowable working
pressure being exceeded by more than 10 %.
2.2
Each steam generator which has a shut-off but
which does not have its own steam space is to have at
Note: At room temperature KD is to be substituted by
least one type approved, spring-loaded safety valve
the deformation factor at 10% compression δ10 or
fitted at its outlet. At least one safety valve is to be set to
alternatively by the tensile strength Rm.
respond if the maximum allowable working pressure is
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-34
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
E
exceeded. The safety valve or safety valves are to be
For the size of the safety valves steam blow-off at
designed so that the maximum quantity of steam which
saturated steam condition corresponding to the set
can be produced by the steam boiler during continuous
pressure of the safety valves has to be supposed also
operation can be discharged without the maximum
for safety valves which are normally under water
allowable working pressure being exceeded by more
pressure. In combination, the safety valves are to be
than 10 %.
capable of discharging the maximum quantity of steam
which corresponds to the allowable heating power of the
Steam generators with a great water space
2.2.1
which are exhaust gas heated and can be shut-off
2
having a heating surface up to 50 m are to be equipped
hot water generator during continuous operation without
the
maximum
allowable
working
pressure
being
exceeded by more than 10 %.
with one, with a heating surface above 50 m² with at
least two, suitable type-approved, springloaded safety
2.5
valves. The safety valve resp. the safety valves have to
shall be not more than 10 % below the response
be so designed that their activation is also guaranteed
pressure.
The closing pressure of the safety valves
with compact sediments between spindle and bushing.
Otherwise their design may be established in a way that
2.6
compact sediments in the valve and between spindle
valves shall be at least 15 mm.
The minimum flow diameter of the safety
and bushing are avoided (e.g. bellow valves).
2.7
As far as steam generators with a great water
2.2.2
space which are exhaust gas heated and can be shutoff
Servo-controlled safety valves are permitted
wherever they are reliably operated without any external
energy source.
are not equipped with safety valves according to 2.2.1,
a burst disc is to be provided in addition to the existing
2.8
safety valves. This disc shall exhaust the maximum
saturated steam part or, in the case of steam boilers
quantity
continuous
which do not have their own steam space, to the highest
operation. The activation pressure of the burst disc shall
point of the boiler or in the immediate vicinity
not exceed 1,25 times the maximum allowable working
respectively.
of
steam
produced
during
The safety valves are to be fitted to the
pressure.
At hot water generators the safety valves could also be
External steam drums are to be fitted with at
arranged at the discharge line in the immediate vicinity
least two type approved, spring-loaded safety valves. At
of the generator. At once-through hot water generators
least one safety valve is to be set to respond if the
the safety valves are to be located in the immediate
maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded. In
vicinity of the connection of the discharge line to the
combination, the safety valves shall be capable of
generator.
2.3
discharging the maximum quantity of steam which can
be produced in continuous operation by all connected
2.9
steam generators without the maximum allowable
fitted with superheaters with no shut-off capability, one
working pressure of the steam drum being exceeded by
safety valve is to be located at the discharge from the
more than 10 %.
superheater. The safety valve at the superheater
In the case of steam generators which are
discharge has to be designed for at least 25 % of the
Each hot water generator is to be equipped
2.4
necessary exhaust capacity.
with at least two type approved, spring-loaded safety
valves. At least one safety valve is to be set to respond
Superheaters with shut-off capability are to be fitted with
if
at least one safety valve designed for the full steam
the
maximum
exceeded.
allowable
working
pressure
is
capacity of the superheater.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
E
When
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
designing
the
capacity
of
safety
12-35
valves,
independent devices which trip an alarm as soon as
allowance is to be made for the increase in the volume
water flow shortage is detected. An automatic device to
of steam caused by superheating.
shut down the oil burner may be provided in place of the
second warning device.
2.10
Steam may not be supplied to the safety
valves through pipes in which water may collect.
3.5
Hot water generators are to be equipped with a
test cock at the highest point of the generator or in the
2.11
Safety valves are to be easily accessible and
immediate vicinity.
capable of being released safely during operation.
3.5.1
2.12
Safety valves are to be designed so that no
binding or jamming of moving parts is possible even
when heated to different temperatures. Seals which
may prevent the operation of the safety valve due to
frictional forces are not permitted.
2.13
Additionally a water level indicator shall be
provided. This water level indicator is to be located at
the hot water generator or at the discharge line.
3.5.2
This water level indicator at the generator can
be dispensed with in hot water generation plants with
Safety valves are to be set in such a way as
membrane expansion vessel if a low pressure limiter is
installed (at the membrane expansion vessel or in the
to prevent unauthorized alteration.
system) which trips in case the water level falls below
2.14
Pipes or valve housings are to have a drain
facility fitted at the lowest point on the blow-off side
the specified lowest water level in the membrane
expansion vessel.
which has no shut-off capability.
3.5.3
2.15
Combined blow-off lines from several safety
valves shall not unduly impair the blow-off capability.
A low flow limiter is to be installed at
oncethrough hot water generators instead of the water
level indicator (see 8.8.5).
The discharging media are to be drained away safely.
3.6
Cylindrical glass water level gauges are not
3.
Water Level Indicators
permitted.
3.1
Steam generators which have their own
3.7
The water level indicators are to be fitted so
steam chamber are to be fitted with two devices giving a
that a reading of the water level is possible when the
direct reading of the water level.
ship is heeling and during the motion of the ship when it
is at sea. The limit for the lower visual range shall be at
Steam generators which have their own
least 30 mm above the highest flue, but at least 30 mm
steam space heated by exhaust gases and where the
below the lowest water level. The lowest water level
temperature does not exceed 400 °C, are to be fitted
shall not be above the centre of the visual range. The
with at least one device giving a direct reading of the
water level indicators have to be illuminated and visible
water level.
from the steam boiler control station resp. from the
3.2
station for control of the water level.
3.3
External steam drums of steam generators
which do not have their own steam space are to be
3.8
fitted with two devices giving a direct reading of the
and water level indicators are to have an inner
water level.
diameter of at least 20 mm. They shall be run in such
The connection pipes between steam boiler
a way that there are no sharp bends in order to avoid
In place of water level indicators, once
water and steam traps, and have to be protected
through forced flow boilers are to be fitted with two
from the effects of the heated gases and against
mutually
cooling.
3.4
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-36
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
E
Where water level indicators are linked by means of
4.4
The pipe to the pressure gauge must have a
common connection lines or where the connection pipes
water trap and must be of a blow-off type. A connection
on the water side are longer than 750 mm, the
for a test gauge must be installed close to the pressure
connection pipes on the water side are to have an inner
gauge. In the case of pressure gauges which are set off
diameter of at least 40 mm.
at a lower position the test connection must be provided
close to the pressure gauge and also close to the
3.9
Water level indicators are to be connected to
connection piece of the pressure gauge pipe.
the water and steam space of the steam boiler by
means of easily accessible, simple to control and quick-
4.5
acting shut-off devices.
radiant head and must be well illuminated.
3.10
The devices used for blowing through the
water level indicators are to be designed so that they
4.6
Pressure gauges are to be protected against
Pressure gauges are to be located where
they can be easily seen.
are safe to operate and so that blow-through can be
monitored.
4.7
The double-ended boilers are to have one
pressure gauge at each end.
The discharging media are to be drained away safely.
5.
Temperature Gauges
equipment of a suitable type to give an indirect
5.1
A temperature gauge is to be fitted to the flue
reading may
gas outlets of fired steam boilers.
3.11
Remote water level indicators and display
be allowed
as additional
display
devices.
5.2
3.12
The cocks and valves of the water level
indicators which cannot be directly reached by hand
Temperature gauges are to be fitted to the
exhaust gas inlet and outlet of steam boilers heated by
exhaust gas.
from floor plates or a control platform areto have a
control facility using pull rods or chain pulls.
5.3
Temperature gauges must be fitted at the
outlets from superheaters or superheater sections, at
4.
the inlet and outlet of attemporators, and also at the
Pressure Gauges
outlet of once-through forced flow boilers, where this
4.1
At
least
one
pressure
gauge
directly
connected to the steam space is to be fitted on each
is necessary to assess the behaviour of the materials
used.
boiler. The allowable maximum working pressure is to
be marked on the dial by means of a permanent and
5.4
easily visible red mark.
flue gas outlet of oil fired steam boilers.
4.2
At least one additional pressure indicator
5.5
A temperature indicator is to be fitted to the
Temperature indicators are to be installed in
having a sensor independent from the pressure gauge
the discharge and return line of each hot water
has to be located at the machinery control station or at
generator in such a way that they indicate the actual
some other appropriate site.
outlet and inlet temperature.
4.3
Where
several
steam
boilers
are
6.
Regulating Devices (Controllers)
are linked together, one pressure gauge is sufficient at
6.1
With the exception of boilers which are
the machinery control station or at some other suitable
heated by exhaust gas, steam boilers are to be
location, in addition to the pressure gauges on each
operated with rapid-control, automatic firing systems. In
boiler.
main boilers, the control facility must be capable of
incorporated on one ship, the steam chambers of which
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
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Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-37
safely controlling all rates of speed and manoeuvres so
7.4
Exhaust gas boilers with finned tubes are to
that the steam pressure and the temperature of the
have a temperature monitor fitted in the exhaust gas
superheated steam stay within safe limits and the
pipe which trips an alarm in the event of fire. See
supply of feed water is guaranteed. Auxiliary boilers are
Automation.
subject to the same requirements within the scope of
potential load changes.
7.5
Where there is a possibility of oil or grease
getting into the steam or condensate system, a suitable
automatically
automatic and continuously operating unit is to be
regulated by controlling the supply of heat. The steam
installed which trips an alarm and cuts off the feed water
pressure of boilers heated by exhaust gas may also be
supply if the concentration at which boiler operation is
regulated by condensing the excess steam.
put at risk is exceeded.
Steam
6.2
pressure
must
be
In the case of boilers which have a specified
6.3
7.6
Where there is a possibility of acid, lye or
minimum water level, the water level must be regulated
seawater getting into the steam or condensate system,
automatically by controlling the supply of feed water.
a suitable automatic and continuously operating unit is
to be installed which trips an alarm and cuts off the feed
In the case of forced-circulation boilers
6.4
whose heating surface consists of a steam coil and
water supply if the concentration at which boiler
operation is put at risk is exceeded.
once through forced flow boilers, the supply of feed
water may be regulated as a function of fuel supply.
7.7
It must be possible to carry out function
testing of the monitoring devices, even during operation,
In the case of steam boilers which are fitted
6.5
with superheaters, the temperature of the superheated
if an equivalent degree of safety is not attained by selfmonitoring of the equipment.
steam must be automatically regulated unless the
calculated temperature is higher than the maximum
7.8
attainable temperature of the superheater walls.
audible fault warnings in the boiler room or in the
The monitoring devices must trip visual and
machinery control room or any other suitable site. See
6.6
The discharge temperature of each hot water
Automation.
generator shall be automatically regulated by controlling
the supply of heat. The control of the discharge
temperature
of
exhaust
gas
heated
hot
8.
Safety Devices (Limiters)
8.1
The suitability of safety devices for marine
water
generators may also be carried out by a dumping cooler
use is to be proven by type testing.
7.
Monitoring Devices (Alarms)
The safety devices must be suitable for the use on
7.1
A warning device is to be fitted which is
steam boilers.
tripped when the specified maximum water level is
exceeded.
8.2
Fired boilers are to be equipped with a
reliable pressure limiter which cuts out and interlocks
7.2
In exhaust-gas heated boilers, a warning
device is to be fitted which is tripped before the
the firing system before the maximum allowable working
pressure is reached.
maximum allowable working pressure is reached.
8.3
7.3
In exhaust-gas heated boilers with specified
minimum water level, a warning device is to be fitted
which is tripped when the water falls below this level.
highest
In steam boilers on whose heating surfaces a
flue
is
specified,
two
reliable,
mutually
independent water level limiters must respond to cut out
and interlock the firing system when the water falls
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-38
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
E
below the specified minimum water level. The water
8.8
The safety devices must trip visual and
level limiter must also be independent of the water level
audible alarms in the boiler room or in the machinery
control devices.
control room or any other appropriate site. See
Automation.
The receptacles for water level limiters
8.4
located outside the boiler must be connected to the
8.9
boiler by means of lines which have a minimum inner
limiters are to be designed in accordance with the
diameter of 20 mm. Shut-off devices in these lines must
closed-circuit principle so that, even in the event of a
have a nominal diameter of at least 20 mm. and must
power failure, the limiters will cut out and interlock the
indicate their open or closed position. Where water level
systems unless an equivalent degree of safety is
limiters are connected by means of common connection
achieved by other means.
The electrical devices associated with the
lines, the connection pipes on the water side must have
an inner diameter of at least 40 mm.
8.10
To reduce the effects due to swell, water
level limiters can be fitted with a delay function provided
Operation of the firing system may only be possible
that this does not cause a dangerous drop in the water
when the shut-off devices are open or else, after
level.
closure, the shut-off devices must reopen automatically
and in a reliable manner.
8.11
The electrical interlocking of the firing
system following tripping by the safety devices may
Water level limiter receptacles which are located out-
only be cancelled out at the firing system control panel
side the boiler are to be designed in such a way that a
itself.
compulsory
and
periodic
blow-through
of
the
receptacles and lines can be carried out.
8.12
If an equivalent degree of safety cannot be
achieved by the self-monitoring of the equipment, the
In the case of forced-circulation boilers with a
safety devices must be subjected to operational testing
specified lowest water level, two reliable, mutually
even during operation. In this case, the operational
independent safety devices must be fitted in addition to
testing of water level limiters must be carried out without
the requisite water level limiters, which will cut out and
the surface of the water dropping below the lowest
interlock the heating system in the event of any
water level.
8.5
unacceptable reduction in water circulation.
8.13
In the case of forced-circulation boilers
8.6
For details of additional requirements relating
to once-through forced flow boilers, see 3.10.
whose heating surface consists of a single coil and
once-through forced flow boilers, two reliable, mutually
8.14
independent safety devices must be fitted in place of the
the following safety equipment:
Hot water generators are to be equipped with
water level limiters in order to provide a sure means of
preventing any excessive heating of the heating
8.14.1
surfaces by cutting out and interlocking the firing
interlocks the oil burner resp. triggers an alarm at an
system.
exhaust gas heated hot water generator in case the
A pressure limiter, which shuts-down and
maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded (high
In steam boilers with superheaters, a
pressure limiter), shall be provided at each hot water
temperature limiter is to be fitted which cuts out and
generator equipped with external pressure generation.
interlocks
allowable
It has to be defined for each special plant if apart from
superheated steam temperature is exceeded. In the
shutting-down the oil burner the circulating pumps have
case of boiler parts which carry superheated steam
to be shut-down also.
8.7
and
the heating system if
which
have
been
the
designed
to
long-term
resistance values; one temperature recording device
8.14.2
is adequate.
interlocks the oil burner in case the system pressure
A pressure limiter, which shuts-down and
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
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Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-39
The feed devices are to be fitted to the steam
falls below the system related minimum pressure (low
9.2
pressure limiter), shall be provided in systems with
boiler in such a way that it cannot be drained lower than
external pressure generation.
50 mm. above the highest flue when the non-return
valve is not tight.
8.14.3
A water level limiter, which shuts-down and
interlocks the oil burner and the circulating pumps in
case the water level falls below the allowable lowest
level, shall be provided at the hot water generator. This
water level limiter is to be installed at the hot water
generator or at the discharge line. The installation of the
low water level limiter can be dispensed with for
9.3
The feed water is to be fed into the steam
generator in such a way as to prevent damaging effects
to the boiler walls and to heated surfaces.
9.4
A proper treatment and adequate monitoring
of the feed and boiler water are to be carried out.
systems with membrane expansion vessel in case a low
9.5
pressure limiter is set to a value that trips in case the
has to be arranged at the highest point of the generator.
At hot water generators the discharge line
water level at the membrane expansion vessel falls
below the lowest specified level.
9.6
In the hot water return line leading to the
generator a check-valve has to be installed. This check
natural
valve can be dispensed with if the return line is
circulation the low water level limiter has to be replaced
connected to the generator at least 50 mm above the
by a low flow limiter in case the temperature limiter or
highest flue.
8.14.4
At
hot
water
generators
with
low water level limiter could not switch-off the oil burner
as early as to prevent unacceptable evaporation.
8.14.5
At once-through hot water generators a low
flow limiter has to be installed instead of the low water
level limiter, which shuts-down and interlocks the oil
burner in case the water flow is reduced below the
specified lowest value.
10.
Shut-off Devices
10.1
Each steam boiler shall be capable of being
shut off from all connected pipes. The shut-off devices
are to be installed as close as possible to the boiler
walls and are to be operated without risk.
10.2
Where several steam boilers which have
different maximum allowable working pressures give off
Each hot water generator is to be equipped
their steam or hot water resp. into common lines, it has
with a temperature limiter. The place of installation of
to be ensured that the maximum working pressure
the sensor of the temperature limiter shall be so that in
allowable for each steam boiler cannot be exceeded in
every case the highest temperature at the hot water
any of the boilers.
8.14.6
generator
will
be
detected
under
all
operating
Where there are several steam boilers which
conditions, even when the circulating pumps are
10.3
stopped.
are connected by common pipes and the shut-off
devices for the steam, feed and drain lines are welded
An immersion pipe has to be provided close to the
sensor of the temperature limiter for checking the set
temperature.
to the steam boilers, for safety reasons during internal
inspection, two shut-off devices in series which are to
be protected against unauthorised operation are each to
be fitted with an interposed venting device.
9.
Feed and Circulation Devices
9.1
For details of boiler feed and circulation
steam generator or a steam drum for steam separation,
devices, see Section 16, F. The following requirements
the shut-off devices in the circulation lines are to be
are also to be noted:
sealed in the open position.
10.4
For plants consisting of steam generators
without own steam space, which are using an oil fired
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-40
10.5
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
The shut-off devices in the discharge and
E
Allowable steam production [kg/h] or [t/h] for
return line at the hot water generator are to be sealed in
steam generators
open position.
11.
Maximum
allowable
temperature
of
superheated steam in °C provided that the
Scum Removal, Sludge Removal, Drain,
steam generator is fitted with a super-heater
Venting and Sampling Devices
with no shutoff capability
11.1
Boilers and external steam drums are to be
fittedwith devices to allow them to be drained and the
-
Maximum allowable discharge temperature
[°C] for hot water generators
sludge removed. Where necessary, boilers are to be
fitted with a scum removal device.
11.2
Maximum allowable heating power [kW or MW]
for hot water generators
Drain devices and their connections must be
protected from the effects of the heating gases and
capable of being operated without risk. Self-closing
sludge removal valves must be lockable when closed or
alternatively an additional shut-off device is to be fitted
12.2
The name plate must
be permanently
attached to the largest part of the boiler or to the boiler
frame so that it is visible.
in the pipe.
11.3
13.
Valves and Fittings
13.1
Materials
Where the scum removal, sludge removal or
drain lines from several boilers are combined, a nonreturn valve is to be fitted in the individual boiler lines.
Valves and fittings for boilers must be made of ductile
The scum removal, sludge removal or drain
materials as specified in Table 12.1 and all their
lines, plus valves and fittings, are to be designed to
components must be able to withstand the loads
allow for maximum allowable working pressure of the
imposed in operation, in particular thermal loads and
boiler.
possible stresses due to vibration. Grey cast iron may
11.4
be used within the limits specified in Table 12.1, but
11.5
With the exception of once-through forced
flow boilers, devices for taking samples from the
water contained in the boiler are to be fitted to steam
boilers.
11.6
Scum
removal,
sludge
removal,
drain,
venting and sampling devices must be capable of safe
may not be employed for valves and fittings which are
subjected to dynamic loads, e.g. safety valves and
blow-off valves.
Testing of material for valves and fittings is to be carried
out as specified in Table 12.2.
operation. The mediums being discharged are to be
drained away safely.
13.2
12.
Care is to be taken to ensure that the bodies of shut-off
Name Plate
Design
gate valves cannot be subjected to unduly high
12.1
A name plate is to be permanently affixed to
each steam boiler, displaying the following information:
pressure due to heating of the enclosed water. Valves
with screw-on bonnets must be safeguarded to prevent
unintentional loosening of the bonnet.
-
Manufacturer’s name and address
-
Serial number and year of construction
-
Maximum allowable working pressure [bar]
13.3
Pressure and tightness tests
13.3.1
All valves and fittings are to be subjected to a
hydrostatic pressure test at 1.5 times the nominal
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
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Section 12 – Steam Boilers
pressure before they are fitted. Valves and fittings for
14.2
12-41
Bottom Clearance
which no nominal pressure has been specified are to be
tested at twice the working pressure. In this operation,
The distance between the boiler and the floors or inner
the safety factor in respect of the 20°C yield point may
bottom is not to be less than 200 mm at the lowest part
not fall below 1.1.
of a cylindrical boiler. This distance is not to be less
than 750 mm between the bottom of the furnace (or
13.3.2
The sealing efficiency of the closed valve is
to be tested at the nominal pressure or at 1.1 times the
boiler pan) and tank top (or floor) in the case of watertube boilers.
working pressure, as applicable.
14.3
Side Clearance
Valves and fittings made of castings and subject to
operating temperatures over 300°C are required to
The distance between boilers and vertical bulkheads is
undergo one of the following tightness tests:
to be sufficient to provide access for maintenance of the
structure; and, in the case of bulkheads in way of fuel oil
-
Tightness
test
approximately
with
0.1
x
air
(test
working
pressure
and other oil tanks, the clearance is to be sufficient to
pressure;
prevent
maximum 200 kPa);
the
temperature
of
the
bulkhead
from
approaching the flash point of the oil. This clearance,
generally, is to be at least 750 mm.
-
Tightness test with saturated or superheated
steam (test pressure may not exceed the
14.4
Top Clearance
maximum allowable working pressure);
Sufficient head room is to be provided at the top of
-
13.3.3
A separate tightness test may be dispensed
boiler to allow for adequate heat dissipation. This
with if the pressure test is performed with
clearance is, generally, not to be less than 1270 mm.
petroleum or other liquid displaying similar
No fuel oil or other oil tank is to be installed directly
properties.
above any boiler.
Safety valves are to be subjected to a test of
14.5
Tween Deck Installation
the set pressure. After the test the tightness of the seat
is to be checked at a pressure 0.8 times the set
Where boilers are located on tween decks in
pressure. The setting is to be secured against
machinery
unauthorized alteration.
separated from a machinery space by watertight
spaces
and
boiler
rooms
are
not
bulkheads, the tween decks are to be provided with
13.3.4
Pressure test and tightness test of valves
and fittings and the test of the set pressure of safety
coamings at least 200 mm in height. This area may
be drained to the bilges.
valves shall be carried out in the presence of the TL
Surveyor.
14.6
14.
Installation of Boilers
14.1
Mounting
Hot Surfaces
Hot surfaces likely to come into contact with the crew
during operation are to be suitably guarded or insulated.
Where the temperature of hot surfaces are likely to
Boilers must be installed in the ship with care and must
be secured to ensure that they cannot be displaced by
any of the circumstances arising when the ship is at
sea. Means are to be provided to accommodate the
thermal expansion of the boiler in service. Boilers and
exceed 220oC, and where any leakage, under pressure
or otherwise, of fuel oil, lubricating oil or other
flammable liquid is likely to come into contact with such
surfaces, they are to be suitably insulated with materials
impervious to such liquid. Insulation material not
their seatings must be easily accessible from all sides or
impervious to oil is to be encased in sheet metal or an
shall be easily made accessible.
equivalent impervious sheath.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-42
14.7
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
Ventilation
-
The spaces in which the oil fuel burning appliances are
fitted are to be well ventilated.
14.8
E,F
Proof of the heat treatment applied.
Constructional test shall be carried out by or in the
presence of the TL surveyor.
Fire precautions
3.
Hydrostatic Pressure Tests
category A and is to be provided with fixed fire
3.1
A hydrostatic pressure test is to be carried
extinguishing system and other fire fighting equipment,
out on the boiler before refractory, insulation and
as specified in Section 18-Fire Protection and Fire
casing is fitted. Where only some of the component
Extinguishing Equipments.
parts are sufficiently accessible to allow proper visual
Boiler space is to be considered a machinery space of
inspection, the hydrostatic pressure test may be
performed in stages. Boiler surfaces must withstand
F.
Testing of Boilers
1.
Nondestructive Testing
the
test
pressure
without
leaking
or
suffering
permanent deformation.
Radiographic examinations are to be in accordance with
The test pressure is generally required to be
3.2
TL Rules Chapter 2 - Material and approved standards
1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure, see
or codes. The radiography standard and acceptance
A.4. In case the maximum allowable working pressure is
criteria, along with the degree of other nondestructive
less than 200 kPa or 0.2 N/mm2, the test pressure has
examination, such as ultra-sonic, dye penetrant, or
to be at least 0.1 N/mm2 higher than the maximum
magnetic particle, are to be in accordance with the
allowable working pressure.
chosen standard or code. Radiographic films are to be
submitted to TL surveyor for review.
2.
In the case of continuous-flow boilers, the
3.3
test pressure must be at least 1.1 times the water
Constructional Control and Checking
inlet pressure when operating at the maximum
After completion, boilers are to undergo a constructional
allowable working pressure and maximum steam
output. In the event of danger that parts of the boiler
checking and test.
might be subjected to stresses exceeding 0.9 of the
The constructional checking includes verification that
yield strength, the hydrostatic test may be performed
the boiler agrees with the approved drawings and is
in
of satisfactory construction. For this purpose, all
working pressure is then deemed to be the pressure
parts of the boiler must be accessible to allow
for which the particular part of the boiler has been
adequate inspection. If necessary, the constructional
separate
sections.
The
maximum
allowable
designed.
test is to be performed at separate stages of
manufacture. The following documents are to be
presented;
-
Material
3.4
external
test
certificates
covering
the
For boiler parts subject to internal and
pressures
which
invariably
occur
simultaneously in service, the test pressure depends on
the differential pressure. In these circumstances,
materials used,
however, the test pressure should at least be equal to
-
Reports on the non-destructive testing of
1.5 times the design pressure specified in D.1.2.4.
welds and, where applicable,
3.5
-
The results of tests of workmanship, and
Hydrostatic pressure test shall be carried out
by or in the presence of the TL surveyor.
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Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-43
Figure 12.27 Weakening factor v for cylindrical shells with symmetrically staggered rows of holes
4.
Acceptance
test
after
installation
on
board
4.1
to be proven by a blow-off test or the adjustment
Certificate of the manufacturer is to be presented for the
Functional test of the safety relevant
equipment
sealed valve.
4.2.2
The sufficient blow-off performance of the
The function of the safety relevant equipment is to be
safety valves has to be proven by a blow-off test. For
tested, as far as possible, at the not heated,
steam boilers heated with exhaust gas the blow-off test
pressureless steam boiler.
is to be performed at 100 % MCR (maximum continuous
rating). For combined steam boilers and combined
4.2
Test of safety valves
4.2.1
The actuation pressure of the safety valves is
steam boiler plants with oil fired steam boiler and
exhaust gas boiler without own steam space, it has to
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-44
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
be guaranteed, that the maximum allowable working
F,G
2.
Pre-Pressurized Expansion Vessel
oil burner performance and the above mentioned
2.1
A low water level limiter is to be provided at
conditions for operation of the exhaust gas boiler.
the expansion vessel which shuts-down and interlocks
pressure is not exceeded by more than 10 % for 100 %
the oil burner and the circulating pumps in case the
4.3
water level falls below the allowable minimum.
Functional test
The complete equipment of the steam boiler, including
2.2
control and monitoring devices, are to be subjected to a
between system and expansion vessel are to be sealed
functional test.
in open position.
5.
Constructional check, hydrostatic pressure
test and acceptance test shall be carried out by or in the
2.3
Shut-off devices in the connecting lines
Hot
water
generation
plants
with
membrane expansion vessel
presence of TL Surveyor.
2.3.1
The installation of the low water level limiter
(see 2.1) at the membrane expansion vessel can be
G.
dispensed with in case the low pressure limiter of the
Hot Water Generators
plant is actuated at a value when the water level falls
1.
General
1.1
The
below the allowable minimum level.
materials,
design
calculations
and
2.3.2
A possibility for checking the correct filling
manufacturing principles for hot water generators which
pressure of the gas space shall be provided at the
are heated by steam or hot liquids are subject to the
prepressurized membrane expansion vessels.
requirements in Section 14.
2.3.3
A safety valve and a pressure indication shall
forced
be provided at membrane expansion vessels where the
circulation is to be used. Plants with natural circulation
gas pressure of the blanket is controlled by a pressure
are not allowed.
regulator.
1.2
1.3
For
hot
water
generation
plants
Hot water generation plants are to be designed
with external pressure generation (e.g. with membrane
expansion vessel or expansion vessel with nitrogen
blanket without membrane). Plants open to the
atmosphere or with internal pressure generation are not
allowed.
2.4
Hot
water
generation
plants
with
expansion vessel with nitrogen blanket without
membrane
2.4.1
The
lowest
water
level
(LWL)
at
the
expansion vessel shall be at least 50 mm above the top
edge of the pipe connecting the expansion vessel with
the system.
1.4
The pressure generation has to be carried out
in a way as to prevent a steam generation critical for the
2.4.2
safety of the plant.
equipped with a pressure indication.
1.5
Each hot water generation plant shall have a
2.4.3
Each pressurized expansion vessel shall be
Each pressurized expansion vessel shall
sufficient volume for expansion, to accommodate the
be equipped with a safety valve which is set to a
increase of volume of the water from the hot water
pressure below the set-pressure of the safety valves
generation plant and the heat consuming system
at the hot water generator. For the dimensioning of
resulting
the safety valve it is sufficient to consider the power
from
the
change
of
temperature.
The
expansion vessel and the connecting lines shall be
protected against freezing.
of the largest hot water generator in the plant.
Additional heating appliances are to be considered if
necessary.
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G,H
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-45
The water level shall be controlled by a water
The surfaces of the preheater comprise the water space
level regulator, if it is necessary to drain or to feed water
walls located between the shut-off devices plus the
to the expansion vessel resulting from the change of the
casings
water volume of the system. In case of too high or too
economizer is only permissible if the boiler feed system
low water level an alarm shall be tripped.
is specially designed for this purpose.
2.4.4
2.4.5
In case of a water level above the highest
of
2.
the
latter.
Drawing
water
from
the
Materials
water level specified for the plant the oil burner and the
feed water supply shall be shut-off and interlocked. This
See Section B.
trip can be actuated by the sensor of the water level
controller.
3.
3.
Design Calculations
The formulae given under D are to be applied in the
Feed Water Supply
calculation. The design pressure is to be at least the
3.1
Each hot water generation plant shall be
maximum allowable working pressure of economizer.
equipped with at least one feed water supply.
The design temperature is the maximum feedwater
3.2
The flow of the feed water supply shall be
such that the loss of water in the whole system can be
temperature plus 25°C for plain tube economizers and
plus 35°C for finned tube economizers.
compensated.
The feedwater temperature at the economizer outlet
3.3
The feed water supply shall be able to feed
the required flow to the generator at 1,1 times the
should be 20°C below the saturation temperature
corresponding to the working pressure of the boiler.
maximum allowable working pressure.
4.
Circulating Pumps
4.1
Hot water generation plants are to be
4.
Equipments
4.1
Pressure gauges
equipped with at least two circulating pumps. A common
The inlet side of each economizer is to be provided
stand-by pump is sufficient for hot water generating
with a reliable pressure gauge as well as with a
plants, if this pump can be connected to any hot water
connection for a test pressure gauge. The maximum
generator of the plant.
allowable working pressure of the economizer is to
be marked by a red line on the scale of the pressure
4.2
An alarm shall be tripped in case of a
gauge.
breakdown of one circulating pump. An alarm shall be
tripped and a shutdown and interlock of oil burner at the
4.2
Safety valve
oilfired hot water generator shall be carried out if the
flow falls below the specified minimum value.
Each economizer is to be equipped with a spring-loaded
safety valve with an inside diameter of at least 15 mm.
which is to be set that it starts to blow-off if the
H.
Flue Gas Economizers
1.
Definitions
maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded.
The safety valve is to be so designed that, even if
Flue gas economizers are preheaters arranged in the
shutoff devices between the economizer and the
flue gas duct of boilers used for preheating of feedwater
boiler are closed, the maximum allowable working
without any steam being produced in service. They can
pressure of the economizer is not exceeded by more
be disconnected from the water side of the boiler.
than 10%.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
12-46
4.3
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
-
Temperature measuring device
H
Maximum allowable working pressure of
economizer in bar.
Each economizer is to be equipped with at least one
temperature measuring device giving a reliable reading
6.
Tests
of the feedwater temperature at the outlet of the
the
Before they are installed, finished economizers are to
feedwater is to be marked in red on the temperature
be subjected at the marker's works to a constructional
meter.
test and a hydrostatic pressure test at 1.5 times the
economizer.
Allowable
outlet
temperature
of
maximum allowable working pressure in the presence of
4.4
the TL surveyor.
Shut-off devices
Each economizer is to be equipped with a shut-off
7.
Operating Instructions
device at the feedwater inlet and outlet. The boiler
feed valve may be regarded as one of these shut-off
The manufacturer is to provide operating instructions for
devices.
each economiser which is to include reference to :
4.5
Discharge and venting equipment
-
Feed
water
treatment
and
sampling
arrangements,
Each economizer is to be provided with means of
drainage and with vents for all points where air may
-
Operating temperatures-exhaust gas and
feed water temperatures,
gather enabling is to be satisfactorily vented even when
in operation.
-
Operating pressure,
steam in economizers
-
Inspection and cleaning procedures,
Suitable equipment is to be fitted to prevent steam from
-
Records of maintenance and inspection,
-
The need to maintain adequate water flow
4.6
Means for preventing the formation of
being generated in the economizer, e.g. when the
steam supply is suddenly stopped. This may take the
form of a circulating line from the economizer to a
through the economiser under all operating
feedwater tank to enable the economizer to be cooled,
conditions,
or of a by-pass enabling the economizer to be
completely isolated from the flue gas flow.
-
Periodical operational checks of the safety
devices to be carried out by the operating
5.
personnel
Name Plate
and
to
be
documented
accordingly,
A name plate giving the following details is to be fitted to
-
every economizer:
Procedures for using the
exhaust
gas
economiser in the dry condition,
-
Name and address of manufacturer,
-
-
Serial number and year of manufacture,
Procedures for maintenance and overhaul of
safety valves.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
H
Section 12 – Steam Boilers
12-47
Table 12.17 Gasket factors
Gasket factor (1)
Jointing
type
for liquids
Shape
Description
Material
assembly (2)
for gases and vapors
service
assembly (2)
service
ko
ko·KD
k1
ko
ko·KD
k1
[mm]
[N/mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[N/mm]
[mm]
-
20bD
bD
-
-
-
rubber
-
bD
0.5bD
-
2bD
0.5bD
Teflon
-
20bD
1.1bD
-
25bD
1.1bD
It (4)
-
15bD
bD
-
-
15bD
bD
-
50bD
1.3bD
Al
-
8bD
0.6bD
-
30bD
0.6bD
Cu, Brass
-
9bD
0.6bD
-
35bD
0.7bD
mild steel
-
10bD
0.6bD
-
45bD
1.0bD
Al
-
10bD
bD
-
50bD
1.4bD
Cu, Brass
-
20bD
bD
-
60bD
1.6bD
mild steel
-
40bD
bD
-
70bD
1.8bD
-
0.8bD
-
bD+5
bD
-
bD+5
-
0.8
-
5
1
-
5
oval gasket
-
1.6
-
6
2
-
6
round gasket
-
1.2
-
6
1.5
-
6
ring gasket
-
1.6
-
6
2
-
6
-
1.6
-
6
2
-
6
-
0.4 Z
-
9+0.2Z
0.5 Z
-
9+0.2Z
-
0
-
0
0
-
0
impregnated
flat gaskets
Soft
acc. to
gaskets
DIN EN 15141
Combined
spirally wound
unalloyed
gasket
steel
corrugated
metal and
gasket
soft
gaskets
sealing
material
metal-sheated
gasket
200
bD (3)
hD
1.3bD
flat gasket
acc. to DIN
EN 1514-4
diamond
gasket
metal
gaskets
U-shaped
gasket acc. to
DIN 2696
corrugated
Z = number of
teeth
gasket to EN
1514-6
membrane
welded gasket
to DIN 2695
(1)
Applicable to flat, machined, sound, sealing surfaces.
(2)
Where ko cannot be specified, the product of ko x KD is given here.
(3)
Must be a gastight grade.
(4)
Non asbestos compressed fibre jointing material.
TÜRK LOYDU – MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-1
SECTION 13
THERMAL OIL SYTEMS
Page
A.
GENERAL.............................................................................................................................................. 13-2
1. Scope
2. Additional Requirements
3. Definitions
4. Documents for Approval
5. Thermal Oils
6. Manual Operation
B.
HEATERS ....................................................................................................................................................... 13-3
1. Approved Materials
2. Testing of Materials
3. Design
4. Equipments
C.
VESSELS ........................................................................................................................................................ 13-7
1. Approved Materials
2. Testing of Materials
3. Design
4. Equipment of Expansion Vessels
5. Equipment of Drainage and Storage Tanks
D.
DESIGN OF CIRCULATING SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT ITEMS................................................................. 13-9
1. Approved Materials
2. Testing of Materials
3. Equipments
E.
MARKING ..................................................................................................................................................... 13-10
1. Heaters
2. Vessels
F.
FIRE PRECAUTIONS ................................................................................................................................... 13-10
G.
TESTING ....................................................................................................................................................... 13-10
1. General
1. Heaters
2. Thermal Oil Systems
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-2
A.
General
1.
Scope
A
Electrical Installations, Chapter 5,
for
electrical
installations.
Automation, Chapter 4-1
for
automated
machinery
systems (AUT).
The following requirements apply to thermal oil systems
in which organic liquids (thermal oils) are heated by oil
burners, exhaust gases or electricity to temperatures
below their initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure.
The
arrangements
for
storage,
distribution
and
utilisation of thermal oil under pressure are to comply
with the requirements detailed in this Section.
3.
Definitions
Basic concept and definitions applied in this section are
described in following items:
-
Maximum allowable working pressure
The maximum allowable working pressure is
Thermal oil systems are to be so designed as to:
the maximum pressure which may occur in
the individual parts of the equipment under
-
Avoid overheating of the thermal oil and
service conditions.
contact with air,
-
-
-
Thermal oil temperature
Take into account the compatibility of the
The
thermal oil with the heated products in case of
temperature of the thermal oil at the centre of
contact due to leakage of coils or heater tubes,
the flow cross-section.
Prevent oil from coming into contact with
-
thermal
oil
temperature
is
the
Discharge temperature
The discharge temperature is the temperature
sources of ignition.
of the thermal oil immediately at the heater
2.
outlet.
Additional Requirements
In addition, the Rules listed below are to be applied
-
Return temperature
The return temperature is the temperature of
analogously:
the thermal oil immediately at the heater inlet.
Section 12, B, C and D for materials, fabrication and
design of the heaters
-
Film temperature
The film temperature is the wall temperature
on the thermal oil side. In the case of heated
Section 14, B, C and D for materials, fabrication and
surfaces, this may differ considerably from
design of the expansion vessel
the temperature of the thermal oil.
and the tanks
Section 15, A and B
for oil burners and oil firing
-
The thermal oil heater is the heat exchanger
systems (additional shutdown
apparatus for heating a thermal liquid with
criteria see B.4 and C.4)
Section 16, V
for thermal oil tanks
Section 16, A to D, H,
for pipes, valves and pumps
steam, water electric power or thermal oil of
another circuit.
-
Q and R.
Thermal oil heater
Thermal oil boiler
The thermal oil boiler is the heat exchanger
apparatus for heating a thermal liquid up to
the required temperature using the energy of
Section 18
for fire protection and firefighting
fuel oil burnt in it, of an engine exhaust gases
equipment
or electric power.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
A,B
4.
Thermal oil is not to be used for the direct heating of:
Documents for Approval
The following documents are to be submitted for
approval:
-
-
Accommodation,
-
Fresh drinking water,
-
Liquid cargoes with flashpoints below 60˚C.
5.4
Precautions are to be taken to protect the
A description of the system stating the
discharge
and
return
temperatures,
the
maximum allowable film temperatures, the
total volume of the system and the physical
and chemical characteristics of the thermal
oil,
-
13-3
thermal oil from oxidation.
Copper and copper alloys are to be avoided
Drawings of the heaters, the expansion
5.5
and other vessel and the drainage and
due to their catalytic effect on the thermal oil.
storage tanks and other pressure vessels,
-
Piping
equipment
schedules
6.
Manual Operation
6.1
The facility is to be provided for manual
(for
information)
operation. At least the temperature limiters on the oil
-
-
A functional diagram with information about
side and flow monitoring must remain operative even in
the proposed safety devices and valves,
manual operation.
Circuit diagrams of the electrical control
The heater heated by exhaust gas may be operated
system, respectively monitoring and safety
devices with limiting values.
without
temperature
and
flow
monitoring
if
the
permissible header temperature can be kept.
If specially requested, mathematical proof of the
maximum film temperature in accordance with DIN 4754
is to be submitted.
The safety equipment not required for manual operation
may only be deactivated by means of a keyoperated
switch. The actuation of the key-operated switch is to be
indicated.
5.
Thermal Oils
5.1
An approved type of thermal oil is to be used.
The proposed thermal oil should be stated, giving flash
6.2
Manual operation demands constant and
direct supervision of the system.
point (>55°C), fire point, auto-ignition temperature and
maximum operating temperature.
6.3
For details of requirements in respect of the
manual operation of the oil firing system, see Section 15.
5.2
The thermal oil must remain serviceable for
at least 1 year at the specified thermal oil temperature.
Its suitability for further use is to be verified at
B.
Heaters
1.
Approved Materials
appropriate intervals, but at least once a year.
5.3
Thermal oils are to be used within the
temperature ranges set by the manufacturer.
Heaters of thermal oil systems are to be fabricated from
the same materials as boilers as per Section 12, B.
The delivery temperature is, however, to be kept 50˚C
below the oil distillation point.
2.
A safety margin about 50°C is to be maintained between
The materials of the parts of the heaters which are in
the discharge temperature and the maximum allowable
contact with the thermal oil are to be tested in
film
accordance with Section 12, B.
temperature
specified
by
the
manufacturer..
Testing of Materials
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-4
For coils with a maximum allowable working pressure
B
them to be completely drained.
up to 1.0 MPa and an allowable operating temperature
up to 300°C Manufacturer Inspection Certificates are
3.9
sufficient.
requirements are to be applied analogously to oil fired
For
electrically
heated
heaters
the
heaters.
3.
Design
3.1
Heaters
3.10
are
to
be
Outlets of exhaust gas lines from thermal oil
designed
heaters are to be provided with spark arrestors or
thermodynamically and by construction that neither the
equivalent and are not to be led through the cargo zone.
surfaces nor the thermal oil become excessively heated
The distance between the outlet and the cargo zone is
at any point. The flow of the thermal oil must be ensured
to be not less than 2 meters.
by forced circulation.
3.11
The air intakes from the thermal oil heater
The surfaces which come into contact with
are to be so arranged that their openings are not less
the thermal oil are to be designed for the maximum
than 2 meters outside the cargo zone and not less than
allowable working pressure subject to a minimum gauge
6 meters from openings of cargo or slop tanks, cargo
pressure of 1 MPa.
pumps on deck, openings of high velocity vents or over
3.2
pressure devices and shore connections of the cargo
3.3
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be
so designed that damages by resonance resulting
lines. Furthermore, the air intakes are to be arranged
not less than 2 meters above deck.
from oscillation of the exhaust gas column cannot
occur.
3.4
3.12
The exhaust gas intake is to be so arranged
that the thermal oil cannot penetrate the engine or the
turbocharger in case of a leakage in the heater
respectively the cleaning medium cannot penetrate
during heater cleaning.
3.5
provided
manholes
engine room or, alternatively, in a special space outside
the cargo zone accessible from deck or from within the
engine room.
3.13
In case of heating systems are provided for
the cargo tanks, the spectacle flanges or spool pieces
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be
with
Thermal oil heaters are to be situated in the
serving
as
inspection
openings at the exhaust gas intake and outlet.
are to be provided in the heating medium supply and
return pipes to the cargo heating system, at a suitable
position within the cargo area, so that the lines can be
blanked off in circumstances where the cargo does not
require to be heated or where the heating coils have
Oil fired heaters are to be provided with
been removed from the cargo tanks. Alternatively,
inspection openings for examination of the combustion
blanking arrangements may be provided for each tank
chamber.
heating circuit.
A thermostatic control or cut-out actuated by the
3.14
circulating thermal oil temperature, failure of the
cargo temperature. Where overheating could result in a
circulating thermal oil pumps and ‘flame out’, is to be
dangerous condition, an alarm system which monitors
incorporated in the oil fired thermal oil heater burner
the cargo temperature is to be provided.
3.6
Means are to be provided for measuring the
system.
3.15
In any heating system a positive pressure in
Sensors for the temperature measuring and
the coils of at least 30 kPa above the static liquid
monitoring devices are to be introduced into the system
pressure of the cargo, increased with the relevant set
through welded-in immersion pipes.
pressure of the high velocity valve as far as applicable,
3.7
shall be maintained under all conditions of service when
3.8
Heaters are to be fitted with means enabling
the circulation pump is not in operation.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
B
13-5
The heating medium supply and return lines
valve having a blow-off capacity at least equal to the
are not to penetrate the cargo tank plating, other than at
increase in volume of the thermal oil at the maximum
the top of the tank and the main supply lines are to be
heating power. During blow-off the pressure shall not
run above the deck.
increase above 10% over the maximum allowable
3.16
working pressure.
Isolating shut-off valves or cocks are to be provided at
the inlet and outlet connections to the heating circuit(s)
4.3
Temperature, pressure and flow indicators
4.3.1
Pressure measuring devices are to be fitted at
of each tank and means are to be provided for
regulating the flow.
the discharge and return line of both oil fired heaters
In case of direct heating arrangements valves for the
and heaters heated by exhaust gas. The maximum
individual heating coils are to be provided with locking
allowable working pressure PB is to be shown on the
arrangements to ensure that the coils are under static
scale by a red mark which is permanently fixed and well
pressure at all times.
visible. The indication range has to include the test
pressure.
For direct heating systems, isolation valves are to be
provided in the cargo heating supply and return line in a
4.3.2
readily accessible position in the cargo zone.
fitted in the flue gas or exhaust gas stream at the
Temperature measuring devices are also to be
heaters outlet.
Where thermal oil is employed in the heating circuits,
the arrangements are to be such that contamination of
4.3.3
The flow of the thermal oil is to be indicated.
normal operating conditions.
4.4
Temperature control
4.
4.4.1
For
the thermal oil with cargo liquid cannot take place under
Equipments
automatic
control
of
the
discharge
temperature, oil fired heaters are to be equipped with an
The suitability of safety and monitoring devices (e.g.
automatic rapidly adjustable heat supply in accordance
valves,
with Section 15, A and B.
limiters/alarms
for
temperature,
flow
and
leakage monitoring) for marine use is to be proven by type
testing.
4.4.2
The discharge temperature of heaters heated
by exhaust gas is to be controlled by automatic
4.1
regulation of the heat input or by re-cooling the thermal
General
oil in a dumping cooler, but independently from the
4.1.1
The equipment on the heaters has to be
control of the engine output.
suitable for use at thermal oil heaters and on ships. The
proof of the suitability of the limiters (e.g. temperature,
4.5
Temperature monitoring
test according to the requirements of TL requirements
4.5.1
If the allowable discharge temperature is
listed in A.2.
exceeded, for oil fired heaters the heat supply is to be
flow, pressure) is to be demonstrated by a type approval
switched off and interlocked by a temperature limiter.
4.1.2
The alarms and the activation of the limiters
have to create optical and acoustic fault signals in the
installation space of the heater resp. in the engine
control room and another suitable location.
Parallel-connected heating surfaces are to be monitored
individually at the discharge side of each coil. At the
oilfired heater the oil burner is to be switched off and
interlocked by a temperature limiter in case the
4.2
allowable discharge temperature is exceeded in at least
Safety valves
one coil. An additional supervision of the allowable
Each heater is to be equipped with at least one safety
discharge temperature of the heater is not necessary.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-6
B
If the allowable discharge temperature is
provided at heaters heated by exhaust gas. An alarm is
exceeded for heaters heated by exhaust gas an alarm
to be triggered in case the flow rate falls below the
shall be tripped.
minimum value.
Parallel-connected heating surfaces are to be monitored
4.6.5
individually at the discharge side of each coil. At the
that at an undercut of the minimum flow through the
heater heated by exhaust gas an alarm shall be tripped
heater heated by exhaust gas (e.g. at standstill of the
in
is
circulation pump, closed shut-off valves) the engine
exceeded in at least one coil. An additional supervision
delivering the exhaust gas for heating of the heater is
of the allowable discharge temperature of the heater is
to be started.
4.5.2
case
the
allowable
discharge
temperature
An alarm has to be created for the case
not necessary.
4.5.3
The
discharge
temperature
of
4.7
Leakage monitoring
4.7.1
Oil fired heaters are to be equipped with a
parallel-
connected heating surfaces in the heater is to be
monitored individually at the outlet of each heating surface.
leakage detector which, when actuated, shuts down and
interlocks the firing system. If the oil fired heater is in
With heaters heated by exhaust gas, individual
“stand-by” the starting of the burner has to be blocked if
monitoring of heating surfaces connected in parallel
the leakage detector is actuated.
may be dispensed with if the maximum exhaust gas
temperature is lower than the maximum allowable film
temperature of the thermal oil.
4.7.2
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be
equipped with a leakage detector which, when actuated,
trips an alarm, and a reference shall be provided to
4.5.4
If
the
specified
maximum
flue
gas
temperature of the oil fired heaters is exceeded, the
reduce the power of engine, which delivers exhaust gas
to the heater.
firing system must be switched off and be interlocked.
4.5.5
4.8
Shut-off devices
4.8.1
Both oil fired heaters and heaters heated by
Heaters heated by exhaust gases are to be
equipped with a temperature switch which, when the
maximum design exhaust gas temperature is exceeded,
signals by means of an alarm that the heating surfaces
are badly fouled.
exhaust gas are to be fitted with shut-off devices and, if
necessary with by-pass valves, which can also be
operated from a position outside the immediate area in
which the heater is installed.
4.6
Flow monitoring
4.6.1
Precautions must be taken to ensure that the
4.8.2
maximum allowable film temperature of the thermal oil
The heater has to be capable of being
drained and ventilated as well from a position outside
the immediate area in which the heater is installed.
is not exceeded.
4.6.2
A flow monitor switched as a limiter must be
provided at the oil fired heater. If the flow rate falls
below a minimum value the firing system has to be
switched off and be interlocked.
4.9
Fire detection and fire distinguishing
system
4.9.1
The temperature switch for fire detection,
required according to Section 18, C.4 is to be provided
additionally to the temperature switch according to 4.5.4
4.6.3
Start-up of the burner must be prevented by
interlocks if the circulating pump is stationary.
4.6.4
A flow monitor switched as an alarm must be
and shall be set to a temperature 50 to 80°C higher. If
actuated alarm shall be given by group alarm.
4.9.2
Thermal oil heaters heated by exhaust gas are
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
B,C
13-7
to be fitted with a permanent system for extinguishing
pressurized expansion tanks are to comply with 3.6 to
and cooling in the event of fire, e.g. a pressure water
3.9.
spraying system. For details see Section 18, Table 18.1.
3.3
Means of approved type are to be provided to
ascertain the level in the thermal expansion tank.
C.
Vessels
1.
Approved Materials
3.4
The expansion/header tank is to be fitted with
both high and low level alarms. At low level alarm, the
circulation pump is to be stopped automatically and the
Vessels are to be fabricated from the materials
thermal oil heater is to be shut down.
conforming to Section 14, B., in the pressure vessel
class appropriate to the thermal oil system.
3.5
The vent pipe from the expansion tank is to
be led to a safe position on the open deck.
2.
Testing of Materials
3.6
The vessel materials are to be tested in accordance
For expansion tanks provided with inert gas
padding, it is to be guaranteed that sufficient inert gas
will be available to maintain the pressure in the
with Section 14, B.
expansion vessel under all conditions of service.
3.
Design
3.7
3.1
All vessels, including those open to the
atmosphere, are to be designed for a pressure of at
least 200 kPa, unless provision has to be made for a
higher working pressure excepted from this requirement
For
expansion
tanks
pressurised
by
compressed air, it is to be guaranteed that the
temperature of the thermal oil in the expansion tank is
not to exceed 50°C in order to avoid oxidation of the
thermal oil.
are tanks designed and dimensioned according to the
Rules for the Construction of the Hull, Section 12, B.
3.2
A positive pressure in the heating coils
exceeding the external pressure is to be maintained
under all conditions of service irrespective of the type of
3.8
The expansion vessel is to be provided with a
pressure
indication
and
alarm
for
the
minimum
pressure. At low pressure alarm, the circulation pump is
to be stopped automatically and the thermal oil boiler is
to be shut down.
cargo to be carried. This can be achieved by means of
an atmospheric expansion tank situated at sufficient
height or by pressurising the expansion tank with an
3.9
A pressurized expansion vessel is to be
protected against over pressure by a relief valve, the
discharge of which is to be led to a safe position on the
inert gas or compressed air.
open deck.
The space provided for expansion must be such that the
increase in the volume of the thermal oil at the
maximum thermal oil temperature can be safely
accommodated. The following are to be regarded as
minimum requirements: 1.5 times the increase in
3.10
At the lowest point of the system a drainage
tank is to be located, the capacity of which is sufficient
to hold the volume of the largest isolatable system
section.
volume for volumes up to 1000 liters, and 1.3 times the
increase for volumes over 1000 liters. The volume is the
total quantity of thermal oil contained in the equipment
3.11
A separate storage tank is to be provided
to compensate any losses. The stock of thermal oil is
to be at least 40% of the capacity of the system.
up to the lowest liquid level in the expansion vessel.
Depending on the system design or the ship’s
Arrangements for atmospheric expansion tanks are to
comply
with
3.3
to
3.5
and
arrangements
for
geographical area of service, a smaller stock may be
acceptable.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-8
In exceptional cases, approval may be given
3.12
for the drainage tank and the storage tank to be
4.4
C
Quick drainage valve and emergency
shut-off valve
combined. Combined storage/drainage tanks are to
be dimensioned that in addition to the stock of
4.4.1
thermal oil, there is room for the contents of the
quick drainage valve is to be fitted directly to the
largest isolatable system section.
vessel with remote control from outside the space in
For rapid drainage in case of danger, a
which the equipment is installed.
4.
Equipment of Expansion Vessel
4.4.2
Automatic means are to be provided to
ensure a sufficient air supply to the expansion vessel
4.1
General
4.1.1
The equipment on the expansion vessel (e.g.
when the quick drainage valve is operated.
level indicator) has to be suitable for use at thermal oil
4.4.3
heaters and on ships. The suitability of level indication
outside the engine room, the quick drainage valve may
device, safety and monitoring devices (e.g. low level
be replaced by an emergency shut-off device (quick
limiter) for marine use is to be demonstrated by a type
closing valve).
Where the expansion vessel is installed
approval test according to the requirements of TL
requirements listed in A.2.
4.4.4
The opening of the quick drainage valve or
the operation of the emergency shut-off device, as
The alarms and the activation of the
4.1.2
limiters have to create optical and acoustic fault
applicable, shall cause the automatic shutdown of the
firing system and the circulating pumps.
signals in the installation space of the heater resp. in
the
engine
control
room
and
another
suitable
location.
4.4.5
The dimensions of the drainage and venting
pipes are to be applied according to Table 13.1.
4.2
Level indication device
4.2.1
The expansion vessel is to be equipped with
Table 13.1
Nominal diameter of drainage and
venting pipes as well as of expansion and
a liquid level gauge with a mark indicating the lowest
overflow pipes depending on the performance of
the heater
allowable liquid level.
4.2.2
Level gauges made of glass or plastic are not
Expansion and
Drainage and
overflow pipes
venting pipes
DN [mm]
DN [mm]
≤ 600
25
32
≤ 900
32
40
≤ 1200
40
50
≤ 2400
50
65
≤ 6000
65
80
Performance
of heater [kW]
allowed.
4.3
Low level limiter and pre-alarm
4.3.1
A limit switch is to be fitted which shuts down
and interlocks the firing system and switches off the
circulating pumps if the liquid level falls below the
allowable minimum.
4.3.2
Connection lines
4.5.1
A safety expansion line has to connect the
Additionally an alarm for low liquid level is to
be installed, e.g. by means of an adjustable level switch
on the liquid level gauge which gives an early warning
of a falling liquid level (e.g. in the event of a leakage).
4.3.3
4.5
An alarm is also to be provided for the
maximum liquid level.
system to the expansion vessel. This shall be installed
with a continuous positive gradient and is to be
dimensioned that a pressure rise of more than 10%
above the maximum allowable working pressure in the
system is avoided.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
C,D
4.5.2
The expansion vessel is to be provided with
13-9
with Section 16, B.3.
an overflow line leading to the drainage tank.
4.5.3
3.
Equipments
3.1
Pipes, valves and pumps are governed, in
The quick drainage line may be routed jointly
with the overflow line leading to the drainage tank.
addition to the following specifications, by the provisions
4.5.4
All parts of the system in which thermal oil
of Section 16, Q.
can expand due to the absorption of heat from outside
are to be safeguarded against excessive pressure. Any
3.2
thermal oil emitted is to be safely drained off.
provided, of such a capacity as to maintain a sufficient
At least two circulating pumps are to be
flow in the heaters with any one pump out of action.
4.5.5
The dimensions of the expansion and
overflow pipes are to be applied according to Table
However,
13.1.
essential services, one circulating pump only may be
for
circulating
systems
supplying
non-
accepted.
4.6
Pre-pressurised system
3.3
4.6.1
Pre-pressurised systems are to be equipped
The circulating pumps are to be locally and
remotely controlled.
with an expansion vessel which contents are blanketed
with an inert gas. The inert gas supply to the expansion
3.4
vessel has to be guaranteed.
equipped with a pressure gauge.
4.6.2
The pressure in the expansion vessel is to
be indicated and safeguarded against overpressure.
3.5
The outlets of the circulating pumps are to be
It must be possible to shut down the
circulating pumps by an emergency switch which can
also be operated from a position outside the room in
5.
Equipment of the drainage and storage tank
which they are installed.
Devices for safe sampling are to be provided
For the equipment of the drainage and storage tank
3.6
see, Section 16, V.
at a suitable location in the thermal oil circuit.
3.7
D.
Design
Of
Circulating
System
And
Means of venting are to be provided at the
highest points of the isolatable sections of the thermal
oil system and drains or drainage devices at the lowest
Equipment Items
points.
1.
Approved Materials
Venting and drainage via open funnels are to be
1.1
Materials for pipes, valves and pumps; see
avoided as far as possible.
Section 16, B.
3.8
A device which efficiently filters the thermal
Casings of pumps, valves and fittings are to be made of
oil is to be provided in the circuit. In the case of
steel or other ductile material.
essential services, the filters provided for this purpose
are to be so arranged that they can be easily cleaned
1.3
Grey cast iron is unacceptable for equipment
items in the hot thermal oil circuit and for safety valves.
without stopping the thermal oil supply. The fineness of
the filter mesh is to comply with the requirements of the
thermal oil heating installation manufacturer.
2.
Testing of Materials
3.9
Pipe valve and pump materials are tested in accordance
Thermal oil pipes are not to pass through
accommodation or public spaces or control stations.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 13 – Thermal Oil Systems
13-10
Thermal oil pipes passing through main and auxiliary
D,E,F,G
-
Serial number,
-
Year of manufacture,
-
Maximum allowable working pressure,
-
Maximum allowable working temperature,
-
Capacity.
2.2
For vessels with an open connection to the
machinery spaces are to be restricted as far as
possible.
3.10
For fitting and draining pumps, see Section
16, Q.1.2.
3.11
Electric equipment items are governed by
Chapter 5 - Electrical Installation especially Section
9.
atmosphere, the maximum allowable working pressure
E.
is to be shown on the nameplate as “0” or “Atm.”, even
Marking
though a gauge pressure of 200 kPa is taken as the
1.
design basis in accordance with C.3.
Heaters
The following information shall be stated on a durable
manufacturer's nameplate permanently attached to the
F.
Fire Precautions
1.
General
heater:
-
Manufacturer's name and address,
The fire precautions are governed by the provisions of
-
Serial number,
Section 18 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing
Equipments.
-
Year of manufacture,
-
Maximum allowable heating power,
G.
Testing
-
Maximum allowable working pressure,
1.
Heaters
-
Maximum allowable discharge temperature,
The thermal oil heaters are to be subjected to a
constructional check and a hydrostatic pressure test, at
-
Minimum flow rate,
1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure, at
the manufacturer's works, in the presence of the TL
-
Liquid capacity.
surveyor.
2.
Vessels
2.
2.1
Vessels are to be fitted with nameplates
After completion of installation on board, the system
bearing the following information:
Thermal Oil System
including the associated monitoring equipment is to be
subjected to pressure, tightness and operational test in
-
Manufacturer's name and address,
the presence of the TL surveyor.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-1
SECTION 14
PRESSURE VESSELS
Page
A.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 14- 2
1. Scope
2. Documents for Approval
3. Definitions
B.
MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................................... 14- 4
1. General Requirements
2. Pressure Vessel Classes
3. Approved Materials
4. Testing of Materials
C.
MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................................. 14- 5
1. Manufacturing Processes
2. Welding
3. End Plates
4. Branch Pipes
5. Tube Plates
6. Compensation for Expansion
7. Corrosion Protection
8. Cleaning and Inspection Openings
9. Marking
D.
DESIGN CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................................................. 14- 8
1. Principles
E.
EQUIPMENT AND INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................... 14- 12
1. Shut-off Devices
2. Pressure Gauges
3. Safety Equipments
4. Liquid Level Indicators and Feed Equipment for Heated Pressure Vessels
5. Sight Glasses
6. Draining and Venting
7. Installation
F.
TESTS ............................................................................................................................................................. 14- 14
1. Pressure Tests
2. Tightness Tests
3. Testing After Installation On Board
G.
GAS CYLINDERS ........................................................................................................................................... 14- 15
1. General
2. Approval Procedure
3. Manufacture
4. Calculation
5. Testing of Gas Cylinders
6. Marking
7. Recognition of Equivalent Tests
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-2
A.
A
respect to their wall thicknesses or the materials
General
used.
1.
Scope
In the case of the hydrophore tanks and
1.4
1.1
essential
The
following
pressure
requirements
vessels
(gauge
apply
or
to
the charge air coolers with a maximum allowable
vacuum
working pressure of up to 7 bar gauge and a
o
100 C
an
pressure) for the operation of the main propulsion
maximum
plant and its auxiliary machinery. They also apply to
examination of the drawings can be dispensed with.
working
temperature
of
vessels and equipment necessary for the operation of
the ship and to independent cargo containers if these
The
1.5
pressure
vessels
and
equipment
are subjected to internal or external pressure in
mentioned in 1.3 and 1.4 are, demonstrated to the TL
service.
Surveyor for final inspection (constructional check)
and for a hydrostatic pressure test in accordance with
Gas cylinders are subject to the requirements in G.
F.1. For the materials Manufacturer Test Reports are
to be presented by confirming the TL Rules of
Chapter 2 - Material, Section 1, F.
Hot
1.6
water
generators
with
outlet
temperatures above 120°C which are heated by
solid, liquid or gaseous fuels, by exhaust gases or by
electrical means, as well as to economizers heated
by flue gas are subject to Section 12- Boilers.
Surface
condensers
are
additionally
subject
to
Section 3 – Steam Turbines and 4 – Gas Turbines.
For charge air coolers, see Section 2, an examination
of the drawings can be dispensed with.
Fig. 14.1 Scope of TL Rules for pressure vessels
Cargo containers and process pressure vessels for
and heat exchangers
the
1.2
The requirements do not apply to pressure
of
liquefied
gases
in
bulk
are
additionally subject to the requirements for Chapter
10 - Liquefied Gas Tankers.
vessels and equipment with
-
transport
A maximum allowable working pressure of
up to 1bar gauge and a total capacity,
For reservoirs in hydraulic systems, additionally
Section 10, A. is to be applied.
without deducting the volume of internal
For filter arrangement, additionally, Section 2.G.3.
fittings, of not more than 1000 litres,
(Diesel engines) as well as Section 16.G.7. (Fuel oil
systems), H.2.3 (lubrication oil systems) and I.4.
-
A maximum allowable working pressure of
(Seawater cooling systems) are to be applied.
up to 0,5 bar gauge,
Pressure vessels and heat exchangers intended for
-
the use in ballast, bilge, sewage or fresh water
A capacity of 0.5 litres and less.
systems as well as pressure vessels for cargo
1.3
Ship's
service
pressure
vessels
handling are also subject to these rules.
manufactured to the recognized standards, e.g.
For warm water generators with outlet
pressure vessels for the water supply system and
1.7
calorifiers are not subject to these requirements with
temperature of max. 120ºC, which are heated by
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
A
solid, liquid or gaseous fuels or by exhaust gases, the
-
drawing approval can be dispensed with if the
Tubes, tube sheets, heads, shell flanges,
covers, baffles, tube to tubesheet joint
generators are manufactured according to recognized
details, packings, as applicable
Standard or Directive. The stresses coming from the
installation onboard ships have to be considered.
14-3
-
Support structures, seating, etc.
Warm water generators used for accommodation and
sanitary water heating only are not covered by these
No plan approval is required for pressure vessels of
Rules.
Class III as specified in Table 14.1 and 14.2. However,
TL reserves the right to apply all or part of the
2.
requirements
Documents for Approval
of
this
Section
to
Class
III
heat
exchangers and pressure vessels, depending on the
Drawings of pressure vessels and heat exchangers
criticality of the equipment and/or of the system of which
containing all the data necessary for their safety
they are part.
assessment are to be submitted to TL in triplicate.
The validity of the drawing approval is restricted to
The following details, in particular, are to be specified:
five years and can be extended after expiration upon
request for another five years provided that the
-
product continues to conform to the current rules,
General arrangement plan,
having undergone no changes with regard to its
-
Intended use, substance to be contained in
the vessel,
-
Design
characteristics or construction.
On request it can be certified separately, that the
data:
temperatures,
radiographic
design
fluid
pressures
name,
examination,
degree
and
of
design of the pressure vessel or heat exchanger
meets the specified requirements (Design Approval
Certificate)
corrosion
allowance, heat treatment (or lack of it),
3.
Definitions
hydrostatic test pressure, setting of safety
relief valve,
Basic concept and definitions applied in this section are
described in the following item:
-
Maximum allowable working pressures and
temperatures;
if
necessary,
secondary
-
Pressure vessel
loads, volume of the individual pressure
Pressure vessel is a welded or seamless
spaces,
container used for the containment of fluids
at a pressure above or below the ambient
-
Material
specifications
including
heat
pressure and at any temperature. Fluid
treatment, mechanical properties and details
power cylinders in hydraulic or pneumatic
of welding techniques,
plants are also considered pressure vessels.
-
Design details of the pressurized parts,
-
Shell and head details, and shell to head joint
which is completely or partially exposed to
details,
fire from burners or combustion gases.
-
Fired pressure vessel
Fired pressure vessel is a pressure vessel
-
Nozzles, openings, manways, etc., and their
-
Unfired pressure vessel
attachment details; flanges and covers, as
Any pressure vessel not to be exposed firing
applicable,
from any burner or flame source.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-4
-
A,B
Design pressure, PR, in formula pc
1.3
Design pressure PR is the gauge pressure to
I and II according to Table 14.1 are also subject to the
be used in the design of the boiler or
TL Rules Chapter 3 - Welding.
Welded structures of pressure vessel classes
pressure vessel. It is to be at least the most
severe condition of coincidental pressure and
1.4
For corrosion protection, see C.7.
2.
Pressure Vessel Classes
inner chamber is to be the maximum
2.1
According to operating conditions, pressure
difference between the inner and outer
vessels and heat exchangers are to be classed in
chambers.
accordance with Table 14.1
Maximum permissible working pressure, PB
2.2
Maximum permissible working pressure PB
partly with air or gases or which are blown out by air or
is the maximum pressure permissible at
gases, such as pressure tanks in drinking water or
the top of the boiler or pressure vessel in
sanitary systems and reservoirs, are to be classified as
its normal operating condition and at the
pressure vessels containing air or gas.
temperature to be expected in normal
operation. For pressure vessels having more
than one chamber, the design pressure of the
-
designated
coincidental
Pressure vessels filled partly with liquids and
temperature
specified for that pressure. It is the least of
3.
Approved Materials
the values found for PB for any pressurebearing parts, adjusted for the difference in
The materials specified in Table 14.2 are to be used for
static head that may exist between the part
the classes stated in 2.
considered and the top of the boiler or
pressure vessel. PB is not to exceed the
4.
Testing of Materials
4.1
Tests in accordance with the TL Rules
design pressure PR.
-
Design temperature,
Chapter 2 - Material are prescribed for materials
The maximum temperature used in design is
belonging to pressure vessel class I used for:
not to be less than the mean metal
temperature (through the thickness) expected
under operating conditions.
-
All parts under pressure with the exception of
small parts such as welded pads, reinforcing
discs, branch pieces and flanges of nominal
B.
diameter ≤ DN 50 mm., together with forged
Materials
or rolled steel valve heads for compressed air
receivers;
1.
General Requirements
1.1
The materials of parts subjected to pressure
-
Forged flanges for service temperatures
>300°C and for service temperatures ≤ 300
are to be suitable for the intended use. Materials for
°C if the product of maximum permissible
vessels related to pressure vessel classes I and II
working pressure and nominal diameter is
according to Table 14.1 have to comply with the TL
2
greater than 250 (i.e. PB [N/mm ]·DN [mm] >
Rules Chapter 2 - Material.
250 [N/mm]) or the nominal diameter DN is
1.2
Parts
such
as
gussets,
girders,
greater than 250 mm;
lugs,
supports, brackets etc. welded directly to pressure
vessel walls are to be made of material compatible with
the basic material and of guaranteed weldability.
-
Bolts of metric size M30 (30 mm diameter
metric thread) and above made of steels with
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
B,C
a tensile strength of more than 500 N/mm2,
-
Nuts of metric size M30 and above made of steels
2
with a tensile strength of more than 600 N/mm ;
and alloyed or heat-treated steel bolts of
metric size M16 and above;
14-5
-
Bodies of valves and fittings, see Section 16, B.
Table 14.1 Pressure vessels classes
Design pressure pc [N/mm2]
Design temperature t [°C]
Operating medium
Pressure vessel class
Liquefied gases (propane, butane etc.),
toxic and corrosive media
Refrigerants
Steam, compressed air, gases,
Thermal oils
Liquid fuels,
lubricating oils,
flammable hydraulic fluids
Water,
non-flammable hydraulic fluids
Testing of Materials / Test certificates
The results of the material tests are to be proven by TL
I
II
III
all
-
-
Group 2
Group 1
-
pc > 1,6
or
t > 300
pc ≤ 1,6
pc ≤ 0,7
t ≤ 300
t ≤ 170
pc > 1,6
or
t > 300
pc > 1,6
or
t > 150
pc > 4
or
t > 300
See 4.1
pc ≤ 1,6
pc ≤ 0,7
t ≤ 300
pc ≤ 1,6
t ≤ 150
pc ≤ 0,7
t ≤ 150
pc ≤ 4
t ≤ 60
pc ≤ 1,6
t ≤ 300
See 4.2
t ≤ 200
See 4.3
C.
Manufacturing Principles
1.
Manufacturing
Material Certificates.
4.2
For pressure vessel class II parts subject to
Processes
Applied
to
Materials
mandatory testing, proof of material quality may take the
form of Manufacturer Inspection Certificates provided
Manufacturing processes must be compatible with the
that the test result certified therein comply with the
materials concerned. Materials whose grain structure
requirements for Chapter 2 - Material of TL.
has been adversely affected by hot or cold working are
to
Manufacturer Inspection Certificates
may also be
undergo
heat
treatment
in
accordance
with
requirements for Chapter 2 - Material.
recognized for series-manufactured class I vessel
components made of unalloyed steels, e.g. hand - and
2.
Welding
manhole covers, and for forged flanges and branch
2
pipes where the product of PB [N/mm ] · DN [mm] ≤
The execution of welding work, the approval of
250 [N/mm] and the nominal diameter DN ≤ 250 mm.
welding shops and the qualification testing of welders
for service temperatures ≤ 300°C.
are to be in accordance with Chapter 3 - Welding
Rules
4.3
For all parts which are not subject to testing
at
Pressure
Vessels
and
Machinery
Components.
of materials according to 4.1 and 4.2, alternative proof
of the characteristics of the material is to be provided,
3.
End Plates
certificate (DIN-EN 10204-2.2) as to the properties of
3.1
The flanges of dished ends may not be
the materials used.
unduly hindered in their movement by any kind of
e.g. by a Manufacturer Test Reports or by a works
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-6
C
Table 14.2 Approved materials
Material and product
form
Rolled and forged steel
Steel plate,
shapes and bars
Pipes
Forgings
Grades of material in accordance with the Rules for Materials, Chapter 2
Pressure vessel class
I
II
III
Plates for boilers and pressure vessels to Section 3, (high temperature steels).
Low-temperature steels to Section 3, (steels tough at sub-zero temperature).
Austenitic stainless steels to Section 3, (stainless steels).
General structural steels to Section 3(1).
Specially killed steels to Section 3.
Shipbuilding steels to
(with testing of each rolled plate)
Section 3.
Seamless and welded ferritic steel pipes to Section 4.
Low-temperature steel pipes to Section 4,(pipes tough at sub-zero temperature) for
design temperatures below -10°C
Austenitic stainless steel pipes to Section 4.
Forgings for boilers, pressure vessels and pipelines to Section 5.
Low-temperature steel forgings to Section 5, for design temperatures below-10°C
Forgings for general plant engineering to Section
5, (forging for machine construction)
Bolts for general plant engineering to recognized standards, e.g. DIN 267 or ISO 898
Bolts and nuts
High-temperature steels for design temperatures > 300°C
Low-temperature steels for design temperatures below -10°C
Cast steel
Steel casting for boilers, pressure vessels and pipelines to Section 6, E
High-temperature steel castings for design temperatures > 300°C
Low-temperature steel castings to Section 6, (steel castings tough at sub-zero
temperature) for design temperatures below -10°C
Steel castings for plant
Castings
-
Nodular cast iron
engineering to Section 6
Nodular cast iron to Section 7:
Ferritic grades only
Standard grades up to 300°C
Special grades up to 350°C
At least grade GG 20 to
Grey cast iron
Section 7, Not permitted
not permitted
for vessels in thermal oil
Non-ferrous metals
systems.
(1)
Copper
copper alloy pipes
castings
Aluminium alloy
plates, pipes and
castings
Copper alloys to Section 9, within the following limits:
copper-nickel alloys
up to 300°C
high-temperature bronzes
up to 260°C
others
up to 200°C
Aluminium alloys to Section 8 within the following limits:
design temperature
up to 200°C
Only with the special agreement of TL
Instead of unalloyed structural steel also hull structural steel according to Chapter 2, Section 3.B may be applied
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
C
14-7
Table 14.3 Requirements to pressure vessel classes
Requirements
PV Class I
PV Class II
PV Class III
Design/Drawing Approval
required
required
Welding Shop Approval, see TL Rules Chapter 3 Welding
Welding Procedure Test, see TL Rules Chapter 3 Welding
required
required
required,
Exceptions see A.1
-
required
required
-
Manufacturer
Manufacturer Test
Inspection
Report,
Certificates,
See 4.3
See4.2
required
required
required
required
required
required
required
required
required
required
required
For welding seams radiographic examination depends on weld
factor v
TL Material
Certificates
See 4.1
Testing of Materials/Test Certificates
TL approved material manufacturer
Constructional check, see F.1.1
Hydraulic pressure test, see F.1.1
Non destructive testing, TL Rules for Welding
Chapter 3 - Welding, Section 10
fixtures, e.g. fastening plates or stiffeners, etc. Supporting
6.
Compensation for Expansion
legs may only be attached to dished ends which have
been adequately dimensioned for this purpose.
The design of vessels and equipment has to take
account of possible thermal expansion, e.g. between
3.2
Where covers or ends are secured by hinged
bolts, the latter are to be safeguarded against slipping off.
4.
Branch Pipes
the shell and bundle of heating tubes.
7.
Corrosion Protection
The elements of pressure vessels, which come contact
The wall thickness of branch pipes is to be so
with sea water or other aggressive media, are to be
manufactured from corrosion-resistant materials.
dimensioned as to enable additional external stresses to
be safely absorbed. The wall thickness of welded-in
If other materials are used, their protection against
branch pipes should be appropriate to the wall thickness
corrosion is to be subject to special consideration by TL
of the part into which they are welded. The walls are to
in each case.
be effectively welded together.
8.
Pipe connections in accordance with Section 16 are to
be provided for the attachment of piping.
5.
Tube Plates
Tube holes are to be carefully drilled and deburred.
Bearing in mind the tube-expansion procedure and the
combination of materials involved, the ligament width
must be such as to ensure the proper execution of the
expansion process and the sufficient anchorage of the
Cleaning and Inspection Openings
8.1
Vessels and equipment are to be provided
width inspection and access openings which should be
as large as possible and conveniently located. For the
minimum dimensions of these, see Section 12, C.9.
In order to provide access with auxiliary or protective
devices, a manhole diameter of at least 600 mm is
generally required. The diameter may be reduced to
500 mm where the pipe socket height to be traversed
does not exceed 250 mm.
tubes. The expanded length should not be less than 12
Vessels over 2.0 meters in length are to have inspection
mm.
openings at each end at least or must contain a manhole.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-8
C,D
Vessels with an inside diameter of more than 800 mm
Additional stresses due to the external loads (axial
must be equipped at least with one manhole.
forces, bending moments and torques) acting upon the
element under calculation (in particular, loads due to its
8.2
Manhole openings are to be designed and
arranged in such a way that the vessels are accessible
own mass, the mass of attached elements, etc.) shall be
specially taken into account as required by TL.
without undue difficulty. The edges of inspection and
access openings are to be stiffened where they could
1.1.2
be deformed by tightening the cover-retaining bolts or
pressure vessels, for which no strength calculation
crossbars.
methods given in the present requirements, are to be
The dimensions of structural elements of
determined on the basis of experimental data and
Special inspection and access openings are not
proved theoretical calculations, and are subject to
necessary where internal inspection can be carried out
special consideration by TL in each case.
by removing or dismantling parts.
1.1.3
The parts subject to pressure of pressure
Inspection openings may be dispensed with
vessels and equipment are to be designed, as far as they
where experience has proved the unlikelihood of
are applicable, by applying the formulae for steam boilers
corrosion or deposits, e.g. in steam jackets.
(Section 12, D.) and otherwise in accordance with the
8.3
general rules of engineering practice (1). The calculation
Where vessels and equipment contain dangerous
parameters according to 1.2 to 1.7 are to be used.
substances (e.g. liquefied or toxic gases), the covers of
inspection and access openings shall be secured not by
1.2
Design pressure pc
1.2.1
The design pressure to be used for strength
crossbars but by bolted flanges.
9.
calculations of the pressure vessels shall generally be
Identification and Marking
taken to be equal to the maximum allowable working
Each pressure vessel is to be provided with a plate or
pressure (gauge), PB.
permanent inscription indicating the manufacturer, the
serial number, the year of manufacture, the capacity,
In
determining
the
maximum
allowable
working
the maximum allowable working pressure and in case of
pressure, due attention is to be given to hydrostatic
service temperatures of more than 50°C or less than
pressures if these cause the loads on the walls to be
-10°C the service temperature of the pressurized parts.
increased by 5% or more.
On smaller items of equipment, an indication of the
working pressures is sufficient.
1.2.2
In the case of feedwater preheaters located
on the delivery side of the boiler feed water pump, the
maximum allowable working pressure PB is the
maximum delivery pressure of the pump.
D.
Design Calculations
1.
Principles
1.1
Wall thickness
1.1.1
The wall thickness obtained by calculation
1.2.3
For external pressures, the calculation is to
be based on a vacuum of 100 kPa or on the external
pressure at which the vacuum safety valves are
actuated. In the event of simultaneous positive pressure
is the lowest permissible values under normal
externally and vacuum internally, or vice versa, the
calculation is to assume an external or, respectively,
2
internal pressure increased by 0.1 MPa or 0.1 N/mm .
operating conditions. The standards and methods of
strength calculation do not take into account the
manufacture tolerances for thicknesses, which shall
(1)
be added as special allowances to the design
Party on Pressure Vessels) constitute, for example, such rules
thickness values.
of engineering practice.
The TRB/AD Merkblatter (Regulations of the Working
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
D
14-9
In the case of cargo tanks for liquefied gases,
For cast irons with ferritic structure and elongation more
the design pressure is to be determined in accordance
than 5%, the design strength characteristic is to be the
with the requirements for Chapter 10 - Liquefied Gas
lesser one of the minimum ultimate strength Rm,20 either
Tankers.
the proof stress for the materials having a permanent
1.2.4
Vessels
and
equipment
in
refrigerating
installations are governed by the requirements of
elongation of 0.2%, RP 0.2:
Section 1, D.17.
When non-ferrous metals and their alloys are
1.3.4
1.3
Strength characteristics of materials and
used, it is to be taken into account that the heating
during working or welding tends to relieve them of the
allowable (permissible) stress
strengthening effects realized under cold conditions.
The dimensions of components are governed by the
2
Therefore, the strength characteristics to be used for
allowable stress σperm [N/mm ]. With the exception of
strength calculations of components and assemblies
cargo
manufactured from such materials are to be those
containers
and
process
pressure
vessels
according to Chapter 10 – Liquefied Gas Tankers, the
smallest
value
determined
from
the
applied to their heat-treated conditions.
following
expressions is to be applied in this case:
The allowable (permissible) stress , used for
1.3.5
determining the scantlings is to be adopted equal to the
1.3.1
When determining the allowable stresses in
smallest of the following values.
Carbon and alloy steels with the ratio of the upper yield
stress ReH to ultimate tensile strength Rm not exceeding
0.6, or proof stress Rp0.2,t and the average stress to
σ perm 
R m, t
nt
produce rupture in 100,000 hours Rm,100000,t at design
temperatures is to be adopted as design characteristics.
σ perm 
For steels having the ratio of the upper yield stress to
tensile strength above 0.6, the tensile strength Rm,t at
design temperature shall be adopted additionally.
σ perm 
For steels, the service conditions of which are
o
characterized by creed (at temperatures above 450 C),
σ perm 
irrespective of the value of the ratio ReH/Rm, the creep
R 1%,100000, t
n cr
R p,0.2, t
ny
R m,100000, t
n av
strength R1%,100000,t at design temperature is to be added
the above characteristics.
Where;
Minimum values of Rp,0.2,t and Rm,t as stipulated by the
nt
= Tensile strength safety factor
ncr
= Creep strength safety factor
ny
= Yield stress safety factor
nav
= Safety factor for the average stress to
steel specifications are to be adopted, while of Rm,t and
R1%,100000,t average values are to be adopted.
1.3.2
For materials having no clearly defined yield
stress point, the minimum tensile strength value Rm,t at
the design temperature is to be taken as the design
produce rupture in 100,000 hours
characteristic.
1.3.3
For spheroidal or nodal graphite cast iron and
1.3.6
Safety factors
1.3.6.1
For items manufactured of steel forgings and
ductile cast iron with ferritic-perlitic and perlitic structure
and with elongation less than 5%, the minimum tensile
o
strength value Rm,20 at 20 C is to be taken as the design
rolled steel, which are under internal pressure, the
strength characteristic.
safety factors are to be taken of at least:
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-10
D
n y  n aν  1.6
1.3.8
n t  2.7
For design temperatures up to 350°C
n cr  1.0
Rolled and forged steels
 R m,20o R eH,20o R eH,t 
,
,

1.7
1.6 
 2.7
σ perm  min 
For the pressure vessels under external pressure, the
safety factors nt , ny and na are to be increased by
For design temperatures above 350°C
20%.
1.3.6.2
For components of pressure vessels of Class
σ perm 
R m,100000, t
1.5
II and Class III, which are made of steels having the
ratio ReH/Rm  0.6, the safety factors may be adopted as
R eH,t
follows:
σ perm 
n y  n aν  1.5
Where;
n t  2.6
o
RP 0.2 = Proof stress at 20 C, at which the permanent
1.6
2
elongation is 0.2% [N/mm ],
1.3.6.3
For components of pressure vessels which
are made of cast steel and are under internal pressure
Rm,20° = Guaranteed minimum tensile strength at
in service, the safety factors shall be chosen of at
room temperature (may be dispensed with in
least:
the case of recognized fine-grained steels
2
2
with ReH ≤ 360 N/mm ), [N/mm ],
n y  n aν  2.2
ReH,20° = Guaranteed yield strength or minimum value
n t  3.0
of the 0.2% proof stress (2) at room
2
temperature [N/mm ],
n cr  1.0
ReH,t
=
Guaranteed yield strength or minimum
For the pressure vessels under external pressure in
value of the 0.2% proof stress at design
service, the safety factors nt , ny and na
2
temperatures above 50°C [N/mm ],
are to be
increased by 20% (except for ncr which shall remain to
Rm,100000,t =
be equal to 1).
Mean value of the 100,000 hours fatigue
2
strength at design temperature, N/mm 
1.3.7
When determining scantlings for the items
made of grey cast iron, spheroidal or nodular graphite
t
=
o
Design temperature [ C].
cast iron and ductile cast iron with ferritic-perlitic and
perlitic structure having elongation less than 5%, the
Cargo containers and process pressure vessels for
tensile strength safety factor nt is to be adopted equal to
liquefied gases are governed by the values specified in
4.8 after annealing and to 7.0 without annealing both for
Chapter 10 – Liquefied Gas Tankers.
the case of internal and external pressure.
For the items made of cast iron with ferritic structure
having elongation more than 5%, the tensile strength
safety factor nt is to be adopted equal to 4.0 for the case
of internal pressure and 4.8 for the case of external
pressure.
(2)
1% proof stress in case of austenitic steel.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
D
1.3.9
Cast materials
1.4.4
14-11
The walls are considered to be non-heated in
the following cases:
-
Cast steel:
 R m,20o R eH,t R m,100000,t 
,
,

3.2
2.0
2.0


-
σ perm  min 
-
space or uptake by fire-resistant insulation
the distance between walls and an insulation
Nodular cast iron:
300 mm and over, or,
 R m,20o R eH,t 
,

3.0 
 4.8
-
σ perm  min 
-
The walls are protected with fire-resistant
insulation not exposed to radiant heat.
Grey cast iron:
σ perm 
The walls are separated from the combustion
1.4.5
The walls are considered to be protected
from radiant heat effect in the following cases:
R m,20o
11
-
The walls are protected with fire-resistant
insulation, or
1.3.10
Non-ferrous metals
-
-
Copper and copper wrought alloys:
σ perm 
-
row of tubes (with a maximum clearance
between the tubes in the row up to 3 mm), or
R m,t
4.0
-
Aluminium and aluminium wrought alloys:
σ perm 
The walls are protected by a closely spaced
The walls are protected by two staggered
rows of tubes with a longitudinal pitch equal
to a maximum of two outside tube diameters
R m,t
or by three or more staggered rows of tubes
4.0
with a longitudinal pitch equal to a maximum
With non-ferrous metals supplied in varying degrees of
of two and a half outside tube diameters.
hardness it should be noted that heating, e.g. at
soldering or welding, can cause a reduction in
1.4.6
mechanical strength. In these cases, calculations are to
exchangers and pressure vessels operating under
be based on the mechanical strength in the soft-
o
coolant pressure is to be taken as equal to 20 C if
annealed condition.
occurrence of higher temperatures is not possible.
1.4
1.5
Design temperature
The
design
Weakening
wall
temperature
factor,
ligament
for
heat
efficiency
factor
1.4.1
The design temperature to be applied is
generally the maximum temperature of the medium to
Weakening factor is also called as the ligament
be contained.
efficiency factor. For the weakening factor, v for the
calculation of walls or parts of walls, see Section 12,
1.4.2
Where heating is done by firing, exhaust gas
Table 12.4.
or electrical means, Section 12, Table 12.3 is to be
applied as appropriate. Where electrical heating is used,
1.6
Table 12.3 applies only to directly heated surfaces.
corrosion and wear
1.4.3
With service temperatures below 20°C, a
1.6.1
Design
thickness
allowances
for
In all cases where the design wall thickness
design temperature of at least 20°C is to be used in
allowance c is not expressly specified, it shall be taken
calculations.
as equal to at least 1 mm.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-12
For steel wall over 30 mm in thickness, walls
D,E
2.
Pressure Gauges
protective coating non-ferrous or high alloy materials,
2.1
Each pressure vessel which can be shut-off
design wall thickness allowance may be reduced to zero
and every group of vessels with a shut-off device must
on agreement with TL
be equipped with a pressure gauge, also capable of
manufactured
from
corrosion-resistant
or
having
being shut-off. The measuring range and calibration
1.6.2
For
the
pressure
vessels
which
are
inaccessible for internal inspection, or the walls of which
must extend to the test pressure with a red mark to
indicate the maximum allowable working pressure.
are heavily affected by corrosion or wear, the allowance
c may be increased if required by TL.
2.2
Equipment is only be fitted with pressure
gauges when these are necessary for its operation.
1.7
Minimum wall thicknesses
1.7.1
The wall thickness of the shells and end
plates should generally not be less than 3 mm.
3.
Safety Equipment
3.1
Each pressure vessel which can be shut-off
or every group of vessels with a shut-off device must be
Where the walls of vessels are made from
equipped with a spring-loaded safety valve which
pipes or corrosion-resistant materials or for vessels and
cannot be shut-off and which closes again reliably after
equipment in Class III a minimum wall thickness of 2
blow-off.
1.7.2
mm. can be allowed, provided that the walls are not
subjected to external forces.
Appliances for controlling pressure and temperature are
no substitute for relief valves.
1.8
Other methods applicable to dimensional
design
3.2
Safety valves must be designed and set in
such a way that the maximum allowable working
Where walls, or parts of walls, cannot be calculated
pressure cannot be exceeded by more than 10%.
by applying the formulae given in Section 12 or in
Means must be provided to prevent the unauthorized
accordance with the general rules of engineering
alteration of the safety valve setting. Valve cones must
practice,
be capable of being lifted at all times.
other
methods
are
to
be
used
to
demonstrate that the allowable stresses are not
exceeded.
3.3
Means of drainage which cannot be shut-off
are to be provided at the lowest point on the discharge
side of safety valves for gases, steam and vapours.
E.
Equipment and Installation
Facilities must be provided for the safe disposal of
hazardous gases, vapours or liquids discharging from
1.
safety valves. Media flowing out must be drained off
Shut-off Devices
safely, preferably via an open funnel.
Shut-off devices must be fitted in pressure lines as
close as possible to the pressure vessel. Where several
3.4
pressure vessels are grouped together, it is not
safety valve if the steam pressure inside them is
necessary that each vessel should be capable of being
liable to exceed the maximum allowable working
shut off individually and means need only be provided
pressure.
Steam-filled spaces are to be fitted with a
for shutting-off the group. In general, not more than
three vessels should be grouped together. Starting air
3.5
receivers and other pressure vessels which are opened
the inlet and the outlet side are to be fitted with a safety
in service must be capable of being shut-off individually.
valve which will prevent an inadmissible pressure increase
Devices incorporated in piping, (e.g. water and oil
should the contents of the space undergo dangerous
separators) do not require shut-off devices.
thermal expansion or the heating elements fail.
Heated spaces which can be shut-off on both
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
E
14-13
Oil-fired warm water generators are to be
Besides a temperature controller, electrically heated
3.12
appliances are to be also equipped with a safety
equipped with limiters for temperature and pressure
thermal limiter.
above a specified threshold. Additionally a low water
level limiter, a limiter for minimum pressure or a low flow
Pressure water tanks are to be fitted with a
3.6
safety valve on the water side. A safety valve on the air
side may be dispensed with, if the air pressure supplied
to the tank cannot exceed its maximum allowable
working pressure.
limiter is to be provided. The actuation of the limiters
shall shut-down and interlock the oil burner.
Warm water generators heated by exhaust gases are to
be equipped with the corresponding alarms.
4.
Calorifiers are to be fitted at the cold water
3.7
Liquid
Level
Indicators
and
Feed
Equipment for Heated Pressure Vessels
inlet with a safety valve.
4.1
Heated pressure vessels in which a fall of the
Rupture discs are permitted only with the
liquid level can result in unacceptably high temperatures
consent of TL in applications where their use is
in the vessel walls must be fitted with a device for
specially justified. They must be designed that the
indicating the level of the liquid.
3.8
maximum allowable working pressure PB cannot be
4.2
exceeded by more than 10%.
Pressure vessels with a fixed minimum liquid
level are to be fitted with a feed equipment of adequate
Rupture discs are to be provided with a guard to catch
size.
the fragments of the rupture element and shall be
protected against the damages from outside. The
fragments of the rupture element are not to be capable
of reducing the necessary section of the discharge
aperture.
4.3
designed as closed systems with external pressure
generation and membrane expansion vessel. Water
shall be circulated by forced circulation.
5.
3.9
Sight Glasses
Pressure relief devices can be dispensed
with in the case of accumulators in pneumatic and
hydraulic control and regulating systems provided that
the
Warm water generating plants are to be
pressure
which
can
be
supplied
to
these
accumulators cannot exceed the maximum allowable
working pressure and that the pressure-volume product
is PB [MPa]  I [litres] ≤ 20.
Sight glasses in surfaces subject to pressure are
allowed only if they are necessary for the operation of
the plant and other means of observation cannot be
provided. They are not to be larger than required
value and are preferred to have a rounded shape.
Sight glasses are to be protected against to the
mechanical damages, e.g. by wire mesh. When any
3.10
Electrically heated equipment has to be
equipped with a temperature limiter of special design
besides of a temperature controller.
3.11
combustible or explosive or poisonous media is
considered, the sight glasses are to be fitted with
closable covers.
The equipment on pressure vessels has to
6.
Draining and Venting
6.1
Pressure vessels and equipment are to be
be suitable for the use on ships. The limiters for
pressure, temperature and flow are safety devices and
shall meet the requirements of Regulations for the
Performance of the Type Tests, Part 7 – Test
Requirements
Equipment.
for
Mechanical
Components
and
capable of being depressurized and completely
emptied or drained. Particular attention is to be given
to the adequate drainage facilities of compressed air
vessels.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-14
E,F
Suitable connections for the execution of
stamped on the nameplate is to be used) in the
hydraulic pressure tests and a vent at the uppermost point
presence of TL Surveyor. The pressure gauge used in
are to be provided.
the test is to have a maximum scale of about twice the
6.2
test pressure, but in no case is the maximum scale to
7.
be less than 1.3 times the test pressure. Following the
Installation
hydrostatic test, the test pressure may be reduced to
When installing and fastening the pressure
the design or the maximum allowable working pressure,
vessels onboard ship, the full care is to be taken to
and an inspection is to be made by TL Surveyor of all
ensure that the loads due to the contents and structural
joints and connections.
7.1
weight of the pressure vessel and to the movements of
ship. Structural vibrations shall not cause to rise any
During the hydrostatic pressure tests, the loads
excessive increasing in stress throughout the surface
specified below may not be exceeded:
and walls of pressure vessel. Where necessary, the
walls near supports and brackets are to be fitted as
much as possible with reinforcing plates.
7.2
For materials with a definite yield point;

R eH,20o
1.1
Pressure vessels and equipment are to be
installed in such a way as to provide for practicable all-
For materials without a definite yield point;
round visual inspection and to facilitate the execution of
periodic tests. Where necessary, ladders or steps are to

R m,20o
be fitted inside vessels.
2.0
1.2
fastened
and heat exchangers is generally 1.5 times of the
compressed air receivers are to be installed at an angle
maximum allowable working pressure PB, subject to a
and parallel to the fore-and-aft line of the ship. The
minimum of PB + 0.1 MPa respectively 1.5 times of the
angle shall be at least 10° (with the valve head at the
design pressure PR if this is higher than PB.
7.3
top).
Wherever
Where
the
possible,
pressure
horizontally
The test pressure PP for pressure vessels
vessels
are
installed
athwarthships, the angle shall be greater.
In the case of pressure vessels and equipment which
are only subjected to pressure below atmospheric, the
Where necessary, compressed air receivers
test pressure shall at least match the working pressure.
are to be marked on the outside that they can be
Alternatively a pressure test can be carried out with 0.2
installed onboard ship in the position necessary for
2
MPa or 0.2 N/mm of pressure in excess of atmospheric
complete venting and drainage.
pressure.
7.4
For the test pressures to be applied to steam
F.
Tests
condensers, see Section 3.
1.
Pressure Tests
1.3
All
pressure
vessels
and
equipment
located in the fuel oil pressure lines of boiler firing
After completion, pressure vessels and heat
equipment are to be tested on the oil side at a test
exchangers have to undergo constructional checks and
pressure of 1.5 times the maximum allowable working
a hydrostatic test. No permanent deformation of the
pressure PB, subject to a minimum of 0.5 MPa. On
walls may result from these tests.
steam side, the test is to be performed as specified in
1.1
1.2.
All completed pressure vessels (after all required nondestructive
examination
and
after
postweld
heat
1.4
Pressure vessels in water supply systems
treatment) are to be subjected to a hydrostatic test at
which correspond to Standard DIN 4810 are to be
not less than 1.3 times the design pressure or the
tested at pressures of 520 kPa, 780 kPa or 1.3 MPa as
maximum allowable pressure (the pressure to be
specified in the Standard.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
F,G
14-15
Air coolers are to be tested on the water side
length of ≤ 2000 mm which are charged with gases
at 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure
inspecial filling stations and are thereafter brought
1.5
2
PB, subject to a minimum of 0.4 MPa or 0.4 N/mm .
onboard ship where the pressurized gases are used
(see also Section 18).
Pressure tests with media other than water
1.6
may be agreed to in special cases.
These requirements are not valid for gas
1.2
cylinders with
Warm water generators are to be subjected to
1.7
a test pressure in accordance with the Standard or
Directive applied, but at least with 1.3 times the
-
A maximum allowable working pressure of
2
maximum 0.05 N/mm , or
maximum allowable working pressure.
2.
For
Tightness Tests
pressure
vessels
and
equipment
containing
dangerous substances (e.g. liquefied gases), TL
-
A capacity ≤ 0.5 litres.
1.3
These requirements are only valid in a limited
range for gas cylinders with
reserves the right to call for a special test of gas
-
tightness.
A maximum allowable working pressure of
maximum 20 N/mm2 and
3.
Testing after Installation on Board
-
A capacity > 0.5 litres and < 4 litres
Following installation onboard ship, a check is carried
out on the fittings of vessels and equipment and on
the arrangement and setting of safety appliances,
and
operating
tests
are
performed
wherever
necessary.
For these gas cylinders, the drawing approval can be
waived. The tests according to 5.2 – 5.5 and the
marking according to 6, respectively a possible
recognition according to 7 are to be performed.
G.
Gas Cylinders
1.
General
2.
Approval Procedure
2.1
Documentation
The requirements given below cover the following
Drawings with definition of the planned form of stamp
conditions depending on the ratio of outer diameter to
are to be submitted in triplicate.
inner diameter of gas cylinder:
-
2.2
Materials
2.2.1
Details of the raw materials to be used (range
At Da/Di  1.6 for cylindrical walls;
of chemical analysis, name of manufacturer, scope of
At Da/Di  1.7
for tubes;
At Da/Di  1.2
for spherical walls;
necessary characteristics and form of proof) are to be
Cylindrical walls with Da  200 mm are regarded as
tubes.
submitted.
2.2.2
2.2.3
1.1
For the purposes of these requirements, gas
Details of the scheduled heat treatment are
to be submitted.
properties
Details
(yield
of
point,
the
designated
tensile
strength,
material
impact
cylinders are bottles with a capacity of not more than
strength, fracture strain) of the finished product are to
150 litres with an outside diameter of ≤ 420 mm and a
be submitted.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-16
3.
Re
Manufacture
=
G
Yield point needed as comparative value for
2
the determination of R, [N/mm ]
either Re = ReH,
Gas cylinders are to be manufactured by
3.1
or
established methods using suitable materials and must
Re = Rp0.2,
be so designed that they are well able to withstand the
R
expected loads.
=
In each case the smaller of the following two
2
values, [N/mm ]
The following variants are to be distinguished:
Re
1)
-
Seamless gas cylinders made of steel,
2)
-
-
for
normalized
and
or
tempered
cylinders
All other variants are subject to special approval by TL.
-
cylinders is to be approved by TL
0.90
Rm
for
quenched
and
tempered cylinders
The manufacturing process for seamless gas
2
σperm [N/mm ] Allowable stress (= ¾ R),
Gas cylinders with the basic body made by
3.3
Rm
normalized
Welded gas cylinders made of steel.
3.2
0.75
welding are for the aforementioned requirements
β
=
Design coefficient for dished ends, (see
Section 12, Steam Boilers, D.4) [-],
subject of this Section.
v
=
Weaking factor, (see Section 12, Steam
4.
Design Calculation
4.1
Terms used
4.2
Design pressure (specified test pressure),
The specified test pressure for CO2 bottles with a filling
pc
=
Boilers, D.2) [-],
[N/mm ]
2
factor of 0.66 kg/litres is 25 N/mm (or 250 bars) gauge.
Minimum wall thickness, [mm]
For other gases, the test pressure can be taken from
2
s
=
Test pressure
the Technical Rules for Gases under Pressure (TRG) or
c
may be agreed with TL.
=
Corrosion allowance, [mm]
=
1 mm, if required,
Da
=
Outside diameter of gas cylinder, [mm]
Di
=
Inner diameter of gas cylinder, [mm]
If not agreed otherwise the test pressure is to be at least
1.5 times of the maximum allowable working pressure,
PB.
4.3
Cylindrical surfaces
Minimum wall thickness of cylindrical shaped pressure
ReH =
Guaranteed upper yield point, [N/mm2]
Rp0.2 =
2
Guaranteed 0.2% proof stress, [N/mm ]
after forming and without allowance for corrosion.
Rm
Guaranteed
s c
vessels shall not be less than the value from following
formula. Plates are not to be less than 2.4 mm thick
=
[N/mm2]
minimum
tensile
strength,
Da  pc
2  σ perm  v  p c
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
G
4.4
s c
14-17
The facilitations according to 5.4.3 are not to be applied.
Spherical ends
Da  pc
5.1.2
4  σ perm  v  p c
Type approval and single test in lots.
After approval of the documentation by TL, the first
4.5
s  c
4.6
production
Ends dished to outside
series
serves
to
test
the
specimens
according to 5.3 to 5.5. Afterwards for each production
Da  pc  β
lot the required tests according to 5.3 to 5.5 are to be
4  σ perm
performed.
The facilitations according to 5.4.3 may apply.
Ends dished to inside
The conditions applicable to dished ends are shown in
5.1.3
Type approval and test arrangement
Figure 14.1.
After approval of the documentation by TL, the
manufacturer may make special arrangements with TL
concerning the tests for approval.
5.2
Sampling
5.2.1
Normalized cylinders
Two sample cylinders from each 400 originating from
each melt and each heat treatment are to be taken.
5.2.2
Quenched and tempered cylinders
Two sample cylinders from each 200 originating from
each melt and each heat treatment are to be taken.
Figure 14.1 Ends dished to inside
4.7
5.3
Testing on the first sample cylinder
5.3.1
One longitudinal tensile tests specimen, three
Alternative calculation
Alternatively a calculation according to EN 1964-1 or
transverse bending test specimens and a set of ISO V-
ISO 9809-1 may be performed, provided that the results
type notched bar impact test specimens are to be taken
are at least equivalent.
from the sample cylinders according to 5.2.1 and 5.2.2.
The notched bar impact test specimens are to be tested
5.
Testing of Gas Cylinders
5.1
Approval procedure
at -20°C. The average impact work shall be at least 35
Joule.
5.3.2
TL may approve according to the following procedures:
The cylindrical wall thickness of all sample
cylinders is to be measured in transverse planes at
three levels (neck, middle and base). The end plate is
5.1.1
also to be sawn through and the thickness measured.
Single test in lots
After approval of the documentation by TL, the
5.3.3
required tests according to 5.3 to 5.5 are to be
inner surface of the neck and bottom portions to detect
performed.
possible manufacturing defects.
At the first sample cylinder examination of the
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
14-18
5.4
All gas cylinders submitted for testing are
5.5.2
Testing on the second sample cylinder
G
subjected to a final visual inspection. The gas cylinders
5.4.1
The second test bottle is to be subject to a
have
to
meet
the
requirements
defined
in
the
bursting test according to 5.4.2.
documentation for approval.
5.4.2
Bursting test
As far as an inspection by TL is to be provided, a check
5.4.2.1
Test bottles intended to be subjected to a
of the weight and volumetric capacity as well as of the
bursting test must be clearly identified as to the lot from
stamped marking is to be performed for 10% of the gas
cylinders by the TL Surveyor.
which they have been taken.
5.5.3
5.4.2.2
The required bursting pressure has to be at
The
manufacturer
shall
establish
the
volumetric capacity and weight of each cylinder.
least 1.8 times the test pressure, PP (in formulae pp).
5.5.4
Cylinders which have been quenched and
The hydrostatic bursting test is to be
tempered are to be subjected by the manufacturer to
carried out in two subsequent stages, by means of a
100% hardness testing. As far as not otherwise
testing
be
agreed, the hardness values evaluated for one test
continuously increased up to bursting of the cylinder
lot according to 5.2 shall not be differing by more than
and the pressure curve to be recorded as a function
55 HB.
5.4.2.3
device
enabling
the
pressure
to
of time. The test must be carried out at room
temperature.
5.6
Presence of the TL Surveyor
During the first stage, the pressure has to
As far as not agreed otherwise (see 5.1.3) the presence
increase continuously up to the value at which plastic
of the TL Surveyor is required for the tests according to
deformation starts; the pressure increase must not
5.3, 5.4.2, 5.5.1 and 5.5.2.
5.4.2.4
2
exceed 0.5 N/mm per second.
6.
Marking and Identification
Once the point of plastic deformation has been reached
(second stage), the pump capacity must not exceed
double the capacity of the first stage; it has then to be
kept constant until bursting of the cylinder.
5.4.2.5 The appearance of the fracture has to be
evaluated. It shall not be brittle and no breaking pieces
are to be detached.
5.4.3
In the case of lots of less than 400 pieces of
normalized and/or 200 pieces of quenched and
Each gas cylinders is to be marked with the following:
-
Name or trade name of the manufacturer,
-
Serial number,
-
Type of gas,
-
2
Design strength value [N/mm ],
-
Capacity [litres],
-
2
Test pressure [N/mm ],
tempered cylinders, the bursting pressure is waived for
every second lot.
5.5
Testing on all gas cylinders
-
Empty weight [kg],
5.5.1
For all gas cylinders submitted for testing a
-
Date of test,
-
Test stamp.
hydrostatic pressure test with a test pressure according
to 4.2 is to be performed.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 14 – Pressure Vessels
G
7.
Recognition of Equivalent Tests
14-19
including manufacturing records is to be made available
to TL and has to be evaluated with positive result.
Test verified by other bodies may be recognized
provided that they are established as being equivalent
7.1.3
of those prescribed above.
external check and a survey for conformity with the
The gas cylinders are to be subjected to an
documentation.
7.1
Recognition for single tests in lots
7.2
7.1.1
If the approval of the documents respectively
Recognition
for
tests
with
own
responsibility
the type approval of an institution recognized by TL is
submitted, already manufactured gas cylinders checked
For gas cylinders which have been manufactured under
by single test in lots may be recognized by TL.
the manufacturer’s own responsibility on the basis of an
approval by an institution outside TL, an approval
7.1.2
Herewith
the
complete
documentation
procedure according to 5.1.1 shall be performed.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
15-1
SECTION 15
OIL BURNERS AND OIL FIRING EQUIPMENT
Page
A.
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................... 15- 2
1. Scope
2. Additional requirements
3. Documents for approval
B.
OIL FIRING EQUIPMENT FOR BOILERS AND THERMAL OIL HEATERS ................................................. 15- 3
1. General
2. Adjustment of the heat generators and burner arrangement
3. Simultaneous operation of oil firing equipments and Internal Combustion Engines
4. Preheating of fuel oil
5. Pumps, pipelines, valves and fittings
6. Approved fuels
7. Safety equipment
8. Design and construction of burners
9. Purging of combustion chamber, flues and exhaust gas ducting
10. Electrical equipment
11. Testing
C.
OIL BURNERS FOR HOT WATER HEATERS, OIL-FIRED HEATERS
AND SMALL HEATING APPLIANCES .......................................................................................................... 15- 8
1. Atomizer burners
2. Evaporation burners
3. Oil-fired heaters
4. Small oil-fired heaters for heating air
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 15-2
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
A.
General
analogously:
1.
Scope
Section 12,
A
for steam boilers and hot water
generators
1.1
The oil burners and oil firing equipment of
main steam boilers and auxiliary steam boilers and
Section 13,
for thermal oil systems
Section 14,
for pressure vessels and warm
thermal oil heaters, warm water and hot water
generators as well as inert gas generators according to
water generators
Section12 E, in the following referred to as heat
generators, are subject to the subsequent requirements.
Section 16, A to D, G, M, Q,R for pumps, pipelines,
1.2
valves and fittings
Where steam is required for the main
propelling engines, or where steam or thermal oil is
required for auxiliary machinery for essential services,
Section 18
for
fire
protection
and
fire
fighting equipment
or for heating of heavy oil fuel and is generated by
burning oil fuel under pressure, there are to be not less
than two oil burning units. For auxiliary boilers, a single
Electrical Installations, Chapter 5
for electrical
installations.
oil burning unit may be accepted, provided that
alternative means, such as an exhaust gas boiler or
composite boiler, are available for supply of essential
Automation, Chapter 4-1
for automated
services. Where the oil burning unit is not of the
machinery systems
monobloc type (i.e. separate register and oil supply
(AUT).
unit), each oil burning unit is to comprise a pressure
pump, suction filter, discharge filter and, when required,
3.
Documents for approval
3.1
Design drawings, plans and particulars of oil
a heater.
In installations consisting of two or more oil
burners installed on heat generators are to be submitted
burning units, the number, arrangement and capacity of
to TL in triplicate for approval. The documents are
such units is to be capable of supplying sufficient fuel to
required to contain the details of all the installation
allow the steam to be generated or thermal oil heated,
components:
1.3
as applicable to provide essential services with any one
unit out of action.
-
General drawings of the oil burner,
1.4
-
Piping and equipment diagram of the burner
For oil burners of other heating appliances
including part list,
which are not important for the operation of the
machinery, but which are located in the engine room or
in spaces containing equipment essential for the
operation
of
the
machinery,
the
requirements are to be applied analogously.
1.5
Where
oil
burners
are
-
Description of function,
-
Electrical diagrams,
-
List of equipment regarding electrical control
subsequent
to
be
used
additionally for burning the waste oil and oil sludge,
and safety.
the necessary measures are to be agreed with TL in
each single case.
-
Confirmation by the manufacturer that the oil
burner and the oil firing equipment are
1.6
In
addition,
the
following
general
suitable for the fuels intended to be used.
requirements of this section are mandatory for all
installations and appliances.
3.2
For oil burners, which comply with the
requirements
2.
Additional Requirements
according
to
TS/EN
267
or
to
a
recognized standard as equivalent by TL and have
been certified by a third party, the scope of the drawing
The
following
requirements
are
to
be
applied
approval is to be agreed with TL in each individual case.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 A,B
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
15-3
However, safety related components have to be suitable
1.9
for shipboard installation
are to be taken to prevent the oil overheating in heaters
Where boiler oil is heated, structural measures
in case steam-generating capacity of the boiler is
reduced or burners are shut-off.
B.
Oil Firing Equipment for Boilers and
Thermal Oil Heaters
2.
Adjustment of the Heat Generators and
Burner Arrangement
1.
General
2.1
1.1
Boilers
and
thermal
oil
heaters,
The burner arrangements are to be such that
heat
a burner cannot be withdrawn unless the fuel oil supply
generators without constant and direct supervision are
to that burner is shut-off, and that the oil cannot be
to be operated with automatic firing system.
turned on unless the burner has been correctly coupled
to the supply line.
1.2
Adequate purging by means of a fan has to
be ensured prior to each ignition effected by the
2.2
controls. In general, a purging period of at least 15
adjusted in such a manner as to prevent flames from
seconds may be regarded to be sufficient. Where the
causing damage to the boiler surfaces or tubes which
flue gas ducting is unfavourable, the purging time is to
border on the combustion space. Boiler parts which
be extended accordingly.
might otherwise suffer damage are to be protected by
Oil burners are to be designed, fitted and
refractory lining.
1.3
Oil firing equipment with electrically operated
components is also to be capable of being shut down by
The firing system shall be so arranged as to prevent
emergency switches located at the operating panel and
flame from blowing back into the boiler or engine room
from a position outside the space in which the
and shall allow unburned fuel to be safely drained.
equipment is installed. In analogous manner, means are
to be provided for a remote shut down of steam-
2.3
operated fuel oil service pumps.
suitable points on the heat generator or burner through
Observation openings are to be provided at
which the ignition flame, the main flame and the lining
1.4
Heat generators according to A.1.1 are to be
can be observed.
provided for manual operation, enabling the safe
operation of oil burners in case of electrical malfunction
2.4
of the burner control box or the control equipment of the
purging
heat generator. Flame monitoring shall remain operative
arrangements are to be such that oil fuel cannot find its
even in manual operating.
way into the steam system in the event of valve
Where burners are provided with steam
and/or
atomising
connections,
the
leakage.
1.5
Manual operation demands constant and
direct supervision of the system.
2.5
Fuel leaking from potential leak points is to be
safely collected in oil tight trays and drained away (see
1.6
Safety devices may only be set out of
the requirements of Section 18).
function (e.g. bridged) by means of a key-operated
switch. The operating of the key-operated switch is to
3.
be indicated.
Equipment and Internal Combustion Engines
1.7
The operation of oil firing equipment in spaces
It is recommended that the inlets of boiler fans
be protected against penetration of moisture or solids.
Simultaneous Operation of Oil Firing
containing
other
items
of
plant
with
high
air
consumption, e.g. internal combustion engines or air
1.8
Trays shall be provided in places where oil
may leak.
compressors, is not to be impaired by variations in the
air pressure.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 15-4
4.
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
Preheating of Fuel Oil
B
deviate above or below the permitted limits, an alarm
system must signal this fact to the heat generator
4.1
Fuel oil preheating equipment has to enable
operating platform.
the heat generators to be started up with the facilities
available on board.
4.2
Where only steam-operated preheaters are
present, fuel which does not require preheating has to
be available to start up the boilers.
4.3
Any controllable heat source may be used to
preheat fuel oil. Preheating with open flame is, however,
5.
Pumps, Pipelines, Valves and Fittings
5.1
For pumps, pipelines, valves and fittings see
Section 16, G.9.
5.2
By means of a hand-operated, quick-closing
device mounted at the fuel oil manifold it shall be
possible to isolate the fuel supply to the burners from
not permitted.
the pressurized fuel lines. Depending on design and
4.4
Fuel oil circulating lines are to be provided to
enable the preheating of the fuel oil prior to the start-up
method of operation, a quick-closing device may also be
required directly in front of each burner.
of the heat generators.
6.
Approved Fuels
When a change is made from heavy to light oil, the light
oil may not be passed through the heater or be
See Section 1, D.16.
excessively heated (alarm system).
7.
Safety Equipment
so as to avoid excessive foaming, the formation of
7.1
The correct sequence of safety functions
vapour or gas and also the formation of deposits on the
when the burner is started up or shut down is to be
heating surface.
ensured by means of a burner control box.
Where fuel oil is preheated in tanks at atmospheric
7.2
pressure, the requirements in Section 16, V are to be
be provided at the fuel oil supply line to the burner.
4.5
The preheating temperature is to be selected
Two automatic quick-closing devices have to
complied with.
For the fuel oil supply line to the ignition burner one
Provision is to be made, by suitable non-return
automatic quick-closing device will be sufficient, if the
arrangements, to prevent oil from spill systems being
fuel oil pump is switched off after ignition of the burner.
returned to the burners when the oil supply to these
7.3
burners has been shut-off.
An automatic quick-closing master valve is to
be fitted to the oil supply to each boiler manifold,
The design and construction of pressurized fuel oil
suitably located so that the valve can be readily
heaters are subject to the requirements in Section
operated in an emergency, either directly or by means
14.
of remote control, having regard to the machinery
arrangements and location of controls.
4.6
done
Temperature or viscosity control shall be
automatically.
For
monitoring
purposes,
a
7.4
The automatic quick-closing devices shall not
thermometer or viscosimeter is to be fitted to the fuel oil
release the oil supply to the burners during start-up and
pressure line in front of the burners.
have to interrupt the oil supply during operation
(automatic restart possible) if one of the following faults
4.7
Should the oil temperature or viscosity
occurs:
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 B
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
-
-
15-5
Failure of the required pressure of the
dispensed with if the return line is not under pressure
atomizing medium (steam and compressed-
and no oil is able to flow back when the burner is
air atomizers);
shut down.
Failure of the oil pressure needed for
7.7
atomization (pressure atomizers) (1),
device for flame monitoring. This appliance has to
Every burner is to be equipped with safety
comply with the following safety periods (2) on burner
-
-
Exceeding of the maximum allowable pressure
start-up or when the flame is extinguished in
in the return line (burners with return line)
operation:
Insufficient rotary speed of spinning cup or
-
On start-up 5 seconds
-
In operation 1 second
primary air pressure too low (rotary atomizers);
-
Failure of combustion air supply (1);
-
Failure of control power supply;
Where this is justified, longer safety periods may be
permitted for burners with an oil throughout of up to 30
kg/h. Measure are to be taken to ensure that the safety
-
-
Failure of induced-draught fan or insufficient
period for the main flame is not prolonged by the action
opening of exhaust gas register;
of the igniters (e.g. ignition burners).
Burner not in operating position.
7.8
The suitability of safety and monitoring
devices (e.g. burner control box, flame monitoring
7.5
The fuel oil supply has to be interrupted by
closing
the
automatic
quick-closing
devices
and
interlocked by means of the burner control box if
device, automatic quick-closing device and limiters)
for marine use have to be type approved and suitable
for shipboard installation. See the requirements in
A.2.
-
The flame does not develop within the safety
period following start-up (see. 7.7);
7.9
The tripping of the safety and monitoring
devices has to be indicated by visual and audible
-
The flame is extinguished during operation
alarms at the control panel of the heat generator, engine
and an attempt to restart the burner within
control room and another appropriate site.
the safety period is unsuccessful; or
-
Limit switches are actuated.
7.6
The return line of burners with return lines
7.10
The electrical interlocking of the firing
system
following
tripping
by
the
safety
and
monitoring devices is only to be cancelled out at the
firing system control panel.
have also to be provided with an automatic quickclosing device. The shutoff device in the return line
7.11
may be
position at local manual control station of each oil
A warning notice is to be fitted in a prominent
burners. The warning notice shall specify that burners
operated with manual or local overrides in use are only
(1)
Where there is no oil or air supply monitoring device
to be ignited after sufficient purging of the furnace and
spring-loaded fast closing device in the pump, the
of any additional precautions required when operating in
above requirements are considered to have been met
this condition.
if there is a motor-fan-pump assembly in the case of a
single shaft motor output or a fan-motor-oil pump
assembly in the case of a double ended shaft motor
(2)
The safety period is the maximum permitted time
output. In the latter case, there shall be a positive
during which fuel oil may be supplied to the
coupling between the motor and the fan.
combustion space in the absence of a flame.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 15-6
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
8.
8.5
Design and Construction of Burners (3)
B
Where an installation comprises several
burners supplied with combustion air by a common fan,
The type and design of the burner and its
each burner is to be fitted with a shutoff device (e.g. a
atomizing and air turbulence equipment shall ensure
flap). Means are to be provided for retaining the shutoff
8.1
device in position and its position shall be indicated.
virtually complete combustion.
8.2
Oil burners are to be so designed and
constructed that personnel cannot be endangered by
moving parts. This applies particularly to blower intake
openings. The latter are also to be protected to prevent
the entry of drip water.
8.6
Every burner is to be equipped with an
igniter. The ignition operation is to be initiated
immediately after purging. In the case of low-capacity
burners of monoblock type (permanently coupled oil
pump and fan) ignition may begin with start-up of the
burner unless the latter is located in the roof of the
chamber.
8.3
Burners, which can be retracted or pivoted
out of position, are to be automatically interlocked that
8.7
they cannot be operated, when they are retracted or
shutdown, provision must be made for the safe ignition
pivoted. A catch is to be provided to hold the burner in
of the residual oil ejected.
Where burners are blown through following
the swung out position.
8.8
8.4
Steam atomizers have to be fitted with
appliances to prevent fuel oil entering the steam
pipeline to the burners and so arranged that one filter
can be opened up when the other is in use.
system.
8.9
(3)
In systems where oil is fed to the burners by
gravity, duplex filters are to be fitted in the supply
For the purpose of these Rules, the following
A starting-up oil fuel unit, including an
auxiliary heater and hand pump, or other suitable
starting-up device, which does not require power from
definitions apply:
shore, is to be provided.
"Fully automatic oil burners" are burners equipped
with automatic igniters, automatic flame monitors
and automatic controls so that the ignition, flame
monitoring and burner start-up and shutdown are
8.10
Equipment used, especially pumps and shut-
off devices, shall be suitable for the particular
application and the fuel oils in use.
effected as a function of the controlled variable
9.
without the intervention of operating personnel.
Purging of Combustion Chamber and
Flues, Exhaust Gas Ducting
"Semi-automatic
oil
burners"
are
burners
equipped with automatic igniters, automatic flame
monitors and automatic controls. Burner start-up
is initiated manually. Shutdown may be initiated
9.1
The combustion chamber and flues are to be
adequately purged with air prior to every burner startup. A warning sign is to be mounted to this effect.
manually. Burner shutdown is not followed by
9.2
automatic re-ignition.
Arrangements are to be such that furnace
prepurging is completed prior to any burner ignition
"Manually operated oil burners" are burners
sequence. The purge time is to be based on a minimum
where every ignition sequence is initiated and
of 4 air changes of the combustion chamber, furnace
carried
is
and uptake spaces. The purge timing is to take account
automatically monitored and shut down by the
of the air flow rate and the sequence is not to
flame monitor and by limiters where required by
commence until all air registers and dampers, as
the safety system. Re-starting can only be carried
applicable, are fully open and the forced draft fans are
out directly at the burner and by hand.
operating.
through
by
hand.
The
burner
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 B
9.3
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
A threefold renewal of the total air volume of
15-7
-
Visual inspection and completeness check,
-
Pressure
the combustion chamber and the flue gas ducts up to
the funnel inlet is considered sufficient. Normally
test
of
the
oil
preheater,
if
available,and required by design
purging shall be performed with the total flow of
combustion air for at least 15 seconds. It shall, however,
in any case be performed with at least 50% of the
volume of combustion air needed for the maximum
heating power of the firing system.
9.4
-
Pressure test of the burner,
-
Insulation resistance test,
-
High voltage test,
-
Functional
Bends and dead corners in the exhaust gas
ducts are to be avoided.
test
of
the
safety
related
equipment.
Dampers in uptakes and funnels should be avoided.
Any damper which may be fitted is to be so installed
11.2
Tests on board
that no oil supply is possible when the cross-section of
the purge line is reduced below a certain minimum
The installation on board is to be subjected to operational
value. The position of the damper has to be indicated at
tests including, in particular, determination of the purging
the boiler control platform.
time required prior to burner start-up. Satisfactory
combustion at all the load settings and the reliable
9.5
Where dampers or similar devices are
operation of the safety equipment are to be checked.
fitted in the air supply duct, care has to be taken to
ensure that air for purging the combustion chamber is
11.2.1
always available unless the oil supply is necessarily
test of the fuel system including fittings has to be
interrupted.
performed, see Section 16, B.4.
9.6
11.2.2
Where an induced-draught fan is fitted, an
After installation a pressure and tightness
The
system
including
the
switchboard
interlocking system shall prevent start-up of the firing
installed at the heat generator on board the vessel has
equipment before the fan has started. A corresponding
to be function tested as follows, especially the required
interlocking system is also to be provided for any flaps
purging time has to be identified and manual operation
which may be fitted to the funnel opening.
has to be demonstrated.
10.
-
Electrical Equipment
Completeness
check
for
the
required
safety
relevant
components of the equipment,
Electrical equipment and its degree of protection have
to comply with the TL requirements of Chapter 5,
-
Functional
test
of
all
equipment,
Electrical Installations.
High voltage igniters have to be sufficiently safe against
unauthorized operation.
-
Functional test of the burner control box,
-
Identification of maximum and minimum
burner power,
11.
Testing
-
11.1
Identification of flame stability on start-up, at
maximum and at minimum burner power
Test at the manufacturer’s shop
under consideration of combustion chamber
For
burners
examinations
for
have
heat
to
generators
be
the
performed
at
not permitted.
the
manufacturer’s shop and are to be proven by TL
Approval Certificate:
pressure. Unspecified pressure changes are
following
-
Proof regarding required purging of flues and
safety times,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 15-8
-
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
B,C
Proof regarding combustion properties like
11.5
CO2 –, possibly O2 –, CO – volumetric
system is to be subjected to a pressure and tightness
content and soot number at minimum, mean
test; see Section 16, B.4.
After installation, the pressurized fuel oil
and maximum power, in case of statutory
requirements.
-
In case the oil burner is operated with
different fuel oils, the proper change-over to
C.
Oil Burners for Hot Water Heaters, Oil-
Fired Heaters and Small Heating Appliances
another fuel oil quality and especially the safe
operation of the flame monitoring, the quick
1.
Atomizer Burners
1.1
Fully and semi-automatic atomizer burners
closing devices and the preheater, if existing
are to be checked.
must meet the requirements of TS/EN 267 or must be
The correct combustion at all settings as well as
recognized as equivalent. Adequate purging by means
function of safety equipment has to be verified. An
of a fan must be ensured prior to each ignition effected
Approval Certificate of TL regarding examination at the
by the controls. In general, a purging period of at least 5
manufacturer’s shop is to be presented to TL during
seconds may be deemed sufficient. Where the flue gas
functional testing.
ducting is unfavourable, the purging time is to be
extended accordingly.
11.3
Burners according to A.1.2 do not require an
1.2
examination at manufacturer’s shop.
Electrical equipment items and their type of
enclosure must comply with the requirements of TL Those are to be functional tested, with special regard to
Electrical Installations. High-voltage igniters must be
the safety related equipment, on board the vessel in
adequately protected against unauthorized interference.
presence of the TL Surveyor.
1.3
11.4
It is to be demonstrated to the TL Surveyor’s
Where dampers or similar devices are
mounted in the air supply line, care must be taken to
satisfaction during trials that burner shut-off times due to
ensure that air is available in all circumstances for
flame failure comply with the following requirements,
purging the combustion space.
and details of the procedures and means used to set
this time interval are to be submitted for consideration:
1.4
Pivoted oil burners may be swivelled out only
after the fuel oil has been cut off. The high-voltage
-
The time interval at burner start up between
ignition equipment must likewise be disconnected when
the burner oil fuel valve being opened and
this happens.
then closed in the event of flame failure is to
be long enough to allow a stable flame to be
1.5
established
down by means of an emergency switch located outside
and
detected
under
normal
operational circumstances, but is to be set to
The plant must also be capable of being shut
the space in which the plant is installed.
minimise the quantity of oil fuel delivered to
the furnace and the possibility of subsequent
damage as a result of unintended ignition.
-
The
time
interval
between
flame
failure
detection and closing of burner oil fuel valve is
2.
Evaporation burners
2.1
The burner design (e.g. dish or pot-type
burner) must ensure that the combustion of the fuel oil
to be long enough to prevent shutdown due to
is as complete as possible at all load setting. At the
incorrect detection of a flame failure under
maximum oil level and with all possible angles of
normal operational circumstances, but is to be
inclination of the ship (see Section 1, C.1) no fuel oil
set to minimise the quantity of unburned oil fuel
may spill from the combustion vessel or its air holes.
delivered to the furnace and the possibility of
Parts of the equipment important for the operation,
subsequent damage as a result of unintended
monitoring and cleaning of the plant must be readily
ignition.
accessible.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 C
2.2
Section 15 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
Burners
must
be
fitted
with
15-9
regulators
and approved accordingly, or must be recognized as
ensuring a virtually constant flow of fuel oil at the
equivalent. Control and safety equipment must ensure
selected setting. A safety device is required to prevent
the safe and reliable operation of the burner despite the
the oil in the combustion vessel from rising above the
movements and inclinations which occur when the ship
maximum permitted level. The regulators must function
is at sea.
reliably despite all the movements and inclinations of
the ship at sea.
3.3
Smoke tubes and uptakes must have a
cross-section at least equal to that of the flue gas
2.3
Burners are normally to be equipped with a
duct on the heater and must follow as direct a path
blower to ensure a sufficient supply of combustion air.
as possible. Horizontal flue gas ducts are to be
Should the blower fail, the oil supply must be cut off
avoided.
automatically. Heating equipment with burners not
supplied by a blower may only be installed and operated
Funnel (stack) outlets are to be fitted with safety
in the spaces mentioned in A.1 provided a supply of air
appliances
adequate
downdraughts.
to
maintain
trouble-free
combustion
is
(e.g.
Meidinger
discs)
to
prevent
guaranteed.
3.
Oil-Fired Heaters
3.1
Oil-fired
heaters
having
an
evaporation
burner without blower may be installed in the spaces
4.
Small Oil-Fired Heaters for Heating Air
4.1
Depending on their mode of operation, the
requirements set out in items C.1 to C.3 apply in
analogous manner to these units.
mentioned in A.1 only if their thermal capacity does not
exceed 42,000 kJ per hours. They may only be
Equipment
operated, however, if items of equipment with high air
requirements of the standards mentioned can be
consumption such as internal combustion engines or air
allowed provided that its functional safety is assured by
compressors do not draw air from the same space.
other means, e.g. by the explosion-proofing of the
which
does
not
entirely
meet
the
combustion chamber and flue gas ducts.
Compliance is to be ensured by an appropriate directive
in the operating instructions and by a warning sign fixed
4.2
to such heaters. Attention is also to be drawn to the
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation and
Heating ducts are to be competently installed
danger of blowbacks when the burner is reignited in the
operating instructions, and reductions in cross-section,
hot heater.
throttling points and sharp bends are to be avoided so
as not to incur the danger of the equipment overheating.
3.2
Oil-fired heaters must comply with the
requirements
of
DIN
EN
1
and
be
tested
A thermostatic control must shut the appliance down in
the event of overheating.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016 Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-1
SECTION 16
PIPE LINES, VALVES, FITTINGS AND PUMPS
Page
A.
GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................................................16- 4
1. Scope
2. Documents for Approval
3. Pipe Classes
B. MATERIALS AND TESTING ..................................................................................................................................16- 7
1. General
2. Materials
3. Material Tests
4. Hydraulic Tests for Pipes
5. Manufacturer’s Tests, Heat Treatments and Non-Destructive Tests
C. CALCULATION OF WALL THICKNESS AND ELASTICITY ................................................................................16-22
1. Minimum Wall Thickness
2. Design Calculations
3. Elasticity Analysis
4. Fittings
5. Flanges
D. PRINCIPLES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PIPE LINES, VALVES, FITTINGS AND PUMPS ........................16-27
1. General
2. Pipe Connections
3. Layout, Marking and Installation
4. Shut-Off Devices
5. Ship Side (Shell Plating) Valves
6. Remote Controlled Valves
7. Pumps
8. Protection of Piping Systems Against Overpressure
9. Piping on Ships with Added Classification Mark FS
10. Hoses
11. Expansion Joints
12. Piping Penetration Through Bulkheads, Decks and Tank Tops
13. Sea Chests
E.
STEAM LINES .......................................................................................................................................................16-44
1. Operation
2. Calculation of Pipelines
3. Laying Out of Steam Lines
4. Steam Strainers
5. Penetration and Security
6. Inspection of Steam Lines for Expanding
F.
BOILER FEED WATER AND CIRCULATING ARRANGEMENT, CONDENSATE RECIRCULATION ................16-45
1. Feedwater Pumps
2. Capacity of Feedwater Pumps
3. Delivery Pressure of Feedwater Pumps
4. Power Supply to Feedwater Pumps for Main Boilers
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-2
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
5. Feedwater Lines
6. Boiler Water Circulating Systems
7. Feedwater Supply, Evaporators
8. Condensate Recirculation
G. FUEL OIL SYSTEMS .............................................................................................................................................16-47
1. Bunker Lines
2. Tank Filling and Suction Lines
3. Pipe Layout
4. Fuel Transfer, Feed and Booster Pumps
5. Plants with more than One Main Engine
6. Shut-Off Devices
7. Filters
8. Purifiers
9. Oil Firing Equipment
10. Service Tanks
11. Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oils (HFO)
H. LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS ..............................................................................................................................16-53
1. General Requirements
2. Lubricating Oil Systems
3. Lubricating Oil Pumps
I.
COOLING SEAWATER EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................................................16-56
1. Sea Connections, Sea Chests
2. Special Requirements for Ships with Ice Class
3. Sea Valves
4. Strainers
5. Cooling Seawater Pumps
6. Cooling Seawater Supply in Dock
K. COOLING FRESHWATER SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................16-58
1. General
2. Heat Exchangers, Coolers
3. Expansion Tanks
4. Fresh Water Cooling Pumps
5. Temperature Control
6. Preheating for Cooling Water
7. Emergency Generating Units
8. Cooling Water Supply for Electrical Main Propulsion Plants
L.
COMPRESSED AIR LINES ...................................................................................................................................16-60
1. General
2. Control Air Systems
M. EXHAUST GAS LINES ..........................................................................................................................................16-60
1. Pipe Layout
2. Silencers
3. Water Drain
4. Insulation
5. Additional Requirements for Tankers
N. BILGE SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................................................16-61
1. Bilge Lines
2. Calculation of Pipe Diameters
3. Bilge Pumps
4. Bilge Pumping for Various Spaces
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-3
5. Additional Requirements for Passenger Ships
6. Additional Requirements for Tankers
7. Bilge Testing
O. EQUIPMENT FOR THE TREATMENT AND STORAGE OF BILGE WATER AND FUEL AND RESIDUES .....16-70
1. Oily Water Separating Equipment
2. Discharge of Fuel and Oil Residues
P.
BALLAST SYSTEMS .............................................................................................................................................16-71
1. Ballast Lines
2. Ballast Pumps
3. Cross-Flooding Arrangements
4. Additional Requirements for Tankers
5. Operational Testing
Q. THERMAL OIL SYSTEM .......................................................................................................................................16-72
1. Pumps
2. Valves
3. Piping
4. Drainage and Storage Tanks
5. Pressure Testing
6. Tightness and Operational Testing
R. AIR, OVERFLOW AND SOUNDING PIPES ..........................................................................................................16-73
1. Air and Overflow Pipes
2. Sounding Pipes
S.
DRINKING WATER SYSTEM ..............................................................................................................................16-77
1. Drinking Water Tanks
2. Drinking Water Tank Connections
3. Drinking Water Pipe Lines
4. Pressure Water Tanks / Calorifiers
5. Drinking Water Pumps
6. Drinking Water Generation
T.
SEWAGE AND GRAVITY DRAIN SYSTEM ..........................................................................................................16-78
1. General
2. Arrangement
3. Additional Requirements for Ships With Classification Mark FS+
4. Gravity Drain Systems
U. HOSE ASSEMBLIES AND COMPENSATORS .....................................................................................................16-84
1. Scope
2. Definitions
3. Requirements
4. Installations
5. Tests
6. Ship Cargo Hoses
7. Marking
V.
STORAGE OF LIQUID FUELS, LUBRICATING, HYDRAULIC AND THERMAL OILS AND OIL RESIDUES .......... 16-87
1. General
2. Storage of Liquid Fuels
3. Storage of Lubricating And Hydraulic Oils
4. Storage of Thermal Oils
5. Storage of Oil Residues
6. Storage of Gas Bottles for Domestic Purposes
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-4
A.
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
General
A
manufacturer’s quality system and that the
system addresses the testing requirements,
1.
Scope
-
The booklet of standard details, containing
These requirements apply to the design, testing, and
standard
certification of pipe lines and pumping systems,
construction of the vessel, typical details of
whether they are pressurized or not, including
such items as bulkhead, deck and shell
pumps, pipes, tubes, hoses, valves, fittings such as
penetrations,
elbows, flanges, glands, filters and collectors etc.
details, etc.
practices
to
welding
be
used
details,
in
pipe
the
joint
which are necessary for the operation of the main
propulsion plant together with its auxiliaries and
-
equipment. The requirements in this section are to be
Machinery space arrangement, including
location of fuel oil tanks,
applied the metallic or non-metalic pipe lines and
pumping system.
-
Intended services, installation locations, pipe
and fitting dimensions, and spacing of pipe
The requirements also apply to piping systems used
supports,
in the operation of the ship whose failure could
catalogues, data sheets, calculations and
directly or indirectly impair the safety of ship or cargo,
functional descriptions,
all
relevant
design
drawings,
and to piping systems which are dealt with the
requirements in other Sections.
-
Fully detailed sectional assembly drawings
denoting pipes, joints and fittings.
The cargo handling and transfer pumping systems
and pipe lines in all tankers for the carriage of
-
flammable, toxic, corrosive or otherwise hazardous
Piping systems relating to the operation of
internal combustion engines,
liqides are additionally subject to the provisions of the
relevant requirements in Section 20.
-
Piping systems relating to the operation of
steam turbine and steam generating plants,
Chemical cargo and process piping are excluded from
the scope of the present requirement.
-
Other piping systems, such as hydraulic
piping system, pneumatic piping system,
Gas welding equipment is subject to the “Guidelines
for the Design, Equipment and Testing of Gas
Welding Equipment on Seagoing Ships”.
2.
Documents for Approval
oxygen-acetylene piping system, etc.,
-
Ballast system,
-
Bilges and gravity drains piping systems, and
piping systems serving tanks (other than
2.1
The
following
drawings/
documents/
cargo tanks);
information for the plastic pipes, fittings and joints are
to be submitted for approval in triplicate:
-
Specifications for the plastic piping, including
thermal
and
mechanical
properties
and
-
Boiler feed water and condensate systems,
-
Compressed air system,
-
Cooling water systems,
-
Exhaust piping (for boilers, incinerators and
chemical resistance, production details and
confirmed international standards or relevant
accepted standards by TL,
-
engines),
Certificates and reports for relevant test
previously
carried
verifying
the
out,
documentation
certification
of
the
-
Transfer and processing system of fuel oil
including storage tank arrangements, drip
trays and drains,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A
-
-
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
Transfer and processing system of lubricating
employed for given resin/reinforcement ratio,
oil including storage tank arrangements, drip
winding angle, orientation, joint bonding
trays and drains,
procedures,
Helicopter refueling system, fuel storage tank
-
Details of marking, legends for symbols used,
and its securing and bonding arrangements,
manufacturer’s
see Section 18, O,
instructions, serviceable life,
-
Sanitary system,
-
Sea water systems,
-
Vent, overflow and sounding arrangements,
-
Steam piping analyses (as applicable),
-
Tank venting and overflow systems,
-
All Class I and Class II piping systems not
-
Fire
extinguishing
directions,
installation
Properties of intended fluids, i.e., flashing
point of flammable fluids, limits of flow rates,
maximum pump pressures and/or relief valve
covered above,
-
16-5
systems,
which
are
settings,
-
Electrical conductivity and earthing details,
-
Level of fire encurance,
-
Instrumentation and control,
2.4
Essential components of the piping system,
their technical details and manufacturing standards are
to be approved by TL for certification requirements.
provided in Section 18.
2.2
Cargo piping systems and other piping
systems specific to specialized vessel types are to be
specially considered by TL for approval.
2.3
Diagrammatic plans of the piping system in
2.1 are to be included following information and details
necessary for approval.
-
2.5
The booklet of standard details must contain
standard practices to be used in the construction of the
vessel, typical details of such items as bulkhead, deck
and shell penetrations, welding details, pipe joint details,
etc. This information may be included in the approved
system plans in 2.1, if desired.
2.6
For remotely controlled valves, the following
plans and documents shall be submitted for approval:
Terms and definitions, used in this section,
Types,
sizes,
nominal
diameter,
-
Diagrammatic plans of the piping system,
-
Arrangements of the control and command
wall
thickness, inner diameter, roughness or
assemblies, actuactor mechanism,
friction factor or pressure loss per unit length
of the plastic pipe,
-
-
Power
supply
system
confirming
Maximum internal and external working
requirements in Chapter 5 -
pressure, working temperature range,
Installation.
the
Electrical
Material properties, resin type, catalyst and
2.7
accelerator
more than 400°C, the corresponding stress calculations
types
and
concentration
employed in the case reinforced polyester
For steam lines with working temperatures
together with isometric data are to be submitted.
resin pipes or hardeners where epoxide
resins
are
regarding
employed,
the
type
full
of
information
gel-coat
3.
Pipe Classes
or
during
Pipes are to be manufactured according to the
construction, cur/post-cure conditions, cure
International Standards approved by TL and made of
and post cure temperatures and durations
materials given in Figure 16.1.
thermoplastic
liner
employed
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-6
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
A
Figure 16.1 Material of pipes
Table 16.1 Classification of piping systems
PR (Design pressure, bars), t (Design temperature,°C)
Pipe class - I
Pipe class - II
Pipe class - III
Type of piping system
Toxic media
Corrosive media
Inflammable media with service temperature above
the flash point
Inflammable media with a flash point below 60°C or
less
Liquefied gases (LG)
all
all
(1)
-
all
(1)
-
all
(1)
-
all
(1)
7 < PR ≤ 16
170 < t ≤ 300
7 < PR ≤ 16
150 < t ≤ 300
7 < PR ≤ 16
60 < t ≤ 150
PR ≤ 7 and
t ≤ 170
PR ≤ 7 and
t ≤ 150
PR ≤ 7 and t ≤
60
PR > 40 or t > 300
16 < PR ≤ 40
200 < t ≤ 300
PR ≤ 16 and
t ≤ 200
all
-
all
all
-
-
-
all
Steam
PR > 16 or t > 300
Thermal oil
PR > 16 or t > 300
Liquid fuels, lubricating oil, inflammable hydraulic fluid
PR > 16 or t > 150
Air, gas
Non-flammable hydraulic fluid
Boiler feedwater, condensate
Seawater and fresh water for cooling
Brine in refrigerating plant
Cargo pipelines for oil tankers
Cargo and venting lines for gas and chemical tankers
Refrigerants
Open-ended pipelines (without shut-off), e.g. drains,
venting pipes, overflow lines and boiler blowdown lines
(1)
Classification in Pipe Class II is possible if special safety arrangements are available and structural safety precautions
are arranged.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
A,B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-7
Piping systems are divided into three classes according
However, they may be used for higher temperatures
to service, design pressure and temperatures as
provided that their metallurgical behavior and their
indicated in Table 16.1. Each class has specific
strength property according to C.2.3 after 100,000 hours
requirements for joint desing, fabrication and testing.
of operation are in accordance with national or
The requirements in this regards are given in this
international regulations or standards and if such values
section for all type of metallic piping except B.2.6.
are guaranteed by the steel manufacturer.
Specified requirements for plastic pipes are given in
Otherwise, special alloy steel pipes, valve and fittings
B.2.6.
should be employed according to TL's Rules for Materials.
B.
Materials and Testing
1.
General
Consideration is to be given to the possibility of graphite
formation in the following steels:
-
Carbon steel above 425ºC,
-
Carbon-molybdenum steel above 470ºC,
-
Chrome-molybdenum steel (with chromium
Materials must be suitable for the proposed application
and comply with the TL's Rules for Materials. In case of
especially corrosive media, TL may impose special
requirements on the materials used. For welds, see
under 0.60%) above 525ºC,
Rules for Welding of Pressure Vessels, Piping and
Machinery Components (Section 14). For the materials
used for pipes and valves for steam boilers and thermal
-
Ferrous materials used in piping systems
operating at lower than -18ºC are to have
oil system, see Section 12 and 13.
adequate notch toughness properties.
Materials with low heat resistance (melting point
below 925 °C) are not acceptable for piping systems
Other alloy steels not mentioned here are to confirm the
and components where fire may cause outflow of
requirements in TL Rules of Materials for approval.
flammable
liquids,
flooding
of
any
watertight
compartment or destruction of watertight integrity.
2.3
Deviations from this requirement will be considered
copper alloys
Pipes, valves and fittings of copper and
on a case by case basis.
Pipes of copper and copper alloys are to be of
2.
seamless drawn material or fabricated by a method
Materials
approved by TL. Copper pipes for Classes I and II
2.1
must be seamless.
Material manufacturers
Pipes, elbows, fittings, valve casings, flanges and semi-
Copper and copper alloys are not to be used for the fluids
finished products intended to be used in pipe class I
having a temperature greater than the following limits:
and II are to be manufactured by TL approved
manufacturers.
-
Copper-nickel alloys
300°C,
For the use in pipe class III piping systems an approval
-
High temperature bronze
260°C,
-
Copper and aluminium brass
200°C,
2.4
Pipes, valves and fittings of nodular
according to other recognized standards may be
accepted.
2.2
Pipes, valves and fittings of steel
cast iron
Pipes belonging to Classes I and II are to be either
seamless drawn or fabricated by a welding procedure
Pipes, valves and fittings of nodular ferritic cast iron
approved by TL. In general, carbon and carbon-
according to the Rules for Materials may be accepted
manganese steel pipes, valves and fittings are not to
for bilge, ballast and cargo pipes within double bottom
be
tanks and cargo tanks and for other purposes
used
for
temperatures
above
400°C.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-8
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
B
approved by TL. In special cases (applications
The use of grey cast iron for other service will be
corresponding in principle to classes II and III) and
subject to special consideration by TL.
subject to the TL's special approval, valves and
fittings made of ferritic nodular cast iron may be
2.6
Plastic pipes
accepted for temperatures up to 350°C. Nodular
ferritic cast iron for pipes, valves and fittings fitted on
The requirements in this section deal with the plastic
the ship's side must comply with the TL's Rules for
pipes
Materials (see also Rule 22 of the 1966/1988 Load
independent of service or location. However, the
Line as amended).
plastic pipes may be used after special approval by
apply to all piping and piping systems
TL.
2.5
Pipes, valves and fittings of lamellar-
graphite cast iron (grey cast iron)
For testing and applications FTP CODE requirements
will be provided.
Pipes, valves and fittings of grey cast iron may be
accepted by the TL for Class III. Pipes of grey cast
2.6.1
iron may be used for cargo pipe lines within cargo
methods of plastic pipes are to be approved by TL to be
tanks of tankers.
used for marine applications. Plastics pipes are
Material
properties
and
manufacturing
produced of following material compositions, separately
Pipes, valves and fittings of grey cast iron may be
or combined:
used for cargo lines on the weather deck of oil
tankers up to a working pressure of 16 bar.
-
Elastomers (entirely elastic structured),
Ductile materials are to be used for cargo hose
-
Thermoplastics
connections and distributor headers. This applies also
ambient
shaped by heat treatment),
lines.
-
under
atmospheric conditions, but can be re-
to the hose connections of fuel and lubricating oil filling
The use of grey cast iron is not allowed:
(solid
-
Thermosets (permanently solid, cannot be
melted or re-shaped after cured due to the
resin based additives),
In cargo lines on chemical tankers (see
Section 20),
Thermoset plastics are applicable for coating, moulding
-
For valves fitted on the collision bulkhead,
or glass-fiber reinforced.
-
For sea valves and pipes fitted on the ship
Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes approved the
sides,
requirements in this section are accepted by TL to be
used in marine applications.
-
For pipes, valves and fittings for media
having temperatures above 220°C
2.6.2
Plastic piping systems including valves,
fittings, connecting pieces etc. are to be designed
-
For pipelines subject to water hammer,
severe stresses or vibrations,
-
For valves fitted on the outside of fuel oil,
lubricating oil, cargo oil and hydraulic oil
tanks where subjected to a static head of
oil,
and
manufactured
according
to
the
recognized
standards and be subjected by the manufacturer to a
continuous TL approved quality control.
Piping systems and pipe lines made of plastic material
including pipes, valves, fittings, connecting pieces,
whether reinforced or not, must have TL type approval
-
For relief valves.
certificate to be used in marine applications.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-9
The following documents apply to type approval
2.6.4
certificate by TL:
bulkheads and decks as well as through fire divisions
Pipe
penetrations
through
watertight
are to be approved by TL. Plastic pipes are only
-
Durability and tightness test results against to
approved to be used for piping system.
the design pressure and design temperature,
and
performance
characteristics
and
Dependent on the application and installation location
response for surrounding and/or contained
specific means respectively additional flame tests may
chemical medium previously carried out by
be required.
the manufacturer,
-
2.6.5
Design pressures for plastic pipes
2.6.5.1
Internal pressure
National and international standards and
codes about plastic pipes applied to the
design and manufacturing stages,
The hydrostatic test results guiding time-to-failure
-
Plans, drawings, documents including design
analysis
calculations and functional descriptions,
thermosetting/resin
of
both
thermoplastic
pipe
under
and
reinforced
constant
internal
pressure are to be submitted to TL for approval.
-
Documentation
verifying
manufacturer’s
quality management system,
The hydrostatic tests confirming the ASTM 1598-02
standard are to be carried out under the following
-
Detailed sectional assembly drawings of
conditions:
piping components.
2.6.3
meet the following additional performance guidelines of
TL:
2.6.3.1
-
Atmospheric pressure of 0.1 MPa,
-
Relative humidity of 30%
-
Fluid temperature of 25 ºC
Approved plastic piping system shall also
The piping should have sufficient strength to
take account of the most severe coincident conditions of
pressure, temperature, the weight of the piping itself
Plastic piping systems shall be designed for an internal
and any static and dynamic loads imposed by the
pressure not less than the maximum working pressure
design or environment.
to be expected under operating conditions or the
highest set pressure of any safety valve or pressure
2.6.3.2
For the purpose of assuring adequate
relief device on the system, if fitted.
robustness for all piping including open ended piping
(e.g. overflows, vents and open-ended drains), all pipes
should have a minimum wall thickness to ensure
adequate strength for use on board ships, also to
withstand
loads
due
to
transportation,
handling,
Hoop stress in the pipe specimens is calculated using
equations (approximation) for the hoop stress, as
follows:
personnel traffic, etc. This may require the pipe to have
σ hoop 
additional thickness than otherwise required by service
p int (d a  s)
considerations
2s
Where:
2.6.3.3
The
performance
requirements
for
any
component of a piping system such as fittings, joints,
hoop
= Hoop stress [N/mm2]
pint
= Internal pressure, [MPa],
and method of joining are the same as those
requirements for the piping system they are installed in.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-10
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
da
s
B
= Measured average outside diameter, [mm].
less than the absolute pressure acting on the outside of
For reinforced thermosetting pipe, outside
pipe, i.e., the sum of the maximum potential head of
diameter shall not include nonreinforced
liquid outside the pipe, plus full vacuum pressure of 0.1
covers,
MPa.
= Measured minimum wall thickness, [mm].
The nominal external pressure for a pipe should be
For reinforced thermosetting pipe use
determined by dividing the collapse test pressure by a
minimum reinforced wall thickness.
safety factor of 3. The collapse test pressure should be
verified experimentally or by a combination of testing
Maximum allowable hydrostatic pressure, Pint, for plastic
pipes is not to be greater than
p int 
TL for approval.
2  s  σ hoop
p ext 
da  s
The nominal internal pressure, Pint, for a plastic pipe is
to be the lesser of the followings:
p int 
p sth
or
4
and calculation methods which are to be submitted to
p int 
p coll
3
In no case is the collapse external pressure to be less
than 0.3 MPa.
p lth
2.5
In systems pumping fresh water and sea water,
pressure and temperature limits shall not exceed 1 MPa
Where:
and 60°C.
psth
=
Short-term hydrostatic test failure pressure,
Depending upon the intended application, TL reserves
plth
These
=
Long-term hydrostatic test failure pressure
the right to require the hydrostatic pressure testing of
(> 100,000 hours).
each pipe and/or fitting.
long
and
short
term
hydrostatic
failure
2.6.6
Axial strength
pressures can be found by a combination of
prototype testing and calculation. Due to the length of
time stipulated for the long term test it is expected
that testing will be carried out to a suitable standard,
such as ASTM 2837 and ASTM D 1598. These
standards allow tests to be carried out over a shorter
period of time and the results extrapolated. It should
The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure,
weight and other dynamic and sustained loads should
not exceed the allowable stress in the longitudinal
direction. Forces due to thermal expansion, contraction
and external loads, where applicable, are to be
be remembered that the nominal internal pressure
considered when determining longitudinal stresses in
may need to be adjusted to take account of results
the system.
obtained from ageing tests, and a further allowance
will also have to be made where a high maximum
In the case of fibre reinforced plastic pipes, the sum of
service temperature is envisaged.
the longitudinal stresses shall not exceed one-half of the
nominal circumferentional stress derived from the
2.6.5.2
maximum internal pressure determined according to
External pressure
paragraph 2.6.5. The permissible longitudinal stress is
External pressure should be taken into account in the
to be verified experimentally or by a combination of
design of piping for any installation which may be
testing and calculation methods.
subject to vacuum conditions inside the pipe or a head
of liquid acting on the outside of the pipe.
2.6.7
Piping should be designed for an external pressure not
Plastic
Temperature
piping
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
system
shall
meet
the
design
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-11
requirements of these guidelines over the range of
-
service temperatures it will experience.
level 2 systems except a maximum 5% flow
Level 2W – Piping systems similar to
loss
The minimum heat distortion temperature should not
in
the
system
after
exposure
is
acceptable
be less than 80°C. This minimum heat distortion
temperature requirement is not applicable to pipes
and
pipe
components
made
of
thermoplastic
-
polybutylene
(PB)
and
intended
plastic
2.6.9
20°C
plastic piping
the
minimum
heat
distortion
low-level
fire
condition
The maximum working temperature should be at least
than
having
min without loss of integrity in the wet
for
nonessential services.
lower
pipes
endurance (for a duration of a minimum of 30
materials, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene
(PP),
L3
Test methot for fire endurance testing of
temperature (determined according to ISO 75 method
A, or equivalent) of the resin or plastic material.
Plastic pipes are tested according to IMO Resolution
A.753(18) Guidelines for the application of plastic pipes
Where low temperature services are considered, special
on ships appendix 1, appendix 2, appendix 3 as
attention is to be given with respect to material
amended by MSC.313(88)
properties.
See UR P 4.7 for the Type Approval of plastic pipes.
2.6.8
Fire endurance
2.6.10
Ageing
Before
selection
Fire protection of plastic pipes requires special care and
the requirements wanted in different pipe systems are
given in Table 16.2. In order to determine the fire
endurance, plastic pipes are tested according to FTP
CODE and IMO Resolution A.753(18) Guidelines for the
application of plastic pipes on ships as amended by
MSC.313(88).
according to test results:
piping
material,
the
manufacturer should confirm that the environmental
effects including but not limited to ultraviolet rays,
saltwater
exposure,
oil
and
grease
exposure,
temperature, and humidity, will not degrade the
material below the values necessary to meet these
guidelines.
The
manufacturer
should
establish
material ageing characteristics by subjecting samples
L1 plastic pipes having the highest fire
endurance (for a duration of a minimum of 60
min without loss of integrity in the dry
condition.),
-
a
mechanical and physical properties of the piping
The fire endurance varies into 5 different groups
-
of
of piping to an ageing test acceptable to TL and then
confirming its physical and mechanical properties by
the performance criteria in these guidelines. For the
acceptance and validity of the determination of the
age of pipe by pipe manufacturer, the experimental
Level 1W Piping systems similar to level 1
systems except these systems do not carry
flammable fluid or any gas and a maximum
5% flow loss in the system after exposure is
acceptable
method applied for this purpose should be approved
by TL.
The criteria of the acceptable ageing performance for the
plastic pipes is that there is a linear relationship between
the magnitude of the chemical or optical drawbacks the
pipe material will be exposed to and the decrease of the
-
L2 plastic pipes having middle-level fire
mechanical and physical properties of the pipe.
endurance (for a duration of a minimum of 30
min without loss of integrity in the dry
condition,
In every situation, age of the plastic pipe shall not be
less than 25 years.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-12
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
B
Table 16.2 Fire endurance requirement matrix for different piping systems
Piping Systems
1
2
3
Cargo lines
Crude oil washing
lines
Vent lines
G
H
I
J
K
NA
Location
C
D
E
F
Cargo ( Flammable cargoes f.p. < 60°C)
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
NA
0(10)
0
NA
L1(2)
NA
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
NA
0(10)
0
NA
L1(2)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
0(10)
0
NA
X
A
B
Inert Gas
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Water seal
efflluent line
Scrubber effluent
line
Main line
Distribution lines
Cargo lines
Fuel oil
Lubricating
Hydraulic oil
Bilge main and
branches
Fire main and
water spray
Foam system
Sprinkler system
Ballast
Cooling water,
essential
services
Tank cleaning
services fixed
machines
Non essential
systems
NA
NA
0(1)
NA
NA
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
NA
0
0(1)
0(1)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0(1)
0(1)
NA
0
0
NA
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
NA
L1(6)
L1(2)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
NA
0
0(10)
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
NA
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1(7)
L1(7)
L1
X
X
NA
0
0
0
NA
L1
L1
L1
L1
X
NA
NA
NA
0
0
X
L1
L1 W
L1 W
L3
L1 W
L1 W
L3
L1 W
L3
L3
NA
X
L3
NA
NA
X
NA
NA
0(10)
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
L1 W
L3
L2 W
L1 W
L3
L2 W
L3
L3
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
L2 W
NA
NA
L3
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
NA
L3(2)
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
L1
NA
NA
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
Flammable Liquids ( f.p. > 60°C)
L1
X
X
NA(3)
L1
X
X
NA(3)
L1
X
X
NA
L1
X
X
0
Seawater (1)
Fresh Water
20
21
22
Cooling water,
essential
services
Condensate
return
Non essential
systems
L3
L3
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
0
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
Sanitary/Drains/Scuppers
23
Deck drains
(internal)
L1W(
4)
L1W(4)
NA
L1W(4)
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
24
Sanitary drains
(internal)
0
0
NA
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
25
Scuppers and
dischargers
(overboard)
0(1,8)
0(1,8)
0(1,8)
0(1,8)
0(1,8)
0
0
0
0
0(1,8)
0
Sounding/Air
26
27
28
29
30
31
Water tanks/ dry
spaces
Oil tanks (f.p.>
60°C)
Control air
Service air (non
essential)
Brine
Auxiliary low
pressure steam
< 7 bar)
0
0
0
0
0
0(10)
0
0
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X(3)
0
0(10)
0
X
X
L1(5)
L1(5)
L1(5)
NA
0
0
0
L1(5)
L1(5)
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
L2W
L2W
0(9)
0(9)
0(9)
0
0
0
0
0(9)
0(9)
Miscellaneous
L1(5)
L1(5)
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-13
Table 16.2 Fire endurance requirement matrix for different piping systems (continued)
Abbreviation
L1
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 60 min.
W1
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 60 min. (These systems do not carry flammable fluid or any gas and a
maximum 5% flow loss in the system after exposure is acceptable)
L2
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 30 min.
W2
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 30 min. (These systems do not carry flammable fluid or any gas and a
maximum 5% flow loss in the system after exposure is acceptable)
L3
Fire endurance test in wet conditions, 30 min.
0
No fire endurance test required.
NA
Not applicable
X
Metallic materials having a melting point greater than 925 °C.
Location
A
Machinery spaces of Category A
B
Other machinery spaces and pump rooms
C
Cargo pump rooms
D
Ro-ro cargo holds
E
Other dry cargo holds
F
Cargo tanks
G
Fuel oil tanks
H
Ballast water tanks
I
Cofferdams void spaces pipe tunnel and ducts
J
Accommodation service and control spaces
K
Open decks
Footnotes:
(1)
Where non-metallic piping is used, remotely controlled valves to be provided at ship’s side. These valves are to be controlled
from outside the space.
(2)
Remote closing valves to be provided at the cargo tanks.
(3)
When cargo tanks contain flammable liquids with a flash point >60ºC. “O” may replace “NA” or “X”.
(4)
For drains serving only the space concerned, “O” may replace” L1”.
(5)
When controlling functions are not required by statutory requirements or guidelines, “O” may replace “L1”.
(6)
For pipe between machinery space and deck water seal, “O” may replace “L1”.
(7)
For passenger vessels, “X” is to replace “L1”.
(8)
Scuppers serving open decks in positions 1 and 2, as defined in regulation 13 of the International Convention on Load Lines,
1966, should be “X” throughout unless fitted at the upper end with the means of closing capable of being operated from a
position above the freeboard deck in order to prevent downflooding.
(9)
For essential services, such as fuel oil tank heating and ship’s whistle, “X” is to replace “O”.
(10)
For tankers where compliance with paragraph 3(f) of regulation 13F of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 is required, “NA” is to
replace “O”.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-14
2.6.11
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
Fatigue
B
punctures through pipe walls leading to leakage of pipe
contents,
In cases where design loadings incorporate a significant
or
can
ignite
surrounding
explosive
atmospheres.
cyclic or fluctuating component, fatigue should be
considered in the material selection process and be
2.6.14.2 In practice, fluids with conductivity less
taken into account in the installation design and be
than 1,000 pico Siemens per metre (pS/m) are
approved by TL.
considered to be non-conductive and therefore
capable of generating electrostatic charges. Refined
In addressing material fatigue, the designer may rely on
products and distillates fall into this category and
experience with similar materials in similar service or on
piping used to convey these liquids should therefore
laboratory evaluation of mechanical test specimens.
be electrically conductive. Fluid with conductivity
However, the designer is cautioned that small changes
greater than 1,000 pS/m are considered to be static
in the material composition may significantly affect
non-accumulators and can therefore be conveyed
fatigue behaviour.
through
pipes
not
having
special
conductive
properties when located in non hazardous areas.
2.6.12
Erosion resistance
2.6.14.3
Regardless of the fluid being conveyed,
In the cases where fluid in the system has high flow
plastic piping should be electrically conductive if the
velocities, abrasive characteristics or where there are
piping passes through a hazardous area.
flow path discontinuities producing excessive turbulence
the possible effect of erosion should be considered. If
2.6.14.4
erosion cannot be avoided then adequate measures
resistance per unit length of the pipe, bends, elbows,
should be taken such as increased wall thickness,
fabricated branch pieces, etc., shout not exceed
special liners, change of materials, etc.
5
1x10 Ohm/m.
2.6.13
It is preferred that pipes and fittings be homogeneously
Impact Resistance
Where conductive piping is required, the
conductive. Pipes and fittings having conductive layers
Plastic pipes and joints are to have a minimum
may be accepted subject to the arrangements for
resistance to impact not less than specified at
minimizing the possibility of spark damage to the pipe
National and International Standards recognized by
wall being satisfactory. Satisfactory earthing should be
TL.
provided.
After the impact resistance test the specimen is to be
The resistance to earth from any point in the piping
subjected to hydraulic test with pressure equal to 2.5
6
system should not exceed 1x10 Ohm.
times the design pressure for at least 1 hour. If a
leakage is determined, then it is concluded that there is
Fluids with conductivity greater than 1,000 pS/m are
no impact resistance.
considered to be static non-accumulators and can
therefore be conveyed through pipes not having special
conductive properties when located in non hazardous
2.6.14
Electrical conductivity
2.6.14.1
Electrostatic charges can be generated on
areas.
the inside and outside of plastic pipes. The plastic
After completion of the installation, the resistance to
piping systems carrying fluids capable of generating
earth should be verified. Earting wires should be
electrostatic charges (static accumulators) inside the
accessible for inspection.
pipe. The plastic pipes passing throughout hazardous
areas (i.e. areas that could, either in normal or fault
2.6.15
Fluid absorption
conditions, contain an explosive atmosphere), are
capable for the possibility of electrostatic charges
Absorption of fluid by the piping material should not
outside the pipe. The resulting sparks can create
cause a reduction of mechanical and physical properties
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
of the material below that required by these guidelines.
16-15
Criteria for smoke production need only be applied to
pipes within the accommodation, service, and control
The fluid being carried or in which the pipe is immersed
spaces.
should not permeate through the wall of the pipe.
Testing for fluid absorption characteristics of the pipe
A fire test procedure is being developed and when
material should be to a recognized standard by TL.
finalized and appropriate smoke obscuration criteria
have been recommended, this test will be incorporated
2.6.16
Material compatibility
into these guidelines. In the meantime, an absence of
this test, the usage of plastics needs the special
The piping material should be compatible with the fluid
approval by TL.
being carried or in which it is immersed such that its design
strength does not degenerate below that recognized by
2.6.19
Toxicity
these guidelines. Where the reaction between the pipe
material and the fluid is unknown, the compatibility should
FTP CODE requirements will be provided.
be demonstrated to TL for approval.
Toxicity testing is still being investigated and criteria
2.6.17
Flame spread
developed. Before meaningful conclusions can be
made, further experimentation and testing is needed. In
All pipes, except those fitted on open decks and within
the absence of a toxicity test, the usage of plastics
tanks, cofferdams, void spaces, pipe tunnels and ducts
needs the special approval by TL.
should have low flame spread characteristics as
determined by the test procedures given in FTP Code
2.6.20
Fire protection coatings
2.6.20.1
Where a fire protective coating of pipes and
and IMO resolution A.653 (16) as modified for pipes.
In
IMO
resolution
A.653
(16)
the
test
sample
configuration only considers flat surfaces. Procedure
fittings is necessary for achieving the fire endurance
standards required, the following requirements apply:
modifications to A.653 (16) are necessary due to the
curvilinear
pipe
surfaces.
These
procedure
-
Pipes
should
be
delivered
from
the
modifications are stated in IMO Resolution A.753 (18),
manufacturer with the protective coating on in
Appendix 3 as amended MSC.313(88).
which case on-site application of protection
would be limited to what is necessary for
Piping materials giving average values for all of the
installation
surface flammability criteria not exceeding the values
Alternatively pipes may be coated on site in
listed
accordance with the approved procedure for
in
IMO
resolution
A.653(16),
(Surface
purposes
(e.g.
joints).
flammability criteria, bulkhead, wall and ceiling
each
linings) are considered to meet the requirements for
materials of both pipes and insulations.
combination,
using
the
approved
low flame spread in accommodation, service and
control spaces. In other areas or where the quantity
of
pipes
is
small,
TL
may
allow
-
equivalent
The liquid absorption properties of the
coating and piping should be considered. The
acceptance criteria.
fire protection properties of the coating
should not be diminished when exposed to
Surface flame spread characteristics may also be
saltwater, oil or bilge slops. TL should be
determined using the text procedures given in ASTM
satisfied that the coating is resistant to
D635, or in other national equivalent standards.
products likely to come in contact with the
piping.
2.6.18
Smoke generation
-
FTP CODE requirements will be provided.
Fire protection coatings should not degrade due
to environmental effects over time, such as
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-16
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
ultraviolet
rays,
saltwater
B
exposure,
Heavy components in the piping system such as valves
temperature and humidity. Other areas to
and expansion joints should be independently supported.
consider are thermal expansion, resistance
against vibrations, and elasticity. Ageing of
the
-
fire
protection
coatings
should
2.6.21.2
Expansion
be
demonstrated to the satisfaction of TL in a
Suitable provision should be made in each pipeline to
manner consistent with the ageing test
allow for relative movement between pipes made of
specified above.
plastics and the steel structure, having due regard to:
The adhesion qualities of the coating should
-
The difference in the coefficients of thermal
expansion;
be such that the coating does not flake, chip,
or powder, when subjected to an adhesion
-
test approved by TL.
Deformations of the ship’s hull and its
structure.
-
The fire protection coating should have a
minimum
resistance
to
impact
to
the
satisfaction of TL.
When calculating the thermal expansions, account
should be taken of the system working temperature
and
the
temperature
at
which
assembling
is
performed.
-
Pipes should be an appropriate distance from
hot surfaces in order to be adequately
2.6.21.3
External loads
insulated.
Where applicable, allowance should be made for
2.6.20.2
Special testing may be required as part of the
approval procedure.
temporary point loads. Such allowances should include
at least the force exerted by a load (person) of 100 kg at
midspan on any pipe of more than 100 mm nominal
2.6.21
Installation
outside diameter.
2.6.21.1
Supports
Pipes should be protected from mechanical damages
where necessary.
Selection and spacing of pipe supports in shipboard
systems should be determined as a function of
2.6.21.4
Strength of connections
allowable stresses and maximum deflection criteria.
Support spacing should be not greater than the pipe
The requirements for connections are the same as
manufacturer’s recommended spacing. The selection
those requirements for the piping system in which
and spacing of pipe supports should take into
they are installed. Pipes may be assembled using
account pipe dimensions, mechanical and physical
adhesive-bonded, flanged or mechanically coupled
properties of the pipe material, mass of pipe and
joints.
contained
fluid,
external
pressure,
operating
temperature, thermal expansion effects, and loads
To qualify joint bonding procedures, the tests and
due to external forces, thrust forces, water hammer,
examinations specified herein should be successfully
vibration,
completed.
maximum
accelerations
to
which
the
system may be subjected, and the type of support.
The support spans should also be checked for
The procedure for making bonds should include: all
combination of loads.
materials and supplies, tools and fixtures, environmental
Each support should evenly distribute the load of the
requirements,
joint
requirements
and
pipe and its contents over the full width of the support
and be designed to minimize wear and abrasion.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
preparation,
tolerances,
dimensional
cure
time,
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
cure temperature, protection of work, tests and
2.6.25
16-17
Testing after installation on board
examinations and acceptance criteria for the completed
test assembly.
Plastic piping systems for essential services should be
subjected to a test pressure not less than 1.5 times the
Adhesives, when used for joint assembly, should be
design pressure of the system. The test pressure shall
suitable for providing a permanent seal between the
not be less than 4 bar.
pipes and fittings throughout the temperature and
pressure range of the intended application.
Piping systems for non-essential services should be
checked for leakage under operational conditions.
Tightening of flanged or mechanically coupled joints
should
be
performed
in
accordance
with
the
manufacturer’s instructions.
For piping required to be electrically conductive, the
resistance to earth should be checked. Earthing wires
should be accessible for inspection.
2.6.22
Penetrations of fire divisions
2.7
Aluminium and aluminium alloys
Where “A” or “B” class divisions are penetrated for the
passage of plastic pipes, arrangements should be made
Aluminium and aluminium alloys must comply with the
to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired. These
TL's Rules Chapter 2 - Material and may in individual
arrangements should be tested in accordance with
cases, with the agreement of TL, be used for
Recommendations for fire test procedures for “A” “B”
temperatures up to 200ºC. They are not acceptable for
and “F” bulkheads (IMO resolution A.754(18), as
use in fire extinguishing lines.
amended).
2.8
2.6.23
Application of materials
Penetrations of watertight bulkheads and
decks
For the pipe classes mentioned in A.3 materials must be
applied according to Table 16.3.
Where plastic pipes pass through watertight bulkheads
or decks, the watertight integrity and strength integrity of
3.
Material Tests
3.1
For piping systems belonging to class I and
the bulkhead or deck should be maintained.
If the bulkhead or deck is also a fire division and
destruction by fire of the plastic pipes may cause the
inflow of liquids from tanks, a metallic shut-off valve
operable from above the freeboard deck should be fitted
II, tests in accordance with the rules Chapter 2 Material and under the TL's supervision are to be
carried out in accordance with Table 16.5 for:
at the bulkhead or deck.
2.6.24
-
Pipes, bends and fittings;
-
Valve bodies and flanges,
-
Valve bodies and flanges >DN 100 in cargo
Methods of repair
At sea, the pipe material should be capable of
temporary repair by the crew, and the necessary
materials and tools kept on board.
and process pipe lines gas tankers with
design temperature <-55ºC.
Permanent repairs to the piping material should be
capable of exhibiting the same mechanical and
physical properties as the original base material.
3.2
Welded joint in pipe lines of classes I and II
Repairs carried out and tested under supervision of
are to be tested in accordance with the rules Chapter 3 -
TL Surveyor.
Welding.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-18
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
B
4.
Hydraulic Tests for Pipes
4.1.2
Nominal pressure, PN [bar]
4.1
Definitions
This is the term applied to a selected pressure temperature
relation
4.1.1
Maximum allowable working pressure, PB
used
for
the
standardization
of
structural
components. In general, the numerical value of the
nominal pressure for a standardized component made of
[bar], Formula symbol: pe,perm
the material specified in the standard will correspond to the
This is the maximum allowable internal or external
working pressure for a component or piping system with
regard
to
the
materials
used,
piping
design
requirements, the working temperature and undisturbed
operation.
maximum allowable working pressure PB at 20°C.
4.1.3
Test pressure, PP [bar], Formula symbol: pp
This is the pressure to which components or piping
systems are subjected for testing purposes.
Table 16.3 Approved materials
Material or application
Pipes
Steels
Castings
(valves,
fittings,
pipes)
Non-ferrous
metals
(valves,
fittings,
pipes)
Nonmetallic
materials
Pipe classes
I
II
III
Steel pipes above 300°C hightemperature below -10°C pipes
made of steels with high/low
temperature toughness, stainless
steel pipes for chemicals
Pipes for general
applications
Steel not subject to any special
quality specification, weldability
in accordance with Rules for
Welding
Forgings, plates, Steels suitable for the corresponding service and processing conditions, for temperatures
> 300°C, high-temperature steels, for temperatures below -10°C, steels with high/lowflanges, steel
sections and bars temperature toughness
Bolts, nuts
Bolts for general machine
construction, temperatures
>300°C high temperature steels,
below -10°C steels with high/lowtemperature toughness
Bolts for general machine construction
Cast steel
Cast steel above 300°C high
temperature below -10°C cast
steel with high/low-temperature
toughness, for aggressive media
stainless castings
Cast steel for general applications
Nodular cast iron
Only ferritic grades, elongation A5 at least 15%
Up to 220°C, gray cast iron is
not permitted in valves and
fittings on ship's side, on the
collision bulkhead and on fuel
and oil tanks and for relief
valves.
Cast iron with
lamellar graphite
-
Copper, copper
alloys
In cargo lines on tank ships
carrying chemicals only with
special approval low-temperature
copper nickel alloys by special
agreement
For seawater and alkaline water only corrosion
resistant copper and copper alloys
Aluminium,
aluminium alloy
In cargo and processing lines on
gas tankers
Only with the agreement of TL up to 200°C, not
permitted in fire extinguishing systems
Plastics
-
-
-
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
On special approval (see 2.6)
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
4.1.4
Design pressure, PR [bar], Formula
symbol: pc
16-19
pressure test in the presence of the Surveyor at the
following value of pressure:
pp
This is the maximum allowable working pressure PB

1.5  p c
[bar]
for which a component or piping system is designed
with regard to its mechanical characteristics. In
where pc is the design pressure.
general, the design pressure is the maximum
allowable working pressure at which the safety
Class III steam, boiler feed, compressed air and fuel oil
equipment will interfere (e.g. activation of safety
pipes and their integral fittings, where the design pressure
valves, opening of return lines of pumps, operating of
is greater than 3.5 bar, are to be hydrostatically tested to
overpressure safety arrangements, opening of relief
the test pressure pc, as defined above.
valves) or at which the pumps will operate against
closed valves. The design pressure for fuel pipes
For steel pipes and integral fittings where the design
shall be chosen according to Table 16.4. Valves and
temperature is above 300°C, the test pressure pp is to
fittings in piping systems are also to be compatible with
be determined by the following formula.
the pipes to which they are attached in respect of their
o
strength and are to be suitable for effective operation at
p p  1.5 
the maximum working pressure they will experience in
service.
σ perm (100 C)
σ perm (t)
pc
[bar]
Where;
Table 16.4 Design pressure for fuel pipes
Max. working
σperm (100°) =
Permissible stress at 100°C,
σperm (t)
Permissible
=
stress
at
design
temperature.
temperature
T ≤ 60°C
T > 60°C
Max.working
The test pressure is to be determined by formula above,
pressure
but need not exceed 2pc.
PB ≤7 bar
3 bar or
3 bar or
maximum
maximum
working
working
pressure,
pressure
With the approval of TL, this test pressure may be
whichever
whichever is
reduced to 1.5pc, where it is necessary to avoid
is greater
greater
excessive stress in way of bends, T-pieces and other
14 bar or
shaped components.
Maximum
PB > 7 bar
working
pressure
p p  2  p c [bar]
maximum
working
In no case is the membrane stress to exceed 90% of
pressure
the yield stress or 0.2% of maximum elongation.
whichever is
greater
4.2.2
All valves intended for installation on the side
shell at or below the deepest load waterline, including
4.2
Pressure test prior to installation on
board
those at the sea chests, are to be hydrostatically tested
in the presence of the TL Surveyor, before installation,
to a pressure of at least 5 bar.
4.2.1
All Class I and II pipes as well as steam
lines, feedwater pressure pipes, compressed air and
4.2.3
fuel lines having a design pressure PR greater than
to carry out complete hydraulic pressure tests on all
3,5 bar together with their integral fittings, connecting
sections of piping before assembly on board, proposals
pieces, branches and bends, after completion of
are to be submitted to TL for approval for testing pipe
manufacture but before insulation and coating, is this
connections carried out on board, particularly in respect
is provided, shall be subjected to a hydraulic
of welding seams.
Where for technical reasons it is not possible
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-20
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
B
Table 16.5 Approved materials and types of certificates
Type of material
certificate
Type of
component
Approved materials
Design
temperature
Pipe class
Nominal
according to
diameter DN
EN 10204
3.2
(TL)
Pipes (1),
Copper, Copper alloys
Pipe elbows,
Aluminium
Fittings
Aluminium alloys
-
Plastics
2.2
> 50
x
-
-
≤ 50
-
x
-
> 50
-
x
-
≤ 50
-
-
x
All
-
-
x
DN > 100
x
-
-
DN ≤ 100
-
x
-
x
-
-
-
x
-
All
-
-
x
PBxDN > 1500
x
-
-
PBxDN ≤ 1500
-
x
-
III
All
-
-
x
I, II
-
-
x
-
III
-
-
-
x
I
Steel
3.1
II
III
Steel
Cast steel,
> 300°C
Nodular cast iron
Copper
I, II
> 225°C
Copper alloys
PBxDN > 2500
or
Steel
Cast steel,
≤ 300°C
I, II
Nodular cast iron
DN > 250
PBxDN ≤ 2500
or
DN ≤ 250
Valves (1), Flanges
Steel
Cast steel,
Nodular cast iron
-
III
Grey cast iron
Copper
≤ 225°C
Copper alloys
I, II
Aluminium
Aluminium alloys
≤ 200°C
Acc. to Type
Plastics
Approval
Certificate
Semi-finished
products,
Screws and other
According to Table 16.3
components
(1)
-
Casing of valves and pipes fitted on the ship’s side and bottom and bodies of valves fitted on collision bulkhead
are to be included in pipe Class II.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
B
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-21
Table 16.6 Minimum wall thickness groups N, M and D of steel pipes and approved locations
D
Fuel lines
Lubricating lines
-
Thermal oil lines
M
Steam lines
Condensate lines
Feedwater lines
M
D
X
D
N
X
X
M
M
X
M
X
Fresh cooling water lines
M
Hydraulic lines
(1)
See Section 20.B.4.3
(2)
Seawater discharge lines, see T-Sewage System
X
(-)
Pipelines are not to be installed.
Pipelines may be installed after special agreement with TL.
X
X
X
D
N
D
M
M
X
X
M
N
M
(2)
M
Weather deck
Cargo pump rooms
M
(1)
Accomodation
Condensate & feedwater
tanks
X
X
X
X
-
M
X
-
X
N
M
Compressed air lines
X
M
-
N
-
N
Drinking water lines
Thermal oil tanks
X
X
N
M
Drinking water tanks
Hydraulic oil tanks
Lubricating oil tanks
X
Cofferdams, tank ships
M
Seawater lines
Fresh cooling water tanks
D
Fuel and changeover
tanks
M
Cargo tanks, tank ships
Ballast lines
Ballast water tanks
Bilge lines
Cargo holds
Cofferdams/void spaces
Piping system
Machinery spaces
Location
N
N
M
X
N
X
N
X
X
X
X
N
X
N
N
X
X
-
-
N
N
N
Where the hydraulic pressure test of piping
Gas and liquid fuel systems and heating coils in tanks
is carried out on board, these tests may be
are to be hydrostatically tested in the presence of the
conducted in conjunction with the tests required in
Surveyor after installation to 1.5pc, but not less than 4
4.3.
bars.
4.2.4
4.2.5
Pressure testing of pipes with less than DN15
4.4
Pressure testing of valves
may be omitted at TL’s discretion depending on the
The following valves are to be subjected in the
application.
manufacturer's works to a hydraulic pressure test in the
4.3
Test after installation on board
4.3.1 After assembly on board, all pipelines covered by
presence of a TL Surveyor:
-
Valves of pipe Classes I and II to 1.5 PR,
-
All valves intended for installation on the side
these requirements are to be subjected to a tightness
test in the p resence of a TL Surveyor.
shell at or below the deepest load waterline,
All piping systems are to be tested for leakage under
working conditions after installation in the presence of
the TL Surveyor. Where necessary, other techniques of
tightness test in lieu of a working pressure test may be
considered.
including those at the sea chests, are to be
hydrostatically tested in the presence of the
Surveyor, before installation, to a pressure of
at least 5 bar.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-22
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
B,C
Shut-off devices are to be additionally tested for
1.3
tightness with the nominal pressure. Shut-off devices for
sounding and overflow pipes through weather decks,
see R, Table 16.23.
boilers, see Section 12, E.10.
5.
For the minimum wall thickness of air,
Manufacturer’s Tests, Heat Treatments
For CO2 fire extinguishing pipelines, see Section 18,
Table 18.6.
and Non-Destructive Tests
1.4
Where the application of mechanical joints
Attention should be given to the workmanship in
results in reduction in pipe wall thickness (bite type
construction and installation of the piping systems
rings or other structural elements) this is to be taken
according to the approved data in order to obtain the
into account in determining the minimum wall
maximum efficiency in service. For details concerning
thickness.
structural tests and tests following heat treatments, see
Chapter 2 - Material.
2.
Design Calculations
The following requirements apply for pipes where the
C.
Calculation
of
Wall
Thickness
and
exceed the value 1.7.
Elasticity
1.
ratio outside-diameter to inside-diameter does not
2.1
Minimum Wall Thickness
The following formula is to be used for
calculating the wall thicknesses of cylindrical pipes and
1.1
The
pipe
thickness
stated
in
Tables
bends subject to internal pressure:
16.6÷16.9 is the assigned minimum thicknesses,
unless due
s  s o  c  b [mm]
to stress analysis, see 2, greater
thicknesses are necessary.
so 
Provided that the pipes are effectively protected against
corrosion, the wall thicknesses of group M and D stated
(1a)
da  pc
20  σ perm  v  p c
[mm]
(1a1)
s
=
Minimum thickness (See 2.7) [mm],
so
=
Calculated thickness [mm],
da
=
Outer diameter of pipe [mm],
pc
=
Design pressure (see B.4.1.4), (1) [bar]
σperm
=
Maximum
in Table 16.7 may with the TL's agreement be reduced
by up to 1 mm, the amount of the reduction is to be in
relation to the wall thickness.
The minimum thicknesses listed in Table 16.7 are the
nominal wall thickness. No allowance needs to be made
for negative tolerance or for reduction in thickness due
to bending.
permissible
design
stress
2
(see 2.3) [N/mm ],
For threaded pipes, where approved, the thickness is to
be measured to the bottom of the thread.
b
=
Allowance for bends (see 2.2) [mm],
v
=
Weld efficiency factor (see 2.5) [-],
c
=
Corrosion allowance (see 2.6). [mm],
(1)
For pipes containing fuel heated above 60°C the
Protective coatings, e.g. hot-dip galvanizing, can be
recognized as an effective corrosion protection provided
that the preservation of the protective coating during
installation is guaranteed.
For steel pipes the wall thickness group corresponding
to the laying position is to be as stated in Table 16.6.
1.2
The minimum wall thicknesses for austenitic
stainless steel pipes are given in Table 16.8.
design pressure is to be taken not less than 14 bar.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-23
Table 16.7 Minimum wall thickness for steel pipes
Group N
Group M
Group D
da
s
da
s
da
s
da
s
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
10.2
1.6
From 406.4
6.3
From 21.3
3.2
From 38.0
6.3
From 13.5
1.8
From 457.2
6.3
From 38.0
3.6
From 82.5
6.3
From 20.0
2.0
From 660.4
7.1
From 51.0
4.0
From 88.9
7.1
From 48.3
2.3
From 762.0
8.0
From 76.1
4.5
From 114.3
8.0
From 70.0
2.6
From 863.6
8.8
From 177.8
5.0
From 152.4
8.8
From 88.9
2.9
From 914.4
10.0
From 193.7
5.4
From 457.2
8.8
From 114.3
3.2
From 219.1
5.9
From 133.0
3.6
From 244.5
6.3
From 152.4
4.0
From 660.4
7.1
From 177.8
4.5
From 762.0
8.0
From 244.5
5.0
From 863.6
8.8
From 298.5
5.6
From 914.4
10.0
Table 16.8 Minimum wall thickness for austenitic
Table 16.9
Minimum wall thickness for copper
and copper alloy pipes
stainless steel pipes
External Diameter
Minimum Wall
da
Thickness
[mm]
s
Outside Diameter
da
[mm]
10.2 – 17.2
1.0
21.3 – 48.3
1.6
60.3 – 88.9
2.0
114.3 – 168.3
2.3
219.1
2.6
273.0
2.9
323.9 – 406.4
3.6
Over 406.4
4.0
2.2
[mm]
8 – 10
12 – 20
25 – 44.5
50 – 76.1
88.9 – 108
133 – 159
193.7 – 267
273 – 457.2
470
508
Minimum Wall
Thickness
s
[mm]
Copper
Copper
Alloy
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
For straight cylindrical pipes which are to be
bent, an allowance (b) shall be applied for the bending
2.3
Permissible stress: σperm
2.3.1
Steel pipes
of the pipes. The value of (b) shall be such that the
stress due to the bending of the pipes does not exceed
the maximum permissible design stress (σperm). The
allowance (b) can be determined as follows:
b = 0.4
R
=
da
so
R
The permissible stress σperm to be considered in formula
(1a2)
(1a1) is to be chosen as the lowest of the following
values:
Bending radius [mm].
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-24
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
2.3.1.1
Design temperature ≤ 350°C
-
C
Are made of material tested by TL , TL may,
on special application, agree to a safety
R m,20o
Rm,20º = Specified minimum tensile strength
A
factor B of 1.6 (for A and B see Table 16.11).
at room temperature.
2.3.2
R eH,t
definite yield point
ReH,t = Specified minimum yield stress at
B
Pipes made of metallic materials without a
design temperature,
Materials without a definite yield point are covered by
or
Table 16.10. For other materials, the maximum
R p,0.2, t
Rp
0.2,t
= Minimum value of the 0.2 % proof
B
must be at least
stress at design temperature.
2.3.1.2
σ perm 
Design temperature > 350°C, whereby it is to
be checked whether the calculated values according to
2.3.1.1 give the decisive smaller value.
R m,100000,
B
allowable stress is to be stated with TL agreement, but
t
rupture in 100,000 hours at
the design temperature t,
=
Rp 1%,100000,t
Mean value of the stress to
hours at the design temperature t,
=
Average
stress
to
2.3.3
The mechanical characteristics of materials
which are not included in Chapter 2 - Material are to be
agreed with TL with reference to Table 16.11.
produce 1% creep in 100,000
Rm,100000,(t+15)
where Rm,t is the minimum tensile strength at the design
temperature.
Rm,100000,t = Minimum stress to produce
,
R m, t
5
produce
rupture in 100,000 hours at the
design temperature t plus 15°C
Steel pipes without guaranteed properties may be used
only up to a working temperature of 120°C where the
2
maximum allowable stress σperm  80 N/mm will be
approved.
2.4
Design temperature
2.4.1
The design temperature is the maximum
(see 2.4)
temperature of the medium inside the pipe. In case of
In the case of pipes which:
steam pipes, filling pipes from air compressors and
-
Are covered by a detailed stress analysis
starting air lines to internal combustion engines, the
acceptable to TL, and
design temperature is to be at least 200°C.
Table 16.10
Allowable stress, σperm for copper and copper alloy pipes (annealed)
2
Allowable stress σperm [N/mm ]
Minimum
Pipe material
tensile
strength
50°C 75°C 100°C 125°C 150°C 175°C 200°C 225°C 250°C 275°C 300°C
2
[N/mm ]
Copper
215
41
41
40
40
34
27.5
18.5
-
-
-
-
Aluminium brass Cu Zn
20 Al
325
78
78
78
78
78
51
24.5
-
-
-
-
275
68
68
67
65.5
64
62
59
56
52
48
44
365
81
79
77
75
73
71
69
67
65.5
64
62
Copper
nickel
alloys
Cu Ni 5 Fe
Cu Ni 10 Fe
Cu Ni 30 Fe
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-25
2.4.2
Design temperatures for superheated steam
lines are as follows:
The value of weld efficiency factor v in pipes must be
equal to TL’s approval test value.
2.4.2.1
Pipes behind de-superheaters
Table 16.11
-
With automatic temperature control:
the
working
temperature
(2)
temperature)
-
(design
With manual control:
the working temperature +15°C (2)
2.4.2.2
Pipes before de-superheaters: the working
temperature +15°C (2)
2.5
Weld efficiency factor, “v”
-
For seamless pipes, v = 1.0
For boiler pipes, v = 0.6
Material
A
II, III
A
B
2.7 1.6
2.7
1.8
Rolled and forged stainless 2.4 1.6
steel
2.4
1.8
3.0 1.7
3.0
1.8
Unalloyed and alloyed
carbon steel
B
Grey cast iron
-
-
11.0
-
Nodular cast iron
-
-
5.0
3.0
3.2
-
4.0
-
Cast steel
(1)
(2)
Transient excesses in the working temperature
need not be taken into account when determining the
design temperature.
I
Pipe Class
Steel with, σs,20°>400
2
N/mm (1)
In the case of welded pipes, the value of v is to be equal
to that assigned at the TL acceptance test.
-
Coefficients A, B for determining the
allowable stress σperm.
Minimum yield strength or minimum 0.2 % proof
stress at 20 °C.
Table 16.12 Corrosion allowance “c” for carbon steel pipes
Type of piping system
Corrosion allowance c [mm]
Superheated steam lines
0.3
Saturated steam lines
0.8
Steam heating coils inside cargo tanks
2.0
Feedwater lines:
- in closed circuit systems
0.5
- in open circuit systems
1.5
Boiler blow down lines
1.5
Compressed air lines
1.0
Hydraulic oil lines, lubricating oil lines
0.3
Fuel lines
1.0
Cargo oil lines
2.0
Refrigerant lines for Group 1 (1) refrigerants
0.3
Refrigerant lines for Group 2 (1) refrigerants
0.5
Seawater lines
3.0
Fresh water lines
0.8
(1) The refrigerants are classified by their explosion limit at atmosphere pressure and surrounding temperature to the groups 1, 2 and 3.
Group 1: Refrigerants, which are not burning at any concentration when they are present in the air. Halogenated hydrocarbons are
relatively non-flammable, non-toxic and non-explosive
Group 2: Refrigerants, which mixture with air has a lower explosion limit of 3.5 % V/V as minimum. These refrigerants are either
toxic or flammable. For example metil chloride and sulphur dioxide
Group 3: Refrigerant, which mixture with air has a lower explosion limit of less than 3.5 % V/V. The lower explosion limit is calculated
after certain standards, e. g. ANSI/ASTM E 681. These refrigerants are highly flammable and explosive ones like propane, propylene,
ethane, ethylene, methane etc.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-26
2.6
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
-
Corrosion allowance, “c”
C
Steam pipes with working temperatures
above 400ºC;
The corrosion allowance, c, depends on the application
-
of the pipe, in accordance with Tables 16.12 and 16.13.
-
Pipes with working temperatures below 110ºC.
With the agreement of TL, the corrosion allowance of
steel pipes effectively protected against corrosion may
be reduced by not more than 50 %. With agreement of
3.2
TL, no corrosion allowance need be applied to pipes
be applied. The change in elasticity of bends and fittings
made of corrosion-resistant materials (e.g. austenitic
steels and copper alloys) (see Tables 16.8 and 16.9).
For pipes passing through tanks an additional corrosion
allowance is to be considered according to the Table
16.12 and depending on the external medium, in order
to account for the external corrosion.
2.7
delivery are to be added to the minimum thickness s
and specified as the tolerance allowance t. The value of
t may be calculated as follows:
(1a3)
[mm]
For determining the stresses, the hypothesis of the
system itself (gravitational forces) shall not exceed the
maximum allowable stress according to 2.3. Equivalent
stresses obtained by adding together the abovementioned primary forces and the secondary forces due
to impeded expansion or contraction shall not exceed
limit in 100,000 hours whereby for fittings such as
bends, T-connections, headers etc. approved stress
increase factors are to be considered.
= Negative tolerance on the thickness (It can
be taken % 12.5 for the calculations if there
isn’t a measured value) [%],
=
reserves the right to perform confirmatory calculations.
the mean low cycle fatigue value or mean time yield
where;
s0
technical data are to be submitted for approval. TL
internal pressure and the dead weight of the piping
according to the standards of the technical terms of
a
Procedure and principles of methods as well as the
resulting comparison of stress of primary loads due to
The negative manufacturing tolerances on the thickness
a
 s0
100 - a
due to deformation is to be taken into consideration.
maximum shear stress is to be considered. The
Tolerance allowance, “t”
t=
Only approved methods of calculation may
4.
Fittings
Pipe branches may be dimensioned according to the
equivalent surface areas method where an appropriate
Minimum thickness according to 2.1 [mm].
Table 16.13 Corrosion allowance, “c” for nonferrous metals
reduction of the maximum allowable stress as specified
in 2.3 is to be proposed. Generally, the maximum
allowable stress is equal to 70 % of the value
according to.2.3 for pipes with diameters over than 300
mm. Below this figure, a reduction to 80 % is sufficient.
Pipe material
Corrosion
allowance c
[mm]
Copper, brass and similar
alloys
Copper-tin alloys except those
containing lead
0.8
Copper nickel alloys
(with Ni ≥ 10 %)
0.5
Where detailed stress measuring, calculations or type
approvals are available, higher stresses can be
permitted.
5.
Flanges
Flange calculations by a recognized method and using the
permitted stress specified in 2.3 are to be submitted if
3.
flanges do not correspond to a recognized standard, if the
Elasticity Analysis
standards do not provide for conversion to working
3.1
The forces, moments and stresses caused
conditions or where there is a deviation from the standards.
by impeded thermal expansion and contraction are to
be calculated for the following piping systems and the
Flanges in accordance with standards in which the
calculations submitted to TL for approval:
value of the relevant stresses or the material are
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
C,D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-27
specified may be used at higher temperatures up to the
1.1.4
following pressure:
format are given in Table 16.15.
σ perm, standard
pperm =
σ perm (t, material)
1.1.5
 pstandard
The required dimensions of the pipe label
Marker labels used for pipes up to 200 mm
nominal size should be covered with black-colored wrap
bands around.
Where;
1.1.6
σperm (t, material) =
Pipe marker labels should be placed at or
Allowable stress according to 2.3
near the inlet or outlet connection to equipment (for
for proposed material at design
example, pumps, pressure vessels, filters), at the
temperature t,
termination of a pipe run (for example, loading
station, hose reels, at bulkhead penetration), and
=
σperm standard
Allowable stress according to 2.3
approximately every 5 meters on straight runs of
for
pipe.
the
material
temperature
at
corresponding
the
to
the strength data specified in the
If the piping system is an open system, then pipe
standard.
marker labels are placed on the inlet and outlet
edges.
=
pstandard
Nominal pressure PN specified
in the standard.
Table 16.14
Example colour coding scheme for
vessel/structure piping
D.
Principles for the Construction of Pipe
Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
Black
General
1.1
Pipe lines are to be constructed and
waste oil, exhaust gas)
manufactured on the basis of standards generally used
in shipbuilding and recognized by TL.
Pipe marker labels shall contain text to
identify pipe contents and use arrows to indicate flow
direction.
1.1.2
Pipe
marker
Medium
Waste media (for example,
wastewater, black water, gray water
1.
1.1.1
Main Colours
labels
shall
either
use
different colored backgrounds or bands of colour on a
Blue
Fresh water
Brown
Fuel
Green
Sea water
Gray
Non-flammable gases
Maroon
Masses/bulk materials (dry and wet)
Orange
Oils other than fuels
Silver
Steam
Red
Fire fighting and fire protection
Violet
Acids, alkalis
White
Air in ventilation system
Yellow-ochre
Flammable gases
solid neutral colored background to represent various
Table 16.15 Pipe label format
pipe contents via a colour-coding scheme. Text
labels shall be in all capital letters. Text labels shall
appear in the centre of the pipe marker label or
immediately
adjacent
to
the
colour
band
that
identifies pipe contents
Pipe
nominal
size
(mm)
Length
along
pipe
(mm)
Width
around
pipe
(mm)
Character height
(mm)
10 – 15
125
N/A
N/A
Arrows indicating flow direction on the pipe
20 – 65
205
N/A
20
marker labels can be ordered with suitable colours
50 – 200
305
N/A
30
> 200
610
100
90
1.1.3
representing the fluids according to ISO 14726.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-28
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
D
Pipe marker labels should be placed on both sides of a
compensators and flexible pipe connections. The
bulkhead, deck or deckhead penetration, unless the
arrangement of suitable fixed points is to be taken into
label is visible from both sides of the penetration.
consideration.
On vertical pipes, pipe marker labels should be
1.4
placed approximately 1800 mm. above the standing
by special protective coatings, e.g. hot-dip galvanising,
surface.
rubber lining etc., it is to be ensured that the protective
Where pipes are protected against corrosion
coating will not be damaged during installation.
1.1.7
Where pipe marker labels are used on two or
more pipes in a group of pipes located side by side,
1.5
Protection against corrosion and erosion
be installed side by side so they can be scanned at one
1.5.1
Pipes are to be efficiently protected against
time.
corrosion, particularly in their most exposed parts, either
such as in a pipe rack, all of the pipe marker labels shall
by selection of their constituent materials, or by an
1.1.8
Pipe marker labels may be self-adhesive or
appropriate coating or treatment.
the label can be painted directly on the pipe according
to Table 16.15 Pipe Label Format.
1.5.2
The layout and arrangement of sea water
pipes are to be such as to prevent sharp bends and
Self-adhesive pipe marker labels shall be made from an
abrupt changes in section as well as zones where water
abrasion – and chemical – resistant vinyl or polyester-
may stagnate. The inner surface of pipes is to be as
type material.
smooth as possible, especially in way of joints. Where
pipes are protected against corrosion by means of
Where the pipe marker label may be exposed to
galvanising or other inner coating, arrangements are to
sunlight, the material shall be resistant to ultra-violet
be made so that this coating is continuous, as far as
(UV) damage. The material shall be durable enough to
possible, in particular in way of joints.
resist fading, chipping, or cracking. Self adhesive labels
shall adhere to themselves when wrapped around a
1.5.3
pipe rather than adhere to the piping.
water systems, the water velocity is not to exceed 3
If galvanised steel pipes are used for sea
m/s.
For fibreglass, copper-nickel materials, or other pipes
for which self-adhesive pipe marker labels are not
1.5.4
satisfactory, the text labels and flow arrows may be
systems, the water velocity is not to exceed 2 m/s.
If copper pipes are used for sea water
painted directly onto the pipe without the use of a colour
band. For copper-nickel pipe material, the colour yellow
1.5.5
or white is preferred for the text labels and flow arrows.
galvanic corrosion.
Arrangements are to be made to avoid
For black, green, or red unpainted fibreglass pipe
material, the colour white is preferred.
1.5.6
If aluminium brass pipes are used for sea
water systems, the water velocity is not to exceed 3
1.2
Welded connections rather than detachable
m/s.
couplings should be used for pipe lines carrying toxic
media and inflammable liquefied gases as well as for
1.5.7
superheated steam pipes with temperatures exceeding
sea water systems, the water velocity is not to exceed
400°C.
3,5 m/s.
1.3
Expansion in piping systems due to heating
and shifting of their suspensions caused by deformation
of the ship are to be compensated by bends,
1.5.8
If 90/10 copper-nickel-iron pipes are used for
If 70/30 copper-nickel pipes are used for sea
water systems, the water velocity is not to exceed 5
m/s.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
1.5.9
If GRP pipes are used for sea water
systems, the water velocity is not to exceed 5 m/s.
2.1.3
16-29
Socket welded joints using standard fittings
may be used for Classes I and II piping up to and
including 88.9 mm. outside diameter, except in toxic and
2.
Pipe Connections
corrosive fluid services or services where fatigue,
severe erosion or crevice corrosion is expected to
The following pipe connections may be used:
occur.
-
Fully penetrating butt welds with/without
Socket welded joints using standard fittings may be
provision to improve the quality of the root,
used for Class III piping without limitation.
Socket and slip-on sleeve welds with suitable
The fillet weld leg size is to be at least 1.1 times the
fillet weld thickness and where appropriate in
nominal thickness of the pipe. See Figure 16.2.
-
accordance with recognized standards,
The thicknesses of the sockets are to be in accordance
-
Steel flanges may be used in accordance
with C.1.1, yet at least equal to the thicknesses of the
with
pipes.
the
permitted
temperatures
specified
pressures
in
the
and
relevant
standards,
-
Mechanical joints (e.g. pipe unions, pipe
couplings, press fittings) of approved type.
2.1
Figure 16.2 Typical Socket Weld Joint
Welded Connections
For welded pipe connections Table 16.16 contains
2.1.4
Slip-on sleeve welded joints using standard
summarized guidelines.
fittings may be used for Classes I and II piping up to and
including 88.9 mm. outside diameter, except in toxic and
corrosive fluid services or services where fatigue,
Table 16.16 Pipe connections
severe erosion or crevice corrosion is expected to
Types of connections
I, II, III
Welded butt-joints without
special provisions for root
side
II, III
(1)
2.1.1
piping without size limitation and approval of TL
All
welded
III
The requirements for slip-on welded sleeve joints are:
I, II (1)
joints,
The requested dimensions for slip-on welded sleeve
joints are shown in Figure 16.3.
≤ 88.9
Except piping systems conveying toxic media or
services where fatigue, severe erosion or crevice
corrosion is expected to occur.
Butt
occur.
Slip-on welded sleeve joints may be used for Class III
Welded butt-joints with
special provisions for root
side
Socket and slip-on sleeve
welded
Outside
diameter
Pipe class
where
complete
-
The inside diameter of the sleeve is not to
exceed the outside diameter of the pipe by
more than 2 mm.
-
penetration at the root is achieved, may be used for all
The depth of insertion of the pipe into the
sleeve is to be at least 9.5 mm.
classes of piping.
2.1.2
Welded butt-joints without special provisions
for root side can only be used for pipe class II and III.
-
The gap between the two pipes is to be at
least 2 mm.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-30
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
2.2.4.3
D
Plain brazed flanges; only for pipe class III up
to a nominal pressure of 16 bar and a temperature of
120°C.
2.2.5
Flange connections for pipe classes I and II
with temperatures over 300 °C are to be provided with
necked-down bolts.
Figure 16.3 Typical Slip-on Welded Sleeve Joint
-
The fillet weld leg size is to be at least 1.1
times the nominal thickness of the pipe.
-
The thicknesses of the sleeves are to be in
accordance with C.1.1, yet at least equal to
2.3
Screwed socket connections
2.3.1
Screwed socket connections with parallel and
tapered threads shall comply with requirements of
recognized national or international standards.
Screwed socket connections are not permitted for piping
the thicknesses of the pipes.
systems conveying toxic or flammable media or
2.2
Flange connections
corrosion is expected to occur
2.2.1
Dimensions of flanges and bolting shall
2.3.2
services where fatigue, severe erosion or crevice
comply with recognized standards and with Table
16.17.
outside diameter ≤ 60.3 mm. as well as for subordinate
systems (e.g. sanitary and hot water heating systems).
Every type and dimension of flange and flange joints on
Table 16.18 can be used in ships.
2.2.2
Screwed socket connections with parallel
threads are permitted for pipes in class III with an
2.3.3
Screwed socket connections with tapered
threads are permitted for the following:
Gaskets are to be suitable for the intended
-
Class I, outside diameter  33.7 mm.
be in accordance with recognized standards.
-
Class II and III, outside diameter  60.3 mm.
2.2.3
complying with a recognized standard are not to be
media
under
design
pressure
and
temperature
conditions and their dimensions and construction shall
Screwed connections having tapered pipe threads
Steel flanges may be used as shown in
Tables 16.17 and 16.18 in accordance with the
permitted pressures and temperatures specified in the
relevant standards.
2.2.4
Flanges made of non-ferrous metals may
be used in accordance with the relevant standards
and within the limits laid down in the approvals.
Flanges and brazed or welded collars of copper and
copper
alloys
are
subject
to
the
following
used for toxic and corrosive fluid services and for all
services of temperatures exceeding 495°C.
2.4
Mechanical joints
2.4.1
Type approved mechanical joints may be
used as shown in Tables 16.19, 16.20 and 16.21.
Construction of mechanical joints is to prevent the
possibility of tightness failure affected by pressure
requirements:
pulsation, piping vibration, temperature variation and
2.2.4.1
on board.
other similar adverse effects occurring during operation
Welding neck flanges according to standard
up to 200°C or 300°C according to the maximum
temperatures indicated in Table 16.10; applicable to all
The mechanical joints are to be designed to withstand
classes of pipe,
internal and external pressure as applicable and where
2.2.4.2
under vacuum.
used in suction lines are to be capable of operating
Loose flanges with welding collar; as for
2.2.4.1,
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-31
The number of mechanical joints in oil systems is to be
2.4.2
Mechanical joints in bilge and seawater
kept to a minimum. In general, flanged joints conforming
systems within machinery spaces or spaces of high fire
to recognised standards are to be used.
risk, e.g. cargo pump rooms and car decks, must be
flame resistant, see Table 16.20.
Piping in which a mechanical joint is fitted is to be
adequately adjusted, aligned and supported. Supports
2.4.3
or hangers are not to be used to force alignment of
sections directly connected to sea openings or tanks
Mechanical joints are not to be used in piping
piping at the point of connection.
containing flammable liquids.
Table 16.17 Use of flange types
Pipe
class
Toxic, corrosive
and combustible
media, liquefied
gases (LG)
PR
[bar]
Flange
I
Flange
Flange
Type
Temperature
[°C]
type
type
> 10
≤ 10
A
A, B (1)
> 400
≤ 400
A
A, B (1)
II
-
A, B, C
> 250
≤ 250
III
-
-
-
(1)
(2)
(3)
Flange
A, B
> 400
≤ 400
A
A, B
A, B, C
A, B, C, D, E
A, B, C, E (2)
> 250
≤ 250
A, B, C
A, B, C, D, E
A, B, C, D, E
A, B, C, E
-
A, B, C, D, E,F (3)
-
Bilge lines inside ballast and fuel tanks,
-
Seawater and ballast lines including air and
overflow pipe inside cargo holds and fuel
tanks,
-
-
-
type
Type B only for Da < 150 mm
Type E only for t < 150°C and PR < 16 bar
Type F only for water pipes and open-ended lines
The use of slip-on joints is not permitted in:
-
Other media
Temperature
[°C]
2.4.4
-
Lubricating
oil, fuel oil
Steam, thermal oils
Piping system including sounding, vent and
overflow pipes conveying flammable liquids as
well as inert gas lines arranged inside
machinery spaces of category A or
accommodation spaces.
Slip-on joints may be accepted in other
machinery spaces provided that they are
located in easily visible and accessible
positions.
Fuel and oil lines including air and overflow
pipes inside machinery spaces, cargo holds
and ballast tanks,
Fire extinguishing systems which are not
permanently water filled.
Slip-on joints inside tanks may be permitted only if the
pipes and tanks contain a same medium. Unrestrained
slip on joints may be used only where required for
compensation of lateral pipe movement.
2.4.5
Mechanical joints are to be tested to a burst
pressure of 4 times the design pressure. For design
pressures above 200 bar, the required burst pressure
will be specially considered by TL.
2.4.6
Requested convenient test by TL for the
mechanical joints are:
-
Tightness test,
-
Vibration (fatigue) test (where necessary),
-
Pressure pulsation test (where necessary),
-
Burst pressure test,
-
Pull out test (where necessary),
-
Fire endurance test (where necessary),
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-32
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
-
Vacuum test (where necessary),
-
Repeated assembly test (where necessary),
-
See UR P 2.11 for details of tests.
D
side and first shut-off device is to be in accordance with
Table 16.23 column B. Pipes are to be connected by
welding or by flanges.
4.
Shut-off Devices
4.1
Shut-off
The installation of mechanical joints is to be in
accordance
with
the
manufacturer’s
assembly
instructions. Where special tools and gauges are
required for installation of the joints, these are to be
supplied by the manufacturer.
3.
devices
must
comply
with
a
recognized standard. Valves with screwed-on covers
are to be secured to prevent unintentional loosening of
the cover.
Layout, Marking and Installation
4.2
3.1
Piping systems must be adequately identified
according to their purpose. Valves are to be
permanently and clearly marked.
3.2
Pipe penetrations leading through bulkheads,
decks and tank walls must be water and oil tight. Bolts
through bulkheads are not permitted. Holes for
fastening screws are not be drilled in the tank walls.
Hand-operated shut-off devices are to be
closed by turning in the clockwise direction.
4.3
Valves must be clearly marked to show
whether they are in the open or closed position.
4.4
Change-over devices in piping systems in
which a possible intermediate position of the device
could be dangerous in service must not be used.
3.3
Sealing systems for pipe penetrations through
watertight bulkheads and decks as well as through fire
divisions which are not welded into the bulkhead or
deck are to be approved by TL (see Chapter 1 - Hull,
Section 11). (3)
3.4
Piping systems close to electrical switchboards
are to be so installed or protected that possible leakage
cannot damage the electrical installation.
3.5
Piping systems are to be so arranged that
they can be completely emptied, drained and vented.
Piping systems in which the accumulation of liquids
during
operation
could
cause
damage
must
be
4.5
Valves are to be permanently marked. The
marking must comprise at least the following details:
-
Material of valve body,
-
Nominal diameter,
-
Nominal pressure.
4.6
The design pressure of valves intended for
use onboard a vessel is to be at least the maximum
pressure to which they will be subjected but at least 350
equipped with special drain arrangements.
kPa.
3.6
Pipes lines laid through ballast tanks, which
Valves used in open-ended systems, except those
are coated in accordance with Chapter 1 - Hull, Section
attached to side shell, may be designed for pressure
22 are to be either effectively protected against
below 350 kPa. Such valves may include those in
corrosion or they are to be of low susceptibility to
vent
corrosion.
atmospheric tanks which are not part of the pump
and
drain
lines,
and
those
mounted
on
suction or discharge piping (e.g., level gauges, drain
The protection method against corrosion of the tanks as
well as that of the pipes must be compatible to each
other.
3.7
cocks, and valves in inert gas and vapour emission
control system).
(3)
The wall thickness of pipes between ship’s
Regulations for the Performance of Type Tests, Part 3
– Test Requirements for Sealing Systems of Bulkhead and
Deck Penetrations.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-33
Table 16.18 Types of flange connections
Type A
Welding neck flange
Loose flange with welding neck
Type B
Slip-on welding flange-fully welded
Type C
Slip-on welding flange
Type D
Type E
Type F
Socket screwed flange
- conical threads -
Plain flange
- welded on both sides -
Lap joint flange
- on flanged pipe –
Note: For type D, the pipe and flange are to be screwed with a tapered thread and the diameter of the screw portion of
the pipe over the thread is not to be appreciably less than the outside diameter of the unthreaded pipe. For certain types of
thread, after the flange has been screwed hard home, the pipe is to be expanded into the flange.
4.7
All valves of Classes I and II piping systems
having nominal diameters exceeding 50 mm are to have
4.8
Stems, discs or disc faces, seats and other
wearing parts of valves are to be of corrosion
bolted, pressure seal or breech lock bonnets. All valves
resistant materials suitable for intended service.
for Classes I and II piping systems and valves intended
Resilient materials, where used, are subject to
for use in steam or oil services are to be constructed so
service limitations as specified by the manufacturers.
that the stem is positively restrained from being screwed
Use of resilient materials in valves intended for fire
out of the body.
mains is to be specifically approved based on
submittal of certified fire endurance tests conforming
All cast iron valves are to have bolted bonnets or are to
to a recognized standard.
be of the union bonnet type. For cast iron valves of the
union bonnet type, the bonnet ring is to be of steel,
bronze or malleable iron.
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-34
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
Table 16.19 Examples of mechanical joints
Pipe Unions
Welded and
brazed type
Compression Couplings
Swage type
Press type
Bite type
Flared type
Slip-on Joints
Grip type
Machine
grooved type
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
D
D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
16-35
Table 16.19 Examples of mechanical joints (continued)
Slip type
Table 16.20 Application of mechanical joints
Kind of connections
Systems
Pipe Unions
Compression
couplings (6)
Slip-on joints
Flammable fluids (flash points <60°C)
Cargo oil lines
+
+
+ (5)
Crude oil washing lines
+
+
+ (5)
Vent lines
+
+
+ (3)
Water steal effluent lines
+
+
+
Scrubber effluent lines
+
+
+
Main lines
+
+
+ (2) (5)
Distributions lines
+
+
+ (5)
Cargo oil lines
+
+
+ (5)
Fuel oil lines
+
+
+ (2) (3)
Lubricating oil lines
+
+
+ (2) (3)
Inert gas
Flammable fluids (Flash point > 60°C)
Hydraulic oil
+
+
+ (2) (3)
Thermal oil
+
+
+ (2) (3)
+
+
+ (1)
Sea Water
Bilge lines
Fire main and water spray
+
+
+ (3)
Foam system
+
+
+ (3)
Sprinkler system
+
+
+ (3)
Ballast system
+
+
+ (1)
Cooling water system
+
+
+ (1)
Tank cleaning services
+
+
+
Non-essential systems
+
+
+
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
16-36
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
D
Table 16.20 Examples of mechanical joints (continued)
Systems
Compression
Pipe Unions
couplings (6)
Slip-on joints
Fresh water
Cooling water system
+
+
+ (1)
Condensate return
+
+
+ (1)
Non-essential system
+
+
+
Deck drains (internal)
+
+
+ (4)
Sanitary drains
+
+
+
Scuppers and discharge (overboard)
+
+
-
Water tanks/ Dry spaces
+
+
+
Oil tanks (F.p. > 60°C)
+
+
+ (2) (3)
Starting /Control air (1)
+
+
-
Service air (non-essential)
+
+
+
Brine
+
+
+
CO2 system (1)
+
+
-
Steam
+
+
+(7)
Sanitary/Drains/Scuppers
Sounding / Vent
Miscellaneous
(1)
Inside machinery spaces of category A-only approved of flame resistant type. (8)
(2)
Not inside machinery spaces of category A or accommodation spaces. May be accepted in other machinery spaces
(3)
Approved fire / flame resistant types. (8)
provided the joint are located in easily visible and accessible positions.
(4)
Above freeboard deck only
(5)
(6)
In pump rooms and open decks- only approved fire resistant types(8) as required for slip-on joints.
If compression couplings include any components which readily deteriorate in case of fire, they are to be of approved fire
resistant (8)
(7)
Slip type joints as shown in Table 16.19, provided that they are restrained on the pipes, may be used for pipes on deck
with a design pressure of 10 bar or less.
(8)
Flame resistance test should be comply with ISO 19921
+
Application is allowed
-
Application is not allowed
Table 16.21 Application of mechanical joints depending upon the class of piping
Types of joints
Class I
Class II
Class III
+ (1)
+ (1)
+
Swage-type
+
+
+
Press type
-
-
+
Bite type
+ (1)
+ (1)
+
Flared type
+ (1)
+ (1)
+
Machine grooved type
+
+
+
Grip type
-
+
+
Pipe Unions
Welded and brazed type
Compression Couplings
Slip-on Joints
Slip type
(1)
Outer pipe diameter should be less than 60.3 mm.
allowed
+
+ Application is allowed
TÜRK LOYDU - MACHINERY – JAN 2016
+
- Application is not
D
Section 16 – Pipe Lines, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
4.9
All valves of Classes I and II piping systems
16-37
an emergency operating arrangement.
having nominal diameters exceeding 50 mm are to have
flanged or welded ends. Welded ends are to be butt
6.2.2
welding type, except that socket welding ends may be
controlled valves in cargo piping systems, see Section 20,
used for valves having nominal diameters of 80 mm or
B.2.3.3.
For the emergency operation of remote
less with the approval of TL.
6.3
5.
Ship's Side (Shell Plating) Valves
5.1
For the mounting of valves on the ship's side,
Arrangement of valves
The accessibility of the valves for maintenance and
repairing is to be taken into consideration.
see Chapter 1 - Hull, Section 7, C.10.
Valves in bilge lines and sanitary pipes must always be
5.2
Ship's side valves on the shell plating shall
be easily accessible. Seawater inlet and outlet valves
are to be capable of being operated from above the
floor plates.
accessible.
6.3.1
Relief valve discharges and pressure
vessels associated with piping system
Cocks on the ship’s side must be so arranged that the
A pressure vessel, which can be isolated from piping
handle can only be removed when the cock is closed.
system relief valves, is to have another relief valve fitted
5.3
Valves with only one flange may be used on
the ship's side (shell plating) and on the sea chests only
either directly on the pressure vessel or between the
pressure vessel and the isolation valve.
after special approval.
Each piping system or part of a system which may be
Wafer type valves are not to be used for any
exposed to a pressure greater than that for which it is
connections to the vessel’s shell unless specially
designed is to be protected from over-pressurization by
approved. Lug type butterfly valves used as shell valves
a relief valve. Other protective devices, such as bursting
are to have a separate set of bolts on each end of the
discs, may be considered for some systems.
valve so that the inboard end may be disconnected with
the valve closed to maintain its watertight integrity.
5.4
For systems conveying flammable liquids or gases,
On ships with > 500 GT, in periodically
unattended machinery spaces, for the controls of sea
inlet
and
discharge
valves
see
Chapter
4-1
-
relief valves are to be arranged to discharge back to the
suction 
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