Play Leadership Training Manual

Play Leadership Training Manual
Training Manual
The Top 10 Reasons to Play
Play is good for you. It’s good for your spirit, your body, and your mind. It’s also good for
your relationships, your work, and your social life. As children, we knew how to play. It was
as natural as breathing. Then we got older, and were often told “Don’t”. Don’t play with
your food. Don’t play in your good clothes. Don’t play in the rain. You get the picture.
Don’t play. By the time we reach adulthood, play is on the list somewhere behind getting
the car washed and the dry-cleaning dropped off. I wonder…if we all played first, and
THEN went to work, what would our days be like? What would our lives be like? If you
need 10 good reasons to play, here they are.
1. Play clears your mind.
As you go through the course of a day, your mind becomes cluttered with your Do
list. The new project at work, the car making ominous noises, phone calls to make, bills
to pay…the list goes on and on. It’s easy to get stuck in the whirlwind of thoughts. Play
can put your mind in a different place, so when you are ready to tackle that make a list;
you may discover you have a clearer idea of how to proceed.
2. Play is good for your health.
Often times, play involves physical activity. You already know that keeping your
body moving is good for you. Your blood flow increases to vital organs, including your
brain. Your muscles get a nice workout, your circulation improves, and you tend to
breathe more deeply. Play also makes you thirsty, which has the added benefit of
encouraging you to increase your water intake.
3. Play allows you to connect with others.
Being part of a team has the obvious benefit of belonging. But even something as
simple as playing with your child in the backyard encourages all kinds of good
relationship stuff…trust building, communication, and enjoyment of each other, to name
a few. The good stuff that comes from playing together will invariably spill over into
other areas of your relationships.
4. Play allows you to lighten up.
Do you need to take the edge off your anger, before you confront the offender?
Have you been bogged down by all the ugliness in the news? Maybe it’s just been awhile
since you’ve laughed yourself silly. Play can loosen tense muscles, and laughter is sure to
loosen your attitude.
2
Play brings balance to your life
Balance is what you have when you are playing, working, dreaming, loving, relating,
etc. in equal measure. Do you play as much as you work? Is play a routine part of your
self-care regimen? Play is a big contributor to overall wellness and happiness.
5. Play allows you to discover something about yourself.
What kind of team player are you? How important is winning? Do you enjoy
strategy-rich games or solving mysteries or puzzles? Do you love that surge of
adrenaline when you go bungee jumping or kayaking, or are you content with quiet
activities, perhaps in nature? What does your choice of play say about what is
important to you?
6. Play is often takes you outdoors.
Are you stuck behind a desk all day? Do you spend your time chasing airplanes, or
working in a big, all-business high rise? When is the last time you inhaled pure sunshine?
Spending time outside gives you a chance to appreciate nature, be active in a big way,
and get some fresh air.
7. Play encourages curiosity and discovery.
Every way you choose to play gives you an opportunity to discover something new.
Play tends to tease your sense of wonder and awaken your curiosity. Practice things
from a different point of view. If you want to pursue expert help with the wonder and
curiosity thing, hang out with a toddler at the playground or the beach. Remember what
it’s like to not have all the answers and look at your world with fresh eyes.
8. Play exercises your creativity and problem solving skills
Games of all kinds are great for getting your brain in gear. Solve a mystery, take
over the world, or outsmart your opponent… who can resist such a temptation? Also,
playing with other will invariably include some challenges. Sharpen your skills, and have
fun at the same time.
10. Play is enjoyable!
Life can be full of fun! Have you forgotten? Enjoy your friends, enjoy your
family, and enjoy yourself. Go play!
This piece was originally submitted by Leslie Jackson, Possibilities Coach, who can be reached at [email protected]
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Table of Contents
Section I .............................................................. Program Planning
Why do we Plan?.................................................................................................................7
Benefits/Outcomes of Effective Playground Leadership .............................................................. 8
Seven Steps of Program Planning Diagram ........................................................................................ 9
Assess Needs............................................................................................................................. 10
Set Goals..................................................................................................................................... 10
Brainstorm .................................................................................................................................. 11
Create a Blueprint..................................................................................................................... 11
Develop your Play Program ...................................................................................................... 12-13
A Balanced Program.................................................................................................................. 13-14
Planning the Summer ................................................................................................................ 14
The Daily Plan............................................................................................................................. 15
Daily Planning Sheets ............................................................................................................... 16-17
Special Events ........................................................................................................................... 18
Action It ..................................................................................................................................... 19
Evaluate and Modify................................................................................................................. 19
Evaluation Questions .............................................................................................................................. 20
Planning Hints........................................................................................................................................... 21
Developmental Stages ............................................................................................................................ 22-24
Suggestions and Hints for Leadership ............................................................................................... 25-26
Section II........................................................... Risk Management
What is Risk Management? ................................................................................................................... 28
Implementation........................................................................................................................................ 29
Safety Checklist...................................................................................................................................... 30
Twelve Common Hazards in Playgrounds ............................................................................................ 31-32
Playgrounds: How Kids can make them Safe ..................................................................................... 33-37
Emergency Action Plan ........................................................................................................................... 38-40
Number Card ............................................................................................................................................ 41
Participant Information Card ............................................................................................................... 41
Emergency Action Plan Checklist......................................................................................................... 41
Injury Care ............................................................................................................................................... 42
Sunburns................................................................................................................................... 42
Heat Emergencies................................................................................................................... 43-45
Insect Bites and Stings ........................................................................................................ 45
Sprains, Strains, Fractures and Dislocation Injuries .................................................... 46
Head and Spine ....................................................................................................................... 46
First Aid Kit Supplies............................................................................................................................. 47
Helpful Hints ............................................................................................................................................ 47
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Section III...............................................Behaviour Management
What is Discipline? ................................................................................................................................. 49
Strategies for Reacting to Misbehaviour.......................................................................................... 50
Strategies for Reacting to Positive Behaviour................................................................................. 51
Preventative Discipline........................................................................................................................... 52
Communication – What to Say to Children ........................................................................................ 53
Behavior Management Exercise ........................................................................................................... 54
Behavior Exercise #2 ............................................................................................................................ 55
Guidelines – Guidelines for Establishing Rules.................................................................................. 56
Consequences – Why Consequences are Important ......................................................................... 57-58
Techniques for Imposing Consequences............................................................................................. 59
Consistency – Why Consistency is Important ................................................................................... 60
Role Playing Exercise.............................................................................................................................. 61
Affective Discipline Techniques .......................................................................................................... 62
A list of Do’s and Don’ts ........................................................................................................................ 63
Tips for Handling Conflicts between Others.................................................................................... 64
Program Planning Tips for Best Behaviour......................................................................................... 65
Answers ..................................................................................................................................................... 65
Section IV .............................................................Arts and Crafts
Value of Art to the Child....................................................................................................................... 67
Helpful Hints for Arts and Crafts ...................................................................................................... 68
Tying it all Together............................................................................................................................... 69
A few Extra Ideas .................................................................................................................................. 70
Special Events for Rainy Days.............................................................................................................. 71-72
Basic Craft Recipes................................................................................................................................. 73-74
Section V................................................................................. Games
Points to Remember................................................................................................................................ 76
Things to avoid......................................................................................................................................... 76
Game Leadership ..................................................................................................................................... 77
Modifying Games ..................................................................................................................................... 78
Hints and Techniques in Teaching Games .......................................................................................... 79
Rainy Day Activities................................................................................................................................ 80
Sample Games .......................................................................................................................................... 81-82
Tag.............................................................................................................................................................. 83-84
Relays ......................................................................................................................................................... 85-87
The Parachute .......................................................................................................................................... 88-90
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Successful Programs don’t just happen
They are made to happen!
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Program Planning
Why do we plan?
Before
planning
your play
program it
is important
to
understand
why we
plan.
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
to give yourself, as a leader, confidence and
assurance to make the best use of your talents
to make the most use of space and time
to provide for all age groups
to include a variety of activities
to meet a variety of interests
to achieve a balance of the different types of activities
to prevent repetition
to create enthusiasm and curiosity
to know what special equipment you may need
to make better use of all available equipment
to help prevent accidents
to set and achieve goals or objectives.
If you do not plan effectively, your
program will be unbalanced, confused
and purposeless-regardless of your
skills, knowledge and personality.
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Benefits/Outcomes (of Effective Playground Leadership)
Remember… Recreation:
• Is essential to the child’s personal health
• Is a key to balanced human development – helps the child reach their
•
•
•
•
potential.
Is essential to the child’s quality of life
Helps reduce self-destructive and anti-social behaviour
Help to build strong families and healthy communities
Reduces health care, social service, and police/justice costs! Pay now or pay
more later!
Recreation is essential to the development of children and youth:
• We learn motor skills (physical) through play and
sports.
• We learn social skills through play, and team work.
• We learn creativity through play and arts/cultural
activity.
• We develop intellectual capacities and concepts
through play – and many other life skills.
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Youth involved in
sports
demonstrate
greater levels of
perceived
physical
competence
compared to
those who are
not involved.
Seven Steps of Play Program Planning
1. Assess Needs
7. Evaluate
and Modify
2.
6. Action It
3. B
5. Developing
your Play Program
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The 7 Steps to Play Program Planning
1. Assess Needs
• The first thing you need to do is find out:
- everything about who your potential participants are
- gather information on them
- determine what they expect from your program
Children of different ages have different needs. These needs
are based on each child’s stage of growth and development.
Remember that two children of the same age can be similar in
some ways but different in other ways. Try to understand
the unique characteristics of each child. This helps children
to feel good about themselves. This will also help you plan
activities that are developmentally appropriate for each child.
Appropriate activities help children learn and are lots of fun.
(For a look at the different developmental stages, you can
refer to pages 22 – 24.)
Some information
to find out:
F What age are
the children?
F What interests
do they have?
F What do the
children like to
do in their spare
time?
F Look at last
year’s file to
find what
games/crafts/
songs were
popular.
F How many
participated last
year?
F Etc…
2. Set Goals
Possible Goals:
Ö
Ö
Ö
Have children express
creativity
Provide activities in
which all children are
included, including
children with a
disability
Have children develop
their specific
individual skills
•
A Goal is what you want to achieve
•
By setting goals, you will define what you
are trying to accomplish from the various
activities you could undertake.
•
The goals of your summer program must be
realistic and be in line with the goals of
your agency.
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3. Brainstorm
•
Once the program goals have been established, it is time to
Brainstorm and come up with different:
2. Program forms:
- Co-operative
- Competitive
- Leagues
- Special events
- Free play
- Individual or team
1. Program types:
Physical
Social
Cultural arts
Arts and crafts
Adventure
Etc…
-
Etc…
4. Create a Blueprint
•
-
•
The Blueprint is the objective or a
guideline that indicates how to
reach a goal.
It is specific
Must be measurable
Usually states a time frame
By taking the role of the children, and
imagining how they might respond to
your instruction within particular
situations, one can imagine and test the
consequences of alternative messages
prior to actual communication
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Possible Blueprints:
Ö
Ö
Ö
Goal: Have children express
creativity
Blueprint: Offer free time and
a minimum of three creative
craft ideas each week.
Goal: Provide activities in which
all children are included,
including children with a
disability.
Blueprint: Make sure all
children are capable of
participating in the craft or
game you are presenting.
Goal: Have children develop
their specific individual skills.
Blueprint: Offer a large variety
of activities that can be
participated at different skill
levels.
5. Develop your Play Program
•
Development is the major transitional step between assessing
needs and action.
•
Write down all information so that you know what you have to
do to provide the experience intended for the children.
•
Use your planning sheet to record the ideas/activities you have
selected as being most appropriate.
When developing your Play Program, there are various factors
that need to be considered:
•
Ö Physical features of the playground or facility
Ö
Ö
Ö
Ö
Ö
Area characteristics
Equipment
The Participants
- Number of children
- Age of children
Time Factor
- Length of the Program
- Length of the day
- Season
Local Factors
- Local traditions
- Prevailing weather conditions
The requirements of the recreation authority
- Rules and protocol
General Factors
- Your abilities
- Your willingness to experiment
- Your resourcefulness and flexibility
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Develop your Play Program: Getting Started...
Find out what facilities and equipment you have available to work with.
Take an inventory of all equipment and its condition.
Know what finances you have available.
Know all the resource people who are available in the community. A good way to find
this out is to look in a local newspaper.
— Read through last year’s summer recreation playleader's report and evaluation.
—
—
—
—
Some special events are carried out on a municipality-wide basis. When several
playgrounds come together to one location there must be a great deal of advance
planning and cooperation
Develop your Play Program: A Balanced Program
In order for your program to be successful it is important to provide a variety of activities.
This will allow your program to be more effective in satisfying your participant’s different
needs.
Creative Activities:
- music
- puppetry
- art
- drama
- singing
- crafts
- story telling
•
•
•
•
•
Provide opportunities for children to decide what he/she wants to do and how to do it as well
as the tools and materials to use.
Creative activities allow the imagination to grow and the children feel like they have played
an important part in creating the end result.
Use creative activities when the weather is too hot and the shade of a tree is more enticing.
Quiet games can be interspersed so that the interests of the children will not be lost.
Change activities often for the very young children, older children enjoy longer activities.
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Physical Activities:
- group games
- relays
- sports
- co-operative games vs. competitive games
•
•
•
•
Physical activities are ideal in the morning and late afternoon when the weather isn’t as hot.
Provide an environment that stresses low competition and lots of fun.
Try to avoid elimination games, modify those games to keep everyone active.
Remember that games can be modified to fit your playground needs, be creative in changing
the games you already know.
Free Play:
•
•
Children have vivid imaginations and should not be confined with routine programs.
•
•
Free play usually begins and ends each morning and afternoon period.
There should be periods when they can do whatever they choose. This will provide the
opportunity to cultivate their own self-expression and develop their own ingenuity through
such things as sandbox play, space trips and climbing equipment.
Free play is ideal when the children are gathering or leaving and you are looking after your
administrative duties.
Develop your Play Program: Planning the Summer
1.
2.
3.
You should start with an overall view of your program, a bird’s eye view.
- This can be done by putting themes on a calendar, and highlighting days
with special events.
Then, you should start planning a weekly unit.
- Start with your theme for the week and start to plan.
The last thing you should plan is the specific Daily pattern.
- What activities are happening throughout the day?
The Seasonal Plan
The Seasonal Plan is a bird’s-eye view of what will be accomplished over the whole
period. The seasonal plan will indicate the sequence of themes you will use, trips away,
special contests, special tournaments and days and events to organize. It will provide
you with your day-by-day and week-by-week deadlines for making preparations.
14
The Weekly Unit
The weekly unit indicates the days on which certain activities are scheduled. The usual
program unit is the week, and often activities are based on a theme. Within this unit,
you will blend together your crafts, games and sports to feature the chosen theme. It is
a good idea to schedule your special events for the same day each week so that people
will tend to reserve that time for them.
The Daily Plan
The daily plan provides an outline for the different activities planned for that day.
Although there will always be exceptions (age group, weather, special events,
temperature), each day will follow a routine.
Morning:
1) Check the playground area for safety, arrange the bulletin board and organize
details for your volunteers.
2) Schedule informal activities or Free Play to allow the children to collect on the
playground.
3) Check attendance at the period of the highest interest – some time about midmorning.
4) Organize the more active team games and sports in the morning while the day is cool.
Lunch Hour:
1) From 11:30 AM through the lunch hour, schedule informal activities or free play so
that the children will not disrupt your activities by going home for lunch at various
times.
Afternoon:
1) After Lunch, schedule quiet informal activities first. This allows children to
reassemble on the playground and minimizes stomach upsets due to strenuous
activities right after meals.
2) Schedule your quiet and creative activities in the afternoon – arts and crafts, story
telling, music, puppetry, or drama – during the hottest part of the day.
3) After 4:00 PM, set up the tempo of your activities, but keep them informal, as the
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children will be leaving for home.
Daily Plan
Date: ____________ Day of the Week: ___________ Theme: _____________
Time
Activity
Supplies, Equipment,
Area Required
8:00 am
8:30 am
9:00 am
9:30 am
10:00 am
10:30 am
11:00 am
11:30 am
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Notes
12:00
noon
Time
Activity
Supplies, Equipment,
Area required
12:30 pm
1:00 pm
1:30 pm
2:00 pm
2:30 pm
3:00 pm
3:30 pm
4:00 pm
4:30 pm
17
Notes
5:00 pm
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Develop your Play Program: Special Events
Special Events are an essential part of the playground program. They are planned from
time to time to supplement the regular routine activities. They need not be elaborate
or expensive. Sometimes they can be any novel, new activity or game in which the
children participate. Short-term special events simply come as a surprise and act as a
break from the scheduled program. The more elaborate ones are usually held once a
week to attract parents, or to add zip to the whole program. When they are carefully
child-centered, they will create enthusiasm, add variety, increase participation, change
the pace or provide a climax at times when interest is apt to wane.
•
There are three types of special events:
™
™
™
A short-term event takes place within a ½ day or less. It takes the form
of a tournament, a treasure hunt, a pet-show, or something similar.
A daylong event can be used to bring the week’s activities to an interesting
climax. Track meets, craft shows, trips to points of interest or hikes
usually fill up a whole day. When the program is planned to take place on
the playground, the parents and other adults may be invited and perhaps
involved in the activities. This kind of special event is frequently arranged
for the last day of the season.
Weeklong special events provide sustained interest and give continuity to
the program. Such themes as First Nation’s week, Wild West Week, MiniOlympics Week and Safety Week are suggested.
Check points for planning an elaborate special event:
— Plan far enough ahead to accommodate all concerned
— Secure authorization from your recreation authority and clear with
everyone – including the parents.
— Publicize the event widely, using all possible media.
— Assign duties to your volunteers and junior leaders well in advance.
— Take the necessary precautions to assure group control if moving off
your playground, using the buddy system and crossing guards.
— Arrange for financing all prizes, refreshments or supplies required.
— Transportation should be arranged and scheduled well in advance.
— When it is over, evaluate the event to assist in future planning.
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6. ACTION IT!
•
•
•
Plan is put into action!
This step will occupy most of your time.
If an activity does not work, poor implementation may not be
the primary cause: go back through the other steps and see
what else can be changed.
7. Evaluate and Modify
•
•
An evaluation is basically an assessment on the value of your program.
It is not simply a collection of data, but is looking at something’s
value.
Why you should evaluate:
Ö
Ö
Ö
Ö
Ö
To figure out what works,
what does not and why
To discover new needs
To help improve programs
To justify why you are
doing one thing over
another
•
How can you evaluate your program?
Informal
Formal
- Written questionnaire - Observation
- Interviews
- Conversations
To boost staff morale
•
It is sometimes good to evaluate half way through your program
so that you can make any necessary changes to make your
program more successful.
•
After your evaluation you have three options:
1) Continue without modifications
2) Modify – continue with modifications
3) Redo the Play Program Plan
Evaluating and Modifying is more important for the co-ordinator of the summer program
however the leader can informally evaluate or modify the program.
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Possible Evaluation Questions
F
F
F
Is your program geared to the age of the group for whom you are planning the
program?
Have you established an aim for your program? (e.g. exercise, skill improvement)
Have you considered the numbers you are working with in connection to your
program?
F
Do you have everyone participating in the program?
F
Have you ensured that you are not making unreasonable demands on the children?
F
Have you thought of the availability of equipment you may need?
F
Have you considered the space needed to run your program and whether it is
available to you?
F
Do you have an alternate plan for rainy weather?
F
Is your program organized enough to ensure a successful and smoothly run program?
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Planning Hints
When Planning...
— Make sure to set up a day-to-day schedule and have it prepared ahead of time
(usually at least a week in advance).
— It is important that you have your program set up so that you can explain to the
parents what you are doing day to day (you may require parent assistance).
— Take into consideration the needs of different age groups.
— Always be prepared for anything to happen as you cannot over plan.
— Plan an extra day specific for rainy weather.
— Consider alternatives for games should the weather be too hot.
— Plan special events throughout the summer. This provides a change from the daily
routine.
— If you are planning a craft, make the craft ahead of time using the same supplies
that is available for the kids. However, show it as an example but encourage the kids
to be creative!
— Always keep the children’s interests/needs in mind. Have options or modifications in
mind for kids that don’t want to do what you have planned.
— Be flexible, modifications may be necessary to games etc. depending on children’s
abilities, moods, energy etc.
At the site...
— If you are going to have rules on the playground or for other activities, have them
right from the start.
— Establish consequences for rule breaking and keep them consistent among and with
all children
— Keep rules simple, consistent and have children give input in creating them...they’ll
remember them better.
— Keep your equipment in good shape and the facilities clean.
— Have a first aid kit available and report all accidents.
— If a daily report is required do it while it is still fresh in your mind.
— Make sure to have some method of evaluation for your program
-Do the children have a positive attitude towards the program, are they
participating?
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Early Childhood-Five to Eight Years of Age
What they are like
What they need
What they like to do
Their large muscles (trunk, legs and
arms) are more developed than the
smaller muscles (hands and feet)
To experience many kinds of vigorous
activities that involves many parts of
the body.
Activities such as hanging, running,
jumping, climbing, dodging, or throwing
at an object.
They have a short attention span
To engage in many activities of short
duration
Choice of activity where a child can
change frequently and activities that
can be shared quickly.
They are individualistic and
possessive
To play alone and with small groups.
To play as an individual in large
groups
Individual activities such as throwing,
catching, bouncing, kicking, climbing.
Activities which may use a small group
of children, such as stride ball, tag,
singing games.
They are dramatic, imaginative and
imitative.
To create and explore. To identify
themselves with people and things.
Inventive activities such as cowboys,
circus, farmers, store keepers, etc.
Work activities such as pounding,
sawing, raking and hauling.
They are active, energetic and
responsive to rhythmic sounds
To respond to rhythmic sounds such
as drums, rattles, nursery rhythms,
songs and music.
Running, skipping, walking, jumping,
galloping, dodging, swimming, singing
and folk games.
They are curious and want to find out
things.
To explore and handle materials in
many types of play
Use materials such as ropes, ladders,
trees, blocks, sand, etc.
They want chances to act on their
own and are annoyed at conformity
To make choices, to help make rules,
to share and evaluate group
experiences.
Variety of activities with few rules.
Creative expression through crafts,
playacting, singing.
They are continuing to broaden social
contacts or relationships
To co-operate in play, to organize
many of their own group activities
Simple forms of dodge ball, kick ball,
dance and rhythmic activities.
They seem to be in perpetual motion
To play many types of vigorous
activities
Running, jumping, skipping, galloping,
rolling.
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Middle Childhood-Nine to Eleven Years of Age
What they are like
What they need
What they like to do
They grow steadily in muscles, bone,
heart and lungs.
To engage in strenuous activity that
regularly taxes these organs to the
limits of healthy fatigue.
Running, jumping, climbing and hard
play.
They enjoy rough and tumble activities.
To participate in activities which use
the elements of roughness
Bumping, pushing, contact activities.
Sex differences begin to appear with
girls taller and more mature than boys.
To enjoy their roles as boys and girls,
to have wholesome boy- girl
relationship in activities and to
participate separately for some
activities.
Group games and activities such as
volleyball, soft ball, red rover and folk
dances may be enjoyed separately or
together.
They respond differently in varying
situations.
To participate in a wide range of
activities using many kinds of
materials and equipment.
Individual, dual or small and large group
activities.
They may show increasing
independence and desire to help
To plan, lead and check progress.
Assist with officiating, serve as squad
leaders, act as scorers, help with
equipment, help with younger children.
They have a strong sense of rivalry and
crave recognition.
To succeed in activities that stress cooperative play along with activities
that give individual satisfaction
Self-testing activities such as track
events, stunts, chinning, sit-ups, pushups, as well as group and team play.
Artistic expression with dramatics,
crafts, music, singing.
They want to be liked by their peers, to
belong. They have a strong loyalty to
teams, groups or gangs.
To belong to groups, to be on many
kinds of teams. To engage in a wide
range of activities.
Group games such as volleyball, line
soccer. Partner-play such as tennis,
horseshoes.
They want approval but not at the
expense of their group relationships
To gain respect and approval of
others.
Participate in activities in which they
achieve in the eyes of their group.
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Later Childhood/Early Adolescence-Twelve to Thirteen Years of Age
What they are like
What they need
What they like to do
This is a period of rapid physical
growth which is frequently uneven in
various parts of the body.
Awkwardness and inability to coordinate sometimes occur.
To develop skill and co-ordination and
to take part in activities that does not
call attention to their awkwardness or
put them in embarrassing situations.
Skills training in body control in various
activities such as batting, throwing,
catching, kicking, individual activities
like rope jumping, target throwing,
skating, hiking and swimming.
Muscles, heart, lungs and bones
share liberally in the growth spurt.
Vigorous activity to stimulate each of
these organs
Vigorous activities with respect for
individual reaction.
Boys and girls are showing
differences in interest and abilities.
Participation in activities in separate
groups and together
Opportunities created for activities in
separate groups
Interest in member of ones own sex
broadens to include an interest in
members of the opposite sex.
To have co-educational activities in
small and larger groups
Social and creative dance, tennis,
swimming, volleyball, table tennis, and
badminton.
Great loyalty to groups as clubs,
gangs and teams and there is a keen
desire for group acceptance
To belong to various teams and to
plan and develop their own groups.
Participation in a variety of team
games.
Strong desire for individual
recognition and the urge to be free of
adult restrictions
To take part in activities of their own
choosing, to be leaders and captains
of groups, to create and modify
games, and to evaluate progress.
To plan their own group activities and
choose their own leaders. To
experience creative expression
through painting, drawing, music,
poetry, crafts.
Emotions are easily aroused and
swayed.
To be frequently in situations
requiring practice of fair play, when
winning or losing.
Wide variety of activities requiring
individual decisions and scoring.
The interest span lengthens. They
may want to continue in activities
beyond fatigue to exhaustion.
To participant in activities that can be
modified to overcome fatiguing
factors. To learn when to stop.
Modifications of standard games
changing fatiguing factors such as
shortening playing periods in vigorous
sports, frequent time-outs.
There is a keen interest in competitive
activities.
To compete in a variety of activities
that involve a wide range of skills and
organization
Self-testing types with competition
such as tumbling, track events,
throwing for baskets, pitching at a
target, games not highly organized
The enjoyment of organized team
sports is keen.
To give every girl and boy an
opportunity to be a participating
member on the types of teams that
challenges her/his interest and ability.
Wide variety of team sports such as
volleyball and softball. Many teams in
each sport organized on such bases
as skill and ability, age-height-weight,
mixed groups, etc.
— NOTE: It is extremely important to take into consideration the development of a
child when planning a program.
— A program must be age appropriate to be successful.
Suggestions and Hints for Leadership
25
1) Make sure everyone is comfortable. Watch out for sun in the eyes, heat, thirst,
fatigue, toilet needs etc. Discomfort leads to discontent.
2) Never humiliate anyone in front of others. No one likes to lose face.
3) When tensions and tempers rise, change to a quiet activity. Do not try to force
the issue.
4) Be consistent. As the leader, children need to know where you stand to better
understand their own roles.
5) Laugh. Not at but with … Who can laugh and be mad at the same time?
6) Provide changes. Follow a tense, exciting game with something restful.
Sometimes just moving to another sport helps to give a change of pace.
7) Use activities that demand something – attention, skill concentration, stamina,
etc.
8) Use activities that give something – a chance to succeed, to create, to laugh, to
make friends, etc.
9) Call attention to anything “beautiful” you see or hear – a kind act, a polite answer,
and act of sportsmanship.
10) Establish routines – a definite way to give out equipment, a certain place for
storytelling, a special signal that means “stop and listen” or a good-bye song that
means “time to go home”.
11) Follow the rules, whether it is department politics, or public laws, and explain why
you have to follow the rules.
12) Use a leadership style to fit the situation – and one that fits your personality and
beliefs.
13) Do not force children to play. Lead them to accept games voluntarily because
they are fun.
26
14) A sense of humor and enthusiasm will go a long way toward your success as a
playleader. Remember that FUN is one of the primary objectives
15) Show appreciation to the children who try as well as those who excel. Remember
that the performance is not as important as the effort.
16) Draw out and encourage timid children. They need the play experience just as
much, if not more, than the others do.
17) Observe the relationships between the children in their free play. These
observations will give you clues about their behavior patterns and future
development.
18) Radiate with enthusiasm and enjoyment. If you are excited about the program,
the children will be too!
19) When giving directions, be brief and clear. Ensure everyone thoroughly
understands what you want to be done. Demonstrate where necessary.
20) Take time to plan and be prepared before the day begins
21) Strive to be a creative, imaginative, enthusiastic, consistent leader.
Above all, BE YOURSELF!
27
A Key to Safety!
28
Risk Management
Did you know?
• Children have been badly injured on playgrounds when their loose
clothing, cords and drawstrings became caught on equipment or
surrounding fences.
• Falling from equipment is the number one reason that children get hurt
at the playground. This is why it is important to have a soft surface
under equipment.
Risk Management involves reducing the chance of injuries in order to
protect both you and the children.
Liability means that someone is at fault for an injury or accident. If you do
not create a safe play environment, have an emergency action plan, and are
not able to recognize when a child needs medical attention, you could be
held legally liable if a child is injured.
Benefits of Risk Management:
1)
2)
3)
Far less of chance of children getting hurt
Ensures that if accidents do happen, the injured person will
receive medical attention as quickly as possible.
You will protect yourself from potential liability
lawsuits.
29
How to Implement Risk Management
1)
Create a safe play environment.
- Use the checklists provided to check the playground for safety
issues. This will ensure that there are no foreseeable dangers.
2)
Have an Emergency Action Plan
- Prepare a plan in case of emergency that includes phoning the
emergency service, applying first aid, and monitoring the children.
3)
Recognize when a child is in need of medical attention.
- Common emergencies and prevention are outlined in detail
4)
Keep records of attendance
- You will know if a child missed important instruction.
5)
Instruct children how to perform skills as well as how not to do them and
explain what could happen.
6)
Keep records of who came late, and give that child instruction before they
are allowed to join the game.
7)
Keep copies of every play session.
- This will prove that you have given the children lessons that are
developmentally appropriate.
8)
Always watch what is going on!
- This will ensure that the activity is properly supervised.
It is a good idea to talk with the local municipality or council to
find out if they require you to take specific steps in the event of
an emergency.
• Have first AID/CPR training or someone who does supervise.
30
Safety Checklist
Whole Playground
F Pick up garbage
F Pick up broken glass
F Bathrooms cleaned
F No broken windows
Slides
F Sturdy
F No missing steps on ladder
F Check bottom of slide for
glass and foreign objects
F No cracks on slide
F Sides of slide do not have
sharp edges
Wading Pool
F No broken glass
F No large cracks
F Sweep dirt and leaves out
before filling with water
F
F
F
F
Monkey-Bars
F All bars are intact and sturdy
F No sharp edges
F Check underneath for glass
and foreign objects
Sandbox
Rake up sand
Remove glass and any
foreign objects
Check boards – not broken
No large slivers
Teeter-totter
F Check for large cracks
F Check for large slivers
F Ensure handle is secure
Fence
F Check for wires sticking
out, broken, or cut
Swings
F Check for broken or
cracked links
F Top bolt secure – not loose
F Seat is in one piece – no cracks
31
Playleader
F Valid first aid certification
F Access for first aid
kit/supplies
F Know your Emergency Action
Plan
Twelve Common Hazards in Playgrounds
1) Insufficient or Inappropriate Surfacing
— Concrete, asphalt and grassy earth are hazardous. Choose a more
forgiving surfacing, such as pea gravel, wood mulch, sand or resilient
mats.
2) Inadequate Fall Zones
— Most equipment should have six feet of resilient surface covering
the area where kids might fall – slide and swings usually have larger
fall zones.
3) Protrusion and Entanglement Hazards
— These include anything that might cut or puncture children.
Uncovered bolts and open “S” hooks are common hazards.
4) Entrapment in Openings
— Children often squeeze through openings feet first. To prevent
entrapment, openings must be either smaller then three inches or
larger than a ten inch circle.
5) Putting Equipment Too Close Together
— There should be at least six feet between structures.
6) Tripping Hazards
— Be aware of exposed concrete footings, tree roots and stumps,
rocks and uneven ground.
7) Lack of Supervision
— The keys to good supervision are proper supervisor/child ratios,
supervisors who arrive early and leave last, and play structures
that are not crowded.
32
8) Age-inappropriate Activities
— Keep pre-school activities separate from school-age equipment.
9) Lack of Maintenance
— Periodic checks of hardware support structures and moving
components are essential.
10) Pinch, Crush, Shearing and Sharp Edge Hazards
— All moving parts must be checked to be sure there are no sharp
edges that could cut skin or mechanisms that might crush or pinch
fingers or feet.
11) Platforms without Guardrails
— Guardrails must be on all decks higher than eighteen inches.
Platforms over forty-eight inches should have a vertical fence or
panel style barriers.
12) Inappropriate Equipment
— Free-swinging ropes, rings, trapeze bars and heavy swings are
unacceptable.
Parks & Recreation Canada July/August 1997 Issue
33
Playgrounds - How Kids Can Make Them SAFE:
A Lesson Plan for Kids
Objective: Students will be able to identify the four key areas of playground safety
using the acronym SAFE.
Materials Needed: SAFE background information; stopwatch or timer; flash cards
that spell out S-A-F-E
Lead-in questions
1) How many of you know someone who has been injured on a playground?
2) What happened?
How often do you think a child is taken to the
emergency room because they were hurt on a
playground?
Answer: Every 2 1/2 minutes a child is taken
to the emergency room for playground related
injuries in the US.
Set the timer every 2 1/2 minutes during this discussion to show the kids how often a
child is hurt. Choose a child to go to the designated "hospital" area of the room every
time the timer goes off.
Presentation
Because we want you to have fun and be safe when you play outside, we are going to
discuss playground safety. There are four different ways to make a playground safe. A
helpful way to remember these four areas of playground safety is SAFE.
Display four different flash cards that spell out S-A-F-E. This can be altered or
discussed if children do not yet know how to spell or read.
34
Supervision: Point to the S flash card.
S stands for Supervision. Supervision is one of the ways to make a playground safer.
Why is it important that adults watch you play on
the playground?
Answer: Adults realize that you are supposed to
run, jump, shout, laugh and explore the
playground. But sometimes, other things happen
on a playground that needs an adult to help.
•
Does anyone know what 'supervision' means?
•
Can you think of a time when you needed help from an adult on a playground? What
happened?
Age-Appropriate Equipment: Point to the A flash card.
The second way to make playgrounds safer is making sure that you are using ageappropriate equipment on the playground. One of the reasons so many children are hurt
on the playground is because they are playing on equipment that is too big or too little
for them.
Smaller children playing on equipment designed for older, bigger kids don't realize that
the handles, railings, and steps are too big for them, so they slip or fall off, and get
hurt.
When older children play on equipment that is too small for them, they get bored. When
they get bored, what do you think they do? They use the equipment in ways it isn't
supposed to be used. And then they get hurt.
If you need help, who can help you decide what
equipment is best for you?
Answer: Adult supervisors -- point back to the S
flash card.
35
Falls to the Surface Should be Cushioned: Point to the F flash
card.
•
Has anyone ever fallen on the sidewalk or on the street or road? What happened?
How did you feel?
Sidewalks and streets are made of concrete and asphalt. They are great to ride your
bike or roller-skate on, but it really hurts when you fall. That's why playground
equipment should not have hard stuff -- concrete or asphalt -- underneath it.
What do you think it should have underneath it?
Answer: Softer material, like sand, wood chips,
rubber or pea gravel. That way, if you do fall, it
won't hurt as much as the hard stuff would.
What should you do if the soft surfacing has been
displaced underneath swings and slides?
Answer: Make sure no one is using these play
structures, push or rake the soft surfacing back to
the area that has been displaced.
What should you do if the playground equipment has
hard stuff underneath it?
Answer: Avoid playing on it and talk to some adults
about it. Look for equipment with soft surfacing
underneath it.
36
Equipment Maintenance Point to the E flash card
When something gets broken, what should you
do with it?
Answer: Fix it!
If you don't fix it, what happens?
Answer: It won't work and you can't use it.
With lots of kids using the playground every day, sometimes they break down, too. Adult
maintenance workers, playground supervisors and parents should all be inspecting the
playground equipment you play on to make sure it's in good condition. But sometimes
they need your help.
What size of equipment should you be playing
on? Why? What can you do to avoid getting
hurt?
Answer: Depending on their age, size, and
cognitive level, children within the same class
may differ in their abilities.
37
Is our Playground SAFE?
Let's use the following checklist to find out!
Ö Is trash on the ground?
Ö How many adult supervisors are on the playground at recess? How many
children?
Ö Is the surfacing underneath the equipment hard (concrete, asphalt, dirt
or grass) or soft (wood chips, sand, rubber or pea gravel)?
Ö Do the swings and slides have enough soft surfacing underneath them, or
is it displaced?
Ö Do the swings have twisted or broken seats?
Ö Is there anything sticking out of the ground that would trip you when
you are running?
Ö Does the equipment have any chipped or peeling paint?
Ö Does the metal equipment have any rust?
Ö Are there any holes or cracks in plastic equipment?
Ö Does the wooden equipment have any rough wood or splinters?
Ö Are there any nails or bolts sticking out of the play equipment?
Ö Is there any place that your fingers might get stuck or pinched when you
are playing?
Reminder:
Review the four areas of a SAFE playground: Supervision, Age-appropriate
equipment, Falls to the surface, and Equipment maintenance.
38
Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
- Write everything down and keep it in a handy place. This will
help in a panic situation.
The purpose of an Emergency Action Plan is to get professional care to the
injured person as quickly as possible. The EAP should be developed
before the play sessions begin.
An EAP consists of locations of the closest telephones, directions to the
playground, and the names of two people – the charge person and the call
person.
Assign one playleader to be the charge person and one playleader to be the
call person. If there is only one playleader, designate one of the children
as the call person.
39
The Charge Person:
(Responsibilities)
This person should have first aid training
1) Take Control and assess the situation through contact with the injured
child.
2) Tell all other children and bystanders to leave the injured child alone and
back away.
3) Ensure that the injured child is not moved.
4) Ensure that all play equipment is left on the child.
5) Assess the injury and determine whether further assistance is
necessary.
6) Decide how to move the child if no further assistance is necessary.
7) Notify the Call Person if an ambulance is needed and briefly explain the
injury.
8) Look for changes in the child’s condition and reassure him/her until
professional care arrives.
40
The Call Person (Responsibilities)
1) Know the location of all telephones that could be used for making calls.
Preplanning is essential for this responsibility. You need to know this
information for the designated play area, and anywhere else you plan to
take the children.
2) Prepare a list of all local emergency numbers – ambulance, fire, police,
and doctor. Write these numbers on a small card and keep them with
you at all times! (an example card is given on the next page) Keep enough
change to make a payphone call. Tape change to the back of the
emergency number card. Do not rely on the operator to transfer the call
- call the service directly.
3) Know the best access route to the play area. The exact location of the
play area should be written on the back of the number card. This will
help you in times of stress.
4) Give the dispatcher the necessary information. State that a medical
emergency exists, the nature of the emergency, the exact location of
the injured child and the number of the telephone from which the call is
being placed. Request the estimated time of arrival.
5) Assign someone to stay by the phone.
6) Report to the charge person that the ambulance has been called and tell
the charge person the estimated time of arrival.
7) Go to the main entrance and wait for the ambulance.
41
Participant Information
Number Card
Name:______________________ Date of Birth: __________
Person to contact in emergency: __ _____________________
Day Number: ______________ Evening: _______________
Alternate contact: __________________________________
Day Number: ______________ Evening: _______________
Family Doctor: _______________ Phone: ________________
Hospital Insurance Number: ___________________________
Relevant Medical History: _____________________________
________________________________________________
Other Conditions:
Does Participant carry and know how to administer own
medications?____
Location of Phones: _______________
_____________________________
Phone Numbers:
Emergency: ______ Ambulance: _____
Police:__________ Fire: __________
Hospital: ________ Facility: _______
Doctor’s Office: _________________
Details of Location: _______________
Emergency Action Plan Checklist:
… Access to phones
… Emergency numbers card (local)
… Emergency numbers card (other)
… Coins taped to number cards
… Access to Sites
… Cards for directions to facility
… Information on children
… Personnel
… Charge person
… Call person
… Alternates to Charge person and Call Person
42
Injury Care
*The information stated below is not a first aid manual, proper training
and certification in first aid/CPR should be attained*
Sunburns are the most common of all
burns
Children sunburn very easily
Sunburns can be either first or second degree
Signs and Symptoms
First Degree Sunburn
-
the outer layer of skin is affected
the skin’s surface is dry, red, and sore
there are no blisters or swelling
will heal in 2 – 5 days and does not scar, although it may
peel
Second degree Sunburn
- the top two layers of skin are affected
- the skin is moist and can range in color from white to
cherry red
- the skin blisters and is very painful
- will heal in 5 – 21 days, providing there is no infection,
and may scar
42
Preventing Sunburns
1) Wear a sunscreen or sunblock with a SPF of
25 or higher when outside. A good idea is to
ask parents to send a bottle of sunblock
with their children so that it can be
reapplied if necessary.
2) Wear a hat. Have parents send hats with
their children.
3) Wear clothing that breathes (cotton). Explain this
to parents and ask that they ensure their children are
dressed appropriately.
4) Play indoor activities to stay out of the sun. This is especially a good idea
between 10:00 AM and 3:00 PM, when the sun is at its strongest.
Heat Emergencies
Children are highly susceptible to heat
emergencies. Heat emergencies happen on hot
days with high humidity and little or no wind.
There are three kinds of heat emergencies
ranging in seriousness – heat cramps, heat
exhaustion, and heat stroke.
43
Heat Cramps
-
Muscle spasms occur because the body is losing too much salt in
the sweat.
Can happen when calcium levels are low or when too much water is
consumed at once.
Signs and Symptoms
-
hot, sweaty skin
- faintness or dizziness
usually in arms, legs or abdomen
- possible nausea
stiff abdomen
cramps can be mild or extremely painful
Heat Exhaustion
-
the most common heat emergency
“mild state of shock”
blood circulation diminishes because large amounts of water and
salt are lost through sweating
blood flow is disturbed when water is not replaced
affects the heart, brain and lungs
the most critical problem is dehydration
Heat Exhaustion can lead to Heatstroke if it is not treated.
Signs and Symptoms
-
headache, dizziness, extreme fatigue
loss of appetite, nausea
pale, cool, sweaty skin
dilated pupils
brief loss of consciousness
44
Heat Stroke
-
(Sunstroke)
Life- threatening
The body is overheated and cannot cool itself.
Damages brain cells and causes permanent disability or death.
Signs and Symptoms
-
initial deep rapid breathing that becomes shallow and weak
dilated pupils
dizziness and weakness
skin is hot, red, and dry
headache, nausea, convulsions
mental confusion, irritable, bizarre
loss of consciousness
Preventing Heat Emergencies
-
Avoid being outside between 10:00 AM and 3:00 PM.
Slow down your activities as the temperature rises.
Take frequent breaks in cool shaded areas.
Dress for the heat, wear a hat, and light colored cotton clothing.
(This should be discussed with the parents).
Drink plenty of fluids. Always have water available for the
children.
Insect Bites and Stings
Insect bites can cause a life-threatening emergency. If the insect-bitten
child experiences any of the following symptoms, implement your emergency
action plan immediately.
-
faintness, weakness
shock
nausea
unconsciousness
-
generalized body swelling
45
Sprains, Strains, Fractures, Dislocations
These are types of soft-tissue injuries. Injuries of this type are
usually a result of a direct hit, twisting, or stretching of the tissue.
Remember the acronym SHARP when looking for symptoms of sprains,
strains, fractures or dislocations.
S – swelling
H - Heat
A – Altered
R – Redness
P – Pain
May develop immediately or over time.
The temperature in the area of the injury increases in
temperature.
The function is altered. An example of altered function is
restricted movement.
— It is important to note that pain is a warning sign of a soft tissue
injury. Any child experiencing pain should rest from activity.
— Secondly it is important to note that if the child cannot move the
injured area, DO NOT FORCE MOVEMENT!
Soft tissue injuries are not life threatening, but it is important that the
child be taken to a medical professional.
Injuries to the Head or Spine
These injuries include concussions, neck injuries, and back injuries.
Minor head injuries may not have immediate effects. Watch for headaches,
dizziness, and ringing in the ears. Also watch for changes in appearance,
personality and motor skills. Any pain in the neck or back should be
treated as a spinal injury. Watch for symptoms like tingling or loss of
feeling in the limbs.
46
First Aid Kit Supplies
… Sterile gauze pads
(small or large squares to place over wounds)
… Adhesive tape
… Adhesive bandages of assorted sizes
… Scissors
… Tweezers
… Safety pins
… Ice bag of chemical ice pack
… Disposable gloves (surgical or examining gloves)
… Flashlight
… Antiseptic wipes
… Pencil and pad
… Emergency blanket
… Eye patches
… Thermometer
… First Aid Manual
… Salt
— Do not forget that your Emergency Action Plan includes all
emergency phone numbers, child’s personal information and money
taped to the number cards for pay phones.
Helpful Hints
Keep this information with you at all times. Keep it in a binder and take it
with you to the play site.
1)
Use a fanny pack to store the number cards for your emergency
action plan. This way, the number cards will be with you at all times.
2)
Write your duties as the call person or the charge person on a card
and keep it in your fanny pack. This way, it will always be with you.
3)
Repeat the rules of the play area many times. Children will forget.
4)
It is a good idea to create the play area rules as a group. This way,
the children will have a vested interest in the rules and understand
the reason for them.
47
48
What is Discipline?
Discipline is a way of handling:
•
Unpleasant situations
•
Misuse of grounds and equipment
•
Yourself on the job.
Discipline is a method of:
Teaching, Training, Guiding, and Mutual Trust
Discipline is not:
Retaliation, Punishment for the sake of punishing
Or Group punishment
49
Strategies for Reacting to Misbehaviour
Play leaders should be aware of the motives that cause misbehaviour in their group. Once a
motive is recognised in a child, you can react to their misbehaviour without feeling the
child’s motive.
CHILD’S
GOAL
CHILD’S
BELIEF
PLAY
LEADER’S
FEELING
REACTION
TENDENCY
REACTION
SOULTIONS
Attention
“I belong when I
am being noticed”
Annoyed
-Remind
-Coax
1) Ignore
misbehavior when
possible.
2) Give attention
to positive
behavior when
child is not making
a bid for it.
3) Avoid undue
service. Realize
that reminding,
punishing,
rewarding and
coaxing are undue
attention
Power
“I belong when I
am in control (IE.
The boss)”
- Angry
- Provoked
- As if one’s
authority is
threatened
-Fight
- Give in
Revenge
“I belong only by
hurting others, as
I’ve been hurt. I
cannot be loved.”
Deeply hurt
-Retaliate
-Get even.
Inadequacy
“I belong only by
convincing others
not to expect
anything from me.
I am helpless.”
- Despair
- Hopelessness
- Give up
-agree with child
1) Withdraw from
conflict.
1) Avoid feeling
hurt.
1) Stop all
criticism.
2) Help child see
how to use power
constructively by
appealing for
child’s help and
enlisting
cooperation.
2) Avoid
punishment and
retaliation.
2) Encourage any
positive attempt,
no matter how
small.
3) Build strong
trusting
relationships.
3) Realize that
4) Convince the
fighting or giving in child that he/she
only increases a
is loved.
child’s desire for
power.
50
3) Focus on assets.
4) Above all, don’t
be hooked into
pity, and don’t give
up.
Strategies for Reacting to Positive Behaviour
Play leaders should be able to recognize when a child is motivated by positive
goals. By reacting to these goals appropriately you will be encouraging them to
continue this behaviour.
CHILD’S
GOAL
CHILD’S
BELIEF
Attention
Involvement
Contribution
Power
Autonomy
Responsibility
Justice
Fairness
Acceptance
Peace
“I belong by
contributing”
“I can decide and
be responsible
for my
behaviour”
“I am interested
in cooperating”
“I can decide to
withdraw
From conflict”
- Shows Self
Discipline
- Does own work
- Is resourceful
- Returns
-Ignores
kindness for hurt provocations
-Withdraws from
- Ignores
belittling
power contests
comments
CHILD’S
BEHAVIOUR
- Helps
- Volunteers
REACTION
SOLUTIONS
1) Let the child
know that
contribution
counts.
1) Encourage
decision-making.
2) Express
confidence in
2) You appreciate child
their help.
3) Let the child
experience both
positive and
negative
behaviour
51
1) Let the child
know you
appreciate
his/her interest
in cooperating.
1) Recognize the
child’s effort to
act maturely
Preventative Discipline
How to Prevent Discipline Problems
Prevention is always the best medicine!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Watch the group. If you are always alert, you can spot a potential
troublemaker before he/she causes a problem.
Plan ahead and be prepared. Therefore, the playgroup knows that you
are organized and will have confidence in you. If the group has
confidence and respect in you, there will be fewer discipline problems.
Be enthusiastic! Have a genuine interest in the children and their
activities.
Be assertive. Show that you are a firm but fair leader from day one.
Earn respect by showing it.
Have reasonable expectations and be sure that the children know what
your expectations are.
Be positive in your instructions. Point out the reasons why things are to
be done in a certain way.
Plan meaningful and constructive activities. Most trouble results from
boredom or inactivity.
Give a child a chance, if a child wants to tell you something, listen to
them. Ask questions like, “Is there something you would like to tell me?”
Avoid asking “why” because children often do not know the answer and, if
they do, cannot express it in words.
Be clear and concise. The leader can talk too much. Only talk when the
children are listening.
Make the child feel safe. Aggressive and disruptive behavior often
starts from the child’s anxiety about anger or resentment. It may not be
possible to discover what the child is anxious about, but making the child
feel safe can help the situation.
Steps to Preventative Discipline
•
•
•
•
Communication
Guidelines
Consequences
Consistency
52
What to Say to Children
Communicating can be summed up in one simple phrase:
Tell the child what TO DO rather than what NOT to do!
Say:
• Sit down when you slide.
• Use both hands when you
•
•
•
•
•
climb.
Turn the pages carefully.
Walk around the swing.
Time to go inside.
Wash your hands.
Drink your milk.
Do not say:
• Don’t stand up when you slide.
• You’ll fall if you don’t watch
•
•
•
•
•
53
out.
Don’t tear the book.
Be careful, the swing might
hit you.
Shall we go inside?
Do you want to wash your
hands?
Don’t you want your milk?
Behavior Management Exercise
1) A child in your playgroup screams loudly as you are giving directions. You remind
the child that his/her behavior is unacceptable and tell him/her to listen to the
directions. The child stops temporarily, but screams out again. You feel very
annoyed and are tempted to remind the child yet again that their behavior is
unacceptable.
•
•
•
What is the child’s goal?
What is the child’s belief?
What will you do?
2) An 8 year old boy is making a craft but before he finishes, some of the supplies
run out. Before you have time to reach him, he skips to various trees and picks
leaves because he is going to make a nature picture instead.
•
•
•
What is the child’s goal?
What is the child’s belief?
What will you do?
3) A 7 year old girl is adamant that she does not have to participate in the games
that you have planned for the day. She tells you that you are not the boss of
her and that you can’t tell her what to do. You feel very angry, and fight with
the child. The child does not back down and you find yourself in a situation
where no one is winning.
•
•
•
What is the child’s goal?
What is the child’s belief?
What will you do?
4) A 4 year old girl in your play group is eager to volunteer whenever you need some
help.
•
•
•
What is the child’s goal?
What is the child’s belief?
What will you do?
5) A boy in your play group consistently tells you that he cannot do crafts. He
refuses to try and when you do finally get him to make something, all he will do
is make a few scribbles on a piece of paper before he throws it down and says
that he is no good. You decide that he really shouldn’t have to do crafts if he
isn’t talented in that area.
•
•
What is the child’s goal?
What is the child’s belief?
54
•
What will you do instead?
Behavior Management Exercise #2
WHEN A CHILD WANTS TO GET ATTENTION:
Not this: Stop whining!
But this:
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
WHEN CHILDREN SHOUT INSTEAD OF USING NORMAL VOICES:
Not this: Stop shouting! You’ll break my eardrums!
But this:
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
WHEN A CHILD RUNS AHEAD OF YOU TO THE PLAYGROUND AFTER
YOU HAVE ASKED HIM/HER TO STAY WITH YOU:
Not this: Stop running!
But this:
WHEN A CHILD USES BAD LANGUAGE:
Not this: That’s dirty talk, nice people don’t say those words.
But this:
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
WHEN A CHILD BECOMES “LIMP” AS YOU ARE WALKING TOGETHER
AND YOU FIND YOURSELF DRAGGING HIM/HER:
Not this: Get up and get moving!
But this:
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
WHEN A CHILD WHO IS ANGRY THROWS OBJECTS ON THE FLOOR:
Not this: I’ll pick them up for you.
But this:
_________________________________________________________
55
_________________________________________________________
Answers on page 65
Guidelines for Establishing Rules
The rules for making rules:
1) Get children to participate in making the rules
-Children develop ownership of the rules and thus tend to
follow them
2) Keep rules short
-Children will remember the rules if they are not overwhelmed
3) Post the rules up
-If the information is in clear view then there will be less
confusion
4) The list should not exceed 7
-The more general the information, the less complicated it
becomes.
5) Use rules that are positive
-This keeps the environment friendly and less restrictive
For Example:
Rules
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Share
Be nice
Respect Others
Take Care of Supplies
Have Fun
Try this one!
Write down the rules that you would like to see used during the
activities you would be leading.
1) ______________________________________________________
2) ______________________________________________________
3) ______________________________________________________
4) ______________________________________________________
56
5) ______________________________________________________
Why Consequences are Important
By providing consequences, you are making the child responsible for
his/her actions. When children are held responsible, they are more likely to
correct their behavior and, in turn, less likely to repeat it. When imposing
consequences, it is crucial that the penalties be logical. In other words, the
penalties should fit the behavior.
Here is an example:
Tina, the playground leader was very upset with one of the children under
her supervision. John had purposely taken a crayon out of Bobby’s hand and
thrown it across the room. To make matters worse, John then proceeded to
hit Susan in the arm, making her cry and pushed all of the craft supplies off
the table the group was working around. Tina led John to the other side of
the room. Tina said, “I brought you over here because you took the crayon
out of Bobby’s hand without asking permission and this is not considered
sharing. You hit Susan and made her cry. And finally, you have pushed all of
our supplies onto the floor. This behavior is not acceptable. In our group,
we are to ask if we want to use something that someone else has. We do not
hit or disrupt others. If we have a problem we discuss it with someone like
myself. Then we will try to fix the problem.” Tina must now decide on a
consequence.
A Consequence that is not logical:
Tina told John that he would have to miss his free time later on that day.
During this time, John would have to remain seated in the corner.
Why is this consequence not logical?
This consequence is not related in any way to the actions of the child. Also,
when free time has come, John may have forgotten why he is sitting in the
corner. Furthermore, it is difficult to make children sit very still for even a
short amount of time. When a supervisor must attend to the other children,
it is very difficult to baby-sit one child. Finally, John is not being made
57
responsible for his actions. In this case, John is actually being sheltered
from his responsibilities.
A Consequence that is Logical.
Tina told John that because of his actions he would have to apologize
to the group for disrupting their activity. John would also have to
specifically apologize to Bobby and Susan. Furthermore, He would have to
clean up the mess he made.
Why this Consequence is Logical:
In this example, John will have to face his peers and admit to his
irresponsible behavior. John will also have to clean up the mess, which
means that he is less likely to make another mess. In this situation, the
behavior is dealt with immediately. The consequence is also sending a
message to the other children that their misbehavior will not go unnoticed.
Logical Consequence Exercise:
Greg, the playleader, was playing Baseball with a group of boys and girls
between the ages of five and ten. The game was going great. During the
fifth inning, a five-year-old girl started to call another girl mean names.
After seeing this incident, a ten-year-old boy started calling the five-yearold girl mean names. What should Greg do?
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
58
Techniques for Imposing Consequences
1)
Patience, patience and more patience. Even though you
may be extremely upset about the child’s behaviour, it is important
that you stay calm. At times, children are hoping that you will lose
control so that they can gain attention from their peers. If you
remain calm, the child will not get the attention they are seeking
from misbehaving. Even if the child is not seeking attention,
staying calm will also help you to stay rational.
2)
Respect the child. Although the child has broken the rules or
has disrupted others, it is important that you still respect the
child. Remember: it is the child’s actions that you are in
disagreement with, not the child.
3)
Do not humiliate the child. If you disagree with a child’s
behavior, it is important that you and the child deal with the
matter privately. Take the child aside and discuss the situation
with them. If you make the matter public, the child may be
receiving the attention they desire from their peers. For those
children that are not seeking attention, being private also means
that the child will not be embarrassed and other children will not
be disrupted.
4)
Speak to the child. When you speak to the child, be clear and
concise.
a) Tell the child why you want to speak to them.
b) Explain that their misbehavior is not acceptable.
c) Explain what the appropriate behavior is.
d) Provide a consequence.
59
Why Consistency is important
Consistency means that once you have decided on rules, you follow
through with consequences every time that a rule is broken.
•
Consistency is important because it shows the children that you are a fair
leader. For example, when you give one child a certain consequence and
another child repeats the same behavior, the same consequence should
apply to the second child. If you give the second child a less severe
consequence, it will be assumed that you favor that child.
•
Consistency is important because it shows the children that you stand
your ground. Sometimes children will push you just to see how far you
will let them go. If you are consistent with consequences for
misbehavior, the children will quickly learn what you will and will not stand
for.
Always be fair and keep good judgment of the situation.
60
Role Playing Exercise
After you have developed a set of rules to be followed for the summer, how
would you answer the following questions:
1) What could happen if you are inconsistent with your consequences?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2) How might a child who is seeking revenge behave and how should a
playleader respond to this behavior?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
3) How would a child who is seeking attention misbehave and how should a
playleader respond to this behavior?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
4) How would a child seeking attention behave positively and how should a
playleader respond to this behavior?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
61
Effective Discipline Techniques
Being an effective manager does not mean publicly
correcting every minor infraction of the rules. This kind of public
attention may actually reinforce the misbehavior. Leaders who
frequently correct children do not necessarily have the bestbehaved children. The key is to know what is happening and what
is important so that you can prevent problems. Here are four
simply ways to stop misbehavior.
1)
Make eye contact with, or move closer to the offender. Other
nonverbal signals such as pointing to the activity children are
supposed to be doing might be helpful. Make sure the child
actually stops the inappropriate behavior. If you do not, children
will learn to ignore your signals.
2) If children are not performing and activity correctly,
remind the
children of the procedure and have them follow it correctly.
3) In a calm patient way, ask
the child to state the correct
rule or procedure and then to follow it.
4) Tell the child in a clear, assertive and patient way to stop the
misbehavior.
62
A List of Do’s”
1) Always try first to understand the purpose of children’s
misbehavior.
2) Give clear-cut directions for actions expected of children.
3) Focus on children’s present, not their past behavior.
4) When children misbehave, give them a choice to either remain
where they are without disturbing others or to leave the room.
5) Build on the positive and avoid the negative.
6) Build trust between yourself and the children.
7) Discuss children’s behavior problems only when neither you nor
they are emotionally charged.
8) Use logical consequences instead of punishment.
9) Treat children with consistency.
A List of Don’ts:
1) Do not be preoccupied with your own prestige and authority.
2) Refrain from nagging and scolding, which may reinforce
misbehaving children’s quest for attention.
3) Do not ask children to promise anything. They will use a
promise to get out of an uncomfortable situation with no
intention of fulfilling it.
4) Avoid giving rewards for good behavior. Doing so will only
condition children to expect rewards.
5) Refrain from finding fault with children.
6) Do not hold your students and yourself to different standards.
7) Do not use threats.
8) Do not be vindictive.
63
TIPS FOR HANDLING CONFLICTS BETWEEN OTHERS
Conflicts do arrive in play leadership even when all preventative measures
have been taken. Here are some tips in diffusing conflicts between two or
more people.
1) Assess the situation. As approaching, decide whether to send for
assistance in order to protect yourself or others.
2) Stay open minded. Intend to diffuse the situation with no losers,
dignity and injury free.
3) Remove the audience. If possible separate the aggressors.
4) Distract them from the issue. Keep drawing attention to yourself
until you get their attention.
5) Try convincing them to verbally work out the issue.
- Say, “While I can't stop you from conflict later, I'd like you to give
me a quick opportunity to try to defuse things now”
- Restate expectations for a positive outcome
- Remain persistent, and stay focused on a peaceful ending
6) Help them to manage their emotions by:
-sitting, listening, asking questions
-DO NOT tell the person to "Calm down." or argue, blame, or
defend them
7) Let them “vent”. Listen while:
-leaning forward
-giving eye contact
-nodding in recognition of what's said
8) Help offer possible solutions. Writing down or repeat suggestions
made.
64
Program planning tips for best behaviour
1) Encourage decision making and choices within play activities
2) Choose activities that foster independence
3) Plan play activities that are at the appropriate skill level for all
participants
4) Use visual aids when explaining new activities and be concrete
5) Plan activities that can be learned or carried out in specific steps
6) Offer rewards for displays of positive behaviour after the activity
7) Offer incentives for completing an activity
8) Play activities where all players can remember the steps
9) Monitor the energy level during an activity and allow for cool down if
necessary
10) Monitor the environment for distractions or excessive noise during play
11) Keep unstructured play to a minimum
12) Plan new twists on old activities to reduce boredom
Answers for Behaviour Management Exercise (P.55)
When a Child Want to Get Attention, try this:
— Try to ask me in a voice that I can understand. It’s hard for me to understand
you when you cry.
When Children Shout Instead of using normal voices, try this:
— Try to speak more quietly, just like I am. I can hear you much better.
When a Child runs ahead to the playground when you have asked him/her to stay
with you, try this:
— Let’s go back and try it again. You forgot something we said we were going to do.
You forgot to stay with me. Let’s do it again to help you remember.
When a Child uses bad language, try this:
— Ignore it unless it persists. Then say, “We do not use those words in school.”
Change conversation to another topic.
When a Child “becomes limp” as you are walking together and you find yourself
dragging him/her: try this:
— I can’t hold your hand when you are down on the floor so if you’re going to do
that I’ll have to let go and go on by myself.
When a Child who is angry tips over all of the chairs in the room, try this:
— You need to put all of the chairs back up on their four legs just as they
were. Come and let’s do it together.
65
66
Value of Art to the Child
1. Develops creative thinking
2. Provides a means of communication and self-expression
3. Serves as an emotional release
4. Strengthens the self-concept and confidence
5. Increases self-understanding
6. Heightens aesthetic awareness and sensitivity
7. Enhances the ability to visualize
8. Provides problem solving/decision making opportunities
9. Develops appreciation for the individuality of others
10. Leads to integration of the individual
11. Aids physical coordination
12. Develops work habits and a sense of responsibility
13. Aids the adult in understanding and helping the child
14. Provides a sense of pride
15. Generates Joy.
67
Helpful Hints for Arts and Crafts
Some points to remember when you are facilitating Arts and Crafts time:
1) Know what you are going to do.
2) Have the supplies ready before the session begins.
3) Explain to the children what is going be done.
4) Get involved with the children during the sessions. Help the individuals continue
their projects.
5) Start cleaning up when the project is almost finished. Clean area thoroughly
after the project is finished. The children will help if you encourage them.
6) Always have a supply of storage containers on hand such as; cardboard boxes,
tins, and large bottles which can be used to store crayons, paints, and brushes…
7) Keep track of the supplies and teach the children to respect them.
8) Keep plenty of newspaper and/or plastic sheeting on hand to cover work areas.
This will reduce the cleanup time.
9) Concentrate on Arts and Crafts activities that require inexpensive or scrap
materials. You will save money and the children will learn crafts that they can
recreate in their own home.
10) Wash brushes after each painting session by swishing them in clean water until
all color is extracted. After cleaning, store the brushes with the bristles up.
11) When you are working with glue, pour small amounts of glue into other
containers (small pie plates, paper plates…) and give the children Popsicle sticks
for application. Never use brushes, as the bristles are easily ruined.
12) Construction paper can often be cut in halves or quarters to avoid waste
because children tend to cut into the middle and waste the rest of a large
sheet. Save the scraps as they can be used for other projects.
13) DO NOT judge the success of an Arts and Crafts session by the appearance of
the finished product! The process – the effort, love and care that went into the
project is the most important.
68
Tying it all together
Use Arts and Crafts to reflect and enhance your program plan:
•
•
Create a theme for each week of the program.
•
•
•
Using a theme ties all the crafts, stories, songs, discussions together.
Include stories (from the Library), songs, crafts, discussion topics and
games within each day and week’s activities.
It makes it easier to plan and organize activities.
Possible themes include such topics as:
-
Animals
Dinosaurs
-
Farm
-
Bugs
Cowboys (Rodeo)
Colors
Family
Grandparents
Letters – ABC’s
Nursery Rhymes
Opposites
Pirates
Shapes
Weather
(Our) Bodies
Bedtime
Christmas
Halloween
69
Monsters
Once Upon a Time
Outer Space
Sea
Teddy Bears
Zoo
Birds
Canada (& others)
Circus
Environment (Nature)
Food
Jungle
Numbers – 123’s
Olympics
Pets
Seasons
Water
A Few Extra Ideas
Arts and Crafts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tell a story and then have the children draw it
Paint a picture of an activity
Finger and feet painting
Prints using vegetables, sponges, clay or objects
Leaf rubbing (or with other objects of different textures)
Paper mache sculptures
Playdough
Junk sculptures (use egg cartons, boxes, rocks)
Castles (from toilet roles, boxes, etc)
Paper bag puppets
Paper plate puppets
Kites
Collages (use seeds, toothpicks, paint, magazines, buttons, material)
Decorate bottles to make vases
Origami
Paper flowers
Pinwheels
Crayon etchings
Straw painting
Decorate balloons
Masks
70
Special Events for Rainy Days
Games Tournament:
• Bingo, monopoly, concentration…
• Divide into groups
• Winner of each game gets points
• At the end of the tournament, add up the points to find the winner
Creative Festival:
• Put the children in a group and have them make up words to the tune of a song
they already know
• Make a play out of it
Canada Day:
• Draw a map of Canada on a piece of cardboard
• Quiz children on the map
• Have children represent each province and territory
• Make a mural of everything learned
• Quiz children on the capital of each province
• Build something that represents each province (oil wells, fish boats, grain
elevator…)
Backwards Day – Topsy Turvy Day:
• Play games backwards – running, relays, walking, hopping
• Tell a story backwards
• Sing backwards
• Say the alphabet backwards
Rain Appreciation Day:
• Make boats and use them in games
• Tell the story of Noah’s ark
• Sing songs like “Rain and Shine”
• Drama: shipwreck – Make it into an adventure
• Underwater submarine. Have the children pretend that they have gone on an
adventure and have brought back exciting stories to tell their friends.
71
Odd or Even:
• Give each player several buttons. The object of the game is to obtain as many
of the buttons from the others as possible. Jack approaches Sue with a
number of buttons in his hand and says, “odd or even?” Sue guesses, “odd”. If
she is right, she collects half of the buttons in his hand. If she is wrong, she
gives Jack half the number of buttons he had in his hand. Anyone can
challenge anyone. Set a time limit.
Stars and Straws Race:
• This game can be conducted like a relay race. Establish a start and finish line
at either end of the room. Divide the children into teams. Each team is given
a piece of paper that is shaped like a star. Each child is given a straw. The
object of the game is to carry the star from the starting line to the finish line
without touching it with your hands. The star is places on the starting line and
each player must pick up the star with the straw, via inhaling, and carry it to
the finish line. If the star is dropped again, the child must pick up the start
my inhaling through the straw and continue on.
Human Tic-Tac-Toe:
• Arrange nine pieces of paper on the floor, three across and three length-wise.
Divide the children into two teams, one is the X’s and one is the O’s. A child
from each team is alternately asked a question. If answered correctly, the
child may choose a paper on the floor to stand on. If answered incorrectly,
the child must go to the end of his/her team’s line-up. The object of the game
is for the players to arrange themselves so that there are three players of
one team standing in a row – vertically, horizontally, or diagonally.
Toothpick Balance:
• All that is required is a bottle and some toothpicks. Each player is given about
ten toothpicks (best to limit the number of players to three per bottle). The
first player balances one toothpick across the open neck of the bottle. The
next player balances one of his toothpicks alongside, or on top of the first.
This continues until one player causes any of the toothpicks to fall. He must
then add all of the fallen toothpicks to his/her pile. The game is over when
one player succeeds in getting rid of all of his/her toothpicks.
72
Basic Craft Recipes
Salt Dough (for baking)
-
Stir together ½ cup of salt with 3 cups of sifted flour.
Slowly add warm water (between 7 and 12 fl. oz.)
Mix together to make a soft dough. Knead until smooth.
Leave in a plastic bag for a half an hour before using.
Roll out with rolling pin and cut designs with cookie cutters.
(if making beads or medallions for necklaces…remember to put in holes)
Bake your pieces at 340F. Beads and pins take between 1 – 1½ hours.)
They are ready when they sound hollow.
Gloop
4 cups flour
3 ½ cups salt
½ cup sugar
3 ½ cups water
1 cup salt
Tempera paint for
color.
Mix dry ingredients. Add water until mixture is about the consistency of cake
batter and easy to pour. Divide mixture into as many portions as you want colors.
Pour these into empty squeeze bottles…such as ketchup bottles. Must allow to
dry for 24 hours. Good for making drawings or paintings with 2-D effect after
drying.
Finger Paint
1 cup soap flakes
water enough to make a thick paste
tint with food color
Paint on coated paper, such as shelf paper.
Store in airtight container
73
Paper-Mache Paste
1 cup four
2 teaspoons liquid glue
2 cups boiling water
few drops of oil of cloves
-
Make a creamy paste with flour and COLD water. Then, add boiling water and
other ingredients.
-
Useful to wrap around balloons. If you put a stone or other object into the
balloon before covering with paper mache, you can use it as a musical
instrument when it is hardened. Ideal for masks too.
Plaster of Paris
Plaster of Paris
-
water
Pour ¼ cup of water into dish. Add 2/3 cup of plaster. Mix until smooth,
always adding plaster to water to prevent lumps forming.
Dries VERY QUICKLY. Don’t put down the sink. Ideal for doing hand prints,
leafprints, flowers or carvings. Containers of any shape may be used.
Playdough
2 cups flour
1 cup salt
1 cup water
few drops of oil or liquid soap
-
Mix all ingredients together.
-
Add sand to playdough for a different kind of texture experience. Encourage
children to describe how it feels.
74
75
GAMES
If you want the children at your program to enjoy themselves, you have to be enjoying
yourself as well. Children take your cue to whether they will have fun, so try to be as
enthusiastic as possible. There are some important guidelines that should be followed
when planning and teaching games.
Points to Remember:
1. Have your games planned – do your homework! There is nothing worse than trying to
play a game that you do not really know how to play.
2. Arrive at the playground with twice as many games as you’ll need for the day.
3. Start off with an old game and then try a new one.
4. Name the game.
5. Explain the game and use a quick demonstration of the game.
6. Ask for questions.
7. Play it.
8. Use you assistants (if you have any) to help start the game, getting equipment ready
and arranging the groups, etc.
Things to avoid while playing Games:
• Competition between boys and girls or age groups. It is best to play down
competition.
• Two or more strenuous games in a row. It is best to alternate extremely active
games with less active games.
• Elimination games. Keep all players involved at all times. You may need to change the
role to keep all players playing.
• Favouritism when choosing “It” or “Sides”. Be fair; let all players have a chance to
be “It” and to start a game, if possible.
• Stopping games when the children are still enjoying themselves. If they are having
fun keep going, but don’t be afraid to quit a game if you see that the children are not
having fun or are bored.
76
Game Leadership
•
Know your game. No matter how simple or how many times you have played a game,
review it mentally before giving directions. Look for ways to improve old favorites.
•
Give the children an opportunity to suggest means of correcting, improving, or
varying the game.
•
Needed equipment should be gathered
and checked before the group assembles.
•
Elimination and high levels of competition
are not essential for the playing of
games.
•
Children understand and remember
concepts best when they learn from
direct personal experience. Demonstrate
actions of the game if required.
The Importance of Play
•
Essential in the life of
children as it helps them
master their environment,
and understand and cope
with the world around them.
•
In play children discover
their strengths and
weaknesses.
•
It is a non-stigmatizing
environment.
•
It allows people to be
themselves.
•
It provides opportunity for
social, emotional,
intellectual, and physical
growth.
•
Competition is fun if you compete
because you want to, not because you are
concerned with who wins.
•
If you or someone wants to change the
rules, do so as long s everything is fair to
all players involved.
•
Insist on sportsmanship and fair play. Enforce the rules impartially.
•
Change to another game before there are signs of weariness or boredom. This
maintains the children’s interest and desire to play the game another day.
•
See that everyone plays and plays a lot. Never have more than one game per session
where the less skilled or less fortunate has to drop out. Alternate slower games
with the more strenuous ones.
•
Happiness and enthusiasm should permeate the experience. Remember that your own
enthusiasm is contagious, and that it is perhaps your greatest asset as a leader.
77
MODIFYING GAMES
As a playground leader you may be required to modify a game. There are many reasons
to modify a game:
Space is limited
Equipment is limited
Time is limited
Large group
Small group
To include a person with a
disability
— to incorporate a special theme
—
—
—
—
—
—
"There's no point in
being grown up if you
can't be childish
sometimes." -- Dr. Who
To modify a game is simple. Here are some examples:
— change the method of locomotion (walk, run, jump, crawl, etc)
— change the type of equipment used (add an extra ball to make it more
complicated, use a balloon or beach ball to slow things down)
— change the formation required (pairs, threes. Teams. etc.)
— use the theme for the week to modify existing games.
78
Hints and Techniques in Teaching Games
1. Games must be kept snappy and vigorous. A good leader stops the game before it
becomes dead. The leader’s attitude and enthusiasm can do much for a game. It is
important to modify a game if it is too difficult or too strenuous.
2.
Name the game. Briefly explain the rules. If there are many rules, introduce a
few at a time. Don’t let explanations get too lengthy. Be certain that everyone can
see and hear you. Rules must be enforced and decisions must be fair.
3.
Resting. When changing from one
game to another, explanation time
should also be rest time. Use quiet
games or active games to suit the
mood and energy level of the group, as
well as the weather. (Active games
are not ideal in +30C weather – midday
sun).
4.
Empower the child by
giving him/her a choice
and a chance. Let them
learn to make their own
decisions, when
appropriate, and learn to
trust their feelings.
New leaders should be chosen for
every game. Let the less skilled player
lead too. Persons with birthdays can
be special leaders.
5.
Voice. Speak slowly and distinctly.
Talk to everyone, not only those in
front of you. Those who distract and
disturb are usually those who cannot
see or hear.
6.
Newcomers. When playing a game
and someone just arrives, have one of the more experiences players explain the game
to the newcomer. Remember that there is always room for one more player.
7.
Faults. Minor ones can be corrected during the course of game. For major ones –
stop the game and begin again.
After the game is finished, ask yourself a few questions about the success of the game
and things that you may change for next time. Jot down a few of these ideas.
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Rainy Day Activities
¼ Bean Bag Toss
¼ Ring around the Rosie
¼ Duck Duck Goose (try changing names)
¼ Simon Says
¼ Freeze/Statues (with music)
¼ Zoom – Beep
¼ Hot Potato
¼ Telephone
¼ I Spy
¼ Dress up bag
¼ Limbo
¼ Balloon Volleyball
¼ Doggie Doggie where’s your bone? – During this game the children sit in a circle and
hold their hand like they’re praying. One child is the “doggie” and he/she needs to
hide their “bone” in someone’s hand. The persons who is it needs to guess (3 guesses)
who has the “bone”.
¼ Story Telling – This game is started by the leader. Then each child is to add to the
story. Eg. One day as I was walking on the moon…
¼ Punchinello – This is a game which is like “copy cat” game…the leader starts by
singing: “what can you do punchinello funny fellow, what can you do punchinello funny
friend?” Then call out a child’s name and they have to do something (skip, jump, twirl,
hop, clap…) then when the child does their action the leader sings “We can do it
punchinello funny fellow, we can do it too punchinello funny friend!” Then everyone
copies what the child did. The game continues till everyone has had a turn.
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GAMES…
QUICK LINE UP
This game is played in a square rather than a circle. Start by lining up shoulder to shoulder in
four teams (each team forming one side of the square). One person goes into the centre of the
square as the spinner. Everyone has to know where he or she is positioned in line.
The spinner spins around and when he/she comes to a stop he/she calls “Quick line up”. That’s
the signal for the teams to regroup around the spinner in their original positions.
Touch Blue
Wear your most colourful outfit for this game. Call everyone over and call out a colour. The
rules are simple. You have to touch a piece of clothing that is the same colour as the colour that
is being called out. Change the colour and everyone has to find the new colour. The only 0other
rule is that you have to find these colours on someone else, not yourself.
Knots
About a dozen people can play this game. To form the knot, stand in a circle, shoulder-toshoulder, and place your hands in the centre. Now everybody grab a couple of hands. If you
ever want to get out of this, make sure that no one holds both hands with the same person or
hold the hand of a person right next to them. It might take a bit of switching around to get the
knot tied right.
There are two basic approaches to untangling the knot. The Activists dive right into the
problem – under, over, and through their teammates – hoping they’ll hit upon the solution.
Instead, they might carefully survey the situation before instructing each player precisely
where to move and in what order.
Since you’re all in the same tangle together, you’ll have to come to some agreement as to which
approach to follow. (Note: pivoting on you handholds without actually breaking your grip will add
a lot of grace and eliminate the need for a chiropractor). When at last the know is unraveled
you will find yourselves in a one large circle, or occasionally, two interconnected ones.
Stand Up
Begin with 2 people sitting down back to back with their elbows linked. Try to stand up
together. Once this is accomplished, continue to add another person.
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Elephant, Duck, Raccoon, Donkey
Everyone stands in a circle with one person in the middle who points at someone in the outer
circle and says “Elephant” (Duck, etc). The people pointed at become that animal and each
person on either side of them become the ears or some other part of the animal that the person
in the middle states. If not, the person pointed at takes his/her place in the middle of the
circle, and become the “pointer”.
Elephant - three parts, trunk, two ears (before the count of three) then…
Duck – duck bill, two hands flapping and two wings flapping (arms) then…
Raccoon – two fingers, teeth chattering and two little eye patches (hands) then…
Donkey – do nothing, don’t move.
Last person goes in the middle when you say donkey or someone who moves.
People to People
Getting people together is the object of just about every new game. People to People explores
just how many ways it can be done.
We pair up and stand in a circle, facing one player in the centre, who is the leader. The leader
sets a beat by clapping or snapping his/her fingers and chanting, “People to People”. We’re not
going to let him/her do a solo so we join in the chant too.
Once we’re all caught up in the act, the leader substitutes the name of a body part for the word
people in the change, keeping the same rhythm, of course. “Back to Back”, he/she might say, and
as we repeat the chant, we let our bodies follow the directions and assume, without partners,
whatever imaginative position the leader’s chant has suggested. If he/she says, “Hip to Hip”, we
bump hips; if he/she says, “Knee to Knee”, we face each other and touch knees. Matching body
part to body part we continue until the leader shouts, “People to People”.
That’s the signal for everyone to scamper about and find a new partner. The leader gets lost in
the shuffle and finds a partner too. Unless an extra player sneaked in somewhere, there should
be a new odd person out. He/she gets rewarded by becoming the new leader and continuing the
chant, letting propriety be his/her only guide as to what body parts he/she directs us to connect
next.
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TAG
All players are active most of the time. Tag games begin with about one fifth of the
players being “taggers”. These players chase the other players who attempt to escape
being tagged. Once a player has been tagged, he/she join the “taggers”, and the game is
over when all of the players have become “taggers”.
Variations of Tag
Poison Tag: “Taggers” must keep one hand on the spot they were tagged.
Ankle Tag:
Players cannot be tagged while they are holding another players
ankle.
Turtle Tag: To escape being tagged, players lie on their backs with their
arms and feet in the air.
Copy Tag:
“Taggers” decide upon a method of progression, such as
hopping, running, crawling, etc., and the other players must copy
them.
Cross Tag:
“Taggers” name the player he/she will chase. If another player
Runs between the “tagger” and the player he/she is chasing, the
“tagger” must chase the new player.
Frog sits or kneels in the center of a circle. Players dare frog by
Frog in the Sea:
running or darting in close to him and saying, “Froggie in the sea, can’t
catch me!” If the frog tags a player, he/she also becomes a frog and sits
or kneels in the circle beside the first frog. The game may continue until a
certain number of frogs are caught, or the circle is too full of frogs. The
first frog then chooses a new Froggie from the group of children that were
tagged.
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Midnight:
A space is marked off to be the fox’s den. The chickens creep into the den
asking him, “What time is it Mr. Fox?” The fox may answer that it is any
time, but when he says “Midnight”, that is the signal that he is going to
chase the chickens. The chickens are safe only when they are in a marked
goal at the other side of the room. Any chickens that are tagged before
they reach safety are kept in the fox’s den until either he catches all of
the chickens or, another chicken touching their hand saves them.
Chain Tag:
Mark off an area for the playing space to keep the players from spreading
out too far. The child who is the “tagger” picks another child to help
him/her and they join hands. These two try to tag others and, as each
child is tagged, he joins the chain in the middle and the chain grows longer
as each child joins it. Only the children on the ends of the chain can tag.
They players who are being chase may break through the chain or go under
the hands. If the chain is broken it must be joined back together again
before tagging is legal.
Ball Tag:
The players must move quickly and alertly in a circle so as to avoid being hit
by the thrown object. You will need a ball. Players stand about one meter
apart in a large circle. The circle faces one player in the middle who has
the ball. The players run around in the circle as quickly as they can,
keeping the same distance apart. The player in the center tries to hit one
of the running players with the ball. The players may dodge, duck, or try to
avoid the ball, but they cannot stop running and they must not stray from
the circle. As soon as a player is hit, he joins the leader inside the circle
and helps to throw and collect the ball. The last player remaining running
past in the circle is the winner and the next ball thrower.
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RELAYS
— Best used with large number of people and unlimited space.
Some Tips for effectively planning a relay game:
— Lines or teams equal in number and ability
— Demonstrate activity
— Do not have too many on a team or children will get restless waiting for their
turn.
— Running relays may be long, but relays involving hopping, skipping, etc, should
be shorter.
— Avoid using a wall or any hard surface for the relay, to ensure the safety of
participants.
Variations of Relays:
Trains:
The first player, the “engine”, runs up to the “station” (turning point) and
returns. He then puts his left hand back between his legs. The second
player grasps the left hand of the first player and, with the first player
leading, both run to the station and return. The second player grasps the
left hand of the first player an, with the first player leading, both run to
the station and return. The second player then puts his free hand between
his legs and three players run up. This is continued until the whole team
has been picked up. It is recommended that the teams be sized, tallest at
the front for this relay.
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Three’s:
Formation: Lines made up of groups of three. The second and third player
in each group has his hands around the waist of the player in front.
Action: The first group of three runs to the turning point and back. As soon as
the first group touches the second, the second group runs, and so on until
all have run.
Vaulting Relay: (Leap Frog)
Formation: Line
Action: Players race in pairs. The first player takes two steps forward, and
the second player leaps over him, moves a couple of steps forward and
“makes a back” and the first player leaps over him. Thus, alternating they
progress to the turning point and back. They touch the second couple and
they do the same until all have had a turn.
Stride Relay:
Formation: Line or spoke. All players sit side by side, facing the same side,
legs straight and together.
Action: The first player jumps to his feet and runs, striding over the legs of the
sitting players until he has run right down the line. He then turns and runs
behind the sitting players, back to his place. As soon as he is sitting, the
second player runs down the line back behind the sitting players to the end
of the line, over the first player and sits in his own place. This run is
repeated by the third player etc. until all have had a turn.
Variations: Have all players lying face down. Have all players kneeling with hands
on the floor, body in ball shape.
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Obstacle Race:
Formation: Line with three of the players lined up about twenty to thirty
feet ahead of the rest of the team, and about four or five feet from each
other. The first and third player stands erect. The second stands astride.
These players are the obstacles.
Action: The first of the remaining players run up to the first obstacle, right
around the obstacle once, then goes between the legs of the second
obstacle, and then runs right around the third obstacle and back to the
file, touching the second player on his way. They second and following
players repeat, until all except the “obstacle” have run.
Variations: Use more obstacles. Have players straddle crouching obstacles.
Partner Race:
Formation: In shuttle formation, partners stand with inside arms around
one another.
Action: Run together to the turning point and back, and touch the second couple
who then take their turn, and upon their return they touch the third couple
an so on until all have had their turn.
Variations: Partners have to make a full turn together when a signal is given.
Partners stand back to back and clasp hands. They move sideways by
means of galloping sidesteps.
Arm Chair Relay:
Formation: Line. The lightest player is selected to be the rider. The
others face each other and join hands to form a chair.
Action: The rider sits in the chair formed by the first two players and is carried
to the turning point. From here the rider returns alone to the starting
point and then rides again with the next two players, until all of the players
have had a turn. If the original file has an even number of players, it will
be necessary for an extra player to run back with the rider to make a
chair, when it is the turn of the last player to run.
Variations: Use a shuttle formation.
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The Parachute
The parachute is a favorite for all children, but especially for the very young. It adds a
special spark to any gymnasium session, where the number of ‘chute games and activities
are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and participants.
The parachute brings a sense of belonging to each child who assumes his place. As each
grips the edge, the smallest, and physically awkward, and yes, even the “turned off
child” can be motivated to participate in these intriguing exercises.
The parachute for the very young provides an excellent opportunity for co-operative
play. Simple activities are used for this age group to introduce them to circle games,
activities involving change in direction, and simple commands such as "up”, “down”, and
“under”.
The parachute is a fun way to integrate parent participation.
Teachers Tips…
It is recommended that parachute activities are limited to only part of a gym session
(for preschool children, 10-15 minutes is ideal)
The centre hole poses a danger to youngsters who like to peek. For obvious reasons,
children should be cautioned never to poke heads through the center.
Running under the canopy should be discouraged unless only one or two children are
involved at a time.
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Talk Time…
Equipment:
Small, medium or large parachute
Object of the game:
To use the parachute as a means of bringing children together for conversation, etc…
A good place to start a new class, introduction of teachers, etc…
A safe place to discuss surroundings.
How to play:
Spread parachute on floor
Everyone lies (sits, kneels) on parachute facing the center.
Let it Fly! …
Equipment:
Small or medium parachute
Object of the game:
To perform the appropriate actions of the poem and create a rising mushroom effect
with the parachute.
Develops language skills, cooperation, timing, grip, and release.
1. Everyone must find a designated spot of the floor before chute hits the ground.
2. One child should be selected to pick up chute.
How to Play:
1. Children hold the parachute.
2. “Down on the floor
Way up high
Down to the Floor
Way up high
Down to the floor
Now! Let it Fly!”
3. Teacher: “Wave Bye Bye” (two hands)
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Mount’n Stomp…
Equipment:
Small parachute
Object of game:
To trap air under the parachute forming a mountain.
Develops listening skills
This activity is more effective with a limit of six climbers
How to play:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Hold parachute
Lower and raise parachute three times.
The fourth time, lower, then trap the air by kneeling on the edge of the parachute.
Select mountain climbers (six children or less)
Climb slowly over the mountain on hands and knees forcing the air out.
“Find a new place on the parachute.”
Select group 2 for climbing.
Pete Parachute Says…
Equipment:
Small or medium parachute
Object of the game:
To get children to imitate the instructors through visual and verbal commands.
Develops listening skills, body image, and spatial awareness.
How to Play:
1. Instructor calls out:
“Pete Parachute says:
Kneel this way…
Sit this way…
Stand up fast…
Lie down slow…
Cover up your shoulders…
Go to sleep…
Etc…”
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