Jan - American Radio History
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www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
Vol. 47, No.
RADIO,
Successor to
Est.
1
Hear! Hear!
1911
C. G. McPRouD Publisher
3 POWERFUL
AUDIO
Editor
DAVID SASLAW
RECEPTION AIDS
FOR FM AND FM
MULTIPLEX STEREO
JANET M. DURGIN
Production Manager
Set up for stereo or monaural FM ?
Either way, you'll bring in more
HENRY A. SCHOBER
Representatives
Contributing Editors
Business Manager
Bill Pattis & Associates,
4761 West Touhy Ave.,
Lincolnwood 46, Ill.
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY
SANFORD L. CAHN
.lames C. Galloway,
Advertising Director
EDGAR E.
NEWMAN
Circulation Director
65.15 Wilshire Blvd.,
Los Angeles 48, Calif.
Warren Birkenhead, Inc..
matsu -cho,
Jlinato -ku, Tokyo, Japan
No. 25, 2- chome, Shiba Hama -
HAROLD LAWRENCE
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON
CHESTER SANTON
Articles
FM Stereo Reception
19
Jack Beever
Design of Solid -State Stereo Power
Amplifier with Silicon Transistors
21
Marshall R. Myers, Jr. and
Morley D. Kahn
AIignment and Adjustment of
FM- Stereo Tuners and Adapters
26
C. G.
High -Quality Transistorized Stereo
Preamplifier
35
Erhard Aschinger
A
McProud
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AUDIO Reviews
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Record Revue
Jazz and All That
with these powerful Jerrold
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AUDIO
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48
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Edward Tatnall Canby
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AUDIO in General
Audioclinic
Book Review
Audio ETC
Editor's Review
Tape Guide
This Month's Cover
About Music
New Products
Industry Notes
Advertising Index
2
Joseph Giovanelli
4
12
16
Edward Tatnall Canby
40
Herman Burstein
58
64
66
Harold Lawrence
75
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76
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(title registered U. S. Pat. Off.) is published monthly by Radio Magazines, Inc., Henry A. Schober, President; C. G. McProud, Secretary. Executive
and Editorial Offices, 204 Front SL, Mineola, N. Y. Subscription rates -U. S.,
Possessions, Canada, and Mexico, $4.03 for one year, $7.00 for two years; all
other countries $5.00 per year. Single copies 50¢. Printed in U.S.A. at 10
McGovern Ave., Lancaster, Pa. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyrighted
1983 by Radio Magazines, Ine. Second Class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa.
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AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
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potentiometer. The potentiometer serves as
a coarse attenuator. It should be preset and
left that way. Recording level is adjusted
at the tape recorder in the usual manner.
This arrangement is recommended only
when the line has one side grounded to the
70 -volt line amplifier. In other words, the
system should be used only with an unbal-
Leaky Oil -Filled Capacitor
Q. Is a small hole needed in the case of
an oil capacitor? I had an oil leak in one of
mine and found what looked like a drilled
hole. D. M. Anglin, Seattle, Washington.
A. There should not be a hole in an oil filled capacitor otherwise the oil will leak
out and the capacitor will change in Value.
Discard the unit.
anced line.
If the line is balanced, a transformer is
necessary. The voltage is high enough so
that the transformer type is not critical.
The secondary has to be wired for an unbalanced line. Use a quality transformer to
avoid serious degradation of the program
material. If the voltage across this transformer is high, you will need an attenuator.
This attenuator can be the potentiometer
arrangement we have already described.
VU Meter to Balance Speakers
Theory of Internal Impedance
I have
been trying to find a VU meter
that will work with the 8-ohm output of
my Williamson amplifier. I tried one that
was supposed to work with any circuit but
I could not get a reading while the speakers were playing. I want to balance my
stereo setup. How are the meters connected
series with the speakers or in parallel? Would it be an a.c. or d.c. reading?
Will it be possible to get a meter which
will work with my amplifiers? D. Ml' AnQ.
-in
glin, Seattle, Washington.
A. The VU meter is connected in parallel
with the speakers. You are not getting
deflection of the meter because the loudness
level is too low ; there is insufficient voltage
developed across the meter to drive the
pointer upscale.
Most meters have an impedance of 600
ohms. If yours does the solution is simple.
Use a transformer to raise the 8 -ohm impedance to 600 ohms. A line- to- voiçecoil
transformer will do the job. You may need
to attenuate the signal to the meter when
loud passages occur. Use a 600 -ohm lei-pad.
The speaker voltage is a.e. so that the
VU meter is reading an a.c. voltage. Audio
voltages are always a.c. Sometimes this a.c.
is superimposed upon a d.c. voltage. An
example of such a superimposition is given
in our December 1962 column.
Recording from a 70-Volt Line
Q. Do I need a transformer to feed a
signal from a 70 -volt speaker distribution
system to the input of a tape recorder? I
wish to record from a number of different
locations. Alvin E. House, Ames, Iowa.
A. You do not need a transformer in
order to record from a 70 -volt distribution
system. You do need a potentiometer of
high enough value so that it will not take
appreciable power from the line. Its power
rating should be sufficiently high to prevent
burnout at the power level employed.
The signal input of the tape recorder is
connected to the arm of the potentiometer
and the signal ground to the ground side
of the line. The line is connected across the
Measurement
Q. In a previous letter I asked how I
could find the impedance of a cathode follower output on my tape recorder. You told
me to hook a VTVM to the output while
sending a 1000 -cps tone through the pre.
amplifier. Then you said to connect a variable resistor across the output and adjust
it until the VTVM reading drops 6 -db below what it was when no resistor was present. By measuring the value of this adjustable resistor I would find the output
impedance.
I am curious as to why impedance can
be determined in this way. I know 6 db
would be 1/4 the original power output. How
does the variable resistor affect this? Can
you explain? Robert C. Hnosalla, APO,
San Francisco, California.
A. The reason that a 6 -db below the noload voltage gives the output impedance of
the preamplifier is that the tape preamplifier has resistance. For this discussion, let
us assume that the output impedance of a
cathode follower acts like a pure resistance.
Therefore some of the signal is lost across
the internal resistance of the cathode follower. When the output of the tape recorder
is not loaded, and a VTVM is placed across
the output terminals of the unit, it is the
same as saying that no signal is being
taken from the cathode follower. (The impedance of the VTVM is so high, cornpared to the impedance of the cathode follower, that the power taken by it is virtually unmeasurable.) When the output of the
cathode follower is gradually loaded by decreasing the value of the variable resistor,
signal is taken from the unit. Some of this
signal is lost across the internal resistance
of the cathode follower. There will be a
time when the signal voltage will drop to
half of its original value, or 6 -db below the
no load voltage, and is equally divided between the internal resistance and the external load. The current in each resistance
is the same by Kirchoff's Law, thus the
voltage across each resistor is equal when
the values of the resistances are equal. This
(Continued on page 4)
AUDIO
2
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
e at. Garrard congratulate Shure on the development of this new float-
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BOOK REVIEW
.
.
.
.
.
MUSIC, ACOUSTICS, AND ARCHITECTURE
Author: Leo L. Beranek
Published: Sept. 1962; 586 pages; John
Wiley
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his latest book by Leo Beranek is a
very important book. It is important
for several reasons. First of all we
have here one of the first systematic and
relatively scientific approaches to the
definition of what a good, very good, and
excellent musical -performance hall is.
Secondly, and we suppose out of necessity,
he has reduced the definition to a numerical rating scale so that acousticians can
design halls more precisely than heretofore. Thirdly he has given us an example
of how his rating scale works. Of course
the example is Philharmonic Hall in the
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.
Finally he postulates a new way to calculate the audience and seat absorption in
large halls which may bring the uncertainty of projected reverberation times
back to the realm of accuracy.
T
T
What is a Good Musical
Performance Hall?
By far the largest portion of this book
is devoted to defining the subjective and
im1yy
(Contis
1f(1 On
pane 63)
< ,0
11'Nl
,
objective parameters which add up to
quality in concert halls and opera houses.
This is done in several ways: First the
terms commonly used to describe judgement of a musical performance are defined. This step is so obviously necessary
that we are surprised that it wasn't done
before. With such a standard vocabulary
it is possible to communicate effectively
ill an area which has been rather difficult to pin down. But of course it is a lot
to expect musicians to adopt a new language. Dr. Beranek goes further; he says:
"I am not proposing that musicians
change their ways." He then indicates
that it is enough that we now can understand what they mean. Eighteen terms
were defined, certainly sufficient for a
musician or anyone else to describe his
reactions to a concert hail or opera house.
Dr. Beranek next interviewed 23 of the
most famous conductors and musicians
in the world and 21 well -known critics.
From them he gathered opinions as to the
best halls in the world and detailed corn ments about them. He was thus able to
correlate this information into significant
judgements about the best and least -liked
halls. These judgements are of singular
value when linked with the measurements
Dr. Beranek and his associates made of
54 of the most famous and liked halls in
the world. (Figure 1 is an example of the
type of presentation.) In our opinion,
just the compiling of valid statistics about
all these important halls is a great step
forward and makes the book worthwhile.
From this mass of information it was now
possible to explode some of the long persisting myths which surround music
halls, but more important it was possible
llll
1
J
G
IIinuIäE7
711lïil5
ACADEMY OF MUSIC, PHILADELPHIA
,:
_CI:
=7:'.:=7.mCG 0,
COOOJC]OGL'L.:]mL]IF,
TEATRO ALLA SCALA, MILAN
Figure
AUDIOCLINIC
(from page 2)
internal resistance can be said to be the
impedance of the preamplifier at the frequency used to make the measurements
1000 cps in this instance. For this, reason,
when the voltage has dropped to half the no
load value, the internal resistance is equal
to the external resistance. Now, by measuring the load resistance, we have automatically read the internal resistance, or impedance, of the unit under test.
Actually, there will be some error here
due to the negative feedback. As the load
increases the voltage tends to drop of
thereby decreasing the feedback signal.
Reduction of feedback causes the gain of
-
1.
the device under test to increase. This, in
turn, will cause an increase hi the output
voltage. For most applications the results
will probably be close enough.
If you had any difficulty in picturing the
action of the load resistor, think of the
circuit as a series circuit. One end of the
internal resistance of the cathode follower
(one output terminal) is connected to one
end of the external resistance. The other
end of the external resistance is connected
to the other end of the internal resistance
of the cathode follower (the other output
terminal) .
Think of the combination of the two
resistors as a voltage divider. When the two
resistors are equal in value, the voltage
divider action will be such that half the
voltage will be developed across each re1£
sistance making up the divider.
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
What compact can do everything
a
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The Ampex PR -10 gives you all the features, all the
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And it's all wrapped up in a suitcase -sized pac-cage.
That means you can take a complete re-
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school, the church, industry- anywhere you
need it. The PR -10 features positive pushbutton controls; record -safe switch; and separate erase, record and playback heads. And
there's room for an optional 4 -track stereo or
additional playback head. There's also a new
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Q
AMPEX PR -10
electro- dynamic clutch system to give you fast, gentle
starts and lower braking tension. If you want to monitor
on -:he -spot, the PR -10 has A -B switches, VU meters,
phone jacks,output circuits.Moreover,electri cal alignment controls are accessible througn
the front panel. You get all this plus a new
Ampex "FourStar "oneyear warranty. Fordata
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PEX
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5
LETTERS
SPACE
BREAKTHROUGH!
How the New Fairchild Integra/ Series*
20
20
20
20
20
100
:
According to your statement the occasion for the so-called
"consternation" was highlighted "a year and -a -half ago," when
FM stereo
became a reality." This would make it around
June 1961. By this date the means of obtaining a summation of
the two channels of information from a stereophonic disc was
well known because the disc standard covering this specification
had been widely publicized to the recording industry in:
R.I.A.A. Bulletin E3
1957
I.E.C. Publication 98 -1
1959
B.S.I. British Standard 1928: 1961
1961
E.I.A. Standard RS211 -A
1959
While sonic failures to adhere to these well established standards have caused a few red faces, there was certainly no consternation. The fact that a summation obtained from all stereophonic recordings does not always result in the most desirable
monophonic sound was also known and understood, and this
effect was clearly noted in the N.S.R.C. report to F.C.C.
I suggest that it would be more fitting to have devoted more
editorial space to Mr. Masden's brilliant work and less to drawing erroneous conclusions based on incomplete consideration of
all the existing facts. A more positive approach of exposing
sonic of the effective results that standardization groups have
achieved for the easy exchange of goods both domestically and
abroad would be highly appropriate toward enlightening many
readers concerning what goes on in EIA, IEC, ISO, RIAA, ASA,
SMPTE, NAB, CCIR, MRIA, IEEE, and others. Do you know?
E. H. UEC%E
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channel. All Fairchild Integra /Series components complement each other yet each component can be bought
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Fairchild Integra /Series:
SIR:
I was certainly pleased to read your editorial support to the
standardization of the vertical tracking angle in stereo records.
I am slightly disappointed, however, that it took you so long to
recognize the problem, and put your weight and prestige behind
a corrective movement. Many engineers, including myself, recognized the vertical tracking angle problem four to five ago, and
suggested standardization.
REIN NAKMA, Chief Engineer
Ampex Corp., Audio Div.
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Y
SIR :
In this paper Mr. Madsen calls attention to the importance
of standardizing and controlling the tilt angle in recording and
the vertical -tracking angle in playback. On the basis of work in
our laboratory, we can endorse Mr. Madsen's conclusions.
However, it is unfortunate that in listing the vertical tracking angles measured for various pickups, the author did not include model designations of the pickups. Our observations indicate that different models marketed by the same manufacturer
may differ considerably in vertical angle. It also appears that
some of the pickups tested by Mr. Madsen were older models
not now in production. While we find that the vertical angles
of currently available pickups of various manufacturers cover
roughly the same range of angles as those listed in the article,
in fairness to the manufacturers, your readers should understand
that the listed values of angle do not necessarily apply to current
models of the manufacturers as listed.
J.
G. WOODWARD
J. B. HALTER
RCA Laboratories
Princeton, New Jersey
Belt Slippage
SIR:
Mr. Subber is correct in that, if I chose to discuss the matter
at all, I should have pointed out that with a belt of finite thickness the effective pulley diameter is greater than the actual diameter. I didn't, out of ignorance.
While he does not directly
to speed, the implication of
correct. With the motor in
the AR turntable as well as
deny the relevance of belt slippage
irrelevance seems clear. This is not
perfect sync, the platen speed (in
in all others tested here) will vary
(Continued on page 71)
AUDIO
6
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
What professional recording tape now offers a new standard of performance?
AMPEX 600.
one -hundredth have the same response characteristics
Ampex engineers are never content with present
curve. It gives you the kind of reliable performance you
standards. They are always trying to improve what
expect from Ampex recording equipment. Try this imsometimes seems un- improvable. Now they have been
proved 600 Series and see. It's made in the
at work on the Ampex 600 Series Profess onal
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Recording Tape. And they've
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tation tapes. Write the only company with
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-
ALDIO
JANUARY, 1963
7
ence than to depiction of an actual person in
charge of housekeeping at the White House.
Luckily for the version of the show heard
here, Miss Fabray is introduced quite early in
the proceedings. Whenever a good song comes
along, she is generally on hand to put it
across. No sooner does the show get underway,
Miss Fabray invades the Oval Room of the
White House with a mellow song (Let's Go
Back to the Waltz) just as the ball being held
there erupts in the Twist. The succession of
scenes dealing with the private life of Presi-
LIGHT LISTENIN
Giant Pipes
Warner Bros. Tape WSTC 1433
During the first month of this decade, Warner Bros. released the initial offering in a
series of organ recordings that should take
care of our needs until the 1970's. The series,
featuring the veteran theater organist Gus
Farney, now numbers three recordings and all
Gus Farney:
of them are available on four-track tape. It
doesn't take a mind reader to figure out why
the engineering staff at Warners urged the
front office to waste no time in getting these
releases out on tape. Anyone familiar with the
sound on the master tapes would have been
reluctant to sacrifice even a small amount of
the luxuriant bass due to the exigencies of the
disc recording curve. Without the walls of a
stereo groove to worry about, this tape album
will have a good woofer purring in regions
that one seldom hears from on a run- of -themill tape. Nothing is lacking in the response
of the chimes and bells in the upper registers
of the five- manual console at Salt Lake City's
Organ Loft but the bass is the immediate selling point in all three Farney albums. The recording that preceded this one was devoted to
the typical theater organ music of the Twenties : the ballads of the times, popular novelties and a floor-shaking version of The National Emblem March. In his latest release,
Gus Farney turns his attention to the spectacular musical films that were the rage in
the Thirties. "Forty-Second Street," "Footlight Parade" and "Gold Diggers of 1933" are
numbered among the sources of the nostalgic
movie tunes that roll with beguiling ease from
the group of keyboards under the command of
Gus Farney.
Music by Cesana: The Sound of Rome
RCA VICTOR LSP 2600
When RCA opened its lavish new recording
studios in Rome last March, the occasion received more than passing notice in magazines
devoted to the foibles of the record industry.
To insure maximum news coverage of the formal inauguration of RCA Italiana's recording
center on the Via Tiburtina, a planeload of
American editors was whisked to Rome for a
tour of the studios . .. one of them (a studio,
not an editor) said to be the largest in the
world. Preliminary reports on the ultra -modern
equipment installed at RCA Italiana could
only hint at the nature of the audio work that
would be forthcoming from this lavish layout.
"The Sound of Rome," a collection of original compositions by arranger- conductor Cesana, is the first recording I've heard from
the new studios and it bodes very well for the
future. This disc has everything recently attained in RCA's domestic studios along with a
luxurious feeling of freedom in the acoustics
that is a distinct rarity in recordings made
over here. Some of the favorite haunts of Victor's engineers stationed in New York offer
almost -as -good acoustics. Our halls, however,
tend to identify themselves by the nature of
their resonance characteristics. The Italian
studio used by Cesana's sixty-five -piece orchestra has no sound characteristic of its own.
Without the cold bounce of sound from nearby
studio walls, the listener is free to hear the
music without the typical studio effect. This
recording is one of the finest examples of the
advantages gained when the sound is allowed
to go its own way in an enormous room with
the mikes placed close enough to permit lowerthan- average level settings. Under these circumstances, it's very difficult for distortion to
get a toe hold. The effect is very rich and
pleasing to the ear because the 65 musicians
get a chance to be heard without favor being
shown to a few. The Cesana originals are on
the bland and soothing side with little in their
musical content to describe the specific landmarks of Rome mentioned in their titles.
Scottish Soldiers
London Tape LPM 70057
You'll want to tell the rest of the clan about
this one. London Records now has the arswer
for tape fans hankering to acquire the stirring
music of the Highlands in reel form. On the
reasonable premise that even a Scotsman
would prefer a bit of variety in a bagpipe
album, this tape contains not one but two
musical organizations long associated with
Scotland's soldiery. The Massed Military Bands
of the Royal Scot Greys and the Argyll and
Sutherland Highlanders provide the more conventional instrumental tonic while the Massed
Pipes and Drums of the Royal Scot Greys and
the 1st Battalion of the Argyll and Sutherland
Highlanders paint the brighter colors in the
same tapestry of sound. The opening fanfare
by the band sets the mood for the entire album and, in passing, illustrates just how high
a signal level can be impressed upon a fourtrack tape these days. The opening moments of
this reel come within the width of a whisker
of reaching overload distortion.
The band takes over in the first medley,
mingling Lock Lomond and Campbells Are
Coming with more local favorites such as
Stop Your Ticklin' Jock. The spine -tingling
wail of the pipes is heard over the crunch and
thud of accompanying drums in other segments of the tape while the band takes a
breather. When the pipes and band conibine
forces on this reel, we're provided convincing
evidence that tape is a mightly handy medium
to have around when the microphones are
given a heavy assignment. Since the frequency
response on this tape album seems little better than average, the bagpipes accommodate
themselves with greater ease to the available
tonal range than do some of the instruments
of the band.
Mr. President (Original Broadway Cast)
Columbia KOS 2270
After listening to the original cast recording of Irving Berlin's latest show, o
is
tempted to decide that "Mrs. President" Might
have been a more accurate title for this'production. As the wife of a carefully unspecified
contemporary President, Nanette Fabray is
the real vote getter in the stage administration put together by Berlin and the famous
writing team of Howard Lindsay and Rµµssel
Crouse. According to all reports of the
Ifirst-
night critics, the President uncovered in the
portrayal of Robert Ryan is a pretty dull
figure. The Lindsay- Crouse book certainly
gives him little opportunity to create a personality capable of carrying a show single -
handed.
It may be that we were counting on the
heretofore salty wit of the authors to give us
an updated commentary on the Presidency
along the lines of that great classic show
"Of Thee I Sing." Instead, we get a bland re-
-
cital of the presidential tribulations that recent occupants of the White House have been
called upon to endure in order to maintain
their popularity. The libretto is careful to
avoid reference to a specified President. Robert
Ryan adds to the character's anonymity by
sounding far younger than either Truman or
Eisenhower yet older than Kennedy. Nanette
Fabray's First Lady is a carefree invention
devoted more to the entertainment of an audi-
dent Stephen Decatur Henderson (Berlin's
White House occupant) is the source of the
first song of real hit proportions when Nanette
Fabray asks Is He the Only Man in the
World? Of all the tunes in "Mr. President"
on a wide variety of subject matter, this song
most closely typifies the familiar brand of
Berlin magic in the wedding of melody to a
lyric. The song that follows Only Man betrays
the first truly gusty moments of animation
heard so far on the record. They Love Me
offers Nanette Fabray the best opportunity to
unleash the comedy talent that first brought
her to the attention of a nationwide TV audience on the Sid Caesar Show. Her description
of the gifts heaped upon her during a world
tour is about as high a point as this show
manages to reach
you exclude the America-Be-Blessed number, This is a Great Country, which precedes the finale.
The younger roles in "Mr. President" are
filled with more than average skill and talent.
Anita Gillette gets her best Broadway break
so far as the First Daughter of the land. Miss
Gillette first broke into the news on the Main
Stem while still an understudy when she replaced Anna Maria Alberghetti for ten days in
the leading role of "Carnival." David Merrick,
that show's producer, collected a lot of publicity for Miss Gillette (and himself) when he
pulled the unusual stunt of praising the work
of the understudy at the expense of the established star. Miss Gillette's subsequent engagement in Ray Bolger's show, "All American,"
paved the way for the favorable impression
she makes here as the President's winsome
daughter. Jack Haskell, in his first Broadway
appearance, easily walks off with top honors
in the male vocal department, cashing in on
the experience gained during the years spent
on the Garroway and Jack Parr television
shows. As a Secret Service man In love with
the President's daughter (democracy always
has a chance in a Berlin show), Haskell is
effective in romantic- interest songs that fall
just short of solid hit material. Despite the
long list of songs supplied by the composer,
only a few will be remembered when this
Berlin show leaves the national spotlight to
return to the "private life" of other bygone
stage productions.
-if
Norman Luboff: Choral Spectacular
RCA Victor LSP 2522
Only a major label could have risked the
extra expense involved in this pop recording.
Even allowing for the probability that recording costs are somewhat cheaper in England,
the budget made available to Norman Luboff
in his latest recording was on a scale usually
reserved for important classical works requiring a full chorus and symphony orchestra.
The germ of the idea for this album first began to wiggle when producer Charles Gerhardt
auditioned the recent stereo recording of Beethoven's Ninth (Choral) Symphony made for
RCA by the Chicago Symphony under Fritz
Reiner. His suggestion : a huge chorus and
orchestra placed at the service of standard
pop tunes. Gerhard's request for a 100 -voice
chorus to deliver the arrangements of Norman
Luboff was received with favor by the front
office and recording sessions were set up in
London's famous Walthamstow Town Hall
where some of the better classical recordings
have been turned out in the last year or two
by several American labels. A symphony orchestra of 92 pieces was hired for the occasion
and the assignment to arrange their music was
handed over to Wally Stott, one of the top arrangers currently practicing in England. This
project is on its weakest ground (if that term
can be applied to the efforts of 194 persons bent
on building up eleven standards) in the somewhat square -cut playing of the orchestra. One
misses the snap and verve that Andre Kos telanetz brought to many of these songs when
his full orchestra was riding the crest of its
AUDIO
8
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
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- JULIAN
*Noted equipment reviewer,
in a lab report
published in the December, 1962, HiFi /Stereo
Review. Writes Mr. Hirsch: "Inside...the XP -4A
is quite unlike any of the other speakers it
resembles externally... proved to be an unusually
wide -range, smooth system...the response was
virtually flat from 5,000 cps to beyond the limits
of audibility...Tone -burst tests showed very good
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9
popularity but the choral work is really something special -in performance and sound. This
would have been a dream assignment for any
choral director and Luboff has made the most
of it. Just how he got all that sonority without clouding the words is his own secret. Luboff would probably be the first to admit that
the recording engineers-and the hall -had a
lot to do with it. After some three hours of
experiment In mike setups, most of the chorus
was placed in the balcony of Walthamstow
with the orchestra spread out on the main
floor of the hall. To insure adequate pickup
of voices in the low -level passages (That Old
Black Magic begins at a whisper) twenty -four
mikes were used to feed the multiple -channel
tape units. The best idea of all was the decision to skip the re- recording step that has
usually been part of the process whenever so
many microphones have been involved in a
session.
If it does nothing else, this record clinches
the argument that mastering from the original
tape remains the best way yet devised to preserve the fullest possible impact of the sound
encountered by the mikes. If you're tired of
the fancy equalization found in so many of
today's re- recorded releases of light music, try
this disc for a treat in the handling of a large
chows.
-I Want to Get Off
(Original Broadway Cast)
Stop the World
London Tape LAN 85001
Robbed of its pantomime and tricks in staging, this new show from England is so lightweight in its recorded version, It may be
blown off the globe before the world has a
chance to stop. It's difficult to see how this
production can succeed in attracting many
NEW VELOCITONE MARK II
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It isn't as if the new Mark II won't work wonders with your transcription turntable and arm. That it would. But, matching a cartridge to a record changer is
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Here are some of the problems. You can select one of those ultra- high -compliance
magnetic cartridges that track at a gram or two. Now what?
Says Joe Marshall, noted authority in the January, 1962, issue of High Fidelity:
"An attempt to reduce needle pressure with an arm not designed for low needle
pressure will usually result in high distortion due to loading the needle with the
mass and friction of the arm."
And in the April 7, 1962, issue of Opera News, Conrad Osborne observes : "The
thing to be sure of when seeking a new cartridge is that the compliance ... suits
the characteristics of your tonearm. A cartridge with extremely high compliance
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manual turntable arms requiring fairly heavy stylus pressure ..."
Now let's take a look at the Velocitone Mark II. Compliance: 5.5 x 10 -6 cm /dyne,
designed to track at from 2 to 4 grams. Perfect! Also because it is a ceramic
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field -without a trace of magnetically induced hum. Fine! But, how about frequency response, output, channel separation? How does it perform?
±1db to
The usable response of the Mark II extends from 20 to 20,000 cycles
17,000. And it has better than 30db channel separation. What's more, it is supplied with plug -in, matched equalizers so that it functions as a constant velocity
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Its output is in the order of llmv per channel. You can
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The Velocitone Mark II is priced at $22.25 with two
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record or tape buyers. The qualities of this
new-style musical that first won the attention
of American producer David Merrick when be
attended the tryout at Nottingham, England,
are the very things that fail to register when
the show is transferred to the recorded medium. Unlike the average stage production
that boasts a varied cast of performers, the
brunt of this show is carried by two persons.
Britisher Anthony Newley Is the star, director,
co- author, co- composer and co-lyricist of "Stop
the World." Sharing the songs in this album
with Mr. Newley is Anna Quayle. Between
them, they trace from birth to death the life
of a clown character known as Littlechap.
The story begins in England but soon switches
to Russia, Germany and America. Anthony
"Littlechap" Newley and co- author Leslie Brieusse get a lot of mileage out of one tune that
is sung throughout the show by Miss Quayle.
Changing the lyrics each time, they use it to
poke fun at the customs and attitudes of people in all four countries. Mr. Newley delivers
some of his songs in the half- singing style
that Rex Harrison first made acceptable in
"My Fair Lady." The humor in "Stop the
World." although attempting to sound adult,
succeeds only in verifying the contention of
the authors that the show was written in only
four weeks.
A Leroy Anderson Concert
M -G -M SE 4075
To all outward appearances, this is merely
another release in MGM's 21 Channel Sound
that has been making the rounds in recent
months. What first aroused my curiosity was
the fact that the cover of the jacket does not
carry the name of the orchestra heard in
these performances of a Leroy Anderson miscellany. The inner fold of the record jacket,
however, provides the interesting news that
this particular 21 Channel record was made
in Germany by the engineering staff of the
Deutsche Grammophon Company of Hamburg.
In recent months, MGM has been distributing
in this country the classical recording of this
famous European firm but this release is the
first intimation I've had that MGM had per-
suaded its German partner to adopt an American recording gimmick for pop records. I must
say the Deutsche Grammophon crew has done
a spanking good job with a technique that
must have been a puzzling one at first glance.
The silky highs on this record are easily superior to those found on domestically produced
MGM discs in this particular series. Only part
of the reason is traceable to the 30- inch -per(Continued on page 63)
AUDIO
10
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
The San Diego
Symphony (rehestra
listens to itself
AR-3's
During rehearsals members of the
to
a
San Diego Symphony Orchestra pause now and then to listen
taped recording of the passage they have just played.
AR -3 loudspeakers were chosen
for the stereo playback system because of their lifelike reproduction
of orchestral timbres. Any pseudo -hi -fi coloration here would defeat the purpose of monitoring.
AR -3's and
other AR speaker models are often used professionally, but they are cesigned primarily
for the home. Prices range from $89 for an unfinished AR -2 to $203 -$225 (depending on finish)
for an AR -3. A five -year guarantee on all models covers any repair costs, including freight.
A catalog and list of AR dealers in your area will be sent on request. We will also send
tion and order form for two books on high fidelity published by AR.
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH. INC.. Y-I
AUDIO
0
JANUARY, 1963
Thorndike Street. Canebridae
11.
a
brief descrip-
JlavcaeInusetty
11
AUDIO FTC.
Edward Tatnall Canby
CULTURE FOR FREE
There's no question about it, we have
found the means, these last years, to broadcast a really amazing variety of good
things on radio, primarily via FM. (AM
is, oddly, the secondary outlet. Some of the
FM material spills over in various AM -FM
broadcasts, such as my own WNYC broadcast in New York.) Broadcasting in this
country is a curious thing, of course ; the
air waves belong to the people and yet
that which goes out upon them must,
somehow, pay for itself. Somebody must
fork over, to meet the not -inconsiderable
bills.
It is so much simpler in Europe. Over
there, the people not only own the air
waves but pay for them too. The government operates virtually all radio service.
The government pays for the broadcast
equipment in toto and-very important
the government also pays, to greater or
lesser degree, for the material it broadcasts. Such down -to -earth money -raisers as
taxes provide the funds. There's a tax,
over here, on cars and gasoline, to pay
for roads. There's a tax, over there, on
radios to pay for broadcasts.
Over here, we have a strange idea that
culture doesn't pay. We are, of course,
entirely right. It does not, in business
terms. I mean real culture -not spectacular
shows, big -name events, first- nights -withthe- President, which pay off in prestige
if not in cash. Nobody has yet to my
knowledge made Mr. Beethoven pay for
himself "live" -that is, strictly in terms
of musical performance.
Where does our FM culture system get
its steam? Well, there's storecast-multiplex,
of course, one ingenious way to promote
culture and prestige on a station and yet
come out in the black for the expenses of
broadcasting. But this is merely a final
technical "miracle." What goes out on the
air?
Remember that there is an obligation on
the part of our stations to promote the
public good to some degree, in exchange
for the public's air. That much -abused
concept still manages to exert its influence in various ways. The government
exerts varying pressure, of course, depending on the current climate at the top
levels. But the indirect results of the
concept itself are more important -every
station wants to show how virtuous it is
and, indeed, must show it. And so, among
other public services, a certain amount of
sheer, non-paying Culture gets onto the
air for sheer prestige, even though it
comes out in the red, and is probably
expected to. Not at all business -like, of
course! The best that can be done is to
make this culture the sort which attracts
listeners and thus-just maybe-brings a
sponsor or two to cushion the financial
shock. This means big names and big
events. Not dead names like Beethoven,
but living celebrities-from Pablo Casals
to, maybe, Jack Benny. In addition, it
-
means big -name onlookers, if posai
never hurts to have Jackie or Ro
Mamie and Ike on hand for a cultu
Given all this, a broadcast can p
itself and add prestige too. But s
our modest FM operations, unless
mere hand -me -down, from the AM
audio lines.
And yet our FM abounds in cult
does radio in Europe. The sounds yt
on Radio Paris or Radio Genève
very different from our own via loe
The reasoning is, however, quite di
from that which brings culture
European air. Our culture comes
stations for free.
le.
It
ky or
I do!
y for
t via
as a
r TV
e. So
hear
sren't
FM.
erent
the
the
Paying The Overhead
Our system works well and inges ously.
The station's operating costs are pa d for
indirectly. It gets a sponsor for a pr grans
whose cost is nil and so pays the ovf head ;
or it gets cash out of its storecast peration; or it receives grants from itside
philanthropic sources; or has its ow builtin source of operational cash.
This last includes many universit s and
even more, religious organizations s over
our land. In fact, much of our audib e FM
culture is backed by assorted church unds,
pkeep
providing the basic operating
essential to broadcasting. Like tl universities, the churches can make ex ellent
use of a radio voice -but not a one s them
can keep talking 8 or 16 or 24 1 Lire a
day. So they reserve what hours thi need
and turn their stations over to a sorted
culture for the rest of the time. T it's a
lot. It is a worthy system and br gs us
much wonderful material. But agai y the
actual programs are rarely paid for there
aren't any funds, or not enough The
setup doesn't envision it, and fo good
reason. It doesn't need to.
And there is also the latest wrink e and
view of its success
e lis craziest
tener- supported radio station. Its prn rams,
individually quite often out -of- the-os imary,
command the respect of an inert singly
devoted audience. They find on th type
of station things they can't hear elsewhere and, suddenly, they realize ho much
could be done in radio and isn't Even
when it's half baked; at least, the e are
new ideas, new attempts. But we must
note, once more, that the setup is 't essentially different from those a ready
described. Programs come from IT ay of
the same free sources-more of th m, in
new areas. The basic broadcast faci ity is
again paid for, the programs are no t.
Nevertheless, listener's radio, the basic
facility supported at least in part 7 the
voluntary donations of the audience is in
"business" on the West coast and in a
related venture, has survived surp ingly
the
long in hard- boiled New York,
WBAI outlet.
There is still one more built-in so ce of
operating funds for broadcasting, losest
to my own experience, the cit owned
-in
-
station, or the state broadcasting network.
Our WNYC facilities in New York are
provided by the city. Out in Wisconsin
there's a whole slew of interconnected,
state-owned FM stations. In these cases
we have the same basic structure, like
church -owned or university -owned stations,
the operating cost paid for by the owners,
who use a proportion of the time for their
own purposes and turn the rest over to
culture via the familiar media already
described. The difference, here, is that this
radio is publicly owned, by government.
It doesn't make much difference, actually.
The situation is the same as elsewhere. In
New York we hear the Mayor whenever
he wants to talk to his people, and we
get a spate of school activities, reports of
public officials, plus endless "commercials"
about not crossing against the red light,
and so on. Also much in the way of dietary
and market news, out of city departments.
Takes a good deal of the station's useful
time. And in emergencies, of course, the
station goes over 100 per cent to the city.
(The UN gets split, significantly, between
AM and FM. AM gets the continuous UN
proceedings. FM gets "regular" programs.)
Even so, as always in our FM broadcasting,
the air-day includes many hours of recorded music, educational and governmentpromoted culture, basically as in the other
types of FM operation already described.
(In fact, WNYC was the fountainhead
organizer of the NAEB educational tape
"network" and has used BBC and similar
material for many years.)
The government station in our country
goes further than most others in acquiring
free programs because of its unique position. WNYC has long broadcast "live"
concerts of many sorts, where other stations
would be turned aside. I wish I could say
the idea bore notable fruit. Some "live"
series are musically superb, but some are
just plain terrible. All of them tend merely
to prove what we all know, that "live"
broadcasts are inferior to those from recordings. "Live" music is fast losing
ground to tape, edited or unedited, and to
but that is
the omnipresent recording
another subject.
...
Program Sources
What are these free sources of programmed culture? First, of course
-
records. The world's finest music and
drama conies to us on records and it
doesn't cost much. Mostly, it costs nothing
at all.
The record companies are happy to
provide their culture free, since in their
own quite different area the free broadcasting tends to promote cash sales of
recordings, as well as to build prestige
for the labels. As we all know, major
record companies even go so far as to
sponsor programs of their own records,
complete with commercials, culture galore.
Needless to say, this happy bonanza is
sheer clover to FM broadcasting. Imagine
it. A steady flow of high quality coming
in, month after month, large portions of
which can be reused time and again over
the years. With this -culture is not surprisingly widespread on the air!
Cultural broadcasting could well exist
on records alone, but there are other "lucrative" sources of free material. Second is
the "information service" tape, a program
provided by some government agency for
cultural exchange and propaganda. Here,
we benefit indirectly -but very positively
from those distant taxes on radios that
people pay in other lands; we get (for a
song) the best of the foreign production
in every imaginable area. Phew! Imagine
this! You have on tap the entire resources
of giant government- operated radio serv-
-
AUDIO
12
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
1
9
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1.5µV for 20db qquieting. Sensitivity for phaselocking (synchronization) In stereo:
2.5µV. Full Limiting Sensitivity: iuov. IF Bandwidth: 280kc at 6 db points.
FM Multiplex
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Flat to 53kc discounting pre- emphasis. IHFM Signal -to -Noise Ratio: -55db. IBFM
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Impedance: low Impedance cathode followers. Controls: Power, Separation, FM
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Tuning, Stereo -Mono, AFC- Defeat.
Listen to the EICO Hour, WABC -FM, N. Y. 95.5 MC, Mon. -Fri.. 7:15 -8 P.M.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Over 2 MULLION EICO Instruments in use.
Most EICO Dealers offer budget terms.
Add 5% In Wort.
©1963 EICO Electronic Instrument Co. In,.
3300 Northern Boulevard, L. 1. C. 1, N. Y.
I
EICO, 3300 N. Blvd., IL.I.C. 1, N.Y.
Send free 32 -page
0 dealer's
name
catalog
A -11
&
Send new 36 -page Guidebook to
HI -Fl for which I enclose 250
for postage & handling.
Name
Address
City
Zone
_State
-
*Actual distortion meter reading of derived
left or right channel output with a stereo FM
signal fed to the antenna input terminals.
Export Dept., Roburn Amides Inc., 431 Greenwich Bt.. New Yerk
13
13
ices and specialized information services
the world around -the BBC, the French
Broadcasting Service, the Dutch, Austrian,
Belgian -and in less degree many others
more remote and more exotic. Even our
neighbor Canada, which has a remarkable
dual broadcast system, part government,
part private (same with railroads), sends
us down some fine material every so often.
The U. S. itself comes up with quite a bit
too, though our principal interest is, of
course, to send our culture to other people,
rather than to ourselves. (An odd idea,
II
that, but I'll let it pass.)
Third, there are the burgeoning new
sources of so- called educational material
emanating from all sorts of academic and
artistic organizations within our own
country. I am not hep as to the precise
operations of the numerous and semiinterlocking enterprises of this sort
notably the NAEB -but the principle is
quite clear: the talent comes for free,
mainly from educational institutions or
from cultural outfits like, say, the Boston
Symphony. The cost of the talent itself is
in the last analysis provided by these institutions. Otherwise the profs and the
teachers we hear on the air would long
sine have begun to starve.
Thus, from Boston's famed WGBH, via
a local FM station near me at Amherst,
Mass., I heard an hour -long tape featuring my old music professor at Harvard,
G. Wallace Woodworth, analyzing the Beethoven "Emperor" Concerto at length, with
-
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taped illustrations. Amherst got it from
Boston, of course. And Boston got it
ctraioht from Harvard. Terrific! But I'll
bet dollars to doughnuts that "Woody"
didn't make any princely sum out of his
hard work. He gets paid by Harvard,
mainly, and can afford extras of this sort
both as a constructive pleasure to himself (as is clearly the case -you could
hear it in his voice) and as an item of
excellent personal prestige. Programs of
this sort become more frequent every day,
under the many tricky systems of dissemination we are now setting up for FM
radio.
Thus, wherever we look, we find the
picture the same. Before FM, we had
precious little of all this culture on the
air. Not feasible. Not commercial in a
large enough way. Now we have it everywhere and indeed this is a blessing for
those who find it worthwhile to listen. Increasing numbers of us do. But in all our
various arrangements we subscribe to the
same theory, that the station facilities
must be paid for, but the programming
must be free. Mostly, anyhow.
Cultural Commentators
That includes commentators on cultural
subjects, non -jockey-style. (Disc jockeys
get paid.) There are many of them, these
non -paid performers, and most are happy
at the rich new audiences open to their
material and their personalities. These indirect fringe benefits are supposed to be
adequate compensation and, in many areas,
they surely are. Especially in the high density urban regions with vast numbers
of listeners. But as for direct compensation, the system simply does not allow for
it. Talent-whether live, via tapes, records,
even TV (as in the new educational stations) is for free. You make your living
elsewhere.
And so I must end on a somewhat wistful
personal note that may indicate to you
how very much involved I have been in
this whole argument. This autumn, I began
my nineteenth consecutive year of weekly
half -hour broadcasts, my sixteenth on our
New York City station. Within a couple
(Continued on page 78)
AUDIO
14
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
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AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
15
EDITOR'S REVIEW
ONE YEAR LATER
It hardly seems possible but we now begin our second year as Editor. Where did 1962 go to? We enjoyed it very much, thank you.
Looking forward into 1963 we can think of several
things we would like to see in Audio :
1. More articles on recording techniques.
2. Increased comment from readers on what you
would especially like to read about in 1963.
3. A definition of high fidelity compiled from what
readers think it is (see next section).
4. A construction article on a high -powered transistor amplifier that doesn't require special transistors
and is relatively economical.
5. Photographs of home installations which demonstrate a variety of different ways to install systems.
6. A column devoted to audio clubs (or tape clubs).
7. Product profiles on bourbons (it has nothing to
do with audio but we like it).
8. A construction article on a high -quality tape
preamp.
9. More Audio Techniques.
10. More book reviews.
We really do not expect all of these thoughts to
materialize but with your help we hope to see most.
Anyhow we have already started on No. 7 as of New
Year's Eve.
-
HIGH FIDELITY DEFINITION
AN OPPORTUNITY
Last month we urged all readers to write to the
Commissioner of the Federal Trade Commission (Hon.
Paul Rand Dixon) asking him not to accept the definition of high fidelity being proposed by the Electronic Industries Association. If you haven't written
yet, do it now
The opportunity we have now is to convince the
FTC that an acceptable definition must aim towards
the highest and not the lowest. We can't quarrel with
an attempt by an industry association to raise the
standards in its industry, but not at the expense of
the high fidelity components industry.
But that is not the whole of our opportunity. We
quote below a portion of the letter we received from
the FTC in reply to our letter of protest
While no proposal as to a definition of "High
Fidelity" has as yet been received, it is my understanding that the Electronic Industries Association expects to submit such a proposal for our
consideration in the near future. We would welcome similar suggestions from other groups or
individual members thereof. Before any definition
or standard is adopted, it would be our purpose
to afford all interested persons an opportunity to
present their views in the matter.
From this we see that we have the opportunity, and
obligation, to supply a definition acceptable to qualityminded people. Therefore we propose that readers who
are competent to speak in this area put their definition
on paper and send it to us. We will assemble all the
points, add the thoughts of as many professionals as
we can collar, and send it on to the FTC. We would
suggest that existing audio clubs and associations now
! !
:
meet and!, as a group, commit their definition to paper.
A few people have asked us, after reading the first
definition, why we bother to do battle with such giants
as comprise the EIA, especially since the definition is
supposed o apply to packaged sets only. Truly, we
are not tending to point our lance at the giants
of American industry-we make a rather sorry -looking Don quixote. We just felt that we wanted a better
definition han the one arrived at. We want a definition which truly attempts to define this area which is
of great importance to us. In the words of the chairman of th group which arrived at the definition : "so
many eng nering and technical aspects could not be
covered t t we had to come up with minimum standards." ( From Home Furnishings Daily, Friday, Nov.
30, 1962.) To us it seems tragic that we should start
with a ''minimum standards" definition when the
word we are trying to define aims at maximum standards. No, we are not Don Quixote, but that doesn't
mean we will calmly accept an attempt to degrade
standards.
Now what about the contention that the present
definition 'only applies to packaged sets? Frankly we
fail to see how one could distinguish between "packaged" sets and really good sets from this definition.
Besides are there really no good packaged sets ? In
effect, whether they intend it or not, they have defined
every piece of equipment which hopes to be called
high fidelity.
Oh, well we promise to keep you informed. You, in
turn, shoud write to the FTC asking them not to accept the E A definition, and also write to us what you
think th, definition should be.
VERTICAL TRACKING ANGLE
In our November 1962 editorial we mentioned the
problem highlighted by E. R. Madsen's article on
vertical tracking angle. Several readers wrote to tell
us that they recognized the existence of this problem
(see Letters) but that we were wrong about the
amount of "consternation" caused by the discovery
that most stereo records were not suitable for FMstereo broadcasts (the FCC actually made note of this
in their order authorizing FM- stereo broadcasts). Also,
we were informed, this information was known for a
long time, 1957, according to one reader, and why do
we raise the question now ?
Perhaps we do deserve to be criticized for taking
issue at subh a late date, but somehow we define late
as being after the fact. We did wait patiently for
many years while the "proper" organizations followed their normal course of action, but here it is
many year with no tangible result in the offing. The
truth also is that companies which make record cut-
ters are not yet seriously considering changing the
cutting angle of their machines to conform to the
15 -deg. "standard" (we called several and asked).
The truth is that cartridge manufacturers are also not
seriously considering changing. Are we really late ?
As to whether there was "consternation," we will
concede that many people viewed the distortion emanating from the early FM- stereo broadcasts with less
than "alarmed dismay," but those on the receiving
end were more likely to be "consterned." Anyhow we
all agree that standardization should be effected soon.
AUDIO
16
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
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AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Ti7
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the new S -8000 IC FM Multiplex Stereo Receiver
The advanced design, highly sensitive
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These
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AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Ee
-°
wä®0
Contemporary Cabinetry
JANUARY, 1963
FM- Stereo Reception
JACK BEEVER"
Receiving FM- stereo broadcasts may require sophisticated techniques on the part of the city dweller because of the multiple paths the signal takes to reach his antenna and the wide angle his antenna must cover.
RECEPTION REMINDS ONE
of the
FM good, she's very very good, but
old nursery jingle -when she's
when she's bad, she's `orrid Such a statement obviously calls for clarification.
FM reception has a threshold, a level
of signal strength, above which the signal produces sound essentially free of
"sferics," the background hiss which is
the composite of all electrical interference occurring over a large part of the
world. This noise is heard in AM tuners
as a continuous part of the background
of the programming. Below this threshold level, FM is worse than AM.
The threshold level is dependent in
part on the excellence of the tuner. However, tuner design cannot overcome the
limiting factor of noise developed in the
circuits of the tuner itself; the thermal
noise level. Thermal noise is created by
the molecules and electrons "bouncing
around" in the tubes, transistors, or
conductors of the input (antenna) circuits of the tuner. This problem inspired
the use of masers for reception. In
order to reduce the thermal noise level,
maser circuit components are operated
at cryogenic temperatures ; temperatures
down near absolute zero. These low temperatures reduce the banging around of
the atoms of the conductors, hence the
thermal noise.
The thermal noise level in practical
FM tuners limits useful reception to
signals having strengths of about 1.8
microvolts (millionths of a volt!) across
the antenna terminals. In general, the
!
* Jerrold Electronics Corp., 15th and Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia 32, Pa.
Fig.
1.
AUDIO
S- shaped antenna is used for
omnidirectional reception.
JANUARY, 1963
best tuners will handle signals down to
this level, producing "quieting" or elimination of most of the hiss. Less elaborate
tuners need more signal to produce the
same quieting, as much as ten times more
signal in some types.
If you've read this far, you may have
come to the correct conclusion that to get
good FM, you need good signals from the
FM transmitter. You're right, and if
we're to do a good job in this article,
we'll have to tell you how to get good
signals, but first we'd better knock out
a lot of the mythology about VHF radiation, which is engineeringese for signals
in a band of frequencies which include
FM transmissions. We'll include these
Fig. 2. The
turnstile antenna is also omnidirectional.
as statements you've often heard, and
then qualify them with the facts.
Mythology
"Radio signals go right through house
walls." They do, as long as those walls
aren't metallic or insulated with metallic
foil. Even then, they'll get in through the
holes left by windows and doors, but
they are weakened in any case, and they
are weakened more if the wall is of dense
materials. Brick is worse than wood and
metal is much worse than brick.
"I can pick up Ft. Wayne, Indiana on
AM in New York City, therefore, I
should be able to pick up FM stations as
far away. They're both radio, aren't
they ?" They're both radio, true, but the
AM stations are on frequencies between
0.5 and 1.7 megacycles, roughly, and
have very long wavelengths. These signals often travel around the earth by
being trapped between the stratosphere
and the ground. They bounce up and
down between these two boundaries; thus
even though they obey the law that elec-
Fig. 3. 6- element FM yogi.
tromagnetic radiation travels in straight
lines, they travel enormous distances
over the earth's surface.
FM stations, on the other hand, are on
frequencies between 88 and 108 megacycles. At these frequencies, the signals
penetrate the upper levels of atmosphere,
and except for freak conditions, do not
bounce back to earth. For this reason,
FM reception at 100 miles is freakish,
depending on unusual conditions such as
having the receiving antenna on a high
mountain, or freak atmospheric conditions. At these frequencies, it is much
easier to beam a signal at the moon and
receive the bounce than it is to try to
broadcast to a point 500 miles away on
the surface of the earth.
"I hate to put up an antenna on my
house. I should be able to get just as good
results in the attic since it would only be
a few feet lower down than an outside
antenna." An antenna in the attic will do
better than the same antenna on the first
floor, but it will not do as good a job as
one outside. The roof absorbs and weakens the signals, although usually less
than the house walls, which contain
pipes, wires, heating ducts, and such
which tend to absorb the radiation.
"I get good monophonic FM with an
indoor antenna from a station 25 miles
away, then I should get good multiplex
stereo." Not necessarily true. In the first
place, when the station "goes stereo" you
have less power in each channel of stereo,
so the station is weaker. Secondly, the
multiplex stereo transmission is prone to
interference by multipath signals -the
same thing which produces ghosts on TV
-and multipath is much, much worse
indoors than out.
19
Fig. 4. Bidirectional FM yogi.
Having painted this horrible picture
of the FM reception problems, what can
we do about it? We'll make one blanket
statement : nothing, but nothing, can replace a good outside antenna and the
further away from the station, the more
it is needed. But this is about the only
blanket statement that can be made, because circumstances can make it necessary to use a high -gain fringe -area antenna when you're almost in sight of the
station you want, and they can make you
wind up pointing the antenna away from
the station.
Basically, listeners can be divided into
three groups according to normal antenna requirements : local, up to 15 miles
from the transmitter ; medium range, 15
to 40 miles from the transmitter; and
fringe, 40 to 70 miles. Beyond this it is
super- fringe and extremely elaborate
setups are required for good results.
All the classifications listed above can
be further divided into multidirectional
reception and uni- directional reception,
which affects the choice of antennas just
as much as range. With the foregoing
groundwork, we can get down to cases,
using examples as the best way of making a point.
Local, Multi -Directional Reception
Let us take a hypothetical resident of
Queens, one of the boroughs of New
York City. This listener will have FM
stations to his north, west, and southwest, within 20 miles.
Assume also that he lives in a single
frame dwelling and that he is not within
a mile of a large apartment or other
building (I know it's almost impossible,
but just imagine, please.) He does not
wish to get distant stations, but he does
want good stereo FM on his locals.
His problem calls for an antenna
which will pick up signals equally well
within an angle of about 135 degrees
(from north to southwest.) The only
kind of antenna which will pick up
equally well over this great an angle is
an omni-directional antenna; one which
receives equally well from all directions
in the horizontal plane. Figures 1 and 2
illustrate two types of antennas having
this ability, a "bent" dipole (the "Sshaped" antenna) and a "turnstile" (the
two crossed rods). Of these antennas, the
turnstile is more effective because it will
provide more signal. These antennas are
low gain; the turnstile, for example will
deliver, from any direction, about one
half the signal power a single dipole
delivers in its best direction. The rods of
the turnstile are half -wave dipoles, and
the simple half -wave dipole is the Teference against which all other antennas
are compared. In technical terms, the
turnstile will have a "gain" of minus 3
db. This sacrifice in power is made to
gain omnidirectionality. Since only, local
stations are wanted, this loss of power in
the signal will not be significant; the
signals should be well above the noise
threshold.
Local, Multi- Directional Reception,
with Multipath Distortion
If we now take our resident of Queens,
but put him in an area where he has a
number of large buildings or bridges in
his vicinity, he is troubled by the fact
that the large buildings will act as reflectors to the FM signals coming to his
To use such an antenna, it is aimed at
the station, or at the strongest of the
signals, which may mean that the antenna is aimed at a nearby building.
This is particularly true when the direct
path from transmitter to receiving antenna is blocked by a building or other
obstruction. In practice, the antenna is
turned for best results while listening to
the stereo broadcast. This process is
called "antenna orientation."
Antennas filling this need are generally
of the yagi type, illustrated in Fig. 3.
The rule for yagis is the higher the gain,
the narrower the forward lobe and hence
the ability to reject multipath signals.
But our hypothetical Queens resident
has stations coming in over an arc of 135
degrees. If he aims his antenna at one
station, he will probably make his other
stations worse, since the antenna's high
forward gain will discriminate against
stations out of its "line of fire."
This same problem was faced and
solved many years ago for TV reception
by an antenna rotator, a small gadget on
the mast which turns the antenna by
means of a control placed convenient to
the tuner. With this device, the FM listener tunes in the desired station, then
turns the antenna until the reception
clears up. All rotators have indicators at
the control cabinet which show the antenna direction, and these can be recorded, once found, for quick return to
the best position for a given station.
Medium Range Reception,
Stations in One Direction
Fig. 5. Antenna- mounted preamplifier.
antenna. He will thus receive radiation
direct from the transmitter and also via
reflections from the buildings or bridges.
This is the same mechanism which causes
ghosts on TV pictures. In stereo FM, it
causes distortion of the sound, and sometimes loss of channel separation. The effect is due to the fact that the "ghost"
signal is coming over a longer path than
the direct signal and may arrive so that
it "bucks out" part of the direct signal.
If we're going to solve a problem like
this, we need some kind of handle on
which to hang an attack. The only handle
we have is that the direct signal and the
reflected signal come from different directions ; they are exactly alike in all
other respects.
This, then, calls for an antenna which
has "blinders," such as we used to 4e on
horses. We can't exactly duplicate the
horse blinders in an antenna, but it is
true that the higher the antenna gain the
narrower the forward "lobe," which is a
way of saying that the antenna is directional, as is the blindered horse.
Listeners falling in this category are
usually located in smaller communities,
and their major problem is enough signal
to the tuner. They generally have much
less trouble than the resident of a "canyon" city like New York, since multipath
problems are much less prevalent.
The usual installation is a yagi, either
high or medium gain (and the only reason for the medium gain job is economy).
A rotator is not needed, since the range
allows the antenna to be orientated to a
compromise position where all stations
come in satisfactorily. This listener is
probably in the most enviable position
for stereo.
(Continued on page 70)
Fig. 6. Set- mounted preamplifier.
AUDIO
20
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
Design of Solid -State Stereo
Power Amplifier with
Silicon Transistors
MARSHALL
R.
MYERS, JR.'° & MORLEY D. KAHN
The function of an amplifier is to provide an output signal that is an exact, but amplified, replica of the input signal. While this may seem simple, it has been an elusive goal for the audio
designer. Now with the development of solid -state circuitry, the unattainable may be in sight.
-
of the publicized
advantages of semiconductors
cooler operation, compactness, lighter
weight, lower voltages, and so on. However, the ability of semiconductors to
reproduce audio input signals more
faithfully has not been as well publicized. To the discriminating music lover,
the primary consideration is the quality
of sound, not the size or weight. If he
were not interested in faithful reproduction of music, he probably would not
have invested in components in the first
place.
Two of the less- publicized advantages
of semiconductors over vacuum tubes
are their quick action and their low
impedance. Music is full of instantaneous pulses and transients. The transistor can capture this while a vacuum
tube with its slower action cannot.
The lower impedance of a transistor
makes it possible to direct -couple it and
thus avoid the use of audio transformers.
Since audio transformers have some limitations, it is a tremendous advantage to
EVERYONE IS AWARE
be able to omit them.
Amplifier Limitations
The finest vacuum -tube amplifiers have
made the problems of non -linear distor"
Acoustic Technology Laboratories, Inc.,
139 Main St., Cambridge, Mass.
tion rea,oiiahly academic. Harmonic and
intermodulation distortions have been
reduced to the vanishing points. Flat
frequency response from 20 to 20,000
cps at full rated output is also common
in the best tube amplifiers (although
this is seldom accomplished when both
channels are operating simultaneously
at full output). A solid -state amplifier
must certainly be able to provide equivalent performance to be considered of top
quality.
Unfortunately, the transistor amplifiers hitherto available were generally
not able to duplicate the performance
of the best vacuum -tube amplifiers in
these important criteria. Much of the
problem can be attributed to the use of
germanium output transistors which are
hard put to produce power at high frequencies. As a result, most present solid state amplifiers have gradually reduced
power capabilities at frequencies over
8000 cps and are virtually useless above
15,000 cps. To those desiring high fidelity performance, an amplifier that cannot provide satisfactory output to at
least 20,000 cps is not a high fidelity
amplifier.
Another limitation of many transistor
amplifiers using direct coupled outputs
(no output transformers) is the limitation in power at normal speaker impedances. Most solid -state amplifiers using
Fig. 11. (A), representation of a "perfect" square wave, and (B), as it would appear
on a 'scope. With zero rise time, the cathode ray must travel the vertical paths so
rapidly that the phosphor is not excited sufficienly to make it visible.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
100%
OVERSHOOT t
DROOP
AMPLITUDE
t
90%
50%
A MPG/
TUJE
PULSE o,.
TRAILING ED.,'
AMPL /TODE
70%
WIDE RSHiN
RISE
TI ME
.,ELAY
TIME
Fig. 2. Actual photograph of an imperfect
square wave.
germanium output transistors have maximum output near four ohms. At higher
impedances, the power drops so drastically that with a 16 -ohm load, as little
as one third of the rated power is avail-
able. Unfortunately, almost every quality loudspeaker system in use today is
rated by its manufacturer at 8 or
16 ohms. The one quality American produced loudspeaker system rated nominally at 4 ohms actually measures considerably higher that 4 ohms at frequencies below 80 cps -where the power
requirements become more critical. Publishing power ratings based on 4-ohm
output is misleading. Equally misleading is the use of so- called "music- wave"
power rather than the standard rms
or steady-state values. Granted, the music power will probably be higher than
the steady-state value in an amplifier
with poor power-supply regulation, and
this higher number looks good in ads.
However, the entire concept of music
power is buried in so much controversy
and confusion that its use in the rating
of a quality amplifier is questionable.
Another factor in power measurements is the phenomenon of the onechannel measurement. Stereo amplifiers
are, of course, intended to be operated
stereophonically, meaning that both
channels will be in use simultaneously.
What possible benefit is it to the consumer to read specifications based on
measuring only one channel at a time i
Again, the answer is that the measure ments come out better that way.
Take, for example, amplifier X, advertised at 300 watts. This means 150
watts per channel. Closer inspection
shows that the 150 watts is actually
music wave, delivered at 4 ohms, with
only one channel operating (yet there
is no hesitancy in adding together the
two one -channel measurements to obtain
the 300 watts). In the fine print you
notice that the amplifier, at 16 ohms,
with both channels operating simultaneously, may produce only 20 watts
steady state per channel. Then as the
last straw, the power measurements were
made at 1000 cps. If the amplifier were
tested at 20,000 cps, it might deliver
only 2 watts (if it uses germanium outputs). What is the correct rating for
this amplifier?
measure IM with mixed tones of 60
and 3000, or 50 and 5000 cps. Tube
amplifiers have been generally measured
with mixed tones of 60 and 6000 Ilor 60
and 7000 cps.
Transient Response
The maximum allowable distortion of
the Acoustech I (0.95 per cent) has
been achieved by several fine vaeuumtube amplifiers, but never by transistor
amplifiers. Why, then, is a transistor
amplifier reputed to sound better than
tube units i The answer is that good
sound does not depend on low harmonic
and intermodulation distortion alone. An
analogy can be made in the field of
medicine. When millions died of diphtheria, tuberculosis, and smallpox, barely
considered were heart disease and cancer. Once the former were brought under
control, however, the seriousness of the
latter became quite evident.
The whole field of transient response
has only recently become promine'pt in
Fig. 3. (A), 10,000 -cps square wave as fed into the amplifier (bottom) and at the output (top). (B), same for a 20,000 -cps square wave. (C), 1000-cps square wave input
and output superimposed to show identical patterns.
Design Criteria
In establishing design criteria for a
solid -state power amplifier, all these
subtleties are extremely important. The
criteria set for the Aconstech I described
herein were as follows :
1. All measurements shall be made
with both channels operating simultaneously at the rated output.
2. Steady -state (rms), not music -wave
power, shall be used.
3. The rated power and distortion
specifications shall be the results of
measurements made between 8 and 16
ohms, and from 20 to 20,000 cps. The
maximum output of the Acoustech I
shall be developed into a load somewhere
between 8 and 16 ohms.
4. Harmonic distortion shall not exceed 0.95 per cent with both channels
operating simultaneously, at 8 or 16
ohms, 20 to 20,000 cps.
5. Intermodulation distortion shall not
exceed 0.95 per cent, using frequencies
of 60 and 6000 cps mixed 4 : 1. Because
of the aforementioned high -frequency
problems with germanium output transistors, some transistor amplifier manufacturers have found it desirable to
audio despite the fact that over 15 years
ago its importance was recognized by
some authorities. To the casual music
listener, a transient is considered the
sudden creation of a tone, such as that
by a piano, drums, or cymbals. However, almost all music is involved with
transients. People are so inured to sinewave measurements that they overlook
the fact that music seldom resembles
sine waves. Helmholtz demonstrated
years ago that the sounds produced by a
violin bow pulled across a string are
actually a series of tiny little transients
blended together. A similar explanation
has been made for the sounds of brass
instruments, where the air column is
activated by a rapid series of motions
from the lips. The problems of piano
reproduction have been legend and can
mostly be blamed on poor transient response.
It is in the field of transients that the
solid -state amplifier is able to make a
unique contribution to the art of sound
reproduction. In explaining how this
contribution is accomplished, let us first
examine the concept of the square wave
-the most popular method of evaluating transients.
Figure 1 illustrates a perfect square
wave. At one instant, the applied signal
is zero, the next instant it is at maximum, where it stays for a specified period. Then the signal is turned off and
instantaneously returns to zero. With a
perfect square wave, the time required
to go from zero to maximum is zero
microseconds, and the decay time of a
perfect square wave is also zero microseconds. When the signal is applied and
reaches maximum, it should stop instantly and remain constant without
overshoot, ringing, ripple, and slope. In
Fig. 2 we see an imperfect square wave.
How does one design a power amplifier to reproduce square waves per fectly, The first requirement is extended
frequency response. Many designers of
tube amplifiers have long claimed that
an amplifier that can reproduce from
20 to 20,000 cps is more than satisfactory for music reproduction because the
ear cannot hear beyond this range. There
is no argument with this statement. The
argument is with the method of determining the frequency response. Inevitably, this has been done by feeding in
sine waves. However, as previously indicated, music patterns seldom resemble
pure sine waves. If we accept a square
wave as providing a closer approximation of musical patterns, then by rights
an amplifier should be able to reproduce
square waves from 20 to 20,000 cps. A
Fourier analysis shows that an amplifier
must be able to reproduce sine waves to
200,000 cps to reproduce a 20,000 cps
square wave properly with good rise
time. In order to reproduce a 20 -cps
square wave with minimum phase shift,
the amplifier should be able to reproduce
sine waves down to below 5 cps.
These square waves must be reproduced with no overshoot, ringing, or
ripple, as the time needed for these undesirable characteristics to be damped
out far exceeds the rise time itself.
Some overshoot, ringing, and ripple is
present in the square waves of all vacuum -tube amplifiers having fast rise
times, due to the limitations of the tubes
themselves and of the output transformers. The limitations do not apply to
silicon output transistors in a circuit
without any audio transformers (neither
driver nor output). While most germanium output transistors are limited
at high frequencies, it is possible to obtain high -power silicon transistors with
a beta cutoff above one megacycle. Using such devices in a transformerless
circuit produces square -wave output
patterns virtually indistinguishable from
the inputs. In Fig. 3, (A) and (B) show
the 10,000- and 20,000 -cps square -wave
patterns from the output of the Acoustech I (top pattern) compared to the
inputs (bottom pattern). This phenomenal square -wave response is not attained at the sacrifice of the 1000 -cps
AUDIO
22
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
o
VW%
,.
1500w
ft,
T4
i--.
Ti
ST-7175
20 pf
D2
000
100k
Ti
2N398A
51
Di
22pf
\
10
pf
T2
ST-1613
03
0.1 pf
Fig. 4. Over -all schematic of one channel of the Acoustech
pattern; (C) in Fig.
3 actually shows
two 1000 -cps square waves -the output
from the Acoustech I superimposed over
the input wave to the amplifier. The
1000 -cps square -wave performance of
the Acoustech I proves that the 20,000 eps square -wave performance is not obtained by using elaborate frequency
compensation networks which create
ringing and overshoot in the mid-frequency square waves.
Damping Factor
Another advantage of direct -coupled
solid-state circuitry is its lower internal
impedance as viewed from the speaker.
This provides a very high damping factor, which in the case of the Acoustech I
is over 50:1. Speaker manufacturers are
not unanimous on the importance of
high damping. At one time, some even
recommended low damping, although
these have recently changed their designs and now recommend high damping
as well. The question is-how high can
one go before further improvement in
sound is no longer detected? In listening
tests with almost every well -known
speaker systems, it appears that damping in excess of 50:1 is valuable. The
tightness of the bass response and lack
of boom indicates that this is another
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
I
power amplifier. Both channels are identical.
important advantage that can be derived
from solid -state amplifiers. Perhaps it
explains why transistor amplifiers sound
different -and in the opinion of many
experts, better -than tube amplifiers.
Designing the Amplifier
In planning the Acoustech I, the first
and most basic decision was to use silicon output transistors. The extended
high -frequency range, the ability to operate at much higher temperatures with
no ill effects, and the greater reliability
all combine to make the use of silicon
outputs essential in the design of a
quality power amplifier. Indeed, the advantages of silicon are so pronounced
that it was decided to use them wherever
possible. As a result, 24 of the 28 solid state devices in the Acoustech I are
silicon.
If the advantages of silicon outputs
are so pronounced, why have they not
found greater application in consumer
products? The reason is simple-money!
It is possible to pay more for one silicon
power transistor than for a complete
vacuum -tube amplifier. Unfortunately,
top quality does not come cheap.
Once the decision to use silicons was
made, a fringe benefit arose. The circuit
itself could be basically simple since
complicated circuitry would not be
needed to compensate for shortcomings
of the output transistors. The simplicity
of this circuit means that it is easy
to build, easy to service, and easy to
maintain in top operating condition
since there is so little to go wrong. Silicon transistors, computer -grade electrolytics, and oversize power supply are
used so conservatively that no degradation of the original performance is likely
for many years. Since the unit operates
so cool, thermal stresses are minimized.
The Circuit
The schematic of one channel of
the amplifier is shown in Fig. 4. The
output from the preamplifier is fed directly into a high -voltage germanium
P\TP operated as a grounded -collector
stage. This stage provides slightly less
than unity gain, for its principal function is to raise the input impedance.
The average preamp has an output impedance between 500 and 15.000 ohms.
The output coupling capacitors of most
preamps will roll off the low frequencies
if fed into an impedance less than ten
times the output impedance of the pre amp. The input stage (T,) of the power
amplifier provides the useful function of
23
The amplifier is fully stable with any
load or with no load. The use of silicons
means that a very simple stabilization
network consisting of an 18 -ohm resistor in series with a 0.1 -1,1 capacitor
is sufficient to prevent a rising impedance at high frequencies.
NE-2
ALL RECTIFIERS- IN1124'S
Power Supply
The design of the power supply required more than routine thought to
meet the basic requirement of providing
rated performance from 20 to 20,000
cps, into 8- to 16 -ohm loads, with both
channels operating at full power
simultaneously. As a result, the power
transformer used is far above what is
needed for music listening. Under the
worst possible laboratory, steady-state
operating conditions, the transformer is
designed so that there will be less than
40° C. internal temperature rise. Under
music conditions, the temperature rise
will be barely detectable.
A standard full -wave bridge with four
silicon diodes feeds into a 1000-4, 150 volt electrolytic for initial filtering. Figure 5 is a schematic of the power supply.
From this point, the voltage is split and
goes to a separate diode and 1000 -sf
electrolytic for each channel. In essence,
each channel has its own filter network,
allowing a considerable amount of independent action between channels. A
heavy bass transient on one channel will
have little effect on the other channel.
A separate B+ fuse for each channel is
located between the diode and the electrolytic, protecting against shorts across
the speaker terminals or lengthy severe
overloads. If one of the fast acting fuses
blows, a light flashes on the front panel
(Continued on page 60)
AGX
1.5A
Fig. 5. Schematic of power -supply section.
raising this input impedance to 150 k
ohms.
The signal next goes to T2, a silicon
NPN transistor with a high voltage rating. This stage acts as a high -gain amplifier. The main negative feedback loop
of the amplifier is connected to the base
of this transistor. The 22 -pf capacitor
between collector and base provides
some local feedback. This serves as a
neutralizing nework to stabilize the high
frequencies. The two series diodes (D,
and D2) between T2 and T, comprise a
temperature -compensating network in
conjunction with D, at the collector side
of T,. It has the effect of varying the
bias with a rise in temperature. Under
normal ambient conditions and with music signals, this network is unnecessary.
However, if the amplifier is being utilized for high -power steady -state measurements, as in industrial or laboratory
applications, it is useful.
The signal from the collector of T2
goes to the base of T, which acts as a
phase splitter and driver for half the
output stage. T, is a high -power PNP
germanium transistor, but this is not the
reason it is used here. It was selected
because of its exceptionally wide frequency response (its internal cutoff is
above 15 megacycles) which makes this
germanium comparable in performance
(and cost) to many silicons. To com-
pensate for the unbalanced driver stage,
a simple bootstrap network provides a
little positive feedback from the dividing network between the collector and
base of T4, through a capacitor into the
output stage. T4 is a high-voltage, medium -gain NPN silicon transistor which
is a driver for T,5 and T6 outputs.
its complementary PNP unit, drives T,
and T,. The outputs are biased at
slightly above Class B (AB5!).
The particular silicon power transistors used in the amplifier (ST7175)
were designed and tested according to
Acoustech's exact specifications by Transitron Electronic Corporation of Wakefield, Massachusetts, one of the largest
manufacturers of semiconductor devices.
The ST7175's have a beta cutoff above
one megacycle, and excellent high -frequency response at high power and temperature. A high breakdown voltage and
low saturation resistance are other important characteristics. A problem that
does exist with silicon power transistors
is their somewhat limited current-carrying capability. This is especially important with 4- and 8 -ohm loads, when the
current rises appreciably. By using the
outputs in push -pull parallel, this problem is minimized, and with an effective
reduction in saturation resistance, the
over -all performance is markedly improved.
T
Fig. 6. Top view of the Acoustech
I
with the protective cage removed.
AUDIO
24
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
from 1 to 1,000,000 CpS.That's the bandwidth of the new Harman -Kardon Citation A-the world's
+0
-1/4 d'b
first professional Solid State (transistorized) Stereo Control Center. It is totally new in concept, design and performance. When you hear it, you will share the experience
of its creators -the experience of genuine breakthrough
and discovery; the experience of hearing music as you've
never heard it before. Citation A represents a towering
achievement for Stewart Hegeman and the Citation
Engineering Group. It will change all of your ideas
about the reproduction of sound. Visit your Citation
dealer now for an exciting premiere demonstration.
For more complete technical information on
Citation A write to the Citation Division,
Dept. A -1, Harman- Kaidon, Inc., Plainview, N.Y.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 196:
harman kardon
25
Alignment and Adjustment of
FM- Stereo Tuners and Adapters
C. G. McPROUD
Equipped with suitable test- signal generator, VTVM, audio oscillator, and
'scope, anyone should be able to align multiplex circuits with ease. The
MX generator described can serve as a model for the advanced constructor.
in electronic
circuitry brings with it a completely
new set of problems relating to its
maintenance. Time was when we thought
that a short -wave set reaching up to 30
megacycles was a pretty daring enterprise -now practically anyone can tune
in, by simply turning a switch, a fairly
sophisticated piece of equipment working up to around 216 megacycles -the
ordinary TV set.
Hi-Fi equipment used to present quite
a problem to the average serviceman
(still does, too, to judge from some of
the comments we hear), but after some
twelve years of having hi fi, this condition is fast growing better.
Now, of course, FM-stereo is here, and
from the secrecy surrounding the servicing of the equipment, it would appear
that it is entirely unsurmountable. To
date, we do not recall having seen any
information about how to align the FMstereo circuitry in any service notes for
tuners. Nor, for that matter, have there
been any such instructions with tuner or
ACH NEW DEVELOPMENT
E
adapter kits.
It may be, of course, that the necessary
equipment has not been readily available.
For a time there was only one multiplex
generator available, then there were two,
then three, and we have heard rumors of
a fourth. The first such unit was quite
expensive, and it was not likely the individual would buy a $1000 unit to align
a $100 tuner. But if audio servicemen
are going to remain in business and continue their claims to being complete
DI
M
service centers for hi -fi equipment, they
will have to provide themselves with
some sort of multiplex test equipment.
For ordinary service use, the device does
not have to be especially complicated,
nor does it demand the use of a scope
capable of providing a bandwidth up to
5 megacycles. Such bandwidth may be
necessary for the development laboratory, but not for the audio serviceman.
Multiplex Circuitry
Stereo multiplex circuits-either in
the adapter or in the test generator -do
not represent anything essentially new in
electronic circuitry. Basically they consist of oscillators, frequency dot.blers,
phase -shift networks, cathode followers,
and so on. The only unusual parts of
stereo multiplex equipment are the
modulator and demodulator circuits. And
it is only the special requirements c f signal separation that make these circuits
different from other modulator circuits.
Since these elements are the fundamental
parts of the multiplex equipment, any attempt to understand such circuitry requires a basic knowledge of diode gates
and their operation.
Figure 1 shows a typical demod rlator
gate used in multiplex adapters and tuners, and now the most popular type of
circuit. Most of the original circuits employed a conventional AM detector which
demodulated the subcarrier, and the resulting output was then matrixed with
the sum signal from the main carrier to
provide the required L and R signals.
CENTRALAB
aOUT°UT
3
1346141
A
D2
PRE -EMPHASIS
&
38 -KC FILTERS
38 KC
D4
SIGNAL
CENTRALAB
1346141
o OUTPUT
B
INPUT
4
pf
Fig. 1. Schematic of diode-gate circuit used in typical FM stereo tuner or adapter.
The same result can be obtained much
more simply by use of the time- division
method which samples the signal 38,000
times per second in each polarity and
feeds all the samples of the positive side
of the signal to one channel and all from
the negative side to the other channel.
What is needed, then, in the tuner or
adapter is a SPDT switch which can
function at a 38,000 -cycle rate -not a
likely mechanical device. Most circuits
resort to diode gates to perform the required switching.
Referring to Fig. 1 again, the composite multiplex signal is fed to the center
tap of the secondary winding of the 38kc transformer, while the primary is excited from the plate circuit of the 38 -kc
oscillator or doubler. The amplitude of
the switching voltage should be approximately ten times that of the composite
signal in order to keep the separation of
the two channels at a reasonable level.
In any modulator circuit, the fixed or
"carrier" signal must be greater in amplitude than the signal with which it is
being modulated if the composite output
is to vary in direct proportion to the
modulating signal. This also applies to
demodulation if the recovered signal is
to be a faithful replica of the original
modulating voltage.
In Fig. 1, it will be noted that a capacitor is provided in the circuit from
the signal source so as to eliminate any
d.c. voltage from the preceding circuits
which would disturb the functioning of
the diodes. In operation, the two ends of
the 38 -ke transformer will have equal and
opposite carrier voltages. When the positive swing of the carrier appears at the
junction of diodes D, and DE, diodes D,
and D3 are conducting and diodes D$ and
D4 are cut off. Thus the signal voltage
applied to the center of the transformer
secondary will be fed through the "on"
diodes to the filter circuit in the "A"
channel. Similarly, when the positive
swing of the carrier voltage appears at
the junction of diodes D, and D4, diodes
DE and D4 are conducting and diodes D,
AUDIO
26
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
What should a good turntable do? Easy to put into words...move the record at the exact specified speed, without variation, and without inducing distortion. Here's how the Empire Troubador turntable achieves that goal:
Empire 208 belt- driven 3 -speed "silent" turntable There are only two moving
parts in the 208, the motor and the turntable platter- precise bearing tolerances in those parts Each motor and each turntable are individually adjusted
rumble
isolation
to perfect dynamic balance
Complete
is provided by the motor suspension, flexible belt drive and the resilient nylon "seat" which supports and cushions the thrust of the main bearing
A case -hardened, lapped steel shaft fits precisely into the bearing well (honed to a micro finish)
a hardened steel polished ball on the underside of the shaft rests on the nylon seat in the Empire 208
Total vibration limited to less than 1 /1,000,000th
of an inch
3 speeds, 331/a, 45, 78 rpm
Constant speed, heavy duty hysteresis -synchronous motor operates independent of variations in current fluctuaflexible
ground
tion Continuous
belt perfectly
to constant thickness ± .0001 inch, couples turntable directly to the motor pulley -no intermediate
Fine speed control
idlers Acoustic isolation motor suspension
Push button power control with on-off light
Optimum distribution of turntable
mass; 6 pound heavy machined aluminum, individually balanced to precise concentricity
Machined heavy aluminum base plate
Safety suspension
rubber mat
Retractable 45 rpm adapter
Rumble better than -65 db
Wow and flutter less than .05%
Satin -chrome or satin -gold finish turntable, $110. (slightly higher west of the Rockies)
Handsome walnut base for 208 turntable, $15.
The "American Record Guide" (Larry Zide
column) says of the Empire Troubador turntable: "I found speed variations that is, flutter and wow -to be inaudible.,. vibration was extremely low
...rumble figures have not been bettered by any turntable I have tested...the heavy turntable is driven via a belt by a synchronous motor, thus assuring
the user of constant speed, regardless of minor line variations ... just as a tire is smoothed at high rpm, so the turntable's vibration is reduced and kept low
by carefully balancing it...it is attention to this and a number of similar features that make the 208 the value it is"
Don Hambly, station manager of
KRE AM /FM, Berkeley, Calif. said: "We have long realized that belt driven tables would be the best to use, but had not been impressed with those on the
market...the Empire tables, however, have all the basic requirements of design and simplicity of operation and maintenance that we have sought"
"Audio" magazine's "Equipment Profile" of the 208 said: "A massive turntable with precise performance...individually balanced...the truth of the
latter may be observed by lifting the platter up and away from the mounting plate and turning it over ...notice the holes drilled to balance the platter in
a procedure similar to the way automobile tires are balanced...the turntable platter rides on a ball bearing at the end of an accurately honed 7/16" diameter
shaft...the shaftrides in an equally accurate well, while the ball bearing rides on a nylon thrust bearing...a spiral oil groove is cut into the shaft to
ensure lubrication of the bearing surfaces... the motor is mounted to the plate by means of three soft rubber shock- mounts which prevent the vibration of
the motor from being transmitted to the platter...thus, because of the compliant drive belt, the motor is completely isolated from the record -bearing
elements -.-the entire turntable system is acoustically isolated by means of ball- shaped soft rubber feet...we tried to induce acoustic feedback by placing
the turntable on top of our large speaker system and turning up the gain: we were unsuccessful...total rumble measured better than -62 db, and wow and
flutter were less than 0.1% rms, quite accurate"
(Still with us? Empire's advertising agency said people wouldn't read this much copy...the company
felt that the serious music lover would)
"High Fidelity" magazine said of the 208: "Bold appearance which suggests massive and reliable construction
an impression which is quite borne out by its performance tests ...the various pieces of the turntable are carefully machined aluminum castings, thick
enough to provide extreme rigidity...finely machined shaft...wow and flutter, with the `Troubador', were completely undetectable by ear...rumble
also was completely inaudible, even at high listening levels...the hum field above the platter was completely negligible...starting torque was good...
speed accuracy very good"
What should a good arm do? It should hold the cartridge in place as the stylus follows the record in the groove...without
detracting from the performance of the cartridge
Here's how the Empire 980 Arm achieves this objective:
Better dynamic balance achieved by
locating the pivot points at the precise center of the arm's mass -equal mass on both sides of axis. Once in balance in one plane it is balanced in all planes.
This permits /he 980 arm to track at lowest levels, gives it its rock -like stability that will allow perfect tracking at any angle -even upside down
Lowest
inertia achieved by critically calculated distribution of arm mass Maximum compliance means it yields to the slightest impulse, responds and moves effortlessly, even with a tilted table, a badly warped record, or with the turntable turning upside down. There's no need to level your turntable. The only problem
you would have in playing this arm with the turntable upside down would be keeping the record up there
Free suspension Incredible responsiveness
would be another way of saying this same thing Precision ball bearing suspensions -both the vertical and lateral pivot bearings of the 980 are suspended
in precision steel -ball races, precision manufactured to instrument tolerances ...vertical and lateral friction are both virtually unmeasurable, permitting
high compliance and minimum hysteresis Lowest fundamental resonance frequency: 8 cps (the lowest ever achieved in any arm), achieved by increasing
the rigidity of the arm structure through weight distribution, and by making the cartridge shell an integral part of the arm
5 wire circuit eliminates
ground loops, hence eliminates the hum that ground loops induce
Easy plug -in installation ...no wiring or soldering necessary
Self-latching arm
rest...a slight push downward on the arm tube latches the arm in position
(You're making our advertising agency look silly by reading this far
score yourself a fairly serious music lover)
Precise stylus force adjustment .,.calibrated knob dials any stylus force from 0 to 8 grams with an accuracy
of 0A gram. The application of stylus force does not upset the delicate balance of this arm, because stylus force is not adjusted by moving a counterweight
(thus shifting the center of mass). Rather, a linear- torque coil spring acts directly on the pivot shaft at the center of the arm's mass
Arm offset angle:
23.8°
Satin chrome or satin gold finish, $50.
Lowest tracking force possible, because of extreme compliance and low inertia
Counterweight zero
balance adjustment for any cartridge from 2-25 grams
Maximum tracking error ± 650°
No acoustic feedback
Exact cartridge positioning,
quick-release bracket -mount secures cartridge to arm shell. Stylus is aligned with front edge of cartridge mounting plate for exact overhang dimension.
Dyne Lift, (Patent Pending) lifts arm from record at play out
"High Fidelity" magazine's equipment report said: "The spring-loaded 12-inch 980
Arm moves exceptionally freely about its pivot points, indicating very well-made bearings" "American Record Guide" (Larry Zide column) said: "One
of the best available...substantial reduction in vertical mass...a cartridge of any dimensions can be aligned in the head for minimum tracking error...
calibration is extremely accurate...Dyne Lift most useful...lateral and vertical friction is exceptionally low...exceptionally stable...steady even with
shaky floors..."
"Audio" magazine's equipment profile said: "Much thicker walled tubing in the arm to reduce the fundamental resonant frequency,
which is now below the lower limit of our test record"
(This settles it, once again the client knows better than the agency -score yourself a dedicated
music- loving audiophile for reading this far)
What should a good cartridge do? This, the most complicated component in a record playback system, has a
job to do that can be stated with a simplicity that belies the complexity of ,accomplishing it. It should translate mechanical energy into electrical energy
without introducing distortion. And for maximum life of the stylus and your records (not to mention reduced distortion) it should perform this function at
as slight a stylus force as possible
Here's how the Empire 880p cartridge achieves these objectives:
Lowest dynamic mass, less than .5 x 10 -3 grams
Highest compliance, 30 x 10 -6 cm /dyne...Lower dynamic mass and higher compliance than any other cartridge made eliminates distortion and makes
possible many of the cartridge's other accomplishments
Performance range 6 to 30,000 cps, well beyond the range of human hearing
Channel separation more than 30 db- greater separation than any other cartridge means greater enjoyment of stereophonic sound
Tracking force as low as 1/4 gram
lowest in the industry -at such low tracking force, the 880p not only eliminates record wear, but also eliminates distortion
Longest possible cartridge life
insured by lightness of stylus and the low dynamic mass of the magnetic element. It's the last cartridge you're ever likely to buy The amazing "Dyne Life" Stylus (Patent Pending) ultra- sophisticated hand -polished .6 mil diamond- world's lightest
Complete freedom from hum pickup: the Empire
880p incorporates a complete mu -metal shield to prevent stray hum in the cartridge
Fully compatible for stereo or mono "Moving Magnet" principle
.the superiority of this type of design lies in the extremely light and flexible stylus assembly it permits, in the unusually smooth frequency
response and
the high electrical output of the cartridge
Balanced high output, 10 millivolts per channel ± 1/4 db, etc.
Perfectly translates and responds to the intricate movements of the record groove Stylus inertia approaches the irreducible minimum
Smooth, wide response
Inspected at each phase of its
manufacture
Faithfully responds, instantly, effortlessly, favoring neither one wall nor the other
Empire 880p, $47.50 Natural performance The
Empire 880p is so new, the country's hi fi magazines have not had an opportunity to test and publish their opinions... in the meantime,
here's what a happy
new owner of the 880p wrote us recently: "Most musical, noise non-existent, the sound is transparent, spacious, airy, exceptionally
violins sound like
violins not cellos or steel wires, in a class by itself" The Empire 880p is the cartridge that renders every other cartridge on the musical,
market today obsolete If
you've read this far you are by all means a music lover most seriously interested in Highest quality record playback equipment. Above
have read a "few"
of the reasons why we believe the Empire Troubador is for you. You've got the facts about the Empire 208 turntable, the Empire 980 you
Arm, and the Empire
880p Cartridge. But what about the integration of these three components? What about the system as a whole? Every Empire
component
and built for maximum integration with the Troubador system...no other manufacturer makes all three. You will never have a "matching" was designed
problem when
you purchase all three Empire components "High Fidelity" magazine said: "A precision- engineered product of the highest quality
...in sum, the parts
of the `Troubador' -taken separately -stand up as first -rate audio components. Taken together, they form one of the finest and handsomest
available" "Audio" magazine said: "Precise in appearance and performance...as a system, the `Troubador' Model 398 is not inexpensiverecord players
cluding base], but it just reaffirms something we all know: higher quality means higher costs. The Model 398 is an excellent buy for those [$22250 inwant the
quality" To you determined readers we can only say that we rest our case. (sigh...now you don't have to write for our brochure...you've who
just read it).
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Here are a few of the reasons why the EMPIRE TROUBADOR
is called the "World's Most Perfect Record Playback System"
E
EMPIRE
SCIEN WIG CORP
EXPORT. CANADA.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
845
STEWART AVE
Empite S[ientdl< Corp., Ltd., Toronto. Canada
GARDEN CITY,L.I., NY.
.
EXPORT EXCEPT CANADA
EMEC.
Plamvle.,,
L.
I
N. Y
27
Generator Description
The Karg test generator, shown in
Fig. 2, is comparatively simple, and can
readily serve as a guide to the enterprising experimenter who wishes to build his
own equipment. It is available as a kit,
or as a factory -wired unit. The over-all
schematic, Fig. 4, shows the 19 -kc crystal oscillator comprising a 6AQ8A. The
output of the second section feeds a
transformer with a center-tapped secOvn.ut
ondary which in turn feeds a phase shifting network used to adjust the relative phase between the pilot and the
switching rate in the composite signal.
In addition, this secondary feeds the
generator described in the article.
grid of the 6AÚ8 pentode section as the
must be reproduced at the output of the doubler, the two diodes providing posiadapter circuit under test. Third, the tive pulses from both half -cycles of the
generator must be able to switch the test 19 -kc signal and thereby driving the
signals of the two channels on and off oscillator at a 38 -kc rate, and it, in turn,
alternately at the rate of 38,000 cps, with keys the diode bridges at the same rate
a controllable phase relationship to the and feeds the left and right channels
19 -kc pilot. Fourth, the harmonics of the alternately to the output.
These diode bridges differ from the
38 -kc switching frequency must be filtered out. Additionally it may be advan- simple ones of Fig. 1 because in a test
tageous to be able to apply the composite generator it is necessary to keep the
signal as modulation of an r.f. carrier in switching frequency out of the composthe FM band so as to permit feeding the ite signal. In the receiver the 38- and
composite signal into the antenna input 76 -kc components can be filtered out beof the tuner so as to observe the effect of cause the only frequencies of interest in
i.f. and discriminator (or ratio detector) the output are those up to 15,000 cps. In
bandwidth upon the recovered signal. It the composite output of a generator,
may also be advantageous to have'sev- however, the 38-kc and its harmonics
eral modulating frequencies which may must be passed in order to carry all of
be switched to either right or left chan- the necessary information, yet there
nels as desired. Neither of these require- should not be any 38 -kc sine wave signal.
ments is necessary, however, for service While this may sound ambiguous, it must
work. Thus it is possible to construct a be understood that the tiny samples of
generator which will give a suitable sig- alternate right and left signals are at the
nal without making it a complex and
rate of 38 kc, there is still no pure 38 kc
expensive unit.
in
the composite. Since it is not possible
Such an instrument is the Karg Model
filter out the switching frequency, it
to
MX -1G stereo multiplex generator, which
is available in kit form or factory -wired. must be balanced out in the switching
In addition, the advanced experimenter circuits, Figure 3 shows the diode bridges
should be able to follow such a circuit as rearranged. When terminal A of the
D3,
transformer is positive, diodes
this and construct his own generator.
..;:
Fig. 2. The Karg MX -1G test signal
and D, are eut off, thus feeding the signal to the filter circuit in the "B" channel. Since the composite signal consists
of information from the "A" and "B"
channels appearing alternately in 38 -kc
samples, this results in feeding the "A"channel information only into the "A"
channel and the "B" information only
into the "B" channel.
The purpose of the filters is to provide the necessary de-emphasis and to
suppress the 38 -kc switching signal and
its harmonics as much as possible. Since
the normal de- emphasis network in a
tuner would result in attenuation of the
38 -kc subcarrier (and the modulating
sidebands which represent the difference
signal) by about 26 db, it is obvious that
the multiplex demodulator circuit should
be fed directly from the discriminator
or ratio detector, and thus ahead of the
de- emphasis circuit. However, the deemphasis must be provided somewhere
in the audio circuit, and since there are
two channels, it follows that there must
be two de-emphasis networks, one in
each.
Once the basic principles of the diode
gate are understood thoroughly, it is easy
to follow the operation of the circuit for
a generator designed to provide the necessary signals for service on the multiplex portions of FM-stereo tuners or on
D
separate adapters.
óá
R16
O
u
O
Generator Requirements
A stereo test -signal generator must
provide a composite signal consisting of
several separate frequencies having specific phase and amplitude relationships,
together with suitable means for combining these signals in the proper manner.
First, the generator must provide 19,000
cps at a high accuracy of frequency. According to F.C.C. regulations, an FMstereo transmitter must hold the 19 -kc
within ± 3 cps, and such accuracy is desirable in a test generator. This demands
the use of a crystal-controlled oscillator.
Second, the generator should provide
one or more frequencies in the audio
range to serve as the "program" which
;11
22 k
LEFT
RIGHT
SIGNAL
SIGNAL
INPUT
INPUT
Fig. 3. Simplified arrangement of the diode
gates
used in the test signal generator.
AUDIO
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
AVAILABLE NOW
!
Order Your Copy TODAY
The SIXTH AUDIO ANTHOLOGY includes articles on two most
significant milestones in the field
of high fidelity FM STEREO and
:
'TRANSISTORS IN AUDIO
EQUIPMENT. The FM STEREO articles which appeared in
AUDIO the original magazine
about high fidelity were written
by the men who actually worked
on the system approved by the
FCC. The articles pertaining to
TRANSISTORS IN AUDIO APPLICATIONS cover interesting
aspects of designing with the semi-
-
-
conductor. As in previous editions of the AUDIO ANTHOLOGY, the SIXTH is a compilation
of important articles which appeared in AUDIO over a period of
about two years. And, all of the
articles were written by knowledgeable and experienced authorities in the field. The SIXTH
AUDIO ANTHOLOGY is a
meaningful reference for everyone
in the diverse fields of audio engineering, recording, broadcasting,
manufacturing and servicing of
components and equipment, and
for the audio fans who made this
business of high fidelity what it is
today.
Save $1.50 by ordering the 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY at the same time.
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Fig. 4. Over -all schematic of Karg MX-1G multiplex signal generator.
AUDIO
30
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
said Anton Schmitt of New York's famed Harvey Radio after listening to the Acoustech solid state
stereo power amplifier for the first time. "The dynamic range and transparency of sound permit me
to hear shadings and subtleties I was never aware of," Anton continued. "Even when turn up the
bass controls on the preamp, still hear more tightly controlled lows, not boom. This amplifier sets
a new standard in sound reproduction."
I
I
I
This dramatic advance in the art of sound reproduction results
from the sophisticated solid state circuitry of the Acoustech I. The
expensive all -silicon output stage (beta cutoff above one mega
cycle) combined with direct- coupled circuitry (no driver or outpu t
transformers) provides unequaled transient response. Together
with the high damping , these unique characteristics give a cla
rity and ease of listening that was as immediately obvious to
Anton Schmitt as it will be to you.
Matching this unparalleled electrical performance is the Acoustech l's equally unparalleled reliability. Using the most advanced
techniques found in precision scientific and military instrumentation, the Acoustech will perform almost indefinitely at its original
performance level. Operation of the amplifier with no load, capacitive load, switching transients, and shorted speaker leads which
can disable many vacuum tube amplifiers do not harm the Acoustech I. Mil spec glass -epoxy circuit boards, computer -grade electrolytics, girder construction, cool running and conservative operation of all components permit the most extensive warranty in the
industry. Unlike vacuum tube amplifier manufacturers who cannot provide extended warranty for tubes, Acoustech provides an
unprecedented FIVE YEAR warranty on the silicon output
transistors.
I
The Acoustech
the country.
I
Harvey Radio Corporation in New York City is one of the oldest and
most influential audio dealers in the country. From high fidelity's
early days, Harvey has invariably been among the first to recognize
the importance of significant technological breakthroughs like
magnetic cartridges, acoustic suspension speakers, and now, quality solid state power amplifiers.
IMPORTANT OFFER Fill out this
coupon for complimentary copy
of Acoustech's new booklet "Why
Solid State Amplifiers Can Sound
Better." Also included will be detailed information on both the
Acoustech and II and a list of
dealers from whom a demonstration can be heard.
I
can be heard at leading audio dealers across
TO: Acoustic Technology Laboratories, Inc. Dept. A -1
139
MINIMUM SPECIFICATIONS: 40 watts per channel, rms, both channels
operating simultaneously, delivered 8 -16 ohms, 20- 20,000 cps, with less
than 0.95% harmonic and IM distortion (IM measured with 60 and 6000
cps tones mixed 4:1) at rated output; Rise time L75 psec; Frequency
response, /4 db, 5- 50,000 cps; * 3 db, 21/2 -250,000 cps; Input impedance
150,000 ohms; Dimensions 153/4" w x 5" h x 12" d. $395 including cage.
(Slightly higher West of Rockies).
ti
COMING
AUDIO
Main Street, Cambridge
42,
Massachusetts
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
ZONE
STATE
ALSO ENCLOSE NAMES OF INTERESTED FRIENDS
... Acoustech II solid state stereo decade control center
JANUARY, 1963
31
Fig. 5. 'Scope patterns obtained at output of MX test generator. At Two -channel modulation, L =- R, with pilot; (B) L = -R
modulation, with pilot, and gain increased to show crossings; correct zero phase shift pilot- carrier relation is shown by the
"points" opposite each other; (C) Same as (A), except without pilot; (D) Same as (A), but with phase relation about 30 deg.
D
conduct and diodes D2, D4, the pilot signal and a.c. power to the
and
D6, and D8 are cut off. Thus the left sig- generator.
Adjustment is quite simple. With the
nal is fed to the output. On the next half
cycle, terminal B is positive, and the pilot signal on and internal audio Ion, the
right signal is fed to the output. What is output control is set to furnish a compowanted is a series of 38 -kc pulses modu- site output of 2 volts; then with modulalated alternately at the audio signal fre- tion off, the pilot amplitude is adjusted
quency, Potentiometer R20 serves to bal- to provide an output of 0.2 volts. The
ance the diode bridges so that no 38 -kc pilot is then turned off and the carrier signal appears in the output. If the eight balance potentiometer adjusted for minicon- mum output signal, which should be
diodes were all alike dynamically
dition which is practically impossible of around 50 to 55 db below the 2-volt comattainment -this potentiometer alone posite signal. Then with the output fed
would serve, but since the diodes are not to a 'scope, and modulation Set for
alike, some further adjustment must be L = - R, the pilot phase control is adactually con- justed to give the type of signal shown in
provided. In practice,
sists of a fixed resistor and a variable C of Fig. 5 in which the differences beone permitting a range of adjustment tween the alternate peaks of the omposfrom 15,000 to 30,000 ohms. Also in ite signal are the same at top a?d botpractice, R,0 is in two sections, each of tom parts of the pattern. Increasing the
500k ohms and connected between the amplitude of the signal and con(entrattwo diode bridges where the 38 -kc is in- ing on the axis crossing gives a pattern
jected, as shown in Fig. 3. The composite like (B), which shows clearly the correct
output is fed to a cathode follower, and phase adjustment when the poi is are
thence through a filter to the output. opposite each other. (C) is the game as
The filter is designed to eliminate the sec- (A) except for different audio modulaond and third harmonies of the switch- tion and absence of pilot; (D) shows incorrect phase adjustment.
ing frequency.
Figure 6 shows other types of output
The audio signal frequency, approxiobtainable. For these p tterns,
patterns
mately 1000 cps, is furnished by V3B.
to have a wideband 'scope
it
is
desirable
the
with
-shift
oscillator
is
a
phase
This
but for service and
results,
optimum
for
output taken from the center -tapped
secondary of a transformer so that the adjustment of adapters and tuners, such
right and left signals fed to the bridges a 'scope is not essential.
may be in either or out of phase, depending on the position of the switch S,. The Circuit Alignment
The actual operation of alignment of
third position of the switch permits feeding only one of the channels -right or the multiplex circuit of an adapter or
left being selected by a slide switch. An- tuner is extremely simple, once t e genother slide switch permits the use of an erator is available. Although th re are
external source of audio signal when de- minor variations in multiplex ircuits,
sired. Two other slide switches control all of them contain essentially the same
Db1
-a
R
elements, and even without specific instructions, no trouble should be encountered. Most circuits have a 67 -kc SCA
filter; all have a 19 -kc filter to separate
the pilot carrier from the remainder
of the signal; all have 38 -kc circuits
either oscillator or doubler; and some
have a separation control.
The first step is to adjust the 67 -kc
filter. This requires a source of this frequency, usually from a wide -range audio
oscillator. With this signal fed into the
multiplex circuit and a VTVM on the
output of either channel, adjust the filter for minimum output. If the 67 -kc
circuit is not identified on the chassis
but you have the schematic, you will be
able to recognize it by the value of the
components. Filters of this type usually
consist of an adjustable -cored coil with
a small capacitor across or in series with
it -the capacitor value usually between
50 and 180 pf.
After the SCA filter is adjusted for
minimum, apply a 19 -kc signal to the
input of the adapter circuit. For preliminary 19- and 38 -kc adjustments, assuming the entire unit is completely out
of alignment, it is suggested that a 'scope
be connected to some point in the
adapter where 38 -kc is present. With the
oscillator type of circuit, this point can
be found by probing with the 'scope lead
with no signal fed into the adapter. If
the circuit uses a doubler, however, no
signal will be present unless some 19 -kc
pilot is fed to the input, so some should
be injected. Once the 38 -kc point is found
and the 'scope connected, adjust all remaining circuits in the adapter for maximum output at 38 kc. While making
(Continued on page 61)
-
of
Fig. 6. Additional 'scope patterns. (A) Single- channel modulation . Separation is indicated by ratio of peak -to -peak amplitude
waveform to p -p amplitude of baseline ripple; (B) Same as (A), with 19 -kc pilot added. Pilot amplitude should be adjusted to
(D) Monophonic modulation (L =R), with
8 -10 per cent at composite; (C) Same as (B), but not synchronized to pilot frequency;
frequency.
to
pilot
audio
signal
synchronized
pilot, and 'scope and
32
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
THESE ARE GARRARD'S AUTOMATIC TURNTABLES
To understand why more fine component music systems are being built around these than any other record
playing units, please turn the page
.
.
The original
AUTOMATIC
TURNTABLE
Actually, it consists of two
turntables balanced together
.. a drive table inside and
a heavy cast turntable outside.
These are separated by a
resilient foam barrier which
damps out noise or vibration.
TypeA includes a dynamical
balanced tone arm, with all
the precision. balance. tree
doni from friction. and low
resonance of the finest ornl
separately sold.
Laboratory Series
TYPE A
..
a
new kind of record playing unit,
which has become a legend.
The Type A established the concept of the Automatic Turntable, combining the professional
performance of a dynamically-balanced tone
arm, full-size turntable and Laboratory Series
motor
with the tremendous convenience of
the world's gentlest record changing mechanism,
to use when desired. Because it is the answer to
today's most advanced stereo requirements, this
Garrard has enjoyed the most dramatic acceptance ever accorded a high fidelity record playing
component. Richly executed in grey, charcoal
and chrome, the Type A is designed to enhance
the finest music system, fulfilling the most critical requirements through excellent performance,
utter reliability, durability, safety and convenience. An extravagant concept, this magnificent unit, refined and restyled, remains
moderate in cost at $79.50.
This advanced tone arm is
balanced and set in two sins
steps: First. the adjustable
counterweight is moved anti
the arm floats level at zero
stylus pressure.
Type A is built around the
Garrard "Laboratory Series"
shaded 4 -pole motor.
designed specifically for it. It
is shielded completely. top
and bottom. with accurately
oriented plates which
prevent hum.
Then, the correct stylus
pressure for the cartridge is
established by moving a
pointer along a calibrated
gram scale at the side of
the arm. This built -in gauge
sets tracking force more accurately than by a separat
gauge.
The great advantage of automatic play when desired ...
and without compromise!
The Type A accomplishes
this with Garrard's exclusive
pusher platform ...
unquestionably the gentlest,
most reliable automatic
record handling device
ever developed.
The arm will now track
perfectly even if the player
intentionally tilted, the
record warped, or not concentric. It will bring out
the best in any cartridge used.
including those labelled
"professional."
Installation and removal
have been made very simple.
Leads are connected with
a built -in Amplok plug for
AC) and a female twin
phono socket (for audio). No
need to disengage wires
from amplifier ... simply
unplug at the player.
...
I
Type A
Turntable is full- sized,
balanced. cast and polished.
The weight of 6 lbs. has
been determined as the
optimum for perfect torque
and flywheel action in
the Type A.
is
supplies fully wired for stereo, with a
4- pin /5 -wire system utilizing separate connection
for ground to eliminate hum.
SPECIFICATIONS:
speeds: 161, 331/2, 45
and 78 RPM 100.130 volts.
60 cycles AC (50 cycle pulley
available)
left to right, 141/4" front
to rear 6" above and 21/2"
below top of motor board.
4
161/2"
NT PERFORMANCE, CONVENIE CE AND STYLING
yours to enjoy year after year!
ven results of skilled engineering, meaningful features, rigid quality contro
AT6 features a dynamically)
counterbalanced tubular torn
arm of outstanding design,
comparable with the most
advanced, most popular,
separately-sold tone arms.
Responsible for the silence
and perfect speed of the AT6
is the heavy duty. double
shielded "Laboratory' Series"
motor, engineered specifically
to match the AT6 turntable
and drive linkage.
Balance and tracking force
are adjusted in two steps:
First.. zero tracking pressure is established by
moving the counterweight
until the arm floats level,
in perfect equal balance.
AT6 has center-drop turntable
spindle. removable for safety
in handling records. Actually.
two interchangeable spindles
are provided: one for automatic: the other. a short
spindle for playing singles.
Next, correct tracking force
is set on the stylus scale
mounted upright at the side f
the tone arm. Settings are
more precise than by a
separate stylus pressure gauge.
While on automatic play,
AT6 is an intermix changer;
takes records any size,
any sequence.
.
the compact, intermix
AUTOMATIC
TURNTABLE
Handsomely dramatic in grey, charcoal and
brushed aluminum, this precision model offers
all the critical performance features required of
a Garrard Automatic Turntable. These include
a particularly sensitive tubular tone arm, dynamically balanced and counterweight- adjusted,
with built -in stylus pressure gauge; plus an oversized turntable; the Laboratory Series motor;
and an intermix automatic record changing
mechanism, to use when desired. Yet, the
Garrard engineers ingeniously have designed the
AT6 to be so compact that it can be offered in
this latest version at only $54.50.
AT6 will now track each silk
of the stereo grooves
perfectly at the lowest pressure
specified. even for cartridged
labelled "professional "... and
even if the player is intentionally tilted, or the
record warped.
The Garrard plug-in shell w
accommodate the cartridge
of your choice. In the AT6.
a bayonet fitting makes
the shell instantly removable
rigidly held while playing,
to avoid resonance.
Convenience -the compact
size of the AT6 makes it fit
every installation: a snap -in
one arm safety catch prevents
accidents.
II
The turntable is oversized,
heavy and balanced. Torque
high; and there is no noise,
rumble, wow, waver. or inte
ference with the sound
of records.
Leads are connected to unit
with a built -in Amplok plug
for AC) and a female twin
phono socket ( for audio).
mounted on the unit plate.
Simply unplug at the player.
I
AT6 is supplied fully wired for stereo with a
4 -pin /5 -wire system utilizing separate connection
for ground to eliminate hum.
SPECIFICATIONS:
4
speeds: 16%, 3355, 45 and
78 RPM. 100 -130 volts, 60 cycles
AC. (50
cycle pulley available.)
Minimum cabinet dimensions:
1515" left to right, 1345" front
to rear. 45" above and 2'aí"
below top of motor board.
For Comparator Guide and list of dealers, write Dept. GY 1772, Gar rard Sales Corp., Port Washington, N. Y.
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
A High -Quality Transistorized
Stereo Preamplifier
ERHARD ASCHINGER
PART THREE OF A SERIES
bilization have ben employed in the individual stages : stage one uses constant current bias via the d.c. feedback path
from the emitter of the second stage,
stages two and three are operated with
constant -voltage bias from the collectors
of the respective preceding stages. The
d.c. circuit of the three -stage amplifier
which will now be developed in detail
is shown in Fig. 13.
Since there is no universal standard
concerning the use of reference arrows
as yet, the system used in the following
calculations shall be explained briefly.
In principle, any desired system of ref erance arrows may be used, the results
of the calculations will be the same in
any case.
All reference arrows will be applied
according to the sign convention used in
four-terminal network theory. Current
reference arrows will be counted positive for currents flowing into the network, and voltage reference arrows will
be counted positive for voltages referred to the common or ground terminal.
Actual d.c. currents are counted positive in the direction of conventional current flow, and d.c. voltages are counted
positive from positive to negative terminals.
When this system is applied to PNPtransistor circuit analysis, a number of
values become negative. To void misunderstandings, a negative sign is always added to the symbol and not to the
CALCULATIONS
In this Section all calculations
necessary to achieve the required performance specifications shall be described
in detail. If the reader prefers to use a
different stereo cartridge or different
transistors, or if he wants to select gain
and impedance values different from
those described the same calculations may
be applied using the appropriate new
vcc
values.
Selection of Operating Points
and D.C. Stabilization
The selection of the operating point
of a transistor audio -frequency amplifier stage is of great influence upon the
useful collector -voltage swing, distortion,
and noise level. Any uncontrolled change
in the operating point has to be avoided
since it directly influences the per-
formance characteristics of the stage.
Once a suitable operating point has
been selected, it has to be stabilized to
be essentially independent of transistor
parameter tolerances (especially of variations in current transfer ratio), temperature, and supply -voltage variations.
The influence of the different parameter variations upon the operating point
shall not be discussed here, nor is it intended to present a complete theory of
transistor -stage operating -point stabilization. Rather elaborate calculations and
extensive tests have shown that under
normal conditions excellent stability can
be achieved by observing two simple
rules of thumb.
One of the most effective and convenient methods to achieve d.c. stabilization in a common-emitter stage is the
insertion of a resistor in the emitter
lead, as shown in Fig. 12. The resulting
negative d.c. series feedback stabilizes
the operating point of the stage against
changes in transistor parameters, temperature, and supply voltage. It is obvious that for optimum stability R
be made as large as possible.
However, supply voltage is lost in R2,
and a very high value requires an impractically high supply voltage. Normally, a compromise has to be made between stability requirements and supply
voltage facilities. It has been found if
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Fig. 12 Simplified circuit of a common
emitter stage with series feedback.
that very good stability can be obtained
VE
VCE and Voa! less than 0.5 !Veal.
As indicated in Fig. 12, the bias probI
lem must still be decided. For good
stability of the stage it will be necessary
to apply a highly stable voltage, VB, or
current, bias 'B, to the base electrode of
the transistor. In addition to this, stability can be improved considerably by
the use of a degenerative d.c. feedback
loop around one or more stages of the
amplifier.
In our special case all three amplifier
stages are operated in common -emitter
connection, they are directly coupled for
optimum low- frequency response and
good d.c. stability. Operating point
stability of the individual stages is
achieved by emitter resistors, and a d.c.
negative-feedback loop around the first
two stages insures high over -all d.c.
stability. Different methods of bias sta-
vccl
4111
4
TI
TII
rui
I11
-r
R
ivc
Iv
Iv
Ì
Ive
EI
11Iv
RII
o
Fig. 13.
D -C
EII
circuit of the three -stage amplifier.
35
The d.c. resistance of the audio -frequency feedback network (as calculated
later) is Ri. 51,700 ohms. Since the
feedback network is connected to the
current divider in the emitter lead of
stage one near ground potential (RE r is
much smaller than Ri), it may be assumed that the entire voltage Vc Ir is
dropped across Bf only.
The current in the collector resistor of
stage two consists of
20NA
00NA
80NA
60rA
I
40NA
--
i
I
'
I00
50
L
I
2
3w
05
_I
4
6
Vom°z
-CE
V
10
Ig
O.ï
7
0
0.2
_i
8'/
If
- Vc
II + IB
III
0236 mA
lRE r is much smaller than Ri)
= 0.236 + 1.0 + 0.08 = 1.316 mA, the
required collector resistor is
BONA
A
4
74
oóyA
I
VC
Ij + IC
1
ONA
0
14=
)
?ONA
-VBE-VOLTS
- Vcc +Vc
R4
I4
21.0 -12.2 -6690 ohms
-3
1.316 x 10
Fig. 14. RCA 2N109 characteristic curves.
figure, for example - Ic = 3 mA, and not
Ic= -3 mA.
In the following calculations the subscripts B, E, and C refer to the respective transistor electrodes. The subscripts
I, II, and III refer to the individual
amplifier stages, they will be omitted in
places where a confusion with other
values is not possible.
Since direct coupling is employed, the
base current of each stage affects the
preceding stage. The amplifier will
therefore be designed starting with the
last stage.
Stage Three-RCA 2N109.
Maximum ratings : - VcR =12 v max,
- Ic = 35 mA max, Pc = 150 mw max at
tomb = 25°C.
The output stage of the equalizer has
to feature an output resistance, Ro, of
600 ohms. It has to be capable of delivering an undistorted output voltage
of 775 mv into an external load resistance, of 600 ohms, corresponding to an
output power of 1 mw
Because of the low load resistance,
this stage has to be designed like a
large- signal stage, its set of characteristic
curves has to be used for operating point
selection. As shown in Fig. 14, stage
three is operated in class A. The operating point, 0, has been placed into the
most linear region of the collector characteristics, which results in very low distortion. Even with heavy overloading, the
regions of collector leakage current and
saturation voltage are not reached.
The selected operating point is given
by -.Ic= 8.0 mA and - Vas = 8.0 v, the
supply voltage has been set at - VOR =
25 v.
The output resistance of a common emitter stage is composed of its collector resistor shunted by the output resistance of the transistor amplifier, which
generally is in the order of several times
10,000 ohms and may, therefore, be neglected. Thus the required output resistance of 600 ohms can be achieved
with sufficient accuracy by usin
lector resistor, R4, of 620 ohms
cent. The collector voltage then is
- Vcc +R4Ic =25 -4.96 20.0 v
emitter voltage - VE _- Vc + Vc
-8.0 = 12.0 v. According to the tr
characteristics (see Fig. 14) the b
rent is - ID = 80 µA, the emitter
then is IE _ -IC- IB = 8.08 mA
required resistor
Rs
=- VE -12.0
IR
a col5
per
- Vc =
nd the
= 20.0
resistor
se cur -
rent
urrent
1.0
nd the
des
base -to- emitter voltage
termined from the characteris ics is
- VBE = 0.2 v, the required bias ' oltage
ill be
at the base of stage three
- VB = -VE- VBE =12.2 v. The c llector
dissipation of stage three is Pc = VOR =
8.0 x 8.0 = 64 mw, and its total power
consumption DC I0Vcc 8.0 25.0=
The
200 mw.
Stage Two -RCA 2N175.
Maximum ratings : ß ~ 65
max, - Ic
at
2.0 mA max,
tamb = 25 °C.
=
- Vc
65
lE=- IC- IB II- IBIIBI= - lc -0.0154 mA. IE
1.015 mA.
This current consists of the base current, - IB I, of stage one and the current,
Is, flowing through Rs rr, which is
ohm
8.08
or, using the nearest EIA standard value,
R4 = 6800 ohms.
The emitter voltage is - VE = Vc + VUE
= 12.2 - 4.8 = 7.4 v and the emitter cur-
;
= 10 v
Pc = m
max
The undistorted voltage out ut of
stage two required to drive stag three
has to be almost von van =7 5 mv,
since the voltage gain of stag: three
is only slightly above unity. Hs "ever,
to achieve maximum voltage g. n the
be
collector resistor of stage two ,.
made as large as possible, its e ternal
load resistance-the input resist i ce of
stage three -is of the order of everal
times 10,000 ohms, too. The re ulting
load line in the collector characte istics,
therefore, has a very gentle slo i e and
the stage may be operated at rat i r low
collector current, which, in to i, requires a large collector resistor.
Thus, the selection of the op:' sting
point is not too critical. The i osen
values are - Ic = 1.0 ma, - Vas= 4.: v, and
- Vcc = 21.0 v.
Since it provides the required b
:
s
for
stage three, the collector voltage ha to be
- VCII= --VBIII= 12.2 v.
Is= IEII +IBI
With - IB r= 0.0077 mA (as determined in the next paragraph, we get
Is =1.015 - 0.0077 = 1.007 mA and therefore
7.4
Rs II
1.316 x 21.0 = 27.6 mw.
Stage One -RCA 2N175. To achieve
the desired high signal -to -noise ratio the
first stage has to be designed for low
noise. Since it has to handle only very
small signals, the selection of its operating point is not limited by considerations
concerning collector voltage swing and
distortion. From the noise characteristics
of the RCA 2N175 (Fig. 2) the optimum
operating -point values have been chosen :
- le = 0.5 mA and - VCE = 4.5 v; the selected supply voltage is - Vcc = 19.0 v.
The collector voltage being - Var =
- Vim =7.5v we get
R4--Vcc+Vc=
-Icr-113.11
19 - 7.5
0.5 + 0.015
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
22,300 ohms
(Continued on page 59)
AUDIO
36
7340 ohms.
I,E 1.007 ~
According to the base characteristics
of the 2N175 the base -to-emitter voltage
for the selected operating point is
- VBE = 0.1 v, the required base voltage
thus being - VBII = - VE- VBE =7.5 v.
Stage two has a collector dissipation of
Pc= IcVcE=1.0 x 4.8 = 4.8 mw, and a
power consumption of PDC = 14 (- Vcc) _
JANUARY, 1963
DEPENDS
ON
WHAT
GOES
THROUGH
HERE
"SKIMPING "ON THE CARTRIDGE
JEOPARDIZES THE SOUND
(AND SATISFACTION) OF THE
Dynetic cartridge for their personal systems. It was, from its inception, and is
today the finest stereo cartridge your
money can buy. And not much money, at
that. The $36.50 spent on a Shure M33 -5 (if
you have a fine tone arm that tracks between is and 1.5 grams) or Shure M33 -7 (for tracking pressures from 1.5 to 3 grams) will audibly
improve even fine quality stereo systems. Compliance is an astounding 22 x 10 -6 for the M33 -5
(20 x 10 -6 for the M33 -7). Response is transparent
WHOLE SYSTEM
The hundreds,
even thousands of dollars you put into
speakers, pre -amps, amplifiers, turntables
and recordings can be virtually nullified by an offhand selection of the phono cartridge, For even
though it is the lowest -cost single component in the
typical system, it is charged with the frighteningly
complex task of getting the music out of the grooves
and translating it into precise electrical impulses
...
without addition, subtraction,
or distortion. And without damaging the record grooves, Leading
critics and noted audiophiles recognize this and (with due care
and study) select a Shure Stereo
and smooth not only at the top and bottom but in
the critical middle range (where
most music happens -and where
IF YOU INSIST ON A SHU RE DYNETIC CARTRIDGE,
most other cartridges garble the
YOU CAN EXPECT MOR FROM YOUR SYSTEM
sound), No "peaks," no "shattering." Et cetera, et cetera. Better
listen to it, and judge for yourself.
E
M33 SERIES HIGH FIDELITY PHONO CARTRIDGES
SHURE BROTHERS, INC.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
222 HARTREY AVE., EVANSTON, ILLINOIS
37
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-Track Stereo
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Professional performance for outstanding recording and playback of
4 -track stereo and mono tapes! Specifications equal units costing up
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circuit board assembly. Model AD -22 Mechanism & Electronics;
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Stereo Tuner
Complete M, FM and FM Stereo multiplex receiving facilities in a
superbly de igned, easy to assemble package. Features an automatic
stereo indic ting light to signal when an FM station shifts to Stereo,
adjustable FC, individual tuning meters for AM & FM, Stereo
phase contr I for best performance, stereo tape recording filters, easy
circuit boa construction. Model AJ -41 $119.95. Assembled AJW-
Accessory ceramic microphones;
41 $189.95.
$9.95. ea.
3
2
11
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1. Die -Cast aluminum panel. 2. Speed
change lever (7'%& 3V,,'). 3. Seven inch reel
capacity. 4. Three -digit counter. 5. Fast
forward -rewind lever. 6. VU -type level meters. 7. Stereo /Mono record switch. 8. Mix Ing level controls (mic. & line). 9. Microphone Inputs. 10. Cathode -follower output
jacks. 11. Lineinputs.12. Record -playback
lever. 13. 4 -track record -playback and erase
6
9
g
heads.
1. Listen 3 Ways; AM; FM, or FM Stereo.
2. Separate Tuning Meters (AM & FM) Insure Precise Station Settings. 3. "Squelch"
eliminates noise between FM Stations. 4.
Phase Control for distortionless stereo reception. 5. Automatic Frequency Control
"locks -in" station signals. 6. Factory Assembled, prealigned FM front end. 7.
Circuit Board Construction for easy assembly. 8. Built -In AM and FM Antennas.
9. Multipjex Circuit an integral part of unit.
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
R
f
R
3
iR
l'l
ik
9
3f14r:+'
&`
t{.itit?r¡rr4+
s.t
..5.a...
?t;tTT?YïTITt tit i;+
r-eten.Tít t t
T+r.
do- it- yourself and save with Heathkit®
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Most advanced transistor stereo amplifier on the market! 35 watts per
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HEATH COMPANY
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21, $134.95.
Please send my free 100 page 1963 Heathkit Catalog
1. Eight power transistors an four heat
sinks. 2. Output circuit breakers. 3. Two
to
tt
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
power amplifier circuit boards (four transistors, six diodes). 4. Two driver trans formers. 5. Two preamplifier circuit boards
(six sealed component modules, ten transistors). 6. Two driver transistors, four filter
transistors. 7. Two 3,000 mid filter condensers, four diodes. 6. Output terminals.
9. Stereo Inputs. 10. Tape recorder outputs. 11. Power transformer. 12. AC out.
lets.
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY_
L
ZONE
STATE
.1
39
HERMAN BURSTEIN*
(Note: To facilitate a prompt reply,
please enclose a stamped, self -addressed envelope with your question.)
Microphone Techniques
Q. Can you supply any information on
microphone techniques for recording orchestras and voice groups? We have a two channel tape recorder, mixer, and several
excellent microphones, and are interested
in developing the correct mixing, and microphone placement techniques.
A. To the best of my knowledge, the
professional recording engineer depends
more upon cut and try than upon pat
formulas, and his selection and placement
of microphones varies with the engineer
and with the recording site.
Converting to Stereo Record
Q. I have a * * ** tape recorder (mono
record, stereo blayback) which I would like
to convert to stereo record. I am aware that
it would be a great deal more convenient,
and quite possibly less expensive, to just
forget this and buy a stereo record model.
My idea is this. The preamps and oscillator
are put up as printed circuit units and can
be purchased. The machine is equipped with
a stereo record -playback head. Could I not
add the necessary extra electronics, using
the printed circuit units and such extra
switches, and so on as would be required
to activate the second half of the head and
employ it for stereo recording? I have a
fair understanding of elementary electronics and have undertaken quite a few
construction projects successfully.
A. You have quite a difficult project
ahead of you. First, you have the problem
of analyzing the present switching arrangement and converting it so that a recording
signal may be fed to the bottom section as
well as to the top section of the record playback head. Second, you have the same
problem with respect to feeding bias current to the lower section of the erase head.
Third, there is the question whether the
oscillator can turn out enough current to
do double duty. Fourth, you will have to
adjust bias and erase currents to their
correct values. Fifth, you will have to add
a second record -level indicator and calibrate it properly. Sixth, there is the question whether the present power supply can
handle two recording channels at once;
more power is employed in recording than
in playback because of the oscillator and
record -level indicator.
Replacing "Eye" Tube with VU meter
Q. I am enclosing a schematic diagram
of the electronic section of my tape recorder. It came with a 6E5 magic eye record -level indicator. I took this out and
installed a VU meter. There are 4.5 volts of
a.c. signal available at normal recording
level, which seem sufficient to drive the
meter. Also, there is an isolating stage of
amplification between the meter and the
recording signal. Have I installed the meter
correctly or should there be a separate
cathode follower to drive it? Also, how
should I connect the meter to read recording bias?
A. A VU meter should be driven by a
low-impedance source, whereas in your ease
you are driving it from a high -impedance
one. Therefore you should use a cathode
follower to drive the meter. While 4.5 volts
is much more than the 1.23 volts required
to drive a VU meter (through a 3e,Í600 -ohm
series resistor), your present connection
doesn't supply sufficient current to the
meter.
To enable you to read recording bias, you
can insert a variable resistor between the
ground lead of the record head and, ground,
then connect the input of the cathode follower to the high side of this resistor
through a switch. Assuming that bias current is of the proper value, adjust the
variable resistor until the meter reads
0 VU. Thereafter, should bias depart from
the correct value, the meter would read
higher or lower than 0 VU. The value of
the variable resistor depends upon the
amount of bias current flowing through the
record head. Assume that the head is a
high -impedance one (usually the case in
home machines) drawing 0.8 mA of bias
current as the optimum amount. A VU
meter requires 1.23 volts to read 0 VU
when driven by a low-impedance source
through a 3600 -ohm resistor, so that by
Ohm's Law we calculate that the variable
resistor should have a value of 1538 ohms.
However, the signal coming out of a cathode follower is only about 9/10 of the input signal. Dividing 1538 by 9/10, the
value of the variable resistor becomes 1708
ohms. Therefore a variable resistor with a
maximum value of about 2000 to 3000 ohms
appears suitable. The resistance of 1708
ohms introduced between the record head
and ground should have negligible effect
upon bias current and therefore upon performance. The circuit impedances associated with a high-impedance head will probably total about 40,000 or 50,000 ohms, so
that 1708 ohms is slight in comparison.
However, if you are a purist, you may want
to touch -up the value of bias current to
allow for the added impedance of 1708
ohms.
A Click- Filtering Tape Recorder
Q.
I
have owned a
* * **
tape recorder
for more than two years. I am particularly
interested in stereo recording of pipe
organs and have recorded many recitals
using Electro -Voice 664 mikes plus interference filters. Without exception, each
time I record pipe organ music I also
record clicks that are in tempo with the
music, caused by the making and breaking
of relays at the organ console. Recently a
friend of mine bought a * * ** tape recorder
(another make). I have borrowed it to
record two organ recitals and this time
there were no recorded clicks, although I
used the same microphones, filters, and
such. The manufacturer of my own tape recorder has offered no solution in his reply
to my letter describing the problem.
A. Perhaps one or a combination of the
following measures may help reduce the
clicks, which may be traveling as electrical impulses through the a.c. line or as
magnetic impulses through the air: 1. Place
a 0.1 µf, 600 v capacitor across the a.c.
line going into the tape recorder, or between each side of the line and chassis;
2. place a capacitor across the a.c. line
going into the organ console, or between
each side of the line and chassis; 3. place
a 100 -ohm resistor in series between the
microphone input jack and the grid of the
first stage tube. Place a 10 -pf capacitor between this grid and ground.
Recording Level Adjustment
Q. I own a * * ** tape recorder and
would like to ask a few questions about
the adjustment procedure: 1. A standard frequency tape of 250 cps is used to adjust
the playback level. The instructions state
that I should connect a YTYM to the
preamp output and adjust the playback
until the VTVM reads plus 4 db, at which
time the VU meter should read 0 VU. I
would like to know what the plus 4 db
refers to. 2. The instructions state that the
sensitivity of the VTVM must be increased
since the test signals are recorded at minus
10 db. What does minus 10 db refer to? 3.
The instructions state that an audio oscillator should be connected to the line input
and set for 200 cps with the input level at
minus 10 db. What does minus 10 db refer
to? 4. How should I adjust the calibration
of the VU meters?
A. 1. It is standard practice to put a
3600 -ohm resistor in series with a VU
meter, thereby enabling the meter to operate properly. But this produces about
4-db reduction in the signal reaching the
meter. Therefore it is necessary to increase
the signal 4 db to make up the loss. 0 VU
corresponds to 1 milliwatt in a 600 -ohm
line, which translates into 0.774 volts. A
signal 4-db higher translates into 1.23
volts. Accordingly, the "playback -level adjustment" apparently should be turned
until you get a reading of 0 VU on the
meter and 1.23 volts on a VTVM connected
to the output of the tape recorder, as you
are playing the test tape. The 250-cps note
should be one that is recorded at a level
corresponding to 0 VU in playback. 2. The
test signals are 10 db below the recording
level that produces a reading of 0 VU on
the meter when the latter is employed as a
record -level indicator (not as an indicator
of playback level). 3. Again the reference
that which produces a recording indication of 0 VU. 4.
I assume that you refer here to adjustment
of the VU meter as a record -level indicator. Feed a signal between 250 and 400-cps
into the tape recorder. Adjust the recording level until you obtain 3 per cent harmonic distortion in playback, as measured
by a harmonie distortion meter. Reduce
the input signal about 6 db to allow for
the mechanical lag of the meter. Adjust
the meter so that it reads 0 VU on the
is to a level 10 db below
basis of the reduced input signal. Alternately, if the 250 -cps signal on the test
tape represents maximum recording level
(producing 3 per cent harmonic distortion),
(Continued on page 58)
AUDIO
40
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
all transistorized
New Sony Stereoorder 777
the
first /complete /portable /all- transistorized /high fidelity
PROFESSIONAL RECORDING & PLAYBACK SYSTEM
The most advanced achievement in recorder engineering to date, the superb new
remote -controlled professional Sterecorder 777 series features the exclusive and patented
Sony Electro Bi- Lateral 2 & 4 track playback Head, a revolutionary innovation that
permits the playback of 2 track and 4 track stereophonic or monophonic tape without
track width compromise through the same head!
Included in an array of outstanding features are individual erase /record /playback
heads, professional 3" VU meters, automatic shut -off, automatic tape lifters, an all solenoid, feather -touch operated mechanism, electrical speed change, monitoring of
either source or tape, sound on sound facilities, and an all- transistorized military plug -in
type circuitry for simple maintenance. The three motors consist of one hysteresis
synchronous drive motor and two hi- torque spooling motors.
Unquestionably the finest professional value on the market today, the 777 is available in two models, the S -2 (records 2 track stereo) and the S -4 (records 4 track stereo).
Both models can reproduce 2 and 4 track tapes.* And, the Sterecorder 777 models will
integrate into any existing component system. $595 complete with portable case and
remote control unit.
-
*Through the exclusive Sony Electro Bi- Lateral 2 and 4 track playback head.
All Sony Sterecorders
are Multiplex ready!
SUPERSCOPE
The Tapeway to Stereo
Sony has also developed a complete port-
able all- transistorized 20 watt speaker/
amplifier combination, featuring separate
volume, treble and bass controls, mounted in
a carrying case that matches the Sterecorder
777. $175 each.
Also available is the MX -777,a six channel
all- transistorized stereo/monophonic mixer
that contains six matching transformers for
balanced microphone inputs and recorder
outputs, individual level controls and channel
selector switches, Cannon XL type receptacles,
a switch to permit bridging of center staging
solo mike. $175 complete with matching carrying case.
The first /complete /portable /all- transistorized /high fidelity/professional recording &
playback system: $1120 complete.
Sold only at Superscope franchised dealers.
The better stores everywhere.
For additional literature and name of
nearest franchised dealer write Superscope,
Inc. Dept. 7, Sun Valley, California.
.
"In New York, visit the
Sony Fifth Avenue Salon, 585 Fifth Avenue."
EQUI PMEN1
PROFI
LEAK "STEREO 60" POWER
AMPLIFIER
For those few audiofans who are not f amiliar with the Leak product line, be informed that they have been, and are, used
in England in professional applications.
That means broadcast studios where durability and performance are more than a
hobby. The Stereo 60 definitely continues
this tradition.
The Stereo 60 delivers 30 -watts per channel (continuous sinewave power), and is
designed to operate with the Leak "Point
One" stereo preamplifier, or with any stereo
preamplifier of your choice. The arrangement for operating with the "Point One"
includes a power takeoff socket plus a
switching facility which allows on -off control at the preamp. In addition, there are
two convenience outlets which are fused.
Fig.
1.
il
An additional convenience feature is the
use of only one set of speaker terminals
for each channel, the impedance being
changed by moving a plug on top of the
output transformer. Also the power transformer can be set for use with 110 -volt,
117 -volt, and 124 -volt lines also by moving
a plug to the appropriate set of holes.
The surprising thing about this amplifier
is its unusually attractive appearanc when
viewed from the underside; here islwhere
the professional touch is revealed. A glance
at Fig. 1 reveals the rugged terminal
board and neat cabling which go into a
piece of equipment meant to last for a long
period of time. Of course a glance at the
sizable transformers and high -quality components tell the same story. For some reason or other the topside is finished in a
gold -ish color -perhaps to match the handsome underehassis appearance. It does look
rather nice at that.
Leak Stereo 60 power amplifier showing top and under -chassis views. Note
military-board construction.
Fig. 2. Frequency response of Leak Stereo 60 at rated power output.
Circuit Description
The circuit of the Stereo 60 is unusually
straightforward, each channel consisting
of :
1. A triode amplifier stage consisting of
half a 12AX7.
2. A cathode -coupled phase splitter utilizing a 12AX7.
3. A push-pull ultra-linear output stage
containing a pair of EL34's. Perhaps the
strangest part of the circuit is that the
tubes in the output stage are completely
independent of each other (separate cathode resistors) with no balancing provisions.
They claim it is not necessary. On the
other hand every other quality amplifier
we know of provides a balancing arrangement and we tended to agree with them.
4. A negative feedback loop runs from
the 16 -ohm tap of the output transformer
secondary to the cathode of the input tube.
Clearly this is as conventional a circuit
as one could imagine in this age of sophistication, but it is a well -proved conventional circuit. In addition, the components
used are of such high quality, and the
circuit put together with such care, that
the amplifier performs as though the circuit were the most sophisticated.
Performance
It is axiomatic nowadays that the testing of an amplifier used for music reproduction requires two parts: measuring and
listening. There are those people who insist that measurements alone can reveal
the quality of an amplifier and we tend to
agree with them. However we still like to
be convinced by listening.
On the measurements scene we should be
aware that there are two major schools of
amplifier design : The widest- bandwidthpossible school which attempts to make
amplifiers with excellent response from
d.c. to a megacycle; and the limited low frequency response school which limits the
response below 20 cps. There are several
technical arguments for the latter school,
but the most dramatic is the effect produced when the rumble of the turntable is
amplified-or the resonant frequency of
the arm (many modern arms exhibit a
resonant frequency below 10 cps).
We present this background to indicate
some reason for the low- frequency power
response of the Stereo 60 as indicated in
Fig. 3. Note here that the maximum power
obtainable at 20 eps, before clipping, was
20 watts (continuous sine wave). This rolloff is deliberate and not indicative of poor
performance. The same figure also shows
that the amplifier produces well above the
rated output, without clipping, throughout
most of the frequency range up to 20,000
cps. Also note the frequency response as
shown in Fig. 2. Ilere we see response
which is only 12 db down at 100,000 cps
with excellent waveform. (As standard
practice we monitor waveform.)
Perhaps the most impressive aspect of
measured performance is the low distortion
exhibited by this amplifier: Harmonic distortion is 0.3 per cent at 30 watts and 0.2
per cent at 1 watt; intermodulation is a
maximum of 0.5 per cent at 44 watts. Teat
with a square wave indicated excellent
transient response.
The Stereo 60 showed excellent stability
with a 0.2 -µf capacitor across the output.
Also it delivered just a fraction less power
than indicated in Fig. 3 with both channels loaded, thus attesting to the sturdiness
of the power supply. We did note that one
channel required only 1.4 volts to deliver
30 watts at 7000 eps while the other channel required 2.5 volts. On the other hand
the less sensitive channel could deliver
more power; possibly the feedback loop of
AUDIO
42
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
L
AFC LLO
DFLE,4-,\K
C
63
SOUND
RANGER-PARAGON
TRIMLINE 54
JBL produces precision loudspeaker systems which are a:I nowledged to be the fines- in all
respects by c- itics, scientists, musicians. engineers, and composers throughout the world. JBL systems
are the refererce standard for excellence in studios, laboratories, and the listening rooms of audio
connoisseurs. They range in size and complexity from the magni=icert JBL Ranger- Paragon to the
ultra -compact iew Trimline 54. Each is the finest of its kind; one is ce-tain to fit your needs exactly.
The most popular of the more elaborate JBL systems is t-we highly versatile Apollo. This is a
Linea--Efficiency system of moderate di-Tensions but life -scale repraduction.
The new JBL Model C53 is a shel= -size, ducted port acocsical enclosure two -feet wide, one foot deep, des gned for use with any one of three different JBL Linear- Efficiency speaker systems.
The JBL Ranger- Paragon is an inte grated stereo system wi-h two matched, three -way speaker
systems. The radial panel distributes true stereo to every position i, the listening area.
The seisational new Trimline 54 reproduces full, fundameital bass in less than a cubic foot
of space by employing a passive low frequency radiator.
All are distinguished by their fine craftsmanship, clean visual design, and meticulous finish.
These are but Four of many JBL systems. Write for your free copy of the complete JBL caalog and
the name of the Authorized JBL Audio Specialist in your commu-ity.
JAMES B. LANSING SOUND, INC.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
LOS ANGELES 39, CALIFORNIA
43
difficult to find a diaphragm material
which did not cause strange behavior as
it aged (we understand that this problem
has been solved, but we have not yet tested
the finished product).
The Neat method, however, avoids this
problem completely. When the stylus bar
assembly is in position, the magnet -coil
area is completely sealed off by the plastic
case. The only opening is the one for the
yoke, which is quite small.
r
V
4
Fig. 3. Maximum
50
0r
power response of
leak Stereo 60
(before clipp ng).
O
0
Performance
The Neat VS -1000D has an unusually
io
X
20
100
10000
1000
00000
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND
this channel was not properly set. (One of
the output tubes in this channel became
defective during the testing and we replaced both tubes.)
Hum and noise was 82 db below rated
output at 1000 cps in one channel, and
79 db down in the other. Actually the Leak
Stereo 60 is one of the quietest amplifiers
we have not heard in some time; with gain
at the maximum position, and our ear up
against the speaker, we could not hear even
the slightest noise.
In listening tests, the Leak Stereo 60
proved that measurements can reveal the
quality of an amplifier: It reproduces music musically. The sound quality could be
characterized as tight and clean; a precise
and controlled bottom end and sharp well defined highs. Musically modern.
The Leak Stereo 60 is an unusually
rugged stereo amplifier obviously intended
to last and last under the most arduous
use. It is of professional quality in construction and performance and merits the
attention of those audiofans seeking top
quality.
Please note that the 30 -watt per channel
rating of this amplifier is an extremely
conservative rating; it could easily be upgraded to 35 or 40 watts by the standards
commonly used in this country. But of
A -15
course the British are so modest.
NEAT VS -1000D STEREO
CARTRIDGE
The Neat VS -1000D is a moving -coil
cartridge with an easily replaceable stylus.
That statement alone makes it one of the
most unusual cartridge entries in a long
time. Normally the construction of a moving -coil cartridge prevents the cartridge
from being replaced easily; usually they
have to go back to the factory. In the case
of the VS -1000D one merely lifts the stylus
assembly up and out.
The secret of this unusual facility is the
unique coil construction which is shown in
Fig. 5. In this close -up head -on we ea.i see
that the coil is attached to the yok3 on
which the stylus bar rests. Thus, when the
stylus bar moves, the yoke moves the coils
which are in the field of the magnets.
Fig. 5. Front view of Neat VS -1000D with
top portion of cartridge removed. Yoke is
top center.
One of the problems experienced by
moving -coil cartridges has been the difficulty of preventing dust and dirt from
entering the space between the magnet and
the coils without restricting stylus movement. Commonly, a diaphragm of some
elastic material is placed over the entire
coil- magnet area and the stylus -tip would
be the only moving element peeking
through. With this arrangement the diaphragm is in intimate contact with the
stylus bar. Unfortunately, it has been very
Fig. 6. Frequency
response of Neat
VS- 1000D.
-c
0
5
5
ó
-io
>
-15
S.-
-20
/
'
quently, don't wet
Now that we have dispensed with the
small details we will get to the important
aspect of the Neat VS- 1000D: How does
it sound when reproducing music t One of
the best.
It is truly hard to describe, but in our
opinion this cartridge reproduces music as
well as we have ever heard from a record.
We did compare it with other excellent
units and it compared well. Its handling of
transients and ability to track at high
velocities also compared well, and probably
are significant factors in its excellent performance. (We used the new CBS STR -111
test record for the square-wave test and
the Fairchild 101 for the high -velocity
tracking test.) We found the Neat able to
track well at 11/4 grams, even with records
that had heavily cut areas, although the
tests were conducted at 3 grams (Neat
rated value.) The output was 4.2 my at 5
cm/see.
In sum, the Neat VS -1000D is a very
fine music reproducer, certainly in the top
rank of cartridges we have listened to. It
is well worth investigation by any audioA -16
fan who is in need of a cartridge.
.'
-------
`
-/\,J^
`
CROSSTALK
-'-R
30
Fig. 4. Neat VS -1000D moving -coil stereo
smooth and fiat frequency response= perhaps a characteristic of moving -coil designs because the cartridges which are
closest to it in this area are also movingcoil designs. Figure 6 shows the frequency
response and the crosstalk performance.
We especially noted that both channels
were some 5 -db different throughout most
of the range, although this makes little
difference in listening.
The one major caution we noted in relation to this cartridge is its strong magnetic
field which makes it generally unsuitable
for use with a magnetic turntable unless
it is very well shielded. We would estimate
that a space of over 14 in. is needed between the cartridge and the table. On the
other hand the VS -1000D is not very sensitive to induced hum.
We noted a tendency to pick up lint and
dust in sufficient quantity to cause clogging. Naturally, as dutiful and cautious
audiofans, we clean recorda and styli fre-
30
.
100
1000
10000
00000
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES tHR SECOND
cartridge.
AUDIO
44
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
St*
WILL
REPLACE
No, Music -Lover -take heart. Live music is here to stay. But when recorded music can be so perfectly played back
that even experts can't tell the difference from a live performance, this is big news for those who love music, live or
otherwise. For three years now, thousands of discriminating listeners have attended concerts of the Fine Arts
Quartet, sponsored jointly by the manufacturers of Dynakit amplifiers and AR speakers. Performances were so
arranged that the audiences were alternately listening to live and recorded portions, without prior announcement
as to which was which. These are typical comments of recognized experts:
C. C. McProud, editor of Audio reported: "We must admit that we couldn't tell when it was
live and when it wasn't." The Herald Tribune referred to "awesome fidelity." Record reviewer
E. T. Canby wrote: "My eyes told me one thing, my ears another." Ralph Freas, audio
editor of High Fidelity, wrote: "Few could separate the live from the recorded portions."
When reproduction and reality cannot be separated, the reproducing equipment has achieved the top -most practical
level of quality. And when that equipment is so moderately priced as Dyna Mark III amplifiers and PAS -2 pre-
amplifiers. the obvious conclusion
is
that you can spend more money but you can't get higher quality. Anybody
can build a Dynakit, including you, Music- Lover. And you can be confident that it will work well with performance
indistinguishable from the original source of sound.
All Dynakits are designed with top performance as the primary objective. In any power range, mono or stereo,
the established excellence of Dynakits is assured. If Dynakit's superior engineering, high quality parts and functional
layout give ' -ou such fine performance that you can't tell the difference, why pay the difference?
A NEW NOTE OF ELEGANCE FOR YOUR DYNAKITS: Handsome accessory satin -tone front panels and die -cast
knobs install easily on all past and present preamps and tuners. Side -by -side or stacked, the effect is that of a
single harmonious unit. Brackets are included for easy panel -mounting in a cabinet. See them at your dealer.
DYNACO,
INC.
CABLE ADDRESS: DYNACO PHILADELPHIA
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
3912 POWELTON AVE., PHILADELPHIA 4, PA.
Write for complete descriptive literature
45
Fig. 7. Neat GA -17 stereo
NEAT GA -17 STEREO TONEARM
The Neat GA -17 is a 12 -in. tonearm intended for use with stereo cartridges and
features plug -in heads and audio cable,
static and dynamic balance adjustments,
isolation of .the arm from the counterweight by means of damping rings, arm
tubing stuffed with foamed plastic to reduce arm resonance, and the ability to
handle any stereo cartridge with either 3or 4 -wire connections and varying in weight
from 10 to 20 grams. In addition, a built in mechanical contrivance lifts the arm off
the record at the end of play. Actually it
would be more accurate to say that it
springs it off the record since the mechanism uses a spring pushing up beneath the
arm just forward of the pivots. To reset the
spring, the arm is carried back to the rest
position by hand and pushed down. It is
then ready to jump up at the end of the
next record.
The first thing one notices about this
tonearm is its very ehromey appearance.
We must admit that we are not of the
chrome-liking school, but it is very well
done so that it looks quite opulent. Also
they haven't scrimped on performance in
order to provide the chrome. In fact, at
second glance one is impressed by amount
of fine workmanship that has gone into
this product-and ingenuity too. Unquestionably, the Neat people have solved some
tonearm.
and the use of sapphires in the vertical
pivots. Damping (rubber) pads are placed
behind the vertical pivots to isolate the arm
from mechanical feedback. Also note the
use of foamed plastic inside the arm tube
to damp the natural resonance of the arm.
The plug -in head is made of molded p astic with threaded -metal inserts for the
cartridge -mounting screws. The contacts at
the rear of the head butt against spring metal fingers to make a very positive e ectrieal connection. The head is locked in
position by a very satisfactory scheme
which is hard to describe.
The GA -17 installs by drilling a 1 in.
hole for the main mount and a 1/2-in hole
for the arm stand. After the arm is balanced, stylus force is applied by means of
a screw on top of the pivot housing. This
ARM TUBING
RUBBER
VERTICAL PIVOT
HORIZONTAL PIVOT`
BEARING RETAINER
Fig. 9. Cross -section of arm pivots
screw presses down on a leaf spring which
in turn presses down on the arm in the
area of the vertical pivots. Connecting the
arm to the system is by means of a cable
which plugs into a socket beneath the arm
and has RCA jacks on the other end. The
cable also has a fifth wire for ground ng
the motor and arm to the amplifier chas Bis.
There is very little else we can say about
this arm except that it does not have a
resonance peak above 10 cps -and that it
is extremely well constructed. Look Por
A-17
yourself.
i
Fig. 8. Cross -section of counterweight.
arm problems in a highly original manner.
For example note the cross- section of the
counterweight shown in Fig. 8; here we see
a solution to the dynamic balancing problem which is perhaps the simplest we have
seen yet. All they did was broach (it could
be drilled) one side of the counterweight
enough so that one side is heavier than the
other. Now one can rotate the heavier side
to balance the arm dynamically without
changing the static balance. It eliminates
the need for an outrigger. It works too.
Figure 9 shows the configuration of the
pivots in a cross- section view. (Please note
that the arm is not constructed exactly as
shown, but essentially.) Here we can see
the excellent mechanical structure as embodied by two rows of ball bearings for
the horizontal pivot (10 balls in each race)
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH
NEEDLE -FORCE GAUGE
In November, in our New Products section, we described a new product from
Acoustic Research intended to serve he
owner of a quality turntable and arm
gauge for measuring needle force (that's
the term AR uses, we commonly use the
term stylus force-they both mean the
same thing). Immediately after the report
appeared we were questioned as to the
accuracy of the gauge; its price and method
of operation make it rather attractive.
The AR needle -force gauge is an equal arm balance, to the best of our recollection
it is the only one of its type used for t sis
application ; most stylus -force gauges use
springs. Of course uniqueness is not in
itself significant; we are more interested
in whether the gauge is accurate. We can
state that this gauge is accurate, well
within the limits required of it.
-a
Fig. 10. AR needle force gauge.
Before pursuing that topic further, we
will describe what the gauge consists of.
The "arm" section of the balance is made
of clear plastic and the over-all length is a
little over 4 -in. Of course the ends of this
section are dropped lower than the rest to
form "pans" for either the weights or the
stylus as shown in Fig. 10. In the center of
each pan area there is an engraved cross,
the center of the cross being the resting
place for the stylus tip. On the underside,
there is an engraved V- shaped line midway
between the centerpoints of the crosses.
The sharp -edged inverted -V stand fits into
this line. The stand is also made of clear
plastic, as are the supplied weights. There
are four weights supplied with the balance:
2 grams, 1 gram, 1/2 gram, and 1/2 gram.
Obviously, the maximum force this gauge
will set is 3% grams, and the minimum 1/2
gram with the weights supplied. The instructions point out that if one should desire to set forces above 3% grams that a
penny is a fairly accurate 3 -gram weight.
We might add that it would be safer to use
a newly-minted penny.
In order to obtain accuracy with an
equal-arm balance there are three basic
conditions which must be met: 1. The arms
must be equal within a very close tolerance;
2. the pivot friction must be very low; and
3. the weights must be accurate.
When we measured the length of each
arm we found one to be longer than the
other by 1/64 in. This adds 0.03 gram when
using the 2 -gram weight -obviously an insignificant amount.
Considering the second condition, we had
no way of measuring the amount of friction but we do know that a smooth, hard
plastic such as this has a very low coefficient. Also the V- shaped sections of the
both the stand and the arms have a very
small radius ; very close to the knife -edge
classification.
The accuracy of the plastic weights was
remarkably good; we found the worst one
to be within 2 per cent of its stated value
(the 2 -gram weight was just a shade less
than 0.04 grams light). Actually, knowing
that one arm was slightly long (0.03 -grams
worth) and all the weights were on the
light side (from 2 per cent down), we were
able to get very accurate readings by using
the weights on the long arm. But even with
the worst situation, the weight on the short
side, the over -all accuracy using the 2 -gram
weight was within 31/2 per cent.
Thus, using the best situation, we were
able to set stylus force at % gram within
1 per cent as checked by our very much
more expensive gauge. We should point out
that the weights were checked on a laboratory balance.
In our estimation, the AR needle -force
gauge is a simple but accurate device which
is more than adequate for the audiofan.
And it is certainly inexpensive. Note, how, ever, that it is not available at your local
dealer
is only available directly from
A -18
AR.
-it
AUDIO
46
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
Aren't these the qualities
you look for in a fine record player?
1.
Full size, dynamically balanced turntable, machined from
a solid, one -piece casting
.
2.
High -tcrque, balanced motor, either 4 -pole induction or
hysteresis- synchronous.
4.
Now consider that the BenjaminMiracord embodies them a plus
Finely balanced transcription arm with low
resonance
and minimum tracking error.
r
L
Model 10 with
4 -pole
modern, automatic push -button
convenience. You can play single
records manually or automatically,
or up to ten in automatic sequence.
And yet, you enjoy the same
q.Jality of performance you associate
with turntables that can oily be
played manually.
SI(IP
L
10
BENJAMIN
IVI I
I3ACOFR
-1
indkction motor, $89.50; Model 10H wits Papst hysteresis motor, $99.50 (cartridge and base, extra).
See your high fidelity dealer for complete details about the Benjamin -Miracord, or write direct:
Sole U.S. Distributor for Electroacustice Record Playing Components
BENJAMIN ELECTRONIC SOUND CORP. 80 Swaim Street, Westbury, New York
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
47
RECORD REVUE
Edward Tatnall Canby *
NATURAL DYNAMICS!
Instruments of the Orchestra. National
Symphony Orch., Mitchell. Teaching
Guide by Charles W. Walton.
RCA Victor LES 6000 (2) stereo
With one swoop RCA here forges out ahead
of every previous recording designed to illustrate the orchestral instruments. This one is
superb.
This is a "live" job, for one thing. The illustrations are played directly for the album, not
excerpted from already-existing recordings.
But that has been done before, notably in the
huge Wheeler Beckett series. This recording
confines itself to music alone -no recorded
commentary. While commentary can be fine,
given the right personality and the right information, the material is more compactly presented without comment, which here is confined to a large, at booklet. Excellent.
But what really makes this job tick is the
recording itself. Each of four sides is devoted
to an instrumental family- strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion -and each side starts
with the high instruments and works downward toward the bass. In each case, the instrument plays alone, usually first an exercise, scale, arpeggio, then some famous
passage from a symphonic work. The solo
rendition is immediately followed by the same
passage In its full orchestral context.
That, too. has been tried before. But what
is astonishing here is the marvelous recorded
balance, as between the solo instrument by
itself and within the orchestra, and as between one instrument and another. Perfect.
Ideal.
As any recording man knows, relative closeness and loudness as between different musical
sounds can make or break a recording-and
will surely break it unless the greatest pains
are taken in the recording dynamics. For example, a triangle recorded at "standard"
recording level and placed next to a kettle
drum taken at a similar level will sound like
some enormous metal pipe yards long. Castanets, tambourines, xylophones, celesta, harp
-all
must be balanced one against the other
in relative level, if an accurate impression of
their musical impact is to be conveyed.
It is this which RCA has so skillfully done
here. The triangle, rightly, is a faint, - 20db
tingle, not a loud jangle Thus when the full
orchestra plays with the triangle, the relative
balance is correct and natural. So with all the
other instruments, each according to its kind.
Naturally, the full dynamic spectrum is somewhat compressed, to fit the recorded medium.
But the relationships between the musical
parts of the orchestra are faithfully, remarkably, kept constant. A stunning job And in
stereo, too.
I recommend the recording immediately to
any and all hi-fl or musical listeners, as well
as to school teachers.
!
!
ARTS OF FUGUES
Bach /Glenn Gould The Art of the Fugue.
Organ at All- Saints', Toronto.
Columbia MS 6338 stereo
Genius can do no wrong, I guess. To begin
with, the "Art of the Fugue," Bach's last big
work, unfinished at his death, wasn't written
for organ, or anything else. Just notes on
paper, exploring the furthest implications of
composing technique applied to an ultra -simple
theme. It has been arranged for all sorts of
780 Greenwich St., New York 14, N. Y.
media ; it can be played successfully on the
organ. But how, and by whom?
Glenn Gould, it says here, was an orga ist
first, before his pianistic fame began. He appeared in Toronto at 14. Well, maybe so. All
I can say is that the benevolent eccentri ity
of genius was never more wonderfully exp sed
than in this Gould organ recording! I c,uld
scarcely believe my ears. I'm willing to bet
that many a professional organist will rn
green and pink and blue with shock.
What's wrong with it? Well, oddly eno gh,
it isn't easy to say. It is always music :1
Gould is without question a musician in the
innate sense, wherever he goes and what 'er
he does. But it is also wholly untradition:lbuilt straight out of Glenn's inner ear w th,
apparently, not the slightest reference to ybody else's organ playing on earth. So I , ar
it.
The Bach comes through in impecc ble
note -perfectness but with such jagged, s accato, thumpingly erratic phrasing as I n er
expect to hear again. So help me, it sou ds
like a pianist who had never heard of an
organ and didn't know it lacked a sustai ng
pedal to keep things vibrating, nor the aid ity
to make a loud note when one pushes hard on
the key The Gould performance sounds ike
the opening of a long series of compressed air
valves. That is precisely what it is, of cou se.
But the beauty of the organ -ordinarily
that it doesn't sound that way.
Nevertheless, after I'd caught my breat I
enjoyed this recording. It is always posa le
to find interest in the work of a strong m d
w
and a positive personality, no matter
eccentric. It's always possible to find mus al
value somewhere in a performance by an innately musical person.
,
-
!
Bach, transcr. Samuel Baron: Art of the
Fugue; Contrapuncti l -XI. Fine Arts Quprtet; N. Y. Woodwind Quintet.
Concert -Disc CS 230 stereo
As I was saying
the "Art of the Fug e"
was not composed "for" any particular ,.edium, and thus is necessarily heard in tr ascription. Transcriptions of myriad sorts ex t,
and here is a new and interesting one, or
...
four strings and five winds, made, obviou y,
to fit these two groups working in cons t.
What better impetus?
This is a splendid way to hear the mu íc.
(We can assume that the rest of the work ill
appear on a later record.) Being in a se se
timeless and peculiarly abstract, Bach's gr at
work is more than usually adaptable to me to
that are not of his own day -clarinet, Fre ch
horn, in this version, for example -wh re
in more specifically oriented Bach they wo ld
be highly out of place. (Bach used hor s,
but not in the manner employed her .)
eTo be sure, certain more fundamental
ments of Bach style that stem straight fr m
his compositional technique must be obsery d,
or should be- consistent instrumentat n
within each piece, without sudden changes of
color, for instance. Many an arrangement as
violently flouted this principle; not here.
These players' are not particularly Baroq eminded, but they are all solidly musical a d
masters of their craft, generally applied to
later music. There is mildly anachronis is
styling here, some of the fugues played m . re
:1
,
like Mozart or Beethoven than Bach, with expressive shaping and a few rather old fashioned ritards. The only mannerism I really
found occasionally annoying is an old Stokowski trick of years back -the sudden loud crescendo at cadence figures (musical paragraphs, so to speak). That's both old-fashioned
and too modern, if you can call Stokowski
technically "modern" in respect to Bach himself.
Generally speaking, the vital stuff of the
music is both transparently clear and full of
life in these playings-the increasing complexity and tension, as the work slowly
evolves, is made evident in terms of excitement, where many a misguided "pure" performance merely plods along interminably in
the name of non -interference. I'll be looking
forward to the second half.
A Bach Recital (Capriccio on the Departure of His Beloved Brother; Toccata,
Adagio and Fugue in D mi., Four Duets;
Adagio in G.) Rosalyn Tureck, piano.
Decca DL 710061 stereo
Bach should be played on the harpsichord
or the organ -so say the purists. The super purists, like myself, say it differently. Given
a real musician, a pianist who understands
Bach's music in its own terms, who can "trans -
late" the essential meaning into the newer
medium -then the piano is just fine.
It is just fine here, as it was under the
fingers of Myra Hess and Harold Samuel of
an earlier generation. You will not find more
musical playing of Bach anywhere, on harpsichord or piano. And in many endearing respects Miss Tureck has done what few pianists
bother to do, studied the music in its original
context outside of the piano literature. Ornaments, for instance. She plays them invariably
correctly. I am sure every harpsichordist of
vision will respect each note she plays. And
would -be Bach players on the home piano had
better try her too.
CHRONICLES AND DOCUMENTS
Chronicle of Music. The Age of Romanticism (Series F: No. 1). Brahms: Serenade
No.
in D, Op. 11. Symphony of the Air,
Stokowsky.
Decca DCM 3205 mono
Chronicle of Music. The Age of Transition from Baroque to Classic (Series D:
No. 1.). Concerts Royaux Nos. 3, 4. N. Y.
Chamber Soloists.
Decca DCM 3203 mono
Decca lost the Deutsche Grammophon
"Archive" series along with the rest of that
label last year. (Now issued through MGM.)
The newly launched "Chronicle" is patently
a replacement, even -as above -to the title
format, dividing music history into Ages.
Periods" the "Archive" people
( "Research
call them.) Each Age -group now has one record, as per the first Chronicle release.
The Chronicle, of course, is simply a
collecting-together of past releases in the
Decca catalogue, plus new recordings as and
when available. Many of the first batch have
been seen before. How much of a recording
1
AUDIO
48
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AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
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JANUARY, 1963
49
project will be involved in the future depends,
obviously, upon the success of the opening
offering.
Again following the "Archive" system in
principle, Decca includes file cards and notes
on each record, plus fine -type detailed (unsigned) discussion of the whole period printed
on the back of the jacket. An assorted collection of school and college music educators
make up the consulting board the editor is
Decca's Ben Deutschman and the records come
from something called the Educational Research Division.
It would be silly to underestimate the value
of Decca's catalogue, as combed for this historical survey. There is good material in it.
as witnessed by these two samples, both worth
owning anytime, though neither is exactly a
top performance. But I would not expect the
Decca project to have the authority and firsthand musicological know -bow that goes into
the major efforts in the immense "Archive"
series. This one is primarily educational in
the narrow sense (i.e., tied in with music educators' needs) rather than musicological in
the wide sense. It could develop into a worthy
American counterpart of "Archive" ; but then
again it could fritter away into a mere sales
gimmick. Bears watching.
First Performance Lincoln Center. Complete Documentary, Sept. 23, 1962.
Columbia L2S 1008 stereo
Sometimes I wonder why people bother to
acquire albums like this for sheer listening.
The musical content-yes. But the speeches
and the applause are good for one hearing,
maybe. That's enough. Perhaps 100 years from
now
but why think that far ahead.
Nevertheless, the "documentary" has a
good deal to offer. A fat booklet, interesting.
A fine, windy performance of the opening portion of Mahler's huge double-chorus Eighth
Symphony (Mahler made it windy). An excellent playing of a brand new Copland instrumental piece, for this occasion, called "Connotations" and composed in a serial fashion
( "twelve-tone ").
There's the Gloria from
Beethoven's "Mica Solemnis," not very well
projected-the chorus entrances are consistently weak -and a dreamy, impressionistic
late -Vaughan- Williams work, "Serenade to
Music," mainly significant for the 12 famous
soloists who sing it simultaneously.
...
The booklet is full of comment, some of it
of the expected dedicatory sort, a good deal
of it more interesting than that. Also fine
pictures.
Better check to see whether Columbia will
issue the musical works separately before you
plunge into this album on purely musical
grounds.
BEETHOVEN
Beethoven: Complete Violin Sonatas.
Aaron Rosand, vl., Eileen Flissler, pf.
Vols I, II.
Vox Boxes SVBX 17, 18 (2 each) stereo
Here Vox has picked out a first -rate team,
if a youthful and somewhat brash pair of collaborators. Interestingly, it is the piano which
leads in buoyancy and enthusiasm -Miss
Flissler, hailed by Vox as the coming American woman pianist, is precisely that. Her
enthusiasm is instantly communicated, her
energy is boundless and, best of all, her musicianship is flawless. Aaron Rosand, however,
takes only a slightly less forward role, exactly
as the music demands, and the workmanship
of his playing is clearly attuned to that of the
pianist. These sonatas have been well studied.
Only a slight tendency to slurred playing in
the faster passages mars his superb violin
approach.
These two young people bring out first of
all the extraordinary musical energy of Beethoven's work, notably in the earlier sonatas,
often played in a more "Mozarty" mapper
than here. Good -the energy is there. Youi will
unavoidably sense a certain youthful impatience, an un-mellowness ; but that must
await the years
can come in no other way.
-it
Piano Sonatas "Tempest ",
every artist has his own individuality. Foldes
is neither monumental nor grandiose ; his
Beethoven does not strike you in the noble
manner of some of the greats -from Schnabel
to Backaus. It is more straightforward-but
no less impressive for its power, its superb
sharpness of detail and extraordinarily careful calculation of effect. Not a thing escapes
the Foldes observation ; every trick Beethoven
used, every possible shade of harmony of expression, is grasped and neatly set forth, but
without ostentation or extra dramatics. There
was a time when Foldes seemed to be a
"pounder," a hard, driving keyboard man.
Now his understanding of this music has
mellowed that hardness to perfection. Perhaps
he does not rise to romantic heights of ecstasy. But then, he is not that sort of pianist.
If you prefer a standard survey -type recital
disc, try the other one listed here. It has BachBeethoven, Brahms -three Bs-plus Falla,
Debussy, Liszt, and Poulenc. The Beethoven
disc is more heartfelt.
Beethoven: Piano Sonatas Op. 101, Op.
78, Op. 109, Op. 49 No 1. Andor Foldes.
Deutsche Grammophon 138 643 stereo
Quick add this one as well. Last summer
in Switzerland I heard Andor Foldes play this
Opus 101 on an elderly rented upright with
was even better
one key that didn't work
then than here. or so it seemed to me as I
watched a helicopter hover over the top of a
nearby alp, then drop behind it just as the
first movement ended. An excellent rule for
good pianists : they always sound marvelous
on beat -up pianos This one sounds good on
a good piano, too.
-it
!
"Pastoral," "Les Adieux" (Op. 31, No. 2;
Op. 28; Op. 81a). Andor Foldes.
Beethoven: The Late Quartets. Op. 127,
130, 131, 133, 135. Budapest Quartet.
Columbia M5S 677 (5) stereo
Deutsche Grammophon 136 002 stereo
Piano Recital Andor Foldes
Deutsche Grammophon 138 784 stereo
The Foldes Beethoven series is surely as
fine as any on records to date, granting that
Again the Budapest records Beethoven
over the years this group has covered the
same high ground numerous times, as technological improvements have dictated. Here
they record in stereo.
The inevitable question from the afcionadoe is -how do these compare musically
Beethoven:
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50
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
with earlier Budapest? The answer is simple.
There is no real change ; no sacrifice, no compromise in drive, no diminution of force, no
relaxing of the disciplined concepts so beautifully worked out over the many years. But,
on the other hand, there are physical weaknesses, notably in the first violin, who has the
toughest job. Perhaps just because there is no
compromise, notably in the rapid tempi, the
first violin sometimes has to do a bit of
"faking" to come out right. It really is not
Important -what counts, still, is the superbly
sure over -all concept of Beethoven's works.
There have never been more profoundly revealing performances in respect to intensity
and drama than these.
The tone is subdued and not harsh, the
blend of the instruments like one instrument.
Beethoven: The Complete String Quartets.
Vol II Op. 59, 133; Vol. III Op. 74, 127,
130, 135. Loewenguth String Quartet.
Vox Boxes SVBX 543, 544 (3 each) stereo
Volume I of this series is played by the
hlndres Quartet; the French Loewenguth plays
these six. Compared to the famed Budapest,
this group, also an old and long- established
quartet, plays a relatively slow and mild Beethoven, rich in individual expression, accurate
in tempo, rather flowery and stringy in tone
color, the blending of the four instruments
relatively minimal. This is definitely not the
high -intensity, ultracompact Beethoven that
is the hallmark of the Budapest. It is less
imaginative, but no less musical, within its
own scope.
I could not help thinking -perhaps this is
the way these works sounded on first performance, in Beethoven's tine? The Budapest
brings us the accumulated insight of more
than a century of performance plus the taut,
razor -edge modernity that is merely one of the
things that Beethoven implies for future generations in his work. The Loewenguths bring
out other aspects -more conventional, perhaps, but still a part of music.
tively hand -picked and so is their musical
sensitivity. Not a dull moment. Especially
since this interpretation is ultra- modern-i.e.,
it is fast, peppy, almost jazzy in spots, tossing out completely the older tradition that
made most such nutste into a misty, impressionistic, austere visit to an unreal world.
No longer
I question only the rather complete absence
of word-phrasing here, the shaping of musical
ideas according to the emphasis of syllables,
words, sentences, and the resulting free flow
of rhythms, not syncopated, that is supposed
to be a prime feature of older vocal music.
Of course nobody can prove it one way or the
other; the new school of thought treats the
words instrumentally, ac- CENT -ing the sylLAB-les wherever they may fall ( "Glo -RI -a
Pa -TRI
. "), resulting in a bouncy sort of
fast beat and a strong syncopation. That's
what happens here, and it is what happens
when the New York Pro Musica sings fast
music of the same period. Myself, I don't like
it that way. The other way brings more rhythmic subtlety as well as a better sense of the
text itself. But its an arguable point.
The Harvard Glee Club, finally, has mastered under its new conductor the art of
choral showmanship. The sudden bonds and
softs, the crescendi, the dramatic continuity,
make for hair- raising musical impact, where
many a performance of this ancient composer
is just plain dull, or worse. Thanks be, at
least, that Mr. Forbes brings old Josquin to
life in full color. That's a lot accomplished.
The second side contains assorted short
pieces as fillers of varying interest. The Manila items are poorly edited- instant cut,
minus liveness, at the end of each piece.
Makes you notice the otherwise unobtrusive
background ambient noise.
Strauss
Reiner.
Des Prez: Missa Parris et Filia. Motets
from the 16th and 17th centuries. Harvard Glee Club, Elliot Forbes.
Carillon LP 124 mono
This is no ordinary Harvard Glee Club- such as the groups in which I sang, many
years ago. This is the 1961 world tour group,
trained up to a pitch of accuracy and ensemble far beyond that which is practicable
for the regular stay -at -home singers, who
must keep up their classwork and their lives
as well. Part of the recording was made in
Manila; the rest back home after the tour
was over.
The Des Prez Mass is sung, accordingly,
with both fervor and remarkable unanimity of
ensemble as well as pitch. The boys know the
music intimately well; their voices are rela-
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Waltzes.
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Ravel: Trio in A Minor
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Ravel: Introduction and Allegro. Debussy:
Sonata for Flute, Viola and Harp. Roussel: Serenade.
Ropartz: Prelude, Marine and Chansons.
The Melos Ensemble, Ossian Ellis, harp.
L'Oiseau-Lyre SOL 60048 stereo
A lot of title, but don't let is stop you
this is one of the finest discs of its mellifluous
kind I've yet to heur. Music for harp and flute,
plus assorted strings and a clarinet, all
French and all full of flavor -even the relatively unknown Ropartz, a post- César- Franck
man writing in the Twenties.
Atmosphere is the word. And this sort of
music is not easy to play right. I do not know
whether the unidentified Melos Ensemble is
French or English the label operates in both
countries) but I can assure you its style is
impeccably lovely and the lushly realistic
London recording goes with it to perfection.
Just buy it and listen.
-
and repair.
Symphony,
RCA Victor LSC 2500
TIME!
Special 25%
saving for
!
HI -WAYS AND BYWAYS
Music for the Harpsichord and Virginal.
Stewart Robb.
Folkways FM 3320 mono
For a long while this Mr. Robb kept calling
me to find whether I'd received his record,
then whether I'd played it. Since I tend to be
swamped with everybody's records, I was
mildly annoyed. Well-I'm happy to say that
the disc is really very excellent. He was right.
Never heard of "it" in the singular before,
like a trouser-one normally speaks of the
"virginals," plural, always wondering how
"they" came to be that way. "They" are a
single small- edition harpsichord, table-model
(with or without legs), with a single set of
plucked strings and a short keyboard. There
was much lovely music in Elizabethan times
for the instrument, and Mr. Robb manages
make it sound a lot less monotonous than to
it
can sometimes sound, what with the one,
single tone color and loudness available for
the playing.
On a medium -size harpsichord, Mr. Robb
plays a fine long set of later Buxtehude variations on a simple theme. The Italian works
by Frescobaldl and several items by Purcell
are technically post -virginal but sound out
very musically on the little instrument even so.
Note that this Is a kind of absolute recording, i.e. with almost no liveness. Play it at the
absolute loudness of the instruments themselves.
FOR A' LIMITED
Radio Magazines, Inc., Dept. T62
P.O. Box 629
Mineola, New York
am enclosing $
, please send
me
copies Of TROUBLESHOOTING
HIGH FIDELITY AMPLIFIERS*, by Mannie
Horowitz.
I
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
ZONE
STATE
'Shipped postpaid in the U.S. and Canada. Please
add 25C for foreign orders.
FOR A
LIMITED TIME!
53
ter. Turning up a facet of his craft not disclosed before, Hines displays a different brand
of sound than the hybrid varieties heard so
often today. With the Chicago era wrapped up
so neatly, Riverside should let Hines loose on
a program of spirituals and folk themes.
JAll and all that
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON
STEREO
Ravi Shankar: Improvisations
World- Pacific Stereo 1416
With all the talk about freer rhythms and
unusual time signatures in jazz, the question
often arises as to how far jazz groups can go
and still not lose their audiences. If this meeting between East and West is any indication,
the answer must be- pretty far. On the first
side Ravi Shankar leads three Indian musicians in joint improvisations with a jazz
quartet headed by Bud Shank, who plays flute
Indian style. The two pieces picked for this
venture are both Shankar originals, including
the theme music from the film Pather PanMali, and Fire Night, which was suggested
by the enormous brush fires around Los Angeles last fall. On the last title, drummer
Louis Hayes, Dennis Budimir, guitar, and
bassist Gary Peacock are also heard. While
Shankar places limits on the scope and duration of the improvisation, the results are still
more varied than most jazz audiences are
accustomed to hearing.
If the reverse side continued in the same
vein, the Western artists would have good
cause to pat each other on the back. Instead,
the musicians from the East engage in an authentic evening raga, an infinitely more subtle
and complex form. Kenai Dutta, tabla, and
Nodu Mullick and Harihar Rao, tampura, accompanied Shankar on a recent United States
tour and are expert instrumentalists in their
own country. Many listeners will undoubtedly
find the preliminary side helpful in reaching
a closer understanding of the second. The percussive sounds throughout top most stereo
spectaculars, and producer Dick Bock surpasses his own high sonic standards.
Joe Morello: It's About Time
RCA Victor Stereo LSP2486
Too much time went by before the arrival
of an album which gives Joe Morello top billing, but the drummer's admirers have increased in number all the while and now comprise a vast waiting audience. His name
promises to figure prominently in RCA Victor's new jazz program, according to George
Avakian's plans, and intervals between appearances are likely to be brief in the future.
This introductory set permits his great technique to be spotlighted against three back-
drops, including the only example on record
of his ability to drive a large band. A brass
ensemble augments the basic sextet on four
numbers, and Manny Albam's arrangements
deliver all the impact of a big band. Aided by
stereo, Phil Woods weaves alto -sax lines in
and out of the charging brass to give the effect
of a full sax section in motion. Woods also
contributes the sextet charts, sharing solos
with vibist Gary Burton.
Although every title contains the word
time, Morello never uses complex rhythms or
unusual time signatures just to experiment.
But the lone trio number is adventurous
enough to satisfy almost anyone. Superb as
Morello is in other contexts, he surpasses himself as a trio improvisor and accompanist.
Pianist John Bunch and bassist Gene Cherico
each holds up his end of the triangle. The
liner bears an appreciative note from Marian
McPentland, in whose trio Morello developed
*
732 The Parkway, Mamaroneck, N. Y.
sensitivity to a pianist's need, and it erves
as a reminder that the one prize exam le of
the two together at the Hickory House i still
available on Capitol.
Helen Humes: Swingin' With Humes
Contemporary Stereo S 598
Since returning to recording studios three
years ago, Helen Humes has limited her if to
annual visits, each time in the compa y of
different groups. This third appearanc was
recorded last summer, and the supp rting
hornmen are two of the hard -swinging mod ernists being developed as leaders at Contemporary. If how well a singer perfor s in
various contexts is any test of ability, then
Miss Humes is chalking up a high score. bou t
the only one of the company's regular still
left to try her luck with is Kid Ory, an she
may yet get around to showing her mark man ship as a traditionalist in the Good Tim Jazz
division. Her aim this time is to give ne and
unusual phrasing to such old favorites as Soli tude, When Day Is Done, Home, and The Very
Thought Of You. Surely, rare insight is indicated when she hits upon something fres and
springlike to say about Pennies From He ven.
Joe Gordon, trumpet, and Teddy Ed rds,
tenor sax, are equally inventive when it ornes
to refurbishing standards and avoidin the
commonplace. Wynton Kelly, who sits n as
guest pianist, comes bearing a gift o the
novel treatment of Some Day My Prince Will
Come, currently a feature of his regula job
with Miles Davis. The whole rhythm s tion
is of stellar quality, and stereo separ tion
becomes a great boon to proper appreel tion
of guitarist Al Viola, Leroy Vinnegar, ass,
and drummer Frank Butler.
Earl Hines: A Monday Date
Riverside Stereo RLP 398
The Earl Hines album in the "L ving
Legends" series is representative of the sextet
the pianist leads at home base in San ran eky
cisco and takes out on the road. By
chance, the band was booked into a Ch cago
got
around
Riverside
club at the same time
to recording the musicians who made arly
jazz history in the city. Hines pluck his
pianistic pearls from a mixed bag and still
casts them about with a lavish hand. '.ome
tunes are more productive than others, and
they range from Yes Sir, That's My Ba y, a
gaudy bangle retrieved from a flapper's and robe, to a rare and lustrous Lonesome oad,
As every jazz follower should know, the a bum
title refers to one of the six numbers ' fines
played at his first solo recording date Its
brilliance sent every other pianist back t the
woodshed, and the resulting impact cont . ties
to be felt in many quarters today. How any
times Hines has polished it during a p riod
of more than thirty years would be impo .ible
to say, but the changes wrought are co'sidenable. Only slight hints of the ori final
"trumpet- style" remain, and Monday no ' begins the week in a relaxed and mellow ood.
Veteran clarinetist Darnell Howard ma ches
up a string of perfect phrases on Cla inet
.
'
Marmalade, and Jimmy Archey's tro.one
urges the prompt return of Bill Bailey. a ddíe
Smith's trumpet passages recall the first n eetings between Hines and Louis Armst ong,
especially on West End Blues. But the rize
of the collection is a superb Just A C 'ser
Walk With Thee, mounted reverently n a
bowed -bass background supplied by Pops os-
Edmundo Ros: Dance Again
London Stereo SP44015
Bongos jumping from channel to channel
are nothing new in stereo, but never did they
leap so gracefully as in this colorful Latin
dance set. With all the resources of London's
phase 4 plus LM 20 CR to command. Edmundo
Ros still manages to hold onto restraint and
good taste instead of falling into the tempting trap of meaningless sensation. In fact,
bongos play a very small part in the overall
musical scheme thought up by the arrangers,
who evidently decided to let the rhythm take
care of itself and concentrated on placing
the brilliant hues of the orchestra in motion.
Because Ros employs a larger and more varied
instrumentation than the usual Latin group,
the choice of contrasting shades is virtually
unlimited. Included are outstanding examples
of the merengue, mambo, conga, rumba, tango
and samba, but the pleasantest surprise is
the chance to dance the cha cha to Cocktails
For Two, and When The Moon Comes Over
The Mountain. Ros puts his best foot forward in a friendly salute to Perez Prado on
Cherry Pink And Apple Blossom White, and
Tea For Two. Or it might be that he really
intends to trip up one of his closest rivals.
The Staple
Singers: Hammer and Nails
Riverside Stereo RLP93501
Many students of gospel music regard
The Staple Singers as one of the outstanding
groups in the country, both for creative drive
and great respect for tradition. While acquiring each of the quartet's recorded appearances on release, they have waited impatiently
for one that would do justice to the soloists
and stunning ensemble sound. Hopes were unundoubtedly raised at the prospects of a sen-
sitive and discerning recording with the
group's transfer to Riverside, but something
went wrong in the studio. Ensemble passages
are treated to enough reverberation to take
care of a chorus of twenty, while the dead
atmosphere of a vocalist's booth surrounds the
soloists. The electronic guitar of Roebuck
Staples, father of the family group, seems to
be channeled directly to the console. At least,
it bears little relationship to what the other
members of the family are attempting to
accomplish. And adding insult to injury are a
wholly unnecessary bass player and drummer. The music itself is exceptional, especially
the title song, but admirers of The Staple
Singers must still wait to hear them properly.
MONO
Ray Noble: 24 Distinguished Dance Ar-
rangements
Rudy Vallee:
AUDIO
54
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Capitol TB010312
The Young Rudy Vallee
RCA Victor LPM2507
Dance bands in the early Thirties were
either sweet or hot, and the word jazz was applied indiscriminately to one and all. Youthful
saxophonists were torn between trying to
emulate Rudy Weidhoft or Coleman Hawkins,
who sat enthroned at opposite stylistic extremes. Quite a few leaders and arrangers
plotted to bring the best elements of both together in the same band, and among the first
to achieve a successful mating was an astute
Englishman named Ray Noble. Records bearing his signature or the imprint of the New
Mayfair Orchestra created a slight sensation
when imported to this country on the HMV
label. The demand grew until Victor started
turning out domestic pressings, then Noble
himself arrived to organize another band and
become entrapped in a radio variety show.
The élan of the London recordings was never
quite recaptured, even though Noble brought
along vocalist Al Bowlly, continued to compose hit songs and went on to lend class to
Hollywood.
One of the reasons why the original band
made such an impression was the sumptuous
JANUARY, 1963
when the British say
"the best pick -up arm
in the world"
it warrants serious consideration
The English are noted for their conservatism
and they especially are not given to extreme claims in
advertising. Their statement that the SME is
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by dedicated craftsmen working with extraordinarily close
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and utterly accurate adjustments for every critical factor in trackiing.
It is not inexpensive -perfection never is. It is, however, worth every
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frictionless knife -edge
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U. Rider weight adjusts tracking force
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z gm. increments, as accurate as a fine
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E. Sliding base offers alignment adjustment through 1 inch. Height is adjustable through % inch. Fulfills optimum
requirements of length, offset, overhang when adjusted with alignment
A. Virtually
1
protractor included.
F. ",1nti- skating" bias adjuster counteracts tendency of the arm to move
toward record center and "favor
inner groove.
G. Hydraulic lever- operated set -down
for "slow- motion" feather-light lowering onto any part of the recording.
H. Nylon -jaw arm rest with stainless
steel locking link.
I. International standard 4 -pin socket.
Cartridge shells fitted with detachable
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J. Output socket and plug provides a
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/
PRICES:
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MODEL 3009 for 12" recordings
MODEL 3012 for 16" recordings
ADDITIONAL SHELL Model A3OH
S89.50 net
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the
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"
The Shure M33 -5, of course. With the
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LITERATURE:
SHURE BROTHERS, INC.,
AUDIO
JANUARY. 1963
222
HAR'1'REY AVE., EVANSTON, ILLINOIS
55
This advertisement is reprinted from JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF MOTION
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cricket.
As only the earliest portion of Noble's song writing career is covered, RCA Victor might
well follow with a sequel, but enough memories should be stirred for now by The Very
Thought Of You, Love Locked Out, By The
Fireside, and I'll Do My Best To Make You
Happy. Bill Borden produced the double -LP
set, and a slight surface noise indicates nothing was taken off the top of the original pressings. According to Borden's ample notes,
Noble is living contentedly in retirement on
the British Channel Island of Jersey.
Rudy Vallee's present occupation is known
to every theatergoer, and the rush of business
prompted the reissue of his early triumphs.
While success never bothered the youthful
singer much, it proved to be the ruination of
his Connecticut Yankees. The lively little crew
at the Heigh-Ho Club was full of personality
and gives a good account of itself on 1929
versions of the old radio theme, and Deep
Night. No vocalist could ask for a more sparkling accompaniment than Cliff Burwell's
piano. Vallee, who studied under Wiedhoft,
became more interested in show business than
playing saxophone after a few years of good
fortune. The band grew in size and acquired
polish by the time the last of these dozen
sides were recorded in 1942, but it sounds like
a pretty faceless group of remakes of My
Time Is Your Time, and I'm Just A Vagabond
Lover. The young and sprightly original versions of both tunes are preferable, and the
album would be better if it had kept to the
letter of the title.
Calypso Dancing Belly To Belly
Cook 930
About the only reason for this album
title is to convey the idea that a man and
woman dancing European style with their
arms about each other seems positively indecent in some areas of the West Indian
bush country. Only in Port-of -Spain and other
sophisticated centers are such liberties permitted, and the blend with wild rural improvisations has created what is known as
calypso dancing. From tapes recorded in
Trinidad and British Guiana. Emory Cook presents a representative sampling of five calypso
groups, ranging from the small Vin Cardinal
Combo to massive bands headed by
Tom
Charles and Fitz Vaughn Bryan. The most
popular and versatile is the new Clarence
Curvan orchestra, which unfortunately bases
too much of its appeal on fashions imported
from the States. However, one aspect of
calypso dancing now gaining popularity
among party goers in northern climes is
something called the limbo. An exercise for
the spinal column and other parts of the
anatomy, the limbo consists of facing a suspended horizontal bar, preferably bamboo,
and passing under it in rhythm at successively
lower levels. A variety of tempos are available here, and beginners should need no
warning to start with the slowest.
ALTEC
LANSING CORPORATION
Donald Lambert: Giant Stride
Solo Art BJ18001
ALTEC MINIATURE CONDENSER MICROPHONE SYSTEMS:
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sound. A newly appointed musical director for
E.M.I. at the time, Noble learned to take full
advantage of the big Abbey Road studio and
supervise sessions from the control room. Besides writing full-bodied ensembles, he made
certain of bright, clean solos and the widest
range of dynamics possible. As recording was
the group's primary purpose, the personnel
consisted of top studio men and included such
versatile performers at Nat Gonella, Stanley
Black, Monia Lister, Lew Davis, Eric Siday
and Freddy Gardner. While their solos seem
commonplace now, the way in which Noble
contrasted one against the other was something out of the ordinary. And even today the
dulcet tone of oboist Leon Gossens and the
fiery phrases of American clarinetist Danny
Polo would be an eventful combination. Al
Bowlly sings on all twenty -four titles but Mad
About The Boy, probably skipping the Noel
Coward tune because changing the lyrics to
feminine gender was still not considered
FROM
One of the few remaining graduates of the
Harlem school of stride piano and a living
AUDIO
56
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
legend of jazz, Donald Lambert passed away
on May 8th, a few short months after recording his first LP. The last twenty of his 58
years were spent playing at Frank Wallace's
High Tavern in Orange, New Jersey, a neighborhood bar of the homey type preferred by
the pianist over cocktail lounges and glossy
night clubs. Word of his prowess and where it
might be witnessed was circulated by Rudi
flesh, who has just revived the Solo Art label
to present Lambert and other overlooked
plano soloists. Fanciers of happy, tuneful,
two -fisted piano work made pilgrimages to the
Tavern, but Lambert's only departure from
home base was to appear with Ruble Blake
and Willie "The Lion" Smith in 1960 at the
Newport Festival. The fine reception accorded
the veterans resulted in 20th Century -Fox
signing Lambert to a one year contract. He
failed to see the inside of a studio until the
period was up though, at which time Blesh
negotiated a series of sessions held early this
year.
Enough material to fill three LPs was recorded, but the first installment indicates only
a slight dent has been made in the pianist's
immense repertoire. Lambert knew the new
tunes as well as the old, hits from Broadway
shows, and forgotten melodies from early
talkies. Everything was grist for his mill, and
the tritest songs came out transformed into
something never dreamed possible by the writers of Swingin' Down The Lane, Spain, and
My Sweetie Went Away. Lambert's growth
went beyond the stride style of playing, and
in any of fourteen numbers he may resemble
a figure out of the '20s at one moment and
sound like Erroll Garner or Oscar Peterson
the next. In many respects, he could be called
Wedti 6,d-Pey~a6rZTAfec..
Garner's spiritual progenitor, and not simply
for his playing of Misty. Both men's work
spans a broad expanse of jazz piano, combining barrelhouse, joyous swing and balladic
tenderness.
The original Solo Art label came into being
the same year as Blue Note, at a time when
Commodore was the only other jazz independent. As this writer was in the studio while
Dan Qualey supervised the first sessions, his
feelings at the label's return can only be
pleasurably affected. Blesh intends to release
unissued material prepared for his Circle
label, and future plans also include LPs from
Ralph Sutton and Eubie Blake. Anyone who
has trouble locating copies can always reach
the proprietor at 38 East 4th Street, New
York City. Acting on Peter Bartok's advice,
Blesh arranged to take Lampert to the studios
of David Trimble, an engineer known for his
ability to record classical pianists. Only a
monophonic version is available, but no artist
could ask for a more sensitive handling of a
last testament.
Mose Allison: Ramblin' With Mose
Prestige 7215
Ever since the delightful "Back Country
Suite" marked Mose Allison's recording debut
as writer of piano sketches, his followers have
faithfully awaited the arrival of an LP entirely devoted to similar works. So far, each
succeeding album contains a helping of standards along with three or four of the pianist's
compositions, and the latest is no exception.
Even the most patient must be ready by now
to take matters in hand to obtain a program
of unencumbered Allison. The only solution
seems to be the tape recorder, and some of the
impatient have undoubtedly extracted all the
original titles from the eight LPs issued to
date. Deciding how to fit the individual pieces
together In orderly fashion should be a pleasant diversion. It might be helpful if Prestige
provided the composer's own chronological
listing on some future liner note, or went so
far as to prepare a special bulletin. Of course,
it would spoil all the fun of making up a tape
by hit or miss for some, but others will stick
by their own choice in any event.
The proportion of originals to standards is
about average on the present set. Five numhers stem from country blues and Allison's
Mississippi boyhood. Also well worth including in any taped program is the vocal on Joe
Liggins' I Got A Right To Cry. But dedicated
fans will already have a special tape of Allison's singing in preparation. Bassist Addison
Farmer and drummer Ronnie Free complete
S
the trio.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
ROBERTS `1057'
EREO TVE RECORDER . . gets together with Lawrence Welk, in
rehearsal with his fabulously popular dance band. He says, "My Roberts `1057'
tape recorder is the closest to recording studio equipment that I have seen." No
wonder, with these outstanding '1057' features: Combines matchless performance,
ease of operation at a low, low price. Features 4- trackstereo and monoral record /play.
Sound -on -sound multiple recording in stereo, sound -with -sound (teacher /student
feature), sound- over -sound mixing Dual speakers Stereo amplifiers 4 stereo
headset outputs Automatic shut -off 33 and 71/2 ips
$339.95
S
ROBERTS
ELECTRONICS, INC.
Roberts Electronics, Dept. A -1 -T
5978 Bowcroft, Los Angeles 16, Calif.
Please send me complete literature on Roberts Tape
Recorders.
enclose 25f for postage and handling.
LOS ANGELES 16, CALIF.
Name
I
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7725 ADE2A ST., VANCOWER 14. B.C.
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57
THIS
MONTH'S
COVER
Felll'illUOdr
This month's installation is in the home
of Dr. Ralph Yochim, 725 Leamington, Wilmette, Illinois.
In this installation, in order to place the
speakers opposite the listening area, it was
necessary to locate them on either side of
the area between dining and living rooms.
However, a Steinway piano, which had to
be placed on a particular wall (it being the
only inside wall in the living room), posed
a difficult problem of decor to overcome.
¡or the
rrrelreur
oT
(rent
()toie
Fig.
All Bozak Loudspeakers work together. The robust basso B -199A
incisive baritone B -209A or B -800 ... join the sweet B -200Y soprano
in perfect harmony to re- create The Very Best in Music.
For
your Bozak Speaker System a Bozak -built enclosure stages the sound
to perfection. Or, if space is limited, you can build your Bozaks
into a wall, cupboard, or treasured cabinet.
Whatever its size
and mounting, teamwork in your Bozak Speaker System assures
you The Grandeur of Great Music in your home.
Write for our
illustrated catalog, and hear the Bozaks at your Bozak Dealer.
.
.
.
/
DARIEN/CONNECTICi'T
Room arrangement in Dr. Yochim's
home. Note speaker placement.
1.
It was decided to construct a cabinet for
the Acoustic Research AR-3, which would
take the appearance of a music cabinet.
This enclosure was constructed of "Avoirdure" mahogany to match the piano. The
other speaker was housed in the equipment
cabinet where the AR -3 was floated on foam
rubber isolation pads to eliminate feedback
to the turntable. An oven lift top was provided for the McIntosh tuner and preamp
and for the Thorens turntable. The cabinet
was constructed of matching grained walnut and the side- opening speaker used invisible catches. A modern -weave cane served
as the speaker grill on both cabinets.
Components included a McIntosh MR-55A
FM -AM tuner, a McIntosh C -20 preamp,
two McIntosh MC -60 60 -watt amps, a
Thorens TD -124 turntable, a Rek-O-Kut
S -120 arm with a Shure M3D cartridge,
and two Acoustic Research AR -3 speaker
systems.
The system and installation was designed
by Allied Radio.
TAPE GUIDE
(from page 40)
do the following : record a 250 -cps signal
so that the VU meter reads 0 in playback;
reduce the input signal 6 db (to allow for
the mechanical lag of the meter) ; calibrate
the meter, when used as a record -level indicator, so that it reads 0 VU on this reduced input signal. If the 250 -cps signal
on the test tape represents a 1 per cent
distortion level, do not reduce the input
signal when calibrating the meter as a
record -level level indicator.
AUDIO
58
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
Wow and Flutter
Q. My
tape recorder produces noticcable trop. and flutter at 3.7J tips. Also,
there is slippage between the motor drive
and pickup reel on fast forward. The idler
wheels and all involved surfaces have been
cleaned with carbon tetrachloride, but no
improvement has occurred. Also, the machine is adequately oiled. Please suggest a
correction, particularly for the wow and
flutter. I find that I can correct the slippage
in fast forward by increasing the spring
tension,
A. The wow and flutter may be due to
any or a combination of several factors
including spring tension adjustments, binding of a shaft, a slipping pulley, film of
oil on an idler wheel, and so on. Wow and
flutter are apt to he more pronounced at
slower speeds because of the lesser inertia
of the parts in motion, which is the reason
why you may think you have this difficulty at 3.75 tips but not at higher speed,.
I believe that your tape recorder L: s
separate idler wheels for the 3.75 and 7 .
tips speeds. Is it possible that you have
cleaned one adequately and not the other'
Carbon tet is not apt to be the most effective cleaning agent for rubber idler wheels.
Commercial preparations, such as those
sold for cleaning tape heads, generally contain Xylene. On occasion, I have used
vinegar with success; however, I want to be
cautious in suggesting its use because it
is an acid, and, unless used sparingly, may
cause damage. If another cleaning of the
idler wheels as well as shafts, pulleys,
and so on, does not produce results, your
problem is properly within the province of
the service technician. Consult your dealer
or manufacturer for the name of an
rÆ
thorized service agency.
assure...
TOP PERFORMANCE
EXTENDED LIFE
for your
hi -fi
stereo
television
radio
...do what
the experts do'..
/
:
TRANSISTORIZED PREAMP
I
or
R4
'
-te page 3G)
22,000 ohms.
-
The emitter voltage
7.5
- 4.5 = 3.0
v.
=
-
-
1
"t4 +
-Ii.
-//3=
With
0.0077 mA and In
niA we get R,,
l",, =
=- Ir -1
13
irc.i,; =
(I.:i
I,,,.
-- 0.5077
3.0
1"c
titi
59(1(1
Constant current bias is applied to the
base electrode via the feedback resistor
R, from the emitter of stage two.
I,
7.4
-3.1
0.0077
The collector dissipation of stage one is
I'c = I cVco = 0.5 x 4.5 = 2.25 mw, and the
power consumption I' pc = (- Ic, - Inu)
VcC1)
=0.515x19P cc= 9.5
Beats the heat that wrecks the set.
Reduces service calls by up to 40 %.
mw.
Fortunately, nearly all calculated resistance values conic out near standard
EIA values. The small differences remaining are of no consequence since they
are covered by the tolerance range of the
resistors.
KIT
Improves performance by minimizing drift
due to temperature changes within enclosure.
So
quiet you have to feel the breeze to know it's going.
Draws
= 560,000 ohms.
(-
ROTRO
0.507
ohms. The base -to- emitter voltage being
- VBE 0.1 y, the base voltage is - l',;
- Vr.11 +V T
RI=
I
ASTALL TH F.
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AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
59
70
TRANSISTOR AMP
(from page 24)
indicating whether it is in the right or
left channel. There is a separate a.c.
fuse for the power supply.
Safety Provisions
Much has been made of the ease with
which transistors can be destroyed. It is
true that a misused transistor will blow
in a fraction of a second, while the same
abuse to a vacuum tube will merely
shorten its life, not instantaneously destroy it. On the other hand, a vacuum
tube degrades in performance gradually
from the first instant of use. The transistor, if operated within its limits, will
perform at its initial level indefinitely.
Even in conservative design, the life of
a tube is limited to a few years if quality is important. The same conservative operation is applied to a transistor
amplifier provides extremely long life.
In the Acoustech I, steps have been
taken to ensure that operating abuses
will do nothing worse than blow an
easily replaceable fuse. For example, a
short circuit across the output of most
transistor amplifiers will immediately
destroy the output transistors. If the
output of the Acoustech I is shortened,
the amplifier will either continue to
drive across the short, or, at worst, the
B+ fuse in that channel will blow. To
minimize the chance of shorting the amplifier outputs, the old fashioned speaker
terminals have been eliminated. Instead,
rugged phone jacks are used. A pair of
cables consisting of 15 feet of wire terminating at one end with a phone plug
and the other with color coded spade
lugs are supplied with each unit. To
connect the speakers one simply plugs
into the output jacks of the amplifier.
Figure 5 gives a clear picture of the
Fig. 7. Curve
60
showing clipping
point of the output
stage as a function of power related to the load
impedance, with
both channels op-
erating.
50
40
30
6
8
12
10
14
16
LOAD IMPEDANCE -OHMS
pains taken to provide structurel features equal in quality to the electrical
performance. Note particularly the
girder construction, heavy aluminum
chassis, Mil -spec glass-epoxy circuit
boards, and the large, sturdy heat sinks.
The massive power transformer is so located that the unit can be liftec with
just two fingers -one under the center
of each girder rod. This ideal center of
gravity eliminates one of the most common causes of shipping damage. A black,
perforated cage is provided that covers
the entire chassis.
distortion and appreciate the clean
sound of this amplifier. The Acoustech I
is rated at 40 watts per channel, from
8 to 16 ohms. Figure 7 shows that the
clipping points are 67 watts at 10 ohms,
65 watts at 8 ohms, and 50 watts at 16
ohms. Its effective power seems much
greater than even these figures indicate.
This will require further investigation.
One point is clear. Solid -state power
amplifiers with silicon output transistors
are capable of setting new standards in
reproducing music.
NOTE TO THE HOME
EXPERIMENTER
The Sound
Discriminating music listeners and
audio experts listening to the Aco istech
I under a variety of conditions and with
a range of speakers were struck by the
considerable improvement in sound over
anything with which they were familiar.
One interesting phenomenon noted in all
the demonstrations was the ability to
play the system louder than pcssible
with vacuum -tube amplifiers and still
have clean sound. Women in particular
liked the sound of the unit -even when
played loudly, suggesting that perhaps
women are more sensitive to transient
Many readers of AUDIO are capable of
taking a published circuit and building
a unit from it. In the case of the Acoustech I, there may be many difficulties
and a stiff cost. Several of the silicon
transistors used in the circuit are designed specially for Acoustech by Transitron Electronic Corporation of Wakefield, Massachusetts. The nearest corn mercial equivalent to the ST7175 costs
well over $20 each, and the nearest
commercial equivalents to the ST1613
and ST4361 cost over $10 each. The
Texas Instrument germanium 2N1046
drivers cost $10. (All prices quoted are
for small -quantity lots.)
*Details about Tandberg Tape Recorders
MODEL 74
MODEL 64
MODEL 8
Complete Stereo Music System.
Features: 3 speed, 4 track
stereo record, stereo playback
with a power amplifiers and 2
built in speakers.
Stereo Record /Playback Dec
Features: 3 separate head
monitoring on tape, multiple
input, 3 speeds, automatic tap
stop, sound -on- sound. Remot
control start-stop available.
Monaural Record/Playback.
Features: 2 speeds, 2 heads,
List $498.0
From $219.50
List $399.50
RETandberg
of America, Inc., P.
O. Box
power amplifier, built -in
speaker. In 2 track or 4 track
models. Remote control start stop, fast rewind.
171, 8 Third Ave., Pelham,
N. Y.
AUDIO
60
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
IF YOU WANT BETTER,
CLEARER AND
MORE NATURAL SOUND , ,
USE SOUND JUDGEMENT!
There is only one way to build a tape recorder
that gives the clearest, best sound. You must start
with the very best components and fine, exacting
workmanship. These are basic.
Specifically, you must choose a motor with
enough power and it must be synchronous. You
cannot skimp on the cost of this motor. Only a
synchronous motor provides the necessary motion
for flawless operation without noticeable wow or
flutter.
Your tape recorder requires other essentials,
too. The amplifiers must have the least possible
distortion and the best possible frequency response.
They must be designed for the least possible service.
They should have military -type printed circuits.
These circuits provide contact at all times, do not
break down, and are easily serviced when necessary.
The components must be reliable. They should have
a rating of a multiple of the actual voltage or amperage required. Components such as these are expensive. But, economy here is false economy . . .
and false economy leads to big service bills later on.
Your tape recorder must also be light and
compact for easy carrying. Total weight should be
around 20 lbs. which allows for inclusion of all
operating features needed for ideal performance.
The magnetic heads for your recorder are,
of course, most important. The recorder manufacturer must build these carefully with the precise
gap needed for optimum performance. The position
of the heads must be adjustable to within a few
thousandths of an inch. This will keep the two or
four recording tracks within established standards.
These finely designed magnetic heads should also
resist the abrasive action of recording tape. This
prevents their being worn out in a short period
of time. Consequently, they will last for many
thousands of hours of recording pleasure.
Your recording instrument must also have a
tape transport system that is smooth and reliable.
The transport system should give you an immediate change of speed, without wearing out or breaking down. It must give you minimum tension and
use only precision -built components. These quality
components should be the result of months of research and testing by the finest staff of tape recorder engineers .
engineers who could not be
duplicated for any amount of money. Here again,
any economies can lead only to poor performance.
And, poor performance does not result in clear,
natural sound.
A word about the personnel who design and
construct your tape recorder. They should consist
of a great number of qualified engineers ( average
key personnel length of employment is 18 years!)
working along side of skilled craftsmen, artisans
and assembly people
all of whom own a share
in the manufacturing company. This concept of
"everyone a co- owner" results in a deep personal
interest in the design and manufacture of a product. And it means unchallenged quality for you.
As a final touch, your quality tape recorder
should have the fine styling suited to any decor
or for installation into any quality hi -fi system.
Its case, knobs and top plate must be sturdy. This,
too, guarantees many hours of uninterrupted,
pleasurable performance.
Now you have your tape recorder! More accurately, you have a TANDBERG TAPE RECORDER. There is no outward, apparent difference
between a Tandberg and others . . . but there is
a FUNDAMENTAL difference. The Tandberg tape
recorder superficially may look like others. But,
when you check all the components mentioned
above the differences are enormous! The superior
quality is evident.
The Tandberg runs smoother. It is more
reliable. IT DOES PRODUCE DISTINCTLY
BETTER, CLEARER, MORE NATURAL SOUND.
.
.
-
Tandberg
*
MULTIPLEX CIRCUIT ALIGNMENT
(from, page 32)
these adjustments, reduce the 19 -kc signal gradually. This ensures that the circuits are so accurately tuned that they
will remain synchronized even with low
inputs. This may sound like a haphazard
procedure, but it works. We have tried
it on several multiplex tuners -some
with the various circuits identified (as
they all should be), some with none
marked, and one without even a schematic. When the 38 -kc output is at a
maximum, the final steps take the form
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
of "touching up" operations -rather like
a vernier adjustment on those previously
made.
For the final steps, feed a 1000 -cps
signal into the left input of the generator and a 60 -cps signal into the right input. Adjust the signal levels so that they
are approximately equal (an input of
5 volts on each channel will make this
possible). With the pilot signal ox, feed
the composite output to the input of the
multiplex circuit. Connect the 'scope to
Fig. 7. Patterns obtained with modulations of 1000 and 60 cps on the respective channels, and 'scope connected to
output of 1000 -cps channel. (A), left,
shows optimum adjustment of 19- and
38 -kc circuits; (B), right, shows 60 -cps
modulation on 1000 -cps pattern with in-
correct adjustment.
61
the left -channel output and adjust the
horizontal sweep for 60 cps, synchronized to the line frequency. The pattern
should resemble that of (A) in Fig. 7.
Then readjust the 19- and 38 -kc circuits
very slightly to make the top and bottom edges of the pattern as straight
as possible- misadjustment will cause
notches to appear on these edges as in
(B) of Fig. 7. If there is a separation
control on the multiplex unit, trim it also
for minimum notching.
Then connect the 'scope to the right channel output. The pattern should resemble that of (A) in Fig. 8 Readjust
the circuits again, very carefully and
minutely, to determine if there is any
improvement over the adjustment previously performed with the left - annel
adjustments. Misadjustment wi h the
right- channel display will wid n the
trace appreciably so that the patt rn resembles that of (B) in Fig. 8. T e correct adjustment of the 19- and 38 kc circuits and the separation control w 11 give
a minimum of 1000 cps on th right
channel, and a minimum of 60 -cps notching on the left channel.
It is advisable to recheck the entire
final adjustment procedure with he input signal reduced as much as p ssible.
At a certain minimum signal
ut to
Fig. 8. Same as Fig. 7, except 'scope connected to output of 60 -cps channel. (A),
left, shows correct adjustment, with minimum of 1000 -cps signal on the 60 -cps
pattern: (B), right, shows incorrect adjustment, with large amount of 1000 cps
showing up as a wide band on the 60cps pattern.
the multiplex unit, the output patterns
will no longer resemble their original
form but will become a mixture of both
-looking rather like the pattern from
an audio amplifier which is oscillating on
part of each cycle of the input signal.
Conclusion
BuRGL
mote
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While these instructions may not be
strictly in accordance with those issued
by the manufacturers of tuners or adapters, we believe that they will enable any
careful technician to align multiplex
equipment for close -to-optimum performance. While it is possible that more
sophisticated equipment may give better
results, it is inevitable that the servicing
procedure must be simplified so that
every hi -fi serviceman will be able to
make complete adjustments on stereo circuitry. There was a time when it was
thought impossible to align any radio
receiver properly without a sweep oscillator and a 'scope, yet today there is no
low- priced sweep oscillator for AM
alignment. FM recievers were considered
even more difficult, but several of the
modern kits make it about as simple as
tuning in a station.
No part of audio servicing is actually
very difficult. Of course there is still the
problem of the intermittent, but a little
common -sense applied along the right
lines can reduce even this difficulty to a
minor annoyance.
As we hope to show in future articles,
the difficult we can solve immediately
the impossible may take a little time.
-
Acknowledgement
The author is indebted to Lester Karg
for the use of the multiplex generator de-
scribed, and to George Mordwinkin, who
did most of the development work on it,
for the circuit schematics, the detailed
descriptions of the diode gates, and for
the 'scope patterns of Figs. 5 and 6. .
AUDIO
62
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
BOOK REVIEW
(from page 2)
to distill out those attributes which make
a particular hall liked for a particular
type of performance. In other words it is
now possible to define what is necessary
to make a good, very good, or excellent
hall.
Frankly we were greatly impressed by
the scientific approach taken by Dr.
Beranek. Our only reservation is directed
at the validity of drawing such broad con-
clusions from such a relatively small
sample. One of the small bits of heretofore useless information that has stuck
with us from our college days is that a
significant statistical sample is patterned
to eliminate all of the intangibles except
those being tested. It would seem that the
main qualification for inclusion on "the
list" was fame or position. But perhaps
we are expecting too much at this time. A
good start has been made.
The numerical rating scale developed
in this book is obviously a numerical way
of stating the various ingredients which
go into a hall. In Dr. Beranek's scale, he
has taken the terms he defined previously,
seasoned them with the judgements of
musicians, added a pinch of measurements, and came up with a recipe he likes.
In reality there is much more to it than
this simple simile would indicate--experience, sincerity, and humility. Anyone who
reads Dr. Beranek's book is sure to be impressed by his earnestness and complete
lack of pretention. In other words this
numerical rating system is the best scientific effort of a knowledgeable and
serious gentleman. It is too early to tell
whether his assumptions are correct. In
our judgement this is also true of Philharmonic Hall, in spite of the critical
comments of the first few weeks. Somehow these early comments remind us of
the reactions which usually accompany
wearing new shoes; they pinch here and
there and perhaps make strange noises
until feet and shoes become thoroughly
acquainted.
In Appendix I Dr. Beranek analyzes the
prevailing method for calculating audience absorption and points out that it
may very well lead to an erroneous value.
Certainly it can be demonstrated that
even the originator, Sabine, was unable
to predict reverberation accurately using
the number of people in the audience as
an index of absorption. Dr. Beranek proposes instead that the area occupied by
the seats be used. Relating this concept
to the statistics of known halls seems to
corroborate his assumption. All that remains is to prove it in the design of new
halls. We are eagerly waiting for the
answer from Philharmonic Hall.
An Important Book
As we said before, Dr. Beranek's book
is important in that it provides a method
of attack for a problem which has defied
solution: a scientific method for designing
good music-reproducing halls. Whether or
not we agree with the particular answers
he arrives at, we are in agreement with
his approach. We do heartily recommend
this book for every concertgoer as well
as those professionally involved with
acoustics and sound system design.
D. Saslaw
(As a service to AUDIO readers, we are
making this book available through the
Audio Library.)
LIGHT LISTENING
(from page 10)
second recording speed used. The meticulous
care employed in checking out all circuits and
the recording equipment itself certainly pays
handsome dividends in most of today's top
recording from Germany and this one is no
exception. No equalizers or limiters were used
in the production of this recording. While no
one can quarrel with the sound on this disc,
few of us will be tempted to throw away the
competing versions of this music that we may
happen to have in our libraries. The German
ensemble under the direction of Hans Wege
tries hard to latch on to the saucy style of
Leroy Anderson's compositions but it doesn't
quite come up to existing performances by
Arthur Fiedler or Frederick Fennell-not to
mention the recordings made by the composer
himself.
Oklahoma /Carousel /The King and I
Capitol STCL 1790
When the movie versions of these Rodgers
and Hammerstein shows appeared some years
ago -"Oklahoma" in 1955 and the others in
1956-Capitol acquired the master tapes of
the scores recorded in stereo on Hollywood's
sound stages. Issued as single albums, some
of these shows were among the early stereo
discs to reach me back in the days when
tone arms and pickups were nowhere near as
good as they are at the present time. Now
that Capitol has brought out new pressings
of all three productions in a deluxe album set,
these deservedly popular recordings are now
available in better sound. Although the original stereo discs show improved response with
today's playback equipment, the newer pressings have better surfaces, slightly higher signal level and improved overall presence that
puts them just about on a par with recently
recorded movie tracks.
16,
VIENNA
Electronic Applications Inc. of Wilton, Connecticut, USA, representatives of AKG Vienna, are so busy selling and shipping the new
AKG D19-E* microphone and "Ear Witness" K -50 ** headsets
that they did not have time to prepare copy for this space.
*$60.00 user net
* *$22.50 user net
P.S. Best wishes for all our friends for the holiday season.
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
63
LOOK
THIS
ABOUT MUSIC
PHOTO
Harold Lawrence
Music To Sell By
Ever since the first street vendo hawked
his wares in some ancient city, usic and
selling, like love and marriage, h ve gone
together. The rag -and -bone dea ers, the
scissor -grinders, the eel merchants and the
rat -killers all used music to con ey their
sales messages. Their street cries ere the
forerunners of today's "jingles." : ut they
were a far cry from what has s come a
STEREO CARTRIDGE
MODEL SXI
multi-million dollar business.
The explosive growth of sales t usic is
a postwar phenomenon brought .bout by
television. Until the late 1940's, dvertising agencies produced nearly all t t e broadcast commercials themselves. Bec se they
concentrated their expression in ne spapers
and magazines, they maintainer small
radio and television departments. n a real
sense, the majority of the coy ercials
written in those days were "mes t ges," a
word which announcers employ 1tosely to
refer to anything from a jing e to a
"dramatization." With the emph sis now
switching to the communications m dia, the
agencies began to farm out the "ork of
creating music and lyrics to ind: pendent
producers.
Almost overnight a new industr sprang
into being. Today, commercials f r radio
and television are turned out la ely by
some twenty -five companies, loe ted in
New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago. These
hawkers are on much higher soc al, economic, musical and literary pla . s than
their street -crying predecessors. the personnel of a typical jingles firm rt, ght include a composer who studied mus e under
Hindemith at Yale, a lyricist wit r Broadway shows to his credit, and a ersatile
side man who has played record' t dates
of all kinds, from Stravinsky to r ck -androll.
c
rTh
SONOVOX
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PURCHASING
A HI -FI
SYSTEM?
TIME PAYMENTS AVAILABLE
Up to 2 years fo pay!
Jim Lansing*
Altec Lansing
Elestrovoice
Jensen
Send Us
Your List Of
Components
For A
Package
Quotation
Acoustic Research
Janssen
Wharfedale
USL Citizen Band
Gonset Hallicrafter
Texas Crystals
Concertone Viking
Bell
many agencies and sponsors.
Of the dozen -odd jingle companies operating in New York, Forrell, Thomas and
Polack Associates, Inc. is one of the most
active. During its six -year existence it has
serviced an impressive list of clients including Trans World Airlines, Schaefer Beer,
York Cigarettes, Wonder Bread, Ford,
Chevrolet, Hostess Cakes, and others. The
enterprising trio consists of Gene Forrell,
a film composer, singer and conductor ; Edward Thomas, formerly a recording artist
(guitar), arranger, and group singer; and
James Polack, a musical comedy singer
whose background includes stints with the
George White Scandals and the St. Louis
Municipal Opera. Before merging their
talents, all three already had excellent contacts in the advertising field.
F. T. P. Associates rarely see the client
who commissions their jingles. Once they
land an account, they deal exculsively with
the people from the agency. Together,
hawkers and advertisers set the complicated
machinery into motion that will one day
produce a one -minute commercial.
In its initial stages, jingle- making has
the flavor of politics -the agency suggests
to F.T.P. a "copy platform" and a "campaign theme." F.T.P. writes variations on
this theme and submits them to the agency.
The text approved, next comes the music.
As many as seventeen tunes have been composed; and an elimination session is scheduled. Following this, Thomas brings his
G.E.
Weathers
Harman -Kardon
Pilot TEC
Eico
Sherwood*
Frazier
ESL
Superscope
Dual Changer
Bogen
AIREX
WON'T
Hartley'
University
The influx of this specialized talent in
a field once dominated by hack writers has
had a profound effect on the "sound" of
advertising. A ggressive, between -the -eye
merchandising is still with us, of course,
but tite soft -sell commercial with imaginative musical treatment is now preferred by
Leak
Fisher
H. H. Scott
Dynakit
BE
UNDERSOLD
All merchandise is
brand new, factory
fresh & guaranteed.
Free HI-FI Catalog
AI REX
RADIO
CORPORATION
Thorens'
Finco
ECI
Sony
Roberts
DWald
Challenger
Browning
Garrard
Norelco
Miracord
General Radio
Rek -O -Kut
Components
Tandberg*
Fairchild
Pickering
Gray
Audio Tape
Magnecord'
Rockford Cabinets
Artisan Cabinets
Fair
Fig.
1.
Gene For-
rell (left) with singing group.
Traded
85-AldCorflandt St., N.Y. 7, WO 4 -1820
CIRCLE 64B
AUDIO
64
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
guitar and a rhythm section along with hint
to play and sing the three "finalist -melodies" to the agency. His partners join in.
Finally, the advertisers settle on a tune.
The client pays a nominal fee for recording a "demo." Usually, this trial session is
performed by a skeleton instrumental group
(piano and rhythm section) and a vocal
quartet. If the demo recording costs exceed
the agency's estimate, F.T.P. pays the extra
charges. Three to five versions of the winning melody are recorded.
The tape or disc demo then goes to the
agency, which in turn submits it to the
client, who makes the final selection.
The recording date, the size of the musical forces, and the number of spots to be
recorded are now decided upon. The jingle
is to be given the full-scale treatment:
strings, winds, brass, rhythm section, harp,
two pianos, and a vocal sextet.
At last, the long- awaited clay has arrived. The control room resembles a shuttle
INSTRUMENTS
for AUDIO
MEASUREMENTS
MODEL 410 DISTORTION METER
Messires audio distortion, noise level and AC
voltages
Also a versatile vacuum tube voltmeter.
Distortion levels as low as .1% can be measured
on fundamental frequencies from 20 to 20,000 cps,
Distortion
indicates harmonics up to 100,000 cps
measurements can be made on signal levels of .1
volt to 30 volts rms
The vacuum
provides an accuracy of -±.5% over a frequency range
from 20 cps to 200 KC. For noise and db measurements, the instrument is calibrated in 1 db steps
from 0 db to -15 db, the built-in attenuator prodb to +50 db
vides additional ranges from
in 10 db steps.
-60
tube voltmeter
MODEL 210 AU DIO OSCILLATOR
sine wave signal from 10 cps to
100 kc
Output level within i-1 db when working
Power output,
into 600 ohms (reference 5 kc)
variable to above 150 mw
Hum and noise,
Provides
a
db
at
at
5
Distortion is less than .2%
5 volts output
volts output from 50 to 20,000 cps, slightly
higher at higher output and frequency extremes.
-70
These instruments are supplied with many B.C. station installations
for FCC Proof -of Performance tests.
BARKER & WILLIAMSON, Inc.
equipment Since 1932
("Radio Communication
STinwen 8 -5581
BRISTOL. PENNSYLVANIA
CIRCLE 65A
Fig. 2. "I think that's
it!" (Photos: Harold
Lawrence.)
NO MONEY DOWN
car during rush hour, as engineers, agency
people, secretaries, and F.T.P. men squeeze
past each other entering and leaving the
glass -paneled nerve center. Thomas, on the
podium, checks the score and the stopwatch,
and signals for the first take.
Here are some random bits of dialogue
between the control booth and studio:
"You're five seconds over."
C.R.:
Thomas: "You're darn right. Gonna have
to pick up the tempo." C.R.: "Let's put it
on and see what happens."
Vocal group (singing) : "Look for tomorrow's features /In your gasoline today!"
C.R.: "Hold it. You've been saying features
together for fourteen times. What happened?"
C.R. (to singer) : "Are you doing B Flat
in the last chord? Well, that should be
heard. (To another singer) Also, the G
is very strong." Singer: `I'll sing E Flat."
C.R.: (interrupting take) : "Two things
wrong. . . . It seemed to increase tempo
as it went along. And watch your pronunciation! It's Sunoco, not Senoco."
,`
vam
1120 -WATT
r LAFAYETTE Radio ELECTRONICS
I Dept. AA -3 P.O. Box 10,
I Syosset, L.I., N.Y.
KJ-900WX
i
ir
NAME
I
ADDRESS
commercial than a full LP of popular
music. Says Gene Forrell: "People expect
to be entertained by jingles." People, that
is, besides the agency and the client.
L_-
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
±
load
10 to 25,000 cps
22 transistors, 14 diodes
range
Heat -free circuitry
ALL -TRANSISTOR
STEREO AMPLIFIER
KIT
I
.
completely new integrated all -transistor stereo
amplifier kit utilizing the latest, most advanced
technology. Compare it with kit and wired amplifiers costing much more!
120 watts (60 watts per channel) 8 -ohm load
76 watts (38 watts per channel) 16 and 4 -ohm
A
Oriterion'M
After attending a jingle recording session, it would surprise no one to learn that
more money is spent producing a minute
Amazing Performance!
NEW.
CITY
1
db at rated power
Superb dynamic
Freedom from
microphonics
Complete stereo control facilities
Easy -to -wire printed circuit boards; many components are pre- riveted
Beautifully Styled
KT -900WX
Net 134.50
Rush me
FREE
388i
Giant Sized Pages
1963
Catalog.
enclosed
á.
LAFAYETTE Radio ELECTRONICS
Syosset, L.I., N.Y.
OTHER LOCATIONS
I I --
ZONE
MI
STATE
.
MI
CIRCLE 65B
Jamaica 33, N.Y. Scarsdale, N.Y.
New York 13, N.Y. Paramus, N.J.
Plainfield, N.J.
Newark 2, N.J.
Boston 10, Mass.
Bronx 58, N.Y.
Natick, Mass.
...........
65
NEW PRO
4-Speed Tape Recorder. The new Norelco
Continental 401 (Model EL3534) 4-track
stereo record and playback tape recorder
is completely transistorized and features
the 15/16 -ips speed for up to 32 hours of
recording on a standard 7 -inch reel. The
Continental 401 is self- contained. It includes two preamplifiers, two power amplifiers, and two loudspeakers, one of
which is in the romovable cover to permit
realistic stereo separation during playback. The 401 records stereo and mono, and
plays back stereo on mono tapes through
the unit itself or through an external system. The machine has inputs for recording
from microphone, tuner, and phono with
facilities for mixing, multiplay (sound -onsound recording), and a special input jack
for a footswltch control. An output jack
for monitoring with stereo headphones
has also been incorporated in the unit.
Stereo monitoring is also possible via the
internal loudspeakers. The Continental 401
comes furnished with the Norelco dynamic
stereo (dual elements) microphone. Specifications of the 401 are: Frequency response at 7% ips is 60- 16,000 cps (± 3 db);
signal -to -noise ratio is better than - 48 db;
wow and flutter (rms) at 7% ips is less
than 0.14 percent; bias frequency is 50,000
cps; input sensitivity is 1 mv for microphone and 150 mv for radio -phono. Built -in
circuitry permits mixing the microphone
and radio inputs. Price is $399.50. North
American Philips Company, Inc., High
Fidelity Products Division, 230 Duffy AveA-1
nue, Hicksville, New York.
New Sound- Column Speakers. R. T.
Bozak has announced the availability of
a new series of sound -column speakers for
use in auditoriums, theaters, outdoor
stadia, halls, and other large- audience
gathering places. The units are designed
to offer superior performance through
clear, undistorted sound dispersion and
UCTS
were used at a series of recent oncerts
given by the "King of Swing," Benny
Goodman, and his orchestra upc n their
return from a tour of the Soviet Union.
Mr. Goodman performed at the Ya e Bowl,
New Haven, Connecticut; Ravini Park,
Park,
Chicago and at Dogwood Iloilo
Stony Brook, Long Island. R. T Bozak
Mfg. Co., South Norwalk, Conn.
A -2
Integrated Stereo Tuner -Amp
new Kenwood Model KW -40 recei
FM, and FM-stereo programs and
only the addition of a pair of louds
to function as a complete syste
power amplifier, Kenwood claims,
. The
es AM,
meet most public address requirements
and may be used effectively in halls,
school auditoriums, churches, or other
large gathering areas. Features include
full mixing of four microphones; remote
mixing facilities; sockets for plug -in low impedance microphone transformers; cali-
equires
eakers
.
The
ill deliver 20 watts per channel at less than 1
per cent harmonic distortion. The control
gnetic
center has inputs for a low -level
stereo phono cartridge (as well as for
high -level ceramic or crystal ster o cartridge) and provides RIAA phono qualization. Features of the KW -40 are a con veniently accessible jack for stere head phone listening, convenient speaker cut -off
switch for private listening, and a ethod
of "stereo subcarrier" tuning. W th the
subcarrier tuning in operation, on y staare
tions broadcasting stereo progra
heard at normal volume, as the sal is
swept across the FM band. After a esired
stereo station is located, a sw ch is
flipped to receive both channels Tone
controls, stereo balance control, umble
and noise filters, loudness compe sation,
blend control for stereo effect, an a.f.c.
are other features of the KW -40. K nwood
Electronics, 212 Fifth Avenue, Ne York
A-3
10, N. Y.
Condenser Microphone Calibrator. B & K
Instruments announces the Mode 4220
Pistonphone, a small battery -drive precision sound source for quick, accu e and
direct calibration of measurement icro-
brated sound level meter, separate bass
and treble controls plus a master gain
control. There are balance controls for
output tubes and hum; boost and cut -type
tone controls; an anti- feedback control,
and a pilot light. Another important feature is an output jack for simultaneous
recording. Special circuits are incorporated to reduce feedback and avoid trumpet burnout. The KN -3050 has an aluminum and black case. Its size is 6% by 17%
by 11 inches and it weighs 29 lbs. The unit
is priced at $129.60 (Allied Cat. No. 67 DU
055). Allied Radio Corp., 100 Western Ave.,
Chicago 80, Ill.
A-8
Slim 3 -Way Speaker System. The EICO
HFS -6 speaker system can be either wall mounted or placed on a narrow shelf in
any desired location, above room furniture
where required. Of paramount importance,
however, is the performance of the HFS -6.
It uses three speakers of advanced design
plus carefully designed cross -over and
balancing networks. The hand -rubbed,
oiled, solid -walnut enclosure has a ducted
port and is only 5% -in. deep. Mounting
hardware is supplied. The 10 -in. woofer
has an impregnated cloth suspension and
% -lb. ceramic magnet. Free -air resonance
is 30 cps. The 8 -in. closed -back mid -range
phones, sound measuring instrumen s, and
callsound tape recording equipment.
bration accuracy of 0.2 db is assur at a
controlled frequency of 250 cps a d 124
db (referred to 2 x 10-4 microbar . The
Pistonphone is rugged in design to fulfill
the need for accurate calibration n the
field and laboratory. The calibratio procedure of fitting the Pistonphone c upler
over the condenser microphone is quite
"Idiot Proof" and not subject to vari tions
in the manner of holding. With the high
level output of 124 db, accurate c= libration can be performed even in very noisy
calisurroundings. Each Pistonphone
brated at normal atmospheric press re. A
barometer is supplied with each u it to
indicate ambient pressure correcti n directly in db. Price is $245. B & K I struments, Inc., 2972 West 106th St., leveA-4
land 11, Ohio.
i
full high fidelity quality. They feature
groupings of Bozak M -109 outdoor speakers arranged in vertical array and enclosed in weatherproof baffles. The company revealed that the new sound columns
50 -Watt Public Address Amplifier. A
new professional quality 50-watt public
address amplifier featuring the latest in
styling, the Knight KN -3050, is offered by
Allied Radio Corp. This amplifier will
speaker has high internal damping for
smooth response. The special dome radiator ultra-tweeter extends response to beyond audibility. There is an LC crossover
at 600 cps and a bridging capacitor at 4000
cps. Rated impedance is 8 ohms and rated
power handling capacity is 26 watts. List
price in kit form is $52.50, and wired
$62.50. EICO Electronic Instrument Co.,
A-8
33 -00 Northern Blvd., L.I.C. 1, N. Y.
Retractile, No- Scratch Cartridge Assembly. A Stereo Dynetic cartridge assembly
with a retractile safety suspension system
has been announced by Shure Brothers,
Inc. It is designed for use with Garrard
Automatic Turntables and features
scratch -proof operation. Called the Shure
"Gard -O- Matic," the new cartridge assembly includes a Dynetic cartridge installed
in a tone arm head. This assembly is available as the Model M99 /A for use with the
AUDIO
66
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
Scott Stereo Tuner Kit
Wins Rave Reviews
from every Leading Hi -Fi Expert!
Just one year ago Scott introduced the LT -11O FM Stereo Tuner Kit.
High Fidelity Dealers built this superb kit themselves, examined its
many features, and recommended it without reservation. Enthusiastic
kit builders deluged us with mail. Now the verdict is in from all the
leading technical experts. Never before in the history of the industry
has a single kit received such unanimous praise. We reprint a few
excerpts below.
from ELECTRONICS WORLD
"Construction time for the unit
63' hours, without
alignment . . . in listening tests,
the tuner showed its high useable
sensitivity to good advantage.
Using an in -door antenna which
produced marginal signal to noise
ratios on most other tuners we
were able to get noise -free, undistorted stereo reception. It's
quite non -critical to tune, hardly
requiring the use of its tuning
meter."
Electronics World, Nov. 1962
we tested was
from
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
No commentary on Scott Kits would
be complete without first mentioning
that this company pioneered new areas
in the hi -fi kit market and brought
forth several (then- radical) innovations.
One of them continues to fascinate all
the full purchasers of a Scott Kit
color instruction manual. ... Scott also
a shipping
pioneered the Kit -Pak
container which serves as a temporary
a test
workbench and storage box
model of the LT -110 was wired at
-
-
from
"The LT -110 (is) so simple to build
that we unhesitatingly recommend it
for even the novice.... We found that
the useable sensitivity (IHFM) was
a fine stereo tuner and an
2.1µv
unusually easy kit to build."
...
Audio, April 1962
Popular Electronics, Oct. 1962
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Now Sonic Monitor* Added
Scott's unique Sonic Monitor has now
been added to the LT-1 10. This foolproof
stereo signaling device tells you audibly
when you are tuned to a stereo station.
If you want the best in kits, visit your
Scott dealer. Choose from:
... $159.95
... $124.95
LK -12 80 -Watt Stereo Amplifier Kit ... $159.95
LC-21 Stereo Control Center Kit ... $99.95
LT -110 FM Stereo Tuner Kit
LK -48 48 -Watt Stereo Amplifier Kit
...
-
American Record Guide, Sept. 1962
AUDIO
...
POPULAR ELECTRONICS in just
under five hours. Another 40 minutes
was used for careful alignment and the
tuner was "on the air." ... The LT -110
met or exceeded all the manufacturer's
detailed specifications on sensitivity,
distortion, output level, a.c. hum, and
the audio response is
capture ratio
excellent, being within ± 1 db, from
approximately 20 to 16,000 cycles... .
Channel -to- channel crosstalk is particularly excellent both in terms of uniformity and the fact that it holds up
well above 10,000 cycles.... Frequency
drift of the LT -110 from a cold start
less than 5 kc.
is extraordinarily low
The a.c. hum level (referred to 100%
modulation) is low and exceeds the
manufacturer's rating by 5 db.... It's
difficult to imagine a kit much simpler
to assemble than the LT -110. The fullcolor instruction book eliminates just
about the last possible chance of
wiring errors. . . From a plain and
simple operational standpoint, the
LT -110 works well and sounds good."
without touching the tuning dial.
No AFC circuits are included in
this tuner and none are needed.
This tuner kit has to be ranked on
the same plane as H. H. Scott's
factory -wired units. It is an excellent product, and because of its
conservative parts very likely to
give long, trouble -free service."
from RECORD
GUIDE
every time I
me
that
"It seems to
turn around I am building another
of H. H. Scott's kits. And each
time I end up praising the unit to
the skies.
The Scott instruction books should
be a model for the industry. They
feature full -color, step -by -step,
illustrated directions. Each resistor
or other component is shown in
the progressive phases in its color
code and in its proper position... .
There is no audible drift in the
LT -110 whatever. You can shut the
tuner off on a station and pick it
up the next day, perfectly tuned,
LK- 150130-Watt Stereo Power Amplifier
Kit... $169.95
'Patent Pending. (All pricesslightly higher West of Rockies.)
SCOTT
Scott, Inc., 111 Powdermill Rd., Maynard, Mass.
Dept. 35-1
Rush me complete details on your LT -110 FM
H. H.
Stereo Tuner Kit and other superb Scottkits.
Be sure to include your new free Stereo Record,
"The Sounds of FM Stereo" showing how new
FM stereo sounds, and explaining important
technical specifications.
Name
Address
City
State
Export: Morhan Exporting Corp., 458 Broadway, N.Y.C.
Canada: Atlas Radio Corp., 50 Wingold Ave., Toronto
67
Garrard Type A Turntable, and the Model
M99 /AT6 for use with the Garrar AT6
Turntable. These Shure cartridge ssemblies are designed to track at 2 o 21/2
grams. When force on the arm quaffs
W
ANTENNA.
NLi
Q
ENEL0P1ITNT
FOR FM AND
ni
dt
s'('EREt)
or exceeds 3 grams, the cartridge re tracts
into the head, with no increase in tr teking
force. Excessive force on the ar n results in a small, plastic, non -sera ching
"Hp" on the cartridge head makini con tact with record. Price of either the 99/A
or M99 /AT6 mounted in plug -in h ad is
$49.50, audiophile net. Shure Brother Inc.,
222 Hartrey Avenue, Evanston, Ill.
A -7
Stereo Tape Recorder. The new Roberts,
4 -track stereo tape recorder features 6 low- impedance stereo outputs,
studio -type VU meters, 'motor -on' indicator lights, mute-monitor speaker switch,
and simplified sound -with -sound recording. The 997 is designed to function as a
complete sound system: It has inputs for
stereo record changer and/or AM-FM and
FM- stereo tuner, so that it can serve as
the heart of a stereo system. It is priced
at $449.95. Other features of the 997 include a multiple -adjustment head; dual
monitor speakers: lever -type automatic
Model 997
,
New Version of LT -110 FM- Stereo Tuner
Kit. The Scott LT -110 FM- Stereo to er kit
has been redesigned to include cott's
unique Sonic Monitor (pat. pending) This
Scott invention signals the listener audibly to tell him when he is tuned to station broadcasting in FM Stereo. T use
the Sonic Monitor, the listener s mply
turns the switch to "Monitor" and unes
across the FM dial. When he reac es a
station broadcasting in FM stere , he
Responds to weakest signals but strong
signals won't overload it
New Stereotron Antenna and 2 Nuvistor FM
amplifier will positively improve your FM
set performance; pulls in far -away stations!
Now an FM antenna has been designed by
Winegard that will deliver unexcelled FM
and FM stereo listening whether you live
close to FM stations or 200 miles away. The
new Stereotron is so powerful, so efficient
that we actually guarantee better performance from your FM, guarantee that you will
receive 85% of all FM stations in a 200
mile radius.
The Stereotron Antenna (model SF -8)
with Stereotron 2 nuvistor amplifier (model
AP-320) is the only antenna-amplifier combination that can be used anywhere. Nuvistor
amplifier takes up to 200,000 micro -volts of
signal without overloading -yet responds to
signals of only 1 micro-volt. The Stereotron
with nuvistor amplifier has minimum gain of
26 DB over a folded dipole and flat frequency response of ± 1/4 DB from 88 to 108 mc.
Antenna is GOLD ANODIZED, amplifier
completely weather -sealed. Available for
300 ohm or 75 ohm coax.
SF-8 Stereotron Antenna $23.65
AP -320 Stereotron Amplifier $39.95 -can be
used with any FM antenna.
Write for information and spec. sheets
today on the Stereotron and other Winegard
FM and TV antennas and accessories. Get
FREE Station Log and FM map of U.S.
write today.
-
World's Most Complete Line of FM and TV
antennas, FM-TV Couplers and Amplifiers
W'
!Vine
ANTENNA
3008 -1 Kirkwood Blvd.
and
EMS
Burlington, Iowa
CIRCLE 68A
hears a tone through his speakers. hen
he switches back to "Listen" and FMstereo reception. Other changes have been
made in the LT -110. It is now packa d in
Scott's new Kit -Pak container. All arts
come mounted on special Part -Char s in
the order used. There is a separate bl sterpacked Part -Chart for each page i the
full -color instruction book. The instr tion
book has been rewritten, making it even
easier to follow. The face -plate of th LT110 now has a brushed gold finish, m king
it a perfect match to Scott factory - ired
units. H. H. Scott, Inc., Dept. P, 111 -owdermill Road, Maynard, Mass.
A-8
-Price
8
-In.
Moderate
Londspeake . A
new moderately priced high fidelity oudspeaker, the Michigan MC8, has just been
introduced by Electro- Voice, Inc. Thi- new
loudspeaker, E -V officials claim, offer for
the first time a combination of true high
fidelity speaker characteristics and a rice
structure competitive with that of q lity
replacement -type loudspeakers. The ide
range, low cost, and high efficiency o the
MC8 make it
ideal for use in
home high fidelity systems,
quality b a c kground music,
sound reinforcement systems,
and many industrial applications.
Features of the MC
loudspeaker,
first model in
E -V's
new
Michigan Line,
include extra slim styling, a
rugged die -cast frame, and an edge isewound voice coil that provides 18 per ent
more efficiency than ordinary coils. he
dual -cone design is claimed to pro ide
wider range and wider dispersion .i an
single -cone types. The MC8 has a requency range of 50 to 13,000 cps : nd
power handling capacity of 12 watts, rogram and 24 watts, peak. Inquiries sh uld
be made to: Sales Department, Elec roVoice, Inc., Buchanan, Michigan.
-9
.
-
shut -off; dual head outputs; dual preamp
outputs; dual power amplifier outputs;
double fast rewind; automatic shut -off
and interlocking controls that prevent accidental erasure of recorded tape. The 997
will operate either vertically or horizontally. Tape speeds are 3%, 71/2, and 15 ips.
It uses a 24 -slot high- torque hysteresis synchronous motor with dynamically balanced rotor and flywheel. Roberts Electronics, Inc., 5920 Bowcroft Ave., Los
Angeles, California.
A-10
Line- Radiator Speaker. A new LineRadiator public address speaker, the Electro -Voice LR7, joins the firm's LR4 and
LR4S. The LR7 is a sophisticated version
of the column speaker offering a well-defined polar pattern with maximum radiated energy in a 160 -deg. horizontal plane
and a 45 -deg. vertical dispersion. It thus
provides the broadest possible coverage
with an absolute minimum of feedback.
The unit may be mounted in almost any
location, which allows positioning for
most effective audience coverage. No complicated installation accessories are required, since it weighs only 70 pounds. A
power-handling capacity of 50 watts permits use in a wide variety of indoor and
outdoor installations. The new Line -Radiator is said to provide excellent sound,
despite its low price, through the use of
nine 5" x 7" high -quality loudspeakers.
Electro- Voice, Inc., Buchanan, Mich. A -11
AUDIO
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
JANUARY, 1963
The world's smallest watch, $3000
Courtesy of Vacheron & Constantin.LeCoultre Watches, Inc.
NEW LITERATURE
Printed Circuit Materials. Drafting Materials for use in the layout of printed circuit masters are described in a 12 -page
catalogue available from Flexigraph Inc.
The catalogue includes information on
precision grids and tapes accurate to plus
or minus 0.001 and die -cut symbols accurate to plus or minus 0.002. Flexigraph,
Inc., Morristown, N. J.
That's what our British friends call an
equalizer and, we too, think it is a very
appropriate name. Today's recording demands continually specify curve bending
for almost every channel. And, the 11/2"
narrow FAIRCHILD Curve Bender (equalizer) offers complete flex`bility. Unit Includes five equalization points at 4, 6, 8,
10 and 15 kc with a maximum boost or
rolloff of 10 db in 5 steps. The FAIRCHILD
Curve Bender also has iow end equalization using a maximum of 10 db boost or
rolloff in 5 steps. Easy to install .
passive. The FAIRCHILD Equalizer can be
the difference between a hit or miss in
recording sessions.
An Integra /Series Component -Model 664
Price: $145.00
For complete details write
FAIRCHILD
RECORDING EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
1040 45th Ave., Long Island City 1, N. Y.
CIRCLE 69B
ADVANCE ORDERS
BOUND VOLUMES
A -11
Soldering Iron Catalogue. An 8 -page
catalogue describing Ungar's Imperial
soldering iron is available free. This iron
which is designed to meet the needs of
production line assembly operations in
electronic industries is completely described in so far as application, specifications, and user net prices. Also included
are descriptions of the interchangeable
Imperial components such as the pastel colored Perma -Kool handles, standard or
grounded cord sets, and 25 -30 -40 -watt
long -life heat cartridges, and 42 Mini -Tip
thread -on soldering tips. Information on
a variety of accessories such as the
"safety guard" holder and the "heat seal"
compound is also included. Ungar Electronic Tools, Hawthorne, Calif.
A -12
Lafayette announces its
tronics and stereo high -fidelity equipment,
is now available to anyone upon request.
The 1963 catalog contains 388 pages and is
the largest and most comprehensive ever
offered by Lafayette. Featured items include Lafayette's exclusive top -quality
equipment in kit form and completely assembled, as well as the latest stereo high fidelity components of all major manufacturers- tuners, amplifiers, preamplifiers, tape recorders, turntables, speakers,
1963 Catalog.
new 1963 catalog, with the latest in elec-
and so on. Also offered are complete selections of citizens band equipment, optics,
books, tools, radio and TV components and
accessories, cameras, public- address systems and parts -everything in science and
technology for hobbyists, students, experimenters and industry. The free Lafayette
1963 catalog #630 may be obtained by
writing to: Lafayette Radio Electronics
Corp., 111 Jericho Turnpike, Syosset, L. I.,
New York
A -13
1962 Issues
Audio Magazine
Order Now
LIMITED NUMBER
AVAILABLE
$10.00 EACH POSTPAID
U. S. DELIVERY ONLY
Application Manual for Transistor Heat
Sinks. Astro Dynamics, Inc. has made
available at no charge an 18 -page manual
containing information on heat dissipation. The purpose of these notes is to present some of the basic principals of heat
transfer in a very simple form and to indicate the steps which lead to the proper
selection of a cooling system for critical
transistor applications. A nomograph is
provided which enables proper selection
of heat sink models suited to any given
application. Inquiries should be addressed
to John H. Sununu, Heat Transfer Lab,
Astro Dynamics, Inc., Second Ave., Northwest Industrial Park, Burlington, Mass.
A -14
Send Order
and Remittance Today
Book Division
Radio Magazines, Inc.
P.O. Box 629
Mineola, N. Y.
*Delivery January 15, 1963
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Swiss precision
THOREN5
TD -124
TRANSCRIPTION TURNTABLE
-
-
CRAFTSMANSHIP
unique in its precision
superlative in its design and style.
These are the marks of a fine Swiss watch;
on these qualities the Swiss firm of Thorens
has built its reputation.
No one surpasses the Swiss in precision manufacturing. And no one has surpassed the
precision -crafted Thorens TD -124 either ..
with its built -in versatility, its more conveniences, more features than any other
turntable available.
A mere glance beneath the table tells you
why: Machined parts, precision balanced,
polished to mirror -like finishes
no mere
metal stampings these! The finest features
of a belt drive
plus idler wheel
plus
an 11% pound, machine- balanced table!
Visit a franchised dealer, and see the TD -124
and all the family of fine Thorens turntables
. compare with any other! Or write us for
full specifications. Dept. H -12
Guaranteed for One Full Year.
BASES from $10 to $35
TD -124 -$110 net
-
...
Transistorized Voltage Regulators. The
latest addition to RCA's Application Guide
series, Transistorized Voltage Regulators,
describes step -by -step design procedures
and the solution to sample design problems for the three basic types of regulating systems: series, shunt, and combination series -shunt regulators. Each of these
systems can provide constant voltage,
constant current, or constant impedance
across the load. The Guide covers design
considerations and discusses the numerous
advantages and capabilities of transistorized voltage -regulator types: small size,
low cost, increased reliability and accuracy, and extensive control range. Copies
of Transistorized Voltage Regulators,
ICE -254 may be obtained by sending
twenty -five cents to Commercial Engineering, RCA Semiconductor and Materials
Division, Somerville, New Jersey.
...
Thorens TD -121
$85 net
a new Swiss .
.
precision Thorens
for those requiring only 33% rpm
or other single
speed.
ELPA
ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES, Inc.
THORENS DIVISION
New Hyde Park, N. Y.
ln Canada: Tri-Tel Associates Ltd., Willowdale, Ont.
CIRCLE 69A
69
HOW
THE NEW WEATHERS ML66A
IS DESIGNED TO PLAY YOUR
RECORDS WITH MORE CARE
FM RECEPTION
(from page 20)
AND PRECISION THAN ANY
OTHER TURNTABLE YOU
CAN BUY. HERE'S WHY.
Low mass and weight make it perfect for today's
high compliance tonearms and cartridges. Measures only 163f," x 14K6" x 23f6" high including its
integrated base. Offers quietest performance
(-60db rumble) and most accurate speed (only
0.4% wow and flutter). Exclusive "Seismic Platform" suspension completely eliminates feedback
from room vibrations.
ML -66A
Includes
New Universal
Tonearm
Mount any cartridge in its interchangeable plug -in
shell. Perfect balance eliminates side thrust or
"skating." Exclusive full -time viscous damping
prevents accidental stylus and record damage, insures that correct stylus force is constantly applied. Crafted of non -resonant walnut. Mounts on
any other turntable. ML-66A with Universal Tone arm- $99.50. K -66 Turntable, Arm and Weathers
$129.50. K -66P Turntable, Arm
LDM Cartridge
and Famous Professional Pick -up- $195.50.
MT -66 Universal Tonearm only -$31.50.
-
New Stress -
Generator
LDM
Cartridge
The only cartridge with complete freedom to
respond to the most rapid record groove motions,
reproducing peak passages with no break -up, giving you the cleanest, most musical sound you've
ever heard. Provides same design principle employed by the famed Weathers Professional Car-
tridge. $39.50.
Introducing the New
Sound Studio Loudspeaker
A speaker system of professional
studio quality measuring only 12"
x 20" x 7 ". Exclusive Weathers
variable mass damping attains a
transparency and smoothness of
sound previously heard only in the costlier full
range systems. Unique electrical crossover eliminates crossover coloration and ringing. Model
SE-200---$99.50.
Write for free catalog: Dept. A-1,
WEATHERS
Division of TelePrompTer Corp.,
X50 W. 44th St., N.Y. 36, N.Y.
CIRCLE 70A
TO FIT
TWO db
INTO
IBF
Medium Range Reception,
Stations from Different Directions
The reader by this time will probably
have reached his own conclusion that this
calls for a yagi on a rotator, and in most
cases he's right. The problem is the same
as the previous one with the only difference showing in the need to change the
aim of the antenna.
However, in the special case of all desired stations being from either the front
or the back of the antenna, there is a bidirectional yagi which receives equally
well from either front or back ano. exhibits medium gain characteristics. Such
an antenna, illustrated in Fig. 4, can
save the cost and complexity of a rotator
installation.
Use the
FAIRCHILD
COMPRESSOR
!
Now you can have apparent loudness on
every microphone channel. The FAIRCHILD
COMPACT COMPRESSOR can give you the
extra "punch" of apparent loudness
the
sound that makes hits. It has built -in flexibility through variable threshold and variable release (.3 to 7 seconds) located on the
front panel. The FAIRCHILD COMPACT COMPRESSOR will provide up to 20 db compression and will not introduce distortion. It is
no larger than a slide type attenuator
.
only 11/2" NARROW
and can be easily
integrated into all types of equipment.
-
..
...
An Integra /Series Component-Model 663
Fringe Reception, 40 to 70 Miles
Fringe reception can embrace a great
range of conditions, since this encompasses the area where the interve ping
terrain may be of utmost importance.
For example, an antenna on high ground,
a few hundred feet or more above average terrain, can produce results a; 70
miles equivalent to normal elevation results at 40 miles. Conversely, an antenna, located in a valley at 40 miles may
give worse results than an antenna in
normal terrain at 70 miles. Prediction of
results is at best a risky thing, and
reception can vary from good to im possible within an area of a square mil in
rugged terrain.
The above should not be taken pessimistically, but it should not be di sregarded in considering an antenna installation.
In general, one must try, but it is
pointless to try anything other than a
high -gain FM yagi, and if condit.ons
warrant, an antenna rotator.
Certain rules apply. For example, the
higher the antenna, the higher the signal,
but also the longer the antenna lead. And
antenna leads have loss. Usually, bey'ond
some height, which varies in each location, increased height will be counterbalanced by increased line losses, and
nothing will be gained.
When a practical installation of a
single high gain yagi is not enough, two
avenues of help are open. The first is to
use two yagis -"stacked " -connected together to provide additional gain Stich
stacking must only be done according to
the maker's instructions : improper connections or spacing can result in a _oss
rather than a gain.
The other avenue is the use of a 1)wnoise preamplifier mounted at the an-
70
Price: $158.00
For complete details write
FAIRCHILD
RECORDING EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
10 -40 45th Ave., Long Island City 1, N. Y.
CIRCLE 7013
FOR FULL QUALITY
STEREO -MULTIPLEX
OR MONOPHONIC
FM RECEPTION
USE
/NCO
---- lii,.-....--,!--.Model FM -4
World's Most Complete
line of HI-Fl Phased
FM
ANTENNAS
The Top Performance Line!
Ask your dealer to explain the advantages of these
outstanding antennas or write for Catalog 20 -213.
THE FINNEY COMPANY
Dept.
A
CIRCLE 70C
AUDIO
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
Bedford, Ohio
34 West Interstate
JANUARY, 1963
tenna or in the house. The preferable system is the antenna -mounted type. Such
preamplifiers amplify the signals as
much as ten times, allowing the tuner to
limit, and thus give hiss -free reception.
Figure 5 illustrates an antenna -mounted
unit and Fig. 6 a set -mounted preamplifier.
In effect, an antenna -mounted preamplifier takes the signal before it has been
degraded by the lead losses and amplifies
it so that the losses will not increase the
signal -to-noise ratio at the tuner's input.
In a way, it effectively places your tuner
at the antenna, instead of a hundred feet
or so away through the down -lead.
Super- Fringe Area Reception,
Over 70 Miles
NEW GIBSON GIRL "'
STEREO 4 TAPE SPLICER
The new GIBSON GIRL® STEREO 4, is especially designed to meet the precise requirements of splicing 4 -track tape. A
new streamlined Gibson Girl shape
protects program material on the tape,
yet leaves tape edges free of adhesive.
Splices glide past your tape head with
never a hint of their presence. See the
new GIBSON GIRL® STEREO 4 at your tape
recorder and hi -fi dealer.
List Price $11.50
ROBINS INDUSTRIES CORP., FLUSHING 56, N. Y.
CIRCLE 7113
Chief Fidelitone
ingredient:
Super-fringe reception is only more of
the same fringe area techniques, used
with greater care. For example, four
yagis may be stacked to provide added
signal.
An antenna or array should not be just
pushed into the air; the area should be
probed for the strongest signals, up,
down, sideways, and front and back. An
antenna or array may be placed on top
of a nearby hill and lines run as much as
a couple of thousand feet, using amplifiers, to the tuner. These techniques
should not be undertaken lightly. Write
to an antenna or preamplifier manufacturer for their recommendations before
going ahead.
Survey and probing work should be
done only in the afternoon; signals are
worse during this time of day. Survey
should be made over an extended period
so that a bad day doesn't fool you. Remember that fringe signals fade out, and
they have short -term and long -term
fades.
If all else fails, you can always move
in closer to the transmitter
!
!
LETTERS
QUALITY
(from page 6)
We don't use just diamonds -we
use gem stone quality diamonds.
And it's the same with each
component of each Fidelitone
diamond needle. The finest ma-.
terials, engineering talent, and
workmanship all combine to
assure you of quality needles
for quality sound reproduction
equipment.
When you need a needle, get
quality specify Fidelitone
on top since 1929.
-
-
-
Fidelitone
"Best buy on records"
Chicago 26, Illinois
CIRCLE 71C
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
with changes of mechanical load.
The question of effective pulley diameter
has only theoretical significance, since belt
slippage requires that the final diameter
be determined experimentally in any case.
Recognizing that there is slippage has practical significance ; it leads to the understanding that synchronous motor performance combined with correct pulley diameter
does not guarantee accurate speed over a
given operational range of mechanical load.
Speed accuracy must be proven in a test
like the "nickel test" proposed in the article.
As for slippage causing an increase of
speed (by a sort of ratchet action of the
pulley), it seemed logical in the absence of
Mr. Subber's more standard explanation. If
ratchet action is ever an influence, it is unproven, and I withdraw it.
the most
noise -free
recordings
you have
ever
heard
will be made on the new all- transistorized Norelco
Continental '401' Stereo Tape Recorder, the only
recorder using the newly developed AC107 transistors in its two preamplifiers. The AC107 is the
only transistor specifically designed for magnetic
tape head preamplifiers utilizing specially purified
germanium to achieve the extraordinary low noise
figure of 3 db, measured over the entire audio
band (rather than the usual single frequency). This
noise figure remains stable over large collector emitter voltage swings and despite large variations in source resistance.
Hear the new transistorized Norelco Continental
'401' 4 -track stereo /mono record and playback
4 speeds: 7%, 3''/, 1% and the new 4th speed
of 's%
iw ips which provides 32 hours of recording
on a single 7" reel
fully self- contained with
dynamic stereo microphone, two speakers (one in
the removable cover for stereo separation), dual
preamps and dual recording and playback amplifiers self- contained PA system mixing facilities
can also play through external hi -fi system
multiplay facilities.
Specifications: Frequency response: 60- 16,000 cps
at 71
ips. Head gap: 0.00012 ". Signal -to -noise
ratio: better than -48 db. Wow and flutter: less
than 0.14% at 71 ips. Recording level indicator:
one -meter type. Program indicator: built-in, 4 -digit
adjustable. Inputs: for stereo microphone (1 two channel); for phono, radio or tuner (2). Foot pedal
facilities (1). Outputs: for external speakers (2),
for external amplifiers (1 two -channel); heaiphone
(1). Recording standby. Transistor complement:
AC 107 (4), 0075 (6),0074 (2), 0C44 (2), 2N1314
(2), 0079 (1). Line voltage: 117 volts AC at 60
cycles. Power consumption: 65 watts. Dimensions:
181/2" x 15" x 10 ". Weight: 38 lbs. Accessories:
Monitoring headset and dual microphone adapter.
For a pleasant demonstration, visit your favorite hi -fi dealer. Write for free Brochure A -1.
North American Philips Company, Inc., High
Fidelity Products Division, 230 Duffy Avenue,
Hicksville, Long Island, New York.
órelo'
EDGAR VILLCHIIR
Acoustic Research, Inc.
24 Thorndike Street
Cambridge 41, Mass.
In Canada and
throughout the
Tree
world, horelco in known as 'the Philips.
CIRCLE 71A
71
A
I
convenient service to AUDIO readers.
Or ..
-
l
,_
_:
Order your books leisurely
by mail
save time and travel,
we pay the postage.
Ç
`
Designing and Building Hi -Fi Furniture
Jeff Markel
Written by o professional
hi -fi furniture designer
who has taught furniture
design at leading col-
Maintaining Hi -Fi Equipment
Joseph Marshall
valuable reference for
anyone whose living or
hobby is servicing hi -fi
equipment. Outlines the
professional approach for
servicing all types of hifi components. Covers
trouble- shooting of electronic, mechanical and
A
eil.
Stereo...How It Works
A
Herman Burstein
well known authority
writes on the exciting
technology of stereo. Its
theory and operating
techniques including recording, playback, broad-
leges, this book is an au-
thentic reference of value
to the hi -fl fon and professional custom builder.
Covers everything from
types of woods to furniture finishing for the
mechanically adept; design principles, styles and
acoustic problems. 224
pages.
No. 58 Paperback $2.90*
JG
casting, simulcasting,
multiplexing.
stereo
with
a
Covers
discs and tapes
unique and prac-
tical approach.
224
pages.
No. 80 Paperback $2.90`
arrangements for the
decor minded. 224 pages.
No. 79 Paperback S2.90*
Introduction to Hi -Fi
McProud High Fidelity Omnibook
Handbook of
Sound Reproduction
Edgar M. Villchur
Prepared and edited by
C. G. McProud, publisher
of Audio and noted authority and pioneer in
the field of high fidelity.
Contains
a
Right up to date, a complete course on sound reproduction. Covers everything
from the basic
elements to individual
chapters of each of the
important components of
a high fidelity system.
No. 110 $3.75
wealth of
ideas, how to's, what
to's, and when to's, written so plainly that both
engineer and layman can
appreciate its valuable
context. Covers planning,
problems with decoration,
cabinets and building hifi furniture. A perfect
guide.
No.115 S2.50`
"the best of AUDIO"
-
new compendium of
AUDIO knowledge. Here
is a collection of the
best of AUDIO
The
AUDIO Clinic by Joseph
Giovanelli . . . noted
audio engineer and the
original high fidelity answer -man
EQUIPMENT
PROFILES edited by C. G.
.
.
. Editor of
McProud
AUDIO. Here is a wealth
of hi -fi and audio information. Answers to the
most important issues in
high fidelity and a valuable reference.
No. 124 Volume I $2.00
A
Harold D. Weiler
-
A complete book on home
recording by the author
of High Fidelity Simplified. Easy to read and
learn the techniques required for professional
results with home re-
-
corders. Covers room
acoustics, microphone
techniques, sound effects,
editing and splicing, etc.
Invaluable to recording
enthusiasts.
Paper Cover $2.95
No. 112
MONTHLY SPECIAL! SAVE
$5.25
45% with this collection of AUDIO Books.
Handbook of Sound Reproduction ($3.751 "best of AUDIO" ($2.001
Save over
McProud High Fidelity Omnibook ($2.501
Tape Recorders & Tape Recording ($2.951
TOTAL VALUE OF ALL FOUR BOOKS $11.20
Your cost ONLY $5.95 POSTPAID
This offer expires January 31, 1963. Good only on direct order to Publisher
CIRCLE 05300
AUDIO Bookshelf
full remittance of
58
115
I
- RADIO MAGAZINES,
INC.
am enclosing the
(No C.O.D. or billing.)
have circled below.
S
79
80
123
124
I
88
142
-a
-
110
251
All
authoritative encyclope-
dic work with a unique
quick reference system for
instant answers to any
question. A vital complete reference book for
every audio engineer,
technician, and serious
U.S.A. and CANADIAN
orders shipped postpaid.
Add 25Ç for Foreign orders (sent at buyer's risk).
112
OS300
No. 123 S19.95'
audiophile.
High Fidelity Simplified
Harold D. Weiler
The
complete hi -fi
stop
-
answers oll questions about
tuners, changers, amplifiers,
tape recorders, speakers,
record plovers, etc. Lots of
ideas for custom installotions. Tells how to achieve
concert hall reception in
your home. 216 pages.
$3.30
Getting The Most Out Of Your Tope Recorder
Herman Burstein
Written
TAPE RECORDER
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY
1280 pages
3400 topics
1600 illustrations
Here is one single volume
with the most comprehensive coverage of every
phase of audio. Concise,
accurate explanations of
all audio and hi -fi subjects. More than 7 years
in preparation -the most
No. 142
P.O. Box 629, Mineola, New York
Please send me the books
approach to hi -fi theory
typically
and practice
British thoroughness in
the discussion of pickups, preamps, amplifiers,
speakers, acoustics, etc.
with an interesting
prognosis of hi-fi in the
future. The author is a
renowned British authority. His style contributes
a fresh new look at hi -fi.
192 pages.
No. 88 Paperback 53.20'
"The AUDIO Cyclopedia"
Howard M. Tremaine
edited by C. G. McProud
Tape Recorders and Tape Recording'
Clement Brown
An original, refreshing
in
"plain talk" for
the mon who has, or wishes
to buy, a rope recorder. Ir
answers the myriad questions raised by tape recording enthusiasts. Its chapters
cover every phase of operation and maintenance -from
adding a tape recorder to
the hi-fi system, to o thorough dissertation on microphones. Lots of practical
information on how to buy.
176 pages.
ZONE
No. 251
STATE
AUDIO
72
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
54.25
JANUARY, 1963
There's a
FAIRCHILD
CONAX
AUDIO ETC
(from page 14)
of years after I began this long stretch,
now amounting to thousands of hours of
broadcast experience, I started the brave
attempt to make a partial living out of
my work. As soon as the war ended I was
on the full -time staff of the old WABF,
one of the earliest FM stations, as paid
"music director." But the funds ran dry
and the enthusiastic workers, all set for
the great FM expansion, were let go.
Culture wasn't going to come that way.
As we all know, FM, the ideal medium for
"cultural radio ", very nearly died then,
until rescued by the LP, tape, and home
hi fi.
In all the years since, in spite of a
number of fairly major efforts to launch
a program for pay (one effort generously
sponsored by this magazine) I have not
been able to buck the system. True, a few
pleasing sums came my way during brief
sponsorship. Not enough, really, to pay
for tape and postage, let alone equipment.
True, a number of stations have accepted
my programs for varied runs on the usual
basis -i.e. for the prestige it gave me.
(It did, of course.) But by and all, I
have had to finance my broadcasts myself,
from tape to postage to Ampexes, like the
poet who prints his own poems.
My material, of course, cones to me
gratis-for I review records! In that
respect alone I am a good cog in our
system; for I benefit all concerned: myself,
the station, the listeners, and the record
companies. Also the musicians (who are
paid, so to speak, at the source by the
union's very practical recording fund arrangements and who gain the usual measure
of acclaim and publicity by my broadcasts
of their efforts).
But as for cash -no. And over the years.
as the die began to harden, the situation
to crystallize, I came to feel that though
in many ways the system is excellent and
gives us all our moneys' worth in culture
and prestige- otherwise I would have long
since given up- nevertheless a fundamental
wrong is being perpetrated on American
cultural talent by the permanent denial
of a man's right to earn his living in the
best way he can. That I do not like, for
myself and for others in my position, including Professor Woodworth at Harvard.
And so I have made myself, after all
these years, an unofficial law, a compromise.
To use an old and hard -bitten saying, you
can't get blood out of a stone. As things
are now set -and they are very set
there simply is no major source of cash
for cultural talent on the air, always excepting celebrities and symphonies on networks, and excepting a small number of
successful commercial broadcast operations
like that of WQXR and its network in
New York. (Also, of course, excepting
those regular staff employees who produce
programs as part of their jobs via many
small FM stations.)
- on top of the
Empire State
Building!
For Dear Old WNYC
WNEW-TV Channel
.
My compromise is simple. For dear old
WNYC, New York, which I love for all
its comfortable faults and because of
its ninny superb virtues, I will go on providing material for ever and ever, as long
as it is wanted. I have shelves and shelves
of back tapes already. When inspiration
fails, or time forbids, I can dip into
these for useful repeats, and often do. They
seem to be appreciated. But for other outlets I stand upon my dignity; I demand
at least a token fee-to establish the fact
that the station is getting something out
of me. Token is what I mean. Enough,
say, to pay for postage and a roll of tape
and allow a few dollars over. That at least
establishes the ethical principle that interests nie -that talent, all talent, which
is good enough to broadcast is good enough
to be paid for. The principle, as far as I
know, is universally respected in other
countries. We seem to think that either
"culture" or government ownership implies
no remuneration. We shouldn't.
CONAX has been engineered by FAIRCHILD to cope with the problem of
distortion produced in recording and
broadcasting by excessive, instantaneous high frequency peaks. The FAIRCHILD CONAX "previews" program
(material in emphasized form for effi''.cient high frequency control. The
device is based on the integrating
properties of the human ear. The
CONAX action is inaudible and instantaneous
1
40.000ths of a second.
I
-
Unhealthy Situation
CONAX produces increased signal
levels in recording and FM broad-
So you see, FM's culture has now reached
the point where its dependence on free
talent is very nearly 100 per cent. Indeed,
the implication is, a program of personal
THIS SYMBOL
IDENTIFIES
TRUE
MASTER TAPE
G4AANTE'c
SOUND
on 12" L.P. STEREO RECORDS
RPM
It has never before been possible for you to hear the thrilling
the special tape from which records
sound of a master tape
are reproduced.
-
Now you can enjoy this exciting sound on Quarante- Cinq Records.
5
in New York uses the
FAIRCHILD CONAX to
maintain high average audio
levels despite pre-emphasis
problems. The CONAX is silently
at work minimizing problems created by sibilants, finger snapping.
the shrill sounds of children, the
rattling of dishes, muted trumpets
and cymbals, which are all part of
WNEW -TV's program schedule. No
more reduction of apparent loudness because of these high frequency
problems.
cast.
CONAX reduces
distortion in tape
recording and tape duplication.
CONAX minimizes channel crosstalk in stereo broadcasting.
CONAX eliminates high frequency
"splatter" between stereo channels
and SCA channel.
Why not let the FAIRCHILD CONAX
help you maintain high average audio
levels.
FAIRCHILD RECORDING EQUIP. CORP.
10 -40 45th Avenue, Long Island City 1, N. Y.
MAR THIS COUPON FOR COMPLETE DATA
FAIRCHILD RECORDING EQUIPMENT
10 -40 45th Avenue
Long Island City 1, N. Y.
CORP.
Dear Sir:
Please send me complete information on the
Fairchild Conan
Name
Firm Name__
At your high fidelity dealer or write giving his name and address.
QUARANTE -CINQ RECORDS, 333 Sixth Ave., New York 14, N. Y.
CIRCLE 738
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
Address___
City
Zone
_State__
CIRCLE 73A
73
Who kicked the
music stand?
That question would never have been
asked if the engineer had been using the
FAIRCHILD AUTO -TENTH (automatic attenuator). The FAIRCHILD AUTO -TEN is bas-
ically a noise reduction system: If information falls below the operator selected
threshold the channel closes down and
opens only when information passes the
selected threshold. The FAIRCHILD AUTO TEN contains a control to cover time
needed for complete attenuation or noise
reduction. Real flexibility!
It does the job of
costing ten times as
and is easily installed
studio consoles. The
units
much
in all
FAIR-
CHILD AUTO -TEN is invalu-
able for minimizing studio
noise, preventing noise in
multi -track tape transfer
and minimizing feedback.
AN INTEGRA /SERIES COMPONENT
Rotary type Model 661
Price: $125.00
Slide type Model 661TL
For details write
FAIRCHILD
RECORDING EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
10 -40 45th Ave., Long Island City 1, N. Y.
CIRCLE 74A
YOU
SAVE
MONEY!
RUSH
LIST
US
OF
YOUR
HI-FI
COMPONENTS
FOR A
SPECIAL
QUOTATION
WRITE FOR FREE
AUDIO DISCOUNT
commentary should bring with it a cash
sort of performers' radio-to
donation
help sustain the broadcast! And the worst
of it, for me, is that this is probably the
truth. It costs a fabulous sum to keep a
station on the air, even without stereo. We
can raise the cash-for that. But we
depend, so to speak, on sheer charity to
give our stations a voice. Frankly, I con't
think this is a healthy situation. It promotes a false relationship between commercialism and culture that is already the
bane of American life in too many other
areas. It is doubly false, here, because
many of our FM listeners continue to
believe, naively, that all radio talent swims
in luxury, ladling up the radio gravy!
They are right in so assuming. It is right
to assume that people who have talent and
who work hard are getting paid.
It is even healthier to find people w lose
work is that of sheer dedication. The
world would be a sadder place if everybody got paid for everything. But the
true basis for work that is done oui of
love and enthusiasm is found in working
together- in co- operation. It still make: the
world go `round, whether it's called fel owship, or amateurism, or volunteer work or
-a
even patriotism.
We in this country have not found comfortable ways towards this co- operation,
between paid and non-paid efforts. We pay
our teachers too little and our publie relations men too much. We assume our
rights to a profit here, and yet take for
granted a loss there. We hire paid professionals for charity fund-raising and
give them their profit as their right. Sometimes, it becomes a bit too large. Inevitable-yes! The profit motive is po\ent
but so is the non -profit impulse, which as
we all know can loom as the greatest fcree
in human society when the occasion demands. But though the need for profit an
always be taken for granted, the nonprofit impulse is never that way. For it
must be paid, too, in satisfactions that are
much more subtle than mere cash. Tou
cannot take it for granted at all.
of
even for "publicity value."
I do not like the present situation in M
"cultural" broadcasting because, for all its
practical workability, it reflects that same
uneasy, false uncertainty as to who is
paying whom (in terms of satisfactions)
that leads us to pay industrialists more
than teachers for equivalent work, that
makes us believe, more and more, that
things of the mind and of art must be
taken care of by foundations; wher sae
"practical" things are paid for in cash.
What do I suggest, instead/ I wish I
could tell you. My best suggestion is simply
awareness. The more of us that know the
details of our present setup, the better it
will be for all and the sooner, maybe, will
culture find a pay-as- you -go basis on the
FM air. As for m'self, I'm quite ha py
and still enormously enjoy the radio programs I turn out. I do what I can.
Wouldn't you t
Æ
KEY
ELECTRONICS CO.
120 LIBERTY ST.
NEW YORK 6, N.Y.
NIGH FIDELITY SPEAKERS REPAIRED
AMPRITE SPEAKER SERVICE
168 W. 23rd St., New York 11, N. Y.
CH 3 -4812
ENJOY PLEASANT SURPRISES? Then
write us before you purchase any hi -fi. You'll
be glad you did. Unusual savings. Key Electronics, 120 Liberty St., New York 6, N. Y.
CLoverdale 84288.
WRITE for quotation on components, recorders. FREE catalog. HI-FIDELITY SUPPLY, 2817 -VC Third, N.Y.C. 55
SALE ITEMS-tapes-package quotes.
Bayla, Box 131 -0, Wantagh, N. Y.
name brands.
MILITARY DISCOUNT
Free recording tape and stereo handbook. Include rank, serial number. Electronics Inter-
-
national, Box 3066, Charlottesville, Virginia.
HARPSICHORD KIT-same authentic instrument as used by Philadelphia Symphony
and Columbia Records. For home workshop
assembly, $150. Clavichord kit, $100. Free
brochure. Write : Zuckermann Harpsichords,
Dept. R, 115 Christopher St., New York 14,
N. Y.
LOWEST PRICES, factory fresh hi -fi components, all manufacturers. Write for quotations. Audio Associates, P. O. Box 64, Franklin Park, N. J.
SELL : Matched stereo pair Quad electrostatic loudspeakers. Eleven months old, A-1
condition, original cartons, $400 the pair.
Francis Daniel, 945 West End Avenue, New
York, N. Y. Telephone : AC 2 -0898.
FOR SALE : Bogen MXM microphone mixer
preamplifier, 5 input, convertible to low impedance, $90. University 501 cardioid dynamic
microphone with SSP10 adapter and cable,
$40. G. Robinson, 519 Welcome Ave., Norwood, Pa.
SCOTT 130 stereo preamplifier, excellent
condition, no case. $60. David Magnan, 5441
S. Oriole Ave., Tucson. Ariz.
PIPE ORGANS WANTED-AND FOR
SALE Monthly magazine, $2, year organs
new, used, parts, music. Alden Miller, 3212
34th Avenue South, Minneapolis 6, Minnesota.
RECONDITIONED COMPONENTS FOR
SALE. Fully guaranteed. Write for listing.
Your trade -ins accepted toward new components. Marrt Electronics, 690 Central Avenue,
Cedarhurst, N. Y.
WANTED: REL 6460-1 Precedent tuner.
Manny Villafana, ST 6 -2100, 598 E. 139
Street, Bronx 54, N. Y.
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520 FIFTH AVENUE
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UEP
CRIPTIVE FOLDER
O N
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T
JANUARY, 1963
F./ f/Q.
Sherwood Shows Experimental Transis-
THE FINEST OF ITS KIND . . .
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To be fully informed,
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APPARATUS DEVELOPMENT CO.
WETHERSFIELD 9, CONN
CIRCLE 75C
DON'T BUY H1 -111..
components or tape
recorders
until
you get our low.
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ANTENNAE
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CIRCLE 75D
STENTORIAN'
BRITISH HI -FI SPEAKERS
complet line of highest quality full range
loudspeakers-from 6" to 15" coaxlals, tweeters, woofers and crossover networks.
A
Leaders in Hi -Fi since 1927
First in value.
writs for complets literature:
BARKER SALES COMPANY
339 BROAD AVENUE
RIDGEFIELD, NEW JERSEY
TRADEMARK
Ses your dealer er
CIRCLE 75E
o AUDIO
unlimited
Specializes in SAVING YOU MONEY
FACTORY
FRESH COMPONENTS
LOWEST
POSSIBLE QUOTATIONS
tor 'Unit. At the recent New York High
Fidelity Show, Sherwood showed an all transistorized stereo "Receiver-of-the Future." In the advanced experimental design stage, Sherwood's receiver, known as
Model XP -1, features not only FM-stereo
multiplex and AM reception but also dual
100-watt (music power) output. Other
unique features are timer -clock control,
push- button speaker- system selector, dual
tuning meters and self- contained, motorized fan to cool the output transistors and
power supply. Edward S. Miller, its designer, said "Although this design may
not be produced as such, many of its design features undoubtedly will be included in the all- transistorized amplifiers
and tuners expected to be mass -produced
by Sherwood in 1963."
Roseman Comes Back. Irving Rossman,
former President of Pentron Electronics,
has re- entered the electronics field by acquiring a controlling interest in Universal
Audio, manufacturers of sophisticated
electronic equipment for the sound, industrial, and recording industry. Mr. Ross man was in town to introduce new products for the company during the recent
AES convention in New York. Rossman
says that the company will round out its
line in the near future with stock products
for consumer purchases as well as additional professional items.
Burgess Battery Company Appoints.
Burgess Battery Company has appointed
Charles H. Donahue, Jr. to the newly created post of Magnetic Tape Sales Director. According to Fred Kirkman, president
of Burgess, the appointment of Donahue
is an important step in Burgess' program
to build a national sales organization to
market the company's line of audio tape
through regular tape distributor outlets.
He indicated that Donahue will also be
responsible for developing tape markets
with original equipment manufacturers,
professional broadcasters, and tape duplicators.
Gotham Represents Tuchel- Kontakt.
Gotham Audio Corporation announces its
appointment as exclusive U. S. representative for the Tuchel -Kontakt GmbH of
West Germany-manufacturers of audio
and power connectors-for the distribution of replacement connectors. Gotham
Audio will stock in New York all those
connectors which are found on equipment
imported from West Germany and such
other European countries using the Tuchel
line. Among the manufacturers of imported equipment using these plugs are
such names as Arriflex, Beyer, E.M.T.,
Grundig, Leitz, Lyrec, Neumann, Telefunken, and many others. A short form
catalogue of connector types is available
from Gotham Audio.
idulticore Sales Corp.
I
Port Wa,hingtcn,
N.Y.
CIRCLE 75A
A Professional
Qualityy
T11YRt(lbl('
lilt
GRAY PK -33
FAST DELIVERY
w.
CANADA
are FRANCHISED for most HI-FI lines.
SHIPPED PROMPTLY from our large
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LOWEST
PRICES. FREE STEREO CATALOG.
715-A Second Ave. (38th
St.), New York 16, N. Y. Visit Our Showroom
Orden
CIRCLE 75F
FAST SHIPMENTS
RECORDERS
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Service
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-
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CIRCLE 75C
AUDIO
JANUARY, 1963
.
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THE
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HI -FI COSTS LOW!
EQUIPMENT-Amplifiers, Toners. Speakers,
Motors, Pick-ups from the United Kingdom HI -FI Mall
Order Specialists carefully packed, Insured and shipped
promptly at minimum cost. Send $1.00 for catalogue.
C. C. GOODWIN (SALES) LTD. (Dept. A)
7, The Broadway, Wood Green, London N.22. England.
BRITISH
CIRCLE 75K
easy -to- assemble
stereo LP
turntable kit of professional
quality and performance. Rumble
better than 50 DB down ... flutter
0.08%... wow 0.2 %. Polyurethane
drive belt; hysteresis -synchronous
drive motor.
PK -33 Turntable Kit
$49.50
TBA Accessory Base
17.95
12 /G Tone Arm Kit 24.95
SAK
-
CIRCLE 75H
COMPONENTS
An
for complete dealer data write to:
GRAY RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT CO. INC.
Box 12, Elmwood, Connectéut
CIRCLE 75B
75
ADVERTISING
INDEX
11
Acoustic Research, Inc.
Acoustical Technology Laboratories, Inc 31
73
Airex Radio C.L.rporarion
51, 52
Allied Radio Corporation
56
Altec Lansing Corporation
5, 7
Ampex Corporation
75
Apparatus Development Co.
72
Audio Bookshelf
49
Audio Fidelity Records
75
Audio Unlimited
Barkes Sales Company
75
Canton Studios
75
65
Barker & Wil.iamson, Inc.
47
Benjamin Electronic Sound Corp
58
Bozak
British Industries Corporation . 3, 33, 34, 75
62
Burgess Battery Company
Classified
Concord Electronics Corporation
74
76
Dynaco, Inc.
45
EICO Electronic Instr. Co., Inc.
to make professional quality stereo
tape recordings your recorder must
three heads
have
1
All professional tape recorders have three separate heads -one erase,
one record, one playback. Record heads and playback heads have different
gap widths. A wide gap record head is a must to record all the sound on the
tape. A narrow gap playback head is a must to reproduce all the sound from
the tape. Professional quality sound on sound recordings can be made only
on a recorder with three heads.
The Concord 880 was designed for Connoisseurs of fine music -fbr
those who want to hear and appreciate the difference between ordin y
tape recordings and the fine professional recording and sound reproducti¢n
of the Concord 880.
Other important professional features of the Concord
all push button operation
-
4 -track
stereo record playback
new varisync flutter free
salient pole drive motor
sound with sound recording
exclusive Concord computerized
channel indicator
880
include:
three speeds
built in monitoring
dual full range speakers
10 watt dual amplifier
dual cathode follower high
impedance outputs
The 880 includes two professional dynamic microphones in a compact u it
perfect for use as a portable stereo recording and playback system-ide I
as a permanent part of your hi-fidelity music system.
Compare the Concord 880 and see why it offers much more
in performance -in features -in reliability -in value.
Make a recording quality comparison test at your dealers
if you're a connoisseur you'll hear the difference.
If you'd like a copy of Concord's booklet, "All the Facts"
-
-
send 100 to Concord Electronics Corporation
The best value in Stereo Tape Recorders -under $400.00
CONCORD 880
I
CONCORD ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
809 North Cahuenga Boulevard, Dept.
L, Los Angeles 38,
Electro- Voice, Inc.
Electro -Voice Sound Systems
Electronic Applications, Inc.
Elpa Marketing Industries, Inc.
Empire Scientific Corporation
13
Coy. IV
75
63
69
27
Fairchild Recording Equipment Corp.
6, 64, 69, 70, 74
71
Fidelitone
70
Finney Company
9
Fisher Radio Corporation
3, 33, 34
Garrard Sales Corp.
75
Goodwin, C. C. (Sales) Ltd.
50
Audio
Corporation
Gotham
75
Gray Research & Development Co.
ElecGrommes, Division of Precision
4
tronics, Inc.
25
Harman -Kardon
Heath Company
Hi Fidelity Center
38, 39
7.5
Coy.
Jensen Manufacturing Co.
Jerrold Electronics Corp.
II
1
Key Electronics Company
74
Lafayette Radio
Lansing, James B. Sound, Inc.
43
North American Philips Co., Inc.
71
Pickering & Company, Inc.
Pilot Radio Corporation
Pioneer
65
17
Cov.
III
15
Quarante Cinq Records
73
Rek -O -Kut Co., Inc.
14
57
Roberts Electronics, Inc.
Robins Industries
Rotron Mfg. Co.
71
59
67
Scott, H. H., Inc.
18
Sherwood Electronic Laboratories, Inc.
37, 55
Shure Brothers, Inc.
10
Sonotone Cartridges
73
Sonovox Co., Ltd.
41
Superscope, Inc.
Tandberg of America, Inc.
Technical Appliances Corp.
Weathers Division of TelePrompTer
Winegard Antenna Systems
60, 61
2
70
68
California
A.U1C
76
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
e
JANUARY, 1963
The finest FM Stereo Tuner
ever built for the home'
says Martin Gersten, chief engineer of WNCN, The Concert Network
Mr. Gersten talks from experience
as an FM broadcaster and as
at least 30 db channel separation.
Its automatic FM stereo indicator
takes all the guesswork out of
finding stereo broadcasts. And its
flywheel control construction, in
conjunction with its tuning meter,
assures easy, accurate tuning. At
$199.50 (less enclosure), the PILOT
780 is the greatest value on the
high -fidelity market today.
-both
authority and enthusiast. And in all his experience he
has never heard an FM stereo tuner
that compares with the PILOT 780.
a high -fidelity
The
PILOT 248B, companion to the
780, is a 74 -watt Integrated Stereo
Amplifier with a frequency response (± 1 db) of 5- 50,000 cps and
He first heard the PILOT 780 in
September, 1962, at the New York
High Fidelity Show.
He says "The Concert Network
station in New York City, WNCN,
only 0.1% harmonic distortion
(IHFM). Given an excellent rating
by HiFi /Stereo Review, the 248B
features outputs for tape and headphones, 7 pairs of inputs and a
total of 13 front and back controls
and switches. Price (less enclosure) $269.50.
:
104.3, was broadcasting music and
interviews with manufacturers and
dealers directly from the Show. We
tried to monitor our station on several FM tuners. None of them, including the most expensive ones,
could produce a satisfactory signal, that is, until we walked into
the PILOT exhibit and tried the 780.
The exceptionally clear, noise -free
signal it produced was a revelation. Subsequent tests convinced
me that this was the finest FM
:
Stereo tuner ever built for the
home. Today, I use this tuner in
my home and, as far as I am concerned, it is in a class by itself."
The fact that the PILOT 780 outperforms all other tuners is no
accident. Its 4 IF stages and sophisticated circuitry produce an FM
Stereo performance matched only
by professional broadcast monitor
tuners costing hundreds of dollars
more... FM sensitivity: 1.8 uv; harmonic distortion at 100% modulation: 0.2 %; capture ratio: 1 db;
selectivity: 44 db. Its unique signal sampling Multiplex circuit assures
NUMIER ONE SOUND IN row+
For those who desire the finest
receiver ever built for the home,
there is no substitute for the PILOT
746, a 60 -watt FM Multiplex -AM
Stereo Receiver which includes
many of the features of the two
units mentioned above, including
8 inputs and 14 controls for complete stereo and monaural flexibility. Price (less enclosure): $399.50.
For more information, hear them
at your PILOT dealer, or write:
PILOT RADIO CORPORATION, 37-46 36TH STREET, LONG ISLAND CITY 1, NEW YORK
Traditional
Patrician 800
illustrated with matching
Contessa equipment
console. In walnut,
mahogany or
cherry finishes.
...a
complete new collection of high fidelity loudspeaker systems and matching equipment consoles
The Patrician 800, like its famous predecessors, is devoted to the reproduction
of sound with absolute honesty. It speaks
with a voice that
only when spoken to
is no more spectacular-and no less sothan the music it is asked to duplicate.
As a result, the Patrician 800 is somewhat larger than most other speaker systems -even to its extraordinary 30 -inch
...
woofer -simply because a system of this
magnitude is required to reproduce the
deepest musical sounds accurately and
without compromise.
In appearance, the Patrician 800
achieves a new standard of elegance in both
Traditional and Contemporary designs
... for this system was conceived as the
ultimate reflection of your good taste in
ELECTRO- VOICE, INC., Consumer Products Division, Dept. 134A, Buchanan, Mic igan
fine music and superb home furnishings.
We invite your critical appraisal of the
entire new Patrician loudspeaker collec-
tion at your nearby Electro -Voice high
fidelity demonstration center. Or we will
be happy to send a catalog on request.
gke.to.
Oler,
SETTING NEW STANDARDS IN SOUND
www.americanradiohistory.com
AmericanRadioHistory.Com
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