Pico Series P400.Operating Manual.v1.33

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Microhard Systems Pico Series P400 Operating Manual | Manualzz
Operating Manual
Pico Series P400
Multi-Frequency 900MHz & 400 MHz OEM Module
Document: Pico Series P400 Operating Manual.v1.33
Date: November 2015
Firmware: v1.037
150 Country Hills Landing NW
Calgary, Alberta
Canada T3K 5P3
Phone: (403) 248-0028
Fax: (403) 248-2762
www.microhardcorp.com
Important User Information
Warranty
Microhard Systems Inc. warrants that each product will be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one (1) year for its
products. The warranty commences on the date the product is shipped by Microhard Systems Inc. Microhard Systems Inc.’s sole liability and
responsibility under this warranty is to repair or replace any product which is returned to it by the Buyer and which Microhard Systems Inc.
determines does not conform to the warranty. Product returned to Microhard Systems Inc. for warranty service will be shipped to Microhard
Systems Inc. at Buyer’s expense and will be returned to Buyer at Microhard Systems Inc.’s expense. In no event shall Microhar d Systems
Inc. be responsible under this warranty for any defect which is caused by negligence, misuse or mistreatment of a product or for any unit
which has been altered or modified in any way. The warranty of replacement shall terminate with the warranty of the product.
Warranty Disclaims
Microhard Systems Inc. makes no warranties of any nature of kind, expressed or implied, with respect to the hardware, softwar e, and/or
products and hereby disclaims any and all such warranties, including but not limited to warranty of non-infringement, implied warranties of
merchantability for a particular purpose, any interruption or loss of the hardware, software, and/or product, any delay in providing the hardware, software, and/or product or correcting any defect in the hardware, software, and/or product, or any other warranty. The Purchaser
represents and warrants that Microhard Systems Inc. has not made any such warranties to the Purchaser or its agents MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. EXPRESS WARRANTY TO BUYER CONSTITUTES MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. SOLE LIABILITY AND THE
BUYER’S SOLE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS THUS PROVIDED, MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PROMISE.
MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. PRODUCTS ARE NOT DESIGNED OR INTENDED TO BE USED IN ANY LIFE SUPPORT
RELATED DEVICE OR SYSTEM RELATED FUNCTIONS NOR AS PART OF ANY OTHER CRITICAL SYSTEM AND ARE
GRANTED NO FUNCTIONAL WARRANTY.
Indemnification
The Purchaser shall indemnify Microhard Systems Inc. and its respective directors, officers, employees, successors and assigns including any
subsidiaries, related corporations, or affiliates, shall be released and discharged from any and all manner of action, causes of action, liability,
losses, damages, suits, dues, sums of money, expenses (including legal fees), general damages, special damages, including without limitation, claims for personal injuries, death or property damage related to the products sold hereunder, costs and demands of every and any kind
and nature whatsoever at law.
IN NO EVENT WILL MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, CATASTROPHIC, PUNITIVE OR OTHER DAMAGES WHICH MAY BE CLAIMED TO ARISE
IN CONNECTION WITH THE HARDWARE, REGARDLESS OF THE LEGAL THEORY BEHIND SUCH CLAIMS, WHETHER IN
TORT, CONTRACT OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE STATUTORY OR REGULATORY LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS, EXECUTIVE OR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDERS OR DECLARATIONS OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. HAS
BEEN ADVISED OR OTHERWISE HAS KNOWLEDGE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND TAKES NO ACTION TO
PREVENT OR MINIMIZE SUCH DAMAGES. IN THE EVENT THAT REGARDLESS OF THE WARRANTY DISCLAIMERS AND
HOLD HARMLESS PROVISIONS INCLUDED ABOVE MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. IS SOMEHOW HELD LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE OR INJURY, MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC.'S LIABILITY FOR ANYDAMAGES SHALL NOT EXCEED
THE PROFIT REALIZED BY MICROHARD SYSTEMS INC. ON THE SALE OR PROVISION OF THE HARDWARE TO THE CUSTOMER.
Proprietary Rights
The Buyer hereby acknowledges that Microhard Systems Inc. has a proprietary interest and intellectual property rights in the Hardware,
Software and/or Products. The Purchaser shall not (i) remove any copyright, trade secret, trademark or other evidence of Microhard Systems
Inc.’s ownership or proprietary interest or confidentiality other proprietary notices contained on, or in, the Hardware, Software or Products,
(ii) reproduce or modify any Hardware, Software or Products or make any copies thereof, (iii) reverse assemble, reverse engineer or decompile any Software or copy thereof in whole or in part, (iv) sell, transfer or otherwise make available to others the Hardware, Software, or
Products or documentation thereof or any copy thereof, except in accordance with this Agreement.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
2
Important User Information (continued)
About This Manual
It is assumed that users of the products described herein have either system integration or design experience, as well as an understanding of the fundamentals of radio communications.
Throughout this manual you will encounter not only illustrations (that further elaborate on the accompanying text), but also several symbols which you should be attentive to:
Caution or Warning
Usually advises against some action which could result in undesired or
detrimental consequences.
Point to Remember
Highlights a key feature, point, or step which is noteworthy.
these in mind will simplify or enhance device usage.
Keeping
Tip
An idea or suggestion to improve efficiency or enhance usefulness.
Copyright and Trademarks
©2014 Microhard Systems Inc. All rights reserved. Adaptation, or translation of this manual is prohibited without prior written permission of Microhard Systems Inc, except as allowed under the copyright
laws. This document contains proprietary information that is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
All trademarks and names are the property of their respective owners.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
3
Important User Information (continued)
P400 Regulatory Requirements
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:




Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
This device complies with Industry Canada license-exempt RSS standard(s). Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference, including interference
that may cause undesired operation of the device.
WARNING: INTEGRATION:
To ensure compliance with all non-transmitter functions the host manufacturer is responsible for ensuring compliance with the
module(s) installed and is fully operational. For example, if a host was previously authorized as an unintentional radiator under
the Declaration of Conformity procedure without a transmitter certified module and a module is added, the host manufacturer is
responsible for ensuring that after the module is installed and operational the host continues to be compliant with the Part 15B
unintentional radiator requirements. Since this may depend on the details of how the module is integrated with the host. This
module is certified for Fixed and Mobile Applications only, for portable applications you will require a new certification.
WARNING: 900MHz Operation:
To satisfy FCC RF exposure requirements for mobile transmitting devices, a separation distance of 23 cm or more should be
maintained between the antenna of this device and persons during device operation. To ensure compliance, operations at
closer than this distance is not recommended. The antenna used for this transmitter must not be co-located in conjunction
with any other antenna or transmitter. MAXIMUM EIRP FCC Regulations allow up to 36 dBm equivalent isotropically
radiated power (EIRP). Therefore, the sum of the transmitted power (in dBm), the cabling loss and the antenna gain cannot
exceed 36 dBm.
WARNING: 400MHz Operation:
To satisfy FCC RF exposure requirements for mobile transmitting devices, a separation distance is based on the above them
ranging from 24 cm to 77 cm between the antenna of this device and persons during device operation. To ensure compliance,
operations at closer than this distance is not recommended. The antenna used for this transmitter must not be co-located in
conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
Minimum Gain
Impedance
(ohms)
50
Maximum Gain
50
Antenna
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Antenna Gain (dBi)
Minimum Separation Distance (cm)
0
24
10
76.7
Confidential
4
Important User Information (continued)
WARNING: ANTENNA:
FCC: Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Microhard Systems Inc. could void the user’s authority to operate the
equipment. This device has been tested with UFL and Reverse Polarity SMA connectors with the antennas listed in Appendix A
When integrated in OEM products, fixed antennas require installation preventing end-users from replacing them with nonapproved antennas. Antennas not listed in the tables must be tested to comply with FCC Section 15.203 (unique antenna
connectors) and Section 15.247 (emissions).
IC: This radio transmitter 3143A-14P400 has been approved by Industry Canada to operate with the antenna types listed
Appendix A with the maximum permissible gain and required antenna impedance for each antenna type indicated. Antenna
types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum gain indicated for that type, are strictly prohibited for use
with this device.
WARNING: EQUIPMENT LABELING:
The FCC and IC numbers depend on the model of the radio module. Do NOT use the Marketing Name of the product but the
Model to distinguish the Certifications Numbers. This device has been modularly approved. The manufacturer, product
name, and FCC and Industry Canada identifiers of this product must appear on the outside label of the end-user equipment.
SAMPLE LABEL REQUIREMENT:
Contains:
FCCID: NS914P400
IC: 3143A-14P400
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference,
and (2) this device must accept any interference
received including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
5
Important User Information (continued)
P400 Regulatory Requirements
Remarque : Cet équipement a été testé et déclaré conforme aux limites d'un appareil numérique de classe B, conformément à
la partie 15 des règles FCC. Ces limites sont conçues pour fournir une protection raisonnable contre les interférences nuisibles
dans une installation résidentielle. Cet équipement génère, utilise et peut émettre de l'énergie radiofréquence et, si pas installé
et utilisé conformément aux instructions, peut causer des interférences nuisibles aux communications radio. Cependant, il n'y a
aucune garantie que l'interférence ne se produira pas dans une installation particulière. Si cet équipement provoque des
interférences nuisibles à la radio ou la réception de la télévision, qui peut être déterminée en éteignant et rallumant
l'équipement, l'utilisateur est encouragé à essayer de corriger l'interférence par une ou plusieurs des mesures suivantes:




Réorienter ou déplacer l'antenne réceptrice.
Augmenter la distance séparant l'équipement et le récepteur.
Branchez l'appareil dans une prise sur un circuit différent de celui auquel le récepteur est branché.
Consultez le revendeur ou un technicien radio/TV.
Cet appareil est conforme avec Industrie Canada, exempts de licence RSS ou les normes. Opération est sujette aux deux
conditions suivantes: (1) cet appareil ne peut pas causer de brouillage et (2) cet appareil doit accepter toute interférence
reçue, y compris les interférences pouvant entraîner un fonctionnement indésirable du dispositif.
WARNING: INTÉGRATION:
Pour assurer le respect de toutes les fonctions non-émetteur du fabricant hôte est responsable de la conformité avec le module
installé (s) et est pleinement opérationnel. Par exemple, si un hôte a déjà été autorisé comme un radiateur involontaire en vertu
de la procédure de déclaration de conformité sans un module émetteur certifié et un module est ajouté, le fabricant de l'hôte est
responsable de s'assurer que, après le module est installé et opérationnel de l'hôte continue d'être conforme aux exigences de
radiateur involontaire partie 15B. Depuis cela peut dépendre sur les détails de la façon dont le module est intégré avec l'hôte.
Ce module est certifié pour des applications fixes et mobiles uniquement, pour les applications portables que vous aurez besoin
d'une nouvelle certification.
WARNING: 900MHz d'exploitation::
Pour satisfaire la FCC en matière d'exposition pour les appareils mobiles de transmission, une distance de séparation de 23 cm
ou plus doit être maintenue entre l'antenne de cet appareil et des personnes pendant le fonctionnement du dispositif. Pour
assurer la conformité, les opérations à distance inférieure à celle n'est pas recommandée. L'antenne utilisée pour ce
transmetteur ne doit pas être co-localisés en conjonction avec une autre antenne ou émetteur. Règlement FCC MAXIMUM
PIRE permettent jusqu'à 36 dBm puissance isotrope rayonnée équivalente (PIRE). Par conséquent, la somme de la puissance
émise (en dBm), la perte de câblage et le gain de l'antenne ne doit pas dépasser 36 dBm.
WARNING: 400MHz d'exploitation:
Pour satisfaire la FCC en matière d'exposition pour les appareils mobiles de transmission, une distance de séparation est basée
sur le dessus d'eux allant de 24 cm à 77 cm entre l'antenne de cet appareil et des personnes pendant le fonctionnement du
dispositif. Pour assurer la conformité, les opérations à distance inférieure à celle n'est pas recommandée. L'antenne utilisée
pour ce transmetteur ne doit pas être co-localisés en conjonction avec une autre antenne ou émetteur.
Minimum Gain
Impédance de l'antenne (ohms)
50
Maximum Gain
50
Antenna
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Gain d'antenne (dBi)
Distance de séparation minimale (cm)
0
24
10
76.7
Confidential
6
Important User Information (continued)
WARNING: ANTENNE:
FCC: Les changements ou modifications non expressément approuvés par Microhard Systems Inc. pourrait annuler le droit de
l'utilisateur à utiliser l'équipement. Ce dispositif a été testé avec UFL et SMA à polarité inverse connecteurs avec les antennes
énumérées à l'annexe A Lorsqu'il est intégré dans les produits OEM, antennes fixes nécessitent une installation empêchant les
utilisateurs finaux de les remplacer par des antennes non approuvées. Antennes ne figurent pas dans les tableaux doivent être
testés pour se conformer à la section FCC 15,203 (connecteurs d'antenne unique,) et à la Section 15.247 (émissions).
IC: Cet émetteur radio 3143A-14P400 a été approuvé par Industrie Canada pour fonctionner avec les types d'antennes
inscrites à l'Annexe A avec le gain maximal autorisé et l'impédance d'antenne requise pour chaque type d'antenne indiqué.
Types d'antennes qui ne figurent pas dans cette liste, ayant un gain supérieur au gain maximum indiqué pour ce type, sont
strictement interdits pour une utilisation avec cet appareil.
WARNING: ÉQUIPEMENT DE MARQUAGE:
Les numéros FCC et IC dépendent du modèle de module radio. Ne pas utiliser le nom marketing du produit, mais le modèle
de distinguer les numéros Certifications. Cet appareil a été approuvé de façon modulaire. Le fabricant, nom du produit, et les
identificateurs de la FCC et d'Industrie Canada de ce produit doivent figurer sur l'étiquette à l'extérieur de l'équipement de
l'utilisateur final.
L'EXEMPLE D'ÉTIQUETTE:
Contains:
FCCID: NS914P400
IC: 3143A-14P400
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference,
and (2) this device must accept any interference
received including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
7
Revision History
Revision
Description
Initials
Date
1.0
First Release
PEH
Oct 2014
1.1
Added Satel & Trimtalk Compatibility Registers (S226/S227), added
factory default modes (AT&Fn).
PEH
Feb 2015
1.2
Added Factory Default Modes for various GPS Transceivers. Misc Corrections/Updates. Updated Screen Shots.
PEH
Feb 2015
1.21
Added P400-ENC Pictures and drawings
PEH
Feb 2015
1.3
Updated to reflect changes in Firmware 1.029
PEH
May 2015
1.31
Updated to include Call Sign ID S228/233 (v1.030)
PEH
May 2015
1.32
Misc Corrections/Updates. Added new P400 Enclosed, removed old
P400-ENC. Updated to firmware 1.037.
PEH
Oct 2015
1.33
Added info/options for S142 and &K1 for RS485 modes.
PEH
Nov 2015
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
8
Table of Contents
1.0
Overview
1.1
1.2
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
16
Mechanical Drawing..........................................................................................................................17
2.1.1 Recommended Solder Mask (Pad Landing) .............................................................................18
2.1.2 Recommended Solder Paste Pattern .......................................................................................19
2.1.3 SMT Temperature Profile ........................................................................................................20
OEM Connectors...............................................................................................................................20
Pin Descriptions ...............................................................................................................................21
Minimum Connection Requirements ................................................................................................22
Electrical Characteristics..................................................................................................................25
2.5.1 Test Conditions.....................................................................................................................25
2.5.1.1 Minimum and Maximum Values ...............................................................................25
2.5.1.2 Typical Values .........................................................................................................25
2.5.1.3 Loading Capacitor ...................................................................................................25
2.5.1.4 Pin Input Voltage .....................................................................................................25
2.5.2 Absolute Maximum Ratings..................................................................................................26
2.5.3 Operating Conditions ...........................................................................................................26
2.5.3.1 Operating Conditions at Power-up / Power-down ......................................................26
2.5.3.2 Voltage Characteristics ............................................................................................26
2.5.3.3 Current Characteristics ............................................................................................27
2.5.3.4 IO Port Characteristics .............................................................................................27
2.5.3.5 12-bit ADC Characteristics .......................................................................................29
P400 to n920 Pin-outs .......................................................................................................................31
P400 Enclosed ..................................................................................................................................32
2.7.1 P400 Enclosed Dimensional Drawings ....................................................................................33
2.7.2 P400-ENC Mounting Bracket (Optional)...................................................................................34
2.7.3 Connectors & Indicators ..........................................................................................................35
400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.0
Performance Features ......................................................................................................................13
Specifications ...................................................................................................................................14
Hardware Description
2.1
3.0
13
37
Configuration/Unit Modes.................................................................................................................37
3.1.1 Command Mode .....................................................................................................................37
3.1.2 Data mode..............................................................................................................................38
3.1.3 Modem Type (S128=0) ...........................................................................................................39
3.1.3.1 Call Sign ID ............................................................................................................................39
3.1.4 Factory Default Settings ..........................................................................................................40
Microhard Transparent Mode ...........................................................................................................41
3.2.1 Transparent Mode Factory Defaults.........................................................................................42
3.2.2 Modulation & Link Rate Considerations ...................................................................................43
Pacific Crest (PCC) models ..............................................................................................................44
Trimble (Trimtalk) Models .................................................................................................................46
Satel (3AS) Models............................................................................................................................48
900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.1
50
Configuration/Unit Modes.................................................................................................................50
4.1.1 Command Mode .....................................................................................................................50
4.1.2 Data mode..............................................................................................................................51
4.1.3 Modem Type (S128=1) ...........................................................................................................52
4.1.4 Network Type .........................................................................................................................52
4.1.5 900 MHz Frequency Hopping ..................................................................................................53
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
9
Table of Contents (continued)
4.2
4.3
5.0
Point to Point Network ......................................................................................................................54
4.2.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types .................................................................................................54
4.2.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults.......................................................................................56
AT&F6 - PP Master .................................................................................................................57
AT&F7 - PP Slave/Remote ......................................................................................................58
PP Repeater ...........................................................................................................................59
4.2.3 Retransmissions .....................................................................................................................60
4.2.4 Network Synchronization.........................................................................................................60
Point to Multipoint Network ..............................................................................................................61
4.3.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types .................................................................................................61
4.3.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults.......................................................................................64
AT&F1 - PMP Master ..............................................................................................................65
AT&F2 - PMP Slave/Remote ...................................................................................................66
AT&F3 - PMP Repeater ..........................................................................................................67
4.3.3 Unit Addressing ......................................................................................................................68
4.3.4 Retransmissions .....................................................................................................................68
4.3.5 Network Synchronization.........................................................................................................68
4.3.6 TDMA.....................................................................................................................................69
4.3.7 Peer-to-Peer ...........................................................................................................................71
4.3.8 Everyone-to-Everyone ............................................................................................................72
400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.1
5.2
5.3
73
Configuration/Unit Modes.................................................................................................................73
5.1.1 Command Mode .....................................................................................................................73
5.1.2 Data mode..............................................................................................................................74
5.1.3 Modem Type (S128=2) ...........................................................................................................75
5.1.4 Network Type .........................................................................................................................75
5.1.5 Hopping On Frequency Table..................................................................................................76
5.1.5.1 Frequency Table ........................................................................................................76
5.1.5.2 ATP0 and APT1 Commands .......................................................................................76
Point to Point Network ......................................................................................................................79
5.2.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types .................................................................................................79
5.2.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults.......................................................................................81
AT&F6 - PP Master .................................................................................................................82
AT&F7 - PP Slave/Remote ......................................................................................................83
PP Repeater ...........................................................................................................................84
5.2.3 Retransmissions .....................................................................................................................85
5.2.4 Network Synchronization.........................................................................................................85
Point to Multipoint Network ..............................................................................................................86
5.3.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types .................................................................................................86
5.3.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults.......................................................................................89
AT&F1 - PMP Master ..............................................................................................................90
AT&F2 - PMP Slave/Remote ...................................................................................................91
AT&F3 - PMP Repeater ..........................................................................................................92
5.3.3 Unit Addressing ......................................................................................................................93
5.3.4 Retransmissions .....................................................................................................................93
5.3.5 Network Synchronization.........................................................................................................93
5.3.6 TDMA.....................................................................................................................................94
5.3.7 Peer-to-Peer ...........................................................................................................................96
5.3.8 Everyone-to-Everyone ............................................................................................................97
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
10
Table of Contents (continued)
6.0
Register/Command Reference
6.1
6.2
98
AT Commands ................................................................................................................................98
A
Answer .................................................................................................................................98
g, G
Spectrum Analyzer ................................................................................................................98
In
Identification .........................................................................................................................98
Login AT Login ...............................................................................................................................99
N
Advanced Spectrum Analyzer ................................................................................................99
&Fn
Load Factory Default Configuration ...................................................................................... 100
&H0
Frequency Restriction (FHSS) ............................................................................................. 101
&H1
Repeater Registration (FHSS) ............................................................................................. 102
&V
View Configuration .............................................................................................................. 102
&W
Write Configuration to Memory ............................................................................................ 102
&P0/P1 Frequency Table (400 MHz) ................................................................................................ 103
Settings (S) Registers ................................................................................................................... 104
S0
Power Up Mode .................................................................................................................. 104
S2
Escape Code ...................................................................................................................... 104
S51
RSSI Threshold (NB)........................................................................................................... 104
S101 Operating Mode .................................................................................................................. 105
S102 Serial Baud Rate ................................................................................................................. 105
S103 Wireless Link Rate .............................................................................................................. 105
S104 Network ID/Address (FH)..................................................................................................... 106
S105 Unit Address ....................................................................................................................... 106
S107 Static Mask ......................................................................................................................... 106
S108 Output Power ...................................................................................................................... 106
S109 Hop Interval (FH) ................................................................................................................ 107
S110 Data Format ........................................................................................................................ 107
S111 Packet Min Size .................................................................................................................. 108
S112 Packet Max Size ................................................................................................................. 108
S113 Packet Retransmissions ...................................................................................................... 108
S115 Repeat Interval (FH) ............................................................................................................ 108
S116 Character Timeout .............................................................................................................. 109
S118 Roaming (FH) ..................................................................................................................... 109
S119 Quick Enter to Command Mode ........................................................................................... 109
S123 RSSI from Uplink/Master (dBm) .......................................................................................... 110
S124 RSSI from Downlink/Slave (dBm) ........................................................................................ 110
S125 Occupied Bandwidth (NB) ................................................................................................... 110
S127 Modulation (NB) .................................................................................................................. 110
S128 Modem Type....................................................................................................................... 110
S129 Full CRC Use (3AS) ............................................................................................................ 111
S130 No Sync Intake.................................................................................................................... 111
S131 Main Tx Frequency (NB)...................................................................................................... 111
S132 Main Rx Frequency (NB) ..................................................................................................... 111
S133 Network Type...................................................................................................................... 111
S136 TX_RX Priority (NB) ............................................................................................................ 111
S137 CSMA Time Slot Size (NB) .................................................................................................. 112
S138 After Tx Delay (NB) ............................................................................................................. 112
S139 Compatible_921 at 345 (900MHz) ....................................................................................... 112
S140 Destination Address ............................................................................................................ 112
S141 Repeaters Y/N .................................................................................................................... 112
S142 Serial Channel Mode (RS232/485)....................................................................................... 112
S150 Sync Mode (FH) .................................................................................................................. 113
S151 Fast Sync Timeout (FH) ...................................................................................................... 113
S153 Address Tag (FH)................................................................................................................ 113
S158 Forward Error Correction (FEC) Mode ................................................................................. 114
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
11
Table of Contents (continued)
S163 CRC Check on Diag Port ..................................................................................................... 114
S167 Tx Enable ........................................................................................................................... 114
S185 Tx Attack Delay (NB) ........................................................................................................... 115
S186 Protocol Selection (NB) ....................................................................................................... 115
S187 Disc.Dupl.Downstr.Dat (Trimtalk) ......................................................................................... 115
S188 Strip Off Additional Data (Trimtalk) ....................................................................................... 115
S189 Enable Uplink (Trimtalk) ...................................................................................................... 115
S190 Ignore Received UA (Pacific Crest) ...................................................................................... 116
S191 Repeater Tx Frequency ....................................................................................................... 116
S192 Repeater Rx Frequency ...................................................................................................... 116
S213 Packet Retry Limit ............................................................................................................... 116
S214 Diagnostics Packet Retransmission ..................................................................................... 116
S217 Protocol Type (FH) .............................................................................................................. 116
S223 Minimum RSSI .................................................................................................................... 117
S224 Maximum RSSI ................................................................................................................... 117
S226 Compatibility Type (NB)....................................................................................................... 117
S227 Trimtalk Comp. Type. (Trimtalk) ........................................................................................... 117
S231 Data Buffering Mode (NB) ................................................................................................... 117
S238 Hopping Mode .................................................................................................................... 117
S244 Channel Access Mode (FH) ................................................................................................. 118
S248 Sync Timeout (FH) .......................................................................................................................... 118
S251 Master Hop Allocation Timeout ............................................................................................ 118
6.3
7.0
Serial Interface Commands........................................................................................................... 119
&Cn
Data Carrier Detect (DCD)................................................................................................... 119
&Dn
Data Terminal Ready (DTR) ................................................................................................ 119
&K
Handshaking....................................................................................................................... 119
&Sn
Data Set Ready (DSR) ........................................................................................................ 119
Installation
7.1
7.2
120
Path Calculation ............................................................................................................................ 122
Installation of Antenna System Components ............................................................................... 123
7.2.1 Antennas ............................................................................................................................ 124
7.2.2 Coaxial Cable ..................................................................................................................... 124
7.2.3 Surge Arrestors ................................................................................................................... 124
7.2.4 External Filter...................................................................................................................... 124
Appendices
Appendix A:
Appendix B:
Appendix C:
Appendix D:
Appendix E:
Appendix F:
Appendix G:
Appendix H:
AT Command Quick Reference ..................................................................................... 125
Settings (S) Register Quick Reference .......................................................................... 126
AT Utility Firmware Upgrade Procedure........................................................................ 127
AT Command Firmware Upgrade .................................................................................. 128
Development Board Serial Interface.............................................................................. 129
Development Board Schematic ..................................................................................... 130
Approved Antennas ....................................................................................................... 131
Antenna / Separations ................................................................................................... 132
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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12
1.0 Overview
The Pico Series P400 is capable of delivering high-performance, robust and secure wireless
serial communications in Point to Point or Point to Multipoint topologies.
The Pico Series is available as a tightly integrated OEM module, for the ultimate in design
integration. When properly configured and installed, long range communications at very high
speeds can be achieved.
Pico P400 Series modules are a Multi-Frequency modem capable of operating as a 902928MHz ISM FHSS Modem, a 410-480 MHz Narrowband Modem, or as a 400 MHz Frequency Hopping modem, providing flexible wireless data transfer between most equipment
types which employ a serial interface. The modem type of the module is software selectable
using AT commands.
The small size and superior performance of the Pico Series makes it ideal for many applications. Some typical uses for this modem:








SCADA
remote telemetry
traffic control
industrial controls
remote monitoring
fleet management
GPS
metering



robotics
display signs
railway signaling
1.1 Performance Features
Key performance features of the Pico Series P400 include:

902 - 928 ISM Frequency Hopping Operation (900 MHz FH Mode)

410 - 480 MHz Narrowband Licensed Operation (400 MHz NB Mode)

410 - 480 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation (400 MHz FH Mode - Order Option)

up to 2W of output power

transparent, low latency link rates up to 345 kbps

communicates with virtually all serial based devices

wide temperature specification

32 bits of CRC, selectable retransmission and forward error correction

separate diagnostics port - remote diagnostics and online network control

ease of installation and configuration - the P400 utilizes a subset of standard AT-style
commands, similar to those used by traditional telephone line modems
3.3V logic level compatibility

1
902-928MHz, which is license-free within North America; may need to be factory-configured differently for some countries, contact Microhard Systems Inc. for details.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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13
1.0 Overview
1.2 Pico Series P400 Specifications
Electrical/General
Caution: Using a power
supply that does not
provide proper voltage or
current may damage the
modem.
Supported Frequency:
902 - 928 MHz
410 - 480 MHz
Model Dependant, See Table 1-1
Spreading Method:
Frequency Hopping, GMSK, 2GFSK, 4GFSK, QPSK
Error Detection:
32 bits of CRC, ARQ
Data Encryption:
(Optional)
128-bit AES Encryption (Requires export
permit outside US and Canada.)
Range:
Up to 60 miles (100km)
Output Power:
Up to 2W (Model Dependant, See Table 1-1)
Sensitivity:
Model Dependant, See Table 1-1.
Link Rate:
Up to 345 kbps
Serial Baud Rate:
300 to 230.4 kbps
Core Voltage:
3.3VDC is required for 1W
3.6VDC is required for 2W
Power Consumption:
(3.3VDC)
Sleep: < 1mA (Future)
Idle:
20mA
Rx:
45mA to 98mA
Tx Peak: 2A
Rejection:
Adjacent Channel @ 400 MHz: 60dB
Alternate Channel @ 400 MHz: 70dB
Adjacent Channel @ 900 MHz: 57 dB
Alternate Channel @ 900 MHz: 65 dB
Available Models:
P400
-AES
-C2S
-C1S
-ENC
Base Model (1W 900 MHz & 2W 400 MHz Licensed)*
128-bit AES Encryption**
2W 900 MHz, 2W 400 MHz Frequency Hopping,
2W 400 MHz Licensed & 128-bit AES Encryption**
1W 900 MHz, 1W 400 MHz Frequency Hopping, 2W
400 MHz Licenced & 128-bit AES**
Enclosed (Standalone) Model
*Standard Modems are Shipped with 400MHz Licensed band operation up to 2W and 900MHz ISM FHSS operation
1W with no AES encryption. No other operation is allowed. Operating outside this requires compliance with
applicability Radio Regulatory Bodies and Canadian Export Laws. Extra Cost/Activation/Proof of Regulatory
Compliance is Required.
**AES encryption, 2W frequency hopping operation requires Export Permit
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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14
1.0 Overview
1.2 Pico Series P400 Specifications
Rate (kbps)
Power (W)
Sensitivity (dBm)
Bandwidth (kHz)
Regulatory
Frequency 410 to 480 MHz (Licensed Band)
3.6
2
-118
6.25
FCC/IC/CE
4.8
2
-117
12.5
FCC/IC/CE
9.6
2
-115
12.5
FCC/IC/CE
19.2
2
-114
25
IC/CE
Frequency 410 to 480 MHz (Frequency Hopping)
56
2**
-113
60
None*
115.2
2**
-109
150
None*
172.8
2**
-108
180
None*
230.4
2**
-106
230
None*
276.4
2**
-105
400
None*
2**
-103
400
None*
345
Frequency 902 to 928 MHz (Frequency Hopping)
19.2
1
-116
25
FCC/IC
56
1
-113
60
FCC/IC
115.2
1
-109
150
FCC/IC
172.8
1
-108
180
FCC/IC
230.4
1
-106
230
FCC/IC
276.4
1
-105
400
FCC/IC
345
1
-103
400
FCC/IC
19.2
2**
-115
25
None*
56
2**
-110
60
None*
115.2
2**
-109
150
None*
172.8
2**
-108
180
None*
230.4
2**
-106
230
None*
276.4
2**
-105
400
None*
345
2**
-103
400
None*
*Standard Modems are Shipped with 400MHz Licensed band operation up to 2W and 900MHz ISM FHSS operation 1W with no AES encryp tion. No other
operation is allowed. Operating outside this requires compliance with applicability Radio Regulatory Bodies and Canadian Export Laws. Extra Cost/
Activation/Proof of Regulatory Compliance is Required.
**AES encryption, 2W frequency hopping operation requires Export Permit
Table 1-1: P400 Specifications
Environmental
Operation Temperature: -40oF(-40oC) to 185oF(85oC)
Humidity: 5% to 95% non-condensing
Mechanical
Dimensions:
Weight:
Connectors:
© Microhard Systems Inc.
OEM: 26.5mm X 33mm X 3.5mm ENC: 57mm X 95mm X 38mm
OEM: 5 grams ENC: 210 grams
Antenna:
OEM: UFL ENC: RP-SMA
Data:
OEM: 80 Pin/Pad SMT ENC: DB9
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2.0 Hardware Description
The Pico Series P400 Modem modules are available as a OEM module. This OEM version
supplies all the required raw signals to allow the unit to be tightly integrated into applications
to efficiently maximize space and power requirements. The Microhard development board
can provide a convenient evaluation platform to test and design with the module. (Contact
Microhard Systems for details)
Any P400 Series module may be configured as a Master, Repeater or Remote in a PTP or
PMP Topology. This versatility is very convenient from a ’sparing’ perspective, as well for
convenience in becoming familiar and proficient with using the module: if you are familiar with
one unit, you will be familiar with all units.
Image 2-1: Pico P400 Top View
Image 2-2: Pico P400 Bottom View
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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16
2.0 Hardware Description
2.1 Mechanical Drawings
The P400 OEM Modules have an extremely small form factor as seen in Drawing 3-3 below.
3.68
3.5
33
2.31
(2)
33
(2)
Detail(A)
0.80
1.27
26.5
1.18
(2)
1.50
3.41
22.35
Ground Plane(1)
30.01
28.70
Detail(A)
2.16
Bottom View
19.85
See Notes(2)
1.
Units: millimeters
2.
Ground plane must be connected to GND for required heat dissipation.
Due to manufacturing methods additional PCB material may be
present on the corners that cannot be removed. Designs should
allow for a small tolerance of this additional material, ± 0.25mm
Drawing 2-1: P400 OEM Mechanical
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.1.1 Recommended Solder Mask (Pad Landing)
22.35
0.99
30.02
28.70
34.34
Detail(B)
19.86
27.99
Detail(B)
0.81
Units: millimeters
1.27
1.83
Drawing 2-2: P400 Recommended Solder Mask
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.1.2 Recommended Solder Paste Pattern
19.91
2.18
34.39
30.07
Detail(C)
28.04
Detail(D)
Units: millimeters
Detail(D)
4.12
1.00
Detail(C)
1.03
1.88
2.55
3.38
3.50
1.27
0.86
Drawing 2-3: P400 Recommended Solder Paste
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.1.3 SMT Temperature Profile
Temperature (oC)
Zone
1
120
2
140
3
160
4
180
5
215
6
255
7
255
8
255
9
250
10
130
Chain Speed: 60cm/min
Table 2-1: P400 Oven Temperature Profile
2.2 OEM Connectors
Antenna
All P400 OEM Modules use an UFL connector for the antenna connection.
Data
The interface to the P400 OEM module is a tight integration using 80 pad SMT connections.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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20
2.0 Hardware Description
2.3 Pico OEM Pin Descriptions
GND
GND
GND
Reserved
Reserved
DNC
DNC
DNC
DNC
DNC
Vcc2
Vcc2
Vcc2
GND
GND
GND
67
66
65
64
Vcc
63
Vcc
GND
1
DNC
2
DNC
3
62
Vdd
DNC
4
61
Reserved
DNC
5
60
Reserved
DNC
6
59
Reserved
USR1 - GPS/1PPS
7
58
Reserved
USR2 - Alarm
8
57
Reserved
USR3
9
56
Reserved
I/O1
10
55
Reserved
I/O2
11
I/O3
12
I/O4
13
USR AO0
14
USR AN0
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
!Wakeup_usr
USBDM
19
46
!CONFIG
RSSI LED1
20
45
!RESET
RSSI LED2
21
44
RSMode
RSSI LED3
22
43
Reserved
LED RX
23
42
Vbat
LED TX
24
41
GND
25
GND
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
GND
47
GND
18
Control TxD
!Bootpgm_mode
USBDP
Control RxD
GND
48
USR SCK
Reserved
17
Reserved
49
Serial RTS
16
Serial DCD
CANTX
USR AN1
Serial DTR
CANRX
50
Serial CTS
(Top View)
15
Serial DSR
Reserved
51
Serial TxD
52
Serial RxD
Reserved
Serial RING
Reserved
53
GND
Pico Series
P400
54
Drawing 2-4: Pico P400 80-pin OEM Connection Info
Inputs and outputs are
3.3V nominal (3.0V min
— 3.6V max) unless
otherwise specified.
The above drawing depicts a top view of the P400-OEM Module. The corner pads (1, 25, 41,
and 65) are printed directly on the bottom of the PCB for easy identification.
A full description of the connections and function of each pin is provided on the pages that
follow.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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21
2.0 Hardware Description
Pin Name
GND
DNC
Description
Dir
1,17,25-26,39- Ground reference for logic, radio, and I/O pins.
41,65-67,78-80
2,3,4,5,6 Reserved for factory use only.
USR1 –
GPS/1PPS
7 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
I
USR2 - Alarm
8 *Reserved for future use.*
O
USR3
9 *Reserved for future use.*
O
I/O1-4
Caution: During power up
or reset, output pins from
the Pico are in an unknown
state. It is advised to use
pull up or pull down
resisters as appropriate.
No.
10,11,12,13 Digital Input/output Pins. -0.3 to +3.6 V input, 3.3 V Output @ 3mA
maximum. *Future Use.*
I/O
USR_ANO0
14 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
O
USR_AN0
USR_AN1
15 Analog Inputs. 0 to 3V input, 12 bit *Future Use.*
16
I
USBDP
18 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
USBDM
19 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
LED_1 (RSSI1)
20 Receive Signal Strength Indicator 1. Active high, cannot drive LED
directly. Requires current limiting resistor. 8mA maximum.
O
LED_2 (RSSI2)
21 Receive Signal Strength Indicator 2. Active high, cannot drive LED
directly. Requires current limiting resistor. 8mA maximum.
O
LED_3 (RSSI3)
22 Receive Signal Strength Indicator 3. Active high, cannot drive LED
directly. Requires current limiting resistor. 8mA maximum.
O
LED_RX
23 Active high output indicates receive and synchronization status.
Active high, cannot drive LED directly. Requires current limiting
resistor. 8mA maximum.
O
LED_TX
24 Active high output indicates module is transmitting data over the RF
channel. Active high, cannot drive LED directly. Requires current
limiting resistor. 8mA maximum.
O
Serial RING
27 Internally connected to GND through a 22kΩ resistor. *Reserved for
future use.*
O
Serial RxD
28 Receive Data. Logic level input into the modem. It is recommended
to wire this pin out through a zero ohm resister to a header and
jumper block for external access to the serial port for modem
recovery procedures.
I
Serial TxD
29 Transmit Data. Logic level Output from the modem. It is
recommended to wire this pin out through a zero ohm resister to a
header and jumper block for external access to the serial port for
modem recovery procedures.
O
Serial DSR
30 Data Set Ready. Active low output. The DSR line may be used to
enable the transmitter of the RS485 driver chip.
O
Serial CTS
31 Clear To Send. Active low output. The CTS line may be used to
enable the transmitter of the RS485 driver chip. (P400 Enclosed)
O
Serial DTR
32 Data Terminal Ready. Active low input.
I
Serial DCD
33 Data Carrier Detect. Active low output.
O
Serial RTS
34 Request To Send. Active low input.
I
USR SCK
35 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
I
Table 2-1: Pico Series Pin Description
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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22
2.0 Hardware Description
Pin Name
Caution: During power up
or reset, output pins from
the Pico are in an unknown
state. It is advised to use
pull up or pull down
resisters as appropriate.
No.
Description
Dir
Reserved
36 *Reserved for future use.*
Control RxD
37 Diagnostics receive data. Logic level input from a PC to the module. Used for
Diagnostics Protocol, contact Microhard Systems for documentation.
I
Control TxD
38 Diagnostics transmit data. Logic level output from module to a PC. Used for
Diagnostics Protocol, contact Microhard Systems for documentation.
O
Vbat
42 Input voltage sensing analog input line, up to 60VDC maximum. Used to
measure the main supply voltage. User design must add a 10kΩ 1% 1/16W
resistor in series.
I
Reserved
43 *Reserved for future use.*
RSMode
44 Internally connected to GND through a 10kΩ resistor. *Reserved for future
use.*
O
!RESET
45 Active low input will reset the module.
I
!CONFIG
46 Active low input signal to put module into default serial interface (RS232) and
default baud rate (9600/8/N/1) during power up. Pull high or leave floating.
I
!Wakeup_usr
47 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
I
!Bootpgm_mode
48 *Reserved for future use.*
I
Reserved
49 *Reserved for future use.*
CANTX
50 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
CANRX
Reserved
51 *Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
52-61 *Reserved for future use.*
Vdd
62 Positive voltage supply voltage for the digital section of the module (3.3V).
I
Vcc
63,64 Positive voltage supply voltage for the radio module (3.3V). The Vcc lines are
internally connected together.
I
Reserved
68,69 *Reserved for future use.*
DNC
70-74 Reserved for factory use only.
Vcc2
75,76,77 *Reserved for future use.*
I
Table 2-1: Pico Series Pin Description (continued)
All serial communications signals are logic level (0 and 3.3V). DO NOT connect RS-232 level
(+12, -12VDC) signals to these lines without shifting the signals to logic levels.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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23
2.0 Hardware Description
2.4 Minimum Connection Requirements
3.3V
62
63 64
VCC
VDD
Antenna
RS-232
UFL
Optional
Driver
29 Serial TxD
28 Serial RxD
P400
GND Pins
1 17 25 26 39 40 41 65 66 67 78 79 80
Drawing 2-5: P400 Minimum Connection Block Diagram
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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24
2.0 Hardware Description
2.5 Electrical Characteristics
2.5.1
Test Conditions
Unless otherwise specified, all voltages are referenced to Vss(GND).
2.5.1 Minimum and Maximum Values
Unless otherwise specified the minimum and maximum values are guaranteed in the worst
conditions of ambient temperature, supply voltage and frequencies.
Data based on characterization results, design simulation and/or technology characteristics
are indicated in the table footnotes and are not tested in production. Based on
characterization, the minimum and maximum values refer to sample tests and represent the
mean value plus or minus three times the standard deviation (mean±3Σ).
2.5.1.2 Typical Values
Unless otherwise specified, typical data are based on TA = 25 °C, VDD = 3.3 V. They are given
only as design guidelines and are not tested.
Typical ADC accuracy values are determined by characterization of a batch of samples from
a standard diffusion lot over the full temperature range, where 95% of the devices have an
error less than or equal to the value indicated (mean±2Σ).
2.5.1.3 Loading Capacitor
The loading conditions used for pin parameter measurement are shown in Figure 2-1.
2.5.1.4 Pin Input Voltage
The input voltage measurement on a pin of the Pico is described in Figure 2-2.
Pico pin
Figure 2-1 Pin Loading Conditions
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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Pico pin
Figure 2-2 Pin Input Voltage
25
2.0 Hardware Description
2.5.2
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses above the absolute maximum ratings listed in Table 2-2: Voltage Characteristics
and Table 2-3: Current Characteristics may cause permanent damage to the device. These
are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these conditions is not
implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device
reliability.
Symbol
Ratings
VCC/VDD
External main supply voltage.
VIN
Input voltage on any pin.
Min
Max
0
3.8
-0.3
VDD+0.3
Unit
V
Table 2-2 Voltage Characteristics
Symbol
Ratings
Max
IVDD
Total current into Pico Series (source).
70
IVSS
Total current out of Pico Series (sink).
70
Output current sunk by any I/O and control pin.
20
Output Current sourced by any I/O and control pin.
-8
IIO
Unit
mA
Table 2-3 Current Characteristics
2.5.3
Operating Conditions
2.5.3.1 Operating Conditions at Power-up / Power-down
The parameters given in Table 2-4: Operating Conditions at Power-up/ Power-down are
derived from tests performed under the ambient temperature ratings of the Pico Series.
Symbol
tVDD
Parameter
Min
Max
VDD rise time rate.
0
∞
VDD fall time rate.
20
∞
Unit
µs/V
Table 2-4 Operating Conditions at Power-up/Power-down
2.5.3.2 Operating Conditions Voltage Characteristics
The parameters given in Table 2-5: Operating Conditions Voltage Characteristics are
derived from tests performed under the ambient temperature ratings of the Pico Series.
Symbol
Ratings
VCC
External radio supply voltage.
VDD
External digital supply voltage.
Min
3.3
(1)
3.0
Max
3.6
3.6
Unit
V
Table 2-5 Operating Conditions Voltage Characteristics
1.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
The modem will not be able to transit at full power if V CC is less than 3.3VDC.
Confidential
26
2.0 Hardware Description
2.5.3.3 Operating Conditions Current Characteristics
The parameters given in Table 2-6: Operating Conditions Current Characteristics are
derived from tests performed under the ambient temperature ratings of the Pico Series. Test
conditions measured while Vcc = 3.3V, VDD = 3.3V, Frequency 915MHz and ambient
temperature of 25oC.
Symbol
Ratings
Min
Typ
Max
IVCC(TX)
Radio current 100% TX @ 1W
1250
1500
IVCC(TX)
Radio current 100% TX @ 500mW
375
500
IVCC(TX)
Radio current 100% TX @ 100mW
180
250
IVCC(RX)
Radio current 100% RX @ 1W
75
100
40
75
IVCC(RX-RUN) Radio RX running
IVCC(IDLE)
Radio Idle current
2.5
3.5
IVDD(RUN)
Digital current
45
50
IVDD(IDLE)
Digital idle current
5
Unit
mA
Table 2-6 Operating Conditions Current Characteristics
2.5.3.4 I/O Port Characteristics
General Input / Output Characteristics
The parameters given in Table 2-7: I/O Static Characteristics are derived from tests
performed under the ambient temperature ratings of the Pico Series. All I/Os are CMOS and
TTL compliant. I/O’s refer to all input and outputs of the Pico Series.
Symbol
VIL
Input low level voltage
VIH
Input high level voltage
VIL
Input low level voltage
VIH
Input high level voltage
Vhys
IO Schmitt trigger voltage
hysteresis(1)
Ilkg
Input leakage current
RPU
1.
2.
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Max
-0.5
0.8
2
VDD+0.5
-0.5
0.35 VDD
0.65 VDD
VDD+0.5
TTL ports
CMOS ports
Typ
200
Weak pull-up equivalent resistor
RPD
Weak pull-down equivalent resistor
CIO
I/O pin capacitance
(2)
V
V
mV
±1
VSS ≤ VIN≤ VDD
(2)
Unit
VIN = VSS
30
40
50
VIN = VDD
30
40
50
8
µA
kΩ
pF
Hysteresis voltage between Schmitt trigger switching levels. Based on characterization, not tested in production.
Pull-up and pull-down resistors can be used on input/output pins.
Table 2-7 I/O Static Characteristics
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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27
2.0 Hardware Description
Output Driving Current
The GPIOs (general purpose input/outputs) can sink or source up to +/-8 mA, and sink
+20 mA (with a relaxed VOL).
In the user application, the number of I/O pins which can drive current must be limited to
respect the absolute maximum rating specified in Section 2.1.4.2:
●

The sum of the currents sourced by all the I/Os on VDD cannot exceed the absolute maximum rating
IVDD (see Table 2-3).
The sum of the currents sunk by all the I/Os on VSS cannot exceed the absolute maximum rating I VSS
(see Table 2-3).
Output Voltage Levels
Unless otherwise specified, the parameters given in Table 2-8 are derived from tests
performed under ambient temperature and VDD supply voltage ratings of the Pico Series. All I/Os are
CMOS and TTL compliant.
Symbol
1.
2.
3.
Parameter
Conditions
VOL(1)
Output low level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sunk at same time
VOH(2)
Output high level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sourced at same time
VOL(1)
Output low level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sunk at same time
VOH(2)
Output high level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sourced at same time
VOL(1)(3)
Output low level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sunk at same time
VOH(2)(3)
Output high level voltage for an I/O pin
when 8 pins are sourced at same time
Min
Max
Unit
0.4
TTL port
IIO = +8mA
V
VDD-0.4
0.4
CMOS port
IIO = +8mA
V
2.4
1.3
IIO = +20mA
V
VDD-1.3
The IIO current sunk by the device must always respect the absolute maximum rating specified in Table 2-3 and the sum of IIO (I/O ports and control
pins) must not exceed IVSS.
The IIO current sourced by the device must always respect the absolute maximum rating specified in Table 2-3 and the sum of IIO (I/O ports and
control pins) must not exceed IVDD.
Based on characterization data, not tested in production.
Table 2-8 Output Voltage Characteristics
Input / Output AC Characteristics
The values of input/output AC characteristics are given in Table 2-9.
Symbol
Parameter
tf(IO)out
Output high to low fall time
tr(IO)out
Output low to high level rise time
tEXTlpw
Pulse width of external signals used as
interrupts.
Conditions
Min
Max
125
CL = 50 pF
125
1
Unit
ns
ms
Table 2-9 Input / Output AC Characteristics
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2.0 Hardware Description
NRST Pin Characteristics
The NRST pin input driver uses CMOS technology. It is connected to a permanent pull-up
resistor, RPU (see Table 2-7).
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
VIL(NRST)
NRST Input low level voltage
-0.5
0.7
VIH(NRST)
NRST Input high level voltage
2
VDD+0.5
Vhys(NRST)
NRST Schmitt trigger voltage hysteresis
RPU
Weak pull-up equivalent resistor
VNF
NRST Input pulse
200
VIN=VSS
30
40
Unit
V
mV
50
300
kΩ
ns
Table 2-10 NRST Pin Characteristics
Pico Series
Figure 2-3 Recommended NRST Pin Protection
2.5.3.5 12-bit ADC Characteristics
The parameters given in Table 2-11: ADC Characteristics are derived from tests performed
under the ambient temperature and supply voltage ratings of the Pico Series.
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
VAIN
Conversion voltage range
Parameter
0
3.0
V
RAIN
External input impedance
0
1.2
kΩ
Table 2-11 12-bit ADC Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
ET
Total unadjusted error
EO
Offset error
Test Conditions
O
Typ
Max
1.3
2
1
1.5
0.5
1.5
EG
Gain error
ED
Differential linearity error
0.7
1
EL
Integral linearity error
0.8
1.5
TA = 25 C
Unit
LSB
Table 2-12 ADC Accuracy
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2.0 Hardware Description
ADC Accuracy Characteristics
[1LSBIDEAL= 3.0/4096]
Figure 2-4 ADC Accuracy Characteristics
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.6 P400 to Nano n920 Pin-Outs
The following table shows a pin-out comparison between the P400 and the n920. This table
may be useful for customers who current have the n920 who wish to migrate to the P400
platform.
Pin Name
For detailed pin
descriptions refer to
Section 2.3 Pin Description.
P400 Pin No.
n920 Pin No.
Description
USR1
7
35
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
USR2
8
37
*Reserved for future use.*
USR3
9
39
*Reserved for future use.*
Analog Input 0. *Future Use.*
USR_AN0
15
9
USBDP
18
25
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
USBDM
19
21
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
LED_1 (RSSI1)
20
30
Receive Signal Strength Indicator 1.
LED_2 (RSSI2)
21
28
Receive Signal Strength Indicator 2.
LED_3 (RSSI3)
22
26
Receive Signal Strength Indicator 3.
LED_RX
23
22
Active high output indicates receive and synchronization status.
LED_TX
24
24
Active high output indicates module is transmitting RF data.
Serial RING
27
38
*Reserved for future use.*
Serial RxD
28
42
Receive Data. Logic level input into the modem.
Serial TxD
29
44
Transmit Data. Logic level Output from the modem.
Serial DSR
30
36
Data Set Ready. Active low output.
Serial CTS
31
32
Clear To Send. Active low output.
Serial DTR
32
40
Data Terminal Ready. Active low input.
Serial DCD
33
46
Data Carrier Detect. Active low output.
Serial RTS
34
34
Request To Send. Active low input.
USR SCK
35
50
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
Control RxD
37
20
Diagnostics receive data.
Control TxD
38
18
Diagnostics transmit data.
Vbat
42
17
Battery Voltage sensing analog input line.
RSMode
44
19
*Reserved for future use.*
!RESET
45
15
Active low input will reset the module.
!CONFIG
46
13
Active low input signal to put module into default serial mode.
!Wakeup_usr
47
11
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
!Bootpgm_mode
48
7
CANTX
50
12
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
CANRX
51
10
*Currently Not Supported. For Future Expansion*
Vdd
62
Vcc
63,64
Vcc2
51,53,55,57,59
75,76,77
N/A
*Reserved for future use.*
Positive voltage supply voltage for the digital section of the module (3.3V).
Positive voltage supply voltage for the radio module (3.3V).
*Reserved for future use.*
Table 2-13: P400 to Nano n920 Pin Description
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.7 P400 Enclosed
The Pico Enclosed provides a standalone P400 with standard interfaces for Data, Power and
Antennas. The P400 Enclosed is ideal for base stations or applications where complicated
integration of the OEM module is not required, but a modem with a small footprint is still
required. The P400 Enclosed can also be used to quickly evaluate the features and
performance of the P400 modems.
The P400 Enclosed provides quick access to several of the interfaces of the P400, such as:









Input Power (9-30VDC)
Power LED (Blue)
RS232/RS485 Data Interface
RSSI LED Indicators (Green)
TX/RX LED Indicators (Red/Green)
CONFIG Button
Antenna
USB Port (Internal Serial to USB (Diagnostics Port))
I/O pins (Future Development)
Image 2-4: P400 Enclosed
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.7.1 P400 Enclosed Dimensional Drawings
78.48
12.00
49.00
65.40
Drawing 2-6: P400 Top View
46.00
26.00
49.00
Drawing 2-7: P400 Enclosed End Views
Drawing 2-8: P400 Enclosed Side View
Notes: The dimension unit is mm.
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.7.2 P400 Enclosed Mounting Bracket (Order Option)
Drawing 2-6: P400 –ENC Mounting Bracket Front/Rear (Shown optional TS35 DIN Rail Mount)
47.4
4.0
20.1
12.5
65.2
45.0
54.0
12.5
20.1
4.0
12.2
17.2
30.0
23.7
Notes: The dimension unit is mm.
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2.0 Hardware Description
2.7.3 P400 Enclosed Connectors & LED Indicators
Drawing 2-9: Connectors & LED’s (Top & End)
PWR (Blue)
This LED will illuminate when the P400 Enclosed is connected to a power source (9-30 VDC)
485 (Blue)
This LED will illuminate when the P400 Enclosed Data port is configured as a RS485 port.
(Register S142 Serial Channel Mode set to RS485 and Handshaking set to &K1)
TX LED (Red)
When illuminated, this LED indicates that the modem is transmitting data over the air.
RX LED (Green)
This LED indicates that the modem is synchronized and has received valid packets.
Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) (3x Green)
As the received signal strength increases, starting with the furthest left, the number of active
RSSI LEDs increases. Signal strength is calculated based on the last four valid received
packets with correct CRC. The value of RSSI is reported in S123.
MODE
Unit Type
LED STATUS
RX/SYNC
TX
RSSI 1,2,3
COMMAND
All
OFF
OFF
OFF
DATA
Master
Repeater
ON while receiving valid
data
ON while
Transmitting data
1-3 ON in proportion to signal
strength received from remotes.
DATA - during sync.
acquisition
Remote
OFF
OFF
Cycling with 300ms ON time
DATA - when
synchronized
Remote
ON while synced
ON when
transmitting
1-3 ON in proportion to signal
strength received from Master/
Repeater
Table 2-14: FH Modems LED Operation
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2.0 Hardware Description
Drawing 2-10: Connectors & LED’s (Front & Back)
CFG Button
Holding this button while powering-up the modem will boot the unit into COMMAND mode: the default
serial interface will be active and temporarily set to operate at its default serial settings of RS232 and
9600/8/N/1.
USB
Micro-AB USB Port. Internal USB to Serial Converter.
Provides access to the Serial Diagnostics Port.
The SERIAL (RS232/485 Port (DCE)) on the Enclosed
model is for:
 RS232/485 Serial data when in DATA MODE,
or
 for configuring the modem when in
COMMAND MODE.
Pin
No.
RS232
1
DCD
2
RXD
RX+
3
TXD
TX-
4
DTR
5
RS485
Full-Dup
RS485
Half-Dup
Data-
Ground
6
DSR
7
RTS
TX+
8
CTS
RX-
9
N/C
Data+
Table 2-15: Data DB9 Pin Assignments
Caution: Using a
power supply that
does not provide
proper voltage may
damage the modem.
Vin+/Vin– is used to power the unit. The input Voltage range is 9-30
Vdc.
IO-1 / IO-2
Programmable I/O. Not currently supported in firmware. Future
Development.
Vin+ VinIO-1 IO-2
ANT
RP-SMA Female Bulkhead Antenna connector.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
To begin configuration, the P400 must be mounted into a either a Microhard supplied development
board (with factory attached interface card), or be mounted into a customer designed platform. The
P400 is configured using AT commands through the Data port, or using special diagnostic commands
through the Diagnostic Port. Refer to Section 2: Hardware Description for information related to interfacing to, or powering the module.
To issue AT commands through the Data port, the P400 must first be set into Command Mode as described below.
3.1
Configuration/Unit Modes
3.1.1 Command Mode



the P400 module is offline (data is not passing through the unit via it’s local data lines
or RF communications)
if installed in a Dev Board, the only LED illuminated will be the blue power LED.
the P400’s configuration options (registers) may be viewed and modified using AT
commands.
Two methods are typically used to place the Pico Series into Command Mode.
1.
Force to Command Mode







Power down off the Development Board assembly.
Connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable from the PC serial port to the rear RS232 port (DATA) of the modem.
Launch a terminal communications program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for
9600bps, 8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit (8N1), no flow control
press and hold the CONFIG button
continue to press the CONFIG button and apply power to the modem
release the CONFIG button
On power up the terminal session window should show “NO CARRIER OK” as seen
below:
Image 3-1: Command Mode


© Microhard Systems Inc.
the P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings. AT&V will display the current configuration, and the registers can
be queried using the ATSXXX=? Command where XXX = the register number. Help is
available using the ATSXXX /? Command.
Any and all changes must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
2. Escape from Data Mode



With the P400 powered up and ‘online’, connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable
from the PC serial port to the RS-232 DATA port on the dev board.
Launch a terminal program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for the P400’s established serial baud rate parameters (PC & modem must match).
Pause 1 second, type ‘+++’ , pause 1 second: the monitor should show the module
response of ‘NO CARRIER OK’
Image 3-2: Command Mode


The P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings.
Entering the AT&V command as shown will show the current configuration as seen
below: (The data displayed varies based on network and unit type.)
Image 3-3: Command Mode - AT&V Display
3.1.2 Data Mode
Data Mode is the normal operational state of all deployed P400 modules. In this mode the module is
prepared to exchange data as per its configuration settings. Available LED indications can provide an
indication of the data exchange (TX and RX LEDs).
To enter DATA mode from COMMAND mode, enter the command: ATA [Enter]
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.1.3 Modem Type
The P400 is a Multi-Frequency Modem that is capable of operating in one of three (3) different modem
types. The three different modem types of the P400 are (1) 400 MHz Narrowband Licensed Band Modem, (2) 900 MHz FHSS modem operating in the 900 MHz ISM band and (3) as a 400 MHz Frequency
Hopping Modem. It is important to set the correct modem type before commencing with any additional
configuration parameters.
This section describes the configuration of a modem that has been set to operate as a 400 MHz Licensed Band Narrowband Modem. It should also be noted that the frequency channels must be set
by a approved Dealer prior to modem operation/configuration. To comply with regulations this is
documented and maintained in a separate document known as the ‘Dealer Notes’. Contact your
dealer or Microhard Systems for a copy of this document.
The modem type can be selected using the register S128 (Modem Type) as follows:
Modem Type S128
Registers can be changed
by entering the AT
command as seen below:
* 400 MHz FHSS is an order option (-C2S or -C1S) and must be specified at
time of order and enabled at the factory.
Example:
ATS128=0 <enter>
Any registers that are
changed must be written to
flash using the AT&W
command
= 0 - 400 MHz Narrow Band (NB) Modem
= 1 - 900 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem
= 2 - 400 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem*
The following image shows the current options for the modem type as described above.
Image 3-4: Modem Type S128
The configuration of the P400 relies on setting several parameters (S Registers). To simply configuration it is strongly recommended that the Factory Default Commands (ATFn) be used for initial configuration. The factory default commands are described in the following sections. When using the factory commands, all registers, including the Modem Type (S128) described above, will automatically be changed
to a factory default recommended values that allow basic communication between devices.
3.1.3.1 Call Sign ID
Firmware v1.030 implements the Call Sign ID (required by FCC), for all protocols of narrowband
modes. The modem will not receive any wireless data during transmitting Call Sign ID. Local serial data
received from user during Call Sign ID transmission will be accumulated and will be sent after the Call
Sign ID transmission. The duration of Call Sign is determined by register S228. If the register S228 is
empty (default), modem shows word “Empty”. The registers S228 (ID) and S233 (Interval) were added.
Modem transmits Call Sign ID when:
 the 1 minute time-out is expired after going on-line from AT-menu,
 the S233 time-out in minutes is expired if modem transmits data during this time interval.
Modem will not send Call Sign ID if the Call Sign ID string in S228 is empty or there is no Tx activity
after power up.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.1.4 Factory Default Settings (ATFn)
The P400 is compatible with and can communicate directly with several brands of GPS transceivers,
such as Trimtalk, Pacific Crest and Satel. Due to the large number of configuration parameters available, Microhard has developed a series of Factory Default Commands that can be used to simply the
configuration process.
The user simply selects the model that is to be configured and enters a single command (In the tables in
the following sections) that takes care of all basic communication (Wireless) related settings. The following screen shot lists the currently available commands available on the P400. The top section (which
has been deleted), refers to Frequency Hopping modems and are described in their respective sections.
The lower portion, shown below, lists the currently available AT&F commands for the Narrowband/
Licensed modes. To display the list supported by your device, the ‘AT&F /?’ command can be used.
Image 3-5: Factory Defaults (AT&F /?)
The factory default commands save the user from having to remember dozens of commands and/or the
task of trying to figure out which registers are important and which are not. The commands also provide
a known starting point in which to base any configuration, as it overwrites all registers to the factory recommended default values. For this reason it is important, regardless of the configuration, to always start
with the factory commands. After which a few other commands may be required to configure the modem
to meet the needs of the user. A few of these registers that may need to be configured to meet the specific application of the user are:
S108
S102
S110
S131
S132
S191
S192
-
Output Power (Should be set to minimum required value)
Serial Baud Rate (Should be set to match connected serial device)
Data Format (Should be set to match connected serial device)
Main Tx Frequency (Should be set according to frequency table*)
Main Rx Frequency (Should be set according to frequency table*)
Repeater Tx Frequency (If using Repeaters in your system*)
Repeater Rx Frequency (If using Repeaters in your system*)
* Reminder: The frequency Table/Channels must be populated prior to any configuration. It is to be
populated at the factory or by a authorized dealer. To comply with regulations this is documented and
maintained in a separate document known as the ‘Dealer Notes’. Contact your dealer or Microhard Systems for a copy of this document.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.2 Microhard Low Latency Transparent Mode
Transparent mode is designed to transmit and receive data packets as soon as there is data. The biggest advantage of this mode is low latency of data delivery. In the low latency transparent mode a modem will start to transmit a packet as soon as it detects received serial data, without waiting for time-out
to be expired.
For transparent mode protocol, there is no concept of slave or master. Instead, every unit has the same
basic settings in a transparent mode network. A modem in transparent mode can work as transmitter or
receiver. The packets from the transmitter will be received by every receiver in the network.
A modem in transparent mode outputs data to serial user interface when it receives data from others.
For low latency transparent mode, data will be output byte by byte immediately when a packet is being
received. The packet consists of blocks, each of which is protected by CRC. So the modem will stop
outputting further data as long as it detects any CRC error by the end of each block.
Image 5-1: Transparent Mode AT&V Menu
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.2.1 Microhard Transparent Mode
The following table lists the supported factory default commands available for Microhard Transparent
Mode. Use the listed Factory Default command for the unit type required. The same command would
be entered into each unit to be configured. See below for additional registers that may be required.
Microhard Systems Transparent Mode
Factory
Default
Radio Model
Protocol
BW
L400, nL400,
P400
Microhard Transparent
25 kHz
AT&F51
No repeaters. Adjust link rate, BW using
Table 3-2. Use S231 for data buffering.
L400, nL400,
P400
Microhard Transparent
25 kHz
AT&F52
With repeaters (S141=1), CSMA is enabled,
S51 is used. Adjust link rate, BW using Table
3-2. Use S231 for data buffering.
12.5
kHz
AT&F62
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC on, Note 1.
L400, nL400
Pacific Crest and Trimtalk compatible firmware (AT&F2, S103,
S125 for Pacific Crest
Transparent with EOT
Timeout)
25 kHz
AT&F53
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Note 1.
12.5
kHz
AT&F63
Rate 4.8kbps, S103, S125, Note 2.
25 kHz
AT&F54
Rate 9.6kbps, S103, S125, Note 2.
L400, nL400
Pacific Crest and Trimtalk compatible firmware (AT&F2, S186=2,
S103, S125 for Trimtalk 450S).
Notes
Table 3-1: Transparent Mode Factory Defaults
Notes:
1. Use PC-specific registers: S107, S190, S231 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
2. Use Trimtalk-specific registers: S187, S188, S189, S227 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
Registers Applicable to Low Latency Transparent Mode:
The following registers may also need to be configured to enable end-to-end communication between
devices. For additional information about a specific register, and its supported values please refer to
Section 6: Register/Command Reference.
S102
S105
S108
S123
S131
S132
S191
S192
S142
S223
S224
S231
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Serial baud rate (Should match end device)
Local unit address (Each unit must have a unique unit address)
Transmit power in dBm (Minimum required value should be used)
Averaged RSSI during receiving valid packets
Tx channel number, edited in channel table
Rx channel number, edited in channel table
Repeater Tx channel, edited in channel table
Repeater Rx channel, edited in channel table
Serial Channel Mode, select between RS232 (default) and RS485 modes.
Minimum RSSI value recorded since the unit was placed in Data Mode.
Maximum RSSI value recorded since the unit was placed in Data Mode.
Data Buffering Mode
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.2.2 Modulation & Link Rate Considerations
The P400 in the Narrowband (NB) modem type configuration supports the frequency range of 410-480
MHz. The following table displays the allowed combinations of link rates, modulation schemes and
channel bandwidth:
Supported Link Rates/Bandwidth - Microhard Transparent Mode
Link rate, bps
Register S103
BW 6.25 kHz
BW 12.5 kHz
BW 25 kHz
1200
0
*
*
*
2400
1
*
*
*
3600
2
*
*
*
4800
3
*
*
7200
4
*
*
*
*
9600
5
14400
6
*
19200
7
*
16000
8
*
Table 3-2: Modulation & Link Rates
Before going on-line from AT-command menu, the modem will check if the selected combination of protocol, link rate, BW & modulation scheme are supported. If not supported, the modem will not go on-line.
For quick reference the follow registers are used to modify the Modulation Type, Link Rate and the BW
(Channel Space).
Modulation Type S127
= 0 - 2FSK
= 1 - 4FSK
Link Rate S103
= 0 - 1200
= 1 - 2400
= 2 - 3600
= 3 - 4800
= 4 - 7200
= 5 - 9600
= 6 - 14400
= 7 - 19200
= 8 - 16000
Occupied Bandwidth S125 = 0 - 6.25 kHz
= 1 - 12.5 kHz
= 2 - 25 kHz
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.3 Pacific Crest Models
The P400 is compatible with several GPS Transceiver Models by Pacific Crest. Specifically we have
developed and tested compatibility with the following models.
- PDL High Power Base, Low Power Base
- ADL Sentry, Vantage, Foundation
Although users can manually configure the P400 to be compatible with these models, we have provided
factory default commands to simplify this configuration. Select the model in which the P400 needs to
communicate with and enter the Factory Command.
Pacific Crest Factory Default Commands
Model
PDL High Power Base,
PDL Low Power Base
ADL Sentry, Vantage
Transparent with
EOT Timeout (PC),
2FSK
12.5 kHz
Factory
Default
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
Trimtalk 450S, 2FSK
12.5 kHz
25 kHz
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
AT&F54
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
Pacific Crest Transparent with EOT
Timeout, 4FSK,
Scrambler control
On
12.5 kHz
AT&F64
25 kHz
AT&F65
Pacific Crest Transparent FST
12.5 kHz
AT&F66
25 kHz
AT&F67
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
25 kHz
AT&F54
12.5 kHz
AT&F60
25 kHz
AT&F61
Protocol
Pacific Crest Transparent with EOT
Timeout, GMSK
Trimtalk 450S,
GMSK
Satel 3AS
BW
Notes
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 4.8kbps. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps. Note 2.
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1). Note 1.
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1). Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility
Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility
Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 4.8kbps, see Table 3 if your
system has repeaters. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, see Table 3 if your
system has repeaters. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, Compatibility Type 1
(register S226=1). Note 3.
Rate 19.2kbps, Compatibility Type 1
(register S226=1). Note 3.
Table 3-3: Pacific Crest Factory Defaults
Notes:
1. Use PC-specific registers: S107, S190, S231 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
2. Use Trimtalk-specific registers: S187, S188, S189, S227 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
3. Use Satel-specific registers: S129, S226 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
Pacific Crest Factory Default Commands (Con’t)
Protocol
BW
Pacific Crest Transparent with EOT
Timeout GMSK
12.5 kHz
Factory
Default
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
Pacific Crest Transparent with EOT
Timeout, 4FSK,
Scrambler control
On
12.5 kHz
AT&F64
25 kHz
AT&F65
Pacific Crest Transparent FST
12.5 kHz
AT&F66
25 kHz
AT&F67
12.5 kHz
25 kHz
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
AT&F54
AT&F60
25 kHz
AT&F61
Model
ADL Foundation
Trimtalk 450S,
GMSK
Satel 3AS
Notes
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1). Note 1.
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1). Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility
Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility
Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 4.8kbps. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, Compatibility Type 1
(register S226=1). Note 3.
Rate 19.2kbps, Compatibility Type 1
(register S226=1). Note 3.
Table 3-3: Pacific Crest Factory Defaults (Continued)
Notes:
1. Use PC-specific registers: S107, S190, S231 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
2. Use Trimtalk-specific registers: S187, S188, S189, S227 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
3. Use Satel-specific registers: S129, S226 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
ADL (Pacific Crest) 450s vs P400 Equivalent Modes
ADL radio modem
(Trimtalk 450S)
Factory defaults
Base/Rover without Repeaters
AT&F54
Repeater 1 (1 repeater in
chain)
AT&F55
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Repeater 2 (2 repeaters in
chain)
AT&F56
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Base with Repeaters
AT&F57
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Notes
Table 3-4: Pacific Crest ADL Repeater Modes
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.4 Trimble Models
The P400 is compatible with several GPS Transceiver Models by Trimble. Specifically we have developed and tested compatibility with the following models.
- TDL 450L (H)
- PDL 450
- HPB 450
Although users can manually configure the P400 to be compatible with these models, we have provided
factory default commands to simplify this configuration. Select the model in which the P400 needs to
communicate with and enter the Factory Command. If any additional registers are required, it will be
noted in the table.
Trimble Factory Default Commands
Please contact our
technical support team if
you have radio
compatibility problems, we
are working on extending of
the list of compatible
modes
Model
Protocol
BW
Transparent with EOT
Timeout Pacific Crest,
GMSK, Scrambler control
On
Transparent with EOT
Timeout Pacific Crest,
4FSK, Scrambler control
On
Factory
Default
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
12.5 kHz
AT&F64
25 kHz
AT&F65
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
25 kHz
AT&F54
12.5 kHz
AT&F60
25 kHz
AT&F61
12.5 kHz
AT&F66
25 kHz
AT&F67
12.5 kHz
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
Rate 4.8kbps. Note 2.
25 kHz
AT&F54
Rate 9.6kbps. Note 2.
Trimtalk 450S, GMSK
3AS, Satel
PDL 450
HPB 450
Pacific Crest Transparent
with EOT Timeout, GMSK
Trimtalk 450S, GMSK
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1).
Note 1.
12.5 kHz
TDL 450L(H)
Pacific Crest Transparent
FST
Notes
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC On, use S105
if S190=1, S141 for CSMA, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1).
Note 1.
Rate 4.8kbps, see Table 3 if your
system has repeaters. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, see Table 3 if your
system has repeaters. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, Compatibility Type 1
(register S226=1). Note 3.
Rate 19.2kbps, Compatibility Type
1 (register S226=1). Note 3.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 1 (register S226=1).
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Table 3-5: Trimble Factory Defaults
Notes:
1. Use PC-specific registers: S107, S190, S231 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
2. Use Trimtalk-specific registers: S187, S188, S189, S227 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
3. Use Satel-specific registers: S129, S226 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
TDL450 (Trimble) vs P400 Equivalent Modes
Trimble radio modem
(TDL450/Trimtalk 450S)
Factory defaults
Base/Rover without Repeaters
AT&F54
Repeater 1 (1st repeater in
chain)
AT&F55
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Repeater 2 (2nd repeater in
chain)
AT&F56
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Base with Repeaters
AT&F57
For data sequence number usage use register S187, for
stripping off additional information added by repeaters use
register S188, for enabling uplink use register S189.
Notes
Table 3-6: Trimble TDL450 Repeater Modes
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
3.5 Satel Models
The P400 is compatible with several GPS Transceiver Models by Satel. Specifically we have developed
and tested compatibility with the following models.
- Satelline-M3-TR1
- Satelline-M3-TR3
Although users can manually configure the P400 to be compatible with these models, we have provided
factory default commands to simplify this configuration. Select the model in which the P400 needs to
communicate with and enter the Factory Command. If any additional registers are required, it will be
noted in the table.
Model
Please contact our
technical support team if
you have radio
compatibility problems, we
are working on extending of
the list of compatible
modes
Satelline-M3-TR1
Factory Default Settings for Satel Models
Factory
BW
Default
Protocol
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 0 (register S226=0).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 0 (register S226=0).
Rate 4.8kbps, S227 = 0. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, S227 = 0. Note 2.
Rate 9.6kbps, Compatibility Type 0
(register S226=0). Note 3.
Rate 19.2kbps, Compatibility Type
0 (register S226=0). Note 3.
Rate 4.8kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC On, use S105 if
S190=1, S141 for CSMA. Note 1.
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 0 (register S226=0).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 0 (register S226=0).
Rate 9.6kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 2 (register S226=2).
Rate 19.2kbps, FEC on, Compatibility Type 2 (register S226=2).
Rate 4.8kbps, set register S127 =
1. Note 2.
Pacific Crest Transparent
with EOT Timeout GMSK
(Option 2), 3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
Pacific Crest Transparent
with EOT Timeout 4FSK
(Option 1), 3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
AT&F64
25 kHz
AT&F65
Trimtalk 450S GMSK
(Option 3), 3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
25 kHz
AT&F63
AT&F54
12.5 kHz
AT&F58
25 kHz
AT&F59
Pacific Crest Transparent
with EOT Timeout GMSK
(Option 2), 3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
AT&F62
25 kHz
AT&F53
Pacific Crest Transparent
with EOT Timeout 4FSK
(Option 1), 3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
AT&F64
25 kHz
AT&F65
Pacific Crest Transparent
FST (Option 5),
3AS’s FEC off
12.5 kHz
AT&F68
25 kHz
AT&F69
12.5 kHz
AT&F63
25 kHz
AT&F54
Rate 9.6kbps, set registers S226=
1, S127 = 1. Note 2.
12.5 kHz
AT&F58
Rate 9.6kbps, Compatibility Type 0
(register S226=0). Note 3.
25 kHz
AT&F59
Rate 19.2kbps, Compatibility Type
0 (register S226=0). Note 3.
Satel 3AS,
3AS’s FEC on
Satelline-M3-TR3
Notes
Trimtalk 450S GMSK
(Options 3,4),
3AS’s FEC off
Satel 3AS,
3AS’s FEC on
Table 3-7: Satel Factory Defaults
Notes:
1. Use PC-specific registers: S107, S190, S231 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
2. Use Trimtalk-specific registers: S187, S188, S189, S227 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
3. Use Satel-specific registers: S129, S226 and common NB registers: S51, S136, S137, S138, S185 for enhancing.
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3.0 400 MHz Licensed Band Configuration
P400 & Trimtalk 450S Protocol by M3-TR1/M3-TR3 Compatibility
Radio
Mode
M3-TR1
Trimtalk
450S
M3-TR3
Trimtalk
450S
(T & P)
BW
S226
S227
12.5kHz
0
0
25kHz
0
0
12.5kHz
0
1
25kHz
1
1
Table 3-8: P400 Compatibity for Trimtalk Protocol 450S by Satelline M3-TR1/M3-TR3
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
To begin configuration, the P400 must be mounted into a either a Microhard supplied development
board (with factory attached interface card), or be mounted into a customer designed platform. The
P400 is configured using AT commands through the Data port, or using special diagnostic commands
through the Diagnostic Port. Refer to Section 2: Hardware Description for information related to interfacing to, or powering the module.
To issue AT commands through the Data port, the P400 must first be set into Command Mode as described below.
4.1
Configuration/Unit Modes
4.1.1 Command Mode



the P400 module is offline (data is not passing through the unit via it’s local data lines
or RF communications)
if installed in a Development Board, the only LED illuminated will be the blue power
LED.
the P400’s configuration options (registers) may be viewed and modified using AT
commands.
Two methods are typically used to place the Pico Series into Command Mode.
1. Force to Command Mode







Power down off the Development Board assembly.
Connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable from the PC serial port to the rear RS232 port (DATA) of the modem.
Launch a terminal communications program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for
9600bps, 8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit (8N1), no flow control
press and hold the CONFIG button
continue to press the CONFIG button and apply power to the modem
release the CONFIG button
On power up the terminal session window should show “NO CARRIER OK” as seen
below:
Image 4-1: Command Mode


© Microhard Systems Inc.
the P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings. AT&V will display the current configuration, and the registers can
be queried using the ATSXXX=? Command where XXX = the register number. Help is
available using the ATSXXX /? Command.
Any and all changes must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
2. Escape from Data Mode



With the P400 powered up and ‘online’, connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable
from the PC serial port to the RS-232 DATA port on the dev board.
Launch a terminal program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for the P400’s established serial baud rate parameters (PC & modem must match).
Pause 1 second, type ‘+++’ , pause 1 second: the monitor should show the module
response of ‘NO CARRIER OK’
Image 4-2: Command Mode


The P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings.
Entering the AT&V command as shown will show the current configuration as seen
below: (The data displayed varies based on network and unit type.)
Image 4-3: Command Mode - AT&V Display
4.1.2 Data Mode
Data Mode is the normal operational state of all deployed P400 modules. In this mode the
module is prepared to exchange data as per its configuration settings. Available LED indications can provide an indication of the data exchange (TX and RX LEDs).
To enter DATA mode from COMMAND mode, enter the command: ATA [Enter]
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.1.3 Modem Type (S128)
The P400 is a Multi-Frequency Modem that is capable of operating in one of three (3) different modem
types. The three different modem types of the P400 are (1) 400 MHz Narrowband Licensed Band Modem, (2) 900 MHz FHSS modem operating in the 900 MHz ISM band and (3) as a 400 MHz Frequency
Hopping Modem. It is important to set the correct modem type before commencing with any additional
configuration parameters.
This section describes the configuration of a modem that has been set to operate as a 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Modem (FHSS), operating in the 902.4 to 927.6 MHz ISM Band. The
P400 in 900 MHz mode is compatible with MHX920 and n920 radios from Microhard Systems.
The modem type can be selected using the register S128 (Modem Type) as follows:
Modem Type S128
* 400 MHz FHSS is an order option (C2S or C1S) and must be specified at time of order and enabled at the factory.
Registers can be changed
by entering the AT
command as seen below:
Example:
ATS128=1 <enter>
= 0 - 400 MHz Narrow Band (NB) Modem
= 1 - 900 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem
= 2 - 400 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem *
The following image shows the current options for the modem type as described above.
Any registers that are
changed must be written to
flash using the AT&W
command>
Image 4-4: Modem Type S128
4.1.4 Network Type (S133)
Once configured to operate as a 900 MHz FHSS modem, the Network Type must be decided and
planned for a successful deployment. The P400 currently supports Point to Point, Point to Multipoint
network topologies.
To change the network type the register S133 (Network Type) is used as seen below:
Network Type S133
= 0 - Point to Multipoint
= 1 - Point to Point
= 2 - Peer to Peer
= (Additional Modes may be available)
Ensure the correct network type is set before proceeding. It is recommended to start with the factory
default settings to aid in initial configuration (discussed later), and then changing registers as required.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.1.5 900 MHz Frequency Hopping
FCC requires that FHSS systems hop on 50 different channels within the 900
ISM Band. The maximum time spent on any one channel must not exceed
400ms.
To calculate the center frequency represented by each channel only the starting frequency and the size of each channel (Channel Bandwidth) need to be
known. For the 900 MHz ISM Band, the starting frequency is 902.4 MHz, and
the Channel Bandwidth is dependent on the current link rate.
Freq channel n =
Example:
902.4+ ((n-1) x BW)MHz.
Channel 75 @ 172 kbps =
902.4 +((75-1) x 0.280) MHz
902.4 + (74 x 0.280) MHz
902.4 + 20.72 MHz
923.12 MHz
Link Rate
(kbps)
Channel
Bandwidth
(kHz)
19.2
280
24.6
280
57.6
280
115.2
280
172.8
280
230.4
280
276.4
400
345.6
400
Table 4-1: Link Rate & BW
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.2 Point to Point Network
In a point-to-point network, a path is created to transfer data between Point A and Point B, where Point
A may be considered the Master modem and Point B a Slave. Such a PTP network may also involve
one or more Repeaters (in a store-and-forward capacity) should the radio signal path dictate such a
requirement. Point to Point is enabled by setting register S133 to 1 (ATS133=1, Network Type).
A PTP configuration may also be used in a more dynamic sense: there may be many Slaves (and Repeaters) within such a network, however the Master may have its ‘Destination Address’ (S140) changed
when required to communicate with a specific Slave.
Slave
Master
OR
Master
Slave
Repeater
Drawing 4-1: Point to Point Network Topology
4.2.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types
In a Microhard Point to Point Network, three unit types or operating modes are available: the Master,
Repeater, and the Remote. The Masters role is to provide network synchronization for the system,
which ensures all units are active and able to communicate as required. The Master controls the flow of
data through the system; all data passes through it. The diagram below shows a unit configured as a
Master.
Coverage
Area
Master
Master
Slave
Drawing 4-2: Point to Point Master
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Repeaters can be used to extend the coverage of the Master. Required only if necessary to establish a
radio path between a Master and Slave(s); stores and forwards data sent to it. Synchronizes to Master
and provides synchronization to ‘downstream’ units. If a local device is attached to a Repeater’s serial
data port, the Repeater will also behave as a Slave (aka Repeater/Slave).
Adding one or more Repeaters within a network will cut the overall throughput of the network in half; the
throughput is halved only once, i.e. it does not decrease with the addition of more Repeaters. If there is
a ‘path’ requirement to provide Repeater functionality, but throughput is critical, a work around is to
place two modems at the Repeater site in a ‘back-to-back’ configuration. One modem would be configured as a Slave in the ‘upstream’ network; the other a Master (or Slave) in the ‘downstream’ network.
Local connection between the modems would be a ‘null modem’ cable. Each modem would require its
own antenna; careful consideration should be given with respect to antenna placement and modem
configuration.
Repeater
Repeater
Master
Slave
Drawing 4-3: Point to Point Repeater
A Slave (Remote) is an endpoint/node within a network to which a local device is attached. Communicates with Master either directly or through one or more Repeaters.
Slave
Repeater
Master
Slave
Drawing 4-4: Point to Point Slave
Units can be configured to perform the various roles discussed by setting register S101 as follows:
ATS101 = 0
ATS101 = 1
ATS101 = 2
© Microhard Systems Inc.
-
Master
Repeater
Slave (Remote)
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.2.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults
Factory default setting commands can be used to aid in the configuration and deployment of the P400
modules, providing a known starting point in the configuration process for each unit type. Using the factory default commands sets all applicable registers to factory recommended settings and allows for initial connectivity between units. Configuring modems using the factor default settings have the following
benefits:

hastens the configuration process - load default settings and, if necessary, apply only minor
settings / adjustments

aids in troubleshooting - if settings have been adjusted and basic communications cannot be
established, simply revert to the factory default setting and any improper adjustments will be
overwritten and a ‘fresh start’ can be made with known-to-work settings
For many networks, the factory default commands may be all that is necessary to configure and deploy
a simple Point to Point Network. Other applications may require additional registers to be configured.
Regardless of the complexity of the configuration, the factory default settings provide a starting point for
all configurations. All unit types have a factory default setting command.
AT&F6
AT&F7
-
Point to Point Master (Fast - 172kbps)
Point to Point Slave (Fast)
AT&F8
AT&F9
-
Point to Point Master (Slow - 19.2kbps)
Point to Point Slave (Slow)
The screen shots for each unit type highlight the key registers that are automatically changed to create
a Point to Point configuration. There may also be additional registers such as the Network ID that are
recommended to be changed.
Each PTP Network
must have a unique
network ID. This can
be changed using
register S104: Network
Address.
Image 4-5: Frequency Hopping Factory Defaults
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F6 Point to Point Master (Fast)
A
B
C
F
I
G
J
D
H
E
K
Image 4-6: Factory Defaults AT&F6 - Point to Point Master
A)
B)
C)
D)
AT&F6
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
E) S140
-
F) S101
G) S103
-
H) S133
-
I)
J)
S102
S104
-
K) S141
-
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Point Master.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Point Network must have a unique unit address. The Master is
automatically set to 1, and should not be changed.
The destination address is unit address of the final destination, which all data is to
be sent. The address entered would generally be the unit address of the Slave.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 0, which is a Master.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
Higher link rates may result in higher throughput, but lower link rates usually
provide better sensitivity and overall robustness.
The network type must be set to 1 for Point to Point operation. The content displayed
by the AT&V command will vary with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. It is strongly
recommended to never use the default setting of 1234567890. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
This register informs the master if 1 or more repeaters are present in the system. This
applies only to the master radio.
Remember, anytime registers are changed the values must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command. To switch from command mode to data mode (online mode), the ATA command can be issued.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F7 Point to Point Slave (Fast)
A
B
C
F
I
G
J
D
K
H
E
Image 4-7: Factory Defaults AT&F7 - Point to Point Slave
A)
B)
C)
D)
AT&F7
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
E) S140
-
F) S101
G) S103
H) S133
-
I)
J)
S102
S104
-
K) S118
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Point Slave.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Point Network must have a unique unit address. The address
of the slave (remote) is automatically set to 2. This can be changed, but ensure that
the destination address on the master is also changed!
The destination address is unit address of the final destination to which all data is to
be sent. In a Point to Point Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the
master, and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 2, which is a Slave (Remote).
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 1 for Point to Point operation. The content displayed
by the AT&V command varies with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the slave is to connect through a repeater, enter the unit address of the repeater
here.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Point to Point Repeater
There is no Factory default mode for a PTP Repeater, the procedure below outlines the steps required
to add a repeater to a PTP system.
Note that the Master has a register ‘S141 - Repeaters Y/N’ and the Slave does not. This register informs the Master of there being one or more Repeaters in this network. The factory defaults assume
‘no’ and assign a value of 0. If a Repeater is to be installed, and all the Master and Slave defaults will
be maintained, following is a procedure on how to configure a Repeater into this fixed (non-mobile) PTP
network:
Master
 enter into Command Mode
 change S141 (Repeaters Y/N) to 1 (which means ‘Yes’)
 save the change using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
Repeater
 enter into Command Mode
 load a third modem with &F7 (PTP Slave factory default settings)
 change the Operating Mode (S101) from 2 (Slave) to 1 (Repeater)
 change the Unit Address (UA) (S105) from 2 to 3
 save the changes using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
Slave
 enter into Command Mode
 change S118 from 1 (the UA of the Master) to 3 (the UA of the Repeater)
 save the change using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
This system may be tested by sending text at 9600bps, 8N1 through the RS-232 serial port of one modem and observing that it appears at the RS-232 serial port of the other modem. The Slave is synchronized to the Repeater, which in turn is synchronized to the Master. If the Repeater is taken offline, in a
matter of moments the Slave’s RSSI LEDs will indicate that it is ‘scanning’ for its immediate upstream
unit; place the Repeater online and the Slave will quickly acquire it. If the Master is taken offline, both
the Repeater and Slave will begin to scan.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.2.3 Retransmissions
Packet Retransmissions can be used to ensure data reaches its intended destination by resending the
same packet over and over. In Point to Point system all data is acknowledged by the destination, resulting in retransmissions only being used if no acknowledgement is received. The overall impact on system
performance, while not as significant as it is in Mesh and Point to Multipoint networks, should still be
considered. The more times a modem retransmits data, the more the overall throughput of the system is
reduced. To adjust the retransmission rate, use register S113, the default value is 5 (+ the initial transmission).
S113 = 5
-
Packet Retransmissions (0-254)
Retransmissions are typically used in noisy environments to combat interference and low signal
strength, ensuring data is received at the intended destination.
4.2.4 Network Synchronization
Network Synchronization is what allows all units to hop from frequency to frequency at the same time.
For units to synchronize with the network, each unit must have the same:
- Network ID (S104)
- Network Type (S133)
Sync Timeout
Once synchronized to the network the unit does not need to receive sync data often to keep track of
where the system is supposed to be (in time and frequency). The sync Timeout defines the number of
hops where no sync data is received from a Master and/or Repeater before losing sync. In other words,
how long a unit will remain synchronized with the network without receiving any sync packets before it
gives up and loses sync.
S248 = 512
Sync Timeout (4-65534)
Setting a value too low will cause the unit to lose sync easily and time will be wasted trying to re-sync to
the network. Several hops can go by without receiving a sync packet, and this is completely normal. If
this value is set too high, the unit will assume for a long time that the network is still out there, when
especially in mobile applications, it may not be.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3 Point to Multipoint Network
In a Point to Multipoint Network, a path is created to transfer data between the Master modem and numerous remote modems. The remote modems may simply be Slaves with which the Master communicates directly, and/or Slaves which communicate via Repeaters. Some or all of the Repeaters may also
act as Slaves in this type of Network, i.e. the Repeaters are not only storing and forwarding data, but are
also acting as Slaves. Such Repeaters may be referred to as ‘Repeater/Slaves’. Point to Multipoint is
enabled by setting register S133 to 0 (ATS133=0, Network Type).
Master
Repeater
Slave
Slave
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-1: Point to Multipoint Network Topology
4.3.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types
In a Microhard Point to Multipoint Network, three unit types or operating modes are available: the Master, the Repeater, and the Remote. The Master modems role is to provide network synchronization for
the system, which ensures all units are active and able to communicate as required. The Master controls the flow of data through the system; all data passes through it. The diagram below shows a unit
configured as a Master.
Coverage
Area
Master
Slave
Slave
Master
Slave
Drawing 5-2: Point to Multipoint Master
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Repeaters can be used to extend the coverage of the Master. Required only if necessary to establish a
radio path between a Master and Slave(s); stores and forwards data sent to it. Synchronizes to Master
and provides synchronization to ‘downstream’ units. If a local device is attached to a Repeater’s serial
data port, the Repeater will also behave as a Slave (aka Repeater/Slave).
Adding one or more Repeaters within a network will cut the overall throughput of the network in half; the
throughput is halved only once, i.e. it does not decrease with the addition of more Repeaters. If there is
a ‘path’ requirement to provide Repeater functionality, but throughput is critical, a work around is to
place two modems at the Repeater site in a ‘back-to-back’ configuration. One modem would be configured as a Slave in the ‘upstream’ network; the other a Master (or Slave) in the ‘downstream’ network.
Local connection between the modems would be a ‘null modem’ cable. Each modem would require its
own antenna; careful consideration should be given with respect to antenna placement and modem
configuration.
Master
Coverage
Area
Slave
Slave
Master
Repeater
Repeaters
Coverage
Area
Repeater
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-3: Point to Multipoint Repeater
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
A Slave (Remote) is a endpoint or node within a network to which a local serial device is attached.
Communicates with Master either directly or through one or more Repeaters.
Slave
Slave
Slave
Master
Repeater
Slave
Repeater
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-4: Point to Multipoint Slave
Units can be configured to perform the various roles discussed by setting register S101 as follows:
ATS101 = 0
ATS101 = 1
ATS101 = 2
-
Master
Repeater
Slave (Remote)
The next section discussed using Factory Default commands to configure the various types of units that
are available in a Point to Multipoint network, simplifying the configuration process.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults
Factory default setting commands can be used to aid in the configuration and deployment of the Pico
series modules, providing a known starting point in the configuration process for each unit type. Using
the factory default commands sets all applicable registers to factory recommended settings and allows
initial connectivity between units. Configuring modems using the factor default settings have the following benefits:

hastens the configuration process - load default settings and, if necessary, apply only minor
settings / adjustments

aids in troubleshooting - if settings have been adjusted and basic communications cannot be
established, simply revert to the applicable factory default setting and any improper adjustments will be overwritten and a ‘fresh start’ can be made with known-to-work settings
For many networks, the factory default commands may be all that is necessary to configure and deploy
a simple Point to Multipoint Network. Other applications may require additional registers to be configured. Regardless of the complexity of the configuration, the factory default settings provide a starting
point for all configurations. All PMP unit types have a factory default setting command.
AT&F1
AT&F2
AT&F3
-
Point to Multipoint Master (Fast - 172kbps)
Point to Multipoint Slave
Point to Multipoint Repeater
AT&F4
AT&F5
-
Point to Multipoint Master (Slow Mode - 19.2kbps)
Point to Multipoint Slave
The screen shots for each unit type will highlight the key registers that are automatically changed to
create a Point to Multipoint configuration. There may also be additional registers such as the Network ID
that are recommended to be changed.
Each PMP Network
must have a unique
network ID. This can
be changed using
register S104: Network
Address.
Image 5-4: Frequency Hopping Factory Defaults
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F1 Point to Multipoint Master (Fast)
A
B
C
F
I
G
J
D
H
E
K
Image 5-5: Factory Defaults AT&F1 - Point to Multipoint Master
A)
B)
C)
D)
AT&F1
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
E) S140
-
F) S101
G) S103
-
H) S133
-
I)
J)
S102
S104
-
K) S141
-
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Master.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The Master is automatically set to 1, and should not be changed.
The destination address for a PMP Network, by default is 65535, which means data is
broadcast from the Master to all other units.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 0, which is a Master.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
Higher link rates may result in higher throughput, but lower link rates usually
provide better sensitivity and overall robustness.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation. The content displayed by the AT&V command will vary with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. It is strongly
recommended to never use the default setting of 1234567890. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
This register informs the master if 1 or more repeaters are present in the system. This
applies only to the master radio.
Remember, anytime registers are changed the values must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command. To switch from command mode to data mode (online mode), the ATA command can be issued.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F2 Point to Multipoint Slave (Fast)
A
B
C
F
I
G
J
D
K
H
E
Image 5-6: Factory Defaults AT&F2 - Point to Multipoint Slave
A)
B)
C)
D)
AT&F2
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
E) S140
-
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
S101
S103
S133
S102
S104
-
K) S118
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Slave.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The ad
dress of the slave (remote) is automatically set to 2. If adding more than 1 Slave, this
will need to be modified for each unit added.
The destination address is the final destination to which all data is to be sent. In a
Point to Multipoint Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the Master,
and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 2, which is a Slave (Remote).
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the slave is to connect through a repeater, enter the unit address of the repeater
here.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F3 Point to Multipoint Repeater (Fast)
A
B
C
F
I
G
J
D
K
H
E
Image 5-7: AT&F3 Point to Multipoint Repeater
A)
B)
C)
D)
AT&F3
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
E) S140
-
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
S101
S103
S133
S102
S104
-
K) S118
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Repeater.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The address of the Repeater is automatically set to 3.
The destination address is the final destination to which all data is to be sent. In a
Point to Multipoint Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the Master,
and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 1, which is a Repeater.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the repeater is to connect through another repeater, enter the unit address of the
repeater here.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3.3 Unit Addressing
In a Point to Multipoint Network each unit must have a unique unit address, which can be
configured using register S105. Duplicate addresses may result in unpredictable problems in
the network. In a PMP Network data flow is such that data from the Master is sent to all units
by setting the destination address (S140) to 65535, meaning data is broadcast to all units.
4.3.4 Retransmissions
Packet Retransmissions can be used to ensure data reaches its intended destination by resending the same packet over and over. In Point to Multipoint system data is not acknowledged by the destination, meaning data will be transmitted, an additional number of times
specified by S113, resulting in a significant impact on system performance. The more times a
modem retransmits data, the more the overall throughput of the system is reduced. To adjust
the retransmission rate, use register S113, the default value is 5 (+ the initial transmission).
Although, this number should be as low as possible to keep as much bandwidth in the system
as possible.
S113 = 5
-
Packet Retransmissions (0-254)
Retransmissions are typically used in noisy environments to combat interference and low signal strength, ensuring data is received at the intended destination.
4.3.5 Network Synchronization
Network Synchronization is what allows all units to hop from frequency to frequency at the
same time.
For units to synchronize with the network, each unit must have the same:
- Network ID (S104)
- Network Type (S133)
Sync Timeout
Once synchronized to the network the unit does not need to receive sync data often to keep
track of where the system is supposed to be (in time and frequency). The sync Timeout defines the number of hops where no sync data is received from a Master and/or Repeater before losing sync. In other words, how long a unit will remain synchronized with the network
without receiving any sync packets before it gives up and loses sync.
S248 = 100
Sync Timeout (4-65534)
Setting a value too low will cause the unit to lose sync easily and time will be wasted trying to
re-sync to the network. Several hops can go by without receiving a sync packet, and this is
completely normal. If this value is set too high, the unit will assume for a long time that the
network is still out there, when especially in mobile applications, it may not be.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3.6 Point-to-Multipoint TDMA (Standard TDMA)
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is available as a special form of the PMP network topology.
In Standard TDMA mode, a list of remote units is configured in the Master modem, the Master unit then
cycles through the list and indicates to the remote when it is able to transmit its data. The remote unit
would then begin sending data, if it had data to send, and then release the channel when no longer
needed. This would indicate to the master unit to queue the next unit and so on.
In this mode each slave unit has the channel or right to broadcast, for varying lengths of time, and if a
remote did not respond, the Master would need to time out before moving on to the next unit in the list.
The maximum number of Remotes which can communicate with a Master in this configuration is 2 13
(8192).
To configure a Standard TDMA network, the default settings described in 4.3 are applicable, with the
exception that the following registers on the Master must be modified as required:

S244 Channel Request Mode

S251 Master Hop Allocation Timeout
For TDMA, set S244=1. (Must be set on Master and all Slaves)
The default for S251 is 10 (hop intervals). If the system is to be deployed in a ‘clean’ RF environment,
this number should perhaps be reduced to 2 or 3 to provide enough time for the Slave to initiate its response but to not potentially waste a significant number of hop intervals waiting for an unresponsive
Slave to send data.
In addition, the following AT commands (ref. Section 6.1) are used to populate, view and change the
Registered Slaves List:

T?
view entire Registered Slaves List

Tn= UA
enter a Slave’s Unit Address (UA) into the Registered
Slave’s List item number n, where n=0-8191, and UA = 065534 (selecting a UA value of 0 terminates the list)

Tn?
view Registered Slaves List entry number n, where n=08191. Response is UA of List entry
The default Registered Slaves list consists of 8192 entries (0-8191), populated with Unit Addresses of 2
thru 8193 respectively.
On the following page is an example to illustrate basic TDMA operation. For an actual deployment, application-specific parameters must be considered and other various modem configuration options optimized accordingly.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Example:
5 Slaves, configured with PMP defaults (&F2). Unit Addresses: 3, 7, 10, 15, and 21.
UA 3 has some data, 7 has no data, 10 has data, 15 is powered-off, and 21 has data but its RF connection is very intermittent due to an intermittent outdoor antenna connection.
Master has been configured as PMP default Master (&F1). Clean RF environment.
Changes to be made to the Master:
S244=1
S251=3
ATT0=3
ATT1=7
ATT2=10
ATT3=15
ATT4=21
ATT5=0 (this terminates the list)
The Master will ‘poll’ (give the opportunity to transmit) the Slave with UA 3. This Slave will transmit all of
its data and then inform the Master of same.
On the next hop, the Master will sequence to the next modem, UA 7. Slave 7 will inform the Master it
has no data and on the next hop, the Master will sequence to UA 10.
Slave 10 will transmit its data and inform the Master when complete.
The Master then polls unit 15, no response. On the next hop interval, the Master will poll unit 15 again:
no response. It will poll one more time on the following hop interval and, with no response, will move on
to poll UA 21 which has data and sends it to the Master—but due to the faulty outdoor antenna connection, the Master does not receive the message from the Slave indicating that it has sent all of its data, so
the Master will wait for the value of S251 (3 hops) for such a message from the Slave before moving on
to begin the cycle again at UA 3.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3.7 Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
P2P mode is used for communications between pairings of Remote modems,
e.g. Slave 12 can exchange data with (only) Slave 14, Slave 6 can exchange data with (only) Slave
7, etc.
There are no specific factory default settings for P2P modems.
To establish a basic P2P network:
Master
A P2P network requires a
Master modem.






The data being
transmitted from one
Slave to another in P2P
mode is transferred via
the Master.
enter into Command Mode
load the &F1 factory default settings
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change Packet Retransmissions (S113) from 5 to 0 (increase from 0 if required)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slave 1






enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Destination Address to 3 (to be the UA of Slave 2)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slave 2







enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Unit Address (S105) to 3
change the Destination Address to 2 (the UA of Slave 1)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
The Master will broadcast (actually ‘re-broadcast’) the data incoming to it from both Slaves to all (2)
Slaves; one Slave’s data has a destination being the other Slave and vice versa.
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4.0 900 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
4.3.8 Everyone-to-Everyone (E2E)
E2E mode is used for communications between all remote modems,
i.e. data from every modem is broadcast to every other modem in the network.
Considering the amount of data re-broadcasting (via the Master), it is a very bandwidth-intensive network topology.
There are no specific factory default settings to configure modems for E2E operation.
An E2E network requires
a Master modem.
To establish a basic E2E network:
The data being
transmitted from remote
units in an E2E network
travels to the Master and
is then re-broadcast to all
other remotes.
Master






enter into Command Mode
load the &F1 factory default settings
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change Packet Retransmissions (S113) from 5 to 0 (increase from 0 if required)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slaves







© Microhard Systems Inc.
enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Unit Address (S105) to a unique number (range: 2-65534)
change the Destination Address to 65535 (the broadcast address)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
To begin configuration, the P400 must be mounted into a either a Microhard supplied development
board (with factory attached interface card), or be mounted into a customer designed platform. The
P400 is configured using AT commands through the Data port, or using special diagnostic commands
through the Diagnostic Port. Refer to Section 2: Hardware Description for information related to interfacing to, or powering the module.
To issue AT commands through the Data port, the P400 must first be set into Command Mode as described below.
5.1
Configuration/Unit Modes
5.1.1 Command Mode


400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.

the P400 module is offline (data is not passing through the unit via it’s local data lines
or RF communications)
if installed in a Development Board, the only LED illuminated will be the blue power
LED.
the P400’s configuration options (registers) may be viewed and modified using AT
commands.
Two methods are typically used to place the Pico Series into Command Mode.
1. Force to Command Mode







Power down off the Development Board assembly.
Connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable from the PC serial port to the rear RS232 port (DATA) of the modem.
Launch a terminal communications program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for
9600bps, 8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit (8N1), no flow control
press and hold the CONFIG button
continue to press the CONFIG button and apply power to the modem
release the CONFIG button
On power up the terminal session window should show “NO CARRIER OK” as seen
below:
Image 5-1: Command Mode


© Microhard Systems Inc.
the P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings. AT&V will display the current configuration, and the registers can
be queried using the ATSXXX=? Command where XXX = the register number. Help is
available using the ATSXXX /? Command.
Any and all changes must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
2. Escape from Data Mode



400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
With the P400 powered up and ‘online’, connect a 9-pin straight-through serial cable
from the PC serial port to the RS-232 DATA port on the dev board.
Launch a terminal program (e.g. HyperTerminal) and configure for the P400’s established serial baud rate parameters (PC & modem must match).
Pause 1 second, type ‘+++’ , pause 1 second: the monitor should show the module
response of ‘NO CARRIER OK’
Image 5-2: Command Mode


The P400 is now in command mode, and AT commands can be used to configure or
query the settings.
Entering the AT&V command as shown will show the current configuration as seen
below: (The data displayed varies based on network and unit type.)
Image 5-3: Command Mode - AT&V Display
5.1.2 Data Mode
Data Mode is the normal operational state of all deployed P400 modules. In this mode the
module is prepared to exchange data as per its configuration settings. Available LED indications can provide an indication of the data exchange (TX and RX LEDs).
To enter DATA mode from COMMAND mode, enter the command: ATA [Enter]
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.1.3 Modem Type (S128)
The P400 is a Multi-Frequency Modem that is capable of operating in one of three (3) different modem
types. The three different modem types of the P400 are (1) 400 MHz Narrowband Licensed Band Modem, (2) 900 MHz FHSS modem operating in the 900 MHz ISM band and (3) as a 400 MHz Frequency
Hopping Modem. It is important to set the correct modem type before commencing with any additional
configuration parameters.
This section describes the configuration of a modem that has been set to operate as a 400 MHz Frequency Hopping, operating in the 410 to 480 MHz Frequency Band. The P400 in 400 MHz mode is not
compatible with MHX425 and n425 radios from Microhard Systems.
The modem type can be selected using the register S128 (Modem Type) as follows:
Modem Type S128
* 400 MHz FHSS is an order option (-C2S or -C1S) and must be speci
fied at time of order and enabled at the factory before being shipped.
Registers can be changed
by entering the AT
command as seen below:
Example:
ATS128=2 <enter>
= 0 - 400 MHz Narrow Band (NB) Modem
= 1 - 900 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem
= 2 - 400 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) Modem*
The following image shows the current options for the modem type as described above.
Any registers that are
changed must be written to
flash using the AT&W
command>
Image 5-4: Modem Type S128
5.1.4 Network Type (S133)
Once configured to operate as a 400 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) modem, the Network Type must be
decided and planned for a successful deployment. The P400 currently supports Point to Point, Point to
Multipoint network topologies.
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
To change the network type the register S133 (Network Type) is used as seen below:
Network Type S133
= 0 - Point to Multipoint
= 1 - Point to Point
= 2 - Peer to Peer
= (Additional Modes may be available)
Ensure the correct network type is set before proceeding. It is recommended to start with the factory
default settings to aid in initial configuration (discussed later), and then changing registers as required.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.1.5 Hopping On Frequency Table
The P400 set to 400 MHz Frequency Hopping gives the customer an ability to define a frequency hopping table which is suitable for their applications. Network address and encryption key still play important roles for synchronization and network separation. This section describes AT commands and registers related to hopping on frequency table.
Hopping mode register (S238) is preset by the manufacturer. It is a read-only register for the end user.
S238 controls the modem either hopping on pattern or on frequency table. ATS238? AT command can
be used to display current value of this register.
0
*1
Hopping on pattern
Hopping on frequency table
Note that this is not shown in the register list when AT&V command is issued.
5.1.5.1 Frequency Tables
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Frequency tables are a list of frequencies used by the modem to communicate with each other. The
modem hops onto one frequency and communicates for a certain amount of time, then hops to the next
one in the list.
There are two frequency tables: the primary frequency table and the secondary frequency table. The
primary table is used between the master and its direct slaves or repeaters; the secondary table is used
for the repeater to communication with its slaves.
Only the primary table needs to be defined on the master and a slave; both primary and secondary table
need to be defined on a repeater.
5.1.5.2 ATP0 and ATP1 Commands
The command ATP0 is used to create/modify the primary frequency table, ATP1 is for the secondary
frequency table. Since these two commands have the same syntax, the following will use ATP0 as an
example. Both tables (ATP0 & ATP1) must be populated before the modem will go online.
Editing Frequency Table
ATP0= command allows a user to edit the frequency table channel by channel. The user can press
ESC to exit from editing mode. Any valid frequencies typed will be saved into the table automatically.
A valid input format is as follows,
####.######
The value given here is in MHz.
The BACKSPACE key can be used to correct mistakes when typing a frequency. Once ENTER is
pressed, the value will be accepted if it has the right format. An accepted value can NOT be modified
with the BACKSPACE key. If changing is desired, the table has to be entered.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Image 5-6: Frequency Table: Manual Entry
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
A better way to load a frequency table is using “Send Text File…” from HyperTerminal after the
ATP0=<enter> command is issued from command mode. The text file should be prepared so that it has
one frequency per line. Each line should end with CR (Carriage Return) and LF. The file should look like
this, for example:
420.000000
422.000000
424.000000
426.750000
430.000000
435.000000
440.000000
450.000000
470.000000
410.000000
420.000000
422.000000
424.000000
426.750000
430.000000
435.000000
440.000000
450.000000
470.000000
410.000000
……
Duplicated frequency can exist in the frequency table, but all 50 channels must be populated.,
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Displaying Frequency Table
ATP0? Displays the current frequency table all at once. There are 50 channels in the frequency table.
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Image 5-6: Frequency Tables (ATP0, ATP1)
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.2 Point to Point Network
In a point-to-point network, a path is created to transfer data between Point A and Point B, where Point
A may be considered the Master modem and Point B a Slave. Such a PTP network may also involve
one or more Repeaters (in a store-and-forward capacity) should the radio signal path dictate such a
requirement. Point to Point is enabled by setting register S133 to 1 (ATS133=1, Network Type).
A PTP configuration may also be used in a more dynamic sense: there may be many Slaves (and Repeaters) within such a network, however the Master may have its ‘Destination Address’ (S140) changed
when required to communicate with a specific Slave.
Slave
Master
OR
Master
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Slave
Repeater
Drawing 5-1: Point to Point Network Topology
5.2.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types
In a Microhard Point to Point Network, three unit types or operating modes are available: the Master,
Repeater, and the Remote. The Masters role is to provide network synchronization for the system,
which ensures all units are active and able to communicate as required. The Master controls the flow of
data through the system; all data passes through it. The diagram below shows a unit configured as a
Master.
Coverage
Area
Master
Master
Slave
Drawing 5-2: Point to Point Master
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Repeaters can be used to extend the coverage of the Master. Required only if necessary to establish a
radio path between a Master and Slave(s); stores and forwards data sent to it. Synchronizes to Master
and provides synchronization to ‘downstream’ units. If a local device is attached to a Repeater’s serial
data port, the Repeater will also behave as a Slave (aka Repeater/Slave).
Adding one or more Repeaters within a network will cut the overall throughput of the network in half; the
throughput is halved only once, i.e. it does not decrease with the addition of more Repeaters. If there is
a ‘path’ requirement to provide Repeater functionality, but throughput is critical, a work around is to
place two modems at the Repeater site in a ‘back-to-back’ configuration. One modem would be configured as a Slave in the ‘upstream’ network; the other a Master (or Slave) in the ‘downstream’ network.
Local connection between the modems would be a ‘null modem’ cable. Each modem would require its
own antenna; careful consideration should be given with respect to antenna placement and modem
configuration.
Repeater
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Repeater
Master
Slave
Drawing 5-3: Point to Point Repeater
A Slave (Remote) is an endpoint/node within a network to which a local device is attached. Communicates with Master either directly or through one or more Repeaters.
Slave
Repeater
Master
Slave
Drawing 5-4: Point to Point Slave
Units can be configured to perform the various roles discussed by setting register S101 as follows:
ATS101 = 0
ATS101 = 1
ATS101 = 2
© Microhard Systems Inc.
-
Master
Repeater
Slave (Remote)
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.2.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults
Factory default setting commands can be used to aid in the configuration and deployment of the P400
modules, providing a known starting point in the configuration process for each unit type. Using the factory default commands sets all applicable registers to factory recommended settings and allows for initial connectivity between units. Configuring modems using the factor default settings have the following
benefits:

hastens the configuration process - load default settings and, if necessary, apply only minor
settings / adjustments

aids in troubleshooting - if settings have been adjusted and basic communications cannot be
established, simply revert to the factory default setting and any improper adjustments will be
overwritten and a ‘fresh start’ can be made with known-to-work settings
For many networks, the factory default commands may be all that is necessary to configure and deploy
a simple Point to Point Network. Other applications may require additional registers to be configured.
Regardless of the complexity of the configuration, the factory default settings provide a starting point for
all configurations. All unit types have a factory default setting command.
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
AT&F6 + ATS128=2
AT&F7 + ATS128=2
-
Point to Point Master (Fast - 172kbps)
Point to Point Slave (Fast)
AT&F8 + ATS128=2
AT&F9 + ATS128=2
-
Point to Point Master (Slow - 19.2kbps)
Point to Point Slave (Slow)
For 400 MHz Hopping Modems, the Modem type (ATS128=2) must be changed after the AT&F command has been executed. The screen shots for each unit type highlight the key registers that are automatically changed to create a Point to Point configuration. There may also be additional registers such
as the Network ID that are recommended to be changed.
Each PTP Network
must have a unique
network ID. This can
be changed using
register S104: Network
Address.
Image 5-5: Factory Defaults
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F6 Point to Point Master (Fast)
A
B
C
D
G
J
H
K
E
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
I
F
L
Image 5-6: Factory Defaults AT&F6 - Point to Point Master
Both frequency tables
(ATP0 & ATP1) must be
populated before
changes can be saved &
modem can be brought
online.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
AT&F6
S128
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
F)
S140
-
G) S101
H) S103
-
I)
S133
-
J) S102
K) S104
-
L)
-
S141
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Point Master.
Must be set to 2 (ATS128=2) for 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Point Network must have a unique unit address. The Master is
automatically set to 1, and should not be changed.
The destination address is unit address of the final destination, which all data is to
be sent. The address entered would generally be the unit address of the Slave.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 0, which is a Master.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
Higher link rates may result in higher throughput, but lower link rates usually
provide better sensitivity and overall robustness.
The network type must be set to 1 for Point to Point operation. The content displayed
by the AT&V command will vary with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. It is strongly
recommended to never use the default setting of 1234567890. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
This register informs the master if 1 or more repeaters are present in the system. This
applies only to the master radio.
Remember, anytime registers are changed the values must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command. To switch from command mode to data mode (online mode), the ATA command can be issued.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F7 Point to Point Slave (Fast)
A
B
C
D
G
J
H
K
E
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
L
I
F
Image 5-7: Factory Defaults AT&F7 - Point to Point Slave
Both frequency tables
(ATP0 & ATP1) must be
populated before
changes can be saved &
modem can be brought
online.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
AT&F7
S128
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
F)
S140
-
G) S101
H) S103
I) S133
-
J) S102
K) S104
-
L)
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
S118
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Point Slave.
Must be set to 2 (ATS128=2)for 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Point Network must have a unique unit address. The address
of the slave (remote) is automatically set to 2. This can be changed, but ensure that
the destination address on the master is also changed!
The destination address is unit address of the final destination to which all data is to
be sent. In a Point to Point Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the
master, and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 2, which is a Slave (Remote).
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 1 for Point to Point operation. The content displayed
by the AT&V command varies with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the slave is to connect through a repeater, enter the unit address of the repeater
here.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Point to Point Repeater
There is no Factory default mode for a PTP Repeater, the procedure below outlines the steps required
to add a repeater to a PTP system.
Note that the Master has a register ‘S141 - Repeaters Y/N’ and the Slave does not. This register informs the Master of there being one or more Repeaters in this network. The factory defaults assume
‘no’ and assign a value of 0. If a Repeater is to be installed, and all the Master and Slave defaults will
be maintained, following is a procedure on how to configure a Repeater into this fixed (non-mobile) PTP
network: (If AT&F commands where used, also ensure ATS128=2 (modem type for 400 MHz frequency
hopping)).
Master
 enter into Command Mode
 change S141 (Repeaters Y/N) to 1 (which means ‘Yes’)
 save the change using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Repeater
 enter into Command Mode
 load a third modem with AT&F7 and ATS128=2 (PTP Slave factory default settings)
 change the Operating Mode (S101) from 2 (Slave) to 1 (Repeater)
 change the Unit Address (UA) (S105) from 2 to 3
 save the changes using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
Slave
 enter into Command Mode
 change S118 from 1 (the UA of the Master) to 3 (the UA of the Repeater)
 save the change using the AT&W command
 go online with the ATA command
This system may be tested by sending text at 9600bps, 8N1 through the RS-232 serial port of one modem and observing that it appears at the RS-232 serial port of the other modem. The Slave is synchronized to the Repeater, which in turn is synchronized to the Master. If the Repeater is taken offline, in a
matter of moments the Slave’s RSSI LEDs will indicate that it is ‘scanning’ for its immediate upstream
unit; place the Repeater online and the Slave will quickly acquire it. If the Master is taken offline, both
the Repeater and Slave will begin to scan.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.2.3 Retransmissions
Packet Retransmissions can be used to ensure data reaches its intended destination by resending the
same packet over and over. In Point to Point system all data is acknowledged by the destination, resulting in retransmissions only being used if no acknowledgement is received. The overall impact on system
performance, while not as significant as it is in Mesh and Point to Multipoint networks, should still be
considered. The more times a modem retransmits data, the more the overall throughput of the system is
reduced. To adjust the retransmission rate, use register S113, the default value is 5 (+ the initial transmission).
S113 = 5
-
Packet Retransmissions (0-254)
Retransmissions are typically used in noisy environments to combat interference and low signal
strength, ensuring data is received at the intended destination.
5.2.4 Network Synchronization
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Network Synchronization is what allows all units to hop from frequency to frequency at the same time.
For units to synchronize with the network, each unit must have the same:
- Network ID (S104)
- Network Type (S133)
Sync Timeout
Once synchronized to the network the unit does not need to receive sync data often to keep track of
where the system is supposed to be (in time and frequency). The sync Timeout defines the number of
hops where no sync data is received from a Master and/or Repeater before losing sync. In other words,
how long a unit will remain synchronized with the network without receiving any sync packets before it
gives up and loses sync.
S248 = 512
Sync Timeout (4-65534)
Setting a value too low will cause the unit to lose sync easily and time will be wasted trying to re-sync to
the network. Several hops can go by without receiving a sync packet, and this is completely normal. If
this value is set too high, the unit will assume for a long time that the network is still out there, when
especially in mobile applications, it may not be.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3 Point to Multipoint Network
In a Point to Multipoint Network, a path is created to transfer data between the Master modem and numerous remote modems. The remote modems may simply be Slaves with which the Master communicates directly, and/or Slaves which communicate via Repeaters. Some or all of the Repeaters may also
act as Slaves in this type of Network, i.e. the Repeaters are not only storing and forwarding data, but are
also acting as Slaves. Such Repeaters may be referred to as ‘Repeater/Slaves’. Point to Multipoint is
enabled by setting register S133 to 0 (ATS133=0, Network Type).
Master
Repeater
Slave
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Slave
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-1: Point to Multipoint Network Topology
5.3.1 Operating Modes / Unit Types
In a Microhard Point to Multipoint Network, three unit types or operating modes are available: the Master, the Repeater, and the Remote. The Master modems role is to provide network synchronization for
the system, which ensures all units are active and able to communicate as required. The Master controls the flow of data through the system; all data passes through it. The diagram below shows a unit
configured as a Master.
Coverage
Area
Master
Slave
Slave
Master
Slave
Drawing 5-2: Point to Multipoint Master
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Repeaters can be used to extend the coverage of the Master. Required only if necessary to establish a
radio path between a Master and Slave(s); stores and forwards data sent to it. Synchronizes to Master
and provides synchronization to ‘downstream’ units. If a local device is attached to a Repeater’s serial
data port, the Repeater will also behave as a Slave (aka Repeater/Slave).
Adding one or more Repeaters within a network will cut the overall throughput of the network in half; the
throughput is halved only once, i.e. it does not decrease with the addition of more Repeaters. If there is
a ‘path’ requirement to provide Repeater functionality, but throughput is critical, a work around is to
place two modems at the Repeater site in a ‘back-to-back’ configuration. One modem would be configured as a Slave in the ‘upstream’ network; the other a Master (or Slave) in the ‘downstream’ network.
Local connection between the modems would be a ‘null modem’ cable. Each modem would require its
own antenna; careful consideration should be given with respect to antenna placement and modem
configuration.
Master
Coverage
Area
Slave
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Slave
Master
Repeater
Repeaters
Coverage
Area
Repeater
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-3: Point to Multipoint Repeater
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
A Slave (Remote) is a endpoint or node within a network to which a local serial device is attached.
Communicates with Master either directly or through one or more Repeaters.
Slave
Slave
Slave
Master
Repeater
Slave
Repeater
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
Slave
Slave
Drawing 5-4: Point to Multipoint Slave
Units can be configured to perform the various roles discussed by setting register S101 as follows:
ATS101 = 0
ATS101 = 1
ATS101 = 2
-
Master
Repeater
Slave (Remote)
The next section discussed using Factory Default commands to configure the various types of units that
are available in a Point to Multipoint network, simplifying the configuration process.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3.2 Configuration Using Factory Defaults
Factory default setting commands can be used to aid in the configuration and deployment of the Pico
series modules, providing a known starting point in the configuration process for each unit type. Using
the factory default commands sets all applicable registers to factory recommended settings and allows
initial connectivity between units. Configuring modems using the factor default settings have the following benefits:

hastens the configuration process - load default settings and, if necessary, apply only minor
settings / adjustments

aids in troubleshooting - if settings have been adjusted and basic communications cannot be
established, simply revert to the applicable factory default setting and any improper adjustments will be overwritten and a ‘fresh start’ can be made with known-to-work settings
For many networks, the factory default commands may be all that is necessary to configure and deploy
a simple Point to Multipoint Network. Other applications may require additional registers to be configured. Regardless of the complexity of the configuration, the factory default settings provide a starting
point for all configurations. All PMP unit types have a factory default setting command.
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
AT&F1 + ATS128=2
AT&F2 + ATS128=2
AT&F3 + ATS128=2
-
Point to Multipoint Master (Fast - 172kbps)
Point to Multipoint Slave
Point to Multipoint Repeater
AT&F4 + ATS128=2
AT&F5 + ATS128=2
-
Point to Multipoint Master (Slow Mode - 19.2kbps)
Point to Multipoint Slave
For 400 MHz Hopping Modems, the Modem type (ATS128=2) must be changed after the AT&F command has been executed. The screen shots for each unit type will highlight the key registers that are
automatically changed to create a Point to Multipoint configuration. There may also be additional registers such as the Network ID that are recommended to be changed.
Each PMP Network
must have a unique
network ID. This can
be changed using
register S104: Network
Address.
Image 5-4: Frequency Hopping Factory Defaults
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F1 Point to Multipoint Master (Fast)
A
B
C
D
G
J
H
K
E
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
I
F
L
Image 5-5: Factory Defaults AT&F1 - Point to Multipoint Master
Both frequency tables
(ATP0 & ATP1) must be
populated before
changes can be saved &
modem can be brought
online.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
AT&F1
S128
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
F)
S140
-
G) S101
H) S103
-
I)
S133
-
J) S102
K) S104
-
L)
-
S141
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Master.
Must be set to 2 (ATS128=2) for 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The Master is automatically set to 1, and should not be changed.
The destination address for a PMP Network, by default is 65535, which means data is
broadcast from the Master to all other units.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 0, which is a Master.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
Higher link rates may result in higher throughput, but lower link rates usually
provide better sensitivity and overall robustness.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation. The content displayed by the AT&V command will vary with the network type.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. It is strongly
recommended to never use the default setting of 1234567890. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
This register informs the master if 1 or more repeaters are present in the system. This
applies only to the master radio.
Remember, anytime registers are changed the values must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command. To switch from command mode to data mode (online mode), the ATA command can be issued.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F2 Point to Multipoint Slave (Fast)
A
B
C
D
G
J
H
K
E
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
L
I
F
Image 5-6: Factory Defaults AT&F2 - Point to Multipoint Slave
Both frequency tables
(ATP0 & ATP1) must be
populated before
changes can be saved &
modem can be brought
online.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
AT&F2
S128
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
F)
S140
-
G)
H)
I)
J)
K)
S101
S103
S133
S102
S104
-
L)
S118
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Slave.
Must be set to 2 (ATS128=2) for 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The ad
dress of the slave (remote) is automatically set to 2. If adding more than 1 Slave, this
will need to be modified for each unit added.
The destination address is the final destination to which all data is to be sent. In a
Point to Multipoint Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the Master,
and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 2, which is a Slave (Remote).
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the slave is to connect through a repeater, enter the unit address of the repeater
here.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
AT&F3 Point to Multipoint Repeater (Fast)
A
B
C
D
G
J
H
K
E
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
L
I
F
Image 5-7: AT&F3 Point to Multipoint Repeater
Both frequency tables
(ATP0 & ATP1) must be
populated before
changes can be saved &
modem can be brought
online.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
AT&F3
S128
AT&W
AT&V
S105
-
F)
S140
-
G)
H)
I)
J)
K)
S101
S103
S133
S102
S104
-
L)
S118
-
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Sets the factory defaults for a Point to Multipoint Repeater.
Must be set to 2 (ATS128=2) for 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Operation.
Writes the changes to NVRAM.
Displays the configuration as seen above.
Every unit in a Point to Multipoint Network must have a unique unit address. The address of the Repeater is automatically set to 3.
The destination address is the final destination to which all data is to be sent. In a
Point to Multipoint Network this address is set to 1, the unit address of the Master,
and should not be changed.
The operating mode defines the unit type and is set to 1, which is a Repeater.
Wireless Link Rate must be set to the same value of each unit in the system.
The network type must be set to 0 for Point to Multipoint operation.
The serial baud rate (and data format S110) must match that of the connected device.
Each unit in a Network must have the same Network Address. To change the
Network Address, the ATS104=XXXXXXX command can be used.
If the repeater is to connect through another repeater, enter the unit address of the
repeater here.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3.3 Unit Addressing
In a Point to Multipoint Network each unit must have a unique unit address, which can be
configured using register S105. Duplicate addresses may result in unpredictable problems in
the network. In a PMP Network data flow is such that data from the Master is sent to all units
by setting the destination address (S140) to 65535, meaning data is broadcast to all units.
5.3.4 Retransmissions
Packet Retransmissions can be used to ensure data reaches its intended destination by resending the same packet over and over. In Point to Multipoint system data is not acknowledged by the destination, meaning data will be transmitted, an additional number of times
specified by S113, resulting in a significant impact on system performance. The more times a
modem retransmits data, the more the overall throughput of the system is reduced. To adjust
the retransmission rate, use register S113, the default value is 5 (+ the initial transmission).
Although, this number should be as low as possible to keep as much bandwidth in the system
as possible.
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
S113 = 5
-
Packet Retransmissions (0-254)
Retransmissions are typically used in noisy environments to combat interference and low signal strength, ensuring data is received at the intended destination.
5.3.5 Network Synchronization
Network Synchronization is what allows all units to hop from frequency to frequency at the
same time.
For units to synchronize with the network, each unit must have the same:
- Network ID (S104)
- Network Type (S133)
Sync Timeout
Once synchronized to the network the unit does not need to receive sync data often to keep
track of where the system is supposed to be (in time and frequency). The sync Timeout defines the number of hops where no sync data is received from a Master and/or Repeater before losing sync. In other words, how long a unit will remain synchronized with the network
without receiving any sync packets before it gives up and loses sync.
S248 = 100
Sync Timeout (4-65534)
Setting a value too low will cause the unit to lose sync easily and time will be wasted trying to
re-sync to the network. Several hops can go by without receiving a sync packet, and this is
completely normal. If this value is set too high, the unit will assume for a long time that the
network is still out there, when especially in mobile applications, it may not be.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3.6 Point-to-Multipoint TDMA (Standard TDMA)
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is available as a special form of the PMP network topology.
In Standard TDMA mode, a list of remote units is configured in the Master modem, the Master unit then
cycles through the list and indicates to the remote when it is able to transmit its data. The remote unit
would then begin sending data, if it had data to send, and then release the channel when no longer
needed. This would indicate to the master unit to queue the next unit and so on.
In this mode each slave unit has the channel or right to broadcast, for varying lengths of time, and if a
remote did not respond, the Master would need to time out before moving on to the next unit in the list.
The maximum number of Remotes which can communicate with a Master in this configuration is 2 13
(8192).
To configure a Standard TDMA network, the default settings described in 5.3 are applicable, with the
exception that the following registers on the Master must be modified as required:
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.

S244 Channel Request Mode

S251 Master Hop Allocation Timeout
For TDMA, set S244=1. (Must be set on Master and all Slaves)
The default for S251 is 10 (hop intervals). If the system is to be deployed in a ‘clean’ RF environment,
this number should perhaps be reduced to 2 or 3 to provide enough time for the Slave to initiate its response but to not potentially waste a significant number of hop intervals waiting for an unresponsive
Slave to send data.
In addition, the following AT commands (ref. Section 6.1) are used to populate, view and change the
Registered Slaves List:

T?
view entire Registered Slaves List

Tn= UA
enter a Slave’s Unit Address (UA) into the Registered
Slave’s List item number n, where n=0-8191, and UA = 065534 (selecting a UA value of 0 terminates the list)

Tn?
view Registered Slaves List entry number n, where n=08191. Response is UA of List entry
The default Registered Slaves list consists of 8192 entries (0-8191), populated with Unit Addresses of 2
thru 8193 respectively.
On the following page is an example to illustrate basic TDMA operation. For an actual deployment, application-specific parameters must be considered and other various modem configuration options optimized accordingly.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
Example:
5 Slaves, configured with PMP defaults (&F2). Unit Addresses: 3, 7, 10, 15, and 21.
UA 3 has some data, 7 has no data, 10 has data, 15 is powered-off, and 21 has data but its RF connection is very intermittent due to an intermittent outdoor antenna connection.
Master has been configured as PMP default Master (&F1). Clean RF environment.
Changes to be made to the Master:
S244=1
S251=3
ATT0=3
ATT1=7
ATT2=10
ATT3=15
ATT4=21
ATT5=0 (this terminates the list)
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
The Master will ‘poll’ (give the opportunity to transmit) the Slave with UA 3. This Slave will transmit all of
its data and then inform the Master of same.
On the next hop, the Master will sequence to the next modem, UA 7. Slave 7 will inform the Master it
has no data and on the next hop, the Master will sequence to UA 10.
Slave 10 will transmit its data and inform the Master when complete.
The Master then polls unit 15, no response. On the next hop interval, the Master will poll unit 15 again:
no response. It will poll one more time on the following hop interval and, with no response, will move on
to poll UA 21 which has data and sends it to the Master—but due to the faulty outdoor antenna connection, the Master does not receive the message from the Slave indicating that it has sent all of its data, so
the Master will wait for the value of S251 (3 hops) for such a message from the Slave before moving on
to begin the cycle again at UA 3.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3.7 Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
P2P mode is used for communications between pairings of Remote modems,
e.g. Slave 12 can exchange data with (only) Slave 14, Slave 6 can exchange data with (only) Slave
7, etc.
There are no specific factory default settings for P2P modems.
To establish a basic P2P network:
Master
A P2P network requires a
Master modem.







The data being
transmitted from one
Slave to another in P2P
mode is transferred via
the Master.
enter into Command Mode
load the &F1 factory default settings
Change modem type (S128) to 2
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change Packet Retransmissions (S113) from 5 to 0 (increase from 0 if required)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slave 1







400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
Change modem type (S128) to 2
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Destination Address to 3 (to be the UA of Slave 2)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slave 2








enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
Change modem type (S128) to 2
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Unit Address (S105) to 3
change the Destination Address to 2 (the UA of Slave 1)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
The Master will broadcast (actually ‘re-broadcast’) the data incoming to it from both Slaves to all (2)
Slaves; one Slave’s data has a destination being the other Slave and vice versa.
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5.0 400 MHz Frequency Hopping Configuration
5.3.8 Everyone-to-Everyone (E2E)
E2E mode is used for communications between all remote modems,
i.e. data from every modem is broadcast to every other modem in the network.
Considering the amount of data re-broadcasting (via the Master), it is a very bandwidth-intensive network topology.
There are no specific factory default settings to configure modems for E2E operation.
An E2E network requires
a Master modem.
To establish a basic E2E network:
The data being
transmitted from remote
units in an E2E network
travels to the Master and
is then re-broadcast to all
other remotes.
Master







enter into Command Mode
load the &F1 factory default settings
Change modem type (S128) to 2
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change Packet Retransmissions (S113) from 5 to 0 (increase from 0 if required)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
Slaves
400 MHz Frequency
Hopping is a order option
(C1S, C2S) and must be
specified at the time of
order and set at the
factory.
© Microhard Systems Inc.








enter into Command Mode
load the &F2 factory default settings
Change modem type (S128) to 2
change the Network Type (S133) to 2
change the Unit Address (S105) to a unique number (range: 2-65534)
change the Destination Address to 65535 (the broadcast address)
save the change using the AT&W command
go online with the ATA command
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
6.1 AT Commands
Appendix B is a quick reference for the available AT commands; in this sub-section are details
regarding the most commonly used. To invoke an AT command, enter Command Mode, then
type AT <command>[Enter].
A
Answer
Upon completion of tasks being done with the modem in Command Mode, invoking this command will
place the modem back ‘online’ (into Data Mode).
g, G (FH Modems)
If changes were made to
the modem’s
configuration and it is
intended that those
changes be saved to nonvolatile memory, do so
with the AT command
’&W’ prior to placing the
modem online.
Spectrum Analyzer
This is a very useful feature of the P400. ATg or ATG will provide a display of signal levels received
within the operating environment and frequency range of the modem under test. ATg averages 256
samples, ATG 16,000.
Invoking the ATg command causes the P400 to sweep the operating band and provide a display of both
the mean and peak signal levels, in dBm, found on each channel.
The ‘graphical’ display is limited from –110dBm to –53dBm, and is in 1dB increments. Ignore the
leftmost asterisk in calculations (as below).
How to interpret the display (example):
...
ch 78 -137dBm *
ch 80 -105dBm ******...
...
No signal was measured on channel 78.
Mean signal level: -(110-5 (asterisks)) = -105dBm
Peak signal level: -(110-5 (asterisks) -3 (dots)) = -102dBm
For the P400 @ 900 MHz Channel 1 is at 902.4MHz, with subsequent channels in increments
dependent on the link rate. Therefore, to calculate the frequency of channel n: (BW = Channel
Bandwidth in MHz)
Freq channel n = 902.4+ ((n-1) x BW)MHz.
In
Identification
The I command returns information about the P400.
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3
4
5
6
Product Code
Product Identification (Firmware Version)
Firmware Date
Firmware Copyright
Firmware Time
255
Factory-Configured Options listing
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
ATlogin
Login
AT Login can be used to enable a password prior to accessing command mode and changing any
configuration parameters. The modem must be restarted before settings will be enabled.
Image 6-1: AT login
N
Advanced Spectrum Analyzer
The Advanced Spectrum Analyzer feature provides for a very detailed analysis of a particular area of
the radio frequency spectrum within which the P400 operates.
The specific start (of scan) and stop frequencies, along with step (increment) size and dwell (on
frequency) time are user-definable.
Following is the format for the ATN command:
In Command Mode
where
ATN Fstart Fstop S D[Enter]
Fstart
Fstop
S
D
=
=
=
=
start frequency in MHz (including 0-6 decimal places)
stop frequency in MHz (including 0-6 decimal places)
step increment in kHz (from 1-1000)
dwell time in ms (from 1-1000)
Example:
ATN 905.250 908.500750 25 100
Note: Be sure to enter spaces as shown in the format detailed above.
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
&Fn
Load Factory Default Configuration
Loading Factory Default settings allow for quick configuration of systems by setting a known starting
point with factory recommended settings for each type of unit. The Factory settings change all settings
required to initiate default communication with other unit types.
Values
Frequency Hopping (FH) modems
&F1
&F2
&F3
&F4
&F5
&F6
&F7
&F8
&F9
&F10
&F11
&F12
&F15
&F16
&F18
&F19
FH Master Fast PMP
FH Slave Fast PMP
FH Repeater Fast PMP
FH Master Slow PMP
FH Slave Slow PMP
FH Master Fast PP
FH Slave Fast PP
FH Master Slow PP
FH Slave Slow PP
FH Master Fast PMP no Time ACK
FH Master Fast P2P no Time ACK
FH Master Fast PP no Time ACK
FH Master WL
FH Slave WL
FH Master Fast TDMA
FH Slave Fast TDMA
Narrow Band (NB) modems
&F51 - NB Transparent Protocol, Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F52 - NB Transparent Protocol w Rep., Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F53 - NB Pac.Crest Trans.Protocol, Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz,FEC On,2FSK
&F54 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol no Rep., Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F55 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol Rep.1, Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F56 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol Rep.2, Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F57 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol Base w Rep., Rate=9.6kbps, BW=25kHz, 2FSK
&F58 - NB Satel 3AS Protocol, Bit Rate=9.6kbps, BW=12.5kHz, 4FSK
&F59 - NB Satel 3AS Protocol, Bit Rate=19.2kbps, BW=25kHz, 4FSK
&F60 - NB Satel 3AS Protocol, BitRate=9.6kbps,BW=12.5kHz,FEC Off,4FSK,Type 1
&F61 - NB Satel 3AS Protocol, BitRate=19.2kbps,BW=25kHz,FEC Off,4FSK,Type 1
&F62 - NB Pac.Crest Trans.Protocol, Bit Rate=4.8kbps,BW=12.5kHz,FEC On,2FSK
&F63 - NB Trimtalk Protocol, Bit Rate=4.8kbps, BW=12.5kHz, 2FSK
&F64 - NB Pac.Crest 4FSK Protocol,BitRate=9.6kbps,BW=12.5kHz,FEC On,4FSK
&F65 - NB Pac.Crest 4FSK Protocol,BitRate=19.2kbps,BW=25kHz,FEC On,4FSK
&F66 - NB Pac.Crest FST Protocol,BitRate=9.6kbps,BW=12.5kHz,FEC On,4FSK
&F67 - NB Pac.Crest FST Protocol,BitRate=19.2kbps,BW=25kHz,FEC On,4FSK
&F68 - NB Pac.Crest FST Protocol,BitRate=9.6kbps,BW=12.5kHz,FEC On,4FSK,Type2
&F69 - NB Pac.Crest FST Protocol,BitRate=19.2kbps,BW=25kHz,FEC On,4FSK,Type2
&F70 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol, BitRate=8kbps, BW=12.5kHz, 2FSK
&F71 - NB Trimtalk 450s Protocol, BitRate=16kbps, BW=25kbps, 2FSK
&F100 - Reset Hopping Modes
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
&H0
Frequency Restriction
By default, the P400 (900MHz Mode) will hop on frequencies across the entire 900MHz ISM band. For
some applications or within certain operating environments, it may be desired to prohibit the modem
from operating on specific frequencies or range(s) of frequencies. The modem will not allow ‘too many’
frequencies to be restricted; it requires a certain amount of bandwidth within which to operate to comply
with regulations.
Following is an example of entering Frequency Restrictions. First, the AT&H0 command is invoked:
All modems in the
network must have the
same frequency
restrictions configured
within them.
Use the ATg or ATG
feature to help identify the
f r e q u e n c y/ r a n g e
of
pos s i bl e
i n t er f er i ng
signals within the 902928MHz ISM band, and
then use the AT&H0
feature to configure the
modem to avoid them.
Image 6-1: Frequency Restriction
The modem responds with a prompt for the Unit Address. (Enter the Unit Address for the Master (1) and
all Repeaters in the network into each modem in the network.) Having entered ‘1’, the modem prompts
for the first restricted frequency to be entered.
Image 6-2: Unit Address
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
&H0
Frequency Restriction (continued)
Image 6-3: Restricted Bands
905.500 was entered as the ‘start’ and ‘end’ of Band 1; this will restrict the frequency of 905.500MHz.
The range of 909.250 to 912.700MHz was defined as the second (Band 2) restriction. When prompted
to enter Band 3, the [Esc] key was entered to escape the entry process and the summary at left/bottom
was displayed. Pressing [Esc] again saves and exits the process. To modify an existing restriction,
simply overwrite it. To remove a restriction, overwrite it with 000.000.
&H1 (FH Modems – 900MHz)
Repeater Registration
When more than one Repeater exists in a network, the Unit Address of each Repeater should be
registered within every modem in the network. The reason for doing this is to enable the modems to
create hopping patterns which will be orthogonal to each other, thereby minimizing possible interference
between network segments.
Upon entering the AT&H1 command, the modem prompts as follows:



A to add a Repeater (this is done by entering the Unit Address of the Repeater)
R to remove a Repeater
C to clear all registered Repeaters.
Pressing the [Esc] key saves and exits the process.
&V
View Configuration
Displays S Register names and current values.
&W
Write Configuration to Memory
Stores active configuration into the modem’s non-volatile memory. Any changes made to the Pico
Series must be written to NVRAM using the AT&W command (AT&WA will write the changes & set unit
in online mode)
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
P0? (400 MHz Modes)
Frequency Table
The P400 Frequency Table shows the available licensed frequencies and occupied bandwidth for each
channel, as well as the direction of communication allowed on that channel. Use the ATP0? Command
to view the table. The for NB modems the table can only modified by the factory or an authorized dealer.
The contents of the table are dependant on licensing. Contact your dealer or Microhard Systems Inc, for
more information.
As shown above, the ATP0? Command will display the contents of the table in the following format:
Channel Number
Frequency (MHz)
BW
DIR
Channel Number: 0 - 63.
Frequency (MHz) = 410 to 480.0 MHz
BW = Occupied Bandwidth, (6.25kHz / 12.5kHz / 25kHz)
DIR = Direction, (Rx / Tx / Rx&Tx)
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
6.2 Settings (S) Registers
The majority of modem configuration is done via the Settings (S) Registers.
The previous sections provide configuration detail related to different operating modes and network topologies; this section examines each S register in detail for reference or advanced/custom networks.
Appendix C is a quick reference for the S register options.
In the following descriptions, default settings (where applicable) are in boldface. In Command Mode,
Query format:
ATS<S register #>? [Enter]
Change format :
ATS<S register #>=<value> [Enter]
Help format:
ATS<S register #><space>/? [Enter]
The P400 is a multi-Frequency Modem that can operate in several different modes as discussed in previous sections. The registers applicable for each mode, and network/protocol type may vary. Where possible, it has been noted in the title box if the register is only used in specific modes.
NB = Narrowband, Licensed Modes (400 MHz)
FH = Frequency Hopping Modes (400 MHz and/or 900 MHz)
y <command
command name> x
S0
Power-up Mode
This register determines in which mode the modem will be upon power
-up. If selected to power-up in Command Mode, the modem will be
offline from the wireless network, and ready to be configured upon
power-up. The typical mode of operation is for the modem to power-up
in Data mode: ready to participate in data transfer over the wireless
network.
Values
0
1
up in Command Mode
up in Data Mode
S2
Escape Code
Escape character. If >127, escape feature is disabled. Modification of
this register may be necessary when connecting the modem to a
telephone modem where the +++ character string may result in
undesired consequences.
Values
any ASCII value
+ (decimal 43)
S51 (NB Modems)
RSSI Threshold
RSSI Threshold in CSMA mode (for NB modems), dB: -127 ... 0.
0 - CSMA mode is not used, modem will transmit regardless of free/
busy channel. The channel is busy if the RSSI of the received signal is
stronger than the value saved in S51.
Default - 100.
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Values
-100
104
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S101
Operating Mode
The Operating mode defines the role in the network a unit plays. A
P400 modem may be configured for any role required within a radio
network.
Master:
Only one per network. In PP/PMP network types (see
S133) data either originates at, is destined to, or passes
through the Master.
Repeater: May act simply as a ‘Repeater’ to store and forward data
to/from an upstream unit to/from a downstream unit (e.g.
when there is a long distance between units), or, may act
as a Repeater/Slave in which case the above function is
performed AND the unit may also exchange data as a
Slave within the network.
Slave:
Interfaces with remote devices and
Repeater(s).
Values
FH Modems
0 - Master
1 - Repeater
2 - Slave (Remote)
NB Modems (Protocol Dependent)
0 - Master (Base) for Trimtalk
1 - Repeater
2 - Slave (Remote)
3 - Repeater 2 for Trimtalk
communicates with Master either directly or via
S102
Serial Baud Rate
The serial baud rate is the rate at which the modem is to communicate
with the attached local asynchronous device. This value must match
the PC or serial device that is connected to data port on the P400.
Note: Most PC’s do not
readily support serial
communications greater
than 115200bps.
When forcing a module to Command Mode the data port will
temporarily communicate at the default value. When the P400 is
retuned to Data Mode, the serial port settings are returned to those
specified in S102 and S110.
S103
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
230400
115200
57600
38400
28800
19200
14400
9600
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
7200
4800
3600
2400
1200
600
300
Wireless Link Rate
This register determines the rate at which RF communications will
occur over a given network. All modems within a particular network
must be configured with the same wireless link rate. Faster link rates
result in greater throughput, however, for each ’step’ increase in link
rate, there is an approximately 1dB reduction in sensitivity.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Values (bps)
Confidential
Values (bps)
Frequency Hopping modems:
0 - 19200
1 - 115200
2 - 172800
3 - 230000
4 - 247000
5 - 340000
6 - 24700
8 - 57600
Narrow Band modems:
0 - 1200
1 - 2400
2 - 3600
3 - 4800
4 - 7200
5 - 9600
6 - 14400
7 - 19200
8 - 16000
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
S104 (FH Modems)
Change the default value
for the Network ID to
something unique for your
network. Do this for an
added measure of
security and to
differentiate your network
from others which may be
operating nearby.
Network Address (ID)
All modems in a given network must have the same Network Address.
This unique network address is not only a security feature for a
particular network, but also allows other networks - with their own
unique network address - to operate in the same area without the
possibility of undesired data exchange between networks.
Values (0 - 4,000,000,000)
1234567890
S105
Unit Address
The unit address is, and must be, a unique identifier of each modem in
a network. The address value is 16-bits in length.
Values (1-65535 or 1-255)
1
FH: The Master has by default, and must retain, a unit address of 1;
65535 is the broadcast address. Refer to the specific modem type for
more information in regards to unit addressing.
NB: The unit address is used only by Microhard Transparent Mode,
and Pacific Crest protocols (only lower byte(1-255))
S107
Change S107 to
something unique for your
network.
Static Mask
This mask is applied to the transmitted data, and removed from the
received data. It is an added form of security for a network.
Values (up to 16 char)
default (the word itself)
For NB modems it is used by Pacific Crest protocol for security
purposes. Default: Empty String
S108
Output Power
This setting establishes the transmit power level which will be
presented to the antenna connector at the rear of the modem.
Values (dBm (mw))
Unless required S108 should be set not for maximum, but rather for
the minimum value required to maintain an adequate system fade
margin.
20
21
22
23
24
25
* If supported by your model, factory enabled.
(100)
(125)
(160)
(200)
(250)
(320)
26
27
28
29
30
33
(400)
(500)
(630)
(800)
(1W)
(2W)*
FCC regulations allow
for up to 36dBi effective
isotropic radiated power
(EIRP). The sum (in
dBm) of the transmitted
power, the cabling loss,
and the antenna gain
cannot exceed 36dBi.
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6.0 Register/Command Reference
S109 (FH Modems)
Hop Interval
This register is effective only on the Master and is responsible for establishing the rate at which all
modems within a particular network change frequency (hop - from frequency to frequency).
Long hop intervals typically result in the greatest data throughput, however shorter hop intervals may
decrease latency, particularly of smaller packets of data.
The default setting of 20ms is satisfactory for most applications. If adjustment of S109 is being
considered, also consider the serial baud rate, wireless link rate, and maximum packet size (S102,
S103, and S112).
Hop Interval S109 should
only be changed if
recommended by
Microhard Support and/or
for specific applications!
S109
time (ms)
S109
time (ms)
S109
time (ms)
S109
time (ms)
0
1.498
16
89.997
32
11.997
48
21.998
1
2.001
17
99.998
33
12.500
49
22.999
2
2.498
18
125.000
34
12.998
50
24.000
3
3.002
19
150.001
35
13.501
51
25.001
4
3.997
20
4.500
36
13.998
52
26.001
5
4.997
21
5.501
37
14.502
53
27.002
6
6.999
22
5.998
38
15.502
54
27.997
7
10.001
23
6.501
39
16.000
55
28.998
8
14.999
24
7.502
40
16.497
56
8.335
9
19.997
25
8.000
41
17.001
57
199.997
10
29.999
26
8.497
42
17.498
58
250.000
11
40.000
27
9.000
43
18.001
59
300.002
12
50.002
28
9.498
44
18.499
60
349.998
13
59.998
29
10.499
45
19.002
61
378.997
14
69.999
30
11.002
46
19.499
15
80.001
31
11.499
47
20.998
Table 6-1: Hope Interval (S109)
S110
Data Format
This register determines the format of the data on the serial port. The
default is 8 data bits, No parity, and 1 Stop bit. The value must match
the PC or Serial Based device that is connected to the data port.
When forcing a module to Command Mode the data port will
temporarily communicate at the default value. When the P400 is
retuned to Data Mode, the serial port settings are returned to those
specified in S102 and S110.
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Values
1
2
3
4
5
8N1
8N2
8E1
8O1
7N1
6
7
8
9
10
7N2
7E1
7O1
7E2
7O2
107
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S111
Packet Min Size
This is the minimum number of collected bytes in one buffer before the
buffer can be closed by the character timeout timer controlled by S116.
Typically should not be modified.
Values (1 - 255)
1
S112
In a PMP system, set
S113 to the minimum
value required as,
effectively, the data
throughput from Master to
Remote is divided by 1
plus the number stored in
S113.
Packet Max Size
Determines that maximum number of bytes from the connected device
that should be encapsulated into a packet. Large packet sizes may
produce the best data throughput; however, a smaller packet is less
likely to become corrupted and, if it does, is retransmitted with a lesser
impact on network traffic.
Values (1 - 256)
FH: 256
NB: 1579
The default setting of 256 bytes is suited to most applications in
frequency hopping modems. Narrowband modems use 1579.
S113
Packet Retransmissions
This register determines the maximum number of times that a packet
will be retransmitted (in addition to the initial transmission).
Retransmissions can be used to provide system robustness and to
ensure data delivery due to noisy environments or weak signal levels.
Retransmissions should not be used as the only means to correct for
data collisions. Retransmissions create additional traffic and can have
a significant impact on overall throughput of a system.
Values (0 - 254)
5
See register S213 for Repeaters.
S115
Repeat Interval
In PP/PMP S115 determines the number of slots which are available
within a window of opportunity for Remote units to submit channel
requests to the Master modem. For a large number of remotes, the
value of S115 should be set relatively high:
Values (0 - 255)
3
Remotes will randomly contend for the ability to access the channel request slots. For a small number of
Remotes, it is advisable to keep S115 closer to the default value so as to not ‘waste bandwidth’ by
maintaining a relatively large window housing a greater-than-necessary number of channel reservation
request slots.
In a TDMA-type system, S115 may be set to 1 as the Remotes are not able to request a transmission
channel: the Master polls each Remote for data.
For NB modems it is used as a maximum number of randomly selected time slots for checking carrier
sense detector, it is used in CSMA when repeaters are enabled (S141=1)
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108
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S116
Character Timeout
Character Timeout in 1/4 of character time (0-255). Default = 10 (2.5
character time). This ‘timer’ looks for gaps in the data being received
from the local attached device. The timer is activated after the
Minimum Packet Size (S111, default 1 Byte) has been accumulated in
the modem. If the timer detects a gap in the data exceeding the
Character Timeout value, the modem will transmit the data.
Values (0 - 254)
10
The Pico will accumulate data in its buffers until either (a) Maximum Packet size (S112) has been
accumulated, or (b) Minimum Packet Size (S111) has been accumulated AND the Character timeout
has expired—whichever occurs first. If S116 is set to 0, the modem will buffer exactly the Minimum
Packet size and then transmit that data.
For NB modems that use low latency protocols e.g. Microhard Transparent, Satel 3AS, the modem
starts transmitting data after receiving the first data byte. The timeout is used just to terminate the
transmission.
S118 (FH Modems)
Roaming
This feature allows a Remote unit to synchronize with a specified
‘upstream’ unit (either Master or Repeater). The options are as
follows:
Values
S118=65535:
1-254 specific (fixed) unit
address with which to associate
A Master modem’s RSSI
LEDs will not illuminate to
any degree until such time
as it has received valid
packets from a
‘downstream’ unit.
S118=1-254:
A Remote will synchronize with an upstream unit
which has the same network address (S104) and
static mask (S107) as the Remote. Should that
upstream unit fail, this Remote will attempt to
synchronize with another ’upstream’ unit within the
same network. This ability is particularly well-suited
to mobile applications.
65535 full roaming
1
In most static (fixed) networks, where there are no Repeaters, the default value of 1 is
maintained: All Slaves synchronize to the Master (whose unit address is 1).
In networks where Repeaters are present, the value of a Remote’s S118 corresponds to the particular
upstream modem with which a particular Remote is intended to communicate, e.g. Slave UA (S105)=3
may have an S118=2, where the modem with UA 2 is a Repeater between the Slave and the Master;
the Repeater will have an S118=1.
S119
Quick Enter to Command Mode
If this register is set to 1, a delay of 5 seconds is introduced at powerup before the modem will go into Data Mode. If, during these 5
seconds, the user enters ‘mhx’ the modem will instead go into
Command Mode and reply with ‘OK’. The terminal baud rate must be
set to 9600bps. If an incorrect character is entered, the modem will
immediately go into Data mode.
Values
0
1
disabled
enabled
The default setting is 0: The modem will promptly go into Data Mode
upon power-up.
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109
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S123
RSSI from Uplink (dBm)
This register displays the average signal strength received over the
previous 8 hop intervals from a Master/Repeater. The value in this
register is also reflected in status lines RSSI1, 2, and 3, which connect
to the modem’s RSSI LEDs.
Values (dBm)
-110 to –55dBm (max reading)
The ‘ATS123 /?’ command will show the RSSI statistics for FH modems (min, max, average, channel,
frequency).
NB modems have a 10 second timeout for keeping RSSI, after it is expired, an (N/A) value will be
returned and RSSI LEDs will start scanning.
S124 (FH Modems)
RSSI from Downlink (dBm)
This register displays the average signal strength received over the
previous 8 hop intervals from a Slave/Repeater. The value in this
register is also reflected in status lines RSSI1, 2, and 3.
Values (dBm)
-110 to –55dBm (max reading)
The ‘ATS124 /?’ command will show the RSSI statistics for FH modems (min, max, average, channel,
frequency). It is not used by NB modems.
S125 (NB Modems)
Occupied Bandwidth
This register sets the occupied bandwidth for the wireless link. It is
only used by NB modems. See table 3.2 for supported combinations of
link rate (S103) and BW. The maximum bandwidth must be
determined and set by your dealer in the frequency/channel tables
(ATP0? / ATP1?).
Values
0
1
2
6.25 kHz
12.5 kHz
25 kHz
S127 (NB Modems)
Modulation
This register sets the modulation scheme for the modem. Available
Link Rate and Channel Bandwidth vary based on the modulation
scheme.
Values
0
1
2FSK
4FSK
S128
Modem Type
The P400 can operate as a 400 MHz Licensed, Narrowband Modem,
as a 900 MHz FHSS Modem or as a 400 MHz Frequency Hopping
Modem. The Modem Type defines the basic operating mode of the
entire modem module. This register should be set before any other
parameters are configured if you are configuring your modem
manually.
Values
0 - 400 MHz Narrow Band (NB)
1 - 900 MHz Frequency Hopping
2 - 400 MHz Frequency Hopping
It is strongly recommended to use default setting (AT&F…) commands
as a start point.
400 MHz Frequency Hopping is only available in C1S and C2S models
and must be specified at time of order.
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110
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S129 (NB - 3AS Only)
Full CRC Use
Full CRC Check (for 3AS Protocol). 0 - Disable, 1 - Enable
Values
0 - Disable
1 - Enable
S130 (FH Modems)
No Sync Intake
Defines if the modem will accept data when/if the remote has become
unsynchronized from the Master. If set to 0, this function will be
disabled and any data received will be ignored. If set to 1, the modem
will accept data and buffer it until the unit is synchronized.
S131 (NB Modems)
Values
0 - Disabled
1 - Enabled
Main Tx Frequency
This register sets the operating Tx frequency for the wireless link.
Select the desired channel from the frequency table. The available
channels/frequencies are entered into the channel table by Authorized
Dealers only. Use the “ATP0?” command to view the available
channels.
S132 (NB Modems)
Values
Channel #
0 - 63
Main Rx Frequency
This register sets the operating Rx frequency for the wireless link
Select the desired channel from the frequency table. The available
channels/frequencies are entered into the channel table by Authorized
Dealers only. Use the “ATP0?” command to view the available
channels.
Values
Channel #
0 - 63
S133 (FH Modems)
Network Type
This register defines the type of network being deployed. This register
must be set to the same value on every unit in the system.
Point to Multipoint - The Master broadcasts data to all units, and all
remote units send data back to the Master.
Point to Point - Point to point traffic between a Master and a Slave
(with 0 or more Repeaters in between).
Peer-to-Peer involves either communication between 2 (typically
remote) units (P2P) or between all units (Everyone-2-Everyone - E2E).
Values
0 - Point to Multipoint (PMP)
1 - Point to Point (PP)
2 - Peer to Peer or Everyone to
Everyone.
3 - Reserved
4 - PMP with acks
S136 (NB Modems)
TX_RX Priority
Determines which mode (Tx or Rx) has priority.
Values
Priority Tx: If the modem has data to Transmit and waits for a free
channel, ‘After Tx delay’ or ‘Tx Attack’ time-outs to expire in order to
start transmission, the modem will ignore all data received from the air.
0 - Priority Tx
1 - Priority Rx
Priority Rx: Same conditions as above, but the modem will accept data
from the air if it is waiting to transmit.
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111
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S137 (NB Modems)
CSMA Time Slot Size
Size of Time Slot in bytes (For Transparent and other protocols, used
in CSMA mode with Repeaters). Range from 0 to 255. Default - 2.
Values
2
S138 (NB Modems)
After Tx Delay
After Tx Delay, in 100us (For Transparent and other protocols, used in
CSMA mode with Repeaters). Range from 0 to 65535. Default - 0.
Values
0
The modem will not send new data after completing a transmission of
a data packet until the ‘After Tx Delay’ timeout has expired.
S139 (900 MHz FH Modem)
Compatible_921 at 345
If this register is set and the P400 is configured as a 900 MHz FHSS
modem, it will be compatible with the MHX921 operating at a link rate
of 345kbps.
Values
0 - Disabled
1 - Enabled
S140 (FH Modems)
Destination Address
As the name implies, this register specifies the ultimate destination for
a modem’s data.
Values
Varies by network and unit type
Different network topologies dictate the configuration of S140.
With one or more
Repeaters in the system,
a network’s throughput is
divided in half. Exercising
the option of back-to-back
‘Repeaters’ - which
requires 2 modems at a
‘Repeater’ site eliminates the division of
bandwidth.
In PMP and PP modes - the range is 1 to 65535, where 65535 is broadcast:
If there is more than one
Repeater in a network,
the Repeaters should be
‘registered’. See Section
6.1 AT&H1 Repeater
Registration for how to
accomplish this.
S141
PMP
PTP
P2P
E2E
- Master S140=65535, Remote S140=1
- Master S140=UA of Remote, Remote S140=1 (Master)
- Master S140=65535, S140 of each (of 2 / pair) Remote
modem is the UA of the other
- S140 of all modems=65535 (broadcast)
Repeaters Y/N
For FH Modems, this register informs, and only applies to the Master,
as to the presence of any Repeater(s) in the network. With one or
more Repeaters in the system, a networks throughput is divided in
half.
Values
0 - no repeater
1 - 1 or more repeaters
For NB Modems, this register is used to enable the CSMA mechanism
when repeaters are present. It must be set up identically on all
modems in the network.
S142
Serial Channel Mode
This register defines the physical serial interface which will be used for
data communications.
-ATS142=2 RS485 interface, Full duplex (4-wire), Tx driver is on only when data are being
sent. This mode could be used for multi-drop systems.
-ATS142=3 RS485 interface, Full duplex (4-wire), Tx driver is on always. This mode has
reduced Tx driver switching noise.
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Values
0 - RS-232 interface
1 - Half-duplex RS-485
2 - Full-duplex RS-485 (Tx switch)
3 - Full-duplex RS-485 (Tx on)
112
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S150 (FH Modems)
Sync Mode
This setting applies only to the Master modem. S150 dictates which
sync mode the Master will use when it initially goes online. Quick sync
mode results in the Master hopping very quickly, which will enable a
downstream unit to become synchronized faster.
Values
0
1
2
normal sync
quick sync mode, wait for
acknowledgement
quick sync mode, wait for
timeout
A setting of 1 applies only in a point-to-point (PTP) configuration: the Master will stay in quick sync
mode until such time as it receives an acknowledgement from its associated Slave, it will then remain
hopping quickly for the number of hop intervals (8-255) defined by S152 (Fast Sync Hold on Ack), after
which time it will go into normal sync mode.
A value of 2 results in the Master going into quick sync mode when it initially comes online and then
remaining in that mode for the duration specified in S151 (fast sync timeout) and then return to normal
sync mode.
S151 (FH Modems)
Fast Sync Timeout
This register settings applies only to a Master modem. Effective only
when S150=2.
Defines how long, in milliseconds, a Master modem will stay in fast
sync mode after it initially goes online.
Values
milliseconds (ms)
100-65000
200
S153 (FH Modems)
Address Tag
If enabled, the modem prepends 4 extra bytes to the data: first byte =
0x00, second = 0xFF, third = source unit address (high byte), fourth =
source unit address (low byte).
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Value
0
1
disable
enable
113
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S158
If throughput is not of
primary concern and there
is an emphasis on
providing the most robust
data communications,
FEC should be
considered.
FEC (Forward Error Correction) Mode
A number of FEC schemes are available with different coding rates.
Values
FEC consumes significant bandwidth: depending on which coding rate
is chosen, a number of coding bits are transmitted along with the ‘data’
bits. In ‘noisy’ or long-range communications environments, FEC may
effectively increase throughput by decreasing the amount of packet
retransmissions which would otherwise be required.
FH Modems
0 No FEC
1
Hamming (7,4)
2
Hamming (15,11)
3
Hamming (31,24)
5
Binary BCH (47,36)
6
Golay (23,12,7)
7
Reed-Solomon (15,11)
Communications range may also be extended with the use of FEC: at
a certain distance where data would otherwise be unacceptably
corrupted, employing FEC may be all that is required to maintain the
integrity of that data at that distance.
NB Modems
0
FEC off (Default for Satel 3AS)
1
FEC on (Default for PCC)
In NB modems it is only used for Pacific Crest and Satel 3AS
protocols.
Types of FEC available within the P400 (FH Modems):
Hamming (7,4)
:
Hamming (15,11)
:
Hamming (31,24)
:
Binary BCH (47,36)
Golay (23, 12, 7)
:
Reed-Solomon (15,11)
:
Information rate 0.5,
corrects 1 out of 7 bits
Information rate 0.66,
corrects 1 out of 15 bits
Information rate 0.75,
corrects 1 out of 31 bits
:
Information rate 0.75,
corrects 2 bits
Information rate 0.5,
corrects 3 bits
Information rate 0.687,
corrects 2 nibbles
S163
CRC Check on Diag Port
Enables CRC checking of received data on local diagnostic port
Default - 1 (enable), 0 - disable. Note that even if disabled,
the incoming data must have two dummy bytes transmitted in place of
CRC bytes. See the P400 Diagnostic Channel Protocol Manual for
more information.
Values
0 - Disable
1 - Enable
S167
Tx Enable
Tx Enable 0 - Disabled, 1- Enabled (default)
Enables RF emission.
Modem will never transmit data if disabled, it will be in a listen only
mode.
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Values
0 - Disable
1 - Enable
114
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S185 (NB Modems)
Tx Attack Delay
Tx attack delay for NB repeaters, ms. 0 (default) - data is transmitted
immediately, 1-65535 Tx attack delay in ms.
Values
0
When the modem receives data on the COM port, it will wait to
transmit data for the duration of the Tx Attack Delay time-out. It is used
to avoid collisions by modems receiving data at the same time, if
selected differently on all modems in a network.
S186 (NB Modems)
Protocol Selection
When configured as Modem Type (S128) = 0, The P400 operates as a
400 MHz Licensed Narrowband modem. The Protocol Selection
defines how the modem will operate within this mode. The P400 can
operate as a transparent low latency modem, or can be configured to
be compatible with various GPS transceivers.
S187 (NB - Trimtalk Only)
Values
0 - Transparent MH
1 - Pacific Crest Compatible
2 - Trimtalk Compatible
3 - Satel (3AS) Compatible
4 - Pacific Crest FST Comp.
Disc.Dupl.Downstr.Dat.
Discard Duplicated Downstream Data (Only for Trimtalk Protocol).
Values
0 - Disabled (default),
1 - Enabled
0 - Disabled (Default)
1 - Enabled
If enabled the modem will discard any data duplicated by repeaters by
removing packets that have the same sequence number.
Do not change this register unless using the Trimtalk 450s protocol
with repeaters.
S188 (NB - Trimtalk Only)
Strip Off Additional Data
Strip Off Additional Data added by modems configured as repeaters.
Values
0 - Disabled (default),
1 - Enabled
0 - Disabled (Default)
1 - Enabled
Do not change this register unless using the Trimtalk 450s protocol
with repeaters.
S189 (NB - Trimtalk Only)
Enable Uplink
Used only on a Base unit, it enables uplink from repeaters.
Values
0 - Disabled (default),
1 - Enabled
0 - Disabled (Default)
1 - Enabled
Do not change this register unless using the Trimtalk 450s protocol
with repeaters.
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115
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S190 (NB - PCC Only)
Ignore Received UA
Ignore Received Unit Address (only for Pacific Crest Protocol).
Values
0 - Disabled (default),
1 - Enabled, Received UA doesn't matter, only sequence number is
important.
0 - Disabled (Default)
1 - Enabled
Could be used for address filtering in Pacific Crest Compatible mode.
S191 (NB Modems)
Repeater Tx Frequency
This register sets the operating Tx frequency for the downstream
wireless link of the repeater. Select the desired channel from the
frequency table. The available channels/frequencies are entered into
the channel table by Authorized Dealers only. Use the “ATP0?”
command to view the available channels.
Values
Channel #
0 - 63
S192 (NB Modems)
Repeater Rx Frequency
This register sets the operating Rx frequency for the downstream
wireless link of the repeater. Select the desired channel from the
frequency table. The available channels/frequencies are entered into
the channel table by Authorized Dealers only. Use the “ATP0?”
command to view the available channels.
Values
Channel #
0 - 63
S213 (FH Modems)
Packet Retry
Packet Retry Limit(0 - 254). Valid only for repeater's uplink (from child
to parent)
Values (0 - 254)
5
S214 (FH Modems, NB - MH Transparent Mode)
Diagnostics Packet Retransmission
Enables the retransmission of Diagnostic Packets. Diagnostics Packet
Retransmission(0 - 254). 0 - (default)
Values (0 - 254)
0
See the P400 Diagnostics Manual for more information.
S217 (FH Modems)
Protocol Type
For most applications, the default value of 0 - resulting in transparent
operation - will be maintained in this register. Setting this register to a
value of 1 specifies MODBUS operation, in which the modem will
frame the output data and comply with MODBUS specifications.
S217=2 configures the modem for DF1 filtering. In this mode, the
PLC’s address must match the Unit Address of the modem. Data not
intended for a specific PLC/Modem pairing will be blocked from
passing through the modem to the attached PLC.
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Values
0
1
2
transparent
MODBUS RTU
DF1 protocol, fullduplex, with address
filtering
116
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S223
Minimum RSSI
This register displays the minimum recorded ‘signal strength received’
since the unit was last placed into Data mode. (Online). Modem shows
RSSI based on its mode of operation, eg. Master or Slave.
Values (dBm)
-120 to -55dBm
S224
Maximum RSSI
This register displays the maximum recorded ‘signal strength received’
since the unit was last placed into Data mode. (Online). Modem shows
RSSI based on its mode of operation, eg. Master or Slave.
Values (dBm)
-120 to -55dBm
S226 (NB Modems)
Compatibility Type
The main purpose of this register is to fit receiving signal from different
producers using 4FSK modulation scheme.
Values
See tables in Section 3 to find the correct settings listed by supported
models.
0 - Original Mode: Type 0
1 - Compatible Mode: Type 1
2 - Compatible Mode: Type 2
Please contact our technical support team if you have radio compatibility
problems, we are working on extending of the list of compatible modes
S227 (NB - Trimtalk 450s)
Trimtalk Comp. Type.
This register is used to allow the P400 to be compatible with Trimtalk
radio’s from different producers.
Values
See tables in Section 3 to find the correct settings listed by supported
models.
0 - Original Trimtalk 450s:
Type 0
1 - Compatible Trimtalk 450s:
Type 1
Please contact our technical support team if you have radio compatibility
problems, we are working on extending of the list of compatible modes
S228 (NB Modems)
Call Sign ID
Call Sign ID for Automatic Station Identification (for NB modems).
- Empty(default). Call Sign ID will not be sent.
- Up to 16 Capital Letters or Digits. Call Sign ID will be Sent with
Call Sign Interval (S233).
Values
(empty)
Entered Small Letters will be Converted to Capital Letters.
S231 (NB - MH Transparent/PCC Protocols)
This register is to select the mode of outputting received data to the
user interface: Packet Buffered and Not Buffered. Packet Buffered
Output will not output any data until the CRC is checked for each
packet. The latter will output data based on CRC checking for small
data block within a packet.
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Data Buffering Mode
Values
0
1
Not Buffered
Packet Buffered
117
6.0 Register/Command Reference
S233 (NB Modems)
Call Sign Interval
Call Sign Interval (for NB modems) in minutes (1-30). Default - 15
minutes. Used with S228, Call Sign ID.
Values (minutes)
15
S238 (FH Modems)
Hopping Mode
Hopping mode register (S238) is preset by manufacturer. It is a readonly register for the end user. S238 controls the modem either hopping
on pattern or on frequency table.
Values
0 - Hopping
1 - Hopping
2 - Hopping
3 - Hopping
S244 (FH Modems)
on pattern
on frequency table
on channel
on frequency
Channel Request Mode
Channel Request Mode ‘on’ (default), allows a Remote modem which
has data to send to request from the Master permission to do so.
When granted, the Remote will be allowed to transmit all of its data (no
other Remotes may transmit during this period), upon completion of
which it will release the channel. This feature eliminates collisions
which would otherwise occur if a number of Remotes were all trying to
transmit at the same time.
Values
0
1
Channel Request
TDMA Mode (Standard)
TDMA mode is discussed in detail in previous sections. It relates to
Channel Requests in that, in TDMA mode, the Master does not allow
such requests from Remotes; the Master sequences through a list of
Remotes, giving each one in turn an opportunity to transmit.
S248 (FH Modems)
Sync Timeout
This register defines how many hop intervals where the slave does not
receive a synchronization packet from the master, before it will
become unsynchronized and begins to search for a master.
S251 (FH Modems)
1-65534
512
Master Hop Allocation Timeout
In TDMA mode (see S244) this register determines how long, in hop
intervals, the Master will wait for a Remote to either (a) begin to send
data or (b) indicate that it has completed sending all of its data, prior to
the Master sequencing to the next Remote to be given permission to
transmit.
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Values
Confidential
Values
hops
1-254
10
118
6.0 Register/Command Reference
6.3 Serial Interface Commands
A number of register settings are specifically related to the serial data interface. Some, which have
been discussed previously, include:
S102 Serial Baud Rate
determines the rate of communications between the modem and the local device
defines the data, stop, and parity bit count
S110 Data Format
Also, there are AT commands which effect the configuration of the module, specifically with respect to
the handling of data at the RS-232 interface:
&C Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
&D Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
&K Handshaking
&S Data Set Ready (DSR)
&Cn
Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
Controls the module’s DCD output signal to the attached device.
Determines when the DCD line is active.
Values
0 - DCD always on
1 - DCD on when synchronized (FH), when
channel is idle (NB)
4 - DCD on when synchronized (FH), when
channel is busy (NB)
&Dn
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Controls the action that the module will perform when the DTR
input line’s state is modified.
Values
0 - DTR ignored
2 - DTR disconnects and switches to
command mode
&Kn
Handshaking
Enables or disables hardware handshaking.
Values
- AT&K0 hardware handshaking disabled, used only for RS232 interface (S142=0).
- AT&K1 must be selected when RS485 interface is used (S142=1, 2 or 3).
- AT&K3 hardware handshaking enabled, used only for RS232 interface (S142=0).
0
1
3
Handshaking disabled
CTS Control Transmitter of RS485 driver
chip.
RTS/CTS handshaking enabled
&Sn
Software flow control
(XON/XOFF) is not
supported.
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Controls the module’s DSR line and determines when it is active.
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Values
0 - DSR always on
1 - DSR = 0 in data mode, 1 command mode
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119
7.0 Installation
The are a number of factors to consider when preparing to deploy a radio network, several of
which have been touched-upon or detailed elsewhere within this manual. Following is a listing of a number of factors, in no particular order:
Network Topology
The installation,
removal, or
maintenance of any
antenna system
components must be
undertaken only by
qualified and
experienced
personnel.
The P400 currently supports 400 MHz Licensed, Narrowband mode, 900 MHz ISM FHSS
modes and 400 MHz Frequency Hopping (on table) modes. Within these modes the P400
supports various Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint topologies.
Throughput
The P400 is capable of up to 345 kbps asynchronous baud rate. The network topology has
an effect on how this available throughput is ‘shared’ between all nodes on the network.
Distance
The physical distance between the modems dictates such things as required antenna performance and heights. When contemplating antenna types, keep in mind the directivity
(omnidirectional or directional) of the antennas being used.
Terrain
Along with distance, the terrain is a very important consideration with respect to antenna
height requirements. The term ‘line-of-sight’ (LOS) refers to being able to ‘see’ one location
from another - a minimum requirement for a radio signal path. In addition to LOS, adequate
clearance must also be provided to satisfy ‘Fresnel Zone’ requirements - an obstruction-free
area much greater than the physical LOS, i.e. LOS is not enough to completely satisfy RF
path requirements for a robust communications link.
Transmit Power
Having read thus far through the factors to be considered, it should be clear that they are all
interrelated. Transmit power should be set for the minimum required to establish a reliable
communications path with adequate fade margin. Required transmit power is dictated primarily by distance, antenna type (specifically the ‘gain’ of the antennas being used), and the receive sensitivity of the distant modem. Cable and connector losses (the physical path from
the modem’s ‘antenna connector’ to the antenna’s connector) must also be taken into account.
Receive Sensitivity
The P400 has exceptional receive sensitivity, which can produce a number of benefits, such
as: added fade margin for a given link, being able to use less expensive coaxial cable or antenna types, being able to operate at greater distances for a given distant transmitter power
(perhaps negating the requirement for a Repeater site!). Distance, antenna gain, transmit
power, and receive sensitivity are critical ‘numbers’ for radio path calculations. Fortunately,
the Pico Series features the maximum available transmit power combined with exceptional
receive sensitivity - two ‘numbers’ which will produce the most favorable path calculation
results.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
120
7.0 Installation
Fade Margin
When all radio path numbers are being considered and hardware assumptions are being
made, another factor to consider is the ‘fade margin’ of the overall system. the fade margin is
the difference between the anticipated receive signal level and the minimum acceptable receive level (receive sensitivity). Being that the Pico Series performs to exacting specifications, the overall deployment should be such that the modems may be utilized to their full potential to provide a reliable and robust communications link. A typical desired fade margin is
in the order of 20dB, however oftentimes a 10dB fade margin is acceptable.
Frequency
The frequency ranges supported are not effected by rain to any significant degree, and is also
able to penetrate through foliage and ‘around obstacles’ to a certain degree. This being the
case, some may choose to scrimp on the physical deployment, particularly when it comes to
antenna (tower) heights. Path calculations provide results which specify ‘required’ antenna
heights. For cost savings and in taking advantage of the characteristics of the frequency
range, sometimes the height requirements are not adhered to: this may result in unreliable
communications.
Power Requirements
The Pico Series may be integrated into a system (Development Board, or custom) which accepts a range of DC input voltages (supply current requirements must also be met). In some
deployments, power consumption is critical. A number of features related to minimizing
power consumption are available with the P400 such the ability to operate at lower transmit
power given the receive sensitivity of the distant modem.
Interference
The frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) operation of the Pico Series most often allows it to work well in an environment within which there may be sources of in-band interference. Frequency Restriction (Hopping Zones) is a built-in feature which may be utilized to
avoid specific frequencies or ranges of frequencies; the Spectrum Analyzer function may be
used to identify areas of potential interference. Cavity filters are also available if required:
contact Microhard Systems Inc. for further information.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
121
7.0 Installation
7.1 Path Calculation
Assuming adequate antenna heights, a basic formula to determine if an adequate radio signal
path exists (i.e. there is a reasonable fade margin to ensure reliability) is:
FCC regulations
allow for up to 36dBi
effective isotropic
radiated power
(EIRP). The sum (in
dBm) of the
transmitted power,
the cabling loss, and
the antenna gain
cannot exceed
36dBi.
Fade Margin = System Gain - Path Loss
where all values are expressed in dB.
As discussed on the previous page, a desired fade margin is 20dB.
System gain is calculated as follows:
System Gain =
Transmitter Power + (Transmitter Antenna Gain - Transmitter Cable and Connector Losses) + (Receiver Antenna Gain - Receiver
Cable and Connector Losses) + | Receiver Sensitivity |.
where all values are expressed in dB, dBi, or dBm, as applicable.
Assuming a path loss of 113dB for this example, the fade margin = 143-113 = 30dB.
30dB exceeds the desired fade margin of 20dB, therefore this radio communications link
would be very reliable and robust.
On the following page are examples of actual path loss measurements taken in an open rural
environment; the path loss numbers do not apply to urban or non-LOS environments.
Example:
Tx power = 30dBm
Tx antenna gain = 6dBi
Tx cable/connector loss = 2dB
Rx antenna gain = 3dBi
Rx cable/connector loss = 2dB
Rx sensitivity = -108dBm
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
System Gain = [30+(6-2)+(3-2)+108]dB
= [30+4+1+108]dB
= 143dB.
122
7.0 Installation
To satisfy
FCC radio
frequency (RF) exposure
requirements for mobile
transmitting devices, a
separation distance of 23cm
or
m ore
sh ou ld
be
maintained between the
antenna of this device and
persons during device
operation.
To ensure
compliance, operation at
less than this distance is
not recommended.
The
antenna used for this
transmitter must not be colocated in conjunction with
any other antenna or
transmitter.
Distance (km)
Master Height (m)
Remote Height (m)
Path Loss (dB)
5
15
2.5
116.5
5
30
2.5
110.9
8
15
2.5
124.1
8
15
5
117.7
8
15
10
105
16
15
2.5
135.3
16
15
5
128.9
16
15
10
116.2
16
30
10
109.6
16
30
5
122.4
16
30
2.5
128.8
Table 5-1: Path Loss (900 MHz)
Once the equipment is deployed, average receive signal strength may be determined
by accessing S Register 123.
7.2 Installation of Antenna System Components
The installation, removal, or maintenance of any antenna system components must
be undertaken only by qualified and experienced personnel.
7.2.1 Antennas
The two most common types of antenna are the omnidirectional (’omni’) and directional (Yagi).
An omni typically has 3-6dBi gain and spreads its energy in all directions (hence the
name ’omnidirectional’). The ’pattern’ of the energy field is in the shape of a donut,
with the antenna mounted vertically at the centre. This vertical-mounted antenna produces a signal which is vertically ’polarized’.
Never work on an antenna
system when there is
lightning in the area.
A Yagi has a more focused antenna pattern, which results in greater gain: commonly, 6-12dBi. The pattern of a Yagi is in the shape of a large raindrop in the direction in which the antenna is pointed. If the elements of the Yagi are perpendicular to
the ground (most common orientation) the radiated signal will be vertically polarized;
if parallel to the ground, the polarization is horizontal.
The network topology, application, and path calculation are all taken into consideration when selecting the various antenna types to be used in a radio network deployment.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
123
7.0 Installation
7.2.2 Coaxial Cable
The following types of coaxial cable are recommended and suitable for most applications (followed by loss at 900MHz, in dB, per 100 feet):
Direct human contact with
the antenna is potentially
unhealthy when a P400 is
generating RF energy.
Always ensure that the P400
equipment is powered down
(off) during installation.



LMR 195 (10.7)
LMR 400 (3.9)
LMR 600 (2.5)
For a typical application, LMR 400 may be suitable. Where a long cable run is required - and in particular within networks where there is not a lot of margin available
- a cable with lower loss should be considered.
When installing cable, care must be taken to not physically damage it (be particularly
careful with respect to not kinking it at any time) and to secure it properly. Care must
also be taken to affix the connectors properly - using the proper crimping tools and to weatherproof them.
7.2.3 Surge Arrestors
To comply
with FCC
regulations, the maximum
EIRP must not exceed
36dBm.
The most effective protection against lightning-induced damage is to install two lightning surge arrestors: one at the antenna, the other at the interface with the equipment. The surge arrestor grounding system should be fully interconnected with the
transmission tower and power grounding systems to form a single, fully integrated
ground circuit. Typically, both ports on surge arrestors are N-type female.
7.2.4 External Filter
Although the Pico Series is capable of filtering-out RF noise in most environments,
there are circumstances that require external filtering. Paging towers and cellular
base stations in close proximity to the P400’s antenna can desensitize the receiver.
Microhard Systems Inc.’s external cavity filter eliminates this problem. The filter has
two N-female connectors and should be connected inline at the interface to the RF
equipment.
All
installation,
maintenance, and removal
work must be done in
accordance with applicable
codes.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
124
Appendix A: AT Command Quick Reference
The following commands may be used when the modem is in COMMAND MODE; all are to be preceded with
“AT” and followed with [Enter]. An asterisk (*) indicates a default setting, where applicable.
A
Answer
-this command puts the modem into online/data mode
g, G
Spectrum Analyzer
Used to help determine if interfering RF signals are present.
&Cn
DCD (Data Carrier Detect)
-controls modem’s DCD output signal
0-DCD always on
1-DCD on when modem’s sync’ed, always on if Master*
In
Identification
-follow ATI with either of the following ‘n’:
1-product code
3-firmware version
4-firmware date
5-firmware copyright
6-firmware time
7-Serial Number
255-factory-configured options listing
&Dn
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
-controls the action the modem performs when the DTR input line
is toggled
-follow ATD with either of the following ‘n’:
0-*DTR line ignored
2-deassert DTR to force modem from data mode into command
mode at S102 serial baud rate; DTR must be asserted before
putting modem back into data mode (normally done using ‘ATA’
command)
N
Advanced Spectrum Analyzer
Advanced spectrum analyzer provides for a more detailed scrutiny of the RF environment.
&Kn
Handshaking
-determines handshaking between modem and host device
0-disable handshaking
3-enable hardware (RTS/CTS) handshaking*
&Fn
Load Factory Default Configuration
Frequency Hopping Modems
&F1 - FH Master Fast PMP
&F2 - FH Slave Fast PMP
&F3 - FH Repeater Fast PMP
&F4 - FH Master Slow PMP
&F5 - FH Slave Slow PMP
&F6 - FH Master Fast PP
&F7 - FH Slave Fast PP
&F8 - FH Master Slow PP
&F9 - FH Slave Slow PP
&F10 - FH Master Fast PMP no Time ACK
&F11 - FH Master Fast P2P no Time ACK
&F12 - FH Master Fast PP no Time ACK
&F15 - FH Master WL
&F16 - FH Slave WL
&F18 - FH Master Fast TDMA
&F19 - FH Slave Fast TDMA
Narrow Band (NB) modems
&F51 - NB Transparent Protocol
&F52 - NB Transparent Protocol w Rep.
&F53 - NB Pacific Crest Protocol, needs different UAs
&F54 - NB Trimtalk Protocol no Rep.
&F55 - NB Trimtalk Protocol Rep.1
&F56 - NB Trimtalk Protocol Rep.2
&F57 - NB Trimtalk Protocol Base w Rep.
&F58 - NB 3AS Protocol, SRate=9.6kbps, BW=12.5kHz
&F59 - NB 3AS Protocol, SRate=19.2kbps, BW=25kHz
&Sn
DSR (Data Set Ready)
-controls modem’s DSR line and determines when it is active
0-DSR always on
1-*DSR ON in data mode, OFF in command mode
AT&V
View Configuration
-displays all visible S registers and their current values
&W
Write Configuration to Memory
-stores active configuration into modem’s non-volatile memory
Sxxx?
Read S Register Value
-where xxx is the S register’s number, this command will result in
displaying the current setting of that register
Sxxx=yyy
Set S Register Value
-where xxx is the S register’s number, this command will place
value yyy in that register
Sxxx /?
Display S Register Help Text
-where xxx is the S register’s number, this command will result in
displaying the available settings of that register. Not all registers
have help text.
&F100 - Reset Hopping Modes
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
125
Appendix B: Settings (S) Register Quick Reference
The registers described in this Appendix are ones which are normally ‘visible’ to the user. The values stored
in these registers effect the operation of the modem. An asterisk * represents default value (if applicable).
Query format :
ATSxxx? [Enter]
where xxx is S register number detailed below
Change format :
ATSxxx=y [Enter]
where xxx is S register number and y is desired value
S101
Operating Mode
S110
Data Format (of Asynchronous serial input to modem)
For FH modems
0 - Master
1 - Repeater
2 - Remote
For NB modems (depends on selected protocol)
0 - Master (Base) for Trimtalk
1 - Repeater
2 - Slave (Remote)
3 - Repeater 2 for Trimtalk
S102
Serial Port Baud Rate (bps)








0-230400
1-115200
2-57600
3-38400
4-28800
5-19200
6-14400
7-*9600







8-7200
9-4800
10-3600
11-2400
12-1200
13-600
14-300
S103
Wireless Link Rate (bps)
Frequency Hopping modems:
0 - 19200
1 - 115200
2 - 172800
3 - 230000
4 - 247000
5 - 340000
6 - 24700
8 - 57600
Narrow Band modems:
0 - 1200
1 - 2400
2 - 3600
3 - 4800
4 - 7200
5 - 9600
6 - 14400
7 - 19200
8 - 16000
S104
Network Address
0-4,000,000,000
1234567890*
S105
Unit Address
1-65534





1-8N1*
2-8N2
3-8E1
4-8O1
5-7N1





6-7N2
7-7E1
8-7O1
9-7E2
10-7O2
S113 - Packet Retransmissions
0-255
5*
S115 - Repeat Interval
0-255
1*
S123
RSSI Value (dBm, read only)
S133 (FH Modems)
Network Type
0 - Point to Multipoint
1 - Point to Point
2 - Peer to Peer
3 - Reserved
4 - PMP with acks
S140
Destination Address
1-65535, where 65535 = Broadcast
S158
FEC Mode
0
No FEC
1
Hamming (7,4)
2
Hamming (15,11)
3
Hamming (31,24)
5
Binary BCH (47,36)
6
Golay (23,12,7)
7
Reed-Solomon (15,11)*
S244
Channel Access Mode
0 - Channel request (default),
1 - TDMA,
2 - Fast TDMA
3 - On GPS index,
4 - Adaptive TDMA
S108
Output Power Level
20-30dBm
30* (1W)
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
126
Appendix C: AT Utility Firmware Upgrade Procedure
To update the firmware, it is recommended to use the Microhard Utility called AT Firmware Upgrade. This
utility is available for download from the Microhard Support Site below:
http://www.microhardcorp.com/support
To access the downloads section of the support site, you must first register, if you have not already done so.
1. Power up the Modem and Connect a
straight through serial cable to the DATA
Port of the module. (If installed in development board).
2. Run the utility downloaded from the Micorhard Support site.
“ATFirmwareUpgrade.exe”
3. Select the COM port on your PC that is
connected to the Module.
4. Browse to the firmware file supplied by Microhard Systems. (.img) to be uploaded to
the module.
5. Click the “Load” button. If a password was
setup using the ATlogin command, you will
be prompted for this password before you
can update the firmware.
6. The utility will establish a connection to the
module and load the firmware. Once complete, a message will be display at the bottom of the utility window indicating that the
process succeeded.
Image C-1: Firmware Upgrade
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
127
Appendix D: AT Command Firmware Upgrade Procedure
To update the firmware on the Pico Series Radio, it is recommended to use the Microhard Utility called AT
Firmware Upgrade, discussed on the previous page. If it is not possible to use the utility, the following procedure can be used to load firmware using AT commands. The file type used for this procedure is not the
same as when using the utility. A file must be supplied by Microhard Systems with the .svg extension.
AT Command Upgrade Procedure
1. Enter Command Mode.
2. Select the baud rate 115200 bps (ATS102=1) for the modem to minimize the firmware upgrade time.
Connect Microhard modem through a COM port as the setting with serial port terminal software:
Baud Rate:
Parity bit:
Data bits:
Stop bits:
Flow Control:
115200
None
8
1
None
3. Run Microhard AT command to do the flash upgrade in the following sequence:
3.1 Run “at&u0<CR>” at command terminal
Initialize the modem into flash image upgrade mode
3.2 Run “at&u1<CR>” at command terminal
Load the flash image into the modem. After this command is entered, don’t do anything except
send the firmware file provided by Microhard (.svg). The Modem doesn’t send ACK packets after receiving every data block; it sends “OK” response only when modem receives the last data
block. It sends an “ERROR” response if the file was not received.
3.3 Run “at&u2<CR>” at command terminal
Pre-arm the image flashing. You have 20s to trigger the writing procedure of the firmware image
from RAM to Flash memory. If you missed that window of opportunity, you need to pre-arm modem again.
3.4 Run “at&u3<CR>” at command terminal
Flash the loaded image. After this command has been issued, any action and power changes
could damage the modem. Modem returns the “ERROR” response when the 20s time-out is expired. The approximate duration on this step is 30s.
After the flash upgrade finishes, the modem reboots and it is ready to work.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
128
Appendix E: Development Board Serial Interface
Arrows denote the direction that signals are asserted (e.g., DCD originates at the DCE and tells the DTE that
a carrier is present).
The P400 Serial Interface on the Development Board uses 8 pins on the header connector for asynchronous
serial I/O. The interface conforms to standard RS-232 signals without level shifting, so direct connection to a
host microprocessor is possible.
The signals in the asynchronous serial interface are described below:
DCD Data Carrier Detect - Output from Module - When asserted (TTL low),
DCD informs the DTE that a communications link has been established
with another n920.
Module
(DCE)
Host
Signal Microprocessor
(DTE)
1
DCD 
IN

IN
2
RX
3

4
 DTR
5
SG
6
DSR 
7
8
TX
 RTS
CTS 
Table F1
OUT
RX
Receive Data - Output from Module - Signals transferred from the n920
are received by the DTE via RX.
TX
Transmit Data - Input to Module - Signals are transmitted from the DTE
via TX to the n920.
DTR Data Terminal Ready - Input to Module - Asserted (TTL low) by the DTE
to inform the module that it is alive and ready for communications.
OUT
SG
Signal Ground - Provides a ground reference for all signals transmitted by
both DTE and DCE.
IN
OUT
IN
DSR Data Set Ready - Output from Module - Asserted (TTL low) by the DCE
to inform the DTE that it is alive and ready for communications. DSR is
the module’s equivalent of the DTR signal.
RTS Request to Send - Input to Module - A “handshaking” signal which is
asserted by the DTE (TTL low) when it is ready. When hardware
handshaking is used, the RTS signal indicates to the DCE that the host
can receive data.
CTS Clear to Send - Output from Module - A “handshaking” signal which is
asserted by the DCE (TTL low) when it has enabled communications and
transmission from the DTE can commence.
When hardware
handshaking is used, the CTS signal indicates to the host that the DCE
can receive data.
Notes:
It is typical to refer to RX and TX from the perspective of the DTE. This should be kept in
mind when looking at signals relative to the module(DCE); the module transmits data on the
RX line, and receives on TX.
“DCE” and “module” are often synonymous since a module is typically a DCE
device.
“DTE” is, in most applications, a device such as a host microprocessor.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
129
Appendix F: Pico Development Board Schematic (1 of 2)
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
130
Appendix F: Pico Development Board Schematic (2 of 2)
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
131
Appendix G: P400 Approved Antennas
Group
Part Number
Description
MHS031000
2dBi, 900MHz Rubber Ducky Antenna RPTNC Swivel
MHS031070
2dBi, 900MHz Rubber Ducky Antenna Reverse SMA Swivel
MHS031080
2dBi, 900MHz Rubber Ducky Antenna Reverse SMA Straight
MHS031210
3dBd, 900 MHz Transit Antenna with Ground Plane
MHS031220
3dBd, 900MHz Transit Antenna No Ground Plane
MHS031230
3dBd, 900MHz Transit Antenna Permanent Mount GP
MHS031240
3dBd, 900MHz Transit Antenna Permanent Mount NGP
Rubber Ducky
Transit Antennas
Mounts for Transit Antennas have a RPTNC Pigtail
Yagi Antennas
MHS031311
6dBd, 900MHz Yagi Directional Antenna Antenex, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031431
6.5dBd, 900MHz Yagi Directional Antenna Bluewave, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031501
9dBd, 900MHz Yagi Directional Antenna Antenex, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031441
10dBd, 900 MHz Yagi Directional Antenna Bluewave, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031451
11dBd, 900 MHz Yagi Directional Antenna Bluewave, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031440
8dBi, 900 MHz, Patch Antenna, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031251
3dBd, 900MHz Omni Directional Antenna Antenex, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031461
3dBd, 900 MHz Omni Directional Antenna Bluewave, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031321
6dBd, 900MHz Omni Directional Antenna Antenex, RPTNC Pigtail
MHS031471
6dBd, 900 MHz Omni Directional Antenna Bluewave, RPTNC Pigtail
Patch Antennas
Omni Directional
WARNING:
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Microhard Systems Inc. could void the user’s authority to operate the
equipment. This device has been tested with MMCX connectors with the antennas listed in Appendix A When integrated in
OEM products, fixed antennas require installation preventing end-users from replacing them with non-approved antennas.
Antennas not listed in the tables must be tested to comply with FCC Section 15.203 (unique antenna connectors) and Section
15.247 (emissions). Please Contact Microhard Systems Inc. if you need more information.
Industry Canada: This device has been designed to operate with the antennas listed below, and having a maximum gain of
13.2 dBi. Antennas not included in this list or having a gain greater than 13.2 dBi are strictly prohibited for use with this device. The required antenna impedance is 50 ohms. To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type
and its gain should be so chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) is not more than that required for
successful communication. This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Under Industry Canada regulations, this radio transmitter may only operate using an antenna of a type and maximum (or
lesser) gain approved for the transmitter by Industry Canada. To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) is not more than that
necessary for successful communication.
This radio transmitter (identify the device by certification number, or model number if Category II) has been approved by
Industry Canada to operate with the antenna types listed above with the maximum permissible gain and required antenna
impedance for each antenna type indicated. Antenna types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum
gain indicated for that type, are strictly prohibited for use with this device.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
132
Appendix H: Antenna / Separations
This relates to operation in 400MHz Licensed Band
Antenna
Impedance
(ohms)
Antenna Gain (dBi)
Minimum Separation Distance (cm)
50
50
0
10
24
77
Minimum Gain
Maximum Gain
RF EXPOSURE DISTANCE LIMITS
r
P G
EIRP

4   S
4   S
Sample calculation:
S = 406.1/1500 mW/cm2
EIRP = 51 dBm = 1055/10 mW = 125893 mW (Worst Case)
(Minimum Safe Distance, r) =
EIRP
2000

 76.7cm
4   S
4    (406.1/ 1500)
WARNING:
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Microhard Systems Inc. could void the user’s
authority to operate the equipment. Please Contact Microhard Systems Inc. if you need more information.
WARNING:
To satisfy FCC RF exposure requirements for mobile transmitting devices, a separation distance is
based on the above them ranging from 24 cm to 77 cm between the antenna of this device and persons during device operation. To ensure compliance, operations at closer than this distance is not
recommended. The antenna used for this transmitter must not be co-located in conjunction with any
other antenna or transmitter.
© Microhard Systems Inc.
Confidential
133
150 Country Hills Landing NW
Calgary, Alberta
Canada T3K 5P3
Phone: (403) 248-0028
Fax: (403) 248-2762
www.microhardcorp.com

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Key Features

  • Multi-frequency operation (900MHz & 400MHz)
  • Point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations
  • Various modem types supported
  • Factory default settings for quick configuration
  • Transparent mode for custom applications
  • RS-232 and RS-485 communication support
  • 12-bit ADC for analog input
  • Advanced AT command set for control and monitoring
  • FCC and IC certified for fixed and mobile applications

Related manuals

Frequently Answers and Questions

What are the operating frequencies of the P400?
The P400 operates on both 900MHz and 400MHz frequencies.
What types of configurations are supported by the P400?
The P400 supports both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
What types of modems are supported by the P400?
The P400 supports various modem types, including those compatible with Pacific Crest, Trimble (Trimtalk), and Satel (3AS) systems.
What is the transparent mode of the P400?
The transparent mode allows the user to bypass the default protocol and send raw data directly through the radio. This is useful for custom applications.
What is the purpose of the 12-bit ADC in the P400?
The 12-bit ADC allows the user to measure analog values and transmit them over the radio. This can be useful for data acquisition applications.
How do I configure the P400?
The P400 can be configured using various AT commands and factory default settings. The manual provides detailed information on configuration.
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