An Architects Guide to the Oracle Private Database Cloud

An Architects Guide to the Oracle Private Database Cloud
An Architect’s Guide to the Oracle Private Database Cloud
Reference Architecture Overview
ORACLE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECT URE WHITE PAPER
| DECEMBER 2014
Disclaimer
The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information
purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any
material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The
development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products
remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.
ORACLE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE WHITE PAPER — AN ARCHITECTS GUIDE TO THE ORACLE PRIVATE DATABASE CLOUD
Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1
Fundamental Concepts
2
What is a Private Database Cloud and Database as a Service?
2
Why Consider Database as a Service?
2
What is Different about Database as a Service?
3
Considering Moving to Database as a Service?
4
Architectural Perspectives
5
Architecture Principles
5
DBaaS Architecture Domains
6
Architecture Views
8
Conceptual Architecture Overview
8
DBaaS Management Capabilities and Process Overview
9
DBaaS Physical Architecture
Conclusion
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11
18
Executive Summary
Private Database Cloud Services or Database as a Service (DBaaS) is no longer a new idea. In fact, it
is quickly becoming the de facto standard for development and testing environments both on premises
and in the public cloud. And while there are many use cases and deployment options, overall
database total cost of ownership and business agility have benefited from a standardized approach to
workload management. Whether you are a DBA, an operations manager, or a CIO, you are well
aware that business-driven interest in social, mobile, big data, and internet of things have caused an
explosion of development, data, and database workloads. The justification for database operations to
pool resources and standardize services has never been clearer – watch this customer story (TRT1:30).
Today’s best practices in cloud architecture require server scalability, zero data loss resiliency, and
most importantly workload security and isolation through multitenancy. For database services, the
architecture would be incomplete if database operations did not also natively support multitenancy.
Initial approaches for DBaaS were limited since they only relied upon virtual machines for workload
isolation and database provisioning. As general technology containers, VMs had no intrinsic
understanding of database operations, so they were unable to optimize performance, scalability, and
resilience as well as simplify database administration efforts.
Today’s best practice for database cloud services overcomes these limitations. The Oracle Private
Database Cloud approach is both revolutionary and elegantly simple. By engineering multitenant
capabilities throughout the Oracle database platform, the complete range of database operations and
administration can now be natively managed and without the overhead of a virtual machine. Oracle’s
Private Database Cloud guarantees isolation and leverages Oracle’s strengths in reliability, scalability,
security, and systems management. Large database estates also benefit from a host of related
capabilities, such as cost-recovery reporting, self-service management, and public cloud integration.
You will find that Oracle database platform is ideal for a standardized enterprise deployment or cloud
service, whether development/test or production – watch this customer story (TRT2:17).
This white paper presents a reference architecture overview and Oracle product mapping for DBaaS in
a private cloud deployment model. The approach and guidance offered is the byproduct of hundreds
of customer projects and highlights the decisions that customers faced in the course of their
architecture planning and implementations. Oracle’s advising architects work across many industries
and government agencies and have developed standardized methodology based on enterprise
architecture best practices. Oracle’s enterprise architecture approach and framework are articulated in
the Oracle Architecture Development Process (OADP) and the Oracle Enterprise Architecture
Framework (OEAF).
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Fundamental Concepts
What is a Private Database Cloud and Database as a Service?
Two terms have evolved to describe a cloud-based approach to managing databases: Private Database Cloud and
Database as a Service (DBaaS). DBaaS describes an architectural and operational approach that enable IT
providers to deliver database functionality as a service to one or more consumers. A Private Database Cloud is a
term that refers to a database as a service architecture that is always under the strategic control of the enterprise
whether or not it is deployed on or off premises. For this paper we will use the term DBaaS to describe the
architectural and operational approach only.
The principles of a DBaaS architecture supports the following necessary capabilities:
» Consumer-based provisioning and management of database instances using on-demand,
self-service mechanisms;
» Automated monitoring of and compliance with provider-defined service definitions, attributes and quality of service
levels;
» Fine-grained metering of database usage enabling show-back reporting or charge-back functionality for each
individual consumer
In addition to these required characteristics, it is expected that DBaaS architectures will naturally support granular
service elasticity, secure multitenancy, access using a broad range of non-proprietary devices and mechanisms,
automated resource management, and integrated capacity planning. While these architectural attributes are
certainly important, they are equally essential for traditional database service architectures and therefore are not
specific to what makes Database as a Service new and unique.
Why Consider Database as a Service?
Reduced Costs
Business and IT leaders understand the need for accurate and timely information when making decisions that
impact their business. To ensure that the right information is available when it is needed, IT projects often spend a
large portion of their time, resources and money to create what amounts to individual information silos, with distinct
requirements, configurations, and support models. Historically, production environments have been configured for
peak load, peak performance and uninterrupted business continuity. They have been shadowed by multiple
development, testing, quality assurance environments that mirror various aspects of their production counterparts.
The acquisition and ongoing maintenance and support costs associated with this approach are significant and are
often repeated for each business application.
DBaaS affords organizations an opportunity to standardize and optimize on a platform that eliminates the need to
deploy, manage and support dedicated database hardware and software for each project’s multiple development,
testing, production, and failover environments. DBaaS architectures are inherently designed for elasticity and
resource pooling. DBaaS environments can deliver production and non-production database services that support
average daily workload requirements while scaling-up to handle increased demand and scaling-down when that
demand has subsided.
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Improved Service Levels
The service orientation aspects of DBaaS architectures benefit both IT providers and consumers. Providers benefit
from being able to develop and offer pre-defined services for their consumers to use – minimizing vendor, software
version and configuration diversity. This reduced diversity supports business goals of agility, efficiency and
improved quality of service through the development of standardized processes, common support mechanisms and
focused skills development. Further, by focusing on a standardized and optimized platform, providers can also offer
the illusion of unlimited capacity to their consumers through improvements in procurement, capacity planning, and
resource management.
Consumers also benefit in a number of ways: (1) self-service provisioning and management means that consumers
are able to more quickly and easily deploy new applications for the business; (2) service definitions allow consumers
to understand exactly what capabilities and service levels they should expect from the provider; and (3) metering
allows for greater transparency into utilization and IT costs allowing consumers to make more informed decisions
about where to spend their time and money.
The use of industry and vendor recommended practices, reference architectures, standardized configurations, and
repeatable IT processes enable organizations to foster a culture of continuous improvement while reducing risk and
down-time. Reference architectures, in particular, can help organizations better understand how and what
capabilities will be delivered, how security, reliability, availability, manageability, and recovery requirements will be
supported, and what trade-offs must be considered in order to meet the performance, availability, regulatory
compliance, security and other requirements of the business.
Enhanced Information Access and Rationalization
Another common practice within organizations stems from the misperception that information requirements are so
unique that each line of business or region must maintain separate and dedicated database environments. This
explosion and unnecessary duplication of information impacts the integrity and quality of data and results in the
need to introduce additional capabilities (and supporting infrastructure) to the business. DBaaS offers organizations
a better approach. Organizations can rationalize their information architecture controlling this information explosion
using data virtualization and security controls to give data owners the ability to control how and when data is shared
while also eliminating the need for redundant database instances.
What is Different about Database as a Service?
There are many approaches to delivering database services today, but Database as a Service differs from traditional
architectures in its service-orientation and focus on customer self-service interaction models. Together, these two
attributes enable DBaaS architectures to realize significant benefits in terms of increased security, efficiency and
service levels while also providing greater transparency and flexibility with costs.
Database as a Service architectures use a service catalog to define the database services, attributes and quality of
service levels that are offered. The actual way in which the services are defined and grouped is often providerspecific, but one can easily envision a collection of database services such as:
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DBAAS SERVICE CATALOG
DBaaS Service Name
CPU Size
Server Memory
Storage Redundancy
Service Availability
Security Options
Backup /
Archival
DR
Small OLTP
4 CORES
6 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Backup /
Archival
DR
Medium OLTP
8 CORES
12 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Backup /
Archival
DR
Backup /
Archival
DR
Large OLTP
16 CORES
18 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Small OLAP
2 CORES
12 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Backup /
Archival
DR
Backup /
Archival
DR
Backup /
Archival
DR
Medium OLAP
4 CORES
24 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Large OLAP
8 CORES
48 GB
2-Way / 3-Way
Node / Server / Site
Encryption /
Strong Auth
Figure 1: Sample DBaaS Service Catalog
It is important for DBaaS providers to develop well-defined, unambiguous service catalogs as well as comparable
pricing models so that consumers can quickly and easily understand what is being offered and at what price. You
can find further discussion and examples of DBaaS service catalogs – here.
Another unique aspect of DBaaS architectures is the strict provider-consumer relationship that impacts how
consumers register with the service, perform account management operations, define payment methods, review
service utilization, as well as provision and use database services. The need to support secure multitenancy means
that consumer access to the privileged functions and even the underlying infrastructure must be limited. Providers
must determine what functions and capabilities to expose to their consumers (using management portals or APIs) in
order to offer the greatest value to their consumers while also managing risk and ensuring privacy.
Considering Moving to Database as a Service?
Business Considerations
DBaaS is only interesting when it delivers quantifiable benefits to the business, both internally and externally. To
determine the benefits of DBaaS to an organization, consider quantifying the following business requirements:
» Business user benefit – DBaaS must be able to benefit the business directly or indirectly. For example, would a
business user be able to accomplish their work better, faster or in a more cost-effective manner if DBaaS was
available?
» Business processes benefit – DBaaS should provide a measurable benefit to business processes such as supply
chain management, enterprise resource planning, or human capital management. For example, could DBaaS
provide a more agile and optimized foundation to support key business processes that rely on database services?
» Contribution to strategic business goals and objectives – DBaaS may support strategic business objectives. For
example, a standardized and optimized platform such as DBaaS could help reduce the time required to create,
migrate or integrate new applications resulting from acquisitions or new lines of business.
IT Considerations
Strategy -- Organizations must understand their enterprise IT strategy when considering DBaaS. When considering
DBaaS deployment options, organizations must understand their IT operating model, how it could impact the
deployment and whether any changes needed. Coordinated and unified IT operating models are best suited to
organization-wide deployments due to the inherent service-orientation of DBaaS architectures, although DBaaS
architecture can be easily leveraged by most organizations to different degrees.
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Another key component of an IT operating model is governance. When considering DBaaS architectures,
organizations must consider how the service will be governed and how compliance with corporate standards,
policies and external (industry or regulatory) mandates will be maintained. Further, the DBaaS architecture must
also align with enterprise architecture (EA) and IT strategy, policy and plans.
People and Process – Another key factor to consider is how to “operationalize” DBaaS. The concepts of best
practices, reference architectures, and service-oriented operating models will need structure and a framework for IT
to deliver DBaaS to the consumer in a consistent, repeatable, and measurable way. Industry standards and
frameworks such as ITIL® (IT Infrastructure Library), COBIT (Control Objectives of Information and related
Technology), and OEAF (Oracle Enterprise Architecture Framework) are a few of the frameworks that have been
successfully used by organizations deploying DBaaS.
Technology – Once a provider has defined its strategy and understands the frameworks that will be used to
develop and “operationalize” their DBaaS deployment, they are free to begin consideration of technology options.
Technology choices are usually provider specific as they are driven by a variety of factors including business and IT
requirements, services to be offered, existing resources, assets and skills, architecture principles and technology
standards.
Architectural Perspectives
DBaaS is a paradigm shift that impacts the EA landscape and in turn is affected by the ecosystem in which it is
deployed. While DBaaS can be deployed independently, organizations will extract the greatest value when it is well
integrated into the organization’s overall enterprise architecture and IT strategy. Therefore, for successful adoption
and sustainable execution, it is important to understand how DBaaS fits into the overall environment and what the
enterprise-wide considerations are to correctly architect and actualize DBaaS.
Architecture Principles
Architecture principles are the core tenets that guide and constrain architectural decision making. The form in which
these principles are articulated varies from terse maxims to highly detailed catalogues. Regardless of the format,
however, all DBaaS architectural decisions should be traceable back to the set of DBaaS architecture principles.
The following are a few examples of DBaaS architecture principles:
» Business Alignment. The DBaaS architecture must be in alignment with the business operating model of the
enterprise.
» Value Tracking. The value provided by DBaaS architecture will be measured using established key value
indicators (KVIs).
» Standardized Infrastructure. The DBaaS architecture must be built on a standardized portfolio of technologies
and assets.
» Ongoing Architecture Improvement. The service catalogue and architecture will be continually rationalized to
prevent service explosion.
» Cost Competitiveness. The charge-back rates of the database services will be competitive with external
providers.
» Provider Consumer Collaboration. Database services, including definitions, attributes and quality of service shall
be established and maintained in active collaboration with service consumers.
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DBaaS Architecture Domains
Business Architecture
Business Architecture contextualizes the business aspects for DBaaS with the architecture typically mirroring the
way that the Lines of Business (LoBs) are organized and run. Clearly, greater synergy between the LoBs allows for
greater sharing and efficiency. A highly diversified company will likely have different requirements for database
services when compared to a highly unified company. The following are a few of the key business requirements that
can differ as a result of an organization’s operating model:
» Different chargeback models or rate structure. Some LoB may need periodic reservations while others may
prefer strict usage-based charge-back. In other cases, show-back reporting may be sufficient depending upon
their overall funding model.
» Unique quality of service requirements. LOBs may have differing needs with respect to performance, scalability,
security, high availability, backup and archive, and disaster recovery. While this is often factored into service
definitions, it is important to understand that there are still limits that must be considered and negotiated.
» Unique variations in workflow. LOBs may have specific workflow requirements in order to comply with
management, finance, security, audit or other requirements. Where possible, however, DBaaS providers should
strive to limit this kind of diversity or provide ways to allow LOBs to develop and integrate their own workflow into
a common framework to promote a standardized and optimized core platform.
The decision on how best to standardize, structure and deploy DBaaS is highly contingent on the direction the
executive leadership team and the organization’s operating model. Considering these issues at the start will help
avoid management conflicts, culture clashes and other conflicts later on.
Application Architecture
For most organizations, their application portfolio ranges from transactional applications to analytical applications;
business critical to low value applications; compute centric to network centric and homegrown applications to COTS
applications. At this stage, one of the first steps that an organization should take is to determine which applications
are best suited to operate in a DBaaS environment. Application architecture, workload characteristics, and a host of
other factors should be considered to evaluate applications and develop a prioritized list of those best suited for
migration.
Clearly, not all applications are equal. There are several classes of workloads that are more appropriate for DBaaS
architectures including:
» Applications with “spikey” workloads. Applications impacted by seasonal traffic or peaking at periodic or welldefined times. DBaaS environments can allow these applications to flex, expand and contract based upon
demand. The effectiveness of this approach depends however on the applications ability to leverage the
additional capacity made available by the DBaaS environment.
» Transient workloads. This self-service provisioning and metered usage of the DBaaS architecture make it ideal
for transient workloads such as those often associated with development, testing, quality assurance, training and
similar functions.
Beyond understanding workloads, organizations should also consider how the use of a DBaaS capability will impact
the development, procurement, and use of new applications and services and whether changes to an organization’s
IT standards, procurement policies or application development life cycle processes may be in order.
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Information Architecture
Organizations must take into consideration how their overall information lifecycle flows and integrates across DBaaS
and non-DBaaS styles of architecture. In particular, organizations should be on guard against information
fragmentation as consumers are given greater flexibility and control over where and how they store their information.
Common vocabularies, definitions, semantic data models, and standard data exchange formats must not be
abandoned just because consumers can provision their own database instances. Additional checks and balances
are also needed to prevent database sprawl, information silos, and a proliferation of unused or unnecessary data
stores.
Information should always be protected in a way commensurate with its business value. This does not change for
DBaaS architectures. Highly valuable information should utilize service instances that provide the appropriate
quality of service levels. Similarly, organizations should be careful to not deploy services with quality of service
levels beyond their needs as they will end up paying for capabilities that they will not need or use. Ideally, enterprise
information policies should be developed that provide guidance by linking information categories with DBaaS service
definitions to help ensure that consumers are well informed as to which should be used when.
Finally, the DBaaS consumer-provider model creates an interesting twist for information integration and security.
There may be requirements for data separation, co-location or near-location that may need to be supported by the
DBaaS architecture for security or performance reasons. Organizations should work to understand the degree to
which these types of requirements exist as they have a substantial impact on the underlying architecture and how
instances are created and capacity is assigned to consumers. DBaaS providers may require additional insight from
consumers regarding meta-information, information affinity and information dependencies to correctly configure the
database service provisioning algorithms beyond simple resource utilization characteristics. The criterion governing
the placement of information assets should be discussed and agreed early to mitigate reactive rearrangement of
database services as an afterthought.
Technology Architecture
The capabilities and qualities provided by a DBaaS are highly dependent on the underlying technology architecture
– which must be chosen judiciously, balancing the needs of the consumers with the overall maturity of the
organization. Mission critical database services may require advanced pre-engineered systems while transient
workloads could leverage virtualized commodity hardware. While transparent to the consumer, both of these
models could co-exist in the same DBaaS environment providing distinct service levels (mapped to specific sets of
service definitions and quality of service attributes).
By lowering barriers to entry, organizations will likely use their DBaaS to experiment and incubate new applications
and ideas to help impact the business. While from the consumer point of view, the DBaaS environment has the
illusion of infinite capacity, the reality is that there are limits to processing, memory and storage capacity as well as
network bandwidth. Organizations should develop an agile capacity planning strategy as part of their DBaaS
architecture. While there are a variety of models that can leveraged, what is important is that the model is rightsized for the business. That said, well-integrated capacity monitoring, procurement and provisioning processes
(with known and reliable lead times) will certainly help to quickly correct capacity imbalances. Other approaches
include the use of capacity throttling and even suspending less critical instances to offer that capacity to more
business critical services.
Lastly, security plays a critical role in shaping the details of the DBaaS technical architecture. Organizations must
develop a clear understanding of security requirements, trust boundaries, threat profiles. Further, organizations
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must understand how trust is established and propagated as well as how threats are mitigated across the DBaaS
environment. Organizations need to understand where and how security policy is defined, how access is managed,
and how audit and compliance requirements are met given the distinct capabilities that providers and consumer
have in a DBaaS architecture.
Architecture Views
The following are a series of architecture views that define and refine the capabilities required to support a DBaaS
strategy. The architecture views build from a foundation of conceptual capabilities to a sample physical
implementation of the technology providing those capabilities.
» Conceptual Architecture. Illustrates the high-level relationships between the actors, capabilities and functions
required to support a DBaaS deployment.
» Logical Architecture. Refines the conceptual architecture to identify the functional capabilities and their
relationship to the processes supporting the implementation of a DBaaS deployment. For brevity, only the
management capabilities and process overview is included in this document.
» Physical Architecture. Defines the physical implementation of services and systems required to support a DBaaS
deployment.
Conceptual Architecture Overview
The DBaaS conceptual model contains the core capabilities supporting the delivery of database services to an
organization through a service-oriented and self-service driven model. The following is an overview of these
capabilities and their relationships:
Figure 2: DBaaS Conceptual Model
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DBaaS Development – The people, process and tools used to define the DBaaS service offerings, the design and
implementation of the infrastructure required to support the DBaaS services offered, and the design and
development of the systems and services required to deploy and administer the services within the DBaaS
deployment architecture. DBaaS Development is responsible for defining the service offerings and management of
the service catalog.
DBaaS Management – The people, process and systems supporting the organization’s ability to request, manage,
operate, and account for database services and their utilization. Within DBaaS Management there are two sets of
sub-capabilities: Subscriber Services which supports the interactions between the subscriber and delivery of
database services, and Service Management which implements database services and manages the resources and
systems supporting their delivery.
DBaaS Service Deployment – The instantiated physical resources and their configuration in support of the DBaaS
service offerings, and the interfaces required to manage the deployment, monitoring, and management of the
services. This would include the configuration of servers, networking, and software to support the specific database
deployment models and database instances within the shared resource pool.
Infrastructure – The physical resources required to support the systems and services supporting the management
and deployment of the DBaaS architecture. This would include servers, networking, software and facilities.
IT Service Management – Is the framework for service definition, design and operational practices and policies. IT
Service Management provides capabilities for defining and managing the services required by the organization, the
design process, change management process definition, service operation policy structure, and process
improvement framework.
Subscriber Interfaces – The methods, systems and procedures for interacting with the DBaaS management
capabilities as well as the database service instances deployed for the specific subscriber.
DBaaS Management Capabilities and Process Overview
The Logical Architecture refines and elaborates on the capabilities required to support DBaaS deployments. There
is no requirement that all capabilities must be implemented or automated before an organization may begin to reap
the benefits of their DBaaS deployment. Typically, DBaaS deployments begin gradually, building from a welldefined foundation. The adherence to core architecture principles, and the capabilities and process definition, allow
for the consistent and sustainable development of the DBaaS architecture using a phased approach. The
capabilities, sub-capabilities and processes act as building blocks for the development of the management,
operational, run-time services that will be developed supporting the DBaaS implementation.
The following table is a subset of the capabilities and processes that would typically be defined and implemented to
support a DBaaS architecture. These capabilities are realized through application services and processes
implemented by the physical architecture.
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DATABASE AS A SERVICE CAPABILITY AND PROCESS MATRIX
Capability
Sub-Capability
Processes
Actors
Customer
Relationship
Management
Account Creation
Subscriber – Provider
Define Account Roles
Capture Billing Information
Line of Business and
Subscriber Services
Order Management
Account Authorization
Subscriber – Provider
Service Selection
Line of Business and
Subscriber Services
Subscriber Services
Service Request Approval
Service Request Tracking
Service Management
Operations
Management
Service Monitoring
Provider
Service SLA Analysis
Subscriber Services and
Service Management
Perform Service Backups
Restore Service Backups
Provisioning and
Automation
Process Service Request
Provider
Deploy Service Offering
Subscriber Services and
Service Management
Define Service Interface
Manage Service State
Change Service
Service Repository
Create Service Offering
Provider
Update Service Offering
Subscriber Services and
Service Management
Change Service Offering
DBaaS Development
Product
Management
Define Service Requirements
Define Service Demand
Define Service Offerings
Line of Business, IT
Management – DBaaS
Development
Manage Release Cycle
Service
Management
Define Service Strategy
Define and Collect KPIs
Validate Service Strategy
Product
Development
Design Service Architecture
Design Deployment Models
Line of Business, IT
Management, Service
Development
Product Management and
Product Development
Create Deployable Entities
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DBaaS Physical Architecture
The physical architecture provides an understanding of the major technology components and their relationships in
support of the DBaaS capabilities, processes and services. In the Logical Architecture, examples focused on
DBaaS Management Capabilities. In this section, examples will focus on the fundamental DBaaS capabilities
related to supporting the deployment of database instances. The deployment and management services must be
implemented carefully to ensure that they are secure, reliable, scalable, and support all availability and service
continuity requirements.
DBaaS Deployment Platform – Exadata Database Machine X4-2
Core to the delivery of DBaaS is the implementation of the database service deployment platform. There are a
variety of technologies that can be deployed together to provide the foundation for the deployment platform.
One such set of technologies is the Exadata Database Machine X4-2 architecture. Oracle Exadata provides an
exceptional deployment platform for DBaaS through its balanced system design and support for multiple deployment
models. The ability to operate multiple workloads combined with flexibility in database deployment configurations
allows differing service levels to be supported on the same platform. Further, optimizations in storage, storagecompute interconnects, and I/O resource management allows for the delivery of flexible tiered server and storage
resource configurations.
Resource segmentation both at the compute and storage tiers are enhanced through the Exadata software.
Resource allocation can be applied to define specific database service offerings through instance caging and IO
Resource Management providing for predictable performance and isolation from resource contention when the
databases are deployed on shared servers.
DBaaS Deployment Platform – Oracle SuperCluster Deployment Platform
Oracle SuperCluster shares many of the same characteristics and supports much of the same technology that made
the Exadata X4-2 Database Machine a particularly strong candidate for hosting a private database cloud. As with
Exadata, the SuperCluster platform is optimized through the use of the Exadata Database Software and the
integration of the Oracle Exadata Storage Cells to support a highly consolidated, mixed workload, and extremely
scalable platform for database services. The Oracle SuperCluster platform is supported by the SPARC operation
system and its highly flexible set of server virtualization options.
The SPARC virtualization technologies add additional flexibility in the deployment and operations of the DBaaS
resource pools. Through server virtualization, the service offerings that can be deployed on the SuperCluster
platform can be expanded beyond a single version of the Oracle Database Software, or the SPARC operating
system itself. Where organizations require support for multiple database versions, the ability to virtualize server
instances allows for the deployment of cloud services which are fully isolated from one another with resource
segmentation at the virtual server level, as opposed to the database software level typically applied to the Exadata
X4-2 platforms.
Additionally, the use of server virtualization can expand the service catalog to support operating system kernel level
isolation for those applications requiring this level of isolation due to security or regulatory requirements.
However, just as with the Oracle Exadata Platform, Oracle SuperCluster supports Oracle Database 12c Multitenant
deployments for the highest level of resource efficiency. This can be applied as a physical deployment to the T5-8
server node, or through a virtualized server instance.
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DBaaS Deployment Platform – Generic Platform
Consolidation of database infrastructure is both a desired objective of a move to the private cloud database, as well
as an outcome of the deployment. Where the engineered systems provide examples of optimized performance in
the private cloud, many organizations will also desire a lower cost private cloud infrastructure solution for systems of
lesser strategic value. The ability to create services based upon different cost and performance objectives provides
the enterprise with greater flexibility in their allocation of resource dollars. As such, creating different tiers of
infrastructure – those of optimized performance and those of minimized costs provides the service developers the
ability to develop a single private database cloud architecture that meets multiple objectives that lowers investment
risk, while still meeting the requirements for systems of different workloads and strategic impact.
Figure 3: DBaaS Multi-Tier Infrastructure Model
The combination of consolidation and service differentiation allows for the inclusion of a tier of resources based
upon the reuse of existing assets, such as traditional SPARC or Intel servers, and the acquisition of these individual
servers to make up private cloud database resource pools. In order to gain the greatest operating and
administrative efficiency, as well as support the simplicity of automated provisioning, these groups of resources are
to be deployed as homogeneous logical groups. These groups, or resource pools – provides the foundation for the
management of a large number of independent servers through a single management interface and control plane.
Once established, the resources, such as CPU and Memory, become the logical and physical target for the
deployment of the private database cloud instances. Within the Oracle Private Database Cloud architecture, Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control is this common management service, just as with the Exadata and Super Cluster
deployments.
Oracle T-Series and X-Series server families provide for extreme cost performance in a rack based deployment
package. The ability to incrementally adding compute resources to the pool allows for just in time growth as the
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private database cloud services expands. By logically grouping these servers of common resources and
configuration, the cloud designer and operator is provided with a building block approach to pool development.
Each server sharing the same capabilities and performance characteristics allows for addition of resources without
concern for the deployment processes or packages. This standardization supports the goals of automation for self
service and operating efficiency in administration.
In addition to the management capabilities, and the resource pools, the private cloud database will require the ability
to control how the resources from the pool are allocated to the individual database service instances, and how they
maintain isolation from other instances running within the pool. Oracle Virtual Machine for either Linux or SPARC
based solutions allows for the virtualization of the individual servers within the resource pool. The OVM Logical Host
or Guest Instance becomes a container for the database service to reside. The OVM Guest controls the resources
assigned to each database instance, as well as maintaining resource and runtime segregation of each of the
databases. As within the management of the resource pool, the management and provisioning of the OVM Guest is
administered and operated through the Oracle Enterprise Management Cloud Control services.
DBaaS Service Management Framework – Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
DBaaS requires the ability to manage the environment and resources as well as the individual database service
deployed and operated on behalf of the subscribers to the service. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides for the
deployment of pre-defined database templates and profiles representing the provider’s service offerings. This same
centrally-managed service allows for the configuration, management, and monitoring of the resource pools and the
service deployments utilizing them. Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control is the foundational technology for the
integration and delivery of the Service Management capabilities described in the logical architecture.
Figure 4: DBaaS Physical Architecture featuring Oracle Enterprise Manager Agents
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While the X4-2 / T5-8 platforms and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control are specifically highlighted, it should
be noted that there are a variety of other physical architecture technology components that will be leveraged by
organizations building DBaaS architectures, including:
» Web 2.0 Technology – Provide multiple channels for subscriber interactions with management framework
» Business Workflow and Process Orchestration – Apply business process logic to subscriber and service
management tasks and orchestration of management and delivery systems
» Security and Identity Management Services – Manage and control access to resources and services
» Content Management Database – Management, retention, and control over service offerings, the deployable
entities and their versions
» Business Intelligence – Analysis and reporting of service and resource performance, as well as their adherence to
service level and quality metrics
» Backup and Archival Storage - Facilities and resources for management and storage of provider and subscriber
data
» Networking – Subscriber, management systems, inter-site communication; in addition to the Exadata InfiniBand
fabric
DBaaS Multitenancy – Oracle Database 12c
With Oracle Database 12c, a multitenant database environment is now delivered at the database software level
simplifying the creation, management, and operations of a consolidated pool of database resources.
Oracle Multitenant Database can be applied on a variety of platforms including the Oracle Exadata and Oracle
SuperCluster engineered systems, as well as the Sun family of servers and non-Oracle platforms.
Oracle Multitenant supports a new architecture that allows for the deployment of pools of database deployments
referred to as the Container Database (CDB) which acts as the operational and runtime home of subordinate
Pluggable Database (PDB) instances. The CDB provides a common physical home for the operations of the
individual database instances. Updates and management can be applied to the pool of databases greatly reducing
the administrative tasks associated with running a highly consolidated database environment.
In addition, the CDB shares resources amongst the PDB instances deployed, reducing the duplication of common
database tasks and processes reducing the overall resource utilization when running consolidated database
instances on a single server.
Figure 5: Database Consolidation Approaches
The Container and Pluggable Database architecture allows for other key characteristics of Cloud computing,
specifically that of elasticity. The ability to move the database instance from pool to pool via the container model,
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allows for the refinement of resource utilization as demands for database capacity, performance, or availability
changes over time.
Figure 6: Service Tiers through Oracle Multitenant Database
With the inclusion of the Oracle Database 12c capabilities, the automation supporting self-service database
provisioning is also enhanced. Database cloning is now simplified, as well as database configurations in support of
multiple database service tiers. The database workload and performance tuning configuration can be applied at the
Container Level, as databases are cloned from existing reference models and deployed to a specific container, the
new database inherits the service levels associated with the target container. This greatly simplifies service
management and reduces the time required to implement new database instances in support of expansions in
capacity or new IT initiatives.
DBaaS Scalability
Scalability is a fundamental characteristic of DBaaS architectures given their support for self-service, elasticity and
multitenancy. The Exadata Database Machine X4-2 and the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition 12c provide
multiple planes of scalability in support of delivering database services, such as:
» Database Service Instance. Oracle RAC Clustering provides horizontal process scaling as service demands
increase.
» Database Server Resources. Exadata Database Machine X4-2 provides server scaling through clustering of
multiple Exadata Database Machine frames.
» Database Storage Resources. Exadata Database Machine storage pools can be expanded through the addition
of Exadata Storage Expansion frames.
» Service Management Resources. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides a scalable deployment model where
management nodes can be added as the number of resource components under management grows.
» Scaleable Resource Pooling: Oracle Database 12c provides a scalable multitenant architecture allowing for the
deployment of shared database containers supporting pluggable database instances supporting a higher level of
consolidation requiring less compute resources.
Oracle Enterprise Manager provides the management framework and capabilities to plan, monitor and administer
DBaaS resource capacity and allocation across the various scalability planes. In conjunction with the Oracle
Exadata Storage and Oracle Database software, resources can be applied to the DBaaS resource pool without
disrupting existing deployed services.
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DBaaS Availability
Not all services require the same level of availability which is why DBaaS service definitions include quality of
service characteristics. Specifying what levels of availability are needed will enable the provisioning, monitoring and
management processes to ensure that instances are deployed on the right platforms and in the correct
configuration. The Exadata Database Machine X4-2 and the Oracle Exadata Software components support the
ability to define various levels of availability within a standard set of technologies.
Service disruptions of both a planned and unplanned nature are compensated for through the combination of
software, hardware, networking and deployment options. Technology such as Exadata, Oracle Real Application
Clusters, Oracle RAC One Node and Oracle Grid Control provide the foundation for delivering these capabilities.
Figure 7: DBaaS Physical Architecture featuring Oracle Exadata in a high availability configuration
The delivery of high availability database services developed with the Exadata Database Machine and the Oracle
Database12c software can be achieved through a variety of deployment options utilizing existing and long tested
best practices. The following model and descriptions highlight some of the implementations and the scope of their
support:
» Database Instance and Server High Availability (HA). Exadata and Oracle RAC Clusterware allow for the
deployment of database instances with multiple processing instances spanning multiple servers within and across
Exadata frames over a high-speed, low-latency InfiniBand network.
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» Exadata Storage HA. Oracle Automatic Storage Management in conjunction with Exadata Storage Software
provides storage cell level high-availability through multiple levels of disk redundancy allowing for the
development of tiered storage based upon level and cost of availability.
» Exadata Cluster-wide HA. Oracle Exadata, Oracle Database, and Oracle Grid Control work in conjunction to
provide the deployment of frame level service availability through the implementation of various stand-by
configurations. The combination of Oracle RAC HA deployments utilizing Oracle Active Data Guard capabilities
allows for the implementation of database instance, server, and storage high availability configurations supporting
frame and site level failover capabilities.
» Service Management HA. Oracle Enterprise Manager is based upon a state-less management server
architecture allowing for management services to be supported across multiple nodes. Utilizing Oracle RAC
technology in support of the management repository allows for redundancy within the data tier, and through the
use of Oracle Data Guard, the ability to replicate the management data across data center boundaries.
Figure 8: DBaaS Physical Architecture featuring Oracle Exadata in a high availability and disaster recovery configuration
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The DBaaS Deployment Platform is of course only one of the sets of capabilities to be defined within the physical
architecture. Any physical architecture must account for all of the technology and technology services supporting
the operations, management, service delivery, service accounting and service development processes as well.
Further, while scalability and availability were covered, it is important to understand that there are many other
systemic qualities that must be considered including security, reliability, and recovery.
Conclusion
Database as a Service architectures offer organizations new and unique ways to offer, use and manage database
services. The fundamental differences related to service-orientation and discrete consumer-provider roles challenge
conventional models yet offer the potential for significant cost savings, improved service levels and greater leverage
of information across the business. As discussed in this white paper, there are a variety of issues, considerations
and choices that organizations must understand before embarking on a DBaaS project.
This white paper introduced you to Oracle DBaaS products, architecture, and the nature of Oracle’s one-on-one
architecture guidance services. To learn more about Oracle private cloud DBaaS products and service catalogs,
visit Oracle.com and OTN. To learn about Oracle’s public cloud database service, Oracle Database Cloud Service,
visit cloud.oracle.com. To read an executive overview about Oracle private DBaaS, click here. To learn about
Oracle Consulting cloud architecture services, click here. To delve deeper into the Oracle DBaaS reference
architecture consisting of the artifacts, tools and samples, contact your local Oracle sales representative and ask to
speak to Oracle’s Enterprise Architects.
18 | A ORACLE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE WHITE PAPER — AN ARCHITECTS GUIDE TO THE ORACLE PRIVATE DATABASE CLOUD
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December 2014
An Enterprise Architecture White Paper on the Oracle Private Database Cloud — Reference Architecture Overview
Author: Al Kiessel,
Contributing Author: Peter Heller
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