Introduction to Internetworking - McGraw

Introduction to Internetworking - McGraw
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Introduction to
Internetworking
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVES
1.01
The Internetworking Model
1.02
Physical and Data-Link Layers
1.03
Network Layer and Path
Determination
1.04
Transport Layer
1.05
Upper-Layer Protocols
1.06
Cisco Routers, Switches, and Hubs
1.07
Configuring a Cisco Switch and Hub
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I
n order to become a CCNA, you will need to have a solid working knowledge of the OSI model,
which defines the hierarchical structure of data packets as well as each of the layers within that
seven-layer model. It is not our intention to tell you that certain layers are more important than
others, but as the CCNA is a certification that demonstrates foundational knowledge of internetworking
and Cisco equipment, the lower (or more fundamental) layers will likely be the ones about which
you should possess the most knowledge. Everything starts with Layer 1. Switching happens at Layer 2,
and routing at Layer 3. These are the fundamental concepts that you will use for the rest of your
internetworking life.
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.01
The Internetworking Model
Internetworking is the process and methodology of connecting multiple
networks without regard to their individual physical topology. Although certain
internetworking technologies have distance limitations, the overall concept
of internetworking is not specifically concerned with physical distance as it relates
to interconnectivity. Interconnectivity means, very simply, connecting two things
regardless of what is between them. The Internet is the world’s largest internetwork
and provides interconnectivity to millions of people, whether they use Macintosh or
IBM-compatible computers, Ethernet or token ring LAN technologies, or T1s or
14.4 modems. The ability to interconnect many disparate technologies depends upon
the concept of interoperability. Interoperability is the methodology applied to make
data understandable to computers that use proprietary, or simply different, operating
systems and languages.
The OSI model is a seven-layer protocol suite model that provides a hierarchical
tool for understanding networking technology, as well as a basis for current and future
network developments. The OSI model layers are Application (7), Presentation (6),
Session (5), Transport (4), Network (3), Data-Link (2), and Physical (1). A common
mnemonic device for remembering these seven layers is All People Seem To Need
Data Processing. As data is passed down through the layers, each layer wraps the data
in a header. This is known as wrapping the data or, more officially, as encapsulation.
■
Internetworking is the process and methodology applied to connecting
multiple networks, regardless of their physical topologies and distance.
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■
Interconnectivity is the means of transporting information between
computers—inclusive of the physical media, the data packaging mechanism,
and the routing between multiple network equipment pieces—from the
starting node to the destination node.
■
Interoperability is the methodology applied to make data understandable to
computers that use proprietary, or simply different, computer operating
systems and languages.
■
The OSI model provides a hierarchical tool for understanding networking
technology, as well as a basis for current and future network developments.
■
The OSI model is a seven-layer protocol suite model.
■
Encapsulation is the process of adding a header to the data or wrapping
the data.
3
So, exactly what is Layer 3 switching? In a word: routing. The differences
between Layer 3 switching and routing are largely irrelevant. For the majority of
Cisco products out there, Layer 3 switching is really a clever way of saying “we
stuck a router into a switch,” so don’t be confused if you’ve never worked with
Layer 3 switching before and see a question about it.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.01: The Internetworking Model
1.
A customer needs you to help him understand the difference between a switch
and a router. You explain to him that, unlike a switch, a router is a device that
functions at which layer of the OSI model?
A. Layer 1
B. Layer 2
C. Layer 3
D. Layer 4
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2.
What is an internetwork?
A. The connection of more than one network
B. The connection of three or more networks
C. The connection of five of more networks
D. All of the above
3.
What is the proper order of the OSI model layers, from highest to lowest?
A. Physical, Data-Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation,
Application
B. Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link,
Physical
C. Data-Link, Physical, Session, Transport, Network, Presentation,
Application
D. Application, Physical, Session, Transport, Network, Presentation,
Data-Link
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.02
Physical and Data-Link Layers
The Physical layer, Layer 1, defines the mechanical and electrical specifications for a
bit stream (1s and 0s) and synchronizes network timing. Layer 1 defines the way data
is transferred to the wire (Cat5 Cable, Fiber, etc.). V.35 is a standard Physical layer
interface suitable for relatively low-speed connections to a packet network at speeds up
to 48 Kbps, and beyond, even to 4Mbps. HSSI, on the other hand, is a DTE/DCE
interface that handles high-speed communication over WAN links. Layer 2, the DataLink layer (or the link layer), consists of two sublayers. The upper is the LLC and the
lower is the MAC. Also note that encapsulated data at a layer is called a frame.
There are some differences in specifications that you should keep in mind when
taking your CCNA exam. The IEEE’s standard for Ethernet, 802.3, identifies the
standard for the framing of Ethernet (the MAC layer of Layer 2, LLC) and the
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5
physical cabling. DIX Ethernet does not conform to this standard and instead defines
the entire link and Physical layer attributes. IBM Token Ring networks are nearly
identical to and compatible with the IEEE 802.5 specification that was developed later
and based on IBM’s Token Ring. The FDDI standard specifies the physical and MAC
portions of the Data-Link layers for a token passing, dual-ring topology using fiber
optic media at 100 Mbps.
When dealing with serial connections, especially ISDN connections, here are a few
other things to keep in mind as you head into the CCNA exam: SLIP is a legacy link
layer protocol for providing serial connections between two networks, or between a
network and a remote node. PPP includes enhancements such as encryption, error
control, authentication, dynamic IP addressing, multiprotocol support, and automatic
connection negotiation. PPP will work over serial lines, regardless of speed.
■
The Physical layer, or Layer 1, defines the mechanical specifications and
electrical databit-stream.
■
The Data-Link layer, or Layer 2, is also known as the link layer. It consists of
two sublayers. The LLC is the upper level and the lower level is the MAC.
■
The V.35 standard is a Physical layer protocol suitable for connections to a
packet network at speeds up to 48 Kbps, and beyond, even to 4 Mbps.
■
HSSI is a DTE/DCE interface that handles high-speed communication over
WAN links.
■
BRI is an ISDN term for an ISDN connection consisting of two B channels at
64 Kbps and one D channel at 16 Kbps.
■
802.3 specifies different Physical layer MAC address portions of the layer. The
DIX Ethernet specifies one entire physical and Data-Link layer. 802.3 specifies
different Physical layers, but DIX Ethernet specifies just one.
■
Token Ring networks are compatible with the IEEE 802.5 specification
developed later, which was based on IBM’s Token Ring.
■
The FDDI standard specifies the physical and MAC portion of the Data-Link
layers for a token passing, dual-ring topology using fiber optic media at 100 Mbps.
■
Synchronizing network timing is handled at the Physical layer of the OSI model.
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■
SLIP is a legacy Unix Data-Link layer protocol for providing serial connections
between two networks, or between a network and a remote node.
■
PPP includes enhancements such as encryption, error control, security,
dynamic IP addressing, multiple protocol support, and automatic connection
negotiation. PPP will work over serial lines, ISDN, and high-speed WAN links.
■
Frame Relay is a widely used packet-switched WAN protocol standardized by
the ITU-T. Frame Relay relies on the Physical and Data-Link layer interface
between DTE and DCE devices.
Remember when you had to learn that multiplication table in third grade? Why
not just get a calculator, right? Memorizing standards like 802.3 and 802.5 will
probably make you feel the same way. Why not just write them down somewhere
and look at the piece of paper if you ever need to know? The quick answer is
that you can’t take that piece of paper into your CCNA exam. You should
spend some time learning these and know the differences.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.02: Physical and Data-Link Layers
4.
What standard defines Ethernet?
A. 802.3
B. 802.5
C. 802.7
D. 802.11
5.
What type of technology is used for 802.3 Ethernet?
A. Token passing
B. CSMA/CD
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C. Token passing with a dual-ring topology
D. CSMA/CD with token passing
6.
What technology is being configured in the following example?
Router# conf t
Router(config)# interface E0/0
A. Token passing
B. CSMA/CD
C. Token passing with dual-ring topology
D. Wireless LAN
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.03
Network Layer and Path Determination
The Network layer, Layer 3, is where addressing is most important. The main
function of this layer is to provide logical addressing of the node and network
segments of a network. Routed protocols are used by end nodes to encapsulate data
into packets along with Network layer addressing information, so it can be relayed
through an internetwork.
The most common example of this is the Internet. Everything connecting to the
Internet, whether it is a PC, router, switch, or mobile phone, must be assigned a Layer 3
address (an IP address) that is globally unique. We could use MAC addresses for this
purpose, but they tend to get “messy.” Instead, we use IP addresses. They are far more
intuitive but allow the same functionality: packets get from Point A to Point B. The
same is true on any network, except that on private networks the address must only be
unique to that network, not globally unique.
So, how do those packets get from Point A to Point B? In most internetworks they
are routed, which is a Layer 3 function. To determine the best way to send traffic from
IP address A to IP address B, a router runs a routing algorithm that defines the best
path. The algorithm that is run depends upon the routing protocol being used, but,
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regardless of the algorithm, the best path-routing selection is made. Note that, at
Layer 3, encapsulated data is called a packet.
■
The main services provided at the Network layer are logical addressing of the
node and network segments.
■
Layer 3, or the Network layer, is where addressing is most important.
■
Routed protocols are used by end nodes to encapsulate data into packets along
with Network layer addressing information, so it can be relayed through the
internetwork.
■
A routing algorithm is the calculation that the routing protocol uses to
determine the best route to a destination network.
There is a big difference between a routing protocol and a routed protocol. A
routing protocol (such as EIGRP, RIP, or OSPF) is what routers use to exchange
information about a network; whereas, a routed protocol (such as TCP/IP) is
the traffic that routers actually send, using the path determined by the routing
protocol.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.03: Network Layer and Path
Determination
7.
Your somewhat technically lacking customer needs you to help him select a
routing protocol. He gives you a list of four that he is considering. Which of
the following can you eliminate immediately because it is a routed protocol?
A. EIGRP
B. TCP/IP
C. RIP
D. OSPF
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8.
9
What is the main function of Layer 3?
A. To provide link layer addressing
B. To provide transport services
C. To add application headers to data
D. To provide logical addressing
9.
When running a dynamic routing protocol, which of the following is run to
determine the best path for data to travel from Point A to Point B?
A. The administrative distance
B. The routed protocol
C. A routing algorithm
D. A routing protocol
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.04
Transport Layer
The Transport layer, Layer 4, provides data transport services and effectively
shields upper-layer protocols from data transfer issues. The main function of the
Transport layer is to provide error recovery, if requested. TCP is considered a reliable,
connection-oriented protocol and requests that Layer 4 provide error checking and
correction for its data. UDP, on the other hand, is connectionless and unreliable and
will not ask for any error checking or correction. It is important to note that, like most
protocols, TCP/UDP do not conform exactly to the OSI model. Remember, the OSI
model is a suggested model, but it is not a requirement that protocols function exactly
as specified in the model.
■
The Transport layer provides data transport services, effectively shielding the
upper layers from data transfer issues.
■
TCP is considered a reliable, connection-oriented protocol. UDP is unreliable
and connectionless.
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It is important to understand why TCP and UDP are different, and what their
benefits and limitations are. At first glance, you might say that all of your data
must be reliable. You want to error check it all, so why not use TCP for everything?
Error checking adds overhead, and that means delay—the enemy of all network
administrators. Streaming video is a case where it is acceptable to sacrifice a
few dropped video frames in order to guarantee speed. For streaming video,
UDP is a great choice. On the other hand, financial data being uploaded to a
mainframe can handle some delay but must be absolutely accurate, so TCP
would be the proper choice for that data transmission.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.04: Transport Layer
10. Your customer requests that you help determine him the best way to send
weekly accounting updates to the finance directors at each of his regional
offices. What should you tell him to do?
A. Select a TCP solution because it doesn’t have error correction and will get
your data there much faster.
B. Select a UDP solution because it doesn’t have error correction and will get
your data there much faster.
C. Select a TCP solution because it has error correction and will be more
reliable.
D. Select a UDP solution because it has error correction and will be more
reliable.
11. What is encapsulated data called at Layer 4?
A. Frame
B. Packet
C. Segment
D. Transport
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11
12. What does the following diagram illustrate?
Ethernet
Send 1
The laptop user has
requested a file from the
file server. This is the
process by which the file
server is sending the data.
Send 2
Send 3
File server
I got the first
three, now send
me four.
Recv 4
Laptop computer
A. A TCP connection
B. A UDP connection
C. A connection-oriented protocol
D. A connectionless protocol
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.05
Upper-Layer Protocols
The term “upper-layer protocols” refers to the Session, Presentation, and Application
layer protocols. The Session layer (Layer 5) is responsible for establishing, controlling,
and tearing down sessions (conversations). The Presentation layer (Layer 6) defines
data formats, such as ASCII, JPEG, and HTML. Layer 6 also defines encryption. The
Application layer (Layer 7) defines applications that are capable of communications
(e.g., if an application is capable of transferring a file, it is a Layer 7 application).
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FTP, Telnet, and email programs are all examples of applications that function at
Layer 7.
■
The term “upper-layer protocols” refers to the Session, Presentation, and
Application layer protocols.
■
The Application layer provides basic services such as file transfer and network
management to applications.
■
The Presentation layer handles the formatting or presentation of the data.
■
The Session layer establishes, maintains, and terminates the session between
two network nodes.
Because the CCNA exam is an entry-level certification exam, it is going to focus
heavily on fundamental concepts. You should not only know the order of the
OSI model layers, but you should also be prepared to discuss what happens at
each layer. You should also know what encapsulated data is called at each
layer.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.05: Upper-Layer Protocols
13. Which of the following is not an upper-layer in the OSI model?
A. Session
B. Network
C. Presentation
D. Application
14. Your client is a graphic designer. She wants to know which layer defines the
format for a JPEG file. A JPEG is an example of a file format that is defined at
which OSI layer?
A. Session
B. Transport
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C. Presentation
D. Application
15. Which layer is responsible for establishing, controlling, and tearing down
connections?
A. Application
B. Presentation
C. Session
D. Transport
TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.06
Cisco Routers, Switches, and Hubs
Depending on the model, Cisco routers may support a combination of Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, token ring, FDDI, T1/E1/PRI, T3, OC-3, ATM, and
various other types of interfaces. Regardless of the types of interfaces that are supported
on any given router, almost all Cisco routers run IOS software. It is this IOS software
that truly provides the functionality for Cisco products. Most people would agree that
Cisco only sells routers and switches to run their “real” product, IOS software.
It’s no surprise, then, that Cisco will want you to know a great deal about configuring
their software, and the commands required to do so, for the CCNA exam. IOS has the
following major modes: User EXEC, Privileged EXEC, Global Configuration, and
Interface/Line Configuration. There are other modes, such as Access List Configuration,
but those four are the most commonly referred to by name. It is extremely important
for you to know the differences between each of these modes.
■
Cisco routers support any combination of the following interface types: ATM,
channelized T3/E3, FDDI/CDDI, multichannel T1/E1/PRI, BRI, HSSI,
Packet OC-3, synchronous/asynchronous serial interfaces, token ring, and
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet.
■
Cisco IOS software is the software that runs on Cisco products. This platform
is integral to the interoperations of network devices in a Cisco internetwork.
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Don’t get caught by the difference between the Global Configuration mode and
more specific configuration modes, such as the Interface Configuration mode.
Just keep in mind that the Global Configuration mode makes changes that affect
the entire router, not specific aspects of the router; while, for example, the
Interface Configuration mode makes changes that affect a specific interface.
Q
QUESTIONS
1.06: Cisco Routers, Switches, and Hubs
16. A client wants to buy a Cisco router. He says, “If I know how to use one
model, I know how to use them all. IOS is the same on every piece of Cisco
equipment, right?” You tell him that this is
A. True. All Cisco routers run IOS.
B. False. Some Cisco router models do not run IOS.
C. True. All Cisco routers and switches run IOS.
D. False. No Cisco switches run IOS.
17. Which Cisco router mode is shown in the following example?
Router(config-if)#
A. User EXEC mode
B. Privileged EXEC mode
C. Global Configuration mode
D. Interface Configuration mode
18. Once in Line Configuration mode, what is the easiest way to get back to the
Privileged EXEC mode?
A. Type exit.
B. Type quit.
C. Press CTRL-Z.
D. Press the UP ARROW.
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TEST YOURSELF OBJECTIVE 1.07
Configuring a Cisco Switch and Hub
Keep in mind that there are specifications to be met (both site and device) when
installing hardware at a location. It is important to understand these before deploying
the equipment on site. For example, when patching a router’s Ethernet port to a hub
or switch, be certain that you are using a straight-through cable, not a crossover cable.
Additionally, the type of electrical interface that you order from the telephone
company (e.g., V.35, RJ-45, etc.) must match the interface on your CSU. If, for
example, an internal CSU is being used, you would order an RJ-45 handoff.
■
There are specifications that need to be met when installing hardware at the
site. It is important to follow these before deploying the equipment on site.
■
When using patch cables, be aware of the different types: straight-through and
crossover.
There are not likely to be many questions on Cisco exams about cabling, but
don’t be surprised if you are asked to differentiate between a crossover cable
and a straight-through cable. It’s really only important to know, for the CCNA
exam, that a crossover cable cannot be used to connect a router to a switch,
but could be used to connect two routers back to back (between Ethernet ports,
of course).
Q
QUESTIONS
1.07: Configuring a Cisco Switch and Hub
19. Ron is trying to connect a crossover cable to a 3640 router’s Ethernet0/0 port.
What is Ron doing wrong?
A. He is connecting a non-Ethernet cable to an Ethernet port.
B. He is connecting a crossover cable to a port that is already crossed over.
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C. He is connecting a crossover cable to a port that requires a straight-through
connection.
D. He might not be doing anything wrong. In order to know if his action is
correct, you need more information about what is going to be on the other
end of the Ethernet cable.
20. Next, Ron is trying to connect Ethernet ports of two routers back to back with
a V.35 cable. What is Ron doing wrong?
A. Ron is attempting to make an Ethernet connection with a serial cable.
B. Ron is attempting to make a serial connection with an Ethernet cable.
C. Ron is attempting to make a connection that requires a crossover cable
with a straight-through cable.
D. Ron is attempting to make a connection that requires a straight-through
cable with a crossover cable.
21. If Ron has a Cisco 3640 with an Internet CSU/DSU, what type of handoff
should you request from your T1 provider?
A. G.703
B. RJ-45
C. V.35
D. X.25
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Lab Question
17
Q
LAB QUESTION
Objectives 1.01–1.07
Lab Scenario: This chapter has reviewed the OSI model, its layers, and where
hardware and protocols are located within them. It is very important that you know
these things for the exam, as there will be numerous questions asking on which layer a
specific hardware component or protocol will be located. There will also be questions
asking you to define specific OSI layers.
Please complete the table below, filling in each section with as much information
as you can remember. As you will notice, there is a section for layer name, layer
definition, hardware, and protocols. The layers should be listed in descending order.
You must also be able to list the five-step process of data encapsulation and deencapsulation. Feel free to reference this chapter or the CCNA, Second Edition
Study Guide if necessary.
Layer
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Layer Name
Layer Definition
Hardware
Protocols
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QUICK ANSWER KEY
Objective 1.01
Objective 1.05
1.
C
13.
B
2.
D
14.
C
3.
B
15.
C
Objective 1.02
Objective 1.06
4.
A
16.
B
5.
B
17.
D
6.
B
18.
C
Objective 1.03
Objective 1.07
7.
B
19.
D
8.
D
20.
A
9.
C
21.
B
Objective 1.04
10.
C
11.
C
12.
C
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In-Depth Answers
A
19
IN-DEPTH ANSWERS
1.01: The Internetworking Mode1
1.
C. A router functions at Layer 3 (a switch functions at Layer 2).
A is incorrect because Layer 1 defines physical characteristics. B is incorrect
because Layer 2 defines Data-Link layer functions, such as switching. D is
incorrect because Layer 4 defines transport services.
2.
3.
D. Technically, A is the most correct definition of an internetwork, but
all of these answers are correct because they all qualify as “more than one
network.”
B. This is the only answer that is in the correct order.
A, C, and D are not correct because they do not follow the correct order.
They also cannot fit into the mnemonic device “All People Seem To Need
Data Processing.”
1.02: Physical and Data-Link Layers
4.
A. 802.3 defines the standard for Ethernet.
B is incorrect because it is the standard for token ring. C and D make an
interesting point relating to the CCNA exam. Until now you have probably
never even seen 802.7 or 802.11. When taking the exam (provided you’ve
studied an adequate amount), if you also see some bizarre number or term
you’ve never seen before, chances are it isn’t the right answer. C is incorrect
because 802.7 defines Broadband LAN, and D is incorrect because 802.11
defines wireless LAN.
5.
B. Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection is the correct
answer.
A is incorrect because token passing would be a feature of token ring or
FDDI. C is incorrect because a token passing technology with a dual-ring
topology would be FDDI. D is incorrect because these two technologies are
mutually exclusive and do not ever coexist on a network.
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6.
B. Ethernet is a CSMA/CD technology.
A is incorrect because that would be a Token Ring Interface. C is incorrect
because that would be a FDDI Interface. D is incorrect because that would be
an interface in a wireless device.
1.03: Network Layer and Path
Determination
7.
B. Only TCP/IP is a routed protocol.
A, C, and D are incorrect because they are routing protocols.
8.
D. The main function of the Network layer is to provide logical
addressing.
A is incorrect because link layer addressing is a Data-Link layer (Layer 2)
function. B is incorrect; transport services are provided by the Transport layer
(Layer 4). C is incorrect because application headers are added only by the
Application layer.
9.
C. A routing algorithm is run to convert the information learned from
other routers in the internetwork into usable information about the best path
to a given destination.
A is incorrect because the administrative distance is something that is set
by the network administrator, not something that is run. B is incorrect because
the routed protocol determines the way data is encapsulated for transmission.
D is incorrect because a routing protocol determines how routers exchange
information about paths to various networks, but that exchange is not enough
to determine the best path. In order to determine the best path, the routing
algorithm must be run.
1.04: Transport layer
10.
C. TCP has error correction and will be more reliable.
A is incorrect because TCP does have error correction. B is not the best
choice because accounting data must be accurate and should use a protocol with
error correction. D is incorrect because UDP does not have error correction.
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In-Depth Answers
11.
21
C. Encapsulated data at Layer 4 is called a segment.
A is incorrect because a frame is encapsulated data at Layer 2. B is
incorrect because a packet is encapsulated data at Layer 3. D is incorrect
because transport is the name of the layer, not the name of encapsulated data at
that layer.
12.
C. This illustrates a connection-oriented protocol.
A might be correct, but there is no way of knowing if this is TCP or
some other connection-oriented protocol, so A is not the best choice. B and
D are incorrect because connectionless protocols (like UDP) would give no
acknowledgments. The illustration clearly shows a forward acknowledgment.
1.05: Upper-Layer Protocols
13.
B. The Transport layer is not part of the upper layers.
A, B, and C are incorrect choices because they are the three layers that are
defined as the upper-layer protocols.
14.
C. The Presentation layer defines JPEG as well as many other formats.
A is incorrect because the Session layer establishes, controls, and tears
down connections. B is incorrect because the Transport layer is responsible for
any error correction that is requested by connection-oriented protocols. D is
incorrect because the Application layer defines applications that communicate
with other computers.
15.
C. The Session layer is the correct answer.
A is incorrect because the Application layer defines applications that are
capable of communicating with other computers. B is incorrect because the
Presentation layer defines file formatting. D is incorrect because the Transport
layer provides error-checking and correction.
16.
B. Most Cisco routers run Cisco IOS, but there are some (such as the 700
series routers) that do not. Don’t get caught on the CCNA exam by questions
like this. With Cisco, there is an exception to almost every rule.
A is incorrect because certain models do not run IOS. C is incorrect
because some router models, and many Cisco switch models, do not run IOS.
D is incorrect because certain Cisco switch models, like the 29xx-XL series, run
IOS-based code.
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17.
D. The “config-if” portion tells you that this is an Interface Configuration
mode.
A is incorrect; that prompt would be “Router>.” B is incorrect; that prompt
would be “Router#.” C is incorrect; that prompt would be “Router(config)#.”
18.
C. Pressing CTRL-Z will immediately return you to the Privileged EXEC
mode.
A is incorrect because that command will return you to the Global
Configuration mode. B is incorrect for the same reason. D is incorrect because
that command shows you the last command entered from the buffer.
1.07: Configuring a Cisco Switch and Hub
19.
D. It depends upon what is on the other end of the Ethernet cable. If he is
connecting to another router’s Ethernet port, a crossover cable is required. If he
is connecting to a switch or hub, a straight-through cable is required.
A is incorrect because a crossover cable is an Ethernet cable. B is incorrect
because Ethernet ports are not crossed over. C is incorrect because the Ethernet
port doesn’t determine the type of cable required. The end-to-end connection
determines the type of cable that is required.
20.
A. A V.35 cable is for serial connections and may not be used for Ethernet
connections.
B is incorrect because a V.35 cable is not an Ethernet cable. C is incorrect
because a V.35 cable is not a straight-through cable in the sense that this
section discusses.
21.
B. An RJ-45 connection from the DMARC to the CSU would be the best
solution because a standard straight-through cable could be used.
A is in correct because G.703 is a European Standard Interface. C is
incorrect because a V.35 handoff would require a V.35 cable and some type of
converter for the physical interface. D is incorrect because X.25 is a type of
WAN technology, not a type of physical interface.
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Lab Answer
23
A
LAB ANSWER
Objectives 1.01–1.07
Layer
Layer Name
Layer Definition
Hardware
Protocols
7
Application
Responsible for all
application-to-application
communications. User
information maintained at
this layer is user data.
Gateways
FTP, SMB, TELNET,
TFTP, SMTP, HTTP,
NNTP, CDP,
GOPHER, SNMP,
NDS, AFP, SAP, NCP
6
Presentation
Responsible for the formatting
of the data so that it is suitable
for presentation. Responsible for
character conversion (ASCII/
EBCDIC), Encryption/
Decryption, Compression, and
Virtual Terminal Emulation.
User information maintained
at this layer is called messages.
ASCII, EBCDIC,
POSTSCRIPT, JPEG,
MPEG, GIF
5
Session
Responsible for the setup of
the links, maintaining of the
link, and the link tear-down
between applications.
RADIUS, RPC, DNS,
ASP
4
Transport
Responsible for the guaranteed
delivery of user information It
is also responsible for error
detection, correction, and flow
control. User information at
this layer is called datagrams.
TCP, UDP, SPX,
Netbios, ATP
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Layer Layer Name
Layer Definition
Hardware
Protocols
3
Network
Responsible for the routing of
user data from one node to
another through the network
including the path selection.
Logical addresses are used at
this layer. User information
maintained at this layer is
called packets.
Routers
IP, IPX, ICMP, OSPF,
IGRP, EIGRP, RIP,
BOOTP, DHCP, ISIS, ZIP, DDP, X.25
2
Data-Link
Responsible for the physical
Bridges, switches
addressing of the network via
MAC addresses. There are two
sublevels to the Data-Link
layer, MAC and LLC. The
Data-Link layer has error
detection, frame ordering, and
flow control. User information
maintained at this layer is
called frames.
L2F, PPTP, L2TP,
PPP, SLIP, ARP,
RARP, SLARP, IARP,
SNAP, BAP, PAP,
CHAP, LCP, LZS,
MLP, Frame Relay,
Annex A, Annex D,
HDLC, BPDU,
LAPD, ISL
1
Physical
Responsible for the physical
Hubs,
transmission of the binary
repeaters,
digits through the physical
cables
medium. This layer includes
things such as the physical
cables, interfaces, and data rate
specifications. User information
maintained at this layer is called
bits (the 1s and 0s).
10BaseT, 100BaseT,
1000BaseT, 10Base2,
10Base5, OC-3, OC12, DS1, DS3, E1, E3,
ATM, BRI, PRI
Encapsulation:
De-Encapsulation:
1.
Layer 7: User data
1.
Layer 1: Bits
2.
Layer 4: Datagrams
2.
Layer 2: Frames
3.
Layer 3: Packets
3.
Layer 3: Packets
4.
Layer 2: Frames
4.
Layer 4: Datagrams
5.
Layer 1: Bits
5.
Layer 7: User data
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