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TUESDAY 7th April 2015
AGENDA Tuesday 7th April
Home Networking covering Wi-Fi, Internet
access, and Configuring ADSL & Cable
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Home NetworksHome Networking Outline • 1. Benefits of Home Networking
• A. What Is Computer Networking?
• B. What Is Wireless Networking?
• • 2. Planning a New Home Network
• A. Home Networking Diagrams
• B. Wired vs Wireless Home Networks
• C. What Hardware Is Required to Build a Wireless Home Network?
• • 3. Building the Home Network
• A. Connecting Two Computers for File Sharing
• B. Network Router Setup Guide
• C. How to Build a Wireless Home Network Tutorial
• D. 10 Most Common Home Networking Problems to Avoid
• • 4. Setting Up Home Internet Access
• • 6. Troubleshooting Home Networks
• A. Tips for Dealing With Dropped Wireless Network Connections
• B. Tips for Troubleshooting Windows File and Printer Sharing
• C. Tips for Improving Wireless Network Security
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1. Benefits of Home Networking
Question: What Are the Benefits of Networking?
Answer: The benefits of networking (either wired or wireless) in homes are:
• file sharing - Network file sharing between computers gives you more flexibity
than using floppy drives or Zip drives. Not only can you share photos, music files,
and documents, you can also use a home network to save copies of all of your
important data on a different computer. Backups are one of the most critical yet
overlooked tasks in home networking.
Question: What is (Computer) Networking?
Answer: In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more
computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a
mix of computer hardware and computer software.
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2. Planning a New Home Network
Before purchasing and installing equipment, determine your needs.
The location of your computer(s), printer(s) and other devices you want to connect can
affect your network design. Some systems may already contain built-in networking
capability while others may not.Those devices that need network capability added,
probably support only certain kinds of network gear. Take care to buy compatible gear.
If you desire shared Internet access, be sure to factor this into your design. Other important factors in network design include reach and speed.
Finally, consider both present and future needs in your plan. How many computers will
your network have in the next year or two?
A network with just two computers can involve a very different design than a network
with five, for example.
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A. Home Networking Diagrams
Common layout for WiFi-based home networks
Wireless Home Network Diagram Featuring Wi-Fi Router.
This diagram illustrates use of a Wi-Fi wireless network router as the central device of a home
network. See below for a detailed description of this layout.
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A. Home Networking Diagrams
Ethernet Router Network Diagram
This diagram illustrates use of a wired network router as the central device of a home network.
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A. Home Networking Diagrams
Ethernet Switch (Hub) Network Diagram
This diagram illustrates use of an Ethernet hub or switch on a home network.
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A. Home Networking Diagrams
Powerline Home Network Diagram
Layout for HomePlug powerline home networks
This diagram illustrates use of HomePlug equipment to build a powerline home network.
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A. Home Networking Diagrams
Two Router Home Network Diagram
Basic home networks typically work with just one broadband router, but adding a second router
provides more options for expanding and managing the network. See below for a detailed
description of this layout.
Two router networks provide useful new capabilities in several situations:
• Extending a wired network based on one Ethernet router to include Wi-Fi capability via a
wireless second router.
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How to Add a Router to Your Network
A network router can serve as the core of a home network, simplifying how computers and other
equipment can connect to each other and share the Internet. Both traditional cabled routers and
wireless routers are available.
A network router is a small electronic device that allows you build a home network simply. The
home router serves as the core or "centerpiece" of the network to which computers, printers and
other devices can be connected. Networking with a router helps you to (for example):
• share files between computers
• share an Internet connection between computers
• share a printer
• connect your game console or other home entertainment equipment to the Internet
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Wired vs Wireless Networking: How to Build a Local Area Network
That's Right for You
Home and small business computer networks can be built using either wired or wireless technology.
Wired and wireless network technologies each have advantages over the other.
Computer networks for the home and small business can be built using either wired or wireless
technology. Wired Ethernet has been the traditional choice in homes, but Wi-Fi and other wireless options are
gaining ground fast. Both wired and wireless can claim advantages over each other; both represent viable options for
home and other local area networks (LANs).
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How to Improve Your Home's Wi-Fi Network
Looking for time saving shortcuts on setting up your wireless home network? These essential tips will
help get your network running with a minimum of fuss.
It’s easy to get lost in the technical details of home networking with an almost endless number of
variations in network devices and how they are configured. Wireless devices simplify some
aspects of network setup but also bring their own challenges. Follow these tips for best results in setting up all kinds of wireless home networks. 1. Plug Broadband Modems into the Correct Port on Wireless Routers
Several network cables often are required even on so-called wireless networks. The one connecting the broadband modem to the broadband router is especially critical as
Internet service can’t be distributed through the home without it. A modem cable can physically
join to several different places on a router, but be sure to connect it to the router’s uplink port and
not some other port: Broadband Internet will not work through a router unless its uplink port is
used. (Residential gateway devices that combine both a router and modem into a single unit do
not require this cabling, of course).
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2. Use an Ethernet Cable for Initial Setup of Wireless Routers
Configuring the Wi-Fi settings on a wireless router requires connecting to the unit from a separate
computer. When performing initial router setup, make an Ethernet cable connection to the
computer. Vendors supply free cables with most new routers for this purpose. Those who try to
use their wireless link during setup often encounter technical difficulty as the router’s Wi-Fi may
not work properly until fully configured.
3. Install Broadband Routers in Good Locations
The wireless transmitters of home broadband routers normally can cover all the rooms in a
residence plus outdoor patios and garages. However, routers located in corner rooms of larger
homes may not reach the desired distances, particularly in buildings with brick or plaster walls.
Install routers in more central locations where possible. Add a second router (or wireless access
point) to a home if necessary. 13
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4. Reboot and/or Reset Routers and Other Equipment
Technical glitches can cause wireless routers to freeze or otherwise start malfunctioning during
setup. Rebooting a router allows the device to flush its non-essential temporary data, which can
resolve some of these issues. A router reset differs from a router reboot.
In addition to flushing non-essential data, router resets also erase any customized settings
entered during setup and restore the unit to its original default settings as configured by the
manufacturer. Router resets afford administrators a simple way to start over from botched
attempts at setup. A reboot is an easy and relatively quick way to ensure unrelated glitches on the device are not
interfering with network operation and that any settings changes have taken permanent effect.
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5. Enable WPA2 Security on Wi-Fi Devices (if possible)
An essential security feature for Wi-Fi networks, WPA2 encryption keeps data mathematically
scrambled while it travels over the air between devices. Other forms of Wi-Fi encryption exist, but WPA2 is the most widely supported option that offers a
reasonable protection level. Manufacturers ship their routers with encryption options disabled, so enabling WPA2 on a router
typically requires logging into the administrator console and changing the default security
settings. 6. Match Wi-Fi Security Keys or Passphrases Exactly
Enabling WPA2 (or similar Wi-Fi security options) requires choosing a key value or passphrase.
These keys and passphrases are strings - sequences of letters and/or digits - of varying length.
Every device must be programmed with a matching string to be able to communicate with each
other over Wi-Fi with security enabled. When setting up Wi-Fi devices, take special care to enter security strings that match exactly,
avoiding transposed digits or letters in upper instead of lower case (and vice versa).
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Troubleshooting Home Networks
Reasons Why Wi-Fi Network Connections Drop
On home or public wireless networks, your Wi-Fi connection might drop unexpectedly for no
obvious reason. This kind of networking problem is especially frustrating. It's also more common
than you might think. Fortunately, solutions exist.
1. Wi-Fi Radio Interference
Radio signals from various consumer electronic products can interfere with Wi-Fi wireless
network signals. For example, cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, garage door openers and
microwave ovens can each take down a Wi-Fi network connection when powered on. You can move your network equipment or (on home networks) change some Wi-Fi radio settings
to avoid this problem.
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Change the Wi-Fi Channel Number to Avoid Interference
Most Wi-Fi wireless home networks transmit their signals in a narrow radio frequency range around 2.4
GHz. Various other electronic devices in a home, such as cordless phones, garage door openers, baby
monitors, and microwave ovens, may also use this same frequency range. Any such device can
interfere with a wireless home network, slowing down its performance and potentially breaking network
Likewise,the wireless networks of neighbours generally all use the same form of radio signalling. Especially in residences that share walls with each other, interference between different home networks
is not uncommon.
The 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi signal range is divided into a number of smaller bands or channels, similar to
television channels. In most countries, Wi-Fi equipment provides a set of available channels to choose
from. In the UK, for example, any of the Wi-Fi channels 1 through 11 can be chosen when setting up a
wireless LAN (WLAN). Setting this Wi-Fi channel number appropriately provides one way to avoid sources of wireless
interference.Many wireless products in the U.K ship with a default Wi-Fi channel of 6. If encountering interference from other devices within the home, consider changing the channel up or
down to avoid it. Note that all Wi-Fi devices on the network must use the same channel.
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2. Insufficient Wi-Fi Network Range and Power
Even without interference from other equipment, Wi-Fi connections can drop occasionally on
devices located near the edge of the network's wireless signal range. Wi-Fi links generally
become more unstable with distance. Relocating your computer or other gear is a simple but not always practical solution. Otherwise,
consider antenna upgrades and other techniques to improve wireless signal transmission and
Position Your Router / Access Point for Best Performance
How Can the Range of a Wi-Fi Network Be Boosted?
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How Can the Range of a Wi-Fi Network Be Boosted?
Question: How Can the Range of a Wi-Fi Network Be Boosted?
Answers: •reposition your router or access point (AP) to avoid obstructions and radio interference. Both
reduce the range of Wi-Fi network equipment. Common sources of interference in residences include
brick or plaster walls, microwave ovens, and cordless phones. Additionally, consider changing the Wi-Fi
channel number on your equipment to avoid interference.
upgrade the antenna on your router or access point. Wi-Fi antennas on most wireless base stations can
be removed and replaced with more powerful ones.
add another access point (or router). Large residences typically require no more than two APs,
whereas businesses may employ dozens of APs. In a home, this option requires connecting your
primary wireless router (access point) to the second one with Ethernet cable; home wireless
routers and/or APs don't normally communicate with each other directly.
add a bi-directional Wi-Fi signal amplifier to wireless devices as needed. A Wi-Fi signal
amplifier (sometimes called "signal booster") attaches to a router, access point or Wi-Fi client at
the place where the antenna connects. Bi-directional antennas amplify the wireless signal in both
transmit and receive directions. These should be used as Wi-Fi transmissions are two-way radio
add a Wi-Fi repeater. A wireless repeater is a stand-alone unit positioned within range of a
wireless router or access point. Repeaters (sometimes called "range expanders") serve as a twoway relay station for Wi-Fi signals. Clients too far away from the original router or AP can instead
associate with the same local wireless network through the repeater.
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3. Unknowingly Connecting to the Wrong Wi-Fi Network
If two neighbouring locations run unsecured Wi-Fi networks with the same name (SSID), your
devices may connect to the wrong network without your knowledge. This can cause the interference and range problems described above. Additionally, in this scenario your computers will lose connection whenever the neighbour
network is turned off, even if your preferred one remains functional. Take proper security measures to ensure your computers connect to the right network.
See Improve Wireless Network Security
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1. Change Default Administrator Passwords (and Usernames)
At the core of most Wi-Fi home networks is an access point or router. To set up these pieces of
equipment, manufacturers provide Web pages that allow owners to enter their network address
and account information. These Web tools are protected with a login screen (username and
password) so that only the rightful owner can do this. However, for any given piece of equipment,
the logins provided are simple and very well-known to hackers on the Internet. Change these
settings immediately.
2. Turn on (Compatible) WPA / WEP Encryption
All Wi-Fi equipment supports some form of encryption. Encryption technology scrambles
messages sent over wireless networks so that they cannot be easily read by humans. Several
encryption technologies exist for Wi-Fi today. Naturally you will want to pick the strongest form of
encryption that works with your wireless network. However, the way these technologies work, all
Wi-Fi devices on your network must share the identical encryption settings. 3. Change the Default SSID
Access points and routers all use a network name called the SSID. Manufacturers normally ship
their products with the same SSID set. For example, the SSID for Linksys devices is normally
"linksys." True, knowing the SSID does not by itself allow your neighbors to break into your
network, but it is a start. More importantly, when someone finds a default SSID, they see it is a
poorly configured network and are much more likely to attack it. Change the default SSID
immediately when configuring wireless security on your network
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Access your Router
Accessing your wireless router’s settings allows you to make changes to your wireless network’s configuration and can help
you to better secure your network. By connecting your computer locally to your router, you can view and update all of your
router configurations directly through your computer’s Web browser. Although it can seem technically challenging to adjust
your router settings, it is actually very simple to do and can be done in just a few minutes.
Connect your computer to the wireless router. Although you can access the router wirelessly, it is better to use
an Ethernet cable to directly connect to your router so that you can securely adjust router settings. Plug the
Ethernet cable into the appropriate Ethernet jack on your computer. Plug the other end of the cable into any one
of the open Ethernet ports on the back of your wireless router.
Open a Web browser. In the URL address field, enter the IP address for your wireless router. This information
should be contained in your router’s manual. If you cannot find it, enter “” as the address. This is
usually the default IP address for most routers.
Enter the username and password for your router. This should also be supplied in the router’s manual. If you
don’t have this information, go to the RouterPasswords website and find the brand and model of your router.
This site lists the default login information for most wireless routers.
You should now be able to see your wireless router settings. You can configure your network ports, as well as
SSID (wireless network name) and passwords.
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How to Find Your Router's Login Password and User Name
Each home router manufacturer has a way to reset and recover router password information. You are not
able to view a forgotten password, but you can reset the password to its default to recover access to the
router's console. This lets you change the router console password to a known value in case you forget your
custom password value. Whether it is Netgear, Linksys or any other home router, each manufacturer
provides this function
Press and hold the reset button on the back of your router using the end of the paper clip. Hold
the reset button for approximately five seconds. This resets your router to the default
manufacturer settings.
Open a Web browser on one of your network computers. Type the router's IP address in the
address bar. For most router manufacturers, the IP address is "" Press "Enter."
Type the default password into the console login screen. For most manufacturers, the default
password is "password." Click "Login" to access your router's console. You can now configure
the router to your customised network settings.
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How to Login to Router’s
Where do I find the default admin password for my BT Home Hub?
The Hub Manager, which allows you to make changes to the Hub settings, is protected by a password. Depending which version of
the Hub you've got, you'll find the default password in different places.
BT Home Hub 4 and Hub 5
The admin password is the Hub settings card on the back of the Hub, or on the label on the base.
BT Home Hub 3
The admin password on the Hub Ssttings card or on the label on the base.
How to Reset the BT Home Hub 3 Router To Default Settings
If you still can not get logged in then you are probably going to have to reset your router to its default settings.
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How to Login to Router’s
Connect to the WiFi Router Ethernet Port using an Ethernet cable.
Connect other end of Ethernet cable to a Ethernet Port on your PC.
Power on the WiFi Router
Start your Web Browser ( Safari / Firefox etc.)
Type in the following into the Browser Search Window:- http://bthomehub.home
You should now see the Login Screen asking for Name & Password.
If for any reason this doesn't work, you can also enter the IP address for the Home Hub (sometimes known as
the gateway IP address) into a web browser. The default IP address for the BT Home Hub is
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How to Login to Router’s
How can I change the admin password on my BT Home Hub?
To change the admin password on your Hub, start by opening the Hub Manager at http://bthomehub.home on a computer that is
connected to the Hub.
If you've never opened Hub Manager before, you may be prompted to change the Hub Manager admin password at this point. If
this happens just follow the on-screen prompts: there's no need to continue with these instructions.
BT Home Hub 4 and Hub 5
Click Settings
Enter the current admin password
Select the Admin Password menu
Enter the current admin password. (If you haven't previously changed it you'll find the default password on the label on the
back of the Hub)
Enter the new password twice
You can also enter a password hint (for example, "My first pet's name"). If you forget your password when you need to
enter it later you can request the Hub Manager to display this hint to help you. If you still can't remember your password,
the Hub 4 has a password override feature that allows you to create a new password
Click Change password
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How to Login to Router’s
Example of Netgear Router Status Screen
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How to Login to Router’s
Example of Netgear Wireless Settings Screen
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How to Login to Router’s
Example of Netgear LAN Setup Screen
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How to Login to Router’s
Example of Netgear Attached Devices Screen
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Useful Tools and Tips
1. Use iPad/ Mac Network System Parameters to display your Wireless settings
2. Hold Alt Key whilst viewing Wireless Icon on Top Menu
iStumbler - Displays your local WiFi signals, Channels, Security & Strength
Fing - Displays Home Network Configuration, Devices, IP and MAC address
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