null  User manual
OCTOBE
HEWLETT-PAG
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Advanced Digital Signal Analyzer Probes
Low-Frequency Signals with Ease and
Precision
Significant new features include absolute internal
calibration in the user's choice of engineering units, digital
band selectable or 'zoom' analysis, fully annotated
dual-trace CRT display with X and Y axis cursors, digital
storage of data and measurement setups on a tape
cartridge, and a random noise source to provide test
stimulus.
by Richard H. Grote and H. Webber McKinney
DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS has become a
widely used technique for the analysis of me
chanical structures, noise, vibration, control systems,
electronic networks, and many other devices and
physical phenomena.
In the past, digital signal processing equipment has
been expensive, difficult to move, and has required
an operator that understands digital signal analysis as
well as the problem to be solved. While there is a def
inite need for such sophisticated laboratory equip
ment, there is also a need for instrumentation that is
less expensive, easier to use, and more portable.
Such an instrument is the new Model 5420A Digi
tal Signal Analyzer (Fig. 1). The 5420A is a two-chan
nel instrument that analyzes signals in the
dc-to-25-kHz frequency range. The new analyzer has
a two-tone dynamic range of 75 dB and amplitude
flatness of 0.1 dB. Band selectable (zoom) analysis
provides 0.004-Hz frequency resolution anywhere in
the measurement band. The 5420A makes many
powerful time domain and frequency domain mea
surements, including transient capture and time
averaging, auto and cross correlation, histogram, lin
ear spectrum, auto and cross spectrum, transfer func
tion, coherence function, and impulse response. All
measurements are continuously calibrated, and can
be easily recalibrated in the operator's engineering
units. Built-in random noise stimulus and a digital
tape cartridge for storing data records and instrument
set-ups make the 5420A a complete measuring sys
tem. Measurement results are displayed on a fully an
notated, dual-trace, high-resolution CRT, and can be
output directly to an optional X-Y recorder or digital
plotter. The display provides three graphic formats
and 14 choices of coordinates. The display scale can
Cover: In a dramatic dem
onstration of its versatility,
HP engineers used a Model
5420A Digital Signal Ana
lyzer to determine the re
sponse and vibrational char
acteristics of a compound
bow of the type used by
tournament archers. Acce/erometers mounted on the bow provided the
input signals to the analyzer. (Bow provided by
Jennings Compound Bow, Inc.)
In this Issue:
Advanced Digital Signal Analyzer
Probes Low-Frequency Signals with
Ease and Precision, by Richard H.
Grote and H. Webber McKinney .... page 2
Front End Design for Digital Signal
Analysis, by Jean-Pierre Patkay, Frank
R.F. Chu, and Hans A.M. Wiggers . . page 9
Display and Storage Systems for a
Digital Signal Analyzer, by Walter M.
Edgerley, Jr. and David C. Snyder . . page 14
Digital Signal Analyzer Applications,
by Terry L. Donahue and Joseph P.
O l i v e r i o
p a g e
1 7
Printing Financial Calculator Sets New
Standards for Accuracy and Capability,
page 22
R o y
E .
M a r t i n
©Hewlett-Packard Company. 1977
Printed in USA
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Fig. 1. Model 5420 A Digital Sig
nal Analyzer is a dual-channel in
strument that analyzes signals in
the dc-to-25-kHz frequency
range. It makes many powerful
time and frequency domain mea
surements, including spectrum,
transfer function, and impulse re
sponse. Results are displayed on
a fully annotated dual-trace CRT in
any oÃ- three graphic formats and
14 choices of coordinates.
be set either by the operator or automatically to maxi
mize the use of the display surface.
Measurements
The new digital signal analyzer makes an extensive
set of time domain and frequency domain measure
ments. Here is a description of each measurement and
an example of where the measurement is useful.
Time Record Average. This measurement is used to
average time records, or to capture transient time
records. The Fourier transform (linear spectrum) of
the time waveform is also provided. Time averaging
is used primarily for improving the signal-to-noise
ratio of time functions. A synchronous time signal is
required to trigger the time average.
Autocorrelation. The primary application for the
autocorrelation function is also pulling signals out of
noise. However, the autocorrelation function does
not require time synchronization. The disadvantage
of autocorrelation is that the autocorrelation func
tion of complex signals is difficult to interpret. As a
result, this technique is mainly used for sinusoids,
which are preserved under autocorrelation.
Crosscorrelation. The crosscorrelation function is
mathematically similar to the autocorrelation func
tion. However, crosscorrelation is used to determine
the relationship between two signals. A major appli
cation of crosscorrelation is the determination of rela
tive delays between two signals.
Histogram. The histogram provides an estimate of the
probability density function of the incoming time
waveform. The histogram can provide the operator
with an indication of the statistical properties of a
signal.
Linear Spectrum. The linear spectrum is the fre
quency domain equivalent of the time record average.
The result of this measurement is a display of rms
amplitude versus frequency. The linear spectrum re
quires time synchronization for averaging, and con
tains both magnitude and phase information.
Power or Auto Spectrum. This is the measurement
performed by a traditional spectrum analyzer, that is,
power as a function of frequency. The auto spectrum
is calibrated in units of mean square for sinusoidal
signals, power spectral density for random signals, or
energy density for transient signals. The auto spec
trum is used for characterizing signals in the fre
quency domain.
Cross Spectrum. The cross spectrum is the frequency
domain equivalent of the crosscorrelation function.
The cross spectrum produces a display of relative
power versus frequency. The cross spectrum can be
used to determine mutual power and phase angle as a
function of frequency.
Transfer Function. The transfer function measure
ment characterizes a linear system in terms of gain
and phase versus frequency. When the operator se
lects this measurement, the following measurements
are also provided.
Coherence (y2). This function is related to the signalto-noise ratio (S/N =y2/(l-y2)). It indicates the de
gree of causality between the output and the input
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
BSA is shown in Fig. 2. The 25-Hz resolution of the
baseband measurement of Fig. 2a indicates the pres
ence of a single resonance centered at 5 kHz. The
0.4-Hz-resolution BSA measurement of Fig. 2b clear
ly shows two resonances in the vicinity of 5 kHz.
TRANS I
0.0'
Advanced Triggering Capability
The 5420A offers the operator a wide choice of trig
gering capabilities, including free run, internal trig
gering on either channel, external triggering ac or dc
coupled, and remote start.
When the analyzer is free running, it acquires and
processes input data as fast as it can. For measure
ment bandwidths below the instrument's real-time
bandwidth, this results in overlapped processing of
input data. In this case, processing periods over
lap input data records, and the analyzer processes
the latest available data. Overlapped processing in
creases the variance reduction per unit time.
All triggering modes allow the operator to condi
tion triggering by entering a per-channel pre-trigger
or post-trigger delay. Pre-trigger delays up to the time
record length and post-trigger delays up to 40 sec
onds can be accommodated. Post-trigger delays are
necessary when there are inherent delays in the mea
surement process, such as in measuring the transfer
characteristics of an auditorium. Pre-trigger delay is
of particular importance when triggering on impul
sive signals that have all their energy focused in a
very short time interval; without pre-trigger delay it is
very difficult to capture the leading edge of the sig
nal's energy.
TRANS;
TRANS I
TRANS I
Fig. 2. Band selectable analysis (BSA) makes It possible to
zoom in on a narrow frequency band and examine the detailed
structure of measured data with resolution as fine as 0.004 Hz.
Here the baseband measurement (a) shows a resonance at
about 5 kHz. The 0.4-Hz resolution of the BSA measurement
(b) reveals that there are actually two resonances there.
as a function of frequency. A coherence of 1 indicates
perfect causality.
Input and Output Auto Spectrum. See above.
Impulse Response. The time domain equivalent of
the transfer function. The impulse response shows
the time response of the system to an impulsive input.
Band Selectable Analysis (BSA)
Band selectable (zoom) analysis concentrates
the full resolution of the analyzer in a narrow fre
quency band of the user's choice. This narrow band
can be placed any where in the 25-kHz bandwidth. Its
width is selectable and may be less than 1 Hz. BSA can
provide better than 4-mHz resolution, and measure
ments below 250 Hz can be made with a resolution
better than 40 /u,Hz. This resolution is obtained using
purely digital techniques with no sacrifice in accu
racy or dynamic range. An example of the power of
Easy to Use
An important design objective for the 5420A Digi
tal Signal Analyzer was that it be easy to use, both for
the novice and for the experienced operator. Frontpanel design for such a powerful, flexible instrument
poses particular problems. These were solved in part
by using the CRT display to extend and simplify the
front panel (Fig. 3). The display presents measure
ment parameters and status information. Instead of
having to inspect all of the front-panel controls to de
termine how the instrument is set up, the operator
simply pushes the VIEW key and the setup is dis
played on the CRT. The CRT is also used to display
menus of choices from which the user makes selec
tions of measurements, averaging, input signals, and
triggering.
Display Features
Once a measurement has been specified, it is in
itiated by pushing the START button. As soon as the
first time record has been digitized and processed,
fully calibrated measurement results appear on the
display. If stable averaging was chosen, the measure-
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Fig. 3. CRT display extends the
front panel, helping to make the
new analyzer easy to use for both
the novice and the experienced
operator. For example, pushing
the VIEW key causes the instru
ment's status to be displayed.
Other keys display lists of choices
from which the user can select
measurement parameters.
ment continues until the specified number of aver
ages has been done. If one of the other averaging types
— exponential, peak channel hold, or peak level
hold — was selected, the instrument continues pro
cessing data and displaying calibrated results indef
initely until the operator manually stops the measure
ment by pushing the PAUSE/CONT button. Pushing this
button a second time resumes the measurement by
averaging new data into the previous result.
Measurement results can be viewed in any of sever
al display formats. Fig. 2a shows the most basic FULL
format. The instrument automatically scales and cali
brates the X and Y axes, generates an internal grati
cule, and labels both axes. The type of measurement
result — transfer function in this case — is indicated
in the upper left corner of the display and the num
ber of averages used to make the measurement is
indicated in the upper right corner. In the lower left
corner is an "echo field" that tells the user the last se
quence of front-panel buttons pushed, and in the
lower right corner are error messages, such as ADC
overflow.
Two measurement results can be viewed simultan
eously, either UPPER/LOWER (Fig. 1), or one super
imposed on the other, FRONT/BACK (Fig. 2b). The re
sults are fully annotated and calibrated, and either
trace can be modified independently of the other.
These formats are of considerable benefit for such
purposes as viewing two parameters of a measure
ment simultaneously (e.g., magnitude and phase of a
transfer function), or comparing a result with that of a
previous measurement.
Results can be displayed in the following coor
dinate systems: magnitude of the function, phase,
log magnitude, log of the horizontal axis (when log
magnitude versus log frequency is selected, the result
is the classical Bode plot), real part of the function,
imaginary part, real part plotted versus imaginary
(Nyquist plot), and log magnitude versus phase
(Nichols plot, useful in control theory applications).
In dual display modes, the coordinates of the two
traces can be chosen independently.
Cursor Capability
A major user convenience of the 5420A is its
powerful cursor capability. The instrument can dis
play two independent cursors in each axis. The posi
tions of the cursors are indicated at the top of the dis
play. At the intersection of the X cursor and the
waveform is an intensified point, and the value of that
point on the waveform is indicated on the display
along with the cursor position. Hence one application
of the cursor is to indentify numerical values associ
ated with a measurement. For example, an X axis cur
sor can be used to identify the amplitude at a particu
lar frequency, or the two Y axis cursors can be used to
identify what frequency components are, say, 50 dB
below a peak level.
Although the cursors are primarily means of identi
fying specific values of a measurement result, they
can be used in other ways to enhance the power and
the convenience of the instrument. In conjunction
with the control and setup keys, the cursors can be
used to define the center frequency and bandwidth of
a new measurement.
In conjunction with the display operator keys, the
cursors have other uses. If an X cursor is moved to co
incide with a resonance of a transfer function, the fre
quency and the percent critical damping of that res
onance can be determined by pushing the PEAK key.
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
The Module I/O Bus (MIOB)
The module input/output bus (MIOB) ¡s the Interconnect
scheme for all of the modules of the 5420A Digital Signal Ana
lyzer bidi display, filters, ADC, etc.). It consists of 1 6 bidi
rectional data lines, one handshake pair for sending commands
from computer to module, and one handshake pair for every
thing else (status flow from module to computer and data trans
fers). The computer can use the bus at any time to send com
mands to a module. The modules must accept commands at any
time. However, they may send status or send or receive data
only when they "own" the bus.
To maintain high speed at the system level and controllable
response time, it is necessary to reduce the hardware and soft
ware overhead required for bus access. On the hardware side,
this is accomplished by using burst mode transfers from
64-word FIFO memories. On the software side, all I/O ¡s per
formed using two special microcoded opcodes, XCW and XIO.
The computer does not use the conventional direct memory ac
cess (DMA) hardware. DMA would be useful only during the
burst portion of the data transfer. It has no facilities to control re
sponse time between bursts or to perform the buffer blocking
and I/O chaining required. The microcode facility of the 21 MX
K-Series Computer provides far greater performance.
A time log of activity on the bus during normal system opera
tion might look like this:
• Display sends a code word (CW) then inputs 64 words
• ADC sends CW then outputs 32 words
• Display sends CW then inputs 64 words
• Display sends CW then inputs 26 words
• Computer sends S60HZSYNC (interrupt on power line sync)
to display
• Keyboard sends CW
• ADC sends CW then outputs 32 words
Transactions are either commands from the computer to a
module or burst mode transfers initiated by a module and al
ways beginning with a code word containing the device's
name and status. This structure causes the computer to be interrupt-driven, that is, most bus transactions are initiated by a
device. Normally, real-time software associated with so many
devices ¡s very complex, but again, the ability of microcode to
provide just the right elementary operations keeps complexity to
a minimum.
Each module (display, ADC, etc.) is controlled by a separate
software module called a device control process (DCP). Each
DCP appears to own the entire computer all of the time and ¡s
unaware of interrupts. Hence the DCPs can be programmed
using simple in-line structures instead of complex, shared-com
puter, save/restore registers — interactive structures charac
teristic of most interrupt-driven systems. The mechanisms for
this simplification are the two MIOB I/O opcodes: XCW and XIO.
When an MIOB interrupt (XCW) occurs, a microcoded inter
rupt processor automatically saves registers, reads the code
word (CW) on the bus, and branches through a table to the
Critical damping is a measure of the sharpness of
the resonance and is equal to 1/2Q, where Q is the qual
ity factor familiar to electrical engineers. Finally,
the cursor can be used to identify the harmonics of a
particular spectral component. Pushing the HARMON
IC button causes the harmonics of the frequency
component, identified by an X cursor, to be intensi
fied on the CRT.
appropriate DCP. When it is ready to relinquish control, that
DCP performs another XCW opcode, causing the interrupt
branch table to be updated, registers restored, and the highlevel DCP resumed. This entire procedure costs the DCP
only 20>s per XCW, or 20/xs per interrupt.
The other special I/O opcode, XiO, is a pseudo-DMA with
many embellishments. An inescapable issue whenever hard
ware and software meet is the mapping of data structures. The
hardware designer provides a 128-word sector, an 80-word
FIFO memory, or a 2K-word refresh buffer, while the software
designer needs an N-byte text buffer, a 1000-word data buffer,
or something else. The XIO opcode directly addresses this
problem. The XIO opcode's operand ¡s a chain of fourword control blocks that define the desired I/O transfer
— for example, "output three commands, then input 50 words,
then output two commands." The control blocks tell where to
get the commands or data by pointing to the buffer structure,
which may include fixed buffers, variable buffers (e.g., the
next 50 words in a 1000-word buffer), buffers requiring blockIng or unblocking (a composite buffer having many physical
pieces, some perhaps deactivated), circular buffers, double
buffers, or some other type. This opcode transforms what ¡s
usually implemented in dynamic real-time consuming soft
ware into static definitions of data structure. For example, the
display DCP that produces the calibrated data display pro
vides the display hardware with 64-word data bursts followed
by two-word command bursts. It extracts these from seven
buffers containing ASCII code, cursors, graticules, annotation,
and so and Each sub-buffer is separate, variable in length, and
in its own natural format. Yet the DCP ¡s only 15 lines of code
nstead of the many hundreds of lines of time-critical code
normally required. Furthermore, the average data transfer
bandwidth ¡s higher than could have been obtained with DMA.
It exceeds 200 kHz at system level, Including amortization of
all overhead (code words, invisible interrupts, other devices,
interrupt latency, etc.) Conventional approaches would
probably yield system level average transfer bandwidth much
less than 1 0 kHz because of this overhead, plus that associated
with sharing DMA between I/O channels and sharing I/O
channels between devices, and because of the software re
quired to convert buffer formats into DMA's linear se
quential forms. There ¡s also the general program complexity
that seems to be always associated with interrupt subroutines.
A time-sequenced record of all MIOB transactions ¡s auto
matically maintained by the extended I/O instructions. This
trace-file capability ¡s very useful in tracking down any l/0-related problems. Another feature, backgrounding, allows DCPs to
create other software processes that run at the same time as the
DCP. This allows a DCP to do time-consuming operations (e.g.,
scan a large buffer) without tying up the MIOB at all.
-David C. Snyder
Display Operators
Powerful post-processing capabilities allow the
user to manipulate measurement results. It is possible
to add, subtract, multiply, or divide a measurement
by another measurement or by a complex constant.
These operators could be used, for example, to calcu
late the percent difference between two measure
ments. Using another post-processing operation, the
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
54410A Analog-to- Digital Converter
54470B Digital Filter
1 "<= Digital
Low-Pass
cos a. Filters
Noise
Generator
Channel 2
Input
Control
5441 A Display
HP-IB
Interface
Keyboards
Cartridge Interface
â €¢^M
48K RAM
MOS
Memory
5443A Processor
3K ROM
Memory
Rear
Cartridge
Drive
Front
Cartridge
Drive
2105K-Series Processor
Arithmetic
Booster
Data
Character
Generator
Analog
Plotter
user can multiply or divide a frequency domain result
by jeu, which has the effect of differentiating or inte
grating that measurement in the time domain. These
operations are useful for converting accelera
tion spectrums to displacement spectrums, charge to
current, and so forth. The POWER key allows the oper
ator to calculate the total power in the display, the
power at a specific line or in a band defined by the
cursors, or the power in the harmonics of a particular
frequency when the harmonic cursor mode is en
abled. The POWER key turns the instrument into a
frequency selective power meter.
Analyzer Organization
A block diagram of the 5420A Digital Signal
Analyzer is shown in Fig. 4. The three principal ele
ments are the central processor, the analog input sec
tion, and the display/cartridge interface section.
These three functional sections are connected by a
bus known as the module input/output bus (MIOB), a
50-conductor ribbon cable on the backplane of the
5420A (see box, page 6). The MIOB conveys all con
trol and data between the processor and the input sec
tion and between the processor and the display sec
tion by means of a 16- wire parallel bus and eight con
trol signals. By having all system I/O pass through one
port of the processor, and by using only one cable,
Vector
Generator
ri1
External
CRT
Fig. 4. Block diagram of Model
5420 A Digital Signal Analyzer. The
three principal sections — central
processor, analog input section,
and display — are connected by a
common bus. The input section
consists of a dual-channel
ana/og-to-digital converter and
digital filter. An H P 21 MX K-Series
Computer serves as the central
processor.
module interconnections were greatly simplified
while maintaining high data transfer rates.
The processor is the central controller and data
manipulator of the 5420A. The processor is a micro
programmed HP 21MX K-Series Computer with 48K
words of MOS random-access memory (RAM) and 3K
words of read-only memory (ROM). The ROM is used
for microprogram storage. An arithmetic booster
board significantly increases the computational
power of the instrument. This 90-IC board bolts onto
the bottom of the computer's CPU board. The MIOB
interface connects the processor to the other sections
of the instrument, while an HP-IB option interfaces
the 5420A to the Hewlett-Packard interface bus (IEEE
Standard 488-1975).
The input section consists of a dual-channel ana
log-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital filter.
Each input channel has a floating differential input
(to eliminate ground loops present in many measure
ment environments), anti-aliasing filters to remove
unwanted spectral components above one-fourth the
sampling rate, and a 12-bit successive approximation
analog-to-digital converter. The input channel also
has an analog trigger capable of triggering on an ex
ternal signal or either of the analog inputs, and a noise
generator for producing stimulus signals. The noise
bandwidth is automatically adjusted to be as close as
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
possible to the bandwidth of the measurement being
made. The digital filter, which is the key to the great
frequency resolution capability of the instrument,
translates the frequency components of the sampled
data and then digitally filters the result with one of 16
filter bandwidths.
The third section is the display and cartridge unit.
The instrument has two cartridges, both interfaced
through the same drive electronics. The front-panel
cartridge is used for measurement results and setup
state storage. Up to 120 measurement results and 50
Richard H. Grote
Dick Grote has been in the digital
signal analysis lab since he joined
HP in 1969. Now a section manager, he was project leader for the
5420A hardware. Born in Indianapolis, Indiana, he received
his BSEE degree in 1969 from the
University of Kansas and his MSEE
in 1971 from Stanford University.
He's married to an HP mathemati
cian (and author of a 1 974 article in
these pages), and lives in Palo
Alto, California. His interests in
clude woodworking and home
projects, reading, old movies,
singing in his church choir, and a number of sports.
setup states can be stored on this cartridge. The inter
nal cartridge is used to "boot-up" the instrument at
initial power turn-on. This boot-up operation is
necessary because the RAM memory in the processor
is volatile, so its contents need to be loaded when
power is first applied.
The display is the high-resolution HP 1332A CRT
with full vector and character generation circuits. An
external CRT and an analog plotter can be driven di
rectly from the connections on the rear of the display
section.
H. Webber McKinney
Webb McKinney received his
BSEE and MSEE degrees in 1968
and 1969 from the University of
Southern California. He Joined HP
in 1969 as a sales engineer, and a
year later moved into the digital
signal analysis lab, where he's
now a section manager. He was
project leader for the 5420A
software and human interface.
Webb was born in Upland, in
southern California, and now lives
in Los Altos. He spends his spare
time working on his house, playing
tennis, bicycling, playing folk
guitar, and getting into' y o g a . H e ' s m a r r i e d a n d h a s t w o
daughters.
SPECIFICATIONS
HP Model 5420A Digital Signal Analyzer
Frequency and Time Characteristics
FREQUENCY DOMAIN:
MODES.
PASSBAND: Bandwidth (BW) about center frequency (CF).
CENTER FREQUENCY (CF): 0.016 Hz to 25 kHz, nominal.
CF SETTABILITY Within 1.6 Hz of desired value, typically 0016 Hz
below 250 Hz.
BANDWIDTHS (BW|: 16 selections from 0.8 Hz to 25 kHz for CF of 25 kHz
and below. Additional 16 selections from 0.008 Hz to 250 Hz tor CF of
250 Hz and below.
RANGE: it « CF ± BW/2S25 kHz
BASEBAND: At to bandwidth (BW).
CF: Spedfying 0 CF selects baseband mode.
BW: Same as tor passband mode.
RANGE: Same as bandwidth
RESOLUTION (if): Automatically computed from bandwidth selection.
RANGE: 16/iHzto 100 Hz.
TIME DOMAIN:
TIME 000 LENGTHS (T): 32 selections from 0.005 seconds to 32 000
RESOLUTION (it): Automatically computed from T.
RANGE: 10 /iseconds to 64 seconds.
Measurement Characteristics
MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED:
TIME Auto View Input (Channel 1 and Channel 2): Time Average: Auto
correlation: Crosscorrelatipn: Impulse Response (Impulse Response is
available as pan ot the transfer function measurement).
FREQUENCY DOMAIN: Linear Spectrum: Aute Power Spectrum: Cross
Power Spectrum. Power Spectral Density, or Energy Density: High Resolution
Auto Spectrum; Transfer Function: Coherence.
HISTOGRAM ¡Probability Density Function).
Note- Passband mode does not operate for time record, linear spectrum, or
AVERAGING TYPES: All averaging types provide continuously calibrated re
sults and may be paused, resumed, or cleared by the operator at any point in
STABLE: Equal weighting, stops after reaching selected number of averages
EXPONENTIAL: Stable up to number of averages selected, then exponential
with decay constant equal to number of averages selected.
PEAK Spec HOLD: Holds maximum value In each channel (Auto Spec
trum only).
PEAK LEVEL HOLD: Holds spectrum corresponding to maximum value dl
cumulative channels (Auto Spectrum only).
NUMBER OF AVERAGES: From 1 to 30 000 ensemble averages
SIGNAL TYPES:
SINUSOIDAL: Optimizes peak amplitude accuracy.
RANDOM: Ncrmalizes pbwer to 1 Hz noise bandwidth.
TRANSIENT: Normalizes energy to 1 Hz noise bandwidth for transient analysis.
IMPACT: Same as transient but allbws prevtew of input signals belore analysis.
CALIBRATION: All measurements are fully calibrated, including provision for a
user entered calibration factor (K=C1/C2) for each channel (K1.K2) to give
M e a s u r e m e n t S i g n a l T y p e
S i n u s o i d a l R a n d o m
Auto Spectrum
Cross Spectrum
Transfer Function
(K-Vrms)2
K2/K1
Unifless
Linear Spectrum
K-Vrms
Time Record
Cross Correlation
-K-Range to *K-Rar
Input Characteristics
INPUT CHANNELS: ~,
INPUT IMPEDANCE:
FRONT-PANEL INPUT: 1 Wn Shunted by <50 pF.
REAR-PANEL INPUT: 1 Mil shunted by <200 pF.
INPUT COUPLING:
SINGLE ENDED: dc or ac on each channel separa lely.
NUMBER OF TRACES: One or two— designated A and B.
DISPLAY FORMATS: Full (single trace); Upper/lower (dual trace); Front/Back
(dual trace).
ACTIVE TRACE: The active trace may be designated A. B. or A and B.
DISPLAY CURSORS: Cursors are displayed in full format as either a line or a band
their control keys or set to values explicitly entered by the operator.
DISPLAY UPDATE: Display is buffered and refreshed at the line frequency rate.
Miscellaneous Characteristics
c down 3 dB
FLOATING: Differential input, dconly.
COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO: ^65 dB below 120 Hz for .differential
floating input.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: =10 volts.
FULL-SCALE RANGES: ±0.1. 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 volts peak.
AMPLITUDE FLATNESS: =0.1 dB over the entire frequency range (±0.05 dB
typical),
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL MATCH:
AMPLITUDE: ±0.1 dB (±0.05 dB typical).
PHASE: -5 degrees (±2 degrees typical).
TRIGGER MODES: Free run with overlap processing; internal on either input
signal; externa!, ac or dc (±5V max level).
SLOPE; + or LEVEL: Adjustable from 10% lo 90% of full scale.
DELAY: Independent delays on each channel, either pre- or post-trigger.
PRE-TRtGGER: -sT
POST- TRIGGER: «4000T
RESOLUTION: ±AI
DYNAMIC RANGE: 375 dB for each fuH-scale range setting. Measured by taking
at least 16 averages of a minimum detectable signal m the presence of a fulfscale, in-band signal with random signal type selected and a frequency separa
tion between signals of at least 6% of the selected bandwidth. Includes distor
tion, noise, and spurious signals caused by full-scale, outside energy within
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
TYPE: Broadband random, unfiltered.
BANDWIDTH:
BASEBAND MODE: dc lo selected bandwidth.
PASSBAND MODE: dc to center frequency plus one-half the bandwidth,
nominally.
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT: ±50 mA peak.
OUTPUT Also Adjustable from 0.35 Vrms to 3.5 Vrms typically. Also
3.5 Vrms "cal" position.
CREST FACTOR: 2.5:1 typical
Display Characteristics
K-V
Auto Correlation
Histogram
ssband is reduced It
Noise Output Characteristics
T r a n s i e n t
K1.K2.Vrm
Coherence
200 kHz. For passband mode, the
365 dB from full-scale.
SELF-TEST: A self-test function is provided.
HP-IB: talk optional HP-IB interface is available. A rear-panel switch selects talk
only or implementa operating modes. HP-IB is Hewlett-Packard's implementa
tion of IEEE Standard 488-1 975 "Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumenta
tion."
REMOTE via Measurement may be initiated by contact closure to ground via
rear-panel BNC connector.
EXTERNAL SAMPLING: A rear-panel connector is provided for an external
sampling signal at TTL levels. The frequency provided must be four times the
desired range (100 kHz single, 75 kHz dual channel maximum). Internal filters
may be switched out if desired.
EXTERNAL CRT OUTPUT: Horizontal, vertical and intensity outputs are provided
lo drive an external large screen display. Horizontal and vertical outputs provide
a nominal range of ± Vz volt. Intensity output provides - Vi volt to +1 volt. Display
must have a 5 MH? bandwidth.
ANALOG PLOTTER OUTPUT: A rear-panel ribbon connector provides horizontal,
vertical, pen-lift and servo on/off outputs to an analog plotter.
General Characteristics
DIMENSIONS: 64.14cm (25.25 in) D x 42.55cm (16.75 in) W x 40.64 cm (16.0 in) H.
WEIGHT: 52.16 kg (115 IDS), net.
POWER: 110V =20%, optional 230V ±20%. 800 VA max. |600 watts max.),
48-66 Hz.
PRICE IN U.S.A.: 529,900.
MANUFACTURING DIVISION: SANTA CLARA DIVISION
5301 Sfevens Creek Boulevard
Santa Clara, California 95050 U.S.A.
Details of the operation of these sections are de
scribed in the articles that follow.
Acknowledgments
Pete Roth originally conceived the idea for the pro
duct. Bob Puette provided support. Bob Reynolds, Al
Low, and Gary Schultheis did the product design. Al
Langguth designed the digitizer. Norm Rogers de
signed the arithmetic booster board, did micropro
gramming, and provided general signal processing
expertise. Ralph Smith, Dave Conklin, Tom Robins,
Mary Foster, and Chuck Herschkowitz developed the
software. John Curlett helped with the digital filter
and the front panel. Dennis Kwan and Walt Noble
provided support in production. Thanks also to Bob
Perdriau and Ken Ramsey for their marketing efforts,
to Hal Netten, John Buck, and Richard Buchanan for
manuals and service policy, and to Ken Jochim and
Skip Ross for many suggestions and management tal
ent. S
Front-End Design for Digital Signal
Analysis
by Jean-Pierre D. Patkay, Frank R.F. Chu, and Hans A.M. Wiggers
THE INPUT CHANNELS of the new 5420A
Digital Signal Analyzer perform the dual func
tion of data acquisition and preprocessing. Prepro
cessing minimizes data storage and computational
demands on the central processor while providing
the user with increased measurement capability.
Some signal analyzers using the Fourier transform
are limited to baseband measurements, that is, the
measurement band extends from dc to a maximum
frequency. If increased resolution is desired, more
samples must be taken, requiring more data storage
and processing time. In the 5420A front end is a hard
ware implementation of band-selectable analysis
(BSA), a measurement technique that makes it pos
sible to perform spectral analysis over a frequency
band whose upper and lower limits are independent
ly selectable.1 Increased resolution can be obtained
by narrowing the measurement bandwidth, without
increasing the data block size. BSA is realized by digi
tally filtering the sampled input signal to remove all
data corresponding to frequencies outside the desired
band.
A functional diagram of the 5420A front end is in
cluded in Fig. 4 on page 7. The hardware is divided
into two plug-in modules that share a common power
supply. Two analog input channels are contained in
the 54410A Analog-to-Digital Converter Module. All
digital filtering operations are contained in the
54470B Digital Filter Module. In combination, the
two modules provide a dynamic range of 75 dB
over seven input ranges from 100 mV full-scale
to 10V full-scale.
A noise generator in the ADC module provides a
stimulus signal for transfer function measurement.
The noise generator, a combination of an analog noise
source and a digital filter, generates a flat energy
spectrum from dc to the maximum frequency of the
measurement. The noise bandwidth tracks the select
ed measurement bandwidth.
The analog trigger input in the ADC module has
a pseudo-logarithmic potentiometer to provide max
imum trigger-level sensitivity around zero volts.
Software features allow the user to advance or
delay the measurement time window with respect to
the trigger; this can be done independently for each
channel.
Analog Inputs
Each analog input channel has a buffered input, an
anti-aliasing filter, and a 12-bit successive approx
imation analog-to-digital-converter (ADC). The
maximum measurement frequency is determined by
the sampling frequency, which is the conversion rate
of the ADC, and by the anti-aliasing filter. According
to the Nyquist sampling theorem, the maximum mea
surement frequency cannot exceed half the sampling
frequency or measurement errors will occur. The
anti-aliasing filters insure that there are no
higher-frequency components that can fold down or
alias into the measurement band as a result of the
sampling process. Since they do not have an infinite
ly sharp cutoff, they further limit the maximum mea
surement frequency. In the 5420A the maximum sam
ple rate is 102.4 kHz and the maximum measurement
frequency is specified as 25.6 kHz.
Without BSA the input channel would be sam
pled at the lowest possible frequency that would still
include the measurement band of interest. This gives
maximum resolution for a fixed data block size, but
requires a large number of available sample rates and
•To use determines feature, both channels must be running constantly. The software determines
when to condition data. The trigger signal merely tells the software that the trigger condition has been
satisfied.
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Vout _ N(s)/s _ N(s)
Vin ~ D(s)/s ~ D(s)
Da = 1/CiS2 is the FDNR element. Resistors RCl and
RC2 are added to define the dc behavior.
The FDNR element Da can be realized by the circuit
shown in Fig. 2. Zin is a frequency dependent nega
tive resistance.
For the 30-kHz FDNR filter used in the 5420A, the
design objectives dictated a seventh-order ellip
tical filter with passband ripple of 0.01 dB and re
jection band attenuation of 90 dB. The correspond
ing normalized low-pass filter is illustrated in
Fig. 3.3
Now, for fc = 30 kHz and C = 2000 pF, R = l/a>C
= 2.65 kil. Multiplying each normalized component
value by 2650 results in the FDNR filter shown in
Fig. 4. This circuit has greater than 80 dB of stop-band
attenuation for frequencies above 60 kHz. The passband characteristics of any two filters are matched
within ±0.1 dB and phase shifts are matched within
±2° throughout the entire 5420A operating tempera
ture range of 0°C to 50°C. The circuit components
consist of high-bandwidth operational amplifiers,
1% mica dipped capacitors, and 1% metal film
resistors.
.Ã-»! \v
1/R,
(b)
V V
Fig. 1. The analog anti-aliasing filters in the 5420 A use the
FDNfÃ- (frequency dependent negative resistance) active filter
approach. Any general passive LCR network can be trans
formed into network of resistors, capacitors, and FDNfÃ- ele
ments that has the same voltage transfer function. Here circuit
(a) has been transformed into circuit (b). D1 is the FDNR
element. Resistors RC1 and RC2 have been added to (b) to
define the dc behavior.
Digital Filter
either a large number of fixed filters or tracking fil
ters, both of which are costly.
The digital filter allows us to avoid this expense.
The ADC runs at only two sample rates, 102.4 kHz
and 1.024 kHz, so only two anti-aliasing filter ranges
are required. Higher measurement resolution in inter
mediate bands is obtained by means of the digital
filter.
The digital filter can operate in two modes,
a baseband mode and a passband mode. In the
baseband case the band to be analyzed is be
tween dc and some maximum frequency fj si 25.6 kHz,
Anti-Aliasing Filters — the FDNR Approach
The two anti-aliasing filter ranges in each input
channel are 30 kHz and 300 Hz. In this low frequency
range, the only feasible low-pass filter type is an
active filter.
The active anti-aliasing filters in the 5420A use
the FDNR (frequency dependent negative resistance)
approach developed by Dr. L. Bruton.2 Basically, any
general passive LCR network can be transformed into
a topologically similar network that contains resis
tors, capacitors, and FDNR elements. The new net
work has the same voltage transfer function as the
original LCR network. To illustrate, consider the
passive LCR network shown in Fig. la. Let Vout/Vin
= N(s)/D(s).
Now let us make an impedance transformation,
multiplying each component by 1/s. The transformed
network is as shown in Fig. ib. For this circuit,
Fig. 2. A realization of a frequency dependent negative resis
tance.
10
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
0.9785
1.7744
1.71476
nal stream coming from the ADC represents a real sig
nal and therefore has the property that positive and
negative components are the same.4 In the bandpass
measurement, the positive and negative frequency
bands are not the same, since the negative part con
tains the information from fj to f0 and the positive
part contains the information from f0 to f2. As a con
sequence, the samples describing the shifted spec
trum are complex numbers instead of real ones.
This can also be seen mathematically. The effect of
shifting by f0 in the frequency domain is the same as
convolving the signal with the spectral component
e-jw0n fhjg corresponds to multiplication of the
time-domain ADC signal x(nAt) by e"'1"0' =
jsin«j0At, and so the shifted signal is x(nAt)
-jsin u>0nAt). Thus for every sample x(nAt] that goes
into the frequency shifter, two components come out,
a real part x(nAt]cosw0nAt and an imaginary part
-jx(nAt)sino)0nAt. The low-pass filter operation then
has to be performed on these complex points. For
tunately, digital filtering operations are distributive,
that is, filtering a complex signal is the same as fil
tering the real and imaginary parts separately! The
frequency shift and filter operation is shown schema
tically in Fig. 6.
0.89708
0.03789 J- 0.17237 W 0.1266
__ 1 .39201 == 1 .38793 ~ 1 .2737
V
V
V
Fig.. 3. Normalized low-pass filter having the characteristics
required for the 5420 A's anti-aliasing filters.
as shown in Fig. 5a. The filter is switched into
the baseband mode and set to the narrowest band
width that includes fj. The available bandwidths
are given by
BW = 2~k * L
2 ^ k « 17
fs = 104.2 kHz or 1.042 kHz
This gives a total of 32 bandwidth choices.
In a more general case the user wants to analyze a
band between two arbitrary frequencies fj and f2, as
shown in Fig. 5b. In this case the analyzer first
calculates a center frequency f0 = 1/2(f2-f1),
and by using the digital equivalent of a coquad mixer,
shifts the entire frequency spectrum to the left by
an amount f0. This centers the desired analysis band
at dc. Second, a low-pass filtering operation is used to
obtain the desired bandwidth. However, there is a sig
nificant difference here from the baseband measure
ment. In Fig. 5a, only the positive frequency domain
is shown. This is appropriate because the digital sig
Frequency Shifter
To generate the values of sin<u0nAt and cosw0nAt
for the frequency shift operation, 1024 samples of a
half-sine wave are stored in a read-only memory. The
ROM address register is incremented at the sample
frequency rate by an amount corresponding to o>0.
This register contains 16 bits. The two most signifi
cant bits are decoded to determine which quadrant of
85.6k 2.6k
Fig. of 3. active FDNR filter derived from the normalized filter of Fig. 3.
11
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
x(nT)
y(nT)
x«n-1)T)
Fig. 7. A simple first-order digital filter can be implemented
with one adder, one shift register, and one multiplier.
-BW-
many samples without losing any.
Digital Filter
dB
The digital filter is based on a linear difference sys
tem. Input samples coming from the ADC or the fre
quency shifter are temporarily stored in holding reg
isters. The input samples are then combined with pre
vious sample values to give an output value. In the
simplest case (Fig. 7) the output would be y(nt) =
x(nT)+ax((n-l)T), which could be implemented
with one adder, one shift register, and one multiplier.
Analysis of the circuit of Fig. 7 is most easily done
in the frequency domain using the Fourier transform.
If the Fourier transform of x(nT) is X (jco) then it can
be shown that the Fourier transform of the delayed
time series x((n-l)T) is e~ift)TX(ico). Thus
(b)
Fig. 5. Digital band selector in the 5420A Digital Signal
Analyzer operates in either baseband mode or passband
mode. The user has a choice of 32 bandwidths (BW). Sam
pling frequency fs is either 104.2 or 1.042 kHz.
the sine wave the sample is in. For the first quadrant
the sample stored in ROM is output. For the second
quadrant the ROM address is inverted to get the cor
rect value. For the third quadrant the value stored in
ROM is used, but the output is inverted (this is done
in the multiplier). For the fourth quadrant both the
ROM address and the output value are inverted. To
obtain the cosine samples a similar process is used.
The ADC sample and the cosw0t sample are multi
plied in a hardware 12-bit x 12-bit multiplier. The ac
tual multiply takes 1.2 microseconds. A new sample
can be handled every 2.4 /AS, corresponding to a maxi
mum sample rate of about 400 kHz for one channel.
Since the 5420A has two channels, the maximum
sample rate is 200 kHz. The actual sample rate is
102,400 samples per second, and the output of the
multiplier consists of 409,600 samples per second.
The digital filter has to be fast enough to handle this
Y(joj) = X(jw) + ae-iwT X(jcu).
The transfer function of the circuit of Fig. 7 is
or, using Euler's expression for e"iu)T,
H (joj) = 1 + acoswT - jasinwT.
Similar equations can be worked out for secondorder difference equations. In particular, it is possible
to take the delayed samples and add them to the input
y(nT)
x(nT)
x(nAt)
cos (co0nAt)
-j sin (cu0nAt)
Digital Low-Pass
Filter
Imaginary
Part .
Fig. 6. Band selectable analysis Is implemented by a fre
quency shift and digital filtering operation.
Fig. 8. A second-order digital filter section.
12
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
as well as to the output (see Fig. 8). The difference
equations are
twice as low, the filter passband would be twice as
narrow. Also, the frequency content of the filtered
signal is roughly half the content of the pre-filter sig
nal. According to the Nyquist sampling theorem,
the filter output can be resampled at half the original
rate without losing information. The new sample
frequency is f^ = l/2Ãs.
If this resampled signal is sent through the same
filter the bandwidth is halved again. By successively
filtering and resampling, the bandwidth can be re
duced by powers of two. The same filter handware
can be used for these consecutive steps if the filter is
designed so that calculation of the first "filter pass"
y0(nT) = x(nT) + Kiyo((n-l)T) + K2y0(n-2)T)
y(nT) = L0y0(nT) + Liyo((n-l)T) + L2y0((n-2)T)
The transfer function is
Yiitdl L + L e^iu)T + L e*2'MT
- K2e-2i<uT
— jL2sin 2<oT
1—
— K2cos2o>T
Hans A.M. Wiggers
Hans Wiggers received his en
gineering degree from the Techni
cal University at Delft, The Nether
lands, in 1965. He joined HP in
1972 with several years' experi
ence in digital 1C design. He de
signed the 54470 Digital Filter
module for the 5420A. Born in
Amsterdam, Hans is married, has
two sons, and lives in Los Gatos,
California. He's a soccer coach,
an amateur photographer, and a
recorder player.
+ jK,sin2o)T
The magnitude of this transfer function is
(L0 + L,coS(uT + L2cos2wT)2 + (L]sinwT-L2sin2(uT)2
~ (1 - K,coS(uT - K2cos2wT)2 + (K,sincuT + K2sin2wT)2
at dc (w = 0),
J _ | Q
à ¯
J - I 1
1
â € ¢
1—K.^—K.2
The coefficients L0, La, L2, Kj and K2 may be selected
to give unity gain at dc as well as the desired passband and rejection band characteristics.
For the 5420A, to obtain the required 80-dB out-ofband rejection, it was necessary to implement two of
the sections shown in Fig. 8, each having different
coefficients. The final overall filter characteristic is
shown in Fig. 9.
- I
Resampling
It should be noted that the filter characteristic is
dependent on the sample frequency fs. If fs were
t i l
-
Jean-Pierre D. Patkay
Pierre Patkay received BS and MS
degrees in engineering from Har
vey Mudd College in 1973. He
Joined HP's digital signal analysis
lab the same year. Pierre served
as project leader and production
engineer for the 5441 0 ADC Mod
ule for the 5420A. Born in
Pasadena, California, he's mar
ried, lives in Los Altos, California,
and occupies his spare time with
tennis, alpine skiing, ski touring,
yoga, and "pulling weeds."
0 dB
Frank Rui-Feng Chu
Frank Chu designed the front end
of the 54410 ADC Module and the
ADC FIFO memory board for the
5420A. He's been doing circuit
design for HP spectrum analyzers
and digital signal analyzers since
he joined the company in 1970.
Frank received his BSEE degree
from the University of Washington
in 1970 and his MSEE degree from
Stanford University in 1972. He's
married, has a daughter, and lives
in Santa Clara, California. He plays
table tennis, collects stamps and
coins, and is working on an MBA
degree.
-80 dB
Fig. 9. Each 5420A digital filter consists of two second-order
sections and has the characteristic shown here.
13
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
time.ffi
takes less than half the sample time. The other half of
the available time may then be used for calculation of
one of the other "passes". An algorithm to do this is
built into the 5420A. The partial sums are stored in
the memory instead of a shift register, and the con
trol section regulates which pass is being calculated.
Because the digital filter must be able to handle
409,600 samples per second, and half of the time must
be devoted to other passes, the maximum allowable
time for one calculation is about 1.25 /JLS. Actually
the filter performs the calculations in about half this
References
1. H.W. McKinney, "Band-Selectable Fourier Analysis,"
Hewlett-Packard Journal, April 1975.
2. L.T. Bruton, "Network Transfer Functions Using the Con
cept of Frequency - Dependent Negative Resistance," IEEE
Transactions on Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-16, pp. 406-408,
August 1969.
3. A.I. Zverev, "Handbook of Filter Synthesis," pp. 278-280.
4. R.N. Bracewell, "The Fourier Transform and Its Appli
cations," McGraw-Hill, 1965.
Display and Storage Systems for a Digital
Signal Analyzer
by Walter M. Edgerley, Jr. and David C. Snyder
Character Generator
WHILE DATA IS BEING TAKEN into the 5420A
Digital Signal Analyzer and is being manipu
lated by the processor, the analyzer must be display
ing this data graphically and alphanumerically,
without flicker, and in a clear, clean manner.
A key factor in realizing the required performance
is the high-resolution HP-designed CRT. It has a
viewing area of 9.6 cm x 11.9 cm and produces a
keenly focused spot of 0.33 mm diameter everywhere
in the viewing area, more than adequate to display
alphanumeric characters 1.6 mm x 2.6 mm in size.
Data is transmitted via the MIOB (see box, page 6),
which services all modules in the 5420A. The display
receives data in 16-bit x 64-word bursts from the pro
cessing module. The high-speed bus makes it pos
sible to maintain a flicker-free directed-beam display
without large amounts of memory.
Fig. 1 shows the signal flow from the processor
to the CRT. The data passes from the processor to the
display control board via the interface and timing
board. This board not only handshakes the data from
the processor, but generates all timing signals for
digital operations.
On the control board, the data is tested for data
type, which is either graphic or alphanumeric. If
graphic, it is assumed to be in horizontal and verti
cal pairs and is sent to the stroke generator. If al
phanumeric, it is first sent to the character genera
tor for processing into the proper horizontal and
vertical bit patterns for character construction and
then to the stroke generator. The stroke generator
transforms the digital information into the appro
priate horizontal, vertical, and blanking analog
signals.
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of the character generator.
It is an algorithmic state machine (ASM) that accepts
seven-bit ASCII codes and generates appropriate hor
izontal and vertical bit patterns to construct the dis
play alphanumerics. The bit pattern construction is
dependent on two control lines (A and B) at the out
put of the ROM. There are four possible control
situations:
• Load new ASCII code into ROM address register
(RAR), but do not increment character counter
High-Voltage
Supply
Fig. 1. 5420 A display system receives data from the central
processor via the MIOB and displays it on a high-resolution
directed-beam CRT.
14
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
HEWLETT-PACKARDJOURNAL
Volumes 25, 26, 27, 28
September 1973 through August 1977
Hewlett-Packard Company, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 U.S.A.
Hewlett-Packard Central Mailing Department, Van Heuven Goedhartlaan 121,
Amstelveen-1134 The Netherlands
Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard Ltd., Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 151 Japan
PART 1 : Chronological Index
September 1973
A Low-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer that Makes Slow Sweeps
Practical, WiJliam L. Hale and Gerald E. WeibeJ
A High-Performance Beam Tube for Cesium Beam Frequency
Standards, Ronald C. Hyatt, Louis F. Mueller and Terry N.
Osterdock
October 1973
The Logic Analyzer: A New Kind of Instrument for Observing
Logic Signals, Robin Adler, Mark Baker, and Howard D.
Marshall
A Pulse Generator for Today's Digital Circuits, Reinhard Falke
and Horsi Link
November 1973
A Self-Contained, Hand-Held Digital Multimeter— A New Con
cept in Instrument Utility, Robert L. Dudley and Virgil L. Laing
A Portable High-Resolution Counter for Low-Frequency Mea
surements, Kenneth /. MacLeod
A High-Speed Pattern Generator and an Error Detector for Testing
Digital Systems, Thomas Crawford, James Robertson, John Stinson, and /van Young
December 1973
A Go-Anywhere Strip-Chart Recorder That Has Laboratory Accu
racy, Howard L. Merrill and Rick A. Warp
Telecommunication Cable Fault Location from the Test Desk,
Thomas R. Graham and /ames M. Hood
High-Efficiency Modular Power Supplies Using Switching Regu
lators, B. William Dudley and Robert D. Peck
January 1974
The Logic State Analyzer — Displaying Complex Digital Processes
in Understandable Form, William A. Farnbach
A Laser Interferometer that Measures Straightness of Travel,
Richard R. Baldwin, Barbara E. Grote, and David A. Harland
February 1974
Practical Oscilloscopes at Workaday Prices, Hans-Gu'nter
Hohmann
Laboratory Notebook — Sharp Cut-Off Filters for That Awkward
UHF Band
A Data Error Analyzer for Tracking Down Problems in Data Com
munications, Jeffrey R. Duerr
March 1974
An Automatic, Precision 1-MHz Digital LCR Meter, Kohichi
Maeda
A Moderately Priced 20-MHz Pulse Generator with 16-Volt Out
put, Gu'nter Krauss and Rainer Eggert
Laboratory Notebook — Logarithmic Amplifier Accepts 100 dB
Signal Range
Versatile VHF Signal Generator Stresses Low Cost and Portability,
Robert R. Hay
April 1974
Mass Memory System Broadens Calculator Applications, Havyn
E. Bradley and Chris /. Christopher
An Easily Calibrated, Versatile Platinum Resistance Thermometer,
Tony E. Foster
Speeding the Complex Calculations Required for Assessing Left
Ventricular Function of the Heart, Peter Dikeman and Chi-ning
Liu
May 1974
The "Personal Computer": A Fully Programmable Pocket Cal
culator, Chung C. Tung
Programming the Personal Computer, R. Kent Stockivell
Designing a Tiny Magnetic Card Reader, Robert B. Taggart
Testing the HP-65 Logic Board, Kenneth W. Peterson
Economical Precision Step Attenuators for RF and Microwaves,
George R. Kirkpatrick and David R. Veteran
June 1974
A New Generation in Frequency and Time Measurements, James
L. Sorden
The 5345A Processor: An Example of State Machine Design,
Ronald E. Felsenstein
Time David Averaging: Theory, Problems, and Solutions, David
C. Chu
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Part 1: Chronological Index (continued)
Third Input Channel Increases Counter Versatility, Arthur S. Muto
A Completely Automatic 4-GHz Heterodyne Frequency Converter,
Ali Bologlu
Interface Bus Expands Instrument Utility, Bryce E. /eppsen and
Steven E. Schultz
July 1974
Powerful Data Base Management System for Small Computers,
Richard E. Mclntire
Quality Frequency Counters Designed for Minimum Cost, Lewis
W. Masters and Warren /. O'Buch
A Versatile Bipolar Power Supply/ Amplifier for Lab and Systems
Use, Santo Pecchio
An Automatic Exposure Control for a Lab-Bench X-Ray Camera,
John L. Brewster
August 1974
Measuring Analog Parameters of Voiceband Data Channels, Noel
E. Damon
Transient Measurements, Pau] G. Winningho//
The 4940 A Sine Wave Transmitter, Richard T. Lee
Nonlinear Distortion Measurements, Donald A. Dresch
Envelope Delay Distortion Measurements, Richard G. Fowles and
Johann /. Heinzl
Peak-to-Average Ratio Measurements, Erhard Ketelsen
Microwave Integrated Circuits Solve a Transmission Problem in
Educational TV, James A. Hall, Douglas /. Mellar, Richard D.
Pering, and Arthur Fong
BCD, Hans-Ju'rg Nadig
A Multifunction Scanner for Calculator-Based Data Acquisition
Systems, David L. Wolpert
Minimal Cost Measuring Instruments for Systems Use, Gary D.
Sasaki and Lawrence P. Johnson
Visualizing Interface Bus Activity, Harold E. Dietrich
February 1975
High-Sensitivity X-Y Recorder Has Few Input Restrictions,
Donald W. Huff, Daniel E. Johnson, and John M. Wade
Digital High-Capacitance Measurements to One Farad, Kunihisa
Osada and Jun-ichi Suehiro
Computer Performance Improvement by Measurement and Mi
croprogramming, David C. Snyder
March 1975
A High-Performance 2-to-18-GHz Sweeper, Paul R. Hernday and
Carl J. Enlow
Broadband Swept Network Measurements, John J. Dupre and
Cyril J. Yansouni
The Dual Function Generator: A Source of a Wide Variety of Test
Signals, Ronald J. Riedel and Dan D. Danielson
April 1975
A Portable 1100-MHz Frequency Counter, Hans J. Jekat
Big Timer/Counter Capability in a Portable Package, Kenneth J.
MacLeod
A High-Current Power Supply for Systems that Use 5-Volt 1C
Logic Extensively, Mauro DiFrancesco
Band-Selectable Fourier Analysis, H. Webber McKinney
September 1974
A 250-MHz Pulse Generator with Transition Times Variable to
Less than 1 ns, Gert Globos, Joel Zellmer, and Eldon Cornish
Optimizing the Design of a High-Performance Oscilloscope, P.
Kent Hardage, S. Raymond Kushnir, and Thomas /. Zamborelli
A Thin-Film/Semiconductor Thermocouple for Microwave Power
Measurements, Weldon H. Jackson
Microelectronics Enhances Thermocouple Power Measurements,
John Lamy
May 1975
An Understandable Test Set for Making Basic Measurements on
Telephone Lines, Michael B. Aken and David K. Deaver
A Computer System for Analog Measurements on Voiceband Data
Channels, Stephen G. Cline, Robert H. Perdriau, and Roger F.
Rauskolb
A Precision Spectrum Analyzer for the lO-Hz-to-13-MHz Range,
Jerry W. Daniels and Robert L. Atchley
October 1974
A User-Oriented Family of Minicomputers, John M. Stedman
Microprogrammable Central Processor Adapts Easily to Special
User Needs, Philip Gordon and Jacob R. Jacobs
Testing the 21MX Processor, Cleaborn C. Riggins and Richard L.
Hammons
All Semiconductor Memory Selected for New Minicomputer
Series, Robert J. Frankenberg
The Million-Word Minicomputer Main Memory, John S. Elward
A Computer Power System for Severe Operating Conditions,
Richard C. Van Brunt
June 1975
Cost-Effective, Reliable CRT Terminal Is First of a Family, James
A. Doub
A Functionally Modular Logic System for a CRT Terminal, Arthur
B. Lane
A High-Resolution Raster Scan Display, Jean-Claude Roy
Firmware for a Microprocessor-Controlled CRT Terminal, Thomas
F. Waitman
A Microprocessor-Scanned Keyboard, Otakar Blazek
Packaging for Function, Manufacturability, and Service, Robert B.
Pierce
November 1974
Distributed Computer Systems, Shane Dickey
A Quality Course in Digital Electronics, James A. Marrocco and
Barry Branson
Simplified Data-Transmission Channel Measurements, David H.
Guest
July 1975
Modularity Means Maximum Effectiveness in Medium-Cost Uni
versal Counter, James F. Horner and Bruce S. Corya
Using a Modular Universal Counter, Alfred Langguth and William
D. Jackson
Synthesized Signal Generator Operation to 2.6 GHz with Wide
band Phase Modulation, James A. Hall and Young Dae Kim
Applications of a Phase-Modulated Signal Generator, James A.
Hall
December 1974
Improved Accuracy and Convenience in Oscilloscope Timing and
Voltage Measurements, Walter A. Fischer and William B. Risley
Laboratory Notebook — An Active Loop-Holding Device
A Supersystem for BASIC Timesharing, Nealon Mack and
Leonard E. Shar
Deriving and Reporting Chromatograph Data with a
Microprocessor-Controlled Integrator, Andrew Ste/anski
Adapting a Calculator Microprocessor to Instrumentation, Hal
Barraclough
August 1975
The Logic State Analyzer, a Viewing Port for the Data Domain,
Charles T. Small and Justin S. Morrili, Jr.
Unravelling Problems in the Design of Microprocessor-Based Sys
tems, William E. Wagner
A Multichannel Word Generator for Testing Digital Components
and Systems, Arndt Pannach and Wolfgang Kappler
January 1975
The Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus: Current Perspectives, Donald
C. Loughry
Putting Together Instrumentation Systems at Minimum Cost,
David W. Ricci and Peter S. Stone
Filling in the Gaps — Modular Accessories for Instrument Sys
tems, Steven E. Schultz and Charles R. Trimble
A Quiet, HP-IB-Compatible Printer that Listens to Both ASCII and
September 1975
ATLAS: A Unit-Under-Test Oriented Language for Automatic Test
Systems, William R. Finch and Robert B. Grady
Automatic 4.5-GHz Counter Provides 1-Hz Resolution, Ali
Bologlu
A New Instrument Enclosure with Greater Convenience, Better
Accessibility, and High Attenuation of RF Interference, Allen F.
Inhelder
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Part 1: Chronological Index (continued)
October 1975
Digital Power Meter Offers Improved Accuracy, Hands-Off Opera
tion, Systems Compatibility, AJJen P. Edivards
Very-Low-Level Microwave Power Measurements, Ronald E. Pratt
Active Probes Improve Precision of Time Interval Measurements,
Robert W. Qffermonn, Steven E. SchuJtz, and Charles R. Trimble
Flow Control in High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Helge
Schrenker
November 1975
Three New Pocket Calculators: Smaller, Less Costly, More Power
ful, Randall B. Nej;f and Lynn Tillman
Inside the New Pocket Calculators, Michael /. Cook, George
Fichter, and Richard Whicker
Packaging the New Pocket Calculators, Thomas A. Hender
A New Microwave Link Analyzer for Communications Systems
Carrying Up to 2700 Telephone Channels, Svend Christensen
and Ian Matthews
December 1975
A 100-MHz Analog Oscilloscope for Digital Measurements, Allan
I. Best
An Oscilloscope Vertical-Channel Amplifier that Combines
Monolithic, Thick-Film Hybrid, and Discrete Technologies, Joe
K. Miilard
A Real-Time Operating System with Multi-Terminal and Batch/
Spool Capabilities, George A. Anzinger and Adele M. Gadol
Real-Time Executive System Manages Large Memories, Linda W.
Averett
January 1976
An Automatic Selective Level Measuring Set for Multichannel
Communications Systems, /. Reid Urquhart
Designing Precision into a Selective Level Measuring Set, Hugh P.
Walker
Designing a Quiet Frequency Synthesizer for a Selective Level
Measuring Set, John H. Coster
Making the Most of Microprocessor Control, David G. Dock
Real-Time Multi-User BASIC, James T. Schultz
February 1976
Laser Transducer Systems for High- Accuracy Machine Position
ing, Andre F. Rude and Michael J. Ward
Electronics for the Laser Transducer, William E. Olson and Robert
B. Smith
Using a Programmable Calculator as a Data Communications
Terminal, James E. Carlson and Ronald L. Stickle
David S. Maitland
Character Impact Printer Offers Maximum Printing Flexibility,
Robert B. Bump and Gary R. Paulson
Mid-Range Calculator Delivers More Power at Lower Cost,
Douglas M. Clifford, F. Timothy Hickenlooper, and A. Craig
Mortensen
July 1976
A Direct-Reading Network Analyzer for the 500-kHz-to-1.3-GHz
Frequency Range, Hugo Vi/ion
Processing Wide-Range Network Analyzer Signals for Analog and
Digital Display, William S. Lawson and David D. Sharrit
A Precision RF Source and Down-Converter for the Model 8505A
Network Analyzer, Rolf Dalichow and Daniel R. Harkins
August 1976
Series II General-Purpose Computer Systems: Designed for Im
proved Throughput and Reliability, Leonard E. Shar
An All-Semiconductor Memory with Fault Detection, Correction,
and Logging, Elio A. Toschi and Tak Watanabe
HP 3000 Series II Performance Measurement, Clifford A. Jager
September 1976
An Easier-to-Use Variable-Persistence/Storage Oscilloscope with
Brighter, Sharper Traces, Van Harrison
An Automatic Wide-Range Digital LCR Meter, Satoru Hashimoto
and Toshio Tamamura
October 1976
Continuous, Non-Invasive Measurements of Arterial Blood Oxy
gen Levels, Edwin B. Merrick and Thomas J. Hayes
Laboratory Notebook — A Signal-Level Reference
An Accurate Low-Noise Discriminator
Card-Programmable Digital 1C Tester Simplifies Incoming Inspec
tion, Eric M. Ingman
November 1976
A Pair of Program-Compatible Personal Programmable Cal
culators, Peter D. Dickinson and William E. Egbert
Portable Scientific Calculator Has Built-in Printer, Bernard E.
Musch and Robert B. Taggart
The New Accuracy: Making 23 = 8, Dennis W. Harms
High-Power Solid-State 5.9-12.4-GHz Sweepers, Louis J.
Kuhlman, Jr.
The GaAs FET in Microwave Instrumentation, Patrick H. Wang
December 1976
A Cesium Beam Frequency Reference for Severe Environments,
Charles E. Heger, Ronald C. Hyatt, and Gary A. Seavey
Calibrated FM, Crystal Stability, and Counter Resolution for a
Low-Cost Signal Generator, Robert R. Collison and Ronald E.
Kmetovicz
A 50-Mbit/s Pattern Generator and Error Detector for Evaluating
Digital Communications System Performance, Ivan R. Young,
Robert Pearson, and Peter M. Scott
Current Tracer: A New Way to Find Low-Impedance Logic-Circuit
Faults, John F. Beckwith
New Logic Probe Troubleshoots Many Logic Families, Robert C.
Quenelle
A Multifunction, Multifamily Logic Pulser, Barry Branson and
Anthony Y. Chan
Probe Family Packaging, David E. Gordon
Multifamily Logic Clip Shows All Pin States Simultaneously,
Durward Priebe
Interfacing a Parallel-Mode Logic State Analyzer to Serial Data,
Justin S. Morrill, Jr.
April 1976
January 1977
Electronic Total Station Speeds Survey Operations, Michael L.
Bullock and Richard E. Warren
Designing Efficiency into a Digital Processor for an Analytical
Instrument, John S. Poole and Len Bilen
A Logic State Analyzer for Microprocessor Systems, Jeffrey H.
Smith
Firmware for a Microprocessor Analyzer, Thomas A. Soponas
A Versatile, Semiautomatic Fetal Monitor for Non-Technical
Users, Erich Courtin, Walter Ruchsay, Peter Sal/eld, and Heinz
Sommer
March 1976
May 1976
New CRT Terminal Has Magnetic Tape Storage for Expanded
Capability, Robert G. Nordman, Richard L. Smith, and Louis A.
Witkin
Mini Re Cartridge: A Convincing Alternative for Low-Cost, Re
movable Storage, Alan J. Richards
Laboratory Notebook — A Logarithmic Counter
June 1976
Third-Generation Programmable Calculator Has Computer-Like
Capabilities, Donald E. Morris, Chris J. Christopher, Geoffrey W.
Chance, and Dick B. Barney
High-Performance NMOS LSI Processor, William D. Eads and
February 1977
A Fast-Reading, High-Resolution Voltmeter that Calibrates Itself
Automatically, Albert Gookin
A High-Speed System Voltmeter for Time-Related Measurements,
John E. McDermid, James B. Vyduna, and Joseph M. Gorin
Contemporary Design Practice in General-Purpose Digital Mul
timeters, Roy D. Barker, Virgil L. Laing, Joe E. Marriott, and H.
Mac Juneau
March 1977
A New Series of Small Computer Systems, Lee Johnson
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Part 1 : Chronological Index (continued)
HP 1000 Operating System is Enhanced Real-Time Executive,
David L. Snow and Kathleen F. Hahn
Development and Application of Microprograms in a Real-Time
Environment, Harris Dean Drake
E-Series Doubles 21MX Performance, Cleaborn C. Higgins
How the E-Series Performance Was Achieved, Scott /. StaJiard
Microprogrammed Features of the 21MX E-Series, Thomas A.
Lane
OPNODE: Interactive Linear Circuit Design and Optimization,
William A. Rytand
Viewpoints — John Moll on HP's Integrated Circuit Technology
April 1977
Silicon-on-Sapphire Technology Produces High-Speed SingleChip Processor, Bert E. Forbes
CMOS/SOS, David Farrington
Miniature Oscilloscope Probes for Measurements in Crowded Cir
cuits, Carolyn M. Finch, Marvin F. Estes, and Lawrence A.
Gammill
A Small, Solid-State Alphanumeric Display, John T. Uebbing,
Peter B. Ashkin, and Jack L. Hiñes
May 1977
Signature Analysis: A New Digital Field Service Method, Robert
A. Frohwerk
Easy-to-Use Signature Analyzer Accurately Troubleshoots Com
plex Logic Circuits, Anthony Y. Chan
Signature Analysis — Concepts, Examples, and Guidelines, Hans
J. Nadig
Personal Calculator Algorithms I: Square Roots, William E. Egbert
June 1977
A Wide-Ranging Power Supply of Compact Dimensions, Paul W.
Bailey, John W. Hyde, and William T. Walker
Remote Programming of Power Supplies Through the HP Inter
face Bus, Emery Salesky and Kent Luehman
Coaxial Components and Accessories for Broadband Operation to
26.5 GHz, George R. Kirkpatrick, Ronald E. Pratt, and Donald H.
Chambers
Personal Calculator Algorithms II: Trigonometric Functions,
William E. Egbert
July 1977
Small Computer System Supports Large-Scale Multi-User APL,
Kenneth A. Van Bree
APL Data: Virtual Workspaces and Shared Storage, Grant J.
Munsey
APLGOL: Structured Programming Facilities for APL, Ronald L.
Johnston
APL/3000 Summary
A Dynamic Incremental Compiler for an Interpretive Language,
Eric J. Van Dyke
A Controller for the Dynamic Compiler, Kenneth A . Van Bree
Extended Control Functions for Interactive Debugging, Kenneth
A. Van Bree
CRT Terminal Provides both APL and ASCII Operation, Warren W.
Leong
August 1977
New 50-Megabyte Disc Drive: High Performance and Reliability
from High-Technology Design, Herbert P. Stickel
An Individualized Pulse/Word Generator System for Subnanosecond Testing, Christian Hentschel, Gu'nter Riebesell, Joel
Zellmer, and Volker Eberle
PART 2: Subject Index
Month/Year
Apr. 1974
Sept. 1973
May 1977
June 1977
May 1975
May 1975
Aug. 1975
Apr. 1976
Subject
A
Model
9880A
Accounting system, desk-top computer
3580A
Adaptive sweep in a spectrum analyzer
Algorithm, personal calculator, square
root
Algorithms, personal calculator,
trigonometric
Algorithmic state machine design
5345A
Alphanumeric displays, solid-state HDSP-2000
AM-to-PM conversion, detection of
3 790 A
Amplifier/power supply
6825A/
6A/7A
Amplitude distortion, telephone
4940A
measurements
Amplitude distortion, telephone
measurements
5453A
3770A
Amplitude/ delay distortion
Analyzer, data transmission errors
1645A
Analyzer, digital pattern recognition
1620A
Analyzer, digital signature
5004A
Analyzer, logic (serial)
5000A
1601L
Analyzer, logic state (parallel)
Analyzer, logic state
1600S
Analyzer, logic state
1611A
Analyzer, microwave link
3790A
Analyzer, network, 0.5-1300 MHz
8505A
Analyzer, spectrum, 5 Hz to 50 kHz,
3580A
portable
Analyzer, spectrum, 10 Hz to 13 MHz
3571A/
3044A/3045A
5453A
Analyzer, transmission parameter
Analyzing microprocessor-based
1600S
systems
3810A
Angle measurements, surveying
•Asterisk indicates instruments compatible with the HP interface bus (HP-IB).
Apr. 1974 Angio analyzer
July 1977 APL (a programming language)
July 1977 APLGOL
July 1975 Applications for phase-modulated
generator
July 1975 Armed measurements, counter/timer/
DVM
Sept. 1975 ATLAS (abbreviated test language for
avionics systems)
5693A
3000
3000
86634A,
86635A
5328A
9510D,
option 100
9500D,
option 180
Sept. 1973 Atomic frequency standard (cesium),
high-performance
5061A,
option 004
Mar. 1976 Atomic frequency reference (cesium)
5062C
3571A/
May 1975 Attenuator, classical problem
3044 A/
3045A
8495A/B
May 1974 Attenuators, coaxial, step, dc-18 GHz
8496A/B
June 1977 Attenuators, coaxial, step, dc-26.5 GHz 8495D/K
3455A
Feb. 1977 Autocalibration in a digital voltmeter
July 1974 Automatic exposure control for X-rays
43805
June 1974 Automatic 4-GHz frequency converter
plug-in
Sept. 1975 Automatic test system programming
language (ATLAS)
June 1974 Averaging, time interval, theory
5354A
9510D,
option 100
9500D,
option 180
5345A
B
Apr. 1975 Band-selectable Fourier analysis
Jan. 1976 BASIC, real-time multi-user
Dec. 1974 BASIC/3000 timeshared computer
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
5451B
92101A
PART 2: Subject Index (continued)
s y s t e m
M P E T / 3 0 0 0
Dec. 1973 Battery-powered strip-chart recorder 7155A
Dec. 1975 Batch/ spool capability for RTE systems 9600/9700
July 1977 Beating (in APL/3000) 3000
July 1974 Bipolar power supply/amplifier 6825A-27A
Nov. 1973 Bit-error rate detector (150 MHz) 3761A
Mar. 1976 Bit-error rate detector (50 MHz) 3780A
Feb. 1974 Bit-error rate detector,
terminal-to-terminal 1645 A
Oct. 1976 Blood oxygen levels, measurement of 47201A
Nov. 1974 Breadboard, digital (logic lab) 5035T
Aug. 1975 Breakpoint register (pattern analyzer) 1620A
Feb. 1975 Breakpoint register, use of —
Bus, HP interface. See HP-IB.
Nov. 1 9 7 5 B u s i n e s s c a l c u l a t o r , p o c k e t H P - 2 2
Apr. 1974 Business software for desktop
c o m p u t e r s y s t e m 9 8 8 0 A
Mar. 1976
May
1975
Nov. 1973
Communications, digital, error
detection
Communications, telephone test set
July 1977
Mar. 1977
Communications test data generator/
error detector
Communications test, microwave link
analyzer
Communications test, selective level
measurements
Communications test, transmission
impairment measuring set
Communications test, transmission
parameter analyzer
Compiler, dynamic, APL
Computer, increased performance
Feb. 1975
Aug. 1976
Computer performance improvement
Computer performance measurements
Nov. 1975
Jan.
1976
Aug. 1974
May
1975
3780A
3551A,
3552A
3 760 A/
3761A
3790A
3745A
4940A
5453A
3000
21MX
E-Series
3000
Series II
Sept. 1975
July 1974
Dec. 1973
May 1977
June 1977
Nov. 1975
June 1974
Cabinets, system II
Cabinet X-ray system 43805
Cable fault locator, test desk 4913A
Calculator algorithms, square root
Calculator algorithms, trigonometric
Calculator, business, pocket HP-22
Calculator/counter systems, HP
i n t e r f a c e b u s 5 3 4 5 A
Apr. 1974
May 1974
Nov. 1975
Nov. 1976
Nov. 1976
Calculator mass memory system 9880A
Calculator, pocket, programmable HP-H5
Calculator, pocket, programmable HP-25
Calculator, pocket, programmable HP-67
Calculators, portable, printing HP-91,
HP-97
Nov. 1976
Nov.
Mar.
Sept.
Feb.
Jan.
May
Mar.
1975
1974
1976
1975
1977
1976
1976
Calculators, portable, programmable HP-97
Calculator, programmable, desktop.
See desktop computers.
Calculator, pocket, scientific HP-21
Capacitance measurements 4271A
Capacitance measurements 4261A
C a p a c i t a n c e
m e t e r
C a r d i o t o c o g r a p h
4 2 8 2 A
8 0 3 0 A
Cartridge, data, mini
Cesium beam frequency reference for
Sept. 1973
severe environments 5062C
Cesium beam frequency standard,
June 1974
high performance beam tube for 5061A,
option 004
Channel C plug-in for 5345A counter 5353A
Apr. 1976
Chromatography, gas, microprocessor
c o n t r o l
5 8 4
Oct. 1975
Dec. 1974
Chromatography, liquid, flow control 1010B
Apr. 1974
Mar. 1977
Apr. 1977
Dec. 1976
Jan. 1975
June 1977
May 1974
Jan. 1975
Feb. 1975
Feb. 1976
Feb. 1974
0
A
Chromatography, reporting integrator
f o r
3
3
8 0
A
Cineangiogram analysis 5693A
Circuit design, computer-aided
( O P N O D E )
9 2 8 1
7 A
Clip for oscilloscope probing of IC's 10024A
C l i p ,
l o g i c
5 4 8 A
Clock for systems using HP interface bus 59309A
Coaxial components
attenuators, dc-26.5 GHz
8495D/K
detectors, 0.01-26.5 GHz
8473C/33330C
sliding load, 2-26.5 GHz
911C
switches, dc-26.5 GHz
33311C
Coaxial step attenuators, dc-18 GHz
8495A/B
8496A/B
Code converter, ASCII to parallel
59301A
Common driver circuit for guarded
input
7047A
Communications, data, desktop
computer
9830A
Communications, digital, error
detection
1645A
Computer power supply, switching
r e g u l a t e d
6 2 6 0 5 M
Computers. Also see Desktop
Computers
Oct. 1974 C o m p u t e r s
2 1 M X
Mar. 1977 C o m p u t e r s
2 1 M X - E
Dec. 1974 Computer system, B ASIC/ 3000
t i m e s h a r e d M P E T / 3 0 0 0
May 1975 Computer system for voiceband data
channel measurements 5453A
C o m p u t e r s y s t e m s 1 0 0 0
Computer systems 3000 Series II
Computer systems, distributed 9700 Series
Computer terminal, APL 2 641 A
Computer terminal, CRT 2640A
Computer terminal, CRT with tape
s t o r a g e
2
6 4 4
A
Connectors, coaxial APC-3.5
Counter systems, HP interface bus 5 345 A*
Counter, general-purpose 5 345 A*
Counter, high-resolution, module for
5 3 0 0
s y s t e m
5 3 0 7 A
Counter, logarithmic (lab notebook)
Counter, low-cost 5381A-82A
Counter, 1100-MHz 5305A
Counter, microwave frequency 5341A
Counter plug-in, automatic frequency
c o n v e r t e r
5 3 5 4 A
Counter plug-in, third input channel 5353A
Counter/synchronizer for signal
g e n e r a t o r
8 6 5 5 A
Counter/timer/DVM, universal 5328A
Counter/timer, 75-MHz universal 5308A
C R T
t e r m i n a l
2 6 4 0 A
C R T t e r m i n a l , A P L 2 6 4 1 A
CRT terminal with dual tape drives 2644A
C u r r e n t
t r a c e r
5 4 7 A
Cyclic redundancy check codes (CRC),
used in signature analysis 5004A
Apr. 1975
Jan. 1975
Feb. 1977
July 1974
May 1976
May 1975
Aug. 1974
Nov. 1974
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Data acquisition systems,
programmable
Data acquisition systems,
programmable
Data base management software
(IMAGE)
Data cartridge, mini
Data channel measurements, analog,
voiceband
Data channel measurements, analog,
voiceband
Data channel measurements, analog,
3050B
3052A
24376B,
32215A.16A
5453A
4940A
PART 2: Subject Index (continued)
Feb. 1974
Feb. 1976
Dec.
Nov.
Feb.
Aug.
Nov.
1975
1973
1977
1974
1974
Aug. 1977
June 1976
Feb. 1976
June 1977
Oct. 1976
Dec. 1976
v o i c e b a n d
Data channel measurements,
error analyzer
3 7 7 0 A
Data communications, desk-top
computer
Data domain, analog oscilloscope
Data generator, 150 MHz PRBS
Data logging systems, programmable
Delay distortion, Bell System
Delay distortion, CCITT
recommendation
Delay generator, 100-ps steps
Desktop computers
Desktop computer, data
9830A
communications
8473C/33330C
Detector, 0.01-26.5 GHz
Digital communications test, see data
channel measurements
5045A
Digital 1C tester
Digital 1C trouble-shooting
instruments and kits (logic probe, 545A,546A
logic pulser, logic clip, current tracer) 547A.548A
D i g i t a l
L C R
m e t e r
Digital pattern generator, communi
cations test
Digital pattern generator, communi
cations test
Digital pattern generator, communi
cations test
Digital processor in a gas
chromatograph
Digital storage in a spectrum analyzer
Feb.
July
1977
1975
Aug. 1975
Aug. 1977
Aug. 1977
Apr. 1974
Oct. 1976
June 1975
May 1976
Jan. 1975
Apr. 1977
July 1977
Mar. 1974
Sept. 1976
Feb. 1975
Apr. 1976
May 1975
Aug. 1974
Nov. 1974
July 1977
Aug. 1974
Digital-to-analog converter for HP-IB
Digital-to-analog converter for HP-IB
Digital troubleshooting by signature
analysis
Digital voltmeter, 5l/2 digit, autocalibrating
Digital voltmeter, fast reading, systems
Digital voltmeters, options, for
universal counter
Digital word generator, 8-bit parallel
Digital word generator, serial,
300 MHz
1973
Mar.
1976
July
Feb.
1974
1977
Extending a digital multimeter's range 3435A,
3465A/B
3476A/B
Aug. 1976
Dec. 1973
Dec. 1976
3780A
1645A
5840A
3580A
59303A
59501A
5004A
3455A
3437A
p u l s e d
5328A
8016A
8084A/
8080A
7920A
9880A
47201A
Fault control memory 3000 Series II
Fault locator, test desk 491 3 A
Fault (low-impedance) localization in
digital logic circuits 547A
FET, GaAs for microwaves HFET-1000
F e t a l m o n i t o r i n g 8 0 3 0 A
Filters, VHF coaxial (lab notebook)
Flow control in liquid chromatography 1010B
FM, calibrated, signal generator 8654B
Fourier analysis, band selectable 5451B
F o u r i e r a n a l y z e r 5 4 5 1 B
Frequency converter plug-in 5354A
Frequency counter, 4.5 GHz 5 341 A*
F r e q u e n c y c o u n t e r 5 3 4 5 A *
Frequency counter, high-resolution
module for 5300 system 5307A
Frequency counters, low cost 5381A.82A
Frequency counter, 1100-MHz 5 305 A
Frequency measurements, reciprocal 5345A
Frequency profile measurements,
3760A
Disc drive, 50 megabytes
Disc drive for desktop computer
Discriminator (lab notebook)
2640A
Display, CRT terminal
2644A
Display, CRT terminal, magnetic tape
59303A
Display, numeric for HP interface bus
Displays, small solid-state
HDSP-2000
alphanumeric
2641A
Display station, APL
4271A
Dissipation factor measurements
Dissipation factor measurements
4261A
Dissipation factor measurements
4282A
3810A
Distance measurements, surveying
5453A
Distortion measurements, amplitude
Distortion measurements, amplitude,
4940A
phase, envelope delay, nonlinear
9700 Series
Distributed computer systems
3000
Dragalong (in APL/ 3000)
4940A
Dropouts
Oct. 1976 Ear oximeter
Nov.
8495A/B
8496A/B
Educational TV receiver
Electronic counter, general-purpose 5345A
Enclosures, electronic instrument
Envelope delay distortion
m e a s u r e m e n t s
4 9 4 0 A
Envelope delay distortion
m e a s u r e m e n t s
3 7 7 0 A
Envelope delay distortion
m e a s u r e m e n t s
5 4 5 3 A
Error analyzer, data transmissions 1645A
Error-correcting memory 3000 Series II
Error detection by transition counting
and signature analysis 5004A
Error detector, communications test
( 1 5 0 M H z )
3 7 6 1 A
Error detector, communications test
( 5 0 M H z )
3 7 8 0 A
Exposure control for X-ray system 43805
4 2 6 1 A
D i g i t a l L C R m e t e r 4 2 7 1 A
D i g i t a l l o g i c a n a l y z e r 5 0 0 0 A
D i g i t a l l o g i c c o u r s e 5 0 3 5 T
Digital multimeter, hand-held 970A
Digital multimeters, low cost 3435A.3465A/B
3476A/B
1620A
Digital pattern analyzer for triggering
Feb. 1977
May 1974 Edgeline transmission in attenuators
Mar. 1975
May 1975
Nov. 1976
Aug. 1974
Apr. 1976
Dec. 1974
Nov. 1973
July 1975
R F
5 3 4 5 A
Frequency reference, cesium beam 5062C
Frequency shift measurements 4940A
Frequency standard, high-performance
c e s i u m
b e a m
5 0 6 1 A ,
option 004
Function generator, dual source 331 2A
Function generator, low distortion 3551A/3552A
GaAs FET amplifier, chips
Gain hits measurements
Gas chromatograph,
digitally-controlled
Gas chromatograph reporting
integrator
Generator, digital, 150 MHz
Generator, signal, phase modulated
July 1975 Generator, signal, synthesized 2.6 GHz
HFET 1000
4940A
5840A
3380A
3760A
86634A,
86635A
86603A
Generators, pulse; see pulse generators
Generators, word; see word generators
Oct. 1975 Gradient programming, liquid
chromatography
July 1976 Group delay detector
Aug. 1974 Group delay measurements
Nov. 1974 Group delay measurements
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
1010B
8505A
4940A
3770A
PART 2: Subject Index (continued)
May 1975 Group delay measurements 5453A
H
Jan. 1977 Heart-rate monitoring, fetal 8030A
Feb. 1975 High capacitance meter 4282A
Sept. 1973 High-performance cesium beam tube 5061A,
option 004
Nov. 1973 High-resolution counter module for
5 3 0 0
s y s t e m
5 3 0 7 A
Feb. 1975 High-sensitivity X-Y recorder 7047A
June 1976 HPL, desktop computer language 9825A
J a n . 1 9 7 5 H P - I B a n a l y z e r 5 9 4 0 1 A
Jan. 1975 HP-IB, current status
June 1974 HP-IB, counter systems 5345A
Jan. 1975 HP-IB systems
Dec. 1976
Dec. 1975
Aug. 1975
May 1977
Aug.
May
Nov.
May
July
Feb.
1974
1975
1974
1975
1974
1977
Nov. 1973
Sept. 1973
HP interface bus, see HP-IB
Apr. 1976 Horizontal distance and angle
m e a s u r e m e n t s
3 8 1 0 A
I
Oct. 1976 1C tester, digital
Oct. 1976 1C testing, economic considerations
Dec. 1976 1C troubleshooting instruments and
kits
July 1974 IMAGE
June
Aug.
May
Oct.
Mar.
Sept.
July
1976
1974
1975
1976
1974
1976
1974
Mar. 1977
Dec. 1974
Jan. 1975
Jan. 1974
Apr. 1974
Impact printer
Impulse noise measurements
Impulse noise measurements
Incoming inspection, digital ICs
Inductance measurement
Inductance measurement
Information management software
Integrated-circuit technology,
viewpoint
Integrator, chromatograph, reporting
Interface, ASCII, for 5300-series
instruments
Interface bus, see HP-IB.
Interferometer, straightness
5045A
5045A
545A,546A,
547A.548A
24376B,
32215A-16A
9871A
4940A
5453A
5045A
4271A
4261A
24376B,
32215A-16A
3 3 80 A
5312A
5526A,
option 30
Inventory control system, desk-top
computer
9880A
J
K
Feb.
Sept.
Mar.
Apr.
July
Oct.
June
May
Oct.
Dec.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Aug.
Jan.
Jan.
1976
1976
1974
1977
1976
1975
1977
1976
1973
1976
1974
1976
1976
1975
1974
1977
M
5501A
Machine positioning laser transducer
5526A
Machine tool calibration
Magnetic tape cartridge, mini
9815A/
Magnetic tape minicartridge,
9825A
in desk-top computer
2 644 A
Magnetic tape storage, in CRT terminal
9880A
Mass memory for desk-top computer
3455A
Math functions in a digital voltmeter
21MX
Memory, semiconductor
4261A
Meter, LCR digital
7920A
MFM code, for magnetic recording
Microcircuit TV receiver
Micro-CPU chip (MC2), CMOS/SOS
1600A
Microprocessors, logic-state analysis of
1611A
Microprocessors, logic-state analyzer for
21MX
Microprogrammable central processor
1000
Microprogramming aids
Microprogramming, performance
improvement by
Microwave attenuators, dc-18 GHz 8495 A/B-96A/B
Microwave attenuators, dc-26.5 GHz 8495D/K
Microwave counter, 4.5 GHz 5341A
Microwave link analyzer, 140-MHz IF 3790A
Microwave sweep oscillators, 86242C,
5 . 9 - 1 2 . 4 G H z 8 6 2 5 0 C
Modulator, phase, for signal generator 86634A,
86635A
MPET/3000, multiprogramming
executive for timesharing 32010A
Multilingual computer systems 3000 Series II
Multimeter, digital, hand-held 970A
Multimeters, digital, low cost 3435A,
3465A/B,3476A/B
L
July 1977
Sept. 1975
June 1976
Jan. 1974
Logic-state analyzers, serial-to-parallel
c o n v e r s i o n
1 0 2 5 4 A
Logic test, analog oscilloscope 1740 A
L o g i c
t r i g g e r
1 2 3 0 A
Logic troubleshooting by signature
a n a l y s i s
5 0 0 4 A
L o s s m e a s u r e m e n t s 4 9 4 0 A
L o s s m e a s u r e m e n t s 5 4 5 3 A
Loss measurements 3 7 70 A
Loss measurements 3551A/3552A
5381A-82A
Low-cost counters
3435A,
Low-cost digital multimeters
3465A/B,3476A/B
Low-frequency measurements with
high-resolution counter 5 307 A
Low-frequency spectrum analyzer 3580A
Multimeters, extending the ranges of
Multiplexed communications test,
frequency division 3745A
Multiprogramming computer
s y s t e m s 3 0 0 0 S e r i e s I I
Multi-user real-time BASIC
3000 Series II
Language, computer, APL
9500D.9510D
Language, computer, ATLAS
9825A
Language, desktop computer, HPL
5526A,
Laser interferometer, straightness
option 30
5501A
Laser transducer system
N
4261A
LCR meter, automatic, digital
4271A
LCR meter, 1 MHz automatic, digital
Network analyzer, 0.5-1300 MHz 8505A
July 1976
HDSP-2000
LED displays, alphanumeric
Networks, computer 9700 Series
Nov. 1974
8505A
Line stretcher, electronic
Network measurements, 2-18 GHz
Mar. 1975
1010B
Liquid chromatography, flow control
NMOS LSI processor 9825A
June 1976
911C
Load, sliding, 2-26.5 GHz
Noise, types, in signal generators 8654A
Mar. 1974
Logarithmic counter (lab notebook)
Noise measurements, telephone 4940A
Aug. 1974
5000A
Logic analyzer
Noise measurements, telephone 5453A
May
1975
548A
Logic clip, multifamily
Nonlinear distortion measurements 4940A
Aug. 1974
5035T
Logic lab
1975 Nonlinear distortion measurements 5453A
May
545A
Logic probe, multifamily
Nonlinear distortion measurements
Nov. 1975
548A
Logic pulser, multifamily
on microwave links 3 790 A
1600S
Logic state analyzer
IfiOlL
Logic state analyzer
Logic state analyzer for
92001A,
1611A Dec. 1975 Operating systems, real-time
microprocessors
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
PART 2: Subject Index (continued)
Mar. 1977
Mar. 1977
Nov. 1976
Mar. 1975
Dec. 1975
Sept. 1974
Dec. 1974
Apr. 1977
Feb. 1974
Aug. 1975
Oct. 1973
Dec. 1975
Sept. 1976
Oct. 1976
Oct. 1976
Apr. 1975
June
Dec.
Jan.
Jan.
Nov.
Apr.
Oct.
June
Apr.
May
Nov.
Nov.
June
Oct.
July
Sept.
June
May
1976
1974
1975
1975
1976
1977
1975
1976
1977
1974
1976
1975
1976
1976
1977
1975
1976
1977
(RTE-II, RTE-III)
OPNODE
Optimization, circuit, computer aided
Oscillators, sweep, 5.9-12.4 GHz
92060A
92817A
92817A
86242C,
86250C
86290A
1740A
1720A
Oscillator, sweep, 2-18 GHz
Oscilloscope, 100 MHz
Oscilloscope, 275 MHz
Oscilloscope, dual-delayed sweep,
microprocessor-controlled,
n u m e r i c d i s p l a y 1 7 2 2 A
Oscilloscope probes, miniature 1001 7A et al.
Oscilloscopes, low-cost, dc-15 MHz 1220A/1221A
Oscilloscope triggering on 10250/
d i g i t a l e v e n t s 1 2 3 0 A / 1 6 2 0 A
Oscilloscope, used with logic analyzer 5000A
Oscilloscope, used with logic-state
a n a l y z e r
1 7 4 0
A
Oscilloscope, variable persistence/
s t o r a g e
1 7 4 1
A
O x i m e t e r
4 7 2 0 1 A
Oxygen levels in blood, measurement of 47201A
PCM systems, error detection 3760A/3761A
PCM systems, error detection 3780A
Peak-to-average ratio measurements
on voiceband data channels
Phase distortion measurements
Phase distortion measurements
Phase hits measurements
Phase jitter measurements
Phase jitter measurements
Phase-modulated signal generator
plug-in; also, applications for
Plug-in, automatic frequency converter
Plug-in, channel C
Pocket calculator, business
Pocket calculator, card programmable
Pocket calculator, card programmable
Pocket calculator, key programmable
Pocket calculator, scientific
Portable calculators
Portable strip-chart recorder
Power meter
Power meter, digital
Power sensor, high-sensitivity
Power splitter, 3-way
Power supplies, 200W, wide range
Power supply /amplifier, bipolar
Power supply programmer (HP-IB)
Power supplies, switching regulator,
modular, 4-28V, 300 W
Power supply, switching regulated,
5 V ,
5 0 0
W
6 2 6 0 5 M
P r i n t e r ,
i m p a c t
9 8 7 1 A
Printer-plotter for chromatographs 3380A
Printer, thermal, for instruments 5150A
Printer with clock option 5150A
Printing calculators HP-91.HP-97
Probes, oscilloscope, miniature 1001 7A et al.
P r o b e s , t i m e i n t e r v a l 5 3 6 3 A
P r o c e s s o r , N M O S L S I 9 8 2 5 A
Processor, CPU, CMOS/SOS
Programmable calculator, pocket-sized HP-65
Programmable calculator, pocket-sized HP-67
Programmable calculator, pocket-sized HP-25
Programmable computer, desk-top 9815A/9825A
Programmable 1C tester 5045A
Programming language, APL 3000
Programming language ATLAS 9500D.9510D
Programming language HPL 9825A
Pseudorandom binary sequences
(PRBS) for signature analysis 5004A
Mar. 1976
Nov. 1973
June 1974
Mar. 1974
Oct. 1973
Aug. 1977
Aug. 1977
Sept. 1974
Pseudorandom binary sequences
(50 MHz) for testing digital
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 3 7 8 0 A
Pseudorandom binary sequences •
(150 MHz) for testing digital
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 3 7 9 0 A
Pulsed RF frequency measurements 5345A
Pulse generator, 20 MHz,
c o u n t e d
b u r s t
8 0 1 1
A
Pulse generator, 50 MHz, 16V,
c o u n t e d b u r s t 8 0 1 5 A
Pulse generator, 1 GHz 8080-Series
Pulse generator, dual-output with
V i f r e q u e n c y 8 0 9 2 A / 8 0 8 0 A
Pulse generator, variable risetime to 1 ns 8082A
July 1974 QUERY
Jan. 1974
Jan. 1976
Mar. 1977
Nov. 1974
July
Oct.
May
Apr.
Aug.
1975
1976
1977
1977
1974
May 1975
June
Apr.
July
Mar.
Oct.
1977
1976
1976
1977
1976
Sept. 1973
May. 1975
Dec.
May
June
1975
1977
1974
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
24376B,
82215A-6A
Ray-trace program
R e a l - t i m e B A S I C 9 2 1 0 1 A
Real-time executive operating system 1000
Real-time executive systems,
in distributed networks 9700 Series
Real-time executive systems,
RTE-II, RTE-III 92001A,92060A
Recorder, strip-chart, portable 7155A
Recorder, X-Y, high-sensitivity 7047A
Relay actuator for HP interface bus 59306A
Resistance measurements 4271A
RF plug-in, 2-18 GHz 86290A
RTE-II real-time executive system 92001A
RTE-III real-time executive system
f o r l a r g e m e m o r i e s 9 2 0 6 0 A
Satellite computer systems 9601,9610
Satellite-relayed TV
Scanner for calculator-based systems 3495A
Scanner option for printer 5150A
Selective level measuring set 3 745 A*
Serial-to-parallel conversion for
l o g i c - s t a t e d i s p l a y 1 0 2 5 4 A
Servicing digital equipment by
signature-analysis circuits 5004A
Signal generator, 10-520 MHz 8654A
Signal generator, calibrated FM 8654B
Signal generator noise specifications 8654A
Signal generator, phase modulated 86635A
Signal generator synchronizer/counter 8655A/
8654B
Signal generator, synthesized 2.6 GHz 86603A
Signal-level reference (lab notebook)
S i g n a t u r e a n a l y s i s 5 0 0 4 A
Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), CPU chip
Single-frequency interference
measurements
4940A
Single-frequency interference
measurements
5453A
Sliding load, 2-26.5 GHz
911C
Slope distance measurements
3810A
Source, RF, tracking
8505A
Sparse Y matrix, in circuit analysis
9281 7A
Spectrophotometry applied to blood
oxygen measurement
47201A
Spectrum analyzer, 5 Hz to 50 kHz
3580A
Spectrum analyzer, 10 Hz to 13 MHz
3571A/
3044A/3045A
Spooling, in RTE systems
Square root algorithm, calculator
State-machine design
5345A
PART 2: Subject Index (continued)
Sept. 1976 Storage variable persistence
o s c i l l o s c o p e
1 7 4 1 A
Jan. 1974 Straightness interferometer 5526A,
option 30
Dec. 1973 Strip chart recorder, portable,
b a t t e r y - p o w e r e d 7 1 5 5 A
July 1977 Structured programming, APL/3000 3000
Apr. 1976 Surveying, distance and angle
m e a s u r e m e n t s 3 8 1 0 A
Nov. 1976 Sweep oscillators, 5.9-12.4 GHz 86242C,
86250C
Mar. 1975 Sweep oscillator, 2-18 GHz 86290A
Jan. 1975 Switch, VHP, for HP interface bus 59307A
Apr. 1975 Switching regulated power supply,
5 V ,
5 0 0 W
6 2 6 0 5 M
Dec. 1973 Switching regulated power supplies,
modular, 4-28V, 300W 62600J
June 1977 Switches, microwave, dc-26. 5 GHz 33311C
Mar. 1976 Synchronizer/counter for signal
g e n e r a t o r
8 6 5 5 A
July 1975 Synthesized signal generator, 2.6 GHz 86603A
Nov. 1974 Systems, distributed computer 9700 Series
Feb. 1977 Systems voltmeter, fast reading 3437A
May 1976
Nov. 1974
Aug. 1974
May 1975
Tape cartridge, mini
Telephone data channel
measurements, analog 3 7 70 A
Telephone data channel
measurements, analog 4940A
Telephone data channel
measurements,
analog
5453A
Dec. 1974
Telephone data channel
measurements, error analysis 1645 A
Telephone measurements,
Jan.
1976
Telephone measurements,
May
1975
Feb. 1974
l o o p - h o l d i n g
Aug. 1974
Feb. 1976
June
July
May
Dec.
July
1975
1977
1976
1973
1976
Oct.
Feb.
1976
1977
Nov.
Sept.
Apr.
Dec.
1976
1974
1974
1975
d e v i c e
3 7 7 0 A
multichannel systems 3 745 A*
Telephone measurements,
transmission test 3551A/3552A
Television by satellite, receiver for
Terminal (calculator),
9830A
data communications
2640A
Terminal, computer, CRT
2641A
Terminal, CRT, APL
2644A
Terminal, CRT, with dual tape drives
4913A
Test desk cable fault locator
8502A/
Test sets, network analysis
8503A
5045A
Tester, digital 1C
3435A,
Testing a multimeter abusively
3465A/B.3476A/B
HP-91.HP-97
Thermal printer, calculator
435A
Thermocouple power meter
2802A
Thermometer, platinum, digital
Thick-film hybrid oscilloscope
a m p l i f i e r
1 7 4 0 A
Oct. 1975
Time-interval averaging
Time interval probes
Dec. 1974
Time interval measurements,
Feb. 1977
July 1975
v e r y
s h o r t
1 7 2 2
A
Time-related voltage measurements 3437A
Timer/counter/DVM, universal 5328A
June 1974
5
363
A*
Apr.
Dec.
Jan.
Apr.
Feb.
Aug.
1975
1974
1975
1976
1976
1974
Nov. 1976
Apr. 1975
May 1977
Aug. 1974
May 1975
Aug. 1975
Tuner/counter, 75-MHz universal 5308A
Timeshared system, BASIC/3000 MPET/3000
Timing generator for HP interface bus 59308A
T o t a l
s t a t i o n
3 8 1 0 A
T r a n s d u c e r , l a s e r 5 5 0 1 A
Transient measurements on
voiceband data channels 4940A
Transistor, FET GaAs microwave HFET 1000
Transistor process, 5-GHz
Transition counting algorithms 5004A
Transmission impairment
m e a s u r i n g s e t 4 9 4 0 A
Transmission parameter analyzer 5453A
Trigger probes/recognizers 10250/
1230A/1620A
June 1977
May 1977
Trigonometric algorithms, calculator
Troubleshooting logic circuits by
s i g n a t u r e
a n a l y s i s
5 0 0 4 A
U
,,
A * ig75
Universal counter/timer/DVM 5328A
Universal counter/timer, 75-MHz 5308A
Apr. 1974 Ventricular function, analysis of
c i n e a n g i o g r a m s 5 6 9 3 A
Feb. 1977 Voltmeters, digital 3455A*,3437A*,
3435A,3465A/B,3476A/B
Sept. 1976 Variable-persistence/storage
o s c i l l o s c o p e 1 7 4 1 A
Apr. 1976 Vertical distance measurements 3810A
Jan. 1975 VHF switch for HP interface bus 59307A
Aug. 1977 Vibrations, mechanical analogy
f o r s e r v o s y s t e m 7 9 2 0 A
Mar. 1977 Viewpoints, integrated-circuit
technology
Aug. 1976 Virtual-memory computer systems 3000 Series II
July 1977 Virtual workspace, APL/3000 3000
May 1975 Voiceband data channel analyzer 5453A
Aug. 1974 Voiceband data channel
measurements, analog 4940A
Nov. 1974 Voiceband data channel
measurements, analog 3770A
July 1975 Voltmeter options for
u n i v e r s a l c o u n t e r 5 3 2 8 A
W
Feb. 1977 Waveform measurements with digital
v o l t m e t e r
3 4 3 7 A
Aug. 1977 Word generator, 300 MHz 8084A
Aug. 1975 Word generator, multichannel 8016A
July 1974 X-ray system for bench use 43805
Feb. 1975 X-Y recorder, high-sensitivity 7047A
Mar. 1975 YIG-tuned oscillator
Z
Apr. 1976 Zenith angle measurements 3810A
PART 3: Model Number Index
Model
Instrument
HP-21 Calculator
*21MX Computers
*21MXE-Series Computers
Month/Year
Nov. 1975
Oct. 1974
Mar. 1977
H P - 2 2
C a l c u l a t o r
N o v .
1 9 7 5
H P - 2 5
C a l c u l a t o r
N o v .
1 9 7 5
HP-65
HP-67
HP-91
HP-97
'Asterisk indicates instruments compatible with the HP interface bus (HP-IB).
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Programmable Pocket Calculator May 1974
Programmable Pocket Calculator Nov. 1976
Printing Portable Calculator Nov. 1976
Programmable Printing
Portable Calculator Nov. 1976
Part 3: Model Number Index (continued)
*5150A Thermal Printer
5300B 8-Digit Mainframe
435A Power Meter
*436A Power Meter
545A Logic Probe
546A Logic Pulser
547A Current Tracer
548A Logic Clip
91 1C Sliding Load
970A Probe Multimeter
HFET-1000 GaAs FET
*1000-Series Small Computer Systems
1010B Liquid Chromatograph
1220A/1221A Oscilloscopes, 15 MHz
1230A Logic Trigger
1600A/S Logic State Analyzer
1601L Logic State Analyzer
1607A Logic State Analyzer
1611A Logic State Analyzer
1620 A Pattern Analyzer
645A Data Error Analyzer
1720A Oscilloscope, 275 MHz
1722A Oscilloscope, dual-delayed sweep
1740A Oscilloscope, 100 MHz
1741 A Variable Persistence/Storage
Oscilloscope
HDSP-2000 Solid-State Alphanumeric Display
IMAGE/2000 Data Base Management System
2640A Interactive Display Terminal
2641A APL Display Station
2644A CRT Terminal with Magnetic
Tape Storage
2802A Platinum-Resistance Thermometer
3000 Series II Computer System
APL/3000 A Programming Language
IMAGE/3000 Data Base Management System
MPET/3000 Multiprogramming Executive
* 3044 A Spectrum Analyzer,
lOHz to 13MHz
* 3045 A Automatic Spectrum Analyzer
*3050B Automatic Data
Acquisition System
* 3051 A Data Logging System
*3052A Programmable Data
Acquisition System
3312A Function Generator
3380A Chromatograph Integrator
3435A Digital Multimeter
*3437A System Voltmeter
*3455A Digital Voltmeter
3465A/B Digital Multimeter
3476A/B Digital Multimeter
* 3495 A Scanner
3551A Transmission Test Set
3552A Transmission Test Set
* 3571 A Tracking Spectrum Analyzer
3580A Spectrum Analyzer, 5Hz-50kHz
*3745A/B Selective Level Measuring Set
3760A/3761A Data Generator/Error Detector
3 7 70 A Amplitude/Delay
Distortion Analyzer
3780A Pattern Generator/Error Detector
3 790 A Microwave Link Analyzer
381 OA Total Station
*4261A LCR Meter
* 42 71 A LCR Meter
4282A High-Capacitance Meter
4913A Test Desk Fault Locator
4940A Transmission Impairment
Measuring Set
5000A Logic Analyzer
5004A Signature Analyzer
5035T Logic Lab
5045A 1C Tester
5061A opt. 004 High-Performance Cesium Beam
Standard
5062C Cesium Beam Frequency Reference
5305A 1100-MHz Frequency Counter
5307A High-Resolution Counter
5308A 75-MHz Universal Timer/Counter
*5312A ASCII Interface
*5328A Universal Counter
*5341A Frequency Counter
*5345A Electronic Counter
5353A Channel C Plug-In
5354A Automatic Frequency Converter
0.015-4.0 GHz
* 5363 A Time Interval Probes
5381A/5382A Frequency Counters
5451B Fourier Analyzer
5451B Fourier Analyzer with BSFA
Capability
5453A Transmission Parameter Analyzer
5468A Transponder
* 5501 A Laser Transducer System
5526A opt. 30 Straightness Interferometers
5693A Angio Analyzer
5840A Gas Chromatograph
* 6002 A DC Power Supply, 200W
6825A/6A/7A Bipolar Power Supply/ Amplifiers
7047A
X-Y Recorder
Portable Strip-Chart Recorder
7155A
Disc Drive
7920A
8011A
Pulse Generator, 20 MHz
Pulse Generator, 50 MHz
8015A
*8016A
Word Generator
Cardiotocograph
8030A
High-Speed Pulse/Word Generator
8080-Series
Pulse Generator, 250 MHz
8082A
Coaxial Detector, 0.01-26.5 GHz
8473C
8481 A et al.
Power Sensors
Power Sensor, High Sensitivity
8484A
8495A/B,
8496A/B
Step Attenuators, dc-18 GHz
Step Attenuators, dc-26.5 GHz
8495D/K
Transmission and Reflection
8502A
Test Set
8503A S-Parameter Test Set
* 8505 A Network Analyzer, 0.5-1300 MHz
8620A Sweep Oscillator
8654A Signal Generator, 10-520 MHz
8654B Signal Generator with FM
8655A Synchronizer/Counter
8660C Synthesized Signal Generator
Mainframe
9500D opt. 180 ATLAS Compiler and Processors
9510D opt. 100ATLAS Compiler and Processors
9601/9610 Satellite Computer Systems
9700-Series Distributed Computer Systems
*9815A Desktop Computer
*9825A Desktop Computer
*9830A Desktop Computer (application of)
9871A Impact Printer
9880A/B Desktop Computer Mass
Memory System
10017A et al. Miniature Oscilloscope Probes
10250-Series Trigger Probes
10254A Serial-to-Parallel Converter
11850A Three-Way Power Splitter,
0.5-1300 MHz
24376B IMAGE/2000 Data Base
Management System
32010A MPET/3000 Operating System
32105A APL/3000 Subsystem
32215A IMAGE/3000 Data Base
Management System
32216A QUERY/3000 Data Base
Inquiry Facility
33311C Microwave Switch, dc-26.5 GHz
33321A/B Step Attenuators, dc-18 GHz
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
July 1976
July
Dec.
July
1974
1974
1977
July 1974
July
June
May
1974
1977
1974
Part 3: Model Number Index (continued)
33321D/K Step Attenuators, dc-26.5 GHz
33330C Coaxial Detector, 0.01-26.5 GHz
43805 X-Ray System
47201A Oximeter
* 59301 A ASCII-Parallel Converter
* 59303 A Digital-to-Analog Converter
'59304A Numeric Display
*59306A Relay Actuator
'59307A VHF Switch
*59308A Timing Generator
*59309A ASCII Digital Clock
'59401 A Bus System Analyzer
'59501A Isolated D-A/Power
P o w e r S u p p l y A p r . 1 9 7 5
RF Plug-Ins for 8620C Sweep
O s c i l l a t o r
N o v .
1 9 7 6
2-18 GHz RF Plug-In Mar. 1975
1-2600 MHz RF Section July 1975
PM Modulation Section July 1975
FM/PM Modulation Section July 1975
Distributed Computer Systems Nov. 1974
RTE-H Real-Time Executive System Dec. 1975
RTE-H Real-Time Executive System Mar. 1977
RTE-m Real-Time Executive System Dec. 1975
RTE-III Real-Time Executive System Mar. 1977
RTE Microprogramming Package Mar. 1977
Supply Programmer
62604J et al. Switching Regulated Modular
Real-Time BASIC Subsystem Jan. 1976
O P N O D E
Power Supplies
PART 4: Author Index
A u t h o r
500W Switching Regulated
/
Adler, Robin
Ainsworth, Gerald
Aken, Michael B.
Anzinger, George A.
Arnold, David
Ashkin, Peter B.
Atchley, Robert L.
Averett, Linda W.
B
Bailey, Paul W.
Baker, Mark
Baldwin, Richard R.
Barney, Dick B.
Barker, Roy D.
Barraclough, Hal
Basawapatna, Ganesh
Beckwith, John F.
Best, Allan I.
Bilen, Len
Blazek, Otakar
Bologlu, Ali
Botka, Julius
Bradley, Havyn E.
Brewster, John L.
Bronson, Barry
Buesen, Jiirgen
Bullock, Michael L.
Bump, Robert B.
Campbell, John W.
Carlson, James E.
Chambers, Donald R.
Chan, Anthony Y.
Chance, Geoffrey W.
Chen, Philip
Christensen, Svend
Christopher, Chris J.
Chu, Alejandro
Chu, David C.
Clifford, Douglas M.
Cline, Stephan G.
Collison, Robert R.
Cornish, Eldon
Cook, Michael J.
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
M a r .
1 9 7 7
Part 4: Author Index (continued)
Feb.
Mar.
Mortensen, A. Craig
Mueller, Louis F.
Munsey, Grant J.
Musch, Bernard E.
Muto, Arthur S.
Ingman, Eric M.
Inhelder, Allen F.
Jackson, William D.
Jackson, Weldon H.
Jacobs, Jacob R.
Jager, Clifford A.
Jekat, Hans J.
Jensen, Ronald C.
Jeppsen, Bryce E.
Jeremiasen, Robert
Johnson, Daniel E.
Johnson, Lawrence P.
Johnson, Lee
Johnston, Ronald L.
Joly, Robert
Juneau, H. Mac
K
Kappler, Wolfgang
Keever, Jerome
Ketelsen, Erhard
Kim, Young Dae
Kirkpatrick, George R.
Kmetovicz, Ronald E.
Knorpp, Billy
Krauss, Giinter
Kuhlman, Louis J. Jr.
Kushnir, S. Raymond
Feb.
N
Jan.
June
Mar.
Mar.
Nadig, Hans-Jurg
Oct.
Neff, Randall B.
Nordman, Robert G.
Dec.
Aug.
Feb.
Nov.
O'Buch, Warren J.
Offermann, Robert W.
Olson, William E.
Osada, Kunihisa
Osterdock, Terry N.
P
Pannach, Arndt
Paulson, Gary R.
Pearson, Robert
Pecchio, Santo
Peck, Robert D.
Perdriau, Robert H.
Pering, Richard D.
Peterson, Kenneth W.
Pierce, Robert B.
Poole, John S.
Pope, Richard
Pratt, Ronald E.
May
Jan.
Feb.
1976
1977
1975
1977
1974
1977
1975
1974
1974
1977
1976
1973
1974
1975
1975
Dec.
May
Nov.
Sept.
June
Nov.
Jan.
Oct.
Aug.
1975
1974/
1976
1976
1975
1975
1975/
1975
1976
May 1974
Feb. 1974
Apr. 1977
Jan. 1976/
Oct. 1976
Priebe, Durward
Q
Laing, Virgil L.
Quenelle, Robert C.
Lamy, John
Lane, Arthur B.
Lane, Thomas A.
Langguth, Alfred
Larsen, James
Lawson, William S.
Lee, Richard T.
Leong, Warren W.
Link, Horst
Liu, Chi-ning
Loughry, Donald C.
Luehman, Kent
Oct. 1974
July 1977
May 1974
Rauskolb, Roger F.
Ricci, David W.
Richards, Alan J.
Riebesell, Giinter
Riedel, Ronald J.
Riggins, Cleaborn C.
M
Mack, Nealon
MacLeod, Kenneth J.
Maeda, Kohichi
Maitland, David S.
Marriott, Joe E.
Marrocco, James A.
Marshall, Howard D.
Masters, Lewis W.
Matthews, Ian
McDermid, John E.
Mclntire, Richard E.
McKinney, H. Webber
Mellor, Douglas J.
Merrick, Edwin B.
Merrill, Howard L.
Millard, Joe K.
Mingle, P. Thomas
Misson, William
Moll, John
Morrill, Justin S., Jr.
Morris, Donald E.
July 1977
Risley, William B.
Robertson, James
Roos, Mark
Roy, Jean-Claude
Rude, Andre F.
Ruchsay, Walter
Rytand, William A.
Salfeld, Peter
Salesky, Emery
Saponas, Thomas A.
Sasaki, Gary D.
Schrenker, Helge
Schultz, James T.
Schultz, Steven E.
Scott, Peter M.
Seavey, Gary A.
Shar, Leonard E.
Sharritt, David D.
Small, Charles T.
Smith, Jeffrey H.
Smith, Richard L.
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
July 1976
Feb. 1977
Feb.
Aug.
June
Jan.
June
Nov.
Feb.
Dec.
Apr.
Aug.
Aug.
Sept.
Nov.
Sept.
Aug.
May
Jan.
July
1975
1975
1975
1976
1977
1976
1976
1973
1976
1976
1977
1973
1975
1976
1974
1976
1975
1976
Mar. 1975
Nov. 1973/
Mar. 1976
Sept. 1974
Aug. 1977/
Sept. 1974
I
I
Beam Beam Beam Beam
O f f O n O H O n
Fig. 3. Lines are drawn by moving the beam with a smooth
ramp to maintain constant intensity.
shown in Fig. 4. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC)
generates the desired output level. The present out
put value is subtracted from the DAC value to gen
erate a difference AX, which is sampled and held.
Then the integrator switch closes and the sampleand-hold switch opens, and the output ramps to the
desired output value.
For a given CRT drive, a certain number of elec
trons per second are generated by the electron gun. If
the beam is moved twice as far in the same amount of
time, the electron density is halved, so the line is dim
mer. It is a simple matter to generate an intensity level
that will compensate for this, knowing the horizontal
and vertical line lengths AX and AY:
Fig. 2. Character generator produces horizontal and vertical
bit patterns for alphanumeric characters and sends them to
the stroke generator.
m Load new ROM address into RAR from ROM
output
• Increment RAR to next ROM address
• Load new ASCII code into RAR and increment
character counter.
These control situations allow the ASM to step con
secutively from one bit pattern to the next for por
tions of a character that are unique, or to jump any
where within the ROM to access portions of another
character that are common to the one being con
structed. For example, an eight may be made from a
three and a pattern unique to an eight:
Intensity = AV (AX)2 + (AY)2,
where A is a proportionality constant related to the
integration time.
In the 5420A, this is approximated using one-half
the sum of the magnitudes of AX and AY. This re
sults in a slightly greater intensity for horizontal and
vertical lines than for diagonal lines of the same
length. However, this is of little consequence, because
the compensation is applied only for lines longer than
a certain threshold value. In other words, some
variation in intensity is permitted, although much
less than there would be without compensation. This
is because a slightly greater intensity for short lines
than for long lines not only livens the display, but
This yields maximum efficiency in the use of ROM
and makes it possible to store a complete ASCII
character set plus a few Greek and lower-case letters
for engineering notation in 512 16-bit words of ROM.
Stroke Generator
To display high-quality lines with uniform inten
sity, three signals have to be generated: the horizontal
component, the vertical component, and the blanking
signal. This is the job of the stroke generator.
The stroke generator converts digital bit patterns
into uniform line segments. The horizontal and ver
tical lines are voltage ramps. The blanking signal is
generated from the horizontal and vertical com
ponents and determines the line's intensity and turns
the beam on or off.
To generate a uniform straight line with constant
intensity, the signal moving the beam should be a
linear ramp, as shown in Fig. 3. A simplified dia
gram of the circuit used to generate this signal is
r*O~
S/H
Int.
Fig. 4. Simplified ramp generator circuit. A digital-to-analog
converter generates the desired value of the output. This is
subtracted from the present value and the difference is sam
pled and held. Then the integrator switch closes and the
sample-and-hold switch opens, and the output ramps to the
desired value.
15
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
also introduces some information on how quickly
a plot is changing.
code, the module I/O bus (MIOB), and the hidden
cartridge.
When the power is switched on, the computer per
forms an initial bootload opcode (IBL), which loads a
small bootstrap program from ROM into the com
puter's main 48K memory. This program checks the
memory and tests the integrity of the MIOB, and then
proceeds to load data stored on the hidden cartridge,
filling the computer's memory. To enhance reliabil
ity, the 48K memory contents are stored in IK rec
ords, and there are multiple copies of each record on
the cartridge. If an error is encountered during the
loading of a record, alternate copies of the record are
used. If the alternate copies also have errors, the noise
reject threshold used in decoding the tape head signal
is changed. Thus the loading process is desensitized
Mini-Cartridge Data Storage
The mini-cartridge has proved its utility as a data
storage medium in HP terminals and desktop com
puters.1'2 In the 5420A Digital Signal Analyzer, the
minicartridge is used for data storage and as a backup
store for a large semiconductor RAM memory.
The minicartridge holds about 250,000 16-bit
words of information, accessible at a 1-kHz word rate.
It was designed jointly by HP and 3M corporation as a
small, reliable storage device that could stand up to
the vigorous demands of a computer controlled sys
tem.3 A feature of the minicartridge is its belt drive,
which eliminates tape-to-capstan contact and en
hances reliability.
There are two cartridge drives in the 5420A Digital
Signal Analyzer. The front-panel cartridge pro
vides the ability to store and restore instrument set
ups and data waveforms for later use. The second
cartridge drive is hidden under the instrument's top
cover. Its function is to back up 48K words of high
speed volatile memory.
Walter M. Edgerley, Jr.
With HP since 1971 , Walt Edgerley
has designed power and hybrid
microwave amplifiers and, more
recently, the 5441 A Display Mod
ule for the 5420A. He received his
BSEE degree from the University
of California at Berkeley in 1972. A
former professional bowler, Walt
participates in a variety of sports
and coaches young peoples'
baseball and basketball teams. He
was born in Albany, California, has
two sons, and now lives in Fre
mont, California.
Memory Back-Up
The "personality" of the 5420A is stored in 48K
words of high-speed semiconductor RAM memory.
This memory is volatile, so it must be loaded during
the power-up sequence. The memory loading process
is accomplished in several steps and involves the
21MX K-Series Computer, a small bootstrap program
residing in ROM (non-volatile), ROM-stored microMIOB
Tape Cartridge
David C. Snyder
Dave Snyder designed the tape
cartridge hardware and the mod
ule I/O bus for the 5420A. With HP
since 1971, he's been project
leader for the 5451 B Fourier
Analyzer and has done software
design for nuclear analyzers and
automatic test systems. Dave
Graduated from the University of
California at Berkeley with a BS
degree in engineering physics in
1965. Before joining HP he worked
as an astrodynamicist, a software
analyst, and a software designer.
He's done graduate work at three
universities in a variety of fields including computer science,
systems, and digital design. A native of Mankato, Minnesota,
Dave is married to a nurse, has three children, and lives in the
Santa mi mountains of California. His interests include mi
croprocessing, games, cryptography, hiking, woodworking,
photography, and guitar.
Multiplex
Fig. 5. Two tape drives in the 5420A share read/write elec
tronics and communicate with the central processor over the
MIOB. One drive is used for storing data and instrument
setups. The second drive is internal, and is used to back up the
5420 A's semiconductor memory.
16
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
dles all MIOB transactions, performs serial-to-parallel
conversions, and handles exceptions (for example,
sending status code words to the computer whenever
an error is detected). The control section is implement
ed as a PROM-driven 32-state algorithmic state ma
chine (ASM).
A diagnostic mode is provided that allows software
read and write arbitrary patterns on the tape, instead
of being limited to reading and writing one and zeros.
Using the standard XIO pseudo-DMA opcode, the
signal at the tape head may be set or sensed with a
resolution of about one microsecond, equivalent to a
tape motion of about 20 /¿in. This capability can be
used to read and record worst-case test patterns such
as frequency response patterns, dropout patterns, and
so on, for diagnostic purposes. E
to tape errors, and in fact, will load perfectly even in
the presence of multiple hard errors.
Cartridge Hardware
The cartridge hardware interfaces two tape trans
port assemblies, each consisting of motor, head, and
preamplifier, to the 5420A module I/O bus (MIOB), as
shown in Fig. 5. The MIOB transactions involve send
ing and receiving data, receiving commands (e.g.,
$RUN, $STOP, $READ,...), and sending status infor
mation (e.g., %MOVING, %EOF,...) called "code words".
The motor servo's job is to maintain the tape speed
at 22 or 88 inches per second (ips), both forward and
reverse. The tape velocity increases linearly from a
stop to 22 ips in approximately 20 milliseconds; this
corresponds to accelerating the motor uniformly from
0 to 1300 r/min within one-half of one motor revolu
tion or about 0.5 inch of tape travel. An optical tach
ometer providing 2000 pulses per revolution is the
control feedback element.
Data is written on the tape bit-serially, encoded in
HP's delta distance format.2 This is an efficient tech
nique in which the recording density varies between
900 and 1600 bits per inch depending on the bit com
position of the data. In this format, zeros are repre
sented by short magnets (about 600 /¿in) and ones
are represented by long magnets (about 1000 /¿in).
The control portion of the cartridge hardware han
References
1. R.G. Nordman, R.L. Smith, and L.A. Witkin, "New CRT
Terminal Has Magnetic Tape Storage for Expanded Ca
pability," Hewlett-Packard Journal, May 1976.
2. D.E. Morris, C.J. Christopher, G.W. Chance, and D.B.
Barney, "Third-Generation Programmable Calculator Has
Computer-Like Capabilities," Hewlett-Packard Journal,
June 1976.
3. A.J. Richards, "Mini Data Cartridge: A Convincing Al
ternative for Low-Cost, Removable Storage," HewlettPackard Journal, May 1976.
Digital Signal Analyzer Applications
Analyses of two actual systems, one electrical and one
mechanical, show what the analyzer can do.
by Terry L. Donahue and Joseph P. Oliverio
the 5420A's own cartridge tape drive, which is driven
by an armature-controlled permanent-magnet dc
motor. An analog tachometer voltage is obtained by
filtering the output of an optical pulse tachometer.
The set point input R(jw) represents a command for
the motor to run at a constant speed. The feedback is
the analog tachometer voltage, which is proportional
to motor speed and therefore tape speed. System
noise, represented by S(jo>), is contributed by several
elements including the unregulated dc motor voltage,
mechanical imbalances in the system, and varying
frictional forces.
The solid black summing node in Fig. 1 is added
to the system to introduce noise N(jw) from the
5420A's random noise source. The measurement
technique is to measure the transfer function
T(jcu) = X(jco)/N(jw) and compute the open-loop trans
fer function G(jw)H(jw). This is possible because
THE 5420A DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALYZER is
basically a two-channel digital low-frequency
spectrum and transfer function analyzer. A major
application area is the analysis of mechanical struc
tures, since these typically exhibit low-frequency
(below 25 kHz) oscillations. However, its versatility,
wide choice of measurements, and post-measure
ment processing capability make it a useful tool in
other areas, such as acoustics, underwater sound,
control system analysis, phase noise analysis, and
filter design. This article describes two applications,
one electrical, the other mechanical. The examples
include the results of actual measurements made on
an electronic speed controller and a mechanical
structure.
Electronic Speed Controller
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of the speed controller for
17
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Low-Pass
Filter
Tachometer
2000 Pulses/Rev
Fig. 1. fl/oc/< diagram of a car
tridge tape drive system to be
analyzed by the 5420A Digital
Signal Analyzer. The black sum
ming node has been added to the
system to introduce noise N(j<a)
from the 5420A's random noise
source. The technique is to mea
sure T(j<a) = X(jai)/N(j<i>) and com
pute the open-loop transfer func
tion G(j(a)H(ju,).
and another at about 200 Hz. An analysis of the sys
tem predicted a response dominated by the loop filter
and the motor. The loop filter was expected to contri
bute a pole at 0 Hz and a low-frequency zero, and the
motor a low and a high-frequency pole. The measured
result shows the pole at 0 Hz, the high-frequency
motor pole near 200 Hz, and the low-frequency filter
zero nearly perfectly cancelling the low-frequency
motor pole.
The black summing node in Fig. 1 must be added to
the system with some care. To provide isolation from
the noise source and to prevent disturbing the normal
operation of the system, an operational amplifier cir
cuit, as shown in Fig. 2, can be used. The Rs should be
matched to provide a gain | Y(jco)/X(jco) = 1 to an accu
racy consistent with normal parameter variations in
the system. The circuit should have unity gain and no
phase shift over the control system bandwidth.
Stability Analysis
Once G(ja>)H(ja>) has been obtained, it is possible to
determine the absolute and relative stability of the
system. A simplified version of the Nyquist stability
criterion that can usually be applied to real systems
states that a system with an open-loop transfer func
tion G(jco)H(j w) that has no poles in the right half of the
complex plane is closed-loop stable if the Nyquist
plot (imaginary part versus real part) of G(jw)H(jw) for
0< co < oo does not enclose the critical point -1+jO.
Fig. 5a shows the results of using the coordinate
keys to display the measured G(j&>)H(jaj) in the
Nyquist format. The system is seen to be absolutely
stable since the critical point is not enclosed. Relative
stability is measured by how close G(jw)H(jco) comes
to enclosing the critical point. This is traditionally
measured by the gain and phase margins, which are
easily determined by again changing coordinates. In
Fig. 5b G(jco)H(joj) is displayed using coordinates of
log magnitude versus phase. The gain margin is 23 dB
and the phase margin is 75 degrees.
Y(JCU)
Fig. 2. An operational amplifier circuit for introducing noise
N(jd>) into a system without disturbing the system.
Fig. 3 shows log magnitude and phase versus fre
quency of the measured transfer function T(ja>). To get
the open-loop transfer function G(jcoJH(jo>) the
5420A's arithmetic operations are used to get the re
sults illustrated in Fig. 4. From the figures, it is possi
ble to estimate that G(jw)H(jw) contains a pole at 0 Hz
Fig. 3. Closed-loop transfer func
tion T(l(a) measured by the 5420 A.
18
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Fig. 4. The result of calculating
G(]a>)H(ja>) = Tfjo,)/^ -T(ju)]
using the 5420A's arithmetic keys.
The measurements were repeated on the system
with an extra gain block inserted into the loop. The
Nyquist display is shown in Fig. 6a superimposed on
the original Nyquist display. The original system is
conditionally stable. Adding gain, while not making
it unstable, has decreased the relative stability. From
Fig. 6b, it can be seen that the gain margin has de-
function is then just T(jw), which is shown in Fig. 3.
Characterizing Structural Vibrations
One way of modeling the dynamic characteristics
of a mechanical structure is to identify its modes of
vibration. An automobile, for example, may ride
smoothly at 40 mi/hr, vibrate considerably at 50 mi/hr,
Fig. 5. (a) Nyquist display of
open-loop gain G(jta)H(jo>). (b)
Same function in different coordi
nate system permits measurement
of gain margin (gain at -180°
phase) and phase margin (phase
difference from -180° at 0 dB
gain).
and then ride smoothly again at 60 mi/hr. This hap
pens because one of the modes of vibration of the car,
perhaps in the front suspension, body, or frame, is
excited at 50 mi/hr but not at the other speeds. A mode
is defined by a natural frequency of vibration, a damp
ing value that defines how quickly the vibration will
decay to zero when external forces are removed, and a
creased to 15 dB and the phase margin to 45 degrees.
The only question remaining is the shape of the
closed-loop transfer function. In the general case, this
is given by G(jco)/[l+G(jaj)H(jw)]. If the output of the
speed controller is defined to be the tach voltage, a
known function of the tape speed, the system is
unity-feedback, with H(jw) = l. The closed-loop transfer
Fig. 6. The measurements of Fig.
5 repeated with more gain in the
system. Gain and phase margins
have decreased.
19
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
possible to add damping material to the structure,
which has the effect of damping its modes of vibration
as well as reducing its amplitude of vibration at any
frequency.
Modal parameters — frequency, damping, and
mode shape — can be identified from transfer function
measurements on a structure. The following example
illustrates how the 5420A can be used to identify the
modes of vibration of a flat plate.
Modal Survey
Accelerometer --^
The setup is shown in Fig. 7. The 5420A's noise
generator is used to excite the structure by means of
an electrodynamic shaker. A force transducer
mounted between the structure and the shaker pro
vides the input signal for channel 1 of the analyzer.
The accelerometer mounted on the surface of the steel
plate provides the response signal for channel 2 of the
analyzer. The 5420A measures the transfer function
of the structure between the stimulus and response
points. The result is shown in Fig. 8 for position #1 on
the surface. Each peak represents a mode of vibration
of the structure. The resonant frequency (FR) and per
cent critical damping (%D) of each mode can be deter
mined by placing the X cursor on the peak and pres
sing the PEAK key.
.To 5420A
Ch. 2
Jo 5420A
Ch. 1
From 5420A
Noise Generator
Fig. 7. A steel plate is to be analyzed by the 5420A. An
electrodynamic shaker supplies the stimulus. The plate's re
sponse is detected by accelerometers at various points on the
surface.
mode shape, or spatial distribution of the amplitude
and phase of the resonant condition over the struc
ture.
In mechanical design, one objective is to design a
structure whose modes of vibration occur at frequen
cies outside the frequency range of known external
driving forces. When this is not possible, it may be
1) Measure a Set of
Transfer Functions.
Store on Cartridge.
2) Use Cursor to Read
Quadrature Values
at Resonant Frequencies
3) Plot Values.
A1
Fig. 8. A result of the measurement of Fig. 7 for one point on
the plate surface. The resonance at 55 1 Hz (identified by the X
cursor) represents a mode of vibration with a damping factor
of 0.559%.
B1
C1
01
A 2
B 2
C 2
D 2
Fig. 9. How modal analysis is done with the 5420A Digital
Signal Analyzer.
20
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Fig. 10. Results of a modal analysis of the steel plate.
Each response point on the structure will exhibit a
different transfer function with respect to the input.
For lightly damped structures the amplitude of the
mode can be determined from the imaginary, or quad
rature, part of the transfer function. Thus the mode
shape can be drawn by recording the imaginary value
of the transfer function at each measurement point for
the resonance of interest and plotting these values as a
function of their position on the surface. The process
is shown pictorially in Fig. 9. The result of recording
each imaginary value and plotting it as a function of
its position on the surface is shown in Fig. 10.
Fig. 11. Measurements before and after adding mass to the
steel plate. Extra mass decreases the amplitudes and fre
quencies of the resonances.
wanted vibrations are to add mass to the structure and
to increase its stiffness. Both will affect the frequency
of a resonance. Adding mass will lower a natural
resonant frequency. Increasing the stiffness will in
crease a natural resonant frequency. An example of
the result of adding mass to the steel plate is shown in
Fig. 11. Not only are the resonances lower in fre
quency but their amplitudes have decreased because
the added mass increased the damping of the struc
ture. E
Reducing Unwanted Vibrations
The two most common methods of reducing un-
Terry L. Donahue
Terry Donahue earned his BSEE
and MSEE degrees at the Uni
versity of Southern California in
1 971 and 1 972, and joined HP in
1972 as a design engineer. For
the 5420A, he wrote the display
software and compiled an appli
cation note on control system
measurements. In 1976, he re
ceived his MBA degree from the
University of Santa Clara. He's a
member of IEEE. Terry comes
from Long Beach, California.
He's married and now lives in
Santa Clara.
Joseph P. Oliverio
Joe Oliverio received his BSEE
degree in 1968 from the University
of Santa Clara. After a year as a
design engineer, he joined HP in
1969 as a sales engineer. Now a
digital signal analyzer product
marketing engineer, he's written
two magazine articles on digital
signal analysis. Joe was born in
San Jose, California and still lives
there. He's married and has two
children. He's an amateur magi
cian and an actor in local theater
productions, and he enjoys skiing,
tennis, and golf.
21
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Printing Financial Calculator Sets New
Standards for Accuracy and Capability
This briefcase-portable calculator has several new functions
and is exceptionally easy to use. Most important, the user
need not be concerned about questions of accuracy or
operating limits.
by Roy E. Martin
HEWLETT-PACKARD INTRODUCED its first
financial calculator, the HP-80, in 1973. 1 The
HP-80 was followed, although never replaced, by the
HP-81, the HP-70, the HP-22,2 and the HP-27.
The new HP-92 Financial Calculator, Fig. 1, while
superficially similar in many respects to these units,
vastly exceeds all of them in functional capability
and accuracy. Originally conceived as a briefcaseportable printing calculator packaged like the HP-913
and the HP-974 and having the financial capabilities
of the HP-22, the HP-92 in reality goes far beyond this
modest goal. Among its features are:
• Compound interest keys redefined to enhance
capability and ease of use
• A printed amortization schedule, correctly rounded
and clearly labeled
• Internal rate of return (IRR) that allows the user to
enter up to 31 cash flows with arbitrary positive
and negative values
• The greatest accuracy ever achieved in any HP
financial calculator
• Calendar functions with a range of 900,000 days
(approximately 2464 years)
• Bond and note functions that conform to Securities
Industry Association equations5
• Three types of depreciation that can be done
after entering data only once
• Means, standard deviations, and linear regression
for two variables.
New Compound Interest Keys
The cornerstone of the HP-80 and all subsequent
HP financial calculators is the row of compound in
terest keys: n i PV PMT FV
n = number of compounding periods
i = percent interest per period
PV, PMT, FV specify the cash values in various
problems (PV = present value; PMT = payment;
FV = future or final value).
These keys allow the user to solve for an unknown
value by first placing known values in the calculator
and then pressing the key corresponding to the
unknown.
Example: Find the monthly payment due on a
36-month, 12%, $3000 loan.
Keystrokes
These keystrokes 3 6
n
place the known
1
values into the
3 0 0 0 P V
calculator
Then press:
Answer displayed:
(12% annual is 1% per month)
PMT
99.64 Monthly Payment
This sequence of keystrokes will solve this problem
on all previous HP financial calculators.
The compound interest keys solve three types of
problems, based on the following three equations. (In
these and subsequent equations, i is a decimal frac
tion, e.g., 0.05 for five percent.)
FV = PV(l+i)n
PV = PMT[l-(l+i)~n]/i
FV = PMT[(l+i)n-l]/i
Compound Amount
Loan
Sinking Fund
Each of these equations has four variables. As long
as three of the four variables are known (n or i must
be one of the three knowns) a user can solve for an
unknown.
Because there are three distinct equations and only
one set of keys, it is necessary to specify which equa
tion is involved. This is done automatically through
the use of status bits (flags). Internally, status bits are
set when values associated with n, i, PV, PMT, FV are
keyed into the calculator. As soon as three status bits
are set, the equation is specified and a value can be
computed.
On the HP-80, known values are pushed onto the
stack and then lost when a value is computed, requir
ing the reentry of data on every new computation.
The HP-70, HP-22, and HP-27 have separate registers
to hold the financial values but require special func
tions to clear the status bits.
*The same. requires the use of a shift key but is fundamentally the same.
22
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
Fig. 1. HP-92 Investor is a finan
cial printing calculator with supe
rior accuracy and capability. Key
board is designed to prompt the
user, making many problem solu
tions obvious even without a
manual.
This design, although creatively conceived and
cleanly implemented, is inconvenient for chained
calculations. Also, an important class of problems,
loans with a balance, cannot be solved without tedious
iteration by the user.
The same keys, n, i, PV, PMT, FV, were to be on the
HP-92. However, we wanted to improve and simplify
their use. The most attractive alternative came in the
form of a more general equation:
concept and apply the keys to problems formerly con
sidered too complicated to solve. Naturally, we were
pleased. The new calculator would be more capable
than earlier designs and easier to use as well. But our
satisfaction was short-lived, for it turned out that here,
PV (l+i)n + PMT [(l+i)n-l]/i + FV = 0.
The three equations in previous calculators are all
special cases of this one, up to a sign change. The
basic premise in this equation and a major difference
between the HP-92 and other financial calculators
is that money paid out is considered negative and
money received is considered positive.
Implemented in the HP-92, this equation allows
free-format problem solving, letting the user change
any variable at any time or solve for any value at any
time. It also increases the functional capability of the
calculator to include loans with a balance, fixes the
roles of PV, PMT, and FV, making them easier to ex
plain, reduces the number of equations from three to
one, and eliminates the need for status bits — the data
in the calculator determines the problem to be solved.
In the early stages of the project, the new com
pound interest equation was simulated. The increase
in capability and simplicity was substantial. Within
minutes, inexperienced people could understand the
Fig. 2. Newton's method is used by the HP-92 to solve com
pound interest problems. Starting from some point i0 on the
graph of an equation, the goal is to find the root of the equation,
or the point where the graph crosses the axis. Drawing a
tangent line to the graph at /0 and finding where this line
crosses the axis gives a second point /,. This process is
repeated to find i2, ¡3, and so on, until a point is reached that is
close enough to where f=0. i0 is called the initial guess.
23
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
of the function f(i) and its derivative, and the quality
of the initial guess. For certain graphs any reasonable
initial guess will produce convergence to the correct
answer. This was the case with the equations solved
by previous HP financial calculators (see Fig. 3).
Inaccuracy in evaluation of the function and its
derivative can cause various problems. For example,
a small error can cause the iteration to step in the
wrong direction, say to the previous point, resulting
in an infinite loop. Worse yet, it can produce a wrong
answer. The new more general equation was more
sensitive than the old to round-off errors, and intro
duced another difficulty not encountered before.
The quality of the initial guess became a critical
issue. Unless the initial guess was good enough, New
ton's method would fail (see Fig. 4). With this in
mind, we implemented several transformations to
change the shapes of the graphs in an attempt to make
Newton's iteration less sensitive to poor first guesses.
We also carried extra digits and programmed numeri
cally stable formulas to diminish the impact of round
ing errors on the accuracy of intermediate calcula
tions.
But our work was far from done. Even with the
transformations and increased accuracy, initial gues
ses in error by less than 1% proved inadequate, be
cause convergence was too slow when n was large.
After four months of careful examination and simu-
Sinking Fund
-Root
- 5
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
0
/
1
2
3
4
fG(¡>
Fig. 3. Equations used in previous HP financial calculators
have favorable graph shapes (the one shown is typical), so
that starting from any initial guess ¡0 the steps taken by
Newton's method are always toward the root.
as usual, nothing is free.
The numerical analysis used in solving the three
equations in the HP-80 had been formidable. Yet the
accuracy and reliability of the algorithms was border
line and their performance deteriorated unacceptably when they were applied to the new more gen
eral equation. The most difficult problem was solving
for i in the compound interest problems. Internally,
this involves the microprogrammed application of
Newton's method in the solution of polynomial equa
tions (see Fig. 2).
Newton's method requires an initial guess, i0,
at the root of f (i) = 0. Subsequent values are produced
u s i n g
f ( i k )
- 1 0
until ik-ik+1 < required error limit. Basically, we
slide down the graph of f(i) sawtoothing into the
solution.
Three factors that affect the use of Newton's method
are the shape of the graph, the accuracy of evaluation
- 9
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 5
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
0
Fig. 4. Modified equation used in HP-92 enhances ease of
use, but is more difficult to solve. Shape of graph is such that
some initial guesses will cause Newton's method to step away
from the root. To prevent this a strategy was developed that
produces initial guesses accurate to five decimal places.
24
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
many as three guesses, and the selection of the
final initial guess based upon the three guesses
• Enhanced accuracy in +, -, x, -r, In, ex
• Special evaluation of [(l+i)n-l]/itoavoid damage
from cancellation
• Carrying more digits internally than any previous
HP financial calculator.
In the final implementation of the n, i, PV, PMT, and
FV keys we were able to achieve reliable functional
capability over a wide range of data and problems, a
dramatic enhancement in ease of use, and definitive
accuracy (see accuracy discussion) exceeding that of
any previous HP calculator.
Fig. 5 demonstrates how easy the new compound
interest keys are to use.
Using the n. ¡. PV. PMT. FV Keys
Corresponding to each of these keys is a storage register To put a value
in the storage register, just key in the value and then press the approp
riate re Money paid out is represented as negative and money re
ceived is represented as positive.
Problem:
1 . If you deposit S10.000 in a fund that pays 7.75% annual rate, how
much could you withdraw 12 years later?
2 If. much addition, you deposit S1000 each year thereafter, how much
would you be able to withdraw after 12 years?
3. If you wanted to withdraw S45.000 at the end of the 1 2-year period,
how much would you have to deposit each year?.
4. If to could deposit S18.500 initially, how much would you have to
deposit each year to be able to withdraw S45.000 at the end of the 1 2
years?
Solution:
Press CL FIN . This clears the registers.
1 . K e y I n T h e n P r e s s C o m m e n t
12 n This is the number of years.
7.75 Ã- This is the periodic interest rate.
10.000 CHS PV You are putting the money into the bank so you
key it in as negative.
FV This tells the calculator that you wish to solve for
the cash flow at the end of the time period.
See displayed: 24,491.05. the amount you could withdraw in 12 years.
Internal Rate of Return
Given an initial investment and a series of uneven
cash flows CF0, CFa ..... CFn occurring at equally
spaced time intervals the IRR (internal rate of return)
is the interest rate that satisfies the following equa
tion:
2. After values are keyed in (or calculated), they remain in the registers.
To do the second part of the problem, all we have to do is key - 1000
into PMT (12 remains inn, 7. 75 in¡ and -10.000 inpv) and then press FV
K e y I n T h e n P r e s s C o m m e n t
1000 CHS PMT Again payment is negative because you are
giving money to the bank.
FV This tells the calculator to find the cash flow at
the end of the 12 years.
See displayed 43, 189. 17, The amount you could withdraw after 12
years.
The only other HP financial calculators to produce
IRR are the HP-27, which allows eleven cash flows,
and the HP-81, which allows ten cash flows. The
HP-92 allows up to 31 uneven cash flows.
We again applied Newton's method to solve this
equation, but in this case the shape of the graph pre
sented a different type of problem. In the compound
interest problem there is only one root (the graph
crosses the axis only once). In the IRR problem it is
possible for the equation to have many roots. Des
cartes' rule of signs allows polynomial equations with
several changes of sign in their coefficients to have
several roots. Since the cash flows in the IRR problem
represent the coefficients of a polynomial (see equa
tion), cash flows that change direction more than
once produce this possibility. However, if there is
more than one root, none of the solutions will be
financially meaningful. To avoid this complication,
the HP-27 will not allow more than one sign change.
Example: Consider the following two problems.
Negative values represent investment and positive
values represent income.
3. If your needed to withdraw $45,000 and wanted to find out what your
yearly deposit would be, put 45,000 ¡ntOFV and then tell the calculator
to solve for PMT
K e y I n T h e n P r e s s C o m m e n t
45.000 FV At the end of the 12 years you will receive
$45,000.
PMT This tells the calculator to find the annual de
posit you must make.
See displayed - io96.85.The amount you must deposit annually.
4. Now put -18.500 intopv, then press PMT
K e y I n T h e n P r e s s C o m m e n t
18.500 CHS PV You plan to deposit $18, 500 at the beginning of
the 12 years.
PMT What will your deposit be so that you can still
withdraw $45,000 at the end of 12
years?
See displayed 16.50 This tells you that you could withdraw this
amount each year and still get $45,000 at the
end of 12 years.
Fig. 5. An example illustrating how natural the HP-92's com
pound interest keys are to use. An important difference from
previous financial calculators is that money paid out is con
sidered negative and money received is considered positive.
Problem 1 Problem 2
Initial
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
lation we devised an initial guess strategy that pro
duces guesses correct to five places over all ranges of
PV, FV, PMT, and i, and with n as large as 108. Com
putation time for i was reduced to about a dozen
seconds.
Some of the techniques employed were:
• An initial guess strategy that selects an initial guess
by problem classification, the production of as
-$10,000
-$ 1,000
$ 2,000
$13,000
-$10,000
$ 2,000
-$ 1,000
$13,000
The HP-27 produces an answer of 11.83% for Prob
lem 1 but returns ERROR for Problem 2. To most users
it is not apparent why this happens.
We wanted to remove this kind of limitation. Again
'It should be noted here that the techniques used in the HP-27 were the best available at the time. Many
implementations of IRR take no precautions to protect the user from anomalous answers.
25
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
after considerable investigation we were able to im
plement an IRR function with a much broader range.
For Problem 2 above the HP-92 produces the correct
answer of 12.99%.
The IRR function on the HP-92 will produce the
correct answer for any problem with up to 31 cash
flows and any number of sign changes, provided that
there is at least one sign change and that there is only
one significant sign change. In general, this means
that there is only one real root. Multiple sign changes
are allowed provided that all but one of the cash flows
changing sign are small in comparison to the other
cash flows.
Example:
P r o b l e m
3
P r o b l e m
6 Months
6/15/77
-$100,000.00
$500.00
-$200.00
$100.00
$150,000.00
12/15/77
12/15/84
Maturity Date
I
6/15/85 12/15/85
Fig. 6. In bond calculations, coupon dates are determined
by the maturity date andaré six months apart. Settlement (purchase) date can be any business day. Built-in HP-92 cal
endar functions determine the exact number of days between
the settlement date and the coupon date.
many problems all required input parameters have
individual storage registers. To place a value in one of
these registers the user simply keys in the value and
then presses the key corresponding to that register.
Example: There are three types of depreciation:
straight line (SL), sum of the years digits (SOYD), and
declining balance (DB). The input parameters and the
corresponding keys are life (LIFE), starting period (N1),
book value (BOOK), ending period (N2), salvage value
(SAL), and declining balance factor (FACT). These val
ues are loaded into their registers using the blue and
gold shift keys where appropriate. Once this is done,
any or all of the three types of depreciation schedules
may be calculated by pressing the SL, SOYD, or DB
keys.
4
Acceptable Unacceptable
Initial
Year I
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
6 Months 6 Months
August 31, 1977
Possible Settlement Date
-$100,000.00
$500,000.00
-$200,000.00
$100,000.00
$150,000.00
For Problem 3 the HP-92 produces the correct
answer of 10.77%. For Problem 4 the HP-92 will cal
culate indefinitely. The mathematically correct but
financially meaningless answers to Problem 4 are
-147.31% and 362. 98%. This does not mean that the
problem is financially meaningless, but only that IRR
is not the way to attack it. If there is a financially
meaningful answer to an IRR problem the HP-92 will
find it.
Accuracy and Operating Limits
Everyone who participated in the HP-92's design
wanted to produce a calculator whose reliability, ac
curacy, and capability would exceed whatever might
reasonably be demanded of it. Previous calculators
would have to be surpassed, if only because as time
passes, users take previous accomplishments for
granted and demand more. One target for improve
ment was accuracy. Consider the following slightly
unrealistic problem.
Example: Find the present value and the future
value of 63 periodic payments of one million dollars
each at the (very tiny but still positive) interest rate
i = 0.00000161%.
Bonds
The SIA (Securities Industry Association) hand
book5 specifies certain procedures for the calculation
of bond values. Most bonds have semiannual coupon
periods determined by their maturity dates. For
example, if a bond matures on December 15, 1985,
then the coupon periods will end on June 15, 1985,
December 15, 1984, June 15, 1984, and so on. A bond
is not usually purchased on a coupon date (see Fig. 6).
This implies that both simple and compound interest
must be used during calculations of price and yield.
The SIA procedure for the calculation of purchase
price involves the exact number of days in the coupon
period in which the bond is purchased. The number
of days in a coupon period can vary from 180 to 184.
Inside the HP-92 the calendar functions determine
the exact number of days to the end of the coupon
period from the purchase or settlement date, automat
ically taking leap years into account (Fig. 7). The
computations can be based on a 360 or 365-day year.
Problem:
Calculate the price of a corporate bond with
a settlement date of August 24, 1 977, a matur
ity date of March 15, 2000, a coupon rate of
8.75% and a yield of 8%. (Calculated on
30-day month, 360 day year,)
Solution:
Enter the settlement date, maturity date,
coupon rate, and yield. Press PRICE. The
bond's accumulated interest and price are
then printed.
A Manual on the Keyboard
The HP-92 's keyboard is designed to prompt the
user and make it obvious how to solve many prob
lems. Keys of the same kind are grouped together. In
8.241977 ST
3. 1 52000 fÃ-j
8. 750000 CPN
8. 000000 VID
BOND *360 FRC
3.864583 fil
107.768456 *
Fig. 7. A bond problem and the HP-92 solution. That Febru
ary has only 28 days is automatically taken into account.
26
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
HP-92
HP-22,27
HP-80
PV 62,608.695.65 63,000.000.00 62.999.967.54
FV 62,608.695.65 62,981,366.46 63.000.031.44
Statistics: ! + , IThese keys accumulate various sums using arith
metic to ten significant digits. This determines the
range and accuracy achievable by the other statistical
keys y, LR, r, x, and s. For x data consisting of fourdigit integers, x and s will be correct to ten sig
nificant digits and y, r, and LR will be in error by less
than the effect of perturbing each y value by one unit
in its tenth significant digit. For x data with more than
four digits per point the error can be significant
if the data points have redundant leading digits;
in this case both time (keystrokes) and accu
racy will be conserved if the redundant digits are not
entered, following recommendations by D.W. Harms.6
Bond Yield and Interest Rates: YIELD, i, IRR.
The error will be smaller than one unit in the last
(tenth) significant digit or 0.000000001, provided that
the number of periods n does not exceed 1,000,000,
and for IRR, provided that the cash flows reverse sign
significantly only once as described above. These
rates are calculated far more accurately than the Sec
urities Industry Association requires.
Money Values: PRICE, PMT, PV, FV, AMORT, SL, SOYD, DB, n
Errors will be smaller than the effect of changing all
input values in their tenth significant digits. Typi
cally, this means that if (l + i)n does not exceed 1000
then errors will be less than one unit in the last (tenth)
digit. This amounts to a fraction of a cent in trans
actions involving tens of millions of dollars.
The HP-92 answers are correct, but more significant,
the other answers are clearly wrong: interest is pos
itive but money is lost.
Obvious errors even on such unrealistic problems
can undermine user confidence. The only way
to prevent apprehension is to preclude all anomalies.
For this reason, we set out to produce such robust
algorithms that the user need never be concerned
with questions of accuracy or operating limits. The
extent of our success may be gauged by the reader's
readiness to forget the limitations explained below.
Calendar Functions: IS, ST, MT Dates of issue, set
tlement, maturity
A DAYS Days between dates
DATE + DAYS
g PRINT x Day of the week.
These functions accept dates from October 15, 1582
to November 25, 4046. The first date marks the in
ception of the Gregorian calendar, now in use through
out Europe and the Americas, in which leap years are
those evenly divisible by 4, but not by 100 unless
also by 400. (The year 2000 will be a leap year, but
not 1900 nor 2100.) The second date is determined by
internal register limitations, not by any special know
ledge of the future.
Mathematical Operations: +, -, x, -5-, 1/x, %, %2, A%,
VT, ex, LN
Verifying Accuracy
Error is less than one unit in the last (tenth) signif
icant digit over a range of magnitudes including
10~" and 9.999999999x10". yx is also accurate to
within one unit in the last significant digit for 10~20
«£ yx s£ 1020; outside that range the error is less than
ten units in the last significant digit.
A simple means of verifying the accuracy of a given
computation on any calculator is to attempt to
recalculate the known quantities using a quantity
the calculator has computed based on the knowns.
Example: Key the following values into the HP-92:
FEATURES AND SPECIFICATIONS
HP-92 Investor
introls printing of keyboard operations.
end of period; or selects
calculation
COMPOUND INTEREST
omputes number of periods.
Stores or omputes interest rate per compounding pehod.
Stores or omputes present value (initial cash flow at the be
ginning of a financial problem).
Stores or c omputes future value (final cash flow at the end of a
financial problem!.
PMT Stores or computes payment amount.
DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
NPV Computes net present value of future cash flows.
IRH Computes internal rate of return of series of up to 31 cash
flows.
BONDS AND NOTES
or computes price of bond or note.
PRICE
or computes yield (percentage) of a bond or
YIELD
me issue and settlement dates of bond o
IS, ST
calculation
Stores the aturity date of a bond or note.
PERCENTAGE
% C o m p u t e s p e r c e n t .
A% Computes percent ot change between two numbers.
%£ Computes percent one number is of a total
CALENDAR
2000 Year October 15, 1582 to November 25. 4046.
Calendar
DATE»DAYS Computes a future or past date Irom a given date and
fined number of days.
Computes number of days between dates.
¿ DAYS
For a given date, prints ¡is day of the week.
g PRINT x
STATISTICS
FV
calcula
DEPRECIATION
SL Calculates straight-line depreciation schedule.
SOYD Calculates sum -of -the -years digits depreciation scfiedul
DB Calculates declining balance depreciation schedule.
BOOK Stores book value of an asset.
LIFE Stores depreciable life of an asset
SAL Stores salvage value of an asset
N1 Stores the starling year for a depreciation schedule.
N2 Stores the ending year for a depreciation schedule.
problems. £x, iy, lx2, Sy'r 5Lxy, and number of terms n.
Deletes statistical variables for changing or correction.
Computes mean for x and y.
Computes standard deviation for x, and y.
Linear regression of trend line
Linear estimate.
Correlation coefficient.
STORAGE
STO
Stores number m one of 30 storage registers. Performs storage
register arithmetic upon 10 of the registers
Recalls number from one of 30 storage registers.
PRINTING AND CLEARING
AMORT Prints amortization schedule.
LIST; FINANCE Prints all values for compound interest problems, bonds an
notes, and depreciation schedules
PRINT x Prints contents of display.
LIST; STACK Prints contents of operational stack.
LIST. REG Ã- Together print contents of 30 addressable storage registers
C L x C l e a r s d i s p l a y
CL FIN Clears financial functions for new problem
CL REG CL^ Together clear 30 addressable s
•e calculator — lisplay, operational stack, all st rage
CLEAR
and fina
nctions.
27
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
NUMBER ENTRY AND MANIPULATION
Separates numbers for arithmetic and other functions.
ENTERJ
Changes sign of displayed number of exponent.
CHS
x=y Rl R
Enter exponent of 10.
EEX
Rounds actual number in display to number seen in display.
HND
Recalls number displayed before last operation back to
LASTx
display.
MATHEMATICS
moer to power
e Natural a nti logarithm.
LN Natural logarithm.
v T S q u a r e r o o t .
1 / x R e c i p r o c a l .
+• — x + Arithmetic functions.
PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS
WIDTH: 22.9 centimetres (9.0 in).
LENGTH: 20.3 cenfimetres (8.0 in)
HEIGHT' 6.35 centimetres (2.5 in).
WEIGHT: 1.13 kilograms (40 oz).
RECHAHGER/AC ADAPTER WEIGHT: 170 grams (6 oz).
SHIPPING WEIGHT: 2.7 kilograms (5 Ib 15 oz).
TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE: 0° to 45°C (32°F to 1 13'F): with paper,
5% to 95% relative humidity.
CHARGING TEMPERATURE RANGE: 15' to 40°C (591 to 104°F).
STORAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE: -40° to +55"C (-40° (O +131°F).
POWER SPECIFICATIONS
AC: Depending on recharger/ac adapter chosen. 115 or 230V +10%, 50 to
60 H
B A T T E R Y ; 5 . 0 V d c n i c k e l - c a d m i u m b i :tery pack.
BATTERY OPERATING TIME: 3 to 7
BATTERY RECHARGING TIME; Call jlalor off. 7 to 10 hours:
17 hours.
PRICE IN U.S.A.: $625.
MANUFACTURING DIVISION: CORVALLIS DIVISION
1000 N.E. Circle Boulevard
Corvallis, Oregon 97330 U.S. A
n=lll.lllllll, 1 = 2.222222222, PV=333. 3333333,
PMT=4. 444444444. These numbers are selected to
make any loss of digits noticeable, but are otherwise
arbitrary.
Now solve for FV. The HP-92 gives FV =
-5931.82294. Now recalculate the known quantities.
The HP-92 answers are n = lll. 1111111, i =
2.222222222, PV = 333. 3333333, PMT = 4. 444444443.
Note the loss of one digit in the last place of PMT.
Then resolve for FV. The HP-92 again gives FV =
-5931.82294, showing that the lost digit has no
impact.
Acknowledgments
The HP-92 represents the efforts and contributions
of many people drawing upon technical advances in
the mathematics of finance as well as in materials,
mechanics, and electronics.
The bulk of the development was done by Paul
Williams and me. The algorithms are based primarily
on work done by Professor W. Kahan of the University
of California at Berkeley. The product, as it is now
defined, would never have been implemented with
out the early leadership and creative contributions of
Bernie Musch. The hard work and enthusiasm of the
following people contributed much to the total prod
uct and they can take pride in their extensive con
tributions: Jim Abrams (manual), Janet Cryer (appli
cations book), A.J. Laymon, Dennis Harms, Hank
Suchorski, Bob Youden, Bill Crowley, and John van
Santen. I would also like to thank Bob Dudley for his
support and encouragement. ¡S
References
1. W.L. Crowley and F. Rodé, "A Pocket-Sized Answer
Machine for Business and Finance," Hewlett-Packard Jour
nal, MayJ 1973.
2. R.B. Neff and L. Tillman, "Three New Pocket Cal
culators: Smaller, Less Costly, More Powerful," HewlettPackard Journal, November 1975.
3. B. E. Musch and R. B. Taggart, "Portable Scientific Cal
culator has Built-in-Printer," Hewlett-Packard Journal,
November 1976.
4. P. D. Dickinson and W. E. Egbert, "A Pair of ProgramCompatible Personal Programmable Calculators,"
Hewlett-Packard Journal, November 1976.
5. B. M. Spence, J. Y. Graudenz, and J. J. Lynch, Jr., "Stan
dard Securities Calculation Methods — Current Formulas
for Price and Yield Computations," Securities Industry As
sociation, New York, 1973.
6. D. W. Harms, "The New Accuracy: Making 23 = 8,"
Hewlett-Packard Journal, November 1976.
Roy E. Martin
Roy Martin did product definition,
j microprogramming, and numeri^^^^A. f cal analysis forthe HP-92. A native
4^ ttl Californian, he was born in San
{•MB V| Mateo, and received his BA deJft* 4 gree in mathematics from San
* Jose State University in 1967. After
two years as a programmer/
analyst, he enrolled at Iowa State
University and received his MS
degree in mathematics in 1971.
•* He remained at Iowa State for the
- K
m next two years, doing course work
•T «, ' and teaching mathematics, then
J| f joined HP in 1973. He's worked in
product support as well as the
lab, and is currently doing computer performance modeling and
analysis. In 1975 he conceived and wrote the script for an HP
videotape that was judged best instructional videotape in the
nation by the Industrial Television Association. Roy is married,
has three children, and lives in San Jose. He coaches a youth
soccer team and participates in a number of sports.
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Hewlett-Packard Company, 1501 Page Mill
Road, Palo Alto, California 94304
HEWITT-PACKARD JOURNAL
OCTOBER 1977 Volume 29 • Number 2
Technical information from the Laboratories of
Hewlett-Packard Company
Hewlett-Packard Central Mailing Department
Van Heuven Goedhartlaan 121
Amstelveen-1134 The Netherlands
Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard Ltd., Shibuya-K
Tokyo 151 Japan
Editorial Director • Howard L. Roberts
Managing Editor • Richard P. Dolan
Art Director, Photographer • Arvid A. Danielson
Illustrator . Susan E. Wright
Administrative Services, Typography • Anne S. LoPresti
European Production Manager • Dick Leeksma
MR C A BLACKBURN
JOHN HOPKINS UNIV
APPLIED PHYSICS LAB
JOHNS HOPKINS RD
LAUREL
?08IO
r^ I from A please I old |~) CT O O • To change your address or delete your name from our mailing list please send us your old address label (it peels off)
^> I 1 1\ I \ VJ L v_y I f\ \—) I — / li CIO O . Send changes to Hewlett-Packard Journal, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 U.S.A. Allow 60 days
© Copr. 1949-1998 Hewlett-Packard Co.
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