Doctrine ORM for PHP

Doctrine ORM for PHP
Doctrine ORM for PHP
Guide to Doctrine for PHP
Doctrine 1.1
License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
Version: manual-1.1-en-2009-11-26
Table of Contents
ii
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................... 13
Code Examples ........................................................................................................ 13
What is Doctrine? .................................................................................................... 13
What is an ORM? ..................................................................................................... 13
What is the Problem?............................................................................................... 13
Minimum Requirements .......................................................................................... 14
Basic Overview ........................................................................................................ 14
Doctrine Explained .................................................................................................. 15
Key Concepts ........................................................................................................... 16
Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 17
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 17
Getting Started ............................................................................................... 18
Checking Requirements........................................................................................... 18
Installing .................................................................................................................. 19
Sandbox .............................................................................................................................. 19
SVN..................................................................................................................................... 19
Installing ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Updating ......................................................................................................................................... 20
SVN Externals .................................................................................................................... 20
PEAR Installer .................................................................................................................... 20
Download Pear Package ..................................................................................................... 21
Implementing........................................................................................................... 21
Including Doctrine Libraries .............................................................................................. 21
Require Doctrine Base Class .............................................................................................. 21
Register Autoloader............................................................................................................ 22
Autoloading Explained.................................................................................................................... 22
Bootstrap File ..................................................................................................................... 23
Test Script .......................................................................................................................... 23
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 24
Introduction to Connections........................................................................... 25
DSN, the Data Source Name ................................................................................... 25
Examples ............................................................................................................................ 27
Opening New Connections ...................................................................................... 27
Lazy Database Connecting ...................................................................................... 28
Testing your Connection.......................................................................................... 28
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 29
Configuration .................................................................................................. 30
Levels of Configuration............................................................................................ 30
Defaults Attributes................................................................................................... 31
Default Column Options ..................................................................................................... 31
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
iii
Default Added Auto Id ........................................................................................................ 31
Portability ................................................................................................................ 31
Portability Mode Attributes ................................................................................................ 32
Examples ............................................................................................................................ 32
Identifier quoting..................................................................................................... 33
Exporting ................................................................................................................. 34
Naming convention attributes ................................................................................. 34
Index name format ............................................................................................................. 34
Sequence name format....................................................................................................... 35
Table name format ............................................................................................................. 35
Database name format ....................................................................................................... 35
Validation attributes........................................................................................................... 35
Validation mode constants ................................................................................................. 35
Examples ............................................................................................................................ 36
Optional String Syntax ............................................................................................ 36
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 36
Connections .................................................................................................... 38
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 38
Opening Connections............................................................................................... 38
Retrieve Connections............................................................................................... 38
Current Connection ................................................................................................. 39
Change Current Connection .................................................................................... 39
Iterating Connections .............................................................................................. 39
Get Connection Name.............................................................................................. 39
Close Connection ..................................................................................................... 40
Get All Connections ................................................................................................. 40
Count Connections................................................................................................... 41
Creating and Dropping Database ............................................................................ 41
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 41
Introduction to Models ................................................................................... 43
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 43
Generating Models .................................................................................................. 43
Existing Databases ............................................................................................................. 44
Making the first import................................................................................................................... 44
Schema Files ...................................................................................................................... 47
Manually Writing Models ........................................................................................ 49
Autoloading Models ................................................................................................. 49
Conservative....................................................................................................................... 49
Aggressive .......................................................................................................................... 50
Custom Accessors/Mutators .................................................................................... 51
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 51
Defining Models .............................................................................................. 52
Columns ................................................................................................................... 52
Column Lengths ................................................................................................................. 52
Column Aliases ................................................................................................................... 53
Default values..................................................................................................................... 53
Data types........................................................................................................................... 54
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 54
Type modifiers ................................................................................................................................ 55
Boolean ........................................................................................................................................... 55
Integer ............................................................................................................................................ 56
Float................................................................................................................................................ 56
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
iv
Decimal ........................................................................................................................................... 57
String .............................................................................................................................................. 58
Array ............................................................................................................................................... 58
Object ............................................................................................................................................. 59
Blob................................................................................................................................................. 59
Clob................................................................................................................................................. 59
Timestamp ...................................................................................................................................... 60
Time ................................................................................................................................................ 60
Date ................................................................................................................................................ 61
Enum............................................................................................................................................... 61
Gzip................................................................................................................................................. 62
Examples ............................................................................................................................ 62
Relationships ........................................................................................................... 65
Introduction........................................................................................................................ 65
Foreign Key Associations ................................................................................................... 70
One to One ...................................................................................................................................... 70
One to Many and Many to One ....................................................................................................... 71
Tree Structure ................................................................................................................................ 73
Join Table Associations....................................................................................................... 74
Many to Many ................................................................................................................................. 74
Self Referencing (Nest Relations) .................................................................................................. 78
Non-Equal Nest Relations ............................................................................................................................ 78
Equal Nest Relations .................................................................................................................................... 79
Foreign Key Constraints..................................................................................................... 81
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 81
Integrity Actions ............................................................................................................................. 83
Indexes..................................................................................................................... 85
Introduction........................................................................................................................ 85
Adding indexes ................................................................................................................... 85
Index options ...................................................................................................................... 87
Special indexes ................................................................................................................... 88
Checks ..................................................................................................................... 88
Table Options........................................................................................................... 89
Transitive Persistence ............................................................................................. 91
Application-Level Cascades ................................................................................................ 91
Save Cascades ................................................................................................................................ 91
Delete Cascades.............................................................................................................................. 91
Database-Level Cascades ................................................................................................... 93
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 94
Working with Models ...................................................................................... 95
Define Test Schema ................................................................................................. 95
Dealing with Relations............................................................................................. 99
Creating Related Records .................................................................................................. 99
Retrieving Related Records.............................................................................................. 101
Updating Related Records................................................................................................ 102
Deleting Related Records ................................................................................................. 102
Working with Related Records ......................................................................................... 103
Testing the Existence of a Relation .............................................................................................. 103
Many-to-Many Relations ........................................................................................ 104
Creating a New Link......................................................................................................... 104
Deleting a Link ................................................................................................................. 104
Fetching Data ........................................................................................................ 105
Sample Queries ................................................................................................................ 108
Field Lazy Loading ........................................................................................................... 114
Arrays and Objects ................................................................................................ 114
To Array............................................................................................................................ 114
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
v
From Array ....................................................................................................................... 115
Synchronize With Array.................................................................................................... 115
Overriding the Constructor ................................................................................... 116
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 117
DQL (Doctrine Query Language) .................................................................. 118
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 118
SELECT queries..................................................................................................... 120
Aggregate values .............................................................................................................. 124
UPDATE queries .................................................................................................... 125
DELETE Queries .................................................................................................... 126
FROM clause ......................................................................................................... 127
JOIN syntax............................................................................................................ 127
ON keyword...................................................................................................................... 129
WITH keyword.................................................................................................................. 129
INDEXBY keyword ................................................................................................. 130
WHERE clause ....................................................................................................... 131
Conditional expressions......................................................................................... 132
Literals ............................................................................................................................. 132
Input parameters.............................................................................................................. 134
Operators and operator precedence ................................................................................ 135
In expressions................................................................................................................... 136
Like Expressions............................................................................................................... 137
Exists Expressions ............................................................................................................ 138
All and Any Expressions ................................................................................................... 140
Subqueries........................................................................................................................ 141
Functional Expressions.......................................................................................... 142
String functions ................................................................................................................ 142
Arithmetic functions ......................................................................................................... 144
Subqueries ............................................................................................................. 144
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 144
Comparisons using subqueries......................................................................................... 145
GROUP BY, HAVING clauses................................................................................. 145
ORDER BY clause .................................................................................................. 147
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 147
Sorting by an aggregate value ......................................................................................... 148
Using random order ......................................................................................................... 149
LIMIT and OFFSET clauses ................................................................................... 149
Driver Portability.............................................................................................................. 150
The limit-subquery-algorithm ........................................................................................... 150
Named Queries ...................................................................................................... 152
Creating a Named Query.................................................................................................. 152
Accessing Named Query................................................................................................... 153
Executing a Named Query................................................................................................ 153
Cross-Accessing Named Query ........................................................................................ 153
BNF........................................................................................................................ 154
Magic Finders ........................................................................................................ 157
Debugging Queries ................................................................................................ 158
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 159
Component Overview .................................................................................... 160
Manager................................................................................................................. 160
Retrieving Connections .................................................................................................... 160
Connection............................................................................................................. 161
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
vi
Available Drivers .............................................................................................................. 161
Creating Connections ....................................................................................................... 161
Flushing the Connection .................................................................................................. 161
Table ...................................................................................................................... 162
Getting a Table Object...................................................................................................... 162
Getting Column Information............................................................................................. 162
Getting Relation Information............................................................................................ 163
Finder Methods ................................................................................................................ 165
Custom Table Classes ................................................................................................................... 166
Custom Finders ................................................................................................................ 166
Record.................................................................................................................... 167
Properties ......................................................................................................................... 167
Updating Records............................................................................................................. 171
Replacing Records............................................................................................................ 172
Refreshing Records .......................................................................................................... 172
Refreshing relationships................................................................................................... 173
Deleting Records .............................................................................................................. 174
Using Expression Values .................................................................................................. 175
Getting Record State ........................................................................................................ 175
Getting Object Copy ......................................................................................................... 176
Saving a Blank Record ..................................................................................................... 177
Mapping Custom Values................................................................................................... 177
Serializing......................................................................................................................... 177
Checking Existence .......................................................................................................... 178
Function Callbacks for Columns ...................................................................................... 178
Collection ............................................................................................................... 178
Accessing Elements .......................................................................................................... 179
Adding new Elements ....................................................................................................... 179
Getting Collection Count .................................................................................................. 180
Saving the Collection........................................................................................................ 180
Deleting the Collection ..................................................................................................... 181
Key Mapping..................................................................................................................... 181
Loading Related Records ................................................................................................. 182
Validator ................................................................................................................ 183
More Validation ................................................................................................................ 184
Valid or Not Valid ............................................................................................................. 185
Implicit Validation ........................................................................................................................ 185
Explicit Validation......................................................................................................................... 185
Profiler ................................................................................................................... 186
Basic Usage ...................................................................................................................... 187
Locking Manager ................................................................................................... 187
Optimistic Locking ........................................................................................................... 187
Pessimistic Locking .......................................................................................................... 187
Examples .......................................................................................................................... 188
Technical Details .............................................................................................................. 189
Views...................................................................................................................... 189
Using Views ...................................................................................................................... 189
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 190
Native SQL .................................................................................................... 191
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 191
Component Queries ............................................................................................... 191
Fetching from Multiple Components ..................................................................... 192
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 193
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
vii
YAML Schema Files....................................................................................... 194
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 194
Abbreviated Syntax................................................................................................ 194
Verbose Syntax ...................................................................................................... 195
Relationships ......................................................................................................... 195
Detect Relations ............................................................................................................... 196
Customizing Relationships ............................................................................................... 196
One to One........................................................................................................................ 197
One to Many ..................................................................................................................... 197
Many to Many................................................................................................................... 198
Features & Examples............................................................................................. 199
Connection Binding .......................................................................................................... 199
Attributes.......................................................................................................................... 199
Enums............................................................................................................................... 200
ActAs Behaviors................................................................................................................ 200
Listeners ........................................................................................................................... 201
Options ............................................................................................................................. 202
Indexes ............................................................................................................................. 202
Inheritance ....................................................................................................................... 203
Simple Inheritance ....................................................................................................................... 203
Concrete Inheritance .................................................................................................................... 203
Column Aggregation Inheritance ................................................................................................. 204
Column Aliases ................................................................................................................. 205
Packages........................................................................................................................... 205
Package Custom Path ................................................................................................................... 205
Global Schema Information .............................................................................................. 205
Custom Column Attribute................................................................................................. 206
Using Schema Files ............................................................................................... 207
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 207
Data Validation ............................................................................................. 208
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 208
Examples................................................................................................................ 210
Not Null ............................................................................................................................ 210
Email................................................................................................................................. 211
Not Blank.......................................................................................................................... 212
No Space .......................................................................................................................... 213
Past................................................................................................................................... 214
Future ............................................................................................................................... 215
Min Length ....................................................................................................................... 215
Country............................................................................................................................. 216
IP Address ........................................................................................................................ 217
HTML Color ...................................................................................................................... 218
Range................................................................................................................................ 219
Unique .............................................................................................................................. 221
Regular Expression .......................................................................................................... 222
Credit Card ....................................................................................................................... 223
Read Only ......................................................................................................................... 223
Unsigned .......................................................................................................................... 224
US State ........................................................................................................................... 225
Validating Relationships ........................................................................................ 226
Custom Validators ................................................................................................. 226
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 226
Inheritance.................................................................................................... 228
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
viii
Simple .................................................................................................................... 228
Concrete ................................................................................................................ 230
Column Aggregation .............................................................................................. 233
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 235
Behaviors ...................................................................................................... 236
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 236
Simple Templates .................................................................................................. 237
Templates with Relations ...................................................................................... 238
Delegate Methods.................................................................................................. 242
Creating Behaviors ................................................................................................ 243
Core Behaviors ...................................................................................................... 244
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 244
Versionable....................................................................................................................... 244
Timestampable ................................................................................................................. 246
Sluggable.......................................................................................................................... 248
I18n .................................................................................................................................. 250
NestedSet ......................................................................................................................... 252
Searchable........................................................................................................................ 253
Geographical .................................................................................................................... 255
SoftDelete ......................................................................................................................... 258
Nesting Behaviors.................................................................................................. 260
Generating Files .................................................................................................... 261
Querying Generated Classes ................................................................................. 262
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 262
Searching ...................................................................................................... 263
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 263
Index structure ...................................................................................................... 265
Index Building........................................................................................................ 265
Text Analyzers ....................................................................................................... 267
Query language...................................................................................................... 267
Performing Searches ............................................................................................. 268
File searches.......................................................................................................... 270
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 271
Hierarchical Data.......................................................................................... 272
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 272
Nested Set ............................................................................................................. 273
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 273
Setting Up ........................................................................................................................ 273
Multiple Trees .................................................................................................................. 274
Working with Trees .......................................................................................................... 274
Creating a Root Node ................................................................................................................... 275
Inserting a Node ........................................................................................................................... 275
Deleting a Node ............................................................................................................................ 275
Moving a Node.............................................................................................................................. 276
Examining a Node......................................................................................................................... 276
Examining and Retrieving Siblings .............................................................................................. 277
Examining and Retrieving Descendants ....................................................................................... 277
Rendering a Simple Tree .............................................................................................................. 278
Advanced Usage ............................................................................................................... 278
Fetching a Tree with Relations..................................................................................................... 279
Rendering with Indention................................................................................................. 280
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 280
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
ix
Data Fixtures................................................................................................. 281
Importing ............................................................................................................... 281
Dumping ................................................................................................................ 281
Implement.............................................................................................................. 282
Writing ................................................................................................................... 282
Fixtures For Nested Sets ....................................................................................... 286
Fixtures For I18n ................................................................................................... 287
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 287
Database Abstraction Layer .......................................................................... 288
Export .................................................................................................................... 288
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 288
Creating Databases .......................................................................................................... 289
Creating Tables ................................................................................................................ 289
Creating Foreign Keys...................................................................................................... 291
Altering table.................................................................................................................... 292
Creating Indexes .............................................................................................................. 294
Deleting database elements ............................................................................................. 294
Import .................................................................................................................... 295
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 295
Listing Databases ............................................................................................................. 296
Listing Sequences ............................................................................................................ 296
Listing Constraints ........................................................................................................... 296
Listing Table Columns ...................................................................................................... 296
Listing Table Indexes ....................................................................................................... 296
Listing Tables ................................................................................................................... 297
Listing Views .................................................................................................................... 297
DataDict ................................................................................................................. 297
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 297
Getting portable declaration ............................................................................................ 297
Getting Native Declaration............................................................................................... 298
Drivers ................................................................................................................... 298
Mysql ................................................................................................................................ 298
Setting table type ......................................................................................................................... 298
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 299
Transactions.................................................................................................. 300
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 300
Nesting .................................................................................................................. 301
Savepoints ............................................................................................................. 302
Isolation Levels ...................................................................................................... 303
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 303
Event Listeners ............................................................................................. 305
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 305
Connection Listeners ............................................................................................. 306
Creating a New Listener .................................................................................................. 306
Attaching listeners ........................................................................................................... 307
Aliasing Listeners ............................................................................................................. 307
Enabling/Disabling Listeners ........................................................................................... 308
Pre and Post Connect ....................................................................................................... 308
Transaction Listeners ....................................................................................................... 308
Query Execution Listeners ............................................................................................... 309
Hydration Listeners ............................................................................................... 310
Record Listeners.................................................................................................... 310
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
x
Record Hooks......................................................................................................... 312
DQL Hooks............................................................................................................. 313
Chaining Listeners................................................................................................. 316
The Event object .................................................................................................... 316
Getting the Invoker .......................................................................................................... 316
Event Codes...................................................................................................................... 316
Getting the Invoker .......................................................................................................... 316
Skip Next Operation ......................................................................................................... 317
Skip Next Listener............................................................................................................ 317
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 318
Caching ......................................................................................................... 319
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 319
Drivers ................................................................................................................... 319
Memcache ........................................................................................................................ 319
APC ................................................................................................................................... 320
Db ..................................................................................................................................... 320
Query Cache & Result Cache ................................................................................ 321
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 321
Query Cache ..................................................................................................................... 321
Using the Query Cache................................................................................................................. 321
Fine Tuning................................................................................................................................... 322
Result Cache..................................................................................................................... 322
Using the Result Cache ................................................................................................................ 322
Fine Tuning................................................................................................................................... 323
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 323
Migrations..................................................................................................... 324
Performing Migrations .......................................................................................... 324
Implement.............................................................................................................. 325
Writing Migration Classes ..................................................................................... 325
Available Operations ........................................................................................................ 327
Create Table ................................................................................................................................. 327
Drop Table .................................................................................................................................... 327
Rename Table ............................................................................................................................... 328
Create Constraint ......................................................................................................................... 328
Drop Constraint ............................................................................................................................ 328
Create Foreign Key....................................................................................................................... 328
Drop Foreign Key.......................................................................................................................... 329
Add Column .................................................................................................................................. 329
Rename Column............................................................................................................................ 329
Change Column ............................................................................................................................ 329
Remove Column ............................................................................................................................ 330
Irreversible Migration .................................................................................................................. 330
Add Index...................................................................................................................................... 330
Remove Index ............................................................................................................................... 330
Pre and Post Hooks .......................................................................................................... 330
Up/Down Automation ....................................................................................................... 331
Generating Migrations ..................................................................................................... 332
From Database ............................................................................................................................. 332
From Existing Models................................................................................................................... 332
Diff Tool ........................................................................................................................................ 332
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 333
Utilities.......................................................................................................... 335
Pagination .............................................................................................................. 335
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 335
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
xi
Working with Pager.......................................................................................................... 335
Controlling Range Styles.................................................................................................. 337
Sliding........................................................................................................................................... 338
Jumping......................................................................................................................................... 338
Advanced layouts with pager ........................................................................................... 339
Mask ............................................................................................................................................. 339
Template ....................................................................................................................................... 340
Customizing pager layout................................................................................................. 342
Facade ................................................................................................................... 345
Creating & Dropping Databases ...................................................................................... 345
Convenience Methods ...................................................................................................... 345
Tasks................................................................................................................................. 347
Command Line Interface ....................................................................................... 348
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 348
Tasks................................................................................................................................. 348
Usage................................................................................................................................ 349
Sandbox ................................................................................................................. 349
Installation........................................................................................................................ 349
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 350
Unit Testing .................................................................................................. 351
Running tests ......................................................................................................... 351
CLI .................................................................................................................................... 351
Browser ............................................................................................................................ 352
Writing Tests ......................................................................................................... 352
Ticket Tests ...................................................................................................................... 353
Methods for testing .......................................................................................................... 353
Assert Equal.................................................................................................................................. 353
Assert Not Equal........................................................................................................................... 354
Assert Identical............................................................................................................................. 354
Assert True ................................................................................................................................... 354
Assert False .................................................................................................................................. 354
Mock Drivers .................................................................................................................... 354
Test Class Guidelines ....................................................................................................... 355
Test Method Guidelines.................................................................................................... 355
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 356
Improving Performance ................................................................................ 357
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 357
Compile.................................................................................................................. 357
Conservative Fetching ........................................................................................... 358
Bundle your Class Files ......................................................................................... 360
Use a Bytecode Cache ........................................................................................... 360
Free Objects........................................................................................................... 360
Other Tips .............................................................................................................. 361
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 362
Technology .................................................................................................... 363
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 363
Architecture ........................................................................................................... 363
Doctrine CORE ................................................................................................................. 363
Doctrine DBAL.................................................................................................................. 364
Doctrine ORM................................................................................................................... 364
Design Patterns Used ............................................................................................ 364
Speed ..................................................................................................................... 365
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 366
-----------------
Brought to you by
Table of Contents
xii
Exceptions and Warnings ............................................................................. 367
Manager exceptions............................................................................................... 367
Relation exceptions................................................................................................ 367
Connection exceptions........................................................................................... 367
Query exceptions ................................................................................................... 367
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 368
Real World Examples .................................................................................... 369
User Management System..................................................................................... 369
Forum Application ................................................................................................. 372
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 375
Coding Standards.......................................................................................... 376
PHP File Formatting .............................................................................................. 376
General ............................................................................................................................. 376
Indentation ....................................................................................................................... 376
Maximum Line Length...................................................................................................... 376
Line Termination .............................................................................................................. 376
Naming Conventions.............................................................................................. 377
Classes.............................................................................................................................. 377
Interfaces.......................................................................................................................... 377
Filenames ......................................................................................................................... 377
Functions and Methods .................................................................................................... 377
Variables........................................................................................................................... 378
Constants.......................................................................................................................... 378
Record Columns ............................................................................................................... 378
Coding Style........................................................................................................... 379
PHP Code Demarcation .................................................................................................... 379
Strings .............................................................................................................................. 379
Literal String ................................................................................................................................ 379
String Containing Apostrophes .................................................................................................... 379
Variable Substitution .................................................................................................................... 379
String Concatenation.................................................................................................................... 379
Concatenation Line Breaking ....................................................................................................... 379
Arrays ............................................................................................................................... 380
Classes.............................................................................................................................. 380
Functions and Methods .................................................................................................... 380
Control Statements........................................................................................................... 382
Inline Documentation ....................................................................................................... 383
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 384
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 1: Introduction
13
Chapter 1
Introduction
Code Examples
The text in this book contains lots of PHP code examples. All starting and ending PHP tags
have been removed to reduce the length of the book. Be sure to include the PHP tags when
you copy and paste the examples.
What is Doctrine?
Doctrine is an object relational mapper (ORM) for PHP 5.2.3+ that sits on top of a powerful
database abstraction layer (DBAL). One of its key features is the option to write database
queries in a proprietary object oriented SQL dialect called Doctrine Query Language (DQL),
inspired by Hibernates HQL. This provides developers with a powerful alternative to SQL that
maintains flexibility without requiring unnecessary code duplication.
What is an ORM?
Object relational mapping is a technique used in programming languages when dealing with
databases for translating incompatible data types in relational databases. This essentially
allows for us to have a "virtual object database," that can be used from the programming
language. Lots of free and commercial packages exist that allow this but sometimes
developers chose to create their own ORM.
What is the Problem?
We are faced with many problems when building web applications. Instead of trying to
explain it all it is best to read what Wikipedia has to say about object relational mappers.
Pulled from Wikipedia1:
Data management tasks in object-oriented (OO) programming are typically implemented by
manipulating objects, which are almost always non-scalar values. For example, consider an
address book entry that represents a single person along with zero or more phone numbers
and zero or more addresses. This could be modeled in an object-oriented implementation by a
1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-relational_mapping
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 1: Introduction
14
"person object" with "slots" to hold the data that comprise the entry: the person's name, a list
(or array) of phone numbers, and a list of addresses. The list of phone numbers would itself
contain "phone number objects" and so on. The address book entry is treated as a single value
by the programming language (it can be referenced by a single variable, for instance).
Various methods can be associated with the object, such as a method to return the preferred
phone number, the home address, and so on.
However, many popular database products such as SQL DBMS can only store and manipulate
scalar values such as integers and strings organized within tables.
The programmer must either convert the object values into groups of simpler values for
storage in the database (and convert them back upon retrieval), or only use simple scalar
values within the program. Object-relational mapping is used to implement the first approach.
The height of the problem is translating those objects to forms that can be stored in the
database for easy retrieval, while preserving the properties of the objects and their
relationships; these objects are then said to be persistent.
Minimum Requirements
Doctrine requires PHP >= 5.2.3+, although it doesn't require any external libraries. For
database function call abstraction Doctrine uses PDO which comes bundled with the PHP
official release that you get from www.php.net.
If you use a 3 in 1 package under windows like Uniform Server, MAMP or any other nonofficial package, you may be required to perform additional configurations.
Basic Overview
Doctrine is a tool for object-relational mapping in PHP. It sits on top of PDO and is itself
divided into two main layers, the DBAL and the ORM. The picture below shows how the layers
of Doctrine work together.
The DBAL(Database Abstraction Layer) completes and extends the basic database
abstraction/independence that is already provided by PDO. The DBAL library can be used
standalone, if all you want is a powerful database abstraction layer on top of PDO. The ORM
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 1: Introduction
15
layer depends on the DBAL and therefore, when you load the ORM package the DBAL is
already included.
Doctrine Explained
The following section tries to explain where Doctrine stands in the world of ORM tools. The
Doctrine ORM is mainly built around the Active Record2, Data Mapper3 and Meta Data
Mapping4 patterns.
Through extending a specific base class named Doctrine_Record, all the child classes get
the typical ActiveRecord interface (save/delete/etc.) and it allows Doctrine to easily
participate in and monitor the lifecycles of your records. The real work, however, is mostly
forwarded to other components, like the Doctrine_Table class. This class has the typical
Data Mapper interface, createQuery(), find(id), findAll(), findBy*(),
findOneBy*() etc. So the ActiveRecord base class enables Doctrine to manage your records
and provides them with the typical ActiveRecord interface whilst the mapping footwork is
done elsewhere.
The ActiveRecord approach comes with its typical limitations. The most obvious is the
enforcement for a class to extend a specific base class in order to be persistent (a
Doctrine_Record). In general, the design of your domain model is pretty much restricted
by the design of your relational model. There is an exception though. When dealing with
inheritance structures, Doctrine provides some sophisticated mapping strategies which allow
your domain model to diverge a bit from the relational model and therefore give you a bit
more freedom.
Doctrine is in a continuous development process and we always try to add new features that
provide more freedom in the modeling of the domain. However, as long as Doctrine remains
mainly an ActiveRecord approach, there will always be a pretty large, (forced) similarity of
these two models.
The current situation is depicted in the following picture.
Relational Bounds
As you see in the picture, the domain model can't drift far away from the bounds of the
relational model.
After mentioning these drawbacks, it's time to mention some advantages of the ActiveRecord
approach. Apart from the (arguably slightly) simpler programming model, it turns out that the
strong similarity of the relational model and the Object Oriented (OO) domain model also has
an advantage: It makes it relatively easy to provide powerful generation tools, that can create
a basic domain model out of an existing relational schema. Further, as the domain model
can't drift far from the relational model due to the reasons above, such generation and
synchronization tools can easily be used throughout the development process. Such tools are
one of Doctrine's strengths.
We think that these limitations of the ActiveRecord approach are not that much of a problem
for the majority of web applications because the complexity of the business domains is often
moderate, but we also admit that the ActiveRecord approach is certainly not suited for
complex business logic (which is often approached using Domain-Driven Design) as it simply
puts too many restrictions and has too much influence on your domain model.
Doctrine is a great tool to drive the persistence of simple or moderately complex domain
models(1) and you may even find that it's a good choice for complex domain models if you
consider the trade-off between making your domain model more database-centric and
2.
3.
4.
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/activeRecord.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/dataMapper.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/metadataMapping.html
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 1: Introduction
16
implementing all the mapping on your own (because at the time of this writing we are not
aware of any powerful ORM tools for PHP that are not based on an ActiveRecord approach).
(1) Note that complexity != size. A domain model can be pretty large without being
complex and vice versa. Obviously, larger domain models have a greater probability of
being complex.
Now you already know a lot about what Doctrine is and what it is not. If you would like to dive
in now and get started right away, jump straight to the next chapter "Getting Started".
Key Concepts
The Doctrine Query Language (DQL) is an object query language. It let's you express queries
for single objects or full object graphs, using the terminology of your domain model: class
names, field names, relations between classes, etc. This is a powerful tool for retrieving or
even manipulating objects without breaking the separation of the domain model (field names,
class names, etc) from the relational model (table names, column names, etc). DQL looks very
much like SQL and this is intended because it makes it relatively easy to grasp for people
knowing SQL. There are, however, a few very important differences you should always keep
in mind:
Take this example DQL query:
Listing
1-1
FROM User u
LEFT JOIN u.Phonenumbers where u.level > 1
The things to notice about this query:
•
•
•
•
We select from classes and not tables. We are selecting from the User class/model.
We join along associations (u.Phonenumbers)
We can reference fields (u.level)
There is no join condition (ON x.y = y.x). The associations between your classes and
how these are expressed in the database are known to Doctrine (You need to make
this mapping known to Doctrine, of course. How to do that is explained later in the
Defining Models (page 52) chapter.).
DQL expresses a query in the terms of your domain model (your classes, the attributes they
have, the relations they have to other classes, etc.).
It's very important that we speak about classes, fields and associations between classes here.
User is not a table / table name . It may be that the name of the database table that the User
class is mapped to is indeed named User but you should nevertheless adhere to this
differentiation of terminology. This may sound nit picky since, due to the ActiveRecord
approach, your relational model is often very similar to your domain model but it's really
important. The column names are rarely the same as the field names and as soon as
inheritance is involved, the relational model starts to diverge from the domain model. You can
have a class User that is in fact mapped to several tables in the database. At this point it
should be clear that talking about "selecting from the User table" is simply wrong then. And
as Doctrine development continues there will be more features available that allow the two
models to diverge even more.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 1: Introduction
17
Further Reading
For people new to object-relational mapping and (object-oriented) domain models we
recommend the following literature:
The books by Martin Fowler5 cover a lot of the basic ORM terminology, the different
approaches of modeling business logic and the patterns involved.
Another good read is about Domain Driven Design6. Though serious Domain-Driven Design is
currently not possible with Doctrine, this is an excellent resource for good domain modeling,
especially in complex business domains, and the terminology around domain models that is
pretty widespread nowadays is explained in depth (Entities, Value Objects, Repositories, etc).
Conclusion
Well, now that we have given a little educational reading about the methodologies and
principals behind Doctrine we are pretty much ready to dive in to everything that is Doctrine.
Lets dive in to setting up Doctrine in the Getting Started (page 18) chapter.
5.
6.
http://www.martinfowler.com/books.html
http://domaindrivendesign.org/books/#DDD
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
18
Chapter 2
Getting Started
Checking Requirements
First we need to make sure that you can run Doctrine on your server. We can do this one of
two ways:
First create a small PHP script named phpinfo.php and upload it somewhere on your web
server that is accessible to the web:
Listing
2-1
phpinfo();
Now execute it from your browser by going to http://localhost/phpinfo.php7. You will see a list
of information detailing your PHP configuration. Check that your PHP version is >= 5.2.3 and
that you have PDO and the desired drivers installed.
You can also check your PHP installation has the necessary requirements by running some
commands from the terminal. We will demonstrate in the next example.
Check that your PHP version is >= 5.2.3 with the following command:
Listing
2-2
$ php -v
Now check that you have PDO and the desired drivers installed with the following command:
Listing
2-3
$ php -i
You could also execute the phpinfo.php from the command line and get the same result as
the above example:
Listing
2-4
$ php phpinfo.php
Checking the requirements are required in order to run the examples used throughout this
documentation.
7.
http://localhost/phpinfo.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
19
Installing
Currently it is possible to install Doctrine four different ways that are listed below:
•
•
•
•
SVN (subversion)
SVN externals
PEAR Installer
Download PEAR Package
It is recommended to download Doctrine via SVN (subversion), because in this case updating
is easy. If your project is already under version control with SVN, you should choose SVN
externals.
If you wish to just try out Doctrine in under 5 minutes, the sandbox package is
recommended. We will discuss the sandbox package in the next section.
Sandbox
Doctrine also provides a special package which is a zero configuration Doctrine
implementation for you to test Doctrine without writing one line of code. You can download it
from the download page8.
The sandbox implementation is not a recommend implementation for a production
application. It's only purpose is for exploring Doctrine and running small tests.
SVN
It is highly recommended that you use Doctrine via SVN and the externals option. This option
is the best as you will receive the latest bug fixes from SVN to ensure the best experience
using Doctrine.
Installing
To install Doctrine via SVN is very easy. You can download any version of Doctrine from the
SVN server: http://svn.doctrine-project.org9
To check out a specific version you can use the following command from your terminal:
svn co http://svn.doctrine-project.org/branches/1.1 .
If you do not have a SVN client, chose one from the list below. Find the Checkout option and
enter http://svn.doctrine-project.org/1.010 in the path or repository url parameter. There is no
need for a username or password to check out Doctrine.
• TortoiseSVN11 a Windows application that integrates into Windows Explorer
• svnx12 a Mac OS X GUI svn application
• Eclipse13 has SVN integration through the subeclipse plugin14
8. http://www.doctrine-project.org/download
9. http://svn.doctrine-project.org
10. http://svn.doctrine-project.org/1.0
11. http://tortoisesvn.tigris.org/
12. http://www.apple.com/downloads/macosx/development_tools/svnx.html
13. http://www.eclipse.org/
14. http://subclipse.tigris.org/
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
2-5
Chapter 2: Getting Started
20
• Versions15 a subversion client for the mac
Updating
Updating Doctrine with SVN is just as easy as installing. Simply execute the following
command from your terminal:
Listing
2-6
$ svn update
SVN Externals
If your project is already under version control with SVN, then it is recommended that you
use SVN externals to install Doctrine.
You can start by navigating to your checked out project in your terminal:
Listing
2-7
$ cd /var/www/my_project
Now that you are under your checked out project, you can execute the following command
from your terminal and setup Doctrine as an SVN external:
Listing
2-8
$ svn propedit svn:externals lib/vendor
The above command will open your editor and you need to place the following text inside and
save:
Listing
2-9
doctrine http://svn.doctrine-project.org/branches/1.1/lib
Now you can install Doctrine by doing an svn update:
Listing
2-10
$ svn update
It will download and install Doctrine at the following path: /var/www/my_project/lib/
vendor/doctrine
Don't forget to commit your change to the SVN externals.
Listing
2-11
$ svn commit
PEAR Installer
Doctrine also provides a PEAR server for installing and updating Doctrine on your servers.
You can easily install Doctrine with the following command:
Listing
2-12
$ pear install pear.phpdoctrine.org/Doctrine-1.1.x
Replace the above 1.0.x with the version you wish to install. For example "1.1.0".
15.
http://versionsapp.com/
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
21
Download Pear Package
If you do not wish to install via PEAR or do not have PEAR installed, you can always just
manually download the package from the website16. Once you download the package to your
server you can extract it using the following command under linux.
$ tar xzf Doctrine-1.1.0.tgz
Listing
2-13
Implementing
Now that you have Doctrine in your hands, we are ready to implement Doctrine in to our
application. This is the first step towards getting started with Doctrine.
First create a directory named doctrine_test. This is where we will place all our test code:
$ mkdir doctrine_test
$ cd doctrine_test
Listing
2-14
Including Doctrine Libraries
The first thing we must do is find the Doctrine.php file containing the core class so that we
can require it in to our application. The Doctrine.php file is in the lib folder from when you
downloaded Doctrine in the previous section.
We need to move the Doctrine libraries in to the doctrine_test directory into a folder in
doctrine_test/lib/vendor/doctrine:
$
$
$
$
mkdir lib
mkdir lib/vendor
mkdir lib/vendor/doctrine
mv /path/to/doctrine/lib doctrine
Listing
2-15
Or if you are using SVN, you can use externals:
$ svn co http://svn.doctrine-project.org/branches/1.1/lib lib/vendor/
doctrine
Listing
2-16
Now add it to your svn externals:
$ svn propedit svn:externals lib/vendor
Listing
2-17
It will open up your editor and place the following inside and save:
doctrine http://svn.doctrine-project.org/branches/1.1/lib
Listing
2-18
Now when you do SVN update you will get the Doctrine libraries updated:
$ svn update lib/vendor
Listing
2-19
Require Doctrine Base Class
We need to create a php script for bootstrapping Doctrine and all the configuration for it.
Create a file named bootstrap.php and place the following code in the file:
16.
http://www.doctrine-project.org/download
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Listing
2-20
22
// bootstrap.php
/**
* Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader specify
* configuration attributes and load models.
*/
require_once(dirname(__FILE__) . '/lib/vendor/doctrine/Doctrine.php');
Register Autoloader
Now that we have the Doctrine class present, we need to register the class autoloader
function in the bootstrap file:
Listing
2-21
// bootstrap.php
// ...
spl_autoload_register(array('Doctrine', 'autoload'));
Lets also create the singleton Doctrine_Manager instance and assign it to a variable named
$manager:
Listing
2-22
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance();
Autoloading Explained
You can read about the PHP autoloading on the php website here17. Using the autoloader
allows us to lazily load classes as they are requested instead of pre-loading all classes. This
is a huge benefit to performance.
The way the Doctrine autoloader works is simple. Because our class names and paths are
related, we can determine the path to a Doctrine class based on its name.
Imagine we have a class named Doctrine_Some_Class and we instantiate an instance of it:
Listing
2-23
$class = new Doctrine_Some_Class();
The above code will trigger a call to the Doctrine::autoload() function and pass it the
name of the class instantiated. The class name string is manipulated and transformed in to a
path and required. Below is some pseudo code that shows how the class is found and
required:
Listing
2-24
class Doctrine
{
public function autoload($className)
{
$classPath = str_replace('_', '/', $className) . '.php';
$path = '/path/to/doctrine/' . $classPath;
require_once($path);
return true;
}
}
17.
http://www.php.net/spl_autoload_register
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
23
In the above example the Doctrine_Some_Class can be found at /path/to/doctrine/
Doctrine/Some/Class.php.
Obviously the real Doctrine::autoload() function is a bit more complex and has some
error checking to ensure the file exists but the above code demonstrates how it works.
Bootstrap File
We will use this bootstrap class in later chapters and sections so be sure to create it!
The bootstrap file we have created should now look like the following:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
2-25
/**
* Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader specify
* configuration attributes and load models.
*/
require_once(dirname(__FILE__) . '/lib/vendor/doctrine/Doctrine.php');
spl_autoload_register(array('Doctrine', 'autoload'));
$manager = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance();
This new bootstrapping file will be referenced several times in this book as it is where we will
make changes to our implementation as we learn how to use Doctrine step by step.
The configuration attributes mentioned above are a feature in Doctrine used for
configuring and controlling functionality. You will learn more about attributes and how to
get/set them in the Configuration (page 30) chapter.
Test Script
Now lets create a simple test script that we can use to run various tests as we learn about the
features of Doctrine.
Create a new file in the doctrine_test directory named test.php and place the following
code inside:
// test.php
Listing
2-26
require_once('bootstrap.php');
echo Doctrine::getPath();
Now you can execute the test script from your command line. This is how we will perform
tests with Doctrine throughout the chapters so make sure it is working for you! It should
output the path to your Doctrine installation.
$ php test.php
/path/to/doctrine/lib
-----------------
Listing
2-27
Brought to you by
Chapter 2: Getting Started
24
Conclusion
Phew! This was our first chapter where we actually got into some code. As you saw, first we
were able to check that our server can actually run Doctrine. Then we learned all the
different ways we can download and install Doctrine. Lastly we learned how to implement
Doctrine by setting up a small test environment that we will use to perform some exercises in
the remaining chapters of the book.
Now lets move on and get our first taste of Doctrine connections in the Introduction to
Connections (page 25) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 3: Introduction to Connections
25
Chapter 3
Introduction to Connections
DSN, the Data Source Name
In order to connect to a database through Doctrine, you have to create a valid DSN(Data
Source Name).
Doctrine supports both PEAR DB/MDB2 like data source names as well as PDO style data
source names. The following section deals with PEAR like data source names. If you need
more info about the PDO-style data source names see the documentation on pdo 18.
The DSN consists in the following parts:
DSN part Description
phptype
Database backend used in PHP (i.e. mysql , pgsql etc.)
dbsyntax
Database used with regards to SQL syntax etc.
protocol
Communication protocol to use ( i.e. tcp, unix etc.)
hostspec
Host specification (hostname[:port])
database
Database to use on the DBMS server
username User name for login
password
Password for login
proto_opts Maybe used with protocol
option
Additional connection options in URI query string format. Options are separated
by ampersand (&). The Following table shows a non complete list of options:
List of options
Name
Description
charset
Some backends support setting the client charset.
new_link Some RDBMS do not create new connections when connecting to the same host
multiple times. This option will attempt to force a new connection.
The DSN can either be provided as an associative array or as a string. The string format of
the supplied DSN is in its fullest form:
Listing
3-1
18.
http://www.php.net/pdo
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 3: Introduction to Connections
26
phptype(dbsyntax)://username:[email protected]+hostspec/
database?option=value
Most variations are allowed:
Listing
3-2
phptype://username:[email protected]+hostspec:110//usr/db_file.db
phptype://username:[email protected]pec/database
phptype://username:[email protected]
phptype://[email protected]
phptype://hostspec/database
phptype://hostspec
phptype:///database
phptype:///database?option=value&anotheroption=anothervalue
phptype(dbsyntax)
phptype
The currently supported PDO database drivers are:
Driver name Supported databases
fbsql
FrontBase
ibase
InterBase / Firebird (requires PHP 5)
mssql
Microsoft SQL Server (NOT for Sybase. Compile PHP --with-mssql)
mysql
MySQL
mysqli
MySQL (supports new authentication protocol) (requires PHP 5)
oci
Oracle 7/8/9/10
pgsql
PostgreSQL
querysim
QuerySim
sqlite
SQLite 2
A second DSN format supported is
Listing
3-3
phptype(syntax)://user:[email protected](proto_opts)/database
If your database, option values, username or password contain characters used to delineate
DSN parts, you can escape them via URI hex encodings:
Character Hex Code
:
%3a
/
%2f
@
%40
+
%2b
(
%28
)
%29
?
%3f
=
%3d
&
%26
Please note, that some features may be not supported by all database drivers.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 3: Introduction to Connections
27
Examples
Example 1. Connect to database through a socket
mysql://[email protected](/path/to/socket)/pear
Listing
3-4
Example 2. Connect to database on a non standard port
pgsql://user:[email protected](localhost:5555)/pear
Listing
3-5
If you use, the ip address {127.0.0.1}, the port parameter is ignored (default: 3306).
Example 3. Connect to SQLite on a Unix machine using options
sqlite:////full/unix/path/to/file.db?mode=0666
Listing
3-6
Example 4. Connect to SQLite on a Windows machine using options
sqlite:///c:/full/windows/path/to/file.db?mode=0666
Listing
3-7
Example 5. Connect to MySQLi using SSL
mysqli://user:[email protected]/pear?key=client-key.pem&cert=client-cert.pem
Listing
3-8
Opening New Connections
Opening a new database connection in Doctrine is very easy. If you wish to use PDO19 you can
just initialize a new PDO object.
Remember our bootstrap.php file we created in the Getting Started (page 18) chapter?
Under the code where we registered the Doctrine autoloader we are going to instantiate our
new connection:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
3-9
// ...
$dsn = 'mysql:dbname=testdb;host=127.0.0.1';
$user = 'dbuser';
$password = 'dbpass';
$dbh = new PDO($dsn, $user, $password);
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection($dbh);
Directly passing a PDO instance to Doctrine_Manager::connection() will not allow
Doctrine to be aware of the username and password for the connection, since their is no
way to retrieve it from an existing PDO instance. The username and password is required
in order for Doctrine to be able to create and drop databases. To get around this you can
manually set the username and password option directly on the $conn object.
// bootstrap.php
19.
Listing
3-10
http://www.php.net/PDO
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 3: Introduction to Connections
28
// ...
$conn->setOption('username', $user);
$conn->setOption('password', $password);
Lazy Database Connecting
Lazy-connecting to database can save a lot of resources. There might be many times where
you don't need an actual database connection, hence its always recommended to use lazyconnecting (that means Doctrine will only connect to database when needed).
This feature can be very useful when using for example page caching, hence not actually
needing a database connection on every request. Remember connecting to database is an
expensive operation.
In the example below we will show you when you create a new Doctrine connection, the
connection to the database isn't created until it is actually needed.
Listing
3-11
// bootstrap.php
// ...
// At this point no actual connection to the database is created
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://username:[email protected]/
test');
// The first time the connection is needed, it is instantiated
// This query triggers the connection to be created
$conn->execute('SHOW TABLES');
Testing your Connection
After reading the previous sections of this chapter, you should now know how to create a
connection. So, lets modify our bootstrap file to include the initialization of a connection. For
this example we will just be using a sqlite memory database but you can use whatever type of
database connection you prefer.
Add your database connection to bootstrap.php and it should look something like the
following:
Listing
3-12
/**
* Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader and specify
* configuration attributes
*/
require_once('../doctrine/branches/1.0/lib/Doctrine.php');
spl_autoload_register(array('Doctrine', 'autoload'));
$manager = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance();
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('sqlite::memory:', 'doctrine');
To test the connection lets modify our test.php script and perform a small test. Since we
create a variable name $conn, that variable is available to the test script so lets setup a small
test to make sure our connection is working:
First lets create a test table and insert a record:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 3: Introduction to Connections
29
// test.php
Listing
3-13
// ...
$conn->export->createTable('test', array('name' => array('type' =>
'string')));
$conn->execute('INSERT INTO test (name) VALUES (?)', array('jwage'));
Now lets execute a simple SELECT query from the test table we just created to make sure
the data was inserted and that we can retrieve it:
// test.php
Listing
3-14
// ...
$stmt = $conn->prepare('SELECT * FROM test');
$stmt->execute();
$results = $stmt->fetchAll();
print_r($results);
Execute test.php from your terminal and you should see:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => jwage
[0] => jwage
)
Listing
3-15
)
Conclusion
Great! Now we learned some basic operations of Doctrine connections. We have modified our
Doctrine test environment to have a new connection. This is required because the examples
in the coming chapters will require a connection.
Lets move on to the Configuration (page 30) chapter and learn how you can control
functionality and configurations using the Doctrine attribute system.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
30
Chapter 4
Configuration
Doctrine controls configuration of features and functionality using attributes. In this section
we will discuss how to set and get attributes as well as an overview of what attributes exist
for you to use to control Doctrine functionality.
Levels of Configuration
Doctrine has a three-level configuration structure. You can set configuration attributes at a
global, connection and table level. If the same attribute is set on both lower level and upper
level, the uppermost attribute will always be used. So for example if a user first sets default
fetchmode in global level to Doctrine::FETCH_BATCH and then sets a table fetchmode to
Doctrine::FETCH_LAZY, the lazy fetching strategy will be used whenever the records of
that table are being fetched.
• Global level - The attributes set in global level will affect every connection and
every table in each connection.
• Connection level - The attributes set in connection level will take effect on each
table in that connection.
• Table level - The attributes set in table level will take effect only on that table.
In the following example we set an attribute at the global level:
Listing
4-1
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL);
In the next example above we override the global attribute on given connection:
Listing
4-2
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$conn->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_NONE);
In the last example we override once again the connection level attribute in the table level:
Listing
4-3
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$table = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$table->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
31
We haven't introduced the above used Doctrine::getTable() method. You will learn
more about the table objects used in Doctrine in the Table (page 162) section of the next
chapter.
Defaults Attributes
Doctrine has a few specific attributes available that allow you to specify the default values of
things that in the past were hardcoded values. Such as default column length, default column
type, etc.
Default Column Options
It is possible to specify an array of default options to be used on every column in your model.
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-4
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_DEFAULT_COLUMN_OPTIONS,
array('type' => 'string', 'length' => 255, 'notnull' => true));
Default Added Auto Id
You can customize the properties of the automatically added primary key in Doctrine models.
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_DEFAULT_IDENTIFIER_OPTIONS,
array('name' => '%s_id', 'type' => 'string', 'length' => 16));
The %s string in the name is replaced with the table name.
Portability
Each database management system (DBMS) has it's own behaviors. For example, some
databases capitalize field names in their output, some lowercase them, while others leave
them alone. These quirks make it difficult to port your applications over to another database
type. Doctrine strives to overcome these differences so your applications can switch between
DBMS's without any changes. For example switching from sqlite to mysql.
The portability modes are bitwised, so they can be combined using | and removed using ^.
See the examples section below on how to do this.
You can read more about the bitwise operators on the PHP website: http://www.php.net/
language.operators.bitwise20
20.
http://www.php.net/language.operators.bitwise
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
4-5
Chapter 4: Configuration
32
Portability Mode Attributes
Below is a list of all the available portability attributes and the description of what each one
does:
Name
Description
PORTABILITY_ALL
Turn on all portability features. This is the
default setting.
PORTABILITY_DELETE_COUNT
Force reporting the number of rows deleted.
Some DBMS's don't count the number of rows
deleted when performingsimple DELETE FROM
tablename queries. This mode tricks such
DBMS's into telling the count by adding WHERE
1=1 to the end of DELETE queries.
PORTABILITY_EMPTY_TO_NULL
Convert empty strings values to null in data in
and output. Needed because Oracle considers
empty strings to be null, while most other
DBMS's know the difference between empty
and null.
PORTABILITY_ERRORS
Makes certain error messages in certain
drivers compatible with those from other
DBMS's
PORTABILITY_FIX_ASSOC_FIELD_NAMES This removes any qualifiers from keys in
associative fetches. Some RDBMS, like for
example SQLite, will by default use the fully
qualified name for a column in assoc fetches if
it is qualified in a query.
PORTABILITY_FIX_CASE
Convert names of tables and fields to lower or
upper case in all methods. The case depends
on the field_case option that may be set to
either CASE_LOWER (default) or
CASE_UPPER
PORTABILITY_NONE
Turn off all portability features.
PORTABILITY_NUMROWS
Enable hack that makes numRows() work in
Oracle.
PORTABILITY_EXPR
Makes DQL API throw exceptions when nonportable expressions are being used.
PORTABILITY_RTRIM
Right trim the data output for all data fetches.
This does not applied in drivers for RDBMS
that automatically right trim values of fixed
length character values, even if they do not
right trim value of variable length character
values.
Examples
Now we can use the setAttribute() method to enable portability for lowercasing and
trimming with the following code:
Listing
4-6
// bootstrap.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
33
// ...
$conn->setAttribute('portability',
Doctrine::PORTABILITY_FIX_CASE | Doctrine::PORTABILITY_RTRIM);
Enable all portability options except trimming
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-7
// ...
$conn->setAttribute('portability',
Doctrine::PORTABILITY_ALL ^ Doctrine::PORTABILITY_RTRIM);
Identifier quoting
You can quote the db identifiers (table and field names) with quoteIdentifier(). The
delimiting style depends on which database driver is being used.
Just because you CAN use delimited identifiers, it doesn't mean you SHOULD use them. In
general, they end up causing way more problems than they solve. Anyway, it may be
necessary when you have a reserved word as a field name (in this case, we suggest you to
change it, if you can).
Some of the internal Doctrine methods generate queries. Enabling the quote_identifier
attribute of Doctrine you can tell Doctrine to quote the identifiers in these generated queries.
For all user supplied queries this option is irrelevant.
Portability is broken by using the following characters inside delimited identifiers:
Name
Character Driver
backtick
`
MySQL
double quote "
Oracle
brackets
Access
[ or ]
Delimited identifiers are known to generally work correctly under the following drivers:
Mssql, Mysql, Oracle, Pgsql, Sqlite and Firebird.
When using the Doctrine::ATTR_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER option, all of the field identifiers will
be automatically quoted in the resulting SQL statements:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-8
// ...
$conn->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_QUOTE_IDENTIFIER, true);
Will result in a SQL statement that all the field names are quoted with the backtick '`'
operator (in MySQL).
SELECT
*
FROM sometable
WHERE `id` = '123'
Listing
4-9
As opposed to:
Listing
4-10
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
34
SELECT
*
FROM sometable
WHERE id = '123'
Exporting
The export attribute is used for telling Doctrine what it should export when exporting classes
to your database for creating your tables.
If you don't want to export anything when exporting you can use:
Listing
4-11
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_EXPORT, Doctrine::EXPORT_NONE);
For exporting tables only (but not constraints) you can use on of the following:
Listing
4-12
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_EXPORT, Doctrine::EXPORT_TABLES);
You can also use the following syntax as it is the same as the above:
Listing
4-13
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_EXPORT,
Doctrine::EXPORT_ALL ^ Doctrine::EXPORT_CONSTRAINTS);
For exporting everything (tables and constraints) you can use:
Listing
4-14
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_EXPORT, Doctrine::EXPORT_ALL);
Naming convention attributes
Naming convention attributes affect the naming of different database related elements such
as tables, indexes and sequences. Basically every naming convention attribute has affect in
both ways. When importing schemas from the database to classes and when exporting classes
into database tables.
So for example by default Doctrine naming convention for indexes is %s_idx. Not only do the
indexes you set get a special suffix, also the imported classes get their indexes mapped to
their non-suffixed equivalents. This applies to all naming convention attributes.
Index name format
Doctrine::ATTR_IDXNAME_FORMAT can be used for changing the naming convention of
indexes. By default Doctrine uses the format [name]_idx. So defining an index called
'ageindex' will actually be converted into 'ageindex_idx'.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
35
You can change the index naming convention with the following code:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-15
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_IDXNAME_FORMAT, '%s_index');
Sequence name format
Similar to Doctrine::ATTR_IDXNAME_FORMAT, Doctrine::ATTR_SEQNAME_FORMAT can
be used for changing the naming convention of sequences. By default Doctrine uses the
format [name]_seq, hence creating a new sequence with the name of mysequence will lead
into creation of sequence called mysequence_seq.
You can change the sequence naming convention with the following code:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-16
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_SEQNAME_FORMAT, '%s_sequence');
Table name format
The table name format can be changed the same as the index and sequence name format with
the following code:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-17
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_TBLNAME_FORMAT, '%s_table');
Database name format
The database name format can be changed the same as the index, sequence and table name
format with the following code:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
4-18
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_DBNAME_FORMAT, 'myframework_%s');
Validation attributes
Doctrine provides complete control over what it validates. The validation procedure can be
controlled with Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE.
The validation modes are bitwised, so they can be combined using | and removed using ^.
See the examples section below on how to do this.
Validation mode constants
Name
Description
VALIDATE_NONE
Turns off the whole validation procedure.
VALIDATE_LENGTHS
Makes Doctrine validate all field lengths.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
VALIDATE_TYPES
36
Makes Doctrine validate all field types. Doctrine does loose type
validation. This means that for example string with value '13.3'
will not pass as an integer but '13' will.
VALIDATE_CONSTRAINTS Makes Doctrine validate all field constraints such as notnull,
email etc.
VALIDATE_ALL
Turns on all validations.
Validation by default is turned off so if you wish for your data to be validated you will need
to enable it. Some examples of how to change this configuration are provided below.
Examples
You can turn on all validations by using the Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL attribute with the
following code:
Listing
4-19
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL);
You can also configure Doctrine to validate lengths and types, but not constraints with the
following code:
Listing
4-20
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE,
Doctrine::VALIDATE_LENGTHS | Doctrine::VALIDATE_TYPES);
Optional String Syntax
You can optionally specify attribute names and values as strings. Below is an example. This is
allowed as a convenience to shorten the syntax and make it easier to type.
Listing
4-21
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$conn->setAttribute('validate', 'none');
Internally when strings are used they are converted to the constants and used.
Conclusion
Now we have gone over some of the most common attributes used to configure Doctrine.
Some of these attributes may not apply to you ever or you may not understand what you could
use them for now. As you read the next chapters you will see which attributes you do and
don't need to use and things will begin to make more sense.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 4: Configuration
37
If you saw some attributes you wanted to change the value above, then you should have
added it to your bootstrap.php file and it should look something like the following now:
/**
* Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader and specify
* configuration attributes
*/
require_once('../doctrine/branches/1.0/lib/Doctrine.php');
spl_autoload_register(array('Doctrine', 'autoload'));
$manager = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance();
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('sqlite::memory:', 'doctrine');
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL);
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_EXPORT, Doctrine::EXPORT_ALL);
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_MODEL_LOADING,
Doctrine::MODEL_LOADING_CONSERVATIVE);
Now we are ready to move on to the next chapter where we will learn everything their is to
know about Doctrine Connections (page 38).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
4-22
Chapter 5: Connections
38
Chapter 5
Connections
Introduction
From the start Doctrine has been designed to work with multiple connections. Unless
separately specified Doctrine always uses the current connection for executing the queries.
In this chapter we will demonstrate how to create and work with Doctrine connections.
Opening Connections
Doctrine_Manager provides the static method Doctrine_Manager::connection()
which opens new connections.
In this example we will show you to open a new connection:
Listing
5-1
// test.php
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://username:[email protected]/
test', 'connection 1');
Retrieve Connections
If you use the Doctrine_Manager::connection() method and don't pass any arguments
it will return the current connection:
Listing
5-2
// test.php
// ...
$conn2 = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
if ($conn === $conn2) {
echo 'Doctrine_Manager::connection() returns the current connection';
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 5: Connections
39
Current Connection
The current connection is the last opened connection. In the next example we will show how
you can get the current connection from the Doctrine_Manager instance:
// test.php
Listing
5-3
// ...
$conn2 =
Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://username2:[email protected]/
test2', 'connection 2');
if ($conn2 === $manager->getCurrentConnection()) {
echo 'Current connection is the connection we just created!';
}
Change Current Connection
You
can
change
the
current
Doctrine_Manager::setCurrentConnection().
connection
by
calling
// test.php
Listing
5-4
// ...
$manager->setCurrentConnection('connection 1');
echo $manager->getCurrentConnection()->getName(); // connection 1
Iterating Connections
You can iterate over the opened connections by simply passing the manager object to a
foreach clause. This is possible since Doctrine_Manager implements special
IteratorAggregate interface.
The IteratorAggregate is a special PHP interface for implementing iterators in to your
objects.
// test.php
Listing
5-5
// ...
foreach($manager as $conn) {
echo $conn->getName() . "\n";
}
Get Connection Name
You can easily get the name of a Doctrine_Connection instance with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
5-6
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 5: Connections
40
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$name = $manager->getConnectionName($conn);
echo $name; // connection 1
Close Connection
You can easily close a connection and remove it from the Doctrine connection registry with
the following code:
Listing
5-7
// test.php
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$manager->closeConnection($conn);
If you wish to close the connection but not remove it from the Doctrine connection registry
you can use the following code instead:
Listing
5-8
// test.php
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$conn->close();
Get All Connections
You can retrieve an array of all the registered connections
Doctrine_Manager::getConnections() method like below:
Listing
5-9
by
using
the
// test.php
// ...
$conns = $manager->getConnections();
foreach ($conns as $conn) {
echo $conn->getName() . "\n";
}
The above is essentially the same as iterating over the Doctrine_Manager object like we did
earlier. Here it is again:
Listing
5-10
// test.php
// ...
foreach ($manager as $conn) {
echo $conn->getName() . "\n";
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 5: Connections
41
Count Connections
You can easily get the number of connections from a Doctrine_Manager object since it
implements the Countable interface.
// test.php
Listing
5-11
// ...
$num = count($manager);
echo $num;
The above is the same as doing:
// test.php
Listing
5-12
// ...
$num = $manager->count();
Creating and Dropping Database
When you create connections using Doctrine, you gain the ability to easily create and drop
the databases related to those connections.
This is as simple as using some functions provided in the Doctrine_Manager or
Doctrine_Connection classes.
The following code will iterate over all instantiated connections
dropDatabases()/createDatabases() function on each one:
and
call
the
// test.php
Listing
5-13
// ...
$manager->createDatabases();
$manager->dropDatabases();
Drop/create database for specific connection
You can easily drop or create the database for a specific Doctrine_Connection instance by
calling the dropDatabase()/createDatabase() function on the connection instance with
the following code:
// test.php
Listing
5-14
// ...
$conn->createDatabase();
$conn->dropDatabase();
Conclusion
Now that we have learned all about Doctrine connections we should be ready to dive right in
to models in the Introduction to Models (page 43) chapter. We will learn a little bit about
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 5: Connections
42
Doctrine models first. Then we will start to have some fun and create our first test models
and see what kind of magic Doctrine can provide for you.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
43
Chapter 6
Introduction to Models
Introduction
At the lowest level, Doctrine represents your database schema with a set of PHP classes.
These classes define the schema and behavior of your model.
A basic model that represents a user in a web application might look something like this.
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Timestampable');
}
}
We aren't actually going to use the above class definition, it is only meant to be an
example. We will generate our first class definition from an existing database table later in
this chapter.
Each Doctrine_Record child class can have a setTableDefinition() and setUp()
method. The setTableDefinition() method is for defining columns, indexes and other
information about the schema of tables. The setUp() method is for attaching behaviors and
defining relationships between Doctrine_Record child classes. In the above example we
are enabling the Timestampable behavior which adds some automagic functionality. You will
learn more about what all can be used in these functions in the Defining Models (page 52)
chapter.
Generating Models
Doctrine offers ways to generate these classes to make it easier to get started using Doctrine.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
6-1
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
44
Generating from existing databases is only meant to be a convenience for getting started.
After you generate from the database you will have to tweak it and clean things up as
needed.
Existing Databases
A common case when looking for ORM tools like Doctrine is that the database and the code
that access it is growing large/complex. A more substantial tool is needed than manual SQL
code.
Doctrine has support for generating Doctrine_Record classes from your existing database.
There is no need for you to manually write all the Doctrine_Record classes for your domain
model.
Making the first import
Let's consider we have a mysql database called doctrine_test with a single table named
user. The user table has been created with the following sql statement:
Listing
6-2
CREATE TABLE user (
id bigint(20) NOT NULL auto_increment,
first_name varchar(255) default NULL,
last_name varchar(255) default NULL,
username varchar(255) default NULL,
password varchar(255) default NULL,
type varchar(255) default NULL,
is_active tinyint(1) default '1',
is_super_admin tinyint(1) default '0',
created_at TIMESTAMP,
updated_at TIMESTAMP,
PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB
Now we would like to convert it into Doctrine_Record class. With Doctrine this is easy!
Remember our test script we created in the Getting Started (page 18) chapter? We're going to
use that generate our models.
First we need to modify our bootstrap.php to use the MySQL database instead of sqlite
memory:
Listing
6-3
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://root:[email protected]/
doctrine_test', 'doctrine');
// ...
You can use the $conn->createDatabase() method to create the database if it does not
already exist and the connected user has permission to create databases. Then use the
above provided CREATE TABLE statement to create the table.
Now we need a place to store our generated classes so lets create a directory named models
in the doctrine_test directory:
Listing
6-4
$ mkdir doctrine_test/models
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
45
Now we just need to add the code to our test.php script to generate the model classes:
// test.php
Listing
6-5
// ...
Doctrine::generateModelsFromDb('models', array('doctrine'),
array('generateTableClasses' => true));
The generateModelsFromDb method only requires one parameter and it is the import
directory (the directory where the generated record files will be written to). The second
argument is an array of database connection names to generate models for, and the third is
the array of options to use for the model building.
That's it! Now there should be a file called BaseUser.php in your doctrine_test/
models/generated directory. The file should look like the following:
// models/generated/BaseUser.php
Listing
6-6
/**
* This class has been auto-generated by the Doctrine ORM Framework
*/
abstract class BaseUser extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->setTableName('user');
$this->hasColumn('id', 'integer', 8, array('type' => 'integer',
'length' => 8, 'primary' => true, 'autoincrement' => true));
$this->hasColumn('first_name', 'string', 255, array('type' =>
'string', 'length' => 255));
$this->hasColumn('last_name', 'string', 255, array('type' => 'string',
'length' => 255));
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array('type' => 'string',
'length' => 255));
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255, array('type' => 'string',
'length' => 255));
$this->hasColumn('type', 'string', 255, array('type' => 'string',
'length' => 255));
$this->hasColumn('is_active', 'integer', 1, array('type' => 'integer',
'length' => 1, 'default' => '1'));
$this->hasColumn('is_super_admin', 'integer', 1, array('type' =>
'integer', 'length' => 1, 'default' => '0'));
$this->hasColumn('created_at', 'timestamp', null, array('type' =>
'timestamp', 'notnull' => true));
$this->hasColumn('updated_at', 'timestamp', null, array('type' =>
'timestamp', 'notnull' => true));
}
}
You should also have a file called User.php in your doctrine_test/models directory. The
file should look like the following:
// models/User.php
Listing
6-7
/**
* This class has been auto-generated by the Doctrine ORM Framework
*/
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
46
class User extends BaseUser
{
}
Doctrine will automatically generate a skeleton Doctrine_Table class for the model at
doctrine_test/models/UserTable.php
because
we
passed
the
option
generateTableClasses with a value of true. The file should look like the following:
Listing
6-8
// models/UserTable.php
/**
* This class has been auto-generated by the Doctrine ORM Framework
*/
class UserTable extends Doctrine_Table
{
}
You can place custom functions inside the User and UserTable classes to customize the
functionality of your models. Below are some examples:
Listing
6-9
// models/User.php
// ...
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setPassword($password)
{
return $this->_set('password', md5($password));
}
}
In order for the above password accessor overriding to work properly you must enabled
the auto_accessor_override attribute in your bootstrap.php file like done below.
Listing
6-10
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_AUTO_ACCESSOR_OVERRIDE, true);
Now when you try and set a users password it will be md5 encrypted. First we need to modify
our bootstrap.php file to include some code for autoloading our models from the models
directory:
Listing
6-11
// bootstrap.php
// ...
Doctrine::loadModels('models');
The model loading is fully explained later in the Autoloading Models (page 49) section of
this chapter.
Now we can modify test.php to include some code which will test the changes we made to
the User model:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
47
// test.php
Listing
6-12
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme';
echo $user->password; // outputs md5 hash and not changeme
Now when you execute test.php from your terminal you should see the following:
$ php test.php
4cb9c8a8048fd02294477fcb1a41191a
Listing
6-13
Here is an example of some custom functions you might add to the UserTable class:
// models/UserTable.php
Listing
6-14
// ...
class UserTable extends Doctrine_Table
{
public function getCreatedToday()
{
$today = date('Y-m-d h:i:s', strtotime(date('Y-m-d')));
return $this->createQuery('u')
->where('u.created_at > ?', $today)
->execute();
}
}
In order for custom Doctrine_Table classes to be loaded you must enable the
autoload_table_classes attribute in your bootstrap.php file like done below.
// boostrap.php
Listing
6-15
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_AUTOLOAD_TABLE_CLASSES, true);
Now you have access to this function when you are working with the UserTable instance:
// test.php
Listing
6-16
// ...
$usersCreatedToday = Doctrine::getTable('User')->getCreatedToday();
Schema Files
You can alternatively manage your models with YAML schema files and generate PHP classes
from them. First lets generate a YAML schema file from the existing models we already have
to make things easier. Change test.php to have the following code inside:
// test.php
Listing
6-17
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
48
Doctrine::generateYamlFromModels('schema.yml', 'models');
Execute the test.php script:
Listing
6-18
$ php test.php
Now you should see a file named schema.yml created in the root of the doctrine_test
directory. It should look like the following:
Listing
6-19
--User:
tableName: user
columns:
id:
type: integer(8)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
is_active:
type: integer(1)
default: '1'
is_super_admin:
type: integer(1)
default: '0'
created_at:
type: timestamp(25)
notnull: true
updated_at:
type: timestamp(25)
notnull: true
first_name: string(255)
last_name: string(255)
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
type: string(255)
So now that we have a valid YAML schema file, we can now maintain our schema from here
and generate the PHP classes from here. Lets create a new php script called generate.php.
This script will re-generate everything and make sure the database is reinstantiated each
time the script is called:
Listing
6-20
// generate.php
require_once('bootstrap.php');
Doctrine::dropDatabases();
Doctrine::createDatabases();
Doctrine::generateModelsFromYaml('schema.yml', 'models');
Doctrine::createTablesFromModels('models');
Now you can alter your schema.yml and re-generate your models by running the following
command from your terminal:
Listing
6-21
$ php generate.php
Now that we have our YAML schema file setup and we can re-generate our models from the
schema files lets cleanup the file a little and take advantage of some of the power of Doctrine:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
49
--User:
actAs: [Timestampable]
columns:
is_active:
type: integer(1)
default: '1'
is_super_admin:
type: integer(1)
default: '0'
first_name: string(255)
last_name: string(255)
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
type: string(255)
Listing
6-22
Notice some of the changes we made:
1.) Removed the explicit tableName definition as it will default to user.
2.) Attached the Timestampable behavior.
3.) Removed id column as it is automatically added if no primary key is defined.
4.) Removed updated_at and created_at columns as they can be handled automatically
by the Timestampable behavior.
Now look how much cleaner the YAML is and is because we take advantage of defaults and
utilize core behaviors it is much less work we have to do ourselves.
Now re-generate your models from the YAML schema file:
$ php generate.php
Listing
6-23
You can learn more about YAML Schema Files in its dedicated chapter (page 194).
Manually Writing Models
You can optionally skip all the convenience methods and write your models manually using
nothing but your own PHP code. You can learn all about the models syntax in the Defining
Models (page 52) chapter.
Autoloading Models
Doctrine offers two ways of loading models. We have conservative(lazy) loading, and
aggressive loading. Conservative loading will not require the PHP file initially, instead it will
cache the path to the class name and this path is then used in the Doctrine::autoload()
we registered earlier with spl_autoload_register(). Below are some examples using the both
types of model loading.
Conservative
Conservative model loading is going to be the ideal model loading method for a production
environment. This method will lazy load all of the models instead of loading them all when
model loading is executed.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
50
Conservative model loading requires that each file contain only one class, and the file must be
named after the class. For example, if you have a class named User, it must be contained in a
file named User.php.
To use conservative model loading we need to set the model loading attribute to be
conservative:
Listing
6-24
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_MODEL_LOADING,
Doctrine::MODEL_LOADING_CONSERVATIVE);
We already made this change in an earlier step in the bootstrap.php file so you don't
need to make this change again.
When we use the Doctrine::loadModels() functionality all found classes will be cached
internally so the autoloader can require them later.
Listing
6-25
Doctrine::loadModels('models');
Now when we instantiate a new class, for example a User class, the autoloader will be
triggered and the class is required.
Listing
6-26
// triggers call to Doctrine::autoload() and the class is included
$user = new User();
Instantiating the class above triggers a call to Doctrine::autoload() and the class that
was found in the call to Doctrine::loadModels() will be required and made available.
Conservative model loading is recommended in most cases, specifically for production
environments as you do not want to require every single model class even when it is not
needed as this is unnecessary overhead. You only want to require it when it is needed.
Aggressive
Aggressive model loading is the default model loading method and is very simple, it will look
for all files with a .php extension and will include it. Doctrine can not satisfy any inheritance
and if your models extend another model, it cannot include them in the correct order so it is
up to you to make sure all dependencies are satisfied in each class.
With aggressive model loading you can have multiple classes per file and the file name is not
required to be related to the name of the class inside of the file.
The downside of aggressive model loading is that every php file is included in every request,
so if you have lots of models it is recommended you use conservative model loading.
To use aggressive model loading we need to set the model loading attribute to be aggressive:
Listing
6-27
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_MODEL_LOADING,
Doctrine::MODEL_LOADING_AGGRESSIVE);
Aggressive is the default of the model loading attribute so explicitly setting it is not
necessary if you wish to use it.
When we use the Doctrine::loadModels() functionality all the classes found will be
included right away:
Listing
6-28
Doctrine::loadModels('/path/to/models');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 6: Introduction to Models
51
Custom Accessors/Mutators
With Doctrine it is possible to define custom accessors and mutators to use in your Doctrine
models. This is possible with the hasAccessor() and hasMutator() mapping methods. Or,
you can define both the mutator and accessor in one call using the hasAccessorMutator()
method.
Imagine a user model where you want to define a custom password mutator that encrypts the
password using the PHP md5() method:
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string' 255);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255);
}
Listing
6-29
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMutator('password', 'md5Password');
}
public function md5Password($value)
{
$this->_set('password', md5($value));
}
}
Now when you try and set the password the custom mutator will be invoked instead of the
normal mutating procedure.
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme'; // invokes User::md5Password()
Conclusion
This chapter is probably the most intense chapter so far but it is a good one. We learned a
little about how to use models, how to generate models from existing databases, how to write
our own models, and how to maintain our models as YAML schema files. We also modified our
Doctrine test environment to implement some functionality for loading models from our
models directory.
This topic of Doctrine models is so large that it warranted the chapters being split in to three
pieces to make it easier on the developer to absorb all the information. In the next chapter
(page 52) we will really get in to the API we use to define our models.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
6-30
Chapter 7: Defining Models
52
Chapter 7
Defining Models
As we mentioned before, at the lowest level in Doctrine your schema is represented by a set
of php classes that map the schema meta data for your database tables.
In this chapter we will explain in detail how you can map your schema information using php
code.
Columns
One problem with database compatibility is that many databases differ in their behavior of
how the result set of a query is returned. MySQL leaves the field names unchanged, which
means if you issue a query of the form "SELECT myField FROM ..." then the result set will
contain the field 'myField'.
Unfortunately, this is just the way MySQL and some other databases do it. Postgres for
example returns all field names in lowercase whilst Oracle returns all field names in
uppercase. "So what? In what way does this influence me when using Doctrine?", you may
ask. Fortunately, you don't have to bother about that issue at all.
Doctrine takes care of this problem transparently. That means if you define a derived Record
class and define a field called myField you will always access it through $record>myField (or $record['myField'], whatever you prefer) no matter whether you're using
MySQL or Postgres or Oracle etc.
In short: You can name your fields however you want, using under_scores, camelCase or
whatever you prefer.
In Doctrine columns and column aliases are case sensitive. So when you are using columns
in your DQL queries, the column/field names must match the case in your model definition.
Column Lengths
In Doctrine column length is an integer that specifies the column length. Some column types
depend not only the given portable type but also on the given length. For example type string
with length 1000 will be translated into native type TEXT on mysql.
The length is different depending on the type of column you are using:
•
•
•
•
integer - Length is the the number of bytes the integer occupies.
string - Number of the characters allowed in the string.
float/decimal - Total number of characters allowed excluding the decimal.
enum - If using native enum length does not apply but if using emulated enums then
it is just the string length of the column value.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
53
Column Aliases
Doctrine offers a way of setting column aliases. This can be very useful when you want to
keep the application logic separate from the database logic. For example if you want to
change the name of the database field all you need to change at your application is the
column definition.
// models/Book.php
Listing
7-1
class Book extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('bookTitle as title', 'string');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-2
# ...
Book:
columns:
bookTitle:
name: bookTitle as title
type: string
Now the column in the database is named bookTitle but you can access the property on your
objects using title.
// test.php
Listing
7-3
// ...
$book = new Book();
$book->title = 'Some book';
$book->save();
Default values
Doctrine supports default values for all data types. When default value is attached to a record
column this means two things. First this value is attached to every newly created Record and
when Doctrine creates your database tables it includes the default value in the create table
statement.
// models/generated/BaseUser.php
Listing
7-4
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array('default' =>
'default username'));
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
54
}
// ...
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-5
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
# ...
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
default: default username
# ...
Now when you print the name on a brand new User record it will print the default value:
Listing
7-6
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
echo $user->username; // default username
Data types
Introduction
All DBMS provide multiple choice of data types for the information that can be stored in their
database table fields. However, the set of data types made available varies from DBMS to
DBMS.
To simplify the interface with the DBMS supported by Doctrine, a base set of data types was
defined. Applications may access them independently of the underlying DBMS.
The Doctrine applications programming interface takes care of mapping data types when
managing database options. It is also able to convert that is sent to and received from the
underlying DBMS using the respective driver.
The following data type examples should be used with Doctrine's createTable() method. The
example array at the end of the data types section may be used with createTable() to create a
portable table on the DBMS of choice (please refer to the main Doctrine documentation to
find out what DBMS back ends are properly supported). It should also be noted that the
following examples do not cover the creation and maintenance of indices, this chapter is only
concerned with data types and the proper usage thereof.
It should be noted that the length of the column affects in database level type as well as
application level validated length (the length that is validated with Doctrine validators).
Example 1. Column named 'content' with type 'string' and length 3000 results in database
type 'TEXT' of which has database level length of 4000. However when the record is validated
it is only allowed to have 'content' -column with maximum length of 3000.
Example 2. Column with type 'integer' and length 1 results in 'TINYINT' on many databases.
In general Doctrine is smart enough to know which integer/string type to use depending on
the specified length.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
55
Type modifiers
Within the Doctrine API there are a few modifiers that have been designed to aid in optimal
table design. These are:
•
•
•
•
The notnull modifiers
The length modifiers
The default modifiers
unsigned modifiers for some field definitions, although not all DBMS's support this
modifier for integer field types.
• collation modifiers (not supported by all drivers)
• fixed length modifiers for some field definitions.
Building upon the above, we can say that the modifiers alter the field definition to create
more specific field types for specific usage scenarios. The notnull modifier will be used in the
following way to set the default DBMS NOT NULL Flag on the field to true or false,
depending on the DBMS's definition of the field value: In PostgreSQL the "NOT NULL"
definition will be set to "NOT NULL", whilst in MySQL (for example) the "NULL" option will
be set to "NO". In order to define a "NOT NULL" field type, we simply add an extra parameter
to our definition array (See the examples in the following section)
'sometime' = array(
'type'
=> 'time',
'default' => '12:34:05',
'notnull' => true,
),
Listing
7-7
Using the above example, we can also explore the default field operator. Default is set in the
same way as the notnull operator to set a default value for the field. This value may be set in
any character set that the DBMS supports for text fields, and any other valid data for the
field's data type. In the above example, we have specified a valid time for the "Time" data
type, '12:34:05'. Remember that when setting default dates and times, as well as datetimes,
you should research and stay within the epoch of your chosen DBMS, otherwise you will
encounter difficult to diagnose errors!
'sometext' = array(
'type'
=> 'string',
'length' => 12,
),
Listing
7-8
The above example will create a character varying field of length 12 characters in the
database table. If the length definition is left out, Doctrine will create a length of the
maximum allowable length for the data type specified, which may create a problem with some
field types and indexing. Best practice is to define lengths for all or most of your fields.
Boolean
The boolean data type represents only two values that can be either 1 or 0. Do not assume
that these data types are stored as integers because some DBMS drivers may implement this
type with single character text fields for a matter of efficiency. Ternary logic is possible by
using null as the third possible value that may be assigned to fields of this type.
The next several examples are not meant for you to use and give them a try. They are
simply for demonstrating purposes to show you how to use the different Doctrine data
types using PHP code or YAML schema files.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
Listing
7-9
56
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('booltest', 'boolean');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-10
--Test:
columns:
booltest: boolean
Integer
The integer type is the same as integer type in PHP. It may store integer values as large as
each DBMS may handle.
Fields of this type may be created optionally as unsigned integers but not all DBMS support
it. Therefore, such option may be ignored. Truly portable applications should not rely on the
availability of this option.
The integer type maps to different database type depending on the column length.
Listing
7-11
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('integertest', 'integer', 4, array(
'unsigned' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-12
--Test:
columns:
integertest:
type: integer(4)
unsigned: true
Float
The float data type may store floating point decimal numbers. This data type is suitable for
representing numbers withina large scale range that do not require high accuracy. The scale
and the precision limits of the values that may be stored in a database depends on the DBMS
that it is used.
Listing
7-13
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
57
$this->hasColumn('floattest', 'float');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
floattest: float
Listing
7-14
Decimal
The decimal data type may store fixed precision decimal numbers. This data type is suitable
for representing numbers that require high precision and accuracy.
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('decimaltest', 'decimal');
}
}
Listing
7-15
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
decimaltest: decimal
Listing
7-16
You can specify the length of the decimal just like you would set the length of any other
column and you can specify the scale as an option in the third argument:
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('decimaltest', 'decimal', 18, array(
'scale' => 2
)
);
}
}
Listing
7-17
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
decimaltest:
type: decimal(18)
scale: 2
-----------------
Listing
7-18
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
58
String
The text data type is available with two options for the length: one that is explicitly length
limited and another of undefined length that should be as large as the database allows.
The length limited option is the most recommended for efficiency reasons. The undefined
length option allows very large fields but may prevent the use of indexes, nullability and may
not allow sorting on fields of its type.
The fields of this type should be able to handle 8 bit characters. Drivers take care of DBMS
specific escaping of characters of special meaning with the values of the strings to be
converted to this type.
By default Doctrine will use variable length character types. If fixed length types should be
used can be controlled via the fixed modifier.
Listing
7-19
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('stringtest', 'string', 200, array(
'fixed' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-20
--Test:
columns:
stringtest:
type: string(200)
fixed: true
Array
This is the same as the 'array' type in PHP.
Listing
7-21
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('arraytest', 'array', 10000);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-22
--Test:
columns:
arraytest: array(10000)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
59
Object
Doctrine supports objects as column types. Basically you can set an object to a field and
Doctrine handles automatically the serialization / unserialization of that object.
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('objecttest', 'object');
}
}
Listing
7-23
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
objecttest: object
Listing
7-24
The array and object types simply serialize the data when persisting to the database and
unserialize the data when pulling from the database.
Blob
Blob (Binary Large OBject) data type is meant to store data of undefined length that may be
too large to store in text fields, like data that is usually stored in files.
Blob fields are usually not meant to be used as parameters of query search clause (WHERE)
unless the underlying DBMS supports a feature usually known as "full text search"
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('blobtest', 'blob');
}
}
Listing
7-25
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
blobtest: blob
Listing
7-26
Clob
Clob (Character Large OBject) data type is meant to store data of undefined length that may
be too large to store in text fields, like data that is usually stored in files.
Clob fields are meant to store only data made of printable ASCII characters whereas blob
fields are meant to store all types of data.
Clob fields are usually not meant to be used as parameters of query search clause (WHERE)
unless the underlying DBMS supports a feature usually known as "full text search"
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
Listing
7-27
60
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('clobtest', 'clob');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-28
--Test:
columns:
clobtest: clob
Timestamp
The timestamp data type is a mere combination of the date and the time of the day data
types. The representation of values of the time stamp type is accomplished by joining the date
and time string values in a single string joined by a space. Therefore, the format template is
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS. The represented values obey the same rules and ranges described
for the date and time data types
Listing
7-29
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('timestamptest', 'timestamp');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-30
--Test:
columns:
timestamptest: timestamp
Time
The time data type may represent the time of a given moment of the day. DBMS independent
representation of the time of the day is also accomplished by using text strings formatted
according to the ISO-8601 standard.
The format defined by the ISO-8601 standard for the time of the day is HH:MI:SS where HH
is the number of hour the day from 00 to 23 and MI and SS are respectively the number of
the minute and of the second from 00 to 59. Hours, minutes and seconds numbered below 10
should be padded on the left with 0.
Some DBMS have native support for time of the day formats, but for others the DBMS driver
may have to represent them as integers or text values. In any case, it is always possible to
make comparisons between time values as well sort query results by fields of this type.
Listing
7-31
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
61
{
$this->hasColumn('timetest', 'time');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
timetest: time
Listing
7-32
Date
The date data type may represent dates with year, month and day. DBMS independent
representation of dates is accomplished by using text strings formatted according to the
IS0-8601 standard.
The format defined by the ISO-8601 standard for dates is YYYY-MM-DD where YYYY is the
number of the year (Gregorian calendar), MM is the number of the month from 01 to 12 and
DD is the number of the day from 01 to 31. Months or days numbered below 10 should be
padded on the left with 0.
Some DBMS have native support for date formats, but for others the DBMS driver may have
to represent them as integers or text values. In any case, it is always possible to make
comparisons between date values as well sort query results by fields of this type.
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('datetest', 'date');
}
}
Listing
7-33
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Test:
columns:
datetest: date
Listing
7-34
Enum
Doctrine has a unified enum type. The possible values for the column can be specified on the
column definition with Doctrine_Record::hasColumn()
If you wish to use native enum types for your DBMS if it supports it then you must set the
following attribute:
$conn->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_USE_NATIVE_ENUM, true);
Listing
7-35
Here is an example of how to specify the enum values:
Listing
7-36
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
62
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('enumtest', 'enum', null,
array('values' => array('php', 'java', 'python'))
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-37
--Test:
columns:
enumtest:
type: enum
values: [php, java, python]
Gzip
Gzip datatype is the same as string except that its automatically compressed when persisted
and uncompressed when fetched. This datatype can be useful when storing data with a large
compressibility ratio, such as bitmap images.
Listing
7-38
class Test extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('gziptest', 'gzip');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-39
--Test:
columns:
gziptest: gzip
The family of php functions for compressing21 are used internally for compressing and
uncompressing the contents of the gzip column type.
Examples
Consider the following definition:
Listing
7-40
class Example extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('id', 'string', 32, array(
21.
http://www.php.net/gzcompress
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
63
'type' => 'string',
'fixed' => 1,
'primary' => true,
'length' => '32'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('someint', 'integer', 10, array(
'type' => 'integer',
'unsigned' => true,
'length' => '10'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('sometime', 'time', 25, array(
'type' => 'time',
'default' => '12:34:05',
'notnull' => true,
'length' => '25'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('sometext', 'string', 12, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '12'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('somedate', 'date', 25, array(
'type' => 'date',
'length' => '25'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('sometimestamp', 'timestamp', 25, array(
'type' => 'timestamp',
'length' => '25'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('someboolean', 'boolean', 25, array(
'type' => 'boolean',
'length' => '25'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('somedecimal', 'decimal', 18, array(
'type' => 'decimal',
'length' => '18'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('somefloat', 'float', 2147483647, array(
'type' => 'float',
'length' => '2147483647'
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
64
$this->hasColumn('someclob', 'clob', 2147483647, array(
'type' => 'clob',
'length' => '2147483647'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('someblob', 'blob', 2147483647, array(
'type' => 'blob',
'length' => '2147483647'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-41
--Example:
tableName: example
columns:
id:
type: string(32)
fixed: true
primary: true
someint:
type: integer(10)
unsigned: true
sometime:
type: time(25)
default: '12
notnull: true
sometext: string(12)
somedate: date(25)
sometimestamp: timestamp(25)
someboolean: boolean(25)
somedecimal: decimal(18)
somefloat: float(2147483647)
someclob: clob(2147483647)
someblob: blob(2147483647)
The above example will create the following database table in Pgsql:
Column
Type
id
character(32)
someint
integer
sometime
time without time zone
sometext
character or varying(12)
somedate
date
sometimestamp timestamp without time zone
someboolean
boolean
somedecimal
numeric(18,2)
somefloat
double precision
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
65
someclob
text
someblob
bytea
The schema will create the following database table in Mysql:
Field
Type
id
char(32)
someint
integer
sometime
time
sometext
varchar(12)
somedate
date
sometimestamp timestamp
someboolean
tinyint(1)
somedecimal
decimal(18,2)
somefloat
double
someclob
longtext
someblob
longblob
Relationships
Introduction
In Doctrine all record relations are being set with Doctrine_Record::hasMany,
Doctrine_Record::hasOne methods. Doctrine supports almost all kinds of database
relations from simple one-to-one foreign key relations to join table self-referencing relations.
Unlike
the
column
definitions
the
Doctrine_Record::hasMany
and
Doctrine_Record::hasOne methods are placed within a method called setUp(). Both
methods take two arguments: the first argument is a string containing the name of the class
and optional alias, the second argument is an array consisting of relation options. The option
array contains the following keys:
Name
Optional Description
local
No
The local field of the relation. Local field is the linked field in the
defining class.
foreign
No
The foreign field of the relation. Foreign field is the linked field in
the linked class.
refClass
Yes
The name of the association class. This is only needed for many-tomany associations.
owningSide Yes
Set to boolean true to indicate the owning side of the relation. The
owning side is the side that owns the foreign key. There can only be
one owning side in an association between two classes. Note that
this option is required if Doctrine can't guess the owning side or it's
guess is wrong. An example where this is the case is when both
'local' and 'foreign' are part of the identifier (primary key). It never
hurts to specify the owning side in this way.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
66
onDelete
Yes
The onDelete integrity action that is applied on the foreign key
constraint when the tables are created by Doctrine.
onUpdate
Yes
The onUpdate integrity action that is applied on the foreign key
constraint when the tables are created by Doctrine.
cascade
Yes
Specify application level cascading operations. Currently only delete
is supported
So lets take our first example, say we have two classes Forum_Board and Forum_Thread.
Here Forum_Board has many Forum_Threads, hence their relation is one-to-many. We don't
want to write Forum_ when accessing relations, so we use relation aliases and use the alias
Threads.
First lets take a look at the Forum_Board class. It has three columns: name, description and
since we didn't specify any primary key, Doctrine auto-creates an id column for it.
We define the relation to the Forum_Thread class by using the hasMany() method. Here the
local field is the primary key of the board class whereas the foreign field is the board_id field
of the Forum_Thread class.
Listing
7-42
// models/Forum_Board.php
class Forum_Board extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 100);
$this->hasColumn('description', 'string', 5000);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Forum_Thread as Threads', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'board_id'
)
);
}
}
Notice the as keyword being used above. This means that the Forum_Board has a many
relationship defined to Forum_Thread but is aliased as Threads.
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-43
--# schema.yml
# ...
Forum_Board:
columns:
name: string(100)
description: string(5000)
Then lets have a peek at the Forum_Thread class. The columns here are irrelevant, but pay
attention to how we define the relation. Since each Thread can have only one Board we are
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
67
using the hasOne() method. Also notice how we once again use aliases and how the local
column here is board_id while the foreign column is the id column.
// models/Forum_Thread.php
Listing
7-44
class Forum_Thread extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('board_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 200);
$this->hasColumn('updated', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('closed', 'integer', 1);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Forum_Board as Board', array(
'local' => 'board_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-45
# ...
Forum_Thread:
columns:
user_id: integer
board_id: integer
title: string(200)
updated: integer(10)
closed: integer(1)
relations:
User:
local: user_id
foreign: id
foreignAlias: Threads
Board:
class: Forum_Board
local: board_id
foreign: id
foreignAlias: Threads
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
68
Now we can start using these classes. The same accessors that you've already used for
properties are all available for relations.
First lets create a new board:
Listing
7-46
// test.php
// ...
$board = new Forum_Board();
$board->name = 'Some board';
Now lets create a new thread under the board:
Listing
7-47
// test.php
// ...
$board->Threads[0]->title = 'new thread 1';
$board->Threads[1]->title = 'new thread 2';
Each Thread needs to be associated to a user so lets create a new User and associate it to
each Thread:
Listing
7-48
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$board->Threads[0]->User = $user;
$board->Threads[1]->User = $user;
Now we can save all the changes with one call. It will save the new board as well as its
threads:
Listing
7-49
// test.php
// ...
$board->save();
Lets do a little inspecting and see the data structure that is created when you use the code
from above. Add some code to test.php to output an array of the object graph we've just
populated:
Listing
7-50
print_r($board->toArray(true));
The Doctrine_Record::toArray() takes all the data of a Doctrine_Record instance
and converts it to an array so you can easily inspect the data of a record. It accepts an
argument named $deep telling it whether or not to include relationships. In this example
we have specified {[true]} because we want to include the Threads data.
Now when you execute test.php with PHP from your terminal you should see the following:
Listing
7-51
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 2
[name] => Some board
[description] =>
[Threads] => Array
(
[0] => Array
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
69
(
[id] => 3
[user_id] => 1
[board_id] => 2
[title] => new thread 1
[updated] =>
[closed] =>
[User] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[is_active] => 1
[is_super_admin] => 0
[first_name] =>
[last_name] =>
[username] => jwage
[password] =>
[type] =>
[created_at] => 2009-01-20 16:41:57
[updated_at] => 2009-01-20 16:41:57
)
)
[1] => Array
(
[id] => 4
[user_id] => 1
[board_id] => 2
[title] => new thread 2
[updated] =>
[closed] =>
[User] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[is_active] => 1
[is_super_admin] => 0
[first_name] =>
[last_name] =>
[username] => jwage
[password] =>
[type] =>
[created_at] => 2009-01-20 16:41:57
[updated_at] => 2009-01-20 16:41:57
)
)
)
)
Notice how the auto increment primary key and foreign keys are automatically set by
Doctrine internally. You don't have to worry about the setting of primary keys and foreign
keys at all!
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
70
Foreign Key Associations
One to One
One-to-one relations are probably the most basic relations. In the following example we have
two classes, User and Email with their relation being one-to-one.
First lets take a look at the Email class. Since we are binding a one-to-one relationship we are
using the hasOne() method. Notice how we define the foreign key column (user_id) in the
Email class. This is due to a fact that Email is owned by the User class and not the other way
around. In fact you should always follow this convention - always place the foreign key in the
owned class.
The recommended naming convention for foreign key columns is: [tableName]_[primaryKey].
As here the foreign table is 'user' and its primary key is 'id' we have named the foreign key
column as 'user_id'.
Listing
7-52
// models/Email.php
class Email extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string', 150);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-53
--# schema.yml
# ...
Email:
columns:
user_id: integer
address: string(150)
relations:
User:
local: user_id
foreign: id
When using YAML schema files it is not required to specify the relationship on the opposite
end(User) because the relationship is automatically flipped and added for you. The
relationship will be named the name of the class. So in this case the relationship on the
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
71
User side will be called Email and will be many. If you wish to customize this you can use
the foreignAlias and foreignType options.
The Email class is very similar to the User class. Notice how the local and foreign columns
are switched in the hasOne() definition compared to the definition of the Email class.
// models/User.php
Listing
7-54
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
$this->hasOne('Email', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
Notice how we override the setUp() method and call parent::setUp(). This is because
the BaseUser class which is generated from YAML or from an existing database contains
the main setUp() method and we override it in the User class to add an additional
relationship.
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-55
# ...
User:
# ...
relations:
# ...
Email:
local: id
foreign: user_id
One to Many and Many to One
One-to-Many and Many-to-One relations are very similar to One-to-One relations. The
recommended conventions you came in terms with in the previous chapter also apply to oneto-many and many-to-one relations.
In the following example we have two classes: User and Phonenumber. We define their
relation as one-to-many (a user can have many phonenumbers). Here once again the
Phonenumber is clearly owned by the User so we place the foreign key in the Phonenumber
class.
// models/User.php
Listing
7-56
class User extends BaseUser
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
72
{
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
// ...
$this->hasMany('Phonenumber as Phonenumbers', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
// models/Phonenumber.php
class Phonenumber extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('phonenumber', 'string', 50);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-57
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
# ...
relations:
# ...
Phonenumbers:
type: many
class: Phonenumber
local: id
foreign: user_id
Phonenumber:
columns:
user_id: integer
phonenumber: string(50)
relations:
User:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
73
local: user_id
foreign: id
Tree Structure
A tree structure is a self-referencing foreign key relation. The following definition is also
called Adjacency List implementation in terms of hierarchical data concepts.
// models/Task.php
Listing
7-58
class Task extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 100);
$this->hasColumn('parent_id', 'integer');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Task as Parent', array(
'local' => 'parent_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasMany('Task as Subtasks', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'parent_id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-59
# ...
Task:
columns:
name: string(100)
parent_id: integer
relations:
Parent:
class: Task
local: parent_id
foreign: id
foreignAlias: Subtasks
The above implementation is purely an example and is not the most efficient way to store
and retrieve hierarchical data. Check the NestedSet behavior included in Doctrine for the
recommended way to deal with hierarchical data.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
74
Join Table Associations
Many to Many
If you are coming from relational database background it may be familiar to you how many-tomany associations are handled: an additional association table is needed.
In many-to-many relations the relation between the two components is always an aggregate
relation and the association table is owned by both ends. For example in the case of users and
groups: when a user is being deleted, the groups he/she belongs to are not being deleted.
However, the associations between this user and the groups he/she belongs to are instead
being deleted. This removes the relation between the user and the groups he/she belonged to,
but does not remove the user nor the groups.
Sometimes you may not want that association table rows are being deleted when user / group
is being deleted. You can override this behavior by setting the relations to association
component (in this case Groupuser) explicitly.
In the following example we have Groups and Users of which relation is defined as many-tomany. In this case we also need to define an additional class called Groupuser.
Listing
7-60
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
// ...
$this->hasMany('Group as Groups', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'group_id',
'refClass' => 'UserGroup'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-61
--User:
# ...
relations:
# ...
Groups:
class: Group
local: user_id
foreign: group_id
refClass: UserGroup
The above refClass option is required when setting up many-to-many relationships.
Listing
7-62
// models/Group.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
75
class Group extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->setTableName('groups');
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 30);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('User as Users', array(
'local' => 'group_id',
'foreign' => 'user_id',
'refClass' => 'UserGroup'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-63
# ...
Group:
tableName: groups
columns:
name: string(30)
relations:
Users:
class: User
local: group_id
foreign: user_id
refClass: UserGroup
Please note that group is a reserved keyword so that is why we renamed the table to
groups using the setTableName method. The other option is to turn on identifier quoting
using the Doctrine::ATTR_QUOTE_IDENTIFIERS attribute so that the reserved word is
escaped with quotes.
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::Doctrine::ATTR_QUOTE_IDENTIFIERS, true);
Listing
7-64
// models/UserGroup.php
Listing
7-65
class UserGroup extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('group_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
76
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-66
--# schema.yml
# ...
UserGroup:
columns:
user_id:
type: integer
primary: true
group_id:
type: integer
primary: true
Notice how the relationship is bi-directional. Both User has many Group and Group has
many User. This is required by Doctrine in order for many-to-many relationships to fully
work.
Now lets play around with the new models and create a user and assign it some groups. First
create a new User instance:
Listing
7-67
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
Now add two new groups to the User:
Listing
7-68
// test.php
// ...
$user->Groups[0]->name = 'First Group';
$user->Groups[1]->name = 'Second Group';
Now you can save the groups to the database:
Listing
7-69
// test.php
// ...
$user->save();
Now you can delete the associations between user and groups it belongs to:
Listing
7-70
// test.php
// ...
$user->UserGroup->delete();
$groups = new Doctrine_Collection(Doctrine::getTable('Group'));
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
77
$groups[0]->name = 'Third Group';
$groups[1]->name = 'Fourth Group';
$user->Groups[2] = $groups[0];
// $user will now have 3 groups
$user->Groups = $groups;
// $user will now have two groups 'Third Group' and 'Fourth Group'
$user->save();
Now if we inspect the $user object data with the Doctrine_Record::toArray():
// test.php
Listing
7-71
// ...
print_r($user->toArray(true));
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[is_active] => 1
[is_super_admin] => 0
[first_name] =>
[last_name] =>
[username] => default username
[password] =>
[type] =>
[created_at] => 2009-01-20 16:48:57
[updated_at] => 2009-01-20 16:48:57
[Groups] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 3
[name] => Third Group
)
Listing
7-72
[1] => Array
(
[id] => 4
[name] => Fourth Group
)
)
[UserGroup] => Array
(
)
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
78
Self Referencing (Nest Relations)
Non-Equal Nest Relations
Listing
7-73
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
// ...
$this->hasMany('User as Parents', array(
'local'
=> 'child_id',
'foreign' => 'parent_id',
'refClass' => 'UserReference'
)
);
$this->hasMany('User as Children', array(
'local'
=> 'parent_id',
'foreign' => 'child_id',
'refClass' => 'UserReference'
)
);
}
}
// models/UserReference.php
class UserReference extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('parent_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('child_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-74
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
# ...
relations:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
79
# ...
Parents:
class: User
local: child_id
foreign: parent_id
refClass: UserReference
foreignAlias: Children
UserReference:
columns:
parent_id:
type: integer
primary: true
child_id:
type: integer
primary: true
Equal Nest Relations
Equal nest relations are perfectly suitable for expressing relations where a class references to
itself and the columns within the reference class are equal.
This means that when fetching related records it doesn't matter which column in the
reference class has the primary key value of the main class.
The previous clause maybe hard to understand so lets take an example. We define a class
called User which can have many friends. Notice here how we use the 'equal' option.
// models/User.php
Listing
7-75
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
// ...
$this->hasMany('User as Friends', array(
'local'
=> 'user1',
'foreign' => 'user2',
'refClass' => 'FriendReference',
'equal'
=> true,
)
);
}
}
// models/FriendReference.php
class FriendReference extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user1', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('user2', 'integer', null, array(
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
80
'primary' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-76
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
# ...
relations:
# ...
Friends:
class: User
local: user1
foreign: user2
refClass: FriendReference
equal: true
FriendReference:
columns:
user1:
type: integer
primary: true
user2:
type: integer
primary: true
Now lets define 4 users: Jack Daniels, John Brandy, Mikko Koskenkorva and Stefan Beer with
Jack Daniels and John Brandy being buddies and Mikko Koskenkorva being the friend of all of
them.
Listing
7-77
// test.php
// ...
$daniels = new User();
$daniels->username = 'Jack Daniels';
$brandy = new User();
$brandy->username = 'John Brandy';
$koskenkorva = new User();
$koskenkorva->username = 'Mikko Koskenkorva';
$beer = new User();
$beer->username = 'Stefan Beer';
$daniels->Friends[0] = $brandy;
$koskenkorva->Friends[0] = $daniels;
$koskenkorva->Friends[1] = $brandy;
$koskenkorva->Friends[2] = $beer;
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
81
$conn->flush();
Calling Doctrine_Connection::flush() will trigger an operation that saves all
unsaved objects and wraps it in a single transaction.
Now if we access for example the friends of Stefan Beer it would return one user 'Mikko
Koskenkorva':
// test.php
Listing
7-78
// ...
$beer->free();
unset($beer);
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->findOneByUsername('Stefan Beer');
print_r($user->Friends->toArray());
Now when you execute test.php you will see the following:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 4
[is_active] => 1
[is_super_admin] => 0
[first_name] =>
[last_name] =>
[username] => Mikko Koskenkorva
[password] =>
[type] =>
[created_at] => 2009-01-20 16:53:13
[updated_at] => 2009-01-20 16:53:13
)
Listing
7-79
)
Foreign Key Constraints
Introduction
A foreign key constraint specifies that the values in a column (or a group of columns) must
match the values appearing in some row of another table. In other words foreign key
constraints maintain the referential integrity between two related tables.
Say you have the product table with the following definition:
// models/Product.php
Listing
7-80
class Product extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
82
$this->hasColumn('price', 'decimal', 18);
$this->hasColumn('discounted_price', 'decimal', 18);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Order as Orders', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'product_id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-81
--# schema.yml
# ...
Product:
columns:
name:
type: string
price:
type: decimal(18)
discounted_price:
type: decimal(18)
relations:
Orders:
class: Order
local: id
foreign: product_id
Let's also assume you have a table storing orders of those products. We want to ensure that
the order table only contains orders of products that actually exist. So we define a foreign key
constraint in the orders table that references the products table:
Listing
7-82
// models/Order.php
class Order extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->setTableName('orders');
$this->hasColumn('product_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('quantity', 'integer');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Product', array(
'local' => 'product_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
83
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-83
# ...
Order:
tableName: orders
columns:
product_id: integer
quantity: integer
relations:
Product:
local: product_id
foreign: id
Foreign key columns are automatically indexed by Doctrine to ensure optimal performance
when issuing queries involving the foreign key.
When exported the class Order would execute the following SQL:
CREATE TABLE orders (
id integer PRIMARY KEY auto_increment,
product_id integer REFERENCES products (id),
quantity integer,
INDEX product_id_idx (product_id)
)
Now it is impossible to create orders with a product_id that does not appear in the
product table.
We say that in this situation the orders table is the referencing table and the products table is
the referenced table. Similarly, there are referencing and referenced columns.
Integrity Actions
CASCADE
Delete or update the row from the parent table and automatically delete or update the
matching rows in the child table. Both ON DELETE CASCADE and ON UPDATE CASCADE
are supported. Between two tables, you should not define several ON UPDATE CASCADE
clauses that act on the same column in the parent table or in the child table.
SET NULL
Delete or update the row from the parent table and set the foreign key column or columns in
the child table to NULL. This is valid only if the foreign key columns do not have the NOT
NULL qualifier specified. Both ON DELETE SET NULL and ON UPDATE SET NULL clauses
are supported.
NO ACTION
In standard SQL, NO ACTION means no action in the sense that an attempt to delete or
update a primary key value is not allowed to proceed if there is a related foreign key value in
the referenced table.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
7-84
Chapter 7: Defining Models
84
RESTRICT
Rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table. NO ACTION and RESTRICT are
the same as omitting the ON DELETE or ON UPDATE clause.
SET DEFAULT
In the following example we define two classes, User and Phonenumber with their relation
being one-to-many. We also add a foreign key constraint with onDelete cascade action. This
means that every time a user is being deleted its associated phonenumbers will also be
deleted.
The integrity constraints listed above are case sensitive and must be in upper case when
being defined in your schema. Below is an example where the database delete cascading is
used.
Listing
7-85
class Phonenumber extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
parent::setUp();
// ...
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id',
'onDelete' => 'CASCADE'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-86
--# schema.yml
# ...
Phonenumber:
# ...
relations:
# ...
User:
local: user_id
foreign: id
onDelete: CASCADE
Notice how the integrity constraints are placed on the side where the foreign key exists.
This is required in order for the integrity constraints to be exported to your database
properly.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
85
Indexes
Introduction
Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. Without an index, the
database must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the
relevant rows.
The larger the table, the more this consumes time. If the table has an index for the columns in
question, the database can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data
file without having to look at all the data. If a table has 1,000 rows, this is at least 100 times
faster than reading rows one-by-one.
Indexes come with a cost as they slow down the inserts and updates. However, in general you
should always use indexes for the fields that are used in SQL where conditions.
Adding indexes
You can add indexes by using Doctrine_Record::index. An example of adding a simple
index to field called name:
The following index examples are not meant for you to actually add to your test Doctrine
environment. They are only meant to demonstrate the API for adding indexes.
class IndexTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
Listing
7-87
$this->index('myindex', array(
'fields' => array('name')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--IndexTest:
columns:
name: string
indexes:
myindex:
fields: [name]
Listing
7-88
An example of adding a multi-column index to field called name:
class MultiColumnIndexTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('code', 'string');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
7-89
Chapter 7: Defining Models
86
$this->index('myindex', array(
'fields' => array('name', 'code')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-90
--MultiColumnIndexTest:
columns:
name: string
code: string
indexes:
myindex:
fields: [name, code]
An example of adding multiple indexes on same table:
Listing
7-91
class MultipleIndexTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('code', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('age', 'integer');
$this->index('myindex', array(
'fields' => array('name', 'code')
)
);
$this->index('ageindex', array(
'fields' => array('age')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-92
--MultipleIndexTest:
columns:
name: string
code: string
age: integer
indexes:
myindex:
fields: [name, code]
ageindex:
fields: [age]
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
87
Index options
Doctrine offers many index options, some of them being database specific. Here is a full list of
available options:
Name
Description
sorting A string value that can be either 'ASC' or 'DESC'.
length
Index length (only some drivers support this).
primary Whether or not the index is a primary index.
type
A string value that can be unique, fulltext, gist or gin.
Here is an example of how to create a unique index on the name column.
class MultipleIndexTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('code', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('age', 'integer');
Listing
7-93
$this->index('myindex', array(
'fields' => array(
'name' => array(
'sorting' => 'ASC',
'length' => 10),
'code'
),
'type' => 'unique',
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--MultipleIndexTest:
columns:
name: string
code: string
age: integer
indexes:
myindex:
fields:
name:
sorting: ASC
length: 10
code: type: unique
-----------------
Listing
7-94
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
88
Special indexes
Doctrine supports many special indexes. These include Mysql FULLTEXT and Pgsql GiST
indexes. In the following example we define a Mysql FULLTEXT index for the field 'content'.
Listing
7-95
// models/Article.php
class Article extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('content', 'string');
$this->option('type', 'MyISAM');
$this->index('content', array(
'fields' => array('content'),
'type'
=> 'fulltext'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-96
--# schema.yml
# ...
Article:
options:
type: MyISAM
columns:
name: string(255)
content: string
indexes:
content:
fields: [content]
type: fulltext
Notice how we set the table type to MyISAM. This is because the fulltext index type is
only supported in MyISAM so you will receive an error if you use something like InnoDB.
Checks
You can create any kind of CHECK constraints by using the check() method of the
Doctrine_Record. In the last example we add constraint to ensure that price is always higher
than the discounted price.
Listing
7-97
// models/Product.php
class Product extends Doctrine_Record
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
89
public function setTableDefinition()
{
// ...
$this->check('price > discounted_price');
}
// ...
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-98
# ...
Product:
# ...
checks:
price_check: price > discounted_price
Generates (in pgsql):
CREATE TABLE product (
id INTEGER,
price NUMERIC,
discounted_price NUMERIC,
PRIMARY KEY(id),
CHECK (price >= 0),
CHECK (price <= 1000000),
CHECK (price > discounted_price))
Listing
7-99
Some databases don't support CHECK constraints. When this is the case Doctrine simply
skips the creation of check constraints.
If the Doctrine validators are turned on the given definition would also ensure that when a
record is being saved its price is always greater than zero.
If some of the prices of the saved products within a transaction is below zero, Doctrine throws
Doctrine_Validator_Exception and automatically rolls back the transaction.
Table Options
Doctrine offers various table options.
Doctrine_Record::option function.
All
table
options
can
be
set
via
the
For example if you are using MySQL and want to use INNODB tables it can be done as
follows:
class MyInnoDbRecord extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
-----------------
Listing
7-100
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
90
$this->option('type', 'INNODB');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-101
--MyInnoDbRecord:
columns:
name: string
options:
type: INNODB
In the following example we set the collate and character set options:
Listing
7-102
class MyCustomOptionRecord extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string');
$this->option('collate', 'utf8_unicode_ci');
$this->option('charset', 'utf8');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-103
--MyCustomOptionRecord:
columns:
name: string
options:
collate: utf8_unicode_ci
charset: utf8
It is worth noting that for certain databases (Firebird, MySql and PostgreSQL) setting the
charset option might not be enough for Doctrine to return data properly. For those databases,
users are advised to also use the setCharset function of the database connection:
Listing
7-104
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$conn->setCharset('utf8');
You can set the default charset and collate at the manager, connection or table level just like
all the other configurations in Doctrine.
Set globally on a manager instance.
Listing
7-105
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setCollate('utf8_unicode_ci');
$manager->setCharset('utf8');
The same can be set on the connection level.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
91
// bootstrap.php
Listing
7-106
// ...
$connection->setCollate('utf8_unicode_ci');
$connection->setCharset('utf8');
You can also set this at the table level like always:
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
// ...
Listing
7-107
$this->setCollate('utf8_unicode_ci');
$this->setCharset('utf8');
}
}
Transitive Persistence
Doctrine offers both database and application level cascading operations. This section will
explain in detail how to setup both application and database level cascades.
Application-Level Cascades
Since it can be quite cumbersome to save and delete individual objects, especially if you deal
with an object graph, Doctrine provides application-level cascading of operations.
Save Cascades
You may already have noticed that save() operations are already cascaded to associated
objects by default.
Delete Cascades
Doctrine provides a second application-level cascade style: delete. Unlike the save() cascade,
the delete cascade needs to be turned on explicitly as can be seen in the following code
snippet:
// models/User.php
Listing
7-108
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
parent::setup();
// ...
$this->hasMany('Address as Addresses', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id',
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
92
'cascade' => array('delete')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
7-109
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
# ...
relations:
# ...
Addresses:
class: Address
local: id
foreign: user_id
cascade: [delete]
The cascade option is used to specify the operations that are cascaded to the related objects
on the application-level.
Please note that the only currently supported value is delete, more options will be added
in future releases of Doctrine.
In the example above, Doctrine would cascade the deletion of a User to it's associated
Addresses. The following describes the generic procedure when you delete a record through
$record->delete():
1. Doctrine looks at the relations to see if there are any deletion cascades it needs to apply. If
there are no deletion cascades, go to 3).
2. For each relation that has a delete cascade specified, Doctrine verifies that the objects that
are the target of the cascade are loaded. That usually means that Doctrine fetches the related
objects from the database if they're not yet loaded.(Exception: many-valued associations are
always re-fetched from the database, to make sure all objects are loaded). For each
associated object, proceed with step 1).
3. Doctrine orders all deletions and executes them in the most efficient way, maintaining
referential integrity.
From this description one thing should be instantly clear: Application-level cascades happen
on the object-level, meaning operations are cascaded from one object to another and in order
to do that the participating objects need to be available.
This has some important implications:
• Application-level delete cascades don't perform well on many-valued associations
when there are a lot of objects in the related collection (that is because they need to
be fetched from the database, the actual deletion is pretty efficient).
• Application-level delete cascades do not skip the object lifecycle as database-level
cascades do (see next chapter). Therefore all registered event listeners and other
callback methods are properly executed in an application-level cascade.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
93
Database-Level Cascades
Some cascading operations can be done much more efficiently at the database level. The best
example is the delete cascade.
Database-level delete cascades are generally preferrable over application-level delete
cascades except:
• Your database does not support database-level cascades (i.e. when using MySql with
MYISAM tables).
• You have listeners that listen on the object lifecycle and you want them to get
invoked.
Database-level delete cascades are applied on the foreign key constraint. Therefore they're
specified on that side of the relation that owns the foreign key. Picking up the example from
above, the definition of a database-level cascade would look as follows:
// models/Address.php
Listing
7-110
class Address extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('country', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('city', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('state', 'string', 2);
$this->hasColumn('postal_code', 'string', 25);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id',
'onDelete' => 'CASCADE'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
7-111
# ...
Address:
columns:
user_id: integer
address: string(255)
country: string(255)
city: string(255)
state: string(2)
postal_code: string(25)
relations:
User:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 7: Defining Models
94
local: user_id
foreign: id
onDelete: CASCADE
The onDelete option is translated to proper DDL/DML statements when Doctrine creates
your tables.
Note that 'onDelete' => 'CASCADE' is specified on the Address class, since the Address
owns the foreign key (user_id) and database-level cascades are applied on the foreign key.
Currently, the only two supported database-level cascade styles are for onDelete and
onUpdate. Both are specified on the side that owns the foreign key and applied to your
database schema when Doctrine creates your tables.
Conclusion
Now that we know everything about how to define our Doctrine models, I think we are ready
to move on to learning about how to work with models (page 95) in your application.
This is a very large topic as well so take a break, grab a mountain dew and hurry back for the
next chapter (page 95).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
95
Chapter 8
Working with Models
Define Test Schema
Remember to delete any existing schema information and models from previous chapters.
$ rm schema.yml
$ touch schema.yml
$ rm -rf models/*
Listing
8-1
For the next several examples we will use the following schema:
// models/User.php
Listing
8-2
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Group as Groups', array(
'refClass' => 'UserGroup',
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'group_id'
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
96
$this->hasOne('Email', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
$this->hasMany('Phonenumber as Phonenumbers', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
// models/Email.php
class Email extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'type' => 'integer'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
// models/Phonenumber.php
class Phonenumber extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'type' => 'integer'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('phonenumber', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
97
$this->hasColumn('primary_num', 'boolean');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
// models/Group.php
class Group extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->setTableName('groups');
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('User as Users', array(
'refClass' => 'UserGroup',
'local' => 'group_id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
// models/UserGroup.php
class UserGroup extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('group_id', 'integer', null, array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true
)
);
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
98
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
8-3
--# schema.yml
User:
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
relations:
Groups:
class: Group
local: user_id
foreign: group_id
refClass: UserGroup
foreignAlias: Users
Email:
columns:
user_id: integer
address: string(255)
relations:
User:
foreignType: one
Phonenumber:
columns:
user_id: integer
phonenumber: string(255)
primary_num: boolean
relations:
User:
foreignAlias: Phonenumbers
Group:
tableName: groups
columns:
name: string(255)
UserGroup:
columns:
user_id:
type: integer
primary: true
group_id:
type: integer
primary: true
Now that you have your schema defined you can instantiate the database by simply running
the generate.php script we so conveniently created in the previous chapter.
Listing
8-4
$ php generate.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
99
Dealing with Relations
Creating Related Records
Accessing related records in Doctrine is easy: you can use exactly the same getters and
setters as for the record properties.
You can use any of the three ways above, however the last one is the recommended one for
array portability purposes.
// test.php
Listing
8-5
// ...
$user = new User();
$user['username'] = 'jwage';
$user['password'] = 'changeme';
$email = $user->Email;
$email = $user->get('Email');
$email = $user['Email'];
When accessing a one-to-one related record that doesn't exist, Doctrine automatically creates
the object. That is why the above code is possible.
// test.php
Listing
8-6
// ...
$user->Email->address = '[email protected]';
$user->save();
When accessing one-to-many related records, Doctrine creates a Doctrine_Collection for
the related component. Lets say we
have users and phonenumbers and their relation is one-to-many. You can add
phonenumbers easily as shown above:
// test.php
Listing
8-7
// ...
$user->Phonenumbers[]->phonenumber = '123 123';
$user->Phonenumbers[]->phonenumber = '456 123';
$user->Phonenumbers[]->phonenumber = '123 777';
Now we can easily save the user and the associated phonenumbers:
// test.php
Listing
8-8
// ...
$user->save();
Another way to easily create a link between two related components is by using
Doctrine_Record::link(). It often happens that you have two existing records that you would
like to relate (or link) to one another. In this case, if there is a relation defined between the
involved record classes, you only need the identifiers of the related record(s):
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
100
Lets create a few new Phonenumber objects and keep track of the new phone number
identifiers::
Listing
8-9
// test.php
// ...
$phoneIds = array();
$phone1 = new Phonenumber();
$phone1['phonenumber'] = '555 202 7890';
$phone1->save();
$phoneIds[] = $phone1['id'];
$phone2 = new Phonenumber();
$phone2['phonenumber'] = '555 100 7890';
$phone2->save();
$phoneIds[] = $phone2['id'];
Let's link the phone numbers to the user, since the relation to Phonenumbers exists for the
User record
Listing
8-10
// test.php
$user = new User();
$user['username'] = 'jwage';
$user['password'] = 'changeme';
$user->link('Phonenumbers', $phoneIds);
$user->save();
Remember to save the record after calling link(). By default the links are not persisted
until you save the record. If you wish to save the links to the database instantly then you
can pass the third argument $now with a value of true.
Listing
8-11
$user = new User();
$user['username'] = 'jwage';
$user['password'] = 'changeme';
$user->save();
Now the following will issue query to database creating links because of the third argument
being true. Without it you would have to call save() to persist the links.
Listing
8-12
$user->link('Phonenumbers', $phoneIds, true);
If a relation to the User record class is defined for the Phonenumber record class, you may
even do this:
First create a user to work with:
Listing
8-13
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user['username'] = 'jwage';
$user['password'] = 'changeme';
$user->save();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
101
Now create a new Phonenumber instance:
// test.php
Listing
8-14
// ...
$phone1 = new Phonenumber();
$phone1['phonenumber'] = '555 202 7890';
$phone1->save();
Now we can link the User to our Phonenumber:
// test.php
Listing
8-15
// ...
$phone1->link('User', array($user['id']));
$phone1->save();
We can create another phone number:
// test.php
Listing
8-16
// ...
$phone2 = new Phonenumber();
$phone2['phonenumber'] = '555 100 7890';
$phone2->save();
Let's link this Phonenumber to our User too:
// test.php
Listing
8-17
// ...
$phone2->link('User', array($user['id']));
$phone2->save();
Retrieving Related Records
You can retrieve related records by the very same Doctrine_Record methods as in the
previous subchapter. Please note that whenever you access a related component that isn't
already loaded Doctrine uses one SQL SELECT statement for the fetching, hence the
following example executes 3 SQL SELECTs.
// test.php
Listing
8-18
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(1);
echo $user->Email['address'];
echo $user->Phonenumbers[0]->phonenumber;
Much more efficient way of doing this is using DQL. The following example uses only one SQL
query for the retrieval of related components.
// test.php
Listing
8-19
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
102
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Email e')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->where('u.id = ?', 1);
$user = $q->fetchOne();
echo $user->Email['address'];
echo $user->Phonenumbers[0]['phonenumber'];
Updating Related Records
You can update the related records by calling save for each related object / collection
individually or by calling save on the object that owns the other objects. You can also call
Doctrine_Connection::flush which saves all pending objects.
Listing
8-20
// test.php
// ...
$user->Email['address'] = '[email protected]';
$user->Phonenumbers[0]['phonenumber'] = '123123';
$user->save();
In the above example calling $user->save() saves the email and phonenumber.
Deleting Related Records
You can delete related records individually be calling delete() on a record or on a
collection.
Here you can delete an individual related record:
Listing
8-21
// test.php
// ...
$user->Email->delete();
You can delete an individual record from within a collection of records:
Listing
8-22
// test.php
// ...
$user->Phonenumbers[3]->delete();
You could delete the entire collection if you wanted:
Listing
8-23
// test.php
// ...
$user->Phonenumbers->delete();
Or can just delete the entire user and all related objects:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
103
// test.php
Listing
8-24
// ...
$user->delete();
Usually in a typical web application the primary keys of the related objects that are to be
deleted come from a form. In this case the most efficient way of deleting the related records
is using DQL DELETE statement. Lets say we have once again Users and Phonenumbers
with their relation being one-to-many. Deleting the given Phonenumbers for given user id
can be achieved as follows:
// test.php
Listing
8-25
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->delete('Phonenumber')
->addWhere('user_id = ?', 5)
->whereIn('id', array(1, 2, 3));
$numDeleted = $q->execute();
Sometimes you may not want to delete the Phonenumber records but to simply unlink the
relations by setting the foreign key fields to null. This can of course be achieved with DQL but
perhaps to most elegant way of doing this is by using Doctrine_Record::unlink().
Please note that the unlink() method is very smart. It not only sets the foreign fields for
related Phonenumbers to null but it also removes all given Phonenumber references from
the User object.
Lets say we have a User who has three Phonenumbers (with identifiers 1, 2 and 3). Now
unlinking the Phonenumbers 1 and 3 can be achieved as easily as:
// test.php
Listing
8-26
// ...
$user->unlink('Phonenumbers', array(1, 3));
$user->save();
echo $user->Phonenumber->count(); // 1
Working with Related Records
Testing the Existence of a Relation
The below example would return false because the relationship has not been instantiated yet:
// test.php
Listing
8-27
// ...
$user = new User();
if (isset($user->Email)) {
// ...
}
Now the next example will return true because we instantiated the Email relationship:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
Listing
8-28
104
// test.php
// ...
$obj->Email = new Email();
if(isset($obj->Email)) {
// ...
}
Many-to-Many Relations
Doctrine requires that Many-to-Many relationships be bi-directional. For example: both
User must have many Groups and Group must have many User.
Creating a New Link
Lets say we have two classes User and Group which are linked through a GroupUser
association class. When working with transient (new) records the fastest way for adding a
User and couple of Groups for it is:
Listing
8-29
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'Some User';
$user->Groups[0]->username = 'Some Group';
$user->Groups[1]->username = 'Some Other Group';
$user->save();
However in real world scenarios you often already have existing groups, where you want to
add a given user. The most efficient way of doing this is:
Listing
8-30
// test.php
// ...
$groupUser = new GroupUser();
$groupUser->user_id = $userId;
$groupUser->group_id = $groupId;
$groupUser->save();
Deleting a Link
The right way to delete links between many-to-many associated records is by using the DQL
DELETE statement. Convenient and recommended way of using DQL DELETE is through the
Query API.
Listing
8-31
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->delete('GroupUser')
->addWhere('user_id = ?', 5)
->whereIn('group_id', array(1, 2));
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
105
$deleted = $q->execute();
Another way to unlink the relationships between related objects is through the
Doctrine_Record::unlink method. However, you should avoid using this method unless
you already have the parent model, since it involves querying the database first.
// test.php
Listing
8-32
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(5);
$user->unlink('Group', array(1, 2));
$user->save();
You can also unlink ALL relationships to Group by omitting the second argument:
// test.php
Listing
8-33
// ...
$user->unlink('Group');
$user->save();
While the obvious and convenient way of deleting a link between User and Group would be
the following, you still should *NOT* do this:
// test.php
Listing
8-34
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(5);
$user->GroupUser->remove(0)->remove(1);
$user->save();
This is due to a fact that the call to $user->GroupUser loads all Group links for given User.
This can be time-consuming task if the User belongs to many Groups. Even if the user
belongs to few groups this will still execute an unnecessary SELECT statement.
Fetching Data
Doctrine provides several different "hydration modes". These are different ways in which data
can be retrieved. Understanding all these modes is important to always make the right
choice.
There is one major distinction that divides all the hydration modes into 2 groups: The ones
that are based on identity and the ones that are not.
The hydration modes that are based on (object) identity are: HYDRATE_RECORD,
HYDRATE_ARRAY. The former generates an object graph while the latter generates a nested
array structure that is in many cases very similar to the object graph (Not though that
HYDRATE_RECORD/HYDRATE_ARRAY can potentially produce differing results in more
"complex" query scenarios due to the natural difference of objects and arrays, their
comparison, equality and identity semantics!).
The fact that these two hydration modes are based on identity becomes evident through the
behavior of Doctrine to auto-add PK/ID fields of classes used in a DQL query if they are not
already present. This means: These two hydration modes *require* the primary keys/
identifiers of all those classes that are participating in a DQL query in such a way that they
are "fetched" (eg at least one field appears in the SELECT clause).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
106
HYDRATE_RECORD/HYDRATE_ARRAY
Custom accessors and mutators will not work when hydrating data as anything except
records. When you hydrate as an array it is only a static array of data and is not object
oriented. If you need to add custom values to your hydrated arrays you can use the some of
the events such as preHydrate and postHydrate
Lets consider we have users and phonenumbers with their relation being one-to-many. Now
consider the following plain sql query:
Listing
8-35
$dbh->fetchAll('SELECT u.id, u.name, p.phonenumber FROM user u LEFT JOIN
phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id');
If you are familiar with these kind of one-to-many joins it may be familiar to you how the basic
result set is constructed. Whenever the user has more than one phonenumbers there will be
duplicated data in the result set. The result set might look something like:
Listing
8-36
index
0
1
2
3
4
5
| u.id | u.name
|
1 | Jack Daniels
|
1 | Jack Daniels
|
2 | John Beer
|
3 | John Smith
|
3 | John Smith
|
3 | John Smith
| p.phonenumber |
| 123 123
|
| 456 456
|
| 111 111
|
| 222 222
|
| 333 333
|
| 444 444
|
Here Jack Daniels has 2 phonenumbers, John Beer has one whereas John Smith has 3
phonenumbers. You may notice how clumsy this result set is. Its hard to iterate over it as you
would need some duplicate data checkings here and there.
Doctrine identity hydration removes all duplicated data. It also performs many other things
such as:
1. Custom indexing of result set elements (only with HYDRATE_ARRAY/
HYDRATE_RECORD)
2. Value casting and preparation (with all hydration modes except HYDRATE_NONE)
3. Value assignment listening (only with HYDRATE_ARRAY/HYDRATE_RECORD)
4. Makes multi-dimensional array out of the two-dimensional result set array, the
number of dimensions is equal to the number of nested joins (only with
HYDRATE_ARRAY)
Now consider the DQL equivalent of the SQL query we used:
Listing
8-37
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, u.name, p.phonenumber')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumber p');
$array = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY);
The structure of this hydrated array would look like:
Listing
8-38
array(0 => array('id' => 1,
'name' => 'Jack Daniels',
'Phonenumbers' =>
array(0 => array('phonenumber' => '123 123'),
1 => array('phonenumber' => '456 456'))),
1 => array('id' => 2,
'name' => 'John Beer',
'Phonenumbers' =>
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
107
array(0 => array('phonenumber'
2 => array('id' => 3,
'name' => 'John Smith',
'Phonenumbers' =>
array(0 => array('phonenumber'
2 => array('phonenumber'
3 => array('phonenumber'
=> '111 111'))),
=> '111 111')),
=> '222 222'),
=> '333 333'))));
This structure also applies to the hydration of objects(records) which is the default hydration
mode of Doctrine. The only differences are that the individual elements are represented as
Doctrine_Record objects and the arrays converted into Doctrine_Collection objects. Whether
dealing with arrays or objects you can:
1. Iterate over the results using foreach
2. Access individual elements using array access brackets
3. Get the number of elements using count() function
4. Check if given element exists using isset()
5. Unset given element using unset()
The other group of hydration modes are not based on identity. These are: HYDRATE_NONE,
HYDRATE_SCALAR and HYDRATE_SINGLE_SCALAR.
HYDRATE_NONE
This is the fastest but least useful hydration mode. It is equal to a $pdoStmt>fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_NUM); The reason Doctrine uses FETCH_NUM is that the column
aliases in the SQL query are generated by Doctrine, therefore FETCH_ASSOC would be of no
use because you don't know what the names of the columns in the result set would be. This
hydration mode is mainly useful for debugging purposes or for some other simple scenarios.
HYDRATE_SCALAR
This hydration mode creates a flat/rectangular result set that can contain duplicate data. It's
best to think of this as a normal SQL result set with a few subtle but important differences:
1. column names are converted to field names (column aliases)
2. data type conversions are applied
Let's look at an example DQL query: SELECT u.*, p.* FROM User u LEFT JOIN
u.phonenumbers p The result with HYDRATE_SCALAR could look like this:
array(
0 => array(
'u_id' => '1',
'u_name' => 'roman',
'p_number' => '1234',
'p_id' => '42'
),
1 => array(
'u_id' => '1',
'u_name' => 'roman',
'p_number' => '1111',
'p_id' => '43'
),
...
)
Listing
8-39
As you can see, it looks like a regular SQL result set of a JOINed SQL query. However, in
order to avoid ambiguities between field names all field names in the result set are prefixed
with the DQL alias that you specified in the query. This makes this hydration mode robust
even for complex queries, yet the result is very predictable because the DQL aliases as well as
the field names stem from your DQL query and your object model, respectively. In addition,
as noted earlier, data type conversions take place where necessary.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
108
HYDRATE_SINGLE_SCALAR
This is basically a sub-type of HYDRATE_SCALAR. This hydration mode turns out to be very
useful. Without further explanation, let's look at some examples:
Listing
8-40
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
$q->select("u.name")->from("User u");
$res = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_SINGLE_SCALAR);
echo $res; // prints 'romanb'
Listing
8-41
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
$q->select("COUNT(u.id) num_ids")->from("User u");
$res = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_SINGLE_SCALAR);
echo $res; // echos '1' or whatever the count is..
As you can see this hydration mode is self-explanatory. Gone are the times of having to grab
such a result from $result[0][0] or similar.
You should use array or scalar hydration when you only need data for read-only purposes,
whereas you should use the record(object) hydration when you need/want to operate on the
data and/or use the business logic that is coded in your entities (records).
Sample Queries
Count number of records for a relationship:
Listing
8-42
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.*, COUNT(DISTINCT p.id) AS num_phonenumbers')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->groupBy('u.id');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
echo $users[0]['Phonenumbers'][0]['num_phonenumbers'];
Retrieve Users and the Groups they belong to:
Listing
8-43
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
foreach ($users[0]['Groups'] as $group) {
echo $group['name'];
}
Simple WHERE with one parameter value:
Listing
8-44
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
109
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = ?', 'jwage');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Multiple WHERE with multiple parameters values:
// test.php
Listing
8-45
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->where('u.username = ? AND p.id = ?', array(1, 1));
$users = $q->fetchArray();
You can also optionally use the andWhere() method to add to the existing where parts.
// test.php
Listing
8-46
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->where('u.username = ?', 1)
->andWhere('p.id = ?', 1);
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Using whereIn() convenience method:
// test.php
Listing
8-47
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->whereIn('u.id', array(1, 2, 3));
$users = $q->fetchArray();
The following is the same as above example:
// test.php
Listing
8-48
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.id IN (1, 2, 3)');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Using DBMS function in your WHERE:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
Listing
8-49
110
// test.php
// ...
$userEncryptedKey = 'a157a558ac00449c92294c7fab684ae0';
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where("MD5(CONCAT(u.username, 'secret_key')) = ?",
$userEncryptedKey);
$user = $q->fetchOne();
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('LOWER(u.username) = LOWER(?)', 'jwage');
$user = $q->fetchOne();
Limiting result sets using aggregate functions. Limit to users with more than one
phonenumber:
Listing
8-50
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.*, COUNT(DISTINCT p.id) AS num_phonenumbers')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->having('num_phonenumbers > 1')
->groupBy('u.id');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Join only primary phonenumbers using WITH:
Listing
8-51
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p WITH p.primary_num = ?', true);
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Selecting certain columns for optimization:
Listing
8-52
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username, p.phone')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Using a wildcard to select all User columns but only one Phonenumber column:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
111
// test.php
Listing
8-53
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.*, p.phonenumber')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Perform DQL delete with simple WHERE:
// test.php
Listing
8-54
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->delete('Phonenumber')
->addWhere('user_id = 5');
$deleted = $q->execute();
Perform simple DQL update for a column:
// test.php
Listing
8-55
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->update('User u')
->set('u.is_active', '?', true)
->where('u.id = ?', 1);
$updated = $q->execute();
Perform DQL update with DBMS function. Make all usernames lowercase:
// test.php
Listing
8-56
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->update('User u')
->set('u.username', 'LOWER(u.username)');
$updated = $q->execute();
Using mysql LIKE to search for records:
// test.php
Listing
8-57
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.username LIKE ?', '%jwage%');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Use the INDEXBY keyword to hydrate the data where the key of record entry is the
name of the column you assign:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
Listing
8-58
112
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u INDEXBY u.username');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Now we can print the user with the username of jwage:
Listing
8-59
// test.php
// ...
print_r($users['jwage']);
Using positional parameters
Listing
8-60
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = ?', array('Arnold'));
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Using named parameters
Listing
8-61
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = :username', array(':username' => 'Arnold'));
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Using subqueries in your WHERE. Find users not in group named Group 2:
Listing
8-62
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.id NOT IN (SELECT u.id FROM User u2 INNER JOIN u2.Groups g
WHERE g.name = ?)', 'Group 2');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
You can accomplish this without using subqueries. The two examples below would have the
same result as the example above.
Use INNER JOIN to retrieve users who have groups, excluding the group named
Group 2
Listing
8-63
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->innerJoin('u.Groups g WITH g.name != ?', 'Group 2')
$users = $q->fetchArray();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
113
Use WHERE condition to retrieve users who have groups, excluding the group named
Group 2
// test.php
Listing
8-64
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g')
->where('g.name != ?', 'Group 2');
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Doctrine has many different ways you can execute queries and retrieve the data. Below are
examples of all the different ways you can execute a query:
First lets create a sample query to test with:
// test.php
Listing
8-65
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
You can use array hydration with the fetchArray() method:
$users = $q->fetchArray();
Listing
8-66
You can also use array hydration by specifying the hydration method to the second
argument of the execute() method:
// test.php
Listing
8-67
// ...
$users = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY)
You can also specify the hydration method by using the setHydrationMethod()
method:
$users = $q->setHydrationMode(Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY)->execute(); // So
is this
Listing
8-68
Sometimes you may want to totally bypass hydration and return the raw data that
PDO returns:
// test.php
Listing
8-69
// ...
$users = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_NONE);
More can be read about skipping hydration in the improving performance (page 357)
chapter.
If you want to just fetch one record from the query:
// test.php
Listing
8-70
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
114
// ...
$user = $q->fetchOne();
// Fetch all and get the first from collection
$user = $q->execute()->getFirst();
Field Lazy Loading
Whenever you fetch an object that has not all of its fields loaded from database then the state
of this object is called proxy. Proxy objects can load the unloaded fields lazily.
In the following example we fetch all the Users with the username field loaded directly. Then
we lazy load the password field:
Listing
8-71
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id = ?', 1)
$user = $q->fetchOne();
The following lazy-loads the password field and executes one additional database query to
retrieve the value:
Listing
8-72
// test.php
// ...
$user->description;
Doctrine does the proxy evaluation based on loaded field count. It does not evaluate which
fields are loaded on field-by-field basis. The reason for this is simple: performance. Field lazyloading is very rarely needed in PHP world, hence introducing some kind of variable to check
which fields are loaded would introduce unnecessary overhead to basic fetching.
Arrays and Objects
Doctrine_Record and Doctrine_Collection provide methods to facilitate working with
arrays: toArray(), fromArray() and synchronizeWithArray().
To Array
The toArray() method returns an array representation of your records or collections. It also
accesses the relationships the objects may have. If you need to print a record for debugging
purposes you can get an array representation of the object and print that.
Listing
8-73
// test.php
// ...
print_r($user->toArray());
If you do not want to include the relationships in the array then you need to pass the $deep
argument with a value of false:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
115
// test.php
Listing
8-74
// ...
print_r($user->toArray(false));
From Array
If you have an array of values you want to use to fill a record or even a collection, the
fromArray() method simplifies this common task.
// test.php
Listing
8-75
// ...
$data = array(
'name' => 'John',
'age' => '25',
'Emails' => array(
array('address' => '[email protected]'),
array('address' => '[email protected]')),
'Groups' => array(1, 2, 3)
);
$user = new User();
$user->fromArray($data);
$user->save();
It is possible to use fromArray() with custom model mutators like the following:
// models/User.php
Listing
8-76
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setEncryptedPassword($password)
{
return $this->_set('password', md5($password));
}
}
Now if when we use fromArray() we can use the setEncryptedPassword() method by
passing a value named encrypted_password.
// test.php
Listing
8-77
// ...
$user->fromArray(array('encrypted_password' => 'changeme'));
Synchronize With Array
synchronizeWithArray() allows you to... well, synchronize a record with an array. So if
have an array representation
of your model and modify a field, modify a relationship field or even delete or create a
relationship, this changes will
be applied to the record.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
Listing
8-78
116
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.*, g.*')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g')
->where('id = ?', 1);
$user = $q->fetchOne();
Now convert it to an array and modify some of the properties:
Listing
8-79
// test.php
// ...
$arrayUser = $user->toArray(true);
$arrayUser['username'] = 'New name';
$arrayUser['Group'][0]['name'] = 'Renamed Group';
$arrayUser['Group'][] = array('name' => 'New Group');
Now use the same query to retrieve the record and synchronize the record with the
$arrayUser variable:
Listing
8-80
// test.php
// ...
$user = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.*, g.*')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g')
->where('id = ?', 1)
->fetchOne();
$user->synchronizeWithArray($arrayUser);
$user->save();
You can also synchronize relationships by specifying an array of ids to link the record to.
Listing
8-81
$user->synchronizeWithArray(array('Group' => array(1, 2, 3)));
$user->save();
The above code will remove any existing groups and link the user to the group id 1, 2, and 3.
Internally Doctrine_Record::link() and Doctrine_Record::unlink() are used to
link relationships together.
Overriding the Constructor
Sometimes you want to do some operations at the creation time of your objects. Doctrine
doesn't allow you to override the Doctrine_Record::__construct() method but provides
an alternative:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 8: Working with Models
117
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function construct()
{
$this->username = 'Test Name';
$this->doSomething();
}
Listing
8-82
public function doSomething()
{
// ...
}
// ...
}
The only drawback is that it doesn't provide a way to pass parameters to the constructor.
Conclusion
By now we should know absolutely everything there is to know about models. We know how
to create them, load them and most importantly we know how to use them and work with
columns and relationships. Now we are ready to move on to learn about how to use the DQL
(Doctrine Query Language) (page 118).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
118
Chapter 9
DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
Introduction
Doctrine Query Language (DQL) is an Object Query Language created for helping users in
complex object retrieval. You should always consider using DQL (or raw SQL) when retrieving
relational data efficiently (eg. when fetching users and their phonenumbers).
In this chapter we will execute dozens of examples of how to use the Doctrine Query
Language. All of these examples assume you are using the schemas defined in the previous
chapters, primarily the Defining Models (page 52) chapter. We will define one additional
model for our testing purposes which can be found right below this note.
Listing
9-1
// models/Account.php
class Account extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('amount', 'decimal');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
9-2
--# schema.yml
# ...
Account:
columns:
name: string(255)
amount: decimal
When compared to using raw SQL, DQL has several benefits:
• From the start it has been designed to retrieve records(objects) not result set rows
• DQL understands relations so you don't have to type manually sql joins and join
conditions
• DQL is portable on different databases
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
119
• DQL has some very complex built-in algorithms like (the record limit algorithm)
which can help developer to efficiently retrieve objects
• It supports some functions that can save time when dealing with one-to-many, manyto-many relational data with conditional fetching.
If the power of DQL isn't enough, you should consider using the RawSql API (page 191) for
object population.
You may already be familiar with the following syntax:
DO NOT USE THE FOLLOWING CODE. It uses many sql queries for object population.
// test.php
Listing
9-3
// ...
$users = Doctrine::getTable('User')->findAll();
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->username . " has phonenumbers: \n";
foreach($user->Phonenumbers as $phonenumber) {
echo $phonenumber->phonenumber . "\n";
}
}
Here is the same code but implemented more efficiently using only one SQL query for
object population.
// test.php
Listing
9-4
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p');
echo $q->getSql();
Lets take a look at the SQL that would be generated by the above query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.is_active AS u__is_active,
u.is_super_admin AS u__is_super_admin,
u.first_name AS u__first_name,
u.last_name AS u__last_name,
u.username AS u__username,
u.password AS u__password,
u.type AS u__type,
u.created_at AS u__created_at,
u.updated_at AS u__updated_at,
p.id AS p__id,
p.user_id AS p__user_id,
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
-----------------
Listing
9-5
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
120
Now lets execute the query and play with the data:
Listing
9-6
// test.php
// ...
$users = $q->execute();
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->username . " has phonenumbers: \n";
foreach($user->Phonenumbers as $phonenumber) {
echo $phonenumber->phonenumber . "\n";
}
}
Using double quotes (") in DQL strings is discouraged. This is sensible in MySQL standard
but in DQL it can be confused as an identifier. Instead it is recommended to use prepared
statements for your values and it will be escaped properly.
SELECT queries
SELECT statement syntax:
Listing
9-7
SELECT
[ALL | DISTINCT]
<select_expr>,
...
[
FROM <components>
[
WHERE <where_condition>]
[
GROUP BY <groupby_expr>
[ASC | DESC],
... ]
[
HAVING <where_condition>]
[
ORDER BY <orderby_expr>
[ASC | DESC],
...]
[
LIMIT <row_count>
OFF
SET <offset>}]
The SELECT statement is used for the retrieval of data from one or more components.
Each select_expr indicates a column or an aggregate function value that you want to
retrieve. There must be at least one select_expr in every SELECT statement.
First insert a few sample Account records:
Listing
9-8
// test.php
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
121
$account = new Account();
$account->name = 'test 1';
$account->amount = '100.00';
$account->save();
$account = new Account();
$account->name = 'test 2';
$account->amount = '200.00';
$account->save();
Be sure to execute test.php:
$ php test.php
Listing
9-9
Now you can test the selecting of the data with these next few sample queries:
// test.php
Listing
9-10
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.name')
->from('Account a');
echo $q->getSql();
Lets take a look at the SQL that would be generated by the above query:
SELECT
a.id AS a__id,
a.name AS a__name
FROM account a
Listing
9-11
// test.php
Listing
9-12
// ...
$accounts = $q->execute();
print_r($accounts->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[name] => test 1
[amount] =>
)
Listing
9-13
[1] => Array
(
[id] => 2
[name] => test 2
[amount] =>
)
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
122
An asterisk can be used for selecting all columns from given component. Even when using an
asterisk the executed sql queries never actually use it (Doctrine converts asterisk to
appropriate column names, hence leading to better performance on some databases).
Listing
9-14
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.*')
->from('Account a');
echo $q->getSql();
Compare the generated SQL from the last query example to the SQL generated by the query
right above:
Listing
9-15
SELECT
a.id AS a__id,
a.name AS a__name,
a.amount AS a__amount
FROM account a
Notice how the asterisk is replace by all the real column names that exist in the Account
model.
Now lets execute the query and inspect the results:
Listing
9-16
// test.php
// ...
$accounts = $q->execute();
print_r($accounts->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
Listing
9-17
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[name] => test 1
[amount] => 100.00
)
[1] => Array
(
[id] => 2
[name] => test 2
[amount] => 200.00
)
)
FROM clause components indicates the component or components from which to retrieve
records.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
123
// test.php
Listing
9-18
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username, p.*')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
p.id AS p__id,
p.user_id AS p__user_id,
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
Listing
9-19
The WHERE clause, if given, indicates the condition or conditions that the records must satisfy
to be selected. where_condition is an expression that evaluates to true for each row to be
selected. The statement selects all rows if there is no WHERE clause.
// test.php
Listing
9-20
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.name')
->from('Account a')
->where('a.amount > 2000');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
a.id AS a__id,
a.name AS a__name
FROM account a
WHERE a.amount > 2000
Listing
9-21
In the WHERE clause, you can use any of the functions and operators that DQL supports,
except for aggregate (summary) functions. The HAVING clause can be used for narrowing the
results with aggregate functions:
// test.php
Listing
9-22
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->having('COUNT(p.id) > 3');
echo $q->getSql();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
124
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-23
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
HAVING COUNT(p.id) > 3
The ORDER BY clause can be used for sorting the results
Listing
9-24
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->orderBy('u.username');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-25
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
ORDER BY u.username
The LIMIT and OFFSET clauses can be used for efficiently limiting the number of records to a
given row_count
Listing
9-26
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->limit(20);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-27
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
LIMIT 20
Aggregate values
Aggregate value SELECT syntax:
Listing
9-28
// test.php
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
125
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, COUNT(t.id) AS num_threads')
->from('User u, u.Threads t')
->where('u.id = ?', 1)
->groupBy('u.id');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
COUNT(f.id) AS f__0
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN forum__thread f ON u.id = f.user_id
WHERE u.id = ?
GROUP BY u.id
Listing
9-29
Now execute the query and inspect the results:
// test.php
Listing
9-30
// ...
$users = $q->execute();
You can easily access the num_threads data with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
9-31
// ...
echo $users->num_threads . ' threads found';
UPDATE queries
UPDATE statement syntax:
UPDATE <component_name>
SET <col_name1> = <expr1> ,
<col_name2> = <expr2>
WHERE <where_condition>
ORDER BY <order_by>
LIMIT <record_count>
Listing
9-32
• The UPDATE statement updates columns of existing records in component_name
with new values and returns the number of affected records.
• The SET clause indicates which columns to modify and the values they should be
given.
• The optional WHERE clause specifies the conditions that identify which records to
update. Without WHERE clause, all records are updated.
• The optional ORDER BY clause specifies the order in which the records are being
updated.
• The LIMIT clause places a limit on the number of records that can be updated. You
can use LIMIT row_count to restrict the scope of the UPDATE. A LIMIT clause is a
rows-matched restriction not a rows-changed restriction. The statement stops as
soon as it has found record_count rows that satisfy the WHERE clause, whether or
not they actually were changed.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
Listing
9-33
126
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->update('Account')
->set('amount', 'amount + 200')
->where('id > 200');
// If you just want to set the amount to a value
$q->set('amount', '?', 500);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-34
UPDATE account
SET amount = amount + 200
WHERE id > 200
Now to perform the update is simple. Just execute the query:
Listing
9-35
// test.php
// ...
$rows = $q->execute();
echo $rows;
DELETE Queries
Listing
9-36
DELETE
FROM <component_name>
WHERE <where_condition>
ORDER BY <order_by>
LIMIT <record_count>
• The DELETE statement deletes records from component_name and returns the
number of records deleted.
• The optional WHERE clause specifies the conditions that identify which records to
delete. Without WHERE clause, all records are deleted.
• If the ORDER BY clause is specified, the records are deleted in the order that is
specified.
• The LIMIT clause places a limit on the number of rows that can be deleted. The
statement will stop as soon as it has deleted record_count records.
Listing
9-37
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->delete('Account a')
->where('a.id > 3');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
127
DELETE
FROM account
WHERE id > 3
Listing
9-38
Now executing the DELETE query is just as you would think:
// test.php
Listing
9-39
// ...
$rows = $q->execute();
echo $rows;
When executing DQL UPDATE and DELETE queries the executing of a query returns the
number of affected rows.
FROM clause
Syntax:
FROM <component_reference> [[LEFT | INNER] JOIN <component_reference>] ...
Listing
9-40
The FROM clause indicates the component or components from which to retrieve records. If
you name more than one component, you are performing a join. For each table specified, you
can optionally specify an alias.
Consider the following DQL query:
// test.php
Listing
9-41
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
Listing
9-42
Here User is the name of the class (component) and u is the alias. You should always use
short aliases, since most of the time those make the query much shorther and also because
when using for example caching the cached form of the query takes less space when short
aliases are being used.
JOIN syntax
DQL JOIN Syntax:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
128
JOIN <component_reference1>] [ON | WITH] <join_condition1> [INDEXBY]
<map_condition1>,
[[LEFT | INNER] JOIN <component_reference2>] [ON | WITH] <join_condition2>
[INDEXBY] <map_condition2>,
...
[[LEFT | INNER] JOIN <component_referenceN>] [ON | WITH] <join_conditionN>
[INDEXBY] <map_conditionN>
DQL supports two kinds of joins INNER JOINs and LEFT JOINs. For each joined component,
you can optionally specify an alias.
The default join type is LEFT JOIN. This join can be indicated by the use of either LEFT
JOIN clause or simply ',', hence the following queries are equal:
Listing
9-43
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, p.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p');
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, p.id')
->from('User u, u.Phonenumbers p');
echo $q->getSql();
The recommended form is the first because it is more verbose and easier to read and
understand what is being done.
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-44
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
p.id AS p__id
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
Notice how the JOIN condition is automatically added for you. This is because Doctrine
knows how User and Phonenumber are related so it is able to add it for you.
INNER JOIN produces an intersection between two specified components (that is, each and
every record in the first component is joined to each and every record in the second
component). So basically INNER JOIN can be used when you want to efficiently fetch for
example all users which have one or more phonenumbers.
By default DQL auto-adds the primary key join condition:
Listing
9-45
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, p.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
129
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
p.id AS p__id
FROM User u
LEFT JOIN Phonenumbers p ON u.id = p.user_id
Listing
9-46
ON keyword
If you want to override this behavior and add your own custom join condition you can do it
with the ON keyword. Consider the following DQL query:
// test.php
Listing
9-47
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, p.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p ON u.id = 2');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
p.id AS p__id
FROM User u
LEFT JOIN Phonenumbers p ON u.id = 2
Listing
9-48
Notice how the ON condition that would be normally automatically added is not present and
the user specified condition is used instead.
WITH keyword
Most of the time you don't need to override the primary join condition, rather you may want
to add some custom conditions. This can be achieved with the WITH keyword.
// test.php
Listing
9-49
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, p.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p WITH u.id = 2');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
Listing
9-50
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
130
p.id AS p__id
FROM User u
LEFT JOIN Phonenumbers p ON u.id = p.user_id
AND u.id = 2
Notice how the ON condition isn't completely replaced. Instead the conditions you specify
are appended on to the automatic condition that is added for you.
The Doctrine_Query API offers two convenience methods for adding JOINS. These are called
innerJoin() and leftJoin(), which usage should be quite intuitive as shown below:
Listing
9-51
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g')
->innerJoin('u.Phonenumbers p WITH u.id > 3')
->leftJoin('u.Email e');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-52
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN user_group u2 ON u.id = u2.user_id
LEFT JOIN groups g ON g.id = u2.group_id
INNER JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
AND u.id > 3
LEFT JOIN email e ON u.id = e.user_id
INDEXBY keyword
The INDEXBY keyword offers a way of mapping certain columns as collection / array keys. By
default Doctrine indexes multiple elements to numerically indexed arrays / collections. The
mapping starts from zero. In order to override this behavior you need to use INDEXBY
keyword as shown above:
Listing
9-53
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u INDEXBY u.username');
$users = $q->execute();
The INDEXBY keyword does not alter the generated SQL. It is simply used internally by
Doctrine_Query to hydrate the data with the specified column as the key of each record
in the collection.
Now the users in $users collection are accessible through their names:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
131
// test.php
Listing
9-54
// ...
echo $user['jack daniels']->id;
The INDEXBY keyword can be applied to any given JOIN. This means that any given
component can have each own indexing behavior. In the following we use distinct indexing
for both Users and Groups.
// test.php
Listing
9-55
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u INDEXBY u.username')
->innerJoin('u.Groups g INDEXBY g.name');
$users = $q->execute();
Now lets print out the drinkers club's creation date.
// test.php
Listing
9-56
// ...
echo $users['jack daniels']->Groups['drinkers club']->createdAt;
WHERE clause
Syntax:
WHERE <where_condition>
Listing
9-57
• The WHERE clause, if given, indicates the condition or conditions that the records
must satisfy to be selected.
• where_condition is an expression that evaluates to true for each row to be
selected.
• The statement selects all rows if there is no WHERE clause.
• When narrowing results with aggregate function values HAVING clause should be
used instead of WHERE clause
You can use the addWhere(), andWhere(), orWhere(), whereIn(), andWhereIn(),
orWhereIn(), whereNotIn(), andWhereNotIn(), orWhereNotIn() functions for building
complex where conditions using Doctrine_Query objects.
Here is an example where we retrieve all active registered users or super administrators:
// test.php
Listing
9-58
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.type = ?', 'registered')
->andWhere('u.is_active = ?', 1)
->orWhere('u.is_super_admin = ?', 1);
echo $q->getSql();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
132
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-59
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.type = ?
AND u.is_active = ?
OR u.is_super_admin = ?
Conditional expressions
Literals
Strings
A string literal that includes a single quote is represented by two single quotes; for example:
´´literal´s´´.
Listing
9-60
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, u.username')
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = ?', 'Vincent');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-61
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
WHERE u.username = ?
Because we passed the value of the username as a parameter to the where() method it is
not included in the generated SQL. PDO handles the replacement when you execute the
query. To check the parameters that exist on a Doctrine_Query instance you can use the
getParams() method.
Integers
Integer literals support the use of PHP integer literal syntax.
Listing
9-62
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id = 4');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
133
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.id = 4
Listing
9-63
Floats
Float literals support the use of PHP float literal syntax.
// test.php
Listing
9-64
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('Account a')
->where('a.amount = 432.123');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
a.id AS a__id
FROM account a
WHERE a.amount = 432.123
Listing
9-65
Booleans
The boolean literals are true and false.
// test.php
Listing
9-66
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.is_super_admin = true');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.is_super_admin = 1
Listing
9-67
Enums
The enumerated values work in the same way as string literals.
// test.php
Listing
9-68
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('User u')
->where("u.type = 'admin'");
echo $q->getSql();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
134
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-69
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.type = 'admin'
Predefined reserved literals are case insensitive, although its a good standard to write them
in uppercase.
Input parameters
Here are some examples of using positional parameters:
Single positional parameter:
Listing
9-70
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = ?', array('Arnold'));
echo $q->getSql();
When the passed parameter for a positional parameter contains only one value you can
simply pass a single scalar value instead of an array containing one value.
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-71
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.username = ?
Multiple positional parameters:
Listing
9-72
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.id > ? AND u.username LIKE ?', array(50, 'A%'));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-73
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE (u.id > ?
AND u.username LIKE ?)
Here are some examples of using named parameters:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
135
Single named parameter:
// test.php
Listing
9-74
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.username = :name', array(':name' => 'Arnold'));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.username = :name
Listing
9-75
Named parameter with a LIKE statement:
// test.php
Listing
9-76
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id > :id', array(':id' => 50))
->andWhere('u.username LIKE :name', array(':name' => 'A%'));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.id > :id
AND u.username LIKE :name
Listing
9-77
Operators and operator precedence
The operators are listed below in order of decreasing precedence.
Operator
Description
.
Navigation operator
Arithmetic operators:
+, -
unary
*, /
multiplication and division
+, -
addition and subtraction
=, >, >=, <, <=, <> (not equal),
Comparison operators
[NOT] LIKE, [NOT] IN, IS [NOT] NULL, IS [NOT] EMPTY
Logical operators:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
136
NOT
AND
OR
In expressions
Syntax:
Listing
9-78
<operand> IN (<subquery>|<value list>)
An IN conditional expression returns true if the operand is found from result of the subquery
or if its in the specificied comma separated value list, hence the IN expression is always false
if the result of the subquery is empty.
When value list is being used there must be at least one element in that list.
Here is an example where we use a subquery for the IN:
Listing
9-79
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.id IN (SELECT u.id FROM User u INNER JOIN u.Groups g WHERE
g.id = ?)', 1);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-80
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.id IN (SELECT
u2.id AS u2__id
FROM user u2
INNER JOIN user_group u3 ON u2.id = u3.user_id
INNER JOIN groups g ON g.id = u3.group_id
WHERE g.id = ?)
Here is an example where we just use a list of integers:
Listing
9-81
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->whereIn('u.id', array(1, 3, 4, 5));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-82
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
137
WHERE u.id IN (?,
?,
?,
?)
You can also optionally use the following DQL syntax when working with IN conditions.
// test.php
Listing
9-83
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->andWhere('u.id IN ?', array(array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
u.password AS u__password
FROM user u
WHERE u.id IN (?,
?,
?,
?,
?)j
Listing
9-84
Notice how the placeholders were added automatically for you. You will see that their is
one ? for every parameter you passed.
Like Expressions
Syntax:
string_expression [NOT] LIKE pattern_value [ESCAPE escape_character]
The string_expression must have a string value. The pattern_value is a string literal or a
string-valued input parameter in which an underscore (_) stands for any single character, a
percent (%) character stands for any sequence of characters (including the empty sequence),
and all other characters stand for themselves. The optional escape_character is a singlecharacter string literal or a character-valued input parameter (i.e., char or Character) and is
used to escape the special meaning of the underscore and percent characters in
pattern_value.
Examples:
•
•
•
•
address.phone LIKE '12%3' is true for '123' '12993' and false for '1234'
asentence.word LIKE 'l_se' is true for 'lose' and false for 'loose'
aword.underscored LIKE '\_%' ESCAPE '\' is true for '_foo' and false for 'bar'
address.phone NOT LIKE '12%3' is false for '123' and '12993' and true for '1234'
If the value of the string_expression or pattern_value is NULL or unknown, the value of the
LIKE expression is unknown. If the escape_characteris specified and is NULL, the value of the
LIKE expression is unknown.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
9-85
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
138
Find all users whose email ends with '@gmail.com':
Listing
9-86
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Email e')
->where('e.address LIKE ?', '%@gmail.com');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-87
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN email e ON u.id = e.user_id
WHERE e.address LIKE ?
Find all users whose name starts with letter 'A':
Listing
9-88
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.username LIKE ?', 'A%');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-89
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.username LIKE ?
Exists Expressions
Syntax:
Listing
9-90
<operand> [NOT ]EXISTS (<subquery>)
The EXISTS operator returns TRUE if the subquery returns one or more rows and FALSE
otherwise.
The NOT EXISTS operator returns TRUE if the subquery returns 0 rows and FALSE
otherwise.
For the next few examples we need to add the ReaderLog model.
Listing
9-91
// models/ReaderLog.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
139
class ReaderLog extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('article_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
9-92
# ...
ReaderLog:
columns:
article_id:
type: integer
primary: true
user_id:
type: integer
primary: true
After adding the ReaderLog model don't forget to run the generate.php script!
$ php generate.php
Listing
9-93
Now we can run some tests! First, finding all articles which have readers:
// test.php
Listing
9-94
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('Article a')
->where('EXISTS (SELECT r.id FROM ReaderLog r WHERE r.article_id =
a.id)');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
a.id AS a__id
FROM article a
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT
-----------------
Listing
9-95
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
140
r.id AS r__id
FROM reader_log r
WHERE r.article_id = a.id)
Finding all articles which don't have readers:
Listing
9-96
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('a.id')
->from('Article a')
->where(NOT EXISTS (SELECT r.id FROM ReaderLog r WHERE r.article_id =
a.id));
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-97
SELECT
a.id AS a__id
FROM article a
WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT
r.id AS r__id
FROM reader_log r
WHERE r.article_id = a.id)
All and Any Expressions
Syntax:
Listing
9-98
operand comparison_operator ANY (subquery)
operand comparison_operator SOME (subquery)
operand comparison_operator ALL (subquery)
An ALL conditional expression returns true if the comparison operation is true for all values
in the result of the subquery or the result of the subquery is empty. An ALL conditional
expression is false if the result of the comparison is false for at least one row, and is unknown
if neither true nor false.
Listing
9-99
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('C')
->where('C.col1 < ALL (FROM C2(col1))');
An ANY conditional expression returns true if the comparison operation is true for some value
in the result of the subquery. An ANY conditional expression is false if the result of the
subquery is empty or if the comparison operation is false for every value in the result of the
subquery, and is unknown if neither true nor false.
Listing
9-100
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('C')
->where('C.col1 > ANY (FROM C2(col1))');
The keyword SOME is an alias for ANY.
Listing
9-101
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
141
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('C')
->where('C.col1 > SOME (FROM C2(col1))');
The comparison operators that can be used with ALL or ANY conditional expressions are =,
<, <=, >, >=, <>. The result of the subquery must be same type with the conditional
expression.
NOT IN is an alias for <> ALL. Thus, these two statements are equal:
FROM C
WHERE C.col1 <> ALL (
FROM C2(col1));
Listing
9-102
FROM C
WHERE C.col1 NOT IN (
FROM C2(col1));
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('C')
->where('C.col1 <> ALL (FROM C2(col1))');
Listing
9-103
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('C')
->where('C.col1 NOT IN (FROM C2(col1))');
Subqueries
A subquery can contain any of the keywords or clauses that an ordinary SELECT query can
contain.
Some advantages of the subqueries:
• They allow queries that are structured so that it is possible to isolate each part of a
statement.
• They provide alternative ways to perform operations that would otherwise require
complex joins and unions.
• They are, in many people's opinion, readable. Indeed, it was the innovation of
subqueries that gave people the original idea of calling the early SQL "Structured
Query Language."
Here is an example where we find all users which don't belong to the group id 1:
// test.php
Listing
9-104
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id NOT IN (SELECT u2.id FROM User u2 INNER JOIN u2.Groups g
WHERE g.id = ?)', 1);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
Listing
9-105
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
142
WHERE u.id NOT IN (SELECT
u2.id AS u2__id
FROM user u2
INNER JOIN user_group u3 ON u2.id = u3.user_id
INNER JOIN groups g ON g.id = u3.group_id
WHERE g.id = ?)
Here is an example where we find all users which don't belong to any groups
Listing
9-106
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id NOT IN (SELECT u2.id FROM User u2 INNER JOIN u2.Groups
g)');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-107
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.id NOT IN (SELECT
u2.id AS u2__id
FROM user u2
INNER JOIN user_group u3 ON u2.id = u3.user_id
INNER JOIN groups g ON g.id = u3.group_id)
Functional Expressions
String functions
The CONCAT function returns a string that is a concatenation of its arguments. In the
example above we map the concatenation of users first_name and last_name to a value called
name
Listing
9-108
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('CONCAT(u.first_name, u.last_name) AS name')
->from('User u');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-109
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
CONCAT(u.first_name,
u.last_name) AS u__0
FROM user u
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
143
Now we can execute the query and get the mapped function value:
$users = $q->execute();
Listing
9-110
foreach($users as $user) {
// here 'name' is not a property of $user,
// its a mapped function value
echo $user->name;
}
The second and third arguments of the SUBSTRING function denote the starting position and
length of the substring to be returned. These arguments are integers. The first position of a
string is denoted by 1. The SUBSTRING function returns a string.
// test.php
Listing
9-111
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->where("SUBSTRING(u.username, 0, 1) = 'z'");
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
WHERE SUBSTRING(u.username
FROM 0 FOR 1) = 'z'
Listing
9-112
Notice how the SQL is generated with the proper SUBSTRING syntax for the DBMS you are
using!
The TRIM function trims the specified character from a string. If the character to be trimmed
is not specified, it is assumed to be space (or blank). The optional trim_character is a singlecharacter string literal or a character-valued input parameter (i.e., char or Character)[30]. If
a trim specification is not provided, BOTH is assumed. The TRIM function returns the
trimmed string.
// test.php
Listing
9-113
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->where('TRIM(u.username) = ?', 'Someone');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
Listing
9-114
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
144
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
WHERE TRIM(u.username) = ?
The LOWER and UPPER functions convert a string to lower and upper case, respectively.
They return a string.
Listing
9-115
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->where("LOWER(u.username) = 'jon wage'");
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-116
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
WHERE LOWER(u.username) = 'someone'
The LOCATE function returns the position of a given string within a string, starting the
search at a specified position. It returns the first position at which the string was found as an
integer. The first argument is the string to be located; the second argument is the string to be
searched; the optional third argument is an integer that represents the string position at
which the search is started (by default, the beginning of the string to be searched). The first
position in a string is denoted by 1. If the string is not found, 0 is returned.
The LENGTH function returns the length of the string in characters as an integer.
Arithmetic functions
Availible DQL arithmetic functions:
Listing
9-117
ABS(simple_arithmetic_expression)
SQRT(simple_arithmetic_expression)
MOD(simple_arithmetic_expression, simple_arithmetic_expression)
• The ABS function returns the absolute value for given number.
• The SQRT function returns the square root for given number.
• The MOD function returns the modulus of first argument using the second
argument.
Subqueries
Introduction
Doctrine allows you to use sub-dql queries in the FROM, SELECT and WHERE statements.
Below you will find examples for all the different types of subqueries Doctrine supports.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
145
Comparisons using subqueries
Find all the users which are not in a specific group.
// test.php
Listing
9-118
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->where('u.id NOT IN (SELECT u.id FROM User u INNER JOIN u.Groups g
WHERE g.id = ?)', 1);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
WHERE u.id NOT IN (SELECT
u2.id AS u2__id
FROM user u2
INNER JOIN user_group u3 ON u2.id = u3.user_id
INNER JOIN groups g ON g.id = u3.group_id
WHERE g.id = ?)
Listing
9-119
Retrieve the users phonenumber in a subquery and include it in the resultset of user
information.
// test.php
Listing
9-120
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->addSelect('(SELECT p.phonenumber FROM Phonenumber p WHERE p.user_id
= u.id LIMIT 1) as phonenumber')
->from('User u');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
(SELECT
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber
FROM phonenumber p
WHERE p.user_id = u.id
LIMIT 1) AS u__0
FROM user u
Listing
9-121
GROUP BY, HAVING clauses
DQL GROUP BY syntax:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
Listing
9-122
146
GROUP BY groupby_item {,
groupby_item}*
DQL HAVING syntax:
Listing
9-123
HAVING conditional_expression
GROUP BY and HAVING clauses can be used for dealing with aggregate functions. The
Following aggregate functions are available on DQL: COUNT, MAX, MIN, AVG, SUM
Selecting alphabetically first user by name.
Listing
9-124
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('MIN(a.amount)')
->from('Account a');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-125
SELECT
MIN(a.amount) AS a__0
FROM account a
Selecting the sum of all Account amounts.
Listing
9-126
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('SUM(a.amount)')
->from('Account a');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-127
SELECT
SUM(a.amount) AS a__0
FROM account a
Using an aggregate function in a statement containing no GROUP BY clause, results in
grouping on all rows. In the example below we fetch all users and the number of
phonenumbers they have.
Listing
9-128
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->addSelect('COUNT(p.id) as num_phonenumbers')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->groupBy('u.id');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
147
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
COUNT(p.id) AS p__0
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
GROUP BY u.id
Listing
9-129
The HAVING clause can be used for narrowing the results using aggregate values. In the
following example we fetch all users which have atleast 2 phonenumbers
// test.php
Listing
9-130
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->addSelect('COUNT(p.id) as num_phonenumbers')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->groupBy('u.id')
->having('num_phonenumbers >= 2');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
COUNT(p.id) AS p__0
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
GROUP BY u.id
HAVING p__0 >= 2
Listing
9-131
You can access the number of phonenumbers with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
9-132
// ...
$users = $q->execute();
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->name . ' has ' . $user->num_phonenumbers . ' phonenumbers';
}
ORDER BY clause
Introduction
Record collections can be sorted efficiently at the database level using the ORDER BY clause.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
148
Syntax:
, ...]
Examples:
Listing
9-133
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->orderBy('u.username, p.phonenumber');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-134
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
ORDER BY u.username,
p.phonenumber
In order to sort in reverse order you can add the DESC (descending) keyword to the name of
the column in the ORDER BY clause that you are sorting by. The default is ascending order;
this can be specified explicitly using the ASC keyword.
Listing
9-135
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Email e')
->orderBy('e.address DESC, u.id ASC');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-136
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN email e ON u.id = e.user_id
ORDER BY e.address DESC,
u.id ASC
Sorting by an aggregate value
In the following example we fetch all users and sort those users by the number of
phonenumbers they have.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
149
// test.php
Listing
9-137
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username, COUNT(p.id) count')
->from('User u')
->innerJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->orderby('count');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
COUNT(p.id) AS p__0
FROM user u
INNER JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
ORDER BY p__0
Listing
9-138
Using random order
In the following example we use random in the ORDER BY clause in order to fetch random
post.
// test.php
Listing
9-139
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('t.id, RANDOM() AS rand')
->from('Forum_Thread t')
->orderby('rand')
->limit(1);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
f.id AS f__id,
RAND() AS f__0
FROM forum__thread f
ORDER BY f__0
LIMIT 1
Listing
9-140
LIMIT and OFFSET clauses
Propably the most complex feature DQL parser has to offer is its LIMIT clause parser. Not
only does the DQL LIMIT clause parser take care of LIMIT database portability it is capable of
limiting the number of records instead of rows by using complex query analysis and
subqueries.
Retrieve the first 20 users and all their associated phonenumbers:
Listing
9-141
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
150
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username, p.phonenumber')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->limit(20);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
9-142
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
p.id AS p__id,
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
LIMIT 20
Driver Portability
DQL LIMIT clause is portable on all supported databases. Special attention have been paid to
following facts:
• Only Mysql, Pgsql and Sqlite implement LIMIT / OFFSET clauses natively
• In Oracle / Mssql / Firebird LIMIT / OFFSET clauses need to be emulated in driver
specific way
• The limit-subquery-algorithm needs to execute to subquery separately in mysql,
since mysql doesn't yet support LIMIT clause in subqueries
• Pgsql needs the order by fields to be preserved in SELECT clause, hence limitsubquery-algorithm needs to take this into consideration when pgsql driver is used
• Oracle only allows < 30 object identifiers (= table/column names/aliases), hence the
limit subquery must use as short aliases as possible and it must avoid alias collisions
with the main query.
The limit-subquery-algorithm
The limit-subquery-algorithm is an algorithm that DQL parser uses internally when one-tomany / many-to-many relational data is being fetched simultaneously. This kind of special
algorithm is needed for the LIMIT clause to limit the number of records instead of sql result
set rows.
This behavior can be overwritten using the configuration system (at global, connection or
table level) using:
Listing
9-143
$table->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_QUERY_LIMIT, Doctrine::LIMIT_ROWS);
$table->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_QUERY_LIMIT, Doctrine::LIMIT_RECORDS);
// revert
In the following example we have users and phonenumbers with their relation being one-tomany. Now lets say we want fetch the first 20 users and all their related phonenumbers.
Now one might consider that adding a simple driver specific LIMIT 20 at the end of query
would return the correct results. Thats wrong, since we you might get anything between 1-20
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
151
users as the first user might have 20 phonenumbers and then record set would consist of 20
rows.
DQL overcomes this problem with subqueries and with complex but efficient subquery
analysis. In the next example we are going to fetch first 20 users and all their phonenumbers
with single efficient query. Notice how the DQL parser is smart enough to use column
aggregation inheritance even in the subquery and how it's smart enough to use different
aliases for the tables in the subquery to avoid alias collisions.
// test.php
Listing
9-144
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, u.username, p.*')
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->limit(20);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
p.id AS p__id,
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber,
p.user_id AS p__user_id
FROM user u
LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
WHERE u.id IN (SELECT
DISTINCT u2.id
FROM user u2
LIMIT 20)
Listing
9-145
In the next example we are going to fetch first 20 users and all their phonenumbers and only
those users that actually have phonenumbers with single efficient query, hence we use an
INNER JOIN. Notice how the DQL parser is smart enough to use the INNER JOIN in the
subquery:
// test.php
Listing
9-146
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, u.username, p.*')
->from('User u')
->innerJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->limit(20);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
p.id AS p__id,
p.phonenumber AS p__phonenumber,
-----------------
Listing
9-147
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
152
p.user_id AS p__user_id
FROM user u
INNER JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id
WHERE u.id IN (SELECT
DISTINCT u2.id
FROM user u2
INNER JOIN phonenumber p2 ON u2.id = p2.user_id
LIMIT 20)
Named Queries
When you are dealing with a model that may change, but you need to keep your queries easily
updated, you need to find an easy way to define queries. Imagine for example that you change
one field and you need to follow all queries in your application to make sure it'll not break
anything.
Named Queries is a nice and effective way to solve this situation, allowing you to create
Doctrine_Queries and reuse them without the need to keep rewritting them.
The Named Query support is built at the top of Doctrine_Query_Registry support.
Doctrine_Query_Registry is a class for registering and naming queries. It helps with the
organization of your applications queries and along with that it offers some very nice
convenience stuff.
The queries are added using the add() method of the registry object. It takes two parameters,
the query name and the actual DQL query.
Listing
9-148
// test.php
// ...
$r = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance()->getQueryRegistry();
$r->add('User/all', 'FROM User u');
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
// find all users
$users = $userTable->find('all');
To
simplify
this
support,
Doctrine_Query_Registry.
Doctrine_Table
support
some
accessors
to
Creating a Named Query
When you build your models with option generateTableClasses defined as true, each
record class will also generate a *Table class, extending from Doctrine_Table.
Then, you can implement the method construct() to include your Named Queries:
Listing
9-149
class UserTable extends Doctrine_Table
{
public function construct()
{
// Named Query defined using DQL string
$this->addNamedQuery('get.by.id', 'SELECT u.username FROM User u
WHERE u.id = ?');
// Named Query defined using Doctrine_Query object
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
153
$this->addNamedQuery(
'get.by.similar.usernames', Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id, u.username')
->from('User u')
->where('LOWER(u.username) LIKE LOWER(?)')
);
}
}
Accessing Named Query
To reach the MyFooTable class, which is a subclass of Doctrine_Table, you can do the
following:
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
Listing
9-150
To access the Named Query (will return you a Doctrine_Query instance, always):
$q = $userTable->createNamedQuery('get.by.id');
Listing
9-151
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username
FROM user u
WHERE u.id = ?
Listing
9-152
Executing a Named Query
There are two ways to execute a Named Query. The first one is by retrieving the
Doctrine_Query and then executing it normally, as a normal instance:
// test.php
Listing
9-153
// ...
$users = Doctrine::getTable('User')
->createNamedQuery('get.by.similar.usernames')
->execute(array('%jon%wage%'));
You can also simplify the execution, by doing:
// test.php
Listing
9-154
// ...
$users = Doctrine::getTable('User')
->find('get.by.similar.usernames', array('%jon%wage%'));
The method find() also accepts a third parameter, which is the hydration mode.
Cross-Accessing Named Query
If that's not enough, Doctrine take advantage the Doctrine_Query_Registry and uses
namespace queries to enable cross-access of Named Queries between objects. Suppose you
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
154
have the *Table class instance of record Article. You want to call the "get.by.id" Named
Query of record User. To access the Named Query, you have to do:
Listing
9-155
// test.php
// ...
$articleTable = Doctrine::getTable('Article');
$users = $articleTable->find('User/get.by.id', array(1, 2, 3));
BNF
Listing
9-156
QL_statement ::= select_statement | update_statement | delete_statement
select_statement ::= select_clause from_clause [where_clause]
[groupby_clause]
[having_clause] [orderby_clause]
update_statement ::= update_clause [where_clause]
delete_statement ::= delete_clause [where_clause]
from_clause ::=
FROM identification_variable_declaration
{, {identification_variable_declaration | collection_member_declaration}}*
identification_variable_declaration ::= range_variable_declaration { join
| fetch_join }*
range_variable_declaration ::= abstract_schema_name [AS ]
identification_variable
join ::= join_spec join_association_path_expression [AS ]
identification_variable
fetch_join ::= join_specFETCH join_association_path_expression
association_path_expression ::=
collection_valued_path_expression |
single_valued_association_path_expression
join_spec::= [LEFT [OUTER ] |INNER ]JOIN
join_association_path_expression ::=
join_collection_valued_path_expression |
join_single_valued_association_path_expression
join_collection_valued_path_expression::=
identification_variable.collection_valued_association_field
join_single_valued_association_path_expression::=
identification_variable.single_valued_association_field
collection_member_declaration ::=
IN ( collection_valued_path_expression) [AS ] identification_variable
single_valued_path_expression ::=
state_field_path_expression | single_valued_association_path_expression
state_field_path_expression ::=
{identification_variable |
single_valued_association_path_expression}.state_field
single_valued_association_path_expression ::=
identification_variable.{single_valued_association_field.}*
single_valued_association_field
collection_valued_path_expression ::=
identification_variable.{single_valued_association_field.}*collection_valued_association
state_field ::= {embedded_class_state_field.}*simple_state_field
update_clause ::=UPDATE abstract_schema_name [[AS ]
identification_variable]
SET update_item {, update_item}*
update_item ::= [identification_variable.]{state_field |
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
155
single_valued_association_field} =
new_value
new_value ::=
simple_arithmetic_expression |
string_primary |
datetime_primary |
boolean_primary |
enum_primary
simple_entity_expression |
NULL
delete_clause ::=DELETE FROM abstract_schema_name [[AS ]
identification_variable]
select_clause ::=SELECT [DISTINCT ] select_expression {,
select_expression}*
select_expression ::=
single_valued_path_expression |
aggregate_expression |
identification_variable |
OBJECT( identification_variable) |
constructor_expression
constructor_expression ::=
NEW constructor_name( constructor_item {, constructor_item}*)
constructor_item ::= single_valued_path_expression | aggregate_expression
aggregate_expression ::=
{AVG |MAX |MIN |SUM }( [DISTINCT ] state_field_path_expression) |
COUNT ( [DISTINCT ] identification_variable | state_field_path_expression |
single_valued_association_path_expression)
where_clause ::=WHERE conditional_expression
groupby_clause ::=GROUP BY groupby_item {, groupby_item}*
groupby_item ::= single_valued_path_expression | identification_variable
having_clause ::=HAVING conditional_expression
orderby_clause ::=ORDER BY orderby_item {, orderby_item}*
orderby_item ::= state_field_path_expression [ASC |DESC ]
subquery ::= simple_select_clause subquery_from_clause [where_clause]
[groupby_clause] [having_clause]
subquery_from_clause ::=
FROM subselect_identification_variable_declaration
{, subselect_identification_variable_declaration}*
subselect_identification_variable_declaration ::=
identification_variable_declaration |
association_path_expression [AS ] identification_variable |
collection_member_declaration
simple_select_clause ::=SELECT [DISTINCT ] simple_select_expression
simple_select_expression::=
single_valued_path_expression |
aggregate_expression |
identification_variable
conditional_expression ::= conditional_term | conditional_expressionOR
conditional_term
conditional_term ::= conditional_factor | conditional_termAND
conditional_factor
conditional_factor ::= [NOT ] conditional_primary
conditional_primary ::= simple_cond_expression |( conditional_expression)
simple_cond_expression ::=
comparison_expression |
between_expression |
like_expression |
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
156
in_expression |
null_comparison_expression |
empty_collection_comparison_expression |
collection_member_expression |
exists_expression
between_expression ::=
arithmetic_expression [NOT ]BETWEEN
arithmetic_expressionAND arithmetic_expression |
string_expression [NOT ]BETWEEN string_expressionAND string_expression |
datetime_expression [NOT ]BETWEEN
datetime_expressionAND datetime_expression
in_expression ::=
state_field_path_expression [NOT ]IN ( in_item {, in_item}* | subquery)
in_item ::= literal | input_parameter
like_expression ::=
string_expression [NOT ]LIKE pattern_value [ESCAPE escape_character]
null_comparison_expression ::=
{single_valued_path_expression | input_parameter}IS [NOT ] NULL
empty_collection_comparison_expression ::=
collection_valued_path_expressionIS [NOT] EMPTY
collection_member_expression ::= entity_expression
[NOT ]MEMBER [OF ] collection_valued_path_expression
exists_expression::= [NOT ]EXISTS (subquery)
all_or_any_expression ::= {ALL |ANY |SOME } (subquery)
comparison_expression ::=
string_expression comparison_operator {string_expression |
all_or_any_expression} |
boolean_expression {= |<> } {boolean_expression | all_or_any_expression} |
enum_expression {= |<> } {enum_expression | all_or_any_expression} |
datetime_expression comparison_operator
{datetime_expression | all_or_any_expression} |
entity_expression {= |<> } {entity_expression | all_or_any_expression} |
arithmetic_expression comparison_operator
{arithmetic_expression | all_or_any_expression}
comparison_operator ::== |> |>= |< |<= |<>
arithmetic_expression ::= simple_arithmetic_expression | (subquery)
simple_arithmetic_expression ::=
arithmetic_term | simple_arithmetic_expression {+ |- } arithmetic_term
arithmetic_term ::= arithmetic_factor | arithmetic_term {* |/ }
arithmetic_factor
arithmetic_factor ::= [{+ |- }] arithmetic_primary
arithmetic_primary ::=
state_field_path_expression |
numeric_literal |
(simple_arithmetic_expression) |
input_parameter |
functions_returning_numerics |
aggregate_expression
string_expression ::= string_primary | (subquery)
string_primary ::=
state_field_path_expression |
string_literal |
input_parameter |
functions_returning_strings |
aggregate_expression
datetime_expression ::= datetime_primary | (subquery)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
157
datetime_primary ::=
state_field_path_expression |
input_parameter |
functions_returning_datetime |
aggregate_expression
boolean_expression ::= boolean_primary | (subquery)
boolean_primary ::=
state_field_path_expression |
boolean_literal |
input_parameter |
enum_expression ::= enum_primary | (subquery)
enum_primary ::=
state_field_path_expression |
enum_literal |
input_parameter |
entity_expression ::=
single_valued_association_path_expression | simple_entity_expression
simple_entity_expression ::=
identification_variable |
input_parameter
functions_returning_numerics::=
LENGTH( string_primary) |
LOCATE( string_primary, string_primary[, simple_arithmetic_expression]) |
ABS( simple_arithmetic_expression) |
SQRT( simple_arithmetic_expression) |
MOD( simple_arithmetic_expression, simple_arithmetic_expression) |
SIZE( collection_valued_path_expression)
functions_returning_datetime ::=
CURRENT_DATE |
CURRENT_TIME |
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
functions_returning_strings ::=
CONCAT( string_primary, string_primary) |
SUBSTRING( string_primary,
simple_arithmetic_expression, simple_arithmetic_expression)|
TRIM( [[trim_specification] [trim_character]FROM ] string_primary) |
LOWER( string_primary) |
UPPER( string_primary)
trim_specification ::=LEADING | TRAILING | BOTH
Magic Finders
Doctrine offers some magic finders for your Doctrine models that allow you to find a record
by any column that is present in the model. This is helpful for simply finding a user by their
username, or finding a group by the name of it. Normally this would require writing a
Doctrine_Query instance and storing this somewhere so it can be reused. That is no longer
needed for simple situations like that.
The basic pattern for the finder methods are as follows: findBy%s($value) or
findOneBy%s($value). The %s can be a column name or a relation alias. If you give a column
name you must give the value you are looking for. If you specify a relationship alias, you can
either pass an instance of the relation class to find, or give the actual primary key value.
First lets retrieve the UserTable instance to work with:
// test.php
Listing
9-157
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
158
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
Now we can easily find a User record by its primary key by using the find() method:
Listing
9-158
// test.php
// ...
$user = $userTable->find(1);
Now if you want to find a single user by their username you can use the following magic
finder:
Listing
9-159
// test.php
// ...
$user = $userTable->findOneByUsername('jonwage');
You can also easily find records by using the relationships between records. User has many
Phonenumbers we can find those Phonenumbers by passing the findBy**() method a
User instance:
Listing
9-160
// test.php
// ...
$phonenumberTable = Doctrine::getTable('Phonenumber');
$phonenumbers = $phonenumberTable->findByUser($user);
The documented magic finders above are made possibly by using PHP's __call()22
overloading
functionality.
The
undefined
functions
are
forwarded
to
Doctrine_Table::__call() where the Doctrine_Query objects are built, executed
and returned to the user.
Debugging Queries
The Doctrine_Query object has a few functions that can be used to help debug problems
with the query:
Sometimes you may want to see the complete DQL string of your Doctrine_Query object:
Listing
9-161
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u')
->orderBy('u.username');
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
22.
http://us3.php.net/__call
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 9: DQL (Doctrine Query Language)
159
SELECT
u.id AS u__id
FROM user u
ORDER BY u.username
Listing
9-162
The SQL returned above by the Doctrine_Query::getSql() function does not replace
the tokens with the parameters. This is the job of PDO and when we execute the query we
pass the parameters to PDO where the replacement is executed. You can retrieve the array
of parameters with the Doctrine_Query::getParams() method.
Get the array of parameters for the Doctrine_Query instance:
// test.php
Listing
9-163
// ...
print_r($q->getParams());
The above call to getParams() returns the unmodified array of parameters that are used
to build the final params to be passed to the query. If you wish to get the flattened array of
params passed to PDO then use the getFlattenedParams() method.
// test.php
Listing
9-164
// ...
print_r($q->getFlattenedParams());
Conclusion
The Doctrine Query Language is by far one of the most advanced and helpful feature of
Doctrine. It allows you to easily select very complex data from RDBMS relationships
efficiently!
Now that we have gone over most of the major components of Doctrine and how to use them
we are going to take a step back in the next chapter and look at everything from a birds eye
view in the Component Overview (page 160) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
160
Chapter 10
Component Overview
This chapter is intended to give you a birds eye view of all the main components that make up
Doctrine and how they work together. We've discussed most of the components in the
previous chapters but after this chapter you will have a better idea of all the components and
what their jobs are.
Manager
The Doctrine_Manager class is a singleton and is the root of the configuration hierarchy
and is used as a facade for controlling several aspects of Doctrine. You can retrieve the
singleton instance with the following code.
Listing
10-1
// test.php
// ...
$manager = Doctrine_Manager::getInstance();
Retrieving Connections
Listing
10-2
// test.php
// ...
$connections = $manager->getConnections();
foreach ($connections as $connection) {
echo $connection->getName() . "\n";
}
The Doctrine_Manager implements an iterator so you can simple loop over the $manager
variable to loop over the connections.
Listing
10-3
// test.php
// ...
foreach ($manager as $connection) {
echo $connection->getName() . "\n";
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
161
Connection
Doctrine_Connection is a wrapper for database connection. The connection is typically an
instance of PDO but because of how Doctrine is designed, it is possible to design your own
adapters that mimic the functionality that PDO provides.
The Doctrine_Connection class handles several things:
• Handles database portability things missing from PDO (eg. LIMIT / OFFSET
emulation)
• Keeps track of Doctrine_Table objects
• Keeps track of records
• Keeps track of records that need to be updated / inserted / deleted
• Handles transactions and transaction nesting
• Handles the actual querying of the database in the case of INSERT / UPDATE /
DELETE operations
• Can query the database using DQL. You will learn more about DQL in the DQL
(Doctrine Query Language) (page 118) chapter.
• Optionally validates transactions using Doctrine_Validator and gives full information
of possible errors.
Available Drivers
Doctrine has drivers for every PDO-supported database. The supported databases are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FreeTDS / Microsoft SQL Server / Sybase
Firebird/Interbase 6
Informix
Mysql
Oracle
Odbc
PostgreSQL
Sqlite
Creating Connections
// bootstrap.php
Listing
10-4
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://username:[email protected]/
test', 'connection 1');
We have already created a new connection in the previous chapters. You can skip the
above step and use the connection we've already created. You can retrieve it by using the
Doctrine_Manager::connection() method.
Flushing the Connection
When you create new User records you can flush the connection and save all un-saved
objects for that connection. Below is an example:
// test.php
Listing
10-5
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
162
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$user1 = new User();
$user1->username = 'Jack';
$user2 = new User();
$user2->username = 'jwage';
$conn->flush();
Calling Doctrine_Connection::flush() will save all unsaved record instances for that
connection. You could of course optionally call save() on each record instance and it would
be the same thing.
Listing
10-6
// test.php
// ...
$user1->save();
$user2->save();
Table
Doctrine_Table holds the schema information specified by the given component (record).
For example if you have a User class that extends Doctrine_Record, each schema
definition call gets delegated to a unique table object that holds the information for later use.
Each Doctrine_Table is registered by Doctrine_Connection. You can retrieve the table
object for each component easily which is demonstrated right below.
For example, lets say we want to retrieve the table object for the User class. We can do this
by simply giving User as the first argument for the Doctrine::getTable() method.
Getting a Table Object
In order to get table object for specified record just call Doctrine_Record::getTable().
Listing
10-7
// test.php
// ...
$accountTable = Doctrine::getTable('Account');
Getting Column Information
You can retrieve the column definitions set in Doctrine_Record by using the appropriate
Doctrine_Table methods. If you need all information of all columns you can simply use:
Listing
10-8
// test.php
// ...
$columns = $accountTable->getColumns();
$columns = $accountTable->getColumns();
foreach ($columns as $column)
{
print_r($column);
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
163
The above example would output the following when executed:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[type] => integer
[length] => 20
[autoincrement] => 1
[primary] => 1
)
Array
(
[type] => string
[length] => 255
)
Array
(
[type] => decimal
[length] => 18
)
Listing
10-9
Sometimes this can be an overkill. The following example shows how to retrieve the column
names as an array:
// test.php
Listing
10-10
// ...
$names = $accountTable->getColumnNames();
print_r($names);
The above example would output the following when executed:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => id
[1] => name
[2] => amount
)
Listing
10-11
Getting Relation Information
You can also get an array of all the Doctrine_Relation objects by simply calling
Doctrine_Table::getRelations() like the following:
// test.php
Listing
10-12
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$relations = $userTable->getRelations();
foreach ($relations as $name => $relation) {
echo $name . ":\n";
echo "Local - " . $relation->getLocal() . "\n";
echo "Foreign - " . $relation->getForeign() . "\n\n";
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
164
The above example would output the following when executed:
Listing
10-13
$ php test.php
Email:
Local - id
Foreign - user_id
Phonenumbers:
Local - id
Foreign - user_id
Groups:
Local - user_id
Foreign - group_id
Friends:
Local - user1
Foreign - user2
Addresses:
Local - id
Foreign - user_id
Threads:
Local - id
Foreign - user_id
You can get the Doctrine_Relation object for an individual relationship by using the
Doctrine_Table::getRelation() method.
Listing
10-14
// test.php
// ...
$relation = $userTable->getRelation('Phonenumbers');
echo
echo
echo
echo
'Name: ' . $relation['alias'] . "\n";
'Local - ' . $relation['local'] . "\n";
'Foreign - ' . $relation['foreign'] . "\n";
'Relation Class - ' . get_class($relation);
The above example would output the following when executed:
Listing
10-15
$ php test.php
Name: Phonenumbers
Local - id
Foreign - user_id
Relation Class - Doctrine_Relation_ForeignKey
Notice how in the above examples the $relation variable holds an instance of
Doctrine_Relation_ForeignKey yet we can access it like an array. This is because,
like many Doctrine classes, it implements ArrayAccess.
You can debug all the information of a relationship by using the toArray() method and
using print_r() to inspect it.
Listing
10-16
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
165
// ...
$array = $relation->toArray();
print_r($array);
Finder Methods
Doctrine_Table provides basic finder methods. These finder methods are very fast to write
and should be used if you only need to fetch data from one database table. If you need queries
that use several components (database tables) use Doctrine_Connection::query().
You can easily find an individual user by its primary key by using the find() method:
// test.php
Listing
10-17
// ...
$user = $userTable->find(2);
print_r($user->toArray());
The above example would output the following when executed:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 2
[is_active] => 1
[is_super_admin] => 0
[first_name] =>
[last_name] =>
[username] => jwage
[password] =>
[type] =>
[created_at] => 2009-01-21 13:29:12
[updated_at] => 2009-01-21 13:29:12
)
Listing
10-18
You can also use the findAll() method to retrieve a collection of all User records in the
database:
// test.php
Listing
10-19
// ...
foreach ($userTable->findAll() as $user) {
echo $user->username . "\n";
}
The above example would output the following when executed:
$ php test.php
Jack
jwage
Listing
10-20
The findAll() method is not recommended as it will return all records in the database
and if you need to retrieve information from relationships it will lazily load that data
causing high query counts. You can learn how to retrieve records and their related records
efficiently by reading the DQL (Doctrine Query Language) (page 118) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
166
You can also retrieve a set of records with a DQL where condition by using the findByDql()
method:
Listing
10-21
// test.php
// ...
$users = $userTable->findByDql('username LIKE ?', '%jw%');
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->username . "\n";
}
The above example would output the following when executed:
Listing
10-22
$ php test.php
jwage
Doctrine also offers some additional magic finder methods that can be read about in the
Magic Finders (page 157) section of the DQL chapter.
All of the finders below provided by Doctrine_Table use instances of Doctrine_Query
for executing the queries. The objects are built dynamically internally and executed.
Custom Table Classes
Adding custom table classes is very easy. Only thing you need to do is name the classes as
[componentName]Table and make them extend Doctrine_Table. So for the User model we
would create a class like the following:
Listing
10-23
// models/UserTable.php
class UserTable extends Doctrine_Table
{
}
Custom Finders
You can add custom finder methods to your custom table object. These finder methods may
use
fast
Doctrine_Table
finder
methods
or
DQL
API
(page
118)
(Doctrine_Query::create()).
Listing
10-24
// models/UserTable.php
class UserTable extends Doctrine_Table
{
public function findByName($name)
{
return Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->where('u.name LIKE ?', "%$name%")
->execute();
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
167
Doctrine will check if a child Doctrine_Table class called UserTable exists when calling
getTable() and if it does, it will return an instance of that instead of the default
Doctrine_Table.
In order for custom Doctrine_Table classes to be loaded you must enable the
autoload_table_classes attribute in your bootstrap.php file like done below.
// boostrap.php
Listing
10-25
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_AUTOLOAD_TABLE_CLASSES, true);
Now when we ask for the User table object we will get the following:
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
Listing
10-26
echo get_class($userTable); // UserTable
$users = $userTable->findByName("Jack");
The above example where we add a findByName() method is made possible automatically
by the magic finder methods. You can read about them in the Magic Finders (page 157)
section of the DQL chapter.
Record
Doctrine represents tables in your RDBMS with child Doctrine_Record classes. These
classes are where you define your schema information, options, attributes, etc. Instances of
these child classes represents records in the database and you can get and set properties on
these objects.
Properties
Each assigned column property of Doctrine_Record represents a database table column.
You will learn more about how to define your models in the Defining Models (page 52) chapter.
Now accessing the columns is easy:
// test.php
Listing
10-27
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$user = $userTable->find(1);
Access property through overloading
// test.php
Listing
10-28
// ...
echo $user->username;
Access property with get()
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
Listing
10-29
168
// test.php
// ...
echo $user->get(username);
Access property with ArrayAccess
Listing
10-30
// test.php
// ...
echo $user['username'];
The recommended way to access column values is by using the ArrayAccess as it makes it
easy to switch between record and array fetching when needed.
Iterating through the properties of a record can be done in similar way as iterating through
an array - by using the foreach construct. This is possible since Doctrine_Record
implements a magic IteratorAggregate interface.
Listing
10-31
// test.php
// ...
foreach ($user as $field => $value) {
echo $field . ': ' . $value . "\n";
}
As with arrays you can use the isset() for checking if given property exists and unset() for
setting given property to null.
We can easily check if a property named 'name' exists in a if conditional:
Listing
10-32
// test.php
// ...
if (isset($user['username'])) {
}
If we want to unset the name property we can do it using the unset() function in php:
Listing
10-33
// test.php
// ...
unset($user['username']);
When you have set values for record properties you can get an array of the modified fields
and values using Doctrine_Record::getModified()
Listing
10-34
// test.php
// ...
$user['username'] = 'Jack Daniels';
print_r($user->getModified());
The above example would output the following when executed:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
169
$ php test.php
Array
(
[username] => Jack Daniels
)
You
can
also
simply
check
if
a
Doctrine_Record::isModified() method:
Listing
10-35
record
is
modified
by
using
the
// test.php
Listing
10-36
// ...
echo $user->isModified() ? 'Modified':'Not Modified';
If you want to also check if any of the referenced relationships are modified you can pass a
$deep argument to isModified() with a value of true. Below you will find an example:
$user = new User();
$mail = new Email();
$mail->address = 'test';
$user->Emails[] = $mail;
Listing
10-37
Now if we deep check if the user is modified it will return true because the Email address is
modified.
$modified = $user->isModified(true); // true
Listing
10-38
Sometimes when a record has been updated you may want to inspect the old values and not
just the new values. This is possible in Doctrine with the getModified() method by passing
an argument of true. This will return the old values instead of the new ones.
// test.php
Listing
10-39
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->findOneByName('zYne-);
$user->name = 'zYne-';
$oldValues = $user->getModified(true);
/*
array(
'name' => 'zYne',
)
*/
$newValues = $user->getModified(false);
/*
array(
'name' => 'zYne-,
)
After saving a record in Doctrine, the modified properties are cleared out and the state of the
object is returned to un-modified. Sometimes you may want to retrieve the values that were
last modified and this is possible by using the getLastModified() method.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
Listing
10-40
170
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
print_r($user->getModified()); // array('username' => 'jwage')
$user->save();
// getModified() returns the current modified properties and in this case
// now no propeties are modified.
print_r($user->getModified()); // array()
// you can retrieve the last modified properties like the following
print_r($user->getLastModified()); // array('username' => 'jwage')
Sometimes you may want to retrieve the column count of given record. In order to do this you
can simply pass the record as an argument for the count() function. This is possible since
Doctrine_Record implements a magic Countable interface. The other way would be calling
the count() method.
Listing
10-41
// test.php
// ...
echo $record->count();
echo count($record);
Doctrine_Record offers a special method for accessing the identifier of given record. This
method is called identifier() and it returns an array with identifier field names as keys
and values as the associated property values.
Listing
10-42
// test.php
// ...
$user['username'] = 'Jack Daniels';
$user->save();
print_r($user->identifier()); // array('id' => 1)
A common case is that you have an array of values which you need to assign to a given
record. It may feel awkward and clumsy to set these values separately. No need to worry
though, Doctrine_Record offers a way for merging a given array or record to another
The merge() method iterates through the properties of the given record or array and assigns
the values to the object
Listing
10-43
// test.php
// ...
$values = array(
'username' => 'someone',
'age' => 11,
);
$user->merge($values);
echo $user->username; // someone
echo $user->age; // 11
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
171
You can also merge a one records values in to another like the following:
// test.php
Listing
10-44
// ...
$user1 = new User();
$user1->username = 'jwage';
$user2 = new User();
$user2->merge($user1);
echo $user2->username; // jwage
Doctrine_Record also has a fromArray() method which is identical to merge() and
only exists for consistency with the toArray() method.
Updating Records
Updating objects is very easy, you just call the Doctrine_Record::save() method. The
other way is to call Doctrine_Connection::flush() which saves all objects. It should be
noted though that flushing is a much heavier operation than just calling save method.
// test.php
Listing
10-45
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$user = $userTable->find(2);
if ($user !== false) {
$user->username = 'Jack Daniels';
$user->save();
}
Sometimes you may want to do a direct update. In direct update the objects aren't loaded
from database, rather the state of the database is directly updated. In the following example
we use DQL UPDATE statement to update all users.
Run a query to make all user names lowercase:
// test.php
Listing
10-46
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->update('User u')
->set('u.username', 'LOWER(u.name)');
$q->execute();
You can also run an update using objects if you already know the identifier of the record.
When you use the Doctrine_Record::assignIdentifier() method it sets the record
identifier and changes the state so that calling Doctrine_Record::save() performs an
update instead of insert.
Listing
10-47
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
172
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->assignIdentifier(1);
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->save();
Replacing Records
Replacing records is simple. If you instantiate a new object and save it and then late
instantiate another new object with the same primary key or unique index value which
already exists in the database, then it will replace/update that row in the database instead of
inserting a new one. Below is an example.
First, imagine a User model where username is a unique index.
Listing
10-48
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme';
$user->save();
Issues the following query
Listing
10-49
INSERT INTO user (username, password) VALUES (?,?) ('jwage', 'changeme')
Now lets create another new object and set the same username but a different password.
Listing
10-50
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'newpassword';
$user->replace();
Issues the following query
Listing
10-51
REPLACE INTO user (id,username,password) VALUES (?,?,?)
'newpassword')
(null, 'jwage',
The record is replaced/updated instead of a new one being inserted
Refreshing Records
Sometimes you may want to refresh your record with data from the database, use
Doctrine_Record::refresh().
Listing
10-52
// test.php
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(2);
$user->username = 'New name';
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
173
Now if you use the Doctrine_Record::refresh() method it will select the data from the
database again and update the properties of the instance.
// test.php
Listing
10-53
// ...
$user->refresh();
Refreshing relationships
The Doctrine_Record::refresh() method can also refresh the already loaded record
relationships, but you need to specify them on the original query.
First lets retrieve a User with its associated Groups:
// test.php
Listing
10-54
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Groups')
->where('id = ?');
$user = $q->fetchOne(array(1));
Now lets retrieve a Group with its associated Users:
// test.php
Listing
10-55
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('Group g')
->leftJoin('g.Users')
->where('id = ?');
$group = $q->fetchOne(array(1));
Now lets link the retrieved User and Group through a UserGroup instance:
// test.php
Listing
10-56
// ...
$userGroup = new UserGroup();
$userGroup->user_id = $user->id;
$userGroup->group_id = $group->id;
$userGroup->save();
You can also link a User to a Group in a much simpler way, by simply adding the Group to
the User. Doctrine will take care of creating the UserGroup instance for you automatically:
// test.php
Listing
10-57
// ...
$user->Groups[] = $group;
$user->save()
Now if we call Doctrine_Record::refresh(true) it will refresh the record and its
relationships loading the newly created reference we made above:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
Listing
10-58
174
// test.php
// ...
$user->refresh(true);
$group->refresh(true);
You can also lazily refresh all defined
Doctrine_Record::refreshRelated():
Listing
10-59
relationships
of
a
model
using
// test.php
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->findOneByName('jon');
$user->refreshRelated();
If you want to refresh an individual specified relationship just pass the name of a relationship
to the refreshRelated() function and it will lazily load the relationship:
Listing
10-60
// test.php
// ...
$user->refreshRelated('Phonenumber');
Deleting Records
Deleting records in Doctrine is handled by Doctrine_Record::delete(),
Doctrine_Collection::delete() and Doctrine_Connection::delete() methods.
Listing
10-61
// test.php
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable("User");
$user = $userTable->find(2);
// deletes user and all related composite objects
if($user !== false) {
$user->delete();
}
If you have a Doctrine_Collection of User records you can call delete() and it will loop
over all records calling Doctrine_Record::delete() for you.
Listing
10-62
// test.php
// ...
$users = $userTable->findAll();
Now you can delete all users and their related composite objects by calling
Doctrine_Collection::delete(). It will loop over all Users in the collection calling
delete one each one:
Listing
10-63
// test.php
// ...
$users->delete();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
175
Using Expression Values
There might be situations where you need to use SQL expressions as values of columns. This
can be achieved by using Doctrine_Expression which converts portable DQL expressions
to your native SQL expressions.
Lets say we have a class called event with columns timepoint(datetime) and name(string).
Saving the record with the current timestamp can be achieved as follows:
// test.php
Listing
10-64
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->updated_at = new Doctrine_Expression('NOW()');
$user->save();
The above code would issue the following SQL query:
INSERT INTO user (username, updated_at_) VALUES ('jwage', NOW())
Listing
10-65
When you use Doctrine_Expression with your objects in order to get the updated value
you will have to manually call refresh() to get the updated value from the database.
// test.php
Listing
10-66
// ...
$user->refresh();
Getting Record State
Every Doctrine_Record has a state. First of all records can be transient or persistent.
Every record that is retrieved from database is persistent and every newly created record is
considered transient. If a Doctrine_Record is retrieved from database but the only loaded
property is its primary key, then this record has a state called proxy.
Every transient and persistent Doctrine_Record is either clean or dirty.
Doctrine_Record is clean when none of its properties are changed and dirty when at least
one of its properties has changed.
A record can also have a state called locked. In order to avoid infinite recursion in some rare
circular reference cases Doctrine uses this state internally to indicate that a record is
currently under a manipulation operation.
Below is a table containing all the different states a record can be in with a short description
of it:
Name
Description
Doctrine_Record::STATE_PROXY
Record is in proxy state meaning its persistent but
not all of its properties are loaded from the database.
Doctrine_Record::STATE_TCLEAN Record is transient clean, meaning its transient and
none of its properties are changed.
Doctrine_Record::STATE_TDIRTY Record is transient dirty, meaning its transient and
some of its properties are changed.
Doctrine_Record::STATE_DIRTY
-----------------
Record is dirty, meaning its persistent and some of
its properties are changed.
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
Doctrine_Record::STATE_CLEAN
176
Record is clean, meaning its persistent and none of
its properties are changed.
Doctrine_Record::STATE_LOCKED Record is locked.
You can easily get the state of a record by using the Doctrine_Record::state() method:
Listing
10-67
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
if ($user->state() == Doctrine_Record::STATE_TDIRTY) {
echo 'Record is transient dirty';
}
The above object is TDIRTY because it has some default values specified in the schema. If
we use an object that has no default values and instantiate a new instance it will return
TCLEAN.
Listing
10-68
// test.php
// ...
$account = new Account();
if ($account->state() == Doctrine_Record::STATE_TCLEAN) {
echo 'Record is transient clean';
}
Getting Object Copy
Sometimes you may want to get a copy of your object (a new object with all properties
copied). Doctrine provides a simple method for this: Doctrine_Record::copy().
Listing
10-69
// test.php
// ...
$copy = $user->copy();
Notice that copying the record with copy() returns a new record (state TDIRTY) with the
values of the old record, and it copies the relations of that record. If you do not want to copy
the relations too, you need to use copy(false).
Get a copy of user without the relations
Listing
10-70
// test.php
// ...
$copy = $user->copy(false);
Using the PHP clone functionality simply uses this copy() functionality internally:
Listing
10-71
// test.php
// ...
$copy = clone $user;
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
177
Saving a Blank Record
By default Doctrine doesn't execute when save() is being called on an unmodified record.
There might be situations where you want to force-insert the record even if it has not been
modified. This can be achieved by assigning the state of the record to
Doctrine_Record::STATE_TDIRTY.
// test.php
Listing
10-72
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->state('TDIRTY');
$user->save();
When setting the state you can optionally pass a string for the state and it will be converted
to the appropriate state constant. In the example above, `TDIRTY` is actually converted to
`Doctrine_Record::STATE_TDIRTY`.
Mapping Custom Values
There might be situations where you want to map custom values to records. For example
values that depend on some outer sources and you only want these values to be available at
runtime not persisting those values into database. This can be achieved as follows:
// test.php
Listing
10-73
// ...
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function construct()
{
$this->mapValue('name');
}
// ...
}
$user = new User();
$user->name = 'jwage';
echo $user->name; // jwage
Serializing
Sometimes you may want to serialize your record objects (possibly for caching purposes):
// test.php
Listing
10-74
// ...
$string = serialize($user);
$user = unserialize($string);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
178
Checking Existence
Very commonly you'll need to know if given record exists in the database. You can use the
exists() method for checking if given record has a database row equivalent:
Listing
10-75
// test.php
// ...
$record = new User();
echo $record->exists() ? 'Exists':'Does Not Exist'; // Does Not Exist
$record->username = 'someone';
$record->save();
echo $record->exists() ? 'Exists':'Does Not Exist'; // Exists
Function Callbacks for Columns
Doctrine_Record offers a way for attaching callback calls for column values. For example if
you want to trim certain column, you can simply use:
Listing
10-76
// test.php
// ...
$record->call('trim', 'username');
Collection
Doctrine_Collection is a collection of records (see Doctrine_Record). As with records the
collections can be deleted and saved using Doctrine_Collection::delete() and
Doctrine_Collection::save() accordingly.
When fetching data from database with either DQL API (see Doctrine_Query) or rawSql
API (see Doctrine_RawSql) the methods return an instance of Doctrine_Collection by
default.
The following example shows how to initialize a new collection:
Listing
10-77
// test.php
// ...
$users = new Doctrine_Collection('User');
Now add some new data to the collection:
Listing
10-78
// test.php
// ...
$users[0]->username = 'Arnold';
$users[1]->username = 'Somebody';
Now just like we can delete a collection we can save it:
Listing
10-79
$users->save();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
179
Splitting a collection in to a simple key => value pair array is simple. It can be accomplished
with the toKeyValueArray() method.
// test.php
Listing
10-80
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
$users = $q->execute();
$array = $users->toKeyValueArray('id', 'name');
print_r($array);
The above example would output the following array structure:
array(
4 => 'zYne',
5 => 'Arnold Schwarzenegger',
6 => 'Michael Caine',
7 => 'Takeshi Kitano',
8 => 'Sylvester Stallone',
9 => 'Kurt Russell',
10 => 'Jean Reno',
11 => 'Edward Furlong',
)
Listing
10-81
Accessing Elements
You can access the elements of Doctrine_Collection with set() and get() methods or
with ArrayAccess interface.
// test.php
Listing
10-82
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$users = $userTable->findAll();
Accessing elements with ArrayAccess interface
// test.php
Listing
10-83
// ...
$users[0]->username = "Jack Daniels";
$users[1]->username = "John Locke";
Accessing elements with get()
echo $users->get(1)->username;
Listing
10-84
Adding new Elements
When accessing single elements of the collection and those elements (records) don't exist
Doctrine auto-adds them.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
180
In the following example we fetch all users from database (there are 5) and then add couple
of users in the collection.
As with PHP arrays the indexes start from zero.
Listing
10-85
// test.php
// ...
$users = $userTable->findAll();
echo count($users); // 5
$users[5]->username = "new user 1";
$users[6]->username = "new user 2";
You could also optionally omit the 5 and 6 from the array index and it will automatically
increment just as a PHP array would:
Listing
10-86
// test.php
// ...
$users[]->username = 'new user 3'; // key is 7
$users[]->username = 'new user 4'; // key is 8
Getting Collection Count
The Doctrine_Collection::count() method returns the number of elements currently in
the collection.
Listing
10-87
// test.php
// ...
$users = $userTable->findAll();
echo $users->count();
Since Doctrine_Collection implements Countable interface a valid alternative for the
previous example is to simply pass the collection as an argument for the count() function.
Listing
10-88
// test.php
// ...
echo count($users);
Saving the Collection
Similar to Doctrine_Record the collection can be saved by calling the save() method.
When save() gets called Doctrine issues save() operations an all records and wraps the
whole procedure in a transaction.
Listing
10-89
// test.php
// ...
$users = $userTable->findAll();
$users[0]->username = 'Jack Daniels';
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
181
$users[1]->username = 'John Locke';
$users->save();
Deleting the Collection
Doctrine Collections can be deleted in very same way is Doctrine Records you just call
delete() method. As for all collections Doctrine knows how to perform single-shot-delete
meaning it only performs one database query for the each collection.
For example if we have collection of users. When deleting the collection of users doctrine only
performs one query for this whole transaction. The query would look something like:
DELETE
FROM user
WHERE id IN (1,2,3,
... ,N)
Listing
10-90
Key Mapping
Sometimes you may not want to use normal indexing for collection elements. For example in
some cases mapping primary keys as collection keys might be useful. The following example
demonstrates how this can be achieved.
Map the id column
// test.php
Listing
10-91
// ....
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$userTable->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_COLL_KEY, 'id');
Now user collections will use the values of id column as element indexes:
// test.php
Listing
10-92
// ...
$users = $userTable->findAll();
foreach($users as $id => $user) {
echo $id . $user->username;
}
You may want to map the name column:
// test.php
Listing
10-93
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$userTable->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_COLL_KEY, 'username');
Now user collections will use the values of name column as element indexes:
// test.php
Listing
10-94
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
182
$users = $userTable->findAll();
foreach($users as $username => $user) {
echo $username . ' - ' . $user->created_at . "\n";
}
Note this would only be advisable if the username column is specified as unique in your
schema otherwise you will have cases where data cannot be hydrated properly due to
duplicate collection keys.
Loading Related Records
Doctrine provides means for efficiently retrieving all related records for all record elements.
That means when you have for example a collection of users you can load all phonenumbers
for all users by simple calling the loadRelated() method.
However, in most cases you don't need to load related elements explicitly, rather what you
should do is try to load everything at once by using the DQL API and JOINS.
The following example uses three queries for retrieving users, their phonenumbers and the
groups they belong to.
Listing
10-95
// test.php
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
$users = $q->execute();
Now lets load phonenumbers for all users:
Listing
10-96
// test.php
// ...
$users->loadRelated('Phonenumbers');
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->Phonenumbers[0]->phonenumber;
// no additional db queries needed here
}
The loadRelated() works an any relation, even associations:
Listing
10-97
// test.php
// ...
$users->loadRelated('Groups');
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->Groups[0]->name;
}
The example below shows how to do this more efficiently by using the DQL API.
Write a Doctrine_Query that loads everything in one query:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
183
// test.php
Listing
10-98
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumbers p')
->leftJoin('u.Groups g');
$users = $q->execute();
Now when we use the Phonenumbers and Groups no additional database queries are
needed:
// test.php
Listing
10-99
// ...
foreach($users as $user) {
echo $user->Phonenumbers[0]->phonenumber;
echo $user->Groups[0]->name;
}
Validator
Validation in Doctrine is a way to enforce your business rules in the model part of the MVC
architecture. You can think of this validation as a gateway that needs to be passed right
before data gets into the persistent data store. The definition of these business rules takes
place at the record level, that means in your active record model classes (classes derived
from Doctrine_Record). The first thing you need to do to be able to use this kind of
validation is to enable it globally. This is done through the Doctrine_Manager.
// bootstrap.php
Listing
10-100
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, Doctrine::VALIDATE_ALL);
Once you enabled validation, you'll get a bunch of validations automatically:
• Data type validations: All values assigned to columns are checked for the right type.
That means if you specified a column of your record as type 'integer', Doctrine will
validate that any values assigned to that column are of this type. This kind of type
validation tries to be as smart as possible since PHP is a loosely typed language. For
example 2 as well as "7" are both valid integers whilst "3f" is not. Type validations
occur on every column (since every column definition needs a type).
• Length validation: As the name implies, all values assigned to columns are validated
to make sure that the value does not exceed the maximum length.
You can combine the following constants by using bitwise operations: VALIDATE_ALL,
VALIDATE_TYPES, VALIDATE_LENGTHS, VALIDATE_CONSTRAINTS, VALIDATE_NONE.
For example to enable all validations except length validations you would use:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
10-101
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_VALIDATE, VALIDATE_ALL &
~VALIDATE_LENGTHS);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
184
You can read more about this topic in the Data Validation (page 208) chapter.
More Validation
The type and length validations are handy but most of the time they're not enough. Therefore
Doctrine provides some mechanisms that can be used to validate your data in more detail.
Validators are an easy way to specify further validations. Doctrine has a lot of predefined
validators that are frequently needed such as email, country, ip, range and regexp
validators. You find a full list of available validators in the Data Validation (page 208) chapter.
You can specify which validators apply to which column through the 4th argument of the
hasColumn() method. If that is still not enough and you need some specialized validation
that is not yet available as a predefined validator you have three options:
• You can write the validator on your own.
• You can propose your need for a new validator to a Doctrine developer.
• You can use validation hooks.
The first two options are advisable if it is likely that the validation is of general use and is
potentially applicable in many situations. In that case it is a good idea to implement a new
validator. However if the validation is special it is better to use hooks provided by Doctrine:
• validate() (Executed every time the record gets validated)
• validateOnInsert() (Executed when the record is new and gets validated)
• validateOnUpdate() (Executed when the record is not new and gets validated)
If you need a special validation in your active record you can simply override one of these
methods in your active record class (a descendant of Doctrine_Record). Within these
methods you can use all the power of PHP to validate your fields. When a field does not pass
your validation you can then add errors to the record's error stack. The following code
snippet shows an example of how to define validators together with custom validation:
Listing
10-102
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
protected function validate()
{
if ($this->username == 'God') {
// Blasphemy! Stop that! ;-)
// syntax: add(<fieldName>, <error code/identifier>)
$errorStack = $this->getErrorStack();
$errorStack->add('name', 'You cannot use this username!');
}
}
}
// models/Email.php
class Email extends BaseEmail
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
185
// validators 'email' and 'unique' used
$this->hasColumn('address','string', 150, array('email',
'unique'));
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
10-103
# ...
Email:
columns:
address:
type: string(150)
email: true
unique: true
Valid or Not Valid
Now that you know how to specify your business rules in your models, it is time to look at
how to deal with these rules in the rest of your application.
Implicit Validation
Whenever a record is going to be saved to the persistent data store (i.e. through calling
$record->save()) the full validation procedure is executed. If errors occur during that
process an exception of the type Doctrine_Validator_Exception will be thrown. You can
catch that exception and analyze the errors by using the instance method
Doctrine_Validator_Exception::getInvalidRecords(). This method returns an
ordinary array with references to all records that did not pass validation. You can then further
explore the errors of each record by analyzing the error stack of each record. The error stack
of
a
record
can
be
obtained
with
the
instance
method
Doctrine_Record::getErrorStack(). Each error stack is an instance of the class
Doctrine_Validator_ErrorStack. The error stack provides an easy to use interface to
inspect the errors.
Explicit Validation
You can explicitly trigger the validation for any record at any time. For this purpose
Doctrine_Record provides the instance method Doctrine_Record::isValid(). This
method returns a boolean value indicating the result of the validation. If the method returns
false, you can inspect the error stack in the same way as seen above except that no exception
is thrown, so you simply obtain the error stack of the record that didnt pass validation
through Doctrine_Record::getErrorStack().
The following code snippet shows an example of handling implicit validation which caused a
Doctrine_Validator_Exception.
// test.php
Listing
10-104
// ...
$user = new User();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
186
try {
$user->username = str_repeat('t', 256);
$user->Email->address = "[email protected]@notvalid..";
$user->save();
} catch(Doctrine_Validator_Exception $e) {
$userErrors = $user->getErrorStack();
$emailErrors = $user->Email->getErrorStack();
foreach($userErrors as $fieldName => $errorCodes) {
echo $fieldName . " - " . implode(', ', $errorCodes) . "\n";
}
foreach($emailErrors as $fieldName => $errorCodes) {
echo $fieldName . " - " . implode(', ', $errorCodes) . "\n";
}
}
You could also use $e->getInvalidRecords(). The direct way used above is just more simple
when you know the records you're dealing with.
You can also retrieve the error stack as a nicely formatted string for easy use in your
applications:
Listing
10-105
// test.php
// ...
echo $user->getErrorStackAsString();
It would output an error string that looks something like the following:
Listing
10-106
Validation failed in class User
1 field had validation error:
* 1 validator failed on username (length)
Profiler
Doctrine_Connection_Profiler is an event listener for Doctrine_Connection. It
provides flexible query profiling. Besides the SQL strings the query profiles include elapsed
time to run the queries. This allows inspection of the queries that have been performed
without the need for adding extra debugging code to model classes.
Doctrine_Connection_Profiler can be enabled by adding it as an event listener for
Doctrine_Connection.
Listing
10-107
// test.php
// ...
$profiler = new Doctrine_Connection_Profiler();
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$conn->setListener($profiler);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
187
Basic Usage
Perhaps some of your pages is loading slowly. The following shows how to build a complete
profiler report from the connection:
// test.php
Listing
10-108
// ...
$time = 0;
foreach ($profiler as $event) {
$time += $event->getElapsedSecs();
echo $event->getName() . " " . sprintf("%f", $event->getElapsedSecs())
. "\n";
echo $event->getQuery() . "\n";
$params = $event->getParams();
if( ! empty($params)) {
print_r($params);
}
}
echo "Total time: " . $time . "\n";
Frameworks like symfony23, Zend24, etc. offer web debug toolbars that use this
functionality provided by Doctrine for reporting the number of queries executed on every
page as well as the time it takes for each query.
Locking Manager
The term 'Transaction' does not refer to database transactions here but to the general
meaning of this term.
Locking is a mechanism to control concurrency. The two most well known locking strategies
are optimistic and pessimistic locking. The following is a short description of these two
strategies from which only pessimistic locking is currently supported by Doctrine.
Optimistic Locking
The state/version of the object(s) is noted when the transaction begins. When the transaction
finishes the noted state/version of the participating objects is compared to the current state/
version. When the states/versions differ the objects have been modified by another
transaction and the current transaction should fail. This approach is called 'optimistic'
because it is assumed that it is unlikely that several users will participate in transactions on
the same objects at the same time.
Pessimistic Locking
The objects that need to participate in the transaction are locked at the moment the user
starts the transaction. No other user can start a transaction that operates on these objects
while the locks are active. This ensures that the user who starts the transaction can be sure
that no one else modifies the same objects until he has finished his work.
23.
24.
http://www.symfony-project.com
http://framework.zend.com
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
188
Doctrine's pessimistic offline locking capabilities can be used to control concurrency during
actions or procedures that take several HTTP request and response cycles and/or a lot of time
to complete.
Examples
The following code snippet demonstrates the use of Doctrine's pessimistic offline locking
capabilities.
At the page where the lock is requested get a locking manager instance:
Listing
10-109
// test.php
// ...
$lockingManager = new Doctrine_Locking_Manager_Pessimistic();
Ensure that old locks which timed out are released before we try to acquire our lock 300
seconds = 5 minutes timeout. This can be done by using the releaseAgedLocks()
method.
Listing
10-110
// test.php
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(1);
try
{
$lockingManager->releaseAgedLocks(300);
$gotLock = $lockingManager->getLock($user, 'jwage');
if ($gotLock)
{
echo "Got lock!";
}
else
{
echo "Sorry, someone else is currently working on this record";
}
} catch(Doctrine_Locking_Exception $dle) {
echo $dle->getMessage();
// handle the error
}
At the page where the transaction finishes get a locking manager instance:
Listing
10-111
// test.php
// ...
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(1);
$lockingManager = new Doctrine_Locking_Manager_Pessimistic();
try
{
if ($lockingManager->releaseLock($user, 'jwage'))
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
189
echo "Lock released";
}
else
{
echo "Record was not locked. No locks released.";
}
}
catch(Doctrine_Locking_Exception $dle)
{
echo $dle->getMessage();
// handle the error
}
Technical Details
The pessimistic offline locking manager stores the locks in the database (therefore 'offline').
The required locking table is automatically created when you try to instantiate an instance of
the manager and the ATTR_CREATE_TABLES is set to TRUE. This behavior may change in the
future to provide a centralized and consistent table creation procedure for installation
purposes.
Views
Database views can greatly increase the performance of complex queries. You can think of
them as cached queries. Doctrine_View provides integration between database views and
DQL queries.
Using Views
Using views on your database using Doctrine is easy. We provide a nice Doctrine_View
class which provides functionality for creating, dropping and executing views.
The Doctrine_View class integrates with the Doctrine_Query class by saving the SQL
that would be executed by Doctrine_Query.
First lets create a new Doctrine_Query instance to work with:
// test.php
Listing
10-112
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
->leftJoin('u.Phonenumber p')
->limit(20);
Now lets create the Doctrine_View instance and pass it the Doctrine_Query instance as
well as a name for identifying that database view:
// test.php
Listing
10-113
// ...
$view = new Doctrine_View($q, 'RetrieveUsersAndPhonenumbers');
Now we can easily create the view by using the Doctrine_View::create() method:
Listing
10-114
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 10: Component Overview
190
// test.php
// ...
try {
$view->create();
} catch (Exception $e) {}
Alternatively if you want to drop the database view you use the Doctrine_View::drop()
method:
Listing
10-115
// test.php
// ...
try {
$view->drop();
} catch (Exception $e) {}
Using views are extremely easy. Just use the Doctrine_View::execute() for executing
the view and returning the results just as a normal Doctrine_Query object would:
Listing
10-116
// test.php
// ...
$users
= $view->execute();
foreach ($users as $user) {
print_r($us->toArray());
}
Conclusion
We now have been exposed to a very large percentage of the core functionality provided by
Doctrine. The next chapters of this book are documentation that cover some of the optional
functionality that can help make your life easier on a day to basis.
Lets move on to the next chapter (page 191) where we can learn about how to use native SQL
to hydrate our data in to arrays and objects instead of the Doctrine Query Language.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 11: Native SQL
191
Chapter 11
Native SQL
Introduction
Doctrine_RawSql provides a convenient interface for building raw sql queries. Similar to
Doctrine_Query, Doctrine_RawSql provides means for fetching arrays and objects.
Whichever way you prefer.
Using raw sql for fetching might be useful when you want to utilize database specific features
such as query hints or the CONNECT keyword in Oracle.
Creating a Doctrine_RawSql object is easy:
// test.php
Listing
11-1
// ...
$q = new Doctrine_RawSql();
Optionally a connection parameter can be given and it accepts an instance of
Doctrine_Connection. You learned how to create connections in the Connections (page 38)
chapter.
// test.php
Listing
11-2
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
$q = new Doctrine_RawSql($conn);
Component Queries
The first thing to notice when using Doctrine_RawSql is that you always have to place the
fields you are selecting in curly brackets {}. Also for every selected component you have to
call addComponent().
The following example should clarify the usage of these:
// test.php
Listing
11-3
// ...
$q->select('{u.*}')
->from('user u')
->addComponent('u', 'User');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 11: Native SQL
192
$users = $q->execute();
print_r($users->toArray());
Note above that we tell that user table is bound to class called User by using the
addComponent() method.
Pay attention to following things:
• Fields must be in curly brackets.
• For every selected table there must be one addComponent() call.
Fetching from Multiple Components
When fetching from multiple components the addComponent() calls become a bit more
complicated as not only do we have to tell which tables are bound to which components, we
also have to tell the parser which components belongs to which.
In the following example we fetch all users and their phonenumbers. First create a new
Doctrine_RawSql object and add the select parts:
Listing
11-4
// test.php
// ...
$q = new Doctrine_RawSql();
$q->select('{u.*}, {p.*}');
Now we need to add the FROM part to the query with the join to the phonenumber table from
the user table and map everything together:
Listing
11-5
// test.php
// ...
$q->from('user u LEFT JOIN phonenumber p ON u.id = p.user_id')
Now we tell that user table is bound to class called User we also add an alias for User class
called u. This alias will be used when referencing the User class.
Listing
11-6
// test.php
// ...
$q->addComponent('u', 'User u');
Now we add another component that is bound to table phonenumber:
Listing
11-7
// test.php
// ...
$q->addComponent('p', 'u.Phonenumbers p');
Notice how we reference that the Phonenumber class is the User's phonenumber.
Now we can execute the Doctrine_RawSql query just like if you were executing a
Doctrine_Query object:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 11: Native SQL
193
// test.php
Listing
11-8
// ...
$users = $q->execute();
echo get_class($users) . "\n";
echo get_class($users[0]) . "\n";
echo get_class($users[0]['Phonenumbers'][0]) . "\n";
The above example would output the following when executed:
$ php test.php
Doctrine_Collection
User
Phonenumber
Listing
11-9
Conclusion
This chapter may or may not be useful for you right now. In most cases the Doctrine Query
Language is plenty sufficient for retrieving the complex data sets you require. But if you
require something outside the scope of what Doctrine_Query is capable of then
Doctrine_RawSql can help you.
In the previous chapters you've seen a lot of mention about YAML schema files and have been
given examples of schema files but haven't really been trained on how to write your own. The
next chapter explains in great detail how to maintain your models as YAML Schema Files
(page 194).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
194
Chapter 12
YAML Schema Files
Introduction
The purpose of schema files is to allow you to manage your model definitions directly from a
YAML file rather then editing php code. The YAML schema file is parsed and used to generate
all your model definitions/classes. This makes Doctrine model definitions much more portable.
Schema files support all the normal things you would write with manual php code.
Component to connection binding, relationships, attributes, templates/behaviors, indexes, etc.
Abbreviated Syntax
Doctrine offers the ability to specify schema in an abbreviated syntax. A lot of the schema
parameters have values they default to, this allows us to abbreviate the syntax and let
Doctrine just use its defaults. Below is an example of schema taking advantage of all the
abbreviations.
The detect_relations option will attempt to guess relationships based on column
names. In the example below Doctrine knows that User has one Contact and will
automatically define the relationship between the models.
Listing
12-1
--detect_relations: true
User:
columns:
username: string
password: string
contact_id: integer
Contact:
columns:
first_name: string
last_name: string
phone: string
email: string
address: string
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
195
Verbose Syntax
Here is the 100% verbose form of the above schema:
--User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
contact_id:
type: integer
relations:
Contact:
class: Contact
local: contact_id
foreign: id
foreignAlias: User
foreignType: one
type: one
Listing
12-2
Contact:
columns:
first_name:
type: string(255)
last_name:
type: string(255)
phone:
type: string(255)
email:
type: string(255)
address:
type: string(255)
relations:
User:
class: User
local: id
foreign: contact_id
foreignAlias: Contact
foreignType: one
type: one
In the above example we do not define the detect_relations option, instead we manually
define the relationships so we have complete control over the configuration of the local/
foreign key, type and alias of the relationship on each side.
Relationships
When specifying relationships it is only necessary to specify the relationship on the end
where the foreign key exists. When the schema file is parsed, it reflects the relationship and
builds the opposite end automatically. If you specify the other end of the relationship
manually, the auto generation will have no effect.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
196
Detect Relations
Doctrine offers the ability to specify a detect_relations option as you saw earlier. This
feature provides automatic relationship building based on column names. If you have a User
model with a contact_id and a class with the name Contact exists, it will automatically
create the relationships between the two.
Customizing Relationships
Doctrine only requires that you specify the relationship on the end where the foreign key
exists. The opposite end of the relationship will be reflected and built on the opposite end.
The schema syntax offers the ability to customize the relationship alias and type of the
opposite end. This is good news because it means you can maintain all the relevant
relationship information in one place. Below is an example of how to customize the alias and
type of the opposite end of the relationship. It demonstrates the relationships User has one
Contact and Contact has one User as UserModel. Normally it would have automatically
generated User has one Contact and Contact has many User. The foreignType and
foreignAlias options allow you to customize the opposite end of the relationship.
Listing
12-3
--User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
relations:
Contact:
foreignType: one
foreignAlias: UserModel
Contact:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
name:
type: string(255)
You can quickly detect and create the relationships between two models with the
detect_relations option like below.
Listing
12-4
--detect_relations: true
User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
197
autoincrement: true
avatar_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Avatar:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
name:
type: string(255)
image_file:
type: string(255)
The resulting relationships would be User has one Avatar and Avatar has many User.
One to One
--User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
relations:
Contact:
foreignType: one
Listing
12-5
Contact:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
name:
type: string(255)
One to Many
--User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
-----------------
Listing
12-6
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
198
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Phonenumber:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
name:
type: string(255)
user_id:
type: integer(4)
relations:
User:
foreignAlias: Phonenumbers
Many to Many
Listing
12-7
--User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
autoincrement: true
primary: true
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
attributes:
export: all
validate: true
Group:
tableName: group_table
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
autoincrement: true
primary: true
name:
type: string(255)
relations:
Users:
foreignAlias: Groups
class: User
refClass: GroupUser
GroupUser:
columns:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
199
group_id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
user_id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
relations:
Group:
foreignAlias: GroupUsers
User:
foreignAlias: GroupUsers
This creates a set of models where User has many Groups, Group has many Users,
GroupUser has one User and GroupUser has one Group.
Features & Examples
Connection Binding
If you're not using schema files to manage your models, you will normally use this code to
bind a component to a connection name with the following code:
Create a connection with code like below:
Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://jwage:[email protected]/connection1',
'connection1');
Listing
12-8
Now somewhere in your Doctrine bootstrapping of Doctrine you would bind the model to that
connection:
Doctrine_Manager::connection()->bindComponent('User', 'conn1');
Listing
12-9
Schema files offer the ability to bind it to a specific connection by specifying the connection
parameter. If you do not specify the connection the model will just use the current connection
set on the Doctrine_Manager instance.
--User:
connection: connection1
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Listing
12-10
Attributes
Doctrine offers the ability to set attributes for your generated models directly in your schema
files similar to how you would if you were manually writing your Doctrine_Record child
classes.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
Listing
12-11
200
--User:
connection: connection1
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
attributes:
export: none
validate: false
Enums
To use enum columns in your schema file you must specify the type as enum and specify an
array of values for the possible enum values.
Listing
12-12
--TvListing:
tableName: tv_listing
actAs: [Timestampable]
columns:
notes:
type: string
taping:
type: enum
length: 4
values: ['live', 'tape']
region:
type: enum
length: 4
values: ['US', 'CA']
ActAs Behaviors
You can attach behaviors to your models with the actAs option. You can specify something
like the following:
Listing
12-13
--User:
connection: connection1
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
201
type: string(255)
actAs:
Timestampable:
Sluggable:
fields: [username]
name: slug
# defaults to 'slug'
type: string # defaults to 'clob'
length: 255
# defaults to null. clob doesn't require a length
The options specified on the Sluggable behavior above are optional as they will use defaults
values if you do not specify anything. Since they are defaults it is not necessary to type it
out all the time.
--User:
connection: connection1
columns:
# ...
actAs: [Timestampable, Sluggable]
Listing
12-14
Listeners
If you have a listener you'd like attached to a model, you can specify them directly in the yml
as well.
--User:
listeners: [ MyCustomListener ]
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Listing
12-15
The above syntax will generated a base class that looks something like the following:
class BaseUser extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
Listing
12-16
public setUp()
{
// ...
$this->addListener(new MyCustomListener());
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
202
Options
Specify options for your tables and when Doctrine creates your tables from your models the
options will be set on the create table statement.
Listing
12-17
--User:
connection: connection1
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
options:
type: INNODB
collate: utf8_unicode_ci
charset: utf8
Indexes
Please see the Indexes (page 85) section of the chapter (page 52) for more information about
indexes and their options.
Listing
12-18
--UserProfile:
columns:
user_id:
type: integer
length: 4
primary: true
autoincrement: true
first_name:
type: string
length: 20
last_name:
type: string
length: 20
indexes:
name_index:
fields:
first_name:
sorting: ASC
length: 10
primary: true
last_name: []
type: unique
This is the PHP line of code that is auto-generated inside setTableDefinition() inside
your base model class for the index definition used above:
Listing
12-19
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
203
$this->index('name_index', array(
'fields' => array(
'first_name' => array(
'sorting' => 'ASC',
'length'
=> '10',
'primary' => true
),
'last_name' => array()),
'type' => 'unique'
)
);
Inheritance
Below we will demonstrate how you can setup the different types of inheritance using YAML
schema files.
Simple Inheritance
--Entity:
columns:
name: string(255)
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
Listing
12-20
User:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: simple
Group:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: simple
Any columns or relationships defined in models that extend another in simple inheritance
will be moved to the parent when the PHP classes are built.
You can read more about this topic in the Simple (page 228) chapter.
Concrete Inheritance
--TextItem:
columns:
topic: string(255)
Listing
12-21
Comment:
inheritance:
extends: TextItem
type: concrete
columns:
content: string(300)
You can read more about this topic in the Concrete (page 230) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
204
Column Aggregation Inheritance
Like simple inheritance, any columns or relationships added to the children will be
automatically removed and moved to the parent when the PHP classes are built.
First lets defined a model named Entity that our other models will extend from:
Listing
12-22
--Entity:
columns:
name: string(255)
type: string(255)
The type column above is optional. It will be automatically added when it is specified in the
child class.
Now lets create a User model that extends the Entity model:
Listing
12-23
--User:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: column_aggregation
keyField: type
keyValue: User
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
The type option under the inheritance definition is optional as it is implied if you
specify a keyField or keyValue. If the keyField is not specified it will default to add a
column named type. The keyValue will default to the name of the model if you do not
specify anything.
Again lets create another model that extends Entity named Group:
Listing
12-24
--Group:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: column_aggregation
keyField: type
keyValue: Group
columns:
description: string(255)
The User username and password and the Group description columns will be
automatically moved to the parent Entity.
You can read more about this topic in the Column Aggregation (page 233).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
205
Column Aliases
If you want the ability alias a column name as something other than the column name in the
database this is easy to accomplish with Doctrine. We simple use the syntax "column_name
as field_name" in the name of our column:
--User:
columns:
login:
name: login as username
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Listing
12-25
The above example would allow you to access the column named login from the alias
username.
Packages
Doctrine offers the "package" parameter which will generate the models in to sub folders.
With large schema files this will allow you to better organize your schemas in to folders.
--User:
package: User
columns:
username: string(255)
Listing
12-26
The model files from this schema file would be put in a folder named User. You can specify
more sub folders by doing "package: User.Models" and the models would be in User/Models
Package Custom Path
You can also completely by pass the automatic generation of packages to the appropriate
path by specifying a completely custom path to generate the package files:
--User:
package: User
package_custom_path: /path/to/generate/package
columns:
username: string(255)
Global Schema Information
Doctrine schemas allow you to specify certain parameters that will apply to all of the models
defined in the schema file. Below you can find an example on what global parameters you can
set for schema files.
List of global parameters:
Name
Description
connection
Name of connection to bind the models to.
attributes
Array of attributes for models.
actAs
Array of behaviors for the models to act as.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
12-27
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
206
options
Array of tables options for the models.
package
Package to put the models in.
inheritance
Array of inheritance information for models
detect_relations Whether or not to try and detect foreign key relations
Now here is an example schema where we use some of the above global parameters:
Listing
12-28
--connection: conn_name1
actAs: [Timestampable]
options:
type: INNODB
package: User
detect_relations: true
User:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
contact_id:
type: integer(4)
username:
type: string(255)
password:
type: string(255)
Contact:
columns:
id:
type: integer(4)
primary: true
autoincrement: true
name:
type: string(255)
All of the settings at the top will be applied to every model which is defined in that YAML file.
Custom Column Attribute
If you wish to store additional attributes on your model columns that aren't used by Doctrine
internally you can use the extra attribute like the following.
Listing
12-29
--User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
extra:
test: 123
password:
type: string(255)
Now after you build your models from yaml you can now access the data with the following
php code.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 12: YAML Schema Files
207
$username = Doctrine::getTable('User')->getDefinitionOf('username');
echo $username['extra']['test']; // 123
Listing
12-30
Using Schema Files
Once you have defined your schema files you need some code to build the models from the
YAML definition.
$options = array(
'packagesPrefix'
'baseClassName'
'suffix'
);
=>
=>
=>
Listing
12-31
'Plugin',
'MyDoctrineRecord',
'.php'
Doctrine::generateModelsFromYaml('/path/to/yaml', '/path/to/model',
$options);
The above code will generate the models for schema.yml at /path/to/generate/models.
Below is a table containing the different options you can use to customize the building of
models. Notice we use the packagesPrefix, baseClassName and suffix options above.
Name
Default
Description
packagesPrefix
Package
What to prefix the middle package models with.
packagesPath
#models_path#/ Path to write package files.
packages
generateBaseClasses true
Whether or not to generate abstract base models
containing the definition and a top level class
which is empty extends the base.
generateTableClasses true
Whether or not to generate a table class for each
model.
baseClassesDirectory generated
Name of the folder to generate the base class
definitions in.
baseClassName
Doctrine_Record Name of the base Doctrine_Record class.
suffix
.php
Extension for your generated models.
Conclusion
Now that we have learned all about YAML Schema files we are ready to move on to a great
topic regarding Data Validation (page 208). This is an important topic because if you are not
validating user inputted data yourself then we want Doctrine to validate data before being
persisted to the database.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
208
Chapter 13
Data Validation
Introduction
Pulled directly from PostgreSQL Documentation25:
Data types are a way to limit the kind of data that can be stored in a table. For many
applications, however, the constraint they provide is too coarse. For example, a column
containing a product price should probably only accept positive values. But there is no
standard data type that accepts only positive numbers. Another issue is that you might want
to constrain column data with respect to other columns or rows. For example, in a table
containing product information, there should be only one row for each product number.
Doctrine allows you to define *portable* constraints on columns and tables. Constraints give
you as much control over the data in your tables as you wish. If a user attempts to store data
in a column that would violate a constraint, an error is raised. This applies even if the value
came from the default value definition.
Doctrine constraints act as database level constraints as well as application level validators.
This means double security: the database doesn't allow wrong kind of values and neither does
the application.
Here is a full list of available validators within Doctrine:
validator(arguments) constraints description
notnull
NOT NULL
email
notblank
Checks if value is valid email.
NOT NULL
nospace
past
Ensures the 'not null' constraint in both application
and database level
Checks if value is not blank.
Checks if value has no space chars.
CHECK
constraint
Checks if value is a date in the past.
future
Checks if value is a date in the future.
minlength(length)
Checks if value satisfies the minimum length.
25.
http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.2/static/ddl-constraints.html
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
209
country
Checks if value is a valid country code.
ip
Checks if value is valid IP (internet protocol) address.
htmlcolor
Checks if value is valid html color.
range(min, max)
CHECK
constraint
Checks if value is in range specified by arguments.
unique
UNIQUE
constraint
Checks if value is unique in its database table.
regexp(expression)
Checks if value matches a given regexp.
creditcard
Checks whether the string is a well formated credit
card number
digits(int, frac)
Precision
and scale
Checks if given value has int number of integer digits
and frac number of fractional digits
date
Checks if given value is a valid date.
readonly
Checks if a field is modified and if it is returns false to
force a field as readonly
unsigned
Checks if given integer value is unsigned.
usstate
Checks if given value is a valid US state code.
Below is an example of how you use the validator and how to specify the arguments for the
validators on a column.
In our example we will use the minlength validator.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-1
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'minlength' => 12
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-2
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
210
minlength: 12
# ...
Examples
Not Null
A not-null constraint simply specifies that a column must not assume the null value. A not-null
constraint is always written as a column constraint.
The following definition uses a notnull constraint for column name. This means that the
specified column doesn't accept null values.
Listing
13-3
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'notnull' => true,
'primary' => true,
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-4
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
notnull: true
primary: true
# ...
When this class gets exported to database the following SQL statement would get executed
(in MySQL):
Listing
13-5
CREATE TABLE user (username VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY(username))
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
211
The notnull constraint also acts as an application level validator. This means that if Doctrine
validators are turned on, Doctrine will automatically check that specified columns do not
contain null values when saved.
If those columns happen to contain null values Doctrine_Validator_Exception is raised.
Email
The e-mail validator simply validates that the inputted value is indeed a valid e-mail address
and that the MX records for the address domain resolve as a valid e-mail address.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-6
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('email', 'string', 255, array(
'email'
=> true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-7
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
email:
type: string(255)
email: true
# ...
Now when we try and create a user with an invalid email address it will not validate:
// test.php
Listing
13-8
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->email = 'jonwage';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid!';
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
212
The above code will throw an exception because jonwage is not a valid e-mail address. Now
we can take this even further and give a valid e-mail address format but an invalid domain
name:
Listing
13-9
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->email = '[email protected]';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid!';
}
Now
the
above
code
will
somefakedomainiknowdoesntexist.com
checkdnsrr()26 returned false.
still
does
fail
because
the
not exist and the php
domain
function
You may not always want to validate the mx record of an e-mail address. If this is the case
then you can disable it by using the check_mx option and setting it to false.
Listing
13-10
// models/User.php
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
// ...
$this->hasColumn('email_address', 'string', 255, array('email' =>
array('check_mx' => false)));
}
}
Not Blank
The not blank validator is similar to the not null validator except that it will fail on empty
strings or strings with white space.
Listing
13-11
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'notblank'
=> true
26.
http://www.php.net/checkdnsrr
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
213
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-12
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
notblank: true
# ...
Now if we try and save a User record with a username that is a single blank white space,
validation will fail:
// test.php
Listing
13-13
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = ' ';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid!';
}
No Space
The no space validator is simple. It checks that the value doesn't contain any spaces.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-14
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'nospace'
=> true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
Listing
13-15
214
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
nospace: true
# ...
Now if we try and save a User with a username that has a space in it, the validation will fail:
Listing
13-16
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jon wage';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid!';
}
Past
The past validator checks if the given value is a valid date in the past. In this example we'll
have a User model with a birthday column and we want to validate that the date is in the
past.
Listing
13-17
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('birthday', 'timestamp', null, array(
'past' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-18
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
birthday:
type: timestamp
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
215
past: true
# ...
Now if we try and set a birthday that is not in the past we will get a validation error.
Future
The future validator is the opposite of the past validator and checks if the given value is a
valid date in the future. In this example we'll have a User model with a
next_appointment_date column and we want to validate that the date is in the future.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-19
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('next_appointment_date', 'timestamp', null, array(
'future' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-20
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
next_appointment_date:
type: timestamp
future: true
# ...
Now if we try and set an appointment date that is not in the future we will get a validation
error.
Min Length
The min length does exactly what it says. It checks that the value string length is greater than
the specified minimum length. In this example we will have a User model with a password
column where we want to make sure the length of the password is at least 5 characters long.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-21
class User extends BaseUser
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
216
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('password', 'timestamp', null, array(
'minlength' => 5
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-22
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
password:
type: timestamp
minlength: 5
# ...
Now if we try and save a User with a password that is shorter than 5 characters, the
validation will fail.
Listing
13-23
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'test';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because "test" is only 4 characters long!';
}
Country
The country validator checks if the given value is a valid country code.
Listing
13-24
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
217
// ...
$this->hasColumn('country', 'string', 2, array(
'country' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-25
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
country:
type: string(2)
country: true
# ...
Now if you try and save a User with an invalid country code the validation will fail.
// test.php
Listing
13-26
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->country_code = 'zz';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because "zz" is not a valid country code!';
}
IP Address
The ip address validator checks if the given value is a valid ip address.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-27
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('ip_address', 'string', 15, array(
'ip' => true
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
218
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-28
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
ip_address:
type: string(15)
ip: true
# ...
Now if you try and save a User with an invalid ip address the validation will fail.
Listing
13-29
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->ip_address = '123.123';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo User is invalid because "123.123" is not a valid ip address
}
HTML Color
The html color validator checks that the given value is a valid html hex color.
Listing
13-30
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('favorite_color', 'string', 7, array(
'htmlcolor' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-31
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
219
columns:
# ...
favorite_color:
type: string(7)
htmlcolor: true
# ...
Now if you try and save a User with an invalid html color value for the favorite_color
column the validation will fail.
// test.php
Listing
13-32
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->favorite_color = 'red';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because "red" is not a valid hex color';
}
Range
The range validator checks if value is within given range of numbers.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-33
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('age', 'integer', 3, array(
'range' => array(10, 100)
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-34
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
age:
type: integer(3)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
220
range: [10, 100]
# ...
Now if you try and save a User with an age that is less than 10 or greater than 100, the
validation will fail.
Listing
13-35
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->age = '3';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because "3" is less than the minimum of "10"';
}
You can use the range validator to validate max and min values by omitting either one of the
0 or 1 keys of the range array. Below is an example:
Listing
13-36
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('age', 'integer', 3, array(
'range' => array(1 => 100)
)
);
}
}
The above would make it so that age has a max of 100. To have a minimum value simple
specify 0 instead of 1 in the range array.
The YAML syntax for this would look like the following:
Listing
13-37
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
age:
type: integer(3)
range:
1: 100
# ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
221
Unique
Unique constraints ensure that the data contained in a column or a group of columns is
unique with respect to all the rows in the table.
In general, a unique constraint is violated when there are two or more rows in the table
where the values of all of the columns included in the constraint are equal. However, two null
values are not considered equal in this comparison. That means even in the presence of a
unique constraint it is possible to store duplicate rows that contain a null value in at least one
of the constrained columns. This behavior conforms to the SQL standard, but some databases
do not follow this rule. So be careful when developing applications that are intended to be
portable.
The following definition uses a unique constraint for column name.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-38
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'unique' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-39
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
unique: true
# ....
You should only use unique constraints for columns other than the primary key because
they are always unique already.
If you wish to add a unique constraint to more than one column then you can use the
unique() mapping method.
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
-----------------
Listing
13-40
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
222
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('email_address', 'string', 255);
$this->unique('username', 'email_address');
}
}
Using the unique() method is a convenience method for adding a unique index for the
specified fields. You can accomplish the same thing by manually adding the unique index
for the specified fields.
Regular Expression
The regular expression validator is a simple way to validate column values against your own
provided regular expression. In this example we will make sure the username contains only
valid letters or numbers.
Listing
13-41
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'regexp' => '/[a-zA-Z0-9]/'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-42
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
username:
type: string(255)
regexp: '/^[a-zA-Z0-9]+$/'
# ...
Now if we were to try and save a User with a username that has any other character than a
letter or number in it, the validation will fail:
Listing
13-43
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
223
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = '[jwage';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because the username contains a [ character';
}
Credit Card
The credit card validator simply checks that the given value is indeed a valid credit card
number.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-44
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('cc_number', 'integer', 16, array(
'creditcard' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-45
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
cc_number:
type: integer(16)
creditcard: true
# ...
Read Only
The read only validator will fail validation if you modify a column that has the readonly
validator enabled on it.
// models/User.php
Listing
13-46
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
224
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('readonly_value', 'string', 255, array(
'readonly' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
13-47
--# schema.yml
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
readonly_value:
type: integer(16)
readonly: true
# ...
Now if I ever try and modify the column named readonly_value from a User object
instance, validation will fail.
Unsigned
The unsigned validator checks that the given integer value is unsigned.
Listing
13-48
// models/User.php
class User extends BaseUser
{
// ...
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
// ...
$this->hasColumn('age', 'integer', 3, array(
'unsigned' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
225
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-49
# ...
User:
columns:
# ...
age:
type: integer(3)
unsigned: true
# ...
Now if I try and save a User with a negative age the validation will fail:
// test.php
Listing
13-50
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->age = '-100';
if ( ! $user->isValid()) {
echo 'User is invalid because -100 is signed';
}
US State
The us state validator checks that the given string is a valid US state code.
// models/State.php
Listing
13-51
class State extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('code', 'string', 2, array(
'usstate' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
13-52
# ...
State:
columns:
name: string(255)
code:
type: string(2)
usstate: true
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
226
Now if I try and save a State with an invalid state code then the validation will fail.
Listing
13-53
$state = new State();
$state->name = 'Tennessee';
$state->code = 'ZZ';
if ( ! $state->isValid()) {
echo 'State is invalid because "ZZ" is not a valid state code';
}
Validating Relationships
Sometimes you may want to run validation deep on any referenced relationships. This can be
accomplished by passing a $deep argument to isValid() with a value of true. Below you
can find an example:
Listing
13-54
$user = new User();
$mail = new Email();
$user->name = 'jwage';
$user->Emails[] = $mail;
Now if we check validation it will return false because the referenced Email object does not
have an address set.
Listing
13-55
$valid = $user->isValid(true); // false
Custom Validators
You can register custom validators for Doctrine to be aware of by using the
Doctrine_Manager::registerValidator() method.
Listing
13-56
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->registerValidators('MyValidator');
You can also get the possible validators by using the getValidators() method.
Listing
13-57
// test.php
// ...
$validators = $manager->getValidators();
Conclusion
If we want Doctrine to validate our data before being persisted to the database, now we have
the knowledge on how to do it. We can use the validators that are provided with the Doctrine
core to perform common validations of our data.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 13: Data Validation
227
The next chapter (page 228) is an important one as we will discuss a great feature of Doctrine,
Inheritance (page 228)! Inheritance is a great way accomplish complex functionality with
minimal code. After we discuss inheritance we will move on to a custom strategy that
provides even better functionality than inheritance, called Behaviors (page 236).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
228
Chapter 14
Inheritance
Doctrine supports three types of inheritance strategies which can be mixed together. The
three types are simple, concrete and column aggregation. You will learn about these three
different types of inheritance and how to use them in this chapter.
For this chapter lets delete all our existing schemas and models from our test environment
we created and have been using in the earlier chapters.
Listing
14-1
$ rm schema.yml
$ touch schema.yml
$ rm -rf models/*
Simple
Simple inheritance is the easiest and simplest inheritance to use. In simple inheritance all the
child classes share the same columns as the parent and all information is stored in the parent
table.
Listing
14-2
// models/Entity.php
class Entity extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 30);
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 20);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 16);
$this->hasColumn('created_at', 'timestamp');
$this->hasColumn('update_at', 'timestamp');
}
}
Now lets create a User model that extends Entity:
Listing
14-3
// models/User.php
class User extends Entity
{ }
Do the same thing for the Group model:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
229
// models/Group.php
Listing
14-4
class Group extends Entity
{ }
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
14-5
# ...
Entity:
columns:
name: string(30)
username: string(20)
password: string(16)
created_at: timestamp
updated_at: timestamp
User:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: simple
Group:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: simple
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
// test.php
Listing
14-6
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Entity', 'User', 'Group'));
echo $sql[0];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE entity (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
username VARCHAR(20),
password VARCHAR(16),
created_at DATETIME,
updated_at DATETIME,
name VARCHAR(30),
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
14-7
When using YAML schema files you are able to define columns in the child classes but
when the YAML is parsed the columns are moved to the parent for you automatically. This
is only a convenience to you so that you can organize your columns easier.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
230
Concrete
Concrete inheritance creates separate tables for child classes. However in concrete
inheritance each class generates a table which contains all columns (including inherited
columns). In order to use concrete inheritance you'll need to add explicit
parent::setTableDefinition() calls to child classes as shown below.
Listing
14-8
// models/TextItem.php
class TextItem extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('topic', 'string', 100);
}
}
Now lets create a model named Comment that extends TextItem and add an extra column
named content:
Listing
14-9
// models/Comment.php
class Comment extends TextItem
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
parent::setTableDefinition();
$this->hasColumn('content', 'string', 300);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
14-10
--# schema.yml
# ...
TextItem:
columns:
topic: string(100)
Comment:
inheritance:
extends: TextItem
type: concrete
columns:
content: string(300)
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
14-11
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('TextItem', 'Comment'));
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
231
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE text_item (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
topic VARCHAR(100),
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE comment (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
topic VARCHAR(100),
content TEXT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
14-12
In concrete inheritance you don't necessarily have to define additional columns, but in order
to make Doctrine create separate tables for each class you'll have to make iterative
setTableDefinition() calls.
In the following example we have three database tables called entity, user and group.
Users and groups are both entities. The only thing we have to do is write 3 classes
(Entity, Group and User) and make iterative setTableDefinition() method calls.
// models/Entity.php
Listing
14-13
class Entity extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 30);
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 20);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 16);
$this->hasColumn('created', 'integer', 11);
}
}
// models/User.php
class User extends Entity
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
// the following method call is needed in
// concrete inheritance
parent::setTableDefinition();
}
}
// models/Group.php
class Group extends Entity
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
// the following method call is needed in
// concrete inheritance
parent::setTableDefinition();
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
232
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
14-14
--Entity:
columns:
name: string(30)
username: string(20)
password: string(16)
created: integer(11)
User:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: concrete
Group:
tableName: groups
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: concrete
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
14-15
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Entity', 'User', 'Group'));
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1] . "\n";
echo $sql[2] . "\n";
The above code would output the following SQL query:
Listing
14-16
CREATE TABLE user (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name VARCHAR(30),
username VARCHAR(20),
password VARCHAR(16),
created BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE groups (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name VARCHAR(30),
username VARCHAR(20),
password VARCHAR(16),
created BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE entity (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name VARCHAR(30),
username VARCHAR(20),
password VARCHAR(16),
created BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
233
Column Aggregation
In the following example we have one database table called entity. Users and groups are
both entities and they share the same database table.
The entity table has a column called type which tells whether an entity is a group or a
user. Then we decide that users are type 1 and groups type 2.
The only thing we have to do is to create 3 records (the same as before) and add the call to
the Doctrine_Table::setSubclasses() method from the parent class.
// models/Entity.php
Listing
14-17
class Entity extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 30);
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 20);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 16);
$this->hasColumn('created_at', 'timestamp');
$this->hasColumn('update_at', 'timestamp');
$this->setSubclasses(array(
'User' => array('type' => 1),
'Group' => array('type' => 2)
)
);
}
}
// models/User.php
class User extends Entity
{ }
// models/Group.php
class Group extends Entity
{ }
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--Entity:
columns:
username: string(20)
password: string(16)
created_at: timestamp
updated_at: timestamp
Listing
14-18
User:
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: column_aggregation
keyField: type
keyValue: 1
Group:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
234
inheritance:
extends: Entity
type: column_aggregation
keyField: type
keyValue: 2
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
14-19
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Entity', 'User', 'Group'));
echo $sql[0];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
Listing
14-20
CREATE TABLE entity (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
username VARCHAR(20),
password VARCHAR(16),
created_at DATETIME,
updated_at DATETIME,
type VARCHAR(255),
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Notice how the type column was automatically added. This is how column aggregation
inheritance knows which model each record in the database belongs to.
This feature also enable us to query the Entity table and get a User or Group object back if
the returned object matches the constraints set in the parent class.
See the code example below for an example of this. First lets save a new User object:
Listing
14-21
// test.php
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->name = 'Bjarte S. Karlsen';
$user->username = 'meus';
$user->password = 'rat';
$user->save();
Now lets save a new Group object:
Listing
14-22
// test.php
// ...
$group = new Group();
$group->name = 'Users';
$group->username = 'users';
$group->password = 'password';
$group->save();
Now if we query the Entity model for the id of the User we created, the Doctrine_Query
will return an instance of User.
Listing
14-23
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 14: Inheritance
235
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('Entity e')
->where('e.id = ?');
$user = $q->fetchOne(array($user->id));
echo get_class($user); // User
If we do the same thing as above but for the Group record, it will return an instance of
Group.
// test.php
Listing
14-24
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('Entity e')
->where('e.id = ?');
$group = $q->fetchOne(array($group->id));
echo get_class($group); // Group
The above is possible because of the type column. Doctrine knows which class each record
was created by, so when data is being hydrated it can be hydrated in to the appropriate
sub-class.
We can also query the individual User or Group models:
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.id')
->from('User u');
Listing
14-25
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
e.id AS e__id
FROM entity e
WHERE (e.type = '1')
Listing
14-26
Notice how the type condition was automatically added to the query so that it will only
return records that are of type User.
Conclusion
Now that we've learned about how to take advantage of PHPs inheritance features with our
models we can move on to learning about Doctrine Behaviors (page 236). This is one of the
most sophisticated and useful features in Doctrine for accomplishing complex models with
small and easy to maintain code.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
236
Chapter 15
Behaviors
Introduction
Many times you may find classes having similar things within your models. These things may
contain anything related to the schema of the component itself (relations, column definitions,
index definitions etc.). One obvious way of re-factoring the code is having a base class with
some classes extending it.
However inheritance solves only a fraction of things. The following sections show how using
Doctrine_Template is much more powerful and flexible than using inheritance.
Doctrine_Template is a class template system. Templates are basically ready-to-use little
components that your Record classes can load. When a template is being loaded its
setTableDefinition() and setUp() methods are being invoked and the method calls
inside them are being directed into the class in question.
This chapter describes the usage of various behaviors available for Doctrine. You'll also learn
how to create your own behaviors. In order to grasp the concepts of this chapter you should
be
familiar
with
the
theory
behind
Doctrine_Template
and
Doctrine_Record_Generator. We will explain what these classes are shortly.
When referring to behaviors we refer to class packages that use templates, generators and
listeners extensively. All the introduced components in this chapter can be considered core
behaviors, that means they reside at the Doctrine main repository.
Usually behaviors use generators side-to-side with template classes (classes that extend
Doctrine_Template). The common workflow is:
• A new template is being initialized
• The template creates the generator and calls initialize() method
• The template is attached to given class
As you may already know templates are used for adding common definitions and options to
record classes. The purpose of generators is much more complex. Usually they are being used
for creating generic record classes dynamically. The definitions of these generic classes
usually depend on the owner class. For example the columns of the AuditLog versioning
class are the columns of the parent class with all the sequence and autoincrement definitions
removed.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
237
Simple Templates
In the following example we define a template called TimestampBehavior. Basically the
purpose of this template is to add date columns 'created' and 'updated' to the record class
that loads this template. Additionally this template uses a listener called Timestamp listener
which updates these fields based on record actions.
// models/TimestampListener.php
Listing
15-1
class TimestampListener extends Doctrine_Record_Listener
{
public function preInsert(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getInvoker()->created = date('Y-m-d', time());
$event->getInvoker()->updated = date('Y-m-d', time());
}
public function preUpdate(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getInvoker()->updated = date('Y-m-d', time());
}
}
Now lets create a child Doctrine_Template named TimestampTemplate so we can attach
it to our models with the actAs() method:
// models/TimestampBehavior.php
Listing
15-2
class TimestampTemplate extends Doctrine_Template
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('created', 'date');
$this->hasColumn('updated', 'date');
$this->addListener(new TimestampListener());
}
}
Lets say we have a class called BlogPost that needs the timestamp functionality. All we need
to do is to add actAs() call in the class definition.
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 200);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'clob');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('TimestampBehavior');
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
15-3
Chapter 15: Behaviors
238
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-4
--BlogPost:
actAs: [TimestampBehavior]
columns:
title: string(200)
body: clob
Now when we try and utilize the BlogPost model you will notice that the created and
updated columns were added for you and automatically set when saved:
Listing
15-5
$blogPost = new BlogPost();
$blogPost->title = 'Test';
$blogPost->body = 'test';
$blogPost->save();
print_r($blogPost->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
Listing
15-6
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Test
[body] => test
[created] => 2009-01-22
[updated] => 2009-01-22
)
The above described functionality is available via the Timestampable behavior that we
have already talked about. You can go back and read more about it in the Timestampable
(page 246) section of this chapter.
Templates with Relations
Many times the situations tend to be much more complex than the situation in the previous
chapter. You may have model classes with relations to other model classes and you may want
to replace given class with some extended class.
Consider we have two classes, User and Email, with the following definitions:
Listing
15-7
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Email', array(
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
239
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
class Email extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--User:
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
Listing
15-8
Email:
columns:
address: string
user_id: integer
relations:
User:
Now if we extend the User and Email classes and create, for example, classes
ExtendedUser and ExtendedEmail, the ExtendedUser will still have a relation to the
Email class and not the ExtendedEmail class. We could of course override the setUp()
method of the User class and define relation to the ExtendedEmail class, but then we lose
the whole point of inheritance. Doctrine_Template can solve this problem elegantly with
its dependency injection solution.
In the following example we'll define two templates, UserTemplate and EmailTemplate,
with almost identical definitions as the User and Email class had.
// models/UserTemplate.php
Listing
15-9
class UserTemplate extends Doctrine_Template
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
240
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('EmailTemplate as Emails', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'user_id'
)
);
}
}
Now lets define the EmailTemplate:
Listing
15-10
// models/EmailTemplate.php
class EmailTemplate extends Doctrine_Template
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('UserTemplate as User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Notice how we set the relations. We are not pointing to concrete Record classes, rather we
are setting the relations to templates. This tells Doctrine that it should try to find concrete
Record classes for those templates. If Doctrine can't find these concrete implementations the
relation parser will throw an exception, but before we go ahead of things, here are the actual
record classes:
Listing
15-11
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('UserTemplate');
}
}
class Email extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('EmailTemplate');
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
241
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--User:
actAs: [UserTemplate]
Listing
15-12
Email:
actAs: [EmailTemplate]
Now consider the following code snippet. This does NOT work since we haven't yet set any
concrete implementations for the templates.
// test.php
Listing
15-13
// ...
$user = new User();
$user->Emails; // throws an exception
The following version works. Notice how we set the concrete implementations for the
templates globally using Doctrine_Manager:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
15-14
// ...
$manager->setImpl('UserTemplate', 'User')
->setImpl('EmailTemplate', 'Email');
Now this code will work and won't throw an exception like it did before:
$user = new User();
$user->Emails[0]->address = '[email protected]';
$user->save();
Listing
15-15
print_r($user->toArray(true));
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[username] =>
[password] =>
[Emails] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[address] => [email protected]
[user_id] => 1
)
)
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
15-16
Chapter 15: Behaviors
242
The implementations for the templates can be set at manager, connection and even at the
table level.
Delegate Methods
Besides from acting as a full table definition delegate system, Doctrine_Template allows
the delegation of method calls. This means that every method within the loaded templates is
available in the record that loaded the templates. Internally the implementation uses magic
method called __call() to achieve this functionality.
Lets add to our previous example and add some custom methods to the UserTemplate:
Listing
15-17
// models/UserTemplate.php
class UserTemplate extends Doctrine_Template
{
// ...
public function authenticate($username, $password)
{
$invoker = $this->getInvoker();
if ($invoker->username == $username && $invoker->password ==
$password) {
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
}
}
Now take a look at the following code and how we can use it:
Listing
15-18
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme';
if ($user->authenticate('jwage', 'changemte')) {
echo 'Authenticated successfully!';
} else {
echo 'Could not authenticate user!';
}
You can also delegate methods to Doctrine_Table classes just as easily. But, to avoid
naming collisions the methods for table classes must have the string TableProxy appended
to the end of the method name.
Here is an example where we add a new finder method:
Listing
15-19
// models/UserTemplate.php
class UserTemplate extends Doctrine_Template
{
// ...
public function findUsersWithEmailTableProxy()
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
243
return Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('u.username')
->from('User u')
->innerJoin('u.Emails e')
->execute();
}
}
Now we can access that function from the Doctrine_Table object for the User model:
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
Listing
15-20
$users = $userTable->findUsersWithEmail();
Each class can consists of multiple templates. If the templates contain similar definitions
the most recently loaded template always overrides the former.
Creating Behaviors
This subchapter provides you the means for creating your own behaviors. Lets say we have
various different Record classes that need to have one-to-many emails. We achieve this
functionality by creating a generic behavior which creates Email classes on the fly.
We start this task by creating a behavior called EmailBehavior with a
setTableDefinition() method. Inside the setTableDefinition() method various
helper methods can be used for easily creating the dynamic record definition. Commonly the
following methods are being used:
public function initOptions()
public function buildLocalRelation()
public function buildForeignKeys(Doctrine_Table $table)
public function buildForeignRelation($alias = null)
public function buildRelation() // calls buildForeignRelation() and
buildLocalRelation()
Listing
15-21
class EmailBehavior extends Doctrine_Record_Generator
{
public function initOptions()
{
$this->setOption('className', '%CLASS%Email');
}
Listing
15-22
public function buildRelation()
{
$this->buildForeignRelation('Emails');
$this->buildLocalRelation();
}
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('address', 'string', 255, array(
'email' => true,
'primary' => true
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
244
}
}
Core Behaviors
For the next several examples using the core behaviors lets delete all our existing schemas
and models from our test environment we created and have been using in the earlier
chapters.
Listing
15-23
$ rm schema.yml
$ touch schema.yml
$ rm -rf models/*
Introduction
Doctrine comes bundled with some templates that offer out of the box functionality for your
models. You can enable these templates in your models very easily. You can do it directly in
your Doctrine_Records or you can specify them in your YAML schema if you are managing
your models with YAML.
In the next several examples we will demonstrate some of the behaviors that come bundled
with Doctrine.
Versionable
Lets create a BlogPost model that we want to have the ability to have versions:
Listing
15-24
// models/BlogPost.php
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'clob');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Versionable', array(
'versionColumn' => 'version',
'className' => '%CLASS%Version',
'auditLog' => true,
'deleteVersions' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-25
--BlogPost:
actAs:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
245
Versionable:
versionColumn: version
className: %CLASS%Version
auditLog: true
deleteVersions: true
columns:
title: string(255)
body: clob
The auditLog option can be used to turn off the audit log history. This is when you want
to maintain a version number but not maintain the data at each version.
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
// test.php
Listing
15-26
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('BlogPost'));
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE blog_post_version (id BIGINT,
title VARCHAR(255),
body LONGTEXT,
version BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id,
version)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE blog_post (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
title VARCHAR(255),
body LONGTEXT,
version BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
ALTER TABLE blog_post_version ADD FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES
blog_post(id) ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE CASCADE
Listing
15-27
Notice how we have 2 additional statements we probably didn't expect to see. The behavior
automatically created a blog_post_version table and related it to blog_post.
Now when we insert or update a BlogPost the version table will store all the old versions of
the record and allow you to revert back at anytime. When you instantiate a BlogPost for the
first time this is what is happening internally:
• It creates a class called BlogPostVersion on-the-fly, the table this record is
pointing at is blog_post_version
• Everytime a BlogPost object is deleted / updated the previous version is stored into
blog_post_version
• Everytime a BlogPost object is updated its version number is increased.
Now lets play around with the BlogPost model:
$blogPost = new BlogPost();
$blogPost->title = 'Test blog post';
$blogPost->body = 'test';
$blogPost->save();
-----------------
Listing
15-28
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
246
$blogPost->title = 'Modified blog post title';
$blogPost->save();
print_r($blogPost->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
Listing
15-29
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Modified blog post title
[body] => test
[version] => 2
)
Notice how the value of the version column is 2. This is because we have saved 2 versions
of the BlogPost model. We can easily revert to another version by using the revert()
method that the behavior includes.
Lets revert back to the first version:
Listing
15-30
$blogPost->revert(1);
print_r($blogPost->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
Listing
15-31
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 2
[title] => Test blog post
[body] => test
[version] => 1
)
Notice how the value of the version column is set to 1 and the title is back to the
original value was set it to when creating the BlogPost.
Timestampable
The Timestampable behavior will automatically add a created_at and updated_at column
and automatically set the values when a record is inserted and updated.
Since it is common to want to know the date a post is made lets expand our BlogPost model
and add the Timestampable behavior to automatically set these dates for us.
Listing
15-32
// models/BlogPost.php
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
247
{
$this->actAs('Timestampable');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
15-33
# ...
BlogPost:
actAs:
# ...
Timestampable:
# ...
If you are only interested in using only one of the columns, such as a created_at timestamp,
but not a an updated_at field, set the disabled to true for either of the fields as in the
example below.
--BlogPost:
actAs:
# ...
Timestampable:
created:
name: created_at
type: timestamp
format: Y-m-d H
updated:
disabled: true
# ...
Listing
15-34
Now look what happens when we create a new post:
$blogPost = new BlogPost();
$blogPost->title = 'Test blog post';
$blogPost->body = 'test';
$blogPost->save();
Listing
15-35
print_r($blogPost->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Test blog post
[body] => test
[version] => 1
[created_at] => 2009-01-21 17:54:23
[updated_at] => 2009-01-21 17:54:23
)
-----------------
Listing
15-36
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
248
Look how the created_at and updated_at values were automatically set for you!
Here is a list of all the options you can use with the Timestampable behavior on the created
side of the behavior:
Name
Default
name
created_at The name of the column.
type
timestamp The column type.
options
array()
format
Y-m-d H:i:s
disabled
false
expression NOW()
Description
Any additional options for the column.
Whether or not to disable the created date.
Expression to use to set the column value.
Here is a list of all the options you can use with the Timestampable behavior on the updated
side of the behavior that are not possible on the created side:
Name
Default Description
onInsert true
Whether or not to set the updated date when the record is first inserted.
Sluggable
The Sluggable behavior is a nice piece of functionality that will automatically add a column
to your model for storing a unique human readable identifier that can be created from
columns like title, subject, etc. These values can be used for search engine friendly urls.
Lets expand our BlogPost model to use the Sluggable behavior because we will want to
have nice URLs for our posts:
Listing
15-37
// models/BlogPost.php
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
// ...
$this->actAs('Sluggable', array(
'unique'
=> true,
'fields'
=> array('username'),
'canUpdate' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-38
--# schema.yml
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
249
# ...
BlogPost:
actAs:
# ...
Sluggable:
unique: true
fields: [title]
canUpdate: true
# ...
Now look what happens when we create a new post. The slug column will automatically be
set for us:
$blogPost = new BlogPost();
$blogPost->title = 'Test blog post';
$blogPost->body = 'test';
$blogPost->save();
Listing
15-39
print_r($blogPost->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Test blog post
[body] => test
[version] => 1
[created_at] => 2009-01-21 17:57:05
[updated_at] => 2009-01-21 17:57:05
[slug] => test-blog-post
)
Listing
15-40
Notice how the value of the slug column was automatically set based on the value of the
title column. When a slug is created, by default it is urlized which means all non-urlfriendly characters are removed and white space is replaced with hyphens(-).
The unique flag will enforce that the slug created is unique. If it is not unique an auto
incremented integer will be appended to the slug before saving to database.
The canUpdate flag will allow the users to manually set the slug value to be used when
building the url friendly slug.
Here is a list of all the options you can use on the Sluggable behavior:
Name
Default
Description
name
slug
The name of the slug column.
alias
null
The alias of the slug column.
type
string
The type of the slug column.
length
255
The length of the slug column.
unique
true
Whether or not unique slug values are
enforced.
options
array()
Any other options for the slug column.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
250
fields
array()
The fields that are used to build slug value.
uniqueBy
array()
The fields that make determine a unique
slug.
uniqueIndex true
Whether or not to create a unique index.
canUpdate
false
Whether or not the slug can be updated.
builder
array('Doctrine_Inflector',
'urlize')
The Class::method() used to build the slug.
indexName
sluggable
The name of the index to create.
I18n
Doctrine_I18n package is a behavior for Doctrine that provides internationalization
support for record classes. In the following example we have a NewsItem class with two
fields title and content. We want to have the field title with different languages
support. This can be achieved as follows:
Listing
15-41
class NewsItem extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'blog');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('I18n', array(
'fields' => array('title', 'body')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-42
--NewsItem:
actAs:
I18n:
fields: [title, body]
columns:
title: string(255)
body: clob
Below is a list of all the options you can use with the I18n behavior:
Name
Default
Description
className %CLASS%Translation The name pattern to use for generated class.
fields
array()
The fields to internationalize.
type
string
The type of lang column.
length
2
The length of the lang column.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
options
251
array()
Other options for the lang column.
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
// test.php
Listing
15-43
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('NewsItem'));
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE news_item_translation (id BIGINT,
title VARCHAR(255),
body LONGTEXT,
lang CHAR(2),
PRIMARY KEY(id,
lang)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE news_item (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
15-44
Notice how the field title is not present in the news_item table. Since its present in the
translation table it would be a waste of resources to have that same field in the main table.
Basically Doctrine always automatically removes all translated fields from the main table.
Now the first time you initialize a new NewsItem record Doctrine initializes the behavior that
builds the followings things:
1. Record class called NewsItemTranslation
2. Bi-directional relations between NewsItemTranslation and NewsItem
Lets take a look at how we can manipulate the translations of the NewsItem:
// test.php
Listing
15-45
// ...
$newsItem = new NewsItem();
$newsItem->Translation['en']->title = 'some title';
$newsItem->Translation['en']->body = 'test';
$newsItem->Translation['fi']->title = 'joku otsikko';
$newsItem->Translation['fi']->body = 'test';
$newsItem->save();
print_r($newsItem->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[id] => 1
[Translation] => Array
(
[en] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => some title
-----------------
Listing
15-46
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
252
[body] => test
[lang] => en
)
[fi] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => joku otsikko
[body] => test
[lang] => fi
)
)
)
How do we retrieve the translated data now? This is easy! Lets find all items and their
Finnish translations:
Listing
15-47
// test.php
// ...
$newsItems = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('NewsItem n')
->leftJoin('n.Translation t')
->where('t.lang = ?')
->execute(array('fi'));
echo $newsItems[0]->Translation['fi']->title;
The above example would produce the following output:
Listing
15-48
$ php test.php
joku otsikko
NestedSet
The NestedSet behavior allows you to turn your models in to a nested set tree structure
where the entire tree structure can be retrieved in one efficient query. It also provided a nice
interface for manipulating the data in your trees.
Lets take a Category model for example where the categories need to be organized in a
hierarchical tree structure:
Listing
15-49
// models/Category.php
class Category extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('NestedSet', array(
'hasManyRoots' => true,
'rootColumnName' => 'root_id'
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
253
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
15-50
# ...
Category:
actAs:
NestedSet:
hasManyRoots: true
rootColumnName: root_id
columns:
name: string(255)
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
// test.php
Listing
15-51
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Category'));
echo $sql[0];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE category (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name VARCHAR(255),
root_id INT,
lft INT,
rgt INT,
level SMALLINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
15-52
Notice how the root_id, lft, rgt and level columns are automatically added. These
columns are used to organize the tree structure and are handled automatically for you
internally.
We won't discuss the NestedSet behavior in 100% detail here. It is a very large behavior so
it has its own dedicated chapter (page 272).
Searchable
The Searchable behavior is a fulltext indexing and searching tool. It can be used for
indexing and searching both database and files.
Imagine we have a Job model for job postings and we want it to be easily searchable:
// models/Job.php
Listing
15-53
class Job extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
254
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('description', 'clob');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Searchable', array(
'fields' => array('title', 'content')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-54
--Job:
actAs:
Searchable:
fields: [title, description]
columns:
title: string(255)
description: clob
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
15-55
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Job'));
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1] . "\n";
echo $sql[2];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
Listing
15-56
CREATE TABLE job_index (id BIGINT,
keyword VARCHAR(200),
field VARCHAR(50),
position BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id,
keyword,
field,
position)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE job (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
title VARCHAR(255),
description LONGTEXT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
ALTER TABLE job_index ADD FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES job(id) ON UPDATE
CASCADE ON DELETE CASCADE
Notice how the job_index table is automatically created for you and a foreign key
between job and job_index was automatically created.
Because the Searchable behavior is such a large topic, we have more information on this
that can be found in the Searching (page 263) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
255
Geographical
The below is only a demo. The Geographical behavior can be used with any data record for
determining the number of miles or kilometers between 2 records.
// models/Zipcode.php
Listing
15-57
class Zipcode extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('zipcode', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('city', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('state', 'string', 2);
$this->hasColumn('county', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('zip_class', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Geographical');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
15-58
# ...
Zipcode:
actAs: [Geographical]
columns:
zipcode: string(255)
city: string(255)
state: string(2)
county: string(255)
zip_class: string(255)
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
// test.php
Listing
15-59
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('Zipcode'));
echo $sql[0];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE zipcode (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
zipcode VARCHAR(255),
city VARCHAR(255),
state VARCHAR(2),
county VARCHAR(255),
zip_class VARCHAR(255),
latitude DOUBLE,
-----------------
Listing
15-60
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
256
longitude DOUBLE,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
Notice how the Geographical behavior automatically adds the latitude and longitude
columns to the records used for calculating distance between two records. Below you will
find some example usage.
First lets retrieve two different zipcode records:
Listing
15-61
// test.php
// ...
$zipcode1 = Doctrine::getTable('Zipcode')->findOneByZipcode('37209');
$zipcode2 = Doctrine::getTable('Zipcode')->findOneByZipcode('37388');
Now we can get the distance between those two records by using the getDistance()
method that the behavior provides:
Listing
15-62
// test.php
// ...
echo $zipcode1->getDistance($zipcode2, $kilometers = false);
The 2nd argument of the getDistance() method is whether or not to return the distance
in kilometers. The default is false.
Now lets get the 50 closest zipcodes that are not in the same city:
Listing
15-63
// test.php
// ...
$q = $zipcode1->getDistanceQuery();
$q->orderby('miles asc')
->addWhere($q->getRootAlias() . '.city != ?', $zipcode1->city)
->limit(50);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
15-64
SELECT
z.id AS z__id,
z.zipcode AS z__zipcode,
z.city AS z__city,
z.state AS z__state,
z.county AS z__county,
z.zip_class AS z__zip_class,
z.latitude AS z__latitude,
z.longitude AS z__longitude,
((ACOS(SIN(* PI() / 180) * SIN(z.latitude * PI() / 180) +
180) * COS(z.latitude * PI() / 180) * COS((- z.longitude)
180 / PI()) * 60 * 1.1515) AS z__0,
((ACOS(SIN(* PI() / 180) * SIN(z.latitude * PI() / 180) +
180) * COS(z.latitude * PI() / 180) * COS((- z.longitude)
180 / PI()) * 60 * 1.1515 * 1.609344) AS z__1
-----------------
COS(* PI() /
* PI() / 180)) *
COS(* PI() /
* PI() / 180)) *
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
257
FROM zipcode z
WHERE z.city != ?
ORDER BY z__0 asc
LIMIT 50
Notice how the above SQL query includes a bunch of SQL that we did not write. This was
automatically added by the behavior to calculate the number of miles between records.
Now we can execute the query and use the calculated number of miles values:
// test.php
Listing
15-65
// ...
$result = $q->execute();
foreach ($result as $zipcode) {
echo $zipcode->city . " - " . $zipcode->miles . "<br/>";
// You could also access $zipcode->kilometers
}
Get some sample zip code data to test this
http://www.populardata.com/zip_codes.zip27
Download and import the csv file with the following function:
// test.php
Listing
15-66
// ...
function parseCsvFile($file, $columnheadings = false, $delimiter = ',',
$enclosure = "\"")
{
$row = 1;
$rows = array();
$handle = fopen($file, 'r');
while (($data = fgetcsv($handle, 1000, $delimiter, $enclosure)) !==
FALSE) {
if (!($columnheadings == false) && ($row == 1)) {
$headingTexts = $data;
} elseif (!($columnheadings == false)) {
foreach ($data as $key => $value) {
unset($data[$key]);
$data[$headingTexts[$key]] = $value;
}
$rows[] = $data;
} else {
$rows[] = $data;
}
$row++;
}
fclose($handle);
return $rows;
}
27.
http://www.populardata.com/zip_codes.zip
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
258
$array = parseCsvFile('zipcodes.csv', false);
foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
$zipcode = new Zipcode();
$zipcode->fromArray($value);
$zipcode->save();
}
SoftDelete
The SoftDelete behavior is a very simple yet highly desired model behavior which overrides
the delete() functionality and adds a deleted_at column. When delete() is called,
instead of deleting the record from the database, deleted_at column is set to the current
date and time. Below is an example of how to create a model with the SoftDelete behavior
being used.
Listing
15-67
// models/SoftDeleteTest.php
class SoftDeleteTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('SoftDelete');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
15-68
--# schema.yml
# ...
SoftDeleteTest:
actAs: [SoftDelete]
columns:
name:
type: string(255)
primary: true
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
15-69
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('SoftDeleteTest'));
echo $sql[0];
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
259
The above code would output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE soft_delete_test (name VARCHAR(255),
deleted_at DATETIME,
PRIMARY KEY(name)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
15-70
Now lets put the behavior in action.
You are required to enable DQL callbacks in order for all executed queries to have the dql
callbacks executed on them. In the SoftDelete behavior they are used to filter the select
statements to exclude all records where the deleted_at flag is set with an additional
WHERE condition.
Enable DQL Callbacks
// bootstrap.php
Listing
15-71
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_USE_DQL_CALLBACKS, true);
Now save a new record so we can test the SoftDelete functionality:
// test.php
Listing
15-72
// ...
$record = new SoftDeleteTest();
$record->name = 'new record';
$record->save();
Now when we call delete() the deleted_at column will be set:
// test.php
Listing
15-73
// ...
$record->delete();
print_r($record->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[name] => new record
[deleted_at] => 2009-03-04 03:01:02
)
Listing
15-74
Also, when we query, any records where deleted_at is not null are excluded from the results:
// test.php
Listing
15-75
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('SoftDeleteTest t');
echo $q->getSql();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
260
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
15-76
SELECT
s.name AS s__name,
s.deleted_at AS s__deleted_at
FROM soft_delete_test s
WHERE (s.deleted_at IS NULL)
Notice how the where condition is automatically added to only return the records that have
not been deleted.
Now if we execute the query:
Listing
15-77
// test.php
// ...
$count = $q->count();
echo $count;
The above would be echo 0 because it would exclude the record saved above because the
delete flag was set.
Nesting Behaviors
Below is an example of several behaviors to give a complete wiki database that is versionable,
searchable, sluggable, and full I18n.
Listing
15-78
class Wiki extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('content', 'string');
}
public function setUp()
{
$options = array('fields' => array('title', 'content'));
$auditLog = new Doctrine_Template_Versionable($options);
$search = new Doctrine_Template_Searchable($options);
$slug = new Doctrine_Template_Sluggable(array(
'fields' => array('title')
)
);
$i18n = new Doctrine_Template_I18n($options);
$i18n->addChild($auditLog)
->addChild($search)
->addChild($slug);
$this->actAs($i18n);
$this->actAs('Timestampable');
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
261
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--WikiTest:
actAs:
I18n:
fields: [title, content]
actAs:
Versionable:
fields: [title, content]
Searchable:
fields: [title, content]
Sluggable:
fields: [title]
columns:
title: string(255)
content: string
Listing
15-79
The above example of nesting behaviors is currently broken in Doctrine. We are working
furiously to come up with a backwards compatible fix. We will announce when the fix is
ready and update the documentation accordingly.
Generating Files
By default with behaviors the classes which are generated are evaluated at run-time and no
files containing the classes are ever written to disk. This can be changed with a configuration
option. Below is an example of how to configure the I18n behavior to generate the classes and
write them to files instead of evaluating them at run-time.
class NewsArticle extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('author', 'string', 255);
}
Listing
15-80
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('I18n', array(
'fields'
=> array('title', 'body'),
'generateFiles'
=> true,
'generatePath'
=> '/path/to/generate'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--NewsArticle:
Listing
15-81
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 15: Behaviors
262
actAs:
I18n:
fields: [title, body]
generateFiles: true
generatePath: /path/to/generate
columns:
title: string(255)
body: string(255)
author: string(255)
Now the behavior will generate a file instead of generating the code and using eval()28 to
evaluate it at runtime.
Querying Generated Classes
If you want to query the auto generated models you will need to make sure the model with
the behavior attached is loaded and initialized. You can do this by using the static
Doctrine::initializeModels() method.
For example if you want to query the translation table for a BlogPost model you will need to
run the following code:
Listing
15-82
Doctrine::initializeModels(array('BlogPost'));
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('BlogPostTranslation t')
->where('t.id = ? AND t.lang = ?', array(1, 'en'));
$translations = $q->execute();
This is required because the behaviors are not instantiated until the model is instantiated
for the first time. The above initializeModels() method instantiates the passed models
and makes sure the information is properly loaded in to the array of loaded models.
Conclusion
By now we should know a lot about Doctrine behaviors. We should know how to write our
own for our models as well as how to use all the great behaviors that come bundled with
Doctrine.
Now we are ready to move on to discuss the Searchable (page 263) behavior in more detail in
the Searching (page 263) chapter. As it is a large topic we have devoted an entire chapter to it.
28.
http://www.php.net/eval
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
263
Chapter 16
Searching
Introduction
Searching is a huge topic, hence an entire chapter has been devoted to a behavior called
Searchable. It is a fulltext indexing and searching tool. It can be used for indexing and
searching both database and files.
Consider we have a class called NewsItem with the following definition:
// models/NewsItem.php
Listing
16-1
class NewsItem extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'clob');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
16-2
# ...
NewsItem:
columns:
title: string(255)
body: clob
Now lets say we have an application where users are allowed to search for different news
items, an obvious way to implement this would be building a form and based on that forms
submitted values build DQL queries such as:
// test.php
Listing
16-3
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('NewsItem i')
->where('n.title LIKE ? OR n.content LIKE ?');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
264
As the application grows these kind of queries become very slow. For example when using the
previous query with parameters '%framework%' and '%framework%' (this would be
equivalent of 'find all news items whose title or content contains word 'framework') the
database would have to traverse through each row in the table, which would naturally be very
very slow.
Doctrine solves this with its search component and inverse indexes. First lets alter our
definition a bit:
Listing
16-4
// models/NewsItem.php
class NewsItem extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Searchable', array(
'fields' => array('title', 'content')
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
16-5
--# schema.yml
# ...
NewsItem:
actAs:
Searchable:
fields: [title, content]
# ...
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models:
Listing
16-6
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('NewsItem'));
echo $sql[0] . "\n";
echo $sql[1] . "\n";
echo $sql[2];
The above code would output the following SQL query:
Listing
16-7
CREATE TABLE news_item_index (id BIGINT,
keyword VARCHAR(200),
field VARCHAR(50),
position BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(id,
keyword,
field,
position)) ENGINE = INNODB
CREATE TABLE news_item (id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT,
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
265
title VARCHAR(255),
body LONGTEXT,
PRIMARY KEY(id)) ENGINE = INNODB
ALTER TABLE news_item_index ADD FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES news_item(id)
ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE CASCADE
Here we tell Doctrine that NewsItem class acts as searchable (internally Doctrine loads
Doctrine_Template_Searchable) and fields title and content are marked as fulltext
indexed fields. This means that every time a NewsItem is added or updated Doctrine will:
1. Update the inverse search index or
2. Add new pending entry to the inverse search index (sometimes it can be efficient to update
the inverse search index in batches)
Index structure
The structure of the inverse index Doctrine uses is the following:
[ (string) keyword] [ (string) field ] [ (integer) position ] [ (mixed) [foreign_keys] ]
Column
Description
keyword
The keyword in the text that can be searched for.
field
The field where the keyword was found.
position
The position where the keyword was found.
[foreign_keys] The foreign keys of the record being indexed.
In the NewsItem example the [foreign_keys] would simply contain one field named id with
foreign key references to NewsItem(id) and with onDelete => CASCADE constraint.
An example row in this table might look something like:
keyword field position id
database title
3
1
In this example the word database is the third word of the title field of NewsItem with id
of 1.
Index Building
Whenever a searchable record is being inserted into database Doctrine executes the index
building procedure. This happens in the background as the procedure is being invoked by the
search listener. The phases of this procedure are:
1. Analyze the text using a Doctrine_Search_Analyzer based class
2. Insert new rows into index table for all analyzed keywords
Sometimes you may not want to update the index table directly when new searchable entries
are added. Rather you may want to batch update the index table in certain intervals. For
disabling the direct update functionality you'll need to set the batchUpdates option to true
when you attach the behavior:
// models/NewsItem.php
Listing
16-8
class NewsItem extends Doctrine_Record
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
266
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('Searchable', array(
'fields' => array('title', 'content')
'batchUpdates' => true
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
16-9
--# schema.yml
# ...
NewsItem:
actAs:
Searchable:
fields: [title, content]
batchUpdates: true
# ...
The actual batch updating procedure can be invoked with the batchUpdateIndex()
method. It takes two optional arguments: limit and offset. Limit can be used for limiting
the number of batch indexed entries while the offset can be used for setting the first entry to
start the indexing from.
First lets insert a new NewsItem records:
Listing
16-10
// test.php
// ...
$newsItem = new NewsItem();
$newsItem->title = 'Test';
$newsItem->body = 'test';
$newsItem->save();
If you don't have batch updates enabled then the index will be automatically updated for
you when you insert or update NewsItem records. If you do have batch updates enabled
then you can perform the batch updates by using the following code:
Listing
16-11
// test.php
// ...
$newsItemTable = Doctrine::getTable('NewsItem');
$newsItemTable->batchUpdateIndex();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
267
Text Analyzers
By default Doctrine uses Doctrine_Search_Analyzer_Standard for analyzing the text.
This class performs the following things:
• Strips out stop-keywords (such as 'and', 'if' etc.) As many commonly used words
such as 'and', 'if' etc. have no relevance for the search, they are being stripped out
in order to keep the index size reasonable.
• Makes all keywords lowercased. When searching words 'database' and 'DataBase'
are considered equal by the standard analyzer, hence the standard analyzer
lowercases all keywords.
• Replaces all non alpha-numeric marks with whitespace. In normal text many
keywords might contain non alpha-numeric chars after them, for example
'database.'. The standard analyzer strips these out so that 'database' matches
'database.'.
• Replaces all quotation marks with empty strings so that "O'Connor" matches
"oconnor"
You can write your own analyzer class by making a class that implements
Doctrine_Search_Analyzer_Interface. Here is an example where we create an
analyzer named MyAnalyzer:
// models/MyAnalyzer.php
Listing
16-12
class MyAnalyzer implements Doctrine_Search_Analyzer_Interface
{
public function analyze($text)
{
$text = trim($text);
return $text;
}
}
The search analyzers must only contain one method named analyze() and it should
return the modified inputted text to be indexed.
This analyzer can then be applied to the search object as follows:
// test.php
Listing
16-13
// ...
$newsItemTable = Doctrine::getTable('NewsItem');
$search = $newsItemTable
->getTemplate('Doctrine_Template_Searchable')
->getPlugin();
$search->setOption('analyzer', new MyAnalyzer());
Query language
Doctrine_Search provides a query language similar to Apache Lucene. The
Doctrine_Search_Query converts human readable, easy-to-construct search queries to
their complex DQL equivalents which are then converted to SQL like normal.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
268
Performing Searches
Here is a simple example to retrieve the record ids and relevance data.
Listing
16-14
// test.php
// ...
$newsItemTable = Doctrine::getTable('NewsItem');
$results = $newsItemTable->search('test');
print_r($results);
The above code executes the following query:
Listing
16-15
SELECT
COUNT(keyword) AS relevance,
id
FROM article_index
WHERE id IN (SELECT
id
FROM article_index
WHERE keyword = ?)
AND id IN (SELECT
id
FROM article_index
WHERE keyword = ?)
GROUP BY id
ORDER BY relevance DESC
The output of the code above would be the following:
Listing
16-16
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[relevance] => 1
[id] => 1
)
)
Now you can use those results in another query to retrieve the actual NewsItem objects:
Listing
16-17
// test.php
// ...
$ids = array();
foreach ($results as $result) {
$ids[] = $result['id'];
}
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('NewsItem i')
->whereIn('i.id', $ids);
$newsItems = $q->execute();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
269
print_r($newsItems->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Test
[body] => test
)
Listing
16-18
)
You can optionally pass the search() function a query object to modify with a where
condition subquery to limit the results using the search index.
// test.php
Listing
16-19
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('NewsItem i');
$q = Doctrine::getTable('Article')
->search('test', $q);
echo $q->getSql();
The above call to getSql() would output the following SQL query:
SELECT
n.id AS n__id,
n.title AS n__title,
n.body AS n__body
FROM news_item n
WHERE n.id IN (SELECT
id
FROM news_item_index
WHERE keyword = ?
GROUP BY id)
Listing
16-20
Now we can execute the query and get the NewsItem objects:
// test.php
Listing
16-21
// ...
$newsItems = $q->execute();
print_r($newsItems->toArray());
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
Listing
16-22
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
270
[0] => Array
(
[id] => 1
[title] => Test
[body] => test
)
)
File searches
As stated before Doctrine_Search can also be used for searching files. Lets say we have a
directory which we want to be searchable. First we need to create an instance of
Doctrine_Search_File which is a child of Doctrine_Search providing some extra
functionality needed for the file searches.
Listing
16-23
// test.php
// ...
$search = new Doctrine_Search_File();
Second thing to do is to generate the index table. By default Doctrine names the database
index class as FileIndex.
Lets check the SQL that is generated by the above models created:
Listing
16-24
// test.php
// ...
$sql = Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('FileIndex'));
The above code would output the following SQL query:
Listing
16-25
CREATE TABLE file_index (url VARCHAR(255),
keyword VARCHAR(200),
field VARCHAR(50),
position BIGINT,
PRIMARY KEY(url,
keyword,
field,
position)) ENGINE = INNODB
You
can
create
the
actual
table
in
Doctrine::createTablesFromArray() method:
Listing
16-26
the
database
by
using
the
// test.php
// ...
Doctrine::createTablesFromArray(array('FileIndex'));
Now we can start using the file searcher. In this example lets just index the models
directory:
Listing
16-27
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 16: Searching
271
// ...
$search->indexDirectory('models');
The indexDirectory() iterates recursively through given directory and analyzes all files
within it updating the index table as necessary.
Finally we can start searching for pieces of text within the indexed files:
// test.php
Listing
16-28
// ...
$results = $search->search('hasColumn');
print_r($results);
The above example would produce the following output:
$ php test.php
Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[relevance] => 2
[url] => models/generated/BaseNewsItem.php
)
)
Conclusion
Now that we have learned all about the Searchable behavior we are ready to learn in more
detail about the NestedSet behavior in the Hierarchical Data (page 272) chapter. The
NestedSet is a large topic like the Searchable behavior so it got its own dedicated chapter
as well.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
16-29
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
272
Chapter 17
Hierarchical Data
Introduction
Most users at one time or another have dealt with hierarchical data in a SQL database and no
doubt learned that the management of hierarchical data is not what a relational database is
intended for. The tables of a relational database are not hierarchical (like XML), but are
simply a flat list. Hierarchical data has a parent-child relationship that is not naturally
represented in a relational database table.
For our purposes, hierarchical data is a collection of data where each item has a single parent
and zero or more children (with the exception of the root item, which has no parent).
Hierarchical data can be found in a variety of database applications, including forum and
mailing list threads, business organization charts, content management categories, and
product categories.
In a hierarchical data model, data is organized into a tree-like structure. The tree structure
allows repeating information using parent/child relationships. For an explanation of the tree
data structure, see here29.
There are three major approaches to managing tree structures in relational databases, these
are:
• the adjacency list model
• the nested set model (otherwise known as the modified pre-order tree traversal
algorithm)
• materialized path model
These are explained in more detail at the following links:
• http://www.dbazine.com/oracle/or-articles/tropashko430
• http://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/articles/hierarchical-data.html31
29.
30.
31.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_data_structure
http://www.dbazine.com/oracle/or-articles/tropashko4
http://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/articles/hierarchical-data.html
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
273
Nested Set
Introduction
Nested Set is a solution for storing hierarchical data that provides very fast read access.
However, updating nested set trees is more costly. Therefore this solution is best suited for
hierarchies that are much more frequently read than written to. And because of the nature of
the web, this is the case for most web applications.
For more detailed information on the Nested Set, read here:
• http://www.sitepoint.com/article/hierarchical-data-database/232
• http://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/articles/hierarchical-data.html33
Setting Up
To set up your model as Nested Set, you must add some code to the setUp() method of your
model. Take this Category model below for example:
// models/Category.php
Listing
17-1
class Category extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('NestedSet');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
17-2
# ...
Category:
actAs: [NestedSet]
columns:
name: string(255)
Detailed information on Doctrine's templating model can be found in chapter 15 Behaviors
(page 236). These templates add some functionality to your model. In the example of the
nested set, your model gets 3 additional fields: lft, rgt and level. You never need to care
about the lft and rgt fields. These are used internally to manage the tree structure. The
level field however, is of interest for you because it's an integer value that represents the
depth of a node within it's tree. A level of 0 means it's a root node. 1 means it's a direct child
of a root node and so on. By reading the level field from your nodes you can easily display
your tree with proper indention.
32.
33.
http://www.sitepoint.com/article/hierarchical-data-database/2
http://dev.mysql.com/tech-resources/articles/hierarchical-data.html
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
274
You must never assign values to lft, rgt, level. These are managed transparently by the
nested set implementation.
Multiple Trees
The nested set implementation can be configured to allow your table to have multiple root
nodes, and therefore multiple trees within the same table.
The example below shows how to setup and use multiple roots with the Category model:
Listing
17-3
// models/Category.php
class Category extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
$options = array(
'hasManyRoots'
=> true,
'rootColumnName'
=> 'root_id'
);
$this->actAs('NestedSet', $options);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
17-4
--# schema.yml
# ...
Category:
actAs:
NestedSet:
hasManyRoots: true
rootColumnName: root_id
columns:
name: string(255)
The rootColumnName is the column used to differentiate between trees. When you create a
new root node you have the option to set the root_id manually, otherwise Doctrine will
assign a value for you.
In general use you do not need to deal with the root_id directly. For example, when you
insert a new node into an existing tree or move a node between trees Doctrine transparently
handles the associated root_id changes for you.
Working with Trees
After you successfully set up your model as a nested set you can start working with it.
Working with Doctrine's nested set implementation is all about two classes:
Doctrine_Tree_NestedSet and Doctrine_Node_NestedSet. These are nested set
implementations
of
the
interfaces
Doctrine_Tree_Interface
and
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
275
Doctrine_Node_Interface. Tree objects are bound to your table objects and node objects
are bound to your record objects. This looks as follows:
The full tree interface is available by using the following code:
// test.php
Listing
17-5
// ...
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
In the next example $category is an instance of Category:
// test.php
Listing
17-6
// ...
$nodeObject = $category->getNode();
With the above code the full node interface is available on $nodeObject.
In the following sub-chapters you'll see code snippets that demonstrate the most frequently
used operations with the node and tree classes.
Creating a Root Node
// test.php
Listing
17-7
// ...
$category = new Category();
$category->name = 'Root Category 1';
$category->save();
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
$treeObject->createRoot($category);
Inserting a Node
In the next example we're going to add a new Category instance as a child of the root
Category we created above:
// test.php
Listing
17-8
// ...
$child1 = new Category();
$child1->name = 'Child Category 1';
$child2 = new Category();
$child2->name = 'Child Category 1';
$child1->getNode()->insertAsLastChildOf($category);
$child2->getNode()->insertAsLastChildOf($category);
Deleting a Node
Deleting a node from a tree is as simple as calling the delete() method on the node object:
// test.php
Listing
17-9
// ...
$category = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->findOneByName('Child Category
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
276
1');
$category->getNode()->delete();
The above code calls $category->delete() internally. It's important to delete on the
node and not on the record. Otherwise you may corrupt the tree.
Deleting a node will also delete all descendants of that node. So make sure you move them
elsewhere before you delete the node if you don't want to delete them.
Moving a Node
Moving a node is simple. Doctrine offers several methods for moving nodes around between
trees:
Listing
17-10
// test.php
// ...
$category = new Category();
$category->name = 'Root Category 2';
$category->save();
$categoryTable = Doctrine::getTable('Category');
$treeObject = $categoryTable->getTree();
$treeObject->createRoot($category);
$childCategory = $categoryTable->findOneByName('Child Category 1');
$childCategory->getNode()->moveAsLastChildOf($category);
...
Below is a list of the methods available for moving nodes around:
•
•
•
•
moveAsLastChildOf($other)
moveAsFirstChildOf($other)
moveAsPrevSiblingOf($other)
moveAsNextSiblingOf($other).
The method names should be self-explanatory to you.
Examining a Node
You can examine the nodes and what type of node they are by using some of the following
functions:
Listing
17-11
// test.php
// ...
$isLeaf = $category->getNode()->isLeaf();
$isRoot = $category->getNode()->isRoot();
The above used functions return true/false depending on whether or not they are a leaf or
root node.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
277
Examining and Retrieving Siblings
You can easily check if a node has any next or previous siblings by using the following
methods:
// test.php
Listing
17-12
// ...
$hasNextSib = $category->getNode()->hasNextSibling();
$hasPrevSib = $category->getNode()->hasPrevSibling();
You can also retrieve the next or previous siblings if they exist with the following methods:
// test.php
Listing
17-13
// ...
$nextSib = $category->getNode()->getNextSibling();
$prevSib = $category->getNode()->getPrevSibling();
The above methods return false if no next or previous sibling exists.
If you want to retrieve an array of all the siblings you can simply use the getSiblings()
method:
// test.php
Listing
17-14
// ...
$siblings = $category->getNode()->getSiblings();
Examining and Retrieving Descendants
You can check if a node has a parent or children by using the following methods:
// test.php
Listing
17-15
// ...
$hasChildren = $category->getNode()->hasChildren();
$hasParent = $category->getNode()->hasParent();
You can retrieve a nodes first and last child by using the following methods:
// test.php
Listing
17-16
// ...
$firstChild = $category->getNode()->getFirstChild();
$lastChild = $category->getNode()->getLastChild();
Or if you want to retrieve the parent of a node:
// test.php
Listing
17-17
// ...
$parent = $category->getNode()->getParent();
You can get the children of a node by using the following method:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
Listing
17-18
278
// test.php
// ...
$children = $category->getNode()->getChildren();
The getChildren() method returns only the direct descendants. If you want all
descendants, use the getDescendants() method.
You can get the descendants or ancestors of a node by using the following methods:
Listing
17-19
// test.php
// ...
$descendants = $category->getNode()->getDescendants();
$ancestors = $category->getNode()->getAncestors();
Sometimes you may just want to get the number of children or descendants. You can use the
following methods to accomplish this:
Listing
17-20
// test.php
// ...
$numChildren = $category->getNode()->getNumberChildren();
$numDescendants = $category->getNode()->getNumberDescendants();
The getDescendants() and getAncestors() both accept a parameter that you can use to
specify the depth of the resulting branch. For example getDescendants(1) retrieves only
the direct descendants (the descendants that are 1 level below, that's the same as
getChildren()). In the same fashion getAncestors(1) would only retrieve the direct
ancestor (the parent), etc. getAncestors() can be very useful to efficiently determine the
path of this node up to the root node or up to some specific ancestor (i.e. to construct a
breadcrumb navigation).
Rendering a Simple Tree
The next example assumes you have hasManyRoots set to false so in order for the below
example to work properly you will have to set that option to false. We set the value to true
in a earlier section.
Listing
17-21
// test.php
// ...
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
$tree = $treeObject->fetchTree();
foreach ($tree as $node) {
echo str_repeat('&nbsp;&nbsp;', $node['level']) . $node['name'] . "\n";
}
Advanced Usage
The previous sections have explained the basic usage of Doctrine's nested set
implementation. This section will go one step further.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
279
Fetching a Tree with Relations
If you're a demanding software developer this question may already have come into your
mind: "How do I fetch a tree/branch with related data?". Simple example: You want to display
a tree of categories, but you also want to display some related data of each category, let's say
some details of the hottest product in that category. Fetching the tree as seen in the previous
sections and simply accessing the relations while iterating over the tree is possible but
produces a lot of unnecessary database queries. Luckily, Doctrine_Query and some
flexibility in the nested set implementation have come to your rescue. The nested set
implementation uses Doctrine_Query objects for all it's database work. By giving you
access to the base query object of the nested set implementation you can unleash the full
power of Doctrine_Query while using your nested set.
First lets create the query we want to use to retrieve our tree data with:
// test.php
Listing
17-22
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
->select('c.name, p.name, m.name')
->from('Category c')
->leftJoin('c.HottestProduct p')
->leftJoin('p.Manufacturer m');
Now we need to set the above query as the base query for the tree:
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
$treeObject->setBaseQuery($q);
$tree = $treeObject->fetchTree();
Listing
17-23
There it is, the tree with all the related data you need, all in one query.
If you don't set your own base query then one will be automatically created for you
internally.
When you are done it is a good idea to reset the base query back to normal:
// test.php
Listing
17-24
// ...
$treeObject->resetBaseQuery();
You can take it even further. As mentioned in the chapter Improving Performance (page 357)
you should only fetch objects when you need them. So, if we need the tree only for display
purposes (read-only) we can use the array hydration to speed things up a bit:
// test.php
Listing
17-25
// ...
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
->select('c.name, p.name, m.name')
->from('Category c')
->leftJoin('c.HottestProduct p')
->leftJoin('p.Manufacturer m')
->setHydrationMode(Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY);
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 17: Hierarchical Data
280
$treeObject->setBaseQuery($q);
$tree = $treeObject->fetchTree();
$treeObject->resetBaseQuery();
Now you got a nicely structured array in $tree and if you use array access on your records
anyway, such a change will not even effect any other part of your code. This method of
modifying the query can be used for all node and tree methods (getAncestors(),
getDescendants(), getChildren(), getParent(), ...). Simply create your query, set it
as the base query on the tree object and then invoke the appropriate method.
Rendering with Indention
Below you will find an example where all trees are rendered with proper indention. You can
retrieve the roots using the fetchRoots() method and retrieve each individual tree by using
the fetchTree() method.
Listing
17-26
// test.php
// ...
$treeObject = Doctrine::getTable('Category')->getTree();
$rootColumnName = $treeObject->getAttribute('rootColumnName');
foreach ($treeObject->fetchRoots() as $root) {
$options = array(
'root_id' => $root->$rootColumnName
);
foreach($treeObject->fetchTree($options) as $node) {
echo str_repeat(' ', $node['level']) . $node['name'] . "\n";
}
}
After doing all the examples above the code above should render as follows:
Listing
17-27
$ php test.php
Root Category 1
Root Category 2
Child Category 1
Conclusion
Now that we have learned all about the NestedSet behavior and how to manage our
hierarchical data using Doctrine we are ready to learn about Data Fixtures (page 281). Data
fixtures are a great tool for loading small sets of test data in to your applications to be used
for unit and functional tests or to populate your application with its initial data.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
281
Chapter 18
Data Fixtures
Data fixtures are meant for loading small sets of test data through your models to populate
your database with data to test against. The data fixtures are often used side by side with
some kind of unit/functional testing suite.
Importing
Importing data fixtures is just as easy as dumping. You can use the loadData() function:
Doctrine::loadData('/path/to/data.yml');
Listing
18-1
You can either specify an individual yml file like we have done above, or you can specify an
entire directory:
Doctrine::loadData('/path/to/directory');
Listing
18-2
If you want to append the imported data to the already existing data then you need to use the
second argument of the loadData() function. If you don't specify the second argument as
true then the data will be purged before importing.
Here is how you can append instead of purging:
Doctrine::loadData('/path/to/data.yml', true);
Listing
18-3
Dumping
You can dump data to fixtures file in many different formats to help you get started with
writing your data fixtures. You can dump your data fixtures to one big YAML file like the
following:
Doctrine::dumpData('/path/to/data.yml');
Listing
18-4
Or you can optionally dump all data to individual files. One YAML file per model like the
following:
Doctrine::dumpData('/path/to/directory', true);
-----------------
Listing
18-5
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
282
Implement
Now that we know a little about data fixtures lets implement them in to our test environment
we created and have been using through the previous chapters so that we can test the
example fixtures used in the next sections.
First create a directory in your doctrine_test directory named fixtures and create a file
named data.yml inside:
Listing
18-6
$ mkdir fixtures
$ touch fixtures/data.yml
Now we need to just modify our generate.php script to include the code for loading the
data fixtures. Add the following code to the bottom of generate.php:
Listing
18-7
// generate.php
// ...
Doctrine::loadData('fixtures');
Writing
You can write your fixtures files manually and load them in to your applications. Below is a
sample data.yml fixtures file. You can also split your data fixtures file up in to multiple files.
Doctrine will read all fixtures files and parse them, then load all data.
For the next several examples we will use the following models:
Listing
18-8
// models/Resouce.php
class Resource extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
$this->hasColumn('resource_type_id', 'integer');
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('ResourceType as Type', array(
'local' => 'resource_type_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasMany('Tag as Tags', array(
'local' => 'resource_id',
'foreign' => 'tag_id',
'refClass' => 'ResourceTag'
)
);
}
}
// models/ResourceType.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
283
class ResourceType extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Resource as Resouces', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'resource_type_id'
)
);
}
}
// models/Tag.php
class Tag extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Resource as Resources', array(
'local' => 'tag_id',
'foreign' => 'resource_id',
'refClass' => 'ResourceTag'
)
);
}
}
// models/ResourceTag.php
class ResourceTag extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('resource_id', 'integer');
$this->hasColumn('tag_id', 'integer');
}
}
// models/Category.php
class BaseCategory extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
284
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('NestedSet');
}
}
class BaseArticle extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 255, array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => '255'
)
);
$this->hasColumn('body', 'clob', null, array(
'type' => 'clob'
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->actAs('I18n', array('fields' => array('title', 'body')));
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
18-9
--# schema.yml
Resource:
columns:
name: string(255)
resource_type_id: integer
relations:
Type:
class: ResourceType
foreignAlias: Resources
Tags:
class: Tag
refClass: ResourceTag
foreignAlias: Resources
ResourceType:
columns:
name: string(255)
Tag:
columns:
name: string(255)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
285
ResourceTag:
columns:
resource_id: integer
tag_id: integer
Category:
actAs: [NestedSet]
columns:
name: string(255)
Article:
actAs:
I18n:
fields: [title, body]
columns:
title: string(255)
body: clob
All row keys across all YAML data fixtures must be unique. For example below tutorial,
doctrine, help, cheat are all unique.
--# fixtures/data.yml
Listing
18-10
Resource:
Resource_1:
name: Doctrine Video Tutorial
Type: Video
Tags: [tutorial, doctrine, help]
Resource_2:
name: Doctrine Cheat Sheet
Type: Image
Tags: [tutorial, cheat, help]
ResourceType:
Video:
name: Video
Image:
name: Image
Tag:
tutorial:
name: tutorial
doctrine:
name: doctrine
help:
name: help
cheat:
name: cheat
You could optionally specify the Resources each tag is related to instead of specifying the
Tags a Resource has.
--# fixtures/data.yml
-----------------
Listing
18-11
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
286
# ...
Tag:
tutorial:
name: tutorial
Resources: [Resource_1, Resource_2]
doctrine:
name: doctrine
Resources: [Resource_1]
help:
name: help
Resources: [Resource_1, Resource_2]
cheat:
name: cheat
Resources: [Resource_1]
Fixtures For Nested Sets
Writing a fixtures file for a nested set tree is slightly different from writing regular fixtures
files. The structure of the tree is defined like the following:
Listing
18-12
--# fixtures/data.yml
# ...
Category:
Category_1:
name: Categories # the root node
children:
Category_2:
name: Category 1
Category_3:
name: Category 2
children:
Category_4:
name: Subcategory of Category 2
When writing data fixtures for the NestedSet you must either specify at least a children
element of the first data block or specify NestedSet: true under the model which is a
NestedSet in order for the data fixtures to be imported using the NestedSet api.
Listing
18-13
--# fixtures/data.yml
# ...
Category:
NestedSet: true
Category_1:
name: Categories
# ...
Or simply specifying the children keyword will make the data fixtures importing using the
NestedSet api.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 18: Data Fixtures
287
--# fixtures/data.yml
Listing
18-14
# ...
Category:
Category_1:
name: Categories
children: []
# ...
If you don't use one of the above methods then it is up to you to manually specify the lft, rgt
and level values for your nested set records.
Fixtures For I18n
The fixtures for the I18n aren't anything custom since the I18n really is just a normal set of
relationships that are built on the fly dynamically:
--# fixtures/data.yml
Listing
18-15
# ...
Article:
Article_1:
Translation:
en:
title: Title of article
body: Body of article
fr:
title: French title of article
body: French body of article
Conclusion
By now we should be able to write and load our own data fixtures in our application. So, now
we will move on to learning about the underlying Database Abstraction Layer (page 288) in
Doctrine. This layer is what makes all the previously discussed functionality possible. You can
use this layer standalone apart from the ORM. In the next chapter we'll explain how you can
use the DBAL by itself.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
288
Chapter 19
Database Abstraction Layer
The Doctrine Database Abstraction Layer is the underlying framework that the ORM uses to
communicate with the database and send the appropriate SQL depending on which database
type you are using. It also has the ability to query the database for information like what table
a database has or what fields a table has. This is how Doctrine is able to generate your
models from existing databases so easily.
This layer can be used independently of the ORM. This might be of use for example if you
have an existing application that uses PDO directly and you want to port it to use the Doctrine
Connections and DBAL. At a later phase you could begin to use the ORM for new things and
rewrite old pieces to use the ORM.
The DBAL is composed of a few different modules. In this chapter we will discuss the
different modules and what their jobs are.
Export
The Export module provides methods for managing database structure. The methods can be
grouped based on their responsibility: create, edit (alter or update), list or delete (drop)
database elements. The following document lists the available methods, providing examples
of their use.
Introduction
Every schema altering method in the Export module has an equivalent which returns the SQL
that is used for the altering operation. For example createTable() executes the query /
queries returned by createTableSql().
In this chapter the following tables will be created, altered and finally dropped, in a database
named events_db:
events
Name
Type
Primary Auto Increment
id
integer
true
true
name
string(255) false
false
datetime timestamp false
false
people
Name Type
Primary Auto Increment
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
id
integer
true
true
name
string(255) false
false
289
event_participants
Name
Type
Primary Auto Increment
event_id
integer
true
false
person_id string(255) true
false
Creating Databases
It is simple to create new databases with Doctrine. It is only a matter of calling the
createDatabase() function with an argument that is the name of the database to create.
// test.php
Listing
19-1
// ...
$conn->export->createDatabase('events_db');
Now lets change the connection in our bootstrap.php file to connect to the new
events_db:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
19-2
/**
* Bootstrap Doctrine.php, register autoloader and specify
* configuration attributes
*/
// ...
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection('mysql://root:@localhost/events_db',
'doctrine');
// ...
Creating Tables
Now that the database is created and we've re-configured our connection, we can proceed
with adding some tables. The method createTable() takes three parameters: the table
name, an array of field definition and some extra options (optional and RDBMS-specific).
Now lets create the events table:
// test.php
Listing
19-3
//
$definition = array(
'id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true,
'autoincrement' => true
),
'name' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 255
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
290
),
'datetime' => array(
'type' => 'timestamp'
)
);
$conn->export->createTable('events', $definition);
The keys of the definition array are the names of the fields in the table. The values are arrays
containing the required key type as well as other keys, depending on the value of type. The
values for the type key are the same as the possible Doctrine datatypes. Depending on the
datatype, the other options may vary.
Datatype length default not null unsigned autoincrement
string
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
decimal
x
x
float
x
x
timestamp
x
x
time
x
x
date
x
x
boolean
integer
x
clob
x
x
blob
x
x
x
x
And now we can go ahead and create the people table:
Listing
19-4
// test.php
// ...
$definition = array(
'id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true,
'autoincrement' => true
),
'name' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 255
)
);
$conn->export->createTable('people', $definition);
You can also specify an array of options as the third argument to the createTable()
method:
Listing
19-5
// test.php
// ...
$options = array(
'comment' => 'Repository of people',
'character_set' => 'utf8',
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
291
'collate' => 'utf8_unicode_ci',
'type'
=> 'innodb',
);
// ...
$conn->export->createTable('people', $definition, $options);
Creating Foreign Keys
Creating the event_participants table with a foreign key:
// test.php
Listing
19-6
// ...
$options = array(
'foreignKeys' => array(
'events_id_fk' => array(
'local'
=> 'event_id',
'foreign' => 'id',
'foreignTable' => 'events',
'onDelete' => 'CASCADE',
)
),
'primary' => array('event_id', 'person_id'),
);
$definition = array(
'event_id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true
),
'person_id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'primary' => true
),
);
$conn->export->createTable('event_participants', $definition, $options);
In the above example notice how we omit a foreign key for the person_id. In that example
we omit it so we can show you how to add an individual foreign key to a table in the next
example. Normally it would be best to have both foreign keys defined on the in the
foreignKeys.
Now lets add the missing foreign key in the event_participants table the on person_id
column:
// test.php
Listing
19-7
// ...
$definition = array('local'
=> 'person_id',
'foreign' => 'id',
'foreignTable' => 'people',
'onDelete' => 'CASCADE');
$conn->export->createForeignKey('event_participants', $definition);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
292
Altering table
Doctrine_Export drivers provide an easy database portable way of altering existing database
tables.
Listing
19-8
// test.php
// ...
$alter = array(
'add' => array(
'new_column' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 255
),
'new_column2' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 255
)
)
);
echo $conn->export->alterTableSql('events', $alter);
The above call to alterTableSql() would output the following SQL query:
Listing
19-9
ALTER TABLE events ADD new_column VARCHAR(255),
ADD new_column2 VARCHAR(255)
If you only want execute generated sql and not return it, use the alterTable() method.
Listing
19-10
// test.php
// ...
$conn->export->alterTable('events', $alter);
The alterTable() method requires two parameters and has an optional third:
Name
Type Description
$name
string Name of the table that is intended to be changed.
$changes array Associative array that contains the details of each type of change that is
intended to be performed.
An optional third parameter (default: false):
Name Type
Description
$check boolean Check if the DBMS can actually perform the operation before executing.
The types of changes that are currently supported are defined as follows:
Change Description
name
New name for the table.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
293
add
Associative array with the names of fields to be added as indexes of the array. The
value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with the
properties of the fields to be added. The properties of the fields should be the same
as defined by the Doctrine parser.
remove
Associative array with the names of fields to be removed as indexes of the array.
Currently the values assigned to each entry are ignored. An empty array should be
used for future compatibility.
rename Associative array with the names of fields to be renamed as indexes of the array.
The value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with
the entry named name with the new field name and the entry named Declaration
that is expected to contain the portion of the field declaration already in DBMS
specific SQL code as it is used in the CREATE TABLE statement.
change
Associative array with the names of the fields to be changed as indexes of the
array. Keep in mind that if it is intended to change either the name of a field and
any other properties, the change array entries should have the new names of the
fields as array indexes.
The value of each entry of the array should be set to another associative array with the
properties of the fields to that are meant to be changed as array entries. These entries should
be assigned to the new values of the respective properties. The properties of the fields should
be the same as defined by the Doctrine parser.
// test.php
Listing
19-11
// ...
$alter = array('name' => 'event',
'add' => array(
'quota' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'unsigned' => 1
)
),
'remove' => array(
'new_column2' => array()
),
'change' => array(
'name' => array(
'length' => '20',
'definition' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 20
)
)
),
'rename' => array(
'new_column' => array(
'name' => 'gender',
'definition' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 1,
'default' => 'M'
)
)
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
294
$conn->export->alterTable('events', $alter);
Notice how we renamed the table to event, lets rename it back to events. We only
renamed it to demonstrate the functionality and we will need the table to be named
events for the next examples.
Listing
19-12
// test.php
// ...
$alter = array(
'name' => 'events'
);
$conn->export->alterTable('event', $alter);
Creating Indexes
To create an index, the method createIndex() is used, which has similar signature as
createConstraint(), so it takes table name, index name and a definition array. The
definition array has one key named fields with a value which is another associative array
containing fields that will be a part of the index. The fields are defined as arrays with possible
keys: sorting, with values ascending and descending length, integer value
Not all RDBMS will support index sorting or length, in these cases the drivers will ignore
them. In the test events database, we can assume that our application will show events
occuring in a specific timeframe, so the selects will use the datetime field in WHERE
conditions. It will help if there is an index on this field.
Listing
19-13
// test.php
// ...
$definition = array(
'fields' => array(
'datetime' => array()
)
);
$conn->export->createIndex('events', 'datetime', $definition);
Deleting database elements
For every create*() method as shown above, there is a corresponding drop*() method to
delete a database, a table, field, index or constraint. The drop*() methods do not check if
the item to be deleted exists, so it's developer's responsibility to check for exceptions using a
try catch block:
Listing
19-14
// test.php
// ...
try {
$conn->export->dropSequence('nonexisting');
} catch(Doctrine_Exception $e) {
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
295
You can easily drop a constraint with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
19-15
// ...
$conn->export->dropConstraint('events', 'PRIMARY', true);
The third parameter gives a hint that this is a primary key constraint.
// test.php
Listing
19-16
// ...
$conn->export->dropConstraint('event_participants', 'event_id');
You can easily drop an index with the following code:
$conn->export->dropIndex('events', 'event_timestamp');
Listing
19-17
It is recommended to not actually execute the next two examples. In the next section we
will need the events_db to be intact for our examples to work.
Drop a table from the database with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
19-18
// ...
$conn->export->dropTable('events');
We can drop the database with the following code:
// test.php
Listing
19-19
// ...
$conn->export->dropDatabase('events_db');
Import
The import module allows you to inspect a the contents of a database connection and learn
about the databases and schemas in each database.
Introduction
To see what's in the database, you can use the list*() family of functions in the Import
module.
Name
Description
listDatabases()
List the databases
listFunctions()
List the available functions.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
listSequences($dbName)
296
List the available sequences. Takes optional database
name as a parameter. If not supplied, the currently
selected database is assumed.
listTableConstraints($tableName) Lists the available tables. takes a table name
listTableColumns($tableName)
List the columns available in a table.
listTableIndexes($tableName)
List the indexes defined in a table.
listTables($dbName)
List the tables in a database.
listTableTriggers($tableName)
List the triggers in a table.
listTableViews($tableName)
List the views available in a table.
listUsers()
List the users for the database.
listViews($dbName)
List the views available for a database.
Below you will find examples on how to use the above listed functions:
Listing Databases
Listing
19-20
// test.php
// ...
$databases = $conn->import->listDatabases();
print_r($databases);
Listing Sequences
Listing
19-21
// test.php
// ...
$sequences = $conn->import->listSequences('events_db');
print_r($sequences);
Listing Constraints
Listing
19-22
// test.php
// ...
$constraints = $conn->import->listTableConstraints('event_participants');
print_r($constraints);
Listing Table Columns
Listing
19-23
// test.php
// ...
$columns = $conn->import->listTableColumns('events');
print_r($columns);
Listing Table Indexes
Listing
19-24
// test.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
297
// ...
$indexes = $conn->import->listTableIndexes('events');
print_r($indexes);
Listing Tables
$tables = $conn->import->listTables();
print_r($tables);
Listing
19-25
Listing Views
Currently there is no method to create views, so let's do it manually.
$sql = "CREATE VIEW names_only AS SELECT name FROM people";
$conn->exec($sql);
Listing
19-26
$sql = "CREATE VIEW last_ten_events AS SELECT * FROM events ORDER BY id
DESC LIMIT 0,10";
$conn->exec($sql);
Now we can list the views we just created:
$views = $conn->import->listViews();
print_r($views);
Listing
19-27
DataDict
Introduction
Doctrine uses the DataDict module internally to convert native RDBMS types to Doctrine
types and the reverse. DataDict module uses two methods for the conversions:
• getPortableDeclaration(), which is used for converting native RDBMS type
declaration to portable Doctrine declaration
• getNativeDeclaration(), which is used for converting portable Doctrine
declaration to driver specific type declaration
Getting portable declaration
// test.php
Listing
19-28
// ...
$declaration = $conn->dataDict->getPortableDeclaration('VARCHAR(255)');
print_r($declaration);
The above example would output the following:
$ php test.php
Array
(
Listing
19-29
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
298
[type] => Array
(
[0] => string
)
[length] => 255
[unsigned] =>
[fixed] =>
)
Getting Native Declaration
Listing
19-30
// test.php
// ...
$portableDeclaration = array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 20,
'fixed' => true
);
$nativeDeclaration =
$conn->dataDict->getNativeDeclaration($portableDeclaration);
echo $nativeDeclaration;
The above example would output the following:
Listing
19-31
$ php test.php
CHAR(20)
Drivers
Mysql
Setting table type
Listing
19-32
// test.php
// ...
$fields = array(
'id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'autoincrement' => true
),
'name' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'fixed' => true,
'length' => 8
)
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 19: Database Abstraction Layer
299
The following option is mysql specific and skipped by other drivers.
$options = array('type' => 'INNODB');
Listing
19-33
$sql = $conn->export->createTableSql('test_table', $fields);
echo $sql[0];
The above will output the following SQL query:
CREATE TABLE test_table (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT,
name CHAR(8)) ENGINE = INNODB
Listing
19-34
Conclusion
This chapter is indeed a nice one. The Doctrine DBAL is a great tool all by itself. It is probably
one of the most fully featured and easy to use PHP database abstraction layers available
today.
Now we are ready to move on and learn about how to use Transactions (page 300).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 20: Transactions
300
Chapter 20
Transactions
Introduction
A database transaction is a unit of interaction with a database management system or similar
system that is treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions that
must be either entirely completed or aborted. Ideally, a database system will guarantee all of
the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) properties for each transaction.
• Atomicity34 refers to the ability of the DBMS to guarantee that either all of the tasks
of a transaction are performed or none of them are. The transfer of funds can be
completed or it can fail for a multitude of reasons, but atomicity guarantees that one
account won't be debited if the other is not credited as well.
• Consistency35 refers to the database being in a legal state when the transaction
begins and when it ends. This means that a transaction can't break the rules, or
integrity constraints, of the database. If an integrity constraint states that all
accounts must have a positive balance, then any transaction violating this rule will
be aborted.
• Isolation36 refers to the ability of the application to make operations in a transaction
appear isolated from all other operations. This means that no operation outside the
transaction can ever see the data in an intermediate state; a bank manager can see
the transferred funds on one account or the other, but never on both - even if she
ran her query while the transfer was still being processed. More formally, isolation
means the transaction history (or schedule37) is serializable38. For performance
reasons, this ability is the most often relaxed constraint. See the isolation39 article
for more details.
• Durability40 refers to the guarantee that once the user has been notified of success,
the transaction will persist, and not be undone. This means it will survive system
failure, and that the database system41 has checked the integrity constraints and
won't need to abort the transaction. Typically, all transactions are written into a
log42 that can be played back to recreate the system to its state right before the
failure. A transaction can only be deemed committed after it is safely in the log.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomicity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_consistency
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isolation_%28computer_science%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schedule_%28computer_science%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serializability
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isolation_%28computer_science%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durability_%28computer_science%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_system
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_log
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 20: Transactions
301
In Doctrine all operations are wrapped in transactions by default. There are some things that
should be noticed about how Doctrine works internally:
• Doctrine uses application level transaction nesting.
• Doctrine always executes INSERT / UPDATE / DELETE queries at the end of
transaction (when the outermost commit is called). The operations are performed in
the following order: all inserts, all updates and last all deletes. Doctrine knows how
to optimize the deletes so that delete operations of the same component are
gathered in one query.
First we need to begin a new transation:
$conn->beginTransaction();
Listing
20-1
Next perform some operations which result in queries being executed:
$user = new User();
$user->name = 'New user';
$user->save();
Listing
20-2
$user = Doctrine::getTable('User')->find(5);
$user->name = 'Modified user';
$user->save();
Now we can commit all the queries by using the commit() method:
$conn->commit();
Listing
20-3
Nesting
You can easily nest transactions with the Doctrine DBAL. Check the code below for a simple
example demonstrating nested transactions.
First lets create a standard PHP function named saveUserAndGroup():
function saveUserAndGroup(Doctrine_Connection $conn, User $user, Group
$group)
{
$conn->beginTransaction();
Listing
20-4
$user->save();
$group->save();
$conn->commit();
}
Now we make use of the function inside another transaction:
try {
$conn->beginTransaction();
Listing
20-5
saveUserAndGroup($conn,$user,$group);
saveUserAndGroup($conn,$user2,$group2);
saveUserAndGroup($conn,$user3,$group3);
$conn->commit();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 20: Transactions
302
} catch(Doctrine_Exception $e) {
$conn->rollback();
}
Notice how the three calls to saveUserAndGroup() are wrapped in a transaction, and
each call to the function starts its own nested transaction.
Savepoints
Doctrine supports transaction savepoints. This means you can set named transactions and
have them nested.
The Doctrine_Transaction::beginTransaction($savepoint) sets a named
transaction savepoint with a name of $savepoint. If the current transaction has a savepoint
with the same name, the old savepoint is deleted and a new one is set.
Listing
20-6
try {
$conn->beginTransaction();
// do some operations here
// creates a new savepoint called mysavepoint
$conn->beginTransaction('mysavepoint');
try {
// do some operations here
$conn->commit('mysavepoint');
} catch(Exception $e) {
$conn->rollback('mysavepoint');
}
$conn->commit();
} catch(Exception $e) {
$conn->rollback();
}
The Doctrine_Transaction::rollback($savepoint) rolls back a transaction to the
named savepoint. Modifications that the current transaction made to rows after the savepoint
was set are undone in the rollback.
Mysql, for example, does not release the row locks that were stored in memory after the
savepoint.
Savepoints that were set at a later time than the named savepoint are deleted.
The Doctrine_Transaction::commit($savepoint) removes the named savepoint from
the set of savepoints of the current transaction.
All savepoints of the current transaction are deleted if you execute a commit or if a rollback is
being called without savepoint name parameter.
Listing
20-7
try {
$conn->beginTransaction();
// do some operations here
// creates a new savepoint called mysavepoint
$conn->beginTransaction('mysavepoint');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 20: Transactions
303
// do some operations here
$conn->commit();
// deletes all savepoints
} catch(Exception $e) {
$conn->rollback(); // deletes all savepoints
}
Isolation Levels
A transaction isolation level sets the default transactional behavior. As the name 'isolation
level' suggests, the setting determines how isolated each transation is, or what kind of locks
are associated with queries inside a transaction. The four available levels are (in ascending
order of strictness):
READ UNCOMMITTED
Barely transactional, this setting allows for so-called 'dirty reads', where queries inside
one transaction are affected by uncommitted changes in another transaction.
READ COMMITTED
Committed updates are visible within another transaction. This means identical queries
within a transaction can return differing results. This is the default in some DBMS's.
REPEATABLE READ
Within a transaction, all reads are consistent. This is the default of Mysql INNODB
engine.
SERIALIZABLE
Updates are not permitted in other transactions if a transaction has run an ordinary
SELECT query.
To get the transaction module use the following code:
$tx = $conn->transaction;
Listing
20-8
Set the isolation level to READ COMMITTED:
$tx->setIsolation('READ COMMITTED');
Listing
20-9
Set the isolation level to SERIALIZABLE:
$tx->setIsolation('SERIALIZABLE');
Listing
20-10
Some drivers (like Mysql) support the fetching of current transaction isolation level. It can
be done as follows:
$level = $tx->getIsolation();
Listing
20-11
Conclusion
Transactions are a great feature for ensuring the quality and consistency of your database.
Now that you know about transactions we are ready to move on and learn about the events
sub-framework.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 20: Transactions
304
The events sub-framework is a great feature that allows you to hook in to core methods of
Doctrine and alter the operations of internal functionality without modifying one line of core
code.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
305
Chapter 21
Event Listeners
Introduction
Doctrine provides flexible event listener architecture that not only allows listening for
different events but also for altering the execution of the listened methods.
There are several different listeners and hooks for various Doctrine components. Listeners
are separate classes whereas hooks are empty template methods within the listened class.
Hooks are simpler than event listeners but they lack the separation of different aspects. An
example of using Doctrine_Record hooks:
// models/BlogPost.php
Listing
21-1
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function preInsert($event)
{
$invoker = $event->getInvoker();
$invoker->created = date('Y-m-d', time());
}
}
By now we have defined lots of models so you should be able to define your own
setTableDefinition() for the BlogPost model or even create your own custom model!
Now you can use the above model with the following code assuming we added a title, body
and created column to the model:
// test.php
Listing
21-2
// ...
$blog = new BlogPost();
$blog->title = 'New title';
$blog->body = 'Some content';
$blog->save();
echo $blog->created;
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
306
The above example will output the current date as PHP knows it.
Each listener and hook method takes one parameter Doctrine_Event object.
Doctrine_Event object holds information about the event in question and can alter the
execution of the listened method.
For the purposes of this documentation many method tables are provided with column named
params indicating names of the parameters that an event object holds on given event. For
example the preCreateSavepoint event has one parameter with the name of the created
savepoint, which is quite intuitively named as savepoint.
Connection Listeners
Connection listeners are used for listening the methods of Doctrine_Connection and its
modules (such as Doctrine_Transaction). All listener methods take one argument
Doctrine_Event which holds information about the listened event.
Creating a New Listener
There are three different ways of defining a listener. First you can create a listener by making
a class that inherits Doctrine_EventListener:
Listing
21-3
class MyListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
}
}
Note that by declaring a class that extends Doctrine_EventListener you don't have to
define all the methods within the Doctrine_EventListener_Interface. This is due to a
fact that Doctrine_EventListener already has empty skeletons for all these methods.
Sometimes it may not be possible to define a listener that extends
Doctrine_EventListener (you might have a listener that inherits some other base class).
In this case you can make it implement Doctrine_EventListener_Interface.
Listing
21-4
class MyListener implements Doctrine_EventListener_Interface
{
public function preTransactionCommit(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postTransactionCommit(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preTransactionRollback(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postTransactionRollback(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preTransactionBegin(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postTransactionBegin(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postConnect(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preConnect(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preQuery(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postQuery(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function prePrepare(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postPrepare(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
307
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postExec(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preError(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postError(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preFetch(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postFetch(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preFetchAll(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postFetchAll(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function preStmtExecute(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
public function postStmtExecute(Doctrine_Event $event) {}
}
All listener methods must be defined here otherwise PHP throws fatal error.
The third way of creating a listener is a very elegant one. You can make a class that
implements Doctrine_Overloadable. This interface has only one method: __call(),
which can be used for catching *all* the events.
class MyDebugger implements Doctrine_Overloadable
{
public function __call($methodName, $args)
{
echo $methodName . ' called !';
}
}
Listing
21-5
Attaching listeners
You can attach the listeners to a connection with setListener().
$conn->setListener(new MyDebugger());
Listing
21-6
If you need to use multiple listeners you can use addListener().
$conn->addListener(new MyDebugger());
$conn->addListener(new MyLogger());
Listing
21-7
Aliasing Listeners
You can optionally alias a listener when adding it. This is useful if you register the same
listener multiple times and want to have a unique alias to reference it by. Below you will
examples of how to utilize this feature.
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
Listing
21-8
public function setUp()
{
$this->addListener(new My_Listener_FooListener(), 'FooListener');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
308
}
}
Listing
21-9
--User:
#...
listeners:
FooListener:
class: My_Listener_FooListener
Enabling/Disabling Listeners
If you wish to enable and disable existing listeners this is possible by using the disabled
option of the listeners. Below you will find a simple example.
Disable all record listeners
Listing
21-10
Doctrine::getTable('Foo')->getRecordListener()->setOption('disabled',
true);
Disable some listeners across all record listeners
Listing
21-11
Doctrine::getTable('Foo')->getRecordListener()->setOption('disabled',
array('preSerialize', 'postHydrate'));
Disable all listeners of a single record listener
Listing
21-12
Doctrine::getTable('Foo')->getRecordListener()->get('FooListener')->setOption('disabled'
true);
Disable some listeners of a single record listener
Listing
21-13
Doctrine::getTable('Foo')->getRecordListener()->get('FooListener')->setOption('disabled'
array('preSave', 'postInsert'));
Pre and Post Connect
All of the below listeners are invoked in the Doctrine_Connection class. And they are all
passed an instance of Doctrine_Event.
Methods
Listens
Params
preConnect()
connection()
postConnect() connection()
Transaction Listeners
All of the below listeners are invoked in the Doctrine_Transaction class. And they are all
passed an instance of Doctrine_Event.
Methods
Listens
preTransactionBegin()
beginTransaction()
postTransactionBegin()
beginTransaction()
preTransactionRollback()
rollback()
Params
postTransactionRollback() rollback()
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
preTransactionCommit()
309
commit()
postTransactionCommit() commit()
preCreateSavepoint()
createSavepoint()
savepoint
postCreateSavepoint()
createSavepoint()
savepoint
preRollbackSavepoint()
rollbackSavepoint() savepoint
postRollbackSavepoint()
rollbackSavepoint() savepoint
preReleaseSavepoint()
releaseSavepoint()
savepoint
postReleaseSavepoint()
releaseSavepoint()
savepoint
class MyTransactionListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preTransactionBegin(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
echo 'beginning transaction... ';
}
public function preTransactionRollback(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
echo 'rolling back transaction... ';
}
}
Query Execution Listeners
All of the below listeners are invoked in the Doctrine_Connection and
Doctrine_Connection_Statement classes. And they are all passed an instance of
Doctrine_Event.
Methods
Listens
Params
prePrepare()
prepare()
query
postPrepare()
prepare()
query
preExec()
exec()
query
postExec()
exec()
query, rows
preStmtExecute()
execute()
query
postStmtExecute() execute()
query
preExecute()
execute() * query
postExecute()
execute() * query
preFetch()
fetch()
query, data
postFetch()
fetch()
query, data
preFetchAll()
fetchAll()
query, data
postFetchAll()
fetchAll()
query, data
preExecute()
and
postExecute()
only
get
invoked
when
Doctrine_Connection::execute() is being called without prepared statement
parameters. Otherwise Doctrine_Connection::execute() invokes prePrepare(),
postPrepare(), preStmtExecute() and postStmtExecute().
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
21-14
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
310
Hydration Listeners
The hydration listeners can be used for listening to resultset hydration procedures. Two
methods exist for listening to the hydration procedure: preHydrate() and postHydrate().
If you set the hydration listener on connection level the code within the preHydrate() and
postHydrate() blocks will be invoked by all components within a multi-component
resultset. However if you add a similar listener on table level it only gets invoked when the
data of that table is being hydrated.
Consider we have a class called User with the following fields: first_name, last_name and
age. In the following example we create a listener that always builds a generated field called
full_name based on first_name and last_name fields.
Listing
21-15
// test.php
// ...
class HydrationListener extends Doctrine_Record_Listener
{
public function preHydrate(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$data = $event->data;
$data['full_name'] = $data['first_name'] . ' ' .
$data['last_name'];
$event->data = $data;
}
}
Now all we need to do is attach this listener to the User record and fetch some users:
Listing
21-16
// test.php
// ...
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
$userTable->addRecordListener(new HydrationListener());
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User');
$users = $q->execute();
foreach ($users as $user) {
echo $user->full_name;
}
Record Listeners
Doctrine_Record provides listeners very similar to Doctrine_Connection. You can set
the listeners at global, connection and table level.
Here is a list of all available listener methods:
All of the below listeners are invoked in the Doctrine_Record and Doctrine_Validator
classes. And they are all passed an instance of Doctrine_Event.
Methods
Listens
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
311
preSave()
save()
postSave()
save()
preUpdate()
save() when the record state is DIRTY
postUpdate()
save() when the record state is DIRTY
preInsert()
save() when the record state is TDIRTY
postInsert()
save() when the record state is TDIRTY
preDelete()
delete()
postDelete()
delete()
preValidate()
validate()
postValidate() validate()
Just like with connection listeners there are three ways of defining a record listener: by
extending
Doctrine_Record_Listener,
by
implementing
Doctrine_Record_Listener_Interface or by implementing Doctrine_Overloadable.
In
the
following
we'll
Doctrine_Overloadable:
create
a
global
level
listener
by
implementing
class Logger implements Doctrine_Overloadable
{
public function __call($m, $a)
{
echo 'caught event ' . $m;
Listing
21-17
// do some logging here...
}
}
Attaching the listener to manager is easy:
$manager->addRecordListener(new Logger());
Listing
21-18
Note that by adding a manager level listener it affects on all connections and all tables /
records within these connections. In the following we create a connection level listener:
class Debugger extends Doctrine_Record_Listener
{
public function preInsert(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
echo 'inserting a record ...';
}
Listing
21-19
public function preUpdate(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
echo 'updating a record...';
}
}
Attaching the listener to a connection is as easy as:
$conn->addRecordListener(new Debugger());
Listing
21-20
Many times you want the listeners to be table specific so that they only apply on the actions
on that given table.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
312
Here is an example:
Listing
21-21
class Debugger extends Doctrine_Record_Listener
{
public function postDelete(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
echo 'deleted ' . $event->getInvoker()->id;
}
}
Attaching this listener to given table can be done as follows:
Listing
21-22
class MyRecord extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function setUp()
{
$this->addListener(new Debugger());
}
}
Record Hooks
All of the below listeners are invoked in the Doctrine_Record and Doctrine_Validator
classes. And they are all passed an instance of Doctrine_Event.
Methods
Listens
preSave()
save()
postSave()
save()
preUpdate()
save() when the record state is DIRTY
postUpdate()
save() when the record state is DIRTY
preInsert()
save() when the record state is TDIRTY
postInsert()
save() when the record state is TDIRTY
preDelete()
delete()
postDelete()
delete()
preValidate()
validate()
postValidate() validate()
Here is a simple example where we make use of the preInsert() and preUpdate()
methods:
Listing
21-23
class BlogPost extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('title', 'string', 200);
$this->hasColumn('content', 'string');
$this->hasColumn('created', 'date');
$this->hasColumn('updated', 'date');
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
313
public function preInsert($event)
{
$this->created = date('Y-m-d', time());
}
public function preUpdate($event)
{
$this->updated = date('Y-m-d', time());
}
}
DQL Hooks
Doctrine allows you to attach record listeners globally, on each connection, or on specific
record instances. Doctrine_Query implements preDql*() hooks which are checked for on
any attached record listeners and checked for on the model instance itself whenever a query
is executed. The query will check all models involved in the from part of the query for any
hooks which can alter the query that invoked the hook.
Here is a list of the hooks you can use with DQL:
Methods
Listens
preDqlSelect()
from()
preDqlUpdate() update()
preDqlDelete() delete()
Below is an example record listener attached directly to the model which will implement the
SoftDelete functionality for the User model.
The SoftDelete functionality is included in Doctrine as a behavior. This code is used to
demonstrate how to use the select, delete, and update DQL listeners to modify executed
queries. You can use the SoftDelete behavior by specifying $this->actAs('SoftDelete') in
your Doctrine_Record::setUp() definition.
class UserListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
/**
* Skip the normal delete options so we can override it with our own
*
* @param Doctrine_Event $event
* @return void
*/
public function preDelete(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->skipOperation();
}
/**
* Implement postDelete() hook and set the deleted flag to true
*
* @param Doctrine_Event $event
* @return void
*/
public function postDelete(Doctrine_Event $event)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
21-24
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
314
{
$name = $this->_options['name'];
$event->getInvoker()->$name = true;
$event->getInvoker()->save();
}
/**
* Implement preDqlDelete() hook and modify a dql delete query so it
updates the deleted flag
* instead of deleting the record
*
* @param Doctrine_Event $event
* @return void
*/
public function preDqlDelete(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$params = $event->getParams();
$field = $params['alias'] . '.deleted';
$q = $event->getQuery();
if ( ! $q->contains($field)) {
$q->from('')->update($params['component'] . ' ' .
$params['alias']);
$q->set($field, '?', array(false));
$q->addWhere($field . ' = ?', array(true));
}
}
/**
* Implement preDqlDelete() hook and add the deleted flag to all
queries for which this model
* is being used in.
*
* @param Doctrine_Event $event
* @return void
*/
public function preDqlSelect(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$params = $event->getParams();
$field = $params['alias'] . '.deleted';
$q = $event->getQuery();
if ( ! $q->contains($field)) {
$q->addWhere($field . ' = ?', array(false));
}
}
}
All of the above methods in the listener could optionally be placed in the user class below.
Doctrine will check there for the hooks as well:
Listing
21-25
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
// ...
public function preDqlSelect()
{
// ...
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
315
public function preDqlUpdate()
{
// ...
}
public function preDqlDelete()
{
// ...
}
}
In order for these dql callbacks to be checked, you must explicitly turn them on. Because this
adds a small amount of overhead for each query, we have it off by default. We already
enabled this attribute in an earlier chapter.
Here it is again to refresh your memory:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
21-26
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_USE_DQL_CALLBACKS, true);
Now when you interact with the User model it will take in to account the deleted flag:
Delete user through record instance:
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme';
$user->save();
$user->delete();
Listing
21-27
The above call to $user->delete() does not actually delete the record instead it sets the
deleted flag to true.
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
Listing
21-28
echo $q->getSql();
SELECT
u.id AS u__id,
u.username AS u__username,
u.password AS u__password,
u.deleted AS u__deleted
FROM user u
WHERE u.deleted = ?
Listing
21-29
Notice how the "u.deleted = ?" was automatically added to the where condition with a
parameter value of true.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
316
Chaining Listeners
Doctrine allows chaining of different event listeners. This means that more than one listener
can be attached for listening the same events. The following example attaches two listeners
for given connection:
In this example Debugger and Logger both inherit Doctrine_EventListener:
Listing
21-30
$conn->addListener(new Debugger());
$conn->addListener(new Logger());
The Event object
Getting the Invoker
You can get the object that invoked the event by calling getInvoker():
Listing
21-31
class MyListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getInvoker(); // Doctrine_Connection
}
}
Event Codes
Doctrine_Event uses constants as event codes. Below is the list of all available event
constants:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Doctrine_Event::CONN_QUERY
Doctrine_Event::CONN_EXEC
Doctrine_Event::CONN_PREPARE
Doctrine_Event::CONN_CONNECT
Doctrine_Event::STMT_EXECUTE
Doctrine_Event::STMT_FETCH
Doctrine_Event::STMT_FETCHALL
Doctrine_Event::TX_BEGIN
Doctrine_Event::TX_COMMIT
Doctrine_Event::TX_ROLLBACK
Doctrine_Event::SAVEPOINT_CREATE
Doctrine_Event::SAVEPOINT_ROLLBACK
Doctrine_Event::SAVEPOINT_COMMIT
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_DELETE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_SAVE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_UPDATE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_INSERT
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_SERIALIZE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_UNSERIALIZE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_DQL_SELECT
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_DQL_DELETE
Doctrine_Event::RECORD_DQL_UPDATE
Here are some examples of hooks being used and the code that is returned:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
317
class MyListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getCode(); // Doctrine_Event::CONN_EXEC
}
}
Listing
21-32
class MyRecord extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function preUpdate(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getCode(); // Doctrine_Event::RECORD_UPDATE
}
}
Getting the Invoker
The method getInvoker() returns the object that invoked the given event. For example for
event Doctrine_Event::CONN_QUERY the invoker is a Doctrine_Connection object.
Here is an example of using the record hook named preUpdate() that is invoked when a
Doctrine_Record instance is saved and an update is issued to the database:
class MyRecord extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function preUpdate(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
$event->getInvoker(); // Object(MyRecord)
}
}
Listing
21-33
Skip Next Operation
Doctrine_Event provides many methods for altering the execution of the listened method
as well as for altering the behavior of the listener chain.
For some reason you may want to skip the execution of the listened method. It can be done as
follows (note that preExec() could be any listener method):
class MyListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
// some business logic, then:
$event->skipOperation();
}
}
Query
Skip Next Listener
When using a chain of listeners you might want to skip the execution of the next listener. It
can be achieved as follows:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
21-34
Chapter 21: Event Listeners
Listing
21-35
318
class MyListener extends Doctrine_EventListener
{
public function preExec(Doctrine_Event $event)
{
// some business logic, then:
$event->skipNextListener();
}
}
Conclusion
Event listeners are a great feature in Doctrine and combined with Behaviors (page 236) they
can provide some very complex functionality with a minimal amount of code.
Now we are ready to move on to discuss the best feature in Doctrine for improving
performance, Caching (page 319).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 22: Caching
319
Chapter 22
Caching
Introduction
Doctrine_Cache offers an intuitive and easy-to-use query caching solution. It provides the
following things:
• Multiple cache backends to choose from (including Memcached, APC and Sqlite)
• Advanced options for fine-tuning. Doctrine_Cache has many options for finetuning performance.
All the cache drivers are instantiated like the following:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
22-1
// ...
$options = array();
$cacheDriver = new Doctrine_Cache_Memcache($options);
Each driver has its own possible values for the $options array.
Drivers
Memcache
Memcache driver stores cache records into a memcached server. Memcached is a highperformance, distributed memory object caching system. In order to use this backend, you
need a memcached daemon and the memcache PECL extension.
You can instantiate the Memcache cache driver with the following code:
// bootstrap.php
Listing
22-2
// ...
$servers = array(
'host' => 'localhost',
'port' => 11211,
'persistent' => true
);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 22: Caching
320
$cacheDriver = new Doctrine_Cache_Memcache(array(
'servers' => $servers,
'compression' => false
)
);
Memcache allows multiple servers.
Available options for Memcache driver:
Option
Data
Type
Default Value
Description
servers
array
array(array('host'
=>
'localhost','port'
=> 11211,
'persistent' =>
true))
An array of memcached servers ; each memcached
server is described by an associative array : 'host'
=> (string) : the name of the memcached server,
'port' => (int) : the port of the memcached server,
'persistent' => (bool) : use or not persistent
connections to this memcached server
compression boolean false
true if you want to use on-the-fly compression
APC
The Alternative PHP Cache (APC) is a free and open opcode cache for PHP. It was conceived
to provide a free, open, and robust framework for caching and optimizing PHP intermediate
code. The APC cache driver of Doctrine stores cache records in shared memory.
You can instantiate the APC cache driver with the following code:
Listing
22-3
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$cacheDriver = new Doctrine_Cache_Apc();
Db
Db caching backend stores cache records into given database. Usually some fast flat-file
based database is used (such as sqlite).
You can instantiate the database cache driver with the following code:
Listing
22-4
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$cacheConn = Doctrine_Manager::connection(new PDO('sqlite::memory:'));
$cacheDriver = new Doctrine_Cache_Db(array('connection' => $cacheConn));
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 22: Caching
321
Query Cache & Result Cache
Introduction
Doctrine provides means for caching the results of the DQL parsing process, as well as the
end results of DQL queries (the data). These two caching mechanisms can greatly increase
performance. Consider the standard workflow of DQL query execution:
1. Init new DQL query
2. Parse DQL query
3. Build database specific SQL query
4. Execute the SQL query
5. Build the result set
6. Return the result set
Now these phases can be very time consuming, especially phase 4 which sends the query to
your database server. When Doctrine query cache is being used only the following phases
occur:
1. Init new DQL query
2. Execute the SQL query (grabbed from the cache)
3. Build the result set
4. Return the result set
If a DQL query has a valid cache entry the cached SQL query is used, otherwise the phases
2-3 are executed normally and the result of these steps is then stored in the cache. The query
cache has no disadvantages, since you always get a fresh query result.
You should always use query cache in a production environment. That said, you can easily
use it during development, too. Whenever you change a DQL query and execute it the first
time Doctrine sees that it has been modified and will therefore create a new cache entry,
so you don't even need to invalidate the cache.
It's worth noting that the effectiveness of the query cache greatly relies on the usage of
prepared statements (which are used by Doctrine by default anyway). You should not directly
embed dynamic query parts and always use placeholders instead.
When using a result cache things get even better. Then your query process looks as follows
(assuming a valid cache entry is found):
1. Init new DQL query
2. Return the result set
As you can see, the result cache implies the query cache shown previously. You should always
consider using a result cache if the data returned by the query does not need to be up-to-date
at any time.
Query Cache
Using the Query Cache
You can set a connection or manager level query cache driver by using the
Doctrine::ATTR_QUERY_CACHE attribute. Setting a connection level cache driver means
that all queries executed with this connection use the specified cache driver whereas setting
a manager level cache driver means that all connections (unless overridden at connection
level) will use the given cache driver.
Setting a manager level query cache driver:
Listing
22-5
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 22: Caching
322
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_QUERY_CACHE, $cacheDriver);
The value of $cacheDriver above could be any of the drivers we instantiated in the
previous section of this chapter.
Setting a connection level cache driver:
Listing
22-6
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$conn->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_QUERY_CACHE, $cacheDriver);
Fine Tuning
In the previous chapter we used global caching attributes. These attributes can be overriden
at the query level. You can override the cache driver by calling useQueryCache() and pass
it an instance of a valid Doctrine cache driver. This rarely makes sense for the query cache
but is possible:
Listing
22-7
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->useQueryCache(new Doctrine_Cache_Apc());
Result Cache
Using the Result Cache
You can set a connection or manager level result cache driver by using
Doctrine::ATTR_RESULT_CACHE. Setting a connection level cache driver means that all
queries executed with this connection use the specified cache driver whereas setting a
manager level cache driver means that all connections (unless overridden at connection level)
will use the given cache driver.
Setting a manager level cache driver:
Listing
22-8
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_RESULT_CACHE, $cacheDriver);
Setting a connection level cache driver:
Listing
22-9
// bootstrap.php
// ...
$conn->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_RESULT_CACHE, $cacheDriver);
Usually the cache entries are valid for only some time. You can set global value for how long
the
cache
entries
should
be
considered
valid
by
using
Doctrine::ATTR_RESULT_CACHE_LIFESPAN.
Set the lifespan as one hour (60 seconds * 60 minutes = 1 hour = 3600 secs):
Listing
22-10
// bootstrap.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 22: Caching
323
// ...
$manager->setAttribute(Doctrine::ATTR_RESULT_CACHE_LIFESPAN, 3600);
Now as we have set a cache driver for use we can make a DQL query use it by calling the
useResultCache() method:
Fetch blog post titles and the number of comments:
$q = Doctrine_Query::create();
->select('b.title, COUNT(c.id) count')
->from('BlogPost b')
->leftJoin('b.Comments c')
->limit(10)
->useResultCache(true);
Listing
22-11
$blogPosts = $q->execute();
Fine Tuning
In the previous chapter we used global caching attributes. These attributes can be overriden
at the query level. You can override the cache driver by calling useCache() and pass it an
instance of a valid Doctrine cache driver.
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->useResultCache(new Doctrine_Cache_Apc());
Listing
22-12
Also you can override the lifespan attribute by calling setResultCacheLifeSpan():
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->setResultCacheLifeSpan(60 * 30);
Listing
22-13
Conclusion
Using the caching feature of Doctrine is highly recommended in both development and
production environments. Their are no adverse affects to using it and it will only help the
performance of your application.
The caching feature is the second to last feature we will discuss in this book before wrapping
things up by discussing things like the technologies used (page 363) in Doctrine, coding
standards (page 376) and unit testing (page 351). Lets move on to discuss the last feature of
Doctrine, Migrations (page 324).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
324
Chapter 23
Migrations
The Doctrine migration package allows you to easily update your production databases
through a nice programmatic interface. The changes are done in a way so that your database
is versioned and you can walk backwards and forwards through the database versions.
Performing Migrations
Before we learn how to create the migration classes lets take a look at how we can run
migrations so that we can implement them in our Doctrine test environment in the next
section.
First lets create a new instance of Doctrine_Migration and pass it the path to our
migration classes:
Listing
23-1
$migration = new Doctrine_Migration('/path/to/migration_classes');
Now we can migrate to the latest version by calling the migrate() method:
Listing
23-2
$migration->migrate();
If you want to migrate to a specific version you can pass an argument to migrate(). For
example we can migrate to version 3 from 0:
Listing
23-3
$migration->migrate(3);
Now you can migrate back to version 0 from 3:
Listing
23-4
$migration->migrate(0);
If you want to get the current
getCurrentVersion() method:
Listing
23-5
version
of
the
database
you
can
use
the
echo $migration->getCurrentVersion();
Omitting the version number argument for the migrate() method means that internally
Doctrine will try and migrate to the latest class version number that it could find in the
directory you passed.
Transactions in Migrations
Internally Doctrine does not wrap migration versions in transactions. It is up to you as the
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
325
developer to handle exceptions and transactions in your migration classes. Remember
though, that very few databases support transactional DDL. So on most databases, even if
you wrap the migrations in a transaction, any DDL statements like create, alter, drop,
rename, etc., will take effect anyway.
Implement
Now that we know how to perform migrations lets implement a little script in our Doctrine
test environment named migrate.php.
First we need to create a place for our migration classes to be stored so lets create a
directory named migrations:
$ mkdir migrations
Listing
23-6
Now create the migrate.php script in your favorite editor and place the following code
inside:
// migrate.php
Listing
23-7
require_once('bootstrap.php');
$migration = new Doctrine_Migration('migrations');
$migration->migrate();
Writing Migration Classes
Migration classes consist of a simple class that extends from Doctrine_Migration. You can
define a up() and down() method that is meant for doing and undoing changes to a database
for that migration version.
The name of the class can be whatever you want, but the name of the file which contains
the class must have a prefix containing a number that is used for loading the migrations in
the correct order.
Below are a few examples of some migration classes you can use to build your database
starting from version 1.
For the first version lets create a new table named migration_test:
// migrations/1_add_table.php
Listing
23-8
class AddTable extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function up()
{
$this->createTable('migration_test', array('field1' =>
array('type' => 'string')));
}
public function down()
{
$this->dropTable('migration_test');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
326
}
}
Now lets create a second version where we add a new column to the table we added in the
previous version:
Listing
23-9
// migrations/2_add_column.php
class AddColumn extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function up()
{
$this->addColumn('migration_test', 'field2', 'string');
}
public function down()
{
$this->removeColumn('migration_test', 'field2');
}
}
Finally, lets change the type of the field1 column in the table we created previously:
Listing
23-10
// migrations/3_change_column.php
class ChangeColumn extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function up()
{
$this->changeColumn('migration_test', 'field2', 'integer');
}
public function down()
{
$this->changeColumn('migration_test', 'field2', 'string');
}
}
Now that we have created the three migration classes above we can run our migrate.php
script we implemented earlier:
Listing
23-11
$ php migrate.php
If you look in the database you will see that we have the table named migrate_test created
and the version number in the migration_version is set to three.
If you want to migrate back to where we started you can pass a version number to the
migrate() method in the migrate.php script:
Listing
23-12
// migrate.php
// ...
$migration = new Doctrine_Migration('migrations');
$migration->migrate(0);
Now run the migrate.php script:
Listing
23-13
$ php migrate.php
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
327
If you look in the database now, everything we did in the up() methods has been reversed by
the contents of the down() method.
Available Operations
Here is a list of the available methods you can use to alter your database in your migration
classes.
Create Table
// ...
public function up()
{
$columns = array(
'id' => array(
'type' => 'integer',
'unsigned' => 1
'notnull' => 1
'default' => 0
),
'name' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 12
),
'password' => array(
'type' => 'string',
'length' => 12
)
);
Listing
23-14
$options = array(
'type'
=> 'INNODB',
'charset' => 'utf8'
);
$this->createTable('table_name', $columns, $options);
}
// ...
You might notice already that the data structures used to manipulate the your schema are
the same as the data structures used with the database abstraction layer. This is because
internally the migration package uses the database abstraction layer to perform the
operations specified in the migration classes.
Drop Table
// ...
public function down()
{
$this->dropTable('table_name');
}
// ...
-----------------
Listing
23-15
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
328
Rename Table
Listing
23-16
// ...
public function up()
{
$this->renameTable('old_table_name', 'new_table_name');
}
// ...
Create Constraint
Listing
23-17
// ...
public function up()
{
$definition = array(
'fields' => array(
'username' => array()
),
'unique' => true
);
$this->createConstraint('table_name', 'constraint_name',
$definition);
}
// ...
Drop Constraint
Now the opposite down() would look like the following:
Listing
23-18
// ...
public function down()
{
$this->dropConstraint('table_name', 'constraint_name');
}
// ...
Create Foreign Key
Listing
23-19
// ...
public function up()
{
$definition = array(
'local'
=>
'foreign'
=>
'foreignTable' =>
'onDelete'
=>
);
'email_id',
'id',
'email',
'CASCADE'
$this->createForeignKey('table_name', 'email_foreign_key',
$definition);
}
// ...
The valid options for the $definition are:
Name
Description
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
329
name
Optional constraint name
local
The local field(s)
foreign
The foreign reference field(s)
foreignTable The name of the foreign table
onDelete
Referential delete action
onUpdate
Referential update action
deferred
Deferred constraint checking
Drop Foreign Key
// ...
public function down()
{
$this->dropForeignKey('table_name', 'email_foreign_key');
}
// ...
Listing
23-20
Add Column
// ...
public function up()
{
$this->addColumn('table_name', 'column_name', 'string', $options);
}
// ...
Listing
23-21
Rename Column
Some DBMS like sqlite do not implement the rename column operation. An exception is
thrown if you try and rename a column when using a sqlite connection.
// ...
public function up()
{
$this->renameColumn('table_name', 'old_column_name',
'new_column_name');
}
// ...
Listing
23-22
Change Column
Change any aspect of an existing column:
// ...
public function up()
{
$options = array('length' => 1);
$this->changeColumn('table_name', 'column_name', 'tinyint',
$options);
}
// ...
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
23-23
Chapter 23: Migrations
330
Remove Column
Listing
23-24
// ...
public function up()
{
$this->removeColumn('table_name', 'column_name');
}
// ...
Irreversible Migration
Sometimes you may perform some operations in the up() method that cannot be reversed.
For example if you remove a column from a table. In this case you need to throw a new
Doctrine_Migration_IrreversibleMigrationException exception.
Listing
23-25
// ...
public function down()
{
throw new Doctrine_Migration_IrreversibleMigrationException(
'The remove column operation cannot be undone!'
);
}
// ...
Add Index
Listing
23-26
// ...
public function up()
{
$options = array('fields' => array(
'username' => array(
'sorting' => 'ascending'
),
'last_login' => array()));
$this->addIndex('table_name', 'index_name', $options)
}
// ...
Remove Index
Listing
23-27
// ...
public function down()
{
$this->removeIndex('table_name', 'index_name');
}
// ...
Pre and Post Hooks
Sometimes you may need to alter the data in the database with your models. Since you may
create a table or make a change, you have to do the data altering after the up() or down()
method is processed. We have hooks in place for this named preUp(), postUp(),
preDown(), and postDown(). Define these methods and they will be triggered:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
331
// migrations/1_add_table.php
Listing
23-28
class AddTable extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function up()
{
$this->createTable('migration_test', array('field1' =>
array('type' => 'string')));
}
public function postUp()
{
$migrationTest = new MigrationTest();
$migrationTest->field1 = 'Initial record created by migrations';
$migrationTest->save();
}
public function down()
{
$this->dropTable('migration_test');
}
}
The above example assumes you have created and made available the MigrationTest
model. Once the up() method is executed the migration_test table is created so the
MigrationTest model can be used. We have provided the definition of this model below.
// models/MigrationTest.php
Listing
23-29
class MigrationTest extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('field1', 'string');
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--# schema.yml
Listing
23-30
# ...
MigrationTest:
columns:
field1: string
Up/Down Automation
In Doctrine migrations it is possible most of the time to automate the opposite of a migration
method. For example if you create a new column in the up of a migration, we should be able
to easily automate the down since all we need to do is remove the column that was created.
This is possible by using the migrate() function for both the up and down.
The migrate() method accepts an argument of $direction and it will either have a value of
up or down. This value is passed to the first argument of functions like column, table, etc.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
332
Here is an example where we automate the adding and removing of a column
Listing
23-31
class MigrationTest extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function migrate($direction)
{
$this->column($direction, 'table_name', 'column_name', 'string',
'255');
}
}
Now when we run up with the above migration, the column will be added and when we run
down the column will be removed.
Here is a list of the following migration methods that can be automated:
Automate Method Name Automates
table()
createTable()/dropTable()
constraint()
createConstraint()/dropConstraint()
foreignKey()
createForeignKey()/dropForeignKey()
column()
addColumn()/removeColumn()
index()
addInex()/removeIndex()
Generating Migrations
Doctrine offers the ability to generate migration classes a few different ways. You can
generate a set of migrations to re-create an existing database, or generate migration classes
to create a database for an existing set of models. You can even generate migrations from
differences between two sets of schema information.
From Database
To generate a set of migrations from the existing database connections it is simple, just use
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromDb().
Listing
23-32
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromDb('/path/to/migration/classes');
From Existing Models
To generate a set of migrations from an existing set of models it is just as simple as from a
database, just use Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromModels().
Listing
23-33
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromModels('/path/to/migration/classes',
'/path/to/models');
Diff Tool
Sometimes you may want to alter your models and be able to automate the migration process
for your changes. In the past you would have to write the migration classes manually for your
changes. Now with the diff tool you can make your changes then generate the migration
classes for the changes.
The diff tool is simple to use. It accepts a "from" and a "to" and they can be one of the
following:
• Path to yaml schema files
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 23: Migrations
333
• Name of an existing database connection
• Path to an existing set of models
A simple example would be to create two YAML schema files, one named schema1.yml and
another named schema2.yml.
The schema1.yml contains a simple User model:
--# schema1.yml
Listing
23-34
User:
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
Now imagine we modify the above schema and want to add a email_address column:
--# schema1.yml
Listing
23-35
User:
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
email_address: string(255)
Now we can easily generate a migration class which will add the new column to our database:
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromDiff('/path/to/migration/classes', '/path/
to/schema1.yml', '/path/to/schema2.yml');
This
will
produce
a
file
1236199329_version1.php
at
the
path
/path/to/migration/classes/
class Version1 extends Doctrine_Migration_Base
{
public function up()
{
$this->addColumn('user', 'email_address', 'string', '255', array
());
}
public function down()
{
$this->removeColumn('user', 'email_address');
}
}
Now you can easily migrate your database and add the new column!
Conclusion
Using migrations is highly recommended for altering your production database schemas as it
is a safe and easy way to make changes to your schema.
-----------------
Listing
23-36
Brought to you by
Listing
23-37
Chapter 23: Migrations
334
Migrations are the last feature of Doctrine that we will discuss in this book. The final chapters
will discuss some other topics that will help you be a better Doctrine developers on a day-today basis. First lets discuss some of the other Utilities (page 335) that Doctrine provides.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
335
Chapter 24
Utilities
Pagination
Introduction
In real world applications, display content from database tables is a commom task. Also,
imagine that this content is a search result containing thousands of items. Undoubtely, it will
be a huge listing, memory expensive and hard for users to find the right item. That is where
some organization of this content display is needed and pagination comes in rescue.
Doctrine implements a highly flexible pager package, allowing you to not only split listing in
pages, but also enabling you to control the layout of page links. In this chapter, we'll learn
how to create pager objects, control pager styles and at the end, overview the pager layout
object - a powerful page links displayer of Doctrine.
Working with Pager
Paginating queries is as simple as effectively do the queries itself. Doctrine_Pager is the
responsible to process queries and paginate them. Check out this small piece of code:
// Defining initial variables
$currentPage = 1;
$resultsPerPage = 50;
Listing
24-1
// Creating pager object
$pager = new Doctrine_Pager(
Doctrine_Query::create()
->from( 'User u' )
->leftJoin( 'u.Group g' )
->orderby( 'u.username ASC' ),
$currentPage, // Current page of request
$resultsPerPage // (Optional) Number of results per page. Default is
25
);
Until this place, the source you have is the same as the old Doctrine_Query object. The only
difference is that now you have 2 new arguments. Your old query object plus these 2
arguments are now encapsulated by the Doctrine_Pager object. At this stage,
Doctrine_Pager defines the basic data needed to control pagination. If you want to know
that actual status of the pager, all you have to do is to check if it's already executed:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
Listing
24-2
336
$pager->getExecuted();
If you try to access any of the methods provided by Doctrine_Pager now, you'll experience
Doctrine_Pager_Exception thrown, reporting you that Pager was not yet executed. When
executed, Doctrine_Pager offer you powerful methods to retrieve information. The API
usage is listed at the end of this topic.
To run the query, the process is similar to the current existent Doctrine_Query execute
call. It even allow arguments the way you usually do it. Here is the PHP complete syntax,
including the syntax of optional parameters:
Listing
24-3
$items = $pager->execute([$args = array() [, $fetchType = null]]);
foreach ($items as $item) {
// ...
}
There are some special cases where the return records query differ of the counter query. To
allow this situation, Doctrine_Pager has some methods that enable you to count and then
to execute. The first thing you have to do is to define the count query:
Listing
24-4
$pager->setCountQuery($query [, $params = null]);
// ...
$rs = $pager->execute();
The first param of setCountQuery can be either a valid Doctrine_Query object or a DQL
string. The second argument you can define the optional parameters that may be sent in the
counter query. If you do not define the params now, you're still able to define it later by
calling the setCountQueryParams:
Listing
24-5
$pager->setCountQueryParams([$params = array() [, $append = false]]);
This method accepts 2 parameters. The first one is the params to be sent in count query and
the second parameter is if the $params should be appended to the list or if it should override
the list of count query parameters. The default behavior is to override the list. One last thing
to mention about count query is, if you do not define any parameter for count query, it will
still send the parameters you define in $pager->execute() call.
Count query is always enabled to be accessed. If you do not define it and call $pager>getCountQuery(), it will return the "fetcher" query to you.
If you need access the other functionalities that Doctrine_Pager provides, you can access
them through the API:
Listing
24-6
// Returns the check if Pager was already executed
$pager->getExecuted();
// Return the total number of itens found on query search
$pager->getNumResults();
// Return the first page (always 1)
$pager->getFirstPage();
// Return the total number of pages
$pager->getLastPage();
// Return the current page
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
337
$pager->getPage();
// Defines a new current page (need to call execute again to adjust
offsets and values)
$pager->setPage($page);
// Return the next page
$pager->getNextPage();
// Return the previous page
$pager->getPreviousPage();
// Return the first indice of current page
$pager->getFirstIndice();
// Return the last indice of current page
$pager->getLastIndice();
// Return true if it's necessary to paginate or false if not
$pager->haveToPaginate();
// Return the maximum number of records per page
$pager->getMaxPerPage();
// Defined a new maximum number of records per page (need to call execute
again to adjust offset and values)
$pager->setMaxPerPage($maxPerPage);
// Returns the number of itens in current page
$pager->getResultsInPage();
// Returns the Doctrine_Query object that is used to make the count
results to pager
$pager->getCountQuery();
// Defines the counter query to be used by pager
$pager->setCountQuery($query, $params = null);
// Returns the params to be used by counter Doctrine_Query (return
$defaultParams if no param is defined)
$pager->getCountQueryParams($defaultParams = array());
// Defines the params to be used by counter Doctrine_Query
$pager->setCountQueryParams($params = array(), $append = false);
// Return the Doctrine_Query object
$pager->getQuery();
// Return an associated Doctrine_Pager_Range_* instance
$pager->getRange($rangeStyle, $options = array());
Controlling Range Styles
There are some cases where simple paginations are not enough. One example situation is
when you want to write page links listings. To enable a more powerful control over pager,
there is a small subset of pager package that allows you to create ranges.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
338
Currently, Doctrine implements two types (or styles) of ranges: Sliding
(Doctrine_Pager_Range_Sliding) and Jumping (Doctrine_Pager_Range_Jumping).
Sliding
Sliding page range style, the page range moves smoothly with the current page. The current
page is always in the middle, except in the first and last pages of the range. Check out how
does it work with a chunk length of 5 items:
Listing
24-7
Listing
Page 1:
Page 2:
Page 3:
Page 4:
Page 5:
Page 6:
Page 7:
Page 8:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
o-------|
|-o-----|
|---o---|
|---o---|
|---o---|
|---o---|
|---o---|
|---o---|
Jumping
In Jumping page range style, the range of page links is always one of a fixed set of "frames":
1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and so on.
Listing
24-8
Listing
Page 1:
Page 2:
Page 3:
Page 4:
Page 5:
Page 6:
Page 7:
Page 8:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
o-------|
|-o-----|
|---o---|
|-----o-|
|-------o
o---------|
|-o-------|
|---o-----|
Now that we know how the different of styles of pager range works, it's time to learn how to
use them:
Listing
24-9
$pagerRange = new Doctrine_Pager_Range_Sliding(
array(
'chunk' => 5 // Chunk length
),
$pager // Doctrine_Pager object we learned how to create in previous
topic
);
Alternatively, you can use:
Listing
24-10
$pagerRange = $pager->getRange(
'Sliding',
array(
'chunk' => 5
)
);
What is the advantage to use this object, instead of the Doctrine_Pager? Just one; it allows
you to retrieve ranges around the current page.
Look at the example:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
339
// Retrieves the range around the current page
// In our example, we are using sliding style and we are at page 1
$pages = $pager_range->rangeAroundPage();
Listing
24-11
// Outputs: [1][2][3][4][5]
echo '['. implode('][', $pages) .']';
If you build your Doctrine_Pager inside the range object, the API gives you enough power
to retrieve information related to Doctrine_Pager_Range subclass instance:
// Return the Pager associated to this Pager_Range
$pager_range->getPager();
// Defines a new Doctrine_Pager (automatically call _initialize protected
method)
$pager_range->setPager($pager);
// Return the options assigned to the current Pager_Range
$pager_range->getOptions();
// Returns the custom Doctrine_Pager_Range implementation offset option
$pager_range->getOption($option);
// Check if a given page is in the range
$pager_range->isInRange($page);
// Return the range around the current page (obtained from Doctrine_Pager
// associated to the $pager_range instance)
$pager_range->rangeAroundPage();
Advanced layouts with pager
Until now, we learned how to create paginations and how to retrieve ranges around the
current page. To abstract the business logic involving the page links generation, there is a
powerful component called Doctrine_Pager_Layout. The main idea of this component is to
abstract php logic and only leave HTML to be defined by Doctrine developer.
Doctrine_Pager_Layout accepts 3 obrigatory arguments: a Doctrine_Pager instance, a
Doctrine_Pager_Range subclass instance and a string which is the URL to be assigned as
{%url} mask in templates. As you may see, there are two types of "variables" in
Doctrine_Pager_Layout:
Mask
A piece of string that is defined inside template as replacements. They are defined as
{%mask_name} and are replaced by what you define in options or what is defined internally
by Doctrine_Pager_Layout component. Currently, these are the internal masks available:
• {%page} Holds the page number, exactly as page_number, but can be overwritable
by addMaskReplacement() to behavior like another mask or value
• {%page_number} Stores the current page number, but cannot be overwritable
• {%url} Available only in setTemplate() and setSelectedTemplate() methods.
Holds the processed URL, which was defined in constructor
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
24-12
Chapter 24: Utilities
340
Template
As the name explains itself, it is the skeleton of HTML or any other resource that is applied to
each page returned by Doctrine_Pager_Range::rangeAroundPage() subclasses. There
are 3 distinct templates that can be defined:
• setTemplate() Defines the template that can be used in all pages returned by
Doctrine_Pager_Range::rangeAroundPage() subclass call
• setSelectedTemplate() Template that is applied when it is the page to be
processed is the current page you are. If nothing is defined (a blank string or no
definition), the template you defined in setTemplate() is used
• setSeparatorTemplate() Separator template is the string that is applied
between each processed page. It is not included before the first call and after the
last one. The defined template of this method is not affected by options and also it
cannot process masks
Now we know how to create the Doctrine_Pager_Layout and the types that are around
this component, it is time to view the basic usage:
Creating the pager layout is simple:
Listing
24-13
$pagerLayout = new Doctrine_Pager_Layout(
new Doctrine_Pager(
Doctrine_Query::create()
->from( 'User u' )
->leftJoin( 'u.Group g' )
->orderby( 'u.username ASC' ),
$currentPage,
$resultsPerPage
),
new Doctrine_Pager_Range_Sliding(array(
'chunk' => 5
)),
'http://wwww.domain.com/app/User/list/page,{%page_number}'
);
Assigning templates for page links creation:
Listing
24-14
$pagerLayout->setTemplate('[<a href="{%url}">{%page}</a>]');
$pagerLayout->setSelectedTemplate('[{%page}]');
// Retrieving Doctrine_Pager instance
$pager = $pagerLayout->getPager();
// Fetching users
$users = $pager->execute(); // This is possible too!
// Displaying page links
// Displays: [1][2][3][4][5]
// With links in all pages, except the $currentPage (our example, page 1)
$pagerLayout->display();
Explaining this source, the first part creates the pager layout instance. Second, it defines the
templates for all pages and for the current page. The last part, it retrieves the
Doctrine_Pager object and executes the query, returning in variable $users. The last part
calls the displar without any optional mask, which applies the template in all pages found by
Doctrine_Pager_Range::rangeAroundPage() subclass call.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
341
As you may see, there is no need to use other masks except the internals ones. Lets suppose
we implement a new functionality to search for Users in our existent application, and we need
to support this feature in pager layout too. To simplify our case, the search parameter is
named "search" and is received through $_GET superglobal array. The first change we need
to do is tho adjust the Doctrine_Query object and also the URL, to allow it to be sent to
other pages.
Creating the pager layout:
$pagerLayout = new Doctrine_Pager_Layout(
new Doctrine_Pager(
Doctrine_Query::create()
->from( 'User u' )
->leftJoin( 'u.Group g' )
->where('LOWER(u.username) LIKE LOWER(?)', array(
'%'.$_GET['search'].'%' ) )
->orderby( 'u.username ASC' ),
$currentPage,
$resultsPerPage
),
new Doctrine_Pager_Range_Sliding(array(
'chunk' => 5
)),
'http://wwww.domain.com/app/User/list/
page,{%page_number}?search={%search}'
);
Listing
24-15
Check out the code and notice we added a new mask, called {%search}. We'll need to send it
to the template processing at a later stage. We then assign the templates, just as defined
before, without any change. And also, we do not need to change execution of query.
Assigning templates for page links creation:
$pagerLayout->setTemplate('[<a href="{%url}">{%page}</a>]');
$pagerLayout->setSelectedTemplate('[{%page}]');
Listing
24-16
// Fetching users
$users = $pagerLayout->execute();
foreach ($users as $user) {
// ...
}
The method display() is the place where we define the custom mask we created. This
method accepts 2 optional arguments: one array of optional masks and if the output should be
returned instead of printed on screen. In our case, we need to define a new mask, the
{%search}, which is the search offset of $_GET superglobal array. Also, remember that since
it'll be sent as URL, it needs to be encoded. Custom masks are defined in key => value pairs.
So all needed code is to define an array with the offset we desire and the value to be
replaced:
// Displaying page links
$pagerLayout->display( array(
'search' => urlencode($_GET['search'])
) );
-----------------
Listing
24-17
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
342
Doctrine_Pager_Layout component offers accessors to defined resources. There is not
need to define pager and pager range as variables and send to the pager layout. These
instances can be retrieved by these accessors:
Listing
24-18
// Return the Pager associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getPager();
// Return the Pager_Range associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getPagerRange();
// Return the URL mask associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getUrlMask();
// Return the template associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getTemplate();
// Return the current page template associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getSelectedTemplate();
// Defines the Separator template, applied between each page
$pagerLayout->setSeparatorTemplate($separatorTemplate);
// Return the current page template associated to the Pager_Layout
$pagerLayout->getSeparatorTemplate();
// Handy method to execute the query without need to retrieve the Pager
instance
$pagerLayout->execute($params = array(), $hydrationMode = null);
There are a couple of other methods that are available if you want to extend the
Doctrine_Pager_Layout to create you custom layouter. We will see these methods in the
next section.
Customizing pager layout
Doctrine_Pager_Layout does a really good job, but sometimes it is not enough. Let's
suppose a situation where you have to create a layout of pagination like this one:
<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>
Currently, it is impossible with raw Doctrine_Pager_Layout. But if you extend it and use
the available methods, you can achieve it. The base Layout class provides you some methods
that can be used to create your own implementation. They are:
Listing
24-19
// $this refers to an instance of Doctrine_Pager_Layout
// Defines a mask replacement. When parsing template, it converts
replacement
// masks into new ones (or values), allowing to change masks behavior on
the fly
$this->addMaskReplacement($oldMask, $newMask, $asValue = false);
// Remove a mask replacement
$this->removeMaskReplacement($oldMask);
// Remove all mask replacements
$this->cleanMaskReplacements();
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
343
// Parses the template and returns the string of a processed page
$this->processPage($options = array()); // Needs at least page_number
offset in $options array
// Protected methods, although very useful
// Parse the template of a given page and return the processed template
$this->_parseTemplate($options = array());
// Parse the url mask to return the correct template depending of the
options sent
// Already process the mask replacements assigned
$this->_parseUrlTemplate($options = array());
// Parse the mask replacements of a given page
$this->_parseReplacementsTemplate($options = array());
// Parse the url mask of a given page and return the processed url
$this->_parseUrl($options = array());
// Parse the mask replacements, changing from to-be replaced mask with new
masks/values
$this->_parseMaskReplacements($str);
Now that you have a small tip of useful methods to be used when extending
Doctrine_Pager_Layout, it's time to see our implemented class:
class PagerLayoutWithArrows extends Doctrine_Pager_Layout
{
public function display($options = array(), $return = false)
{
$pager = $this->getPager();
$str = '';
// First page
$this->addMaskReplacement('page', '&laquo;', true);
$options['page_number'] = $pager->getFirstPage();
$str .= $this->processPage($options);
// Previous page
$this->addMaskReplacement('page', '&lsaquo;', true);
$options['page_number'] = $pager->getPreviousPage();
$str .= $this->processPage($options);
// Pages listing
$this->removeMaskReplacement('page');
$str .= parent::display($options, true);
// Next page
$this->addMaskReplacement('page', '&rsaquo;', true);
$options['page_number'] = $pager->getNextPage();
$str .= $this->processPage($options);
// Last page
$this->addMaskReplacement('page', '&raquo;', true);
$options['page_number'] = $pager->getLastPage();
$str .= $this->processPage($options);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
24-20
Chapter 24: Utilities
344
// Possible wish to return value instead of print it on screen
if ($return) {
return $str;
}
echo $str;
}
}
As you may see, I have to manual process the items <<, <, > and >>. I override the
{%page} mask by setting a raw value to it (raw value is achieved by setting the third
parameter as true). Then I define the only MUST HAVE information to process the page and
call it. The return is the template processed as a string. I do it to any of my custom buttons.
Now supposing a totally different situation. Doctrine is framework agnostic, but many of our
users use it together with Symfony. Doctrine_Pager and subclasses are 100% compatible
with Symfony, but Doctrine_Pager_Layout needs some tweaks to get it working with
Symfony's link_to helper function. To allow this usage with Doctrine_Pager_Layout,
you have to extend it and add your custom processor over it. For example purpose (it works in
Symfony), I used {link_to}...{/link_to} as a template processor to do this job. Here is the
extended class and usage in Symfony:
Listing
24-21
class sfDoctrinePagerLayout extends Doctrine_Pager_Layout
{
public function __construct($pager, $pagerRange, $urlMask)
{
sfLoader::loadHelpers(array('Url', 'Tag'));
parent::__construct($pager, $pagerRange, $urlMask);
}
protected function _parseTemplate($options = array())
{
$str = parent::_parseTemplate($options);
return preg_replace(
'/\{link_to\}(.*?)\{\/link_to\}/', link_to('$1',
$this->_parseUrl($options)), $str
);
}
}
Usage:
Listing
24-22
$pagerLayout = new sfDoctrinePagerLayout(
$pager,
new Doctrine_Pager_Range_Sliding(array('chunk' => 5)),
'@hostHistoryList?page={%page_number}'
);
$pagerLayout->setTemplate('[{link_to}{%page}{/link_to}]');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
345
Facade
Creating & Dropping Databases
Doctrine offers the ability to create and drop your databases from your defined Doctrine
connections. The only trick to using it is that the name of your Doctrine connection must be
the name of your database. This is required due to the fact that PDO does not offer a method
for retrieving the name of the database you are connected to. So in order to create and drop
the database Doctrine itself must be aware of the name of the database.
Convenience Methods
Doctrine offers static convenience methods available in the main Doctrine class. These
methods perform some of the most used functionality of Doctrine with one method. Most of
these methods are using in the Doctrine_Task system. These tasks are also what are executed
from the Doctrine_Cli.
// Turn debug on/off and check for whether it is on/off
Doctrine::debug(true);
if (Doctrine::debug()) {
echo 'debugging is on';
} else {
echo 'debugging is off';
}
// Get the path to your Doctrine libraries
$path = Doctrine::getPath();
// Load your models so that they are present and loaded for Doctrine to
work with
// Returns an array of the Doctrine_Records that were found and loaded
$models = Doctrine::loadModels('/path/to/models',
Doctrine::MODEL_LOADING_CONSERVATIVE); // or
Doctrine::MODEL_LOADING_AGGRESSIVE
print_r($models);
// Get array of all the models loaded and present to Doctrine
$models = Doctrine::getLoadedModels();
// Pass an array of classes to the above method and it will filter out the
ones that are not Doctrine_Records
$models = Doctrine::filterInvalidModels(array('User', 'Formatter',
'Doctrine_Record'));
print_r($models); // would return array('User') because Formatter and
Doctrine_Record are not valid
// Get Doctrine_Connection object for an actual table name
$conn = Doctrine::getConnectionByTableName('user'); // returns the
connection object that the table name is associated
with.
// Generate YAML schema from an existing database
Doctrine::generateYamlFromDb('/path/to/dump/schema.yml',
array('connection_name'), $options);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
24-23
Chapter 24: Utilities
346
// Generate your models from an existing database
Doctrine::generateModelsFromDb('/path/to/generate/models',
array('connection_name'), $options);
// Array of options and the default values
$options = array('packagesPrefix'
=>
'packagesPath'
=>
'packagesFolderName'
=>
'suffix'
=>
'generateBaseClasses'
=>
'baseClassesPrefix'
=>
'baseClassesDirectory' =>
'baseClassName'
=>
'Package',
'',
'packages',
'.php',
true,
'Base',
'generated',
'Doctrine_Record');
// Generate your models from YAML schema
Doctrine::generateModelsFromYaml('/path/to/schema.yml', '/path/to/generate/
models', $options);
// Create the tables supplied in the array
Doctrine::createTablesFromArray(array('User', 'Phoneumber'));
// Create all your tables from an existing set of models
// Will generate sql for all loaded models if no directory is given
Doctrine::createTablesFromModels('/path/to/models');
// Generate string of sql commands from an existing set of models
// Will generate sql for all loaded models if no directory is given
Doctrine::generateSqlFromModels('/path/to/models');
// Generate array of sql statements to create the array of passed models
Doctrine::generateSqlFromArray(array('User', 'Phonenumber'));
// Generate YAML schema from an existing set of models
Doctrine::generateYamlFromModels('/path/to/schema.yml', '/path/to/models');
// Create all databases for connections.
// Array of connection names is optional
Doctrine::createDatabases(array('connection_name'));
// Drop all databases for connections
// Array of connection names is optional
Doctrine::dropDatabases(array('connection_name'));
// Dump all data for your models to a yaml fixtures file
// 2nd argument is a bool value for whether or not to generate individual
fixture files for each model. If true you need
// to specify a folder instead of a file.
Doctrine::dumpData('/path/to/dump/data.yml', true);
// Load data from yaml fixtures files
// 2nd argument is a bool value for whether or not to append the data when
loading or delete all data first before loading
Doctrine::loadData('/path/to/fixture/files', true);
// Run a migration process for a set of migration classes
$num = 5; // migrate to version #5
Doctrine::migration('/path/to/migrations', $num);
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
347
// Generate a blank migration class template
Doctrine::generateMigrationClass('ClassName', '/path/to/migrations');
// Generate all migration classes for an existing database
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromDb('/path/to/migrations');
// Generate all migration classes for an existing set of models
// 2nd argument is optional if you have already loaded your models using
loadModels()
Doctrine::generateMigrationsFromModels('/path/to/migrations', '/path/to/
models');
// Get Doctrine_Table instance for a model
$userTable = Doctrine::getTable('User');
// Compile doctrine in to a single php file
$drivers = array('mysql'); // specify the array of drivers you want to
include in this compiled version
Doctrine::compile('/path/to/write/compiled/doctrine', $drivers);
// Dump doctrine objects for debugging
$conn = Doctrine_Manager::connection();
Doctrine::dump($conn);
Tasks
Tasks are classes which bundle some of the core convenience methods in to tasks that can be
easily executed by setting the required arguments. These tasks are directly used in the
Doctrine command line interface.
BuildAll
BuildAllLoad
BuildAllReload
Compile
CreateDb
CreateTables
Dql
DropDb
DumpData
Exception
GenerateMigration
GenerateMigrationsDb
GenerateMigrationsModels
GenerateModelsDb
GenerateModelsYaml
GenerateSql
GenerateYamlDb
GenerateYamlModels
LoadData
Migrate
RebuildDb
Listing
24-24
You can read below about how to execute Doctrine Tasks standalone in your own scripts.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
348
Command Line Interface
Introduction
The Doctrine Cli is a collection of tasks that help you with your day to do development and
testing with your Doctrine implementation. Typically with the examples in this manual, you
setup php scripts to perform whatever tasks you may need. This Cli tool is aimed at providing
an out of the box solution for those tasks.
Tasks
Below is a list of available tasks for managing your Doctrine implementation.
Listing
24-25
$ ./doctrine
Doctrine Command Line Interface
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
./doctrine
build-all
build-all-load
build-all-reload
compile
create-db
create-tables
dql
drop-db
dump-data
generate-migration
generate-migrations-db
generate-migrations-models
generate-models-db
generate-models-yaml
generate-sql
generate-yaml-db
generate-yaml-models
load-data
migrate
rebuild-db
The tasks for the CLI are separate from the CLI and can be used standalone. Below is an
example.
Listing
24-26
$task = new Doctrine_Task_GenerateModelsFromYaml();
$args = array('yaml_schema_path' => '/path/to/schema',
'models_path'
=> '/path/to/models');
$task->setArguments($args);
try {
if ($task->validate()) {
$task->execute();
}
} catch (Exception $e) {
throw new Doctrine_Exception($e->getMessage());
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 24: Utilities
349
Usage
File named "doctrine" that is set to executable
#!/usr/bin/env php
<?php
Listing
24-27
chdir(dirname(__FILE__));
include('doctrine.php');
?>
Actual php file named "doctrine.php" that implements the Doctrine_Cli.
// Include your Doctrine configuration/setup here, your connections,
models, etc.
Listing
24-28
// Configure Doctrine Cli
// Normally these are arguments to the cli tasks but if they are set here
the arguments will be auto-filled and are not required for you to enter
them.
$config = array('data_fixtures_path'
'models_path'
'migrations_path'
'sql_path'
'yaml_schema_path'
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
'/path/to/data/fixtures',
'/path/to/models',
'/path/to/migrations',
'/path/to/data/sql',
'/path/to/schema');
$cli = new Doctrine_Cli($config);
$cli->run($_SERVER['argv']);
Now you can begin executing commands.
./doctrine generate-models-yaml
./doctrine create-tables
Listing
24-29
Sandbox
Installation
You can install the sandbox by downloading the special sandbox package from
http://www.phpdoctrine.org/download43 or you can install it via svn below.
svn co http://www.phpdoctrine.org/svn/branches/0.11 doctrine
cd doctrine/tools/sandbox
chmod 0777 doctrine
./doctrine
The above steps should give you a functioning sandbox. Execute the ./doctrine command
without specifying a task will show you an index of all the available cli tasks in Doctrine.
43.
http://www.phpdoctrine.org/download
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
24-30
Chapter 24: Utilities
350
Conclusion
I hope some of these utilities discussed in this chapter are of use to you. Now lets discuss how
Doctrine maintains stability and avoids regressions by using Unit Testing (page 351).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
351
Chapter 25
Unit Testing
Doctrine is programmatically tested using UnitTests. You can read more about unit testing
here44 on Wikipedia.
Running tests
In order to run the tests that come with doctrine you need to check out the entire project, not
just the lib folder.
$ svn co http://svn.doctrine-project.org/1.0 /path/to/co/doctrine
Listing
25-1
Now change directory to the checked out copy of doctrine.
$ cd /path/to/co/doctrine
Listing
25-2
You should see the following files and directories listed.
CHANGELOG
COPYRIGHT
lib/
LICENSE
package.xml
tests/
tools/
vendor/
Listing
25-3
It is not uncommon for the test suite to have fails that we are aware of. Often Doctrine will
have test cases for bugs or enhancement requests that cannot be committed until later
versions. Or we simply don't have a fix for the issue yet and the test remains failing. You
can ask on the mailing list or in IRC for how many fails should be expected in each version
of Doctrine.
CLI
To run tests on the command line, you must have php-cli installed.
Navigate to the /path/to/co/doctrine/tests folder and execute the run.php script:
Listing
25-4
44.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_testing
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
352
$ cd /path/to/co/doctrine/tests
$ php run.php
This will print out a progress bar as it is running all the unit tests. When it is finished it will
report to you what has passed and failed.
The CLI has several options available for running specific tests, groups of tests or filtering
tests against class names of test suites. Run the following command to check out these
options.
Listing
25-5
$ php run.php -help
You can run an individual group of tests like this:
Listing
25-6
$ php run.php --group data_dict
Browser
You can run the unit tests in the browser by navigating to doctrine/tests/run.php. Options can
be set through _GET variables.
For example:
• http://localhost/doctrine/tests/run.php45
• http://localhost/doctrine/tests/
run.php?filter=Limit&group[]=query&group[]=record46
Please note that test results may very depending on your environment. For example if
php.ini apc.enable_cli is set to 0 then some additional tests may fail.
Writing Tests
When writing your test case, you can copy TemplateTestCase.php to start off. Here is a
sample test case:
Listing
25-7
class Doctrine_Sample_TestCase extends Doctrine_UnitTestCase
{
public function prepareTables()
{
$this->tables[] = "MyModel1";
$this->tables[] = "MyModel2";
parent::prepareTables();
}
public function prepareData()
{
$this->myModel = new MyModel1();
//$this->myModel->save();
}
public function testInit()
{
45.
46.
http://localhost/doctrine/tests/run.php
http://localhost/doctrine/tests/run.php?filter=Limit&group[]=query&group[]=record
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
353
}
// This produces a failing test
public function testTest()
{
$this->assertTrue($this->myModel->exists());
$this->assertEqual(0, 1);
$this->assertIdentical(0, '0');
$this->assertNotEqual(1, 2);
$this->assertTrue((5 < 1));
$this->assertFalse((1 > 2));
}
}
class Model1 extends Doctrine_Record
{
}
class Model2 extends Doctrine_Record
{
}
The model definitions can be included directly in the test case file or they can be put in
/path/to/co/doctrine/tests/models and they will be autoloaded for you.
Once you are finished writing your test be sure to add it to run.php like the following.
$test->addTestCase(new Doctrine_Sample_TestCase());
Listing
25-8
Now when you execute run.php you will see the new failure reported to you.
Ticket Tests
In Doctrine it is common practice to commit a failing test case for each individual ticket that
is reported in trac. These test cases are automatically added to run.php by reading all test
case files found in the /path/to/co/doctrine/tests/Ticket/ folder.
You can create a new ticket test case easily from the CLI:
$ php run.php --ticket 9999
Listing
25-9
If the ticket number 9999 doesn't already exist then the blank test case class will be
generated for you at /path/to/co/doctrine/tests/Ticket/9999TestCase.php.
class Doctrine_Ticket_9999_TestCase extends Doctrine_UnitTestCase
{
}
Listing
25-10
Methods for testing
Assert Equal
// ...
public function test1Equals1()
{
$this->assertEqual(1, 1);
-----------------
Listing
25-11
Brought to you by
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
354
}
// ...
Assert Not Equal
Listing
25-12
// ...
public function test1DoesNotEqual2()
{
$this->assertNotEqual(1, 2);
}
// ...
Assert Identical
The assertIdentical() method is the same as the assertEqual() except that its logic is
stricter and uses the === for comparing the two values.
Listing
25-13
// ...
public function testAssertIdentical()
{
$this->assertIdentical(1, '1');
}
// ...
The above test would fail obviously because the first argument is the number 1 casted as
PHP type integer and the second argument is the number 1 casted as PHP type string.
Assert True
Listing
25-14
// ...
public function testAssertTrue()
{
$this->assertTrue(5 > 2);
}
// ...
Assert False
Listing
25-15
// ...
public function testAssertFalse()
{
$this->assertFalse(5 < 2);
}
// ...
Mock Drivers
Doctrine uses mock drivers for all drivers other than sqlite. The following code snippet shows
you how to use mock drivers:
Listing
25-16
class Doctrine_Sample_TestCase extends Doctrine_UnitTestCase
{
public function testInit()
{
$this->dbh = new Doctrine_Adapter_Mock('oracle');
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
355
$this->conn =
Doctrine_Manager::getInstance()->openConnection($this->dbh);
}
}
Now when you execute queries they won't actually be executed against a real database.
Instead they will be collected in an array and you will be able to analyze the queries that were
executed and make test assertions against them.
class Doctrine_Sample_TestCase extends Doctrine_UnitTestCase
{
// ...
public function testMockDriver()
{
$user = new User();
$user->username = 'jwage';
$user->password = 'changeme';
$user->save();
$sql = $this->dbh->getAll();
// print the sql array to find the query you're looking for
// print_r($sql);
$this->assertEqual($sql[0], 'INSERT INTO user (username, password)
VALUES (?, ?)');
}
}
Test Class Guidelines
Every class should have at least one TestCase equivalent and they should inherit
Doctrine_UnitTestCase. Test classes should refer to a class or an aspect of a class, and
they should be named accordingly.
Some examples:
• Doctrine_Record_TestCase is a good name because it refers to the
Doctrine_Record class
• Doctrine_Record_State_TestCase is also good, because it refers to the state
aspect of the Doctrine_Record class.
• Doctrine_PrimaryKey_TestCase is a bad name, because it's too generic.
Test Method Guidelines
Methods should support agile documentation and should be named so that if it fails, it is
obvious what failed. They should also give information of the system they test
For
example
the
method
test
name
Doctrine_Export_Pgsql_TestCase::testCreateTableSupportsAutoincPks() is a
good name.
Test method names can be long, but the method content should not be. If you need several
assert-calls, divide the method into smaller methods. There should never be assertions within
any loops, and rarely within functions.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
25-17
Chapter 25: Unit Testing
356
Commonly used testing method naming convention TestCase::test[methodName] is
not
allowed
in
Doctrine.
So
in
this
case
Doctrine_Export_Pgsql_TestCase::testCreateTable() would not be allowed!
Conclusion
Unit testing in a piece of software like Doctrine is so incredible important. Without it, it would
be impossible to know if a change we make has any kind of negative affect on existing
working use cases. With our collection of unit tests we can be sure that the changes we make
won't break existing functionality.
Now lets move on to learn about how we can improve performance (page 357) when using
Doctrine.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
357
Chapter 26
Improving Performance
Introduction
Performance is a very important aspect of all medium to large sized applications. Doctrine is
a large abstraction library that provides a database abstraction layer as well as objectrelational mapping. While this provides a lot of benefits like portability and ease of
development it's inevitable that this leads to drawbacks in terms of performance. This chapter
tries to help you to get the best performance out of Doctrine.
Compile
Doctrine is quite big framework and usually dozens of files are being included on each
request. This brings a lot of overhead. In fact these file operations are as time consuming as
sending multiple queries to database server. The clean separation of class per file works well
in developing environment, however when project goes commercial distribution the speed
overcomes the clean separation of class per file -convention.
Doctrine offers method called compile() to solve this issue. The compile method makes a
single file of most used Doctrine components which can then be included on top of your
script. By default the file is created into Doctrine root by the name
Doctrine.compiled.php.
Compiling is a method for making a single file of most used doctrine runtime components
including the compiled file instead of multiple files (in worst cases dozens of files) can
improve performance by an order of magnitude. In cases where this might fail, a
Doctrine_Exception is throw detailing the error.
Lets create a compile script named compile.php to handle the compiling of Doctrine:
// compile.php
Listing
26-1
require_once('/path/to/doctrine/lib/Doctrine.php');
spl_autoload_register(array('Doctrine', 'autoload'));
Doctrine::compile('Doctrine.compiled.php');
Now we can execute compile.php and a file named Doctrine.compiled.php will be
generated in the root of your doctrine_test folder:
$ php compile.php
Listing
26-2
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
358
If you wish to only compile in the database drivers you are using you can pass an array of
drivers as the second argument to compile(). For this example we are only using MySQL so
lets tell Doctrine to only compile the mysql driver:
Listing
26-3
// compile.php
// ...
Doctrine::compile('Doctrine.compiled.php', array('mysql'));
Now you can change your bootstrap.php script to include the compiled Doctrine:
Listing
26-4
// bootstrap.php
// ...
require_once('Doctrine.compiled.php');
// ...
Conservative Fetching
Maybe the most important rule is to be conservative and only fetch the data you actually
need. This may sound trivial but laziness or lack of knowledge about the possibilities that are
available often lead to a lot of unnecessary overhead.
Take a look at this example:
Listing
26-5
$record = $table->find($id);
How often do you find yourself writing code like that? It's convenient but it's very often not
what you need. The example above will pull all columns of the record out of the database and
populate the newly created object with that data. This not only means unnecessary network
traffic but also means that Doctrine has to populate data into objects that is never used.
I'm sure you all know why a query like the following is not ideal:
Listing
26-6
SELECT
*
FROM my_table
The above is bad in any application and this is also true when using Doctrine. In fact it's even
worse when using Doctrine because populating objects with data that is not needed is a waste
of time.
Another important rule that belongs in this category is: Only fetch objects when you really
need them. Doctrine has the ability to fetch "array graphs" instead of object graphs. At first
glance this may sound strange because why use an object-relational mapper in the first place
then? Take a second to think about it. PHP is by nature a precedural language that has been
enhanced with a lot of features for decent OOP. Arrays are still the most efficient data
structures you can use in PHP. Objects have the most value when they're used to accomplish
complex business logic. It's a waste of resources when data gets wrapped in costly object
structures when you have no benefit of that. Take a look at the following code that fetches all
comments with some related data for an article, passing them to the view for display
afterwards:
Listing
26-7
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
359
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('b.title, b.author, b.created_at')
->addSelect('COUNT(t.id) as num_comments')
->from('BlogPost b')
->leftJoin('b.Comments c')
->where('b.id = ?')
->orderBy('b.created_at DESC');
$blogPosts = $q->execute(array(1));
Now imagine you have a view or template that renders the most recent blog posts:
<?php foreach ($blogPosts as $blogPost):
<li>
<strong>
<?php echo $blogPost['title']
</strong>
Listing
26-8
- Posted on <?php echo $blogPost['created_at']
by <?php echo $blogPost['author'] .
<small>
(<?php echo $blogPost['num_comments'] )
</small>
</li>
<?php endforeach;
Can you think of any benefit of having objects in the view instead of arrays? You're not going
to execute business logic in the view, are you? One parameter can save you a lot of
unnecessary processing:
// ...
Listing
26-9
$blogPosts = $q->execute(array(1), Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY);
If you prefer you can also use the setHydrationMethod() method:
// ...
Listing
26-10
$q->setHydrationMode(Doctrine::HYDRATE_ARRAY);
$blogPosts = $q->execute(array(1));
The above code will hydrate the data into arrays instead of objects which is much less
expensive.
One great thing about array hydration is that if you use the ArrayAccess on your objects
you can easily switch your queries to use array hydration and your code will work exactly
the same. For example the above code we wrote to render the list of the most recent blog
posts would work when we switch the query behind it to array hydration.
Sometimes, you may want the direct output from PDO instead of an object or an array. To do
this, set the hydration mode to Doctrine::HYDRATE_NONE. Here's an example:
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->select('SUM(d.amount)')
->from('Donation d');
-----------------
Listing
26-11
Brought to you by
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
360
$results = $q->execute(array(), Doctrine::HYDRATE_NONE);
You will need to print the results and find the value in the array depending on your DQL
query:
Listing
26-12
print_r($results);
In this example the result would be accessible with the following code:
Listing
26-13
$total = $results[0][1];
There are two important differences between HYDRATE_ARRAY and HYDRATE_NONE which
you should consider before choosing which to use. HYDRATE_NONE is the fastest but the
result is an array with numeric keys and so results would be referenced as
$result[0][0] instead of $result[0]['my_field'] with HYDRATE_ARRAY. Best
practice would to use HYDRATE_NONE when retrieving large record sets or when doing
many similar queries. Otherwise, HYDRATE_ARRAY is more comfortable and should be
preferred.
Bundle your Class Files
When using Doctrine or any other large OO library or framework the number of files that
need to be included on a regular HTTP request rises significantly. 50-100 includes per
request are not uncommon. This has a significant performance impact because it results in a
lot of disk operations. While this is generally no issue in a dev environment, it's not suited for
production. The recommended way to handle this problem is to bundle the most-used classes
of your libraries into a single file for production, stripping out any unnecessary whitespaces,
linebreaks and comments. This way you get a significant performance improvement even
without a bytecode cache (see next section). The best way to create such a bundle is probably
as part of an automated build process i.e. with Phing.
Use a Bytecode Cache
A bytecode cache like APC will cache the bytecode that is generated by php prior to executing
it. That means that the parsing of a file and the creation of the bytecode happens only once
and not on every request. This is especially useful when using large libraries and/or
frameworks. Together with file bundling for production this should give you a significant
performance improvement. To get the most out of a bytecode cache you should contact the
manual pages since most of these caches have a lot of configuration options which you can
tweak to optimize the cache to your needs.
Free Objects
As of version 5.2.5, PHP is not able to garbage collect object graphs that have circular
references, e.g. Parent has a reference to Child which has a reference to Parent. Since many
doctrine model objects have such relations, PHP will not free their memory even when the
objects go out of scope.
For most PHP applications, this problem is of little consequence, since PHP scripts tend to be
short-lived. Longer-lived scripts, e.g. bulk data importers and exporters, can run out of
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
361
memory unless you manually break the circular reference chains. Doctrine provides a free()
function on Doctrine_Record, Doctrine_Collection, and Doctrine_Query which
eliminates the circular references on those objects, freeing them up for garbage collection.
Usage might look like:
Free objects when mass inserting records:
for ($i = 0; $i < 1000; $i++)
{
$object = createBigObject();
$object->save();
$object->free(true);
}
Listing
26-14
You can also free query objects in the same way:
for ($i = 0; $i < 1000; $i++)
{
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
Listing
26-15
$results = $q->fetchArray();
$q->free();
}
Or even better if you can reuse the same query object for each query in the loop that would
be ideal:
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u');
Listing
26-16
for ($i = 0; $i < 1000; $i++)
{
$results = $q->fetchArray();
$q->free();
}
You can automatically free query objects after
Doctrine::ATTR_AUTO_FREE_QUERY_OBJECTS attribute.
executing
by
// test.php
using
the
Listing
26-17
// ...
$manager->setAttribute('auto_free_query_objects', true);
$q = Doctrine_Query::create()
->from('User u')
Now when we execute the above query, it will be automatically freed of resouces.
$users = $q->execute(); // $q->free() is triggered
Other Tips
Helping the DQL parser
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
26-18
Chapter 26: Improving Performance
362
There are two possible ways when it comes to using DQL. The first one is writing the plain
DQL queries and passing them to Doctrine_Connection::query($dql). The second one
is to use a Doctrine_Query object and its fluent interface. The latter should be preferred for
all but very simple queries. The reason is that using the Doctrine_Query object and it's
methods makes the life of the DQL parser a little bit easier. It reduces the amount of query
parsing that needs to be done and is therefore faster.
Efficient relation handling
When you want to add a relation between two components you should NOT do something like
the following:
The following example assumes a many-many between Role and User.
Listing
26-19
$role = new Role();
$role->name = 'New Role Name';
$user->Roles[] = $newRole;
The above code will load all roles of the user from the database if they're not yet loaded!
Just to add one new link!
The following is the recommended way instead:
Listing
26-20
$userRole = new UserRole();
$userRole->role_id = $role_id;
$userRole->user_id = $user_id;
$userRole->save();
Conclusion
Lots of methods exist for improving performance in Doctrine. It is highly recommended that
you consider some of the methods described above.
Now lets move on to learn about some of the technology (page 363) used in Doctrine.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 27: Technology
363
Chapter 27
Technology
Introduction
Doctrine is a product of the work of many people. Not just the people who have coded and
documented this software are the only ones responsible for this great framework. Other
ORMs in other languages are a major resource for us as we can learn from what they have
already done.
Doctrine has also borrowed pieces of code from other open source projects instead of reinventing the wheel. Two of the projects borrowed from are symfony47 and the Zend
Framework48. The relevant license information can be found in the root of Doctrine when
you download49 it in a file named LICENSE.
Architecture
Doctrine is divided into three main packages: CORE, ORM and DBAL. Below is a list of some
of the main classes that make up each of the packages.
Doctrine CORE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
47.
48.
49.
Doctrine
Doctrine_Manager (page 160)
Doctrine_Connection (page 161)
Doctrine_Compiler (page 357)
Doctrine_Exception (page 367)
Doctrine_Formatter
Doctrine_Object
Doctrine_Null
Doctrine_Event (page 305)
Doctrine_Overloadable
Doctrine_Configurable
Doctrine_EventListener (page 305)
http://www.symfony-project.com
http://framework.zend.com
http://www.doctrine-project.org
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 27: Technology
364
Doctrine DBAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
Doctrine_Expression_Driver (page 175)
Doctrine_Export (page 288)
Doctrine_Import (page 295)
Doctrine_Sequence
Doctrine_Transaction (page 300)
Doctrine_DataDict (page 297)
Doctrine DBAL is also divided into driver packages.
Doctrine ORM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Doctrine_Record (page 167)
Doctrine_Table (page 162)
Doctrine_Relation (page 65)
Doctrine_Expression (page 175)
Doctrine_Query (page 118)
Doctrine_RawSql (page 191)
Doctrine_Collection (page 178)
Doctrine_Tokenizer
Other miscellaneous packages.
• Doctrine_Validator (page 208)
• Doctrine_Hook
• Doctrine_View (page 189)
There are also behaviors for Doctrine:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Geographical (page 255)
I18n (page 250)
NestedSet (page 252)
Searchable (page 253)
Sluggable (page 248)
SoftDelete (page 258)
Timestampable (page 246)
Versionable (page 244)
Design Patterns Used
GoF (Gang of Four) design patterns used:
•
•
•
•
•
•
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
Singleton50, for forcing only one instance of Doctrine_Manager
Composite51, for leveled configuration
Factory52, for connection driver loading and many other things
Observer53, for event listening
Flyweight54, for efficient usage of validators
Iterator55, for iterating through components (Tables, Connections, Records etc.)
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternSingleton.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternComposite.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternFactory.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternObserver.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternFlyweight.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternFlyweight.aspx
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 27: Technology
365
• State56, for state-wise connections
• Strategy57, for algorithm strategies
Enterprise application design patterns used:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Active Record58, Doctrine is an implementation of this pattern
UnitOfWork59, for maintaining a list of objects affected in a transaction
Identity Field60, for maintaining the identity between record and database row
Metadata Mapping61, for Doctrine DataDict
Dependent Mapping62, for mapping in general, since all records extend
Doctrine_Record which performs all mappings
Foreign Key Mapping63, for one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-one relationships
Association Table Mapping64, for association table mapping (most commonly manyto-many relationships)
Lazy Load65, for lazy loading of objects and object properties
Query Object66, DQL API is actually an extension to the basic idea of Query Object
pattern
Speed
• Lazy initialization - For collection elements
• Subselect fetching - Doctrine knows how to fetch collections efficiently using a
subselect.
• Executing SQL statements later, when needed : The connection never issues an
INSERT or UPDATE until it is actually needed. So if an exception occurs and you
need to abort the transaction, some statements will never actually be issued.
Furthermore, this keeps lock times in the database as short as possible (from the
late UPDATE to the transaction end).
• Join fetching - Doctrine knows how to fetch complex object graphs using joins and
subselects
• Multiple collection fetching strategies - Doctrine has multiple collection
fetching strategies for performance tuning.
• Dynamic mixing of fetching strategies - Fetching strategies can be mixed and
for example users can be fetched in a batch collection while users' phonenumbers
are loaded in offset collection using only one query.
• Driver specific optimizations - Doctrine knows things like bulk-insert on mysql.
• Transactional single-shot delete - Doctrine knows how to gather all the primary
keys of the pending objects in delete list and performs only one sql delete statement
per table.
• Updating only the modified columns. - Doctrine always knows which columns
have been changed.
• Never inserting/updating unmodified objects. - Doctrine knows if the the state
of the record has changed.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternState.aspx
http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/PatternStrategy.aspx
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/activeRecord.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/unitOfWork.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/identityField.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/metadataMapping.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/dependentMapping.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/foreignKeyMapping.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/associationTableMapping.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/lazyLoad.html
http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/queryObject.html
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 27: Technology
366
• PDO for database abstraction - PDO is by far the fastest availible database
abstraction layer for php.
Conclusion
This chapter should have given you a complete birds eye view of all the components of
Doctrine and how they are organized. Up until now you have seen them all used a part from
each other but the separate lists of the three main packages should have made things very
clear for you if it was not already.
Now we are ready to move on and learn about how to deal with Doctrine throwing exceptions
in the Exceptions and Warnings (page 367) chapter.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 28: Exceptions and Warnings
367
Chapter 28
Exceptions and Warnings
Manager exceptions
Doctrine_Manager_Exception is thrown if something failed at the connection management
try {
$manager->getConnection('unknown');
} catch (Doctrine_Manager_Exception) {
// catch errors
}
Listing
28-1
Relation exceptions
Relation exceptions are being thrown if something failed during the relation parsing.
Connection exceptions
Connection exceptions are being thrown if something failed at the database level. Doctrine
offers fully portable database error handling. This means that whether you are using sqlite or
some other database you can always get portable error code and message for the occurred
error.
try {
$conn->execute('SELECT * FROM unknowntable');
} catch (Doctrine_Connection_Exception $e) {
echo 'Code : ' . $e->getPortableCode();
echo 'Message : ' . $e->getPortableMessage();
}
Query exceptions
An exception will be thrown when a query is executed if the DQL query is invalid in some
way.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
28-2
Chapter 28: Exceptions and Warnings
368
Conclusion
Now that you know how to deal with Doctrine throwing exceptions lets move on and show you
some real world schemas (page 369) that would be used in common web applications found
today on the web.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
369
Chapter 29
Real World Examples
User Management System
In almost all applications you need to have some kind of security or authentication system
where you have users, roles, permissions, etc. Below is an example where we setup several
models that give you a basic user management and security system.
class User extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('username', 'string', 255, array(
'unique' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('password', 'string', 255);
}
}
class Role extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
}
class Permission extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 255);
}
}
class RolePermission extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('role_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
29-1
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
370
);
$this->hasColumn('permission_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Role', array(
'local' => 'role_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('Permission', array(
'local' => 'permission_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
class UserRole extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
$this->hasColumn('role_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('Role', array(
'local' => 'role_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
class UserPermission extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
371
);
$this->hasColumn('permission_id', 'integer', null, array(
'primary' => true
)
);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('User', array(
'local' => 'user_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('Permission', array(
'local' => 'permission_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
--User:
columns:
username: string(255)
password: string(255)
relations:
Roles:
class: Role
refClass: UserRole
foreignAlias: Users
Permissions:
class: Permission
refClass: UserPermission
foreignAlias: Users
Listing
29-2
Role:
columns:
name: string(255)
relations:
Permissions:
class: Permission
refClass: RolePermission
foreignAlias: Roles
Permission:
columns:
name: string(255)
RolePermission:
columns:
role_id:
type: integer
primary: true
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
372
permission_id:
type: integer
primary: true
relations:
Role:
Permission:
UserRole:
columns:
user_id:
type: integer
primary: true
role_id:
type: integer
primary: true
relations:
User:
Role:
UserPermission:
columns:
user_id:
type: integer
primary: true
permission_id:
type: integer
primary: true
relations:
User:
Permission:
Forum Application
Below is an example of a forum application where you have categories, boards, threads and
posts:
Listing
29-3
class Forum_Category extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('root_category_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('parent_category_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 50);
$this->hasColumn('description', 'string', 99999);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasMany('Forum_Category as Subcategory', array(
'local' => 'parent_category_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('Forum_Category as Rootcategory', array(
'local' => 'root_category_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
373
)
);
}
}
class Forum_Board extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('category_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('name', 'string', 100);
$this->hasColumn('description', 'string', 5000);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Forum_Category as Category', array(
'local' => 'category_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasMany('Forum_Thread as Threads', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => 'board_id'
)
);
}
}
class Forum_Entry extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('author', 'string', 50);
$this->hasColumn('topic', 'string', 100);
$this->hasColumn('message', 'string', 99999);
$this->hasColumn('parent_entry_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('thread_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('date', 'integer', 10);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Forum_Entry as Parent', array(
'local' => 'parent_entry_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasOne('Forum_Thread as Thread', array(
'local' => 'thread_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
}
}
class Forum_Thread extends Doctrine_Record
{
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
374
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('board_id', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('updated', 'integer', 10);
$this->hasColumn('closed', 'integer', 1);
}
public function setUp()
{
$this->hasOne('Forum_Board as Board', array(
'local' => 'board_id',
'foreign' => 'id'
)
);
$this->hasMany('Forum_Entry as Entries', array(
'local' => 'id',
'foreign' => thread_id
)
);
}
}
Here is the same example in YAML format. You can read more about YAML in the YAML
Schema Files (page 194) chapter:
Listing
29-4
--Forum_Category:
columns:
root_category_id: integer(10)
parent_category_id: integer(10)
name: string(50)
description: string(99999)
relations:
Subcategory:
class: Forum_Category
local: parent_category_id
foreign: id
Rootcategory:
class: Forum_Category
local: root_category_id
foreign: id
Forum_Board:
columns:
category_id: integer(10)
name: string(100)
description: string(5000)
relations:
Category:
class: Forum_Category
local: category_id
foreign: id
Threads:
class: Forum_Thread
local: id
foreign: board_id
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 29: Real World Examples
375
Forum_Entry:
columns:
author: string(50)
topic: string(100)
message: string(99999)
parent_entry_id: integer(10)
thread_id: integer(10)
date: integer(10)
relations:
Parent:
class: Forum_Entry
local: parent_entry_id
foreign: id
Thread:
class: Forum_Thread
local: thread_id
foreign: id
Forum_Thread:
columns:
board_id: integer(10)
updated: integer(10)
closed: integer(1)
relations:
Board:
class: Forum_Board
local: board_id
foreign: id
Entries:
class: Forum_Entry
local: id
foreign: thread_id
Conclusion
I hope that these real world schema examples will help you with using Doctrine in the real
world in your application. The last chapter of this book will discuss the coding standards (page
376) used in Doctrine and are recommended for you to use in your application as well.
Remember, consistency in your code is key!
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
376
Chapter 30
Coding Standards
PHP File Formatting
General
For files that contain only PHP code, the closing tag ("?>") is never permitted. It is not
required by PHP. Not including it prevents trailing whitespace from being accidentally
injected into the output.
Inclusion of arbitrary binary data as permitted by __HALT_COMPILER() is prohibited from
any Doctrine framework PHP file or files derived from them. Use of this feature is only
permitted for special installation scripts.
Indentation
Use an indent of 4 spaces, with no tabs.
Maximum Line Length
The target line length is 80 characters, i.e. developers should aim keep code as close to the
80-column boundary as is practical. However, longer lines are acceptable. The maximum
length of any line of PHP code is 120 characters.
Line Termination
Line termination is the standard way for Unix text files to represent the end of a line. Lines
must end only with a linefeed (LF). Linefeeds are represented as ordinal 10, or hexadecimal
0x0A.
You should not use carriage returns (CR) like Macintosh computers (0x0D) and do not use the
carriage return/linefeed combination (CRLF) as Windows computers (0x0D, 0x0A).
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
377
Naming Conventions
Classes
The Doctrine ORM Framework uses the same class naming convention as PEAR and Zend
framework, where the names of the classes directly map to the directories in which they are
stored. The root level directory of the Doctrine Framework is the "Doctrine/" directory, under
which all classes are stored hierarchially.
Class names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Numbers are permitted in class
names but are discouraged. Underscores are only permitted in place of the path separator,
eg. the filename "Doctrine/Table/Exception.php" must map to the class name
"Doctrine_Table_Exception".
If a class name is comprised of more than one word, the first letter of each new word must be
capitalized. Successive capitalized letters are not allowed, e.g. a class "XML_Reader" is not
allowed while "Xml_Reader" is acceptable.
Interfaces
Interface classes must follow the same conventions as other classes (see above).
They must also end with the word "Interface" (unless the interface is approved not to contain
it such as Doctrine_Overloadable). Some examples:
Examples
• Doctrine_Adapter_Interface
• Doctrine_EventListener_Interface
Filenames
For all other files, only alphanumeric characters, underscores, and the dash character ("-")
are permitted. Spaces are prohibited.
Any file that contains any PHP code must end with the extension ".php". These examples
show the acceptable filenames for containing the class names from the examples in the
section above:
• Doctrine/Adapter/Interface.php
• Doctrine/EventListener/Interface
File names must follow the mapping to class names described above.
Functions and Methods
Function names may only contain alphanumeric characters and underscores are not
permitted. Numbers are permitted in function names but are highly discouraged. They must
always start with a lowercase letter and when a function name consists of more than one
word, the first letter of each new word must be capitalized. This is commonly called the
"studlyCaps" or "camelCaps" method. Verbosity is encouraged and function names should be
as verbose as is practical to enhance the understandability of code.
For object-oriented programming, accessors for objects should always be prefixed with either
"get" or "set". This applies to all classes except for Doctrine_Record which has some
accessor methods prefixed with 'obtain' and 'assign'. The reason for this is that since all user
defined ActiveRecords inherit Doctrine_Record, it should populate the get / set namespace
as little as possible.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
378
Functions in the global scope ("floating functions") are NOT permmitted. All static
functions should be wrapped in a static class.
Variables
Variable names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not permitted.
Numbers are permitted in variable names but are discouraged. They must always start with a
lowercase letter and follow the "camelCaps" capitalization convention. Verbosity is
encouraged. Variables should always be as verbose as practical. Terse variable names such as
"$i" and "$n" are discouraged for anything other than the smallest loop contexts. If a loop
contains more than 20 lines of code, the variables for the indices need to have more
descriptive names. Within the framework certain generic object variables should always use
the following names:
Object type
Variable name
Doctrine_Connection $conn
Doctrine_Collection $coll
Doctrine_Manager
$manager
Doctrine_Query
$q
There are cases when more descriptive names are more appropriate (for example when
multiple objects of the same class are used in same context), in that case it is allowed to use
different names than the ones mentioned.
Constants
Constants may contain both alphanumeric characters and the underscore. They must always
have all letters capitalized. For readablity reasons, words in constant names must be
separated by underscore characters. For example, ATTR_EXC_LOGGING is permitted but
ATTR_EXCLOGGING is not.Constants must be defined as class members by using the "const"
construct. Defining constants in the global scope with "define" is NOT permitted.
Listing
30-1
class Doctrine_SomeClass
{
const MY_CONSTANT = 'something';
}
echo $Doctrine_SomeClass::MY_CONSTANT;
Record Columns
All record columns must be in lowercase and usage of underscores(_) are encouraged for
columns that consist of more than one word.
Listing
30-2
class User
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('home_address', 'string');
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
379
Foreign key fields must be in format [table_name]_[column]. The next example is a field that
is a foreign key that points to user(id):
class Phonenumber extends Doctrine_Record
{
public function setTableDefinition()
{
$this->hasColumn('user_id', 'integer');
}
}
Listing
30-3
Coding Style
PHP Code Demarcation
PHP code must always be delimited by the full-form, standard PHP tags and short tags are
never allowed. For files containing only PHP code, the closing tag must always be omitted
Strings
When a string is literal (contains no variable substitutions), the apostrophe or "single quote"
must always used to demarcate the string:
Literal String
$string = 'something';
Listing
30-4
When a literal string itself contains apostrophes, it is permitted to demarcate the string with
quotation marks or "double quotes". This is especially encouraged for SQL statements:
String Containing Apostrophes
$sql = "SELECT id, name FROM people WHERE name = 'Fred' OR name = 'Susan'";
Listing
30-5
Variable Substitution
Variable substitution is permitted using the following form:
// variable substitution
$greeting = "Hello $name, welcome back!";
Listing
30-6
String Concatenation
Strings may be concatenated using the "." operator. A space must always be added before
and after the "." operator to improve readability:
$framework = 'Doctrine' . ' ORM ' . 'Framework';
Concatenation Line Breaking
When concatenating strings with the "." operator, it is permitted to break the statement into
multiple lines to improve readability. In these cases, each successive line should be padded
with whitespace such that the "."; operator is aligned under the "=" operator:
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
30-7
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
Listing
30-8
380
$sql = "SELECT id, name FROM user "
. "WHERE name = ? "
. "ORDER BY name ASC";
Arrays
Negative numbers are not permitted as indices and a indexed array may be started with any
non-negative number, however this is discouraged and it is recommended that all arrays have
a base index of 0. When declaring indexed arrays with the array construct, a trailing space
must be added after each comma delimiter to improve readability. It is also permitted to
declare multiline indexed arrays using the "array" construct. In this case, each successive line
must be padded with spaces. When declaring associative arrays with the array construct, it is
encouraged to break the statement into multiple lines. In this case, each successive line must
be padded with whitespace such that both the keys and the values are aligned:
Listing
30-9
$sampleArray = array('Doctrine', 'ORM', 1, 2, 3);
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3,
$a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500);
$sampleArray = array('first' => 'firstValue',
'second' => 'secondValue');
Classes
Classes must be named by following the naming conventions. The brace is always written
next line after the class name (or interface declaration). Every class must have a
documentation block that conforms to the PHPDocumentor standard. Any code within a class
must be indented four spaces and only one class is permitted per PHP file. Placing additional
code in a class file is NOT permitted.
This is an example of an acceptable class declaration:
Listing
30-10
/**
* Documentation here
*/
class Doctrine_SampleClass
{
// entire content of class
// must be indented four spaces
}
Functions and Methods
Methods must be named by following the naming conventions and must always declare their
visibility by using one of the private, protected, or public constructs. Like classes, the brace is
always written next line after the method name. There is no space between the function name
and the opening parenthesis for the arguments. Functions in the global scope are strongly
discouraged. This is an example of an acceptable function declaration in a class:
Listing
30-11
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
381
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar()
{
// entire content of function
// must be indented four spaces
}
public function bar2()
{
}
}
Functions must be separated by only ONE single new line like is done above between the
bar() and bar2() methods.
Passing by-reference is permitted in the function declaration only:
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
public function bar(&$baz)
{
}
}
Listing
30-12
Call-time pass by-reference is prohibited. The return value must not be enclosed in
parentheses. This can hinder readability and can also break code if a method is later changed
to return by reference.
/**
* Documentation Block Here
*/
class Foo
{
/**
* WRONG
*/
public function bar() {
return($this->bar);
}
Listing
30-13
/**
* RIGHT
*/
public function bar()
{
return $this->bar;
}
}
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
382
Function arguments are separated by a single trailing space after the comma delimiter. This
is an example of an acceptable function call for a function that takes three arguments:
Listing
30-14
threeArguments(1, 2, 3);
Call-time pass by-reference is prohibited. See above for the proper way to pass function
arguments by-reference. For functions whose arguments permitted arrays, the function call
may include the array construct and can be split into multiple lines to improve readability. In
these cases, the standards for writing arrays still apply:
Listing
30-15
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3), 2, 3);
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3, 'Framework',
'Doctrine', 56.44, 500), 2, 3);
Control Statements
Control statements based on the if and elseif constructs must have a single space before the
opening parenthesis of the conditional, and a single space after the closing parenthesis.
Within the conditional statements between the parentheses, operators must be separated by
spaces for readability. Inner parentheses are encouraged to improve logical grouping of
larger conditionals. The opening brace is written on the same line as the conditional
statement. The closing brace is always written on its own line. Any content within the braces
must be indented four spaces.
Listing
30-16
if ($foo != 2) {
$foo = 2;
}
For if statements that include elseif or else, the formatting must be as in these examples:
Listing
30-17
if ($foo != 1) {
$foo = 1;
} else {
$foo = 3;
}
if ($foo
$foo
} elseif
$foo
} else {
$foo
}
!= 2) {
= 2;
($foo == 1) {
= 3;
= 11;
When ! operand is being used it must use the following formatting:
Listing
30-18
if ( ! $foo) {
}
Control statements written with the switch construct must have a single space before the
opening parenthesis of the conditional statement, and also a single space after the closing
parenthesis. All content within the switch statement must be indented four spaces. Content
under each case statement must be indented an additional four spaces but the breaks must
be at the same indentation level as the case statements.
-----------------
Brought to you by
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
383
switch ($case) {
case 1:
case 2:
break;
case 3:
break;
default:
break;
}
Listing
30-19
The construct default may never be omitted from a switch statement.
Inline Documentation
Documentation Format:
All documentation blocks ("docblocks") must be compatible with the phpDocumentor format.
Describing the phpDocumentor format is beyond the scope of this document. For more
information, visit: http://phpdoc.org/67
Every method, must have a docblock that contains at a minimum:
• A one-line description of the function
• A long description of the function behavior that can contain argument names to
describe what the method does (optional). These two description will be copied in
the generated documentation and so must be complete english phrases startinf with
uppercase and ending with a dot.
• All of the arguments (@param tags)
• Structure of return value (@return tag). The type specified should be the most
typical return: a method that returns a string and sometimes false should put 'string'
in this declaration. Special cases can be put in the description of @return tag
instead. When the value returned is an object, the type specified should be its class
name, or a base class name if returned object can be an instance of a set of
subclasses. 'object' type should not be used.
• A @throws declaration for every exception that can be raised.
/**
* Test function.
*
* @param mixed $param
variable to test
* @throws Doctrine_Exception
if it is called with a null argument
*/
public function test($param)
{
if (is_null($param)) {
throw new Doctrine_Exception('This function did not work');
}
}
It is not necessary to use the @access tag because the access level is already known from the
public, private, or protected construct used to declare the function. This tag was used in
PHP4. Other tags which are not used are @final and @abstract.
Please be careful in using @see tags towards private members as they could be skipped in the
public api documentation.
Here is an example of correctly documented method:
67.
http://phpdoc.org/
-----------------
Brought to you by
Listing
30-20
Chapter 30: Coding Standards
Listing
30-21
384
/**
* Defines a n-uple of fields that must be unique for every record.
*
* This method Will automatically add UNIQUE index definition
* and validate the values on save. The UNIQUE index is not created in the
* database until you use @see export().
*
* @param array $fields
values are fieldnames
* @return void
*/
public function unique($fields)
{
// code...
}
Conclusion
This is the last chapter of Doctrine ORM for PHP - Guide to Doctrine for PHP. I really hope
that this book was a useful piece of documentation and that you are now comfortable with
using Doctrine and will be able to come back to easily reference things as needed.
As always, follow the Doctrine :)
Thanks, Jon
-----------------
Brought to you by
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement