MANUAL GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES (GHP)
GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES (GHP)
FOR FOOD BUSINESS SUBJECTS
– Restaurants, cafes, fast food facilities (fast food) -
Mrs. Iliriana Zymberaj Cheef Insectoriat FVA”
Mr. Pëllumb Resyli, Sanitary Inspektor FVA
Mrs. M erita Kolgeci, N.H. ”Rings”
Mr. Gëzim Berisha, N.T.P.“Eurofood”
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Cross – Contamination
2. Personal Hygiene
3. Cleaning and disinfection
High priority cleaning
4. Pest control
5. Food waste
5.1 Maintenance and environmental hygiene
6. Maintenance and preparation of food
Separation of food
Preparation(cooking), e.g. grill
Cooling of ho t food
7.1. Opening and closing controls
7.2. Special controls
7.3. Using of temperature probes
7.4. Food-weist menagment
8. Training and supervising
10. Suppliers and contractors
12. Stock control
14.1. Hazard analysis and critical control points
“Tree of decision” for general CCP
16. Information on product
GHP is described and defined by the Codex Alimentarius Code of Principles of Food Hygiene
CAC / RCP Kor.3 (1997), as amended in 1999. The following information is based on the principles supplemented by EU legislation and in practice.
GHP regulations address issues related to record-keeping, staff training, public hygiene, verification (control) equipment and investigate (revue) the clamor. Food Business Operators should apply the hygienic practices set out in this document to:
Ensure that food is safe and suitable for consumption;
To ensure that consumers have clear and easily understandable information, through labeling and other appropriate means, to enable them to protect their food from contamination and growth or survival of pathogens to create in food by storage, processing and preparation in an appropriate manner;
Have confidence in food tradeing.
The guideline is prepared based on the package of the Agency for Food International Standards, as well is adjusted and adapted to the way of preparing and serving food in our country.
Who should take responsibility for manual?
The manager is a person who is responsible for daily business, to work with the implementation of this manual.
How to benefit from the use of this guide?
Using the guide in your business will help to:
• Work with the new rules of hygiene,
• Show what you do to prepare safe food
• Train the staff,
• To protect your business reputation,
• To improve your business, e.g. by throwing less food
2. Cross - contamination
Cross - contamination is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Happens when harmful bacteria distributed on food by the device, hands, face or other food.
These bacteria often come from raw meat, poultry (meat) and eggs. So it is of particular importance to handle these foods carefully.
Other sources of bacteria may include:
Remember that you must protect food from "physical contamination" when (enter food premises, such as broken glass or pieces of rolled) and "chemical contamination" where (pass chemical substances in food, cleaning eg products and chemicals for pest control).
2.2. Physical and chemical contamination
It is very important to prevent objects and chemical substances from entering in food.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions on how to use and maintain chemicals for cleaning. Store chemicals separately from food and make sure they have clear labels.
This is to prevent these chemicals from entering the food.
Keep food covered.
It helps that things do not fall into the food.
Be sure to make effective control of insects
3. Personal Hygiene
Personnel should always wash the hands before preparing food.
Washing hands is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of bacteria.
All staff should carry clean clothes when working with food. Theoreticaly they must dress clean work clothes before starting work and not to carry these clothes out of the food preparation area.
Clothes are a source of contamination with bacteria in food preparation areas.Waring of clean clothes it helps in preventing.
For an ideal manner, work clothes should be long sleeve and have bright color (ilumination) to see pollution and without external pockets.
This prevents the skin touches the food and prevents hair fall and items in pockets (which may contain bacteria).
Recommended that staff carry duster or a clean cloth used on particularly when working with meat / meat and eggs wildfowls.
Pinner helps in preventing pollution and bacteria that break through the clothes and they can be easily removed for cleaning or to jump if they are for one use.
Staff should keep hair tied back and take a hat or hair net when preparing food.
If hear are not covered or tied back, most likely that they fall in food and that he / she can touch them by hands.
Staff should not bear watch or jewelry when prepared food.
Clocks and jewelry can collect and spread pollution and harmful bacteria, or fall into food.
Activities such as smoking, chew the gum, touching the face or nose, and coughing or sneezing are prohibited for personnel dealing with pregatijen and food service.
All these induce in touch face or mouth. Harmful bacteria can pass from the face or mouth of someone in his hands and the food.
4. Cleaning and Disinfection
Effective cleaning is essential to eliminate harmful bacteria and to prevent them from being introduced into food.
This section tells you about effective cleaning, how to wash and clean while on the go "and created a schedule for cleaning.
Effective cleaning is essential to eliminate harmful bacteria and to prevent them from being introduced into food.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions on how to use cleaning chemicals.
It is important to ensure that chemicals have been successful. Clean work surfaces and equipment thoroughly between tasks. Wash and disinfect them after each preparation of raw meat or eggs. This helps prevent contamination and spreading of bacteria to other foods of the area or device.
4.1. Cleaning with high priority
Regularly wash / wipe and disinfecting of all tools which often affect people, such as surfaces, sink, water taps, door handles, switch to the end of each day / replacement. It is important that you keep these clean to prevent contamination and spread bacteria in people's hands and then transferred from hands to food and other parts. Dried naturally helps prevention of spread of bacteria in these objects in the towel or cloth which is used for wiping (drying).
Wash and disinfecting refrigerators when there is not much food inside. Transfer food to another freezer or in a cold and safe place and keep it covered. Pay special attention to the frequency of cleaning of equipment parts are moving parts (disassemble)
Wash dishes, dishwasher parts, tools and parts disassemble if possible. If you have no dishwasher, wash dishes, tools, etc. in hot soapy water (detergent diluted). Remove the fat and any pieces of food or contamination. Then enter them in the water is clean and very hot. Let them to be air dryed or wipe clean any fabrics for single use.
The Dishwasher wash items completely in a very high temperature so this is the best way to clean tools and destroyed bacteria (disinfection).
4.2. Washing hands
Ensure that all staff who works with food wash their hands in the regular way:
- After entering the kitchen as e.g. after break or after returning from toilet.
- Before touching food ready to eat,
- After each touch raw meat and eggs,
- After clearing the garbage pail,
- After touching of any remedy or after change of the clothes
Bacteria can be spread easily by hands of men in food, work surfaces, equipment. Effective hand washing helps prevent this.
Effective way of washing hands
Step I: wet hands thoroughly in lukewarm water and then take liquid soap and put on the one hand forehand.
Step II: wipe hands together to make foam.
Step II: wipe palms of one hand on the back of the hand and another through your fingers. Then repeat with other hand.
Step IV: wipe between all fingers on both hands and around the thumb, then the tops of the fingers and fingernails.
Step V: rinse with clean water and soap
Step VI: dry hands with towels to use. Turn water taps with towel and then throw the towel.
If you think that any member of staff did not wash hands, make sure you wash immediately and warn how important it is to wash hands when working with food.
4.3. Fabrics - cloth (for cleaning)
Fabrics can be one of the main causes of cross-contamination in the kitchen. It is essential to use them safely to prevent the spread of bacteria.
Use fabrics to use whenever possible and discard them after each job.
Always use new fabrics or fabrics that newly cleaned to clean work surfaces , equipment or vessels (vessels) of the kitchen used to prepare food.
It is important to protect the food ready for consumption by bacteria.This is because the food there not treated by boiling, so bacteria in food would not be destroyed.
Remove fabrics (usable again) for a thorough cleaning after use of them to the unprepared meat, meat of poultry, unprepared eggs or vegetables- and the surface where these foods touched.
Unprepared Meat, poultry meat (non ready), and eggs have the greatest opportunity to contain harmful bacteria than other foods. Soil in vegetables can contain bacteria as well. If you are using hackneyed fabrics you should make sure that you wash them properly, disinfect, desincet and dry them after each use.
Using unclean fabrics may easely spread the bacteria.
Warm cleaning cycle will cleanse completely fabrics and will annihilate bacteria (disinfection).
If you clean and desinfec fabrics by hand, make sure all food and pollution is clean out before you desinfect them. Use hot water for fabrics disinfection.
If food and pollution is still in the fabric, it will prevent the disinfection process to be effective, so harmful bacteria can not be destroyed
Use different fabrics for different job
Washing dishes - use fabric containers
Use fabric or use a paper towel to work the following:
Cleaning of surfaces
Cleaning the edges of the container before serving
Drying of other elements
What to do if things go wrong?
If you see fabric dirty in the kitchen, remove them immediately to clean up or waste.
How to prevent it not to happen again?
Consider using a fabric for one use only if you are not already using them.
If you think your team has to use dirty cloth, wash, and dry dezinfektoni any equipment, surface or utensils that was touched by fabrics.
Rise supply with clean single use fabrics.
Train team once again on security methods.
Improve the way of management.
4.4. Cleaning schedule
The cleaning schedule is a useful tool to help you to have an effective cleaning in your business.
Some objects should be cleaned more often and some should be disinfected. You should not desinfect all-Concentrate on those items that have contact with food and continuously affected, eg door handles
You should also desinfect surfaces or tools that have been in contact with raw meat or eggs or that are wet from these foods.
Tools should be cleaned and disinfected
Tools that have been in contact with food
- Work surfaces and cutting boards
- Tools such knives
- Equipment with moving parts, eg mixers, food processors and cutters
- Glasses of sinks and soap (liquid)
- Fabrics with many uses and work clothes
- Equipment for ice
Often affected objects
- Garbage pail, broom and floor swab
- Gloves of the door, taps, switch and other controllers
- Can openers, telephones.
Items to be cleaned
- The floor, walls, ceiling
- Parts of storage and frieze
- Parts of trash and pipelines
- Microwave, oven, dishwasher, cabinets for keeping the heat and exposure
- Self-service and staff areas
For each part or group write in your cleaning schedule of what you do
Include details on:
- How do you clean those things up
- What chemicals use and use them
- What equipment you use
- How often do you clean them
4.5. Eligibility to work
Staff should be prepared (adapted) to work at any time. This means that they should not bear any suffering or disease that can cause any problem in food safety.
Every member of staff who has diarrhea or vomiting should report to the manager immediately and either stay home or be sent home immediately if it is on working place. Staff should also notify the manager if they scratch or wound.
People who suffer from these symptoms often carry harmful bacteria on their hands and they can spread in food or equipment that they touch.
Scratches and wounds should be thoroughly covered with awater resistant bandage with bright colored. This is to prevent bacteria from scratches or wounds, the cross in food. Write in your journal about what hasn’t gone well and what have you done?
Make sure all staff understands the importance of being ready for work.
This is because they understand that certain types of diseases can affect food safety and that they should tell their Manager for these types of diseases.
5. Insect control
Effective insect control is essential to keep insects out of the facility and to prevent them from spreading harmful diseases.
Effective insect control is essential to keep insects out of the facility and to prevent them from spreading harmful diseases
Check the facility for signs of insect regularly.
Insects carry harmful bacteria.
How you do this?
When you check for insects?
One possibility is to engage a contractor for pest control
Check out entirely deliveries for signs of insects. Do not accept the shipment if you notice signs of insects such as crushed packages.
Insects can enter in to your premises through packages.
Keep outside areas clean and remove bad grass. Make sure that buckets have lids that close well and easy to clean.
Bad grass and waste can attract insects and are food and shelter for them.
Little sign of the feet in the dust, droppings, holes in walls and doors, goods or packaging of granular, oily stains or marks, urine stains on packages of food.
Flies and flying insects e.g. moth
Bodies of insects, live insects, membrane, buzzing or humming, caterpillar.
Eggs and egg fabric, change skins, droppings.
Small particles of sand or soil, insects themselves, flying ants on a hot day.
Feathers, droppings, nests, noise, and the birds itself.
Moving insects, especially in dry food, small caterpillar.
If you see signs of insect collection call pest control contractor immediately. Enter the details of the contractor to contacts in your diary.
If you think that any equipment or container surface is affected by insects, they should be cleaned, disinfected and dried to prevent the spread of bacteria.
If you think food is affected by insects in any way throw it.
How could this be prevented.
Make more often check for insects. It is necessary to establish security for protected from cocroach, flies and mice or engage a professional company for insect control.
Improve staff training in recognizing the signs of insects and encourage them to report problems immediately.
Never let the pest control chemicals / traps including spray, slipping into contact with food, as they are poisonous to humans.
Make sure food or dirty dishes are not left out at night, because they are a source of food for insects.
5.1 Food Waste
1. Food waste, by-products and other waste should be removed from areas where food is present as quickly as possible, so as to avoid their accumulation.
2. Food waste, non-edible by-products and other waste must be disposed of in closed containers, unless food business operators can testify before a competent authority that other types of containers or evacuation systems used are appropriate . These containers must be appropriate construction, kept in good condition, be easily clean and, where necessary disinfected.
6. Maintenance and Environmental Hygiene
Effective maintenance is essential to allow you to clean properly and keep insects away.
Equipment for production should not be kept outside the enterprise
Repair structural damage as soon as they occur, eg Wall moist / wet, broken plates, cavities in walls or windows.
Structural damage can make your facility more difficult to clean and can attract insects.
Check fans and filters regularly to ensure that they are working well and are free from fat and pollution.
This is to make sure that fans and filters are working properly.
Replace cutting boards that are outdated and impaired ..
Dirt and bacterial contamination can accumulate in any part of which is not flat boards.
Repair or replace any device or container that is damaged or has a unfetter part.
Dirt and bacteria can accumulate in any defective parts.
Eliminated any broken or cracked containers.
Dirt and bacteria can accumulate in cracks or flaws.
Make sure your utensils for cooking, heating and cooling retention well maintained and working properly, because of secure food.
How to prevent this?
Perform maintenance checks more often.
Encourage staff to report structural damage or problems with the tools, so that you will be informed about the problem earlier.
Train staff again on this security method.
Improve the staff supervision.
Check your facility regularly for any structural damage or problems with the device.
Deal with the the problem as soon as possible before they become more difficult or affect the safety of food.
Keep records in your journal controls maintenance and also keep records of any repairs that you did.
7. Maintenance and food preparation
- General requirements for food premises
- Food premises must be kept clean and maintained in good condition.
- Baths of toilets must be available and must be linked to effective drainage system. Sinks should not be open to the room in which the processed food.
- Hand sinks must be available, convenient location and designed for cleaning hands. It should be available hot and cold water, materials for cleaning hands and for hygienic drying. Food cleaning tools should be separated by means of cleaning hands.
- Mechanical air circulation from the contaminated area in the clean area should be avoided. Ventilation systems should be installed in such a way as to enable easily changing the filter and other parts that need to be cleaned or replaced.
- Sanitary facilities must have adequate natural or mechanical ventilation.
- Food premises must have adequate natural or artificial lighting (resplendence).
- Means of drainage should be adequate for their reasons. They must be designed and installed so as to avoid the risk of contamination, where drainage channels are open or partially open to ensure that waste does not flow in the direction or in the clean area, in particular in areas where is likely to present a high risk for food to the final consumer..
- Cleaning factors and disinfectants should not be kept in areas where processed food (see cleaning plan) and:
Food business operators must take samples on the basis of self-control system (eg, to send them to accredited laboratories), and cleaning verification and disinfection has to be implemented micro-control measures.
7.1. Splitting (sorting) food
Division of unprepared food and food ready to eat is essential to prevent the spread of harmful bacteria
Plan the time of delivery, if possible, unprepared meat and poultry must arrive in different time with other foods.
Unnload goods in clean area. Remove from packaging and packaging throw awayt. This helps to prevent the spread of bacteria from raw meat to other food.
This prevents the external packaging or leaks from charges of spreading bacteria. Packaging may also contain insects.
- Transporters and / or containers used for transporting foodstuffs must be kept clean and in good condition, in order to protect food from contamination and should, where necessary, be designed and constructed in such a manner as to permit adequate cleaning and disinfection.
Lot (baggage) in vehicles and / or containers must not be used for anything other than food items since this may result in contamination.
- When the transporter (carrier) and / or containers used for transporting anything other than food ugjërave at the same time, it should, when necessary, to become effective separation of products.
- When the transporter (carrier) and / or containers used for transporting anything other than foodstuffs or for transportation of various food items, there must be an effective cleaning after each load in order to avoid the risk of contamination.
- Food stuff in the carrier and / or container must be placed and protected in such a way as to minimize the risk of contamination.
- When necessary, the carrier and / or containers used for transporting foodstuffs must have the possibility of maintaining foodstuffs at appropriate temperature and enable the monitoring of those temperatures.
Store unprepared food and prepared food for dining separately. If they are in the same refrigerator, keep unprepared meat under ready for eating meat. Packaged and non-packaged food must be kept separate from each other.
This helps to prevent the spread of bacteria from unprepared food prepared food for dining.
Prepare raw food and other foods in different parts. If this is impossible divide them, prepared at different times and clean the well between the preparations.
Never use the same boards or the same knives for preparing raw food and food ready to eat
(unless they are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected)
This helps to prevent the spread of bacteria from food to food.
Harmful bacteria from raw meat can spread from knives boards or other food.
7.5. Preparation (cooking), eg grill
When you add products from raw meat, make sure they do not touch or drip on food already prepared.
Bacteria can be spread from row meat in other foods that would be safe to eat anymore.
It is important to keep food covered to protect from harmful bacteria. This is especially important for food prepared and ready to eat food. Always use containers or bags that are designed to preserve food. Margins include suggested food wrap, thin bags, plastic boxes with lids or freezer bags. Do not store food in open boxes.
When to cover the food:
- See the instructions of the manufacturer to see if coverage is appropriate for what you are using.
- You should always make sure food is properly covered.
- Make sure not to drop coverage in food.
- When not re-use folien, thin bags or bags for freezing.
- Make sure the plastic boxes to be cleaned, disinfected and dried to between uses
What to do if things go wrong
If you think that food ready to eat is was not kept separate from raw meat, throw it away.
If the equipment / area / vessel had touched raw meat, clean it, dry and desinfectin order to prevent the spread of bacteria.
Cooling food properly helps in stopping the growth of bacteria.
Some foods should stay cold to keep them safe as milk cream, sweets, boiled food, food with the sign "valid until" in the food with label that writes keep on fridge
Cooling food properly help in stopping the growth of bacteria.
This part talk about food preservation and exposure to cold, cooling hot food , freezing and melting
Cold place for storage and food exposure to cold
Bacteria can develop good into food that is not kept in cold
Some specific foods must be kept cold to keep them safe, eg
- Limited using time Food
- Food which says "keep refrigerated"
- Food that is cooked and not served immediately
- Meals ready to eat as salads and sweets
Follow the manufacturers guidelines on how to use the fridge and other cooling devices.
It is important to use the device in a proper manner to ensure that food is kept cold enough.
Enter only the amount of food you think you need. Expose on short time possible.
It is important to keep food cold temp. low until it's on display for preventing the spread of bacteria in food.
It is recommended that the refrigerator and cooling device for exposure should be adjusted based on food found in:
- max from +2°C if it’s fresh fish - max from +3°C if there is eg. liver, kidney,
- max from +4°C if is there poultry meat,
- max from +7°C if beef meat or if you store cooked food
You should check the temperature of your cooling equipment at least once a day, starting with opening controls.
Prepared cold food must be kept at 7 degrees max. in byfe, you should use the exhibition equipment appropriate to keep it at 8 degrees or below. If you are offered hot meals, these are kept in boxes that hold warmth in at least 63 °C.
If this is not possible, you can expose your food storage abroad for 4 hours. You can do this only once.
After this time you have to put the food back in the frize to keep to 8 degrees or below until used or have to throw it.
If you pull it out of the food storage place for exposure, keep in mind not to mix the new food with the food that is already in exposure. It can send that old food to stay there for long.
If the food on display is not kept cool enough temperature for more than four hours, throw it.
7.7. Cooling hot food
Harmful bacteria in food can be created if the food is not cooled as soon as possible.
If you have prepared food which will not be immediately served, Cold as fast as possible and then place it in the fridge.
Bacteria can be created in food which is left to cool slowly.
Avoid preparing in advance of large quantities of food, unless the one you need.
Smaller quantities of food gets cold quicklyer.
Mix food regularly while it is being cooled.
Mixing food helps to cool down equally.
Cover food and put it in a cold area. (Eg food storage).
Use fan cooler with air to cool food.
Fan cooler with air is designed to cool hot foods quickly and safely.
Harmful bacteria can be created in food which is not properly melted.
Food should be melted completely before cooking (unless the manufacturer's instructions say you boil food from frozen condition or have any other safety approved method).
If the food is still frozen or semi-frozen, it will take longer time to be boiled.
Outer part of the food may be cooked but not the inner part, which means that can contain harmful bacteria.
How do you do this?
Does you check the food if it is entirely melted before cooking? Yes
If not, what do you do?..
Ways of melting the food
The idea is, earlier planning time and space to melt small amounts of food in the fridge.
If you can not defrost food in the fridge, you can put it in cans with lids and insert under cold water flowing.
Cold water will help to accelerate the melting without allowing the food getting to hot from outside.
Or you can defrost food in the microwave in the melting process.
This is a faster way for melting the food.
You can also melt (defrost) food at room temperature. Ready for eating food (foods that do not need to fight or re heated after the merger) eg cheese pasta, follow the manufacturer's instructions to melting.
If you are melting the food you've prepared, set it out at room temperature for as short time as possible. The perfect method of melting these foods is the refrigerator.
Foods will melt very fast at room temperature, but the bacteria can be created if food becomes too faint during melting.
Keep meat separate from other foods when it is being merged, to prevent crosscontamination. When once again be melted food you should use it immediately (within a day).
When you think the food is melted, it is important to check to make sure.
The exterior may look melted, but the inside may still be frozen.
How you do this?
Check for ice crystals by hand.
Care is important in food freezing and processing of frozen food safely.
Place the frozen food in the freezer (deep frizzing) once they have reached the delivery.
Ready meals may under any circumstances again warmed up for the second time
Freezing should be at least -18 ° C. Industrial commercial freeze is permitted only with system tools "frost shock."(Immediate deep freeze).
Frozen foods are suitable and unsuitable, as follows, using the following information:
- The date of freezing,
- To specify the content of what is frozen
Periods listed below Frozen foods should not be exceeded (when the food froze till - 18 ° C):
- Fish: max 1 month
- Cake and bread: max 3 months
- Poultry: max 3 months
- Pig meat: max 4 months
- Calves meat: max 5 months
- Heated products: max 6 months
- Cheese and butter: max 7 months
- Fruits and Vegetables and herbs (herbs): max 8 months
- If frozen food starts to melt can create harmful bacteria.
If you are freezing fresh food, freeze immediately after they have reached or prepared
Freeze hot food immediately after it cooled.
The more you wait for food to be frozen, the greater is the chance of creating bacteria.
Divide food into smaller quantities and place it in kanaqe or freezer bag before freezing.
Smaller portions will be raised (and merge) soon.
Mid to large portion takes more time to freeze, which allows bacteria to create.
Use of cans or bags to prevent cross-contamination freezing..
When you defreeze your food, make a note (eg tape) to freeze date and the date when it is melted. When the food is to be merged should be used immediately (within a day).
What to do if things go wrong.
If you notice that your fridge is not working properly, then you need to act as follows:
1. The food is still frozen (ice and Hard) should be placed in a freezer immediately another alternative. If there is no alternative freezer, Defreeze food safely using the fusion method.
2. Food that has begun to melt (ie begins to melt and give off juice) should be moved to another location and convenient to proceed with the merger with any reliable methods for smelting.
3. Food completely melted (eg creamy and lukewarm) to boiling if appropriate (p.sh raw meat and birds) until boiling jet set. Use the food immediately after cooking or refrigerate or freeze in order to be safe. If this is not possible, throw..
4. Food should be kept frozen (eg ice) can not be re-established when once started to melt.
You must use it immediately or throw it.
It is essential that food preparation is done in the proper way to destroy any harmful bacteria. If not adequately prepared, may not be safe for your customers to eat.
It is also very important to maintain the protection of food ready to eat from harmful bacteria.
This is because they will not be cooked or heated again before serving.
This section includes information on cooking safety, foods that need extra care, re-heating, food kept warm and ready meals.
Full cooking kills harmful bacteria
When appropriate, follow cooking instructions for food from manufacturers
If you use equipment before you heat food in advance, food will delay more to cook. This means that the cooking time recommended in the recipe or the instructions of the manufacturer would not be correct.
The manufacturer has tried and tested cooking methods specific to secure his / her products.
Preparatory heating equipment such as ovens and grill before cooking.
Do not allow the non-cooked food to touch or drip on cooked food such when added to food on the grill / spit.
Non-cooked food can transmit harmful bacteria, which can be distributed in cooked food and not be safer.
If you serve beef or lamb meat (all pieces such as steak and mangled parts), make sure that all exterior surfaces to be fully cooked, eg while the pan fried.
This will kill harmful bacteria in the outer parts of the meat.
Flip the meat and poultry during cooking.
This helps the cooking to be the same.
Make sure that your dish liquid, eg soups and dressing, are being boiled.
This is to ensure that food is hot enough to be fully prepared and to kill bacteria.
Stir constantly dish liquid.
This is to help ensure that food is the same temperature all the time, no space cooling..
Check - use these checks to show if food is prepared in the proper manner.
Check if the chicken are cooked enough in the thick parts of the legs. Meat should not be pink or red.
Liquids should not have pink or red colour.
Verify that all pieces of pork and processed meat products, such as dressing and hamburger, must drein hot at all times to not remain pink or red in the middle.
Verify that dish liquid dish boils rapidly when you are mixed.
Verify that all external surfaces of the meat pieces and all pieces (beef or lamb) are fully cooked.
Cut off the fish in the midle, or to needles (bones), if is any, to verify that colors and shapes have changed. All parts of fish (eg fillet tone) can be served 'rare' as long as it is completely smoothed out.
To verify a piece of pork or coils, submit a gadget to the middle until the liquid out. Fluid should have no pink or red colour.
What to do if things go wrong?
- cook food longer
- speed up the process of cooking, for example by sharing food in smaller quantities, or using different equipment.
How to prevent this not to happen again?
- Repair or replacement of equipment.
- Review your way of cooking. You may need to add time or temperature, or use different devices.
- Train the staff again on this way of safety.
- Improving supervision of staff.
Cook foods containing eggs or eggs until they are dry.
Eggs may contain harmful bacteria. If you cook them completely, it kills every bacteria.
Use pasteurized egg (not ordinary eggs) in each food that will not be cooked, or cooked just such mayonnaise and mousse.
Pasteurization also kills bacteria, this is what makes the egg more secure option pasteurise.
How you should do this?
List dishes containing eggs that you prepare or cook.
It is essential to maintain safe rice to ensure it is safe to eat.
Rice can contain spores of the type of harmful bacteria that can not be killed with heat or re heating.
How you should do this?
How do you keep rice warm before service?
When you cook rice, make sure to keep warm until you serve or refrigerate as soon as possible and then keep in refrigerator.
If cooked rice is left at room temperature, spores can multiply and produce poisons that cause food poisoning. Re-warming can not remove them.
You can refrigerate rice quickly dividing into smaller parts, thus distributed in a clean tray or putting it under cold water (make sure water is clean and the quality for drinking).
Follow the instructions on how to baste packing cooked vegetables and dried legumes, such as beans.
Pulse can contain natural poisons that can ill people unless they are destroyed with proper moisten manner and cooking.
Vegetables canned legumes should be cooked and stained.
7.11. Re Heating
It is very important re-heat food in order to be killed due to harmful bacteria that can be grown from the time when food is cooked
Make sure to use the device to re-heat / cooks food effectively and follow the manufacturer's manual device.
If the device is not suitable for re-heating, or not used properly, food may not heat up enough to kill many bacteria.
Equipment for pre heating such as furnaces and the grills for re-heat.
Meal may take longer to warm whether you use the device prior to being heated in advance.
This means that the time recommended for re-heating in the recipe or guide the manufacturers may not be long enough
If you are re-heated food in the microwave, follow the instructions of the manufacturer of the product, including advice on maintenance and movement.
The manufacturer has tested guidelines to ensure that new products will adequately heated.
Posture and movement are part of the process of cooking / re heating in the microwave and helps to ensure that food will be on same temparature all the time.
If you use the microwave to re heat food that you have prepared yourself, it is recommended to mix during reheating.
When food enters the microwave, can become very warm on the side and still be cold in midmixture helps prevent this.
Serve food that you reheat immediately, unless goes right on niche.
If food is not served immediately, the temperature will fall and harmful bacteria can grow.
Remember, re-heat means cooking again, not just heat. Always heat until it drip (this has to do only once). Do not put hot food in the food handler before properly heating.
Verify that food heated again is kept appropriately (steam) hooked.
7.12. Heating holder
It is very important that food be kept hot until served to prevent harmful bacteria to grow
If you need to keep food warm before service, you need to use appropriate equipment.
It's hard to keep the food consistent and safe temperature without proper equipment.
Preheat each measuring heat before you put food in.
Placing food in cold equipment means that can not be kept sufficiently warm enough to prevent growth of harmful baketrieve.
Food should be cooked thoroughly and exude warm before you put on the heating holder.
Equipment for holding of heating is only for heat storage.
It should not be used for cooking or re heating of food.
Hot food must be kept at temperatures above 63 ° C, except some special exemptions
When expose to warm food, eg in the cupboard, should use appropriate equipment for heat storage to keep the temperature above 63 ° C. If this is not possible, you can extract food from the holder exposed to heat for two hours. You can do this only once.
After this time, you must either return back to the holder of the heat, refrigerate them as quickly as possible to 8 ° C or lower, or burned. Remember to keep food at safe temperatures until it will be used
If the extract food from holder exposed to heat, remember not to be mixed with food that is already on display. This could send the old food left out for too long.
7.13 Ready Meals
It is important to maintain safely ready food in order to protect from harmful bacteria
What are ready meals?
Prepared foods are those foods that should not be cooked or re-heated before service. These include salads, and cooked meaty such as carcase, sweets, sandwiches, cheese and foods that you cooked before for serving as a cold food.
To protect food from harmful bacteria:
- Keep ready food seperate from unprepared meat / poultry and eggs
- Ensure working areas. Working boards, knives, etc. that are cleaned (and disinfected if you use raw meat or poultry)
- Keep ready food covered
This is to prevent harmful ingoing of bacteria into the food. This is especially important for food ready to eat because it will not be cooked or reheated before serving.
How you do this?
List sorts of prepared foods that you use:
Follow the manufacturer's instructions on how to keep and prepare foods if available.
Manufacturers guidelines are designed to keep food safe.
When prepares vegetables and salad ingredients:
- Decorticate, decoration or remove the outer parts as required
- clean thoroughly with quality drinking water
If you prepare vegetables that have dirt or mud in the outer parts, cleanse on the working table and prepare surfaces before preparing the other food
Dirtiness in vegetables and salads can contain harmful bacteria. Excoiration and cleaning helps to remove dirt.
Make sure that foods ready for eating are enough cold.
If these types of food are not kept cold enough, then it will grow harmful bacteria.
How you do this?
Is staff trained on how shoud be adequately cleaned cutting, or supervised?
What to do if things go wrong?
- If you feel that the delivery of food is not donein safe manner, refuse shipment
- If prepared vegetables or salad ingredients are not cleaned properly, clean it following the advice given in the begin of the page and cleanse each area of work, etc. that are affected.
- If the food is ready or prepared to work surface with knives that are used in non-cooked meat / poultry or eggs freeze out food.
- If ready food is not safe cooled, dfreeze out food.
How to stop in order to dont occur anymore?
- If you think that supplier dont keep safety food, consider change of supplier.
- Review the way that you receive shipments.
- Review how to stores and prepares ready food.
- Train staff again on ways of security.
- Improve supervision of staff
There should be adequate supply of drinking water, which is used whenever it is necessary to ensure that foodstuffs are not contaminated.
When using non-potable water, for example for fire control, steam production, refrigeration, or other similar reasons, must circulate in the system to share and be appropriately discrete. Nonpotable water should not be linked to or exceed drinking water system.
Managing your business effectively is vital for food safety. This section includes information on various management issues, including controls to do when you are opening or closing, suppliers and contractors, stock control, training and supervising staff.
8.1. Controls of the opening and closing
It is essential that you and your staff to make certain checks each time on the opening and closing. This helps you maintain the standards that you must make sure that your business prepare safe food
You should do these checks at the beginning of the day. You can also add your controls list.
Your coolant, equipment and refrigerators are working correctly.
Your other devices (eg microwave) is working properly.
The staff is equipped to work and are provided with clean clothes.
Food preparation areas are clean (work areas, equipment, vessels and utensils, etc.)
There are enough kitchen sinks and cleaning materials (soap, paper towels, wardrobe, etc..)
You should do these checks at the end of the day. You can also add your controls list.
There is no food left outside.
Food that is not used within the date of use is refuse
Dirty clothes are removed and replaced with clean ones
Wastes are removed and new bags are placed in baskets
Controls the opening and closing are also listed in the agenda
8.2. Special controls
Perform special audits on a regular basis helps ensure that your methods are followed
Some of the security methods in the rest of the package advises you to check some things regularly. These are less frequent than controls of daily openings and closings. You can find this help as you have all these checks written in one place.
In the table below are some examples of separate controls. Enter the details of the additional controls you do and how often you do those. You can add other controls below.
When you perform additional checks, do not forget to write notes on dairy.
Safe method What to do How to do
Reheat and cook Safe method of cooking and reheating in cooking section tells you how to check that food is cooked / reheated entirely. If you do various checks, then you must prove that it is safe.
You should do this only once. Food is safe if it has reached a temperature high enough for long enough.
If you want to check the temperature of food, use clean probe. Enter a check so that the tip is at the heart of food
(or most intense).
Example of the security of time / temperature combination includes:
̊C for at least 6 seconds
̊C for at least 30 seconds
Keeping in warm Security Method "keeping warm in the cooking section shows you how to keep warm safely.
It is a legal requirement that food must be kept warmer than 63
To check that food is kept at about 63 C heat, use a clean probe so tip is at the center of the food or in the dense
Cooling hot food, frozen food storage and deployment of this food
Method of cooling hot food in the freezer section shows you how to cool hot food safely and method of storage and frozen food establishment that
To check that food is 8 C or lower, use a clean stylet so tip is at the center of the food or in the dense.
shows you how to keep food cool.
Sometimes these can be more than a way of cooling hot food that is appropriate for what you are doing. Then you might want to compare different options in order to find it efective one.
Comparison of different cooling options by proving them with the same food
When you have already cooked food, test temperature with clean probe, start raising using options and test the temperature again at regular intervals to see what is coming down fast.
Repeat this with other options to see which is faster.
8.3. USE OF TEMPERATURE STYLET
Type of stylet Where tu use stylet How to use stylet
Thermometer with the help of scale
These are usually used to test the meat. Some are safe in the oven and can be left on the meat until cooked.
If the stylet is not yet in the meat, place and leave for up to two minutes before you get to reading.
Some are not safe in the oven and are destined to insert after the meat is cooked.
Clean thoroughly and dezinfect stylet before you use it again. This helps to prevent contamination over
Digital Thermometer These are generally easily accessible and accurate. They can be used in many foods, but are not suitable to be put in the oven.
Insert stylet. Wait for stabilisation of the screen before they get to reading.
Clean thoroughly and dezinfect stylet before you use it again. This helps to prevent over contamination
Check your stylet
It is essential to know that your stylet is working in proper order, so you can count on her readings. So you can check in regularly. Manufacturer's instructions should include details on how often the stylet should be checked and how to show whether it is correct
Simple method of controlling for digital stylet is to put in frozen water and then boil water
* Reading in the frozen water should be between a C and C -1.
* Reading in the frozen water should be between -1 and 1 C ̊C.Reading Frozen water in the EU should Between a C and C -1.
If reading is outside the amplitude, you should replace your stylet or return to the manufacturer to be calibrated
Check your stylet - probe
It is very important to keep your stylet clean, otherwise it can distribute without cleanliness and harmful bacteria in food that you are testing. When the probe enters in the food, clean with hot water and detergent.
You have to look after your stylet to prevent demolition and to help in order to work properly.
Do not leave within digital cooler stylet or your refrigerator or hot space. When you are not using, store safely, away from extreme temperatures and liquids. Keep stylet in his bag if you have. Avoid crash or hunting of your stlet. If the battery is low, immediately replace.
8.4 Food Waste Management
1. Food waste, by-products and other waste should be removed from areas where food is present, to avoid their accumulation.
2. Food waste, by-products not consumed and other waste must be deposited into closing containers, unless food business operator is able to demonstrate to the competent authorities that other types of containers or waste removal systems that use is convenient. These containers must be kept in good condition with proper structure and be easy pastrymi them and when necessary disinfection.
3. Appropriate measures should be taken for the maintenance and disposal of food waste, under that is not consumed and other waste products. Spaces for food residue should be designed and
maintained in such a way as to facilitate their cleaning and when it is needed may not enter or animals or insects.
4. All waste must be disposed of in a hygienic way and environmental appropriately in accordance with applicable law related to this issue, and do not constitute direct or indirect source of contamination.
9. TRAINING AND SUPERVISION
It is essential to train and monitor your staff effectively to ensure that they are handling food safely
You must train your staff in all safety methods that are relevant for the work they do.
You also need to monitor them in order to verify that it is monitoring the safety methods in an appropriate manner
What to do
Once you have worked through them, use of safety methods in this package to train staff.
You must make sure that each staff member knows the methods of safety for all the tasks they do.
Make sure they know what training have attended each member of the staff.
Tell your staff what to do, ask them carefully on their knowledge and ask them to show you
Keep notes on the staff training records on the blog every time you train a staff member.
View staff members when they perform duties or any part of their duties.
Make comments and Observations to help staff members to improve their way of working.
Reward good performance by giving positive feadback when the member of staff has
When a staff member has completed the task, ask them how they followed the method of safety, which helps to confirm whether you have done correctly. followed the successful methods of safety.
If the safety method is not followed by staff member, tell them they are going wrong and why it is important to follow the method of safety.
What to do if things go wrongly How to prevent this from happening again
If staff is not following the method of security in an appropriate manner, train again and make sure to understand why it is important to follow methods.
Use the 4 weekly review journal in order to identify any problem with that how the staff is following safety methods and plan your training to address these.
When you sign a journal you are confirming that you have to supervise all staff involved in the preparation of food that day. This means ensuring that your staff follow your methods and safety and fix whatever the problem is recorded in journal.
If you are away from the business, you can delegate responsibility for the journal to a staff member. Sometimes there may be more than one person responsible eg day when more than one shift, and in these cases the diary may need to sign more than once.
Keep a journal entry to those staff members who have been given the responsibility and train them in all relevant safety methods, including a section of Management. Staff must understand how blog works. If something different happens or something goes wrong, they must take action and note what they have done in the agenda. You still must complete its review of the fourth week.
The reaction of customers is a good indication of how well you're managing your business
Keeping your customers happy and to protect their health with good and hygienic food is essential to the success of your business. So it is very important to pay attention to any complaint
What to do?
Find the source of the problem.
Dëgjoni çfarëdo ankese me kujdes dhe shënoni detajet. Këto mund të nxjerrin në pah problemet e biznesit tuaj
Prove how it came to the problem. This is especially important if the problem has no effect on food safety. If the customer complains he is sick from your food you should examine carefully.
Solve the problem
Train staff how to behave with customers
Review the relevant methods of safety. You may need to change how to do things. Indicate any changes in the journal.
It is important that staff know how to respond to customer feedback and what action to take.
11. SUPPLIER AND CONTRACTOR
The way you deal with suppliers and contractors is important for food safety
What to do? Why? How to do it?
Choose with care provider.
Select contractors carefully
It is important to have the supplier you can trust that handles food in safe mode also delivering on time, etc..
Make sure to choose a provider you can trust.
Ask the following questions:
- - Does supplier watch over packages within conditions of hygiene during transport?
- - Does supplier / contractor offers invoices with full reference ?
- - Does they have certificates of quality assurance?
Ask other businesses for recommendations.
Services such as control of insects, bacteria may be contributing to food safety.
It is important to have contractors who you can trust to send those services effectively.
Make sure that non processed ingredients are handled safely
Author points to make food safety is to be confident about the safety of non processed ingredients and products ready to buy.
Check that the supplier has the system of food safety management
Check regular delivery time, temperature and quality controls
If you buy goods with cash and make sure that remote device used to transport is clean and you bring your food
is frozen as quickly as possible and put right in the fridge.
Keep all reports and receipts for food. These should include details of provider products including the amount and date.
This is a legal requirement or official you can control bound to see that the food came.
Keep receipts, reports, etc.. In order to make it easy for you or official required to control them.
Write your supplier details
(names, addresses, etc.) in the journal
Choose equipment carefully That allow you to make safe food, is very important that equipment to work effectively.
Buy equipment from reputable agents.
Make sure they have the guarantee / authorization
What to do if things go wrongly
If you do not think that food is delivered safely (eg if they are not kept cold enough) refuse shipment, contact your supplier immediately and write the details in the agenda.
1 Contact supplier with telephone
2. Write a formal letter of complaint
3. Change supplier / contractor
4. Contact your local authority.
Vehicles used for transporting food products should be kept clean and maintained in good condition to protect them from contamination, and shall where necessary be designed and constructed to allow adequate cleaning and disinfection
13. STOCK CONTROL
Stock control effectively is an important part of food safety management..
What to do?
Go through your menu and estimate how much of each ingredient you need
Work through the menu allows you to plan on your specific needs
How to do it?
Review your menu regularly and how they will affect your needs for the stock.
Talk to your provider for your needs.
Plan for further in order to make sure you have the proper amount in stock and order carefully.
Do short stock holding is the best food safety and your profits.
Plan stock that you need for each shift
Make sure that staff know about the stock requirements for each shift.
Use the provider that understands your business needs and provides the stock at the time.
Makes control of stock before place order
Verify all stock when received and make sure that:
All these checks are to ensure that food is safe to use
Train your staff what to check when checking shipments
It is within the date of use Damaged packaging could mean that food is not safe for
Have a written agreement with your provider for your
It is kept at proper temperature use shipment
It is not broken
Stock is clean and not damaged eg throw away any such packages that have been drilled vacuum swollen packages or bad printed, cans and control are provided on the bottles are preserved without glass
Suppressed packages can be considered to have bacteria in food or drink
If the bottles are open or have or cover food or beverages, may not be safe to use
Perform spot checks in its shipment
Use a diary to record any issues or problems with deliveries
If you remove the food from the original packaging in other containers, be sure to make a note on the name of food, ingredients and date of use
Perform regular audits of stock and remove any food that is overdue use
You should not ever use food that has passed the date of use,because may not be safe to eat.
Follow System the first in the first out of the rotation of stock, so that old stock is used first. It helps to reduce losses.
Train your staff in control of staff and make sure they know on what rules to use food.
Check regularly that stock control is carried out effectively
Record stock checks in the diary.
What to do if things go wrong
If you see that you have in stock more food than you need and you think you can not use before the expiry date you can freeze some of them in order to use in future
If you find food with expired date that is not removed must immediately remove
How do I stop this happening again
Review process orders
Review the system of stock rotation
Review the agreement with the supplier
Train staff back to the security methods
Improve supervision of staff.
If you do not think that bringing food is handled safely, reject the shipment if possible.
Do not use food and contact your provider immediately.
13. Procedure of product withdrawal / traceability
Definition: Traceability means:
The ability to trace or forwarded to the food, feed, food production, animal or any substance intended to be, or expected to be incorporated into food for humans or for animals, through the stages of production, processing or distribution. In simple words: "One step forward and one step back."
Food business operator must be able to identify any "person" from which it received food or raw materials. This "person" may be a private person (eg mushroom gatherers ore hunters) or legal entity (such as a business or a company).
- Applying for restaurants and cafes:
For these categories of companies traceability is useful to supply products. Means need only be shown that the product came from (one step back). This is considered to be evidence of receipts or packaging labels. Evidence for final use (customer in a restaurant) is not necessary and not possible.
Definition: Procedur of withdrawal means:
The ability to trace or forwarded to the food, feed, food production, animal or any substance intended to be, or expected to be incorporated into food for humans or for animals, through the stages of production, processing or distribution. In simple words: "We will withdraw my product."
Withdrawal means to lusësh customer to return the product to the place of purchase or to destroy it. Withdrawal is necessary when other measures are not sufficient to achieve high level of health protection. (withdrawal of unsafe product).
- Application in restaurants and coffee:
Withdrawal is useful and necessary, if the finished product is manufactured and sold to other dealers. As a direct withdrawal from the final user this is not the withdrawal procedure neither useful nor possible. Information about the location of the food chain ends.
14. HACCP, Hazards analysis and critical control points
General implementation of procedures based on HACCP principles, together with the implementation of good hygiene practices, would have to raise the responsibility of food companies.
Hazards analysis and critical control points
1. Food business operators shall establish, implement and maintain a permanent procedure or procedures based on HACCP principles.
2. HACCP principles referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of:
(a) Identifying any hazard which must be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels;
(b) Identification of critical control points in the stages where control is essential to prevent or eliminate a hazard or reduce it to acceptable levels;
(c) Establish critical limits at critical control points which separate acceptable from unacceptable criteria for the prevention, elimination or reduction of identified hazards;
(d) Establishing and implementing effective monitoring procedures at critical control points;
(e) Establish corrective actions if monitoring shows that the critical control point is not under control;
(f) Establish procedures to be applied regularly, to verify that the measures outlined in subparagraphs (a) through (e) are functioning effectively;
(g) Creation of documents and records according to size, capacity and nature of the undertaking to demonstrate food at the effective implementation of the measures referred to in subparagraphs
(a) through (f).
If you have changes in products, process, or stage of the process, food business operators shall review the procedure and make the necessary changes.
3. Paragraph 1 shall apply only to food business operators who conduct which stage of production, processing or distribution of food after primary production and associated actions.
4. Food business operators will:
(a) provide the competent authority evidence of meeting the requirements of paragraph 1 as required by it, considering the nature and size of the food business;
(b) ensure that each document that describes the procedures developed in accordance with this section shall be updated and supplemented at any time;
(c) keep records for a certain period.
15. Document and record keeping
Maintaining documentation and protocol ling them effectively is essential for the application of
Good Hygienic Practices.Duhet të ekzistoj dokumenti i përdorimit të metodave dhe procedurave
- Data records during staff training program
It is important for the operator to demonstrate that all principles are applied correctly, and documentation is maintained (settled) according to the nature and number of operations.
Documentation of procedures for all phases of the process are included in the guide and are controlled by the Management staff.
Checklists as shown in the following examples should be used in relation with the documentation:
- Temperature kontroll ,
- Cleaning and disinfection plan,
- Hygienic control of the enterprise,
- Training of staff,
- Pest controll,
- Weast managment.
16. Information on the product and customer awareness
It is important to understand that the customer is a link of important for the ultimate safety of food. Therefore information on the product and awareness are an important parameters to be included in the chain from farm to table.
Products should keep on appropriate information to ensure that:
Proper information and that has easy access, are available to other people your food chain to enable the handling, storage, processing, preparation and display the product safely and correctly.
Consignment or part of a shipment can be easily identified and withdrawn if necessary.
Consumers should have enough knowledge regarding food hygiene possible that these:
- understand the importance of information on the product,
- make appropriate choices for individuals based on their information and
- to prevent contamination and growth or existence of pathogens originating from food preparation and storage for use of regular food.
Information from consumers or industry trade should be clearly distinguishable tee Consumer information especially regarding food labeling.
Reasonable explanation: Insufficient information on the product or inadequate knowledge of general food hygiene, can make the products handled carelessly in earlier stages of the food chain.
This un carefulness may result in illness or products suitable for consumption, even where adequate hygiene control measures are undertaken in the earliest stages of the food chain.
Kontrolla e Temperaturës
Month/Year: _____________________ Room/ Unit or product (s)
Temperature set: ___________
C Max. Deviation : +/- ________________________
Date Temperature Deviation measures
Checking Lists C&D
Clearness in the lavatory
Calendar week The following equipment should be checked at least 3 times a day!
Date Time Sink
Paper towel dispenser
Preventive measures against pests (insects)
If applicable pest control company: _________________________________
Date Area The result Measures Signature
In case of occurrence of insects, location of traps must be marked in the scheme of the enterprise and should be described in the index.
Date of Delivery
Received by: pro duct corr ect deli vere
qua ntity deli vere d
vehi cle insp ecte d for clea nlin ess
tem pera ture on vehi cle
gau ge food is prote cted by prope r packa ging products are proper labelled products are within their best before or use by date temper a-ture of food at deliver y accepte d/ rejecte d not es sign
Responsible Person: ____________________________________________________________
Cleaning performed by
Mo Tue Wed Thu Fr Sat Sun
Month: _______________________ Year: _______________ Area:
Remarks / Measures
Training of staff for hygiene
The presentation leader:
Members / Employees Signature Workplace(working position)
Valdet Gjinovci, Chief Executive Officer of FVA
Date: XX. XX. 2013
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