HP X.25/9000 User`s Guide

HP X.25/9000 User`s Guide
HP X.25/9000 User's Guide
HP-UX 11i v3
HP Part Number: 5900-1523
Published: September 2011
Edition: 9
© Copyright 2007, 2011 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
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Contents
1 About the X.25 product...............................................................................7
Introduction..............................................................................................................................7
Application (L7), Presentation (L6), and Session (L5) levels.............................................................8
Transport level (L4)....................................................................................................................8
Packet/Network level (L3)..........................................................................................................9
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) levels..........................................................................................9
2 Installation...............................................................................................10
Before you install the software..................................................................................................10
Hardware requirements......................................................................................................10
Installing multiple X.25 interface cards.............................................................................10
Hardware compatibility.................................................................................................10
OS platform and version compatibility.............................................................................10
Memory.......................................................................................................................10
Software requirements........................................................................................................12
Installing the X.25 link software................................................................................................12
3 Configuration...........................................................................................13
Configuring the X.25 link.........................................................................................................13
Using SMH.......................................................................................................................13
Using SMH’s on-line help...............................................................................................14
Configuring an X.25 address...............................................................................................14
Configuring X.25 virtual circuits (VCs)...................................................................................15
Configuring an Internet address...........................................................................................16
Verifying level 3 values.......................................................................................................18
Verifying level 2 values.......................................................................................................22
Configuring remote system access.............................................................................................23
Configuring X.25 over LLC2.....................................................................................................26
Configuration files..............................................................................................................26
Starting and stopping configuration......................................................................................31
Sample setup and configuration...........................................................................................31
One Lan and two boxes configuration..............................................................................31
Configuring two Lans, with one box per Lan.....................................................................34
Troubleshooting LLC2 configuration..................................................................................36
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)..............................................................................................37
Configuration files..............................................................................................................37
Starting and stopping configuration......................................................................................40
Sample setup and configuration...........................................................................................41
Switched virtual connection (SVC) over XOT setup..............................................................41
Permanent virtual connection (PVC) over XOT setup............................................................47
Troubleshooting XOT configuration.......................................................................................53
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over TCP......................................................55
Configuring PAD services for X.25 over TCP..........................................................................55
Configuring PAD services.........................................................................................................55
Add/Modify PAD terminal emulation (local to remote)............................................................56
Add/Modify PAD support server (remote to local)..................................................................56
Add/Modify PAD printers server..........................................................................................57
Add/Modify UUCP server...................................................................................................57
Add/Modify X.3 parameters...............................................................................................57
Configuring the high availability feature....................................................................................58
X.25 Cluster definition........................................................................................................59
X.25 Commands to be configured in high availability packages..............................................59
Contents
3
X.25 Package definition.................................................................................................59
X.25 High availability configuration................................................................................60
Checking the configuration.............................................................................................60
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2.........................................................61
Unique MAC address requirement........................................................................................61
Local failover.....................................................................................................................62
Configuring XOL HA for local failover without ServiceGuard...............................................62
Remote failover..................................................................................................................64
Configuring XOL HA for remote failover using Service Guard (SG)......................................64
XOL cluster definition.....................................................................................................66
X.25 commands used in the SG package control scripts:....................................................66
XOL package definition..................................................................................................66
Remote failover with local failover support using Service Guard...............................................67
Verifying the X.25 link.............................................................................................................70
4 OLA/R overview and concepts...................................................................71
Introduction............................................................................................................................71
Important terms and concepts...................................................................................................71
Planning and preparation........................................................................................................71
Card compatibility.............................................................................................................72
On-line addition...........................................................................................................72
On-line replacement......................................................................................................72
Critical resources...............................................................................................................72
Failover actions/single points of failure.................................................................................73
How to on-line replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI card using SMH.......................................................73
How to on-line add (OLA) a J3525A PCI card using SMH............................................................75
5 Diagnostic utilities.....................................................................................77
Using diagnostic utilities..........................................................................................................77
Before using the diagnostic utilities............................................................................................78
x25check and x25server.........................................................................................................78
x25stat..................................................................................................................................82
x25mibstat............................................................................................................................92
6 PAD services............................................................................................94
Introduction............................................................................................................................94
CCITT recommendations.....................................................................................................94
PAD services and the HP 9000 host.....................................................................................95
Remote PAD support (x29server)...............................................................................................95
Overview..........................................................................................................................95
Call acceptance mechanism and system security...............................................................96
Supported remote PAD terminals.....................................................................................96
Configuring remote PAD support..........................................................................................96
Configuring pad_spt Parameters......................................................................................97
pad_spt parameters.......................................................................................................97
Launching applications automatically...............................................................................98
Remote PAD printer support (x29printd).....................................................................................99
Overview..........................................................................................................................99
System requirements.........................................................................................................100
Configuring remote PAD printers........................................................................................100
Configuring the UNIX line-printer spooler for x29printd.........................................................101
Examples........................................................................................................................101
x29printd and lpsched Operation.................................................................................101
Printer configuration....................................................................................................102
Verifying the configuration............................................................................................102
UUCP support (x29uucpd).....................................................................................................103
4
Contents
Overview........................................................................................................................103
Configuring UUCP PAD support.........................................................................................103
Configuring the x29hosts file........................................................................................104
pad_uucp parameters..................................................................................................104
Configuring system and device files for UUCP......................................................................105
Local PAD emulation (padem).................................................................................................108
Command mode..............................................................................................................109
Data transfer mode..........................................................................................................109
Configuring local PAD emulation........................................................................................109
Parameter descriptions.................................................................................................109
PAD commands....................................................................................................................110
X.28 PAD command set....................................................................................................110
Extended command set.....................................................................................................111
Configuring X.3 profile parameters.........................................................................................111
Configuration set syntax....................................................................................................112
Parameter values.........................................................................................................112
Modifying parameters......................................................................................................113
Default X.3 parameters.....................................................................................................113
X.3 Parameter descriptions.....................................................................................................113
7 Tracing and logging utilities.....................................................................118
Introduction..........................................................................................................................118
nettl....................................................................................................................................119
Syntax............................................................................................................................119
Parameters.................................................................................................................119
Examples........................................................................................................................120
netfmt.................................................................................................................................120
Syntax............................................................................................................................120
Parameters.................................................................................................................120
Examples........................................................................................................................121
Creating a filter file..........................................................................................................123
Filter file examples.......................................................................................................124
strace..................................................................................................................................125
Syntax............................................................................................................................125
Parameters.................................................................................................................125
Examples of the strace command.......................................................................................128
Examples of strace output.................................................................................................128
strerr...................................................................................................................................129
Syntax............................................................................................................................129
Parameters.................................................................................................................129
8 Troubleshooting......................................................................................130
Troubleshooting your X.25 link...............................................................................................130
Troubleshooting flowcharts and procedures.........................................................................130
Flowchart 2 – Procedures and notes...................................................................................131
Note 2-1 – x25stat......................................................................................................131
Note 2-2 – eisa_config.................................................................................................131
Flowchart 3 – Procedures and notes...................................................................................132
Note 3-1 – Hardware check..........................................................................................132
Flowchart 4 – Procedures and notes...................................................................................133
Note 4-1 – X25check...................................................................................................133
Note 4-2 – Exit...........................................................................................................133
Flowchart 5 – Procedures and notes...................................................................................134
Note 5-1 – Ping...........................................................................................................134
Note 5-2 – Checking your IP over X.25 configuration.......................................................134
Note 5-3 – Exit...........................................................................................................135
Contents
5
Recovering from a power failure.............................................................................................135
For systems with a backup power supply.............................................................................135
For systems with no backup power supply...........................................................................135
Reporting problems...............................................................................................................136
Back-to-back configuration on the same host.............................................................................136
Configuration and troubleshooting commands..........................................................................137
Command summary.........................................................................................................137
Examples of x25init.........................................................................................................138
IP-to-X.121 address mapping table......................................................................................138
Example....................................................................................................................139
File mapping parameters..................................................................................................139
A Using Non-English subscription forms........................................................141
Subscription form translations.................................................................................................141
B X.25 Configuration files and examples......................................................144
X.25 Configuration files.........................................................................................................144
Example files.......................................................................................................................145
The x25init_def file..........................................................................................................145
The x25init_smpl file........................................................................................................146
The x3config file..............................................................................................................147
The x29hosts file..............................................................................................................149
The network type file (x25_networks)..................................................................................150
C Diagnostic messages..............................................................................151
Introduction..........................................................................................................................151
Diagnostic message example.................................................................................................151
Cause code settings..............................................................................................................151
Packet codes........................................................................................................................152
RESTART packet codes......................................................................................................152
RESET/CLEAR packet codes..............................................................................................152
X.25 Diagnostic messages.....................................................................................................152
Index.......................................................................................................158
6
Contents
1 About the X.25 product
Introduction
The Hewlett-Packard X.25 link for HP 9000 systems provides networking link hardware and software
to allow HP computer systems to communicate with other HP and non-HP computers over X.25
packet switching networks.
The X.25 link implements the CCITT X.25 Recommendations and contains the components necessary
to connect an HP 9000 to a public or private packet switching network conforming to the CCITT
X.25 Recommendation (1980, 1984 or 1988), or to another system in a back-to-back configuration.
The information in this manual applies to HP 9000 Series 700 and 800 systems that use single,
dual, or quad-port communications hardware. Any differences are specifically noted.
NOTE: In a diskless cluster, X.25 software is only supported on the server system. It is not supported
on client systems for this type of environment.
The following diagram illustrates the X.25 link architecture where:
•
Solid white boxes represent the product’s integral components.
•
Lightly shaded boxes represent the product’s protocol components.
•
Heavily shaded boxes represent optional components (external to the product) that can be
added to the product.
Each component depends on the component(s) below it and must be installed and running in order
to support higher-level components.
Introduction
7
Figure 1 X.25 Link architecture
Application (L7), Presentation (L6), and Session (L5) levels
The X.25 link does not provide any component for the general support of the application and
presentation levels (levels 7 and 6, respectively), although X.25/9000 PAD Services do provide
some of the functionality of these levels.
User-written application programs, Internet Services/Berkeley Services (via BSD Sockets) and NS
(via NetIPC Sockets), are accessed by means of TCP or UDP Transport Level (level 4) protocols.
For application level services, you can install OSI Services to run over the X.25 network (for more
information, refer to OSI Services documentation). The OTS/9000 product provides access to
X.25 for OSI Services. You can install application level services such as Internet/Berkeley Services
and Network Services (for more information, refer to the documentation for these products).
BSD IPC (Berkeley Software Distribution InterProcess Communication) allows direct programmatic
access to the X.25 packet level (level 3), or TCP/UDP at the transport level (level 4), for user-written
application programs.
NetIPC sockets also provide a programmatic interface to TCP/UDP at the transport level.
Transport level (L4)
At the transport level (level 4), the X.25 link provides TCP (based on the DARPA standard) and
UDP. These Transport level protocols are used by Internet/Berkeley Services, by NS, and by user
application programs that access the TCP/UDP and IP protocols.
The TCP protocol is a connection-based protocol. TCP verifies that all data is delivered without
duplication to its destination. The UDP protocol, unlike TCP, has no concept of a connection.
Messages are sent as a unit with source and destination information in the header.
8
About the X.25 product
The X.25 link provides a BSD to PLP (Packet Level Protocol) translator to allow access to PLP at level
3 for user-written application programs via BSD IPC.
The X.25 link also provides an OTS to PLP translator to allow access to PLP at level 3 for OSI
Services via Xport OSI.
Packet/Network level (L3)
At the packet/network level (L3), X.25 link provides direct X.25 programmatic access via BSD IPC.
For full details on X.25 programmatic access, refer to the X.25/9000 Programmer’s guide (part
number: J2793-90065).
The X.25 link also provides IP access to TCP or UDP Transport protocols for programs such as
Internet/Berkeley Services and NS, allowing communication over X.25 in accordance with RFC
877.
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) levels
At the data link level (level 2), the X.25 link provides the LAP-B (Link Access Procedure-Balanced)
protocol. LAP-B is a data link protocol, specified by the 1980 CCITT X.25 recommendations, that
determines frame exchange procedures.
At the physical level (level 1), the X.25 link provides support for X.21, X.21bis, and V.35 interfaces
(depending on your particular communications hardware). These sets of recommendations define
the standards for X.25 at the physical level and apply specifically to connections to a packet
switching network. X.21bis (equivalent to V.24 and RS-232) is applicable to X.25 physical interfaces
with transmission speeds up to 64 kb/s. V.35, RS-449, X.21, and RS-530 supports transmission
speeds up to 2 Mb/s. Other standards may also be supported as they become available.
Packet/Network level (L3)
9
2 Installation
Before you install the software
Before installing the X.25 link software, check the requirements below to make sure that all required
software and hardware has been correctly installed and configured.
NOTE: This product is only supported on the system that is acting as a server. It is not supported
on client systems.
Hardware requirements
This section describes the hardware requirements of the J2793B X.25 software for HP 9000 server
systems.
If you have not already done so, install the X.25 interface card as described in the hardware
installation guide for your X.25 product. If you are installing multiple X.25 cards, check the
requirements in “Installing multiple X.25 interface cards” (page 10) below.
If a modem connection is required, connect the X.25 card to the modem or the modem eliminator
either according to the modem vendor’s specification sheet, or the instructions provided by the
network provider.
Installing multiple X.25 interface cards
When installing multiple X.25 cards:
•
Always install the cards in adjacent slots in ascending slot order.
•
Always install X.25 cards with the system shut down.
•
Do not skip slots between X.25 cards.
Hardware compatibility
•
HP 9000 PCI bus
•
PCIe/PCI-X/PCI-based Ethernet cards
The High Availability feature can run on:
•
PCI hardware cards, Product Numbers J3525A (2-ports)
OS platform and version compatibility
The version of the X.25 link software you are installing must be compatible with the version of
HP-UX you are running (for example, HP-UX version 11i v3 for B.11.31.01)
•
Disk space required to install: 7 Mb
•
Software install with system up or down? Up
•
Single-user state required or recommended? No
•
Reboot? Yes
Memory
Your X.25 link supports a high number of virtual circuits operating at high baud rates. Since both
X.25 and the BSD sockets API may store a certain amount of data for each socket/circuit, HP
recommends that you check that your system has enough memory to handle the number of VCs
you plan to use. A few guidelines to help you are provided below.
10
Installation
Related Parameters
•
Level 3 window size (W in formulas below) as configured in the x25config file.
•
Level 3 packet size (P in formulas below) as configured in X.25 configuration file.
•
Socket buffer size (B in formulas below) used in your applications (setsockopt() system
call). The default is 4 Kb.
Evaluation Formulas
The following formulas can be used to evaluate X.25 memory requirements:
Memory for each VC (MVC) in bytes:
MVC = (B x 3) + (2 x (W + 1) x P)
Total Memory (TM) for X.25 in bytes:
TM = sum (MVC) + Number of cards x 5120
NOTE: These figures are only for protocol and API requirements. You should also consider the
memory required by your applications.
Shortcut Method
Assuming B = P for all VCs, TM can be rounded to:
•
If B < 512, TM = approx. (1,536 + (2 x W + 2) x B) x No. of VCs
•
If B > or = 512, TM = approx. (2 x W + 5) x B x No. of VCs
The following table (in bytes/VC) provides a quick guide:
Window (W)
size
Buffer Size (B) = Packet Size (P) in bytes
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
1
2K
2.5 K
3.5 K
7K
14 K
28 K
2
2.3 K
3K
4.5 K
9K
18 K
36 K
3
2.5 K
3.5 K
5.5 K
11 K
22 K
44 K
4
2.8 K
4K
6.5 K
13 K
26 K
52 K
5
3K
4.5 K
7.5 K
15 K
30 K
60 K
6
3.3 K
5K
8.5 K
17 K
34 K
68 K
7
3.5 K
5.5 K
9.5 K
19 K
38 K
76 K
A system has two X.25 cards configured as follows:
Card 1:
Window = 2
Packet size = 1024
Socket buffer size = 4096 (default)
200 VCs are used
Card 2:
Window = 4
Packet size = 128
Socket buffer size = 4096 (default)
400 VCs are used
Before you install the software
11
TM = (4096 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 1024)) x 200
+ ((4096 x 3) + (2 x 5 x 128)) x 400
+ (2 x 5120)
TM = 9,123,840 (8.7 Mb)
Software requirements
Before installing the X.25 link product, make sure that the software listed below has been correctly
installed on your system. Refer to the related publication if you need more information about any
of these products. If you cannot find the software or information you need, contact your HP
representative.
•
HP-UX operating system version 11i v3 – see Installation and Update for HP Integrity Servers
and HP 9000 servers.
•
Internet Services – see HP-UX Internet Services Administrator’s Guide: HP-UX 11i v3.
Installing the X.25 link software
Follow the steps below to install the X.25 link software:
1. Insert the software media (tape or disk) in the appropriate drive.
2. Type: swinstall.
(See the man page on swinstall for more information on this command).
3.
4.
Click OK on the Specify Source window.
Highlight J2793B in the Software Selection dialog, then select Mark For Install from the Actions
menu to install all file sets in the bundle.
If you want to select only certain file sets, double-click on the product name to access the file
sets that you want to mark for installation (each time you double-click, you go down one level
in the bundle structure).
5.
6.
When you have marked the product components you want to install, select Install (analysis)
from the Actions menu.
When you have successfully completed the analysis, click OK from the Analysis dialog to load
the X.25 file sets.
The swinstall utility loads the file sets, runs the customized scripts for the file set, and builds
the kernel. Estimated time for processing: 8 to 10 minutes.
If the kernel build is not successful, the swinstall program returns you to a new shell. The
cause of the failure will appear at the end of the /var/adm/sw/swinstall.log file.
12
Installation
3 Configuration
Configuring the X.25 link
This section describes how to configure your X.25 link using HP System Management
Homepage(SMH).
HP SMH provides Graphical User Interface (GUI), Terminal User Interface (TUI), and Command
Line Interface (CLI) for managing HP-UX. You can access these interfaces using the smh command
(/usr/sbin/smh).
If the DISPLAY environment variable is set, HP SMH opens in the default web browser. If the DISPLAY
environment variable is not set, HP SMH opens in the TUI. For more information, see the HP-UX
11i v3 release notes and the SMH product online help.
In SMH, the term “card” refers to a particular X.25 interface. Dual-port cards have two interfaces.
In this context, an interface is the same as a port.
NOTE: System Administration Manager (SAM) is deprecated on HP-UX 11i v3 and replaced
with the enhanced HP System Management Homepage (HP SMH). Users who attempt to start SAM
from the command line interface are automatically redirected to the SMH user interface. SMH can
be run directly in a web browser window by entering http://hostname:2301. In the Graphical
User Interface (GUI), after logging in, the SMH main menu is displayed. Select Tools > networking
and communications > network interface cards > choose X.25. For more information on SMH, see
the HP System Management Homepage Release Notes (Part Number:381383-009) on http://
docs.hp.com.
Using SMH
Follow the steps below to start SMH and display the Configure X.25 Card window:
1. Make sure that you are logged in as root. Then, at the HP-UX prompt, enter:
smh
(To run SMH in the background, type: smh &).
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, select Tools menu. SMH displays numerous object lists.
Double-click on the Network Services Configuration menu. SMH displays an object list that
shows all network interfaces (devices) installed in your system.
SMH displays each port (for multi-port cards) as a unique interface with its hardware path
and name. Interfaces are listed in order of their slot number.
4.
Highlight the X.25 device that you want to configure on the object list and select Configure
from the Actions menu, or double-click the device you want.
The Configure X.25 Software window displays. If you are modifying a device that is already
configured, the window is entitled, Configure X.25 Card.
Configuring the X.25 link
13
NOTE: Refer to “Using Non-English subscription forms” (page 141) for the English equivalents of
the French, Italian, German, and Spanish fields that appear on non-English subscription forms.
Using SMH’s on-line help
The SMH on-line Help provides information (descriptions, formatting, and ranges) for all fields.
You can access the SMH on-line Help system by:
•
Clicking on the Help button in a dialog or message box to display information about how to
use the dialog, or about the message.
•
Pressing F1 to display information about the object selected by the cursor (for example, a data
entry field).
•
Selecting an item from the Help menu (located on the menu bar). You can display information
about the current SMH dialog, keyboard navigation within SMH, using the SMH Help system,
and the version of SMH you are currently running.
Configuring an X.25 address
Follow the steps below to configure an X.25 address:
1. From the Configure X.25 Software window, select Configure X.25 Address. The following
dialog appears:
Figure 2 Configure an X.25 address
NOTE: The SMH windows and dialogs shown on these pages are intended only as examples.
The information that appears in your SMH dialogs, such as the Card Name and Programmatic
Access Name, depends on your particular communications hardware.
2.
Enter or modify the field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
Table 1 Field descriptions
14
Field
Description
Configuration File name
Name of the file that will contain the parameters for configuring the interface (a
physical port). If you are configuring more than one interface, specify a unique
configuration file for each interface.
The configuration file must be named x25config_npx, where n represents the
communications card number (use 0 for the first card, increasing the value by 1 for
each additional card up to 255), p is a place marker, and x is the port number (1
Configuration
Table 1 Field descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
to 4). Note that p and x are only required for systems with dual-port or quad-port
cards.
X.25 Address
Address assigned to each local X.25 interface (card or port) by the network carrier.
X.25 checks it for diagnostic and identification purposes only. This address is
sometimes referred to as the X.121 address. Use the value given on your subscription
form.
Programmatic Access
Name
Name given to the interface you are configuring (used for X.25 level 3 programmatic
access).
Network Carrier Type
Type of network to which the X.25 interface is attached (as it appears on your
subscription form). A complete list of possible networks is shown below. The default
is DTE_84.
X.25 Packet Address
This field appears (with its default value) only if you select TRANSPAC as the Network
Carrier Type.
Network types
You must select a Network Carrier Type that matches the type of network to which you are
connected.
3.
DCE_80
DCE_84
DCE_88
DTE_80
DTE_84
DTE_88
AUSPAC
DATANET1
DATAPAC
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
DATEXP_DEUTSCHE
DCS
DDN
DDXP
HPPPN
ITAPAC
LUXPAC
PSS
TELENET
TRANSPAC
TYMNET
IBERPAC
TELEPAC
DATAPAK
Click OK to return to the Configure X.25 Card window when you have finished configuring
the X.25 Address.
Configuring X.25 virtual circuits (VCs)
Follow the steps below to configure X.25 virtual circuits:
1.
From the Configure X.25 Card window, select Configure Virtual Circuits. The following dialog
appears:
Configuring the X.25 link
15
Figure 3 Configure X.25 virtual circuits (VCs)
2.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
When you configure the Quantity column (starting with the number of Permanent VCs), SMH
automatically fills in the starting Logical Circuit Identification (LCI) as you Tab between fields.
Table 2 Field descriptions
3.
Field
Description
Permanent - Quantity
Number of Permanent VCs. Use the value given on your subscription form.
Switched (inbound) Quantity
Number of Switched (inbound) VCs. Use the value given on your subscription form.
Switched (two-way) Quantity
Number of Switched (two-way) VCs. Use the value given on your subscription form.
Switched (outbound) Quantity
Number of Switched (outbound) VCs. Use the value given on your subscription form.
Click OK to return to the Configure X.25 Card window when you have finished configuring
X.25 Virtual Circuits.
Configuring an Internet address
Follow the steps below to configure an Internet address:
1.
16
From the Configure X.25 Card window, select Configure Internet Address. The following dialog
appears:
Configuration
Figure 4 Configure Internet address
The Configure Internet Address dialog gives you a yes or no option to configure an IP address
for this port.
2.
Choose Yes or No to configure an IP address.
If you select No, you indicate that no IP address is associated with this X.25 port. When you
select No, all other fields in this dialog disappears.
If you select Yes, you must fill in the other required fields in this dialog.
3.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the following field descriptions).
Table 3 Configure Internet address field descriptions
Field
Description
Internet Address
The identifier by which this interface (port) is known on the network. It consists of
four sets of integer values (0 to 255) separated by periods (for example, 192.2.3.6).
The IP address must be unique for each X.25 interface. It must also specify a different
subnet from the IP address of any other X.25 or LAN interface on this system. To
obtain an IP address, see your system administrator, network administrator, or HP
representative.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask (like IP addresses) is composed of four integers (0 to 255) separated
by periods. The subnet mask is used for routing.
When you enter an IP address, SMH places a default subnet mask in the subnet
mask field, depending on the class of IP address you enter. You may use the default
or enter another one if required. Table 4 (page 17) shows the IP addresses listed by
class and their default subnet masks).
IP Address Alias
The symbolic name (in alphanumeric format) by which this network interface will be
known on the network. Use the Add/Modify Host Name Aliases button to add or
modify aliases.
Table 4 IP address and default subnet masks
IP Address
Class
Default Subnet Mask
A.*.*.* (A between 1 and 127)
A
255.0.0.0
A.B.*.* (A between 128 and 191)
(B between 0 and 254)
B
255.255.0.0
Configuring the X.25 link
17
Table 4 IP address and default subnet masks (continued)
IP Address
Class
Default Subnet Mask
A.B.C.* (A between 192 and 239)
(B,C between 0 and 254)
C
255.255.255.0
A.B.C.* (A between 240 and 254) D
(B,C between 0 and 254)
Not Allowed
The Internet address is composed of two addresses: the network address and the subaddress.
Zero (0) and -1 are not allowed in the subaddress.
4.
If required, click Modify IP over X.25 Defaults to modify the Idle Timer, Hold Timer, MTU Size
and System Max. IP Connections defaults.
Figure 5 Modify IP over X.25 defaults
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
Table 5 Modify IP over X.25 defaults field descriptions
5.
Field
Description
Idle Timer
Sets the number of seconds a circuit stands idle before it is cleared by IP. The range
is 0 to 32767. The default is 600.
Hold Timer
Sets the number of seconds a circuit may be inactive before it is designated as
inactive. Inactive circuits may be cleared when all other circuits are unavailable and
a connection request is received by IP. Do not set the hold timer to a value greater
than the idle timer. The range is 0 to 32767. The default is 300.
MTU Size
The maximum transmission unit size in octets (bytes). The range is 20 to 8192. The
default is 2048. For DDN configured interfaces, it must be less than or equal to
1007.
System Max. IP
Connections
The maximum number of IP connections that can be simultaneously active for the
whole system. This is a global parameter. The default value for this parameter is
256 connections.
Click OK to return to the Configure X.25 Card window when you have finished configuring
the Internet address.
Verifying level 3 values
If you subscribe to a public network, the network provider will supply the appropriate settings for
most level 3 parameters. These settings will differ depending on the network provider and the type
18
Configuration
of service to which you subscribe. Refer to your Network Subscription Form for the correct values
for your configuration.
Follow the steps below to verify level 3 values:
1. At the Configure X.25 Card window, select Verify Level 3 Values. The following dialog appears:
Figure 6 Verify level 3 values
2.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
Table 6 Verify level 3 values field descriptions
3.
Field
Description
Fast Select Accepted
If fast select is enabled (Yes), up to 128 octets of information can be transferred in
call request and clear packets. The default is No (disabled). See your subscription
form.
Flow Control Negotiation
The default is No (disabled). Use the value given on your subscription form.
Reverse Charge Accepted
If reverse charge is enabled (Yes), reverse charge calls can be accepted by the
application. If reverse charge is disabled (No), X.25 rejects reverse charge calls
automatically. The default is No. Use the value given on your subscription form.
Throughput Class
Negotiation
Throughput class refers to line speed. If it is enabled (Yes), the Switched VC
Negotiated value is used; if disabled (No), no throughput class negotiation is
accepted. The default is No.
Click Modify Flow Control Settings to modify Switched and Permanent VC flow control settings.
The following dialog appears:
Configuring the X.25 link
19
Figure 7 Modify X.25 flow control defaults
4.
Select either Modulo-8 or Modulo-128 to set level 3 Modulo parameters. The default is
Modulo-8.
The valid window-size values for Modulo-8 range from 1 to 7. For Modulo-128, the valid
window-size values range from 1 to 127.
NOTE: Flow Control Negotiation must be enabled on the “Verify Level 3 Values” dialog to
allow the use of the negotiated flow control fields. If you do not enable Flow Control
Negotiation, the Default Packet Size and Default Window Size values will be used.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
Table 7 Switched VC flow control field descriptions
Field
Description
Default Packet Size:
Inbound & Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over an SVC. The range is 16 through 4096 octets.
The default is 128 for inbound and outbound packets. Use the value given on your
subscription form.
Default Window Size:
Inbound & Outbound
Maximum number of default packets that can be transmitted without acknowledgment
over an SVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and 1 through 127 for
Modulo-128. (We recommend a value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default
is 2 for inbound and outbound transmission. Use the value given on your subscription
form.
Negotiated Packet Size:
Inbound & Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over an SVC. The range is 16 through 4096 octets.
The default is 128 for inbound and outbound packets.
Negotiated Window Size: Maximum number of default packets that can be transmitted without acknowledgment
Inbound & Outbound
over an SVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and 1 through 127 for
Modulo-128. (We recommend a value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default
is 2 for inbound and outbound transmission.
20
Configuration
Table 8 Permanent VC flow control field descriptions
5.
Field
Description
Packet Size: Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over a PVC. The range is 16 through 4096 octets.
The default is 128 for inbound and outbound packets. Use the value given on your
subscription form.
Window Size: Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum number of packets that can be transmitted without acknowledgment over
a PVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and 1 through 127 for Modulo-128.
(We recommend a value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default is 2 for inbound
and outbound transmission.
Click Modify Throughput Class Settings to modify Switched and Permanent VC throughput
class settings. The following dialog appears:
Figure 8 Modify X.25 throughput class defaults
6.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
Table 9 Modify throughput class settings field descriptions
Field
Description
Switched VC Default:
Inbound and Outbound
CCITT class number. If Throughput Class negotiation is disabled, this value replaces
the Switched VC Negotiated field value. The range is 3 through 13 and the default
is 11. See the table after these field descriptions listing the CCITT class numbers and
the corresponding line speed Baud rate. Use the value given on your subscription
form.
Switched VC Negotiated:
Inbound and Outbound
CCITT class number. If Throughput Class negotiation is enabled, this value is used
as the opening bid for outbound calls and as a counter offer when the inbound
opening bid is higher. The range is 3 through 13, and the default is 11. See the
table below for CCITT class numbers and corresponding line speed Baud rate. Use
the value given on your subscription form.
Table 10 Throughput classes and line speeds
CCITT class number
Line speed Baud rate (bps)
3
75
4
150
5
300
6
600
Configuring the X.25 link
21
Table 10 Throughput classes and line speeds (continued)
7.
CCITT class number
Line speed Baud rate (bps)
7
1200
8
2400
9
4800
10
9600
11
19200
12
48000
13
64000
Click OK to return to the Configure X.25 Card window when you have finished verifying level
3 values.
Verifying level 2 values
Follow the steps below to verify level 2 values:
NOTE: If you subscribe to a public network, the network provider will provide the appropriate
settings for all level 2 parameters. These settings will differ depending on the network provider
and the type of service to which you subscribe. Refer to your Network Subscription Form for the
correct settings for your configuration.
1.
At the Configure X.25 Card window, select Verify Level 2 Values. The following dialog appears:
Figure 9 Verify level 2 values
Select either Modulo-8 or Modulo-128 to set the Level 2 Modulo values. The default is Modulo-8.
The valid window-size values for Modulo-8 range from 1 to 7. For Modulo-128, the valid
window-size values range from 1 to 127.
2.
22
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below). Use the Help
button to display information and instructions for each field.
Configuration
Table 11 Verify level 2 values field descriptions
Field
Description
k - Level 2 Window Size
Maximum number of frames that can be transmitted without an acknowledgment.
The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8 and 1 through 127 for Modulo-128. The
default is 7. Use the value given on your subscription form.
T1 - Retransmission Timer
Maximum number of milliseconds to wait for an acknowledgment before retransmitting
a frame. The range is 100 to 12000. The default is 3000. Use the value given on
your subscription form.
T3 - Idle Timer
Maximum number of milliseconds that a line can be idle before it is declared
disconnected. This value should be greater than or equal to the Retransmission Timer
(T1) times the Retransmission Count (N2). The range is 1000 to 240000. The default
is 60000. Use the value given on your subscription form.
N1 - Frame Size
Maximum number of octets that can be transmitted in a single frame. The range is
149 (minimum) through 4103. The default is 149.
N2 - Retransmission Count Maximum number of times a given frame can be transmitted before an error condition
is identified. The range is 0 through 255. The default is 20.
NOTE: Because the timer values count the amount of time between unacknowledged frames,
you may need to increase the values of T1 (Retransmission Timer) and T3 (Idle Timer) if you
use Modulo-128 with a window size greater than seven.
3.
4.
Click OK to return to the Configure X.25 Card dialog when you have finished verifying level
2 values.
Click OK to complete X.25 software configuration and save your changes. Your X.25 interface
(port) should appear in the object list with status Enabled (no problem found and link
connected correctly). If not, carefully repeat the steps in this chapter until the configuration is
enabled.
If your port is not connected to a running network, it will display as configured.
You have completed the interface configuration.
5.
Select Exit from the File menu if you have no need to configure access to other systems or to
PAD services. Then exit SMH.
If you need to configure access to other systems or configure PAD services, stay in SMH and
continue with the instructions in “Configuring remote system access” (page 23) (to configure
access to other systems) and in “Configuring PAD services” (page 55) (to configure PAD
services).
NOTE: Your system will not reboot when you exit. Your configuration is effective immediately
without the need to create a new kernel.
If you want to control Services (Internet/Berkeley Services or Network Services (NS)), refer to the
documentation set for those products.
Configuring remote system access
Follow the steps below to configure access to other hosts and systems that use TCP/IP protocol.
(The procedures in this section are optional. Your X.25 link software does not require that you
configure access to other systems).
Configuring remote system access
23
NOTE: System Administration Manager (SAM) is deprecated in the 11iv3 release of HP-UX. HP
System Management Homepage (HP SMH), an enhanced version of SAM, is introduced for
managing HP-UX.
1.
2.
3.
If you have not already done so, type smh at the HP-UX prompt.
At the SMH main window, select Tools. Numerous object lists are displayed.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight Hosts and click OPEN. Highlight
Local Hosts and click OPEN.
SMH displays all remote system names and IP addresses that have already been configured.
4.
Select Add from the Actions menu. The following dialog appears:
NOTE: The appearance of the Add Internet Connectivity dialog may be slightly different
from the example below depending on the version of the X.25 software you are running.
Figure 10 Add Internet connectivity dialog
5.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below). Use the Help
button for information and instructions for each field.
A Provide X.25 Information button may appear on this dialog depending on the Internet
address you configure. If it does, follow the instructions in Step 6. SMH may also decide that
a gateway is required, again depending on the Internet address you configure (see the on-line
Help for more information on gateways and the gateway dialog).
Table 12 Add Internet connectivity field descriptions
24
Field
Description
Internet Address
Identifier by which the remote system is known on the network. It is composed of
four integers (0 to 255) separated by periods (for example, 192.2.3.6). Use the
Add Aliases button to assign one or more aliases (in alphanumeric format) to the IP
Address for easier referencing. When you exit this field, SMH determines whether
a gateway is needed for the connection, or whether you need to provide X.25
information for the remote system. If the Provide X.25 Information button is displayed,
follow the instructions in Step 6 below.
Remote System Name
Name assigned to the remote system to which you want to connect.
Comments
Use this field to add useful information about the remote system (for example, the
name and telephone number of the user).
Configuration
6.
If the Provide X.25 Information button is displayed, you must use it to configure X.25 information
about the remote system. When you click on Provide X.25 Information, the following dialog
appears:
Figure 11 Provide X.25 information
7.
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions below).
If you add more VCs to an interface in the future, you must stop the interface with x25stop
or with SMH’s Disable Card function and restart it as an IP interface with SMH’s Enable
Card function or with the following command:
x25init -c <configuration_file> -a <ipmapfile>
NOTE: In case, the IP-to-X.121 map table needs to be specified for an XoL interface, the
x25init command must be issued with the –c, –L and –a options in the same line:
/usr/sbin/x25init –c <XoL interface config file> -L <LLc2 config
file> -a <ip to x121 map file>
Table 13 Provide X.25 information field descriptions
Field
Description
X25 Address
X.25 address (sometimes referred to as the X.121 address) of the remote system.
The X.25 address assigned by the network provider uniquely identifies the node in
an X.25 network. The address consists of a maximum of 15 digits. You must complete
this field.
Switched VC
Enable this field if a switched virtual circuit (SVC) will be used for this connection.
When Switched VC is enabled (default), three additional fields can be configured:
Request reverse charging, Accept reverse charging, and Closed user group (refer
to the field descriptions below).
Permanent VC
Enable this field if a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) will be used for this connection.
When Permanent VC is enabled, two additional fields can be configured: PVC
Number and Local Programmatic Access Name.
Request reverse charging
Enable this field if the local system will make collect calls to the remote system. If this
field is disabled, no collect calls can be made.
Configuring remote system access
25
Table 13 Provide X.25 information field descriptions (continued)
8.
Field
Description
Accept reverse charging
Enable this field if you want the local system to accept collect calls from the remote
system. If this field is disabled, no collect calls will be accepted.
Closed user group
Enable this field if you subscribed to a closed user group (CUG) and you want to
use the CUG with this connection. Do not select this item if you did not subscribe to
a CUG or if you do not want this connection to belong to a CUG. If you enable this
field, an additional field (CUG Number) appears. Enter the number of the CUG to
be associated with this connection.
Click Apply or OK. The Apply button leaves you in the current dialog so you can configure
other remote systems; the OK button returns you to the Internet Addresses (& Routes)
object list. SMH updates the object list to include the remote system you configured regardless
of which button you used.
NOTE: You can modify or remove remote systems and modify default gateways by
highlighting the Remote System Name on the object list and selecting Modify, Remove, or
Modify Default Gateway from the Actions menu.
9.
Select Exit from the File menu.
Remote system access for your X.25 link is now configured.
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
This section describes how to configure X.25 over LLC2. Configuring X.25 over LLC2 allows X.25
layer 3 to connect to DLPI instead of LAP-B and provides the X.25 functionality on top of LAN cards
such as Ethernet, FDDI, and TokenRing.
NOTE:
In this document, an XOL interface on the peer or local system is referred to as box.
Configuration files
To configure the LLC2 feature, the following configuration files must be added or updated manually:
•
Generic X.25 configuration file
•
LLC2 specific configuration file
Generic X.25 Configuration file
The generic X.25 configuration file is used with a few additional XOL specific parameters to
configure X.25 over LLC2 (XOL). To support the XOL HA feature, some of the existing parameter
names are modified and a few new parameters are introduced.
NOTE: The parameters introduced in an earlier release of X.25 are supported. However, HP
recommends that you migrate to the new parameters. Migration is required for XOL HA support.
Table 14 (page 26) lists the XOL specific parameters that must be defined while configuring an
XOL interface.
Table 14 Additional XOL specific configuration parameters
26
Field
Format
Value
device
Device name string.
Name of the LAN card where the XOL
interface is configured.
XOL_logical_port_id (replaces
lan_box_id)
Integer 0-n
The XOL logical port identifier for the
XOL interface on the given LAN card.
Configuration
Table 14 Additional XOL specific configuration parameters (continued)
Field
Format
Value
XOL_destination_macaddr (replaces
the MAC address in the
lan_box_addr)
One hexadecimal value. This value
must be prefixed with 0x.
The destination MAC address to which
the XOL interface is connected.
XOL_DSAP
One hexadecimal value. This value
must be prefixed with 0x.
The destination SAP value of the peer
XOL interface. Set the value of DSAP to
any even value in the range 0x70 0x7e, both inclusive.
XOL_SSAP
One hexadecimal value. This value
must be prefixed with 0x.
The source SAP value of the local XOL
interface. Set the value of SSAP to any
even value in the range 0x70 - 0x7e,
both inclusive. If the value for SSAP is
not provided, then SSAP takes the value
of DSAP.
standby_device**
Device name string
Name of the standby LAN device used
for local failover. For more details about
this parameter, see “Configuring the
high availability feature for X.25 over
LLC2” (page 61). Required only for
local failover support.
XOL_floating_macaddr**
One hexadecimal value; must be
prefixed with 0x
The unique MAC address for the LAN
card in the LAN subnet. For more
details about this parameter, see
“Configuring the high availability
feature for X.25 over LLC2” (page 61).
Required only for local failover support.
**
Required for HA feature
NOTE: The configuration parameters may be specified in the old format. However, HP recommends
that you use the new format while specifying the configuration parameter. XOL is not supported
over APA (Auto Port Aggregation).
Following are two sample files. Example 1 (page 28) provides a sample file that has the old
parameters in the old format. Example 2 (page 28) provides a sample file that has the new
parameters in the new format.
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
27
Example 1 Sample file with the old parameters in the old format
device
lan_box_id
lan_box_addr
lan00x7c
1
0x080009c4728a 0x7e
Example 2 Sample file with the new parameters in the new format
device
XOL_logical_port_id
XOL_destination_macaddr
XOL_DSAP 0x72
XOL_SSAP 0x7C
standby_device lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr
lan0
1
0x080009c4728a
0x0060B0A4EBE5
A sample generic configuration file is available for reference. It is available in the /etc/x25
directory and the filename is x25init_llc2_smpl.
Specific Configuration File
This file is an X.25 over LLC2 specific configuration file and contains information about every LAN.
This file is unique to the host.
Following is the syntax of this file:
lan<#> number of boxes
Following is a sample configuration file:
lan0 3
lan1 1
Following is an example of an XOL configuration file that is installed in /etc/x25 directory.
Following are the assumptions: The X.121 address of the local XOL interface is 7111 and that of
the remote XOL interface is 7222.
28
Configuration
Example 3 LLC2 configuration
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_llc2_smpl
X.121 7111
# X.121 address
X.121_packet '' “
(TransPacaddressing)
# use a null (i.e. length 0) packet address
name interface0
# interface name for Level 3 access
device lan0
# device to initialize
XOL_logical_port_id 0
# logical port id for lan interface
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
# destination SAP id
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
# source SAP id
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009c4728a
# Remote mac address
# Following needed only for Local High Availability feature
#standby_device lan1 # standby lan card for local failover.
#XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5
# Unique Mac address to be assigned to the
lan card before bringing the XOL interface up.
# Level 2 Parameters
#
t1
3000
t3
60000
framesize
149
n2 20
l2window
7
# Level 3 Parameters
#
virtual circuit parameters
#
logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 pvc 5
# 5 permanent VCs
lci 255 insvc 5
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs
lci 2048 svc 6
# 6 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled
# allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled
# allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 128
# default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 128
# default packetsize
def_inwindow 7
# default window size
def_outwindow 7
# default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200
# default thruput class
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
29
def_outthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
flowcontrol on
# flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 128
# offered packet size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 128
# offered packetsize if using flow control negotiation
neg_inwindow 7
# offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7
# offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200
# offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
pvc_inpacketsize 128
# packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 128
# packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7
# window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7
# window size for PVCs
# IP Related Parameters
IP 15.4.64.120 255.255.248.0 # IP address and subnet mask
mtu 1024
# max transmission unit 1024 octets
hold 300
# 5 minute hold timer
idle 600
# 10 minute idle timer
NOTE:
For an XOL configuration, L3 packet sizes greater than 1024 are not supported.
If the XOL interface on the host is connected to a router supporting X.25 over LLC2, the router must
be configured with the correct routing entries. For example, if an XOL interface on the host is
connected to a CISCO router and the XOL configuration on the host is identical to the configuration
in the previous example, the following configuration is required:
To enable the cmns, complete the following steps:
1.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Configure Terminal
2.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Interface fastethernet 1/0
3.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
cmns enable
4.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Ctrl+Z
To add routing entries to X.25 routing table, complete the following steps:
30
Configuration
1.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Configure Terminal
2.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
x25 route ^ 7111 interface FastEthernet1/10 mac 0011.0a80.31d6
3.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
x25 route ^ 7222 interface FastEthernet1/10 mac 0800.09c4.728a
4.
Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Ctrl+Z
Starting and stopping configuration
Starting
To initialize the x25overllc2 devices, execute the x25init command with the -L option at the command
prompt.
The syntax for execution is:
x25init -c <config_file> -L <llc2_config_file>
config_file is the generic X.25 product configuration file and llc2_config_file is the LLC2 specific
configuration file.
A sample invocation is as shown below:
x25init -c <x25init_def> -L<llc2_conf_def>
This command is executed once per box. It can be executed with different
<x25init_llc2_sampl> file but with the same <llc2_conf_def> file.
Stopping
To stop the communication with one box, the x25stop command is executed with the -L option.
The syntax for execution is:
x25stop -d <lan#>-L <XOL_logical_port_id>
<XOL_logical_port_id> is the XOL logical port identifier for the XOL interface on the given
LAN card.
NOTE: SMH support is not available for configuring X.25 over LAN(LLC2). Also, the x25init
command needs to be executed manually if the system is rebooted.
For a detailed description of the configuration, see x25overllc2((7)). For more information on how
to configure High Availability, see “Configuring the high availability feature” (page 58).
For more information on LLC2, see x25init((1M)), x25stop((1M)), and x25stat ((1M)) manpages.
NOTE: To configure a Highly Available XOL interface, See “X.25 High availability configuration”
(page 60).
Sample setup and configuration
The X.25 over llc2 supports one or more XOL interfaces. Following are the two example
configurations:
One Lan and two boxes configuration
A graphical representation of the above configuration with some arbitrary values for the MAC
addresses and lan-ids is shown below:
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
31
Figure 12 One Lan, two boxes configuration
To connect HOST to BOX 0
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to be created on the
HOST system.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_host_box_0
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory using the example
configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_def.
The file x25_host_box_0 should contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3 parameters. Along
with them it should contain the following entries:
device lan 0
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009411371
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_0 is created in the /etc/x25 directory with the following
entries:
lan0 2
To connect HOST to BOX 1
To configure HOST to communicate with BOX1, the generic configuration file named /etc/x25/
x25_host_box_1 has to be created as follows:
Apart from the mandatory level2 and level3 parameters the following parameters have to be
added:
device lan 0
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009C4728A
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration is /etc/x25/llc2_lan_0.
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_host_box_0 -L llc2_lan_0
32
Configuration
Stopping: To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan0 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on
lan0
x25stop -d lan0 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on
lan0
To Connect Box 0 to HOST
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to be created on the
BOX 0.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_0_host
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_1
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory using the example
configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
device lan1
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The file x25_box_0_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3 parameters. Along
with them it should contain the following entries:
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_1 is created in the /etc/x25 directory with the
following entries:
lan1 1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_1
Stopping:
To stop the configuration, execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan1 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on
lan1
To Connect Box 1 to HOST
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to be created on the
BOX 1.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_1_host
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_2
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory using the example
configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_1_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3 parameters. Along
with them it must contain the following entries:
device lan2
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
33
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25 directory with the
following entries:
lan2 1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_1_host -L llc2_lan_2
Stopping:
To stop the configuration, execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan2 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on
lan2
Configuring two Lans, with one box per Lan
A graphical representation of the above configuration with some arbitrary values for the MAC
addresses and lan-ids is as shown:
Figure 13 Two Lans, one box per Lan configuration
To configure Host to LAN0 to Box0
To configure the Host to LAN 0, BOX 0 communication, the following configuration files need to
be created.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_lan_0_box_0
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0_lan_1
The x25_lan-0_box_0 file will contain all the level 3 and level 2 parameters. It also contains the
following entries:
device lan0
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009411371
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0_lan_1 will have the following entries:
lan0 1
lan1 1
34
Configuration
To configure Host to LAN 1 to BOX 1
To configure the Host to LAN 1 to BOX 1 communication, the following configuration file need to
be created.
•
X.25 generic configuration file, x25_lan_1_box_1
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_2_lan_0_lan_1
The x25_lan_1_box_1 file is created in the /etc/x25 directory. It will contain all the level 2 and
level 3 parameters. It will also contain the following entries:
device lan1
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009C4728A
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
There is only one LLC2 specific configuration file per Host. The file is llc2_lan_0_lan_1.
To Start and Stop above configuration:
Starting:
After reconfiguring the kernel of the two boxes execute the following commands at the command
prompt:
x25init -c x25_lan_0_box_0 -L llc2_lan_0_lan_1
x25init -c x25_lan_1_box_1 -L llc2_lan_0_lan_1
Stopping:
To stop the configuration, execute the following commands at the command prompt:
xstop -d lan0 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on lan0
xstop -d lan1 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on lan1
To connect Box 0 to Host
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to be created on the
BOX 0.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_0_host.
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_2
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the/etc/x25 directory using the example
configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_0_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3 parameters. Along
with them it must contain the following entries:
device lan2
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x7
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25 directory with the
following entries:
lan2 1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
35
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_2
Stopping:
To stop the configuration, execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan2 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on
lan2
To Connect Box 1 to HOST
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to be created on the
BOX 1.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_1_host.
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_3
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory using the example
configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_0_host should contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3 parameters. Along
with them it should contain the following entries:
device lan3
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25 directory with the following
entries:
lan3 1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_3
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan3 -L 0 # stop XOL interface having logical port id 0 on
lan3
Troubleshooting LLC2 configuration
Symptom: Unable to connect to the remote node.
Causes:
36
•
Hardware address of the remote node is wrongly configured in the configuration file.
•
The SAP value is incorrectly configured.
•
The LCI value is incorrectly configured.
Configuration
Action:
•
Check the remote node’s hardware address using lanscan. Use the same hardware address
in the generic X.25 configuration file. If you modify the hardware address to correct the error
then, re-initialize the card using x25init.
•
If the nodes are connected back to back, check if the SAPs are identical for both the nodes
in the generic X.25 configuration file.
•
If the nodes are connected back to back and one of the machines is configured for inbound
connections only and the other machine is configured for outbound connections only then, the
starting LCI for both the nodes must be identical in the generic X.25 configuration file.
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
This section describes the configuration files required for configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT) and the
configuration procedure.
X.25 over TCP (XOT) is based on RFC 1613 (Cisco Systems X.25 over TCP (XOT) ). Configuring
XOT allows X.25 layer 3 to connect to TCP/IP stack instead of LAP-B and provides X.25 functionality
on top of a TCP/IP infrastructure.
NOTE:
IP over XOT is not supported.
Configuration files
To configure XOT, the following configuration files must be added or updated manually:
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25init_xot_def
•
XOT specific configuration file, x121_to_ip_map
IMPORTANT: When providing the configuration files as arguments to the x25init command,
they must always be specified along with the absolute pathname.
For example, /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def.
Generic X.25 Configuration file
The generic X.25 configuration file is used with a few additional XOT specific parameters to
configure XOT.
Table 15 (page 37) lists the specific parameters for XOT that must be defined while configuring
an XOT interface.
Table 15 Additional XOT specific configuration parameters
Field
Format
Value
name
xot<instance number>
An XOT interface name.
NOTE:
format.
It must be in this prescribed
local_tcpip_address
Dotted Decimal Notation
A valid IP Address configured on the
system.
flowcontrol
on
Flow control must be ON for a SVC.
neg_inpacketsize
A valid packet size between 128 and Incoming packetsize for SVC.
4096 octets.
Recommended X.25 packet size for
XOT is 1024 octets.
neg_outpacketsize
A valid packet size between 128 and Outgoing packetsize for SVC.
4096 octets.
Recommended X.25 packet size for
XOT is 1024 octets.
neg_inwindow
A valid Window size.
Incoming Window Size for SVC.
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
37
Table 15 Additional XOT specific configuration parameters (continued)
Field
Format
Value
neg_outwindow
A valid Window size.
Outgoing Window Size for SVC.
pvc_inpacketsize
A valid packet size between 128 and Incoming packetsize for PVC.
4096 octets.
Recommended X.25 packet size for
XOT is 1024 octets.
pvc_outpacketsize
A valid packet size between 128 and Outgoing packetsize for PVC.
4096 octets.
Recommended X.25 packet size for
XOT is 1024 octets.
pvc_inwindow
A valid Window size.
Incoming Window Size for PVC.
pvc_outwindow
A valid Window size.
Outgoing Window Size for PVC.
NOTE:
A sample configuration file is present under /etc/x25.
Example 4 (page 39) shows a sample X.25 configuration file with the XOT specific configuration
parameters.
38
Configuration
Example 4 Sample X.25 configuration file
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def -X
/etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
X.121 55555 # X.121 address
X.121_packet 55555 # use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# address (TransPac addressing)
name xot0 # interface name for Level 3 access
# It MUST be of the format xot<instance number>
# where "instance number" can take a value from 0 to 9
#
# XOT Specific Parameters
#
local_tcpip_address 10.0.0.2 # TCP/IP address of local XOT interface
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 pvc 4 # 4 permanent VCs
lci 6 svc 248 # 248 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC # CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled # allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled # allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_inwindow 7 # default window size
def_outwindow 7 # default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
#
# Flow Control Parameters, needs to be enabled as per RFC 1613
#
flowcontrol on # flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 1024 # offered packet size if using flow control
negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 1024 # offered packetsize if using flow control
negotiation
neg_inwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
39
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
#
# Parameters for PVCs
#
pvc_inpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
XOT specific Configuration File
This is an XOT specific configuration file and contains information about every participating X.25
system and their IP Addresses. It is unique to the host.
Following is the syntax of this file:
#Destination X.21 Address Destination IP Address
# Local(LCN),Remote(LCN),LocalInterfacename,RemoteInterfacename,Remoteip
It captures the routing information for SVCs and PVCs.
NOTE: The Local(LCN), Remote(LCN), LocalInterfacename, RemoteInterfacename and Remoteip
fields are applicable only for PVC setup.
Example 5 (page 40) shows a sample configuration file.
Example 5 Sample XOT specific configuration file
#
# X.25 to IP Map File
# SVC Routing Information, as per RFC 1613
#
#Destination X.21 Destination
# Address IP Address
55555 10.0.0.3
11111 10.0.0.4
#
# PVC Routing Information as per RFC 1613
# Local(LCN),Remote(LCN),LocalInterfacename,RemoteInterfacename,Remoteip
pvcroute 1 4 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.3 #PVC channel 1 mapped to channel 4
pvcroute 2 3 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.4 #PVC channel 2 mapped to channel 3
pvcroute 3 2 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.4 #PVC channel 3 mapped to channel 2
pvcroute 4 1 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.3 #PVC channel 4 mapped to channel 1
Starting and stopping configuration
Starting
To initialize the XOT interface, execute the x25init command with the -X option at the command
prompt.
The syntax for execution is:
40
Configuration
x25init -c config_file -X xot_config_file
where:
config_file is the generic X.25 configuration file.
xot_config_file is the XOT specific configuration file.
IMPORTANT: When executing the x25init command to initialize the XOT interface, it is
mandatory to specify both the Generic X.25 configuration file and the XOT specific configuration
file as arguments. They must be specified with the absolute paths.
A sample invocation is as shown below:
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def -X /etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
An output similar to the following is displayed:
[x25stop] X.25 interface /dev/x25_xot0 will be stopped if it is already
running
[x25init] Configuration has been initialized successfully
This command is executed for each XOT interface on the system. For configuring multiple XOT
interfaces on the system, the same x121_to_ip_map file can be updated and the configuration
can be varied for each interface.
Stopping
To stop the communication with a specific XOT interface, the x25stop command is executed with
the -d option.
The syntax for execution is:
x25stop -d /dev/x25_xot<instance number>
where:
/dev/x25_xot<instance number> corresponds to the XOT interface which needs to be
stopped.
A sample invocation is as shown below:
x25stop -d /dev/x25_xot0
An output similar to the following is displayed:
[x25stop] X.25 interface /dev/x25_xot0 has been stopped
This command will stop XOT interface xot0 if it is already running on the system.
NOTE:
X25stop –K will stop all running interfaces on the system.
For a detailed description of the configuration, see x25init(1M) and x25stop(1M).
Sample setup and configuration
This section provides sample configuration files for the following setups:
•
Switched Virtual Connection (SVC) over XOT
•
Permanent Virtual Connection (PVC) over XOT
Switched virtual connection (SVC) over XOT setup
Assume machine A and machine B are connected through XOT and the X.25 application needs
to be run over SVC with the following configuration:
Machine A:
IP Address: 10.0.0.1
XOT Interface: xot0
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
41
X.121 Address: 11111
Machine B:
IP Address: 10.0.0.3
XOT Interface: xot0
X.121 Address: 22222
Number of two-way SVCs on machines A and B: 255
Figure 14 Switched virtual connection (SVC) over XOT setup
To implement this configuration, the following files need to be created on machines A and B:
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25init_xot_def
•
XOT specific configuration file, x121_to_ip_map
Both files must be created in the /etc/x25 directory.
42
Configuration
Example 6 Generic X.25 configuration file x25init_xot_def on machine A
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X
/etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
X.121 11111 # X.121 address
X.121_packet 11111 # use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# address (TransPac addressing)
name xot0 # interface name for Level 3 access
# It MUST be of the format xot<instance number>
# where "instance number" can take a value from 0 to 9
#
# XOT Specific Parameters
#
local_tcpip_address 10.0.0.1 # TCP/IP address of local interface
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 svc 255 # 255 two-way SVCs
networktype TRANSPAC # CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled # allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled # allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_inwindow 7 # default window size
def_outwindow 7 # default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
def_outthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
#
# Flow Control Parameters, needs to be enabled as per RFC 1613
#
flowcontrol on # flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 1024 # offered packet size if using flow control
negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 1024 # offered packetsize if using flow control
negotiation
neg_inwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
43
#
# Parameters for PVCs
#
pvc_inpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
44
Configuration
Example 7 TCP configuration file x121_to_ip_map on machine A
#
# X.25 to IP Map File for SVCs, as per RFC 1613
#
#Destination X.21 Destination
# Address IP Address
11111 10.0.0.1
22222 10.0.0.3
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
45
Example 8 Generic X.25 configuration file x25init_xot_def on machine B
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X
/etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
X.121 22222 # X.121 address
X.121_packet 22222 # use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# address (TransPac addressing)
name xot0 # interface name for Level 3 access
# It MUST be of the format xot<instance number>
# where "instance number" can take a value from 0 to 9
#
# XOT Specific Parameters
#
local_tcpip_address 10.0.0.3 # TCP/IP address of local interface
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 svc 255 # 255 two-way SVCs
networktype TRANSPAC # CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled # allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled # allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_inwindow 7 # default window size
def_outwindow 7 # default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
def_outthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
#
# Flow Control Parameters, needs to be enabled as per RFC 1613
#
flowcontrol on # flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 1024 # offered packet size if using flow control
negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 1024 # offered packetsize if using flow control
negotiation
neg_inwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
46
Configuration
#
# Parameters for PVCs
#
pvc_inpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
Example 9 TCP configuration file x121_to_ip_map on machine B
#
# X.25 to IP Map File for SVCs, as per RFC 1613
#
#Destination X.21 Destination
# Address IP Address
11111 10.0.0.1
22222 10.0.0.3
To start and stop this configuration:
Starting
To start the configuration, execute the following command at the command prompt:
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X /etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
Stopping
To stop the configuration, execute the following command at the command prompt:
x25stop –d /dev/x25_xot0
Permanent virtual connection (PVC) over XOT setup
Assume machine A and machine B are connected through XOT and the X.25 application needs
to be run over PVC with the following configuration:
Machine A:
IP Address: 10.0.0.1
XOT Interface: xot0
X.121 Address: 11111
Machine B:
IP Address: 10.0.0.3
XOT Interface: xot0
X.121 Address: 22222
PVC channel 1 on machine A must be connected to PVC channel 3 on machine B.
PVC channel 2 on machine A must be connected to PVC channel 2 on machine B.
PVC channel 3 on machine A must be connected to PVC channel 1 on machine B.
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
47
Figure 15 Permanent virtual connection (PVC) over XOT setup
To implement this configuration, the following files need to be created on machines A and B:
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25init_xot_def
•
TCP configuration file, x121_to_ip_map
Both files must be created in the /etc/x25 directory.
48
Configuration
Example 10 Generic X.25 configuration file x25init_xot_def on machine A
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X
/etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
X.121 11111 # X.121 address
X.121_packet 11111 # use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# address (TransPac addressing)
name xot0 # interface name for Level 3 access
# It MUST be of the format xot<instance number>
# where "instance number" can take a value from 0 to 9
#
# XOT Specific Parameters
#
local_tcpip_address 10.0.0.1 # TCP/IP address of local interface
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 pvc 3 # 3 permanent VCs
lci 4 svc 255 # 252 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC # CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled # allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled # allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_inwindow 7 # default window size
def_outwindow 7 # default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
def_outthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
#
# Flow Control Parameters, needs to be enabled as per RFC 1613
#
flowcontrol on # flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 1024 # offered packet size if using flow control
negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 1024 # offered packetsize if using flow control
negotiation
neg_inwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
49
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
#
# Parameters for PVCs
#
pvc_inpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
50
Configuration
Example 11 TCP configuration file x121_to_ip_map on machine A
#
# X.25 to IP Map File
# SVC Routing Information, as per RFC 1613
#
#Destination X.21 Destination
# Address IP Address
11111 10.0.0.1
22222 10.0.0.3
#
# PVC Routing Information, as per RFC 1613
# Local(LCN), Remote(LCN), LocalInterfacename,
RemoteInterfacename,Remoteip
pvcroute 1 3 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.3 #PVC channel 1 mapped to channel 3
pvcroute 2 2 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.3 #PVC channel 2 mapped to channel 2
pvcroute 3 1 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.3 #PVC channel 3 mapped to channel 1
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
51
Example 12 Generic X.25 configuration file x25init_xot_def on machine B
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X
/etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
X.121 22222 # X.121 address
X.121_packet 22222 # use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# address (TransPac addressing)
name xot0 # interface name for Level 3 access
# It MUST be of the format xot<instance number>
# where "instance number" can take a value from 0 to 9
#
# XOT Specific Parameters
#
local_tcpip_address 10.0.0.3 # TCP/IP address of local interface
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
lci 1 pvc 3 # 3 PVCs
lci 4 svc 255 # 252 two-way SVCs
networktype TRANSPAC # CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
fast_select enabled # allow incoming calls with call user data
reverse_charge enabled # allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_outpacketsize 1024 # default packetsize
def_inwindow 7 # default window size
def_outwindow 7 # default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
def_outthruputclass 19200 # default thruput class
#
# Flow Control Parameters, needs to be enabled as per RFC 1613
#
flowcontrol on # flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 1024 # offered packet size if using flow control
negotiation
neg_outpacketsize 1024 # offered packetsize if using flow control
negotiation
neg_inwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
52
Configuration
neg_outthruputclass 19200 # offered thruput class if using thruput class
negotiation
#
# Parameters for PVCs
#
pvc_inpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 1024 # packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7 # window size for PVCs
Example 13 TCP configuration file x121_to_ip_map on machine B
#
# X.25 to IP Map File
# SVC Routing Information, as per RFC 1613
#
#Destination X.21 Destination
# Address IP Address
11111 10.0.0.1
22222 10.0.0.3
#
# PVC Routing Information, as per RFC 1613
# Local(LCN), Remote(LCN), LocalInterfacename,
RemoteInterfacename,Remoteip
pvcroute 1 3 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.1 #PVC channel 1 mapped to channel 3
pvcroute 2 2 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.1 #PVC channel 2 mapped to channel 2
pvcroute 3 1 xot0 xot0 10.0.0.1 #PVC channel 3 mapped to channel 1
To start and stop this configuration:
Starting
To start the configuration, execute the following command at the command prompt:
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def –X /etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map
Stopping
To stop the configuration, execute the following command at the command prompt:
x25stop –d /dev/x25_xot0
Troubleshooting XOT configuration
This section describes the issues that may occur while using the x25init command to configure
the XOT interface and ways to handle these issues.
Issue 1
Symptom:
When x25init -c /etc/x25/x25init_xot_xot0 -X /etc/x25/x121_to_ip_map_xot
command is executed, the following message is displayed:
[x25stop] X.25 interface /dev/x25_xot0 has been stopped
Configuring X.25 over TCP (XOT)
53
[x25init] nc open of module x25tun0 failed
CAUSE : Command has returned a bad exiting value
ACTION : Contact your system administrator
[x25init] Starting the X.25 stack failed.
CAUSE : Command has returned a bad exiting value
ACTION : Contact your system administrator
[x25init] Configuration initialization failed
Cause:
The x25tun kernel module is set to “unused” state.
This can be verified by executing the kcmodule command as shown:
# kcmodule x25tun
An output similar to the following is displayed:
Module State Cause Notes
x25tun unused loadable, unloadable
Verify if the State column has the value listed as "unused".
Solution:
Set the x25tun module state to “loaded” as shown:
# kcmodule x25tun=loaded
An output similar to the following is displayed:
Module State Cause Notes
x25tun (before) unused loadable, unloadable
(now) loaded explicit
Now rerun the kcmodule command:
# kcmodule x25tun
The output displayed will be similar to the following:
Module State Cause Notes
x25tun loaded loadable, unloadable
The State column value is changed to "loaded".
Issue 2
Symptom:
After executing the x25init command to initialize the XOT interface, an X.25 application may
fail and the x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_xot0 command displays the following message:
x25ifstate: X.25 interface present, but not up (OFF)
Causes and Solutions:
Following are the possible causes and the corresponding steps to handle them:
1. Cause:
Arguments passed to the x25init command while initializing the XOT interface are missing
absolute pathnames.
Solution:
Check if the arguments passed to the x25init command have the absolute pathname.
An example for absolute pathname: /etc/x25/x25init_xot_def.
54
Configuration
If the pathnames of the arguments is not similar to the example, execute the command with
the absolute pathname.
2.
Cause:
The local_tcpip_address field in the XOT configuration file has a duplicate IP address.
Solution:
Check the log file, /var/x25/log/XOT<instance number>_<yymmdd>.log for an
entry similar to the following:
# cat /var/x25/log/XOT0_110201.log
20:06:12.582: xotWork_StartListen: failed to bind to port 1998,
error=227
20:06:12.582: **ERROR** xotEngine_Init: failed to listen on XOT
port=1998
20:06:12.582: **ERROR** fwGuts_Init: xotEngine_Init failed exit
20:06:12.582: CXsknConfig::ClearSvcCache
20:06:12.582: XOT Daemon shut down
20:06:12.582: xotd exiting from main()
20:06:12.582: xotd - exitHandler
20:06:12.690: xotd shut down
If the entry is present, verify if the local_tcpip_address field in the XOT configuration file has
a valid IP address configured on the system.
If the IP address is invalid, enter a valid IP address and execute the x25init command again.
3.
Cause:
Issue with the X.25 stack running on the system.
Solution:
If the local_tcpip_address field has a valid IP address, go to the /var/x25/log/ directory
and check if any core file has been created under / directory.
If any core file is present, it could be an issue with the X.25 stack running on the system. Report
the issue to the HP Support Team.
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over TCP
Configuring the local and remote failover features for X.25 over TCP (XOT) interface is not supported
in this release of the X.25 software.
Configuring PAD services for X.25 over TCP
Configuring PAD services for X.25 over TCP (XOT) interface is not supported in this release of the
X.25 software.
Configuring PAD services
This section contains step-by-step instructions for configuring PAD services. Skip this section if you
don’t need to configure PAD services.
The procedures in this section are optional. Your X.25 link software does not require you to configure
PAD services.
You can use SMH to add or modify the following:
•
PAD terminal emulation (local to remote)
•
PAD support server (remote to local)
Configuring PAD services
55
•
PAD printer server
•
PAD UUCP server
•
X.3 sets of parameters
See “PAD services” (page 94) for detailed reference information on PAD services.
This section assumes that SMH is running and that you are starting from the main window. If this
is not the case, type smh at the HP-UX prompt before continuing.
Remember to use the Help button (in the SMH window) to display information and instructions for
the content of each field.
Add/Modify PAD terminal emulation (local to remote)
Follow the steps below to add or modify PAD terminal emulation for a remote system:
1.
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, highlight Networking and Communications and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight X.25 PAD Services and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
Highlight Terminal Emulator and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH displays an object list that shows all remote systems currently configured for PAD terminal
emulation.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select Add from the Actions menu to configure PAD terminal emulation for an unlisted remote
system, or highlight a remote system from the list and select Modify.
Enter or modify field values as required.
Click Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional system connections. Click OK to
save changes and exit this dialog.
Select Exit from the List menu to return to the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
NOTE: If you enabled Reverse Charge Requested, you must also configure the PAD support
server. See “Add/Modify PAD support server (remote to local)” (page 56) for step-by-step
instructions for configuring the PAD support server.
8.
Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
Add/Modify PAD support server (remote to local)
Follow the steps below to add or modify a PAD support server for a local terminal or system:
1.
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, highlight Networking and Communications and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight X.25 PAD Services and select
Open Item from the Actions menu.
Highlight Support Server and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH displays an object list that shows all terminals/systems currently configured for access
via X.25.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
56
Select Add from the Actions menu to configure a terminal/system that is not listed for access
via X.25, or highlight a terminal/system from the list and select Modify.
Enter or modify field values as required.
Click Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD support servers. Click OK
to save changes and exit this dialog.
Select Exit from the List menu to return to the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
Configuration
Add/Modify PAD printers server
Follow the steps below to add or modify remote PAD printers:
1.
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, highlight Networking and Communications and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight X.25 PAD Services and select
Open Item from the Actions menu.
Highlight Printers Server and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH lists all remote printers that your system can currently access via X.25.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select Add from the Actions menu to configure access to an unlisted remote printer, or highlight
a remote printer from the list and select Modify.
Enter or modify field values as required.
Click Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD printers. Click OK to save
changes and exit this dialog.
Select Exit from the List menu to return to the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
Add/Modify UUCP server
Follow the steps below to add or modify a UUCP server:
1.
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, highlight Networking and Communications and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight X.25 PAD Services and select
Open Item from the Actions menu.
Highlight UUCP Server and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH lists all remote systems currently configured for X.25 PAD UUCP connectivity.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select Add from the Actions menu to configure PAD UUCP connectivity for an unlisted remote
system, or highlight a remote system from the list and select Modify.
Enter or modify field values as required.
Click Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD UUCP connections. Click
OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Select Exit from the List menu to return to the X.25 PAD Services dialog.
If necessary, select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list.
In order for PAD UUCP connectivity to function correctly, UUCP must also be configured. If
you have not already done this, you can configure UUCP by returning to the Networking and
Communications window, highlighting UUCP and selecting Open Item from the Actions menu.
From this dialog you can configure UUCP Devices and/or UUCP Remote Systems (see the
on-line Help or UUCP documentation for more information).
Add/Modify X.3 parameters
Follow the steps below to add or modify X.3 parameters. Refer to “PAD services” (page 94) for
detailed descriptions of the X.3 parameters.
Configuring PAD services
57
NOTE: The X.3 values that you configure here are initially downloaded to the PAD. As the terminal
characteristics of your session change, the X.25 software automatically downloads new values for
certain parameters. Do not be alarmed if the values of some parameters are different from the
values you initially specified.
1.
2.
3.
At the SMH main window, highlight Networking and Communications and select Open
Item from the Actions menu.
At the Networking and Communications window, highlight X.25 PAD Services and select
Open Item from the Actions menu.
Highlight X.3 Sets of Parameters and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH displays an object list showing all X.3 sets or profiles currently configured.
4.
Select Add from the Actions menu to configure an unlisted X.3 set, or highlight an X.3 set from
the list and select Modify.
When you select Add, SMH displays the Set X.3 Default Values dialog. This dialog lets you
set defaults for PAD terminal emulation, PAD support server, PAD printers server, or PAD UUCP
server.
5.
6.
7.
Enter or modify field values as required. Click Help for information and instructions for each
field. A full description of X.3 parameters are provided in “PAD services” (page 94).
Click Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional X.3 sets. Click OK to save changes
and exit this dialog.
Select Exit from the List menu.
Configuring the high availability feature
The X.25 link software provides integration of the X.25/Streams solution to the High Availability
HP MC/ServiceGuard feature on HP 9000 Series 800 Systems, allowing local and remote failure
recovery.
This feature requires that the HP MC/ServiceGuard product (B3936AA) has been installed and
that the X.25 software uses switches that support Hunt Group Facility allowing multiple DTEs to
share a common X.121 address.
You should be familiar with the HP MC/ServiceGuard product prior to installation. For more
information on Serviceguard, see Managing MC/ServiceGuard.
The High Availability features include:
•
Local Failure: Support of local failure for an X.25 link is provided by a PDN using existing
X.25 functionality. If a local X.25 PSI card fails, the calling DTE will see the link go down.
The Hunt Group facility results in all incoming calls being directed to the remaining “good”
X.25 PSI card in the system.
•
Remote Failure: HP MC/ServiceGuard, uses the x25ifstate command to monitor the X.25
status. If the monitor detects that the X.25 link it is monitoring has gone down, all it has to do
is exit.
HP MC/ServiceGuard detects that the monitor service belonging to the package has
disappeared, stops the package, and starts the migration towards a second system.
The X.121 address of the first package is taken over by the second system from the X.25
configuration file.
58
Configuration
X.25 Cluster definition
To configure a High Availability cluster, use SMH to define all cluster systems by giving their:
•
NODE_NAME
•
NETWORK_INTERFACE
•
HEARTBEAT_IP
X.25 Commands to be configured in high availability packages
Start X.25 link
x25init -c x25config -a ipmap -d x25dev (see x25init (1m))
Stop X.25 link
x25stop -d x25dev (see x25stop (1m))
Monitor X.25 link
x25ifstate -d x25dev -H (see x25ifstate (1m))
X.25 Package definition
An X.25 package is needed for each HA X.25 node. This package allows HP MC/ServiceGuard
to automatically:
•
Start the X.25 link (x25init command) when the X.25 package starts
•
Start a process (x25ifstate command) to monitor the state of the X.25 link
•
Stop the failed X.25 package before migrating to a backup node
To define each X.25 package, you need:
•
Package Name: to identify the X.25 package. Use a name such as x25pkg1.
•
Service Name: to monitor the X.25 link to be managed
•
Service Command: to monitor the X.25 link status. It could be either a script based on
x25ifstate or the x25ifstate command directly, depending on your configuration.
•
Package Control Script Location: location of the script to start/stop the X.25 link and execute
the service(s).
Configuring the high availability feature
59
X.25 High availability configuration
Figure 16 X.25 High availability configuration
Example 14 One example of remote failure
The only file that contains the X.25 commands to run for High Availability is the /etc./
cmcluster/pkg*/control.sh file (one per X.25 package).
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] =”/usr/sbin/x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_1 -H -t 5”
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = “ “
#add below the service names which define the applications that rely on the X.25
card
# e.g.# SERVICE_NAME [1] = <other name>
# SERVICE_CMD [1] = <other monitor>
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
#ADD customer defined run commands
: # do nothing instruction, because a function must contain at least one command.
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_1 -a /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map
sleep 5
test_return 51
}
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
#ADD customer defined halt commands
: # do nothing instruction, because a function must contain some command.
#stopping the specific X.25 card means the signal modem will be down
x25stop -d /dev/x25_1
test_return 52
}
Checking the configuration
Check that your configuration is correct using x25server, x25check, and ping.
x25server Run the x25server command. This starts a background process that waits for packets
from an x25check command and sends a reply.
x25check Execute the x25check command, using your X.121 address:
$ x25check 250207
60
Configuration
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:01 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 267 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Execute the x25check command again, but this time with data packets:
$ x25check 250207 -s 32 -n 1
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:47 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
DATA packet sent ... DATA packet received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 286 ms
Transit time : 245 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
If your system has multiple X.25 cards, you may need to specify the particular interface in order
for x25check to work properly. For example, to run x25check on the second port of the first
card (interface x25_0p2), you would use the following format:
x25check 250207 -i interface0p2
ping command Run theping command to check your IP over X.25 connection. You can use either
an IP address, or the alias for the local node (defined in the hosts file). The following example
sends 6 packets of 100 bytes:
ping hpindla 100 -n 6
PING hpindla: 100 byte packets
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
icmp_seq=1.
icmp_seq=2.
icmp_seq=3.
icmp_seq=4.
icmp_seq=5.
icmp_seq=6.
time=321.
time=320.
time=319.
time=318.
time=320.
time=321.
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
--hpindla PING Statistics-6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip (ms) min/avg/max = 318/319/321
You can then check your IP over X.25 connection to a remote host using its IP address or alias.
If ping does not run successfully on the local node address, refer to “Troubleshooting” (page 130).
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
This section describes how to configure the local and remote failover features for X.25 over LLC2
(XOL) interface. It also describes the local, remote, and a combination of local and remote failover.
WARNING! The failover is not transparent and results in loss of data and existing connections.
After a failover, the XOL connections must be re-established.
Unique MAC address requirement
XOL High Availability (XOL HA) is based on sharing a unique MAC address for the primary and
standby LAN cards, whichever is active. The use of a unique MAC address makes the card swap
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
61
transparent from the XOL router side or peer system, which sees the same MAC address associated
with the active interface.
NOTE: To avoid MAC address collision, the system administrator must identify an unused, unique
MAC address in their LAN subnet. The lanadmin command is used to change the MAC address
of the card. After failover, the failed LAN card is reconfigured with its factory default MAC address.
XOL is not supported over APA (Auto Port Aggregation).
Before you run the lanadmin command to set up the unique MAC address, you may test whether
the MAC address chosen by you is selected by running the linkloop command. For more
information, see linkloop((1m)). The uniqueness of the MAC address is verified on the LAN cards
currently active in the LAN segment. The linkloop command sends an OK message if the MAC
address is already in use.
NOTE: The routing table of the router connected to the host system must be updated with the
unique MAC address identified by the user. If the XOL router supports the Hunt Group facility for
XOL HA, the unique MAC address may not be required to achieve the HA functionality for XOL
interface. For more information on Hunt Group facility, see “Configuring the high availability
feature for X.25 over LLC2” (page 61).
WARNING! When several highly available XOL interfaces are configured on a given LAN card,
failover of all the highly available XOL interfaces to the standby LAN card occurs immediately after
one XOL interface fails. This is because the same unique MAC address is used by all XOL interfaces
on the given LAN card.
Local failover
NOTE:
You need not install ServiceGuard for Local failover.
For local failover to happen, you must define a standby LAN card in the X.25 configuration file.
The primary X.25 configuration file is used to configure the XOL interface on the standby LAN card
after the local failover. As a result, the standby LAN card inherits all the configuration parameters
from the primary interface, including the XOL logical port-id (also called box-id). The XOL interface
starts first on the primary LAN card. If this XOL interface fails, an attempt is made to restart it on
the standby LAN card. If the XOL interface fails on the standby LAN card, an attempt is made to
failover back to the primary LAN card. This failover succeeds only if the primary LAN card is back
UP and operational. Otherwise, the XOL interface goes down.
For more information on how to use this local failover functionality, see “Configuring XOL HA for
local failover without ServiceGuard” (page 62).
Configuring XOL HA for local failover without ServiceGuard
In Figure 17 (page 63), system A has two LAN cards, namely, lan0 (the primary LAN card) and
lan1 (the standby LAN card). The standby LAN card provides local failover for the XOL interface
with X.121 address 1111. The user supplied, unique MAC address that is specified in the XOL
configuration file as a value for the field XOL_floating_macaddr, for that LAN segment is uMAC.
The XOL interface with X.121 address 1111 is brought up on lan0 on system A (uMAC is
automatically assigned to lan0 on system A when the XOL interface is initialized).
62
Configuration
Figure 17 Before the failover
When the lan0 (the primary LAN card) fails, the XOL interface stops on lan0, and a XOL interface
is brought up automatically on lan1 (the standby LAN card on system A) using the same
configuration file. An attempt is made to configure lan0 with the factory default MAC address,
and uMAC is assigned to lan1 on system A during the local failover. The X.25 connection must
be re-established on the XOL interface. When the card lan0 comes up later, it is configured with
the factory default MAC address.
Figure 18 After the failover
To configure XOL local failover, complete the following steps:
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
63
NOTE: The XOL HA feature is enabled by default in HP-UX 11i v3. Therefore, the -enableXOLHA
option is no longer required.
1.
To configure the standby device and the unique MAC address in the configuration file of the
XOL primary interface, modify the following syntax:
Standby_device standby LAN card name # used for local failover
XOL_floating_macaddrunique MAC address
NOTE: Local failover is automatically enabled by defining a standby_device in the
configuration file. If you do not require the local failover feature for this interface, you must
de-configure the standby_device by removing or commenting the line in the configuration file.
The standby XOL interface inherits the configuration of the primary XOL interface during
failover because the same configuration file is used to configure the XOL interface.
Example 15 Configuring standby device and unique MAC address
If the asumptions in the XOL configuration file are the following:
•
The primary LAN card is lan0
•
The standby LAN card is lan1
•
The MAC address is 0x0060B0A4EbE5
Then, the XOL HA parameters take the following values:
standby_device lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5
NOTE: In the event of a failover, the XOL_floating_macaddr is moved from the primary LAN
card to the standby LAN card. HP recommends that you use the primary and standby LAN
cards only for the XOL links configured with HA feature.
2.
To initialize the XOL HA interface with local failover support, run the following command:
x25init -c XOL_config_file -L llc2_conf_def
Remote failover
NOTE: Remote failover, with or without local failover, requires the installation of the ServiceGuard
product on the system. For more information on HP MC/ServiceGuard product, see Managing
MC/ServiceGuard document.
In the ServiceGuard cluster, the remote failover works between LAN cards on different nodes. Each
LAN card has an XOL interface which is defined by the same configuration filename used in the
SG package. The x25ifstate command monitors the XOL interface status. When the XOL
interface fails, the x25ifstate command exits. HP MC/Service Guard detects that the monitor
service belonging to the package has exited and stops the package. HP MC/Service Guard then
starts the same package on the standby node of the ServiceGuard cluster, which starts the XOL
interface on the LAN card on the standby node.
For more information on using the remote failover functionality with Service Guard, see “Configuring
XOL HA for remote failover using Service Guard (SG)” (page 64).
Configuring XOL HA for remote failover using Service Guard (SG)
In Figure 19 (page 65) primary system A and standby system B are part of the SG cluster and
provide remote failover of an XOL interface with X.25 address 1111. The unique, user supplied
64
Configuration
MAC address is uMAC for that LAN segment. It is initially assigned to the card lan0 on primary
system A.
Figure 19 Before the failover
If the SG package for XOL detects an error in the XOL interface, the package is stopped on the
primary system and the equivalent package starts on the standby system. When the SG package
is stopped on system A, the XOL interfaces (and optionally applications) on the failed LAN card
are stopped. An attempt is made to configure LAN card on system A with the factory default MAC
address. When the SG package starts on system B, the LAN card on system B is configured with
the unique MAC (uMAC) address, and the XOL interfaces (and optionally applications) start on it.
When the failed LAN card on system A comes up later, it is configured with the factory default
MAC address.
Figure 20 After the failover
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
65
XOL cluster definition
You must define the cluster by providing the system names that are part of SG cluster.
X.25 commands used in the SG package control scripts:
•
To set the MAC address, run the following command:
lanadmin -A MAC address PPA
•
To start XOL interface, run the following command:
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2 -L /etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
•
To monitor the XOL interface, run the following command:
x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_0l1 -H
•
To stop the XOL interface, run the following command:
x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
XOL package definition
An XOL SG package is required to configure a highly available XOL interface on all nodes in the
SG cluster. This package allows HP MC/Service Guard to automatically:
•
Assign a unique MAC address (using the lanadmin command) to the LAN card in use.
•
Start the X.25 link (x25init command) when the X.25 package starts.
•
Run the command x25ifstate to monitor the state of the XOL interface.
•
Stop the XOL interface when the monitoring command detects a failure.
To define the X.25 package, you require the following attributes:
•
Package Name: Identifies the X.25 package, for example, xol_pkg1.
•
Service Name: Monitors the XOL interface to be managed, for example, xol_SG_service1
•
Service Command: Monitors the XOL interface status, for example, x25ifstate
To configure XOL remote failover, complete the following steps:
NOTE: The XOL HA feature is enabled by default in HP-UX 11i v3. Therefore, the -enableXOLHA
option is no longer required.
NOTE: When the XOL interface goes down, the service command (x25ifstate) exits. The SG
performs a package failover to the standby node configured in the SG cluster.
The SG package file that contains the X.25 commands is /etc./cmcluster/pkg*/control.sh
file (one per XOL package). Following is a sample SG package file:
66
Configuration
Example 16 XOL SG package for remote failover
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] ="/usr/sbin/x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_0l1 -H "
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = " "
# Unique MAC address in the subnet (LAN segment), which is
# not in use. This will be the Active MAC address on the
# active node in the cluster.
Supplied_MAC = 0x0060B0A4EBE5
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
# START of customer defined run commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
sleep 2
/usr/sbin/lanadmin -A $Supplied_MAC 0
/usr/sbin/x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2_1 -L /etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
sleep 5
test_return 51
# END of customer defined run commands
}
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
# START of customer defined halt commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
Sleep 2
test_return 52
# END of customer defined halt commands
}
Remote failover with local failover support using Service Guard
This is a combination of local failover and remote failover. For information on the local and remote
failovers, see “Configuring XOL HA for local failover without ServiceGuard” (page 62) and
“Configuring XOL HA for remote failover using Service Guard (SG)” (page 64). If the interface
cannot be activated on either the primary or the standby LAN card at a given time on the local
node, the SG package initiates the remote failover to the LAN card on the standby node in the
SG cluster.
NOTE: On any given LAN card, the combination of highly available and not highly available
XOL interfaces is not supported. Either all or none of the interfaces must be configured with HA
(for local or remote failover) on any given LAN card. This is because the same unique MAC address
is used by all XOL interfaces on the given LAN card.
To support remote failover with local failover, complete the following steps:
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
67
NOTE: Enabling or disabling of HA feature for XOL interface is system wide. Before enabling
or disabling the HA feature on a system, all existing XOL interfaces must be stopped. The XOL HA
feature is enabled by default on 11i v3.
1.
To configure the standby device and the unique MAC address in the configuration file of the
XOL primary interface, modify the following syntax:
Standby_devicestandby LAN card name # used for local failover
XOL_floating_macaddrunique MAC address
NOTE: Local failover is automatically enabled if a “standby_device” is defined in the
configuration file. If you do not want the local failover feature for this interface, you must
de-configure the standby_device by removing or commenting the line in the configuration file.
The XOL interface inherits the configuration of the primary XOL interface during failover
because the same configuration file is used to configure the XOL interface.
Example 17 Configuring standby device and unique MAC address
If the assumptions in the XOL configuration file are the following:
•
The primary LAN card is lan0
•
The standby LAN card is lan1
•
The MAC address is 0x0060B0A4EbE5
Then, the above parameters take the following values:
standby_device lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5
NOTE: In the event of a failover, the XOL_floating_macaddr is moved from the Primary LAN
card to the standby LAN card. HP recommends that you use the primary and standby LAN
cards only for the XOL links configured with HA feature.
2.
Configure the SG package. For information on achieving remote failover functionality, see
“XOL package definition” (page 66). For remote failover with local failover support, define
the XOL package with the following changes:
•
In the Start script of the package, stop the monitor if it is running. For details, see
Example 16 (page 67).
•
In the XOL package definition, use x25HAmonitor command instead of x25ifstate
as the service command, as follows:
x25HAmonitor -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2 -L/etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
-m
NOTE: The x25HAmonitor command helps in failover of the XOL interface between the
primary and standby LAN cards (on the local system), if the LAN card (either primary or
standby) on which the XOL interface was active, fails. The x25HAmonitor exits if it is does
not start the XOL interface on the local system on either the primary or standby LAN card. The
SG does a package failover to the standby node configured in the SG cluster.
3.
To start the SG package, run the following command
cmrunpkg -v package name
68
Configuration
Example 18 Remote failover with local failover support
The following two entries must be added to the LLC2 configuration file:
standby_device lan2 # lan2 is standby LAN.
XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5 # Unique MAC address in the subnet
The SG package file that contains the X.25 commands is /etc./cmcluster/pkg*/
control.sh file (one per XOL package).
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] ="/usr/sbin/x25HAmonitor -c x25config_llc2 -L llc2_conf_def -m "
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = " "
# Unique MAC address in the subnet (LAN segment) which is not in use. This will
be the Active MAC address on the active node in the cluster.
Supplied_MAC = 0x0060B0A4EBE5
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
# START of customer defined run commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_1l0 # primary lan PPA is 1 and
XOL_logical_port_id is 0
sleep 2
/usr/sbin/lanadmin -A $Supplied_MAC 1
/usr/sbin/x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2_1 -L /etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
sleep 5
# Check and stop the x25HAmonitor if already running
# This is needed as Service Guard monitor starts the monitor later
PID=`/usr/bin/ls /var/x25/tmp/x25HAmonitor_1l0.* | /usr/bin/awk -F '.' '{ print
$2 }'`
PROC_NAME=`/usr/bin/ps -e | /usr/bin/grep $PID /usr/bin/awk '{ print $4 }'`
if [[ $PROC_NAME = "x25HAmonitor" ]]
then
/usr/bin/kill $PID
fi
test_return 51
# END of customer defined run commands
}
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
Configuring the high availability feature for X.25 over LLC2
69
# START of customer defined halt commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_1l0
Sleep 2
# Assuming that lan2 was configured as standby lan
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_2l0
Sleep 2
test_return 52
# END of customer defined halt commands
}
Verifying the X.25 link
After completing the installation and configuration instructions, follow these steps to verify your
link:
1. If you are using IP over X.25, use the ping command to check that the IP connection is
operating properly. Refer to your man pages for details on the ping command. Examples
are given below.
To check the connection to and from the network to the IP address (for example, 193.6.3.2),
type:
ping 193.6.3.2
To check the full connection across the network to the remote system’s IP address (for example,
193.6.1.1), type:
ping 193.6.1.1
2.
If ping was unsuccessful, use the x25check and x25server commands to verify that the
X.25 connections are operating properly. Refer to your man pages for detailed information
on the these commands.
NOTE: If you have problems with the operation of your X.25 link, repeat the installation
process described in “Installation” (page 10) and the configuration instructions in this chapter,
or refer to “Troubleshooting” (page 130) for troubleshooting information.
70
Configuration
4 OLA/R overview and concepts
Introduction
The letters O, L, A and R stand for On Line Addition [and] Replacement. This, of course, refers to
the ability of a PCI I/O card to be replaced/added to an HP-UX computer system designed to
support this feature without the need for completely shutting down, then re-booting the system or
affecting other system components. The system hardware uses the per-slot power control combined
with operating system support to enable this feature.
Initially, not all add-in cards will have this capability but over time users should see many cards
adding this capability to their set of functions.
IMPORTANT: Certain “Classes” of hardware are not intended for access by users. At this time
this includes Z-class (SuperDome) systems. HP recommends that these systems only be opened by
a qualified HP Engineer. Failure to observe this requirement can invalidate any support agreement
or warranty to which the owner might otherwise be entitled.
IMPORTANT: For those wishing to use OLAR, your system may need to update its system firmware.
For additional details, please refer to the "Read Before Installing or Updating to HP-UX 11i v3"
document.
Important terms and concepts
Table 16 Terms used in this section
Term
Meaning
OLA/R
All aspects of the OLA/R feature including On-line Addition
(OLA) and On-line Replacement (OLR).
Power Domain
A grouping of 1 or more interface card slots that are
powered on or off as a unit.
target card / target card slot
The interface card which will be added or replaced using
OLA/R, and the card slot it resides in.
affected card / affected card slot
Interface cards and the card slots they reside in and are
in the same power domain as the target slot.
IMPORTANT: In many cases, other interface cards and slots within the system are dependent
upon the target card. For example:
•
If the target card slot is in a power domain and you temporarily stop power to the target card
slot, you will also stop power to any other card slots (affected card slots) in that power domain.
•
If the target card is a multiple-function card (MFC), suspending or deleting drivers for the target
card slot also suspends individual drivers for the multiple hardware paths on that card).
During a card replacement operation, SMH performs a Critical Resource Analysis, which checks
the target card for critical resources that would be lost when the card is shut down.
Planning and preparation
For the most part SMH prevents you from performing OLA/R procedures that would adversly affect
other areas of the server. This section provides you with important information that can help minimize
errors or problems when performing OLA/R procedures.
Introduction
71
Card compatibility
On-line addition
When on-line adding an interface card, the first issue that must be resolved is whether the new
card is compatible with the system. Each OLA/R-capable PCI slot provides a set amount of power.
The replacement card cannot draw more power than is available.
The card must also operate at the slot’s bus frequency. A PCI card must run at any frequency lower
than its maximum capability, but a card that could only operate at 33 MHz would not work on a
bus running at 66 MHz. rad provides information about the bus frequency and power available
at a slot, as well as other slot-related data.
On-line replacement
When on-line replacing an interface card, the replacement card must be identical to the card being
replaced. This is referred to as like-for-like replacement and should be adhered to because using
a similar but not identical card may cause unpredictable results. For example, a newer version of
the target card which is identical in terms of hardware may contain an updated firmware version
that could potentially conflict with the current driver.
The PCI specification allows a single physical card to contain more than one function. A
single-function SCSI bus adapter cannot be replaced by a dual-function adapter, even if the
additional function on the card was identical to the original SCSI bus adapter.
When the replacement card is added to the system, the appropriate driver for that card must be
configured in the kernel before beginning the operation. SMH ensures the correct driver is present.
(In most cases, the replacement card will be the same type as a card already in the system, and
this requirement will be automatically met.) If you have any question about the driver’s presence,
or if you are not certain that the replacement card is identical to the existing card, you can use
ioscan together with rad to investigate.
•
During the replacement process, the original driver instance runs in a suspended state. I/O
to the card is either queued or failed while the card is suspended. When the replacement
card is brought on-line, the driver instance resumes normal operation. The driver instance must
be capable of resuming and controlling the replacement card.
•
If the necessary driver is not present and the driver is a dynamically loadable kernel module
(DLKM), you can load it manually.
•
If the driver is static and not configured in the kernel, then the card cannot be On-line Added.
The card could be physically inserted on-line, but no driver would claim it.
Critical resources
Replacing a card that is still operating can have extensive ramifications. Since power to the slot
must be off when the old card is removed and the new card is inserted, the effects of shutting down
the card’s functions must be considered.
This is particularly important if there is no on-line failover or backup card to pick up those functions.
For example:
•
Which mass storage devices will be temporarily disconnected when the card is shut down?
•
Will a critical networking connection be lost?
A critical resource is one that would cause a system crash or prevent the operation from successfully
completing if the resource were temporarily suspended or disconnected. For example, if the SCSI
adapter to be replaced connects to the unmirrored root disk or swap space, the system will crash
when the card is shut down.
During an OLA/R procedure, it is essential to check the targeted card for critical resources, as well
as the effects of existing disk mirrors and other situations where a card’s functions can be taken
over by another card that will not be affected.
72
OLA/R overview and concepts
Fortunately SMH performs a thorough critical resource analysis automatically, and presents options
to you based on its findings. If you determine that critical resources will be affected by the procedure,
you could replace the card when the server is off-line, or if you must take action immediately, you
can use rad to attempt an on-line addition of a backup card and deletion of the target card.
Failover actions/single points of failure
In most cases, the system will automatically fail over to the alternate resource when a card is
suspended. However, some subsystems might require manual intervention. For example, the Logical
Volume Manager (LVM), will automatically redirect I/O for a temporarily disconnected disk resource
to a mirror, logging errors as it handles this situation.
•
Along those lines, if the resource will be suspended for an extended period of time, a large
number of error log entries could result.
•
In this type of situation, you may want to manually switch over to a mirror beforehand. When
you have completed the OLA/R procedure, the mirror and disk can be resynchronized.
If you suspend a card and the backup takes over, the system can contain a single point of failure.
If the backup resource fails before the new card is on-line, the system could potentially crash. This
window of vulnerability can be minimized by keeping the period of suspension as short as possible.
This requires careful planning, and gathering as much information as possible before actually
suspending driver operation and powering-down a card slot.
When an extended suspension period is unavoidable, or when the system is mission-critical, it is
desirable to configure a second backup resource if possible.
How to on-line replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI card using SMH
WARNING! When performing online replacement, the stack for all the ports of the interface card
under consideration will be stopped before replacement. They will be restarted after the replacement.
Thus any user application which has open connections will receive DISCONNECT messages. The
connections will have to be re-established after successful replacement of the interface card.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Start SMH.
From the SMH Areas screen, select PeripheralDevices.
From the PeripheralDevices screen, select Cards.
From the I/O Cards screen, view the list of available I/O cards. Select from the possible entries
mentioned below:
•
5.
6.
7.
HP J3525A PCI 2-port PSI card
From the Menu bar, select Actions.
From the Actions drop-down list, select Replace.
SMH now performs a Critical Resource Analysis (CRA). That is, now that you have selected
to Replace a card, SMH’s first step is to confirm that no critical resources will be disabled
when the card is taken off-line.
Output messages from the CRA process are presented in the Analyze Critical Resources screen
which will be shown before you can proceed. The messages displayed on this screen and the
availability to continue on from it (OK button activated) depend on the results of the analysis.
Table 17 Three possible critical resource analysis (CRA) outcomes
Outcome
Notes
Screen Displays
Buttons Activated
No critical resources At this point, you can “No affected
OK and Cancel
identified.
still cancel the
resources are critical
replacement process. or in-use” and
“Critical Resource
User Actions
Click Cancel to halt
the operation and
cancel the
replacement with no
How to on-line replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI card using SMH
73
Table 17 Three possible critical resource analysis (CRA) outcomes (continued)
Outcome
Notes
Screen Displays
Buttons Activated
Analysis complete”
messages.
User Actions
change to the system.
Or,
Remove all cables
from the PCI I/O
card and click OK to
take you to the next
step.
Critical resource(s )
identified.
SMH will not allow
the operation to
proceed.
Detailed message
describing the
affected critical
resource.
Other resources
identified.
SMH reports other
Detailed message
resources that are in describing these
use with no
resources.
detectable alternates.
For these resources,
you can cancel or
continue the
operation based on
your knowledge of
the current system
configuration.
Cancel
Click Cancel to halt
the operation with no
change to the system
OK and Cancel
Click Cancel to halt
the operation with no
change to the system.
Or,
Remove all cables
from the PCI I/O
card and click OK to
continue operations
based on your
knowledge of the
information being
reported.
NOTE: The cables must be removed from the PCI I/O card before proceeding with the OLR
operation.
8.
Once you click OK on the Analyze Critical Resources screen, SMH begins to take the selected
card out of service. SMH requests a suspend operation for the driver of the selected card.
9. Once the drivers are suspended, SMH turns off the power to the slot in which the card is
located.
10. SMH then illuminates the amber attention LED on the slot itself to make the suspended card
more easily locatable on the system chassis.
11. SMH now requests that the card be replaced via a dialog box. Read the contents of this dialog
for any extra information (Expansion cabinets, warnings, etc.). Also at this point, SMH turns
off the slot’s green power LED.
12. Replace the target card. Please refer to your system manual for removal and insertion of the
PCI I/O cards.
NOTE:
Do not connect the cables to the card at this point.
13. At this point, the amber LED should still be be activated, and the green power LED should still
be off.
Return to the console, and click OK on the Replace Card dialog.
WARNING! Pressing the Cancel button here will prevent you from easily restoring power
to this slot (or Power Domain). If this happens, you must shut-down, then re-boot, the system
to restore power.
14. Once you click OK, SMH first resets the attention LED to its normal state.
74
OLA/R overview and concepts
15. SMH completes the operation by reversing the sequence of actions. That is, SMH will:
•
return power to the card slot, and enables power to the Green LED
•
identify the new card
•
resume driver operations to the card
16. Connect the cables to the card.
How to on-line add (OLA) a J3525A PCI card using SMH
NOTE: On-line addition will recognize and claim the interface card only if the X.25/9000
software is already loaded on the system. Also check if the appropriate J3525A drivers are loaded
in the kernel.
1.
Read the information (below) in this step. An understanding of this section is important in order
for you to make the correct decision later in the procedure.
Enter the SMH I/O Cards area and look for a slot prior to inserting the card.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
•
You will see one or more entries marked “empty slot”, one of which you will choose to
house the new card.
•
SMH will perform a Critical Resource Analysis prior to bringing the card on-line
Start SMH.
From the SMH Areas screen, select Peripheral Devices.
From the Peripheral Devices screen, select Cards.
From the I/O Cards screen, view the list of available I/O slots (will read “empty slot”). Select
the slot you wish to use.
From the Menu bar, select Actions.
From the Actions drop-down list, select Add.
SMH now performs a Critical Resource Analysis (CRA). That is, now that you have selected
to Add a card, SMH’s first step is to confirm that no critical resources will be disabled when
the power to the slot is switched off.
Output messages from the CRA process are presented in the Analyze Critical Resources screen
which will be shown before you can proceed. The messages displayed on this screen and the
availability to continue on from it (OK button activated) depend on the results of the analysis.
Table 18 Three possible critical resource analysis (CRA) outcomes
Outcome
Notes
Screen Displays
Buttons Activated
User Actions
No critical resources At this point, you can “No affected
OK and Cancel
identified.
still cancel the
resources are critical
replacement process. or in-use” and
“Critical Resource
Analysis complete”
messages.
Click Cancel to halt
the operation no
change to the system.
Or, Click OK to take
you to the next step .
Critical resource(s )
identified.
SMH will not allow
the operation to
proceed.
Cancel
Click Cancel to halt
the operation with no
change to the system
Other resources
identified.
SMH reports other
Detailed message
resources that are in describing these
use with no
resources.
detectable alternates.
For these resources,
you can cancel or
continue the
operation based on
OK and Cancel
Click Cancel to halt
the operation with no
change to the system.
Click OK to continue
operations based on
your knowledge of
the information being
reported.
Detailed message
describing the
affected critical
resource.
How to on-line add (OLA) a J3525A PCI card using SMH
75
Table 18 Three possible critical resource analysis (CRA) outcomes (continued)
Outcome
Notes
Screen Displays
Buttons Activated
User Actions
your knowledge of
the current system
configuration.
SMH displays a dialog indicating that the selected slot has power disabled and it is now safe
to add the card to the desired slot.
9.
At this point, the amber LED is activated and the green LED is off. Now add the new PCI card.
Refer to the system manual for the insertion of the PCI card.
NOTE:
Do not connect the cables to the card at this point
10. Once you have inserted the new card, return to the console and click OK on the dialog,
assuming there is one. At this point, SMH will:
•
return power to the card slot and enable power to the Green LED
•
attach drivers by running ioscan on the new hardware
•
update the list of cards and slots on the system shown in the I/O cards area
NOTE: At this point, the OLA is complete. Note that in some cases additional configuration
in another area of SMH may also be required. A network interface card, for example, might
require network parameter setup in the Network Interface Card portion of the Networking
and Communications area.
11. If the OLA is successful, connect the cables to the card.
76
OLA/R overview and concepts
5 Diagnostic utilities
Using diagnostic utilities
This chapter describes how to use the X.25 diagnostic utilities.
The diagnostic utilities provided with your X.25 link are described briefly in the following table.
Refer to “Troubleshooting” (page 130) if you need help deciding which utility to use.
Table 19 Available diagnostic utilities
Utility
Description
Refer to:
x25checkx25server
Tests connectivity up to X.25 level 3
man page and this chapter for
between the local and remote nodes. examples
x25stat
Provides X.25 and IP over X.25 status man page and this chapter for
and configuration VC statistics.
examples
x25mibstat
Uses X.25 MIB structure to provide
statistical information.
man page
netstat
Provides network statistics and
information about network
connections.
man page
ping
IP-to-IP connections only. Tests
connection to a remote host (to IP
level) and reports round-trip
communication time.
man page
The following diagram shows the areas of the X.25 product covered by the diagnostic utilities.
The X.21bis level is physically integrated in the interface card.
Using diagnostic utilities
77
Figure 21 Scope of X.25 diagnostic utilities
Before using the diagnostic utilities
Some of the diagnostic utilities request or display information about the X.25 interface card using
one or more of the naming conventions described below. Keep these conventions in mind when
using the diagnostic utilities:
•
the name of the device file, uses the format x25_npx, where n represents the card
instance number (0 to 15). For systems with multi-port cards only, the p is a mandatory place
holder and x represents the port (interface) number (either 1 or 4).
•
the programmatic access name (for example, interfacenpx)
•
the X.25 interface name used by netstat uses the format x25_npx, where n represents
the card instance number (0 to 15). For systems with multi-port cards only, the p is a mandatory
place holder and the x represents the port (interface) number (either 1 or 4).
The interrupt signal is often used to terminate diagnostic utilities. This chapter assumes you have
designated the Break key as your interrupt character by setting the stty flags, brkint and
-ignbrk. See the man page for stty for details.
NOTE:
You should be familiar with X.25 data formats in order to understand diagnostic output.
x25check and x25server
These commands are used together to test the connection between a source node and a destination
node, up to and including X.25 programmatic access level. x25check is a major tool for debugging
the X.25 subsystem and for checking the configuration for that subsystem. x25server is a
78
Diagnostic utilities
background process that waits for call requests from x25check. The x25server must be running
before you execute x25check.
See the man pages for x25check and x25server for syntax and parameter information.
x25check and x25server
79
NOTE:
80
Diagnostic utilities
The x25server daemon will be killed if all of the X.25 interfaces are deactivated.
Example 19 Running x25check interactively (no parameters)
The example below shows x25check used interactively to do three tests.
•
The first test (sending a call packet only) is successful and the results are shown. (Generally,
when running x25check, first send the CALL packet alone, without data, to verify that a VC
has been established between the nodes).
•
The second test uses the same destination address to send five data packets. Note that the
X.121 address you enter becomes the default value the next time you run the test.
•
The third test (to a different X.121 address) is unsuccessful. An error message stating the
problem is displayed.
When x25check prompts you for a programmatic access name, press Return. The programmatic
access name is not used for 712 Series workstations.
$ x25check
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on.. Wed Dec 8 09:13:41 1993
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > y
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node ( ) > 2502057
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to
check ( ) > interface2
Use reverse charging? (y/n) > y
Closed user group identification number (Blank or xx or xxxx) >
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time: 302 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Do you want to run the test once again? (y/n) > y
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > n
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node (250207)>
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to check
(interface20) >
CALL
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
sent
sent
sent
sent
sent
sent
...
...
...
...
...
...
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
received
received
received
received
received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 311 ms
Transit time : 120 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Do you want to run the test once again? (y/n) > y
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > y
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node ( 250207 ) > 2502059
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to check
(interface20) > interface3
x25check and x25server
81
Unable to Connect to Remote NodeVC_CLEAR Packet was received with
CAUSE 0 : DTE Originated
DIAG 245 : Cannot Interpret Diagnostic Code
Example 20 Running x25check with an X.121 address
In the example below, the destination X.121 address of the destination node is specified as a
parameter to x25check. This example shows a successful test and assumes the
closed_user_group to be 51.
$ x25check 250207 -i interface0 -g 51
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:01 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 267 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Example 21 Running x25check with a data packet
In this example, a DATA packet is sent following the CALL packet. The size of the DATA packet
(in octets) and the number of DATA packets to be sent are specified in addition to the X.121
address of the destination node. This example shows a successful test.
$ x25check 250207 -i interface0 -s 32767 -n 1
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:47 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
DATA packet sent ...DATA packet received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 286 ms
Transit time : 24205 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
x25stat
This command displays the status, configuration, and VC statistics of an X.25 interface. See the
man pages on x25stat for syntax and parameter information.
82
Diagnostic utilities
Example 22 Displaying the current configuration
x25stat -c -d x25_0
-------- X.25 CONFIG ----------General Parameters:
X.121 Address: 110
X.121 Pkt Addr: 110
Programatic Access Name: x25interface_0
Level 1 parameters
Linespeed: external clock
Level 2 parameters
t1 [frame timeout]: 3000 ms
t3 [idle timer]: 12000 ms
n2 [retransmissions]: 3
Max. Framesize: 269
Level 2 Window: 7
Level 3 parameters
network type: DTE_8
VC parameters ( Low High ) values :
PVCs : 0 0
SVCs In : 0 0
SVCs 2ways: 1 64 SVCs Out : 0 0
Total Number of VCs configured: 64
Default inbound packet size: 128
Default outbound packet size: 128
Default inbound window size: 2
Default outbound window size: 2
Default inbound throughput class: 12
Default outbound throughput class:12
Facilities settings:
Fast Select is : DISABLED
Flowcontrol Neg is : OFF
Reverse Charging is : DISABLED
x25stat
83
Example 23 Displaying Global statistics for XOT
See the table provided after this example under the heading “SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR
X25” for help in interpreting the displayed “State” of the X.25 link.
# x25stat -d x25_xot0
IXE:
0 connections
0 datagrams in
0 datagrams out
0 NSDUs in
0 NSDUs out
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25
----------------------------Subnetwork
: xot0
State
: Connected and resolved DXE
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Call
1
0
Call accept
0
1
Restart
1
0
Restart confirm
0
1
RNR
0
0
RR
0
0
Resets
0
0
Reset confirms
0
0
Diagnostic
0
0
Interrupts
0
0
Registration
0
0
Reg confirm
0
0
Packets(total)
5
5
Bytes(total)
640
640
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR XOTD
------------------------------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Call
1
0
Call accept
0
1
Restart
1
0
Restart confirm
0
0
RNR
0
0
RR
0
0
Resets
0
0
Reset confirms
0
0
Diagnostic
0
0
Interrupts
0
0
84
Diagnostic utilities
Registration
Reg confirm
Packets(total)
Bytes(total)
0
0
5
640
0
0
5
640
The level 3 “State” under the heading “SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25” can be:
Table 20 Level 3 state
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
Link not up
X.25 link level 3 is down
Connecting to DXE1
Restart packet sent (r22)
Connected resolving DXE
Restart packet sent (r2)
Random wait started
Waiting before retransmitting a restart after a “collision”
(packet sent at the same time as packet received)
Connected and resolved DXE
X.25 link level 3 normal (r1)
DTE RESTART REQUEST
Waiting on restart confirmation
Waiting link disc reply
Level 2 going down
Buffer to enter WtgRES
Restart sent after retry
Buffer to enter L3restarting
Waiting for restart reply during “link going down” phase
Buffer to enter L_disconnect
Waiting for buffer to clear VCs during “link going down”
phase
Unknown
Unable to define error/problem
1
DXE is DCE or DTE
2
r2, like r1, is a CCITT definition of a state/condition
x25stat
85
Example 24 Displaying global statistics for X.25/LAPB
See the tables provided after this example under the headings “SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR
X25” and “STATISTICS FOR LAPB” for help in interpreting the displayed “State” of the X.25 link.
x25stat -d x25_0 or
x25stat -g -d x25_0
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25
----------------------------Subnetwork ID : 0
State
: Connected and resolved DXE
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Restart Request
0
1
Restart Confirm
1
0
Calls (out/in)
1
0
Calls Accepts
0
1
Reset Request
0
0
Reset Confirm
0
0
Packets (total)
30
29
Bytes (total)
3840
3712
------------------STATISTICS FOR LAPB
Subnetwork : 0
Link mode : LC_LAPBDTE
Link state : NORMAL
---------------------------------------------------------FRAMES
TX_CMD TX_RSP
RX_CMD
RX_RSP
---------------------------------------------------------Supervisory:
RR
22
27
0
23
RNR
0
0
0
0
REJ
0
0
0
0
Unumbered:
SABM
0
1
DISC
0
0
DM
0
0
UA
1
0
FRMR
0
0
Information:
I
33
62
----------------------------------------------------------TX
RX
----------------------------------------------------------Other:
Bad length
0
Unknown
0
Erroneous
0
Discarded
0
Ignored
0
0
Retransmitted
0
----------------------------------------------------------Timers:
T1
0
T4
0
T4 (N2 times)
0
STATISTICS FOR WAN
-----------------Subnetwork Link State : HDLC_ESTB
WAN:
83 good frames transmitted
87 good frames received
0 transmit underruns
0 receive overruns
86
Diagnostic utilities
0 CRC/frame errors received
0 received frames with no buffer
0 received frames with no flow control
0 receive buffer overflows
The level 3 “State” under the heading “SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25” can be:
Table 21 Level 3 state
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
Link not up
X.25 link level 3 is down
Connecting to DXE1
Restart packet sent (r22)
Connected resolving DXE
Restart packet sent (r2)
Random wait started
Waiting before retransmitting a restart after a “collision”
(packet sent at the same time as packet received)
Connected and resolved DXE
X.25 link level 3 normal (r1)
DTE RESTART REQUEST
Waiting on restart confirmation
Waiting link disc reply
Level 2 going down
Buffer to enter WtgRES
Restart sent after retry
Buffer to enter L3restarting
Waiting for restart reply during “link going down” phase
Buffer to enter L_disconnect
Waiting for buffer to clear VCs during “link going down”
phase
Unknown
Unable to define error/problem
1
DXE is DCE or DTE
2
r2, like r1, is a CCITT definition of a state/condition
The level 2 “Link state” under the heading “STATISTICS FOR LAPB” can be:
Table 22 Level 2 link state
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
NORMAL
Level 2 up
ADM
DTE - Level 1 disconnected
POLLING
DCE - Level 1 disconnected
START
Level 1 connected
RESET
Level 2 down
OFF
Level 2 down
NOTE:
T4 under “STASTISTICS FOR LAPB” is only an internal parameter; it is not configurable.
The level 1 “Link state” under the “STASTISTICS FOR WAN” heading can be:
Table 23 Level 1 link state
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
HDLC_ESTB
WAN connection established
HDLC_IDLE
No WAN connection established
HDLC_DISABLED
WAN connection disabled
x25stat
87
The output under the heading “STATISTICS FOR WAN” is explained in the table below:
Table 24 Statistics for WAN output
88
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
transmit underruns
Shows the number of times a transmission was aborted
because the next octets to be transmitted were not provided
soon enough for the level 2 firmware
receive overruns
Shows often-received octets were overwritten because they
were not processed by the card
received frames with no buffer
No message available in level 1 to copy received data to
received frames with no flow control
Never used
receive buffer overflows
Number of frames that were “too long”
receive aborts
Number of frames that have been aborted
Diagnostic utilities
Example 25 Displaying virtual circuit data packet counters
The following example shows the output when there is one virtual circuit connected.
Note that the virtual circuit specified in the command line is 64, in decimal. The LCN shown in the
example output is displayed as 40, the hexadecimal equivalent of 64.
x25stat -t 64 -d x25_0
PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25
------------------------Subnetwork
: 0
LCN
: 040 (hexadecimal)
User ID
: 213
Call direction : outward To DTE : 202
To DTE
: 202
VC state
: 6 - Datatransfer
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Call
1
0
Call confirm
0
1
Data
422
421
Interrupt
0
0
RNR
0
0
RR
0
421
Reset
0
0
Reset confirm
0
0
Clear
0
0
Clear confirm
0
0
------------------------------------Total
423
843
-------------------------------------
The “VC state” under the heading “PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25” can be:
Table 25 VC state
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
3 - P2
CALL REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
4 - P3
INCOMING CALL received, but not yet replied
6 - Datatransfer
Connection established
7 - DXEa busy
RNR sent
8 - D2
RESET REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
19 - DXE resetting
RESET INDICATION received, but not yet replied
20 - P6
CLEAR REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
a
DXE is DCE or DTE.
x25stat
89
Example 26 Displaying global X.25 level 3 statistics
x25stat -x -d x25_0
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25
----------------------------Subnetwork ID : 0
State
: Connected and resolved DXE
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Restart Request
0
1
Restart Confirm
1
0
Calls (out/in)
3
0
Calls Accepts
0
3
Reset Request
0
0
Reset Confirm
0
0
Packets (total)
1273
1271
Bytes (total)
162944
162688
90
Diagnostic utilities
Example 27 Displaying X.25 level 1 and 2 statistics
x25stat -f -d x25_0
STATISTICS FOR LAPB
-----------------Subnetwork : 0
Link mode : LC_LAPBDTE
Link state : NORMAL
---------------------------------------------------------FRAMES
TX_CMD
TX_RSP
RX_CMD
RX_RSP
---------------------------------------------------------Supervisory:
RR
45
1045
0
46
RNR
0
0
0
0
REJ
0
0
0
0
Unumbered:
SABM
0
1
DISC
0
0
DM
0
0
UA
1
0
FRMR
0
0
Information:
I
1280
2551
----------------------------------------------------------TX
RX
----------------------------------------------------------Other:
Bad length
0
Unknown
0
Erroneous
0
Discarded
0
Ignored
0
0
Retransmitted
0
----------------------------------------------------------Timers:
T1
0
T4
0
T4 (N2 times)
0
STATISTICS FOR WAN
-----------------Subnetwork : 0
Link State : HDLC_ESTB
WAN:
2371 good frames transmitted
2599 good frames received
0 transmit underruns
0 receive overruns
0 CRC/frame errors received
0 received frames with no buffer
0 received frames with no flow control
0 receive buffer overflows
0 receive aborts
NOTE: T4 under “STASTISTICS FOR LAPB” in the example above is only an internal parameter;
it is not configurable.
The output under the heading “STATISTICS FOR WAN” is explained as follows:
Table 26 Statistics for WAN output
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
x25stat
91
Table 26 Statistics for WAN output (continued)
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
transmit underruns
Shows the number of times a transmission was aborted
because the next octets to be transmitted were not provided
soon enough for the level 2 firmware
receive overruns
Shows often-received octets were overwritten because they
were not processed by the card
received frames with no buffer
No message available in level 1 to copy received data to
received frames with no flow control
Never used
receive buffer overflows
Count of “too long” frames received
receive aborts
Count of frames that have been aborted
Example 28 Displaying virtual circuit status
x25stat -v -d x25_0
PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25
LCI Type
VC State
Subnetwork Local address Remote Address
--- -------------------- ------------- -------------040 SVC-2way Datatransfer 0
110
202
Note that the LCI number given in this example output is displayed in hexadecimal, not decimal.
Example 29 Displaying current IP to X.25 address mapping
x25stat -a
IP Address
192.25.0.12
192.25.0.22
192.25.0.32
PktszWindow
1
1
1
VCs
1
1
1
CUG
GOO11
-
SUB-REV
y
y
y
BAR-REV
n
n
n
X25 Address
0.250107..
0.250112..
0.250208..
Some of the fields in the example above are:
•
CUG – An example Call User Group would be GOO11, which means group 11.
•
SUB-REV – Subscribe to Reverse charges (y=yes, n=no).
•
BAR-REV – Stop Reverse charges (y=stop, n=don’t stop).
x25mibstat
This is a programmatic application that can be used to display statistics for X.25 sub-systems. Refer
to the x25mibstat((1)) man pages for instructions on using this utility.
Some examples of x25mibstat statistics are provided in the following table.
Table 27 Example statistics for x25mibstat
Statistic
x25mibstat Option
Remark
VC open duration
-s x25CircuitEntry
Time duration in seconds
Time duration of IP connection
-s mioxPeerEntry
Number of open SVCs per X.25
connection
92
Diagnostic utilities
-s x25StatEntry
According to VC type (that is, inbound,
outbound, or 2-way)
Table 27 Example statistics for x25mibstat (continued)
Statistic
x25mibstat Option
Remark
Clear information
-s x25statEntry
-s mioxPleEntry
About clear initiator
About refused calls
-s lapbFlowEntry
Number of LAPD-B state changes
Clear information
x25mibstat
93
6 PAD services
Introduction
This section describes X.25/9000 PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) Services which enable
HP 9000 computers to connect and communicate with remote systems over a Packet Switching
Network (PSN).
NOTE: Refer to “Configuring PAD services” (page 55) in Chapter 3 for information on configuring
PAD Services with SMH.
PAD Services include the following commands and functions:
•
x29server – for PAD support for remote terminals:
A daemon process that allows a local HP 9000 system to function as a host for (real or
emulated) terminals attached to a remote PAD.
•
x29printd – for remote PAD printer support:
A daemon process that allows local HP 9000 computers to print at printers attached to a
remote PAD.
•
x29uucpd – for PAD-UUCP connectivity:
A daemon process that allows HP 9000 computers to originate UNIX-to-UNIX copy services
over an X.25 Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC).
•
padem – for local PAD emulation:
A user command that allows a local HP 9000 system to emulate both a terminal and a PAD
for connection with remote systems over a PSN.
CCITT recommendations
X.25/9000 PAD Services are compliant with the X.25, X.28, X.29, and X.3 CCITT
Recommendations of 1984.
Recommendation X.28 defines the exchange of messages between PAD terminals and the PAD.
A superset of the commands defined by this protocol are performed by padem.
Recommendation X.29 is the protocol for the exchange of messages between the host and PADs.
Recommendation X.3 defines a set of parameters that control PAD operation. The following
illustration shows the relationship between each of these recommendations.
Figure 22 PAD support protocols
94
PAD services
PAD services and the HP 9000 host
All of the PAD services can be seen as a pipe through which data is passed from X.25 to the PTY
(Pseudo Type) terminal and vice versa (see the illustration below). Terminal data is not modified,
but the X.25 headers are stripped before data reaches the PTY.
Figure 23 PAD services as a pipe
Remote PAD support (x29server)
Overview
The x29server user-level process provides support for communications with terminals attached
to a remote PAD. This process accesses X.25 level 3 through Berkeley Sockets (programmatic
interface) and has an interface to PTYs (see illustration below).
Figure 24 Remote PAD support
The x29server remote PAD support provides capabilities for:
•
Managing call acceptance.
•
Launching applications automatically.
•
Ensuring system security.
•
Monitoring access and data transfers.
When x29server begins execution, it examines the PAD support section (pad_spt) of the /etc/
x25/x29hosts file. The PAD support section contains user-configurable parameters for all devices.
See “X.25 Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for an example of the x29hosts file.
Remote PAD support (x29server)
95
Call acceptance mechanism and system security
The x29server process operates in conjunction with devices declared in the set of pad_spt
(PAD support) entries contained in the x29hosts file. It continually “listens” to the network and
initializes communications channels at the user level when a call request is received. x29server
can handle a large number of calls because each communication channel is managed by an
independent process.
The x29server process employs Berkeley Sockets (at X.25 level 3) to set up dedicated listening
sockets that only handle calls arriving at a particular subsystem. Addressing information contained
in incoming call request packets enables the listening process to determine if the call should be
accepted.
When a call request packet arrives x29server looks in the pad_spt entries to verify the following:
•
Legal PID in the incoming call request packet – The PID must conform to the X.29 standard to
ensure support on all X.25 networks. x29server only verifies that the PID begins with 01
and that it is 4 bytes in length as illustrated below.
•
Correct interface_name – If there is an entry in the interface_name field in the pad_spt
section (optional), it must contain the name of the interface over which the call has arrived.
•
Correct address – If there is an entry in the local_x121 field in the pad_spt section
(optional), this entry must match the called address specified in the call request packet.
Furthermore, the local_x121 field entry must contain the complete address (that is, both the
address and subaddress of the local interface).
If all of the above conditions are met, the call is connected and x29server does the following:
◦
parses the x29hosts file to find the first previously accepted pad_spt entry whose
remote_x121 field matches the calling address contained in the call request packet.
◦
and, if there is a pty_slave_fname field in the selected pad_spt entry, x29server
verifies that the corresponding PTY master/slave pair exists and is available.
If the last two items are completed successfully, the call is accepted; otherwise, x29server rejects
the call.
NOTE:
See the man pages for x29server for its syntax and parameters.
Supported remote PAD terminals
•
700/41, 700/92, 700/94, 700/22
•
2392A
•
2393A
•
Vectra with AdvanceLink Terminal Emulation
Configuring remote PAD support
You can configure remote PAD support with SMH or by editing configurable parameters in the
/etc/x25/x29hosts and /etc/x25/x3config files. The x29hosts file contains general
96
PAD services
parameters for each remote device and the x3config file contains X.3 communications profile
parameters for each device declared in the x29hosts file. See “X.25 Configuration files and
examples” (page 144) for examples of the x29hosts and x3config files.
Configuring pad_spt Parameters
Remote PAD support parameters are specified in the pad_spt section of the x29hosts file. An
example pad_spt section with parameter values is shown below.
pad_spt {
interface_name interface0
remote_x121 408555120801
local_x121 1235451
pty_slave_fname ptynb01
application /bin/login2
cud yes
logging 1
reverse_charge disable
size_parity 8_none
x3 hp_padsrvr
}
pad_spt parameters
This section describes the remote PAD support parameters shown in the above example:
interface_name
Optional. This is a character string (maximum 12 characters) with no
wildcards allowed. If this field is not present, x29server will listen on
all X.25 interfaces.
remote_x121
Mandatory (no default value). This is the calling address (the address
of the remote system).There are three ways of expressing addresses:
•
exact address: the complete, exact address
•
wildcard address: partially or completely composed of legal
wildcards
•
special address: for PADs with no local address
Legal characters include the digits 0 through 9, the capital letter “F”,
the question mark (?), and the asterisk (*). The (?) is a legal wildcard
(substitute) for values 0 through 9. The (*) is a legal wildcard for any
character. You can mix wildcards and characters.
The special address is FFFFFFFFFF which maps to a null calling address.
This feature is supported for PADs that have no local addresses.
local_x121
Optional. Specified with a maximum of 16 digits (no wildcards allowed).
This must be the complete address (including both the subscription
address of the interface and a subaddress).
The complete address protects the interface from being activated by
calls arriving at other addresses.
pty_slave _fname
Optional. Specifies the file containing the name of the slave PTY driver
that will provide terminal services for user applications. The name of
this file (maximum 14 characters) must begin with “pty” (format: pty
[filename]) and the file must be located in the /dev/pty/ directory.
The name of the corresponding master PTY driver must also exist in a
file beginning with “ptym” (format: ptym [filename]) located in the
/dev/ptym/ directory:
Wildcards are not allowed in these file and path names.
Remote PAD support (x29server)
97
If the pty_slave_fname field contains an entry, x29server considers
any communication initiated by this entry to be restricted to exclusive
use by the TTY/ PTY (master/slave) pair. The call is refused if the TTY/PTY
pair does not exist, is already in use, or cannot be accessed (permission
should be set to 666).
logging
Optional. Specifies the logging level for each call. Log information is
stored in the file /var/x25/log/x29server/x29logXXXXX, where
XXXXX is the process ID of the current x29server child process.
Logging can be at levels 0, 1, 2, or 3. Level 0 is no logging and the
default is level 1 (error logging). Level 2 is error and warning logging.
Level 3 is error, warning, information, and status logging.
reverse_charge
Optional. Specifies reverse charge options for the calling address.
Possible settings are: disabled (or disable), enabled (or enable).
With the default value (disable), reverse charge calls will not be
accepted. When reverse charging is enabled and is requested by the
remote PAD or system, the call is accepted and is charged to the local
system. You must also configure the X.25 interface card to allow reverse
charging (refer to “Configuring remote system access” (page 23) in
Chapter 3 for instructions on how to use SMH to enable reverse
charging) in order for reverse charging to work with PAD services.
size_parity
Optional. Legal values are 8_none (the default), 7_even, and 7_odd.
Specifies the character size and parity setting of the remote PAD and
terminal. This parameter is useful when the asynchronous port of the
PAD cannot be configured in 8 bits. In this case, this parameter must
be set to match the remote PAD and terminal settings. x29server will set
the PTY pair correctly so that 7-bit PAD users can log in without problems.
Note that size and parity processing will only be performed on input
from the PAD to the system.
x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for this x29server
session. If this entry is included in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file, the
configuration name and its set of X.3 parameters must also be specified
in the /etc/x25/x3config file. If more than one X.3 configuration
set with the same name exists in x3config, the first one is used. X.3
parameters are not downloaded unless both the X.3 configuration set
name and the parameters are given.
application
Optional. Used with cud to specify the full path name of the application
to be launched when the connection is established (maximum 80
characters, no wildcards). See “Launching applications automatically”
(page 98) below for more information.
cud
Optional. Specifies a yes or no condition. Legal values for this field are:
enable (or yes), disable (or no). See “Launching applications
automatically” (page 98) below for more information on this.
Launching applications automatically
A user-level application can be launched automatically by configuring the application and
cud fields in the pad_spt section of the x29hosts file.
The application parameter specifies the name of the user application (or script) to be
automatically launched when the connection is established. The cud parameter is used like an
on/off switch to enable or disable the use of Call User Data (CUD) instructions.
If you are using a UNIX script, it must contain the character string #!/bin/ksh at the beginning
of the first line. If this string is not included, the system will return an error code.
98
PAD services
If the application and cud fields do not appear in the pad_spt file, the /bin/login (default)
program is automatically launched.
CAUTION: Use extreme caution when specifying applications other than the default (login)
application. Since the x29server process is started with superuser privileges, it gives root privileges
to applications triggered by incoming calls.
You can automatically launch a user application by:
•
configuring the application field with the relevant application name as its value without
specifying the cud field. The application name must be the full path name of the application
to be launched.
•
configuring the application field with the application name and setting the cud field to yes. In
this case, the cud field is considered as the argument to the application. The application name
must be the full path name of the application to be launched.
•
not including the application field and setting the cud field to yes. This allows the application
to be defined by the incoming Call Request Packet.
The first four bytes of the CUD field (in call request packets) are NOT part of the application’s full
path name. The first four bytes are used for protocol ID as explained in the section “Call acceptance
mechanism and system security.”
Remote PAD printer support (x29printd)
Overview
The x29printd user-level program provides support for printers attached to remote PADs. It
accesses X.25 level 3 through Berkeley Sockets (programmatic interface). It also has an interface
to special PTYs (see illustration below).
Figure 25 Remote printer support
When x29printd begins execution, it examines the /etc/x25/x29hosts file for all PAD
devices configured with a PAD type printer. For each of these configured devices, x29printd
monitors all print requests sent to the spooling system (see “X.25 Configuration files and examples”
(page 144) for an example of the x29hosts file).
When x29printd detects a print request, it establishes an SVC with the remote PAD printer
specified in the remote X.121 address. x29printd then transmits the print data to the remote
PAD printer, closes the SVC, and waits for another print request.
Remote PAD printer support (x29printd)
99
System requirements
Because each printing device requires system resources, HP recommends that the kernel parameters
be set to following values (or greater):
•
MAX_PAD_PR – is the number of PAD printers to be configured.
•
NPTY – is 60 + MAX_PAD_PR
•
MAXURPC – is 50 + (3 x MAX_PAD_PR)
•
NPROC – is 20 + ((8 x MAXUSERS) + NGCSP + (6 x MAX_PAD_PR))
The following kernel parameters should not be modified and should retain the values indicated
below:
•
NFILE =(16 x (NPROC + 16 + MAXUSERS)/(10 + 32+(2 x NPTY))
•
NINODE = ((NPROC + 16 + MAXUSERS) + 32 + (2 x NPTY) + (SERVER_NODE x 18 x
NUM_CODES))
For more information on dependencies, refer to your System Administration Tasks manual.
NOTE:
See the man pages for x29printd for its syntax and parameters.
Configuring remote PAD printers
You must configure each remote PAD printer by specifying parameters in the printer section of the
/etc/x25/x29hosts file (see “X.25 Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for an example
x29hosts file). An example printer section is shown below.
printer {
device printer1
name interface0
remote_x121 408555111201
cud dbad
cug 02
logging 1
reverse_charge enable
x3 hp_printer
}
where:
device
Mandatory. This is the name of the device file that will be located in /dev/
x29/. It is created by x29printd and will be symbolically linked to a
slave PTY in /dev/pty/. The device file must also be configured in the
spooler system using lpadmin and the -v option (see “Configuring the
UNIX line-printer spooler for x29printd” (page 101) below).
name
Mandatory. This is the name of the programmatic interface that will be
used for call setup. There is no default for this entry. This name must match
the programmatic access name (also called name) specified in the x25init
X.25 configuration file.
remote_x121
Mandatory (no default). This is the X.121 address of the PAD device plus
the subaddress of the printer. This address is required for calls to be
initiated. Only digits 0 through 9 are legal.
cud
Optional. This is the Call User Data (CUD) appended to the protocol ID
(0x01000000) for any call request packets sent to this printer. Only strings
of 12 characters or less are permitted.
cug
Optional. This is the Call User Group (CUG) that will be allowed access
to the printer. Only integers are permitted.
100 PAD services
logging
Optional (default = 1). This is the logging level used for each printer device.
Printer device logging can be set to 0, 1, 2, or 3 where the respective
values are:
0 – No logging (do not create a log file).
1 – Minimum session error logging.
2 – Error and warning logging.
3 – Error, warning, information, and status logging.
HP recommends logging level 0 or 1 for normal operation. Logging levels
2 and 3 should only be used for troubleshooting for short periods of time.
Logging messages for x29printd provide descriptions of what the
messages mean and the actions required to correct any errors that may
occur. The log file is written to/var/x25/log/x29printd/
[device_name][child_process_id].
reverse_charge
Optional (default = disabled). Specifies the reverse charge option for
the call setup for the particular printer address. It can be disabled (or
disable), enabled (or enable).
x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for this x29server login
session. If used, the configuration set name (and X.3 parameter set) must
also exist in /etc/x25/x3config. If more than one X.3 configuration
set with the same name exists, the first one found in the file is used.
If there is no configuration set name in /etc/x25/x29hosts or no
matching X.3 configuration set name in /etc/x25/x3config, default
values are used.
Configuring the UNIX line-printer spooler for x29printd
The remote PAD printer must also be configured in the spooler system in order for remote printing
to work with the standard UNIX LP commands. To configure a remote PAD printer in the spooler
system, execute the following command:
lpadmin -v device name -p printer name -m printer model
where:
-p Printer name is the name given to this printer at the user level. This is the same name specified
with the lp command’s -d option (used when you print a file to a printer).
-v
Device file name is /dev/x29/[device name]. The value for device name is the same
character string as the one entered in the device entry in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file.
-m
Printer model is the HP printer model name (for example, thinkjet, laserjet, hp2563a,
etc.).
The lpadmin command associates the printer name with the device file name in /etc/x25/
x29hosts and maps this name to the remote X.121 address of the printer.
Examples
x29printd and lpsched Operation
For this example, a printer (a RuggedWriter) is connected on port 5 (or B1 on HP 2335a PADs)
to a PAD whose address is 4085551203. The address of the printer in this case would be
408555120305. In the PAD device local configuration, port 5 must be downloaded with:
parm_no: parm_value;1:0; 2:0; 3:0; 4:10; 5:0; 6:0; 7:0;
8:0; 9:0; 10:0; 11:14; 12:1; 13:0; 14:0; 15:0; 16:8;
17:24; 18:0; 19:1; 20:0; 21:0; 22:0
Remote PAD printer support (x29printd)
101
which is profile 21 on HP 2335a.
On the host side, the printer name is foo. This means that when a user types lp -d foo
/tmp/file, the file /tmp/file will be printed on this printer. The X.25 interface on the host is
interface0.
Printer configuration
To configure a printer (for in the examples below) for use with the standard UNIX LP spooler system
and x29printd, follow these steps:
1. Edit the /etc/x25/x29hosts file to include:
printer {
device x29printer1
name interface0
remote_x121 408555120305
x3 default_printer
logging 3
}
x29printd uses /etc/x25/x29hosts to configure remote PAD printers.
2.
Execute /usr/sbin/x29printd with the -l3 option.
After /usr/sbin/x29printd starts, it creates a device file named /dev/x29/
x29printer1. You can verify that this device file exists with the command: ll /dev/x29.
x29printd creates the device file by linking it to a slave PTY. This master/slave PTY pair is
the interface for lpsched and x29printd (see the pty((7)) man pages for information about
UNIX PTYs). The device file for printer foo will be written to /dev/x29/x29printer1.
3.
Configure the printer in the spooler system with the following commands:
lpshut
lpadmin -v/dev/x29/x29printer1 -pfoo -mruggedwriter
lpsched
accept foo
enable foo
lpshut(1M) is necessary since lpadmin will not execute when lpsched is running. You
must restart LP scheduler after lpadmin. lpsched(1M) schedules requests taken by lp(1)
for line printing. After a printer is configured in the spooler, you must enable it to accept
printing requests.
Verifying the configuration
After you complete the steps above, check the configuration as shown below:
•
lpstat -t should display the following (assuming that only this printer is configured in the
spooler system and you did these steps on January 23, 11:00 am):
scheduler is running
no system default destination
device for foo: /dev/x29/x29printer1
foo accepting requests since Jan 23 11:00
printer foo is idle. enabled since Jan 23 11:00
fence priority : 0
•
ps -ef should show that both lpsched and x29printd are running.
•
/var/x25/log/x29printd/x29printd.log should have been created and should
contain information on the configuration of /dev/x29/x29printer1.
•
/var/x25/log/x29printd/x29printd.log should not contain any configuration error
messages.
102 PAD services
UUCP support (x29uucpd)
Overview
x29uucpd provides UUCP connectivity on X.25 networks using CCITT Recommendations X.3 and
X.29. With x29uucpd, users on HP 9000 host systems with X.25 access and UUCP can execute
UUCP subsystem commands to other systems running X.25, PAD support, and UUCP. x29uucpd
interfaces with the X.25 subsystem through BSD Sockets to initiate call request packets to remote
systems on X.25. When a call request arrives at a destination system, it is received by the PAD
support service.
NOTE: x29uucpd creates device files in the /dev/x29/ directory. The device files must be
configured in the UUCP subsystem in order for UUCP to interface with x29uucpd.
The x29uucpd user-level program provides support for UUCP file transfers. It accesses X.25 level
3 through Berkeley Sockets (programmatic interface) and uses PTY pairs for the terminal interface
to UUCP (see the following illustration).
Figure 26 Remote printer support
When x29uucpd is executed, it examines the /etc/x25/x29hosts file for all PAD devices that
are configured for UUCP.
When x29uucpd receives a copy request, it establishes an SVC with the remote host specified
by the X.121 address and transfers the data.
If the remote host is an HP 9000, the x29server process monitors that system for incoming calls.
x29server and x29uucpd cooperate to handle all SVC requirements while the UUCP processes
on each system perform the UUCP operations.
When the UUCP data transfer is complete, the UUCP processes terminate. x29server and
x29uucpd then terminate the SVC connection.
Configuring UUCP PAD support
To configure PAD support for UUCP services, the x29hosts file and other system and device files
must contain the appropriate references and parameters. This section provides information on
configuring these files. See “X.25 Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for examples of
the x29hosts and x3config files.
UUCP support (x29uucpd) 103
NOTE:
See the man pages for x29uucpd for full details on syntax and parameters.
File
Contents
/etc/x25/x29hosts pad_uucp
parameters for each remote host
/etc/passwd
uucp entry
/etc/x25/x3config
optional X.3 parameters
/usr/lib/uucp/Systems
remote system’s name
/usr/lib/uucp/Permissions
remote system’s login name
/usr/lib/uucp/Devices
device file name
Configuring the x29hosts file
The /etc/x25/x29hosts file must contain a separate pad_uucp section for each remote site.
An example pad_uucp section is shown below.
pad_uucp {
device x25uucp
name interface0
remote_x121 4085551113
cud abc
cug 2
logging 3
reverse_charge enable
x3 hp_uucp
}
pad_uucp parameters
device
Mandatory. This is the device file name located in the /dev/x29 directory.
It is created when x29uucpd is executed and is used for communication
between UUCP and x29uucpd. This device file must also exist in /usr/
lib/uucp/Devices file for the UUCP system.
name
Mandatory. This is the name of the programmatic interface that will be
used for call setup. There is no default for this entry. If this entry does not
exist, the call setup will not be completed and file transfer will not take
place. This name must match with the programmatic access name (also
called name) specified in x25init.
remote_x121
Mandatory. This is the X.121 address of the X.25 interface card of a host
system where the PAD support program (for example, /usr/sbin/
x29server) is running. This address is required for calls to be initiated.
There is no default for this address.
cud
Optional. This is the Call User Data (CUD) appended to the protocol ID
(0x01000000) for any call request packets sent to this device. Strings of
12 characters or less are permitted.
cug
Optional. This is a the Call User Group (CUG) number (a positive value
between 0 and 99) embedded in the call request packet sent to this device.
logging
Optional (default = 1). Specifies the logging level for each UUCP connection
to this device. The log file is /var/x25/log/x29uucpd/
[device_name][child_pid ]. Logging levels for this UUCP device
are 0, 1, 2, or 3 where:
0 – No logging (no log file is created).
1 – Error logging.
104 PAD services
2 – Error and warning logging.
3 – Error, warning, information, and status logging for troubleshooting.
HP recommends using log level 0 (no logging) for normal operation.
reverse_charge
Optional (default is disable). Specifies the reverse charge option for call
setup at this address. Possible settings are disabled (or disable) and
enabled (or enable). When reverse charge is enabled, x29uucpd sends
out call request packets with reverse charge requested.
x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for UUCP file transfers. If
this entry is used in /etc/x25/x29hosts, the configuration set name
with its set of X.3 parameters must be specified in /etc/x25/x3config.
All legal X.3 parameters contained in the x3config file are downloaded
at connection time.
If there is more than one X.3 configuration set with the same set name in
/etc/x25/x3config, the first one is used.If there is no configuration set
name in x29hosts or matching X.3 configuration set name in x3config,
the default parameters are downloaded (see “X.3 Parameter descriptions”
(page 113) for information on X.3 parameters). x29uucpd operates in line
mode only.
Configuring system and device files for UUCP
The following example describes the configuration procedure for cu, uucp and uucico transfers
between two systems. In this example, the local system is called “dave” and the remote system is
called “bill.” The two systems are configured to handle file transfers originating from the local
system (dave) and received by the remote system (bill).
NOTE:
Refer to the man pages for information on x25uucp device entry parameters.
At the “dave” system:
1. Make sure that the directory /var/spool/uucp/LCK..x29 exists. If it doesn’t exist, create
it.
2. Configure the usr/lib/uucp/Systems file as follows:
bill Any;5 dev_bill, f 19200 - ““ \r\d\r\d\r login: -BREAK
-login: uucp word: test
where:
bill – is the name of the destination system (7 characters maximum).
Any – indicates that bill can be called at any time.
5 – is the retry duration (dave will try again to connect to bill in 5
minutes).
dev_bill – is the name of the remote system declared in dave’s Devices file.
f – is the file transfer protocol. HP recommends using f rather than g for
better performance.
19200 – is the transfer rate (it must be set at the same speed as that specified in the dave’s Devices
file).
““ \r\d\r\d\r login: -BREAK -login: uucp word: test – is login
information declaring uucp as the user for uucp and uucico processes,
with the password “test”. The password creates a link to the entry in the
/etc/passwd file of bill.
3.
Make sure that the following entry appears in the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file:
dev_bill x29/bill - 19200 direct
x29/bill has a maximum of 14 characters. The x29/bill entry creates a link with the
pad_uucp entry in the x29hosts file.
4.
Add the following lines to the /usr/lib/uucp/Permissions file:
UUCP support (x29uucpd) 105
MACHINE=bill \
SENDFILES=yes REQUEST=yes CALLBACK=no \
READ=/
WRITE=/
COMMANDS=ALL
NOTE:
5.
You can verify current permissions with the uucheck -v command.
Create the following entry in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file:
pad_uucp {
device bill
name interface0
remote_x121 [bill’s X.121_address]
logging 3
x3 default_x3
}
Refer to “Configuring the x29hosts file” (page 104) earlier in this section for the definitions of
these parameters.
6.
Launch /usr/sbin/x29uucpd at the HP-UX command prompt.
At the “bill” system:
7.
Make the following modifications to the pad_spt section of /etc/x25/x29hosts file:
pad_spt {
remote_x121 [dave’s X.121_address or
“*” for all addresses]
logging 3
x3 hp_padsrvr
}
Refer to “Configuring the x29hosts file” (page 104) earlier in this section for the definitions of
these parameters.
8.
9.
Launch the x29server process with /usr/sbin/x29server -l3 for example.
Verify the contents of /etc/passwd (this file is linked with dave’s Systems file) which should
look like this:
uucp::5:3::/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
At the terminal prompt, assign the password “test” to the uucp user:
bill# passwd uucp
10. Add the following lines to the /usr/lib/uucp/Permissions file:
LOGNAME=uucp \
SENDFILES=yes REQUEST=yes CALLBACKI=no \
READ=/ \
WRITE=/ \COMMANDS=ALL
where the LOGNAME parameter creates a link with dave’s Systems file.
11. Test the X.25 connection using:
106 PAD services
bill# x25server
dave# x25check [bill’s X.121 address]
If successful, you will receive the message “Remote connection succeeded.”
12. Test the files: x29hosts, x3config (at bill) using:
dave# padem [bill’s X.121 address]
If successful, you will receive the “login” message and you will be able to enter your details.
13. Test the files: x29hosts, x3config, Systems, Devices (at dave) using:
dave# cu -d9 bill
If successful, you will receive an output something like:
Autodialing - please wait
call dial(1761259328)
baud=19200, speed=19200, line=(null), telno=call find_dev(15076527500)
baud=19200, speed=19200, line=(null), telno=nomodem is 0
fixline(6, 19200)
fixline - direct
MDTR was not set
gdial(direct) called
call mode(1)
Connected
transmit started
receive started
Generic-Sys (generic) [HP Release A.B9.04]
login:
If you don’t see the “login:” prompt, type dave# uusnap. You should receive the following
output:
x29 --- --- --- LOCKED (pid 57602)
bill --- --- --- [error message]
Refer to the UUCP section in Chapter 9 of the Remote Access: User’s Guide (part number
B2355-90037) for more information on UUCP error messages.
14. Test the file permissions of both bill and dave using:
dave# /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -x9 -sbill
where -r1 indicates that dave is the “master” (for UUCP purposes) and -x9 is the highest
debugging level.
If successful, you should receive output similar to:
mchFind called (bill)
list (rmail) num = 1
list (/) num = 1
list (/) num = 1
list (ALL) num = 1
_Request (TRUE), _Switch (TRUE), _CallBack (FALSE), _MyName
(dave),
_Commands ALL
chdir(/var/spool/uucp/bill)
conn(bill)
ProtoStr = f
Device Type dev_bill wanted
mlock x29/bill succeeded
fixline(5, 19200)
fixline - direct
gdial(direct) called
/* X.25 connection established*/
getto ret 6
expect: (““)
UUCP support (x29uucpd) 107
got it
sendthem (ˆMDELAY
ˆMDELAY
ˆMˆM)
expect: (ogin:)
/* reception of “bill”’s banner*/
ˆMGeneric-Sys (generic) [HP Release A.B9.04]ˆ Mˆ Mlogin:got it
sendthem (uucpˆM)
enter ub_sst, status is : 0
Rmtname: bill
imsg > ˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆJlogin:
uucpˆMˆMˆJPlease wait
..checking for disk quota Mˆ PShere=billˆ@Login Successful: System=bill
imsg >ˆPROKˆ@msg-ROK
Rmtname bill, Role MASTER, Ifn - 6, Loginuser - root
rmesg - ‘P’ imsg >ˆPPgfdxˆ@got Pgfdx
wmesg ‘U’f
Proto started f
/*the f protocol for UUCP is selected*/
*** TOP *** - role=1, setline - X
gtwvec: dir /var/spool/uucp/bill
wmesg ‘H’
got HY- ‘H’ enter frdmsg:HY
PROCESS: msg - HY
HUP:
wmesg ‘H’Y
cntrl - 0
send OO 0,imsg >H MˆPOOOOOÔ@exit code 0
Conversation Complete: Status SUCCEEDED
If you receive an error such as “RETRY TIME NOT REACHED,” you can delete the status file
as follows:
dave# rm /var/spool/uucp/.Status/bill
If you receive the message “SUCCEEDED,” your uucp/X.25 connection is operating correctly.
15. Test file transfers using:
dave# uucp -r /tmp/filename bill!/tmp/filename
where you’re transferring a file from dave to bill and the -r option puts the request in the queue.
To launch the file transfer correctly, now use:
dave# /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -x9 -sbill
This completes the testing procedure.
Local PAD emulation (padem)
The padem program provides local PAD emulation to enable a local terminal (real or emulated)
to connect to a remote system over an X.25 PSN. x29server handles the connection on the
remote host side. The remote system can be specified upon execution or with subsequent padem
commands issued during operation (see illustration below).
108 PAD services
The padem program operates in either command or data transfer mode. The operating mode
depends on whether an X.121 address or a symbolic address is specified when padem is launched.
Command mode
If the X.121 address or symbolic address of the remote host is not specified, padem begins execution
in command mode and prompts the user for commands with X28> (the padem prompt).
In command mode, padem receives X.28 PAD commands from users. Any padem command can
be entered at the prompt. Once padem establishes an SVC with a remote host, it switches to data
transfer mode.
Data transfer mode
If the X.121 address or the symbolic address of the remote host is specified, padem begins execution
in data transfer mode.
In data transfer mode, typed text is sent to the remote host and text received from the remote host
is displayed at the local terminal. You can re-enter command mode to issue a padem command
by pressing Ctrl + P.
If the VC is cleared at any time (by the remote host or by the X.25 network), padem returns to
command mode or exits if the remote host address was at the HP-UX prompt.
Configuring local PAD emulation
NOTE:
See the man pages for padem for its syntax and parameters.
You can configure local PAD emulation by modifying parameters in the pad_em and host_table
sections of the /etc/x25/x29hosts file. Examples of these sections are given below. See “X.25
Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for an example of the x29hosts file.
pad_em {
remote_x121 4085551111
name interface0
logging 3
reverse_charge enable
profile 0
}
host_table {
Gale 4085551111
Tornado 4085551113
Deepthought 4085551115
}
Parameter descriptions
remote_x121
Mandatory. This is the X.121 address of the remote system. Only numbers
0 through 9 are legal; wildcards or special address types are not allowed.
Local PAD emulation (padem) 109
If this entry exists, any call to the remote X.121 address will use the
associated fields (logging, reverse_charge, profile, and name).
name
Optional. This is the name of the programmatic interface used for call setup.
If this entry does not exist, the default name associated with /dev/x25_0
is used. This name must match the programmatic access name (also called
name) in the X.25 configuration file.
logging
Optional. Specifies the logging level that applies to all calls made during
this session. The log file is $HOME/plog.aXXXXX, where the last five
characters are from the process ID of padem. If this parameter is not
specified, the logging level is set to the default level of 0 (no logging).
Logging levels are: 1 = error logging, 2 = error and warning logging, 3
= error, warning, information, and status logging.
reverse_charge
Optional. Specifies the reverse charge option for call setup. Possible settings
are: disabled (or disable) and enabled (or enable). The default
value is disabled. When reverse charge is enabled, padem sends a
reverse charge request with all call request packets.
profile
Optional. Describes the X.3 configuration for the login session. The X.3
default values are defined in the code (programmatically) and cannot be
altered by users. These default parameters comply with the 1984 profile
0 specification for a PAD device. If profile X is in x29hosts and profile
Y=X is in x3config, padem uses profile X. If there is no profile in
x29hosts, and x3config contains profile 0, padem uses profile 0. In
all other cases padem uses the hard-coded default values.
padem only operates in line mode for X.3 configuration.
host_table{}
Optional. Defines symbolic host names for remote X.121 addresses. The
first entry defines the symbolic name and the second entry is the remote
X.121 address. If an X.121 address is given, it must also exist in the
remote_x121 field in the pad_em section of the x29hosts file.
NOTE: You do NOT need to have pad_em {} entries in the x29hosts file. You can specify
all of the above parameters at the command line when you run padem.
Command line options are given priority over those in the x29hosts file. If options are not specified
at the command line or in the x29hosts file, the programmatic access name associated with
/dev/x25_0 is used for call setup, the logging level is set to 1, the reverse charge option is
disabled, and the default X.3 profile values are used.
PAD commands
PAD command signals are grouped into the X.28 PAD command set (defined by CCITT X.28
recommendations) and include an extended command set providing additional functionality
X.28 PAD command set
Table 28 X.28 PAD command set
110
PAD Command Set
Description
clr
Clears a virtual circuit (VC), disconnecting the VC from the remote host.
int
Transmits an interrupt to the remote host.
par?
Displays all of the X.3 parameters and their current values. The format for the display is:
X.3 parameter number: current value
prof [profile_id]
Interprets a prepared set of command signals from a profile. Profiles must be placed in
the file /etc/x25/x3config.
PAD services
Table 28 X.28 PAD command set (continued)
PAD Command Set
Description
reset
Resets a virtual circuit (VC). When a VC is reset, all data received (but unread) is lost,
and all X.3 parameters are set to the default values (as they were defined before the VC
was established).
set n:v [,n:v]
Sets the X.3 parameter n to value v. If there is a syntax error, padem responds with an
ERR service signal and updates the diagnostic text. All changes take effect when a new
VC is established, or immediately if one is already established.
set? n:v [,n:v]
Sets the X.3 parameter n to value v and displays the current setting of all parameters.
This command is a combination of the set and par? commands.
stat
Displays status information of a VC. padem responds with “FREE” if no VC is established
or with “ENGAGED” if there is a VC established.
[r,g[n[n]]-]
x121_address
[subaddress]
[P/Dd..d
Performs a virtual call to the remote host defined by its X.121 address.
x121_address[subaddress] can be replaced with “|symad|” where symad is
defined in the file /etc/x25/x29hosts. P specifies the packet size negotiation. D
specifies the Call User Data (CUD).
Extended command set
Table 29 Extended command set
Extended Command Set
Description
aprof
Lists all profile IDs known to padem. The profile IDs are contained in the x3config file.
help
Displays a complete list of all padem commands with a short description of each.
ifname [string]
Displays or sets the programmatic access name of the interface to which padem is (or will
be) connected.
If this command is entered with a programmatic access name specified in string, padem
sets the programmatic access name for the interface. If the command is entered and
string is not specified, padem displays the programmatic access name for the interface.
list
Lists all symbolic names for remote hosts that are accessible to the user. The symbolic
reference names are contained in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file.
lprof
Displays the last loaded profile ID.
quit
Terminates padem. If the SVC is still connected, it is cleared.
sleep s
Suspends padem for s seconds (maximum 3600).
verbose
Puts padem in verbose display mode. When padem operates in verbose display mode,
it displays CAUSE, EFFECT, and ACTION messages in addition to the standard diagnostic
message.
NOTE: Certain parameters may be changed automatically during the session as a result of PTY
reconfigurations by the application at the other side of the connection. These changes will
temporarily alter the original defaults set by the PAD Services. The PAD terminal user may also
change PAD parameters at any time with X.28 commands. However, this may result in unpredictable
behavior from the application being processed.
Configuring X.3 profile parameters
X.3 PAD parameters are used to specify how certain I/O operations are performed between Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and the remote host PAD. These parameters are used to ensure that the
local DTE and the remote PAD use the same communications profile.
Configuring X.3 profile parameters
111
Each of the 22 parameters has an identifier known as the parameter reference. This identifier is
an integer value from 1 to 22. Each parameter has a defined range of possible values as specified
by the X.3 recommendations.
X.3 parameters are specified in one or more configuration sets contained in the /etc/x25/
x3config file. Each configuration set includes:
•
X.3 configuration set name and profile number
•
Parameter number
•
Parameter value for line mode (value1) and raw mode (value2)
•
Comment lines starting with “#”
See “X.25 Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for an example of the x3config file.
Configuration set syntax
The syntax for an X.3 configuration set is shown in the following example:
config_name : profile_number {
# <X.3 parameter_no> <value1> <value2>
1
1
1
2
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
22
0
0
}
An X.3 configuration set is a string which embodies the group of X.3 parameters and parameter
values beginning with “{” and ending with “}”. Each configuration set is identified by a configuration
set name (config_name) and an optional profile number (profile_number).
Parameter values
112
config_name
Mandatory. Specifies the configuration set name, a character string
that identifies the X.3 parameter set. Each config_name must be
unique. This is a required parameter for all PAD services if user-defined
X.3 parameters are to be used. This name must match the x3 value
given in the x29hosts file for pad_spt, printer, or pad_uucp
entries. Since X3 has no effect on pad_em entries, a dummy string for
config_name together with a profile number should be entered for
padem profile parameters.
profile_number
Optional. Applies only to the padem configuration. This is a number
that must match the number entered for profile in the pad_em {} section
of the x29hosts file. If the profile entry exists and is assigned a value
in the x29hosts file, it must also appear in the x3config file.
X.3_parameter _no
Mandatory. This is an integer value from 1 to 22. See “X.3 Parameter
descriptions” (page 113) later in this chapter for a full description of
each X.3 parameter.
value1, value2
Mandatory. These are the values to be used in X.3 configuration. Each
value is defined for a specific X.3 parameter: value1 is for line-mode
configuration; value2 is for raw-mode configuration. Only
x29server implements raw-mode data transfer and only parameters
3 and 4 are used for raw-mode data transfer. x29printd, x29uucpd,
and padem do not use value2.
PAD services
Modifying parameters
Initial parameter settings can be changed at any time during a call. This occurs when x29server
detects an ioctl() call to configure the PTY for a PAD terminal. This system call could be issued
by the UNIX login process, by a shell initialization script such as .login, or by an application.
Each ioctl() request is examined by the server. If a mapping exists between the terminal I/O
parameter and X.3, the terminal I/O value is checked against the current X.3 setting. If the request
calls for a change, the current X.3 setting is overwritten on the server. A set command is sent to
reset the parameter in the remote PAD. If x29server cannot map the terminal I/O parameter to
X.3, the request is processed as a normal terminal I/O ioctl().
When x29printd and x29server transform terminal I/O parameters into X.3 parameters, they
intercept the ioctl (tcseta) call and send an X.29 set command with new X.3 parameter
values if necessary. The related X.3 parameters are: 2 (echo), 3 (data forward), 4 (idle timer), 5
(device control), 12 (flow control), 15 (editing), 16 (character delete), and 17 (line delete).
The x29server process downloads only those X.3 parameters that are specified in the x3config
file for a particular remote system. The x29print process always downloads a set of X.3
parameters (if they exist in the x3config file) at the beginning of a connection, or the default X.3
parameters (given in the preceding table) if the X.3 parameters do not exist in the x3config file.
The X.3 parameters for padem can be changed by an X.29 set message from the remote host or
by the terminal operator with a set command.
Default X.3 parameters
If the x3config file does not have a definition for a particular device, the defaults (listed in the
next section) are used. See “X.25 Configuration files and examples” (page 144) for an example of
the x3config file.
X.3 Parameter descriptions
The following pages contain a description of X.3 parameters 1 through 22. The default X.3
parameters vary for each PAD service.
NOTE:
Parameters 1 to 18 are available for networks using either the 1980 or 1984 standard.
Parameters 19 through 22 only apply to the 1984 standard.
Table 30 X.3 Parameter descriptions
X.3 Parameter
Description
1 - ESC/Data Transfer
Specifies whether or not the terminal user will be allowed to escape from data transfer
mode in order to send PAD command signals. 0 indicates escape is not allowed, 1 permits
escape from data transfer mode with Ctrl-P, 32 to 126 permits escape from data transfer
mode with the defined character.
2 - Echo
Specifies whether or not the PAD echoes to the local terminal all the characters received
from that device. 1 turns echoing on; 0 turns echoing off.
3 - Data Fwd Signal 1
Specifies one of the defined sets of characters for use as a data forwarding signal. When
one of the characters in the set is received from the terminal, the PAD terminates the
assembly of a packet and forwards it to the remote host. The possible values are listed
below.
Value
Meaning
0
No data forwarding character.
1
Alphanumerics.
2
Carriage Return only. (This is the default.
X.3 Parameter descriptions
113
Value
Meaning
4
ESC, BEL, ENQ, and ACK only.
8
DEL, CAN, and DC2 only.
16
ETX and EOT only.
32
HT, LT, VT, FF only.
64
NUL, SOH, STX, BS, LF, CR, SO, SI, DLE, DC1, DC3, DC4, NAK, SYN, ETB, EM, SUB,
FS, GS, RS, and US (all other characters in the first two columns of the International
Alphabet #5).
126
All characters, except alphanumerics.
127
All characters are data forwarding.
NOTE:
The values listed for parameter 3 may be combined by specifying the sum of the values.
For example, specifying 10 is the same as specifying 2 and 8.
X.3 Parameter
Description
4 - Idle Timer
Specifies a timer duration interval in units of 1/20 of a second. If the time between
characters entered at the terminal exceeds the specified timer value, the packet being
assembled by the PAD is automatically transmitted. The range is 0 through 255. If 0 is
specified, there is no idle timer and packets will never be transmitted due to a time-out.
5 - Anc Device Control
The ancillary device control parameter permits flow control toward the terminal by the
PAD. The PAD indicates its readiness to receive characters from the terminal by transmitting
X-ON (DC1) or X-OFF (DC3) to the terminal. 0 indicates that flow control by the PAD is
not operational, and 1 permits flow control by the PAD.
6 - Service Signals
Specifies that the terminal is to receive the PAD service signals that are received by the
PAD. PAD service signals are described in X.25: The PSN Connection. 0 indicates that
no PAD service signals are received by the terminal, and 1 indicates that the terminal will
receive PAD service signals.
7 - On Break
Specifies the action to be taken by the PAD when it receives a break signal from the
terminal. The possible values are shown below.
Value
Meaning
1
Transmit interrupt packet.
2
Reset.
4
Transmit indication of break (PAD message)
8
Escape from data transfer mode.
16
Discard output to terminal.
NOTE:
The values listed for parameter 7 may be combined by specifying the sum of the values.
X.3 Parameter
Description
8 - Discard Output
This parameter restores data delivery to the terminal after the reception of the break
character and value 16 has been specified for X.3 Parameter 7. This value may be
modified by the reception of the break character. 0 indicates normal data delivery, and
1 indicates that data is discarded.
9 - Number of CR Padding Specifies the number of buffer characters to be added following a carriage return. This
Chars
is used for hard copy terminals to allow time for the carriage to return to the left side of
the page. The range is 0 through 7.
114
PAD services
X.3 Parameter
Description
10 - Chars per Line/Wrap
-Around
Specifies the number of printing characters to be transmitted before the PAD inserts a
carriage return in the data stream. This parameter is not needed on terminals with
auto-wrap-around. The range is 0 through 255.
11 - Baud
This parameter specifies the terminal access speed (Baud rate). x29server does not
allow users to change the Baud rate. It defaults to the terminal Baud rate, which is usually
9600. The possible values and their associated Baud rates are listed below.
Value
Baud Rate
0
110
1
134.5
2
300
3
1200
4
600
5
75
6
150
7
1800
8
200
9
100
10
50
11
75 from terminal, 1200 to terminal
12
2400
13
4800
14
9600
15
19200
16
48000
17
56000
18
64000
X.3 Parameter
Description
12 - Flow Control
Specifies whether the terminal can control the flow of data from the PAD to the terminal.
0 indicates no flow control by the terminal, and 1 indicates that flow control by the terminal
may be used.
13 - Line Feed
Specifies whether the PAD inserts a line feed when a carriage return is detected. The
possible values are shown below.
Value
Description
1
Line feed inserted after carriage return in data stream to the terminal.
2
Line feed inserted after carriage return in data stream from the terminal.
4
Line feed inserted after carriage return when echoed to the terminal.
X.3 Parameter descriptions
115
NOTE:
The values listed for parameter 13 may be combined by specifying the sum of the values.
For example, specifying 3 is the same as specifying 1 and 2.
X.3 Parameter
Description
14 - Line Feed Padding
Specifies the number of padding characters to be added following a line feed. This is
used for hard copy terminals to allow time for the paper to be moved up. The range is 0
through 7.
15 - Editing
Specifies whether data editing is allowed from the terminal during data transfer (for
example, character delete and line delete). 1 indicates that editing is allowed; 0 indicates
that no editing is allowed.
16 - Character Delete
When editing is allowed, specifies which character to use for character delete. The range
is 0 through 127.
17 - Line Delete
Specifies which character to use for the line delete character (when editing is allowed).
The range is 0 through 127.
18 - Line Display
Specifies which character to use for the line display character (when editing is allowed).
The range is 0 through 127.
19 - Edit Service Signals
Specifies whether and how PAD service signals can be edited. This parameter is valid
when the setting of X.3 Parameter 6 is not 0. The possible values are shown below.
Value
Meaning
0
No editing permitted.
1
Editing permitted for printing terminals.
2
Editing permitted for display terminals.
8 OR 32 to 126
Editing permitted using specified character.
NOTE: If you specify a value greater than 7, that value specifies the editing character. This
parameter is available only for networks using the 1984 standard.
116
X.3 Parameter
Description
20 - Echo Mask
This parameter specifies which characters will not be echoed. X.3 Parameter 2 - Echo
takes precedence over this parameter. The possible values are shown below.
Value
Meaning
1
Do not echo carriage return.
2
Do not echo line feed.
4
Do not echo VT, HT, and FF.
8
Do not echo BEL and BS
16
Do not echo ESC and ENQ.
32
Do not echo ACK, NAK, STX, SOH, EOT, ETB, and ETX.
64
Do not echo characters specified in X.3 Parameters 16, 17, and 18.
128
Do not echo NUL, SO, SI, DLE, DC1, DC4, SYN, CAN, EM, SUB, FS, GS, RS, US, and
DEL.
PAD services
NOTE: The values above may be combined by specifying the sum of the values. For example,
specifying 3 is the same as specifying 1 and 2. This parameter is available only for networks using
the 1984 or 1988 standards.
X.3 Parameter
Description
21 - Parity
Specifies how parity should be treated. The possible values are shown below.
Value
Meaning
0
No parity checking or generation.
1
Parity checking.
2
Parity generation.
3
Parity checking or generation.
NOTE:
This parameter is available only for networks using the 1984 or 1988 standards.
X.3 Parameter
Description
22 - Number of Chars
Before Page Wait
Indicates whether an end of page wait should occur and, if so, the number of lines per
page. The range is 0 through 255. This parameter is available only for networks using
the 1984 standard.
X.3 Parameter descriptions
117
7 Tracing and logging utilities
Introduction
This chapter describes the use of the X.25 tracing and logging utilities provided with your X.25
link. These utilities are briefly described in the following table. Refer to Chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”
(page 130), if you need help deciding which utility to use.
Table 31 Available tracing and logging utilities
Utility
Description
Refer to:
nettl
Creates a user-defined log file
containing frame and packet trace
information from X.25 packet and
LAP-B levels.
man page and this chapter for
examples
netfmt
Formats trace information contained
in the user-defined log file that was
generated with the nettl command
man page and this chapter for
examples
strace
Creates a log file of event messages
for X.25 levels 2 and 3, and IP over
X.25.
man page and this chapter for
examples
strerr
Receives error messages from the
Streams log driver.
man page and this chapter for
examples
The following diagram shows the areas of the X.25 product covered by the network event logging
and network tracing utilities.
Figure 27 The scope of X.25 tracing and logging utilities
118
Tracing and logging utilities
nettl
Use this command to create an X.25 trace file. The description below is limited to the context of
X.25 and assumes that nettl is already operating on your system.
For XOT, Level 3 packets cannot be traced directly as it is done over XOL or the X.25 card. Instead,
an alternate tracing mechanism has been introduced.
Since an XOT packet gets transmitted over the TCP stack, it can be captured by enabling nettl
over the TCP subsystem. Then the new command netfmt –x can be used and the captured TCP
trace file can be formatted to display the X.25 Level 3 packet that has been encapsulated within
the TCP packet.
For more information and examples for this command, refer to your man pages.
NOTE: Before you can use the nettl command, your X.25 connection must be operating
(launched with the x25init command).
Syntax
nettl [-traceon kind [kind...]][-entity subsystem
[subsystem...]] [-file name] [-card dev name] [-size limit]
[-tracemax maxsize] [-m bytes]
nettl [-traceoff] [-entity subsystem [subsystem...]]
nettl [-status info]
Parameters
-traceon(-tn)
Starts tracing on the specified subsystem(s). The traceon argument must
be accompanied by the -entity and -card options. The kind
(parameter) mask must also be specified. All operations on specified
subsystems are recorded when there is a match to the kind mask.
-tn kind
The kind parameter defines the masks (keywords with associated mask
values) used by the tracing facility before recording messages.
You can use any of the following keywords and mask values:
Table 32 Tracing masks
keyword*
mask
hdrin
0x80000000
hdrout
0x40000000
pduin
0x20000000
pduout
0x10000000
*
Use hdrin or hdrout when you only want packet header information displayed. Use pduin or pduout when
you want both the packet header AND the data displayed.
You can specify masks separately or combine them into a single number. For example, to enable
tracing for both pduin and pduout (all packets coming in and out of the node) use the value
0x30000000.
-entity (-e)
Enter -e SX25L2 for level 2 tracing or -e SX25L3 for level 3 tracing.
-file (-f)
Use this option to specify an output file for tracing information (mandatory
unless tracing has already been started on another interface). Use the
-traceon option the first time you run nettl to specify an output file.
nettl
119
NOTE: The .TRCX suffix is automatically appended to the output file where X starts at 0 and
changes to 1 when the file becomes full. Traces are always written to the .TRC0 file.
-card(-c)
This option is required with the traceon command to specify the X.25 subsystem
interface (port) name. The X.25 device is specified with x25_npx which identifies
the interface defined in your X.25 configuration file.
NOTE: The device file must be called x25_npx, where n represents the mandatory card instance
number (range 0 to 255). The card instance number is the number reported by the ioscan -f
command output (in the “I” column). The (lower case) p is a place holder and x represents the port
number (1 or 2). p and x are required only for systems with dual-port cards.
-traceoff (-tf)
This option turns tracing, specified with the -entity option, off.
-status(-ss) trace
Use this option to get a report on the tracing/logging status.
Examples
To turn tracing on at Level 3 for device x25_1 (interface number 1) and receive packet header
AND packet data information:
nettl -tn pduin pduout -e SX25L3 -c x25_1 -f /tmp/tracex25
To turn tracing off at Level 3 for the device x25_1:
nettl -tf -e SX25L3 -c x25_1
netfmt
Use this command to format the trace file that was created with nettl. Refer to the man pages
for x25trace for more information and examples on this command
Syntax
netfmt [-c filter file [-p]] [-F] [-t records] [-N] [-v] [-l]
[-1[LT]] [[-f] file_name]
A new -x option has been introduced for formatting a TCP trace output to display the X.25 Level
3 packet content. The syntax for using this option is as follows:
netfmt [–x] [-N] [[-f] TCP_trace_file] > [Output_file]
NOTE: The –x option is supported by netfmt starting from the HP-UX 11i v3 March 2011
Operating Environment Upgrade Releases (OEUR) release onwards.
Parameters
-c filter file
Specifies the name of the file containing the filter configuration commands.
You create this file with your text editor. If this option is omitted, filter
configuration commands are read from the $HOME/.nettr file if it exists.
Refer to “Creating a filter file” (page 123) at the end of this section for an
explanation of filter file syntax.
-p
The parse input option lets you do a syntax check on the configuration file
specified with the -c option. If the syntax is correct, netfmt terminates
with no output or warnings.
-F
The follow input file option causes netfmt to keep the input file open when
it reaches the end of the file. The file is kept open and netfmt continues
to read from it as new data arrives. This option is useful for troubleshooting
because it lets you monitor events in real time.
120 Tracing and logging utilities
-t records
Lets you specify how many records you want to format from the end of the
file. This enables you to get the most recent information. The maximum
number of records is 1000. By default, all records are formatted.
-f file_name
Use this option to specify the binary file containing the log or trace data.
This is the name of the .TRC0 file that was specified when nettl was run
the first time with the -traceon and -file options. By default, data is
read from standard input.
-v
Enables “verbose” mode, but also gives the full data output for each packet
header (see “Examples” (page 121) section below).
-N
Enables “Nice” formatting of output. Only packet headers and the first few
lines of the main data output are displayed. Only the data length is provided
in addition to the packet header to make the output easier to read (see
“Examples” (page 121) section below).
-1
(one) Enables “terse” (short) mode formatting of each traced packet on a
single line. Output lines will be more than 80 characters long if the -L and/or
-T options are used (see “Examples” (page 121) section below).
-l
(small letter “l”) Use this option when you send formatted trace data to a
line printer to turn off inverse video highlighting of all trace fields.
-x
Enables parsing of TCP Payload to display the contents of the encapsulated
X.25 Level 3 packet.
Examples
Example 1:
This example explains how to format the trace file in “verbose” mode (packet headers plus full
data output for each header) with no filtering.
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “verbose” mode with no filtering:
/etc/netfmt -v -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will resemble the following:
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvLAN/X.25NETWORKINGvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Timestamp : Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.696042
Process ID
: 10
Subsystem
: SX25L3
User ID ( UID ) : 0
Trace Kind
: 0x10000000
Device ID
: 0
Path ID
: -1
Connection ID
: 0
Location
: 00123
Tx board: 0 at Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64
Q-bit : 0
D-bit : 0
M-bit : 0
P(R) : 0
P(S) : 0
User Data = 20 bytes
0: 00 00 00 01 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 ...aaaaaaaaaaaa
16: 61 61 61 61 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- aaaa..........
Example 2:
This example explains how to format the trace file in “Nice” mode (output is mainly packet headers)
with no filtering.
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “Nice” mode with no filtering:
/etc/netfmt -N -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will resemble the following:
Tx board: 0 at Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64
Q-bit : 0
D-bit : 0
M-bit : 0
P(R) : 0
P(S) : 0
User Data = 20 bytes
netfmt
121
Example 3:
This example explains how to format the trace file in “terse” (short) mode with no filtering.
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “terse” mode, with no filtering:
/etc/netfmt -1 -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will resemble the following:
Tx board: 0 at 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64 PR: 0 PS: 0
Example 4:
This example explains how to display the contents of the encapsulated X.25 Level 3 packet in case
of XOT.
NOTE:
This example assumes both SVC and PVC are available on the system.
To display the contents of the encapsulated X.25 Level 3 packet using the netfmt –x command,
complete the following steps:
1.
Start nettl tracing using the following command:
nettl –start
2.
Capture the TCP subsystem trace using the following command:
nettl -tn pduin pduout -e ns_ls_tcp -f /tcp
3.
4.
Run the X.25 application.
Stop nettl tracing using the following command:
nettl –stop
5.
Format the above captured /tcp.TRC000 file using the following command:
/etc/netfmt -xNf /tcp.TRC000 > /tcp_xot_log
For SVC packets, the output will resemble the following:
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ARPA/9000 NETWORKING^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^@#%
Timestamp
: Mon Aug 09 IST 2010 12:56:12.949177
Process ID
: [ICS]
Subsystem
: NS_LS_TCP
User ID ( UID )
: -1
Trace Kind
: PDU IN TRACE
Device ID
: -1
Path ID
: 0
Connection ID
: 0
Location
: 00123
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-------------------------------- TCP Header ---------------------------------sport:
58069
-->
dport: 1998
flags: PUSH ACK
seq: 0xf25c3ee1 urp: 0x0
chksum: 0xc599
data len: 22
ack: 0xf2a92796 win: 0x8000
optlen: 0
--------------------------------- XoT Header --------------------------------Version :00
Length of XoT Data :18
Rx L3 bd: 0 at Mon Aug 09 IST 2010 12:56:12.949177 Incoming Call lci 255
Called Address : 44444
Calling Address : 55555
Facility Length = 6 bytes
0: 43 07 07 42 07 07 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- C..B............
Window size
from called DTE :7 packets (0x07)
from calling DTE :7 packets (0x07)
Packet size
from called DTE :128 bytes (0x07)
from calling DTE :128 bytes (0x07)
User Data = 2 bytes
0: 01 03 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ................
For PVC packets, the output will resemble the following:
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvARPA/9000 [email protected]#%
Timestamp
: Thu Jan 13 IST 2011 01:39:53.860329
Process ID
: 4118
Subsystem
: NS_LS_TCP
User ID ( UID )
: 0
Trace Kind
: PDU OUT TRACE
122
Tracing and logging utilities
Device ID
: -1
Path ID
: 0
Connection ID
: 0
Location
: 00123
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-------------------------------- TCP Header ---------------------------------sport:
49356
-->
dport: 1998
flags: PUSH ACK
seq: 0xeda04af3 urp: 0x0
chksum: 0x2f
data len: 27
ack: 0x3f6de013 win: 0x8000
optlen: 0
--------------------------------- XoT Header --------------------------------Version :00
Length of XoT Data :23
Tx L3 bd: 0 at Thu Jan 13 IST 2011 01:39:53.860329 Outgoing PVC Setup Request lci 1
Status : Waiting to Connect
Initiator LCN : 1
Remote LCN : 4
Initiator Interface : xot0
Remote Interface : xot0
Initiator Window Size : 7
Remote Window Size : 7
Initiator Packet Size : 1024 bytes
Remote Packet Size : 1024 bytes
NOTE: All XOT traffic either originates from port 1998 or terminates at port 1998. So, if port
1998 is followed in the formatted trace file, the flow of XOT traffic can be understood.
Creating a filter file
You can use a filter file to filter information according to various criteria. This enables you to apply
system-level filtering to get information such as a time stamp for a specific subsystem.
You create a filter file with your text editor by entering the filter configuration commands in
predetermined fields on the same line. The filter commands are: type, “!” (not), and value.
The values specified in the filter file are compared against the input values. When there is a match,
the information is recorded. It is possible to create specific filters for all configured subsystems.
Refer to the man pages for netfmt for a complete explanation of the format file syntax.
Filter File Syntax
Each line (filter) in the system level filter file begins with the keyword FORMATTER FILTER (for
system level filters) or SX25L3 (for subsystem level filters, level 3 only). Entries are not case-sensitive,
and spaces and tabs are ignored. The syntax is shown below:
FORMATTER FILTER [type][!] [value]
or
SX25L3 [type][!] [value][value]...
The value field specifies the value for the given type. By default, this value is on (applies as a
filter), but can be set to off with the “!” (not) prefix. The value used with SX25L3 can be a list of
consecutive values, or a range of values.
The permitted values for the types are given in the table below. See the man pages for netfmt
for examples.
Table 33 Filter file options
System/subsystem level
Type
Value
FORMATTER FILTER (system level)
kind
all, hdrin, hdrout, pduin or
pduout
time_from
12:54:22 (hr:min:sec) 7/25/94
(month/day/year)
time_through
12:54:22 (hr:min:sec) 7/25/94
(month/day/year)
subsystem
SX25L3 (level 3)
netfmt
123
Table 33 Filter file options (continued)
System/subsystem level
Type
Value
SX25L3 (subsystem level)
lci
decimal number between 0 and 4095
(this can be a list or range of values)
packet
call, callc, clear, clearc,
data, rr, rnr, interrupt,
reset, resetc, restart,
restartc, diagnostic,
registration, reject
family (refer to Table 34 (page 124)
below)
connect, disconnect, data,
fctl, network
The following table lists the packet types displayed for each value combined with family.
Table 34 Filter file family options
Packet types displayed
Family
From DTE to DCE
From DCE to DTE
connect
CALL REQUEST
CALL ACCEPTED
INCOMING CALL
CALL CONNECTED
disconnect
CLEAR REQUEST
CLEAR CONFIRMATION
CLEAR INDICATION
CLEAR CONFIRMATION
data
DATA
DTE INTERRUPT
DATA
DCE INTERRUPT
DTE INTERRUPT CONFIRMATION
DCE INTERRUPT CONFIRMATION
DTE RR
DTE RNR
DCE RR
DCE RNR
RESET REQUEST
RESET INDICATION
DTE RESET CONFIRMATION
DCE RESET CONFIRMATION
RESTART REQUEST
DTE RESTART CONFIRMATION
DIAGNOSTIC
RESTART INDICATION
fctl
network
DCE RESTART INDICATION
REGISTRATION
Filter file examples
The following examples illustrate the use of filter configuration commands within the filter file.
Starts formatting at 10:55:21 on 7/16/94, finishing 3 minutes later:
FORMATTER FILTER time_from 10:55:00 7/16/94
FORMATTER FILTER time_through 10:58:00 7/16/94
Filters data only on lci numbers 1, 3, 4, 5:
SX25L3 lci 1 3-5
SX25L3 packet data
After you have created the filter file, check its syntax with:
netfmt -p -c filter_file
and then run:
netfmt -v -c /tmp/filter -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
124
Tracing and logging utilities
strace
The strace command collects logging event messages from X.25 level 3 and X.25 level 2
STREAMS modules and writes them to standard output. strace runs until terminated by the user.
See the man pages for strace((1))for a more detailed description.
Running strace with several sets of arguments can impair STREAMS performance. Also, some
messages may be lost if too many are logged at one time.
HP recommends that you run strace as a background process with output directed to a file.
NOTE:
Only one process can run the STREAMS log driver at a time.
Syntax
strace [mod sub pri] ...
Parameters
mod
sub
Specifies the STREAMS module identifier for:
•
X.25 level 3, mod should have a value of 200
•
X.25 level 2, mod should have a value of 201
•
X.25 level 1, mod should have a value of 210
•
IP over X.25, mod should have a value of 208
•
BSD over X.25, mod should have a value of 2503
•
X25TUN kernel module, mod should have a value of 2506
X.25 subnetwork identifier. Use all the first time to get subnetwork identifiers (afterwards,
you can enter the identifier for a specific subnetwork/interface).
For single-port cards, the code for the sub option is the decimal equivalent of 30 + n (both
expressed in hexadecimal), where n is the card instance number. For example, for the
interface defined by the device file x25_1, the sub would be 49 (48 + 1 = 49). See the
table below for more examples of the codes to be used for specific interfaces.
Table 35 Single-port subnet interface codes
Card
Calculation (hexadecimal)
Sub code (decimal)
First card = 0 (x25_0)
30 + 0 = 30
48
Second card = 1 (x25_1)
30 + 1 = 31
49
Third card = 2 (x25_2)
30 + 2 = 32
50
For dual-port cards, the sub code is the decimal equivalent to the four-digit hexadecimal composite
of the place holder code (70) + the card instance number + 30. The example below shows the
calculation for the interface defined by the device file x25_0p1.
strace
125
NOTE:
The sub code for dual-port cards will be the same for both ports.
A simple way to think of dual-port sub codes is as the decimal equivalent of 7030 + n (expressed
in hexadecimal), where n is the card instance number. For example, for the device file x25_1p2,
the sub in hexadecimal would be
7030 + 1 = 7031
which, when converted to decimal gives you 28721. Some sample calculations of the sub code
for dual-port cards are provided in the table below.
NOTE: When specifying the name of device files in systems with dual-port cards, you must use
the form
x25_npx
where n represents the card number (0 to 15, and the first card must be zero), the letter p is a
place holder (for port), and x represents the interface (port) number (1 or 2).
Table 36 Dual-port subnet interface codes
Interface
Calculation (hexadecimal)
Sub code (decimal)
x25_0p1, x25_0p2
7030 + 0 = 7030
28720
x25_1p1, x25_1p2
7030 + 1 = 7031
28721
x25_2p1, x25_2p2
7030 + 2 = 7032
28725
x25_5p1, x25_5p2
7030 + 5 = 7035
28725
where:
pri Specifies the logging priority level. Collects messages from the level equal to or less than
the value given by pri. Values 1 to 6 are allowed for X.25 level 3, 1 to 4 for level 2, and
1 to 5 for IP over X.25.
The value all can be used for any argument in the command line to indicate that there are
no restrictions for that argument.
Table 37 Output format
126
Column Head
Column Head
Column Head
X.25 level 3
(mod=200)
pria1
Call/Call Conf (CALL In/Out, CAA)
pri 2
Clear/Clear Conf (CLR In/Out, CLC)
pri 3
Reset/Reset Conf (RST In/Out, RSC: Reset Conf)
pri 4
Restart/Restart Conf (REST In/Out, RESTC)
Tracing and logging utilities
Table 37 Output format (continued)
Column Head
X.25 level 2
(mod=201)
IP over X.25
(mod=208)
a
Column Head
Column Head
pri 5
Interrupt/Int Conf (INT In/Out, INTC)
pri 6
Data (DATA In/Out)
pri 1
Link Up/Down
pri 2
Link reset events (LINK Rst)
pri 3
Frame Reject, Reject (FRMR In/Out, REJ In/Out)
pri 4
Busy conditions (LINK Bsy)
pri 0
IP over X.25 fatal error (call your HP representative)
pri 1
IP over X.25 error (check configuration or addresses)
pri 2
IP over X.25 warning (unexpected event)
pri 3
IP over X.25 info (IP over X.25 Up/Down)
pri 4
IP over X.25 trace (internal procedures tracing)
pri 5
IP over X.25 Data (datagram tracing)
pri = Logging priority level
Priorities 4 and 5 for IP over X.25 can only be used if IP over X.25 has been started with the
ifconfig debug option set
The following table describes the parameters displayed for the various packet types at level 3.
Packet Type
Parameters Displayed
CALL In/Out
lci number, gfi number
CAA
lci number, gfi number
CLR In/Out
lci number, cause/diagnostic
CLC
lci number
RST In/Out
lci number, cause/diagnostic
RSC:Reset Conf
lci number
REST In/Out
cause/diagnostic
RESTC
no parameter displayed
INT In/Out
lci number
INTC
lci number
DATA
lci number, N(R)/N(S)
The following table describes the parameters displayed for the various frame types at level 2.
Frame Type
Parameters Displayed
LINK Up
No parameter displayed
LINK Dwn
“Local” means DISC frame sent. “Remote” means DISC
frame received.
LINK Rst
“Local” means SABM/UA exchanged, local initiated.
“Remote” means SABM/UA exchanged, remote initiated.
strace
127
Frame Type
Parameters Displayed
FRMR In
No parameter displayed
FRMR Out
“Rsn 1” means the control field received was not defined
or not implemented. “Rsn 3” means the control field
received was invalid. “Rsn 4” means the information field
received was too long. “Rsn 8” means the control field
received contained an invalid variable.
REJ In/Out (level 2)
“N(XX)” is an internal variable of no importance or
meaning.
LINK Bsy (level 2)
“Local” means that the RNR has been sent. “Remote” means
that the RNR has been received.
Table 38 Output format
X.25 level 1 (mod=210)
a
pria0
Baud control (tx and rx counter)
pri 0
Baud control (threshold exceeded)
pri 0
Baud control (number of times threshold
exceeded)
pri = Logging priority level
Examples of the strace command
To display all event messages from X.25 level 3 for all interfaces, use:
strace 200 all all
To display all event messages from X.25 level 3 for interface 0, use:
strace 200 48 all
To display event messages from X.25 level 3 with priority levels 1 to 3, and from X.25 level 2 with
priority levels 1 and 2, use:
strace 200 all 3 201 all 2
Examples of strace output
The command:
strace 200 48 all
gives the following output:
324112
324115
324116
324119
324124
324127
14:59:16
14:59:16
14:59:16
14:59:16
14:59:16
14:59:16
33683766
33683776
33683776
33683778
33683781
33683782
1
1
6
6
2
2
...
...
...
...
...
...
200
200
200
200
200
200
48
48
48
48
48
48
CALL Out:‘30’ lci 400 gfi 1
CAA In:‘30’ lci 400 gfi 1
DATA Out:‘30’ lci 400 ns/nr 0000
DATA In:‘30’ lci 400 ns/nr 0001
CLR Out:‘30’ lci 400 C/D 00f2
CLC In:‘30’ lci 400
Column labels to help you interpret the output are shown in the following table:
record num
time
tics
pri
ind
mod
sub
data
324112
14:59:16
33683766
1
...
200
48
CALL Out
The command:
strace 200 49 all
gives the following output:
324191 14:59:59 33688076 1 ... 200 49 CALL In:‘31’ lci 400 gfi 1
324192 14:59:59 33688086 1 ... 200 49 CAA Out:‘31’ lci 400 gfi 1
128
Tracing and logging utilities
324195
324196
324203
324204
14:59:59
14:59:59
14:59:59
14:59:59
33688087
33688087
33688091
33688091
6
6
2
2
...
...
...
...
200
200
200
200
49
49
49
49
DATA In:‘31’ lci 400 ns/nr 0000
DATA Out:‘31’ lci 400 ns/nr 0001
CLR In: ‘31’ lci 400 C/D 00f2
CLC Out: ‘31’ lci 400
The command:
strace 201 48 all
gives the following output:
324790 15:06:17 33725841 1 ... 201 48 LINK Up : ‘30’
The command: strace
201 49 all
gives the following output:
324893 15:07:18 33731984 1 ... 201 49 LINK Dwn: ‘31’ [Remote]
NOTE: The last example indicates a remote disconnection. ‘30’ and ‘31’ in the examples above
are the hexadecimal code for subnetworks 48 and 49 (decimal) respectively.
strerr
Receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver.
The strerr daemon receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver (see the man pages
for strlog((7))). By default, additions to the STREAMS error log files (error.dd-mm) are in the
STREAMS error log directory (/usr/adm/streams).
When first called, strerr creates the log file error.mm-dd. This is a daily log file where mm
indicates the month and dd indicates the day of the logged messages. strerr then appends error
messages to the log file as they are received from the STREAMS log driver.
NOTE: strerr should always be used as a background process as it does not return the prompt
to the user (the only way to stop it is to kill the process).
Refer to the man pages for strerr((1)) for a detailed description of the output format.
Syntax
strerr [-a sys_admin_mail_name] [-d log_directory]
Parameters
-a sys_admin _mail_name
Specifies the name of the user who will receive error message
by electronic mail.
-d log_directory
Specifies the directory that will contain the error log file. The
default is /usr/adm/streams.
strerr
129
8 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting your X.25 link
This section describes troubleshooting procedures for checking your X.25 link up to X.25 level 3.
It also provides information on troubleshooting IP over X.25, as well as procedures for diagnosing
switching problems. To use these procedures you should be familiar with the following commands:
Table 39 Troubleshooting commands
Command
Purpose
Refer to...
x25init
Initializes X.25 interface and software. man pages and examples at the end of
Superuser only.
“X.25 Configuration files and
examples” (page 144)
x25stop
Safely shuts down the interface.
Superuser only.
x25stat
Reports on X.25 status. Some options man pages and “Diagnostic utilities”
are for superuser only.
(page 77) for examples
x25check x25server
Tests connectivity up to X.25 Level 3
between local and remote nodes.
man pages and “Diagnostic utilities”
(page 77) for examples
ping
Tests IP to IP connectivity.
man pages
x25ping
Checks that X.25 interface can reach man pages
the remote server.
nettl
Traces and logs X.25 at X.25 packet
and LAP B levels
netfmt
Formats trace information collected by man pages and “Tracing and logging
nettl.
utilities” (page 118) for examples
strace
Logs X.25 event messages.
man pages and “Tracing and logging
utilities” (page 118)
strerr
Receives error messages from the
Streams log driver.
man pages
netstat
Displays configured IP interfaces
man pages
ifconfig
Displays IP interface status
man pages
man pages
man pages and “Tracing and logging
utilities” (page 118) for examples
If you still have problems after using the troubleshooting procedures in this section, ask the System
Administrator of the remote host to check the X.25 link using the same procedures.
If you have difficulties with high-level network software, refer to the appropriate troubleshooting
manual for the particular software product.
This section includes the following troubleshooting flowcharts:
•
Hardware check
•
X.25 configuration check
•
IP over X.25 check
This section also includes information on recovering from a power failure.
Troubleshooting flowcharts and procedures
The following pages provide flowcharts and procedures for troubleshooting common problems.
Begin with Flowchart 1. If you are running IP over X.25, you should also refer to flowchart 5.
Troubleshooting procedures begin with the x25stat command. If x25stat -d [devices]
-f returns a level 2 link state other than “normal,” there is a problem.
130 Troubleshooting
Figure 28 Flowchart 1
Flowchart 2 – Procedures and notes
Use these procedures to verify that your X.25 link is correctly initialized. Read the following notes
before carrying out the initialization check procedures in Flowchart 2.
Note 2-1 – x25stat
Level 2 is down if x25stat -d [device] -f returns a level 2 link state other than “normal.”
Note 2-2 – eisa_config
Sometimes x25init does not recognize the dual-port EISA interface (J2815A) after a first-time
installation. When you reboot your system after installing the dual-port EISA interface, you may
receive a message similar to:
Device /dev/x25_0p1 is not configured in the kernel
If this problem occurs, you can work around it by running the eisa_config utility in interactive mode
as shown below.
1. At the EISA prompt, type:
add !HWP19A0.CGF slot number
where slot number is the number of the EISA slot in which the interface card is installed.
2.
Then type:
save
quit
3.
Reboot your system.
Troubleshooting your X.25 link
131
Figure 29 Flowchart 2 – Initialization check
Flowchart 3 – Procedures and notes
Use these procedures to verify that your hardware is properly connected and operating correctly.
Read the following notes before running the hardware check procedures in Flowchart 3.
Note 3-1 – Hardware check
Check the following:
132
•
Interface cable
•
Modem
•
Network configuration
•
Status light (for single port cards only)
Troubleshooting
Figure 30 Flowchart 3 – Hardware check
Flowchart 4 – Procedures and notes
This flowchart describes how to run a loopback test using x25check on the local node. This checks
that your X.25 link to the network or X.25 switch is working correctly.
Note 4-1 – X25check
You do a loopback test using the x25server and x25check commands. The x25server process
is only used to accept and echo back an X.25 packet coming from an x25check process. To run
the loopback test, you need:
•
2 virtual circuits (either 1 one-way inbound and 1 one-way outbound, or 2 two-way).
•
if you are connected to a private X.25 switch (rather than connected directly to a network),
then the switch must be configured to return a call packet.
Note 4-2 – Exit
Your local X.25 configuration is correct. You can use x25check to verify connections to the remote
host only if the remote host is running and:
•
has X.25 initialized.
•
is running x25server.
•
has an X.25 configuration that is compatible with the local host’s configuration.
If you still experience problems, contact the System Administrator at the remote host and ask them
to check their X.25 configuration.
Troubleshooting your X.25 link
133
Figure 31 Flowchart 4 – X.25 Configuration check
Flowchart 5 – Procedures and notes
Use these procedures to verify your IP addressing and remote host connection.
Note 5-1 – Ping
Use ping on your own IP over X.25 address, for example:
ping 195.25.0.13
Do not use aliases (for example, as defined in/etc/hosts), since this may introduce other errors.
Use the Break key or Ctrl-C to terminate ping if you have not set the number of packets with the
-n option.
Note 5-2 – Checking your IP over X.25 configuration
If ping returns errors such as “100% packet loss,” or “Network Unreachable,” use
x25stat -a to check your address configuration. The most likely causes of problems are:
134
•
No IP address was specified when X.25 was initialized (either in the X.25 configuration file
or as a command line option to the x25init command).
•
IP to X.121 address mapping has not been initialized (using the -a option with the x25init
command).
•
The IP address is incorrect.
•
The mapping of your IP address to your X.121 address is incorrect. Check the IP to X.121
map table file (the default file is /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map).
Troubleshooting
If no IP communication is possible (ping to a local IP address fails) and netstat -a shows no
entries despite the fact that x25init reported a successful IP mapping, the likely cause is:
•
the device=x25_card_device parameter has not been added to the /etc/x25/
ip_to_x121_map file. See the section, “IP-to-X.121 address mapping table” (page 138) in
this chapter.
You can also use the netstat command with the -r option to get information about IP addresses
associated with a particular interface.
Note 5-3 – Exit
Your local IP over X.25 configuration is correct. You can use ping to verify connections if the
remote host:
•
is operational
•
has X.25 initialized
•
is compatible with IP and ICMP protocols
•
and has an entry for your node in its map table (can map your IP address to your X.121
address)
If you still experience problems, ask the remote host System Administrator to check the IP over X.25
configuration on the remote side of the connection.
Figure 32 Flowchart 5 – IP over X.25 check
Recovering from a power failure
For systems with a backup power supply
If your site is equipped with a backup power supply, system memory will be preserved in the event
of power failure. However, because your X.25 hardware does not have backup capability, any
on-board RAM-based memory is lost.
Recovery from a power failure is automatic when the /etc/powerfail script is invoked by
/etc/inittab. Otherwise SMH (or x25init) must be used to manually re-initialize the interface
after a power failure.
The recovery mechanism informs the X.25 driver of the power failure. The X.25 driver then “marks”
the interface as “down” and a DISCONNECT INDICATE is received on all open SVCs.
For systems with no backup power supply
If your system does not possess the battery backup option, both system memory and interface card
memory are lost. You must reboot your system.
Recovering from a power failure
135
Reporting problems
If you have a service contract with HP, ask your service representative to document the problem
as a Service Request (SR).
Include the following information where applicable:
•
A detailed description of the problem. Describe the events leading up to the problem and the
symptoms of the problem. Include information on HP-UX commands, communication subsystem
commands, job streams, result codes, and error messages (the exact wording).
•
A record of the output from x25 stat -c or a copy of the configuration file for each node.
Record the output from netstat.
•
A printout of the existing configuration files.
•
A copy of the ipmap file.
•
A copy of the PSI upload file.
•
The version, update, and fix information for all software. From this information HP can determine
if the problem is already known and if the correct software is installed at your site.
•
Use the what command to check your X.25 version.
NOTE: Your host node should be running HP-UX Release 10.0 or later. To check the version
of your kernel, execute uname -r.
•
Any network log files produced using the netfmt command (see “Tracing and logging utilities”
(page 118) for details of netfmt), and formatted copies of any X.25 trace files that were active
when the problem occurred.
•
A short description of your application and how it should work.
•
In the event of a system failure, take a full memory dump. Use the HP-UX utility /etc/
savecore to save a core dump. Refer Debugging Streams/UX Modules and Drivers Streams/UX for the HP 9000 Reference Manual for details.
•
For PAD Problems:
◦
Copies of the x29hosts and x3config files.
◦
A copy of the output from the ls -l /dev/x29 command if you are running x29printd
or x29uucpd.
◦
Identify which PAD utility is encountering the error (PAD services, PAD emulation, Remote
PAD printer, or UUCP). Include all files relative to that service (for example, .login,
profile ID, /usr/spool/lp/*, or /usr/lib/uucp/*).
◦
Include log files for the PAD services.
◦
Provide a detailed description of the problem.
For more information about files related to PAD services see “PAD services” (page 94).
NOTE: If you do not have a service contract with HP, you can still follow the procedure described
above, but you will be billed accordingly for time and materials.
Back-to-back configuration on the same host
Systems with multiple X.25 interfaces can use back-to-back configurations to perform diagnostics.
If you suspect that a switch might be the source of your connection problem, you can set up a
back-to-back configuration to test the circuit without the PAD switch.
To set up a back-to-back connection on a single host, you connect one card to another card on
the same host through a modem eliminator, as shown below. The modem eliminator provides the
necessary clocking for the DCE. The most common modem eliminators are RS-232 and V.35.
136
Troubleshooting
In order for two cards (on the same host) to communicate, one card must be configured as the DTE
and the other card as DCE.
To set up a card as DCE, use the x25init command and enter DCE_80, DCE_84 or DCE_88
(according to the standard you are using) in the networktype parameter.
You must also make sure that the two cards are using compatible level 2 parameters.
Once both cards are initialized, you can run x25check and x25server to verify the connections.
If x25check completes successfully in this setup but does not complete successfully with the switch
in place, the switch is incorrectly configured. Check with your network provider for correct switch
configuration.
Configuration and troubleshooting commands
This section provides a brief summary of X.25 commands and indicates where further information
can be found. Examples of x25init and the syntax for IP over X.25 mapping are provided at
the end of the section.
Command summary
NOTE: You can use the x25message utility to get an explanation of an error message. Enter
the command at the HP-UX prompt followed by the text of the message, and the system will display
an explanation of the cause along with recommendations for corrective action.
Command
Description
x25init
Initializes your X.25 link (requires Superuser privileges). See your man pages and the
examples later in this section.
x25stop
Gracefully shuts down an X.25 link (requires Superuser privileges). See your man pages.
x25check and
x25server
Together, these commands can be used to test connectivity between two nodes up to the
X.25 access level (level 3). See your man pages and the examples in “Diagnostic utilities”
(page 77).
x25stat
Displays X.25 link status, configuration information, and virtual circuit statistics. See your
man pages and the examples in “Diagnostic utilities” (page 77). Some options require
Superuser privileges.
x25mibstat
Utility with programmatic interface that allows users to get additional X.25 statistics.
x25ping
Checks if a remote host can be reached via the X.25 interface. See your man pages.
ping
Tests connectivity to a remote host up to the Internet Protocol (IP) level (level 3). See your
man pages.
route
Used to add a host or network to the network routing table. See your man pages.
proxy
The Probe proxy table is the NS equivalent of the Internet/Berkeley Services /etc/hosts
file. See your man pages.
netstat
Displays network statistics and information about network connections. See your man
pages.
Configuration and troubleshooting commands
137
Command
Description
x25trace
Protocol level tracing facility. See your man pages.
x25upload
Dumps the interface card memory into a file. See your man pages.
nettl
Creates a user-defined log file containing frame and packet trace information from X.25
packet and LAP-B levels. See your man pages for x25trace and the examples in “Tracing
and logging utilities” (page 118).
netfmt
Formats trace information contained in the user-defined log file that was generated with
the nettl command. See your man pages for x25trace and the examples in “Tracing
and logging utilities” (page 118).
strace
Collects and writes X.25 logging event message. See your man pages and the examples
in “Tracing and logging utilities” (page 118).
strerr
Receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver. See your man pages and the
examples in “Tracing and logging utilities” (page 118).
ifconfig
Configures network interface parameters. See your man pages.
Examples of x25init
The following example shows a valid usr/sbin/x25init command (provided that the
programmatic access name has been specified in the configuration file x25config_0):
x25init -c x25config_0 4085551111 -a
ip_to_x121_map
Alternatively, the IP-to-X.121 map table can be specified in a separate x25init command:
x25init -c x25config_0 4085551111
x25init -a ip_to_x121_map
NOTE: In case, the IP-to-X.121 map table needs to be specified for an XoL interface, the x25init
command must be issued with the –c, –L and –a options in the same line:
/usr/sbin/x25init –c <XoL interface config file> -L <LLc2 config file>
-a <ip to x121 map file>
NOTE: If x25init fails, you can look at the /usr/adm/x25/x25init.log log file for
troubleshooting information.
IP-to-X.121 address mapping table
The IP-to-X.121 address mapping table is used to enable IP to route through X.25 networks by
mapping a host's IP address to its X.121 address. The table is used for both inbound and outbound
packets.
The IP-to-X.121 address mapping table is a kernel table created from an ASCII file containing one
entry per line. It is created using x25init with the -a option. Each line describes the destination
X.121 address used to reach a host with a particular IP address. Reverse mapping reverses the
order of translation. The default file name and directory for the mapping table is /etc/x25/
ip_to_x121_map.
When the packet is outbound, the IP address is mapped to the X.121 address that is associated
with it in the IP map file. When the packet is inbound, the X.121 address is mapped to the IP
address of the same destination host. This is called “reverse mapping.” The table is not used when
IP packets are transmitted to X.25 over DDN. In this case, the DDN-specific mapping algorithm
is used instead. See DDN X.25 Host Interface Specification (BBN83).
There must be an entry in the mapping table for each host you want to communicate with over a
direct-connect X.25 network. If the host is connected through a gateway, you only need an entry
for the gateway (containing the IP and X.121 addresses of the gateway).
138
Troubleshooting
NOTE: If the destination host is only reachable through a gateway, you must have a route to that
host (a host or a net route).
The IP address in the table must belong to the same IP subnet as a configured card in your system,
and this card must be already started when you initialize IP routing with the command:
/usr/sbin/x25init -a /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map
NOTE: In case, the IP-to-X.121 map table needs to be specified for an XoL interface, the x25init
command must be issued with the –c, –L and –a options in the same line:
/usr/sbin/x25init –c <XoL interface config file> -L <LLc2 config file>
-a <ip to x121 map file>
If the IP address does not correspond to a configured card, the X.25 product does not know which
interface to use to send packets. Therefore, you must place this information in your /etc/x25/
ip_to_x121_map file by adding the x25_card_device parameter as shown in the syntax
example below. This is a manual procedure that cannot be done in SMH.
Syntax for SVCs
IP_address X.121_address [{+URC|-URC}][+ARC|-ARC}] device=x25_card_device,
packet_size, window_size [CUG=n]
Syntax for PVCs
IP_address X.121_address pvc=n name=prog_access_name
NOTE: If you do not include the packet_size and window_size values, and the
x25_card_device is the last field, the default values will be applied to the packet_size and
window_size fields.
Example
15.128.174.04 12345 -URC -ARC
30.0.0.2 34567 -URC -ARC device=x25_0,256,7
In this example, a card has been configured with a device equal to x25_0, a packet size of 256,
and a window size of 7.
You can then use the gated or route add command to send datagrams to the IP address,
30.0.0.2, routed through your X.25 network to the address, 34567. These packets will be sent
out through the X.25 card that corresponds to the device x.25_0.
File mapping parameters
IP_address
Specifies a valid IP address in standard dot notation form:
n.n.n.n
wheren is a number from 0 to 255 inclusive.
X.121_address
Specifies the corresponding X.121 address for the host with the above
IP address.
pvc=n
Specifies which permanent virtual circuit should be used for the X.121
destination. The value pvc= is a keyword set to n, which is an integer
variable indicating the lci of the permanent virtual circuit. This
keyword/variable pair is specified only when a permanent virtual
circuit is to be used for IP access. When it is not specified, the default
value of a two-way SVC is assumed. The following information is
provided for reference only. Because pvc describes a permanent circuit
for a particular interface, that interface must have been initialized prior
to the initialization of the address map table. If the interface or the
specified PVC does not exist, an error is reported.
Configuration and troubleshooting commands
139
prog_access _name
Specifies the card's programmatic access name.
NOTE: For Series 712 workstations this is always
name=interface0.
+URC
Specifies that outbound calls to this IP address will Use Reverse
Charging (URC).
-URC
(Default) Specifies that outbound calls to this IP address will not Use
Reverse Charging (URC).)
+ARC
Specifies that inbound calls to this IP address will Accept Reverse
Charging (ARC).
-ARC
(Default) Specifies that inbound calls to this IP address will not Accept
Reverse Charging (ARC).
x25_card_device
A device configured for one of your existing X.25 cards. This
information is used by the IP_to_X25 software to identify the interface
port through which the outbound packets will be sent.
CUG=n
Specifies the Closed User Group index number used for placing calls
to this IP address. The index number is a two- or four-digit number.
Two digits corresponds to the basic format, and four digits corresponds
to the extended format of the CUG selection facility.
#
You can put comments in your IP mapping table by including the #
character at the beginning of the line. Note that you cannot add
comments after a table entry.
NOTE: For non-DDN configured interfaces, all remote hosts must have entries in the IP-to-X.121
address map table. Remote hosts not on your X.25 network (that is, on the other side of gateways)
do not need to have map table entries. For more information, refer to the routing description in
this section.
140 Troubleshooting
A Using Non-English subscription forms
Subscription form translations
This appendix lists the English (SMH dialog field) equivalents for terms that appear on your French,
Italian, German or Spanish subscription form. Use this information to locate the English SMH dialog
field equivalents of these terms. Terms are listed in order of appearance. Online help (using the
Help button) is available for each field.
Table 40 French TRANSPAC subscription form
English on SMH dialogs
French on subscription form
X.25 Address
No Transpac
Network Carrier Type
TRANSPAC
Permanent - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVP
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Arrivée
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Mixte
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Départ
Fast Accept Selected
Acceptation sélection rapide
Flow Control Negotiation
Nég. taille Paquet et Fenêtre
Reverse Charge Accepted
Acceptation, PVC (TAD)
Default Packet Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched VC
Flow Control
Longueur paquet
Default Window Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched
VC Flow Control
Taille de la fenêtre
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow Control
Longueur paquet
Switched VC Default - Inbound & Outbound
Choix classe de débit
Switched VC Negotiated
Négociation classes de débit
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
Fenêtre
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
Temporisateur
Table 41 Using your ITAPAC (Italian) subscription form
English on SMH dialogs
Italian on subscription form
X.25 Address
Indirizzo X.25
Network Carrier Type
ITAPAC
Permanent - Quantity
Circuiti permanenti-numero
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati unidirectionali in entrata - numero
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati bidiretionali in entrata - numero
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati unidirectionali in uscita- numero
Fast Accept Selected
Selectione rapida
Flow Control Negotiation
Negoziazione dei parametri di controllo di flusso
Reverse Charge Accepted
Accettazione delle tassa zione al chiamato
Subscription form translations
141
Table 41 Using your ITAPAC (Italian) subscription form (continued)
English on SMH dialogs
Italian on subscription form
Default Packet Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched VC
Flow Control
Dimensione di default del pacchetto - uscente, controllo di
flusso VC commutato
Default Window Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched
VC Flow Control
Dimensione di default della finestra - uscente, controllo di
flusso VC commutato
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow Control
Dimensione del pacchetto - controllo di flusso VC
permanente
Switched VC Default - Inbound & Outbound (Modify
Throughput Class Setting)
Classe di throughput di default in entrata & in uscita
Switched VC Negotiated (Modify Throughput Class Setting) Classe di throughput negocia
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
k - Dimensione di finestra a livello 2
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
T1 - Timer di ritramissione (ms).
Table 42 Using your DATEX-P (German) subscription form
English on SMH dialogs
German on subscription form
X.25 Address
Rufnummer des Wählanschlusses
Network Carrier Type
DATEX-P
Permanent - Quantity
Feste virtuelle Verbindungen
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Nur ankommende
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Nur abgehend
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Abgehend und ankommend
Reverse Charge Accepted
Möglichkeit der
Verbindungsgebühreüber nahme
bei ankommenden gewählten Ruf
Default Window Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched
VC FlowControl
Fenstergrösse w Senden
Fenstergrösse w Empfangen
Table 43 Using your IBERPAC (Spanish) subscription form
142
English on SMH dialogs
Spanish on subscription form
X.25 Address
NRI (Número Red IBERPAC)
Network Carrier Type
Tipo de Red (IBERPAC)
Permanent - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Permanentes - cantidad
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Unidireccionales Entrante - cantidads
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Bidireccionales - cantidad
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Unidireccionales Salientes - cantidad
Fast Accept Selected
Selección Rápida
Flow Control Negotiation
Negociación del Control de Flujo
Reverse Charge Accepted
Cobro Revertido
Default Packet Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched VC
Flow Control
Tamaño de Paquete por defecto - entrante y saliente,
control de flujo en CV conmutados
Default Window Size - Inbound & Outbound, Switched
VC Flow Control
Tamaño de Ventana por defecto - entrante y saliente,
control de flujo en CV conmutados
Using Non-English subscription forms
Table 43 Using your IBERPAC (Spanish) subscription form (continued)
English on SMH dialogs
Spanish on subscription form
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow Control
Tamaño de Paquete - control de flujo en CV permanentes
Switched VC Default - Inbound & Outbound (Modify
Throughput Class Setting)
CV conmutados por defecto - entrantes y salientes
(Negociación de la Clase de Caudal)
Switched VC Negotiated (Modify Throughput Class Setting) Clase negociada en CV conmutado (Negociación de la
Clase de Caudal)
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
k - Tamaño de Ventana en Nivel 2 (tramas)
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
T1 - Temporizador de Retransmisión (ms)
Subscription form translations
143
B X.25 Configuration files and examples
X.25 Configuration files
This section lists X.25 configuration and addressing files.
Table 44 /etc/x25 directory
Configuration File
Description
x25config_0
ASCII file containing X.25 parameters. This file can be
used by the x25init command when initializing the card.
It is created automatically if you configure X.25 using SMH.
To configure X.25 manually, copy and edit either
x25init_def or x25init_smpl.
x25init_def
Contains default X.25 configuration parameters and
example configuration parameters for parameters that have
no default. The listing for this file is shown later in this
chapter. This file is read-only.
x25init_smpl
Contains example X.25 configuration parameters. The
listing for this file is shown later in this chapter. This file is
read-only.
ip_to_x121_map
Mapping table between X.25 and IP addresses. See
“Configuration and troubleshooting commands” (page 137)
in Chapter 8, Troubleshooting, for more information on
this file.
x25_networks
Contains information describing several canonical network
types. The listing for this file is shown later in this chapter.
This file is read-only.
x25init_xot_def
Generic X.25 configuration file. See “Configuring X.25
over TCP (XOT)” (page 37) in Chapter 3, Configuration,
for more information on this file.
x121_to_ip_map
XOT specific configuration file. See “Configuring X.25 over
TCP (XOT)” (page 37) in Chapter 3, Configuration, for
more information on this file.
Table 45 /etc directory
Configuration File
Description
hosts
Associates Internet addresses with official host names and
aliases. See the man page for hosts.
hosts.equiv (optional)
Security file which authorizes remote hosts and users on
local host. See the man page for hosts.equiv.
networks
Contains information regarding known networks.
Table 46 /var/x25/log/x25server directory
Configuration File
Description
x25server.log
Log file of output from x25server process.
Table 47 /var/x25/log directory
Configuration File
Description
x25init.log
Log file of output from x25init command.
XOT<instance number>_<yymmdd>.log
Contains the log file outputs for XOT related activities.
144 X.25 Configuration files and examples
Table 48 Home directory
Configuration File
Description
.rhosts (optional)
Security file which authorizes remote hosts and users on
local host. See the man page for hosts.equiv.
.netrc (optional)
Contains login and initialization information used by the
ftp auto-login process. See the man page for netrc.
Example files
This section provides example file listings for of the x25init_def, x_25init_smpl, x3config,
x29hosts, and x25_networks files.
The x25init_def file
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_def
# This sample X.25 configuration contains default values
# Mandatory parameter - X.121 address
# X.121 4085551202
# Typically the address on the packet is identical to X.121
# packet address except for some networks like TransPac which
# require that we put null address on the packet.
# X.121_packet ’’
# use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# Mandatory parameter - interface name for Level 3 access
# name interface0
# Mandatory parameter - device to initialize
# device x25_0p1
# Level 2 Parameters
t1 3000
# frame retransmission timeout; 3 seconds
t3 60000
# Level 2 idle timer; 60 seconds
#
#
#
#
The
and
max
128
frame size varies depending on flow-control negotiation
whether you subscribe for fast-select feature or not.
Level 2 transmission size (octets) [n1/8] for packet size
with fast select disabled is 149.
framesize 149
n2 20
k 7
# n1/8 octets
# number of retransmissions allowed
# Level 2 window
# Level 3 Parameters
#
#
#
#
Mandatory Parameters - virtual circuit parameters
logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
At least one lci type (PVC, incoming, two-way or outgoing SVC)
needs to be configured.
#lci
#lci
#lci
#lci
1 pvc 5
255 insvc 5
2048 svc 6
3072 outsvc 6
networktype DTE_84
fast_select disabled
reverse_charge
disabled
# 5 permanent VCs starting at LCI 1
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs starting at LCI
255
# 6 two-way switched SVCs starting at LCI
2048
# 6 one-way outgoing SVCs starting at LCI
3072
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see
/etc/x25/x25_networks)
# disallow incoming calls with call user
data
Example files
145
# disallow incoming calls requesting
reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 128
def_outpacketsize 128
def_inwindow 2
def_outwindow 2
# def_inthruputclass
19200
# def_outthruputclass
19200
#
#
#
#
#
#
default
default
default
default
default
default
packetsize
packetsize
window size
window size
thruput class
thruput class
flowcontrol off
neg_inpacketsize 128
neg_outpacketsize 128
neg_inwindow 2
neg_outwindow 2
# flow control negotiation not allowed
# offered pkt size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered pkt size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow control
negotiation
thruputclass off
# neg_inthruputclass
19200
# neg_outthruputclass
19200
#
#
#
#
offered thruput class if using thruput
class negotiation
offered thruput class if using thruput
class negotiation
pvc_inpacketsize 128
pvc_outpacketsize 128
pvc_inwindow 2
pvc_outwindow 2
#
#
#
#
packetsize for PVCs
packetsize for PVCs
window size for PVCs
window size for PVCs
# These set of parameters are specified only if you wish to run
IP over X.25.
# IP Related Parameters
# IP 15.4.64.120
255.255.248.0
# mtu 2048
# mtu 1007
hold 300
idle 600
# IP address and subnet mask
# max transmission unit 2048 octets for
standard
# max transmission unit 1007 octets for
DDN
# 5 minute hold timer
# 10 minute idle timer#
The x25init_smpl file
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_smpl
X.121 4085551202
X.121_packet ’’
name interface0
device x25_0p1
#
#
#
#
#
X.121 address
use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
address (TransPac addressing)
interface name for Level 3 access
device to initialize
# Level 2 Parameters
t1 3000
t3 12000
framesize 263
n2 3
k 7
# frame retransmission timeout; 3
seconds
# Level 2 idle timer; 12 seconds
# max Level 2 transmission size
(octets) [n1/8]
# number of retransmissions allowed
# Level 2 window
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
146
X.25 Configuration files and examples
lci 1 pvc 5
lci 255 insvc 5
lci 2048 svc 6
# 5 permanent VCs
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs
# 6 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC
fast_select enabled
reverse_charge
enabled
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see
/etc/x25/x25_networks)
# allow incoming calls with call user
data
# allow incoming calls requesting
reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 128
def_outpacketsize 128
def_inwindow 7
def_outwindow 7
def_inthruputclass
19200
def_outthruputclass
19200
#
#
#
#
#
#
flowcontrol on
neg_inpacketsize 128
neg_outpacketsize 128
neg_inwindow 7
neg_outwindow 7
# flow control negotiation allowed
# offered pckt size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered pckt size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow
control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass
19200
# offered thruput class if using
thruput # class negotiation
# offered thruput class if using
thruput# class negotiation
neg_outthruputclass
19200
pvc_inpacketsize 128
pvc_outpacketsize 128
pvc_inwindow 7
pvc_outwindow 7
#
#
#
#
default
default
default
default
default
default
packetsize
packetsize
window size
window size
thruput class
thruput class
packetsize for PVCs
packetsize for PVCs
window size for PVCs
window size for PVCs
# IP Related
Parameters
IP 15.4.64.120
255.255.248.0
mtu 2048
hold 300
idle 600
# IP address and subnet mask
# max transmission unit 2048 octets for
standard
# max transmission unit 1007 octets for
DDN# 5 minute hold timer
# 10 minute idle timer
The x3config file
hp_printer {
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
10
5
1
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
0
Example files
147
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
8
24
0
1
0
0
0
}
hp_uucp {
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
10
5
1
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
0
16
8
17
24
18
0
19
1
20
0
21
0
22
0
}
hp_padsrvr {
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
94
127
4
0
0
5
1
1
6
5
5
7
21
21
8
0
0
9
0
0
10
0
0
11
14
14
12
1
1
13
0
0
14
0
0
15
1
0
16
8
8
17
24
24
18
0
0
19
1
1
20
0
0
21
0
0
22
0
0
}
hp_profile : 0 {
1
1
2
1
3
127
4
0
5
1
6
5
7
21
8
0
148
X.25 Configuration files and examples
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
0
0
14
1
0
0
1
8
24
0
1
0
0
0
}
The x29hosts file
# for x29printd
printer {
device
name
remote_x121
x3
reverse_charge
logging
printer1
hptndxk0
408555111201
hp_printer
enable
1
}
# for x29uucpd
pad_uucp {
device
name
remote_x121
x3
reverse_charge
logging
x25uucp
hptndxk0
4085551113
hp_uucp
enable
3
}
# for padem
pad_em {
name
remote_x121
reverse_charge
profile
logging
hptndxk0
4085551111
enable
0
3
}
host_table {
Gale
Tornado
Typhoon
4085551111
4085551113
4085551115
}
# for x29server
pad_spt {
remote_x121
x3
logging
reverse_charge
408555120801
hp_padsrvr
1
disable
}
Example files
149
The network type file (x25_networks)
The network type file describes standard network types. If the network to which you are subscribing
does not meet any of the network descriptions specified in this file, use one of the generic entries
(DTE_80, DTE_84 or DTE_88). The network type file is read-only.
The value in the first column of the file is an alias assigned to the network type. This is the value
that you specify for the networktype configuration parameter in the x25init configuration file.
The value in the second column is the actual network type. The value in the third column is the
version of the CCITT X.25 Recommendation with which the network complies: 1980, 1984, or
1988.
The delivered X.25 networktype file, /etc/x25/x25_networks is shown below:
DTE_80
L3_DTE
1980
DTE_84
L3_DTE
1984
DTE_88
L3_DTE
1988
DCE_80
L3_DCE
1980
DCE_84
L3_DCE
1984
DCE_88
L3_DTE
1988
AUSPAC
AUSPAC
1984
DATANET1
DATANET1
1984
DATAPAC
DATAPAC
1980
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
1984
DATEXP_DEUTSCHE
DATEXP_GERMANY
1980
DCS
DCS
1980
DDN
DDN_NET
1980
DDXP
DDXP
1980
HPPPN
HPPPN
1984
ITAPAC
ITAPAC
1980
LUXPAC
LUXPAC
1980
PSS
PSS
1980
TELENET
TELENET
1980
TRANSPAC
TRANSPAC
1984
TYMNET
TYMNET
1980
An alias associated with a network type chosen from this file is used to identify the network type
during the configuration process.
150
X.25 Configuration files and examples
C Diagnostic messages
Introduction
This appendix describes the diagnostic codes and messages which are a subset of the list defined
by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in IS-8202:1987(E). Only those diagnostics
supported on X.25 for HP 9000 systems are listed. Each message is listed in numerical order by
its diagnostic code and includes an ISO description and explanation.
Refer to Appendix D of the X.25 PSN Connection for a complete list of diagnostic codes and
messages, and to ISO IS-8202:1987(E) for a list of the corresponding cause codes and messages.
Diagnostic message example
An example diagnostic message generated by the network from a CLEAR REQUEST packet is
shown below:
Clear request
LCGN: 0
LCN : 32
Clearing Cause [0] : DTE originated.
Diagnostic [241]
:
In the example above, LCGN is the Logical Channel Group Number and LCN is the Logical Channel
Number (the number denoting the logical association between a DTE and DTE connected by a
VC). Refer to the discussion below for more information on cause codes.
Diagnostic codes are generated by the network and may appear in octet 5 of RESTART
INDICATION, RESET INDICATION, or CLEAR INDICATION packets. If a diagnostic field is not
present in a CLEAR INDICATION or RESET INDICATION packet, 0 is returned as the diagnostic
code.
A cause code and message is usually returned from the network with each diagnostic. Diagnostic
codes and messages are usually displayed only when tracing or logging is on, the x25check
utility is run, or cause and diagnostic codes are printed in level 3 application programs. Refer to
the listing of diagnostic codes later in this appendix for more information.
In the descriptions in the diagnostic listing, a REQUEST or ACCEPTED packet refers to a packet
generated by the local application and an INDICATION or CONFIRM packet refers to a packet
received from the network. The requests in which a diagnostic code can be found are shown after
the numeric code of the diagnostic.
Once the application specifies CLEAR or RESET cause and diagnostic codes, this code combination
is used for all RESET REQUEST packets generated by the application. This combination is also
used for the CLEAR REQUEST generated when the application calls close() or shutdown()
on a given socket.
Cause code settings
X.25 automatically resets (silently forces) the network-generated cause code of CLEAR or RESET
REQUEST packets to comply with the applicable CCITT X.25 Recommendation.
•
1980 – The cause is silently forced to zero.
•
1984 – The cause is left at zero or OR'ed with 128 if it is not zero.
•
1988 – The cause is left at zero or OR'ed with 128 if it is not zero.
X.25 does not guarantee that the cause, diagnostic, facility, or clear user data fields of a CLEAR
REQUEST or a RESET REQUEST are delivered to the remote destination because these fields may
be altered by the network, the X.25 implementation (under certain circumstances) or both. In
particular, X.25 discards the clear user data and facility fields of a CLEAR REQUEST when the
facility field is found to be invalid for the given system configuration or when any other error occurs.
When an error occurs on a CLEAR REQUEST, the cause and diagnostic fields delivered to the
network are silently set according to the error.
Introduction
151
Packet codes
RESTART packet codes
When the system receives a RESTART INDICATION packet, the received CLEAR INDICATION or
RESET INDICATION packet contains a cause code of 0 and the diagnostic code used in the
RESTART.
RESET/CLEAR packet codes
The system may generate a RESET/CLEAR because of an error, lack of memory, or other condition.
When this occurs, a RESET/CLEAR INDICATION is delivered to the application and a RESET/CLEAR
REQUEST packet is sent to the network. The cause code is always zero as dictated by ISO in the
IS-8208 standard, and the diagnostic is one of the codes in this appendix. Both the REQUEST and
the INDICATION carry the same cause/diagnostic combination.
X.25 Diagnostic messages
Table 49 No additional information
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
1 (RESET)
Invalid P(S).
DATA packet received from network with P(S) invalid or outside of
allowable window.
2 (RESET)
Invalid P(R).
DATA packet received from network with P(R) invalid.
Table 50 Packet type invalid
152
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
17 (RESTART,
CLEAR, RESET)
Packet type invalid for
state R1.
Invalid packet received with interface in state R1 (packet level ready).
RESTART REQUEST is sent on network.Invalid packet is probably
RESTART CONFIRMATION.
20 (CLEAR)
Packet type invalid for
state P1.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P1 (Ready).
21 (CLEAR)
Packet type invalid for
state P2.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P2 (DTE CALL REQUEST).
22 (CLEAR)
Packet type invalid for
state P3.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P3 (DCE Incoming Call).
23 (CLEAR, RESET)
Packet type invalid for
state P4.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P4 (Data Transfer).
24 (CLEAR)
Packet type invalid for
state P5.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P5 (Call Collision).
25 (CLEAR)
Packet type invalid for
state P6.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P6 (DTE Clear Request).
27 (RESET)
Packet type invalid for
state D1.
Invalid packet received on VC in state D1 (Flow Control Ready).
29 (RESET)
Packet type invalid for
state D3
Invalid packet received on VC in state D3 (DCE Reset Indication).
Diagnostic messages
Table 51 Packet not allowed
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
33 (RESTART,
CLEAR, RESET)
Unidentifiable packet.
Packet that cannot be identified (3rd byte of the level 2 information field
not defined in CCITT X.25 Recommendation received).
REJECT or REGISTRATION packet received.
34 (CLEAR)
Call on one way logical If configured as DTE, CALL INDICATION received with logical channel
channel.
identifier (LCI) corresponding to one-way logical channel outgoing.
If configured as DCE (DXE), CALL INDICATION received with logical
channel identifier (LCI) corresponding to one way logical channel
incoming.
38 (RESTART,
CLEAR, RESET)
Packet too short.
Received packet is less than minimum length. It may be a CALL
INDICATION packet without address length or facility length fields,
CLEAR or RESET INDICATION without cause field, or the packet length
may be insufficient to hold address or facility fields.
39 (RESTART,
CLEAR, RESET)
Packet too long.
Received packet exceeds maximum length. The packet may be larger
than allowed by the configuration and negotiations (i.e., fast select), or
contain a field (i.e., call/clear user data) that is larger than the allowed
size.
41 (RESTART,
CLEAR, RESET)
RESTART or
RESTART REQUEST sent because RESTART INDICATION arrived with
REGISTRATION packet logical channel identifier other than 0.
with non-zero LCI.
42 (CLEAR)
Packet type not
CALL ACCEPTED or CONFIRMATION packet received when CALL
compatible with facility. INDICATION or REQUEST had fast select with restriction on response
facility.
43 (RESET)
Unauthorized interrupt
confirmation.
44 (RESET)
Unauthorized interrupt. Sequence of two INTERRUPT INDICATIONs received and system sent
no INTERRUPT CONFIRMATION packet.
INTERRUPT CONFIRM packet received when no matching INTERRUPT
had been sent.
Table 52 Timer expired
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
48 (CLEAR)
Timer expired (generic). IP circuit is disconnected because it was inactive for more than the
configured minimum time limit and the system must free the circuit to
complete CALL REQUEST.
49 (CLEAR)
Timer expired for
INCOMING CALL or
DTE timer expired for
CALL REQUEST.
CALL CONFIRM not received within the T21 time limit (set at
approximately 200 seconds) after transmission of CALL REQUEST.
50 (CLEAR)
Timer expired for
CLEAR INDICATION
(or DTE timer expired
or retransmission count
surpassed for CLEAR
REQUEST).
CLEAR CONFIRM not received within T23 time limit (set at approximately
180 seconds) after transmission of CLEAR REQUEST. After a certain
number of CLEAR retries, system places logical channel in state P1
(Ready).
51 (CLEAR, RESET)
Timer expired for RESET RESET CONFIRM not received within T22 time limit, set at approximately
INDICATION (or DTE
180 seconds, after transmission of RESET REQUEST. After a certain
timer expired or
number of RESET retries, the system places logical channel in state D1
(Flow Control Ready) if PVC, or in state P6 (DTE Request) by sending
CLEAR REQUEST if SVC.
X.25 Diagnostic messages
153
Table 52 Timer expired (continued)
Diagnostic
52 (RESTART)
ISO Description
Explanation
retransmission count
surpassed for RESET
REQUEST).
Count of RESET retries has been surpassed. CLEAR REQUEST has been
sent.
Timer expired for
RESTART INDICATION
(or DTE timer expired
or retransmission count
surpassed for RESTART
REQUEST).
RESTART CONFIRM not received within T20 time limit (set at
approximately 180 seconds) after transmission of RESTART REQUEST.
SABM frame received while in state R2 (DTE RESTART REQUEST).
RESTART REQUEST is transmitted.
Table 53 Call setup, call clearing, or registration problem
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
65 (CLEAR)
Facility/registration
code not allowed.
Packet size negotiation, Window Size Negotiation or Throughput Class
Negotiation facility codes found in the facility field of the call setup
packet when corresponding negotiation had not been configured. In
CALL REQUEST, condition results in error returned to user instead of
generation of CLEAR.
If facility checking was configured, a facility code not allowed by
configured level (1980 or 1984) was found before the first facility
marker. In CALL REQUEST, this condition results in an error returned to
user instead of generation of CLEAR.
If facility checking was configured along with rejection of duplicate
facilities, a combination of invalid facility codes was detected.
The combination may indicate that the basic and extended format of
given facility are present or that both the Closed User Group and Closed
User Group with Outgoing Access facilities are present. In CALL
REQUEST, this condition results in an error instead of a CLEAR.
Facility marker 00 3B (hex) found, which corresponds to “internal”
facilities. This facility marker is not allowed by either application or
network. In CALL REQUEST, this condition results in an error returned
to the user instead of CLEAR.
66 (CLEAR)
Facility parameter not Parameter field of a packet size negotiation, window size negotiation
allowed.
or throughput class negotiation facility in a call setup packet has been
found to be invalid because it contains values not allowed by the
configured level (1980 or 1984).
Parameter field of a packet size negotiation, window size negotiation,
or throughput class negotiation facility in a CALL ACCEPTED or CALL
CONFIRM packet has been found to be invalid because it contains
values outside of the allowed range specified by the configuration and
previous call setup packet.
For DDN configured interfaces, the parameter field of the DDN standard
or DDN precedence facility in a call setup packet has been found to be
invalid because it contains values not allowed by the DDN X.25 Host
Interface Specification (BBN83).
67 (CLEAR)
Invalid called address. Unknown called address.
Called address contains a non-BCD digit (i.e., a half byte with a value
other than 0 through 9).
68 (CLEAR)
Invalid calling
address.
Calling address contains a non-BCD digit (i.e., a half byte with a value
other than 0 through 9).
Last digit of address field is not 0 and the total number of digits present
in address field is odd.
69 (CLEAR)
Invalid facility/
registration length.
Length of the facility field is greater than the maximum allowed by the
configured revision level of CCITT X.25 Recommendation (63 for 1980,
109 for 1984). The condition will result in an error returned to the user
instead of generation of CLEAR if it is detected in CALL REQUEST.
154 Diagnostic messages
Table 53 Call setup, call clearing, or registration problem (continued)
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
No combination of facilities can equal the value indicated in the packet’s
facility length field. If this condition is detected in the CALL REQUEST
packet it produces an error instead of a CLEAR.
System could not add negotiation facilities without the facility field
becoming larger than allowed by the configured revision level of the
CCITT X.25 Recommendation (63 for 1980, 109 for 1984). This can
happen only if the configured negotiation facility codes are not present
in the facility field.
70 (CLEAR)
Incoming call barred.
Configuration and status of interface disallows the opening of new
inbound connection.
71 (CLEAR)
No logical channel
available.
No VC suitable for placing a connection in READY (P1) state. Generated
when CALL REQUEST cannot be completed successfully. ENOSPC was
returned to the caller if condition was detected in synchronous manner.
The number of internal connections prohibits new connections being
allocated for CALL INDICATION.
72 (CLEAR)
Call collision.
When configured as DCE, CALL INDICATION was received on logical
channel where CALL REQUEST had been sent. CALL REQUEST was
cleared because the CALL INDICATION has priority.
73 (CLEAR)
Duplicate facility
requested.
Same facility code appeared twice in the facility field. Error is returned
to caller if condition was detected in CALL REQUEST. CLEAR was not
generated.
76 (CLEAR)
Facility not provided
when expected.
When system was configured to handle IP over X.25 as per DDN
specifications, CALL INDICATION for IP did not have DDN standard
selection facility code.
Table 54 CATEGORY - miscellaneous
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
83 (CLEAR)
Inconsistent Q bit
setting.
The connection was cleared due to an inconsistent Q bit found in the
packet.
Table 55 International problem and maintenance
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
113 (CLEAR)
Remote network
problem.
The remote network is not operational.
115 (CLEAR)
International link out of Connection to the PSN is not currently available (network not
order.
operational).
121 (CLEAR)
Unknown called DNIC. The CALL could not be routed because the DNIC in the called address
is unknown.
122 (CLEAR, RESET)
Maintenance action.
System administrator shut down specific VC or the entire interface.
Table 56 DTE-Specific signals
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
160 (CLEAR, RESET)
DTE-specific signal
(generic).
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge requested has been received,
and reverse charge is configured to be rejected by system.
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge requested has been received
by IP and reverse charge is configured to be rejected for that IP/X.121
address pair. Check is done via IP to X.121 address map table.
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge requested has been received
by IP and no entry in the IP-to-X.121 address map table exists for this
X.25 Diagnostic messages
155
Table 56 DTE-Specific signals (continued)
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
X.121 address. Internal problem which may be generated by
components of X.25/9000 architecture.
161 (RESTART)
DTE operational.
Level 2 is coming up or a SABM frame is received. System sends
RESTART REQUEST indicating host is up.
162 (CLEAR, RESET)
DTE not operational.
Either level 3 or level 2 detected as down. Request delivered when
network interface was not operational. Condition usually results in an
error returned to the application instead of CLEAR. Diagnostic is used
when RESTART INDICATION has been received by interface. Interface
is going down. RESTART REQUEST was sent on network.
163 (CLEAR, RESET)
DTE resource constraint. Lack of memory to establish, reset, or clear a call, to process data,
expedite data or acknowledgments, or to perform internal operation.
This may indicate lack of network memory, or resource constraints on
card. When resource constraint appears on connected circuit, CLEAR
will be sent only if no recovery is possible.
164 (CLEAR)
Fast select not
subscribed.
225 (CLEAR)
Disconnection (transient X.25 subsystem is down when X.25/9000 to IP subsystem is servicing
condition).
CALL CONFIRMATION or incoming DATA.
CALL INDICATION requiring fast select facility has been received and
fast select is not configured. Results in error when detected on CALL
REQUEST.
Table 57 OSI Network service problem
156
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
227 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
Cause unspecified
(transient condition).
Due to internal constraints at high levels other than lack of network
memory, CALL INDICATION cannot be serviced.
224 (CLEAR, RESET)
OSI Network Service
problem.
OSI network service not operational.
228 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
Reason unspecified.
(Permanent condition)
(Transient condition).
X.25 to IP subsystem clears incoming CALL INDICATION which has
calling address not present in IP to X.121 mapping table. If call were
accepted, circuit would be half-duplex enabling remote node to send
and receive while local host would only be able to receive. When
X.25/IP output routine has data addressed to remote node it must be
able to map the IP address to the X.121 address. If it cannot do so,
the IP packet is discarded. Clearing the INCOMING CALL when the
remote's X.121 address is not in the map table prevents a half-duplex
circuit from being established.
231 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
NSAP unreachable
(transient condition).
No listen socket capable of servicing CALL INDICATION. X.25
subsystem is down when X.25-to-IP subsystem is servicing CALL
INDICATION.
232 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
NSAP unreachable
(permanent condition).
CALL INDICATION with first byte of call user data other than CC (hex)
received on system which does not have X.25/9000 programmatic
access configured in kernel.
233 (RESET)
Reset. Cause
unspecified.
Message (sequence of packets with the M bit set followed by packet
with M bit not set) received, and size exceeds maximum size allowed
by application for inbound data message. Corresponds to specific
out-of-band event delivered to user. Data was received on VC without
a user, that is, an IP or programmatic access application. X.25
subsystem was down when X.25 to IP subsystem serviced incoming
DATA on permanent VC.
234 (RESET)
Reset. Congestion.
Error returned to the application due to network congestion condition.
Diagnostic messages
Table 57 OSI Network service problem (continued)
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
235 (CLEAR)
NSAP address
unknown.
CALL INDICATION was received with unknown NSAP address (first
byte of call user data).
251 (RESET)
Reset. Cause
unspecified.
System failed to synchronize data transfer to interface.
Table 58 Higher level initiated
Diagnostic
ISO Description
Explanation
241 (CLEAR)
Disconnection normal.
Application closed or shut down socket and did not specify
cause/diagnostic combination to be used on socket. This is the default.
If available, application-specified cause/diagnostic combination is
used. This is not an error condition.
242 (CLEAR)
Disconnection
abnormal.
Application using a socket supporting virtual connection crashed.
Diagnostic, along with a cause code of 0, is used regardless of setting
of cause/diagnostic combination. Related to x29server process.
243 (CLEAR)
Disconnection.
Incompatible info in
user data.
Application closed or shut down socket because of incompatible
information in the user data field. Related to the x29server process.
244 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
Reason unspecified
(transient condition).
Application rejected the CALL for an unspecified reason. No listen
socket was found. Related to the x29server process.
245 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
Reason unspecified
(permanent condition).
Application rejected the CALL for an unspecified reason. No listen
socket was found. Related to the x29server process.
248 (CLEAR)
Connection rejection.
Incompatible info in
user data.
Application closed or shutdown socket because of a problem with the
user data information. Related to the x29server process.
250 (RESET)
Reset. User
resynchronization.
PVC is claimed by programmatic access socket. RESET is sent as part
of socket initialization procedure. Code is used if the application did
not specify which cause/diagnostic combination to use. Application
requires RESET to be sent. No cause/diagnostic combination is
specified on socket.
X.25 Diagnostic messages
157
Index
Symbols
.netrc file, 145
.rhosts file, 145
A
accept reverse charge
IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
add PAD-UUCP services, 57
add remote PAD support, 56
addresses
summary of files, 144
The IP-to-X.121 address mapping table, 138
B
battery backup, 135
Break key, 78
C
cause code, 151
CCITT X.25 Recommendations, 150
closed user group
IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
codes
cause, 151
diagnostic, 151
RESET/CLEAR packet, 152
RESTART packet, 152
commands
netstat, 137
strace, 125
strerr, 129
x25check, 78
x25server, 78
x25stat, 82
comments
in IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
compatibility
High Availability feature, 10
configuration
displaying, 83
configuration file, 150
configuration parameters
Network Type, 150
Configure Internet Address screen, 17
Configure Internet Address screen field
descriptions, 17
configure remote PAD printer support, 57
Configure Virtual Circuits field descriptions, 16
configuring
internet address, 16
local emulation, 109
remote access, 23
X.25 address, 14
Configuring X.25 Address screen, 14
Configuring X.25 Address screen field
158
Index
descriptions, 14
programmatic access name, 15
X.25 address, 15
X.25 packet address, 15
configuring x.25 link, 13
CUG
IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
D
DDN, 138
default subnet masks, 18
device file name, 78
diagnostic messages, 151
diagnostic utilities
scope of, 77
terminating, 78
x25check command, 78
x25server command, 78
x25stat command, 82
E
error log files
strerr command, 129
event messages
tracing, 125
Exiting SAM, 23
F
failure
power, 135
files
.netrc, 145
.rhosts, 145
device, 78
Filter file, 123
hosts, 144
hosts.equiv, 144
IP to X.121 mapping, 138
network type, 150
networks, 144
strerr error log, 129
summary, 144
x121_to_ip_map, 144
x25_networks, 144, 150
x25init.log, 144
x25init_def, 144, 145
x25init_smpl, 144, 146
x25init_xot_def, 144
x25server.log, 144
XOT<instance number>_<yymmdd>.log, 144
G
gateway, 139
H
hardware check, 132
hardware requirements, 10
High Availability feature, 10
hosts file, 144
hosts.equiv file, 144
I
ifconfig
see man pages, 138
installing multiple X.25 cards, 10
interface card
displaying configuration, 82
displaying statistics, 82
displaying status, 82
initialization, 135
name, 78
troubleshooting, 130
interrupt signal, 78
IP, 8
IP address
mapped to X.121 address, 138
IP over X.25
troubleshooting, 134
IP routing
description of, 138
IP to X.121 mapping file
accept reverse charge, 140
closed user group, 140
comments, 140
description, 138
parameters, 139
programmatic access name, 140
specifying PVCs, 139
syntax, 139
use reverse charge, 140
X.121 address, 139
IP-to-X.121 address mapping
description, 138
Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults screen field descriptions,
18
modify PAD-UUCP services, 57
modify remote PAD support, 56
Modify Throughput Class Settings field descriptions, 21
Modify X.25 Throughput Class Defaults screen, 21
modify X.3 parameters
PAD-UUCP support, 57
padem, 57
remote PAD support, 57
remote printer support, 57
modifying level 2 values, 22
Modifying X.25 Flow Control Defaults screen, 19
Modulo-128, 20, 22
Modulo-8, 20, 22
multiple X.25 cards
installing, 10
N
name
device file, 78
interface, 78
programmatic access, 78
netfmt
see man pages, 137
netstat command, 137
nettl command, 119
network carrier type, 15
Configuring X.25 Address screen field, 15
network type, 150
network type file, 150
networks
types of, 150
networks file, 144
O
online help (SAM), 14
K
P
keys
Break, 78
packet codes
RESET/CLEAR, 152
RESTART, 152
PAD, 109
call acceptance, 96
CCITT, 94
command sets, 110
configuring remote printers, 100
configuring remote support, 96
configuring uucp support, 104
extended command set, 111
launching applications automatically, 98
padem, 108
remote PAD support, 95
remote printer support, 99
system security, 96
UUCP support, 103
x25printd, 99
x29server, 95
x29uucpd, 103
L
logging
priority level, 126
logging utilities, 118
strace command, 125
strerr command, 129
lpstat
verifying configuration, 102
M
mapping X.25-to-IP
description, 138
memory
loss during power failure, 135
messages
diagnostic, 152
Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults screen, 18
159
PAD emulation
add/modify, 56
PAD-UUCP services
add/modify, 57
PAD-UUCP support
modify X.3 parameters, 57
pad_spt
configuring, 97
padem, 108
command mode, 109
data transfer mode, 109
modify X.3 parameters, 57
parameters
configuration, 150
Permanent VC Flow Control field
descriptions, 21
ping
see man pages, 137
ping command
troubleshooting, 134
power failure
memory loss, 135
recovering from, 135
priority level
logging, 126
problems
contacting service representative, 136
known, 136
power failure, 135
programmatic access name, 15, 78
IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
x25check command, 81
proxy
see man pages, 137
PVCs
IP to X.121 mapping file, 139
R
remote PAD printer support
add/modify, 57
remote PAD support
add/modify, 56
modify X.3 parameters, 57
remote printer support
modify X.3 parameters, 57
RESET/CLEAR packet code, 152
RESTART packet code, 152
route
see man pages, 137
S
SAM, using, 13
service
representative contacting, 136
service representative
providing information for, 136
setting window size values, 20
signal
interrupt, 78
160 Index
software requirements, 12
spooler
configuring, 101
statistics
VCs, 82
status
of interface card, 82
strace
see man pages, 138
strace command, 125
examples, 128
options, 125
output format, 127
syntax, 125
strerr
see man pages, 138
strerr command, 129
description, 129
options, 129
syntax, 129
subnet masks defaults, 18
support see service representative
Switched VC Flow Control field descriptions, 20
T
TCP/UDP, 8
throughput classes and line speeds, 22
tracing utilities, 118
troubleshooting, 130
ping command, 134
X.25 configuration, 130, 133
x25check command, 133
x25server command, 133
U
URC option
IP to X.121 mapping file, 139
use reverse charge
IP to X.121 mapping file, 140
using SAM, 13
using SAM’s online help, 14
utilities
logging, 118
tracing, 118
uucp
configuring, 105
V
VCs
statistics, 82
Verify Level 2 Values field descriptions, 23
Verify Level 2 Values screen, 22
verifying level 2 values, 22
verifying level 3 values, 18
Verifying Level 3 Values screen, 19
Verifying Level 3 Values screen field descriptions, 19
virtual circuits
configuration with SAM, 15
X
X.121 address
IP to X.121 mapping file, 139
mapped from IP address, 138
X.25
troubleshooting, 130
X.25 address, 15
X.25 configuration
troubleshooting, 130, 133
X.25 configuration file, 113, 114, 116
X.25 configuration files
summary, 144
X.25 level 2
event messages, 125
X.25 level 3
event messages, 125
X.25 packet address, 15
X.25/9000
components of, 8
components provided with, 8
network services supported, 8
overview of, 8
X.28 PAD command set, 111
X.3
default parameters, 113
parameter descriptions, 113
X.3 profile parameters
configuring, 111
x121_to_ip_map, 144
X25 configuration
displaying, 82
x25_networks file, 144, 150
x25check
see man pages, 137
x25check command, 78
description, 80
running interactively, 81
troubleshooting, 133
x25init
examples, 138
x25init.log file, 144
x25init_def file, 144, 145
x25init_smpl file, 144, 146
x25init_xot_def, 144
x25mibstat, 92
see man pages, 92
x25ping
see man pages, 137
x25printd, 99
x25server, 95
see man pages, 137
x25server command, 78
description, 80
troubleshooting, 133
x25server.log file, 144
x25stat
see man pages, 137
x25stat command, 82
brief description of, 82
examples, 83
x25stop
see man pages, 137
x25trace
see man pages, 138
x25upload
see man pages, 138
x29printd and lpsched
operation during configuration, 102
x29uucpd, 103
XOT<instance number>_<yymmdd>.log, 144
161
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