null  null
A.DUO
Dual Band High-Power
PoE AP Router
User’s Manual
Copyright and Disclaimer
Copyright & Disclaimer
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or recording without the written consent of OvisLink
Corp.
OvisLink Corp. has made the best effort to ensure the accuracy of the information in this
user’s guide. However, we are not liable for the inaccuracies or errors in this guide.
Please use with caution. All information is subject to change without notice
All Trademarks are properties of their respective holders.
This product requires professional installation. Please do not attempt to install the
device without the necessary knowledge in regards to your country's wireless
regulations.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Copyright and Disclaimer
Regulatory Information
Federal Communication Commission Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user
is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one of the following measures:
-
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Caution: To assure continued compliance, (example - use only shielded interface
cables when connecting to computer or peripheral devices) any changes or modifications
not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s
authority to operate this equipment. This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
For product available in the USA/Canada market, only channel 1~11 can be operated.
Selection of other channels is not possible.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
ii
Copyright and Disclaimer
IMPORTANT NOTE
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement:
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. This equipment should be installed and operated with minimum distance
20cm between the radiator & your body.
This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna
or transmitter.
FCC NOTICE: To comply with FCC part 15 rules in the United States, the system must be
professionally installed to ensure compliance with the Part 15 certification. It is the
responsibility of the operator and professional installer to ensure that only certified systems
are deployed in the United States. The use of the system in any other combination (such as
co-located antennas transmitting the same information) is expressly forbidden.
© 2011, OvisLink Corporation. All rights reserved.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1. Introduction.............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Overview............................................................................................ 1
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support ................................................ 1
1.3 Wireless Operation Modes................................................................. 2
1.3.1 Dual Band Router Mode ..............................................................................3
1.3.2 Dual AP Mode..............................................................................................4
1.3.3 WISP + AP Mode .........................................................................................4
1.3.4 Bridge + AP Mode........................................................................................5
1.3.5 Dual Bridge Mode ........................................................................................6
1.3.6 Client + AP Mode.........................................................................................7
1.3.7 Bridge + Gateway ........................................................................................8
2. Installing the A.DUO .............................................................................. 10
2.1 Before You Start............................................................................... 10
2.2 Installing A.DUO .............................................................................. 10
2.3 Knowing Your A.DUO........................................................................11
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
Front side introduction........................................................................... 11
Back side introduction ...........................................................................12
2.4 Installation steps .............................................................................. 13
2.4.1.
2.4.2.
2.4.3.
Installation Steps by using LAN port......................................................13
Wireless Installation Steps ....................................................................13
Internet Installation Steps ......................................................................16
3. Configuring the A.DUO.......................................................................... 18
3.1 17BImportant Information ................................................................ 18
3.2 18BPrepare Your PC ....................................................................... 19
3.3 19BManagement Interface............................................................... 20
3.3.1 Web Management (HTTP):........................................................................20
3.3.2 Secured Web Management (HTTPS): .......................................................20
3.3.3 Command Line Interface (Telnet): .............................................................22
3.3.4 Secure Shell (SSH, SSH2): .......................................................................23
3.3.5 SNMP Management: .................................................................................25
3.4 Introduction to Web Management .................................................... 25
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management ..................................................................25
3.4.2 Welcome Screen and Login.......................................................................28
3.5 Initial Configuration .......................................................................... 30
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes ......................................................30
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Table of Contents
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address ...............................................................31
3.5.3 Change the Country Code .........................................................................32
3.5.4 Set the Time and Date ...............................................................................33
3.5.5 Change System Management ...................................................................34
3.5.6 Change Password .....................................................................................34
4. Wireless and WAN Settings .................................................................. 35
4.1 About A.DUO Menu Structure .......................................................... 35
4.2 General Wireless Settings ............................................................... 37
4.2.1 Regulatory Domain ....................................................................................39
4.2.2 Network SSID ............................................................................................39
4.2.3 Site Survey ................................................................................................39
4.2.4 Signal Survey ............................................................................................41
4.2.5 Radio Mode ...............................................................................................41
4.2.6 Channel .....................................................................................................41
4.2.7 Channel Width ...........................................................................................42
4.2.8 Security Settings........................................................................................43
4.2.9 Distance.....................................................................................................47
4.2.10 Advance Settings .....................................................................................48
4.2.11 Access Control (ACL)...............................................................................52
4.2.12 Multiple SSID...........................................................................................53
4.2.13 WMM QoS Setting ...................................................................................59
4.2.14 RADIUS Settings .....................................................................................63
4.2.15 Bandwidth Control ...................................................................................64
4.3 AP Specific Settings......................................................................... 70
4.4 Bridge Mode Specific Settings ......................................................... 72
4.4.1 WDS Bridge Settings .................................................................................74
4.5 Client Mode Specific Settings .......................................................... 76
4.6 Gateway Mode Specific Settings...................................................... 79
4.6.1 WAN Port Settings.....................................................................................80
4.6.2 PPPoE Server Settings..............................................................................82
4.6.3 PPPoE Server Setup Example ..................................................................83
4.6.3 DHCP Server Settings ...............................................................................86
4.6.4 Multiple DMZ .............................................................................................87
4.6.5 Virtual Server Settings ...............................................................................88
4.6.6 Special Applications...................................................................................89
4.6.7 IP Filtering Settings....................................................................................90
4.6.8 IP Routing Settings ....................................................................................91
4.6.9 Dynamic DNS Settings ..............................................................................93
4.6.10 Remote Management Settings ................................................................94
4.7 WISP Specific Settings .................................................................... 95
4.7.1 WAN Port Settings.....................................................................................96
4.7.2 DHCP Server Settings ...............................................................................99
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Table of Contents
4.7.3 Multiple DMZ ...........................................................................................100
4.7.4 Virtual Server Settings .............................................................................101
4.7.5 Special Applications.................................................................................102
4.7.6 IP Filtering Settings..................................................................................103
4.7.7 IP Routing Settings ..................................................................................104
4.7.8 Dynamic DNS Settings ............................................................................106
4.7.9 Remote Management Settings ................................................................107
5. System Configuration...........................................................................108
5.1 System Configuration .....................................................................108
5.1.1 Device IP Settings ...................................................................................108
5.1.2 Time Settings........................................................................................... 110
5.1.3 Password Settings ................................................................................... 111
5.1.4 System Management............................................................................... 111
5.1.5 SNMP Settings ........................................................................................ 113
5.1.6 Ping Watchdog ........................................................................................ 115
5.1.7 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................... 117
5.1.8 Configuration Save and Restore.............................................................. 118
5.1.9 Factory Default ........................................................................................ 119
5.1.10 Reboot System ...................................................................................... 119
5.1.11 A.DUO Emergency Recovery ................................................................120
6. Device Status & Tools ..........................................................................122
6.1 Device Status..................................................................................122
6.1.1 Device Information...................................................................................122
6.1.2 Wireless Information ................................................................................124
6.1.3 LAN Information.......................................................................................125
6.1.4 Internet Information..................................................................................126
6.1.5 Wireless Client Table ...............................................................................127
6.1.6 System Log..............................................................................................128
6.1.7 Network Ping ...........................................................................................129
6.1.8 Network Traceroute .................................................................................130
7. Command Line Interface ......................................................................131
7.1 System Commands ........................................................................132
7.2 Debugging Commands ...................................................................134
7.3 Show Commands ...........................................................................136
7.4 Set Commands...............................................................................143
7.5 Enable/Disable Commands ............................................................151
7.6 Add/Delete Commands ...................................................................153
8. Frequent Asked Questions ..................................................................158
9. Specifications .......................................................................................160
10. Wireless Network Glossary................................................................164
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1
1.
Introduction
0B
1.1 Overview
10B
The A.DUO is a multi-functional dual band concurrent AP Router that can operate in 7
different wireless modes.. The AP features 2 Atheros 11a/b/g radios that run in 5GHz or
2.4GHz frequency band. Moreover, it provides hi-power at 11a mode for extra long
distance application. There is an intergraded 802.3af POE port to let you run the AP at up
to 100 meter distance away from the power source.
Feature Summary
•
Dual Radio System
•
11a + 11a/b/g High Power Radios
•
802.3af 48V PoE Port
•
7 Wireless Modes
•
26dBm* Hi-Power with standard antennas. (2.4GHz limited to 23dBm in U.S. and
20dBm in EU)
•
QoS and Bandwidth Control
•
802.11h Compliant
•
Multiple SSID and VLAN
•
PPPoE Server
•
DDNS and NTP Support
•
Virtual Server and Multiple DMZ support
•
Static Router and RIP support
•
Disable NAT Support
•
Syslog Support
•
SNMP, HTTP, HTTPS, Telnet, SSH Managements
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support
11B
If you encounter a technical issue that can not be resolved by information on this guide, we
recommend that you visit our comprehensive website support at www.airlive.com . The
tech support FAQ are frequently updated with latest information.
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1
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
In addition, you might find new firmware that either increase software functions or provide
bug fixes for A.DUO. You can reach our on-line support center at the following link:
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http://www.airlive.com/support/support_2.jsp
U
Since 2009, AirLive has added the “Newsletter Instant Support System” on our website.
AirLive Newsletter subscribers receives instant email notifications when there are new
download or tech support FAQ updates for their subscribed AirLive models. To become an
AirLive newsletter member, please visit: http://www.airlive.com/member/member_3.jsp
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1.3 Wireless Operation Modes
12B
The A.DUO can perform as a multi-function wireless device. Through the AirLogic web
interface, users can easily select which wireless mode they wish the A.DUO to perform.
The A.DUO provides 7 modes of wireless operational applications. It can transform the
A.DUO into different roles in the wireless infrastructure. Below is the example application
table for A.DUO.
Mode
Radio 1(11a)
Dual Band Router AP Router
Dual AP Mode
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Access Point
Radio2(11a/b/g) Applications
AP Router
Dual Home Networks:
5GHz for Games/AV
and 2.4GHz for PC
Access Point
Dual Band Hotspots
2
1. Introduction
WISP + AP
Client Mode
AP Router
Bridge + AP
Bridge Mode
Access Point
Dual Bridge
Bridge Mode
Bridge Mode
Client + AP
Client
Bridge + Gateway Bridge
Access Point
AP Router
Sharing WISP 5GHz
Broadband Wirelessly
WDS Wireless
Repeater
Long Distance
Wireless Relay
Station
Universal Repeater
Sharing remote
Internet bandwidth
1.3.1 Dual Band Router Mode
In Dual Band Concurrent mode, the radio1 works in 5Ghz while radio2 works in 2.4GHz
mode. That means the A.DUO can provide Internet service to both 5GHz (like game
network) and 2.4GHz (like PC network) at the same time.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.3.2 Dual AP Mode
In Dual AP mode, both wireless interface of A.DUO are set as AP and provide hotspot
service on each interface. Radio1 is set to 11a mode while Radio2 is set to 11g/b Mode
(changeable to 11a also). This mode is most useful for Dual Band Hotspot function such
as in the hotels, shopping malls, or offices.
1.3.3 WISP + AP Mode
In this mode, Radio1 (in 11a mode) acts as a client to connect with remote WISP Base
Station. Radio2 (in 11g/b mode) works as an AP router to allow subscriber to share the
WISP connection wirelessly. Using the A.DUO, WISP no longer requires 2 AP/CPE to
provide wireless access in subscriber’s home or office.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
4
1. Introduction
1.3.4 Bridge + AP Mode
In this mode, Radio1 is working as Bridge mode in 5GHz while Radio is working as AP
mode in 2.4Ghz or 5GHz (selectable0). This mode is useful for WISP backbone
application where Radio 1 is used for connection to another Base Station and Radio2 is
used for service to subscribers. This mode can also be used as repeater in indoor
environment.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
The A.DUO’s Bridge mode can be configured as “WDS Bridge” or “Bridge Infrastructure”.
In WDS Bridge, you must enter the remote AP’s MAC Address. It can connect with
another WDS Bridge.
In Bridge Infrastructure, you do not need to enter remote AP’s MAC address. It work
like a client mode with MAC address transparency. Please note that this bridge type
can only connect with Access Point. It can not connect with another Bridge.
1.3.5 Dual Bridge Mode
In Dual WDS Bridge mode, both wireless interface of A.DUO are set as WDS Bridge and
connect to remote network. This mode can be used to extend the distance of remote
Bridge connection.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
6
1. Introduction
The A.DUO’s Bridge mode can be configured as “WDS Bridge” or “Bridge Infrastructure”.
In WDS Bridge, you must enter the remote AP’s MAC Address. It can connect with
another WDS Bridge.
In Bridge Infrastructure, you do not need to enter remote AP’s MAC address. It work
like a client mode with MAC address transparency. Please note that this bridge type
can only connect with Access Point. It can not connect with another Bridge.
1.3.6 Client + AP Mode
In this mode, it can work as a wireless repeater to extend the coverage of remote wireless
router. It is also known as the universal repeater mode.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.3.7 Bridge + Gateway
In this mode, the radio1 is configured as a 5GHz Bridge while Radio2 is configured as AP
Router in 11a/b/g mode. This mode is useful if your remote Base Station is working in
WDS Bridge mode to transmit Internet broadband.
The A.DUO’s Bridge mode can be configured as “WDS Bridge” or “Bridge Infrastructure”.
In WDS Bridge, you must enter the remote AP’s MAC Address. It can connect with
another WDS Bridge.
In Bridge Infrastructure, you do not need to enter remote AP’s MAC address. It work
like a client mode with MAC address transparency. Please note that this bridge type
can only connect with Access Point. It can not connect with another Bridge.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
8
1. Introduction
9
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
2. Installing the A.DUO
2
2. Installing
1B
the A.DUO
This section describes the hardware features and the hardware installation procedure for
the A.DUO. For software configuration, please go to chapter 3 for more details.
2.1 Before You Start
13B
It is important to read through this section before you install the A.DUO.
The A.DUO’s PoE port is 48V 802.3af compliant. If you need to power the A.DUO by
PoE, you need to purchase 802.3af compliant PoE kit (e.g. AirLive PoE-48PB) or PoE
switch. It does not work with passive PoE system.
The use of 5GHz spectrum might be prohibited in some countries. Please consult with
your country’s telecom regulation first.
Please installation the antennas first before connecting the power. Connecting the
power without installing the antennas may result in damage to the wireless radios
which may void your warranty.
You must set the distance parameter to make long distance connection work. Please
refer to chapter 4 of this user’s guide for details.
2.2 Installing A.DUO
14B
The A.DUO package contains the following items:
One A.DUO main unit
One 5.5V 2.5A DC power adapter
Indoor detachable Omni Antenna x 2
Quick Start Guide
User’s Guide CD
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
10
2. Installing the A.DUO
2.3 Knowing Your A.DUO
15B
2.3.1. Front side introduction
1
5
3
2
4
6
LED #
Display
Description
1
Power
Solid Green LED while the device is powered on,
either by power adaptor or PoE.
2
WLAN1
3
WLAN2
Solid Green LED while the device is powered on.
Blinking while there is Data transmission, dark when
this interface is turn off.
4
LAN 1
5
LAN 2
6
LAN 3
LAN ports status LED, Solid Green LED shows
when a port is actively connected, blinking while
there is data transmission, turns into dark when this
disconnected. LAN3 is also the PoE/WAN port
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
2. Installing the A.DUO
2.3.2. Back side introduction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Port #
Display
Description
1
WLAN1
Detachable antenna with R-SMA connector. 2
indoor 2dBi antennas are delivered.
2
Power Adaptor
5.5V 2.5A power supply adaptor delivered with
product.
3
RESET
Reset button for rebooting and reset device as
default factory value.
4
LAN 3/PoE/
WAN Port
WAN, LAN and PoE port. When it is in Dual
Band Router mode, it function as a WAN port.
It can be plug 802.3af compliant PoE as power
and data supply.
5
LAN 2
LAN port 2
6
LAN 1
LAN port 1
7
WLAN2
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Detachable antenna with R-SMA connector.
12
2. Installing the A.DUO
2.4 Installation steps
16B
This section describes installation steps required for the A.DUO before it can work properly
in your network.
2.4.1. Installation Steps by using LAN port
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Install antennas into the A.DUO
Connect the broadband line into the LAN3/WAN port of the A.DUO
Connect your PC to LAN1 or LAN2 port.
Connect the power jack to the power port.
Wait for 5 minutes. Then open the browser on your PC and type in "192.168.1.1" to
reach the web management
6. For software configuration, please go to chapter 3 for more details.
2.4.2. Wireless Installation Steps
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
2. Installing the A.DUO
1. Install antennas into the A.DUO
2. Connect the broadband line into the LAN3/WAN port of the A.DUO
3. Connect the power jack to the power port.
4. Wait for 5 minutes. Then on your Notebook PC, scan and connect to “airlive2”
wireless network
5. Open your web browser and type “192.168.1.1” to configure your A.DUO
6. When prompt for username/password, type “admin” as username and “airlive” as
password
7. On the Welcome screen, select “Wireless Settings”.
8. When the following screen appears, click on “Setup” to configure wireless settings
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
14
2. Installing the A.DUO
9. Select “Change Settings for: Radio2”. Then click on “Security Settings”
10. Choose WPA2-PSK and enter your own encryption key (please write down and do
not forget it is case sensitive). Then click on “Apply” button
11. The A.DUO will reboot. After about 3 minutes, please try to access the network
again. You will be prompted to enter your encryption key.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
2. Installing the A.DUO
2.4.3. Internet Installation Steps
Please finish the LAN port and Wireless installations first in 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 before
performing the following steps.
If you are using A.DUO as a router, please follow the steps below:
1.
Please make sure the Internet line is connected to the WAN port.
2.
Open your web browser and type 192.168.1.1
3.
When prompt for password, enter “admin” for username and “airlive” for password.
4.
Choose “Wireless Settings” on Welcome Screen and click on “Setup”
5.
Choose “WAN Port Settings” on the bottom.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
16
2. Installing the A.DUO
6.
Please enter your ISP’s authentication Information and Click on “Apply” button.
are some guidelines.
Here
If your Internet connection is ADSL, it is most likely using the following option:
your ISP already provides you with PPPoE authentication information,
select this button and enter the information below:
If your internet connection is Cable Modem, it is most likely to use the option:
If your ISP already provides you with a Host Name, select this button and
enter the information below: (DHCP)
However, please still consult with your ISP about the correct account information..
7.
Click on “Apply” to finish.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
3. Configuring the A.DUO
3
3. Configuring
2B
the
A.DUO
The A.DUO offers many different types of management interface. You can configure
through standard web browser (http), secured web (https), command line (telnet), secured
command shell (SSH, SSH2), and SNMP management. In this chapter, we will explain
A.DUO’s available management interfaces and how to get into them. Then, we will provide
the introduction on Web Management and recommended initial settings.
3.1 Important Information
17B
The following information will help you to get start quickly. However, we recommend you to
read through the entire manual before you start. Please note the password and SSID are
case sensitive.
The default IP address is: 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
When using Web UI, the login as follow:
User name: admin
Password: airlive
When using telnet, the password is: airlive
When using SSH/SSH2, the login as follow:
Login : root
Password: airlive
The default radio mode for Radio 1 is 802.11a
The default radio mode for Radio 2 is 802.11g/b
The default SSID for Radio 1 is: AirLive1
The default SSID for Radio 2 is: AirLive 2
The default wireless mode is : Dual Band Router Mode
After power on, please wait for 2 minutes for A.DUO to finish boot up
Please remember to click on “Apply” for new settings to take effect
Please remember to enter the correct “Distance” parameter in wireless settings.
Failure to do so can result in poor performance.
The default country code is : United Kingdom
If you are living outside of EU, please go to Operation Mode->Setup->Regulatory
Domain to change country.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
3.2 Prepare Your PC
18B
The A.DUO can be managed remotely by a PC through either the wired or wireless network.
The default IP address of the A.DUO is 192.168.1.1 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
This means the IP address of the PC should be in the range of 192.168.1.2 to
192.168.1.254.
The default mode for A.DUO is “Dual Band Router” mode. In this mode, the A.DUO’s
DHCP server is turned on; therefore, your PC can get IP automatically from A.DUO. You
jus need to set your PC to “Obtain IP address automatically” on the TCP/IP setting. By
default, Windows already do this so you do not need to change.
However, if you are using A.DUO in non-router modes (Dual AP, Dual Bridge, Bridge+AP,
Cllient+AP). You need to set your IP mannuall. To prepare your PC for management
with the A.DUO, please do the following:
1.
2.
Connect your PC directly to the LAN port on the DC Injector of A.DUO
Set your PC’s IP address manually to 192.168.1.100 (or other address in the same
subnet)
You are ready now to configure the A.DUO using your PC.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
3. Configuring the A.DUO
3.3 Management Interface
19B
The A.DUO can be configured using one the management interfaces below:
3.3.1 Web Management (HTTP):
You can manage your A.DUO by simply typing its IP address in the web browser. Most
functions of A.DUO can be accessed by web management interface. We recommend using
this interface for initial configurations. To begin, simply enter A.DUO’s IP address (default is
192.168.1.1) on the web browser. The default user name is “admin”; default password is
“airlive”.
3.3.2 Secured Web Management (HTTPS):
HTTPS is also using web browser for configuration. But all the data transactions are
securely encrypted using SSL encryption. Therefore, it is a safe and easy way to manage
your A.DUO. We highly recommend WISP and service provider to use HTTPS for
management.
To begin, simply enter https://192.168.1.1 on your web browser. A security alert screen
from your browser will pop up. Please click “Continue to this website” to login A.DUO.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
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20
3. Configuring the A.DUO
After you pass the security warning screen, you will enter the secured web management
interface. The default password is “airlive”. Please ignore the “Certificate Error” warning
icon, it just notice you that you are in an un-certificated site, you still can configure the
A.DUO without limitation.
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AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
3. Configuring the A.DUO
For more information about Web Management and HTTPS, please make sure to
read through “Introduction to Web Management” in this chapter, Chapter 4,
and Chapter 5
3.3.3 Command Line Interface (Telnet):
A.DUO can be managed through the command line interface (CLI). It is possible to write a
text script file, and then paste it into the CLI to execute several commands at once.
However, Telnet does not encrypt its message. Therefore, it is not secure. The default
Telnet management port is TCP port 23.
To use the CLI, please open the command line window. Then type “telnet 192.168.1.1” to
start.
When asked for password, please enter “airlive”.
To get a list of available command and their usage, please type “help” on the command
prompt.
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
22
3. Configuring the A.DUO
3.3.4 Secure Shell (SSH, SSH2):
SSH is an encrypted Command Line Interface that allow user to send text commands
through SSL encryption. Therefore, it provides the added advantage of security comparing
to Telnet. As with Telnet, the SSH and SSH2 provide the possibility to write a text script and
paste into the CLI interface for multiple command execution. It also makes configuration
change across many A.DUOs easier. The default management port for SSH/SSH2 is
TCP/UDP port 22.
To manage via the SSH/SSH2 protocol, you would need a SSH client. Free SSH clients are
widely available on the Internet. You can find where to download them by using Internet
search engine such as Google. In this guide, we will use a popular SSH/Telnet utility call
Putty.
Once you have download and install Putty. Please follow the figure below to make a
connection with A.DUO:
1.
2.
3.
Choose “SSH” as indicated in the diagram
Enter the IP address of A.DUO
Click on “Open” to start the SSH session.
2
1
3
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
When the following screen appear, click on “Yes” to continue
When the following screen appears, please enter “root” for login. Then keyin the “airlive” as
default password.
Now you are ready to enter commands
To get a list of available command and their usage, please type “help” on the command
prompt.
For more information about Telnet and SSH configuration, please go to
Chapter 7 Command Line Interface.
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
3.3.5 SNMP Management:
The A.DUO support SNMPv1/v2 management. If you have SNMP management software, it
can manage the A.DUO. The A.DUO’s SNMP support is as followed:
SNMP v1/v2 support
SNMP Read/Write Community String
SNMP Trap support
MIB and MIB II Support
Ether-like MIB
IEEE802dot11 MIB
Private MIB
3.4 Introduction to Web Management
20B
The A.DUO offers both normal (http) and secured (https) Web Management interfaces.
Their share the same interface and functions, and they can both be accessed through web
browsers. The only difference is HTTPS are encrypted for extra security. Therefore, we
will discuss them together as “Web Management” on this guide.
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management
Normal Web Management (HTTP)
To get into the Normal Web Management, simply type in the A.DUO’s IP address (default
IP is 192.168.1.1) into the web browser’s address field.
Secured Web Management (HTTPS)
To get into the Secured Web Management, just type “https://192.168.1.1” into the web
browser’s address field. The “192.168.1.1” is A.DUO’s default IP address. If the IP address
is changed, the address entered in the browser should change also.
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A security warning screen from your browser will then pop-up depending on the browser
you use. Please follow step below to clear the security screen.
Internet Explorer: Select “Continue to this website” to proceed
Firefox:
Select “or you can add an exception”
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
Click on “Add Exception”
2
Click on “Get Certificate”. Then, please enter A.DUO’s IP address. Finally,
please click on “Confirm Security Exception.”
3
4
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3.4.2 Welcome Screen and Login
After the procedure above, the Welcome Screen will appear. Welcome Screen gives a brief
introduction of the A.DUO’s main function category. By clicking on the function category, it
will direct you to the corresponding web management menu.
Wireless Settings: Click on this part will bring you to the wireless operation mode
menu. The A.DUO’s wireless settings are different between wireless modes. Only
functions that are applicable to the wireless mode will show to simplify configuration.
For example, multiple SSID option is only workable for Access Point and AP Router
mode. Therefore, the function will only appear in these 2 modes. For this reason, the
first step to configure the A.DUO is to select the wireless mode. The router mode
specific functions are also in this menu category. For explanation of different wireless
modes, please refer to Chapter 1.
System Configuration: All non-wireless and router mode settings are in this category.
The system configurations including changing password, upload firmware, backup
configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management interface. The default
management timeout is 10 minutes; we recommend you should change password and
management timeout during the first time login.
Tools: Discover network status using ping, trace route tools.
Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of A.DUO. It provides information
on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless client table, and system log.
Help: This is the online help system for quick reference. We still recommend you to
read this user’s guide for more information.
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
TIPS: You can choose any menu categories to begin; you can switch to other menu later
After you click on the function category, the following screen will appear corresponding to
the menu category you selected. The following example is when you selected the “System
Configuration”.
If you are placing the A.DUO behind router or firewall, you might need to open virtual server
ports to A.DUO on your firewall/router
HTTP:
HTTPS:
TCP Port 80
TCP/UDP Port 443
This procedure is not necessary in most cases unless there is a router/firewall between
your PC and A.DUO.
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3.5 Initial Configuration
21B
We recommend users to browse through A.DUO’s web management interface to get an
overall picture of the functions and interface. Below are the recommended initial
configurations for first time login:
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes
The wireless settings of A.DUO are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose.
Therefore, the first step is to choose the operation mode. For explanation on when to use
what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1.
When you click on the “Wireless Settings” on the welcome screen or the “Operation Mode”
on the top menu bar, the following screen will appear.
Click to configure wireless settings
Current Wireless Mode
Follow the example below to change to “WISP + AP” mode
1.
2.
3.
Select “WISP + AP” mode
Click on “change mode” button
The AP will reboot, wait for about one minute
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
1
2
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address
The default IP address is at 192.168.1.1. You should change it to the same subnet as your
network. Also, if you want to manage A.DUO remotely, you have to set the Gateway and
DNS server information.
To setup the IP settings for A.DUO, please select “System Configuration” -> Device IP
Settings”. After entering the IP information, click on “Apply” to finish.
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3.5.3 Change the Country Code
The legal frequency and channels in 5GHz spectrum varies between countries. The default
country code is United Kingdom which should require no changes If you are living in
Europe. If you are living outside EU, you should change the country code accordingly. In
the example below, we will change the country code to United States which enables the
use of 5.8GHz spectrum.
Step 1. Select “Operation Mode” -> “Setup”
Step 2. From the Regulatory Domain, please select your country and click on “Apply”
to finish.
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3. Configuring the A.DUO
3.5.4 Set the Time and Date
It is important that you set the date and time for your A.DUO so that the system log will
record the correct date and time information. Please go to “System Configuration” ->Time
Settings. We recommend you choose “Enable NTP” so the time will be keep even after
reboot. If your A.DUO is not connected to Internet, please enter the time manually. Please
remember to select your local time zone and click “Apply” to finish.
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3.5.5 Change System Management
It is recommended that you change the system management settings first. Please go to
“System Configuration”-> “System Management”. For WISP administrators, you can
consider turning off HTTP and Telnet for security purpose.
3.5.6 Change Password
You should change the password for A.DUO at the first login. To change password, please
go to “System Configuration” -> “Password Settings” menu.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4
4. Wireless
3B
and WAN
Settings
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings and router mode settings in web
management interface. Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web
Management” and “Initial Configurations” first. For system configurations, device status,
and other non-wireless related settings; please go to Chapter 5.
4.1 About A.DUO Menu Structure
22B
The A.DUO’s web management menu is divided into 4 main sections: Operation Modes,
System Configurations, Tools and Device Status. The main menus’ options are always
displayed on the top of the web management page. Within each main menu category, there
are sub-menu options which are displayed on the side of the web management page.
Top Menu Bar
Side Menu Bar
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Operation Mode: This menu is where you will find wireless and WAN settings. The
A.DUO’s wireless settings are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose;
only the applicable wireless settings for selected operation mode are shown. For
example; WAN port setting is available only for AP Router and WISP Router mode, it
will only be shown in those modes. To access wireless settings, click on the “Setup”
button within each operation mode. For explanation on different wireless modes,
please refer to Chapter 1. We will talk about functions in this menu for this chapter.
System Configuration: All settings besides Wireless and WAN functions are in this
category. The system configuration including changing password, upload firmware,
backup configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management interface.
We will talk about this menu’s function in Chapter 5.
Tools: Discover network status using ping, trace route and other tools
Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of A.DUO. It provides information
on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless client table, and system log.
Logout: Please make sure to Logout after you finish all settings.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.2 General Wireless Settings
23B
The wireless settings of A.DUO are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose.
Therefore, the first step is to choose the operation mode. For explanation on when to use
what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1.
When you select “Wireless Settings” in the welcome screen, or click on the “Operation
Mode” on the top menu; the following screen will appear:
Configure Wireless and WAN
settings
This tells your
current operation
mode now
Select one of the
wireless
operation modes
here
After you select the
new operation
mode, click here to
change.
Mode: The available wireless operation modes for A.DUO. Select one and click on
“Change Mode” button to switch between modes.
Setup:
Click here to configure the Wireless and WAN (in router mode) settings.
Once you click on the “Setup” page, the wireless settings will appear
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The A.DUO device provides all 14 modes of wireless operational applications with:
Mode
Radio 1(11a)
Dual Band Router AP Router
Dual AP Mode
WISP + AP
Access Point
Client Mode
Bridge + AP
Bridge Mode
Dual Bridge
Bridge Mode
Client + AP
Client
Bridge + Gateway Bridge
AirLive A.DUO User’s Manual
Radio2(11a/b/g) Applications
AP Router
Dual Home Networks:
5GHz for Games/AV
and 2.4GHz for PC
Access Point
Dual Band Hotspots
AP Router
Sharing WISP 5GHz
Broadband Wirelessly
Access Point
WDS Wireless
Repeater
Bridge Mode
Long Distance
Wireless Relay
Station
Access Point
Universal Repeater
AP Router
Sharing remote
Internet bandwidth
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.2.1 Regulatory Domain
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Regulatory Domain
The legal frequency and channels in 5GHz spectrum varies between countries. Please
select your country from here. There is a special domain called “Test Domain” which will
show all the channels. It is for compatibility testing only. Please make sure the channel you
used is allowed in your country when select this special domain.
4.2.2 Network SSID
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Network SSID
The SSID is the network name used to identify a wireless network. The SSID must be the
same for all devices in the same wireless network. In A.DUO, it is possible to create more
than one SSID in AP and AP Router mode, please check the “Multiple SSID & VLAN”
section in this chapter. Conversely, several access points on a network can have the same
SSID. The SSID length is up to 32 characters. The default SSID is “airlive”.
Enable Radio 1/2: The default wireless is on. You can uncheck this box to disable
wireless interface.
Disable SSID Broadcasting: If you check this box, the SSID will be hidden; only users
who know the SSID can associate with this network.
4.2.3 Site Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey
The Site Survey function in A.DUO provides 4 important functions
In Client and Bridge Infrastructure mode, site survey will scan for available AP
network. Then allow user to select and connect to the AP. These greatly
simplify the installation.
Once Site Survey displays the available AP or Bridge networks, you can
select a particular SSID to display its RSSI value continuously. This function is
called “Signal Survey”. Signal Survey can be used for antenna alignment.
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For WDS Bridge mode, the Site Survey will scan for available AP and Bridge
networks. User can then find the MAC address (BSSID) of the remote
Bridges.
For AP and AP router mode, the Site Survey allows administrator to check
what channels are already occupied for choosing a cleaner channel.
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take a few minutes
to scan all the channels in the 5GHz spectrum.
Click here to select
SSID for Association
or Signal Survey
For antenna alignment,
it will display and
update RSSI value
once a second
To connect with the selected
SSID, this function is available
only in Client Infrastructure or
Bridge Infrastructure
Associate: Please choose a SSID before click on this button. This button is available
only in Client Infrastructure or Bridge Infrastructure modes. Once you click on this
button, A.DUO will attempt to make a connection with the selected ESSID. If there is
encryption needed, the A.DUO will prompt you to enter the encryption key. Please
make sure you enter the correct encryption key, the A.DUO will not check whether the
encryption key is correct.
RSSI: RSSI is a value to show the Receiver Sensitivity of the A.DUO. In general,
remote APs with stronger signal will display higher RSSI values. For RSSI value, the
smaller the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For example, “-50db” has
stronger signal than “-80dB”. For outdoor connection, signal stronger than -60dB is
considered as a good connection.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.2.4 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the RSSI value of the selected SSID for
antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the “Site Survey”
function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you select the
ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
Channel: The current scanned channel
Signal Strength: This is the RSSI value. It will refresh itself every second. The smaller
the absolute value of the RSSI, the stronger the signal. For example -38dbm is
stronger than -70dBm.
4.2.5 Radio Mode
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Radio Mode
A.DUO has 4 different options for WLAN transmission. All devices in the same network
should use the same WLAN mode.
11a mode (normal-A): This is the IEEE standard for WiFi operating in 5GHz frequency
band. 11a is the most stable mode.
4.2.6 Channel
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Channel
The channel is the frequency range used by radio. In 802.11a standard, each channel
occupies 20MHz width. For 2 wireless devices to connect, they must use the same channel.
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The number of available legal channels might be different between countries. For example,
Channel 149 to 161 are available only to United States and a few other countries. If you are
living outside EU, please change the country from the “Regulatory Domain” option in this
page. Below is the table list of channels and frequency.
Frequency Domain
5.47 to 5.725GHz
U-NII World Wide
ETSI Band3
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
100
5500
104
5520
108
5540
112
5560
116
5580
120
5600
124
5620
128
5640
132
5660
136
5680
140
5700
Every 5MHz: Check this option will display all the channel numbers regardless of what
channel width is elected. For example, when you select “20MHz” for channel width,
check this option will display channels “36, 37, 38, 39, 40….” Instead of “36, 40,
44…etc). This allow you to use a non-standard channel to avoid interference or for
privacy purpose.
4.2.7 Channel Width
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Channel Width
In 802.11a spec, each channel occupies 20MHz channel width. Therefore, each channel
will jump by number of 4 (i.e. 36, 40, 44…etc).
Normal (20MHz): This is the default channel width specified by IEEE 802.11a
specification
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.2.8 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The A.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA-PSK, WPA2, WPA2-PSK, WPA-Auto, and WPA-PSK-Auto. Please note not all
security policies are available in all operation modes. For example, only WEP is available
currently in WDS Bridge mode and Client Ad hoc mode. All wireless devices on the same
network must use the same security policy. We recommend using WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK whenever possible. For WDS Bridge and Client Ad hoc mode, we recommend
using WEP-152 encryption.
WEP: WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method. However, it is
also the least secure. Due to the limitation of the chipset, only WEP encryption is available
for WDS Bridge Pure MAC mode and Client Ad-hoc mode.
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4
possible keys for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used
for encryption. All wireless devices on the same network have to use the
same settings. We recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
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WEP Keys: Please enter the WEP keys used for encryption. You need to fill
at least the “Select WEP Key”. For example; if you choose “Encrypt Data with
WEP Key 1” in the previous field, then it is necessary to fill WEP Key 1. The
length of key is dependant on the Key Length and Key type you choose.
Key Length: The A.DUO offers 64bit, 128 bit, and 152 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII code
including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e. “airlivepass12”). HEX
is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f). All wireless devices on the
network must match the exact key length and Key type. Some Wireless clients only
allow HEX type for WEP.
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5 ASCII
Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10 Hexadecimal
digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13 ASCII
Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
ASCII-152: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 16 ASCII
Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey123”
HEX-152: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 32
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890abcdef”
802.1x: 802.1x allows users to leverage a RADIUS server to do association authentications.
You can also enable dynamic WEP key (128 bit) to have data encryption. You do not have
to enter the WEP key manually because it will be generated automatically and dynamically.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
U
Rekey interval is time period that the system will change the key periodically.
The shorter the interval is, the better the security is.
To Enable RADIUS Server:
Server IP: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
Port Number: The port number that your RADIUS server uses for
authentication. The default setting is 1812.
Shared Secret: This is used by your RADIUS server in the Shared Secret
field in RADIUS protocol messages. The shared secret configured in the
A.DUO must match the shared secret configured in the RADIUS server. The
shared secret can contain up to 64 alphanumeric characters.
WPA, WPA2, WPA-AUTO: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) introduces the Temporal Key
Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i
standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The WPA-AUTO tries to authenticate wireless
clients using WPA or WPA2. All 3 requires a RADIUS server available in order to do
authentication (same as 802.1x), thus there is no shared key required.
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Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES).
While CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations
may not be equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select “Both” to
allow TKIP clients and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the
same time.
Group Rekey Interval: A group key is used for multicast/broadcast data, and
the re-key interval is time period that the system will change the group key
periodically. The shorter the interval is, the better the security is. The default
is 300 sec.
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA-PSK-Auto: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Pre-Shared
Key (PSK) provides better security than WEP keys. It does not require a RADIUS server in
order to provide association authentication, but you do have to enter a shared key for the
authentication purpose. The encryption key is generated automatically and dynamically.
WPA2-PSK adds CCMP and AES encryption for even better security. WPA-PSK-AUTO
tries to authenticate wireless clients using WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Pre-shared Key: This is an ASCII string with 8 to 63 characters. Please make
sure that both the A.DUO and the wireless client stations use the same key.
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES).
While CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations
may not be equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select “Both” to
allow TKIP clients and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the
same time.
Group Rekey Interval: A group key is used for multicast/broadcast data, and
the re-key interval is time period that the system will change the group key
periodically. The shorter the interval is, the better the security is. The default
is 300 sec.
4.2.9 Distance
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Distance
Please enter the distance to the remote wireless device here. The A.DUO will then
calculate the appropriate ACK Timeout value automatically. It is very important that you
enter the correct distance for long distance connection. Failure to do so will result in poor
performance.
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4.2.10 Advance Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance Settings
This page includes all the wireless settings that change the RF behaviors of A.DUO. It is
important to read through this section before attempting to make changes.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Beacon Interval: Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to
announce its existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are
transmitted in time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value
should be between 1 and 65,535.
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate, you
should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
DTIM Interval: The A.DUO buffers packets for stations that operate in the
power-saving mode. The Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) informs such
power-conserving stations that there are packets waiting to be received by them. The
DTIM interval specifies how often the beacon frame should contain DTIMs. It should
have a value between 1 to 255, with a default value of 3.
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User Limitation: This limitation applies to number of wireless clients the device can
associate. If you need to serve wireless connection to large number of users in one
location. You can deploy many APs and limit the number of wireless clients, so any
additional wireless connection attempt will be rejected (therefore, redirect to other AP).
The range of user limitation is from 1 to 100.
Age Out Timer: Set the age out timer for the wireless client. If there is no traffic from
client for more than the timer, the wireless client will be dropped. The default is 300 sec.
This function is available only for the Access Point and AP router mode.
Transmit Power: You can adjust the transmit output power of the A.DUO’s radio from
10dBm to 24dBm. The higher the output power, the more distance A.DUO can deliver.
However, it is advised that you use just enough output power so it will not create
excessive interference for the environment. Also, using too much power at close
distance can create serious performance drop due to signal distortion. At less than
200meter distance, the best output power is about 14dBm. At 2km distance; the best
output power setting is 18dBm for “11a”.
Rate Control: Select here to change the Data Rate for the radio. Lower data rate
sometimes provide longer distance. In most cases, however, we recommend to keep
the setting at “Best”.
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
wait for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only wait
for a certain amount of time; this time is called the ACK timeout. If the ACK is NOT
received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted resulting in
reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high, then throughput will be lost due to
waiting for the ACK Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low
then the ACK window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped,
greatly lowering throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can
effectively optimize the throughput over long distance links.
The easiest way to enter AckTimeOut value is by entering the distance in “Operation
Mode -> Setup -> Distance”. The A.DUO will then calculate and enter the correct value
for you. Press the “Apply” button to begin the calculation.
AckTimeOut Calculator: Users may also use the ACK calculator to determine the
AckTimeOut value before applying to A.DUO.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Enable Radio eXtended Range: XR is Atheros eXtended technology to increase
range. When XR is turned on, the radio can increase the receiver sensitivity greatly.
However, performance may be reduced significantly also. Use this mode only if you
can trade more distance for lower performance.
Enable privacy separator: Select the check box to prohibit data transmission
between client stations. This function is also known as “Client Isolation”.
Enable 802.1d STP: Enable the Spanning Tree Protocol to prevent forming a network
loop. This option is especially important for WDS Bridge mode.
Enable 802.11d: Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in
countries where systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to
operate.
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4.2.11 Access Control (ACL)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The A.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and AP Router
modes.
Disable MAC address control list: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be
performed.
Enable GRANT address control list: When selected, data traffic from only the
specified devices in the table will be allowed in the network.
Enable DENY address control list: When selected, data traffic from the devices
specified in the table will be denied/discarded by the network.
To add a MAC address into the table, enter a Mnemonic Name and the MAC Address, and
then click Add. The table lists all configured MAC Filter entries.
To delete entries, check the corresponding Select boxes and then press Delete Selected.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.2.12 Multiple SSID
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Multiple SSID
This function is available only for Access Point and AP Router modes. Multiple SSID allows
A.DUO to create up to 4 different wireless networks (SSID). It is also known as “Virtual AP”
function. Each SSID can have its Encryption type, VLAN Tag, and TOS settings. In the
following diagram, the A.DUO uses Multiple SSID function to create separate Bridge and
Client network. Each has its own encryption policies.
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Configuring the Multiple SSID
When you click on the “Multiple SSID” button, the following screen will appear.
Click here to Apply changes in
“VLAN” and “DiffServe Marking”
This is the default
SSID
Click here to apply changes
on adding or deleting SSID
U
How to add a SSID
You can add up to 4 SSID in A.DUO. Please follow the procedure below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter the SSID name (i.e. BridgeNet)
Select the Security Policy (i.e. WPA-PSK)
Enter the Security Key (i.e. BridgeNetKey).
Click on “Apply” to add SSID
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1
2
3
4
U
How to Modify or Delete a SSID
Please follow the procedure below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the SSID you want to modify or delete
The SSID’s settings will be displayed in the box area. Modify any settings.
Click on “Apply” to complete the modification
Or click on “Delete Selected” to delete the SSID
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1
2
4
3
Configure the VLAN and DiffServ Markings
When you check the Enable VLAN for All SSIDs and/or Enable DiffServ Marking, the
following screen will appear:
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Click here to Apply changes in
“VLAN” and “DiffServe Marking”
Default SSID and
VLAN group
Enable VLAN for All SSIDs: Once this function is enabled, you can specify an
individual VLAN ID and priority tag for each SSID. The packets from a SSID will be
forwarded to the Ethernet with the corresponding configured VLAN ID written. You
need to click on the top “APPLY” button after making changes.
Enable DiffServ Marking: When this function is enabled, you can configure a DSCP
value for each SSID. Then a packet from a station using this SSID will be forwarded
with the DSCP value labeled. You need to click on the top “APPLY” button after
making changes.
VLAN ID: Packets going out of this VLAN will be tagged with the VLAN ID Packets
coming into the AP will be dropped if the VLAN Tag does not match. The valid range is
between 0 and 4095. The VLAN ID “0” is the default VLAN group.
VLAN IP: Each SSID can be given with different VLAN IP group. Please notice that the
management IP in the VLAN will also be changed. For example, if you define the
VLAN IP to be 192.168.2.X subnet, then the A.DUO’s management IP in the group will
change to 192.168.2.1.
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VLAN IP NetMask: Define your VLAN IP scope here
802.1p Priority: Define your 802.1p priority Tag here. Value from 0 to 7
Select DSCP TYPE: Assign the 6-digit DifferServ Code (DSCP) for the packets in the
SSID network for QoS purpose. There are 8 preset values. To assign your own value,
please select “Best Effort”
DSCP Value: When you select “Best Effort” DSCP Type, you can enter the 6-dgit
DSCP Value here.
Select Security Policy: Select the encryption used for this SSID VLAN group. This
policy can be different in each SSID VLAN group. For example, one SSID can be using
WEP; the other policy can use WPA-PSK.
Once you enable the VLAN ID. The incoming packet from Ethernet
port to your VLAN group must carry the same VLAN ID tag or the
packet will be dropped.
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4.2.13 WMM QoS Setting
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WMM QoS Setting
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM Settings is to specify parameters on multiple data queue for better performance of
differentiated wireless traffic like Voice-over-IP (VoIP), other types of audio, video, and
streaming media as well as traditional IP data over the AP.
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Configure the WMM QoS Parameters
AC Type
The queue and associated priorities and parameters for transmission are as follows:
Data 0 (Best Effort, BE): Medium priority queue, medium throughput anddel
ay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue.
Data 1 (Background, BK): Lowest priority queue, high throughput. Bulk data
that requires maximum throughput and is not time-sensitive is sent to this
queue (FTP data, for example):
Data 2 (Video, VI): High priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive data
such as Video and other streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue.
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Data 3 (Voice, VO): Highest priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive
data such as Voice over IP (VoIP) is automatically sent to this queue.
Packets in a higher priority queue will be transmitted before packets in a lower
priority queue.
ECWmin and ECWmax
If an access point detects that the medium is in use, it uses the DCF random backoff
timer to determine the amount of time to wait before attempting to access a given
channel again. Each access point waits some random period of time between retries.
The wait time (initially a random value within a range specified as the Minimum
Contention Window increases exponentially up to a specified limit Maximum
Contention Window.
The random delay avoids most of the collisions that would occur if multiple APs got
access to the medium at the same time and tried to transmit data simultaneously. The
more active users you have on a network, the more significant the performance gains
of the backoff timer will be in reducing the number of collisions and retransmissions.
The random backoff used by the access point is a configurable parameter. To describe
the random delay, a "Minimum Contention Window" (ECWMin) and a "Maximum
Contention Window" (ECWMax) is defined.
ECWmin: The value specified for the Minimum Contention Window is the
upper limit of a range for the initial random backoff wait time. The number
used in the random backoff is initially a random number between 0 and the
number defined for the Minimum Contention Window.
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ECWmax: If the first random backoff time ends before successful
transmission of the data frame, the access point increases a retry counter,
and doubles the value of the random backoff window. The value specified in
the Maximum Contention Window is the upper limit for this doubling of the
random backoff. This doubling continues until either the data frame is sent or
the Maximum Contention Window size is reached.
AIFS
The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing (AIFs) specifies a wait time (in
milliseconds) for data frames. 802.11e uses interframe spaces to regulate
which frames get access to available channels and to coordinate wait times
for transmission of different types of data. The AIFs ensures that multiple
access points do not try sending data at the same time but instead wait until a
channel is free. Valid values for AIFs are 1 through 255.
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Transmission Opportunity
The Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) is an interval of time when a WMM
client station has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium.
This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP)
for client stations; that is, the interval of time when a WMM client station has
the right to initiate transmissions on the wireless network.
We recommend that you use the default settings on the WMM QoS
page. Changing these values can lead to unexpected blockages of
traffic on your wireless LAN, and the blockages might be difficult to
diagnose.
4.2.14 RADIUS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings -> RADIUS Setting
RADIUS servers provide centralized authentication services to wireless clients. Two
RADIUS servers can be defined: one acts as a primary, and the other acts as a secondary
backup. If you choose to use 802.1x, WPA, or WPA2 as security policy, you might need to
set the RADIUS server settings.
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To Enable RADIUS Server:
Server IP: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
Port Number: The port number that your RADIUS server uses for
authentication. The default setting is 1812.
RADIUS Type: RADIUS
Shared Secret: This is used by your RADIUS server in the Shared Secret
field in RADIUS protocol messages. The shared secret configured in the
A.DUO must match the shared secret configured in the RADIUS server. The
shared secret can contain up to 64 alphanumeric characters.
RADIUS Server Reattempt Period: The number of times the A.DUO should
attempt to contact the primary server before giving up
4.2.15 Bandwidth Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Bandwidth Control
Bandwidth Control can limit the maximum speed of entire wireless interface or individual
device. It is also known as Traffic Shaping. The A.DUO provides both Total Bandwidth and
Per-User Bandwidth Control for both uplink and downlink speed. It controls the speed of
both wireless and wired interface.
To configure, please click on the “Bandwidth Control” button under wireless settings. The
following screen will appear:
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Settings for Total
Bandwidth Control
Check to
enable
Bandwidth
Control
After enabling Bandwidth
Control and selecting
“Total” or “Per User” type,
click here to Apply
Select Total
or Per User
control here
Settings for Per-User
Bandwidth Control
Enable Bandwidth: Check to enable Bandwidth Control. Uncheck to disable it. The default
value is disabled.
You must select between Total Bandwidth and Per-User Bandwidth. They can not be
enabled at the same time.
Total Bandwidth: Total Bandwidth control limit the bandwidth between
Wireless and Ethernet interface. Therefore, it is most suitable for Client
Infrastructure Mode, Bridge Mode, and WISP Router Mode. For WISP
operator who use A.DUO as the client side device; setting the Total
Bandwidth control on the A.DUO will easy the loading on the AP for
bandwidth management. To begin, please enable the Bandwidth
Management first. Then enter the downlink and uplink speed; click on Apply
to finish.
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Total Downlink Speed: Enter speed you wish to limit the download traffic
in Kbps units.
Total Uplink Speed: Enter the speed you wish to limit the upload traffic in
Kbps units.
Per User Bandwidth Control: Per user Bandwidth Control can limit speed of individual PC
and network device. The A.DUO allows multiple Per-User bandwidth rules and can limit the
bandwidth by IP address, MAC address, or IP segment. Please first enable the Bandwidth
Control, then select “Per User Bandwidth Control” to begin. It is recommended to use this
type of bandwidth control for Access Point and AP Router mode.
Per User Control Options
Description: Enter a description for the bandwidth policy. For example,
“VIP” subscriber
Type: A.DUO offers 3 types of Per-User Control
IP Address: To limit the bandwidth of one single IP address.
IP Segment: To limit the bandwidth the entire IP segment.
For example; if you enter the address of 192.168.1.20 with subnet mask of
255.255.255.248, the A.DUO will limit bandwidth of IP addresses from 192.168.1.17 to
192.168.1.22. Please use an online IP calculate if you are not familiar with IP segment
calculation. Below is an example link: http://www.subnet-calculator.com/
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U
Because the Ethernet interface is also controlled by the Bandwidth Manager, it is
recommended that devices on the Ethernet side to use a wider IP subnet mask that will
cover the IP range of the controlled IP segment. Therefore, the devices on Ethernet
interface will not be limited by bandwidth control and still can communicate with the IP
segment. For example, if your IP segment is set to 192.168.1.20 / 255.255.255.248, then
the devices on the Ethernet side should be 192.168.1.X / 255.255.255.0.
MAC address: To limit the bandwidth of one single MAC address
Port Range: This is available only in WISP router and AP Router
mode. It can limit the bandwidth by application ports.
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Application: This option is available only in WISP router and AP Router
mode. It can limit the bandwidth of HTTP, FTP, BitTorrent, and eDonkey
traffic.
Downlink Max: Enter the speed you wish to limit the download traffic in kbps
Uplink Max: Enter the speed you wish to limit the upload traffic in kbps
Example 1: Total Bandwidth Control
In this example, the A.DUO is in Client Infrastructure mode connecting to a remote AP.
We want to limit the Bandwidth of the link to 2048Kbps download and 512kbps Upload.
Step 1
From Operation Mode menu, select “Setup” -> “Bandwidth Control”
Step 2 ~ 5
Enable the Bandwidth Control and select the “Total Bandwidth Control”. Then enter the
“2048” for Total Downlink Speed and “512”kbps for Total Uplink Speed. Click “Apply” to
finish
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3
2
4
5
Example 2: Per User Bandwidth Control
In this example, the A.DUO is Access Point mode. There is a wireless client connecting to
A.DUO with MAC address of 00:04:6F:11:11:11. We want to limit the bandwidth of the
wireless client to 1024 downstream and 512K upstream using A.DUO’s Per-User
Bandwidth Control.
Step 1
Enable Bandwidth Control and select “Per User Bandwidth Control”
Step 2
Enter Description for this policy (Wireless Client)
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Step 3
Select “MAC Address”, and then enter the MAC address of the wireless client.
Step 4
Enter the downlink speed as “1024” and uplink speed as “512”.
Step 5
Click on “Add” button to add the bandwidth policy
Step 6
This new policy should appear on the button. You can enable/disable it.
1
2
3
4
5
6
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4.3 AP Specific Settings
24B
The Access Point mode is the most basic mode of multi-function Access Point. In this mode,
the AP will act as a central hub for different Wireless LAN clients. Some hotspot Access
Points requires 802.1x authenticator function to authenticate a user before providing
internet service.
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Enable Radio: Use this check box to turn on or turn off the radio.
Network ID (SSID): This is to change your SSID.
Disable SSID Broadcasting: Enable the check box if you want to hide your
SSID in the network. This prevent an un-welcomed client survey your radio.
Radio Mode: Connection modes on A.DUO and its wireless client. Note that
the client must support the same mode as A.DUO to connect.
Channel: 11a supports channel 100 to 140. 11g depends on the country,
USA/Canada supports channel 1 to 11, Europe supports channel 1 to 13,
Japan supports channel 1 to 14, France supports channel 10 to 13, and Span
supports channel 10 to 11.
Enable Radio eXtended Range: Check this box to extend the wireless
coverage range, this is provided by Atheros’s eXtended Range (XR)
technology.
Enable Client Isolation (Privacy Separator): This is to prohibit data
transmission between each wireless client stations.
Enable 802.11d: This is to prevent network loop applying to the spanning tree
standard. This option can be found under the “Advanced Wireless Settings”
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4.4 Bridge Mode Specific Settings
25B
The A.DUO supports Bridge connection through either “WDS” or “Bridge Infrastructure
settings. It is selectable under the Bridge mode settings as shown below:
WDS Bridge (Pure MAC): WDS Bridge mode can make Point-to-Point and
Multi-Point connections. It also delivers faster performance than infrastructure
networks. In a WDS network, each node can have up to 8 connections. Currently,
the WDS Bridge mode can only use WEP encryptions policy.
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Bridge Infrastructure: Bridge Infrastructure mode connects to AP mode to form a
star topology. Bridge Infrastructure mode can not make a Point-to-Point connection.
However, it works with WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK encryption. This mode is also
unknown as Client Mode with MAC Address Transparency.
When to use which bridge mode:
WDS Bridge Mode:
When you making point-to-point connection. For example, when you build
wireless bridge network between office and warehouse.
When you require fast performance
When you require multiple star topologies.
Bridge Infrastructure
When you are connection both Bridge network and wireless client to the remote
Access Point
When you require more advance security like WPA and WPA2
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4.4.1 WDS Bridge Settings
In this section, we will talk about how to configure the WDS Settings. WDS Bridges are
using BSSID (AP’s Wireless MAC address) to authenticate each other. Therefore, it is
necessary to know the remote Bridge’s wireless MAC addresses. You can always do a
“Site Survey” to find out the MAC Addresses.
When you click on WDS settings, the following screen will appear:
Here are the
encryption key
settings for
WEP. Please
make sure all
bridges in the
WDS network
enter the same
keys.
This is where you
enter the remote
Bridge’s information.
The SSID must be
different between
each Bridge.
After you add
a remote
Bridge, it will
be display
here. Up to 4
entries are
possible
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WEP Key: You can set up to 4 keys; each key can have different Key Length and Key type.
When you add an entry to the WDS setting and select WEP encryption, the system will ask
you which key to use. All devices on the network must have the same sets of keys, but each
link can have use different key. We recommend using WEP-152 whenever possible for
better security.
Adding a new WDS link
The WDS links are created by entering the remote Bridge’s information. This process must
be repeated on both side of the bridge.
Name: This is the name for the WDS Link. You can enter any name for your
own reference (i.e. WarehouseLink).
SSID: SSID is the network ID for the wireless link. If you have more than one
WDS link or if you want to make WDS connection with Mikrotik devices, this
field is required. Each WDS Link must have a different SSID name. If you only
have one WDS link, you can leave this field empty.
MAC Address: Please enter the remote bridge’s wireless MAC address in
this field. This wireless SSID can be found on the device label. You can also
use Site Survey function to assist you.
Select Security Settings: You can choose to use WEP encryption for better
security. It is necessary to enter the same set of keys in the same WDS
network. When you select WEP, the A.DUO will ask you to select from one of
the 4 keys. Please be sure to select the same key on both side of the link.
Press Add to finish
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4.5 Client Mode Specific Settings
26B
Client mode is also known as Ethernet Client. In this mode, the AP will act as a WLAN card
to connect with the remote AP. Users can connect PC or local LAN to the Ethernet port of
local LAN to the Ethernet port of the client mode AP. This mode is mostly used as a CPE
device for WISP subscriber.
1.
To connect to an access point, use the “Site Survey” button to find the Access
Point.
Local Area Network
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2.
The Site Survey pop up window then shows up and lists available access point
with relative information.
Click here to show the signal strength of
the selected access point.
3.
Select the access point you want to connect
and then click the “ASSOCIATE” button.
The Signal Survey pop up windows shows as following:
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4.
After the access point is selected, its SSID shows automatically in the Network ID
(SSID) field.
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4.6 Gateway Mode Specific Settings
27B
In Gateway mode, router functions are added between one Ethernet port and other network
interfaces. Therefore, the ISP subscriber can share the ISP connection without need for
extra router.
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4.6.1 WAN Port Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WAN Port Settings
The A.DUO support different authentication and IP assignment standards for the WAN port.
It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE and PPTP protocols. Please consult with your ISP about
what authentication type is used for the WAN port connection.
Clone MAC Address: Some service provider (Cable Modem provider) lock to
certain MAC address. In this situation, the WAN port of A.DUO needs to clone
the MAC address. Please check the “Clone MAC address” box and enter the
address that need to be cloned.
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4.6.2 PPPoE Server Settings
The PPPoE server setting is only available when the A.DUO is in Dual Band Router mode.
The maximum number of concurrent accounts is 14.
Operation Mode -> Setup -> PPPoE Server Settings
Enable/Disable: Used to enable or disable PPPoE server.
Authentication: Choose to use “Local Account” or “Radius” as authentication
mechanism. If choosing “Local Account”, you have to configure “Local Account
Management”. If choosing “Radius”, you have to configure Radius server.
Local IP Address: Assign IP address to the interface of PPPoE server.
Remote Start/Remote End IP: Define IP address pool that is used to assign
address to the connected PPPoE clients.
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MPPE Encryption: Used to enable or disable special MPPE encryption function.
Compression: Used to enable compression function.
Local Account Management
User Name: Specify authentication username.
Password: Specify authentication password.
Assign IP: Specify the IP address of PPPoE client. If 0.0.0.0 is specified, then
PPPoE client will get an IP address between remote start IP and remote end
IP.
4.6.3 PPPoE Server Setup Example
In this exercise, we will setup 2 PPPoE Server Accounts in A.DUO according to the
Topology Diagram below.
PC1
IP address: 192.168.20.2
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Default gateway: 192.168.20.1
DNS server: 192.168.20.1
A.DUO
SSID: pppoe
WAN IP address: 192.168.20.1
LAN IP address: 192.168.1.20
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PPPoE Server Local IP Address: 192.168.1.20
PPPoE Server Remote Starting IP: 192.168.1.100
PPPoE Server Remote End IP: 192.168.1.200
PPPoE Server One User Per Account: Disable
PPPoE Account1
Username: user1
Password: user1
Assign IP: 0.0.0.0
PPPoE Account2
Username: user2
Password: user2
Assign IP: 192.168.1.30
AirMax5
Bridge Infrastructure Mode
IP: 192.168.1.50
Router1
Gateway Mode
WAN: PPPoE, Account: user1,Password: user1
LAN IP: 192.168.100.252
Router2
Gateway Mode
WAN: PPPoE, Account: user2,Password: user2
LAN IP: 192.168.100.252
PC1 IP: DHCP
PC2 IP: DHCP
Important Characteristic about PPPoE server
If you do not specify the IP address (0.0.0.0), each account can get up to 3 IP
addresses from the Remote IP Pool.
If you specify IP address, only one IP is provided per account
The routers will get a IP with subnet mask of 255.255.255.255. As a result,
PPPoE clients (PC1 and PC2) can not see any device between the router and the
PPPoE server’s WAN port, even if they are in the same subnet. This provides
security and privacy for the network environment.
Exercise:
1.
2.
3.
Connect all devices according to the IP address and topology on the Topology Diagram
Go to A.DUO and set the operation mode to “Dual Band Router”
From the wireless settings, please choose the “PPPoE” Server”
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.
setup the PPPoE server according to the information:
5.
Configure the WAN PPPoE client account on Router 1 and Router2.
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6.
7.
Check the IP addresses obtain from PPPoE server for Router1 and Router2 are
correct.
Do a PING command from PC2 to PC1 and from PC3 to PC1. The PING should
response.
4.6.3 DHCP Server Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> DHCP Server Settings
DHCP Server Settings is to assign private IP address to the devices in your local area
network (LAN). Note that A.DUO keeps the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and act as the
default gateway of the LAN.
You can assign IP address to MAC address; the DHCP server will keep the IP for the MAC
address.
Change IP
range and IP
Lease Time
here
Manually
assign MAC
address to IP
here
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4.6.4 Multiple DMZ
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Multiple DMZ
Multiple DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side. It allows
setting up servers behind the A.DUO.
Select a DMZ type and then enter the local DMZ IP address
Note: A DMZ server is a common term used to describe the default virtual server. If the
DMZ server is selected, Internet traffic not destined for a valid virtual server is redirected to
this privately addressed LAN client. This can be used together with a separate firewall
device to perform additional security functions.
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4.6.5 Virtual Server Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Virtual Setting
This allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers on the
LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the specified
public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client with the
specified private IP address.
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4.6.6 Special Applications
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Special Applications
Some Internet application such as Instant Messaging or games use groups of ports, and
are not easy to work behind a firewall. To work well with these special applications we will
open ports to let traffic pass through.
Note: You can use up to 3 sets of opened ports for a specific application. The opened ports
can be separated by a comma and no spaces are allowed (e.g. 2300-2305, 4300-4305,
5300-5305).
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4.6.7 IP Filtering Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Filtering Settings
IP filtering is simply a mechanism that decides which types of IP datagram will be
processed normally and which will be discarded.
This allows you to define rules for allowing / denying access from / to the Internet. Please
do set both inbound/outbound in order to get complete connection. Only inbound or
outbound will not allow to get response from the destination IP.
Disable IP filtering: No IP filtering is performed.
Grant IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are allowed / forwarded.
Deny IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are denied / filtered.
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You can also define IP filtering rule, such as:
Name; IP Protocol; Apply to either Outbound to the Internet or Inbound from the Internet;
Source IP Address and Dest. (Destination) IP Address.
To grant or deny IP address, select ADD or Delete Selected.
4.6.8 IP Routing Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Routing Settings
The IP Routing Settings allows you to configure routing feature in the gateway
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Dynamic Routing: Select the routing protocol scheme used for the router’s
LAN / WAN port.
Static Routing: This allows you to manually configure static network routes.
Static routes will override routes learned by standard routing protocol
discover methods.
IP Routing Table: To delete a static route from the table, select the route and
click DELETE SELECTED.
Note: Changes to the routing table will take effect immediately.
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4.6.9 Dynamic DNS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Dynamic DNS Settings
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to create a hostname that points to your dynamic IP or
static IP address or URL. A.DUO provide Dynamic DNS client using DynDNS, please visit
http://www.dyndns.org for detail.
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4.6.10 Remote Management Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Remote Management
Remote Management allows administrator to manage the A.DUO from WAN side.
can also change the management port and other settings here.
You
HTTP Port No: The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the
value here
Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the
A.DUO will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here.
HTTP Web Server Access: You can enable or disable HTTP service from
WAN side
HTTPS Web server Access: You can enable or disable HTTPS Web Server
Access from WAN side
Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether A.DUO will
response to PING command.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7 WISP Specific Settings
28B
In WISP mode, the AP will behave just the same as the Client mode for wireless function.
However, router functions are added between the wireless WAN side and the Ethernet LAN
side. Therefore, the WISP subscriber can share the WISP connection without need for
extra router.
WISP mode acts both in AP and Router which included in these operation modes: AP +
WISP and WISP + AP.
In WISP + AP mode, the Radio 1 is actually a wireless client of the WISP wireless node and
also the gateway of the local area network.
Gateway mode acts both in AP and Router which included in these operation modes: AP +
Gateway and Gateway + AP.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.1 WAN Port Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WAN Port Settings
The A.DUO support different authentication and IP assignment standards for the WAN port.
It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE and PPTP protocols. Please consult with your ISP about
what authentication type is used for the WAN port connection.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Clone MAC Address: Some service provider (Cable Modem provider) lock to
certain MAC address. In this situation, the WAN port of A.DUO needs to clone
the MAC address. Please check the “Clone MAC address” box and enter the
address that need to be cloned.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.2 DHCP Server Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> DHCP Server Settings
DHCP Server Settings is to assign private IP address to the devices in your local area
network (LAN). Note that A.DUO keeps the IP address of 192.168.1.1 and act as the
default gateway of the LAN.
You can assign IP address to MAC address; the DHCP server will keep the IP for the MAC
address.
Change IP
range and IP
Lease Time
here
Manually
assign MAC
address to IP
here
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.3 Multiple DMZ
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Multiple DMZ
Multiple DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side. It allows
setting up servers behind the A.DUO.
Select a DMZ type and then enter the local DMZ IP address
Note: A DMZ server is a common term used to describe the default virtual server. If the
DMZ server is selected, Internet traffic not destined for a valid virtual server is redirected to
this privately addressed LAN client. This can be used together with a separate firewall
device to perform additional security functions.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.4 Virtual Server Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Virtual Setting
This allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers on the
LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the specified
public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client with the
specified private IP address.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.5 Special Applications
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Special Applications
Some Internet application such as Instant Messaging or games use groups of ports, and
are not easy to work behind a firewall. To work well with these special applications we will
open ports to let traffic pass through.
Note: You can use up to 3 sets of opened ports for a specific application. The opened ports
can be separated by a comma and no spaces are allowed (e.g. 2300-2305, 4300-4305,
5300-5305).
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.6 IP Filtering Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Filtering Settings
IP filtering is simply a mechanism that decides which types of IP datagram will be
processed normally and which will be discarded.
This allows you to define rules for allowing / denying access from / to the Internet. Please
do set both inbound/outbound in order to get complete connection. Only inbound or
outbound will not allow to get response from the destination IP.
Disable IP filtering: No IP filtering is performed.
Grant IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are allowed / forwarded.
Deny IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are denied / filtered.
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You can also define IP filtering rule, such as:
Name; IP Protocol; Apply to either Outbound to the Internet or Inbound from the Internet;
Source IP Address and Dest. (Destination) IP Address.
To grant or deny IP address, select ADD or Delete Selected.
4.7.7 IP Routing Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Routing Settings
The IP Routing Settings allows you to configure routing feature in the gateway
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
Dynamic Routing: Select the routing protocol scheme used for the router’s
LAN / WAN port.
Static Routing: This allows you to manually configure static network routes.
Static routes will override routes learned by standard routing protocol
discover methods.
IP Routing Table: To delete a static route from the table, select the route and
click DELETE SELECTED.
Note: Changes to the routing table will take effect immediately.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.8 Dynamic DNS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Dynamic DNS Settings
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to create a hostname that points to your dynamic IP or
static IP address or URL. A.DUO provide Dynamic DNS client using DynDNS, please visit
http://www.dyndns.org for detail.
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4. Wireless and WAN Settings
4.7.9 Remote Management Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Remote Management
Remote Management allows administrator to manage the A.DUO from WAN side.
can also change the management port and other settings here.
You
HTTP Port No: The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the
value here
Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the
A.DUO will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here.
HTTP Web Server Access: You can enable or disable HTTP service from
WAN side
HTTPS Web server Access: You can enable or disable HTTPS Web Server
Access from WAN side
Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether A.DUO will
response to PING command.
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5. System Configuration
5
System
Configuration
5.
4B
In this chapter, we will explain about System Configurations in web management interface.
Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and “Initial
Configurations” first.
5.1 System Configuration
29B
When you click on the “System Configuration” menu on the top menu bar, the following
screen will appear. The system configuration includes all non-wireless settings. We will
explain their functions here.
5.1.1 Device IP Settings
System Configurations>> Device IP Settings
The Device IP Settings screen allows you to configure the IP address and subnet of the
device. Although you can rely on a DHCP server to assign an IP address to the A.DUO
automatically, it is recommended that you configure a static IP address manually in most
applications.
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5. System Configuration
Assign Static IP to the Device
If you choose to assign the IP address manually, enable the checkbox of “Assign
static IP to this device” and then fill in the following fields
IP Address and IP Subnet Mask: Default values are 192.168.1.1 and
255.255.255.0 respectively. It is important to note that there are similar
addresses falling in the standard private IP address range and it is an
essential security feature of the device. Because of this private IP address,
the device can no longer be accessed (seen) from the Internet.
Gateway IP Address: Enter the IP address of your default gateway.
DNS Server: The Domain Name System (DNS) is a server on the Internet that
translates logical names such as “www.yahoo.com” to IP addresses like
66.218.71.80. In order to do this, a query is made by the requesting device to
a DNS server to provide the necessary information. If your system
administrator requires you to manually enter the DNS Server addresses, you
should enter them here.
Click APPLY to go to the next screen.
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5. System Configuration
Use DHCP Client Protocol to Get IP automatically
If you choose to use a DHCP Server to acquire an IP address for the A.DUO
automatically, enable the check box “Use the DHCP client protocol to
automatically get the IP address for this device”. Then click “Next” to go to the next
screen. As a reminder, you might loss the IP address of A.DUO when IP is
assigned dynamically.
5.1.2 Time Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings
It is important that you set the date and time for your A.DUO so that the system log will
record the correct date and time information. We recommend you choose “Enable NTP” so
the time will be keep even after reboot. If your A.DUO is not connected to Internet, please
enter the time manually. Please remember to select your local time zone and click “Apply”
to finish.
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5. System Configuration
5.1.3 Password Settings
System Configuration ->Password Settings
To change password, please go to “System Configuration” -> “Password Settings” menu.
5.1.4 System Management
System Configuration -> System Management
In this page, administrator can change the management parameters and disable/enable
management interface.
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5. System Configuration
System Administration
HTTP Port No: The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the
value here
Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the
A.DUO will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here.
Web Server Access: You can enable or disable HTTP service from WAN
side
Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether A.DUO will
response to PING command.
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5. System Configuration
UPnP: Click here to enable UPnP. It is recommended not to open UPnP for
security reason.
Syslog: Syslog is an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force - the Internet
standards body)-conformant standard for logging system events (RFC-3164).
When the A.DUO encounters an error or warning condition (ie., a log-in attempt
with an invalid password), it will create a log in the system log table. To be able to
remotely view such system log events, you need to check the Enable Syslog box
and configure the IP address of a Syslog daemon. When doing so, the A.DUO will
send logged events over network to the daemon for future reviewing.
Syslog server IP address: System event messages generated by the wireless
access point will be sent to a Syslog daemon running on a server identified by this
IP address.
5.1.5 SNMP Settings
System Configuration -> SNMP Settings
This screen allows you to configure SNMP parameters including the system name, the
location and contact information.
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5. System Configuration
System Name: A name that you assign to your A.DUO. It is an alphanumeric
string of up to 30 characters.
System Location: Enter a system location.
System Contact: Contact information for the system administrator responsible for
managing the A.DUO. It is an alphanumeric string of up to 60 characters.
Community String for Read: If you intend the router to be managed from a
remote SNMP management station, you need to configure a read-only
“community string” for read-only operation. The community string is an
alphanumeric string of up to 15 characters.
Community String for Write: For read-write operation, you need to configure a
write “community string”.
Assign a specific name and IP address for your SNMP trap manager:
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5. System Configuration
A trap manager is a remote SNMP management station where special SNMP trap
messages are generated (by the router) and sent to in the network.
You can define trap managers in the system.
You can add a trap manager by entering a name, an IP address, followed by
pressing the ADD button.
You can delete a trap manager by selecting the corresponding entry and press the
DELETE SELECTED button.
To enable a trap manager, check the Enable box in the corresponding entry; to
disable it, un-check the Enable box.
5.1.6 Ping Watchdog
System Configuration -> Ping Watchdog
The Ping Watchdog will ping remote IP addresses to make sure the wireless connection is
active, if not, it can either reconnect or reboot. To prevent the AP from power recycling, the
PING watchdog will start 10 minutes after power up to prevent power recycle problem.
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5. System Configuration
PING Frequency means: "How often the CPE will PING". For example, it will
PING once every "1" minute.
Fail Tries means "How many times fails before the CPE will judge the PING
failed". For example "2" means the CPE will reconnect if the PING doesn't
respond for 2 times.
When you set the Ping Frequency to every "2" minutes and Fail Tries to "2". It means the
CPE will ping every 2 minutes, after the second failure, it will reconnect.
Actions:
Reconnect: the A.DUO will attempt to re-establish the connection. It is
recommend to use this option for WDS Bridge connection.
Power Reboot: the A.DUO will do a power recycle.
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5. System Configuration
5.1.7 Firmware Upgrade
System Configuration -> Firmware Upgrade
You can upgrade the firmware of your A.DUO (the software that controls your A.DUO’s
operation). Normally, this is done when a new version of firmware offers new features that
you want, or solves problems that you have encountered with the current version.
Upgrade Firmware:
To update the A.DUO firmware, first download the firmware from AirLive web site
to your local disk, and then from the above screen enter the path and filename of
the firmware file (or click Browse to locate the firmware file). Next, Click the
Upgrade button to start.
The new firmware will be loaded to your A.DUO. After a message appears telling
you that the operation is completed, you need to reset the system to have the new
firmware take effect.
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5. System Configuration
Do not power off the device while upgrading the firmware.
It is recommended that you do not upgrade your A.DUO unless the
new firmware has new features you need or if it has a fix to a problem
that you’ve encountered.
5.1.8 Configuration Save and Restore
System Configuration -> Configuration Save and Restore
You can save system configuration settings to a file, and later download it back to the
A.DUO by following the steps.
Step 1
Select Configuration Save and Restore from the System Configurations menu.
Step 2
Enter the path of the configuration file to save-to/restore-from (or click the Browse
button to locate the configuration file). Then click the SAVE TO FILE button to
save the current configuration into the specified file, or click the RESTORE FROM
FILE button to restore the system configuration from the specified file.
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5. System Configuration
5.1.9 Factory Default
System Configuration -> Factory Default
You can reset the configuration of your A.DUO to the factory default settings.
Step 1 Select Factory Default from the System Configuration menu.
Step 2 Click “YES” to go ahead and restore the configuration to the factory default.
5.1.10 Reboot System
System Configuration -> Reboot System
You can reboot A.DUO in this page.
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5. System Configuration
5.1.11 A.DUO Emergency Recovery
This section guides to recover your A.DUO system if the firmware crashed.
1. Download the tftp server to your PC. In the following example, we use tftpd32:
http://tftpd32.jounin.net/tftpd32_download.html .
2. Copy the tftpd32.exe of the downloaded file to C:\.
3. Change the IP address of your PC to 192.168.1.254 / 255.255.255.0
4. Copy the A.DUO firmware to C:\ and rename the firmware to “zImage”. Note that
the name must be zImage and no extension.
5. Connect A.DUO and PC with an Ethernet cable.
6. Run the tftpd32.exe. Note that the IP address must be 192.168.1.254.
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5. System Configuration
The name of firmware must change
to zImage and must be in C:\ (The
same folder as running tftpd.exe)
7. Power on A.DUO, the “Status” LED will light on after 3 seconds.
8. Push the “Reset” button until the “Status” LED off and on again and release the
“Reset” button.
9. If the above process success, the A.DUO LAN LED keep flashing and the tftp serve
shows file download information.
10. It takes around 5 minutes to download firmware and around 5 minutes to update
the firmware.
11. After a successful recovery, the A.DUO boots up automatically.
12. Try access 192.168.1.1, or the IP address you had changed before.
Repeat the processes again if failed.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6
6.
Device Status & Tools
5B
6.1 Device Status
30B
When you click on the “Device Status” on the top menu bar, the sub menu for device status
will appear.
6.1.1 Device Information
This page shows the general information about A.DUO such as firmware version, device
IP/MAC, WAN IP/MAC (in router modes), Gateway IP (in router modes), DNS IP…etc.
Below are some additional explanations on some status information of this page:
Firmware version: In general, AirLive will refer to its firmware as exx (such as e2)
version on the release note
Device IP: It shows LAN IP.
Device MAC: It shows MAC address of LAN.
Wan IP: It shows WAN IP.
Wan MAC: It shows MAC address of WAN.
Gateway IP: It shows IP address of Gateway.
DNS IP: It shows IP address of DNS.
Wireless MAC: This is the wireless MAC address (BSSID) of this A.DUO. This is the
address to enter on the remote WDS Bridge for the WDS link.
Uptime: This is the time that the A.DUO has been running since last power up
CPU Loading: Indicates the current CPU loading status
Memory Information: Indicates the current memory status
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6. Device Status & Tools
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.2 Wireless Information
This page shows the information about wireless status such as current operation mode,
wireless traffic, error packets, RSSI, Remote device’s BSSD, connecting State, channel,
and encryption used.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.3 LAN Information
This page shows the information about LAN port of the A.DUO. It includes the type of LAN
port authentication used and the IP address information about the LAN port.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.4 Internet Information
This page shows the information about WAN port of the A.DUO. It includes the type of
WAN port authentication used and the IP address information about the WAN port.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.5 Wireless Client Table
This function is available in AP mode and AP Router mode only. It displays the information
about wireless clients that are associated with A.DUO. It includes signal strength, TX and
RX data rate, MAC address, and the state.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.6 System Log
The System Log displays the system activities, login, and system error report. If you need
to report a problem to Air Live, please be sure to send us the System Log information also.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.7 Network Ping
Network Ping tool allows user to test whether a particular host is reachable across an
Internet Protocol (IP) network.
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6. Device Status & Tools
6.1.8 Network Traceroute
Network Traceroute tool is used to show the route taken by packets across an IP network.
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7. Command Line Interface
7.
7
Command Line
Interface
6B
In this chapter, we will explain commands that are available through Telnet or SSH
interface. We will provide descriptions for the commands, example settings and the
A.DUO’s response. The purpose for this chapter is to introduce available CLI commands
only. For detail descriptions on the concept and application of the settings, please refer to
chapter 4 and chapter 5.
Before reading this chapter, please go through Section 3.3 of Chapter 3. It contains
information on how to login Telnet or SSH/SSH2 interface. For quick reference, the login
and password is as bellowed:
Telnet
Password: airlive
SSH/SSH2
First login
Login: root
Password: <nothing, just press enter>
Second login:
Password: airlive
When you change A.DUO’s password, it will change the second login’s password only.
You can get a list of available commands by typing “help” at the command prompt.
You must remember to save the configurations by typing “save
config” at the command prompt after making changes, otherwise, the
configuration will be lost after reboot.
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7. Command Line Interface
7.1 System Commands
31B
ping <IP address>
This is the command
Purpose: to ping a remote IP address
Example:
Here explains the usage
of the command
Command> ping 192.168.1.1
PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.8 ms
Example
command and
response
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.0 ms
change password
Purpose: Change login password
Example:
Command> change password 123
password is set to: 123
ftptest <ssid> 11a <channel>
Purpose: Test if a SSID’s connection is okay
Example:
Command> ftptest airlive 11a 40
Set SSID: airlive, mode = 11a, channel = 40 ok!
save config
Purpose: save configuration file.
making changes
Example:
Please remember to “save config” after
Command> save config
None
clear config
Purpose:
Example:
Clear configuration to default
Command> clear config
Are you sure? (y/n) : y
Write flash block [/dev/mtd3]
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7. Command Line Interface
Write file is [/etc/defsysconfig.conf]
Rebooting...
webservice <lan | wan> <enable | disable>
Purpose:
Example:
Enable or Disable Web management interface on LAN or WAN
Command> webservice lan enable
webservice from lan enable
site survey
Purpose:
Example:
Site Survey display
Command> site survey
Please wait a moment for site survey...
ESSID
MAC Address Conn Mode Channel Turbo Super XR WME Signal Strength(dbm) Security
Network
=====================================================================================
airlive
00:4f:79:90:00:27
A
36
-
--
*
-49
None
AP
airlive
00:4f:69:52:a1:ca
A
36
-
--
*
-61
None
AP
A.DUO-ap
00:4f:69:90:00:01
A
36
-
--
*
-56
None
AP
signal survey <bssid> <channel>
Purpose:
Example:
Display continuous RSSI for the remote AP/Bridge
Command> signal survey 00-4f-69-52-a1-ed 36
BSSID
Channel
Signal Strength (dbm)
================================================
00-4F-69-52-A1-ED
BSSID
36
-40
Channel
Signal Strength (dbm)
================================================
00-4F-69-52-A1-ED
36
-40
…
.
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7. Command Line Interface
7.2 Debugging Commands
32B
Those debugging commands are commands used for manufacturing testing process. If a
z_debug command looks similar to a Set command, please use the Set command instead.
z_debug http logout
Purpose:
Example:
log out HTTP
Command> z_debug http logout
z_debug signature <enable/disable>
Purpose: Enable or disable signature check on firmware
Example:
Command> z_debug signature disable
Are you sure? ( y/n ) : y
Signature check is now DISABLED!!!
z_debug add ssid <ssid>
Purpose: This command will replace the default ssid with the new one. It
will not add an additional SSID. We recommend to use the following
commands instead:
add ssid <ssidname> broadcast (enable/disable) to add a new SSID
set ssid <ssidname> to replace the current ssid name with a new one
Example:
Command> z_debug add ssid air1
z_debug reboot
Purpose:
Example:
reboot your A.DUO
Command> z_debug reboot
Rebooting...
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7. Command Line Interface
z_debug set port radio1 11a <ssid> <channel>
Purpose:
instead;
Set SSID and Channel. We recommend using set commands
set ssid <ssid> : to set the ssid name
set rate mode <mode value>: set radio mode to 11a
Example:
Command> z_debug set port radio1 11a air2 64
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7. Command Line Interface
7.3 Show Commands
33B
Show Commands are command that show the settings and status of A.DUO
show arp table
Purpose: Show ARP Table
Example:
Command> show arp table
IP address
Flags
HWaddress
Device
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------192.168.1.100
C
00:1D:60:5E:AE:A0
show http
Purpose: Show HTTP service settings
Example:
lan
Command> show http
HTTP service port: 80
HTTP session timeout: 10 minutes
show upnp
Purpose: Show UPnP information
Example:
Command> show upnp
UPnP is disabled
show mac
Purpose: show the MAC address table in MAC filter mode. This might
change to show the wireless MAC address of A.DUO in future firmware
release
Example:
U
Command> show mac
Filter Name
MAC address
-----------------------------------------------------ailrive
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7. Command Line Interface
show mac filter
Purpose:
Example:
show mac address table in the Access Control List
Command> show mac filter
Filter Name
MAC address
------------------------------------------------hello
airlive
00-4f-62-24-12-34
00-4f-62-24-11-11
show mac filter mode
Purpose: Show whether the current MAC address is enable or not
Example:
Command> show mac filter mode
MAC filter mode: disable
show mac filter <string up to 16 characters>
Purpose: show mac filter status with the filter name
Example:
Command> show mac filter hello
Filter Name
MAC address
--------------------------------------------------hello
00-4f-62-24-12-34
show community string read
Purpose: Show SNMP community string
Example:
Command> show community string read
SNMP Community String (read-only):
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7. Command Line Interface
show snmp
Purpose: Show whether SNMP is enable or disabled
Example:
Command> show snmp
SNMP is enabled
show trap manager
Purpose: Show SNMP Trap manager status
Example:
Command> show trap manager
Trap Manager
IP Address
Status
-------------------------------------------------------------------ailrive
192.168.1.123
enabled
show trap manager <string up to 16 characters>
Purpose:
Example:
Show SNMP Trap manager status with the assigned name
Command> show trap manager airlive
Trap Manager
IP Address
Status
-------------------------------------------------------------------ailrive
192.168.1.123
show radius server
Purpose:
Example:
enabled
Show radius server settings
Command> show radius server
RADIUS Server
State
IP/Port
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Primary
Secondary
Disabled
Disabled
RADIUS Server reattempt: 60 seconds
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0.0.0.0/1812
0.0.0.0/1812
7. Command Line Interface
show radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose: Show settings of primary or secondary radius server
Example:
Command> show radius server primary
RADIUS Server: primary
State: Disabled
Server IP: 0.0.0.0
Port Number: 1812
Shared Secret:
show log level
Purpose: show log level
Example:
Command> show log level
Log level is 8
show telnet / system
Purpose: show telnet management information and system status
Example:
Command> show telnet
Telnet session timeout: 0 minutes
Telnet port number: 23
Telnet state: enable
Command> show system
System Name: A.DUO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------S/W Version:
1.00e09a
H/W Version:
S0A
System LAN MAC:
Wireless MAC:
WMAC-0:
00-4F-79-90-00-16
00-4F-79-90-00-15
00-4F-79-90-00-15
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7. Command Line Interface
show snmp statistics
Purpose: Show SNMP satistics
Example:
Command> show snmp statistics
Timeout: No Response from 192.168.1.1
Received
Transmitted
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Total Packets
1
Request Variables
11
SET Variables
0
GET Requests
0
GETNEXT Requests
15
GET-RESPONSEs
0
SET Requests
0
1
25
Errors:
Bad Versions
0
Bad Community Uses:
0
ASN1 Parse Errors
0
Packet Too Long
0
NO-SUCH-NAME Errors
0
BAD-VALUE Errors
0
READ-ONLY Errors
0
GENERAL-ERR Errors
0
show rssi
Purpose:
Example:
Show RSSI signal strength
Command> show rssi
Please wait a moment for site survey...
ESSID
MAC Address
Signal Strength(dbm)
=======================================================
airlive
A.DUO-ap
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7. Command Line Interface
show mode
Purpose: Show what operation is A.DUO currently set to
Example:
Command> show mode
operation mode: access point
show wireless setting
Purpose: Show wireless settings
Example:
Command> show wireless setting
Radio[1] operation mode:
ssid name
access point
:
wireless state
:
air2
enable
ssid broadcast
:
enable
radio[1] mode
:
11a
radio[1] channel
:
64
show wireless security
Purpose: Show current wireless security policy
Example:
Command> show wireless security
Radio1 security policy: none
show <wan | lan> settings
Purpose: Show LAN or WAN port IP settings
Example:
Command> show lan settings
Lan ip type
:
static
Lan ip address : 192.168.1.1
Lan ip netmask : 255.255.255.0
Lan ip gateway :
192.168.1.254
Lan ip dnsserv :
0.0.0.0
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show firmware version
show vlan ssid list
show wds settings
show advanced wireless
show syslogd
show antenna
Purpose: Check antenna polarization
Example:
Command> show antenna
Antenna setting is Vertical;
show ratemode
Purpose: Show whether the A.DUO is using 20MHz channel width
Example:
Command> show ratemode
Ratemode is Full (20Mhz);
show noise immunity
Purpose: Show the noise immunity setting
Example:
Command> show noise immunity
Noise immunity is enable
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7. Command Line Interface
7.4 Set Commands
34B
The Set Commands are to make changes to the A.DUO’s settings
set http timeout <timeout value in minutes, 1-999>
Purpose: Set the timeout value for HTTP management
Example:
Command> set http timeout 10
HTTP timeout: 10 minutes
set system <contact |location> <string up to 60 characters>
Purpose: Set the system’s location and contact info
Example:
Command> set system location 60
System Location: 60
set system name <string up to 32 characters>
Purpose: Set system’s name
Example:
Command> set system name airlive
System Name: airlive
set mac filter mode <MAC filter mode, disabled/grant/deny>
Purpose: Set MAC filter mode or disable MAC filtering.
Example:
Command> set mac filter mode disabled
mac filter mode is set to disabled
set community string <read |write> <string up to 32 characters>
Purpose: Set SNMP community string
Example:
Command> set community string write test
community string for write: test
Command> set community string read test
community string for read: test
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set radius server reattempt <reattempt interval in minutes, now no limit
in seconds>
Purpose: set radius server reattempt interval in minutes
Example:
Command> set radius server reattempt 20
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RADIUS Server Reattempt Period: 20 Seconds
set telnet port <port number, 1-65535>
Purpose: change the telnet port numer
Example:
Command> set telnet port 23
Changing telnet port may cause current telnet connections to be lost.
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Telnet port number: 23
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7. Command Line Interface
set telnet timeout <timeout value in minutes, 0-999, 0 for no limit>
Purpose:
Example:
Set Telnet management timeout
Command> set telnet timeout 10
Changing telnet timeout may cause current telnet connections to be lost.
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Telnet session timeout: 10 minutes
set wmm qos <enable | disable>
Purpose:
Example:
Enable or Disable WMM QoS
Command> set wmm qos disable
set wmm qos disable successful!
set log level <1-7>
Purpose: Set the log level
Example:
Command> set log level 7
set log level 7 successful
set client isolation <enable | disable>
Purpose:
Example:
Enable or Disable client isolation / privacy seperator
Command> set client isolation disable
Set client isolation disable successful!
set operation mode <AP |repeater| client | ad-hoc |bridge_infra|
wds_bridge | wisp | router>
Purpose:
Example:
set or change operation mode
Command> set operation mode AP
Operation mode is already setting!
Command> set operation mode wds_bridge
System should be reboot...
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Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
set <wan | lan> <webservice | ping> <enable |disable>
Purpose:
Example:
enable/disable ping response or web server on the lan/wan side
Command> set lan ping enable
set lan ping already enable
set lan ip <ipaddress> sm <netmask> gw <gateway> dns <dns server>
Purpose: set LAN IP address such as IP, Subnet mask, gateway, and DNS
server
Example:
Command> set lan ip 192.168.1.1 sm 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.254 dns
168.95.1.1
killall: dnsmasq: no process killed
LAN IP address :
192.168.1.1
Netmask
255.255.255.0
:
Gateway
:
DNS server
192.168.1.254
:
set <enable | disable>
Purpose:
Example:
168.95.1.1
Enable or Disable the wireless interface
Command> set enable
Radio1 enabled
set ssid <ssidname>
Purpose: Replace current main SSID name with a new one
Example:
Command> set ssid A.DUO
set ssid remotessid <remote ssidname> Repeater Mode Only
Purpose: Set the remote SSID name for repeater mode
Example:
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7. Command Line Interface
Command> set ssid remotessid airlive2
set broadcast <enable | disable>
Purpose:
Example:
Enable or disable SSID broadcast
Command> set broadcast enable
Radio1 broadcast enabled
set radio mode <radio mode value>
Purpose: set radio mode to 11a
Example:
Command> set radio mode 11a
Radio1 radio mode: 11a
set channel <channel value>
Purpose: set wireless channel
Example:
Command> set channel 36
Radio1 channel: 36
set beacon interval <range:20-100>
Purpose: set beacon interval for wireless interface. For explanation on
advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set beacon interval 100
Radio1 beacon internal: 100
set rts threshold <range:0-2347>
Purpose: set rts threshold. For explanation on advance wireless parameters,
please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set rts threshold 2347
Radio1 RTS threshold: 2347
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set fragmentation <range:256-2346>
Purpose: set fragmentation value. For explanation on advance wireless
parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set fragmentation 2346
Radio1 fragmentation: 2346
set dtim interval <range:1-255>
Purpose: To set dtim interval value. For explanation on advance wireless
parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set dtim interval 1
Radio1 DTIM interval: 1
set user limitation <range:1-100>
Purpose: To set the user limit for wireless interface
Example:
Command> set user limitation 100
Radio1 user limitation: 100
set age out time <range:1-1000>
Purpose: To set the age timeout for wireless clients.
Example:
Command> set age out time 5
Radio1 age out time: 5
set transmit power <range: 0-24>
Purpose: To set the TX output power value of the radio
Example:
Command> set transmit power 20
Radio1 transmit power: 20
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7. Command Line Interface
set data rate <best | 6~54>
Purpose: To set the date rate.
Example:
For example, 54mbps, 36mbps….etc
Command> set data rate 54
Radio1 data rate: 54
set acktimeout <11A>
Purpose: To set the ACK timeout value
Example:
Command> set acktimeout 25
AckTimeOut for radio1: 11A=25
set vlan for ssid <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable VLAN function
Example:
Command> set vlan for ssid enable
set diffserv marking <enable | disable>
Purpose: To enable diffserv marking function in multiple SSID & VLAN
configuration.
Example:
Command> set diffserv marking enable
set security <ssid> none
Purpose: To remove security policy from a SSID
Example:
Command> set security airlive none
Set Radio1 no security !
set security <ssid> wep <key number> <64|128|152> <ascii | hex> <key
string> <defaultkey>
Purpose: To set the WEP security policy
Example:
Command> set security A.DUO wep 1 64 hex 1234567890
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7. Command Line Interface
Radio1 authentication type : wep !
set security <ssid> <wpa|wpa2> <tkip|aes|both> interval <0~300>
Purpose: to set the WPA or WPA2 security policy
Example:
Command> set security A.DUO wpa2 tkip interval 300
Radio1 authentication type : wpa2 !
set security <ssid> <wpa-psk|wpa2-psk> <tkip|aes|both> interval
<0~300> <key string>
Purpose: to set the WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK security policy
Example:
Command> set security A.DUO wpa2-psk aes interval 300 12345678
Radio1 authentication type : wpa2-psk !
set antenna <diversity | vertical | horizontal >
Purpose: To set the antenna to use horizontal, vertical, diversity polarizations.
Example:
Command> set antenna horizontal
Antenna setting is Horizontal
set ratemode <full | half | quarter>
Purpose:
Example:
Command> set ratemode full
Rate mode is Full(20Mhz)
set noise immunity <on | off>
Purpose: To enable/disable the noise immunity level
Example:
Command> set noise immunity on
Noise immunity is enable
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7. Command Line Interface
7.5 Enable/Disable Commands
35B
Commands to enable or disable settings
( enable/disable ): <enable | disable> upnp
Purpose: To enable or disable UPnP
Example:
Command>enable upnp
(Upnp)descDocName: BD.xml
UPnP Daemon: Intializing UPnP with descDocUrl=http://192.168.1.1:80/BD.xml
UPnP Daemon: ipaddress=192.168.1.1 port=80
UPnP Daemon: conf_dir_path=/var/upnp
Initializing UPnP SDK ...
UPnP SDK Successfully Initialized.
Setting the Web Server Root Directory to /var/upnp
Succesfully set the Web Server Root Directory.
UpnpGetServerPort(): 49152
Registering the root device with descDocUrl http://192.168.1.1:49152/BD.xml
IGD root device successfully registered.
Advertisements Sent. Listening for requests ...
Command> disable upnp
Shutting down on signal 15...
UPnP is disabled
<enable | disable> snmp
Purpose: To enable/disable SNMP
Example:
Command> enable snmp
SNMP is enabled
Command> disable snmp
SNMP is disabled
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7. Command Line Interface
<enable | disable> syslogd
Purpose: To enable or disable syslog
Example:
Command> enable syslogd
Invalid configuration specified.
Command> disable syslogd
Syslogd is disabled
<enable | disable> radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose: To enable or disable primary/secondary radius server
Example:
Command> enable radius server primary
Invalid configuration specified.
Command> enable radius server secondary
Invalid configuration specified.
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7. Command Line Interface
7.6 Add/Delete Commands
36B
Commands to add or delete settings
( add/delete ): add mac filter < Mnemonics Name> <MAC address,
XX-XX-XX-XX-X-XX>
Purpose: to add an entry to the MAC address filter
Example:
Command> add mac filter aaa 00-4f-62-24-12-34
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
mac filter aaa(00-4F-62-24-12-34) is added
delete mac filter < Mnemonics Name>
Purpose: to delete a mac filter entry
Example:
Command> delete mac filter aaa
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
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killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
mac filter aaa is deleted
delete wds <comment>
Purpose: To delete a WDS link
Example:
Command> delete wds bridge
delete wds <comment> successful!
add radius server primary
Purpose: to add a primary radius server
Example:
Command> add radius server primary
enter server IP:
192.168.1.100
enter port number (1~65535):
655
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7. Command Line Interface
enter shared secret:
123
enable server (yes/no):
yes
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
add radius server primary successfully
add radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose:
Example:
to add a primary or secondary radius server
Command> add radius server secondary
enter server IP:
192.168.1.200
enter port number (1~65535):
766
enter shared secret:
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enable server (yes/no):
yes
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
add radius server secondary successfully
add wds <comment> <mac>
Purpose: to add a WDS Link
Example:
Command> add wds bridge 00-4f-60-52-12-34
add wds <comment> <mac> successful!
add ssid <ssid name> broadcast <enable | disable>
Purpose: to add a new ssid (AP and AP Router mode) to the multiple SSID
list.
Example:
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7. Command Line Interface
Command> add ssid air03 broadcast enable
Add R1 ssid <air03> broadcast enable successful!
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8. Frequent Asked Questions
8. Frequent
8
7B
Asked
Questions
=======
=============================================================
Question:
I heard A.DUO can limit the bandwidth of BitTorrent and eDonkey traffic. But
I don’t see the option on the Bandwidth Control.
Answer:
The option to limit bandwidth by application or port is available only on WISP
and Gateway modes.
====================================================================
Question: Where is the signal survey function that displays the RSSI value continuously?
Answer:
The “Signal Survey” function is inside the Site Survey function. You can
access from “Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey” menu.
====================================================================
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8. Frequent Asked Questions
Question: When do I use Per-User Bandwidth Control by IP, MAC, or IP segment?
Answer:
In general, IP address control limits the devices on the end node (i.e. PC and
WISP router). MAC address control can limit the traffic of a AP/CPE in
wireless client mode.
IP address: When you want to limit the bandwidth of a single notebook
computer, PC, or WISP router.
MAC address: When you want to limit the bandwidth of a remote
AP/CPE in Client mode. For example, another A.DUO in client mode
IP Segment: When you want to limit the bandwidth of an entire IP range.
For example, all the PCs using the DHCP server to get IP addresses.
====================================================================
Question:
I thought A.DUO has PPPoE server function, where can I find it?
Answer:
The A.DUO PPPoE function is available only in “Dual Band Router Mode”.
The PPPoE function is inside the “Wireless Settings”->WAN Settings.
Please see graphics below:
====================================================================
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9. Specifications
9
9. Specifications
8B
The specification of A.DUO is subject to change without notice. Please use the information
with caution.
Hardware
Atheros CPU
High power design, up to 26dBm with included antennas (limit to 23dBm in U.S. and
20dBm in EU)
3 x 10/100Mbps LAN Ports
802.3af PoE Port
Dual wireless interface 11a + 11a/b/g operation simultaneously.
RoHS compliant
IEEE 802.3af (PoE) compliance
8MB Flash, 32MB SDRAM
Antenna
2 x R-SMA antenna connectors
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9. Specifications
Frequency Range
WLAN1(Radio 1)
802.11a : 5.475 to 5.725 GHz
WLAN2 (Radio 2)
802.11b/g : 2.412 to 2.472 GHz
802.11a : 5.475 to 5.725 GHz
Frequency Band
5.47 to 5.725GHz: U-NII World Wide and ETSI Band3
Frequency Channel
WLAN1(Radio 1)
802.11a
USA (FCC) : 12
Europe (ETSI) : 12
WLAN2(Radio 2)
802.11b/g
USA (FCC) : 11
Europe (ETSI) : 13
802.11a
USA (FCC) : 12
Europe (ETSI) : 12
Power Supply
5.5V at 2.5A DC Power Adapter
Optional 802.3af 48V Power over Ethernet Adapter + Injector (AirLive model:
PoE-48PB)
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9. Specifications
Modulation Technology
IEEE802.11a 5GHz OFDM
IEEE802.11b 2.4GHz CCK
IEEE802.11g 2.4GHz OFDM
Wireless transfer Data Rate with Automatic Fallback
802.11b: 1, 2, 5.5, 11Mbps
802.11g: 1, 2, 5.5, 11, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps
802.11a: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps
Supported WLAN Mode
11a mode
Output Power (without antennas)
802.11a
802.11g
54 Mbps @ 17dBm
54 Mbps @ 19dBm
48 Mbps @ 18dBm
48 Mbps @ 20dBm
36 Mbps @ 19 dBm
36 Mbps @ 21 dBm
6, 9, 12, 18, 24 Mbps @ 23 dBm
6, 9, 12, 18, 24 Mbps @ 23 dBm
RSSI
802.11a
802.11g
6Mbps @ -90 dBm
6Mbps @ -89 dBm
9Mbps @ -89 dBm
9Mbps @ -88 dBm
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9. Specifications
12Mbps @ -88 dBm
12Mbps @ -88 dBm
18Mbps @ -86 dBm
18Mbps @ -86 dBm
24Mbps @ -82 dBm
24Mbps @ -82 dBm
36Mbps @ -79 dBm
36Mbps @ -79 dBm
48Mbps @ -73 dBm
48Mbps @ -75 dBm
54Mbps @ -71 dBm
54Mbps @ -73 dBm
Software
Wi-Fi, WPA compatible interoperability
Support WDS Bridge Mode, Client Mode, AP Mode on interface under each predefined
operational mode
Client Isolation supported
SNMP v1/v2 support
Support adjustable output power
ACK Timeout setting
User Limitation (Static Load Balancing)
Multiple SSID, VLAN, QoS, WPA with PSK/TKIP/AES support ,WPA2 support
152-bit WEP support (Atheros Proprietary)
Bootloader Protection and Emergency Firmware Upload Code in bootloader
Radius Support
HTB QoS
P2P Bandwidth Control
Product Weight (g)
341 g
Product Size (L x W x H mm)
191 x 145.5 x 29 mm
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10. Wireless Network Glossary
10
10.
Wireless Network
Glossary
9B
The wireless network glossary contains explanation or information about common terms
used in wireless networking products. Some of information in this glossary might be
outdated, please use with caution.
802.11a
An IEEE specification for wireless networking that operates in the 5 GHz frequency range
(5.15 GHz to 5.850 GHz) with a maximum of 54 Mbps data transfer rate. The 5 GHz
frequency band is not as crowded as the 2.4 GHz band. In addition, the 802.11a have 12
non-overlapping channels, comparing to 802.11b/g's 3 non-overlapping channels. This
means the possibility to build larger non-interfering networks. However, the 802.11a deliver
shorter distance at the same output power when comparing to 802.11g.
802.3ad
802.3ad is an IEEE standard for bonding or aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one
virtual port (also known as trunking) to increase the bandwidth.
802.3af
This is the PoE (Power over Ethernet) standard by IEEE committee. 802.3af uses 48V POE
standard that can deliver up to 100 meter distance over Ethernet cable.
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802.11b
International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band
(2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput up to 11 Mbps.
802.1d STP
Spanning Tree Protocol. It is an algorithm to prevent network from forming. The STP
protocol allows net work to provide a redundant link in the event of a link failure. It is advise
to turn on this option for multi-link bridge network.
802.11d
Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in countries where systems
using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to operate.
802.11e
The IEEE QoS standard for prioritizing traffic of the VoIP and multimedia applications.
The WMM is based on a subset of the 802.11e.
802.11g
A standard provides a throughput up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology. It also operates
in the 2.4 GHz frequency band as 802.11b. 802.11g devices are backward compatible with
802.11b devices.
802.11h
This IEEE standard define the TPC (transmission power control) and DFS(dynamic
frequency selection) required to operate WiFi devices in 5GHz for EU.
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802.11i
The IEEE standard for wireless security. 802.11i standard includes TKIP, CCMP, and AES
encryption to improve wireless security. It is also know as WPA2.
802.1Q Tag VLAN
In 802.1Q VLAN, the VLAN information is written into the Ethernet packet itself. Each
packet carries a VLAN ID(called Tag) as it traveled across the network. Therefore, the
VLAN configuration can be configured across multiple switches. In 802.1Q spec, possible
4096 VLAN ID can be created. Although for some devices, they can only view in frames of
256 ID at a time.
802.1x
802.1x is a security standard for wired and wireless LANs. In the 802.1x parlance, there are
usually supplicants (client), authenticator (switch or AP), and authentication server (radius
server) in the network. When a supplicants request a service, the authenticator will pass the
request and wait for the authentication server to grant access and register accounting.
The 802.1x is the most widely used method of authentication by WISP.
Adhoc
A Peer-to-Peer wireless network. An Adhoc wireless network do not use wireless AP or
router as the central hub of the network. Instead, wireless client are connected directly to
each other. The disadvantage of Adhoc network is the lack of wired interface to Internet
connections. It is not recommended for network more than 2 nodes.
Access Point (AP)
The central hub of a wireless LAN network. Access Points have one or more Ethernet ports
that can connect devices (such as Internet connection) for sharing. Multi-function Access
Point can also function as an Ethernet client, wireless bridge, or repeat signals from other
AP. Access Points typically have more wireless functions comparing to wireless routers.
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ACK Timeout
Acknowledgement Timeout Windows. When a packet is sent out from one wireless station
to the other, it will waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station
will only wait for a certain amount of time; this time is called the ACK timeout. If the ACK is
NOT received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted resulting in
reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high then throughput will be lost due to waiting
for the Ack Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low then the ACK
window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped, greatly lowering
throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can effectively optimize the
throughput over long distance links. This is especially true for 802.11a and 802.11g
networks. Setting the correct ACK timeout value needs to consider 3 factors: distance, AP
response time, and interference. The A.DUO provides ACK adjustment capability in form of
either distance or direct input. When you enter the distance parameter, the A.DUO will
automatically calculate the correct ACK timeout value.
Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Management controls the transmission speed of a port, user, IP address, and
application. Router can use bandwidth control to limit the Internet connection speed of
individual IP or Application. It can also guarantee the speed of certain special application or
privileged IP address - a crucial feature of QoS (Quality of Service) function. The A.DUO’s
features both “Per-user Bandwidth Control” and “Total Bandwidth Control”. “Per-user
Bandwidth Control” allow administrator to define the maximum bandwidth of each user by
IP, IP Group, or MAC address. Total Bandwidth defines the maximum bandwidth of wireless
or Ethernet interface.
Bootloader
Bootloader is the under layering program that will start at the power-up before the device
loads firmware. It is similar to BIOS on a personal computer. When a firmware crashed, you
might be able to recover your device from bootloader.
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Bridge
A product that connects 2 different networks that uses the same protocol. Wireless bridges
are commonly used to link network across remote buildings. For wireless application, there
are 2 types of Bridges. WDS Bridge can be used in Point-to-Point or Point-to-Multipoint
topology. Bridge Infrastructure works with AP mode to form a star topology.
Cable and Connector Loss
During wireless design and deployment, it is important to factor in the cable and connector
loss. Cable and connector loss will reduce the output power and receiver sensitivity of the
radio at connector end. The longer the cable length is, the more the cable loss. Cable
loss should be subtracted from the total output power during distance calculation. For
example, if the cable and connector loss is 3dBm and the output power is 20dBm; the
output power at the cable end is only 17dBm.
Client
Client means a network device or utility that receives service from host or server.
device means end user device such as wireless cards or wireless CPE.
A client
CPE Devices
CPE stands for Customer Premises Equipment. A CPE is a device installed on the end
user's side to receive network services. For example, on an ADSL network, the ADSL
modem/router on the subscriber's home is the CPE device. Wireless CPE means a
complete Wireless (usually an AP with built-in Antenna) that receive wireless broadband
access from the WISP. The opposite of CPE is CO.
CTS
Clear To Send. A signal sent by a device to indicate that it is ready to receive data.
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DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address for
hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain name.
A router with DDNS capability has a built-in DDNS client that updates the IP address
information to DDNS service provider whenever there is a change. Therefore, users can
build website or other Internet servers even if they don't have fixed IP connection.
DHCP
Dynamic Hosting Configuration Protocol. A protocol that enables a server to dynamically
assign IP addresses. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the network, it
automatically gets an IP address assigned to it by DHCP server. A DHCP server can either
be a designated PC on the network or another network device, such as a router.
DMZ
Demilitarized Zone. When a router opens a DMZ port to an internal network device, it opens
all the TCP/UDP service ports to this particular device. The feature is used commonly for
setting up H.323 VoIP or Multi-Media servers.
DNS
A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a
collection of Internet servers.
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more
parts, separated by dots. In www.airlive.com, the "airlive.com" is the doman name.
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DoS Attack
Denial of Service. A type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic. Many
DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the
TCP/IP protocols.
Encryption
Encoding data to prevent it from being read by unauthorized people. The common wireless
encryption schemes are WEP, WPA, and WPA2.
ESSID (SSID)
The identification name of an 802.11 wireless network. Since wireless network has no
physical boundary liked wired Ethernet network, wireless LAN needs an identifier to
distinguish one network from the other. Wireless clients must know the SSID in order to
associate with a WLAN network. Hide SSID feature disable SSID broadcast, so users must
know the correct SSID in order to join a wireless network.
Firewall
A system that secures a network and prevents access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can
be software, router, or gateway. Firewalls can prevent unrestricted access into a network,
as well as restricting data from flowing out of a network.
Firmware
The program that runs inside embedded device such as router or AP. Many network
devices are firmware upgradeable through web interface or utility program.
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FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A standard protocol for sending files between computers over a
TCP/IP network and the Internet.
Fragment Threshold
Frame Size larger than this will be divided into smaller fragment. If there are interferences
in your area, lower this value can improve the performance. If there are not, keep this
parameter at higher value. The default size is 2346. You can try 1500, 1000, or 500 when
there are interference around your network.
Full Duplex
The ability of a networking device to receive and transmit data simultaneously. In wireless
environment, this is usually done with 2 or more radios doing load balancing.
Gateway
In the global Internet network, the gateways are core routers that connect networks in
different IP subnet together. In a LAN environment with an IP sharing router, the gateway is
the router. In an office environment, gateway typically is a multi-function device that
integrates NAT, firewall, bandwidth management, and other security functions.
Hotspot
A place where you can access Wi-Fi service. The term hotspot has two meanings in
wireless deployment. One is the wireless infrastructure deployment; the other is the Internet
access billing system. In a hotspot system, a service provider typically need an
authentication and account system for billing purposes, and a wireless AP network to
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provide access for customers.
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a Layer 3 protocol to report IP multicast
memberships to neighboring multicast switches and routers. IGMP snooping is a feature
that allows an Ethernet switch to "listen in" on the IGMP conversation between hosts and
routers. A switch support IGMP snooping has the possibility to avoid multicast traffic being
treated as broadcast traffic; therefore, reducing the overall traffic on the network.
Infrastructure Mode
A wireless network that is built around one or more access points to provide wireless clients
access to wired LAN / Internet service. The opposite of Infrastructure mode is Adhoc mode.
IP address
IP (Internet Protocol) is a layer-3 network protocol that is the basis of all Internet
communication. An IP address is 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of
information that is sent across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: an identifier of a
particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a
server or a workstation) within that network. The new IPv6 specification supports 128-bit IP
address format.
IPsec
IP Security. A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of
packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
Transport mode encrypts only the data of each packet, but leaves the header untouched.
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The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving
side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.
LACP (802.3ad) Trunking
The 802.3ad Link Aggregation standard defines how to combine the several Ethernet ports
into one high-bandwidth port to increase the transmission speed. It is also known as port
trunking. Both devices must set the trunking feature to work.
MAC
Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices.
Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each
manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices
with the approved MAC address can connect with the network.
Mbps
Megabits per Second. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data
transmission
MESH
Mesh is an outdoor wireless technology that uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and
Wireless Distribution system to achieve self-forming, self-healing, and self-configuring
outdoor network. MESH network are able to take the shortest path to a destination that
does not have to be in the line of site.
MIMO
Multi In Multi Out. A Smart Antenna technology designed to increase the coverage and
performance of a WLAN network. In a MIMO device, 2 or more antennas are used to
increase the receiver sensitivity and to focus available power at intended Rx.
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NAT
Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several PCs
to share single IP address provided by the ISP. The IP that a router gets from the ISP side
is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called Private IP.
Node
A network connection end point, typically a computer.
Packet
A unit of data sent over a network.
Passphrase
Used much like a password, a passphrase simplifies the WEP encryption process by
automatically generating the WEP encryption keys for the company products.
POE
Power over Ethernet. A standard to deliver both power and data through one single
Ethernet cable (UTP/STP). It allows network device to be installed far away from power
ource. A POE system typically compose of 2 main component: DC Injector (Base Unit) and
Splitter(Terminal Unit). The DC injector combines the power and data, and the splitter
separates the data and power back. A PoE Access Point or CPE has the splitter built-in to
the device. The IEEE 802.3af is a POE spec that uses 48 volt to deliver power up to 100
meter distance.
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Port
This word has 2 different meaning for networking.
The hardware connection point on a computer or networking device used for plugging
in a cable or an adapter.
The virtual connection point through which a computer uses a specific application on a
server.
PPPoE
Point-to- Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards:
PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the
Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL line, wireless device
or cable modem.
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol: A VPN protocol developed by PPTP Forum. With PPTP,
users can dial in to their corporate network via the Internet. If users require data encryption
when using the Windows PPTP client, the remote VPN server must support MPPE
(Microsoft Point-To-Point Encryption Protocol) encryption. PPTP is also used by some ISP
for user authentication, particularly when pairing with legacy Alcatel / Thomson ADSL
modem.
Preamble Type
Preamble are sent with each wireless packet transmit for transmission status. Use the long
preamble type for better compatibility. Use the short preamble type for better performance
Rate Control
Ethernet switches' function to control the upstream and downstream speed of an individual
port. Rate Control management uses "Flow Control" to limit the speed of a port. Therefore,
the Ethernet adapter must also have the flow control enabled. One way to force the
adapter's flow control on is to set a port to half-duplex mode.
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RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication and accounting system
used by many Internet Service Providers (ISPs). When you dial in to the ISP, you must
enter your username and password. This information is passed to a RADIUS server, which
checks that the information is correct, and then authorizes access to the ISP system.
Radius typically uses port 1812 and port 1813 for authentication and accounting port.
Though not an official standard, the RADIUS specification is maintained by a working group
of the IETF.
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity means how sensitive is the radio for receiving signal. In general; the
slower the transmission speed, the more sensitive the radio is. The unit for Receiver
Sensitivity is in dB; the lower the absolute value is, the higher the signal strength. For
example, -50dB is higher than -80dB.
RJ-45
Standard connectors for Twisted Pair copper cable used in Ethernet networks. Although
they look similar to standard RJ-11 telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to
eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only four.
Router
An IP sharing router is a device that allows multiple PCs to share one single broadband
connection using NAT technology. A wireless router is a device that combines the functions
of wireless Access Point and the IP sharing router.
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RSSI
Receiver Sensitivity Index. RSSI is a value to show the Receiver Sensitivity of the remote
wireless device. In general, remote APs with stronger signal will display higher RSSI values.
For RSSI value, the smaller the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For example,
“-50db” has stronger signal than “-80dB”. For outdoor connection, signal stronger than
-60dB is considered as a good connection.
RTS
Request To Send. A packet sent when a computer has data to transmit. The computer will
wait for a CTS (Clear To Send) message before sending data.
RTS Threshold
RTS (Request to Send). The RTS/CTS(clear to send) packet will be send before a frame if
the packet frame is larger than this value. Lower this value can improve the performance if
there are many clients in your network. You can try 1500, 1000 or 500 when there are many
clients in your AP’s network.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of protocols for managing complex networks.
The SNMP network contains 3 key elements: managed devices, agents, and
network-management systems (NMSs). Managed devices are network devices that content
SNMP agents. SNMP agents are programs that reside SNMP capable device's firmware to
provide SNMP configuration service. The NMS typically is a PC based software such as HP
Openview that can view and manage SNMP network device remotely.
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SSH
Developed by SSH Communications Security Ltd., Secure Shell is a program to log into
another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move
files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure
communications over insecure channels. It is a replacement for rlogin, rsh, rcp, and rdist.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. It is a popular encryption scheme used by many online retail and
banking sites to protect the financial integrity of transactions. When an SSL session begins,
the server sends its public key to the browser. The browser then sends a randomly
generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key exchange for that
session. SSL VPN is also known as Web VPN. The HTTPS and SSH management
interface use SSL for data encryption.
Subnet Mask
An address code mask that determines the size of the network. An IP subnet are
determined by performing a BIT-wise AND operation between the IP address and the
subnet mask. By changing the subnet mask, you can change the scope and size of a
network.
Subnetwork or Subnet
Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between
numerous computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, hub or
gateway. Each individual wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local
computers it talks to.
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TCP
A layer-4 protocol used along with the IP to send data between computers over the Internet.
While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping
track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through the Internet.
TX Output Power
Transmit Output Power. The TX output power means the transmission output power of the
radio. Normally, the TX output power level limit for 2.4GHz 11g/b is 20dBm at the antenna
end. The output power limit for 5GHz 802.11a is 30dBm at the antenna end.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. A layer-4 network protocol for transmitting data that does not
require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data.
Upgrade
To replace existing software or firmware with a newer version.
Upload
To send a file to the Internet or network device.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator. The address of a file located on the Internet.
VPN
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Virtual Private Network. A type of technology designed to increase the security of
information transferred over the Internet. VPN creates a private encrypted tunnel from the
end user's computer, through the local wireless network, through the Internet, all the way to
the corporate network.
Walled Garden
On the Internet, a walled garden refers to a browsing environment that controls the
information and Web sites the user is able to access. This is a popular method used by
ISPs in order to keep the user navigating only specific areas of the Web
WAN
Wide Area Network. A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing
devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. A WAN
port on the network device means the port (or wireless connection) that is connected to the
Internet side of the network topology.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. A wireless encryption protocol. WEP is available in 40-bit (64-bit),
108-bit (128-bit) or 152-bit (Atheros proprietary) encryption modes.
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity. An interoperability certification for wireless local area network (LAN)
products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The governing body for Wi-Fi is called
Wi-Fi Alliance (also known as WECA).
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. A Wireless Metropolitan Network
technology that complies with IEEE 802.16 and ETSI Hiperman standards. The orginal
802.16 standard call for operating frequency of 10 to 66Ghz spectrum. The 802.16a
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amendment extends the original standard into spectrum between 2 and 11 Ghz. 802.16d
increase data rates to between 40 and 70 Mbps/s and add support for MIMO antennas,
QoS, and multiple polling technologies. 802.16e adds mobility features, narrower
bandwidth (a max of 5 mhz), slower speed and smaller antennas. Mobility is allowed up to
40 mph.
WDS
Wireless Distribution System. WDS defines how multiple wireless Access Point or Wireless
Router can connect together to form one single wireless network without using wired
uplinks. WDS associate each other by MAC address, each device
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio
waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. The most popular standard for
WLAN is the 802.11 standards.
WMM
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM prioritize traffic\ on Voice-over-IP (VoIP), audio, video, and streaming media as well
as traditional IP data over the AP.
WMS
Wireless Management System. An utility program to manage multiple wireless AP/Bridges.
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is an encryption standard proposed by WiFi for advance
protection by utilizing a password key (TKIP) or certificate. It is more secure than WEP
encryption. The WPA-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
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WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2. WPA2 is also known as 802.11i. It improves on the WPA security
with CCMP and AES encryption. The WPA2 is backward compatible with WPA.
WPA2-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
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