SDN Controller Architecture

SDN Controller Architecture
Software-Defined Network, an
Imperative Trend
SDN Controller Architecture
Contents
1
Why SDN?
2
SDN Network Architecture
3
Challenges
4
Conclusion
Challenges to Traditional Networks


Network is congested
Operation & maintenance is difficult
?
Device is complex
Service provisioning is slow
Network Congestion Caused by the
Distributed Shortest Path Calculation
A
1
D
1.0G/2.5G
B
2.4G/2.5G
8G/40G
F
F
D
E
2
G
H
Global
calculation
B
C
3
A
E
C
3
A
C
Used bandwidth/Total
bandwidth
B
G
Issue 1: The link between router B and router C is the shortest
path and will be congested soon. The other links are idle. Why
cannot some traffic be transmitted over link B-A-C?
F
1
2
D
E
G
H
Service requirements: ① A->E 6G; ② C->D 8G; ③ C->G 4G (The total
bandwidth of all links is 10G. The numbers show the service deployment
sequence.)
Issue 2: In traditional mode, link 2 will fail to be established. Why cannot a
global calculation method be used to ensure the establishment of all links?
Network Devices Are Complex

If you want to become an expert in IP field, you must read

If you want to skillfully operate the
2500 RFC documents. You need more than 6 years to
devices of a vendor, you must master
finish reading all the documents even if you read one
more than 10000 commands. The
every day. However, these documents are only 1/3 of the
total RFC recommendations. In addition, the number of
RFC recommendations is still increasing.
Increment of RFC
recommendations related to
network devices
242
212
152
79
129 124 150
205 185
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
number of commands available on
each device is still increasing.
Numerous Protocols Make Network
Operation & Maintenance Difficult
L3 VPN for an enterprise:
50 commands are run on a PE:
PE2
PE3
PE1
CE1
PE4
Configure IGP
Configure MPLS
Configure VPNV4
Configure PE-CE protocol
Configure MBGP
CE2
1 Configure IGP
[~PE1] interface loopback 1
[~PE1-LoopBack1] ip address 1.1.1.9 32
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet3/0/0
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet3/0/0] ip address 172.1.1.1 24
[~PE1] ospf
[~PE1-ospf-1] area 0
[~PE1-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 172.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
[~PE1-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 1.1.1.9 0.0.0.0
[~PE1-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
2 Configure MPLS
[~PE1] mpls lsr-id 1.1.1.9
[~PE1] mpls
[~PE1] mpls ldp
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 3/0/0
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet3/0/0] mpls
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet3/0/0] mpls ldp
3 Configure VPNV4
[~PE1] ip vpn-instance vpna
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpna] ipv4-family
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpna-af-ipv4] route-distinguisher 100:1
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpna-af-ipv4] vpn-target 111:1 both
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpna-af-ipv4] quit
[~PE1] ip vpn-instance vpnb
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpnb] ipv4-family
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpnb-af-ipv4] route-distinguisher 100:2
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpnb-af-ipv4] vpn-target 222:2 both
[~PE1-vpn-instance-vpnb-af-ipv4] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 1/0/0
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/0] ip binding vpn-instance vpna
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 24
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet1/0/0] quit
[~PE1] interface gigabitethernet 2/0/0
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] ip binding vpn-instance vpnb
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] ip address 10.2.1.2 24
[~PE1-GigabitEthernet2/0/0] quit
[~PE1] commit
4 Configure PE-CE protocol
[~PE1] bgp 100
[~PE1-bgp] ipv4-family vpn-instance vpna
[~PE1-bgp-vpna] peer 10.1.1.1 as-number 65410
[~PE1-bgp] ipv4-family vpn-instance vpnb
[~PE1-bgp-vpnb] peer 10.2.1.1 as-number 65420
[~PE1-bgp] quit
5 Configure MBGP
[~PE1] bgp 100
[~PE1-bgp] peer 3.3.3.9 as-number 100
[~PE1-bgp] peer 3.3.3.9 connect-interface loopback 1
[~PE1-bgp] ipv4-family vpnv4
[~PE1-bgp-af-vpnv4] peer 3.3.3.9 enable
[~PE1-bgp] quit
Service Provisioning Is Slow
A requirement
2 years
Standardized
1 year
Deploying an innovative application needs
Supported by
vendors
3-5 years.
1 year
Widely used
Fortunately, we have found a way to
solve these problems:
The best way to systematically solve these problems
Contents
1
Why SDN?
2
SDN Network Architecture
3
Challenges
4
Conclusion
What Is the Core of SDN?
It is reconstruction on the current
networks. In future, new services are
SoftwareSoftwaredefined
network
deployed by programming on the SDN
controller and adding or upgrading the
software programs on the SDN.
Customer requirements can be met
quickly.
Three Characteristics of SDN Controller
NMS
①
SDN
controller
②
③
Control
plane
PE
Control
plane
P
Control
plane
PE
Separation of
forwarding and
controlling
Centralized
control
Open interfaces
Structure and Three Interfaces of SDN Network
Interface 1: Northbound RESTful
interface



NMS


Interface 2: Southbound
OPENFLOW/PCEP/BGP/Netconf interface
SDN controller
Accepts registration requests of forwarders
Collects topology and resources
Calculates internal channels and delivers
them to all forwarders
Accepts external protocol packets and
calculates service routes
Delivers routing entries to forwarders



Interface 3:
East-to-west interface that
connects to non-SDN domain

Forwarder PE
Forwarder PE
Forwarder PE
P: forwarding node within cluster, no external interface
PE: service node on the edge of cluster, connecting to devices outside cluster
Organizes management channels
Registers with controller and collects
and reports resources
Forwards external protocol packets to
controller
Accepts routing entries delivered b y
controller
SDN Network with Forwarding and
Controlling Separated Can Enhance
Network Programmability
Traditional network
SDN network supporting
POF
SDN network
Support POF
Support MPLS
Support MPLS
Programmable forwarding plane
Programmable management plane
Programmable control plane
Programmable control plane
Programmable management plane
Programmable management plane
To support the TE feature…
Several years are required
①
②
③
IGP TE/RSVP standardized
Vendors implement the standards and
release versions
Upgrade devices and NMS
Several weeks are required
①
②
Several weeks are required
①
Develop TE application on controller and
install the program to the controller
Devices do not need to be upgraded\
②
Develop TE application and define
forwarding model on controller and install
the program to the controller
Devices do not need to support MPLS
forwarding
Protocol Oblivious Forwarding Protocol (POF)
①
When packets with protocol type 0x0889 are sent to the
forwarder, the forwarder cannot identify the packets and
discard them.
②
A packet description table and forwarding table are created
on the controller, and then delivered to forwarders.
②
Forwarding device that
supports POF
①
③
User-defined new packet type
③
Sender
Receiver
The packets with protocol type 0x0889 are forwarded
out.
Centralized Control Enhances Network
Programmability
Centralized programming is simpler than
SDN
controller
distributed programming. A distribution
system has low programmability.
Distributed programming is difficult on
traditional IP networks, especially multivendor distributed programming
Centralized control simplifies programming.
Programmability Comparison Between
SDN and Distributed Structure
Service
automation
Simplified
network,
protocol-free
Fast service
provisioning
Programmable
management
plane
Programmable
control plane
Programmable
forwarding
plane
Programmable
network
Traditional NMS
that automatically
delivers policies
SDN controller
that separates
forwarding and
controlling
SDN controller
that supports POF
support
not support
Conclusion: SDN network that separates forwarding and controlling has powerful programmability. The future POF-support
controller has higher programmability.
Explanations to Two Questions
Question 1:
Is it true that only the controller supporting
OpenFlow can separate forwarding and controlling?
Question 2:
If a traditional NMS provides open
programming interfaces, is it an SDN network
structure?
Answer:
 The SDN network that supports OpenFlow
definitely supports separation of forwarding and
controlling.
 In addition to OpenFlow, there are other
protocols running between SDN forwarders and
controller.
 The protocols can be Netconf, BGP, etc.
 Traditional NMS provides centralized management,
but no centralized control plane; therefore, it is not
the SDN structure. It partially implements service
automation, but does not simplify network, enhance
network programmability, or accelerate service
provisioning.
SDN Controller Architecture
Third-party application
Policy control and enforcement
OpenStack
APP
RESTful
Controller
App
L3VPN APP
L2VPN APP
Service chain APP
API
Network resource layer
NE abstraction layer
NE drive layer
FARIC
Logical router
OF
Path calculation
Logical switch
NETCONF
Topology management
Logical optical device
PCEP
Logical VAS
BGP
Forwarding plane
Controller hardware requirements: a group of Layer 2 connected servers or virtual machine (VM)
Contents
1
Why SDN?
2
SDN Network Architecture
3
Challenges
4
Conclusion
Contents
3
Challenges
 Reliability
 Performance
 Open capability
Reliability of SDN Network and
Traditional Network
Bottleneck
Traditional network
 Fully distributed network structure
 Automatic network convergence
upon failure
 Highest reliability
SDN network
 Centralized control
 Network convergence depends on
controller
 The controller reduces network
reliability
Weak Points in the Reliability of SDN Network
The server where the controller
runs is faulty
The controller does not work
because a power failure occurs in
the equipment room or data
center or a hazard such as an
earthquake occurs
SDN controller
1 2
3
4
Data center
The controller software fails
The communication between
controller and forwarder is
interrupted
Solution to Issue 1 - Server Redundancy
SDN controller
Failure
Backup
Active controller
Active
controller
Backup
controller
Solution to Issue 2 - Protective
Switchover of Distributed SDN
Controllers
Service app layer
APP1 process
APP2 process
Process of NE
resource 2, backup
Network
operating system
APP1 backup
process
APP2 backup
process
Process of NE
resource 1, backup
Process of NE
resource 3, backup
Process of NE
resource 2
Process of NE
resource 3
Process of NE
resource 1
Process of NE
resource 4, backup
Process of NE
resource 4
Node monitoring
process, active
Node monitoring
process, backup
Node monitoring
process, backup
Commercial OS
LINUX
LINUX
LINUX
LINUX
LINUX
Hardware layer
Server or VM
Server or VM
Server or VM
Server or VM
Server or VM
Distributed system
middleware
The distributed controller structure can address the problems such as process suspension and software
failures. Three monitoring processes can prevent failures between two points.
Solution to Issue 3 - Protection on
Communication Between SDN Controller
and Network
SDN controller
1
Each Ethernet interface on controller
server can send and receive packets
The controller connects to the
forwarding network through at least
two links
2
Dedicated
management
network
3
The controller can connect to
the forwarding network through
dedicated management
network
Solution to Issue 4 - Remote Disaster
Recovery Center
Remote hotstandby controller
Dual-node hot-standby
Active
controller
Contents
3
Challenges
 Reliability
 Performance
 Open Capability
Performance Requirements on SDN
Controller Structure
Time

The failure convergence time of a network with an SDN controller deployed must
be close to that of a traditional network.
Space

The DC must have the ability to support millions of OVSs.

On the DCI/metro/core NETWORK, each controller needs to manage 2000
devices.

In the IPRAN access scenario, each controller needs to control 20000 devices.
SDN Network Convergence Time Analysis
① Detect a
fault
②Notify the controller
②
of the fault
② Notify all nodes of the fault
③All nodes calculate
paths and update
routes
①Detect a
①
fault
Traditional network
Convergence time of traditional
network T1=
Convergence time of SDN network
T2=
③Controller calculates
all the affected paths
④Controller updates all
affected paths
SDN network
Fault detection t1+
Notify the entire network t2+
Local route calculation on routers
t3+
Local route update on routers t4
Fault detection t1+
Notify only the controller t2'+
Centralized route calculation t3'+
Route update on controller t4'
To shorten the SDN network convergence time, the centralized route calculation time t3' and route update time on controller t4' must be
shortened. The fault notification time t2' is shorter than t2, so the key to shorten SDN network convergence time is the algorithm,
hardware performance, and distributed computing capability of the controller.
SDN Controller Controls Large-Sized
Networks with High Scalability
Controller
Path calculation
node
Path calculation
node
Distributed parallel
calculation
Path calculation
node
Distributed memory
database
TOPO DB
TOPO DB
TOPO DB
NE resource
node
NE resource
node
Server 1
Dynamic deployment
of SCALEOUT
NE resource
node
Server 2
Server 3
Concurrent data
sending and receiving
of multiple servers
Contents
3
Challenges
 Reliability
 Performance
 Open Capability
Open Programming Structure of Controller
App programming platform
内部API调用接口
provided by controller
APP (Client)
App layer
RESTful API
3rd APP
Integrated app layer
Controller
App layer
Native APP
Resource layer
Topology
management
NE abstraction
layer
Logical
router
NE drive layerOF/NETCONF
Logical switch
Logical optical
device
PCEP/BGP
Client/Server model
Logical VAS
3rd DRIVER
Internal API
Resource layer
Topology
management
NE abstraction Logical
layer router
NE drive layerOF/NETCONF
Logical switch
Logical optical
device
PCEP/BGP
Logical VAS
3rd DRIVER
Embedded programming structure
Open Southbound Interfaces Support
Multi-Vendor Forwarders
Controller
Resource layer
Topology management
NE abstraction layer
Logical route
NE drive layer
Openflow
Logical switch
Logical optical
device
Vendor B PlugIn
Logical VAS
Vendor C PlugIn
Forwarder
Vendor A
Supports OpenFlow
Vendor B
Vendor C
How to solve the multi-vendor
hardware compatibility issue:
 Standard OF protocol
 The controller supports vendorspecific PlugIn function
Typical APP Service Logic
1. User service/policy input
Controller
APP
Typical app service logic:
① Service requirement
② Obtain network resources and status and make
analysis
③ Deliver policy and control information
④ Service deployment verification
API
5. Network status
change notification
Policy control interface
Monitoring interface
Upper-layer service
interface
Resource status
interface
2. Network resource status
Forwarder
Path control interface
3. Path, service,
policy delivery
4. Verification
Tool interface
Open Programmable System (OPS)
VNC
installation
package
AgileTE
installation
package
AgileGRE
installation
package
Huawei APP Store
1. Browse and download
Controller
内部API调用接口
App layer
3rd APP
AgileTE
APP manager
2. Install
APP operation frame
内部API
Resource layer
NE abstraction layer
NE drive layer
Topology management
Logical router
OF/NETCONF
Logical switch
Logical optical device
PCEP/BGP
Logical VAS
3rd DRIVER
…
Contents
1
Why SDN?
2
SDN Network Architecture
3
Challenges
4
Conclusion
Conclusion
The essence of SDN is defining the network by using software. SDN enhances the
programmability of a network
SDN is network reconstruction.
future.
The road to SDN is rough, but has a bright
"Openness" Is A Beautiful Flower
Huawei Agile Controller OPS - 2014
Contents
1
Huawei Agile Controller OPS Overview
2
Application and Cases
3
Conclusion
Huawei Agile Controller OPS Overview
Microsoft cloud
management system
National college programming
contest
Service/app
Agile
Controllerprogramming
environment
Agile
Controller
Physical
devices
21ViaNet data center connection
C
Java
Python
Rest
Openness boosts system
integration and compatibility
OpenStack interconnection
Alibaba PoAP
Integration
Restful
Netconf
When the IOE-free concept becomes a
hot topic, many vendors provide the
solutions that reduce Capex
provides open
capability
Upper-layer service
Performance
monitoring
Tool
Security monitoring
Event monitoring
Resource status
Routing protocol
Policy control
Path control
Management
protocol
Server
System management
Forwarding
Fast service development and
provisioning
Agility
From several years/months to several
weeks/days
Simplified operation & maintenance,
automatic management
Simplicity
Operation & maintenance efficiency increases
multiple times, and Opex is greatly reduced
Agile Controller OPS Components
Agile Controller Open Programmability System is an open programmable ecosystem that can be deployed anywhere (embedded to device, controller,
collaboration-layer device, client or deployed independently) and consists of a series of components. It implements multi-layer capability openness
including network control and management. The OPS supports integration and interconnection with third-party applications, implementing fast service
innovation.
Just remember:
Agile Controller OPS is a powerful
adhesive and an integration tool for agile
networks. It can effectively joint network
applications and the SDN network.
OPS components
Why Do We Need Openness?
Customization
Simple or complex?
Is it fast?
Ecological chain reform
Traditional network
SDN network
Milestone (1)
Feb, 2014, Huawei created the "traffic
and pipe matching" concept, aiming at
improving resource use efficiency and
reducing TCO for customers.
Feb, 2014, Huawei completed the design
of 10 groups of network-level core APIs,
simplifying NE-level APIs (reduced 20
thousands of NE-level APIs).
Design
Milestone (2)
Oct-Nov, 2013, Huawei has
completed the Agile GRE and Agile
TE projects with 21viaNet.
19-20 Apr, 2014, Huawei provided a complete
agile development environment including algorithm
container and Eclipse to support the first national
college SDN innovation contest. Huawei made
contribution in promoting the SDN technology and
developing country's innovation capability.
Application
Milestone (3)
Sep-Oct, 2013, Huawei DC switches
have integrated with Microsoft OMI
Release 2.0, and are qualified in
procurement list of Microsoft cloud.
Microsoft has announced this result in
North America.
Nov, 2013-Mar, 2014,
Huawei completed the seamless
connection with OpenStack, implementing
centralized management/coordination on
data center hardware devices.
Jan-Mar, 2014,
Southbound interfaces are
integrated with
OpenDayLight, opening the
NE integration channel.
Integration
OMI: Open Management Infrastructure, which is an information model for standardizing managed objectives.
Milestone (4)
ONF
Sep, 2013, Huawei has
finished 10 I2RS drafts.
Mar, 2014, Huawei open
information model becomes
a standard of ONF NBI.
Apr, 2014, Huawei has
provided 10 groups of
network-level core APIs
to ONF (in progress).
Standard
Why Do We Need to Integrate with
Microsoft OMI?
Agile Controller OPS has successfully connected with Microsoft OMI and obtained the
certificate of Microsoft. This is a great milestone in the integration process of Huawei. It is a
foundation for opening Huawei operating system, agile controller, and OPS.
At the same time, Microsoft logo has been tagged on Huawei DC TOR devices. This means
that Huawei TOR devices have been recommended globally and can be managed by Microsoft
OMI.
Link:
http://windowsservercatalog.com/results.aspx?text=Huawei&=Go&bCatID=1282
&avc=10&ava=0&OR=5&chtext=&cstext=&csttext=&chbtext=
21ViaNet Agile Series: Matching the
Traffic and Pipes
 21Vianet Group, Inc. (21ViaNet for short) is the largest carrier-neutral
internet data center services provider in China. It aims at providing
industry-leading, high-quality network interconnection services for
customers.
 21ViaNet is a second-level carrier. It provides carrier-neutral DCI service
and also resells bandwidth to enterprises.
 Traffic traverses multiple first-level carriers' public networks.
 The expense for inter-carrier is high, and settlement between carriers is not
required.
Agile GRE solution is developed and
released within one month
Agile TE solution is developed and
released within two months
First College SDN Application
Innovation Contest
19-20 Apr, 2014, Huawei sponsored the
first college SDN application innovation
contest. Huawei provided a complete
environment for the contest, supporting
agile network innovation in two ways, and
assisting colleges in talent training.
Perfect
Define network
resource capability
through programming
interfaces
Calculate satisfied
paths according to
constraints
Success
Success
Basic network
capability
programming
——Participants
Network intelligent
algorithm
programming
SDN Controller Structure Has Been
Added to ONF Draft and Baseline
ONF_NBI-Controller-solutions-v0.5.pdf
onf2014.071_NBI_Framework_and_Archit.06
Network Plane
Network
Protocol Layer
Application operation model logical layer
Protocol object layer
Performance
Monitor
Resource object layer
Policy object layer
Application plane
Service container object layer
Network
Service
Layer
Network
Resource
Layer
Network
Policy Layer
Fault
Monitor
Service operation model logical layer
Infrastructure
Plane
Infrastructure plane
Hardware and Software model layer
Routing Protocol
Built-in O&M APP/
Tool
L 2 Protocol
Management APP
Protocol
Control Protocol
Virtual Network Resouce (VN, VC)
Network Topology
(Layer & link & node)
QoS Policy
Network
Container
Layer
System
Management
Layer
SoftWare Object/HardWare Object/
System Object
Built-in Service APP/
Service Policy Binding
Interface Object
Data Path Definition
ACL Policy
Flow Policy
Flow Definition
Virtual Network
System Info
System Process
Monitor
Software
Install & Update
I/O Driver Info
Storage Management
Software & Hardware
Object Layer
Component
Management
Logical and Virtual
Distributed Node Mgmt
Management plane operation model logical layer
Operation Model layer:
Fault/performance/configuration/security
management
Base Plane
Meta model layer database
SQL/XML/Other...
Contributors
Tina Tsou
Xiaofeng Ji
Felix Lu
10 Groups of Core APIs
ServiceFlow
Control service
flow
uTunnle
Unified tunnel
netL3VPN
Network-level
L3VPN
netL2Vpn
Network-level
L2VPN
Topology
Network
topology
IP Path
IP path control
10 groups
of core
API
vSwitch
Virtual switch
vLSR
Virtual MPLS router
VDC
Virtual data
center
vRouter
Virtual router
Contributors
Xiaofeng Ji
Dong feng
Meng Kun
API1: onf2014.252_Core_APIs_-_Service_Flow.01
Openness Unleashes Your Potency and
Creates Values
Easy environment
Fast version iteration
will be released at the
end of this month
Onsite programming
in several minutes
Abundant
capabilities
Multiple programming languages
Efficient programming
Multi-layer open APIs
Integration with multiple
cloud management
platforms in industry
(Java/C/Python)
Simple development environment,
complete tools
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