Title Here Electricity, Magnetism and… Survival

Title Here Electricity, Magnetism and… Survival
3/1/2015
Here
Electricity,Title
Magnetism
and…
Survival
Author
Steve Constantinides,
Director of Technology
Venue
Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Corporation
Date
March 1, 2015
1
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
[email protected]
What we do…
Performance materials enabling energy efficiency
Magnet Production &
Fabrication
Permanent Magnet Assemblies
• Rare Earth Samarium Cobalt (RECOMA®)
• Alnico • Injection molded • Flexible Rubber
• Precision Component Assembly
• Tooling, Machining, Cutting, Grinding
• Balancing
• Sleeving
High Performance Motors
• Smaller, Faster, Hotter motors
• Power dense package
• High RPM magnet containment
• >200°C Operation
Precision Thin Metals
• Specialty Alloys from 0.000069”
• Sheets, Strips, & Coils
• Milling, Annealing, Coating, Slitting
• ARNON® Motor Lamination Material
• Light‐weighting ~1.75 microns
Engineering | Consulting | Testing Stabilization & Calibration | Distribution
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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3/1/2015
Agenda
• Energy and Magnetism
• Permanent Magnets and Motors
• Applications
• Soft magnetic materials
• Future of magnetic materials
3
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Energy in-Efficiency
25.8
38.2
65% is waste energy
60.6%
Lost
Energy
39.4%
“Useful”
Delivered
Energy
Additional losses
at end use applications
A quad is a unit of energy equal to 1015 (a short-scale quadrillion) BTU, or 1.055 × 1018 joules (1.055 exajoules or EJ) in SI units.
4
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Renewable Energy Electricity Generation (USA)
U.S.
4.8% of total production
CHP= Combined Heat & Power
Annual Energy Outlook 2014 with projections to 2040, U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo
5
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Overall Electric Generation - USA
Annual Energy Outlook 2014 with projections to 2040, p.MT-16, U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Fuel used for production of electricity - 2012
We use the fuels which are available to us
International Energy Agency: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/keyworld2014.pdf
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Electricity and magnetic materials
What is the role of magnetic materials?
They facilitate the efficient…
Conversion of mechanical into electrical energy
Both soft and permanent magnetic materials
Transmission of electrical energy
Primarily soft magnetic materials
Conversion of electrical into mechanical energy
Both soft and permanent magnetic materials
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Spectrum
of magnetic
materials
M. A. Willard, “Stronger, Lighter, and More Energy Efficient: Challenges of Magnetic Material Development for Vehicle Electrification” Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading‐Edge Engineering from the 2012 Symposium, National Academies Press: Washington, DC (2013) pp. 57‐63. 9
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Agenda
• Energy and Magnetism
• Permanent Magnets and Motors
• Applications
• Soft magnetic materials
• Future of magnetic materials
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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3/1/2015
Ferrite magnet use
Greater than 88% of all permanent magnets on a weight basis.
Motors ‐ Automotive
Motors ‐ Appliances
Motors ‐ HVAC
Motors ‐ Industrial & Commercial
Motors ‐ All Other
Loudspeakers
Separation Equipment
Advertising & Promotional Products
Holding & Lifting
MRI
Relays & Switches
All Other ‐ Miscellaneous
18%
13%
13%
12%
5%
9%
5%
5%
5%
3%
1%
11%
70% in
motors
Source: Numerous including Benecki, Clagett and Trout, personal communications with industrial partners, conferences, suppliers, etc.
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Rare Earth magnet use (2010)
Greater than 65% of all permanent magnets on a $$ basis.
Motors, industrial, general auto, etc
HDD, CD, DVD
Electric Bicycles
Transducers, Loudspeakers
Magnetic Separation
MRI
Torque-coupled drives
Sensors
Generators
Hysteresis Clutch
Air conditioning compressors and fans
Energy Storage Systems
Wind Power Generators
Gauges
Magnetic Braking
Relays and Switches
Pipe Inspection Systems
Hybrid & Electric Traction Drive
Reprographics
Wave Guides: TWT, Undulators, Wigglers
Unidentified and All Other
24.0%
16.3%
8.4%
8.1%
4.6%
3.9%
3.3%
3.1%
3.0%
2.8%
2.4%
2.3%
1.9%
1.5%
1.5%
1.3%
0.9%
0.8%
0.6%
0.3%
6.6%
Motor-type
applications = 67%
Updated June 2014
Source: Numerous including Benecki, Clagett and Trout, personal communications with industrial partners, conferences, suppliers, etc.
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Motors and Generators
The Electric
Motor
Electric Motor
Family Family
Linear
Limited Motion
Speaker
Actuator
AC
True Motor
Induction
Polyphase
Train
Weapons
DC
Synchronous
Shunt
Single Phase
Series
AC-DC
Single/
Polyphase
Shaded Pole
Wound Rotor
Conventional
Construction
Split Field
Capacitor
Permanent
Split Capacitor
Moving Coil
DC Torquer
Brushless
DC Motor
Steppers
Wound Field
Hysteresis
Capacitor Start
Compound
Basket Weave
Multiple Speed
Pole Switching
Reluctance
Squirrel Cage
Hybrid
Permanent Magnet
Two Capacitor
Permanent Magnet
Permanent Magnet
• There are many different types
of motors
• Only some of these use
permanent magnets
Synchronous
Phase-locked Loop
Variable
Frequency
Reluctance
Inverter Driven
Small Angle
Synchronous
Induction
Reluctance
Wound Rotor
Stator Control
Permanent Magnet
Permanent Magnet
Electronic
Commutation
Rotor Control
• Virtually all use soft magnetic alloys
• Sophisticated electronics now power many motors
Based on: Rollin J. Parker, Advances in Permanent Magnetism, Figure 7.26, Motor family tree
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Electric Motors
to very big
Switched Reluctance Motors
and their Control, p.154
T.J.E. Miller
From very small
14
Maxon
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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World electricity consumption
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Electricity consumption by motors
“…~57% of the generated electric energy in the United
States is utilized [consumed] by electric motors powering
industrial equipment. In addition, more than 95% of an
electric motor’s life-cycle cost is the energy cost.”
The Next Generation Motor, IEEE Industry Applications, January / February 2008, p.37
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Agenda
• Energy and Magnetism
• Permanent Magnets and Motors
• Applications
• Soft magnetic materials
• Future of magnetic materials
17
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Illustration from Hitachi Magnetics
Automotive Motors & Actuators
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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ICE Vehicle Energy Budget
100 units of input energy result in only 13 units of
usable propulsion energy
Fuel Energy
Inertia & Braking ….. 8%
Aerodynamic drag …….. 2%
Rolling resistance …………..3%
12%
Pumping
losses
13% To Wheels
9%
Transmission
1%
3%
Accessories
Driveline
friction
25%
Cooling
system
37%
Exhaust
heat
Adapted from - Direct Conversion of Heat to Electricity, T.A. Keim and I. Celanovic, Convergence 2008
And from - Energy Storage in Transportation, Dr. J.M. Miller, presentation at Florida State University
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Comparison of Traction Drive Motor Technologies
Cost ($/kW)
Permanent
Magnet
Motor
Induction
Motor
Reluctance
Motor
$$$
$$
$
Power density (kW/L)
Highest
Moderate
Moderate
Specific power (kW/kg)
Highest
Moderate
Moderate
Efficiency (%)
Best
Good
Better
Noise and vibration
Good
Good
Unacceptable
Difficult
Mature
Easy
Minimal
Significant
Manufacturability
Potential for technical improvement
for automotive applications
Significant
Comparison of traction drive motor topologies – L. Marlino, ORNL
Electric traction drive motor
4-cylinder ICE
20
Wikipedia:
English Toyota 1NZ-FXE 1.5L Straight-4 Engine and Electric-Drive Motor
Date
22 August 2008
Source Own work
Author
Hatsukari715
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Alternative Powertrain Types
Examples
HEV
Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Uses both an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to propel the vehicle.
PHEV
Plug‐In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
Plugs into the electric grid to charge battery ‐ is similar to a pure hybrid and also utilizes an internal combustion engine.
EREV
Volt
Battery Electric Vehicle BEV)
Powered exclusively by electricity from it's on‐board battery, charged by plugging into the grid
FCEV
Fuel Cell (Electric) Vehicle (FCEV)
Converts the chemical energy from a fuel, such as hydrogen, into electricity.
21
Plug‐in Prius
Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV)
Operates as a battery electric vehicle for a certain number of miles and switches to an internal combustion engine when the battery is depleted.
BEV
Prius
Leaf; Tesla Model S
Honda FCX Clarity; Hyundai Tuscon
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Steve’s Forecast - USA market
Market growth
Technology turbulence
4.3%
4.3%
5.2%
3.8%
21.7%
60.6%
1-year intervals
22
5-year intervals
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Wind Energy
Charles Francis Brush wind mill from 1888
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GE Gen-4 Permanent magnet generator
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Cumulative installed utility-scale wind power
Through December 2013
Sources: http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/GWEC-Global-Wind-Report_9-April-2014.pdf
and http://www.gwec.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/GWEC-PRstats-2013_EN.pdf
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Types and Locations of Installations
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Offshore Turbine development
BDFIG Brushless doubly-fed induction generator
CGFRE Carbon & glass-fibre reinforced epoxy
DD Direct drive
DFIG Doubly-fed induction generator
EESG Electrically excited synchronous generator
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GFRE Glass-fibre reinforced epoxy
HH Hub height
HSG/LSG High-speed geared/Low-speed geared
IG Induction generator
MSG medium-speed geared
PMG permanent magnet generator
PCVS Pitch-controlled variable-speed
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Energy Storage
• Complements renewable sources of energy
– Storage of wind power output when demand is low
– Storage of solar energy produced during the day for use in the evening
and at night
• Provides for rapid-on peak shaving
• Provides a more distributed power input to the grid
• Reduce the need for major new transmission grid upgrades;
augment existing transmission and distribution assets.
– 70% of transmission lines are 25 years or older,
– 70% of power transformers are 25 years or older,
– 60% of circuit breakers are more than 30 years old
• Energy storage for EVs
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Energy Storage
• Batteries
• Super-capacitors
• Pumped storage
• Flywheel energy
storage
Energy Storage Opportunities
www.intechopen.com
www.dnvgl.com
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Agenda
• Energy and Magnetism
• Motors
• Applications
• Soft magnetic materials
• Future of magnetic materials
29
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Electrical steel for transformers and motors
Handbook of Small Electric Motors
Switched Reluctance Motors and their Control, p.154 T.J.E. Miller
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Loss Variables by Categories
Input Variables-1
Input Variables-2
Frequency
1:
Hysteresis
2:
Eddy Current
3:
Laminations
4:
Magnetostriction
5:
Material & Resistivity
Loss contributors
Loss
Eddy Current Loss
Heat
Skin Effect
Applied field strength
Hysteresis
(max perm, Hc, Bsat)
Field Orientation
Hysteretic Loss
Loss
Hysteresis
Lamination Thickness
Resistivity (Material)
Anomolous Loss
Resistance (Interlam)
a.k.a. Excess Loss
Stacking Factor
Energy Transfer
("Efficiency")
Lam Insul Thickness
Lam flatness
Winding Arrangement
Interlam vibration
(Noise)
Magnetostriction
Thermal characteristics
(Material)
Electrical Coil Resistance
Mechanical Friction
31
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Comparing Material Properties
Utopia
Bs (Saturation Induction), kGauss
25.0
Cobalt-Iron
Silicon-Iron
Iron
20.0
Carbon-Steels
Iron
Powder
Cores
15.0
Nickel-Iron
Alloys
50% Ni
Amorphous
10.0
Ni-Fe
Powder
Cores
80% Ni
1.0
Soft Magnetic
Ferrites
0
0
0.01
0.1
1.0
10.0
100.0
Coercivity, HcB (A/cm)
32
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Material Options & Applications
1 GHz
Utopia
10GHz
Soft Magnetic Materials
Applications
100 MHz
Microwave Circulators, Broadband Transformers, Radar,
Communication Transceivers
Ni-Zn
Ferrite
Frequency
10 MHz
Ferrite Antenna Rods, Impedence Matching Transformers, EMI
Supression Beads, Cable Shields, Filter Inductors, RF Power
Amplifiers, Wireless Communication Equipment
Sendust
1 MHz
Nanocrystalline
Ni Tape
100 kHz
EMI & RFI Filters, Broadband Baluns & Transformers for DSL &
Modems, ISDN, Flyback Transformers for Televisions & Computer
Monitors, Switchmode Power Supplies, Regulators for Battery Powered
Devices
Railroad Signaling, Audio Transformers, Medical CT & NMR Scanners,
Switchmode Power Transformers, Filters, Chokes, UPS , Industrial
Control Transformers, Electronic Ballast
10 kHz
1 kHz
100 Hz
Mn-Zn
Ferrite
Si Tape
Si-Fe
Laminations
DC
Audio frequency Transformers, Instrumentation Transformers,
Telephone Line Interface Transformers for Modems, Speaker
Crossover Networks
MPP
Iron
Powder
50% Ni-Fe
Powder
Amorphous
Aircraft (400hz) Power Transformers, Resonant Inductors for lighting,
Industrial Power Control, Current Transformers
Cobalt Tape
Ni Laminations
Distribution, Welding and Ferroresonant Transformers,
Electromagnetic Ballasts, Power Inductors, Motors, Generators,
Relays
Cost Per Unit Volume
33
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Metglas®
Key End Applications:
Key Products:
Metglas®
Amorphous Metals
Glassy Metals
Transformer Core Alloys
Metglas Brazing Filler Metal
Distribution Transformer Core Ribbon
Industrial Transformer Core Ribbon
Pulse Power Cores
Characteristic
Bsat
Max. Permeability, µmax
Electrical Resistivity
Magnetostriction
Curie Temperature
Unit
Tesla
n/a
µΩ∙cm
%•10‐6
°C
2605SA1
Iron‐based
1.56
300,000
130
27
395
Electrical Distribution Transformers
Industrial Power Distribution Transformers
Material for Anti -Theft tags
High Efficiency Inverters and Inductors
Solar Inverters, Wind Inverters
Harmonic Filters
Pulse Power Cores for Lasers
High Power Magnetic Forms for Medical Use
High Purity Brazing Filler Metals
2605HB1M
Iron‐based
1.63
300,000
120
27
364
2605SA3
Iron‐based
1.41
35,000
138
20
358
2714A
2826MB
Cobalt‐based Nickel‐based
0.57
0.88
1,000,000
800,000
142
138
<0.5
12
225
353
http://www.metglas.com/metglas_company_history/overview/
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Nanoperm® is a registered trademark of Magnetec GmbH
Nano-crystalline
35
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Agenda
• Energy and Magnetism
• Permanent Magnets and Motors
• Applications
• Soft magnetic materials
• Future of magnetic materials
36
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Magnet Price versus Energy Product
Maximum Energy Product, MGOe
70
Utopia
60
50
Neo,
sintered
40
30
SmCo, sintered
20
Bonded Neo, anisotropic
Ferrite,
sintered
10
Ferrite,
bonded
Alnico, cast
Bonded Neo, isotropic
0
0
Bonded SmFeN
Alnico,
sintered
50
100
150
200
Average Selling Price, $/kg
37
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Origin of the Field
Hans Bethe
• Heisenberg: quantum
theory explanation for
ferromagnetism
Exchange Interaction
Bethe-Slater Curve
Exchange integral (J)
Keywords:
Ferromagnetic
Anti-ferromagnetic
In physics, the exchange interaction is a quantum
mechanical effect which increases or decreases
the expectation value of the energy or distance
between two or more identical particles when
their wave functions overlap.
Atomic spacing (a)
Heavy Math - - Use with Caution
Radius of incomplete shell (r)
38
John C. Slater
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Slater-Pauling Curve
(Atomic Moment in Bohr Magnetons)
John C. Slater
Linus Pauling
R.M. Bozorth, Ferromagnetism, IEEE, 1993, p.438-441
39
Color-edited by Dr. Bill McCallum, Ames Lab
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Elements in Existing Magnetic Materials
Major constituents
Minor constituents Comments
Soft Magnetic Materials
Iron
Silicon Steel
Nickel‐Iron
Moly Permalloy
Iron‐Cobalt
Soft Ferrite
Metallic Glasses
Fe
Fe
Fe
Ni
Fe
Fe
Fe
Ni
Fe
Co
Mn
Co
Co‐Steels
Alnico
Platinum Cobalt
Hard Ferrites
SmCo
Neodymium‐iron‐boron
Cerium‐iron‐boron
SmFeN
Fe
Fe
Pt
Fe
Co
Fe
Fe
Fe
Co
Ni
Co
Sr
Sm
Nd
Nd
Sm
MnBi
MnAl(C)
Mn
Mn
Bi
Al
Low carbon mild steel
Si at 2.5 to 6%
Ni at 35 to 85%
Ni at 79%, Mo at 4%, bal. Fe
23 to 52% Co
Si
Ni
Ni
Zn
Co
Al
Cu
(Gd) Fe
Dy
(Y)
Ce
B
N
Cu
B
Mo
V
O
B
Si
Ti
Si
P
Amorphous and nanocrystalline
Permanent Magnets
40
Oxygen dilutes; Ba no longer used
Zr
Co
Cu
Ga
Al
Nb
Limited use in bonded magnets
Nitrogen is interstitial; stability issue
C
Never commercialized
Not successfully commercialized
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
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Elements in existing magnetic materials
These
materials
have
investigated
for anMaterials
extended
Elements
used
inbeen
Existing
Magnetic
period of time
Group 1
IA
1
1.00794
H
1
Hydrogen
2
IIA
1s1
+1,-1
3
6.941
Li
2
11
Lithium
Beryllium
[He] 2s1
+1
[He] 2s2
+2
22.9898
12
21
44.9559
Sc
22
5
VB
47.867
Ti
23
50.9415
V
24
51.9961
Cr
25
8
VIII
54.938
Cobalt
[Ar] 3d7 4s2
+2,3
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
+2,3,4
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
+2,3,4,5
[Ar] 3d5 4s1
+2,3,6
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
+2,3,4,7
Ba
[Xe] 6s1
+1
88
226
Ra
Radium
[Rn] 7s1
+1
[Rn] 7s2
+2
Lanthanides
Francium
Actinide
Series
57
138.906
178.49
Hf
Hafnium
92.9064
Nb
Niobium
42
180.948
Ta
Tantalum
43
74
183.84
W
Tungsten
98
Tc
Technetium
[Kr] 4d5 5s1
+6
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
+3,5
73
95.94
Mo
Molybdenum
44
186.207
101.07
Ru
45
Re
190.23
192.217
Ir
Osmium
63.546
Nickel
Copper
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
+2,3
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
+1,2
[Ar] 3d10 4s2
+2
46
106.42
47
107.868
Pd
Ag
Palladium
[Kr] 4d10
+2,4
78
79
196.967
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
+2
80
Hg
Au
Platinum
200.59
Gold
Mercury
[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
+5
+6
[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
+4,67
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
+3,4
+3,4
[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
+1,2
+2,4
+1,3
104
105
107
108
110
261
Rutherfordium
Dubnium
IVB
+4
58
140.116
Ce
La
262
Db
106
140.908
Pr
Nd
61
109
Meitnerium
62
Pm
150.36
Sm
63
281
111
Ds
VIIIB
0
151.964
Eu
272
Rg
Darmstadtium Roentgenium
VIIIB
0
VIIIB
0
145
268
Mt
Hassium
VIIB
0
144.24
277
Hs
Bohrium
VIB
0
60
264
Bh
Seaborgium
VB
0
59
266
Sg
64
112
Copernicium
65
Gd
158.925
Tb
66
Dy
Fluorine
Neon
VIA
-2
VIIA
-1
VIIIA
0
14
28.0855
Si
15
30.9736
32
32.065
S
VA
+3,5/-3
72.64
33
Ge
35.453
34
35
VIIIA
0
79.904
Selenium
114.818
50
118.71
In
Sn
Indium
51
121.76
Sb
Tin
Antimony
52
127.6
53
Te
126.904
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
+3
+2,4
+3,5/-3
+4,6/-2
+1,5,7/-1
0
81
204.383
82
207.2
[Hg] 6p1
+1,3
113
n/a
Uut
Ununtrium
67
83
Pb
Tl
Thallium
208.98
Bi
Lead
Bismuth
[Hg] 6p2
+2,4
[Hg] 6p3
+3,5
114
289
115
Uuq
Ununquadium Ununpentium
Ho
68
209
116
Er
69
210
At
Astatine
Ununhexium
117
Tm
70
173.04
Yb
0
0
0
0
71
174.967
Lu
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium
[Xe] 4f6 6s2
+2,3
[Xe] 4f7 6s2
+2,3
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f9 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f10 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f12 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
+3
[Xe] 4f14 6s2
+2,3
[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
+3
231.036
Pa
Protactinium
92
238.029
U
Uranium
93
237
Np
Neptunium
94
244
Pu
Plutonium
95
243
Am
Americium
96
247
Cm
Curium
97
247
Bk
Berkelium
98
251
Cf
99
252
Es
Californium Einsteinium
100
257
Fm
Fermium
101
258
Md
102
259
No
Mendelevium Nobelium
n/a
Uuo
Ununoctium
Samarium
91
118
Ununseptium
[Xe] 4f5 6s2
+3
232.038
222
Rn
Radon
[Hg] 6p6
0
n/a
Uus
VIA
0
168.934
86
[Hg] 6p5
0
292
Uuh
0
0
167.259
85
Po
Polonium
[Hg] 6p4
+2,4
n/a
Uup
IVA
0
164.93
84
Promethium
Th
131.293
Xe
Xenon
[Xe] 4f4 6s2
+3
Thorium
54
Iodine
Neodymium
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
+4
Krypton
I
Tellurium
[Xe] 4f3 6s2
+3
90
83.798
Kr
Bromine
Praseodymium
227
36
Br
Cerium
Ac
39.948
Ar
Argon
VIIA
+1,5,7/-1
78.96
Se
Arsenic
18
Chlorine
VIA
+4,6/-2
74.9216
As
Germanium
17
Cl
Sulfur
Phosphorus
IVA
+2,4/-4
69.723
16
P
Silicon
[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
+3,4
[Rn] 6d1 7s2
+3
20.1797
Ne
Oxygen
[Xe] 5d1 6s2
+3
Actinium
10
VA
+1,2,3,4,5/-1,2,3
IIIA
0
162.5
VIIIA
0
18.9984
F
Nitrogen
26.9815
49
IIB
0
IB
0
157.25
285
Cn
9
IVA
+2,4/-4
Gallium
112.411
15.9994
O
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
+1,5/-1
+3
+2,4
+3,5/-3
+4,6/-2
0
Cadmium
[Kr] 4d10 5s1
+1
195.078
48
8
Carbon
Ga
Cd
Silver
14.0067
N
Helium
17
VIIA
IIIA
+3
31
Zinc
7
16
VIA
Boron
IIIA
+3
65.409
Zn
Pt
Iridium
30
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
+4
Rf
12.0107
C
Aluminum
12
IIB
Cu
[Kr] 4d8 5s1
+3
Os
Rhenium
102.906
Rh
77
29
Ni
Rhodium
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
+3
76
58.6934
Co
Ruthenium
[Kr] 4d5 5s2
+4,7
75
28
11
IB
15
VA
Lanthanum
89
41
41
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
+4
72
Lanthanide
Series
[Xe] 6s2
+2
223
Fr
91.224
Zirconium
137.327
Barium
40
Zr
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
+3
Cesium
87
88.9059
Y
[Kr] 5s2
+2
56
Cs
6
39
Yttrium
[Kr] 5s1
+1
132.905
87.62
Sr
Strontium
58.9332
Iron
Titanium
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
+3
38
27
[Ar] 3d6 4s2
+2,3
Scandium
85.4678
55.845
10
VIII
Fe
[Ar] 4s2
+2
Rb
26
9
VIII
Mn
Calcium
Rubidium
6
Al
7
VIIB
6
VIB
[Ar] 4s1
+1
55
7
40.078
Ca
13
Non-metals
Metalloids
4
IVB
Potassium
37
5
20
10.811
4.0026
He
14
IVA
B
Noble Gas
Halogens
Transitiion Metals
Rare Earth Metals
Poor Metals
3
IIIB
[Ne] 3s2
+2
39.0983
K
Actinides
Period
4
24.305
5
Synthetic
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Magnesium
[Ne] 3s1
+1
Solid
Categories
Mg
Sodium
19
Phase at STP
Gas
Liquid
9.01218
Be
Na
3
4
13
IIIA
18
VIIIA
2
103
262
Lr
Lawrencium
Dmitri Mendeleev
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Heusler Alloys
“A Heusler alloy is a ferromagnetic metal alloy based on a
Heusler phase. Heusler phases are intermetallics with
particular composition and face-centered cubic crystal
structure. They are ferromagnetic—even though the
constituting elements are not—as a result of the doubleexchange mechanism between neighboring magnetic
ions. The latter are usually manganese ions, which sit at
the body centers of the cubic structure and carry most of
the magnetic moment of the alloy.”
Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, J.M.D. Coey, p.394
Sources: Ferromagnetism, Richard M. Bozorth, IEEE Press, p.328; Wikipedia
42
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
21
3/1/2015
Sensitivity to Thermal Treatment
Affect of Thermal Treatment on
SmCo 2:17 Magnetic Properties
Source: Rare earth-Cobalt Permanent Magnets, K.J. Strnat, 1988
43
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Alnico Thermal Treatment, with field
Three treatments
• Solution treatment above 1200 °C
• Isothermal treatment for spinodal
decomposition and magnetic
alignment
• Draw (precipitation hardening)
cycle
Affect of Thermal Treatment in
an aligning magnetic field on
magnetic properties of alnico 5
Cooled in field
Cooled in
Zero field
Source: Magnetic Properties of Metals
and Alloys, published by the American
Society for Metals, 1958, Chapter 13,
C.D. Graham, Jr., p.307
Source: Investigations of Thermo-Magnetic Treatment of Alnico 8 Alloy, Stanek et al, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol 55, 2010 Issue 2
44
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
22
3/1/2015
Wrapping it up
• We require energy to survive and thrive. Demand
for energy will continue grow.
• Magnetism and magnetic materials are important in the
production, distribution and use of (electrical) energy.
• Several markets are dramatically changing and benefit
from the use of magnetic materials. Examples include
wind energy and transportation
• While recent focus has been on permanent magnets and
sensitivity to rare earth material supply, soft magnetic
materials are used at a rate of 20 to 25x that of permanent
magnets (weight basis) and are every bit as important to
motor efficiency and performance.
• Developing improved permanent and soft magnetic
materials presents a great challenge.
45
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
San
Antonio
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/earth/index.html
46
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
23
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