Tecplot Chorus User`s Manual - MIT

Tecplot Chorus User`s Manual - MIT
User’s Manual
Tecplot Chorus 2017 Release 1
Tecplot, Inc.
Bellevue, WA
2017
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17-C-01-1
Rev 1/2017
Table of Contents
1
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 7
Tecplot Chorus Fundamentals .......................................................................................8
Organizing Your Study....................................................................................................9
Tagging Image and Data Files........................................................................................10
Interface ...............................................................................................................................11
Menu Bar........................................................................................................................12
Toolbar ............................................................................................................................12
Sidebar ............................................................................................................................14
Workspace.......................................................................................................................14
Status..............................................................................................................................15
Sessions...........................................................................................................................15
Getting Help.......................................................................................................................16
2
Projects ............................................................................................................... 17
Welcome Screen ................................................................................................................18
Opening Projects ..............................................................................................................18
Creating Projects ...............................................................................................................18
Importing with the Delimited Text Reader ....................................................................19
Importing with the File Crawler ....................................................................................23
Appending To a Project ..................................................................................................28
Calculated Variables ........................................................................................................29
Expression Syntax ..........................................................................................................30
Changing Variable Nature ............................................................................................31
Removing Links to Files.................................................................................................31
Exporting Projects ............................................................................................................32
Modifying the Root Path ................................................................................................32
3
3
Exploring Your Results ............................................................................ 33
Context Menus in Views ................................................................................................34
Filters ....................................................................................................................................35
Null Value Filtering .......................................................................................................36
Managing Filters............................................................................................................37
Resetting Filters .............................................................................................................37
Matrix Views ......................................................................................................................37
Matrix View Properties ..................................................................................................38
Selecting Cases in a Matrix View...................................................................................39
Tag Groups .........................................................................................................................39
Scatter Plots ........................................................................................................................41
Scatter Plot Properties....................................................................................................42
Color Legend Dialog.......................................................................................................44
Zooming, Translating, and Rotating Scatter Plots........................................................45
Selecting Cases in a Scatter Plot ....................................................................................45
Line and Symbol Plots ....................................................................................................46
Zooming and Translating Line and Symbol Plots .........................................................47
Line and Symbol Plot Properties....................................................................................47
Selecting Cases in a Line or Symbol Plot .......................................................................47
Setting Axis Details..........................................................................................................48
Table Views ........................................................................................................................49
Constraint Visualization with Table Views ....................................................................49
Selecting Cases in a Table View ......................................................................................50
Editing Values ................................................................................................................50
Deleting Variables...........................................................................................................50
Deleting Cases ................................................................................................................50
Table View Properties......................................................................................................51
Selected Cases Sidebar ....................................................................................................51
Constraint Visualization with the Selected Cases Sidebar .............................................52
4
Analyzing Individual Cases .................................................................. 53
Viewing Images ................................................................................................................53
Image Viewer Controls ...................................................................................................54
Image Viewer Properties .................................................................................................54
Removing Cases from the View ......................................................................................55
Exporting Images ...........................................................................................................55
Showing Image Differences ............................................................................................55
Viewing Data .....................................................................................................................56
The Chorus Sidebar ........................................................................................................59
Creating Images ................................................................................................................60
Creating Data Files ..........................................................................................................63
Extracting Variables from Data Files .........................................................................63
Recording an Analysis Macro ........................................................................................64
Custom Actions ................................................................................................................65
5
Surrogate Models ........................................................................................ 67
Getting Started with Surrogate Models ....................................................................68
Minimum Number of Cases ...........................................................................................68
Using a Surrogate Model ...............................................................................................69
4
Training the Model .........................................................................................................69
Surrogate Model in Line Plots .....................................................................................70
Exporting Derived Data from a Line Plot......................................................................71
Surrogate Model in 3D Scatter Plots ..........................................................................72
Exporting Derived Data from a 3D Scatter Plot ...........................................................73
Exporting Surface Coefficients from a 3D Scatter Plot .................................................73
Setting the Evaluation Point .........................................................................................73
Setting the Evaluation Point from a Selected Case ........................................................74
Setting Range and Sampling ........................................................................................74
Appendices
A
Loading Other Data Formats .............................................................. 79
Editing a Loader Description .......................................................................................80
Creating Other Loader Descriptions..........................................................................80
Multiple Instruction Templates ...................................................................................81
XML Schema ......................................................................................................................81
Alternative Method .........................................................................................................81
Creating the Macro File..................................................................................................82
Viewing The Data Files ..................................................................................................83
B
Actions ................................................................................................................. 85
Enabling the Example Actions .....................................................................................85
Configuring the Example Actions ..............................................................................86
ExtractDataWithTecplot360.py......................................................................................86
OpenWithParaview.py ...................................................................................................86
Creating Your Own Actions .........................................................................................87
C
Configuration .................................................................................................. 89
ImageListViewStylesheet, ImageTableViewStylesheet .......................................89
D
License Management ............................................................................... 91
Entering Your License .....................................................................................................91
Evaluation License Setup ...............................................................................................93
Single-User License Setup Using An Activation Code .................................................93
Single-User License Setup Using A License File ...........................................................94
Network License Setup ...................................................................................................95
License Roaming ..............................................................................................................95
Starting Roaming ...........................................................................................................96
Ending Roaming.............................................................................................................96
RLM_ROAM .................................................................................................................96
E
Glossary ............................................................................................................. 99
Index .....................................................................................................................109
5
6
1
Introduction
Tecplot Chorus provides a robust framework for managing CFD projects, such as parametric studies, that
require multiple simulation cases with tools to evaluate the results. You can evaluate overall system
performance and visually compare tens or thousands of simulation cases in a single environment, helping
you make decisions faster and with more confidence than ever before.
7
Introduction
Tecplot Chorus’s flexible data management system and sophisticated analysis and collaboration tools
work equally well with a handful of cases or thousands, letting you quickly discover trends and anomalies
even in large studies and giving you deeper insight than ever before into the underlying physical
phenomena.
With Tecplot Chorus, you can:
• Gather metadata, data, and images from the names of the folders in your solver output or from
generated CSV (comma-separated value) files, and append new data whenever additional
cases are available or when variables or auxiliary files are added.
• View your cases in a variety of layouts, or even in more than one layout at a time, and filter
cases to quickly locate the ones you’re interested in. Use the plot views to help communicate
your results to others.
• Compare images and data files from multiple cases and highlight the differences among them.
• Perform “deep dives” using the full power of Tecplot 360 EX to inspect, visualize, and analyze
the raw data for one or more cases.
• Generate new images or data files for some or all cases from the raw data.
• Create a surrogate model to fill in the gaps between your cases, helping you to better visualize
your results. Data from the surrogate model can be exported.
Tecplot Chorus never modifies your data. Any information you create is stored in the
Tecplot Chorus project, or in folders separate from your original files.
1-1
Tecplot Chorus Fundamentals
Tecplot Chorus organizes your results into projects. (See Chapter 2: “Projects”.) A project typically
corresponds to a single parametric CFD study you have performed; this is not, however, a requirement.
There might also be situations in which you would want to create more than one Tecplot Chorus project
from a single CFD study or to create one project combining multiple studies.
A Tecplot Chorus project contains not the complete data from each CFD case, but the independent
variables (parameters) given to the solver, and the dependent variables (outputs) generated by the solver.
Additionally, the project contains links to images and data files associated with each case, if any.
Projects are stored in a file with a name ending in .chprj. This file may be located on a network for easy
access by members of a team; however, only one user can use the project at a time.
The input parameters and result variables for each case (often referred to as metadata) are imported to a
project either by reading a CSV file or by extracting values from the names of the folders in which the
cases are stored—or both techniques may be used. If you run additional cases, Tecplot Chorus can update
the project with just the data from the new cases.
Once you have created a project and imported metadata from your study into it, you can view the results
of your study in a number of ways (see Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results”).
• Table - A spreadsheet-like table showing you the values of independent and dependent
variables for all cases.
• Matrix - A grid view that shows you an image of each case for combinations of two or three
variables. (If you don’t have such images, Tecplot Chorus can make them for you as a batch
operation, applying any desired visual style.)
• Plots - Various graphical representations of the relationships between dependent and
independent variables in your study, including a line/symbol plot, a 2D scatter plot, and a 3D
scatter plot.
8
Tecplot Chorus Fundamentals
These views are readily filterable, so you can easily home in on the cases you’re interested in. You can
select one or more cases and view any images associated with them, or see the differences between cases
based on their images, and do a “deep dive” into the solution’s full data set by opening it in Tecplot 360
EX. (See Chapter 4: “Analyzing Individual Cases”)
Tecplot Chorus can also generate a surrogate model that helps fill in the gaps between your cases to help
you detect trends and anomalies (see Chapter 5: “Surrogate Models”). Data from this model may be
exported and used to help predict, refine, or sanity-check future cases in the study.
1 - 1.1
Organizing Your Study
Tecplot Chorus works best when all of the image and data files related to a study are organized into
folders inside a single hierarchy, with all of the files related to a single case in the same folder. Tecplot
Chorus will import your data in one of the following ways:
• By reading variable values and auxiliary file names from a comma-separated value (CSV) file.
It may be possible to configure your solver to generate such a file, or you may use additional
software or scripts to generate the CSV file during a post-processing step.
Each row in a CSV file should contain input and output variable values for one case. Columns
containing solely numeric data are taken to be variables. (The text “NaN,” meaning “Not a
Number,” is also accepted in otherwise numeric columns to indicate an invalid or missing
value.) Additional text columns may specify paths to associated image and data files or may be
used for metadata such as dates, names, and notes.
If you are using only CSV files to import data into Tecplot Chorus, it is not strictly necessary
that all your image and data files be in a single folder hierarchy as long as the CSV file contains
the complete path of such files starting from the filesystem root (Liunx) or a drive or network
location (Windows). However, we recommend using paths relative to a project root folder so
that you can easily move the project elsewhere if desired.
Even if you use absolute paths, you will still need to designate a “root folder” for your project
to tell Tecplot Chorus where to store any files it generates.
• By reading variable values from folder or file names and by finding image and data files based
on their names. For this to work, your solver must be able to deposit results using folder or file
names based on the names and values of each case’s input variables. For example, the result
data file for a given case might be in a hierarchy of folders such that its complete path looks
like this:
.../Mach_0.1/Alpha_10/Beta_15/result.dat
It is also acceptable if your solver creates folders at a single level rather than in a hierarchy, as
long as the paths contain the required independent variable names and values, such as:
.../Mach0.1_Alpha10_Beta15/result.dat
Tecplot Chorus can extract the values of the parameters Mach, Alpha, and Beta from either
style of folder structure for each case in your study, and relate each data and image file to a
specific case based on the parameter values from the file path.
• Using some combination of CSV files and folder/file names. For example, it may be convenient
to extract independent variables (input parameters) and find image and data files using the
folder hierarchy, while using a CSV file to specify dependent variables (outputs or results from
the solver). You will need to import these in two steps, but Tecplot Chorus will match up the
data from both sources based on the input parameters for each case. Similarly, you can import
multiple CSV files, which may contain different cases, different variables for the same cases,
linked data or image files, or a combination of these.
9
Introduction
1 - 1.2
Tagging Image and Data Files
Each external file image or data file is identified by a tag, rather than by file name, within Tecplot Chorus.
This way, images or data files that have the same sort of content, but whose filenames vary, can be brought
together under a single identifier—the tag—in your project. When comparing images or data files, only
files having the same tag may be compared.
For example, you might tag files as Data, Image and/or Layout if you have only one of each kind of file. If
you have multiple images, you could tag them Pressure Contour, Streaklines, and so on, according to what
they show. The tagging scheme you use is entirely up to you.
Tags cannot be changed once they have been added to a project, although they can be removed and readded. A few moments’ consideration when linking image and data files can make things go more
smoothly, especially when you will be working with others on analyzing your results.
It is not required that every case in a project have an associated file for each tag. For example, if you only
have contour images for some of your cases, you could still assign these images a tag called “Contour
Image” without error. The tag would merely be unavailable for cases that do not have an associated
contour image.
For some kinds of data, it is possible to associate more than one file with a tag, and in some cases it is
required. The following types of files are limited to one file having a given tag per case:
• Images (.jpg, .png files)
• Tecplot layouts (.lay files)
• Tecplot layout packages (.lpk files)
Some non-Tecplot data formats, such as Fluent and PLOT3D, use two physical files per data set, one for
the coordinates and one for the rest of the variables. In this case, you must give both files the same tag
when adding them to the project so that Tecplot Chorus will know they should be opened together when
you view the case’s data.
For more information on working with non-Tecplot data formats, see “Loading Other
Data Formats” on page 79.
When you append new data to a project, you may not use a tag that already exists in the project if any of
the cases with which you associate new files already have any files with that tag.
Although only one image file per case may be associated with a tag, you may create a tag group to collect
related images together. Tag groups provide an easy way of viewing related images in some Tecplot
Chorus windows and also allow you to specify the order in which images in the group appear in those
views.
10
Interface
1-2
Interface
The main Tecplot Chorus user interface is divided into five sections.
• Menu bar - Pull-down menus at the top of the screen that provide access to Tecplot Chorus
features. (See Section 1 - 2.1 “Menu Bar”.)
• Toolbar - A row of buttons just below the menu bar that provide one-click access to commonlyused Tecplot Chorus features. (See Section 1 - 2.2 “Toolbar”.)
• Sidebar - Initially displayed on the left side of the Tecplot Chorus window, contains the Filter
panel for filtering data and the Properties panel for changing the settings of various types of
plot and view windows. These panels can be moved independently to the right edge of the
window or moved out of the window entirely (for example, to a second display).
• Workspace - The largest section of the main Tecplot Chorus window holds sub-windows that
show various analysis views of your projects. You can have multiple sub-windows open at a
time and move, resize, and tile them. They can also be moved outside the main window if
desired.
• Status - A line at the bottom of the Tecplot Chorus window that displays information about
what the program is working on at the moment. When a project is open, it also shows the
status of background jobs and provides easy access to the Manage Jobs feature.
11
Introduction
1 - 2.1
Menu Bar
The Tecplot Chorus menu bar appears at the top of the workspace and is divided into five broad classes of
functionality.
• File - Open and save session files (see Section 1 - 2.6 “Sessions”). Create or open projects (see
Chapter 2: “Projects”). View the Dashboard (see Section 2 - 1 “Welcome Screen”). Exit Tecplot
Chorus.
• Edit - Undo and redo actions.
• View - Open various types of views of your project (see Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results”).
Also reset any of these to their default settings. Show or hide the sidebar panels.
• Project - Manage the current project (see Chapter 2: “Projects”). Append additional data; set
root path; change variable nature. Calculate new variables from existing ones. Export data
from the project. Remove links to auxiliary files.
• Surrogate Model - Change surrogate model settings (see Chapter 5: “Surrogate Models”).
• Help - Get help with Tecplot Chorus. Edit licensing details and display information about the
product.
We recommend taking a few moments the first time you use Tecplot Chorus to familiarize yourself with
the menus.
1 - 2.2
Toolbar
The Tecplot Chorus tool bar, positioned by default just below the menu bar, provides single-click access to
commonly-used features and views. From left to right, the buttons are divided into three categories.
The toolbar can be dragged out of the main Tecplot Chorus window using the “handle” at
its left edge. The toolbar can be “docked” at any edge of the window (not just the top)
by dragging it near the window edge. Docking the toolbar to the right or left edge of the
window can be a convenient layout for users with wide-screen displays.
Session Management
Allows you to load and save your active session in a file. A session (.chses file) stores information about the
open project, all open windows, and the state of the Tecplot Chorus user interface, so when you reopen it
you are right back where you were when you saved it. See Section 1 - 2.6 “Sessions” for more information.
Open Session
Save Session
12
Interface
Project Analysis
Give you various views of the results in your projects. See Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results” for more
information.
You may have any number of any of these plots and views open simultaneously, subject
only to the limits of your operating system, available memory, and good taste.
New Matrix View (see Section 3 - 3 “Matrix Views”)
New 3D Scatter Plot (see Section 3 - 5 “Scatter Plots”)
New 2D Scatter Plot (see Section 3 - 5 “Scatter Plots”)
New Line or Symbol Plot (see Section 3 - 6 “Line and Symbol Plots”)
New Table View (see Section 3 - 8 “Table Views”)
View Management
Tile Windows - Tidy up your plot and view windows so you can see all of them.
This tool is available only when at least one plot or view window is open.
Select - Lets you select individual cases or groups of cases in plots and other data views.
Hold the Control key while clicking to toggle the selection status of the clicked case.
Drag a rectangle or (in some views) hold Shift while clicking to select groups of cases.
Hold the Control key while dragging to add the chosen items to (or remove them from)
the existing selection rather than making a new selection.
Translate - Lets you move 3D plots within their window. For 2D and line plots, the axes
stay in place while the data moves (that is, the axes’ ranges change).
Rotate - Lets you rotate 3D plots. Not available for 2D or line plots.
Zoom - Lets you zoom in and out of plots.
• In 2D plots, drag a rectangle around a region you wish to fill the window; the axes stay
in place while the data moves (that is, the axes’ ranges change).
• In 3D plots, hold the right mouse button and drag the mouse up or down to zoom in or
out.
You may also zoom plots when any tool is active by placing the mouse pointer in the
window to be zoomed and moving the mouse’s scroll wheel.
13
Introduction
1 - 2.3
Sidebar
The Tecplot Chorus sidebar has two panels. These panels
may be dragged from the Tecplot Chorus main window to
make them independent windows that may then be
positioned anywhere on your computer’s displays. They
may also be docked to any edge of the main Tecplot Chorus
window in a manner much like the Toolbar. Although they
may be docked to the top and bottom edges, the left and
right edges are more useful places for them.
If you attempt to dock both sidebar panels in the same
location, Tecplot Chorus will display only one at a time, and
you can switch between them using tabs at the bottom of the
sidebar area.
The panels can also share space (drag one on top of the
other, but toward the top or bottom end), in which case you
can drag the divider between them to determine the
allocation of space between the two panels.
The available sidebar panels are:
• Filters - Sets the range of data displayed in plot, table, or matrix views (see Section 3 - 2
“Filters”) and the filters displayed.
• Properties - Sets options for plots and other views. The exact controls available depend on the
type of window that is active (a 3D Scatter Plot’s properties panel is shown here).
1 - 2.4
Workspace
The Tecplot Chorus workspace displays the views of the current project, including tables, matrixes, and
plots. From these windows, you can open additional windows, for example to view or compare images
from a case. These also appear in the workspace. Views of data files appear separately in Tecplot 360 EX.
Windows can be resized by dragging from the edges. The window’s title bar also includes the usual
buttons for closing, minimizing, and maximizing the window. (If a window is maximized, these buttons
are above the right edge of the toolbar.)
Any window may be freed from the workspace by dragging it out of the main Tecplot Chorus window. At
this point, it may be moved to another monitor, maximized to fill the screen, and so on. These windows
14
Interface
automatically appear in front of the main Tecplot Chorus window. Closing the emancipated window will
return it to the Tecplot Chorus workspace.
The
Tile Windows button makes all workspace windows visible by resizing and
positioning them so they do not overlap. Only windows in the Tecplot Chorus workspace
are tiled; windows you have dragged out of the main Tecplot Chorus window are not
affected.
1 - 2.5
Status
The Tecplot Chorus status line displays the name of the currently open project, along with progress
information for any background jobs currently in progress. The status bar appears when a project is active.
(It is not initially visible when you launch Tecplot Chorus.)
At the right end of the status bar is information on any background extraction jobs being performed by
Tecplot Chorus. Click Manage Jobs to see the status of individual jobs or to cancel a job (see Section 4 - 3
“Creating Images”). This button is not available when there are no active background jobs or when no
project is open. A green circle in the Manage Jobs button indicates that a background task has recently
completed and is ready for your attention.
1 - 2.6
Sessions
In Tecplot Chorus, a session refers to the current state of the software, including the current project, tag
groups you have defined, any open plots or views, and all surrogate model settings. Image difference
windows, however, are not part of the session.
15
Introduction
Sessions are useful for two different scenarios:
• Save a session when you quit Tecplot Chorus for the day, and pick up where you left off the
next time you use the software
• Save one or more sessions as “templates” for the views you typically work with, then start
using Tecplot Chorus by using one of these sessions
You may save your session to a .chses file by choosing File > Save Session or by clicking the
button
on the toolbar. When later opened using File > Open Session or the
button, Tecplot Chorus is
restored to its state at the time the session file was saved.
1-3
Getting Help
Tecplot Chorus includes the following documents to help you learn about the software.
• User’s Manual - Explains the product’s features and user interface.
• Getting Started Manual - Tutorials that will give you hands-on experience with the product.
• Release Notes - Late-breaking information on updated product features.
If you get stuck, don’t panic! Help is available right inside Tecplot Chorus. Simply choose Tecplot Chorus
Help from the Help menu to see a table of contents, or click the Help or ? button in any dialog or sidebar
that has one to get help for that part of the software.
If you have an active TecPLUS subscription, you may also call +1 425 653 9393 to reach Tecplot’s Technical
Support staff. Assistance is available by telephone from 6:30 A.M. to 5 P.M. Pacific. Our Technical Support
staff can also be reached at [email protected]
16
2
Projects
Tecplot Chorus manages the cases that make up your parametric CFD studies as projects. A project stores
your cases’ metadata (the input and result variables for each case) as well as all the information you create
in Tecplot Chorus. The project also contains links to auxiliary files associated with each case, such as
images and data.
Often, a project will comprise the cases for a single study, but this is not a requirement of Tecplot Chorus;
it is possible, and useful, to use projects to organize multiple related studies, or only a subset of the cases
in a study.
Each project you create in Tecplot Chorus is stored in a project file (extension .chprj). This file may be sent
to or shared with other Tecplot Chorus users to give them access to the project.
Tecplot Chorus does not copy your data files into the project; these files, and related files such as images
and layouts, can be stored on your workstation’s hard disk (if only you need access to them) or, more
commonly, in a network location accessible to everyone working on a study.
Make sure that everyone who will work on a project accesses the associated files using
the same path. On Windows, we recommend using a UNC path (starting with \\) rather
than a mapped drive letter; this way you don’t need to configure anything on the
individual workstations. There are often differences in how Linux and Windows
computers address network resources, so Tecplot Chorus works best when all members
of a team use the same operating system.
It is never necessary to explicitly save a project. Everything you do in Tecplot Chorus is saved as you work.
Your original data files are never modified.
17
Projects
2-1
Welcome Screen
The Welcome Screen is the screen that initially appears when you launch Tecplot Chorus. You can also
display the Welcome Screen at any time by choosing View > Welcome Screen.
The Welcome Screen lists sessions and projects you have recently worked with, along with useful
resources for learning about working with Tecplot Chorus. Simply click one of these to open it in Tecplot
Chorus and display a Table View of its data in the workspace.
You may also click the Create Project button to create a new project. See Section 2 - 3 “Creating Projects”
for more information.
2-2
Opening Projects
You can open a project in Tecplot Chorus in one of two ways.
• Recently-used projects appear in the Welcome Screen and can be opened from there. (See
Section 2 - 1 “Welcome Screen”.)
• You may also open a project by choosing File > Open Project (or by clicking Open Project in
the Welcome Screen) and selecting the project in the Open Session File dialog. Tecplot Chorus
projects have the filename extension .chprj.
2-3
Creating Projects
You can start creating Tecplot Chorus projects in three ways:
• By clicking the Create New button in the Welcome Screen (see Section 2 - 1 “Welcome Screen”)
• By choosing File > Create New Project
• By choosing File > Open CSV Project (a shortcut for creating a project from a commaseparated value file using the Delimited Text Reader; see note at Importing with the Delimited
Text Reader).
In either case, you will be asked to name and save the file using the Save Your Project File dialog. Then
Tecplot Chorus launches the Create Project wizard, a sequence of screens that guides you through the
steps in creating the project.
18
Creating Projects
Tecplot Chorus can import cases into the project using two different methods: by reading a delimited text
file (such as a CSV file) and by “crawling” a folder structure in which the files associated with each case
have been stored. The initial steps for creating a new project are the same regardless of which method you
use. Then you choose an importer, which determines the remainder of the steps.
If you need to go back to a previous step in the wizard, click the
button in the top
left corner of the window (Windows) or the Back button directly to the left of the Next
button (Linux).
Step 1 Select Data Importer
Choose how you wish to import your data on this page of the wizard.
• Delimited Text Reader - Reads variable values and names of auxiliary files from a delimited text
file—that is, one in which each line represents a case, and the variable values for each case are
separated by commas, white space, or another delimiter. A CSV (comma-separated value) file
is one type of delimited text file.
• File Crawler - Scans the folder structure that contains your auxiliary files, extracting variable
values from the names of files and folders and detecting each case’s auxiliary files by name.
The importer you will want to use depends largely on what solver you are using to process your cases and
which fits better with your methods and workflows.
After you choose your importer, the wizard continues to the next step automatically. The remaining steps
of the wizard are determined by the importer chosen. Continue with either Section 2 - 3.1 “Importing with
the Delimited Text Reader” or Section 2 - 3.2 “Importing with the File Crawler” as appropriate.
2 - 3.1
Importing with the Delimited Text Reader
The Delimited Text Reader reads variable values and names of auxiliary files from a CSV (commaseparated value) file or other delimited text file. The first row of the file must specify the name of each
variable.
The second row of the file may be used to specify a variable nature for each column. Each column of this
second header must contain one of the following values:
• Independent - The column is an independent (input or parameter) variable.
19
Projects
• Dependent - The column is a dependent (output or result) variable.
• Other - The column is data such as a note or comment about each case.
• Auxfile - The column is a link to an auxiliary file (external data or image file).
Values are not case-sensitive. If the second row of the file contains any values other than the above, that
row is taken to be the first row of data rather than the optional second header row.
If multiple columns in a delimited text file have the same variable name, these are
disambiguated upon import by appending a number in parentheses to the name of the
variable.
Subsequent rows should specify the variable values for each case, matching the order in the first row.
Columns containing solely numeric data are taken to be numeric variables. (The text “NaN,” meaning
“Not a Number,” is also accepted in otherwise numeric columns to indicate an invalid or missing value.)
In a later step, you will choose (or change, if this has already been specified in the second header) which
variables are dependent and independent, and which columns contain links to auxiliary files.
Excess whitespace is stripped when reading a delimited text file. For files not using tabs as a delimiter, this
includes tabs as well as spaces.
The file Example3.csv located in the sampledata/example3 directory of the Tecplot Chorus installation
illustrates the required format.
Perform the following steps when importing a delimited text file into a project.
If the file being imported uses commas as delimiters, i.e., it is a Comma-Separated
Value (CSV) file, you can use File > Open CSV Project to open it in a single step.
Tecplot Chorus automatically determines the type of each column and links auxiliary
files to the project where appropriate. The nature of any numeric variable is set to
Independent, but this may be changed after import; see “Changing Variable Nature” on
page 31.
The root path of the project is set to the directory containing the CSV file; your auxiliary
files should generally be in the same directory, or in subdirectories under it, though they
need not be. We recommend using auxiliary file paths relative to the root path wherever
possible, as this will make it easier to move the project if necessary; however, absolute
paths—those beginning with a drive letter or double-backslash (Windows) or a slash
(Linux)—are also accepted.
A new .chprj file is created in the root directory next to the CSV file with the same base
name. (If a .chprj file with this name already exists, you will be asked to name and save
the file.) You probably will open this file in the future, rather than the original CSV file.
You may invoke this feature when launching Tecplot Chorus from the command line
using the --csv-file flag; for example: chorus --csv-file my-data.csv. Tecplot Chorus
then opens the CSV file upon launch.
20
Creating Projects
Step 2 Select File
In this step of the wizard, select the file to be imported. Click the Browse button, then choose the file using
the Open dialog, and click Open. Then choose the delimiter that appears between columns (a comma for
CSV files) and click Next to proceed to the next step of the wizard.
Step 3 Specify Root Folder
Tecplot Chorus needs to know where the data files from your project are. Click Browse, use the Open
dialog to navigate to the top-level folder of the structure that contains your data files, and click Select
Folder. Then click Next to proceed to the next step in the wizard.
21
Projects
Step 4 Specify Files to Link
In this step, you can indicate which columns of the file (if any) contain the paths of supporting files, such
as images and data files. Files linked must be assigned a tag so that you can easily choose which auxiliary
file you want to view later (see Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files”).
Tecplot Chorus can display PNG and JPEG image files, and can open Tecplot layouts and
layout packages in Tecplot 360 EX. With a little extra effort, Tecplot 360 EX can also
open other data file formats. See Appendix A: “Loading Other Data Formats” for more
information.
Mark the checkbox next to any column name that you want to treat as a file to be linked. Any column not
used for linked files will be imported as a string (text) variable into Tecplot Chorus. There may be only one
image file matched for a given tag. For data files other than Tecplot layouts (.lay files) and layout packages
(.lpk files), you may give multiple files the same tag; they will be opened in the order the corresponding
columns appear in the delimited text file.
The paths specified for your auxiliary files may be either relative to the project’s root folder, in which they
should not begin with a drive letter, a slash or a backslash, or they may be absolute paths, beginning with
a drive letter or double-backslash (Windows) or a slash (Linux). Generally, relative paths are preferred,
since they make it easier to move the project if necessary.
Some non-Tecplot data formats, such as Fluent and PLOT3D, use two physical files per data set, one for
the coordinates and one for the rest of the variables. In this case, you must give both files the same tag
when adding them to the project so that Tecplot Chorus will know they should be opened together when
you view the case’s data.
The tag defaults to the column name, but it may be edited if desired (for example, when working with
your project, you may want to be able to open a case’s “Contour Layout” rather than its “contourlpk”).
Partial pathnames (including plain filenames) in the file are taken to be relative to the
root folder specified in the previous step.
Click Next to move to the next step of the wizard.
22
Creating Projects
Step 5 Confirm Data
Tecplot Chorus now gives you a chance to confirm the data that will be imported. You may also edit the
Display Name or Nature of any variable being imported.
• Display Name - The name by which a variable is known in Tecplot Chorus for axis labeling and
other uses. This feature can also be used to clarify names or make them more consistent; for
example, if Mach number is “M” in your data files, you could reassign it to “Mach” in your
project to make its meaning more apparent.
Tecplot Chorus does not allow leading or trailing whitespace in variable names or display
names, and strips extra tabs and spaces from the beginning and end of all names
You may not use the names Case ID and Case Status for your variables. These names
are reserved for internal Tecplot Chorus variables. If you have variables with these
names in your data, you can use this feature to "rename" them inside Tecplot Chorus
(perhaps prepending "External" or "Original").
• Nature - Each numeric variable can be Independent (input), Dependent (output), or Other.
“Other” implies that the variable is not an input or output variable used or calculated by the
solver. String (text) variables are always Other.
When you have edited your variables’ Display Names and Natures as desired, click Finish to close the
wizard and perform the import. Nothing is added to the project until you click Finish.
The new project is automatically opened into a clean workspace. See Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results”
for your next steps.
2 - 3.2
Importing with the File Crawler
The File Crawler scans a chosen folder structure, extracting variable values from the names of files and
folders and detecting each case’s auxiliary files by their names. Perform the following steps when
extracting metadata into a project using the File Crawler.
23
Projects
Step 2 Specify Root Folder
On this page, click Browse and navigate to the folder that contains all your cases, then click Select Folder.
The File Crawler will examine all folders inside the root folder you select, and the folders inside them, and
so on, to any depth. Click Next to proceed to the next step of the wizard.
Step 3 Identify Data
The File Crawler extracts variable names and values from the names of the files and folders inside the root
folder. The entire path of each folder, relative to the root folder selected on the previous page, is scanned
for the keywords you define here. The value immediately following each keyword is taken as the value of
the named variable for all the cases in the folder.
For example, you may have a set of folders named M1.0, M1.1, M1.2, M1.3, etc., that contain simulation
results at various Mach numbers. Inside the Mach folders are additional folders representing the various
values of another variable, and inside these, folders representing values of a third variable. The File
24
Creating Projects
Crawler recognizes that the digits in the outermost folders’ names represent Mach number, and each case
is assigned a Mach number derived from the name of the folder or folders it is inside.
All files with identical combinations of parameter values are considered part of a single case, with the case
being assigned a unique internal identifier. Folder hierarchy is not considered when detecting cases.
For each value you wish to extract, you must specify the Source Name, which is text that uniquely
identifies the value in the file path, and indicate whether the value is a number or a string of characters.
You must add these in the order they appear in your folder hierarchy, shallowest first (that is, leftmost in
the textual representation of the folder path).
A directory separator (“/”) may be included in Source Name patterns. For example, if the folder hierarchy
contains only variable values with no other identifying text, such as /1.0/1.1/1.2, the “/” character itself can
be specified as three different Source Name patterns; the resulting variables can then be given names in
the Confirm Data step.
To add a variable:
1. Click Add.
2. Enter text that immediately precedes the value you wish to extract into the new, blank Source
Name field. If there are underscores, periods, spaces, or other characters in the file path
between the name and the value, enter these as well; every character up to the value you wish
to extract must be matched.
Observe the scrolling list of file paths at the bottom of the dialog for instant confirmation of
your entry. As you type the Source Name, the text you enter appears in red in all the paths.
When Tecplot Chorus recognizes a value immediately following a Source Name, that value
appears in blue in all the paths. Scroll through this list to make sure Tecplot Chorus is picking
up all the values you want.
3. Choose Number or String (text) data type for the new variable.
You may add and edit entries in this dialog, or delete an entry entirely by selecting it and clicking Remove.
When you have specified all the variables you wish to extract, click Next.
25
Projects
Step 4 Specify Files to Link
In this step, you can indicate which files are images and data files. Each such file will be linked to a case
and assigned a tag so that you can easily choose which auxiliary file you want to view in Tecplot Chorus
(see Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files”).
Tecplot Chorus can display PNG and JPEG image files, and can open Tecplot layouts and
layout packages in Tecplot 360 EX. With a little extra effort, Tecplot 360 EX can also
open other data file formats. See Appendix A: “Loading Other Data Formats” for more
information.
To link files:
1. Click Add.
2. In the new Pattern field, enter text that uniquely identifies the supporting files you wish to
link to your cases. The asterisk may be used as a wildcard to match any number of characters;
for example, *.dat matches any file with a .dat extension. A question mark matches any single
character. As you type, the scrolling list of filenames at the bottom of the dialog highlights
matching files in blue, so you can instantly see when you have specified the files you want.
Generally, you should use the specific names of each file you wish to import to the
extent possible. When using wildcards, it is very easy to accidentally match files you do
not intend to match and give them the wrong tag. (Files linked in error can, however, be
removed from the project via the Remove Links to Files option on the Project menu.)
If you do use a wildcard, use as much of the typical file’s name as possible, using a
wildcard only for parts that change, and review the scrolling list at the bottom of the
window carefully to make sure you only have only matched the files you intended.
As in the earlier Identify Data step, you may include a directory separator (“/”) in your pattern
to match only files in particular directories. The pattern is matched against the entire path to
each candidate file. For example, if your project is organized so that each case has
subdirectories called contour and wireframe, each of which contains an image called image.png,
the patterns contour/image.png and wireframe/image.png may be used to link these images.
26
Creating Projects
You may match at most one image file for a given tag. For any data file other than Tecplot
layouts (.lay files) and layout packages (.lpk files), you may give multiple files the same tag;
they will be opened in the order you enter the patterns in this step of the wizard. If multiple
files are matched by a single pattern for a single case, the files will be opened together and in
alphabetical order when viewing the case data in Tecplot 360 EX.
Some non-Tecplot data formats, such as Fluent and PLOT3D, use two physical files per data
set, one for the coordinates and one for the rest of the variables. In this case, you must give
both files the same tag when adding them to the project so that Tecplot Chorus will know they
should be opened together when you view the case’s data.
3. In the Tag field, enter an identifier by which you will later access matching files in Tecplot
Chorus when viewing individual cases. (See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files”.)
As with the previous step, you may add, edit, or remove entries in this dialog (by clicking the entry to be
removed, then clicking Remove). Click Next to proceed to the final step.
Step 5 Confirm Data
Tecplot Chorus now gives you a chance to confirm the data that will be imported. You may also edit the
Display Name or Nature of any variable being imported.
• Display Name - The name by which a variable is known in Tecplot Chorus for axis labeling and
all other uses. This feature can also be used to clarify names or make them more consistent; for
example, if Mach number is “M” in your data files, you could reassign it to “Mach” in your
project to make its meaning more apparent.
Tecplot Chorus does not allow leading or trailing spaces in variable names or display names
and will strip any spaces from the beginning or end of variable names.
You may not use the names Case ID and Case Status for your variables. These names
are reserved for internal Tecplot Chorus variables. If you have variables with these
names in your data, you can use this feature to "rename" them inside Tecplot Chorus
(perhaps prepending "External" or "Original").
27
Projects
• Nature - Each numeric variable can be independent (input), dependent (output), or other.
“Other” implies that the variable is not an input or output variable calculated by the solver.
String (text) variables always have the Other-nature, but numeric variables may as well.
You can change a variable’s nature after the project has been created by choosing
Project > Change Variable Nature. For more information, see Section 2 - 6
“Changing Variable Nature”.
When you have edited your variables’ Display Names and Natures as desired, click Finish to close the
wizard and perform the import. Nothing is actually imported until you click Finish.
The new project automatically opens a Table View in the workspace. See Chapter 3: “Exploring Your
Results” for your next steps.
2-4
Appending To a Project
To add new cases, variables, or auxiliary files to an open project, choose Project > Append Data. As when
you initially created the project, you can append using the Delimited Text Reader or the File Crawler.
It is not necessary to use the same method when appending that you used when you created the project. In
fact, a common work flow is to initially import independent variables and auxiliary files using the file
crawler, then append dependent variables from a delimited text file. You may add additional cases,
additional links to auxiliary image and data files for existing cases, additional variables for existing cases,
or any combination of these.
Tecplot Chorus uses these rules when appending to a project:
• If a case’s independent variables match a case already in the project, but there are new
dependent variables or linked image or data files, these are added to the existing case.
• If a case has a combination of independent variables that is not already in the project, it is
considered a new case, and all variables and linked files associated with that case are added to
the project.
• If a new case’s independent variable values are already in the project, and one or more existing
dependent variables have values different from the ones being imported, you’ll be asked how
to proceed: apply the new values to the existing cases, or append duplicate cases to the project.
If you choose to add duplicate cases, you will have more than one case with the same
combination of independent variables in the project. These cases may be distinguished by their
Case ID, as this internal variable is unique for every case, even duplicates.
• If a new case’s independent and dependent values all match an existing case, the new case is
ignored.
The step-by-step procedure is identical to that used when initially creating the project. See Section 2 - 3
“Creating Projects” for detailed instructions.
When importing using the File Crawler, you must re-specify variable names in exactly the same way as when
the project was created so that any cases that already exist in the project can be detected and handled
correctly.
For the Delimited Text Reader, use the same column names for variables that are already in your project. If
the file being appended includes a second header row to specify variable natures, these will be ignored for
existing variables, but will be respected for any new variables being added.
28
Calculated Variables
2-5
Calculated Variables
You can generate new variables by choosing Project > Calculate Variables, which opens the Calculated
Variables dialog, shown below. The dialog displays any calculated variables that exist in the project and
allows you to add new ones. The new variables are added only after you click OK.
To add new calculated variables to the project:
1. Click the Add button to create a new blank row if one does not already exist.
2. Enter a name for the new variable in the Calc Var Name column.
Tecplot Chorus does not allow leading or trailing spaces in variable names and will strip any
spaces from the beginning or end of variable names.
You may not use the names Case ID and Case Status for your variables. This are
reserved for internal Tecplot Chorus variables.
3. Enter an expression to be used to calculate the new variable in the Expression column. (See
Section 2 - 5.1 “Expression Syntax” for details of what you can enter.)
4. Choose the nature of the variable: Independent (input), Dependent (output), or Other.
5. If you wish to add another variable, go back to Step 1.
If you have entered a variable in error, click the Remove button to remove it. You may not remove
variables once they have been added to the project.
When you have finished adding calculated variables, click OK. Only at this point are the calculations
actually performed for each case and the results added to the project. These calculations will also be
performed automatically for any additional cases you may append later.
Calculated variables may not be edited and are displayed with a lock symbol in table
views.
29
Projects
2 - 5.1
Expression Syntax
Expressions supported by Tecplot Chorus follow a syntax similar to popular programming and scripting
languages.
Numbers
Both integers and floating-point numbers in standard or scientific notation, such as 3.1415927 or 6.02e23,
may be used.
Variables
If a variable name does not contain any spaces or parentheses and is not the same as a function name
supported by Tecplot Chorus, it may be referenced in an equation simply by typing its name. Otherwise,
its name must be enclosed in backticks ‘like this‘. (The backtick character is typically located at the top
left of the keyboard, one row down from the Escape key, and should not be confused with the apostrophe.)
Variable names must match case: Alpha is not the same as alpha or ALPHA.
Operators
Tecplot Chorus supports arithmetic operations using the following symbols and the standard algebraic
order of operations. Parentheses may be used to override order of operations.
Operator
Meaning
+
Addition
-
Subtraction
*
Multiplication
/
Division
^
Exponentiation
Functions
The following functions are supported.
Function
30
Meaning
sqrt(x)
Square root of x
exp(x)
e raised to the x power
ln(x)
Natural logarithm of x
log(x)
Base-ten logarithm of x
sin(x), asin(x), sinh(x), asinh(x)
Sine, arcsine, or hyperbolic sine or arcsine of x
cos(x), acos(x), cosh(x), acosh(x)
Cosine, arccosine, or hyperbolic cosine or arccosine of x
tan(x), atan(x), tanh(x), atanh(x)
Tangent, arctangent, or hyperbolic tangent or arctangent of x
rint(x)
Rounds x to the nearest integer
sign(x)
Returns 1 if x is positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero
Changing Variable Nature
2-6
Changing Variable Nature
If you make a mistake when initially choosing the nature of a variable, you can change it after the project
has been created by choosing Project > Change Variable Nature. In the Change Variable Nature dialog,
choose the desired nature from the pop-up menu to the right of the variable whose nature you wish to
change. After completing your changes, click OK.
Changing a variable’s nature will affect any surrogate model that uses it.
2-7
Removing Links to Files
If you have tagged data or image files in error when creating or appending to a project, or if you simply no
longer need access to particular linked files, you can delete the tags and the corresponding links.
Removing a tag removes it, and all files linked under that tag, from all cases in the project.
Removing tags and links does not remove the actual data or image files from their folder
on your hard disk or network. Only the links to these files stored in the project are
deleted.
To remove links to files, choose Remove Links to Files from the Project menu, then choose one or more
tags and click Remove.
31
Projects
2-8
Exporting Projects
You can export data from Tecplot Chorus projects to a CSV file by choosing Project > Export Data to CSV
File. The resulting CSV file will specify all values for all variables and the paths of all linked files in the
project. This is a useful format for use with a variety of other software, including Microsoft Excel, for
sharing with others, for further processing in your own scripts, or even for manual editing. The CSV file
can be re-imported to Tecplot Chorus with minimal loss of information.
Exported projects do not include equations for calculated variables (the values of such variables are,
however, included) nor data generated by a surrogate model. The internal Case ID variable maintained by
Tecplot Chorus is also excluded. Case Status is exported only if there are inactive cases in the project.
Currently, records that have multiple linked files per tag cannot be exported.
The exported CSV file has a second header that identifies the nature of each field (independent,
dependent, other, or auxiliary file). In most software, this will appear as the first data row. It may be
removed using a text editor if it interferes with the processing of the rest of the rows.
To export surrogate model data, use the Export Derived Data button in the sidebar of a Line Plot or a 3D
Scatter Plot (see Chapter 5: “Surrogate Models”).
If you will send the exported project to someone who will not have your data and image files, you might
create a compressed ZIP archive containing both the exported data and the necessary files.
2-9
Modifying the Root Path
Tecplot Chorus projects may store references to supporting files such as solution data and images as
partial file paths relative to a root directory. If you must move the files associated with a project, or if you
have received a project file from another Tecplot Chorus user, you may need to change the project’s root
path to point to where the files are located on your system or network.
To do this, Choose Project > Set Root Path. Then either enter the new path, or click the Browse button to
navigate to the new root directory.
This function does not copy or move your auxiliary files to a new location. You must do this yourself in the
usual way if it is necessary.
32
3
Exploring Your Results
Tecplot Chorus allows you to explore the results in your project in the following ways.
• In a spreadsheet-like table, providing a way to see all values for all cases
• In a matrix of images, letting you filter results and identify cases of interest at a glance
• In a line, symbol, or scatter plot, so you can visualize correlations and overall trends
When you open or create a project (see Chapter 2: “Projects”), the Tecplot Chorus workspace appears with
a Table View of the project’s data (see Section 3 - 8 “Table Views”).
33
Exploring Your Results
You can open additional views using commands on the View menu or by clicking a button on the Tecplot
Chorus toolbar.
You can save a session file after opening the views you find useful. Next time you want
to work with the project, open that session file to load the project and restore the views.
See the Save Session and Open Session commands on the File menu.
Each view you open appears in its own window in the Tecplot Chorus workspace. You can open any
number of views, including multiple views of a single type (for example, multiple 2D scatter plots
showing different combinations of variables, or two tables showing different sections of your results).
You can resize, minimize, and maximize windows inside the Tecplot Chorus workspace.
The
button tiles the windows in the workspace, sizing and arranging your windows
so they do not overlap and you can see them all.
You can also drag view windows outside the Tecplot Chorus workspace and move them
anywhere on any display. Such windows always appear in front of the main Tecplot
Chorus window and thus in front of any windows still inside its workspace. Click the close
button in such a window to move it back into the workspace.
When a view window is active, the Filters and Properties panels become active.
• The Filters panel affects all view windows and will be described in the next section.
• The Properties panel, on the other hand, has different options for each type of view and will be
described separately for each view.
3-1
Context Menus in Views
Right-clicking any case in any plot or view displays a context menu for
quick access to frequently-needed tools. These vary slightly by type of view,
but may include:
• Viewing auxiliary files such as images or data associated with the
case (see Section 4 - 1 “Viewing Images” and Section 4 - 2
“Viewing Data”)
• Generating new images or layout packages for the case (see
Section 4 - 3 “Creating Images” and Section 4 - 4 “Creating Data
Files”)
• Extracting a variable from a case’s data file (see Section 4 - 5
“Extracting Variables from Data Files”
• Saving an image of the plot
• Exporting data generated by a surrogate model (see Chapter 5:
“Surrogate Models”)
• Setting the case’s variable values as the evaluation point for a surrogate model (see “Setting the
Evaluation Point from a Selected Case” on page 74)
• Marking the case as active or inactive
• Deleting the case from the project
• Custom actions created by you or other Tecplot Chorus users to operate on a case’s data (see
Section 4 - 6 “Custom Actions”)
34
Filters
3-2
Filters
The Filters panel lets you determine which cases are shown in plots or in a
matrix by excluding or including cases in which specified variables have
particular values or fall within a certain range. Filters apply globally to all
Tecplot Chorus views (there are not separate filters for each window).
Changes are applied immediately to all open views.
If the Filters sidebar is not visible, open it by choosing View > Filters. This
sidebar may be docked to any edge of the Tecplot Chorus window, combined
with the Properties sidebar, or dragged out of the Tecplot Chorus window
entirely and positioned on any display.
Each active variable in the project is displayed in the Filters panel along with
a control that allows you to restrict the cases included in the plot or matrix
based on the variable’s value. (See 3 - 2.2 “Managing Filters” to learn how to
choose which variables appear in the Filters sidebar.) The sidebar scrolls
vertically if not all the filters fit in the sidebar at once.
By default, the Filters sidebar does not have an effect on
Table views. You can enable table filtering in the
Properties sidebar when a window containing a table is
active.
Tecplot Chorus initially displays filters for all the variables in your project. You can change which
variables appear in the Filters panel by clicking the
gear icon in the Filters panel and choosing Select
Filters to Include (see Section 3 - 2.2 “Managing Filters” on page 37).
Constraint Visualization
The filter settings are made visible in the List view, the Selected Cases view, and optionally in the 2D
Scatter plot. This feature is called constraint visualization. For more details, see:
• Constraint Visualization with 2D Scatter Plots
• Constraint Visualization with Table Views
• Constraint Visualization with the Selected Cases Sidebar
Filter Types
Tecplot Chorus provides four different types of filters. Initially, parameters having a small number of
discrete values use a Checkbox filter, while other variables default to a Range filter. You may, however,
change the filter type for any parameter by right-clicking the filter and choosing the desired filter type
from the pop-up menu.
• Range - Displays only cases where the variable’s value falls within a
specified range. Provides a slider control with two handles to specify
the minimum and maximum. You may also enter values using the
keyboard. A histogram behind the slider gives you a rough idea of
the distribution of values in the project.
• Single Value - Displays only cases where the variable’s value is
exactly the specified value. A handle is provided to choose the value,
or you may enter the value using the keyboard. Tick marks under the
slider indicate values of the variable that have associated cases.
35
Exploring Your Results
• Checkbox - Displays a list of the available values for the variable and
lets you choose any combination of values by clicking the checkbox
next to each. Only cases where the variable has one of the selected
values are included in the plot. The number of cases having each
value are displayed in parentheses next to the value. Only available
for variables having 10 or fewer unique values.
• Listbox - Displays a list of the available values for the variable in a
scrolling list. You can choose any combination of values for the
variable. Only cases where the variable has one of the selected values
are included in the plot. The number of cases having each value are
displayed in parentheses next to the value.
The Listbox is functionally similar to the Checkbox filter type, but is
better suited for variables having a larger number of discrete values. Also, in a Listbox, it is
easier to select one value at a time, or to select ranges of values, than in a Checkbox.
• To select a single value, click that value. All other values are automatically de-selected.
• To toggle individual values off and on without affecting other values, click each value
while holding the Control key.
• To select a contiguous range of values, click the first value in the range, then click the
last value in the range while holding the Shift key. Alternatively, click and drag the
mouse through the range.
• You may select multiple contiguous ranges of values. Select the first range as above,
then select the second and subsequent ranges by holding Control while clicking the first
value in the range, and Control + Shift while clicking the last value in the range.
Alternatively, you can hold the Control key while clicking and dragging the mouse to
select additional ranges.
Filter on Case Status to display only cases designated as active or inactive.
Your filter settings are saved with sessions (see Section 1 - 2.6 “Sessions”).
3 - 2.1
Null Value Filtering
Null values arise from invalid or missing data for a variable. Internally, Tecplot Chorus represents these as
the value NaN (meaning “Not a Number”), and they will appear as such in the Table view of your project.
You may remove cases having null values from consideration by Tecplot Chorus using filters.
• For Range filters, a checkbox, Pass null, allows you to choose to view cases with null values or
filter them out. This checkbox appears only for variables in the project having null values.
• For Checkbox and Listbox filters, “null” appears as a value, along with the other values for a
given variable in the project, if there are any cases having a null value for the variable being
filtered. You can turn off the checkbox or deselect the value if you don’t want to see such cases.
36
Matrix Views
3 - 2.2
Managing Filters
You can change which variables appear in the Filters panel by
clicking the
gear icon in the Filters panel and choosing
Select Filters to Include. The Select Filters to Include dialog
appears.
In the dialog, you can hide filters for any variable, or for whole
categories of variables, by clicking the checkbox next to the
variable or category. Turning a category on or off enables or
disables all variables in that category.
Filters that are disabled here are not displayed in the Filters
sidebar and have no effect on the displayed cases.
3 - 2.3
Resetting Filters
You may reset all filters to their default settings (displaying all
cases) by choosing Reset All Filters from the
gear icon
menu in the Filters panel. This does not affect which filters are
active.
3-3
Matrix Views
To open a new matrix view, choose View > New Matrix View, or click
in the toolbar.
Tecplot Chorus’s Matrix view displays thumbnails of images associated with the cases in your project in a
grid, allowing you to quickly sanity-check your solutions and dive deeper into any case that looks
interesting. These images may be produced by a postprocessor or by Tecplot Chorus itself (see Section 4 3 “Creating Images”). Tecplot Chorus links externally-generated images to their case when the project is
created (or when data is appended to it).
Rows in the matrix represent values of one parameter, while columns represent values of another. The grid
may optionally be broken into pages based on values of a third parameter. Each discrete value of a selected
parameter found in the project is given its own row, column, or page, respectively.
If your project is very sparse, or if not all your cases have images associated with them, your matrix may
appear mostly blank, and you may have some trouble finding the cases you want. You can use filters (see
Section 3 - 2 “Filters”) and the other views to help you home in on cases of interest.
Conversely, a given cell in the matrix could represent more than one case based on values of one or more
of the project’s variables that you have not assigned to rows, columns, or pages. For example, if you have
37
Exploring Your Results
variables a, b, c, and d, and have assigned a and b to rows and columns, then a cell at a=1, b=2 represents
cases that have those values of a and b but any values of c and/or d, and this could be any number of cases,
any of which may have at least one image associated with them.
When more than one case is matched by matrix cell, a
badge appears in the cell with the thumbnail.
The actual thumbnail that appears in the cell is a representative image chosen by Tecplot Chorus from one
of the cases. You can turn on labels to see exactly which case’s thumbnail is being shown (see Section 3 - 3.1
“Matrix View Properties”), and you can choose the values selected for any variables not employed in the
matrix by using a single-value filter (see Section 3 - 2 “Filters”).
Hovering the mouse pointer over a cell reveals the number of additional cases represented by the cell (for
cells that match more than one case), along with information about the thumbnail, such as its path and its
case’s Case ID.
The Zoom slider at the bottom right of the window adjusts the size of the thumbnails shown in the matrix.
3 - 3.1
Matrix View Properties
If the Properties panel is not visible, open it by choosing View > Properties. This panel may be docked to
any edge of the Tecplot Chorus window, combined with the Filters panel, or dragged out of the Tecplot
Chorus window entirely and positioned as desired on any display.
You can set the following matrix view properties:
• Show Labels - Shows variable values in cells containing an image.
Click Select Labels to choose which variables to display.
• Rows - Chooses the variable that will be used to sort your cases
into rows.
You may also choose “Tag.” In this case, each row of the matrix
will correspond to one of the tags selected in the Show Images
with Tags list, which contains a list of all image tags in the
project.
• Columns - Chooses the variable that will be used to sort your
cases into columns.
You may also choose “Tag.” In this case, each column of the
matrix will correspond to one of the tags selected in the Show
Images with Tags list, which contains a list of all image tags in
the project.
• Page By - Chooses a third variable to be used to sort the matrix
into pages.
If Page By is set to None, the paging feature is disabled and only
a single page is shown. If it is set to a variable, the slider below
the Page By menu can be used to select a page for each discrete
value of that variable. You may also enter a value directly into
the numeric field using the keyboard.
• Tag Groups - Opens the Tag Groups dialog to allow you to create
and modify tag groups. See “Tag Groups” on page 39.
• Show Images with Tags - Chooses the image tags or tag groups to be viewed in the matrix.
Multiple tags or groups may be selected by dragging the mouse, or by clicking using the
Control or Shift keys to toggle individual items and make contiguous selections.
If either of the Rows or Columns menus is set to “Tag,” this setting affects how many rows or
columns will be displayed; tags that are not enabled here will not have a corresponding row or
column.
38
Tag Groups
Otherwise, this setting determines which tags are chosen for display in cells in the matrix. As
described earlier, any matrix cell may represent more than one case. When multiple image tags
are selected, a cell may also represent multiple images for a single or multiple cases. A cell that
holds multiple images displays the
badge in the corner.
• Selected Image Values - Displays the values of all variables from the cases associated with the
selected images in a scrollable table.
If multiple cases are selected, the text “(Multiple values)” appears next to any variable that
does not have the same value in all selected cases.
Tags are defined when creating a project or adding data to a project. See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image
and Data Files”.
3 - 3.2
Selecting Cases in a Matrix View
You can select cases using the
tool, then perform operations on the selected cases.
• Click a cell to select the cases in it. Any other selected cases are automatically de-selected.
• Click and drag the mouse to select the cases in any rectangular subsection of the matrix. Any
other selected cells are automatically de-selected.
• Hold Shift while clicking to select a rectangular range of cells between an initial click and your
Shift-click.
• Hold Control while clicking to toggle the selection status of the clicked cell without deselecting any other cells that are selected.
Control has a similar effect when dragging (to select an additional rectangular subsection of
the matrix).
• Click a row or column header to select all cases in that row or column.
You may hold Control while clicking to select additional noncontiguous columns, hold Shift
while clicking to select a range of rows or columns, or drag across the headers.
• Press Control-A to select all cases.
Cases selected in a any view or plot are selected in all open views and plots.
After selecting cases in the table, click the right mouse button on the selection to view or create images or
data for a case. See Chapter 4: “Analyzing Individual Cases” for further details on these operations.
The right-click menu also lets you designate the selected cases as active or inactive,
which sets the internal variable Case Status accordingly. Filter on Case Status to display
only active or inactive cases.
3-4
Tag Groups
Tag groups make it easy to organize and work with various combinations of related images. For example,
suppose your project contains surface, streamtrace, and volume plots, each from three different angles, for
every case you’ve run. You might want to create a set of tag groups that selects all styles of plots from a
single angle, and another set of tag groups that selects all angles of a single plot. Any number of tag
groups may be created, and each group can contain any of the image tags in the project.
You’ll see your tag groups displayed in the Show Images with Tags list in the Properties sidebar panel of
matrix views and of image viewer windows. (Groups are prefaced with “Group:” in this list.) Turning on
or off a group activates or deactivates all the tags in the group for display in the matrix or image viewer,
39
Exploring Your Results
just as if you had turned them all on or off individually. The order of the tags in the group determines the
order the tags are displayed in image or matrix views.
To edit tag groups, you use the Tag Groups dialog, accessible via the Tag Groups button in the matrix
view or image viewer Properties panel.
In the Tag Groups dialog, you can:
• Create a new tag group by clicking the + button.
• Delete a tag group by selecting it in the Tag Groups list and clicking the - button. This does not
delete any tags that the tag group contains.
• Delete a tag from a tag group by selecting it and clicking the - button.
• Add tags to a tag group by dragging tags from the Available Tags list to the tag group name in
the Tag Groups list. Note that this does not remove the tags from the Available Tags list; they
remain available for adding to other tag groups.
• Change the order of tags in a tag group by dragging them up or down with in the tag group.
• Hide or show the tags in a group in the Tag Groups list by clicking the triangle to the left of the
tag group’s name.
The Tag Groups dialog may be left open while you work and positioned out of the way or on a second
display, so it is always available to manage your tags. Changes you make to the order of tags in a tag group
are reflected instantly in any open matrix views or image viewer windows that are displaying images by
tag.
Tag groups are stored in session files, so you should save a session by choosing Save
Session from the File menu if you want to use the same tag groups in a future Tecplot
Chorus session.
40
Tag Groups
3-5
Scatter Plots
Tecplot Chorus provides both 2D and 3D scatter plots. To open a new scatter plot, choose New 2D Scatter
Plot or New 3D Scatter Plot from the View menu, or click
or
in the toolbar.
Scatter plots are useful to visualize trends and correlations between two or more variables. On a scatter
plot, each case appears as a single scatter symbol. Its position represents two (or three, in the case of a 3D
plot) variables, and its color—and in a 3D plot, its size—can represent an additional variable or two.
2D scatter plots are useful for comparing two main variables. For example, it can reveal a relationship
between an independent and dependent variable, or correlations between two dependent variables. 2D
scatter plots can also be used for visualization of constraints.
3D scatter plots are typically used in situations where two variables (which appear on the X and Y axes)
affect, or are correlated with, the result of a third (which appears on the Z axis). The 3D scatter plot can be
rotated interactively to reveal details that may not be apparent from all angles (see Section 3 - 5.3
“Zooming, Translating, and Rotating Scatter Plots”).
41
Exploring Your Results
Scatter plots may be saved as a PNG (Portable Network Graphics) file by right-clicking the plot and
choosing Save Plot as Image from the context menu, or by clicking the Save Plot as Image button in the
plot’s sidebar. The saved image is the same size as the version of the plot displayed on the screen.
3 - 5.1
Scatter Plot Properties
If the Properties panel is not visible, open it by choosing View > Properties. This sidebar may be docked to
any edge of the Tecplot Chorus window, combined with the Filters sidebar, or dragged out of the Tecplot
Chorus window entirely and positioned as desired on any display.
2D Scatter Plot Properties
• General - Sets general options for the plot.
• X-Axis, Y-Axis - Choose the variables to be
used for the X and Y axes. The values of the
selected variables will be used to position the
scatter symbols on the plot.
• Axis Details - Click to open the Axis Details
dialog and specify range and grid spacing for
each axis. See Section 3 - 7 “Setting Axis
Details”.
• Coloring - Choose the color for the scatter symbols.
You may choose a single, solid color, to have the
scatter symbol color chosen automatically based on
the value of a variable, or to have filter violations
displayed in a special color.
• Solid Color - All cases are displayed in the
single color you choose using the drop-down
color menu. Click the ... color tile to create
your own color using a color mixer.
• Color By Variable - Cases are colored based on
the value of a variable. You may also
optionally display a legend indicating the
colors that correspond to the values of the selected variable.
• Color By Filter Violations - All cases are displayed regardless of filter settings. However,
the symbols representing the cases are color-coded to indicate which filters apply to
them (see Constraint Visualization with 2D Scatter Plots).
• Show Legend - If coloring by variable, activate the checkbox to display a color legend in
the plot. Click Legend Labels to set the range and number of steps for the labels in the
legend using the Color Legend dialog (see Section 3 - 5.2 “Color Legend Dialog”).
• Symbol - Size - Choose the size for the scatter symbols.
42
Tag Groups
Constraint Visualization with 2D Scatter Plots
When you set a 2D scatter plot to be colored by filter violations, you enable the visualization of constraints
in your plot. Filters on dependent and independent variables no longer hide cases, but rather affect the
color of the symbols representing the individual cases. (Filters on other variables continue to hide cases, as
usual.) The legend at the upper right of the plot explains the colors. A shaded area further highlights the
cases that fall outside the filter values set for the axis variables.
In this example, the filters have been set to exclude cases by Mach No. and Alpha (the shaded area, with
the individual cases shown in gray because they also violate a filter on an independent variable) and also
to exclude certain other cases by their lift and drag coefficients. These cases are displayed in blue (for cases
that only violate the lift constraint) or red (for cases that violate both the lift and drag constraints).
If an additional filter were added on another independent variable (such as Beta), additional cases could
change to gray outside the shaded area, since their Mach No. and Alpha variables might still fall inside the
white (unconstrained) area.
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Exploring Your Results
3D Scatter Plot Properties
The Properties panel for 3D scatter plots is divided into two
sections, General and Surrogate Model. We will consider only
the General section here. For more information on surrogate
models, see Chapter 5: “Surrogate Models”.
• General - Sets general options for the plot.
• X-Axis, Y-Axis, Z-Axis - Choose the variables to
be used for the X, Y, and Z axes. The value of the
selected variables will be used to position the
scatter symbols.
• Axis Details - Click to open the Axis Details
dialog and specify range and grid spacing for
each axis. See Section 3 - 7 “Setting Axis Details”.
• Coloring - Choose the color for the scatter symbols. You
may choose a single, solid color, or to have the scatter
symbol color chosen automatically based on the value
of a variable.
• Solid Color - All cases are displayed in the single
color you choose using the drop-down color
menu. Click the ... color tile to create your own
color using a color mixer.
• Color By Variable - Cases are colored based on the
value of a variable. You may also optionally
display a legend indicating the colors that correspond to the values of the selected
variable.
• Show Legend - If coloring by variable, activate the checkbox to display a color legend in
the plot. Click Legend Labels to set the range and number of steps for the labels in the
legend using the Color Legend dialog (see Section 3 - 5.2 “Color Legend Dialog”).
• Symbol - Sets the symbol size and shape.
• Size - Choose the size for the scatter symbols. You may choose a constant size, or to have
the size determined by the value of a variable.
• Shape - Choose a sphere or a cube.
3 - 5.2
Color Legend Dialog
The Color Legend dialog allows you to specify the approximate
number of labels in the legend and the range represented by the
legend.
• Approximate Number of Labels - The approximate
number of labels in the legend. The number of labels
you see in your legend may not be exactly the number
you enter here; more labels may be used to make the
ranges “nicer.”
• Legend Range - Using the radio buttons, you may
choose to use the minimum and maximum values of
the variable selected for “Color By,” or manually enter
a custom range.
44
Tag Groups
3 - 5.3
Zooming, Translating, and Rotating Scatter Plots
The following tools, which you will find on the Tecplot Chorus toolbar, can be used to zoom, translate
(move), and rotate your scatter plot.
Moves the plot. With a 2D plot, the axes stay in the same location and the values
represented on the axes change, showing you a different part of your data. With a 3D plot, the
entire plot, axes and all, moves within the window.
Zooms the plot. When this tool is active in a 3D scatter plot, moving the mouse up and
down while holding down the mouse button zooms the plot in and out, respectively.
In a 2D scatter plot, use the mouse to draw a rectangle around a group of points to zoom in on
them.
You can also zoom the plot at any time (without switching to the Zoom tool) by moving
the wheel on your mouse, if it has one.
Rotates the plot. Hold down the mouse button and move the mouse to rotate.
Only 3D scatter plots may be rotated.
To reset the view back to the default, undoing all zooming and translation (but not rotation), choose View
> Reset.
3 - 5.4
Selecting Cases in a Scatter Plot
Each symbol in a scatter plot represents one case. You can select cases using the
operations on the selected cases.
tool, then perform
• Click a symbol to select a single case. All other cases are de-selected.
• To toggle the status of individual cases without affecting other cases, click single symbols
while holding the Control key.
• To select a group of cases, drag a rectangle around them using the mouse. All cases that fall
inside the rectangle are selected; all others are de-selected.
• To select multiple groups of cases, hold the Control key while dragging a rectangle around the
second and subsequent groups of cases.
Cases selected in any plot or view are selected in all open views and plots.
After selecting cases in the plot, click the right mouse button on the selection to view or create images or
data for a case. See Chapter 4: “Analyzing Individual Cases”, for further details on these operations.
The right-click menu also lets you designate the selected cases as active or inactive,
which sets the internal variable Case Status accordingly. Filter on Case Status to display
only active or inactive cases.
45
Exploring Your Results
3-6
Line and Symbol Plots
To open a new line or symbol plot, choose View > New Line Plot, or click
in the toolbar.
Line plots are often used to visualize how an input (independent variable) affects an output (dependent
variable). They are especially useful for comparing magnitude of change between one data point and the
next. Adjacent points are always connected by straight lines, making any deviations from an expected
progression immediately obvious.
The line plot can also display symbols at each data point in addition to, or instead of, lines between them.
Symbols-only mode is often used when the values being displayed are discrete rather than continuous,
such as in this plot showing the number of iterations a solution requires to converge for each Mach value
simulated.
Line and symbol plots may be saved as a PNG (Portable Network Graphics) file by right-clicking the plot
and choosing Save Plot as Image from the context menu, or by clicking the Save Plot as Image button in
the plot’s sidebar. The saved image is the same size as the on-screen version of the plot.
46
Line and Symbol Plots
3 - 6.1
Zooming and Translating Line and Symbol Plots
The following tools, which you will find on the Tecplot Chorus toolbar, can be used to translate (move)
and rotate your line or symbol plot. To reset the view back to the default, undoing all zooming and
translation, choose View > Reset.
Translate tool; moves the plot. The axes stay in the same location and the values
represented on the axes change, showing you a different portion of your data.
Draw a rectangle to zoom in on that portion of the plot.
You can also zoom the plot at any time (without switching to the Zoom tool) by moving
the wheel on your mouse, if it has one.
3 - 6.2
Line and Symbol Plot Properties
If the Properties panel is not visible, open it by choosing View >
Properties. This panel may be docked to any edge of the Tecplot Chorus
window, combined with the Filters sidebar, or dragged out of the Tecplot
Chorus window entirely and positioned as desired on any display.
The Properties panel for a line or symbol plot is divided into two
sections, General and Surrogate Model. We will consider only the
General properties here. For more information on surrogate models, see
Chapter 5: “Surrogate Models”.
• General - Sets general options for the plot.
• X-Axis, Y-Axis - Choose the variables to be used for the
X and Y axes.
• Axis Details - Click to open the Axis Details dialog and
specify range and grid spacing for each axis. See Section
3 - 7 “Setting Axis Details”.
• Group Data By - If you select a variable here, data points
for each discrete value of that variable are drawn
separately in a unique color. Otherwise, only one color is
used.
• Sort By - The cases are drawn in order from the lowest to highest value of the variable
selected here. Usually an independent variable (often the X-axis variable in the plot).
• Show Legend - A checkbox that shows or hides a legend of line colors corresponding to
values of the current Group Data By variable.
• Plot Data Using - Choose to display data as Lines, Symbols, or Lines & Symbols.
• Symbol - Sets the symbol size and shape.
• Shape - Choose the desired symbol shape.
• Size - Choose the desired symbol size.
3 - 6.3
Selecting Cases in a Line or Symbol Plot
You can select cases using the
tool, then perform operations on the selected cases. This is simplest to
do if symbols are displayed, as the actual data points are not always obvious when only lines are
displayed. (The Lines & Symbols plot mode is often useful here.)
• Click near a case to select the case. Any other selected cases are de-selected.
47
Exploring Your Results
• To select a group of cases, draw a rectangle around them using the mouse. All cases that fall
inside the rectangle are selected; all others are de-selected. It may be useful to have a table view
open to confirm that you have selected the desired cases.
• To select multiple groups of cases, hold the Control key while drawing a rectangle around the
second and subsequent groups of cases.
Cases selected in any view or plot are selected in all open views and plots.
After selecting cases in the plot, click the right mouse button on the selection to view or create images or
data for a case. See Chapter 4: “Analyzing Individual Cases” for further details on these operations.
The right-click menu also lets you designate the selected cases as active or inactive,
which sets the internal variable Case Status accordingly. Filter on Case Status to display
only active or inactive cases.
3-7
Setting Axis Details
By default, Tecplot Chorus uses the minimum and maximum
values of the variable assigned to an axis as that axis’s range, and
automatically determines the spacing of the grid. These settings
can be adjusted for each plot by clicking the Axis Details button
in the plot’s Properties sidebar.
The dialog has a page for each axis in the plot. Shown here is the
Axis Details dialog for a 2D Scatter Plot, which has two axes. The
3D Scatter Plot has three tabs, since it has three axes. The
contents of each tab are the same.
• Axis Range - Enter custom min/max values for the axis.
The defaults are the minimum and maximum values of
the axis variable.
• Grid Spacing - Allow Tecplot Chorus to automatically
determine the grid spacing, or manually enter a
custom spacing value. Not available for 3D Scatter
Plots.
• Reset All Axis Ranges - Resets the range settings for all axes to the default values (the minimum
and maximum values of the variable assigned to the axis).
48
Table Views
3-8
Table Views
A Table view is a simple spreadsheet-like listing of the values of each variable for every case in the project.
To open a new Table view, choose View > New Table View or click the
button in the toolbar. Rows
represent cases and columns represent variables. You can scroll the table horizontally or vertically if
necessary to see all the data in the project, and sort by the value of any variable by clicking a column
header. (Clicking the same column header again reverses the sort order.) Drag the column headers to
rearrage the display order of the variables; this is saved in the session file.
3 - 8.1
Constraint Visualization with Table Views
Cases listed in the Table view incorporate indicators that show
how the displayed cases relate to the filters. Some of these
indicators are most useful with Range filters (see Section 3 - 2
“Filters” for a tour of the types of filters). The indicators are:
• Shading along the left and/or right edges of the cell
indicates the proportion of the minimum/maximum
values of the filter to the variable’s range.
In the example here, the Mach Number filter (a Range
filter) is set to exclude about the lowest 20% and the
highest 40% of values. Therefore, about the left 20% and the right 40% of the Mach Number
column is shaded.
• A small, gray downward-pointing tick mark at the top of each cell indicates the position of the
cell’s value in the variable’s range. The lowest value has this tick mark placed at the left of the
cell, and the highest has it at the right. Other values have the tick mark placed proportionally.
• Values that violate the filter are colored red; values that pass the filter are colored black. In the
example here, the Case ID is subject to a single-value filter, and this value is set to 3, which is
49
Exploring Your Results
the only black value in the Case ID column. You can also see that all the visible values in the
Mach ID column are being filtered out, as they are red.
3 - 8.2
Selecting Cases in a Table View
You can select single or multiple cases in the table, then perform operations on them.
• To select a single case, click a row. All other rows are automatically de-selected.
• To toggle the status of individual cases without affecting other cases, click each row while
holding the Control key.
• To select a contiguous range of rows, click the first row in the range, then click the last row in
the range while holding the Shift key.
• You may select multiple contiguous ranges of rows. Select the first range as above, then select
the second and subsequent ranges by holding Control while clicking the first row in the range,
and Control + Shift while clicking the last row in the range.
• Press Control-A to select all cases.
Cases selected in any view or plot are selected in all open views and plots.
After selecting cases in the table, click the right mouse button on the selection to view or create images or
data for the selected cases. See Chapter 4: “Analyzing Individual Cases” for further details on these
operations.
The right-click menu also lets you designate the selected cases as active or inactive,
which sets the internal variable Case Status accordingly. Filter on Case Status to display
only active or inactive cases.
3 - 8.3
Editing Values
To edit the value of a variable for a particular case, double-click the cell containing the value to be edited.
Type the new value and press Enter.
3 - 8.4
Deleting Variables
To delete a variable from your project, right-click the variable’s column header in the table view and
choose Delete Variable from the context menu. All types of variables may be deleted; however, the
variable Case ID may not be deleted, as it is used internally by Tecplot Chorus.
Deleting a variable affects data views, calculated variables, filters, and surrogate models
that display or use the variable. Some of the results may be surprising. For example, if
the variable you delete is being used in a filter, deleting the variable may cause
additional cases to appear in your data views and plots, since the filter no longer applies.
3 - 8.5
Deleting Cases
To delete one or more cases from your project, select the cases to be deleted, then right-click the selection
and choose Delete from the context menu.
50
Table Views
3 - 8.6
Table View Properties
If the Properties sidebar is not visible, open it by choosing View
> Properties. This sidebar may be docked to any edge of the
Tecplot Chorus window, combined with the Filters sidebar, or
dragged out of the Tecplot Chorus window entirely and
positioned as desired on any display.
• Use Filters - Normally, the Table view displays all
cases, even if filters are active. To also filter the Table view, activate the Use Filters checkbox.
See Section 3 - 2 “Filters” for more information on using filters.
3 - 8.7
Selected Cases Sidebar
The Selected Cases sidebar is a Table view that displays information about only the cases selected in other
views. Remember that, in Tecplot Chorus, selection is generally independent of view. Cases you select in
one view are selected in every view.
Like any sidebar, the Selected Cases sidebar can be docked to any edge of the Tecplot Chorus workspace;
initially, it appears docked at the bottom of the window. Also like any sidebar, it can be “torn off” and
dragged out of the main workspace and positioned on any display.
All functions of Table views, except for filtering, can be used with the Selected Cases sidebar, including
sorting, rearranging columns, editing values, and deleting cases or variables.
Selecting cases in the Selected Cases sidebar will select these cases in other views, but the cases shown in
the sidebar will not change. To change the cases shown in the sidebar, select the cases in another view.
51
Exploring Your Results
3 - 8.8
Constraint Visualization with the Selected Cases Sidebar
As with the Table view, cases listed in the Selected Cases sidebar incorporate indicators that show how the
displayed cases relate to the filters. Some of these indicators are most useful with Range filters (see Section
3 - 2 “Filters” for a tour of the types of filters).
The indicators are:
• Shading along the left and/or right edges of the cell indicates the proportion of the minimum/
maximum values of the filter to the variable’s range.
In the example here, the Mach Number filter (a Range filter) is set to exclude about the lowest
20% and the highest 40% of values. Therefore, about the left 20% and the right 40% of the Mach
Number column is shaded.
• A small, gray downward-pointing tick mark at the top of each cell indicates the position of the
cell’s value in the variable’s range. The lowest value has this tick mark placed at the left of the
cell, and the highest has it at the right. Other values have the tick mark placed proportionally.
• Values that violate the filter are colored red; values that pass the filter are colored black. In the
example here, the Case ID is subject to a single-value filter and this value is set to 3, which is
the only black value in the Case ID column. You can also see that all the visible values in the
Mach ID column are being filtered out, as they are red.
52
4
Analyzing Individual Cases
Once you have located cases of interest in your project, Tecplot Chorus lets you view images or data
associated with them. Supported image formats open directly in Tecplot Chorus, while supported data
files (such as Tecplot layouts) open in Tecplot 360 EX.
In Tecplot 360 EX, you can create a style sheet from a single case and use it as a template to generate new
images for other cases. These images are then available in your Tecplot Chorus project.
4-1
Viewing Images
JPEG or PNG Images associated with one or more cases can be viewed by selecting the cases, rightclicking them, and choosing View Images from the context menu.
A new image viewer window appears.
You can resize, minimize, and maximize windows inside the Tecplot Chorus workspace.
The
button is a convenient shortcut that arranges and sizes the windows in the
workspace so that they do not overlap.
You can also drag view windows outside the Tecplot Chorus workspace and move them
anywhere on any display. Such windows always appear in front of the main Tecplot
Chorus window and thus in front of any windows still inside its workspace.
53
Analyzing Individual Cases
If you have selected a single case, all images associated with that case initially appear in the image viewer.
If you have selected multiple cases, the image viewer initially shows an image from each selected case that
has images under the default tag. (See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files” for more about tags.)
4 - 1.1
Image Viewer Controls
• Zoom - The zoom slider at the bottom of the window makes the
individual images larger or smaller.
4 - 1.2
Image Viewer Properties
The following controls appear in the Properties panel when an image
viewer window is active.
• Show Labels - Activate the checkbox to label each displayed image
with variable values from its case.
Click Select Labels to choose the variables to be shown using the
Label Images dialog. The Label Images dialog also appears
automatically the first time you activate the Show Labels
checkbox.
• Tag Groups - Opens the Tag Groups dialog to allow you to create
and modify tag groups. See “Tag Groups” on page 39.
• Show Images with Tags - Choose which images to display for each
case by choosing the tag or tag group.
You may choose multiple image tags or groups by holding Shift
or Control while clicking items in the list to toggle the state of
individual tags or to select contiguous ranges of items.
If you select a single tag, all selected cases will display the
associated images having that tag next to each other, wrapping to
new rows to fit the window. If you select multiple tags, including
a tag group containing more than one tag, the images will be
arranged in a grid; cases are rows and tags are columns.
See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files” for more
details about tags.
If a case doesn't have an image associated with a selected tag, that space will be left
blank. To see which cases are missing images, turn on the labels.
• Accumulate Cases When Selecting - If this checkbox is marked, you can add cases to this image
viewer by selecting them in any Tecplot Chorus view (for example, a table or matrix view) or
plot. Only cases not already shown in the image viewer are added. The images displayed
depend on the tags selected in the image viewer’s Show Images with Tags list.
To remove cases from the image viewer, select the image or images to be removed, then rightclick and choose Remove Cases from View from the context menu. All images associated with
that case are removed from the image viewer. (This applies only in the current image viewer.)
• Selected Image Values - Displays the values of all variables from the cases associated with the
selected images in a scrollable table.
If multiple cases are selected, the text “(Multiple values)” appears next to any variable that
does not have the same value in all selected cases.
• Diff From Current - Displays images highlighting the differences between the current image
and the others in the window (see “Showing Image Differences” on page 55).
54
Viewing Images
4 - 1.3
Removing Cases from the View
To remove cases from the image viewer, select an image associated with the case or cases to be removed,
then right-click and choose Remove Cases from View from the context menu. All images associated with
that case are removed from the image viewer. The deletion applies only to the current image viewer; no
cases or images are deleted from your project.
4 - 1.4
Exporting Images
You may export selected images from the viewer, or copy one to the clipboard, by right-clicking and
choosing Export Image or Copy to Clipboard from the context menu. Any labels enabled in the Properties
panel are included in the image.
When exporting, the Export Images dialog appears.
• Filename - The directory where the file will be placed. If you are exporting a single image, you
can also enter the filename here. If you are exporting multiple images, you specify only a
directory and Tecplot Chorus names the files. Click Browse to specify this using a Save dialog.
• Image Width - The width of the exported image in pixels. The height is determined by the
image’s aspect ratio. Mark the Use Original Image Width checkbox to use the original image
dimensions.
Exported images are saved in PNG (Portable Network Graphics) image files.
4 - 1.5
Showing Image Differences
To display the differences between one image and others in the image viewer:
1. Click the master image (the image to which other images will be compared).
2. Click the Diff From Current button at the bottom of the sidebar.
55
Analyzing Individual Cases
If multiple image tags are being displayed, the image you select in Step 1 above determines the tag of all
images used for the differences.
A new window appears displaying the differences between the master image and all other images.
Images should be the same size and be derived from identical plot styling. Otherwise,
the differences displayed may be due to these factors rather than to differences in the
solution data.
The master image is displayed in the first column. Each additional column has two rows: an original
image from the image viewer at the top, and a difference image (derived from each image and the master
image) immediately below it.
Difference images are created by a bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) of each image with the master image. This
process leaves pixels that are the same in both images black. The result is then inverted so that the
background is white again. Colors change in ways that tend to make them stand out from the background.
The Properties sidebar displays the values of all variables from the cases associated with the selected
images in a scrollable table. If multiple cases are selected, the text “(Multiple values)” appears next to any
variable that does not have the same value in all selected cases.
4-2
Viewing Data
Auxiliary data files associated with cases may be viewed in Tecplot 360 EX by selecting the cases, rightclicking them, and choosing View Data from the context menu. We refer to this capability as a “deep
dive.”
Out of the box, Tecplot Chorus supports loading these file types in Tecplot 360 EX using View Data:
• Tecplot Data (.dat, .plt, .szplt, plus nonstandard extensions .bin and .tec as synonyms for .plt)
• Tecplot Layout (.lay) and Layout Package (.lpk)
• CGNS (.cgns, .adf)
• PLOT3D (g.*, *.g, x.*, *.x, xyz.*, *.xyz, in.*, *.in, q.*, *.q, f.*, *.f, fun.*, *.fun, *.nam)
56
Viewing Data
• EnSight (.case)
• TRIX (.trix)
• OpenFOAM (controldict)
• Fluent (.cas, .dat as well as gzipped versions of these)
Support for additional formats can be added with a little text editing. See Appendix A: “Loading Other
Data Formats” for more information.
Once the data has been loaded, you can use Tecplot 360 EX to prepare publication-quality plots, compare
data from two or more cases, perform various kinds of analyses, and save templates that can be applied to
create additional images for your cases.
Selection works slightly differently depending on whether you are selecting cases in
table view, matrix view, or a line or scatter plot. See Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results”
for more information on the procedure for the view or plot you’re using.
As with images, each data file associated with a case has
a tag, which was assigned when the project was
imported into Tecplot Chorus. (See Section 1 - 1.2
“Tagging Image and Data Files”.) Most types of data
files allow multiple files to be associated with a given
tag and loaded into Tecplot 360 EX in a single step.
The Select Data dialog lets you choose the tag of the
desired data file or files. If multiple cases are selected,
only the tags common to all selected cases are available
in the View Data dialog. If the selected cases have no data file tags in common, you will receive an error
message instead. Selected cases must have data files with at least one tag in common.
Tecplot Chorus attempts to automatically determine what loader should be used to open the data. If there
is only one suitable option, Tecplot Chorus will not allow you to change the loader setting. If more than
one loader can be used to open the data, or if an available loader supports more than one configuration,
choose the desired loader and option set in this dialog. (See Appendix A: “Loading Other Data Formats”
for more information on loader descriptions.)
After you choose the tag of the data files to be opened, and optionally the method to be used to load the
data, choose the macro and the style template to be applied to the file. Click Browse to open a template
stored on disk, or choose a recently-used template from the menu.
• A macro (.mcr file) is a file containing instructions to perform a series of actions in Tecplot 360
EX. A macro can perform virtually any operation that Tecplot 360 EX can perform interactively,
such as slicing, adding streamtraces, calculating new variables, and so on. You can record a
macro file in Tecplot 360 EX’s Scripting Menu and apply it to any data file you open from
Tecplot Chorus.
• A style template (.sty file) is a file containing information about the visual appearance of a
single case in Tecplot 360 EX. You can create a style template using the Chorus sidebar inside
Tecplot 360 EX.
If you have not created any templates yet, or if you wish to use a default view, choose None.
57
Analyzing Individual Cases
Click OK to open Tecplot 360 EX and display each selected case’s data in its own frame.
A powerful post-processing tool is now available to you to further investigate the actual data from your
cases. The Chorus sidebar appears docked to the right of the Tecplot 360 EX workspace.
58
Viewing Data
4 - 2.1
The Chorus Sidebar
The Chorus sidebar provides integration between Tecplot Chorus and Tecplot 360
EX. Like all sidebars in both products, it can be snapped to any edge of the
workspace, docked with other sidebars, or undocked from the main Tecplot 360
EX window and positioned as desired. If you accidentally close the sidebar, you
can re-open it by choosing View > Chorus while in Tecplot 360 EX.
The Chorus sidebar has the following functions:
• View Page - When you choose to view data in Tecplot Chorus and Tecplot
360 EX is already open, a new page is created, rather than opening a new
instance of Tecplot 360 EX each time. This saves memory and time.
You can choose which page you wish to view from this scrolling list, or
delete the selected page by clicking the Delete current page button.
Data files that appear on pages that are not currently visible
may still use memory. Tecplot 360 EX will load data only as it is
needed for display, but if you are working with large data files or
have limited resources, you may experience poor performance
with multiple pages open. If this happens, close pages that you
do not currently need.
• Label Frames - Determines how the frames are labeled, similar to the
Show Labels feature when viewing images in Tecplot Chorus (see
Section 4 - 1.1 “Image Viewer Controls”).
• Click a variable to display that variable’s value in each frame.
• Hold the Control key while clicking a variable to toggle its selection state. This can be
used to select additional variables or to turn off the display of variables you don’t want.
• To select a contiguous range of variables, click the first variable in the range, then, while
holding the Shift key, click the last variable in the range. To select additional contiguous
ranges, hold Control while performing this maneuver. Alternatively, you can click and
drag the mouse to select a range of values.
• Save As Style Template - Click Save as Template to save the appearance of the current frame
(that is, all style information) in the Tecplot Chorus project for later application to other cases.
A Save dialog appears to allow you to save the file. Name the file as you like and click Save.
• Show diff Data - Allows you to display differences between cases, if multiple cases are open.
59
Analyzing Individual Cases
First, click the frame containing the master case (the case to which you wish to compare other
cases) and click Set Frame as Master. Then activate the Show Diff Data checkbox.
Similar to the image comparison feature in Tecplot Chorus proper (see Section 4 - 1.5 “Showing
Image Differences”), the master is shown on the left. Each additional column shows one case’s
original data and, below it, a difference frame calculated between that case and the master
case.
Unlike image comparison, this is a comparison of the actual underlying data. You may want to
use different styling on the difference frames to better reveal this.
• Synchronize styles - Click Synchronize Styles to copy all style information from the current
frame to all other frames. This is how, for example, you can move the frame label on all frames:
simply move it in one frame, then synchronize styles.
4-3
Creating Images
You can have Tecplot Chorus generate new images for some or all of the cases in your project. based on the
original data file associated with them. You may wish to do this if you do not already generate images
60
Creating Images
using a post-processing step, or you may want to produce additional images to better visualize details that
have only become apparent after a “deep dive” into selected cases (see Section 4 - 2 “Viewing Data”).
The data files used to create new images must be in formats that can be opened for
viewing in Tecplot 360 EX from within Tecplot Chorus. See “Viewing Data” on page 56
for a list of the formats supported by Tecplot Chorus out of the box, or Appendix A:
“Loading Other Data Formats” if your data is in another format.
To create these new images, Tecplot 360 EX applies a style template to each case’s data file to determine the
appearance of the image. To create a style template:
1. View a typical case as described in Section 4 - 2 “Viewing Data”.
2. Zoom, rotate, and style your plot as desired.
3. In the Chorus sidebar, click Save as Template and save the new style template.
Once you have created a style template, you may apply this template to any or all cases in your project to
generate new images as follows:
1. Select the cases for which you want to generate new images.
The exact procedure varies based on what type of view or plot in which you select the cases;
see Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results” for detailed instructions for each view.
To generate new images for all cases in your project, open a table view and press
Control-A to select all cases.
2. Right-click the selection and choose Create
Images from the context menu. The Create
Images dialog appears.
In the Create Images dialog, specify:
• Data Source - The tag of the data file
that will be used to generate the
image. (See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging
Image and Data Files” for more about
tags.)
• Loader - Choose the Tecplot 360 EX
loader (and optionally the loader
settings) to be used to load this data. If
only one loader is suitable, or if the
data is in a native Tecplot format,
Tecplot Chorus chooses it for you
automatically. (See Appendix A:
“Loading Other Data Formats” for
more information on loaders.)
• Macro - A Tecplot macro (.mcr file)
that will be run before the style template is applied to each data file. Click Browse to
choose the macro file or pick a recently-used macro from the menu.
• Style template - The Tecplot style template (.sty file) that should be applied to each data
file to produce a styled image. Click Browse to choose the style file or choose a recentlyused template from the menu.
• Width - The desired width of the image in pixels. (The height will be calculated
automatically based on the aspect ratio of the plot frame.)
61
Analyzing Individual Cases
• Tag - The tag by which this type of image will be known in Tecplot Chorus when
choosing to view images. (See Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image and Data Files”.)
Tecplot Chorus begins creating image files for the selected cases in the background.
For data files whose locations are specified by relative paths, Tecplot Chorus writes the
image files it generates to folders it maintains inside your project root folder (check
Project > Set Root Path). If your project root is on a network volume, make sure that
all users who will be generating data files with Tecplot Chorus have the proper
permissions for creating folders and files in this directory hierarchy.
For data files specified using absolute paths, the generated image files are written in the
same directory as the data file they were generated from.
Click the Manage Jobs button in the status bar to see this background task in the Manage Jobs window.
The status messages displayed include:
• In Progress - Tecplot Chorus is currently processing the job.
• Ready - Tecplot Chorus has finished processing the job and results from all cases are ready to
be deposited.
• Failed - An error occurred during the processing of the job and no results were produced.
• Partial - Errors prevented some cases from being processed, but others were processed
successfully and are ready to be deposited. The status message indicates how many cases were
processed successfully and how many failed.
When a job’s status is Ready or Partial, select it in the list and click the Deposit button to import the
images, data files, or extracted variables to the project. Tecplot Chorus then starts a wizard to append the
new data to the project (see Section 2 - 4 “Appending To a Project”).
62
Creating Data Files
4-4
Creating Data Files
Besides images, Tecplot Chorus can create layout
packages (.lpk files) for selected cases. A layout package
is a Tecplot data file that specifies a default style and
view along with the subset of the original data set
required to reproduce the current view in Tecplot 360
EX. For example, zones and variables that are not visible
are omitted from the .lpk file. Layout packages are an
ideal format for sharing interactive views of your data
(rather than static images) with colleagues.
The procedure for creating layout files is very similar to
that described in Section 4 - 3 “Creating Images” for
creating images; review that section for details. First,
open a typical data file in Tecplot 360 EX and create a
style template (see Section 4 - 2.1 “The Chorus Sidebar”).
Then select the cases for which you want to generate
layout packages, right-click them, and choose Create
Data from the context menu.
If the selected cases have more than one data file, you
will need to choose a data file tag to act as a source for
the layout packages. Then you’ll enter a name for the
generated file, assign it a tag so it can be accessed in Tecplot Chorus (see Section 1 - 1.2 “Tagging Image
and Data Files”), and select the style template you created. You may optionally choose a loader if the
default loader setting is not appropriate and also choose a Tecplot macro file to be run after each file is
loaded. (See Appendix A: “Loading Other Data Formats” for more information on loaders.)
Tecplot Chorus processes the job in the background. Click the Manage Jobs button in the status bar to see
the job’s status in the Manage Jobs window and, when it has finished, deposit the complete or partial
results in your project.
Tecplot Chorus writes the data files it generates to folders it maintains inside your
project root folder (check Project > Set Auxfile Root). If your project root is on a
network volume, make sure that all users who will be generating new data files with
Tecplot Chorus have the proper permissions for creating folders and files in this
directory hierarchy.
Tecplot Chorus then starts the wizard to append the new files to the project (see Section 2 - 4 “Appending
To a Project”).
4-5
Extracting Variables from Data Files
Tecplot 360 EX supports loading metadata from your model results in Tecplot format, as well as from
selected third-party formats. Tecplot 360 EX can also perform additional analysis and save the results as
metadata (see Chapter 21 in the Tecplot 360 EX User’s Manual).
By calling on Tecplot 360 EX, Tecplot Chorus can load the metadata from your results as variables in a
project. Tecplot Chorus can also be directed to use Tecplot 360 EX’s analysis capabilities to calculate
additional values.
To extract variables:
1. Select the cases for which you want to extract variables.
63
Analyzing Individual Cases
The exact procedure varies based on the type of view or plot in which you select the cases; see
Chapter 3: “Exploring Your Results” for detailed instructions for each view.
To extract variables for all cases in your project, open a table view and press Control-A
to select all cases.
2. Right-click the selection and choose Extract
Variables from the context menu. The
Extract Variables dialog appears.
In the Extract Variables dialog, specify:
• Data Source - The tag for the data file
from which variables are to be
extracted.
• Loader - If the data file is not in Tecplot
format, choose the loader that will be used to load it.
• Macro - This may be a macro file, previously written or recorded with Tecplot 360 EX,
that extracts the desired data using tools on the Analyze menu. Tecplot 360 EX will run
this macro file for each case that is loaded and pass the analysis results to Tecplot
Chorus, where they will be inserted into your project. Choose None if your solver
provides the variables you wish to extract.
See the next section, Recording an Analysis Macro, for instructions on recording a macro file in
Tecplot 360 EX for use with the Extract Variables feature.
3. Click OK. Tecplot Chorus begins extracting the variables from the selected data files in the
background. When this process is complete, it will be counted as “Ready” in the status bar.
Click the Manage Jobs button to deposit the results in your project.
4 - 5.1
Recording an Analysis Macro
To record a macro for use with the Extract Variables feature:
1. Launch Tecplot 360 EX.
2. In Tecplot 360 EX, load a data file typical of your cases.
3. Choose Scripting > Record Macro and save the new macro file with an .mcr extension. The
Macro Recorder window appears.
4. Perform the desired analysis using the tools on the Tecplot 360 EX Analyze menu. You may
perform as many different operations as you like; the results of each operation will be picked
up when Tecplot Chorus extracts the variables from each case in your projects. However, if
you perform the same operation more than once, only the last results from that calculation
will be available.
5. Click Stop Recording in the Macro Recorder window.
64
Custom Actions
4-6
Custom Actions
You can extend Tecplot Chorus to allow you to perform other actions on
selected cases. Two sample custom actions are included with Tecplot
Chorus.
• Extract Data with Tecplot 360 EX - Executes a Tecplot 360 EX macro
that extracts a slice from each selected data file and writes the slice
data to its own file. A link to this file is then added to your Tecplot
Chorus project. This action may be modified to invoke other
macro files for other purposes.
After extraction has finished, click Manage Jobs at the bottom of
the Tecplot Chorus window, select the job, and click Deposit.
• Open with Paraview - Opens a data file associated with the first
selected case using the open-source Paraview data visualization
tool.
When enabled, custom actions appear on the context menu when you right-click selected cases in any
view or plot. See Appendix B: “Actions” for more information on this feature.
65
Analyzing Individual Cases
66
5
Surrogate Models
A surrogate model is a simplified proxy for the CFD model underlying your results. Using an existing
(often sparse) result set, the surrogate model predicts results for cases that you have not run. You can then
query the surrogate model and visualize its response via line plots or 3D scatter plots.
Essentially an n-dimensional curve fit, the surrogate model is derived from the implicit correlations
between inputs and outputs for the cases you’ve already simulated, rather than being calculated by a
physics model. For this reason, generating a surrogate model takes much less time than running even a
single additional CFD simulation—usually a few seconds to a few minutes, depending on the number of
existing cases, the type of model used, and your workstation’s performance.
Although a surrogate model is necessarily an approximation, it’s a convenient tool to help you to make
sense of your results. It’s especially useful for highly-dimensional CFD projects, in which full exploration
of the design space might require thousands or even millions of multi-hour simulation cases. A surrogate
model can help you:
• Identify potential outliers - The surrogate model can quickly reveal cases that do not fall in line
with extrapolations based on cases you’ve already simulated.
• Simplify your CFD model - If the surrogate model is flat for a particular input variable, that
variable may have limited impact on the results and can potentially be eliminated from the
experiment, reducing dimensionality, saving simulation time, and making your results easier
to visualize.
• Fail faster - If, for example, after running a few cases on a proposed airfoil design, the surrogate
model unexpectedly suggests that no combination of design parameters within the physical
capabilities of the materials can achieve the desired lift, you can investigate immediately with a
few well-chosen simulations, then potentially reject the design entirely if it can never meet
requirements.
• Nail down boundary conditions - If the surrogate model hints at a sudden change in output for
small changes in input, you can run a few cases near the predicted boundary to find the critical
parameter values more precisely.
• Optimize designs faster - The surrogate model can suggest the general region of the design space
where the best performance (such as the highest lift) might be found. Additional cases in that
region will refine the surrogate model further and further, helping you find the best design
parameters with fewer time-consuming simulations than might otherwise be required.
67
Surrogate Models
5-1
Getting Started with Surrogate Models
Working with a surrogate model in Tecplot Chorus typically involves the following steps.
• Define variable natures. The surrogate model detects correlations between inputs and outputs,
so Tecplot Chorus must know which variables in your project are independent and which are
dependent before you can train a surrogate model.
If you didn’t specify variable natures when creating your project, you can use the Change
Variable Nature dialog, accessible via Project > Change Variable Nature. See Section 2 - 6
“Changing Variable Nature” for more details.
• Train the model. Specify which independent variables you wish to use as inputs to the surrogate
model (see Section 5 - 2.1 “Training the Model”).
• Create a line plot or 3D scatter plot employing appropriate variables.
• In line plots, one or two independent variables may be used. If one independent
variable is used on an axis, a second may optionally be used as the Group Data By
variable. If both axes use dependent variables, one independent variable may be used as
the Sort By variable, and either a second independent variable or None may be used for
Group Data By. See Section 5 - 3 “Surrogate Model in Line Plots”.
• In 3D scatter plots, exactly two independent variables must be used, either as axes
(typically X and Y) or to determine the size and color of the scatter symbols. See
“Surrogate Model in 3D Scatter Plots” on page 72.
All other variables used in the plot must be dependent variables for which you want to see the
surrogate model’s estimate.
• Display the surrogate model on your plot. Tick the Show checkbox in the Surrogate Model section
of the plot’s Properties sidebar. The Show checkbox is disabled until the model has been
trained and a plot with appropriate variable assignments has been created.
• Optionally, refine the query values. You can tell Tecplot Chorus exactly what values of each input
variable should be given to the surrogate model in order to calculate a response. For input
variables not being used in the plot, you may specify a single value; see Section 5 - 5 “Setting
the Evaluation Point”. For other inputs, you can specify multiple values; see Section 5 - 6
“Setting Range and Sampling”.
At this point, you should be able to see the surrogate model response on your plot as either a line or
surface. You can now refine the plot by rotating, zooming, and adjusting its properties, then save it using
the plot context menu. You may also export the derived data (the surrogate model’s output); see Exporting
Derived Data from a Line Plot or Exporting Derived Data from a 3D Scatter Plot as appropriate.
5 - 1.1
Minimum Number of Cases
The more variables you specify as inputs, the more cases you will need in your project to train a surrogate
model so that it is capable of making useful predictions. The minimum number of cases required depends
on the number of parameters to be incorporated and on the type of model.
Quadratic response surfaces have a mathematical limit based on the number of input variables used. This
type of model requires a number of data points equal to the number of terms in the quadratic polynomial
that describes the surface. For a 6-parameter model, this polynomial has 28 terms.1 So 28 is the minimum
number of cases you will need to generate a quadratic response surface for six parameters, with the caveat
that no case may have any parameter values in common with other cases. As the number of inputs to the
model increases, the number of cases required increases geometrically.
Kriging-based models do not technically require any minimum number of cases, but in general, fewer
than 20-30 cases will produce poor results, and you may need up to 100 to start with for best results,
especially when using many independent variables.
1. 6 quadratic terms, 15 cross terms with pairs of parameters, 6 linear terms, and a constant term
68
Using a Surrogate Model
If you have a very limited number of cases, you can still generate useful surrogate models by limiting the
number of inputs to be considered. However, the more cases you have, the better the surrogate model will
serve to predict outputs, and the more inputs the model can realistically take into account.
5-2
Using a Surrogate Model
In Tecplot Chorus, the surrogate model may be shown in line plots and
in 3D scatter plots. For these plot types, a Surrogate Model section
appears in the Properties sidebar containing the controls you will need
to train and visualize the model. (The Properties panel shown here is for
3D scatter plots.)
Tecplot Chorus supports a single surrogate model; the same model is
used in all plots. However, different variables may be chosen in each plot
to visualize different aspects of the model. The range of the input
variables and how their values are sampled may also differ among plots.
5 - 2.1
Training the Model
In the training process, you specify the independent variables (inputs or
parameters) to consider, and Tecplot Chorus generates a surrogate
model based on correlations between these variables and the dependent
variables (outputs or results) in your project.
You train your model via the Surrogate Model Training dialog, which
can be accessed from the sidebar for the Line Plot or 3D Scatter Plot by
clicking the Training button, or by choosing Surrogate Model >
Training from the menu bar.
This dialog allows you to choose the type of surrogate model to be generated and to specify the
independent variables (inputs or parameters) to be considered by the surrogate model.
• Type of model - Choose Kriging or Quadratic Response Surface.
• Kriging - A statistical interpolation that yields the best linear unbiased prediction of
values between cases using a covariance model (variogram). The more computationally
intensive of the two methods, but may produce better results with smaller numbers of
cases. A kriging-based model is guaranteed to touch all actual data points (although this
may not always be obvious in plots) but may not be as smooth as the alternative.
69
Surrogate Models
• Quadratic response surface - A simpler least-squares approximation using a seconddegree polynomial. A good fit for CFD and other physics applications, as many physical
phenomena are at most quadratic. Faster than kriging and generally sufficient for
getting “the lay of the land” when the number of cases is too large to wait for kriging.
• Independent variables - Choose the independent variables to be used in your surrogate model.
• Click a variable in the left column, then click Add >, to move it to the right column and
into the surrogate model.
• Click a variable in the right column, then click < Remove, to move it to the left column
and out of the surrogate model.
You may select multiple variables in either column by holding Control or Shift while clicking,
making it easier to add or remove multiple variables from the model. Press Control-A to select
all variables in a column.
Click OK to train the surrogate model with the variables you have chosen. Depending on the number of
cases in your project, the number of variables included in the model, the model’s type, and your
workstation’s performance, this may take anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes.
A single surrogate model can be active at any one time; the model you create in the Surrogate Model
Training dialog is queried to generate the response that may be shown in open Line Plot and 3D Scatter
Plot windows. Each of these windows can, however, show the model’s response for a different
combination of independent and dependent variables. You can also choose different query values for the
input variables in each plot (see “Setting Range and Sampling” on page 74).
5-3
Surrogate Model in Line Plots
To display surrogate model results on a line plot, the plot must be set up in one the two following ways:
• An independent variable on one axis and a dependent variable on the other, and optionally a
second independent variable as Group Data By. If Group Data By is an independent variable,
the Sort By variable must not have a nature of Other.
• Dependent variables on both axes, one independent variable as Sort By, and either a different
independent variable or None as Group Data By.
70
Surrogate Model in Line Plots
Often the X axis will be used for an independent variable and the Y axis for a dependent variable. (See
“Line and Symbol Plot Properties” on page 47 for details on choosing these variables.)
The Properties panel for Line Plots includes the Surrogate Model
section, in which the following options are available.
• Training - Displays the Surrogate Model Training dialog,
described in Section 5 - 2.1 “Training the Model”, where you
can change the type of surrogate model to generate and the
parameters to be included in the model.
• Show - Activate this checkbox to see the surrogate model’s
prediction on the plot, based on the values of the
independent variable used as an axis or as the Sort By variable.
This checkbox is available only after you have trained a surrogate model and chosen
appropriate variables as described above.
The response of the surrogate model is displayed as one or more dashed lines. Dashed lines are
used even if the plot is set to use symbols or symbols and lines for the actual case values. If
multiple lines are shown on the plot (due to the plot’s Group By setting), multiple dashed lines
are shown. The color of each dashed line matches the color of the corresponding solid line
representing your actual results.
It may take a moment to query the model and display the result, and the model needs to be requeried when the plot’s variables are changed. When you are not actively using the surrogate
model, turn off this checkbox to avoid these delays. If the wait is excessive, you might consider
querying the model at fewer points by Setting Range and Sampling.
• Evaluation Point - Opens a dialog (see Section 5 - 5 “Setting the Evaluation Point”) to specify the
query value for the independent variables being used in the surrogate model that are not being
used on the plot.
• Range and Sampling - Opens a dialog (see Section 5 - 6 “Setting Range and Sampling”) to choose
ranges and the number of query values to use for the independent variable(s) used in the plot.
At the bottom of the panel is an R-squared coefficient of determination indicating the goodness of fit of the
surrogate model to the actual data for the dependent variable(s) currently displayed on the plot. The closer
R-squared is to 1.0, the better the fit is.
5 - 3.1
Exporting Derived Data from a Line Plot
To export the values calculated by a surrogate model as a CSV file, the surrogate model response must be
visible on the plot. Right-click the plot and choose Export Derived Data from the context menu. A Save
dialog appears to let you name the file and choose the folder where it will be saved.
The exported file normally includes results for an evenly-spaced distribution of the independent variable’s
range (or the actual values when the independent variable is the Sort By variable). Other input variables
are, by default, queried at the minimum value found in the project for that variable.
Often, you will want to export derived data for points that are not in the project to answer questions like
“what does the surrogate model predict that the lift coefficient would be at with a value of Alpha for
which I have not run a simulation?” The Range and Sampling dialog (see Section 5 - 6 “Setting Range and
Sampling”) can be used to override the default query values for the plot’s independent variable. The
Evaluation Point dialog (see Section 5 - 5 “Setting the Evaluation Point”) can be used to change the query
value for other independent variables.
71
Surrogate Models
5-4
Surrogate Model in 3D Scatter Plots
To display surrogate model results on a 3D scatter plot, the plot must employ exactly two independent
variables. These variables can be used either on two of the three axes, or as the Color By and Size variables.
Often the X and Y axes are used for independent variables, and the Z axis for an independent variable, as
shown above. (See “3D Scatter Plot Properties” on page 44 for details on choosing these variables.)
The Properties panel for 3D Scatter Plots includes the Surrogate Model
section, in which the following options are available.
• Training - Displays the Surrogate Model Training dialog,
described in Section 5 - 2.1 “Training the Model”, where you
can change the type of surrogate model to generate and the
parameters to include in the model.
• Show - Activate this checkbox to visualize the surrogate
model’s prediction for the dependent variable on the plot,
based on the values of the two independent variables.
This checkbox is available only after you have trained a
surrogate model and assigned appropriate variables as described above. The surrogate model’s
response is displayed as a translucent blue surface in the plot by default (both the color and the
translucency can be changed).
It may take a moment to query the model and display the result, and the model needs to be requeried when the plot’s variables are changed. When you are not actively using the surrogate
model, turn off this checkbox to avoid these delays. If the wait is excessive, you might consider
querying the model at fewer points by Setting Range and Sampling.
• Evaluation Point - Opens a dialog (see Section 5 - 5 “Setting the Evaluation Point”) to optionally
specify a single value for each independent variable being used as input to the surrogate model
but not being used in the plot.
• Range and Sampling - Opens a dialog (see Section 5 - 6 “Setting Range and Sampling”) to choose
ranges and the number of query values to use for each independent variable.
72
Setting the Evaluation Point
• Color - Choose the color for the surface representing the derived data by picking a swatch.
Choose the ... color swatch to select any color using a standard color picker dialog.
• Translucency - Choose the level of translucency for the surrogate model surface using the slider.
0 is opaque and 100 is fully transparent. You may also enter a numeric value directly, or use the
small arrow buttons to fine-tune the value.
At the bottom of the panel is an R-squared coefficient of determination indicating the goodness of fit of the
surrogate model to the actual data for the displayed dependent variable(s). The closer R-squared is to 1.0,
the better the fit is.
5 - 4.1
Exporting Derived Data from a 3D Scatter Plot
To export the values calculated by a surrogate model as a CSV file, the surrogate model must be active.
Right-click the plot and choose Export Derived Data from the context menu. A Save dialog appears to let
you name the file and choose the folder where it will be saved.
The exported file normally includes results for an even distribution of query values along the axes (if the
independent variables are being used in the plot’s axes) or the actual values in the project (if the
independent variables are being used to size and color the scatter symbols). Other input variables are, by
default, queried at their minimum project value.
Often, you will want to export derived data for values that are not in the project to answer questions like
“what does the surrogate model predict that the lift coefficient would be at a combination of Mach, Alpha,
and Beta for which I have not run a simulation?” The Range and Sampling button (see Section 5 - 6
“Setting Range and Sampling”) and the Evaluation Point button (see Section 5 - 5 “Setting the Evaluation
Point”) can be used to override the values of the inputs to the model.
5 - 4.2
Exporting Surface Coefficients from a 3D Scatter Plot
Right-click a 3D scatter plot while a response surface surrogate model is active and choose Export Surface
Coefficients from the context menu to produce a text file showing how the model calculates the dependent
variable value. This file may be viewed in any text editor, such as Notepad.exe on Windows.
An example of this file is shown below.
Independent Variables
V1 = Alpha
V2 = Beta
V3 = Mach
Equation for dependent variable: Drag
Result = 575144 + 2021.56*V1 + -145.074*V1**2 + 9443.39*V2 + -213.566*V2**2 + -2.33378e+006*V3
+ 2.54697e+006*V3**2 + 466.728*V1*V2 + -14425.1*V1*V3 + -15397.4*V2*V3
5-5
Setting the Evaluation Point
For each independent variable that is used as an input to the surrogate model, but which is not being used
on the plot, the default query value of that variable is the lowest value of the variable available in your
project at the time of model training.
If an independent variable is being used on a plot, multiple values for that variable are
used for surrogate model queries. See Section 5 - 6 “Setting Range and Sampling”.
To change this behavior, click the Evaluation Point button in the Surrogate Model section of the plot’s
Properties sidebar, or choose Surrogate Model > Evaluation Point from the menu bar. The Surrogate
Model Evaluation Point dialog appears. (If you have not yet trained a model, the Surrogate Model
Training dialog appears first.)
73
Surrogate Models
The Surrogate Model Evaluation Point dialog allows
you to choose a single value for each input being
considered by the model.
Use the slider to select the query value to be used for
each variable, or enter a value directly in the text field.
The slider respects the minimum and maximum values
shown, but you may enter a number outside this range
in the text field.
The specified evaluation point is global, and applies to
all plots in which the surrogate model is shown. These
values are also used when generating derived data (see
Exporting Derived Data from a Line Plot and Exporting
Derived Data from a 3D Scatter Plot).
5 - 5.1
Setting the Evaluation Point from a Selected Case
To choose a case’s variable values for the surrogate model, right-click a case in any view or plot, then
choose Set Surrogate Model Evaluation Point from the context menu. The Surrogate Model Evaluation
Point dialog opens with the selected case’s values filled in for all independent variables used in the model.
The new values are applied immediately to all open plots that are currently displaying a surrogate model
response. You can then, if desired, fine-tune the values using the sliders and fields in the dialog.
The selected case may not be used as the evaluation point if it has null or NaN values
for any model input variable.
5-6
Setting Range and Sampling
To calculate a response curve or surface, Tecplot Chorus normally uses query values of the independent
variables used in the plot according to the following rules:
Where the variable is used
Default range and sampling
Plot axis
Even distribution within the axis range
Group Data By (in Line Plots)
The actual values of the variable found in the project
Sort By (in Line Plots)
Color By (in 3D Plots)
Size (in 3D Plots)
Even distribution between the minimum and maximum values found
in the project
The same query values are used when exporting derived data.
If a variable is not being used in a plot, but is an input to the surrogate model, these
rules do not apply. Instead, the evaluation point determines the variable’s query value.
See Section 5 - 5 “Setting the Evaluation Point”.
You can change these behaviors by specifying your own range and sampling instructions for the plot’s
independent variables. The specified values are then used as the values of the associated variable when
querying the model. You can use this feature both to limit the extent of the surrogate model response
shown on the plot and to choose the query values for exports.
74
Setting Range and Sampling
Click the Range and Sampling button in the Surrogate Model section of a Line Plot’s or 3D Scatter Plot’s
Properties panel. The Surrogate Model Range and Sampling dialog appears.
The Surrogate Model Range and Sampling
dialog allows you to specify ranges for
model input variables used in the active plot
as well as how many query values will be
distributed across each range. Either one or
two variables are displayed depending on
whether the active plot is a line plot or a 3D
scatter plot. Mark the User Defined
checkbox next to the variable of interest and
specify values as a comma-separated list of
exact values and/or ranges.
A range is specified in the format firstlast:samples; that is, the first value in the
range, followed by a hyphen, followed by
the last value in the range, followed by a
colon, followed by the number of equallyspaced samples to take from the range. The
range is inclusive of the specified first and
last values. For example, 0-1:11 specifies the
eleven values 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6,
0.7, 0.8. 0.9, and 1.0.
Single values and ranges may be combined in any order. For example, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10-15:6, 20-25:6
specifies the values 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25.
The line or surface displayed in your plot, which represents the surrogate model’s response, respects the
minimum and maximum of the values specified in this dialog. The model is queried at the exact points
specified (for 3D plots, all combinations of the points specified when the independent variables are being
used as axes), both for drawing the model’s response on plots and for exporting derived data; see Section 5
- 3.1 “Exporting Derived Data from a Line Plot” and Section 5 - 4.1 “Exporting Derived Data from a 3D
Scatter Plot”.
75
Surrogate Models
76
Appendices
A
Loading Other Data Formats
Tecplot Chorus usesTecplot 360 EX for examining solution data from selected cases. This visualization tool
seamlessly opens native Tecplot-format data files, including .plt (binary data), .szplt (subzone data), .dat
(ASCII data), .lay (layout) and .lpk (layout package) files. It also recognizes the nonstandard filename
extensions .bin and .tec, used by some solvers, as synonyms for .plt files.
Tecplot 360 EX also includes a suite of data loader add-ons that can open data files in many other popular
CFD formats, including CGNS, EnSight, FEA, FLOW-3D, Fluent, Kiva, and PLOT3D.
Loading these files from inside Tecplot Chorus requires a loader description file that identifies the
filename extensions to which it applies and specifies the options required for the loader to successfully
load your data files. Loader descriptions are stored in a special directory in your Tecplot Chorus
installation folder, namely interop/360/loaderdescriptions.
Some data formats, such as Fluent and PLOT3D, use two physical files per data set, one for the coordinates
and one for the rest of the variables. In this case, you must give both files the same tag when adding them
to the project so that Tecplot Chorus will know they should be opened together when you view the case’s
data.
Loader description files for the following formats are included with Tecplot Chorus.. If necessary, you may
modify these description files to set the options you usually use to load your data files.
• CGNS (.cgns, .adf)
• PLOT3D (g.*, *.g, x.*, *.x, xyz.*, *.xyz, in.*, *.in, q.*, *.q, f.*, *.f, fun.*, *.fun, *.nam)
• EnSight (.case)
• TRIX (.trix)
• OpenFOAM (controldict)
• Fluent (.cas, .dat as well as gzipped versions of these)
If you need to load another format, one of these files can be used as a template for creating your own
loader description. See Chapter 4 of the Tecplot 360 EX User’s Manual for more information on these
formats.
79
Loading Other Data Formats
A-1
Editing a Loader Description
The CGNS loader description file, cgns.xml, is shown here. This file may be viewed and edited in any text
editor, such as Notepad on Windows.
<!DOCTYPE ChorusForeignLoaderDescription>
<ChorusForeignLoaderDescription version="1">
<TecplotLoader Name="CGNS Loader">
<StandardSyntaxIdentifier Name="FILELIST_CGNSFILES"
DefaultExtension=".cgns"/>
<InstructionTemplate Name="CGNS">
"STANDARDSYNTAX" "1.0" "FILELIST_CGNSFILES"
%FILELIST_CGNSFILES% "AverageToNodes" "No" "AveragingMethod"
"Arithmetic" "SectionLoad" "SeparateZones" "LoadBCs" "Yes"
"AssignStrandIDs" "Yes" "LOADCONVERGENCEHISTORY" "No"
</InstructionTemplate>
</TecplotLoader>
</ChorusForeignLoaderDescription>
The section between <InstructionTemplate Name="CGNSstd"> and </InstructionTemplate> defines a
macro instruction that invokes the CGNS loader for the specified file (indicated using the placeholder
%FILELIST_CGNSFILES%). The easiest way to change this is to record a macro file in Tecplot 360 EX, use the
Tecplot 360 EX dialogs to specify loader options, and extract the READDATASET instruction from the macro
using a text editor:
1. Start Tecplot 360 EX, either by choosing to view a case’s data in a Tecplot Chorus project or
directly. To start Tecplot 360 EX without Tecplot Chorus:
• In Windows, click the Tecplot 360 EX shortcut on the Start menu.
• In Linux, cd /path/to/tecplot360/bin ; ./tec360
2. In Tecplot 360 EX, choose Scripting > Record Macro to begin recording the macro and specify
a name for it and a directory to save it in.
3. Choose File > Load Data File(s) and load a data file from one of your cases. Be sure to specify
any loader options necessary to load the file correctly. This action is recorded to the macro file.
4. Click the Stop Recording button in the Macro Recorder dialog.
Open the recorded macro file in a text editor and find the $!READDATASET instruction. Beginning with the
text “STANDARDSYNTAX”, but excluding the text $!READDATASET, copy the entire instruction into the loader
description file between the tags <InstructionTemplate Name="CGNSstd"> and </InstructionTemplate>.
Do not include the single quotes around the instruction. Also do not include the DATASETREADER line.
Replace the path of the file that appears in the macro instruction with the placeholder text
%FILELIST_CGNSFILES%. Tecplot Chorus will replace this with the path of the actual file being loaded when
you choose to view or extract a case’s data.
A-2
Creating Other Loader Descriptions
A loader description can be used as a template for loading other data formats supported by Tecplot 360
EX. Copy the file and give it a new name. You will need the set of options, specific to each loader,
necessary to load one of your typical files in that format.
The easiest way to get this information is to record a macro that loads a single data file as described in the
previous section. The body of the $!READDATASET instruction (excluding the single quotes, the $!READDATASET
instruction and the DATASETREADER line) should be placed between the <InstructionTemplate Name="...">
and </InstructionTemplate> tags.
References to the loader name and any filename extensions should be changed as appropriate for the new
loader, and the <TecplotLoader Name="..."> tag should be edited to include the name of the loader as
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Multiple Instruction Templates
found in the DATASETREADER line of the recorded macro file. Save the new file in the folder interop/360/
loaderdescriptions as a plain text file with an .xml extension.
We are interested to hear about what kinds of data files you are using so that we can improve the loader
descriptions included with Tecplot Chorus. Please do not hesitate to contact Technical Support if you need
help creating your own loader description.
A-3
Multiple Instruction Templates
If you frequently load data files of a single type but with varying sets of options, it is possible to include
multiple instruction templates in a loader description file. Simply copy the text beginning with
<InstructionTemplate> and ending with </InstructionTemplate> and paste it above or below any existing
instruction template definition, then change the loader options as desired, either manually or by recording
a macro as already described. Change the Name attribute in the <InstructionTemplate> tag to change how
this set of options appears in Tecplot Chorus dialogs.
A-4
XML Schema
The following are the tags supported in loader description files.
Tag
Notes
Required
ChorusForeignLoaderDescription
Encloses one or more TecplotLoaders.
Yes
Version=
File version.
No
TecplotLoader
Block containing loader descriptions for a given Tecplot
Loader.
Yes
Official “ADDONID” loader name.
Yes
Name of File or Dir list identifier found in the
STANDARDSYNTAX string along with the associated
default file extension.
Yes
Name=
Name of the standard syntax identifier.
Yes
DefaultExtension=
Default extension for the identifier.
Yes
Custom loader instruction.
Yes
Name=
Name of custom loader instruction.
Yes
(body)
STANDARDSYNTAX instruction string with
placeholders for actual files to deliver.
Yes
Name=
StandardSyntaxIdentifier
InstructionTemplate
A-5
Alternative Method
Loader description files work only for the CGNS, EnSight, FEA, FLOW-3D, Fluent, Kiva, and PLOT3D
loaders. These loaders all use a standard macro syntax that Tecplot Chorus knows about and can generate
as needed to load data files. However, an alternative method is available that will work with all loaders,
including the loaders just listed as well as all others included with Tecplot 360 EX.
In this method, you create a macro file that contains the instructions necessary to read a single data file. A
copy of this macro file is then placed in each folder that contains a non-Tecplot data file. The same macro
file can be used for all cases; a copy can be inserted into the appropriate folder as a post-processing step in
your solver workflow. This macro file, rather than the actual data file, is then tagged as part of your
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Loading Other Data Formats
Tecplot Chorus project. When you view data for a case, instead of loading the data file directly, Tecplot 360
EX loads and executes the macro, which loads the data file.
For this technique to work, the raw data files must have the same file name in every
case. If you have more than one non-Tecplot format data file you wish to load, or if the
names vary, you will need to prepare a separate macro file for each.
For example, suppose you have the following folder structure:
--|
|
|
`--
a1
|-- sample_nozzle.g
`-- sample_nozzle.q
a2
|-- sample_nozzle.g
`-- sample_nozzle.q
In other words, two case folders, a1 and a2, each containing a pair of PLOT3D files (the .g and .q files). You
will create a sample_nozzle.mcr file, a Tecplot macro that loads the PLOT3D files, and deposit a copy in each
case folder. The resulting structure will look like this:
--- a1
|
|-- sample_nozzle.g
|
|-- sample_nozzle.mcr
|
`-- sample_nozzle.q
|
`-- a2
|-- sample_nozzle.g
|-- sample_nozzle.mcr
`-- sample_nozzle.q
The sample_nozzle.mcr file would be the file tagged in Tecplot Chorus as an auxiliary data file for the case.
A - 5.1
Creating the Macro File
Step 1 Record the Macro
1. Start Tecplot 360 EX, either by choosing to view a case’s data in a Tecplot Chorus project or
directly. To start Tecplot 360 EX without Tecplot Chorus:
• In Windows, click the Tecplot 360 EX shortcut on the Start menu.
• In Linux, cd /path/to/tecplot360/bin ; ./tec360
2. In Tecplot 360 EX, choose Scripting > Record Macro to begin recording the macro and specify
a name for it and a directory to save it in.
3. Choose File > Load Data File(s) and load a data file from one of your cases. Be sure to specify
any loader options necessary to load the file correctly. This action is recorded to the macro file.
4. Click the Stop Recording button in the Macro Recorder dialog.
If you make a mistake, simply stop recording and start over with a fresh macro file.
Step 2 Edit the Macro
The next step is to edit the macro so that it does not mention specific directory names in any $!READDATASET
command(s) it contains. This may be done with any standard text editor, such as Notepad on Windows.
Any directory names found in the macro must be replaced with the variable |MACROFILEPATH|. This way, the
macro loads the data file from the directory it is placed in, rather than from the location of the data file you
opened when recording the macro.
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Alternative Method
For example, your recorded macro file might contain the following line:
$!READDATASET '"STANDARDSYNTAX" "1.0" "FILELIST_GRIDFILES" "1"
"/users/joe/myproject/a1/sample_nozzle.g" ...'
(The actual command will likely be much longer, as it will contain specifications of every loader option.)
The text /users/joe/myproject/a1/sample_nozzle.g is the path to the file you loaded. This must be edited so
that it looks like this (note the slash after the vertical bar):
$!READDATASET '"STANDARDSYNTAX" "1.0" "FILELIST_GRIDFILES" "1"
"|MACROFILEPATH|/sample_nozzle.g" ...'
The macro file may contain other references to files, since many data formats use multiple files. Each of
these must be edited in a similar fashion so that the macro loads the files from whatever directory the .mcr
file is placed in.
Save the .mcr file after making these edits.
Step 3 Copy the Macro File to Each Case Folder
This can be done as a post-processing step after your solver has created a data file, if desired. If you do
only a few cases at a time, you may find it easier to just make the copies manually.
Step 4 Tag the Macro File
Now you must tag the macro file in Tecplot Chorus to make it available as a data file. This can be done
when the project is initially created (see Section 2 - 3 “Creating Projects” on page 18), or it can be done
afterward (see Section 2 - 4 “Appending To a Project” on page 28).
• If you are using the Delimited Text Reader, add a column to the file that names the .mcr file
(the same file name for each case, sample_nozzle.mcr in our example). There is no need to
include columns for the actual data files (for example, .g and .q files).
• If you are using the File Crawler, on the Files to Link page you should specify a pattern that
matches only the .mcr file (for example, sample_nozzle.mcr). Do not use any patterns that match
the actual data files (.g and .q files in our example).
In either case, specify a tag that represents the file’s contents (such as “Sample Nozzle”) so you can easily
find it in Tecplot Chorus.
A - 5.2
Viewing The Data Files
Once you have set up the macro files properly and tagged them in Tecplot Chorus, you can view these
data files in the same way you view any other data file. Tecplot Chorus will tell Tecplot 360 EX to open the
macro file, which will load the data. See Section 4 - 2 “Viewing Data” on page 56 for instructions.
83
Loading Other Data Formats
84
B
Actions
Actions are custom operations that appear on the context menu when you right-click selected cases in a
Tecplot Chorus project. Two sample actions are included with Tecplot Chorus:
• Extract Data with Tecplot 360 EX - Executes a macro that extracts a slice from a data file
associated with each case and writes the slice data to its own file. A link to this file is then
added to your Tecplot Chorus project. This action may be modified to invoke other macro files
for other purposes.
After extraction has finished, click Manage Jobs at the bottom of the Tecplot Chorus window,
select the job, and click Deposit.
• Open with Paraview - Opens a data file associated with the first selected case using the thirdparty Paraview data visualization tool.
The example actions run Python scripts. You will need Python 2.6.x or 2.7.x installed on your computer to
use them.
B-1
Enabling the Example Actions
The example actions are stored in the folder interop/actions, which is in the Tecplot Chorus installation
folder. This folder also contains a registration file, a simple XML file that tells Tecplot Chorus how each
action should appear in the context menu and the command line necessary to invoke it.
Tecplot Chorus supports multiple registration files; all .xml files in the interop/actions folder are scanned for
action definitions. The file examples.xml is the registration file for the example actions. You will need to
modify this file to enable the example actions, as they are turned off initially.
Tecplot Chorus will also scan a folder in your home directory for action registration files.
This may be useful if you don’t have write access in the program installation directory, or
if you want certain actions to be available only to certain users. On Windows, this folder
is Tecplot/Chorus/interop/actions in your My Documents folder. On Linux, this folder is
~/.tecplot/chorus/interop/actions. You’ll need to create this folder if it does not exist.
You may want to copy examples.xml (and other action registration files) to this folder
and modify it there so it will be used by future versions of Tecplot Chorus you install
without needing to copy it to the new version’s interop/actions directory.
85
Actions
Open examples.xml in a text editor and find the <action> tags, which initially read <action
enabled="false">. Change one or both of these to read <action enabled="true">. The line immediately
following the <action> tag includes a <name> tag that identifies the action you’re editing.
The <exec> tag for each action includes placeholder text that must be edited before the actions will work on
your computer. In particular:
• Replace /path/to/python with the path of your Python interpreter. On Linux systems, this is
usually /usr/bin/python. On Windows systems, this is usually C:/Python26/python.exe. If an
appropriate Python interpreter is in your system’s PATH, you may simply use python.
• Replace /path/to/ExtractDataWithTecplot360.py or /path/to/OpenWithParaview.py with the full
paths to these scripts. On Windows, these files are usually in C:/Program Files/Tecplot/Tecplot
Chorus 2017 R1/interop/actions.
Windows users should use forward slashes (/) in pathnames rather than backslashes (\).
The text %INSTRUCTION_FILE% will be used by Tecplot Chorus when the action is invoked. Do not change it.
After enabling one or both of the custom actions, close Tecplot Chorus if it is
open, then restart it and open a project. When you right-click selected cases
in any data view or plot, the enabled actions will be shown in the context
menu, as seen here. However, the actions won’t run until you make the
changes described in the next section.
B-2
Configuring the Example Actions
The example Python scripts must be modified before they will run on your
computer. Open them in a text editor and make the indicated changes.
B - 2.1
ExtractDataWithTecplot360.py
Search for the following placeholders and replace them as noted.
• /path/to/resulting/data/datafile.plt - Replace with the path where the generated Tecplot 360
EX data file (.plt file) will be temporarily stored before being added to the project.
• /path/to/tecplot360/bin/tec360 - Replace with the path to the Tecplot 360 EX executable. On
Windows systems, this is usually C:/Program Files/Tecplot/Tecplot 360 EX 2017 R1/bin/tec360.exe.
• /path/to/extract_slice.mcr - Replace with the path to the Tecplot 360 EX macro to be run, i.e.,
extract_slice.mcr.
Windows users should use forward slashes (/) in pathnames rather than backslashes (\).
B - 2.2
OpenWithParaview.py
Search for the placeholder /path/to/paraview and replace it with the complete path of the Paraview
executable on your system.
Windows users should use forward slashes (/) in pathnames rather than backslashes (\).
86
Creating Your Own Actions
B-3
Creating Your Own Actions
As this feature is new, there may be changes to how actions work in future releases of
Tecplot Chorus.
If you can program in Python, the example Python scripts and Tecplot macros can be used as starting
points for developing your own actions.
Tecplot Chorus actions can, however, be written in virtually any language. While we used Python for the
examples, you could use Perl or Ruby, or Java or C#—even C or C++. If you can use it to write programs
that can be run from the command line, you can use it to write a Tecplot Chorus action. (An XML library is
handy, too.)
Actions work according to the following process:
• The user invokes the action by selecting one or more cases, right-clicking, and choosing the
action from the context menu.
• Tecplot Chorus writes an instruction XML file. The instruction file contains information about
the project, the job, and the selected cases.
• Your action is launched, passing the path to the instruction file as an argument to your action
according to the command line template given in the <exec> tag in the action registration file.
• Your action reads and parses the instruction file.
The instruction file contains XML data. Its schema is subject to change and is currently
not documented; the best way to see what’s in an instruction file is to write a custom
action that displays it or copies it to a safe location for later review.
• Using information gleaned from the instruction file, your action script performs its work.
• If your action needs to add any variables or file links to the project, it must perform the
following steps:
• Write its results to a CSV file in the pending jobs folder specified by the instruction XML
file. The name of the results must be job#.csv where # is replaced with the job ID from the
instruction XML. The first column must be the Case ID for the affected cases. Additional
columns may be used to overwrite variables already in the project for the indicated
cases or to add new variables.
Only one or more successfully processed cases should be written to this CSV file. The
number of successfully processed cases may be less than the number of cases passed to
the action. If no cases were successfully processed, do not create the CSV file. Tecplot
Chorus uses the presence or absence of this file to determine the status displayed in the
Manage Jobs dialog.
• Write a status message to job#.runstatus in the pending jobs folder (again, # is replaced
with the job ID). This text is displayed when the user clicks the Job Details button in the
Manage Jobs dialog.
• Finally, create job#.done (where # is once more replaced with the job ID) in the pending
jobs folder to signal to Tecplot Chorus that it has finished its work.
• The user then deposits the action’s results into their project using the Manage Jobs
window.
• If the action does not need to add any data to the project, for example for a viewer action such
as the Paraview example action, it should simply delete the instruction file to signal to Tecplot
Chorus that the action has been completed.
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Actions
The provided Python utility library, JobInfo.py, helps you manage this flow if you are writing your action in
Python. Make sure a copy is in the same folder as your action, or in some other folder that Python will
look in for modules, such as your Python installation’s site-packages directory.
After writing your script, tell Tecplot Chorus how to invoke your action by creating a registration file for
it. We suggest copying examples.xml to a different name and modifying it as appropriate. A single
registration file may contain definitions of multiple custom actions; simply include as many <action>...
</action> sections as required.
Your action’s registration file should be placed in the interop/actions directory in your Tecplot Chorus
installation folder, or in the user-specific action folders appropriate to your operating system:
• Windows - Tecplot/Chorus/interop/actions in My Documents
• Linux - ~/.tecplot/chorus/interop/actions.
88
C
Configuration
Most Tecplot Chorus configuration options are set and stored for individual projects, not for the whole
application. This Appendix documents useful global settings for Tecplot Chorus. On Windows, these
settings are stored in the registry under the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Tecplot\Chorus. On Linux,
they are stored in a text file under the user home directory, ~/.config/Tecplot/Chorus.conf.
C - 1 ImageListViewStylesheet,
ImageTableViewStylesheet
The default background color of image views is a light gray, but this may be modified via the
ImageListViewStylesheet and ImageTableViewStylesheet configuration settings.
These values are Qt color specifications, which are essentially the same as CSS color specifications. Most
commonly you will use a color name (lightgray is the default) or a 3- or 6-digit hexadecimal RGB color
specification beginning with #. See http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/qcolor.html#setNamedColor for details.
• Windows - Use RegEdit to add or modify these String (REG_SZ) values under the key
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Tecplot\Chorus or, from the Windows command line, issue the
commands:
reg add HKCU\Software\Tecplot\Chorus\ /v ImageListViewStylesheet /t REG_SZ /f /d lightgray
reg add HKCU\Software\Tecplot\Chorus\ /v ImageTableViewStylesheet /t REG_SZ /f /d lightgray
Replace the lightgray at the end of each command line with the desired color specification.
• Linux - Open Chorus.conf in your text editor and find the line beginning with
ImageListViewStylesheet and/or ImageTableViewStylesheet and change the color specification
following the = sign as desired.
If no such line(s) exist, add them just below the [General] line. If there is no [General] line in the
file, add one as the first line of the file, then add the desired background color assignment(s)
below that.
89
Configuration
90
D
License Management
D-1
Entering Your License
The first time you launch Tecplot Chorus after a fresh installation, you will be prompted to enter your
license information:
91
License Management
You will also see this dialog if Tecplot Chorus cannot validate your license information (for example,
because your evaluation license has expired, or because the network license server is not available).
Additionally, you may change your license information at any time from the Help menu.
SYSTEM ADMINISTRATORS
Tecplot products store their license configuration file in a platformspecific location. Each Tecplot product has its own license configuration
file.
Windows: C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Tecplot
Linux: ~/.local/share/data/tecplot
The above directories are specific to the individual workstation users.
If you want all users of the computer to use the same license
configuration for a given Tecplot product, you may move the license
configuration file to the product installation directory after initial
license setup.
To prevent users from editing the license configuration, you may then
change the permissions on the license file to be writable only by an
administrator or root user.
How you install your license information depends on what type of license you have.
• If you wish to evaluate the product before purchasing, you may obtain an Evaluation license
with a single click. See Evaluation License Setup.
• If you have an Activation Code for a Single-User license and have Internet access, you enter
the activation code. See Single-User License Setup Using An Activation Code.
• If you have a License File for a Single-User license, you select the license file. See Single-User
License Setup Using A License File.
• If you have a Network license, you specify the server name and port number of the RLM
license server on your network. See Network License Setup.
• If you have a License File for a Single-User license, you select the license file. See Single-User
License Setup Using A License File.
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Entering Your License
D - 1.1
Evaluation License Setup
To obtain a time-limited evaluation license key so you can try the product before purchasing, make sure
the “Evaluation” license type is selected in the Licensing dialog, then click Begin Evaluation. The product
evaluation period begins. You will see a notice on the product’s Welcome Screen indicating when your
evaluation license will expire.
This procedure requires an active Internet connection. If for some reason you cannot fully evaluate Tecplot
Chorus on an Internet-connected computer, or if you need additional time to complete your evaluation,
contact Tecplot Support for a time-limited single-user license file, which may then be installed using the
instructions in “Single-User License Setup Using A License File” on page 94.
D - 1.2
Single-User License Setup Using An Activation Code
If you received an activation code for your product, allowing it to be activated over the Internet, follow the
instructions below. If you received a license key file, or if the workstation you have installed the product
on does not have Internet access, see “Single-User License Setup Using A License File” on page 94.
To activate the product, simply enter or paste your activation code in the field provided. Then click
Activate.
93
License Management
The license key corresponding to your activation code is downloaded to your computer, and Tecplot
Chorus uses that license.
D - 1.3
Single-User License Setup Using A License File
You will need the license file sent to you by Tecplot as an e-mail attachment. Please save it to a file on your
computer in an easy-to-find location, such as the Desktop.
If you do not have your license file, or have lost it, click Request
License in the Licensing dialog for instructions on how to obtain it.
1. Make sure the “License File” option is selected in the Licensing dialog.
2. Click Open License File. A file browser appears. Select the license file e-mailed to you, then
click Open.
The message “Status: Valid” appears in the Current License Information panel at the upper
right.
3. Click OK to save the license information.
Tecplot Chorus now uses the chosen license.
94
License Roaming
D - 1.4
Network License Setup
To use a network license, you or your system administrator must first install the Reprise License Manager
(RLM) and the license key for your product on a network server. (See the installation instructions included with
the RLM download.) Once this has been accomplished, follow these steps:
1. Make sure the “Network” license type is selected in the Licensing dialog.
2. Enter the server name (you may use a hostname or IP address) and port number of the license
server in the fields provided.
3. Click OK to save the license information.
Tecplot Chorus will now use a license obtained from the license server.
If the product is unable to obtain a license key, an error message will appear, and you should verify that
you have specified the correct network license information.
D-2
License Roaming
Network license users who need to use Tecplot Chorus while not connected to the same network as their
license server (for example, while traveling) can use license roaming. License roaming allows you to use
the product without access to the license server for a limited period of time. The roaming license is
considered “in use” by the server continuously until it expires or is returned.
To manage license roaming, choose License Roaming from the Help menu. The License Roaming dialog
appears.
95
License Management
D - 2.1
Starting Roaming
To start roaming, choose the expiration date for the roaming license using the pop-out calendar that
appears when you click the roaming expiration date. Your license will expire at the end of that day, at
midnight.
To account for time zones, we suggest roaming for a day longer than you think you
need when you will be traveling.
Click Begin Roam to obtain the roaming license and begin roaming.
The license server administrator and the license key may restrict the maximum
amount of time users may roam and/or the total number of licenses that may roam at
a given time.
Additionally, only one instance of Tecplot Chorus may be run while roaming.
While roaming, the license status is noted as Roaming in the Licensing dialog, and the expiration date of
the roaming session is also shown. You may not change license information while roaming.
When you are getting close to your roaming license’s expiration date, a notification appears in the
Welcome Screen at startup.
Do not upgrade Tecplot Chorus while roaming. If you do, your license may no longer
work correctly. Set the RLM_ROAM environment variable to -100 before launching to rectify
this situation (see RLM_ROAM).
D - 2.2
Ending Roaming
Your roaming license expires automatically at the end of the day (that is, midnight) on the day you
selected when you began roaming. After this date, your computer must be able to connect to the network
license server to run Tecplot Chorus.
You may also end roaming early and make your license available for other users. To do this, you must first
connect your computer to a network that allows you to reach the license server. Then choose License
Roaming from the Help menu and click the End Roam button in the License Roaming dialog.
D - 2.3
RLM_ROAM
You can initiate roaming from the command line by setting the RLM_ROAM environment variable to the
number of days you wish to roam, then starting Tecplot Chorus from that command line session. The
roaming session expires at the end of the day after the number of days specified (for example, if it is noon
Tuesday, and you set RLM_ROAM to 2, the roaming license expires at the end of the day Thursday). RLM_ROAM
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License Roaming
may also be set to the special value today to have the roaming license expire at the end of the current day
(the value 0 means that no changes to roaming will be made).
If RLM_ROAM is set permanently (for example, using the System Properties in Windows), the license roaming
will be refreshed each time you run Tecplot Chorus while connected to the network. If RLM_ROAM is 1,
for example, each time you start Tecplot Chorus, the roaming license is refreshed to expire at midnight the
following day. This allows you to easily take your computer home with you any night and continue using
Tecplot Chorus while disconnected from the license server, without needing to explicitly roam each day.
You may end a roaming session early by setting RLM_ROAM to -1 before launching Tecplot Chorus.
If you are having trouble ending your roaming early (a common cause is upgrading
Tecplot Chorus while roaming), try setting RLM_ROAM to -100 before launching Tecplot
Chorus. The roaming license will be forcibly removed from your workstation, and
Tecplot Chorus will begin requesting a regular license from a license server at each
startup. At this point you can obtain a fresh roaming license, if desired. The
reservation for your previous roaming license will, however, continue to be held on
the license server that issued it until it expires.
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License Management
98
E
Glossary
A
absolute path: A path that specifies all the directories containing a file starting from the root of the file
system (Linux), the root of a particular drive such as C: (Windows), or the root of the network (also
Windows). A path is absolute when it begins with a drive letter or a slash.
add-on: A plug-in software module for Tecplot 360 EX. The Chorus add-on allows certain Tecplot Chorus
features to be integrated tightly with Tecplot 360 EX.
append: Generally, to add more data to the end of a file. In Tecplot Chorus, refers to the ability to add new
cases and/or variables to a project.
auxiliary file: An image or data file associated with a specific case in a Tecplot Chorus project.
B
background job: See job.
C
calculated variable: A variable in a Tecplot Chorus project calculated from other variables in the project
using a formula you provide.
case: A simulation or experiment carried out for a given combination of input variables or parameters. In
Tecplot Chorus, a case is represented by a record that stores the input variables, the output or result
variables, informational fields, and links to auxiliary files. Compare with run.
Case ID: An internal Tecplot Chorus variable that uniquely identifies each case record. Case ID is an
integer that starts at 1 for the first imported case and increases by 1 for each additional case. The variable
name “Case ID” is reserved for use by Tecplot Chorus.
Case Status: An internal Tecplot Chorus variable that indicates whether cases are active or inactive,
allowing inactive cases to be filtered from the view. It can be set by selecting cases in any Tecplot Chorus
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Glossary
view and clicking the right mouse button. This variable is added to the project the first time it is used, so it
might not exist in a given project. If it does not exist, all cases are active. The variable name “Case Status”
is reserved for use by Tecplot Chorus.
CFD: See computational fluid dynamics.
checkbox filter: A filter that allows values of a given variable to be selected for display by clicking a
checkbox. Best suited for variables having a small number of discrete values.
Chorus add-on: A plug-in module that allows the integration of certain Tecplot Chorus features into
Tecplot 360 EX. These features can be found in the Chorus sidebar in Tecplot 360 EX.
computational fluid dynamics: an approach to analyzing fluid flow problems (such as the location and
magnitude of the vortices created by an airfoil as wind passes over it) using numerical methods and
algorithms, rather than by examining a model in a wind tunnel.
crawler: Generally, a program that scans a file system, the Web, or some other external data source and
imports information about the data it finds into a database. See file crawler for its use in Tecplot Chorus.
CSV file: Short for “comma-separated-value file.” A type of delimited text file in which a comma is used as
the delimiter. Frequently used for data interchange.
D
data view: See view.
deep dive: From Tecplot Chorus, viewing the data for a given case or cases in Tecplot 360 EX. The
metaphor is that the aggregate view of all your cases in Tecplot Chorus is the surface of a vast ocean of
data. To investigate cases of interest in more detail, you dive deeper, inspecting the full case data (not just
the metadata) in Tecplot 360 EX.
delimited text file: A plain-text file that typically contains data to be imported to a project, with a
delimiter such as a tab or a comma between each field in a given line. When a comma is used, the file is
often called a CSV file. When importing data into Tecplot Chorus from such a file, each line in the file
represents a single case, and the individual values in that line are the variables associated with the case.
delimiter: A character that separates the fields in a data record. For example, in a directory path like
C:\Users\Jerry, the backslash is used as a delimiter for the directories in the path. In a CSV file, the
delimiter is a comma, and is used to separate the fields on each line of the file.
dependent variable: The output or result of a computation (and sometimes these terms are used instead).
For example, an aerodynamic simulation of an airfoil design will have outputs such as lift and drag, which
will be described in Tecplot Chorus as being dependent variables.
deposit: In Tecplot Chorus, the action of storing generated image or data files into a project. These files are
generated by a background process but are not stored in the project until you specifically instruct Tecplot
Chorus to deposit them.
design space: An abstract space (possibly highly dimensional) consisting of all the possible values of the
input variables in an experiment. A CFD experiment is often an attempt to search the design space for an
optimal design for an aircraft or a component such as an airfoil.
diff: In general, a visual representation of the differences between two files (“a diff”), or, as a verb, the
action of producing such a representation (“diff these images”). Tecplot Chorus can produce diffs of
multiple images associated with cases or, in a deep dive, you can have Tecplot 360 EX produce diffs of
actual data files.
display name: The name by which a variable in a given project is known and displayed in Tecplot Chorus.
This may be different from the way the variable is identified in the original files. Variable names may be
100
mapped to display names when the variable is added to a Tecplot Chorus project. For example, a variable
may be called “M” in the original data, but “Mach Number” in Tecplot Chorus.
docking: The Filter and Options panels in Tecplot Chorus may be dragged to the edges of the Tecplot
Chorus window or to each other and will “stick” to these elements, and are then said to be “docked” to the
window. When you move the edge of the window, for example to resize it, the panels move with it. These
two panels can also be docked together in a single space; only one will be visible at a time in this case, with
the visible panel chosen by a tab.
E
employed: When a variable is used in some fashion in a plot (for example, as an axis, or to determine the
size or color of a symbol on a scatter plot), it is said to be employed by the plot.
evaluation point: the collection of query values to be used for surrogate model input variables that are not
being used in a plot. Only one value is used per variable.
experiment: A group of related CFD cases (or other calculations or real-world tests) intended to
investigate an engineering issue or to optimize a design, e.g. of an airfoil. The required input variables,
their ranges, and the specific values of each variable to be tested (i.e., the design space), along with the
outputs to be generated, form the basis of an experiment. An experiment usually, but not always,
corresponds to a Tecplot Chorus project.
export: Generally, to save data to a format that makes interchange easier. In Tecplot Chorus, you may
export a project to a CSV file for sharing with others or for importing to a spreadsheet for further analysis
or for publication.
expression: A mathematical formula; in computer software, usually one entered using a special notation
or syntax that is easier to type on a computer keyboard than traditional mathematical notation. In Tecplot
Chorus, you can create calculated variables by entering an expression.
F
file crawler: A Tecplot Chorus feature that scans the directories (folders) on a disk or network share to
extract variable names and values for the cases in a project, based on the names of the directories in which
the case’s data files are found.
filter: Generally, to exclude unwanted data items from consideration or display based on some criteria, or
(as a noun) a mechanism for doing this. In Tecplot Chorus, you may filter based on the values of any
variable in the project using checkboxes or listboxes of discrete values, ranges, or single values.
foreign data: Generally, any data that is not in a program’s native format. In Tecplot 360 EX, native formats
include .dat, .plt, .szplt, .lay, and .lpk files. Foreign data formats include CGNS, Fluent, PLOT3D, and other
popular solver output file formats. Tecplot 360 EX can read these formats, but this is an import operation;
it cannot write these formats.
function: A mathematical rule that associates given inputs to an output. In Tecplot Chorus, a function
(also called an expression) may be used to calculate new variables from existing variables in a project.
Also, the functions implied by a project’s metadata may be approximated using the surrogate model feature.
H
highly dimensional: describes a data set with many input variables, each of which describes a dimension
of the design space. It is difficult for most people, even mathematicians or engineers, to visualize and reason
about abstract spaces having more than three or four dimensions because human beings have such little
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Glossary
everyday experience with higher-dimensional data. Many CFD projects have more than a dozen
parameters or dimensions.
histogram: a plot showing the relative frequency of values in a variable’s range, often with values grouped
into bins. For example, the range filter in Tecplot Chorus includes a histogram showing where the most
frequently-appearing values can be found in a variable’s range.
I
import: Generally, to read data that is not in a program’s native format. Tecplot Chorus can import project
metadata from a delimited text file, from a directory structure using its file crawler, or from the auxiliary data
stored in solution data. Tecplot 360 EX can import grid and solution data in a variety of formats.
independent variable: A variable that is being manipulated or changed to investigate the effects on a
function to which it is an input. For example, in a CFD simulation of flow around an airfoil, Mach
Number, alpha, and beta are common independent variables. Also called an input or parameter.
input: A synonym for independent variable, usually paired with output.
J
job: In Tecplot Chorus, a background process that creates images or Tecplot 360 EX layout packages, or
extracts variables, from the data files associated with selected cases in a project. When such a process is in
operation, the Manage Jobs button in Tecplot Chorus’s status line becomes available to allow you to delete
jobs or deposit their results into the project.
K
Kriging: A least-squares estimation method, originally from geology, that allows the value of a variable at
an unobserved (i.e., unsimulated) location in design space to be approximated from the values of the
variable at nearby locations using a function called a variogram. A more sophisticated technique than a
response surface, Kriging guarantees that the generated shape will pass through all observed points. Tecplot
Chorus can use Kriging to generate a surrogate model.
L
layout (.lay file): In Tecplot 360 EX, a file that stores the appearance of the current plot, including which
zones and variables are displayed, the visual style of each, the zoom and rotation, and so on, along with
references to the files that contain the data sets. The actual data is not stored in the file.
layout package (.lpk file): In Tecplot 360 EX, a layout file that also includes the data necessary to reproduce
the plot as specified in the layout file. Data for zones or variables that are not visible is not included, and
the data is stored in Tecplot’s binary format, so layout packages can be much smaller than the original data
file. They are a good format for sharing with others, since they can be viewed with the free Tecplot Viewer.
legend: In Tecplot Chorus, a guide to the colors or line patterns used in a plot.
line plot: In Tecplot Chorus, a two-dimensional plot that places cases on a grid based on the value of two
variables, connecting adjacent cases with lines. The lines can be grouped based on the value of a third
variable, in which case a separate line is drawn, in a different color, for each discrete value of this variable.
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link: In Tecplot Chorus, a text variable that specifies the path of an auxiliary file associated with a case.
The auxiliary files are not stored in the project, so their path (relative to the project root) serves to link the
case record in the Tecplot Chorus project to the image or data file stored elsewhere.
listbox filter: A filter that allows values of a given variable to be selected for display by selecting them in a
scrolling list. Best suited for variables having a large number of discrete values.
M
macro: A macro (.mcr file) is a way of automating Tecplot 360 EX. Virtually anything you can do in Tecplot
360 EX can be recorded in a macro and later played back with entirely different data. Tecplot Chorus can
automatically run a macro when opening data files in Tecplot 360 EX or when generating images or layout
packages, allowing you to customize the process as needed.
master: In an image or data comparison (diff), the image or data file to which other images or data files are
compared. Differences from the master are shown for each file being compared with it.
matrix: A view of a Tecplot Chorus project that shows image thumbnails for cases that have them.
Variables can be chosen to sort the cases into rows, columns, and optionally pages.
metadata: In general, means “data about data.” In Tecplot Chorus, refers to the independent variables
(inputs) used in each case, the derived dependent variables (outputs) calculated by the solver—such as lift,
drag, and pressure—aggregated over the entire solution, links to related files, and, often, housekeeping
information such as the name of the engineer who ran the simulation, the date it was run, a case serial
number, and so on. Does not refer to the full solution data (i.e., the outputs for each cell in a grid). Tecplot
Chorus is a tool for organizing cases and visualizing your design space based on metadata; Tecplot 360 EX
is a tool for visualizing individual cases’ solution data.
model: See surrogate model.
N
NaN: Means “Not a Number.” The text “NaN” may be included in numeric data to indicate that a value is
missing or invalid for a particular case. Tecplot Chorus refers to “NaN” as a null value.
nature: see variable nature.
null value: A missing or invalid value of a variable, which can be designated as NaN (“Not a Number”) in
a delimited text file. You can use filters to show or hide cases having null values.
O
operator: A symbol representing an arithmetic operation: In Tecplot Chorus, + for addition, - for
subtraction, * for multiplication, / for division, and ^ for exponentiation. See expression and calculated
variable.
output: A synonym for dependent variable, usually paired with input.
P
page: In Tecplot 360 EX, a drawing area that may contain multiple frames, each showing a view of a
dataset. Tecplot 360 EX supports multiple pages; a new one is opened each time you view data from
Tecplot Chorus, rather than opening a new instance of Tecplot 360 EX. Pages can be managed using the
Chorus sidebar.
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Glossary
path: A textual representation of the directories containing a file, used to specify the file’s location on the
computer. An absolute path starts at the root of the file system (Linux), at the root of a particular local drive
such as C: (Windows), or at the root of the network (also Windows). A relative path assumes starting at
some other known directory (such as the user’s home directory or a project directory) and specifies the
file’s location in the hierarchy “below” this directory.
parameter: A synonym for independent variable, often paired with result.
parametric CFD: An application of CFD to design tasks such as optimization that require an exploration
of a design space. Simulations are run with various combinations of parameters, or input variables, to find
cases that meet or optimize the established design criteria.
pattern: A way to specify a filename that allows one to select more than one file without specifying the
names of each individually. Wildcards may be used to match partial names. For example, when tagging
files with Tecplot Chorus, case* matches any file whose name begins with “case,” while *.png matches any
PNG file.
PNG or Portable Network Graphics: A free file format for storing images, well-suited for reproducing
crisp line art and text. Tecplot Chorus can export any image or plot in PNG format.
project: In Tecplot Chorus, projects are containers for related cases. Each case is represented by a record
that stores the case’s variables. A separate location on your computer’s disk or a network share is used to
store auxiliary files associated with each case. Tecplot Chorus plots and other views are derived from the
cases in the project.
project root: See root path.
properties: Each plot and view of your Tecplot Chorus project has settings, referred to as properties, that
determine its behavior and appearance. Each window (even different windows displaying the same kind
of plot) has its own properties. The properties appear in the Properties panel, which initially appears at
the left of the workspace but can be docked to any edge of the window you find convenient, or dragged
outside the Tecplot Chorus workspace—even onto a second display.
Q
quadratic response surface: See response surface.
query: After a surrogate model has been trained, Tecplot Chorus can ask it for predictions of output variables
based on specific input values (query values), which may or may not represent actual cases in the project.
This is called a query; the verb form is making a query or querying.
query values: The input variable values used in a query to a surrogate model.
R
range filter: A filter that allows you to specify the first and last value of a variable that you wish to be
included in your Tecplot Chorus views. Useful for variables with continuous values. A histogram is also
displayed with this filter to give you an idea of the value distribution.
range and sampling: specifies the query values to be used for input variables to a surrogate model when
those values are being used on the plot. The low and high values are specified (the range) along with the
number of values to be chosen between them (the sampling).
relative path: A path that specifies the directories containing a file relative to some directory, such as a
user’s home directory or a project directory. Relative paths generally do not start with a drive letter or a
slash.
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response surface: an approximation similar to a curve fit, except in n dimensions. Tecplot Chorus can use
a quadratic (second-order) response surface in a surrogate model. This is appropriate for modeling many
physical phenomena because they are commonly at most quadratic.
result: A synonym for dependent variable or input, often paired with parameter.
root path: A directory (folder) on your computer’s hard disk, or on a network file share, that contains the
auxiliary files associated with a Tecplot Chorus project. These can include files created by your solver or
generated in post-processing, as well as files created by Tecplot Chorus.
rotate: A tool that allows you to rotate 3D plots and literally see your project from another angle.
round trip: The process of creating a style template in Tecplot 360 EX for a single case, then using Tecplot
Chorus to apply that template to the data files of multiple cases to generate an image or a layout package,
and finally importing the generated images or data files into Tecplot Chorus.
run: A noun referring to a simulation being run using a particular combination of parameters or inputs.
Some CFD engineers use this term instead of, or as a synonym for, case. In some circles, however, the term
case is preferred, and run may have a slightly different meaning; for example, if you simulate the same case
multiple times, you would have multiple runs, but still only a single case.
S
scatter plot: A Tecplot Chorus plot that places cases on a grid based on the values of two parameters. This
plot is useful for revealing correlations between variables as well as for finding unexpected clustering of
cases. Tecplot Chorus offers both 2D and 3D scatter plots.
selection: Data (in Tecplot Chorus, cases) chosen for some future operation. Cases can be selected in any
view of a Tecplot Chorus project, including plots. Once selected, the images or data files associated with
the cases can be viewed and compared, new images or data files can be generated, and so on.
session: In Tecplot Chorus, a file that records the current project and all open views and their properties,
including the locations and sizes of all windows. Opening the session file returns you to the exact place
you were when you saved it. This capability can be used to record typical starting points for working with
a project or to save your place from day to day.
sidebar: The container for the Filters and Properties panels that initially appears at the left of the Tecplot
Chorus windows. These panels can be docked to other edges of the window, however, or moved out of the
Tecplot Chorus workspace entirely, even to a second display.
simulation analytics: An approach to managing, interpreting, and visualizing the results of large CFD
experiments being pioneered by Tecplot Chorus.
single value filter: A filter that passes only cases where the selected variable matches a single value, useful
for “slicing” through discrete values of a variable.
solver: A software package that calculates a CFD simulation and produces a solution file that can be
visualized by a tool like Tecplot 360 EX, as well as generating aggregate results (such as the overall lift,
drag, and pressure) that can be used to help organize the results in a tool like Tecplot Chorus.
sparse: An adjective that refers to a CFD experiment where not very many cases have been simulated
relative to the size of the design space. Due to the time required to run simulations, most CFD experiments
are sparse to one degree or another—highly-dimensional experiments especially so, due to the geometric
expansion in the number of cases as dimensions (variables) are added.
status line: The line at the bottom of the Tecplot Chorus window that displays the name of the current
project and information about any background jobs that are currently in progress.
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Glossary
style sheet: A file saved from Tecplot 360 EX that records the visual appearance of the current plot. This
can then be applied to similar data sets to produce a series of plots that can be easily compared to each
other by eye. See style template.
style template: A Tecplot 360 EX style sheet that is used in Tecplot Chorus to automatically generate
images or layout packages for selected cases.
surrogate model: A mathematically-derived proxy of an experiment generated by correlating the inputs
and outputs of cases that have already been simulated, which can be used to predict the values of cases
that have not yet been simulated. If you think of it as an n-dimensional curve fit, you won’t be far off. A
surrogate model can be generated much more quickly than running even a single additional simulation,
making it a useful analysis tool despite its approximate nature. Tecplot Chorus supports surrogate models
based on a response surface or Kriging.
synchronize: In Tecplot 360 EX, the Chorus sidebar can be used to synchronize styles (the plot
appearance) from the selected case to other cases so that they are easily compared visually.
syntax: Generally, the grammar of a statement. In expressions such as the ones used for calculated variables
in Tecplot Chorus, refers to the correct placement of symbols representing mathematical operations. For
example, every addition operation must have two terms, one on either side of the + sign; every opening
parenthesis must have a corresponding closing parentheses. If syntax rules are not obeyed, Tecplot Chorus
cannot evaluate the expression.
symbol plot: A Tecplot Chorus line plot in which no lines are used to connect the cases. Instead, a symbol
such as a square is plotted for each case. May be combined with a line plot so that it is clear where on the
line the cases are, which may be difficult to determine for some kinds of data.
T
table view: In Tecplot Chorus, a spreadsheet-like view in which each case is represented by a row, and
each variable by a column. Shows the actual variable values for each case.
tag: A short identifier (such as “Wireframe Image” or “Contour Data”) that is used to identify an image or
data file in Tecplot Chorus. Each tag has an associated pattern that is used to identify which files are
selected by the tag, which may contain wildcards in case the files have not been named consistently. Tags
for some kinds of data files may identify multiple files at once.
tag group: A way to manage related tags in the image viewer and the matrix view, allowing them to easily
be turned on or off together. Also determines the order of tags when viewing by tag in either window.
template: see style template.
tile: As a verb, to arrange windows so that they are all the same size and not overlapping, so you can
easily find the one you want. Tecplot Chorus can tile windows with a single click of the mouse.
toolbar: The row of buttons at the top of the main Tecplot Chorus window that allows you to perform a
variety of functions with a single click.
training: The process of generating a surrogate model by analyzing the implicit correlations between input
variables and output variables in a Tecplot Chorus project, allowing the model to make useful predictions
for cases that have not been simulated.
translate: To move a Tecplot Chorus plot within its window. In some plots this changes the axis range,
which has much the same effect. So named because in either case, you are essentially changing its
coordinates.
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V
variable: One of several named values associated with a particular case in a CFD experiment. Each case
will have the same variables, but the values of each variable may differ for each case. The purpose of each
variable is its variable nature.
variable nature: In Tecplot Chorus, the purpose of a variable: independent (input or parameter),
dependent (output or result), or other (informational fields, links to auxiliary files, and so on).
view: In Tecplot Chorus, any window that displays the cases in your project is a view, or a data view. This
includes the matrix, the table, and all plots.
W
Welcome Screen: In Tecplot Chorus, the Recent Projects screen that lets you easily open projects you have
been working with recently and create a new project with the click of a button. Choose View > Welcome
Screen to see it.
wildcard: A special character such as * or ? that can be used in a pattern to match any letter or number in a
file name. For example, case* would match any file name starting with “case,” while *.png would mean
any file name ending with “.png”.
workspace: The main part of the Tecplot Chorus application window where plot and view windows
appear. Windows may be dragged out of the workspace, even to a second display.
X
XML: The eXtensible Markup Language, a standardized, easily-extended text format for storing and
exchanging data. Tecplot Chorus uses XML for loader description files, custom action registration and
instruction files, and session files.
Z
zoom: In Tecplot Chorus, the ability to magnify (zoom in to) or shrink (zoom out of) plots. In some plots,
the axis ranges are changed instead; the intent is to display more or less data rather than literally making
the plot larger or smaller.
107
Glossary
108
2D scatter plot 8, 13, 41
Index
Numerics
2D scatter plot 8, 13, 41
3D scatter plot 8, 13, 41
properties 44
surrogate model 69, 72
A
about screen 12
actions 65, 85–88
auxiliary files 17, 22, 26, 53, 56
root folder 21
axes 47, 48
in 2D scatter plot 42
in 3D scatter plot 44
range 13
B
background jobs 15, 62, 63, 64
C
calculated variables 29–30
Case ID 23, 27
Case Status 23, 27, 36, 45, 48
CGNS 80
checkbox filter 36
Chorus sidebar 57, 58, 59–60
coefficient of determination 71, 73
comma-separated value
see CSV file
comparing data 8
comparing images 8
constraint visualization 35, 43
in 2D scatter plots 43
in table views 49
Selected Cases sidebar 52
context menu 34
context-sensitive help 16
copy to clipboard 55
crawler
see File Crawler
Create Project dialog 18
creating a project 18–28
creating data files 63
CSV file 9, 19
exporting to 32
see also delimited text file
selecting 21
CSV import 19
CSV Importer 19–23
custom actions 34
D
data comparison 8
data files
creating 63
loading 56–58, 61, 79–83
removing links 31
tagging 10
data loader 79
deep dive 9, 37, 56, 61
Delete Variable 50
deleting cases 50
delimited text file 19
selecting 21
delimited text reader 19, 28
differences
in data 59, 60
in images 55
display name 23, 27
docking
panels 14
toolbar 12
E
Edit menu 12
editing data 50
exiting 12
export
derived data 32
plot 42, 44, 46, 55
project to CSV file 32
expressions 30
external files
tagging 10
extracting variables 63
extraction jobs 15
F
File Crawler 19, 23–28
extracting variables 24
root folder 24
source name 25
File menu 12
filter violations 42, 43
filters 9, 35–37
checkbox filter 36
constraint visualization 35
enabling/disabling 37
listbox filter 36
panel 34, 35
range filter 35
resetting 37
single value filter 35
Filters panel 11, 34, 35
functions 30
G
gear icon 35, 37
getting started 16
goodness of fit 71, 73
H
help
from dialog 16
Help menu 12, 16
hiding filters 37
I
image comparison 8
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INDEX
images
copying to clipboard 55
creating 60–62
differences 55
properties 54
tagging 10
thumbnails 37
viewing 53
zooming 54
invalid data 36
J
jobs 15, 62, 63, 64
JPEG 53
K
Kriging 69
L
labels 38
layout package 63
legend
in line and symbol plots 47
license 12
line plot 8, 13, 33, 46–48
properties 47
selecting cases 47
surrogate model 69, 71
linking files 22, 26
removing link 31
listbox filter 36
loader 79
loader description 79, 80
M
macro 57, 61, 80, 82
magnify
see zoom
managing filters 37
managing jobs 15, 62, 63, 64
master 60
matrix view 8, 13, 33, 37–39
properties 38
selecting cases 39
menu bar 11, 12
metadata 8, 17
missing data 36
moving plots 13
N
NaN 9, 36
nature, of variable 23, 28, 31
Not a Number
see NaN
null value 36
O
opening a session 16
opening projects 18
operators 30
organizing a study 9
110
P
panels 14
Filters 34, 35
Properties 34
Paraview 65, 85, 86
pass null 36
pattern 25
plot
exporting 55
plots 8
2D scatter 8
2D scatter plot 13, 41
3D scatter 8
3D scatter plot 41
exporting 42, 44, 46
line plot 8, 13, 33, 46–48
moving 13, 45
resetting 45
rotating 13, 45
scatter plot 41–45
symbol plot 8, 13, 33, 46–48
PNG file 42, 46, 53, 55
project
removing links 31
Project menu 12
projects 8, 12, 17–32
appending to 28, 63
creating 18–28
deleting 32
deleting cases 50
deleting variables 50
delimited text reader 19, 19–23
editing data 50
exporting 32
File Crawler 19, 23–28
importing CSV 19
opening 18
root path 32
saving 17
properties
2D scatter plot 42
3D scatter plot 44
image viewer 54
line plot 47
panel in sidebar 11, 34
scatter plot 42–44
symbol plot 47
table view 51
proxy
see surrogate model
Python 86, 87
R
range filter 35
READDATASET 80
Release Notes 16
removeing linked files 31
renaming variables 23, 27
reserved variable names 23, 27
reset view 12
resetting filters 37
resetting the view 45
response surface 70
restoring a session 16
root folder 21, 24
root folder 21, 24
Rotate tool 13, 45
rotatiing plots 13
R-squared 71, 73
S
Save Plot as Image 42
saving projects 17
saving sessions 16
scatter plot 33, 41–45
2D scatter plot 8, 13, 41
3D scatter plot 8, 13, 41
properties 42–44
selecting cases 45
surrogate model 69
scatter plot properties 42–44
scroll wheel
and zooming 13
Selected Cases 51
selecting cases 13, 39, 45, 47, 50
selection tool 13
sessions 12, 12, 15–16, 34
filters saved with 36
opening 16
saving 16
sidebar 11, 14
docking 14
Filters panel 14
Properties panel 14
Selected Cases 51
sidebar, Chorus 57, 58, 59–60
single value filter 35
source name 25
sparse data 37
STANDARDSYNTAX 80
status line 11, 15
study organization 9
style sheet 53
saving 59
style template 53, 57, 61
creating 59
support 16
Surface Coefficients 73
surrogate model 8, 67–75
coefficients 73
evaluation point 34, 73
exporting derived data 71, 73
goodness of fit 71, 73
line plot 71
properties 71, 72
range 74
sampling 74
scatter plot 72
settings 69
Surrogate Model menu 12
symbol plot 8, 13, 33, 46–48
properties 47
selecting cases 47
synchronizing styles in Tecplot 360 EX 60
syntax, of expressions 30
T
table view 8, 13, 33, 49–51
filtering 51
properties 51
selecting cases 50
tag 10, 22, 26, 27, 54, 57, 61
removing 31
tag groups 10, 38, 39–40, 54
technical support 16
Tecplot 360 EX 9, 56, 58, 61, 63
thumbnails 37
tiling windows 13, 34, 53
toolbar 11, 12–13, 34
docking 12
tools
rotate 13
selection 13
translate 13
zoom 13
Translate tool 13, 45
tutorials 16
U
UNC path 17
user interface 11
User’s Manual 16
V
variable
calculated 29–30
deleting 50
display name 23
editing 50
missing data 36
nature 23, 28, 31
variable extraction 63
variables
extracting 63
View menu 12, 34
viewing images 53
views
matrix 8
table 8
W
Welcome Screen 12, 18
windows
tiling 13, 34
workspace 11, 14–15, 34
Z
Zoom slider 38, 54
Zoom tool 13, 45
zooming
with scroll wheel 13
111
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