RAID Enhanced solid state drive
US 20100049914A1
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2010/0049914 A1
Goodwin
(54)
(43) Pub. Date:
RAID ENHANCED SOLID STATE DRIVE
_
(76) Inventor:
Feb. 25, 2010
Publication Classi?cation
(51)
Paul M. Goodwin, Austin, TX (U S)
Int. Cl.
G06F 12/00
(52)
(200601)
U.S. Cl. ...................................................... .. 711/114
Correspondence Address:
Paul Goodwin
(57)
Suite 500, 9517A Bumet Rd.
Austin, TX 78758 (Us)
ABSTRACT
.
.
.
The present invention relates to a sol1d-state storage sub
system Which comprises a plurality of solid state drive
designs integrated With a storage processor that provides per
(21) APP1- NOJ
12/229,137
formance, data integrity and reliability improvements in a
(22) Filed:
Aug. 20, 2008
interface
standard disk drive form factor With a standard disk drive
Patent Application Publication
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Feb. 25, 2010 Sheet 2 0f 15
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Feb. 25, 2010
US 2010/0049914 A1
RAID ENHANCED SOLID STATE DRIVE
number of drives needed to supply the capacity cannot pro
vide the performance in Input output per second (IOPS) that
TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001] The present disclosure relates to a mass storage
device. More particularly, the disclosure relates to a solid
state mass memory storage sub-system integrated in a stan
dard drive form factor suitable for disk drive replacement.
the compute server requires.
[0009]
A typical strategy to address the reliability and data
integrity issues that are more severe than the ECC implemen
tation can recover from is to use a Redundant Array of Inex
pensive Disks. The Redundant Array of Inexpensive disks or
RAID is a strategy that is Well knoWn in the art and is based on
the paper The case for redundant arrays of inexpensive disks
(RAIDiPatterson, Gibson, et alil 988. In this strategy
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
redundant information is stored on additional drives so that if
one drive fails the information is available on another drive.
[0002] As the volume of data generated by computing
devices increases so has the importance of accessing the data
While RAID does a good job of protecting against data loss
and doWn time it requires additional drives and thus addi
quickly and accurately. Exacerbating the problem of the fast
tional poWer. One signi?cant draWback to employing a RAID
and reliable access to data is the poWer required, not only to
access the data, but just keeping it online available to access.
[0003] For over 50 years the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) has
strategy is that not all RAID controllers are the same. RAID
controllers may not put data in the same place in a RAID
array.
been the staple of online mass storage. Technological
advances have made great strides in increasing the density of
mid 1980s but have only recently had Widespread acceptance
in the market. SSDs offer high-performance and loW-poWer
the data stored on the HDDs and the speed in Which data can
be transferred from the hard disk to the host system or con
troller. HoWever, With these advances other problems have
appeared.
[0004] Reliability, Data integrity and PoWer are signi?cant
problems for the managers of data bases and data storage
systems, While the performance of even the largest storage
systems haven’t kept pace With the demand.
[0005] The reliability of HDDs has alWays been an issue.
The heart of the HDD is one or more rotating disks With a
coating of a magnetic medium. Relying on moving parts is
fraught With peril. Relying on a mechanism that is rotating at
up to 1 5,000 rotations per minute and running at that speed for
24 hours a day, 7 days a Week is a lot to ask. This is compli
[0010]
Solid State Disks (SSD) have been around since the
Without the reliability concerns because there are no moving
parts.
[0011]
SSDs do have the advantage of performance and
poWer over the traditional HDD. Also today’s SSDs look very
much like a HDD. They have the same interface, the same
function and the same form factor. HoWever, looks can be
deceiving. Take the cover off of a SSD and the ?rst thing that
one should notice is What an incredible Waste of space. SSDs
are being packaged in the same envelope as traditional HDDs
Which can be signi?cantly larger than the envelope necessary
to package the number of solid state devices to provide the
desired capacity.
[0012]
SSDs Will likely continue to be packaged in the
same form factor enclosure as HDDs Well into the future. This
is because SDDs are not going to replace HDDs as the HDDs
have a cost per bit advantage over the SDDs. So the opportu
cated by having a mechanical actuator that positions the mag
netic read-Write devices over the rotating disks Which is sub
ject to friction and Wear. Given the number of potential failure
modes of the HDD is of little surprise that many storage
With the space available in the SSD enclosure.
sub-system managers replace drives on an annual basis at a
great expense in time and money as Well as system doWntime
to prevent an unscheduled doWntime.
[0013] The performance of the SSDs, While greater than the
HDDs, Is not keeping up With the performance of the inter
face. Today the SATA interface is up to 3 Gbs and migrating
[0006] Data integrity has alWays been a concern in HDDs.
HDD manufacturers have alWays allocated a percentage of
the available data holding capacity of a HDD to error check
the interface that it uses to connect to a system. Thus there is
ing and correcting. The error checking and correcting algo
rithms Write redundant information on the storage medium in
order to recover data lost due to either being mis-read (soft
error) or an error in the stored data (hard error). Soft errors can
be due to a variety of factors such as mechanical Wear on the
actuator that position the read heads or mis-alignment due to
vibration from installing a number of HDDs together in a
system. Hard errors can be caused by the physics of storing so
many bits so close together on the platters or by Writing data
over adjacent bits due to mechanical misalignment of the
Write heads.
[0007] The most signi?cant problem of all may be the
poWer required to operate the drive. It takes poWer to keep the
platters rotating so that data can be accessed on the HDD. It
takes more poWer to move there read-Write heads into posi
tion to read or Write the data and it take poWer to drive the
electronics to correct hard and soft data errors.
[0008] To make matters Worse many HDD based storage
systems use many more disks than necessary to provide the
required storage capacity because the performance of the
nity that is not being addressed in the industry is What to do
toWards 6 Gbs. The fastest SSDs are signi?cantly sloWer than
excess bandWidth available on the cable or undersubscribed
bandWidth.
[0014] The under subscription of the interconnect is exac
erbated in a RAID con?guration. NoW there are multiple
cables connecting the RAID controller to the number of the
drives in the RAID strategy.
[0015] A means of concentrating the bandWidth from a
number drives in a RAID or concatenated con?guration exist
by placing a port multiplier betWeen the computer and the
disk drives in the RAID con?guration. HoWever this topology
does not reduce the number of cables. Using a port multiplier
increases the number of cables as Well as adding an additional
piece of hardWare in the topology.
[0016]
From the foregoing, it can be appreciated that it
Would be desirable to have a greater featured, mass memory
storage device that takes advantage of the available volume
from implementing an SSD in an standard HDD physical
envelope.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0017]
The present disclosure relates to a solid-state mass
memory storage subsystem. The solid-state mass memory
Feb. 25, 2010
US 2010/0049914 A1
subsystem comprises one or more printed circuit assemblies
and a plurality of nonvolatile, high density storage devices
mounted to the printed circuit assembly and electrically con
nected thereto. The solid-state memory subsystem includes at
[0038] FIG. 16 Depicts a typical system With a set of con
ventional SSDs connected to a, internal RAID Controller.
[0039] FIG. 17 Depicts a typical system With a set of con
ventional SSDs connected to an external RAID controller or
least one controller mounted to the one or more printed circuit
Port multiplier.
assembly and electrically connected thereto, and a connector
mounted to the printed circuit assembly and electrically con
[0040] FIG. 18 Depicts a typical system With a set of con
ventional SSDs connected to an external Storage Subsystem
nected thereto, the connector being adapted to electrically
With a RAID controller or Port multiplier interface.
connect the solid-state mass memory storage device to a
[0041]
separate electronic device.
enhanced SSDs connected to a HBA.
[0018] In one embodiment, the solid-state mass memory
storage subsystem has a form factor equivalent to a conven
tional disk drive and the at least one controller includes con
trol electronics and ?rmWare Which emulate a RAID control
ler and control electronics and ?rmware Which emulate tWo or
more disk drives such that the device in Which said solid-state
[0042] FIG. 20 depicts the block diagram of a 2-port RAID
enhanced SSD With a protocol bridge
[0043] FIG. 21 depicts the block diagram of a 5-port RAID
enhanced SSD With a protocol bridge
mass memory storage subsystem Will interpret and treat the
solid-state mass memory storage subsystem as a RAID array.
With such an arrangement, the solid-state mass memory
device can be used as a disk drive replacement.
FIG. 19 Depicts a typical system With a RAID
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
[0044]
FIG. 1 depicts a conventional SSD 1 shoWing the
?ve elements that comprise a SSD 1 are shoWn. These ele
ments are: the SSD Controller 11, one or more non-volatile
[0019] In another embodiment, the high density storage
storage components 10a-10h, connector 13 for connecting
devices are removable mounted in storage device sockets
formed in said printed circuit assembly in a redundant array.
The features and advantages of the invention Will
the SSD 1 to a host controller, the printed Circuit Board
(PCB) 12 on Which the above components are disposed and
an enclosure 14 that is shoWn in Wire frame.
become apparent upon reading the folloWing speci?cation,
When taken in conjunction With the accompanying draWings.
the array of non-volatile devices 10a-10h With feWer devices
[0020]
[0045] Multiple capacities may be realiZed by populating
than the number of available mounting sites or by populating
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0021]
[0022]
FIG. 1 Depicts a conventional SSD
FIG. 2 shoWs the mechanical draWing for a disk
drive package.
[0023] FIG. 3A Depicts a block Diagram of a conventional
SSD that uses a single bus protocol to ?ash controller device
[0024] FIG. 3B Depicts a block Diagram of a conventional
SSD that uses a bus protocol bridge and a Bus protocol to ?ash
controller device
[0025]
FIG. 4 depicts a physical embodiment of the SSD of
FIG. 3 in a reduced form factor.
[0026] FIG. 5 depicts a typical 2.5" drive enclosure and the
volume required to implement the SSD of FIG. 4.
[0027] FIG. 6 Depicts a block diagram ofa RAID enhanced
SSD using a 2-port RAID Controller.
[0028] FIG. 7A Depicts a RAID enhanced SSD using plug
in instances of a SSD implementation.
[0029] FIG. 7B Depicts a RAID enhanced SSD imple
mented on a single module.
[0030] FIG. 8 Depicts a block diagram ofa RAID enhanced
SSD using a 5-port RAID Controller.
[0031] FIG. 9 depicts a physical implementation of the
alternate embodiment of a RAID enhanced SSD of FIG. 8.
[0032] FIG. 10 depicts a module for interconnecting a con
trol module and a plurality of SSD modules.
[0033]
FIG. 11 Depicts the interconnect topology of a typi
cal computing system.
the array of non-volatile devices 10a-10h With more devices
than the number of available mounting sites by utilizing mul
tiple die packages (MDP) or stacks of monolithic devices.
Additionally different capacities can be realiZed by populat
ing the SSD 1 With non-volatile devices 1011 -10h of various
densities.
[0046] The form factor for the SSD 1 shoWn in FIG. 2 is the
industry standard 2.5" disk drive form factor de?ned by the
Small Form Factor Committee (SFF) of the Electronics
industry association (EIA). The form factor is a common
form factor for both HDDs and SSDs. Nearly all SSDs use
this form factor as it is the most Widely used form factor in
computers. While the physical volume necessary to imple
ment a HDDs de?nes the envelope SSDs use the common
form factor in order to ?t in existing slots for mounting
storage drives typically referred to as a drive bay.
[0047] Block Diagrams for the SSD 1 are shoWn in FIG. 3.
The Block Diagram of FIG. 3A depicts the generic imple
mentation of a SSD 1 With the connector 130 that connects the
interface port of the SSD Controller 110 to the host interface
over the link 131. The SSD controller 110 receives commands
and exchanges data from link 131 and translates the com
mands into operations on the Flash array 10a-10h over a ?ash
interface 132. The ?ash interface 132 may be a single channel
of command and data signals or multiple channels With mul
tiple command and data interfaces.
[0048] An alternate black diagram is shoWn in FIG. 3B
Where the SSD Controller 110 is has a different host interface
[0034] FIG. 12 Depicts the interconnect topology of an
exemplary port multiplier or RAID con?guration of a typical
protocol than is desired for the embodiment. BetWeen the host
computing system.
protocol bridge 111. The protocol bridge 111 converts the
[0035] FIG. 13 Depicts the interconnect topology of a sys
tem With an exemplary RAID con?guration.
[0036] FIG. 14 Depicts the interconnect topology of a sys
host interface protocol from the host interface connector 130
into the native protocol that the SSD controller 112 commu
tem using a RAID Enhanced SSD
[0037] FIG. 15 Depicts a typical system With a conven
commands and exchanges data from link 133 and translates
the commands into operations on the Flash array 10a-10h
tional SSD connected to a HBA.
over a ?ash interface 132.
interface connector 130 and the SSD Controller 110 is a
nicates to a host With. The SSD controller 110 then receives
Feb. 25, 2010
US 2010/0049914 A1
memory devices 10 is approximately 25 mm Wide by 52 mm
[0056] FIG. 8 is the block diagram of anther alternative
embodiment of the present invention 2. In this alternative
embodiment there are ?ve instances of the SSD 1 of FIG. 3.
The 2-port storage processor 20 of is replaced With a 5-port
storage processor 20.
[0057] With 5 SSD 210 instances and a 5-port controller
long. In order to get the maximum capacity of the non-volatile
202 there are additional RAID strategies that can be utiliZed.
memory devices 10 four footprints is not suf?cient so the
In addition to the modes-RAID-O, RAID-l, JBOD, BIG-of
the 2-port storage processor the 5 port storage processor 202
[0049]
Depicted in FIG. 4 is an exemplary embodiment of
hoW small a SSD implementation could be and still achieve
maximum capacity. The dimensions of the PCB 210 to pro
vide suf?cient area to mount the SSD controller 11, an edge
?nger connector 211 and four sites for mounting non-volatile
stacking of non-volatile memory packages 212 is required.
The stacks of non-volatile memory 212 on the upper surface
214 and the stacks of non-volatile memory 212 on the bottom
surface 215 of the PCB 210 and the thickness of the PCB 210
itself add up to approximately 5 mm. These results in a
can provide RAID 5, RAID 6, RAID 10 as Well as hybrid
strategies and strategies that can utiliZe hot spares. Hot Spares
are installed instances of the SSD 210 that are not in use.
volume required to implement a SSD of approximately 12.5
When a Fault is detected in one of the installed drives that is
in operation the storage processor 20 can rebuild the data on
cm3.
the faulty drive on the hot spare and then recon?gure the
[0050] In FIG. 5 the typical 2.5" Drive form factor 140 is
shoWn. The dimensions of the drive enclosure 140 of FIG. 2
are 70 mm Wide by 100 mm long As speci?ed by Small Form
Factor Committee (SFF) of the Electronics industry associa
tion (EIA). The thickness of the SSDs that are used in note
sub-system so that the hot spare is noW an active drive.
book computers is 9.5 mm max. Thus the volume of the
envelope ofa 2.5" notebook drive is 66.5 cm3.
[0051] With the volume of the minimum form factor SSD
21 from FIG. 4 being 12.5 cm3 that means that the Enclosure
envelope of the typical notebook SSD is over ?ve times the
volume required to implement the SSD of FIG. 4. It is in the
excess volume that the present invention shall be imple
mented. The Volume of drive enclosure 140 that is required
[0058]
FIG. 9 depicts a physical implementation of the
alternative embodiment of FIG. 8. In this alternative embodi
ment small modules 21 that have the SSD of FIG. 3 imple
mented on them are plugged into a backplane 62. The back
plane 62 has ?ve sockets 65 to receive modules 21.
Additionally there is a socket 66 to receive a controller mod
ule 60 that comprises a PCB 64, a storage processor 63 and a
interface connector 13.
[0059] FIG. 10 shoWs a plan vieW ofthe backplane 62 ofthe
alternative embodiment of FIG. 9. In this vieW the ?ve sockets
65 for minimal form factor SSD 21 and the socket 66 for the
controller module are shoWn mounted on the backplane 62.
for the minimum form factor SSD 21 from is highlighted by
[0060]
the dashed line Wire frame 141.
system. The system comprises a mother board 40 on Which
the major elements are disposed. The major elements are a
CPU 41, a Interface chip set 42 and a host bus adapter (HBA)
44 that is connected to the chip set 42 via an I/O bus 43. The
[0052]
The present invention takes advantage of the volume
of the drive enclosure 140 that is not necessary to implement
the SSD 1 of FIG. 1 by adding components that Will provide
additional features not previously available in the form factor
and by increasing capacity to offer capacities not previously
available in the form factor. The block diagram for the present
invention implementing a RAID enhanced SSD is shoWn in
FIG. 6. In this block diagram there are tWo instances of the
SSD 1 block diagram from FIG. 3. This could be the single
SSD controller 110 ofFIG. 3A or the SSD controller 110 and
Protocol Bridge 111 of FIG. 3B. There is also a Host connec
tor 130 as With the block diagram from FIG. 3. The present
invention utiliZes a Storage processor 202 to link the tWo SSD
instances 210 via links 134 to the host connector 113 over link
131. The storage processor 202 executed instructions stored
FIG. 11 shoWs the topology of a typical computing
HBA 44 may be a module that plugs into a socket on the
motherboard 40 or may be a chip disposed on the mother
board 40.
[0061] Connected to the HBA 43 via a cable 45 is a SSD 1.
[0062]
FIG. 12 depicts another common topology for SSDs
1 in a computer system. In this topology an external controller
40 is connected to the HBA 44 via cable 45. Connected to the
external controller 40 are multiple SSDs 1 each With an inter
face cable 47. An advantage of this topology is that multiple
SSDs 1 can be connected to the HBA 44. This topology also
concentrates the bandWidth of the multiple SSDs 1 so that the
utiliZation of the bandWidth on the cable 45 is greater than
[0053] With tWo SSD 210 instances the storage processor
202 is capable of RAID strategies that use tWo drive
could be achieved by a single drive.
[0063] The external controller 40 may perform several dif
ferent functions. A simple function that the external controller
can perform is acting as a port multiplier. In this function the
instances. These strategies are: RAID-0, RAID-l, J BOD,
controller alloWs a plurality of drives to be connected to a
BIG as Well as hybrid modes that combine tWo or more of the
single port on an HBA 44. More complex functions that this
external controller 40 can perform is RAID con?gurations.
[0064] A doWnside of this con?guration is that the system
in processor instruction memory store 203 that it accesses via
link 135.
strategies. These RAID stratagies are Well knoWn to those
With skill in the art.
[0054] FIG. 7A depicts the present invention of a RAID
enhanced SSD 2. The embodiment uses tWo small modules
21 on Which the SSD 1 of FIG. 3 is implemented. The SSD 21
modules are plugged into a controller module 22 via connec
tors 15. The controller module 22 supports the interface con
nector 13. The tWo modules are connected to the host con
that this con?guration is implemented in requires a drive bay
for each of the SSDs 1 and a space for the external controller
40. This topology is often implemented With the SSDs 1 and
the external controller 40 is installed in an external chassis.
[0055] FIG. 7B depicts an alternate embodiment of a RAID
enhanced SSD 3. The RAID Enhanced SSD 3 is implemented
[0065] FIG. 13 shoWs a topology that attempts to resolve
some ofthe issues ofthe topology ofFIG. 12. The HBA 44 is
replaced by a RAID controller 49. This eliminates the need
for an external controller 40 that performs the RAID func
tions in addition to the HBA. There is still a requirement for
on a planar module instead of the individual modules 21.
multiple drive bays to hold the SSDs 1.
nector 13 through the storage processor 20.
Feb. 25, 2010
US 2010/0049914 A1
[0066]
The topology of FIG. 14 shows a topology that
utilizes the RAID enhanced SSD. This topology is the same
as the topology of ?gure FIG. 12. However, the RAID
enhanced SSD 2 has the performance and features of the
storage subsystems of FIG. 12 and FIG. 13. This is due to fact
that the architecture of the RAID enhanced drive as shoWn in
FIG. 6 and FIG. 8 is the same as the topologies ofFIG. 12 and
FIG. 13.
[0067]
FIG. 15 shoWs an exemplary system of the topology
shoWn in FIG. 11 Where a SSD I is connected to a computing
[0073]
A single cable 45 is noW the only interconnect
needed to connect the present invention 2 to a host system 60.
The cable 47 has the same bene?ts and the cable 47 in FIG. 15,
FIG. 16, and FIG. 17 in that it is being used more ef?ciently
due to carrying the bandWidth of multiple drives 1.
[0074] By integrating multiple instances of a drive 1 and
controller 40 in a case that is the same form factor as a single
drive 1 the present invention 2 enables smaller computing
systems to achieve the capacity and performance as systems
in larger chassis. Systems that may bene?t from employing
the present invention are small desktop systems that are
system 60 via cable 45 and HBA 44.
knoWn in the industry as thin clients or ultra thin clients.
[0068]
shoWn in FIG. 13 Where multiple SSDs 1 are connected to a
These systems typically only have one or tWo drive bays thus
could not bene?t from larger RAID or port multiplier con
computing system 60 via cable 47 and HBA 44. The HBA 44
in the exemplary system could be a 4 port controller or could
?gurations.
be a RAID controller.
bene?t from employing the present invention 2 Would be
mobile computing. Note book computers have siZe and
[0069]
FIG. 16 ShoWs an exemplary system of the topology
FIG. 17 shoWs an exemplary system of the topology
shoWn in FIG. 12 Where multiple SSDs I are connected to an
external controller 40 via cables 47. The External controller
40 could be a port multiplier or a RAID controller. The exter
nal controller 40 is then connected the computing system 60
[0075] A particular class of computing system that Would
Weight constraints to make them convenient to carry. Because
of these constraints the notebook computers only have a slot
for one disk drive. Because of the one drive slot these plat
forms are not able to bene?t from the performance and reli
via cable 47 and HBA 44. The Cable 45 that connects the
ability offered by multiple drive RAID con?gurations. To
computing system to the external controller 40 may be the
realiZe the advantages of a RAID con?guration the only
same type of cable 47 that connects the external controller 40
to the drives I or it may be a different type of cable. The
external Controller 40, Whether a Port Multiplier or a RAID
controller, acts as a bandWidth concentrator. This results in
the cable 45 that connects the external controller 40 to the
options are to increase the siZe of the notebook computer or to
use the present invention 2.
computing system 60 carrying the combined bandWidth of
the cables 47 that connect the SSDs to the external controller
40. The cables 47 are typically designed to carry the full
bandWidth of the interface speci?cation they are intended for.
The full bandWidth of an interface is typically not able to be
fully utiliZed by a single device. This may be due to the device
not being fast enough to utiliZe the bandWidth or the access to
a single device in operation less than 100%.
[0070] A typical embodiment of the topology of FIG. 12
and the physical components shoWn in FIG. 17 is shoWn in
FIG. 18. An external chassis 70 is used house the external
controller 40 that performs the port multiplier or RAID con
troller functions and has multiple bays in Which drives are
installed. The cables 47 are used internal to the chassis 48 to
connect the drives I to the controller 40.
[0071]
The system in the preceding ?gures has been shoWn
as external components for clarity. Those skilled in the art Will
recogniZe that the components shoWn in the external chassis
40 may be installed in the computing system chassis ? pro
viding that the chassis is of su?icient siZe to install the con
troller and multiple drives.
[0072] FIG. 19 shoWs an exemplary system With the present
invention 2. The present invention 2 integrates the functions
of the external controller and multiple SSDs 1, ShoWn in FIG.
15, FIG. 16, and FIG. 17 into a case that is the same siZe and
form factor of a single drive 1. By integrating the multiple
drives into a case the siZe of a single drive 1 With the external
controller 40 the cables 47 are eliminated reducing the cost of
the system. The reduced siZe of the embodiment results in
shorter interconnect lengths betWeen the controller function
and the SSD instances. Those skilled in the art Will recogniZe
that the interface betWeen the integrated SSD and the control
ler function may be run at a higher speed. This is due to the
fact that the bandWidth of an interface is inversely propor
tional-to the length of the interconnect.
[0076] The Block Diagram of FIG. 20 is yet another
embodiment of the present invention. In this alternative
embodiment there is a protocol bridge 111 that is located
betWeen the storage processor 202 and the host interface 113.
[0077] The Block Diagram of FIG. 21 is another embodi
ment of the present invention. In this alternative embodiment
there is a protocol bridge 111 that is located betWeen the
storage processor 202 and the host interface 113.
1. A solid state mass memory storage subsystem compris
ing:
(a) a printed circuit module;
(b) a plurality of Solid State Drive design instances
mounted on and electrically connected to said printed
circuit module comprising:
i. a plurality of non-volatile memory devices and
ii. one or more controller integrated circuits electrically
connected to said non-volatile memory devices With
an electrical interface that is electrically equivalent to
a industry standard Disk Drive interface;
(c) a storage processor With a number of industry standard
Disk Drive interfaces that is equal to or greater than the
number of solid state disk design instances mounted to
and electrically connected to said printed circuit mod
ule;
(d) a connector mounted to said printed circuit assembly
and electrically connected thereto, said connector being
electrically connected to said storage processor and con
structed to electrically connect said solid state mass
storage device to a separate electronic device,
Wherein said solid state mass storage subsystem is con
tained in an enclosure that has a form factor equivalent to
that of a single conventional disk drive such that said
storage subsystem is con?gured for replacing a disk
drive in a computing device.
2. The device of claim 1, Wherein said the number of solid
state drive instances is tWo.
3. The device of claim 1, Wherein said storage processor is
con?gured to function as a RAID controller.
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