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Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ...................................................... 2
2.0 Game Equipment.............................................. 2
3.0 Terminology ..................................................... 2
4.0 How to Play ...................................................... 3
5.0 Weather ............................................................. 3
6.0 Supply ............................................................... 4
7.0 Receiving Replacements .................................... 6
8.0 Reinforcement/Withdrawal .............................. 8
9.0 Air Unit Readiness ............................................ 9
10.0 Ground Movement ......................................... 9
11.0 Specialized Movement .................................. 14
12.0 Attack Declaration ........................................ 17
13.0 Axis Air Interdiction ..................................... 19
14.0 Defender Reaction ........................................ 20
15.0 The Combat Phase ........................................ 20
16.0 Combat Results ............................................. 23
17.0 Airpower ....................................................... 26
18.0 Fortifications ................................................. 28
19.0 Railroad Conversion...................................... 28
20.0 Using Replacements ...................................... 29
21.0 Soviet Surrender ............................................ 30
22.0 Special Units ................................................. 30
23.0 Regt. Substitute Counters ............................. 34
24.0 How to Win .................................................. 34
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
1.0 Introduction
The Barbarossa portion of GMT’s East Front
Series is a three-game set that covers the
initial drives of the three Axis Army Groups
(South, Center, and North) from June
through September, 1941. Although each
game portrays just one Group’s operations,
all three games can be linked together to
cover the initial battles from the Black Sea to
the Baltic. Barbarossa: Army Group Center is
the third installment in theEast Front Series
(following Typhoon! and Army Group South).
Barbarossa: Army Group Center is a twoplayer game, but team play works well for
large scenarios. One team controls the Axis
forces, and the opposing team controls the
Soviet forces. The playing pieces represent
the actual units that participated in the
campaign, and the maps represent the terrain
over which they fought. Players maneuver
their units across the map and conduct
combat as described in the rules of play.
Objectives, battle casualties, and certain
actions all result in a final Victory Point total
which is used to determine the winner.
Play Note: There may be rule or chart
references to units or situations not included
in a specific Barbarossa module. For example,
the “How To Read Units” player aid card
lists nationality colors for Rumanian and
Finnish units. You won’t find any Finnish
units in Army Group Center, or Rumanians
appear in Army Group North.
These hexagons are hereafter called “hexes.”
Each hex has a four-digit identification
number, used for game reference purposes
only. Each hex on the map represents about
5.0 miles (8.0 km) of real terrain from side
to side.
d. Ground combat units are any counters
with a printed movement allowance and a
defense strength of at least one. Untried
Soviet units also qualify. All ground combat units control the hexes they occupy
and can participate in ground combat.
2.2 Player Aid Cards
2.4 Explanation of Unit Values
Barbarossa: Army Group Center includes Setup Cards and Charts and Tables to help
players set up the game, keep track of
reinforcements, and resolve movement and
combat functions. Place these to the side of
the map(s) for easy reference.
• Refer to the “How To Read Units” Player
Aid Card.
2.3 The Playing Pieces
Many playing pieces represent the military
units that fought in the historical campaign.
These are called “units.” Other pieces are
player aid markers.
2.3.1 How to Read the Units: The numbers
and symbols on the pieces represent the
strength, movement capability and type of
unit represented by each piece. Refer to the
“How To Read Units Card” for explanation.
2.3.2 Unit designations are the historical
unit identifications. For an explanation of
abbreviations on the unit counters, refer to
the Play Book.
2.3.3 Countermix Catagories
2.0 Game Equipment
Each game includes:
Several maps
Die-cut counters
One Rules Booklet and One Play Book
Axis and Soviet Unit Setup Cards
Player Aid Cards
One ten sided die
2.1 The Game Map
Note: The playbook provides specifics on
Map designations, Map alignments and
game set up.
A grid of hexagons has been superimposed
on the terrain features in order to regularize
movement and positioning of playing pieces.
Page 2
a. Player Aid markers are informational
markers placed on the game map to note
unit status or hex condition. Player Aid
markers are not combat units, but they
may influence combat resolution.
b. Air units are any units with an aircraft
silhouette. They attack enemy units, control hexes or defend hexes only in conjunction with friendly ground combat units
(Exception: 13.0 Axis Air Interdiction).
c. Ground non-combat units are Mobile
Supply Units (MSUs), Bridge Units,
and Dumps.
Note: Pieces described in paras a, b, and c
exert no zones of control, never control the
hex they occupy and can stack without limit
because they have no stacking value.
2.5 The Die
2.5.1 The game uses a ten-sided die. The
number “0” is read as ten (10), not zero (0),
as in some other games.
2.5.2 To perform many game functions,
you will roll one die to determine a result.
Often you will modify the actual die roll
result by a positive (+) or negative (-)
amount. These are called Die Roll
Modifications (DRMs), and their
application will be explained in the rules.
3.0 Terminology
a. “Friendly “ and “Enemy” are terms which
refer to both the Axis and Soviet sides in
1. Units. If you are the Soviet Player, all
Soviet units are friendly; all Axis
units are enemy units. The situation
is reversed for the Axis player.
2. Turn Phases. Axis Turn Phases are
friendly to the Axis Player and enemy
to the Soviet Player; Soviet Player
Phases are friendly to the Soviet Player
and enemy to the Axis Player.
3. Map Edges, Hexes and Supply
Sources. Those last occupied or controlled by Soviet Units are friendly to
the Soviet Player; those last occupied
or controlled by Axis units are friendly
to the Axis Player.
b. Controlled. A hex is controlled by the
last player to move a ground combat
unit through that hex or to have an
uncontested Zone of Control [See definition f. below] projected into it.
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
c. Contiguous hexes. An unbroken series
of connected hexes essential to the
formation of a Supply Route.
d. Converted hexes. Hexes containing
former Soviet rail lines now friendly to
the Axis player and usable for Axis
Railroad Movement.
e. Stacking. The placing of more than one
unit in a hex. The position of a unit
within a stack has no effect on play.
1. Most ground units have a printed
stacking point value. Bridge units,
MSUs, Dumps, and Soviet HQs have
no printed stacking value, and their
stacking value is zero (except during
rail transport [11.1.4]).
2. A maximum of ten (10) stacking
points can occupy a hex at the end of
any friendly movement phase or
retreat. Moving and retreating units
can freely enter and pass through
stacks of friendly units. If a stack
exceeds the stacking limit at the end
of any retreat or movement phase,
the excess is eliminated by the owning player. The units removed are
placed in the Cadre Box of the Unit
Rebuilding Chart.
3. Certain units with zero stacking value
and player aid markers stack freely
without limit.
f. Zones of Control. The hex a unit occupies and the six hexes immediately surrounding it constitute the unit’s Zone of
Control (ZOC). Hexes into which a
unit exerts a ZOC are called controlled
hexes. ZOCs are important. Enemy
ZOCs generally force your units to stop
moving; Friendly ZOCs generally force
enemy units to stop moving.
1. A ground combat unit always controls the hex it occupies, even if it
does not exert a ZOC into any of the
six surrounding hexes.
Note: Some units gain a No ZOC band
when they are Reduced.
1. Movement Phase
2. Axis Air Interdiction Phase
3. A unit’s ZOC can be modified by
weather [See Effects on Movement
3. Soviet Reaction Phase
4. Combat Phase
4. A unit’s ZOC extends into most hex
terrain and across most hexside terrain [See the Combat Effects Chart].
5. Motorized Movement Phase
6. Engineering Phase
5. A ZOC is not affected by other
units, enemy or friendly, except when
tracing a Supply Route [6.1.2] or
during retreat.
6. If only units of one side project a ZOC
into a hex, that side has uncontested
control of that hex. If both enemy and
friendly units project a ZOC into a
hex, the hex is mutually controlled by
both players.
C. Soviet Player Segment
1. Motorized Movement Phase
2. Axis Reaction Phase
3. Combat Phase
4. Movement Phase
5. Engineering Phase
7. Units that have been overrun
[11.4.4a] temporarily lose their ZOC
into the six surrounding hexes.
6. Soviet Surrender Phase
D. Game-Turn Record Interphase.
4.0 How to Play
4.1 Preparing for Play
Refer to the Playbook. It contains general
set-up instructions, and each scenario has
its own set-up instructions.
Rules Organization Note: Section 5
(Weather) through section 21 (Soviet
Surrender) generally parallel the game turn
sequence of play, with three exceptions:
• Reinforcements are covered immediately after Replacements because they
are closely related. Actual entry of reinforcements can occur in up to four game
turn movement phases.
4.2 Sequence of Play
The game is played in game-turns composed
of Segments. The Expanded Sequence of
Play in the Play Book has a detailed listing of
each Phase.
A. Strategic Segment
1. Weather Determination Phase
2. Supply Determination Phase
• Movement and motorized movement
for both sides is covered where it first
occurs in a game turn—the Axis Movement Phase.
• Air combat and air mission procedures
follow ground combat. (It was easier to
leave them in one location rather than
explain similar procedures three times.)
5.0 Weather
3. Replacements Phase
2. Ground combat units that do not
exert a ZOC into the six surrounding hexes are marked with a yellow
No ZOC band across the top. If at
least one unit in a hex exerts a ZOC
(that is, it lacks the No ZOC band),
all combat units in that hex exert a
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
4. Reinforcement and Withdrawal
5. Air Readiness Phase
B. Axis Player Segment
Weather conditions governed much of the
campaign in the Soviet Union. Both sides
were affected. Barbarossa rules are written
using Dry weather as a baseline. Other
weather conditions will affect supply,
movement, air unit readiness, and various
other game functions.
Page 3
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
5.1 Weather Determination
5.1.1 Weather determination occurs during
the Strategic Segment of each game turn
except for those turns where scenario
instructions specify the weather condition.
The Axis Player refers to the scenario turn
record track. Each game turn box on the track
contains the Climate Condition for the turn.
a. The Climate Condition will correspond
to one of the columns on the scenario
weather table. The Axis Player uses this
column when making the weather die
b. There may be a +1 or +2 DRM in some
game turn boxes. If so, the DRM is
applied to the Axis Player’s weather die
roll for that game turn.
5.1.2 The Scenario Weather Table
a. Each scenario weather table can have up
to four climate condition columns (Dry,
Mud, Frost, and Snow), but may have
fewer. Each climate condition represents
a seasonal weather pattern named for the
predominant type of weather condition
normally experienced.
b. Each climate condition column can contain up to four weather conditions (also
Dry, Mud, Frost, and Snow) in varying
proportions. Each box in the column
contains one of the weather conditions.
There will be a predominant weather
condition in each climate condition column. For example, in a Frost climate
condition column, the most frequently
occurring weather condition would be
Frost, with Dry, Mud, or Snow conditions occurring less frequently (as they
actually might during a late fall/early
winter time frame).
5.1.3 Weather Determination Die Roll
a. The Axis Player rolls the die and indexes
the corresponding line on the applicable
climate condition column. If there is no
Turn Record Track DRM to apply, this
result is the weather condition for the
entire turn. If there is a DRM, move
down the column one box for a +1 DRM
and two boxes for a +2 DRM to find the
weather condition for the entire turn.
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b. The weather condition immediately applies to all maps being used for the scenario.
c. Certain results on the weather table include Storms in addition to the given
weather condition. Storms last for the
entire turn, but they are not weather
conditions. They supplement the current weather condition by having a major
impact on Air Unit Readiness [9.2].
5.1.4 Lingering weather results. The effects
of Mud and Snow weather can extend
beyond the turn in which they first occur.
a. Lingering Mud. On any Dry weather
turn immediately following a Mud turn,
continue to apply all Mud effects and
movement rates only to those hexes containing woods terrain.
Exception: Super-heavy artillery units on
any minor road hex cannot move during
Lingering Mud turns [10.5.11c].
b. Lingering Snow. If Frost weather occurs
in a turn immediately following a Snow
turn, apply snow effects. It takes two
consecutive turns of Frost results to
change Snow weather to Frost.
Example: On GT “X” the Climate
Condition is Frost. The Weather die roll
provides a weather result of “S” (Snow) for
the current turn.
On GT “X+1”, the die roll provides a result
of “ST”, which means the weather condition
for the turn is still Snow, but now with
Storms added.
On GT “X+2”, the die roll results in “Frost.”
Because, however, it takes two consecutive
Frost results to change Snow weather to
Frost weather, the weather condition
remains Snow for this turn. If the weather
die roll on GT “X+3” results in Frost again,
then the weather will change to Frost.
6.0 Supply
There are two types of supply: General
Supply, which affects a unit’s actions
throughout the entire game turn, and Attack
Supply. which affects attacking units only
during the Combat Phase [See 6.8]. During
each Supply Determination Phase, both
players determine the General Supply status
of their units [6.6 and 6.7].
6.1 Tracing General Supply
6.1.1 To be in general supply, a unit must
be able to trace a Supply Route through a
path of contiguous hexes to a friendly
Supply Source[6.5]. A Supply Route
contains one or more of the following
a. a Line of Communications (LOC)
b. a Road Net [6.3]
c. a Railroad Net [6.4]
6.1.2 There are two restrictions that apply
to all Supply Route hexes. They are:
a. A friendly Supply Route cannot be traced
through any hex occupied by an enemy
ground combat unit.
b. A friendly Supply Route cannot be traced
through a hex in an enemy ZOC unless
that hex is also occupied by a friendly
ground combat unit.
6.2 The LOC
In most cases, ground units will not occupy
a Road Net hex or a Railroad Net hex.
They will have to trace supply “cross
country” to a Supply Source, or to a hex in
a Road or Railroad Net leading back to a
Supply Source.
6.2.1 An LOC may not be traced:
a. Across non-frozen lake/inland sea or
major river hexsides without a bridge or
friendly bridge unit (major river).
b. Through a non-road /railroad swamp hex
in Dry or Mud turns. A swamp hex may
have roads in it, but if they can’t be used to
trace an LOC, the hex cannot be a part of
the LOC (the road/railroad must enter
the swamp hex from a hex in the LOC
and exit into a hex in the LOC).
c. Through a hex with a non-destroyed enemy Strongpoint or a hexside with a nondestroyed enemy fortified line [18.1.1].
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
6.2.2 LOC Length. An LOC is traced
through no more than seven contiguous
hexes (do not count the hex the unit
occupies) to a Supply Source, Road Net
hex, or Railroad Net hex. The LOC length
is reduced to no more than five contiguous
a. when tracing the LOC along a road/
railroad through any swamp hex during
Dry turns.
b. when tracing the LOC through a marsh
hex during Dry turns.
c. when tracing the LOC through a woods
hex when Lingering Mud conditions
apply [5.1.4].
d. during any Mud or Snow turn.
6.3 Road Nets
A friendly road net is any continuous series
of connected main road or motorway hexes,
no more than 21 hexes in length, that lead
either to a friendly supply source or to a
railroad hex which forms part of a friendly
railroad net.
Exception: Reduce LOC length to 15 hexes
during Mud or Snow turns.
6.4 Railroad Nets
A friendly Railroad Net is any continuous
series of connected railroad hexes of
unlimited length that leads to a friendly
Supply Source. The Axis Railroad Net
may not contain any Soviet Railcut markers,
and every rail hex must be converted to
Axis use. The Soviet Railroad Net cannot
contain Railcut markers or enter a hex with
an Axis Railhead marker.
Note: Barbarossa maps do not show rail
lines running through cities/major cities.
Every city/major city hex does count as a rail
hex for purposes of rail movement and rail
6.5 Supply Sources
Play Note: Most map-edge hexes are not
Supply Sources.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
6.5.1 Soviet Supply Sources are any friendly
major city hex or any friendly railroad,
main road, or motorway map-edge hexes
that are designated as Supply Sources in
the scenario instructions [See Play Book].
Play Note: A Soviet major city hex always
functions as a Supply Source even when
surrounded. When surrounded, a Soviet
major city functions as a Supply Source for
any Soviet units that can trace a Supply
Route to it.
6.6 Supply State Determination
6.6.1 After tracing Supply Routes, on-map
ground units will be in one of three supply
a. In General Supply.
b. Out of General Supply, but utilizing
Emergency Supply (hereafter called
Emergency Supply).
c. Out of General Supply (out of supply)
6.5.2 Axis Supply Sources are any main
road, motorway, or railroad map-edge hexes
designated as Supply Sources in applicable
scenario instructions [See Play Book].
6.5.3 Both players may use Mobile Supply
Units (MSUs) or Dumps as temporary oneturn Supply Sources. During the Supply
Determination Phase an MSU or a Dump
[6.8] can be used as a temporary, one gameturn supply source for units within up to five
hexes that are able to trace an LOC to it
(representing supply accumulated for attacks
to keep your troops in General Supply). An
MSU is removed, or a Dump is flipped to its
MSU side. Once the supply marker is flipped
or removed, the Out of Supply or Emergency
Supply markers on the five eligible hexes are
also removed. All ground combat units that
were under those markers are now back in
General Supply for the remainder of the
game turn. (These units may revert to
Emergency or Out of Supply status if they
can’t trace a Supply Route in the following
turns; but for this turn, they are in General
6.5.4 Soviet Ports. Each Soviet-controlled
map hex containing a port symbol can trace
supply by sea. A Soviet port traces supply
by sea to either the Sea Transport box on
the Soviet Unit Rebuilding Chart or to
another on-map Soviet-controlled port that
can trace supply to a map-edge Supply
Source hex. In effect, sea supply is a fourth
component that may be included in any
Soviet Supply Route. Like a Railroad Net,
there is no limit to the length of a sea supply
route. Tracing supply by sea is not affected
by the Weather die roll, but can cease if
specified by Scenario instructions.
Note: A unit judged out of supply during
the Supply Determination Phase remains
out of supply for the rest of the game turn,
even if it moves to a location where it could
be in General Supply.
6.6.2 A unit is in General Supply if it can
trace a Supply Route during the Supply
Determination Phase. If the unit carries an
Emergency Supply or Out of Supply
marker, remove the marker at this time.
6.6.3 If a unit was in General Supply, but
cannot now trace a Supply Route, it is in
Emergency Supply. Place an Emergency
Supply marker on the unit. A unit bearing
an Emergency Supply marker suffers no
adverse effects. It is treated as if it were in
General Supply. Attacker and defender
artillery bearing Emergency Supply markers
can contribute their support strengths to
declared combats [14.2 and 15.4].
Design Note: Such units are consuming
emergency stocks to maintain combat
6.6.4 A unit is out of General Supply if:
a. It bears an Emergency Supply marker
and it still cannot trace a Supply Route.
(Flip the Emergency Supply marker to
its Out of Supply side), or
b. It bears an Out of Supply marker and can
still not trace a Supply Route. (The Out
of Supply marker remains on the unit.)
6.7 Out of Supply Effects
6.7.1 All ground combat units have their
printed Movement Allowances reduced by
two (-2) MPs in each Movement Phase.
Page 5
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
Exception: Cavalry units are not affected,
because they depend very little on fuel for
6.7.2 All motorized ground combat units
lose their Reaction Movement Phase
[14.1.1d], cannot qualify for Infiltration
Movement [11.5.2], and cannot perform
Overruns [11.4.2e].
6.7.3 German Panzer and Motorized
divisions cannot use the Panzer Division
Integrity Bonus [15.6.8.c.1] unless placed
in Attack Supply, but still could use the
Combined Arms Bonus [15.6.7].
6.7.4 Artillery units cannot use their
Support Strengths at all when defending,
and only when placed in Attack Supply
when attacking.
6.7.5 In combat, the attacker applies a -1
DRM when the defending force includes
any unit with an Out of Supply marker.
6.7.6 Strongpoint Deterioration. Nonoccupied friendly Strongpoint markers
which are not adjacent to a friendly unit and
are judged to be out of General Supply have
Emergency Supply markers placed on them.
During the next Supply Determination
Phase, any such Strongpoint marker still
judged to be out of supply is removed from
the map.
6.8 Attack Supply
Sustaining an attack required stockpiling
and expending huge ordnance tonnages.
Attacks made without Attack Supply cause
penalties to the attacker which are in addition
to other supply and combat effects.
6.8.1 During each Supply Determination
Phase, both players consult the scenario
instructions and/or their Attack Supply
Charts to determine the number of Attack
Supply Points (ASPs) they receive for that
turn. ASPs can only enter the map in the
form of Mobile Supply Units [MSUs, 6.8.4]
or Supply Dumps [6.8.3]. One available
ASP creates one MSU. Two available ASPs
create a Supply Dump. MSUs and Dumps
are represented by Supply Counters. If
insufficient Supply Counters are available,
then excess ASPs are lost. ASPs cannot be
accumulated off-map. Players cannot have
more Supply Counters in play at any one
Page 6
time than those provided in the counter
6.8.2 Supply Counters. Both sides have a
limited number of Supply Counters. Each
Supply Counter has sides that correspond
to the number of ASPs that the counter
represents. The front side of a Supply
Counter is a Mobile Supply Unit (MSU),
containing one ASP. The reverse side of
the Supply Counter is a Supply Dump that
contains two ASPs. A Supply Counter
may never contain more than two ASPs. A
Supply Counter has no combat strength (it
is not a combat “step”) and is immediately
removed if it is alone in a hex when an
enemy unit declares combat against it or
enters its hex. It cannot enter an enemy
ZOC unless a friendly ground combat unit
occupies that hex. Supply units cannot be
captured. MSUs suffer all retreat combat
results; Supply Dumps cannot retreat.
When removed from play, by expenditure
or enemy action, the supply counter is
again available for play next turn (it
represents food, fuel, and ammo; not men
and equipment). A Supply counter cannot
be judged out of supply, regardless of its
6.8.3 Dumps. Supply Dumps have no
Movement Allowance of their own. The only
way to move a Dump is by rail.
a. Map entry. Dumps enter the map during the friendly Movement Phase
through any friendly map-edge rail hex
that has been designated as a supply
source by the scenario instructions [see
Play Book].
b. On-map Dump creation. A player may,
during his friendly Movement Phase,
combine two (one ASP) MSUs in the
same hex to create a two-ASP Supply
Dump. In this case, flip one (owning
player’s choice) MSU over to its Dump
side and remove the other from play.
Players should use this procedure to
accumulate extra supplies in one place
and free an MSU to bring in another
ASP on a later turn.
c. On-map Dump conversion. A player
may, during his friendly Movement Phase,
flip a two-ASP dump to its one-ASP
MSU side and move it. In exchange for
mobility, one ASP in the Dump is lost.
(This is a very inefficient way of getting
supply to where it is needed, and should
not be used often).
6.8.4 MSUs. There are two types of MSUs
in the countermix. Those MSUs with
orange MAs of eight (representing truckborne supplies) move with the same
movement point penalties as a motorized
unit (but do not have theMotorized
Movement Phases); those with four (4)
movement points (wagon-borne supplies)
are the same as non-motorized units. Both
types move only in the friendly Movement
Phase and both may use Strategic
a. Normal Entry. MSUs enter the map
playing area during the friendly movement phase through friendly main road
or motorway map-edge hexes designated as supply sources [consult the
Play Book].
b. Air Entry. If an air transport mission is
available, one newly created MSU may
be placed in the Ready Box of the Air
Unit Display for map entry during the
friendly Air Transport segment. This
option is open to both players.
c. Soviet Only. The Soviet player can also
place one newly created MSU each in
any Soviet Major City that qualifies as a
Supply Source (multi-hex major cities
may still receive only one MSU per
turn) during the Soviet movement phase
[6.5.1]. After placement, these MSUs
may move normally. A friendly Soviet
major city hex surrounded by Axis
ground combat units or their ZOCs
cannot serve as a placement hex for
newly arriving MSUs.
6.8.5 For expenditure of ASPs in combat,
see 15.3 and 15.5.6.
7.0 Receiving Replacements
Both players may receive Replacement
Points (if allowed by scenario instructions)
during this phase. Replacement points
represent manpower and equipment
forwarded to combat units to replace combat
losses, or to rebuild formations destroyed in
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
7.1 Soviet Replacements
The Soviet Player will receive most
replacement points randomly from the
Soviet Replacements Tables. Scenario
instructions specify which table to use, and
which turns to use it.
7.1.1 Each Soviet Replacement Table has a
die roll column and four other columns
representing the following categories:
Fortifications, Type I Replacements, Other
Replacements, and Special Events. The
Soviet Player rolls the die, adds any DRMs
for Mud weather or unexecuted Mandated
Attacks, and locates this number on the die
roll column. The Soviet player now crossindexes this number with the four
replacement category boxes on that line.
Any box containing a number and/or a
letter provides a replacement type or an
7.2 Soviet Replacement Categories
Replacements are received immediately,
but usually must be set aside until the
Soviet Engineering Phase before they can
be expended.
a. Fortifications. The number shown is the
number of Strongpoint markers the Soviet Player may place during this turn’s
Engineering Phase. If an “E” result is
obtained, the Soviet Player receives one
Strongpoint in addition to the other
Strongpoint markers received from a
numerical result. This “extra”
Strongpoint, however, can only be placed
on a friendly Soviet city or within four
hexes (three hexes intervening) of a
friendly Soviet major city hex.
Strongpoints are lost if not placed on the
game-turn received. Non-Op Soviet
HQs may prevent regular Strongpoint
placement, but have no effect on “E”
Strongpoint placement [22.2.5a].
b. Type I Replacements. The number in
this box is the number of non-NKVD
Type I Replacement Points (RPs) received. The Soviet Player records these
points by advancing the Infantry Replacement marker one space on the Soviet
Loss/Replacement Track for each point
received. These points can be saved from
turn to turn, but if the Replacement marker
cannot be advanced further on the Loss/
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Replacement Track, the excess RPs are
lost. The following non-NKVD unit types
can rebuild/regain lost steps using Type I
RPs during the Soviet Engineering Phase:
c. During the Soviet Replacement Phase,
the Soviet Player may remove any Reserve
units or Militia units on their tried sides
[22.10 and 22.11] that occupy a Soviet
city or major city in General Supply and
are not in an Axis ZOC. For each step
removed from the map, increase the Soviet Type I RP total by one point. Place
any removed Militia/Reserve units in the
Cadre Box. Place UR/MG units
d. Other Replacements. Presence of a replacement codeletter (A, N, or V) in
this column provides one of the following:
• Armaments: (Chart Codeletter A).
These points represent tanks or heavy
weapons. The Soviet Player receives
one point to replace/rebuild one step
of the following unit types:
Not allowed to rebuild
The Soviet Player cannot save these
points. If not expended in the turn
received, the point is lost. Armaments points are expended during
the Soviet Engineering Phase. The
Soviet Player should note the receipt
of the point; there is no Armaments
Replacement Marker.
• NKVD: (Chart Codeletter N). The
Soviet Player receives one point to
replace/rebuild one step of NKVD
units only. Any type of NKVD unit
in the countermix (except NKVD
armored trains) may be rebuilt or
strengthened. If there are no NKVD
units in the Destroyed or Cadre
boxes, and all on-map NKVD units
are at full strength, then the point is
lost. If not expended during the turn
received, the point is lost. It is ex-
pended in the Soviet Engineering
Phase. There is no marker for this
• Aircraft:(Chart Codeletter V). The
Soviet Player receives one point to
move one Soviet Air Unit from the
Destroyed or Damaged Box (Soviet
player option) immediately to the
Ready Box on the Soviet Air Display
(The newly reformed air unit is not
subject to the current turn’s air readiness check unless it is a Storm turn).
This point is lost if there are no air
units available in the Destroyed or
Damaged boxes. This point cannot be
saved from turn to turn.
Note: RPs for Soviet Armored Trains are
received on Soviet Set-Up Cards. Each point
can be used for an NKVD or Army Armored
Train unit. The point must be used in the
current Soviet Engineering Phase or it is
e. Special Events. The Soviet Player receives outside aid (or interference) when
code letter M, R, or S is received:
1. Codeletter M (Mandated Soviet Attack). From time to time Stalin ordered
special attacks. These are Mandated
Attacks. One Mandated Attack accrues to the Soviet Player each time an
M codeletter is received (when allowed
by scenario instructions).When a Mandated Attack is received, move the Mandated Attack Not Yet Made marker
one space along the Soviet Loss/Replacement Track.
• A Mandated Attack can be made during any game turn, and need not be
made during the same game turn it
first becomes required. Mandated attacks can be accumulated, and more
than one attack can be made in a single
game turn. A Mandated Attack cannot be made before being received.
• The Soviet Player may be penalized
for not making Mandated Attacks in
a timely fashion. During the Game
Turn Interphase of any turn where
the Axis Player captures and holds a
scenario victory point location, each
Mandated Attack not yet made is
converted into +2 VPs for the Axis
Player. The VP Track is adjusted, and
Page 7
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
the “Mandated Attack Not Yet Made”
marker is placed in the Zero box of
the Soviet Loss/Replacement Track.
• During each Soviet Replacement
Phase, each unresolved Mandated
Attack becomes a +1 DRM to the
Replacement Die Roll(for example,
two Mandated Attacks not yet resolved becomes a +2 DRM).
2. Codeletter R. If this codeletter is
received, the Soviet Player may:
• Choose one Soviet Special Reinforcement Pool (if available or eligible for
release [8.3]), or
8.2 Scheduled Reinforcements
7.3.3 Axis Air (“V”) RPs.These points
must be expended during the Replacement
Phase received, or they are lost. One point
moves one air unit (any Axis Nationality)
from the Destroyed or Damaged box of
the Axis Air Unit Display to the Ready
Box. If no air units are available, or the
point is not used, it is lost.
8.0 Reinforcement/Withdrawal
3. Codeletter S (Additional Supply). If
this codeletter is received, the Soviet
player may:
8.1 Reinforcement Arrival
receive one additional ASP this turn.
7.3 Axis Replacements
The Axis Player receives Type I, A, and V
RPs as specified on scenario set-up cards.
There is no Axis Replacement Table.
7.3.1 Infantry (Type I) RPs. Record points
received on the Axis Loss/Replacement
Track using the Axis Infantry Replacement
Marker. If the marker cannot be advanced,
the RPs are lost. These points are expended
in the Axis Engineering Phase, and can be
saved from turn to turn. OneType I RP will
replace one step (any Axis nationality)of the
following unit types:
7.3.2 Axis Armament (Type A) RPs.These
points can also be saved from turn to turn.
Record points received using the Axis Armor
Replacement Marker on the Axis Loss/
Page 8
8.1.6 Headquarters do not function in any
manner until they have entered the map.
Once on the map, they have no effect on
units which are still off-map.
Not allowed to rebuild
• Release all units on any one Soviet
Garrison hex. Released units move
and fight normally [22.12.2d].
• Remove the Emergency Supply or
Out of Supply marker from any one
unit or stack as desired. The unit or
stack is now in General Supply for
the remainder of the Game Turn, or
Replacement Track. One Type A point will
replace one step (any Axis nationality) of the
following unit types:
8.1.1 Reinforcements are new units arriving
from other off-map areas. Refer to Scenario
Set-Up Cards for:
a. Game turn and entry location of scheduled reinforcements.
b. Availability and entry location of Special Reinforcement Pools.
8.2.1 The game turn designated for a group
of reinforcements is the earliest turn it can
enter. Non-motorized, orange MA, and
green MA reinforcements arrive and enter
play during the friendly Movement Phase
only. Motorized units may enter either in
the friendly Movement Phase or the friendly
Motorized Movement Phase.
Play Note: Due to differing sequences of
play, Axis motorized units obtain maximum
movement when entered during their
friendly Movement Phase, while Soviet
motorized units move farthest when entered
during their friendly Motorized Movement
8.2.2 Scheduled reinforcements cost no VPs.
8.2.3 Air units entering as reinforcements go
directly to the Ready Box unless specified
otherwise. Air units going to Ready Boxes do
not check for readiness unless it is a Storm
turn. Air units going to Flown or Damaged
Boxes do check for readiness unless Scenario
instructions specify otherwise.
8.1.2 When a unit enters through a mapedge hex, it pays the terrain cost for that
hex. Entering units may use road, railroad,
or strategic movement.
8.2.4 UR/MG units created by expending
RPs always enter play during the Replacement
Phase [20.3.2].
8.1.3 The entry of a unit can be delayed at
the owning player’s option. Entry of a unit
must be delayed if enemy units occupy all of
its possible entry hexes.
8.3 Special Reinforcement Pools
8.1.4 Some reinforcements are placed
directly on the map (usually in a town, city,
or major city hex). For the reinforcement
to be placed on the designated hex, the hex
must be friendly, in General Supply, and
not in an enemy ZOC (major city hexes are
not affected by enemy ZOCs). Entry must
be delayed until the hex meets all placement
8.1.5 Reinforcements are in General Supply
during the game turn of entry.
These pools represent groups of units that
can be brought into play, but only at the
expense of other off-map combat areas.
Special Reinforcement Pool groups for both
sides enter play as normal reinforcements
on the turn each group is selected.
8.3.1 Soviet Pools. Only after obtaining an
“R”result on the Soviet Replacement Table
is it possible for the Soviet Player to enter
one Special Reinforcement group (there may
be several available). The option to enter
one group must be exercised on the turn it is
received. If no group is currently available
(all have been chosen or earliest turn of entry
has not arrived) the option to enter cannot
be exercised—it is lost. When the chosen
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
group is removed from the set-up card for
entry, adjust the VP track for any Soviet VP
penalty. Some groups have multiple turns of
entry. A group can be chosen if any units are
eligible to enter on the current game turn.
Remaining group units that enter later are
treated as scheduled reinforcements (a good
idea is to place these units ahead on the
Turn Record Track to enter on allowed
turns). An additional “R” result is not needed
to bring these remaining units in, and there
is no additional VP cost.
8.3.2 Any Axis Special Reinforcement Pool
group may be entered automatically at the
Axis Player’s discretion if the group is
allowed to enter play that turn. There is no
limit to the number of eligible Axis groups
that may enter on one game turn. As the
units are removed for entry, adjust the VP
track for any Axis VP penalty.
8.4 Rebuilt Units
Each Unit Rebuilding Chart has an Active
Box to hold units rebuilt from the Cadre
Box [20.2.2a]. These units may enter the
map as reinforcements during any friendly
Reinforcement Phase either by:
a. being placed on any supplied friendly
city or major city not in an enemy ZOC
(such units may move normally after
being placed), or
b. entering the map through any friendly
map-edge hex designated as a friendly
Supply Source.
8.5 Untried Soviet Militia
Some Soviet Militia counters have a printed
reverse side showing unknown values. These
are Untried Militia units [22.10.2]. In most
scenarios, these units enter play during the
Soviet Reinforcement Phase on their Untried
sides after being drawn randomly from an
opaque cup. The Untried side of each Militia
unit bears the name of the Soviet city/major
city where it was raised. This is the designated
placement city. Each Untried Militia unit
drawn must be placed on or within five
hexes of a designated placement city hex (do
not count the city hex, but do count the hex
of placement). Untried Militia units cannot
be placed in a hex adjacent to an Axis unit.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
8.6 Withdrawals
A Set-Up Card may indicate that units
should be withdrawn.
8.6.1 On the designated turn, the units to
be withdrawn are removed from the map in
the Reinforcement/Withdrawal Phase.
Units may be at reduced strength: so long as
a withdrawing unit has at least one step
remaining, it may withdraw without penalty.
If a withdrawing unit has been destroyed
and has not re-entered the game, the owning
player must withdraw another unit with the
same unit type symbol and equal attack and
defense strengths or pay one VP.
8.6.2 Air units do not carry withdrawal
symbols. Any air unit of the type designated
for withdrawal will suffice. The air unit can
come from the Ready, Flown, Damaged or
Destroyed Boxes (even if the planes have
been destroyed, the air and ground crews
are available to redeploy). Simply remove
the air units to be withdrawn from the Air
Unit Display during the Reinforcement/
Withdrawal Phase.
8.6.3 A player may choose to cancel the
withdrawal of any unit, but must pay one
VP for each unit not withdrawn.
Play Note: The Active Box on the Unit
Rebuilding Chart can be a handy place to
store newly received Strongpoints, supply
units, scheduled reinforcements, and special
reinforcement pools. Enter these units and
markers in the applicable game turn phase.
Although this is a good way to have
everything “in one place,” players may still
have a lot of referencing to verify entry hexes
and map-edges.
9.0 Air Unit Readiness
9.1 Readiness
During the Air Readiness Phase of the
Strategic Segment of each game-turn, roll
one die for each air unit in the Flown Box.
If the die roll lies within the range (adjust
for weather DRMs, which are cumulative)
listed in the Flown Box, it is moved to the
Ready Box. Units that do not pass the die
roll remain in the Flown Box. Don’t make
readiness die rolls for Dummy air units:
they are automatically placed in the Ready
box at the end of the Air Readiness Phase.
Roll next for all air units in the Damaged
Box. Air units passing the die roll are
moved up to the Flown Box. Air units
failing the die roll remain in the Damaged
Box. Units starting in the Ready Box
automatically remain in that box, unless
the weather die roll result includes Storms.
9.2 Storm
On any Storm turn, all air units of both sides
that start the Air Readiness Phase in the
Ready Box (including reinforcement and
replacement air units) are immediately placed
in the Flown Box. Each unit must pass the
Air Readiness die roll to be returned to the
Ready Box [see the Air Operations Card].
9.3 The Destroyed Box
Air units in the Destroyed Box do not check
for Air Readiness. The only way out of the
Destroyed Box is through the receipt of Air
Replacement Points or Withdrawal [8.6.2].
10.0 Ground Movement
Each player may move some or all of his eligible
ground units during the friendly Movement,
Motorized Movement, or Reaction
Movement Phases of each game turn.
Important Note: To simulate fundamental
differences between the Axis and Soviet armies,
the respective player turns are not identical
[refer closely to the Expanded Sequence of
Play]. Also, Axis and Soviet units often move at
differing rates during some of these movement
phases. For example, Axis motorized units
have full MA during their Movement Phase,
but Soviet motorized units move at only onehalf MA during their Movement Phase. Refer
closely to the Movement Phase Chart on the
11x17 Chart Card).
Note One: During the Movement and
Motorized Movement Phases, Out of Supply
markers do not prevent unit movement.
Note Two: Fractions are retained when
printed MAs are halved or increased, but
are only usable when utilizing road
movement [Refer to the Movement Point
Conversion Table on the 11x17 Chart Card].
Fractions are also used when entering City/
Major City hexes.
Page 9
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
10.1 Friendly Movement Phase
10.1.1 Axis units receiving replacements
must be designated before any movement
in the Axis Movement Phase and cannot
be moved during the entire Axis Player
Turn. Designated units can be turned,
marked with spare markers, or have
Receiving Replacements markers placed
on them. There are a limited number of
these markers; feel free to make more.
Markers are removed (or units realigned)
during the Game Turn Interphase.
10.1.2 For Soviet and Axis unit types
allowed to move during their respective
friendly Movement Phases, refer to the
Movement Phase Chart on the 11x17 Chart
10.1.3 Specialized forms of movement
allowed during the respective Soviet and
Axis friendly Movement Phases are:
ing this phase. Axis Interdiction can
reduce an armored train’s movement
rate [11.1.1 and 11.1.6].
b. Soviet Flotillas may move through up
to sixteen connected major river, coastal,
or sea hexes if moved during this phase.
Axis Air Interdiction can reduce a
flotilla’s movement rate [11.2.1].
10.1.5 Specialized movement allowed only
during the Axis Movement Phase is:
• Infiltration Movement. Axis motorized
units with MA of seven or greater may
expend their entire MA to move directly
from one enemy ZOC to another when
not prohibited by weather, terrain, or
supply. (Soviet motorized units cannot
conduct this movement during their
Movement Phase [11.5.1].)
10.2 Motorized Movement Phase
a. Railroad Movement. The MA for
ground combat units, MSUs, and
Dumps being transported by rail is sixty
(60) connected friendly rail hexes [11.1].
b. Strategic Movement. Any qualifying
MSU or ground combat unit (except
Armored Trains and Flotillas) with an
MA greater than zero may move at one
and one half times its normal MA [11.3].
c. Overrun Movement. Axis and Soviet
motorized units and stacks may qualify
for Overrun. Lack of odds, overlapping
ZOCs, weather, or terrain can prevent
Overrun [11.4].
d. Reinforcements. All Soviet and Axis
reinforcements are eligible to enter and
move during their respective friendly
Movement Phases. Soviet and Axis nonmotorized, orange MA and green MA
ground combat units, MSUs, and
Dumps can only enter during their respective Movement Phases.
10.1.4 Specialized forms of movement
allowed only during the Soviet Movement
Phase are:
a. Soviet Armored Trains may move
through up to forty-eight connected
friendly Soviet rail hexes if moved dur-
Page 10
10.2.1 Soviet units receiving replacements
must be designated before any movement
in the Soviet Motorized Movement Phase
and cannot be moved during the entire
Soviet Player Turn. Soviet units are
designated and undesignated identically to
Axis units [10.1.1].
10.2.2 For Soviet and Axis unit types
allowed to move during their respective
Motorized Movement Phases, refer to the
Movement Phase Chart on the 11x17 Chart
10.2.3 Specialized forms of movement
allowed during the respective Soviet and
Axis Motorized Movement Phases:
a. Overrun Movement. Identical to
Movement Phase.
b. Reinforcements. Only Soviet or Axis
motorized reinforcements may enter and
move during their respective Motorized
Movement Phases.
10.2.4 Specialized forms of movement
allowed only during the Soviet Motorized
Movement Phase:
other when not prohibited by weather,
terrain, or supply. (Axis motorized units
cannot execute Infiltration Movement
in their Motorized Movement Phase
since they can expend only one-half of
their MA [11.5.1].)
b. Soviet Flotilla and Armored Train
Movement. Identical to Movement
Play Note: Because the Soviet Motorized
Movement Phase occurs before the Soviet
Movement Phase, the Soviet player may want
to mark flotillas and armored trains which
move in the Motorized Movement Phase.
The units can be turned, or Activated markers
can be used.
c. Soviet non-motorized unit activation.
Soviet in-range HQs with non-interdicted command points can activate one
non-motorized unit (including orange
MA or green MA units) per command
point. Activated units move up to their
full MA. Unless not allowed by NonOp Soviet HQs [22.2.4b], each HQ can
also activate one in-range Guards unit
[22.8] at no command point cost (even
if a HQs command rating has been
reduced to zero). Place an Activated
marker on each activated unit to indicate no movement in the Movement
Phase. The markers are removed during
the Game Turn Interphase.
Note: This section draws upon several later
rules sections: 22.1.1,Command Range;
22.1.2, Command Range and Activation;
22.2.2 and 22.2.4, Non-Op HQ
Restrictions; and 13.2.5a, Interdiction
10.3 Friendly Reaction Phase
10.3.1 Only Soviet and Axis motorized
units may move in this phase, and they may
only move up to half of their MA [14.1].
10.3.2 Several conditions may limit or
prevent Reaction Movement [14.1.1].
10.4 How To Move Ground Units
a. Infiltration Movement. Soviet motorized units with MA of seven or greater
may expend their entire MA to move
directly from one enemy ZOC to an-
Procedure: Move units or stacks one at a
time, tracing a path of contiguous hexes
through the hex grid. Each unit spends a
certain number of MPs from its MA [See
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
How to Read Units Card] to enter each
hex or cross certain hexsides [See
Movement Point Cost Chart].
Note: Movement can be reduced or
eliminated entirely by lack of supply, terrain,
weather, interdiction, or enemy ZOCs. It
can be increased by using road, strategic, or
railroad movement.
10.5 Movement Restrictions
Note: Advances and retreats [covered later in
16.6 and 16.7] are not considered movement .
Advancing and retreating units do not expend
movement points (MPs).
10.5.1 Units move from hex to adjacent
hex. A unit cannot jump over a hex.
10.5.2 There is no limit to the number of
friendly units which can pass through a single
hex during a game turn. However, stacking
limits apply at the end of each friendly
Movement Phase and during retreats.
10.5.3 A unit can move only once during a
friendly Movement Phase. Normally it
cannot spend more movement points than
are contained in its movement allowance in
any friendly movement phase when it moves.
Exception: One Hex Movement. A unit
may be able to move one hex during a
friendly Movement Phase even if it lacks
sufficient movement points to do so. The
movement must be made into an adjacent
hex whose hexside and hex terrain is not
prohibited to the moving unit. The moving
unit cannot have expended any movement
points prior to executing One Hex
Movement. Unless the moving unit qualifies
for Infiltration Movement [11.5], One Hex
Movement cannot be made from a hex in an
enemy ZOC to an adjacent hex also in an
enemy ZOC. Overruns cannot be conducted
when using One Hex Movement [11.4].
Motorized units bearing Out of Supply
markers cannot use One Hex Movement
during the Reaction Movement Phase.
Subject to the restrictions above, any friendly
unit qualified to move during any friendly
Movement Phase may exercise One Hex
10.5.4 Units are never forced to move.
Unused MPs cannot be accumulated for
later use or transferred to other units.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
10.5.5 Units can be moved together as a
stack. The movement allowance of the
stack is that of the slowest unit in the stack.
The moving player may split up a moving
stack by declaring that the stack is splitting.
The stack ceases movement temporarily.
The moving player now moves the units to be
split off from the stack up to the extent of
their remaining MAs. The moving player
returns to the reduced stack and may continue
moving it up to the extent of the MA of the
slowest moving remaining unit. Splitting off
units can occur more than once during a
given stack’s movement. As an alternative,
units in a stack can be “dropped off” in any
hex the stack enters (a good way to lose slow
units and allow a stack to move farther).
Stacks cannot pick up or add units while
moving. Once a stack has ceased moving in a
movement phase, other units may be moved
into its hex (up to stacking point limits).
10.5.6 A friendly unit can never enter a hex
containing an enemy ground combat unit. It
can move through friendly occupied or
controlled hexes (those not in an enemy
ZOC) at no extra MP cost.
b. All other Soviet artillery, Axis artillery,
or Soviet AA units (orange MA)
c. Soviet and Axis MSUs with MA of
eight (truck symbol and orange MA)
10.5.11 Additionally, super-heavy artillery
of both sides (green MA) is very restricted
in where and how it can move. Allowed
a. Railroad movement [11.1]
b. Along connected main road or motorway
hexes at a rate of one MP per hex during
all weather conditions. Strategic movement may be used when all conditions
are met [11.3].
c. Along connected minor road hexes at a
rate of one MP per hex in Dry Weather
turns only. No movement is allowed
during Mud Weather turns or Lingering Mud turns. Strategic movement
cannot be used.
10.6 Zone of Control Effects
10.5.7 Subject to terrain or scenario
restrictions, movement (or retreat) between
adjacent maps during game play is allowed.
Unless specifically allowed by scenario
instructions, movement off a map-edge (not
between maps) is prohibited. Units forced to
retreat off a map-edge are removed from play
and placed in the Cadre Box.
10.5.8 Scenario instructions may prohibit
movement of some or all units during
specified game turns, or may prohibit
movement into or out of certain map areas.
For example, units of one or both sides may
not be allowed to cross national boundaries
during certain game turns.
10.5.9 Non-operational Soviet HQs restrict
Soviet unit movement within their
Command Range [22.2.5h].
10.5.10 Some units must pay motorized
movement costs, but do not move in the
friendly Motorized Movement Phase
(unless activated by a Soviet HQ) or
Reaction Phase. They are:
a. Axis and Soviet super-heavy artillery
(green MA) [22.7]
10.6.1 Friendly ZOCs do not affect friendly
unit movement.
10.6.2 Enemy ZOCs almost always affect
friendly movement. The two primary
exceptions are: Overrun Movement [11.4]
and Infiltration Movement [11.5].
10.6.3 Friendly units may enter enemy
ZOCs using all types of movement except:
a. Strategic Movement
b. Railroad Movement (However, armored
trains, being built to fight on the rails,
may enter an enemy ZOC.)
c. Friendly units using Reaction Movement may only enter an enemy ZOC if
the hex already contains one or more
friendly ground combat units.
10.6.4 Friendly units entering an enemy ZOC
must pay one additional MP.
Exception: Reaction Movement. The hex
entered must contain one or more friendly
ground combat units.If a friendly unit does
not have the necessary MP, it cannot enter
the hex. Infiltration and One Hex Movement
Page 11
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
10.6.5 Friendly units entering an enemy
ZOC must stop moving immediately except
when using Overrun Movement [11.4].
10.6.6 Friendly units cannot move directly
from one hex in an enemy ZOC to an
adjacent hex also in an enemy ZOC except
when using Infiltration Movement [11.5].
10.6.7 Friendly units may begin ground
movement by exiting a hex in an enemy
ZOC, move through one or more hexes
not in an enemy ZOC, and then re-enter a
hex in an enemy ZOC if enough movement
points remain unless using Reaction
Movement. (Reacting units cannot begin
movement in an enemy ZOC [14.1].)
• Retreat is not movement. ZOC effects
for retreat are governed by Retreat Rules.
• ZOCs do not extend across major river/
inland sea/lake hexsides (except during
Snow) or into major city hexes.
a. All terrain types
b. Movement point costs to cross or enter
each terrain feature based upon unit
type and weather condition.
10.7.3 Each map hex contains one or more
terrain types. Where a single hex contains
more than one type (for example: clear and
hill), units not on roads pay the highest MP
cost to occupy the hex. For example, in dry
weather a unit not moving on a road would
pay 2 MPs to occupy a hex containing both
clear and hill terrain. Generally, units using
road or railroad movement pay reduced
MP costs to enter or occupy map hexes.
10.7.4 Hex or hexside terrain which carries
a plus (+) sign, adds the indicated number
of MPs onto the highest hex terrain cost
when units not on roads cross a hexside or
occupy a hex with (+) terrain.
Example: [Refer to the MPCC and the
example below]. The weather is dry. An
Axis motorized unit with MA of seven has
expended no MPs, but now crosses Hexside
A (a river hexside) and occupies hex B. This
one hex move costs the motorized unit five
movement points (two MPs for the hill
terrain, +2 MPs for the woods, and +1MP
for crossing the river).
a. When entering a hex with woods terrain, the MP penalty is reduced by one
in all weather.
b. When crossing a river or major river
hexside on a rail line, the movement
penalties for both types of hexside terrain are negated. Crossing units do pay
the terrain costs to enter the hex on the
far side of the river/major river crossed.
c. Motorized units (or those with orange
or green MAs ) may enter a swamp hex.
10.7.7 Dry Weather Road Movement.
Units moving directly from hex to hex along
a road (the road symbol crosses each hexside)
expend MPs at the applicable road
movement rate, instead of paying the hexside
and hex terrain costs. Refer to the MPCC
and the example below.
10.7.6 Units moving from hex to hex along
rail lines (as opposed to utilizing railroad
movement) receive three movement benefits:
• Weather has a major impact on ZOC
projection. Refer closely to the Combat
Effects Chart: changing weather can allow ZOCs to be projected across hexsides
where it was previously not possible.
Refer closely to the Effects on Movement Chart: units can lose the ability to
project ZOCs; during Mud turns, motorized units can only project ZOCs into
adjacent city or town hexes, and through
hexsides crossed by roads or RRs.
10.7.2 The Movement Point Cost Chart
(MPCC) identifies:
10.7.5 Terrain effects and Railroad
Movement. Units using Railroad
Movement pay a flat rate of one MP to
enter and occupy each hex on the rail line
regardless of hexside or hex terrain.
are not affected, because a friendly unit’s
entire MA is expended to cover all terrain
and ZOC costs associated with moving the
one hex.
terrain hexes it can move through in Dry
10.7 Terrain Effects
Refer to the Terrain Key to visually identify
all types of terrain contained on the maps.
10.7.1 Ground units expend movement
points (MPs) to enter and pass through (or
occupy) hexes. They do not expend MPs to
exit hexes. Each terrain type may affect
movement through hexsides or into hexes.
Page 12
= Main Road
= Woods
= Minor Road
Terrain Key
= River
= Main Road
= Woods
Note: Except for Flotillas, Super-Heavy
Artillery, and Armored Trains, a ground
unit’s MA represents the number of clear
Terrain Key
= River
= Minor Road
Weather condition is dry in all cases. The
example hex is bounded by hexsides A -F.
Hexsides A and B are River hexsides. Hex
terrain is hills with woods. Main roads cross
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
hexsides C and F. A minor road crosses
hexside D.
Case One. A unit enters the hex using road
movement and ends movement in the hex.
The MP cost to make this move through
hexsides C or F along a main road is onehalf MP. The cost for using the minor road
through hexside D is one MP.
Case Two. A unit enters and passes through
the hex while remaining on the same road
type. The unit enters the hex on the main
road through hexside C, remains on the
main road as it crosses the hex, and enters
the adjacent hex through the main road
crossing hexside F. The MP cost is one-half
MP to cross hexside C and another one-half
MP to cross hexside F.
Case Three. Movement through the hex
using different road types. A unit entering
through the minor road hexside will pay one
MP because the hex contains non-clear
terrain. If the unit continues moving by road
it will change road types and cross hexsides C
or F along a main road where the cost to enter
either adjacent hex will be one-half MP.
Total cost: one and one-half MPs. (Moving
in the opposite direction costs the same.)
Case Four. Entry through road hexside;
exit through non-road hexside. The road
rate for the hex is ignored, and the movement
cost is the the non-road terrain cost of the
Exception: Road entry still negates river
hexside costs.
Design Note: Barbarossa is not a tacticallevel system. There is no “half on-road/half
off-road” calculation.
Example One: A motorized unit enters the
example hex through road hexside C, but
exits through non-road hexside E. It pays
four MPs for the example hex terrain (two
MPs for hills plus two MPs for woods), plus
one MP to enter clear terrain hex E, for a
total of five MPs expended.
Note: Moving through more hexes using
road movement would cost fewer MPs. The
motorized unit can enter the example hex
through road hexside C, exit through road
hexside F, stay on the road in hex F, and exit
through the road hexside into hex E, for a
total of one and one-half MPs expended.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Example Two: A motorized unit enters the
example hex through road hexside C, but
exits through non-road hexside A. The unit
again pays four MPs for the example hex
terrain. It pays one MP to enter clear terrain
hex A, plus one MP for crossing an unbridged
river hexside, for a total of six MPs expended.
The MP cost would be three MPs for all other
units except for green MA units, that cannot
move at all on minor roads in Mud .
10.7.8 Road movement during Non-Dry
weather conditions:
a. Cross on a road bridge hexside, paying
normal road movement rates to enter the
hex on the other side of the major river.
a. Motorways. No weather condition degrades movement along a motorway. It
always costs one-half MP to enter a hex
on a motorway.
b. Main roads. During Mud and Snow
weather turns, the MP cost to enter any
hex on a main road increases to one MP
per hex.
c. Minor roads. [refer closely to the
1. Frost and Snow weather. It costs
one MP to enter a clear hex on a
minor road and two MPs for all
other terrain.
2. Mud weather (or lingering mud in
woods hexes). [Refer to the Mud
Column on the MPCC]. Instead of
expending one-half MP (Dry
weather cost) to enter a clear terrain
hex on a minor road, it now costs two
or three MPs. All non-clear hexes
require expending MPs at the Mud
Column rate for all hex terrain except
woods which are ignored.
Example: Go back to the second figure on
page 12. If hexside D is crossed in either
direction, it will cost three MPs. Both
contain hill terrain which costs three MPs
during mud turns. Both hexes also contain
woods; but because movement is along the
minor road, they are ignored. If both hexes
sharing hexside D were clear terrain hexes,the
MP cost to enter either hex on the minor
road would be two MPs for :
• Axis/Soviet non-motorized units that
do not have orange or green colored
• Soviet Armor units
10.7.9 Major Rivers. There are four
allowable methods for crossing a major
river hexside:
b. Cross through a Bridge Unit or a hexside
with a railroad bridge, paying the hex
terrain cost of the hex entered on the other
side of the major river.
c. Cross non-bridged major river hexsides
during Dry, Mud, or Frost turns: A unit
must begin its Friendly Movement
Phase (not Reaction or Motorized
Phases) adjacent to the major river
hexside to be crossed. The unit’s entire
MA is expended, and the unit is moved
to an adjacent hex on the other side of
the major river.
d. Cross non-bridged major river hexsides
during Snow turns. Major rivers become frozen, and major river hexsides
become +1MP hexsides which can be
crossed during the course of normal
Exception: All artillery units must cross
major river hexsides only on road/railroad
bridges or Bridge Units, regardless of
weather condition.
10.7.10 Inland Sea/Lake hexes and
hexsides. These splendid defensive barriers
become non-existent during Snow Turns.
Consult the MPCC for Snow turn terrain
costs. Once frozen, these hexes and hexsides
do not “thaw” for the remainder of the
scenario being played.
10.7.11 Swamps. During dry and mud
turns, motorized and orange MA units can
only enter (and exit) swamp hexes through
hexsides crossed by roads or railroads. No
cross-country movement is allowed—these
units cannot leave roads or railroads in
swamp hexes. During Frost and Snow turns,
swamps can be entered through any hexside
(the swamps have frozen), but motorized
and orange MA units must pay the
applicable swamp terrain cost.
Page 13
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
Play Note: If motorized or orange MA units
occupy a non-road swamp hex on a turn
when the weather becomes Dry or Mud,
they have problems. Unless they can utilize
one-hex movement to move into an adjacent
non-swamp hex, they cannot move or retreat
until the swamp hex re-freezes.
10.7.12 Major city hexes. Because ZOCs
do not extend into major city hexes, friendly
units may:
a. Exit a major city hex and move directly
into an adjacent hex in an enemy ZOC
(where movement must stop).
b. Enter a vacant adjacent major city hex,
paying normal movement point costs,
and exit the major city hex if there are
sufficient movement points to do so.
11.0 Specialized Movement
11.1 Railroad Movement
11.1.1 Any ground combat or non-combat
unit in General or Emergency Supply can
move by railroad. To do so, the unit must
begin on a railroad hex at least three hexes
(at least two hexes intervening) from an
enemy ground combat unit and not be in
an air zone of interdiction [13.2.1]. The
railroad used must form part of a railroad
net [6.4]. Axis super-heavy artillery units
can only use railroad movement when on
their mobile sides.
11.1.2 A unit can use railroad movement as
many times as desired during a game but
only once per game-turn. Units conduct
Railroad Movement only during the
friendly Movement Phase. They can move
up to 60 hexes along friendly connected
railroad hexes, changing railroads only in
hexes where two or more rail lines join.
Each hex entered costs one rail movement
point. A unit moving by rail cannot
otherwise move during that Movement
Phase. A unit moving by railroad can never
be moved within three hexes of an enemy
ground combat unit (two intervening
hexes), and can never enter an enemy ZOC.
Exception One: Soviet Armored Trains
[22.5.1] may more in either the Movement
Phase or Motorized Movement Phase (but
not both), and enter enemy ZOCs and
Page 14
engage in combat, but they may only move
a maximum of 48 connected rail hexes.
Exception Two: Axis S-H Railroad Artillery
complies with para 11.1.2 above, but moves
according to the RR MA on each counter.
Flotillas may move “up’ or “down” major
rivers at a cost of one MP per hex entered. In
the above example, the flotilla could move
into hex A or E in this fashion. Flotillas may
also move “cross bank” at a cost of one MP.
The flotilla above could switch sides of the
major river, moving into hexes B,C, or D at
a cost of one MP. Flotillas may also move
across hexsides connecting major rivers to
11.1.3 Rail Capacity: Both sides can use
railroads to move a limited number of
stacking points each game-turn. This is
the Rail Capacity, and is listed in scenario
instructions [see Play Book]. Armored
trains do not count against rail capacity.
An HQ or a unit with zero stacking value
uses one stacking point of rail capacity. An
MSU (one ASP) uses one stacking point; a
Supply Dump (two ASPs) uses two stacking
points of rail capacity.
11.1.4 Reinforcements for both sides may
enter play using railroad movement. They
count against Rail Capacity during the
game-turn of entry.
11.1.5 Every rail hex in any Zone of
Interdiction costs twelve (12) Rail MPs to
enter [13.2.2].
11.2.4 Coastal and sea hexes: Flotillas move
between connecting coastal, major river, or
sea hexes at a cost of one MP for each hex
entered. See example below.
Major River
Sea Hexes
11.2 Flotilla Movement
11.2.1 Flotilla units may only move between
hexes connected by major river, canal,
coastal, or sea hexesides. Each hex entered
costs one flotilla MP (Note: each hex in
any Zone of Interdiction costs four flotilla
MPs to enter).
11.2.2 Flotillas can move in the friendly
Movement or friendly Motorized Movement Phase, but not both in the same turn.
11.2.3 Major river movement: Major river
terrain covers the hexsides of two adjacent
hexes [See below].
11.2.5 Canal hexes. Unlike major rivers,
canals only occupy one hexside. Flotillas
cannot move cross-bank on canals, but
may move from hex to hex containing the
hatched canal symbol at a cost of one
flotilla movement point per hex. Flotillas
can also move through hexsides where
canals and major rivers meet.
11.2.6 Flotillas cannot enter enemyoccupied hexes and must cease movement
upon entering an Enemy ZOC.
11.3 Strategic Movement
The flotilla occupies a coastal hex. It may
enter hexes A,B,C or D, E, or F at a cost of
one MP per hex.
11.3.1 Most ground units of either side can
use strategic movement. To be eligible, the
unit must:
a. have an MA greater than zero.
b. begin its movement phase on a minor
road, road, or motorway hex. ( Flotillas
and armored trains are ineligible for
strategic movement).
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
c. be in General Supply in each hex occupied or entered, and
d. be at least three hexes from an enemy
combat unit in each hex occupied or
entered (at least two hexes intervening),
e. not begin movement in a Zone of Interdiction or move into a Zone of Interdiction
11.3.2 Eligible units can conduct strategic
movement during their Movement Phase
only. Increase their movement allowance
for this phase by half. Refer to the MA
Conversion Table on the 11x17 Chart Card.
11.3.3 Any unit conducting strategic
movement moves solely along motorways,
main, or minor roads (not railroads). A
unit can conduct strategic movement only
once each game-turn it is eligible.
Play Note: Not all Axis units can use the
motorway for road or strategic movement.
[Refer to MPCC note (f).]
11.3.4 Weather does not affect roads for
strategic movement. During Mud turns,
other terrain costs apply in minor road
hexes, but units may still perform strategic
movement through those hexes.
the entire motorized stack is German, or at
least 7-1 for all other non-German motorized units or stacks containing one or more
non-German units. All Soviet overruns
must meet the 7-1 odds ratio.
b. Weather. Overruns are not allowed during Mud or Snow weather turns, or into
hexes affected by Lingering Mud.
c. Terrain. Overruns cannot be conducted
under any circumstances through major
river hexsides or inland sea/lake hexsides
(bridged or non-bridged), or into mountain hexes or alpine hexes. Other terrain
features carry partial restrictions:
• Swamp or marsh hexes may be the
targets of overrun only during Frost
weather turns.
• City hexes, major city hexes and all
fortification hexes may be the target of
an overrun if the basic odds level is at
least 12-1 and a motorized engineer
unit is part of the overrunning stack.
d. Multiple Enemy ZOCs. A unit may
not conduct an overrun from a hex that
is in the ZOC of enemy units in more
than one hex. See example below.
An overrun is an attempt to move into an
enemy occupied hex. Although it bears
some resemblance to combat [15.0],
overrun is a function of movement. During
the friendly Movement or Motorized
Movement Phase, any motorized combat
unit or stack of motorized units which can
achieve minimum odds [11.4.2.a] can
attempt to overrun an enemy unit or stack.
11.4.1 Only motorized units are eligible to
conduct overruns; and only one unit, or
stack of units (up to ten stacking points), can
conduct a single overrun. Units in an
overrunning stack must begin their
movement stacked together and remain
stacked during the overrun.
11.4.2 Restrictions.
a. Odds Ratio. The overrunning unit or stack
must achieve a minimum odds ratio. Odds
must be at least 5-1 if the motorized unit or
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
f. Artillery Units cannot conduct overruns
or be part of an overrunning stack (Although German motorized anti-aircraft
units are allowed to do so). Artillery
cannot provide offensive or defensive fire
support. Close Air Support missions are
not allowed. Artillery units in an overrun
hex use their defense strength(s) only.
g. Overruns cannot be performed when
utilizing One-Hex Movement. (If terrain costs exceed available MPs, there
would be no MPs available to pay the
Overrun MP cost [10.5.3 Exception].)
11.4.3 Procedure:
11.4 Overrun
e. Supply. No unit conducting an overrun
can be carrying an Out of Supply Marker.
Attack Supply is not used during overrun.
Overrun attempt against the
motorized brigade (x)
Case One: Overrun is allowed if the armored
regiment moves into hex A. The only enemy
ZOC projected into hex A is from the
Soviet motorized brigade, the object of the
Case Two: The armored regiment cannot
overrun the Soviet motorized brigade if it
moves into hex B, because both the brigade
and the Soviet infantry division project
ZOCs into the hex.
a. Move the overrunning unit or stack
adjacent to the overrun target hex, paying normal terrain and ZOC costs.
Declare the overrun. If the overrunning
unit/stack begins its Movement Phase
adjacent to the overrun hex [but remember 11.4.2d], simply declare the
b. Each overrunning unit expends one
movement point as the overrun MP
cost plus the terrain cost for the hex
occupied by the unit(s) to be overrun
(pay road costs when the two hexes are
connected by a road). There is no additional cost to enter a ZOC in the overrun
Example: If the overrun hex is hill terrain,
the total MP cost is 1 MP to overrun plus 2
MP for the hill (for a total of 3 MP), plus the
cost to cross the hexside (if any).
c. Leave the overrunning stack in the hex
adjacent to the overrun hex. Units not
eligible to overrun can remain adjacent
but cannot participate.
d. Total the attack strength of the overrunning unit or stack.
e. Total the defense strengths of all enemy
units in the overrun target hex.
Note: Overruns may be attempted against
single Untried units or stacks containing
Untried units. Untried units in the target
Page 15
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
hex are flipped to their Tried side. If the
overruning unit or stack cannot generate
minimum necessary odds after any Untried
units are revealed, the overrun attempt is
cancelled, and movement for the
overrunning unit or stack ceases. If zero
strength units are revealed, they are removed
from play immediately. If removing a zero
strength unit leaves the overrun target hex
vacant, no overrun occurs. The overrun cost
assessed against the overrunning unit or
stack is reversed. The overrunning unit or
stack must now enter the vacant hex, paying
normal movement costs to do so. The former
overrunning unit or stack is free to continue
moving (and perhaps execute additional
overruns) up to the limit of available MPs.
f. Now compare the attack strengths of
the units conducting the overrun to the
defense strength of the unit(s) in the
overrun target hex to determine whether
any odds DRMs apply to the overrun.
[Refer to the Overrun Table.]
g. Combine any Defender Disadvantage
DRMs with Attacker Odds DRMs for
a total attacker DRM. [Refer to the
Overrun Table.]
h. Offset the total Attacker DRM with
Defender Terrain DRMs (which are
cumulative). The net overrun DRM
after offsetting can not exceed +3/-3.
[Refer to Overrun Table.]
i. Now roll one die and refer to the Overrun Table. Apply the net overrun DRM
to the number rolled.
j. If the overrun is successful, the defending units are retreated by the overrunning player two hexes. If a step loss is
required, only one step is removed from
the unit or stack that was overrun (onestep units removed to satisfy step losses
are placed in the Cadre Box). The surviving units are then retreated as above.
Units which are retreated as a result of
an overrun cannot be retreated through
an enemy ZOC, unless that hex contains a friendly unit. Units forced to
retreat through an enemy ZOC are removed and placed in the Cadre Box.
k. Supply Dumps, Bridge Units, and Super-Heavy Artillery units on their firing
sides in the overrun target hex cannot be
retreated during an overrun and remain in
Page 16
play only if the overrun fails. These units
are removed if the overrun succeeds. (Super-Heavy Artillery goes to the Cadre
Box; Dumps and Bridge Units are set
aside for re-use.) An MSU suffers the fate
of the combat units with which it is stacked.
Dumps, MSUs and bridge units cannot
be removed to satisfy overrun step losses;
Super-Heavy Artillery units can.
was not successful, other qualifying friendly
units could also attempt to overrun the
stack.) After being retreated in an overrun,
that same defending force could be the
object of additional overrun attempts by
the same successful group of overrunning
units ( or by other groups).
11.5 Infiltration Movement
l. Place the overrunning unit/stack in the
vacated hex. If that hex is in the ZOC of
an enemy unit, the overrunning stack’s
movement is finished for the phase unless
it can perform another overrun against the
unit(s) in the hex projecting the ZOC. If
the hex is not in an enemy ZOC, the
overrunning unit/stack can continue moving, to the limit of its remaining MA, and
can conduct additional overruns if sufficient movement points are available.
m. If the overrun fails, the overrunning
units remain in their currently-occupied adjacent hex; they cannot move for
the remainder of the phase. They can,
however, conduct regular combat during the ensuing Combat Phase.
11.4.4 Mark units that are retreated from
the overrun target hex with an Overrun
marker. A unit bearing an Overrun marker:
a. Loses its ZOC into all six adjacent
hexes, and
b. Cannot conduct fire support (if it is an
artillery unit, and
c. Is not eligible for Reaction Movement
[14.1.1d]. Additionally,
d. Attacks and overruns against a unit that
already bears an Overrun marker receive a -1 DRM.
e. HQs that have received an Overrun
marker are flipped immediately to their
Non-Op side [22.2.3b ].
Note: Overrun markers on Soviet units are
removed during the Axis Engineering Phase.
Overrun markers on Axis units are removed
during the Soviet Engineering Phase.
11.4.5 As long as a hex qualifies as an
overrun target hex, the enemy units in that
hex can be the object of more than one
overrun attempt. (Even if the first overrun
Only ground combat units with yellow
MAs may perform Infiltration Movement
(that is, move directly from one enemy
ZOC to another enemy ZOC).
11.5.1 Infiltration Movement can only take
place in the movement phase where the
qualifying units are allowed to expend their
entire MA. Axis motorized units may only
use Infiltration Movement during their
Movement Phase. Soviet motorized units
may only use Infiltration Movement during
their Motorized Movement Phase.
11.5.2 Infiltration Movement costs the
unit’s entire MA (thus an infiltrating unit
cannot perform Overrun). Units bearing
Out of Supply markers cannot utilize
Infiltration Movement [6.7.2].
11.5.3 Infiltrating units must begin their
movement adjacent to an enemy unit and
in an enemy ZOC.
11.5.4 Infiltration Movement is not allowed
into hexes containing non-destroyed enemy
Strongpoints or across non-destroyed
enemy fortified line hexsides.
Note: Infiltration Movement is similar to
One Hex Movement, movement across
unbridged major river hexsides, and
movement into or out of major city hexes.
Although many units can execute these forms
of movement, only those units with yellow
MAs can perform Infiltration Movement.
11.5.5 Infiltration Movement is not allowed
during Mud weather turns. [See Additional
Effects to Movement Table.]
11.6 Untried UR/MG Movement
Normally, Untried Ukreplyonni Raion or
Machine gun (UR/MG) units [22.9] do
not have their strengths and MAs revealed
until these units are flipped during combat
odds determination; however the Soviet
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
player may reveal them during the Soviet
Movement Phase.
11.6.1 After the Soviet Player has moved all
desired units with known movement values,
he may flip Untried UR/MG units to their
Tried sides.
11.6.2 UR/MG units with MA greater
than zero may now move normally. Those
with zero MA must remain in the hex they
11.6.3 UR/MG units with zero defense
strength are removed from play immediately and put back in the opaque UR/
MG cup where they may be redrawn.
11.7 Friendly Air /Sea Transport
11.7.1 All airborne type units, all MSUs,
and Soviet HQs can move by air transport.
11.7.2 Air transported units must start on
a friendly town, city, major city hex, or
from the Ready Box of the friendly Air
Unit Display. They can be moved any
distance, without regard to terrain, to
another friendly town, city, or major city
hex. Air-transported units are landed after
all movement ceases in the friendly
Movement Phase; they cannot move until
the next friendly Movement Phase.
11.7.3 Air transport cannot be opposed by
enemy fighters or by AA Fire.
11.7.4 A unit cannot be transported to or
from a hex in an enemy Zone of Interdiction
movement ceases in the Soviet Movement
Phase. Amphibious landings occur after all
other on-map movement ceases in the
Soviet Motorized Movement Phase.
Consult the Playbook for both procedures.
12.3 Minimum Attack Odds
12.0 Attack Declaration
Before an attack can take place, it must be
declared. The Axis Player declares all
attacks after all movement is completed in
the Axis Movement Phase. The Soviet
Player declares all attacks after all
movement is completed in the Soviet
Motorized Movement Phase. Place a
“Declared Attack” marker on each
defender hex targeted by an attack.
11.7.7 Each player may perform a limited
number of air transport missions during
the game [See Scenario Instructions]; they
may only perform one air transport mission
per friendly Movement Phase.
11.7.8 Sea and Amphibious Transport. Sea
transport occurs after all other on-map
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
12.3.1 The minimum allowable initial odds
level for declaring an attack is one to four.
12.3.2 Odds are computed at the moment
each attack is declared.
12.3.3 Total the attack strengths of adjacent
friendly non-artillery ground combat units
designated to attack.
12.3.4 Total the defense strengths of all
Tried, non-artillery ground combat units
in the defender hex(es).
12.1 Which Units May Attack
12.1.1 The moving player commits friendly
ground combat units with attack strengths
greater than zero that are located adjacent
to enemy units in hexes where attacks are
allowed [12.5]. Zero attack strength units
cannot attack.
12.1.2 Friendly and enemy in-range
artillery is not taken into account during
the Attack Declaration process.
12.2 Attacking is Voluntary
12.2.1 Friendly ground combat units
adjacent to enemy units are not obligated
to attack. There can be cases where several
friendly ground combat units are adjacent
to an eligible defender hex, but not all of
them are included in a declared attack on
the hex.
11.7.5 A unit cannot be transported to or
from a hex adjacent to an enemy ground
combat unit.
11.7.6 No air transport is allowed into or
out of a town hex during Mud weather
unless an engineer unit is present in the
town hex [22.3.3].
declares an attack utilizing units B and D.
Units A and C, although also adjacent, do
not participate.
Play Note: The defender designates which
artillery units contribute their support
strengths during the Defender Reaction
Phase [See 14.2]. The attacker designates
artillery units during the Combat Phase
[15.4]. Defender artillery defense strengths
[15.5.5] and Untried unit defense strengths
[15.5.4] are also added during the Combat
12.3.5 If the initial odds ratio is one to four
or higher, a “Declared Attack” marker is
placed on the defender hex. If the initial
odds level is less than one to four, no attack
can be declared.
12.3.6 Subsequent defender reaction and
allocation of defender artillery support may
worsen final attack odds to less than one to
four, but any such declared attack must still
be made. (Once an attack is declared, it
must be executed.) The ultimate choice of
which eligible friendly units participate in
a given attack is determined by the attacker,
with the proviso that the final odds cannot
be voluntarily reduced below one to four.
(If the friendly attack and support factors
are available to allow an attack to take place
at one to four odds they must be used.
Contrived suicidal attacks at odds of worse
than one to four are not allowed.)
B and C
12.4 Soviet Mandated Attacks
Friendly units A,B,C and D are adjacent to
an eligible defender hex. The friendly player
Any Soviet Mandated Attacks must be
identified when declared. The minimum
initial odds ratio must be three to two (3Page 17
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
Clear Terrain
Defender hex
2) or better. Axis reaction may reduce the
final odds to less than 3-2, but the Soviet
player may not voluntarily reduce the final
odds for any reason—all Soviet units
designated to take part in the Mandated
Attack must attack during the Soviet
Combat Phase.
Enemy Unit
12.5 Hexes Eligible For Attack
Eligible enemy-occupied hexes must meet
one of two conditions in order to be
12.5.1 Condition One: Enemy units in the
hex must project a ZOC into adjacent friendly
occupied hexes. Friendly ground combat units
can attack from any hex in the defender’s
ZOC. Friendly ground combat units can
attack from these hexes even if they are
unable to advance after combat. Example:
Defender Hex
in swamp terrain
Example One: The defender (an artillery
unit) projects no ZOC. It can stillbe attacked
by the infantry and armor units because they
are eligible to move into the defender hex.
In this example, the weather is dry and the
enemy unit in the swamp hex projects a
ZOC into each adjacent hex. Both Soviet
units adjacent to the defender hex are allowed
to attack, but neither can advance because
hexsides B and C do not allow motorized
units to enter the swamp hex (they are not
crossed by roads or railroads). If these Soviet
units occupied hexes A and D, they could
advance along the roads into the swamp
12.5.2 Condition Two: The enemy occupied
hex contains hex or hexside terrain that allows
adjacent friendly ground combat units to enter
the hex. Even if none of the enemy units in
the hex project ZOCs into adjacent hexes
containing friendly units, the hex can be
attacked because the friendly units can
enter the hex through normal movement
or advance after combat. [See the two
following examples.]
In the first example (above), the weather is
Dry, and both units are capable of projecting
ZOCs; however, neither unit can project a
ZOC across hexside A (a lake hexside).
Movement across a sea/lake hexside is
prohibited [refer to MPCC]. No enemy
ZOC is projected into a friendly unit’s hex;
no friendly unit can enter the enemy hex
through hexside A. No attack can be
Example Two: Hexes A and B are potential
defender hexes. Hex C contains a friendly
unit. All three units exert ZOCs but they
cannot project these ZOCs across any major
river hexsides. Because enemy ZOCs don’t
extend into hex C, the friendly unit in hex C
may attack either of the defending units
without being obligated to attack both of
them (or it may attack both). Movement
across major river hexsides is allowed, so the
movement precondition is met even though
the projected ZOC precondition is not.
In the example below, the enemy-occupied
hex contains swamp terrain, and the weather
is dry. The friendly motorized unit cannot
enter hexside A because it is not crossed by
a road or railroad [refer to MPCC]. The
enemy unit has a No-ZOC band, so it does
not project a ZOC into the friendly unit’s
hex. Again, no enemy ZOC and no friendly
movement into the swamp hex means no
Declared Attack. (If the friendly unit were
non-motorized, an attack could be declared
because friendly unit movement into the
swamp hex would be allowed).
(in swamp hex)
12.6 Hexes Ineligible For Attack
12.6.1 Attacks cannot be declared against
Main Road
enemy-occupied hexes that
a. Do not project an enemy ZOC into any
adjacent hex with friendly ground combat units, and
Friendly Unit
b. Cannot be entered by friendly ground
combat units.
Here are two examples:
Page 18
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
12.7 Hexes That Must Be Attacked
When any friendly unit attacks, all enemy
combat units that project a ZOC into the
attacking unit’s hex must be attacked by
either the friendly attacking unit in question,
or by another eligible friendly attacking
unit. If a stack of friendly units is adjacent
to multiple enemy units projecting ZOCs
into the friendly stack’s hex, as long as
minimum initial odds are met, any friendly
units are free to attack any or all of the
adjacent enemy units.
The enemy unit in hex C has no effect
because it cannot project a ZOC into hex B.
It can be ignored or attacked, but if it is
attacked, the Soviet unit in hex D would
have to be attacked also (it does project a
ZOC into hex B).
12.8 Multiple Hex Attacks
Two or more defender hexes may be
targeted in a single declared attack if:
• The provisions of 12.5, 12.6, and 12.7
are met, and
• All attacking units are adjacent to all
defending units.
13.2 Zone of Interdiction Effects
13.2.1 Only armored trains can begin rail
movement in a Zone of Interdiction.
13.2.2 Any units moving by rail (including
armored trains) through interdicted hexes
spend 12 railroad MPs per interdicted hex
instead of the normal one railroad MP per
hex. Level Two zones or overlapping zones
do not cause any additional effect.
13.2.3 Soviet flotillas pay four flotilla MPs
to enter any interdicted major river, canal,
coastal, or sea hex instead of the normal
one flotilla MP for the hex. Level Two
zones or overlapping zones do not cause
any additional effect.
In this example, the weather is Mud and all
hexes are clear terrain hexes. Enemy (Soviet)
units occupy hexes A,C, and D. Friendly
(Axis) units occupy hexes B and F.
Situation: The Axis player desires to attack
the Soviet armored unit with his units in
hexes B and F. Given the current positioning
of the units, the infantry unit in hex B could
not attack the armored unit in hex A.
• The Soviet armored unit does not project
a ZOC into hex B (during Mud turns,
motorized units only project ZOCs into
adjacent hexes through hexsides crossed by
roads or railroads), but the infantry unit in
hex B can enter clear terrain hex A if allowed.
The infantry unit meets one of the two
prerequisites for attack; however
• Because the infantry unit in hex B is in the
ZOC of the Soviet infantry unit in hex D, it
must attack that hex too (an attacking unit
is obligated to attack every enemy-occupied
hex that projects a ZOC into its hex). If
another axis ground combat unit with
sufficient strength occupied hex E, it could
attack the Soviet unit in hex D, freeing the
infantry unit in hex B to join in the attack on
the Soviet armored unit.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Referring to the figure on the left, the friendly
unit in hex B could be designated to attack the
enemy units in A, B and D because it is
adjacent to all three units (and it meets the
other prerequisites for attack). The friendly
unit in hex F could not participate in this
attack because it is adjacent to only one of the
three enemy units (the armored unit in hex A).
13.0 Axis Air Interdiction
Because of overall air superiority, only the
Axis player may conduct Interdiction.
13.1 Procedure
13.1.1 During the Axis Air Interdiction
Phase, the Axis player can conduct
Interdiction missions. [See 17.1 - 17.3 for
mission and air combat sequence.]
13.1.2 Surviving Axis mission units cause
an Interdiction marker to be placed in the
interdicted hex. The marker will indicate
Interdiction Level One or Two. The
Interdiction Level is determined by totalling
the interdiction ratings of the Axis air
mission units remaining in the hex. If the
total is one, the Interdiction Level is One.
If the total is two or more, the Interdiction
Level is Two.
13.1.3 Interdiction affects the interdicted
hex and the six adjacent hexes; this is called
the Zone of Interdiction. Zones of Interdiction may overlap. However, the
maximum Interdiction level in any hex is
two (2).
13.2.4 Units cannot conduct strategic
movement through an interdicted hex, nor
may any unit begin strategic movement in
an interdicted hex.
13.2.5 All Soviet HQ units within the
Zone of Interdiction have their command
value reduced by an amount equal to the
sum of all Interdiction Levels that affect
their hex (maximum of two). Soviet HQ
Command Values can be reduced to zero
for those HQs with Command Values of
One or Two. Each decrease in Command
Value can reduce or eliminate the following
Soviet HQ capabilities:
a. Activation of non-motorized units during the Motorized Movement Phase
[except for Guards units, 22.8.1].
b. Dispatch of Soviet motorized units during the Soviet Reaction Phase.
c. Issuance of Retreat Orders.
d. Allowing multiple artillery units stacked
with an HQ to contribute their support
strengths to a given combat. [Refer to
Interdiction Effects on the 11x17 Chart
Card.] The Axis player determines
which Soviet artillery units are interdicted and cannot use their support factors.
Note: Because one supplied, in-range
artillery unit may always support a combat,
even if all available Soviet artillery is
interdicted, one artillery unit (Axis player’s
choice) may still support.
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Barbarossa: Army Group Center
13.2.6 No Air Transport missions can begin
or end on a map hex in a Zone of
13.2.7 Normal movement and supply routes
are not affected by interdiction.
Note: Remove all Interdiction markers
during each Game Turn Interphase.
14.0 Defender Reaction
After Attack Declaration (and Interdiction
if the Axis player is the attacker), the
defending player has a chance to make
adjustments. Both players can undertake
the following actions in their respective
Defender Reaction Phases:
friendly unit already occupies that hex. If
it enters a friendly occupied hex in an
enemy ZOC, it does not pay the MP cost
to enter an enemy ZOC; but it stops
immediately for the remainder of that
phase. Reaction Movement need not be
into the combat that triggered it, or even
toward any combat.
14.2 Artillery Support
14.2.1 The defender may commit artillery
to declared attacks. Each artillery unit
committed adds its support strength to the
defense strength of the defender hex(es) of
one declared attack during final odds
computation in the enemy combat phase.
Once it is committed, a defending artillery
unit may not transfer its support strength
to any other combat.
14.1 Reaction Movement
This gives the defender the opportunity for
local reaction to combat. Thus, if the moving
player has declared no combats at the end
of his Movement Phase (Motorized
Movement Phase for the Soviet player), no
Reaction Movement is possible.
14.1.1 During the Reaction Movement
Phase the defender may be able to move his
motorized units that are within three hexes
of a declared combat hex up to half their
movement allowance. [Refer to the MA
Conversion Table on the 11x17 Chart
Card.] A motorized unit is eligible for
Reaction Movement if it:
a. does not begin movement in an enemy
ZOC, and
b. is within Command Range [22.1.1] of a
Soviet HQ (Soviet only) with an available non-interdicted command point,
c. is not within Command Range [22.2.1]
of a Non-Op Soviet HQ (Soviet only).
Non-Op HQ effects take precedence
over those of operational HQs, and
d. does not bear an Overrun marker or an
Out of Supply marker.
14.1.2 A reacting unit cannot move adjacent
to an enemy unit or into an enemy ZOC
unless it has sufficient movement points
(or can utilize One Hex Movement) and a
Page 20
14.2.2 For which defender artillery units
are qualified to support, see Artillery
Support Qualifiers section in the Combat
pages of the 11x17 Chart Card.
b. Not be within the command range of a
Non-Op Soviet HQ. Non-Op HQs
cannot issue Orders. Non-Op HQ effects take precedence over those of operational HQs [22.2.2 ].
14.3.5 Unless negated by a Non-Op HQ
[22.2.5e], NKVD units in town, city, or
major city defender hexes automatically
confer No Retreat status on those hexes
without requiring a retreat Order from a
Soviet HQ [22.8.2 ]. Do not place Orders
markers on these hexes.
15.0 The Combat Phase
The Attacking player executes the attacks
declared during the movement phase in
any order desired.
15.1 Close Air Support (CAS)
15.1.1 CAS Mission Sequence. Both
players conduct Close Air Support (CAS)
missions using the air mission and air
combat sequence [17.1 - 17.3].
14.3 Retreat Orders
14.3.1 The defender may issue No Retreat
or Additional Retreat Orders to defender
hexes bearing Declared Attack markers.
An Order placed on any hex of a multiplehex combat applies to all hexes.
14.3.2 The applicable type Orders marker
is placed face down on the defender hex.
The marker will be revealed during the
upcoming enemy combat phase. (Markers
can be placed face up if playing solitaire.)
14.3.3 There are no restrictions on the
number of Axis defender hexes that may
receive retreat Orders.
14.3.4 The Soviet Player is dependent upon
Soviet HQs for issuing retreat Orders. A
Soviet defender hex must:
a. Be within the command range of an
operational Soviet HQ. This HQ must
have an available, non-interdicted command point to issue the Order, and
15.1.2 If mission air units remain in a
mission hex (a hex bearing a Declared
Attack marker) after air combat and AA
fire, their CAS ratings will be contributed
to that combat. If all remaining mission
units belong to one side (attacker or
defender) the total of the CAS ratings for
those air units is the net CAS DRM for the
combat die roll [15.6.5]. If both attacker
and defender mission units remain in the
defender hex, net out the opposing CAS
rating points until the points of only one
side remain. This is the net CAS DRM for
the combat die roll [15.6.5]. If players
desire, they may use the numeric markers
in the counter mix to record the net CAS
15.2 Organizing Each Combat
The sequence of resolving Declared Attacks
is left entirely to the Attacking Player. As
each attack is selected, the Attacking Player
must make the final determination of the
friendly non-artillery ground combat units
that will participate.
15.2.1 Participating units are
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
a. Friendly non-artillery ground combat
units adjacent to the defender hex.
b. Each attacking unit must be in the ZOC
of the enemy units in the defender hex,
c. Each attacking unit must be able to
move into the Defender Hex.
Play Note: With the exception of Soviet
Mandated Attacks, final units chosen to
attack in any Declared Attack may not
necessarily be the units designated during
the Combat Declaration Phase. However,
Declared Attacks cannot be resolved at less
than one to four odds if there are adjacent
qualifying friendly ground combat units
available that would raise the attack to at
least the one to four level. Such units would
have to be committed.
units (including artillery) must be able to
trace an LOC of seven (or five) hexes to a
designated ASP. If not, no ASP is expended,
but the attack is not Attack Supplied. More
than one ASP can be designated and
expended to insure that an attack is Attack
Supplied, but no ASP can provide Attack
Supply to more than one attack.
strength cannot exceed total attack strength.
Excess support factors are ignored.
Note: Halving is cumulative, but a group of
units involved in a single combat cannot be
reduced to less than one strength point.
Retain fractions.
15.5.2 Terrain
Very Important: Units bearing Out of
Supply markers suffer no out of supply effects
while they are participating in an attack that
is Attack Supplied [15.3.2a - d below]. Do
not remove their Out of Supply markers.
The expended ASP allows such units to
function normally during the attack only.
After the attack is concluded, the units
bearing Out of Supply markers again suffer
all out of supply penalties.
15.3.2 If no Attack Supply is provided to a
Declared Attack:
15.2.2 An enemy-occupied defender hex
can be attacked by as many friendly nonartillery ground combat units as can be
brought to bear in the six adjacent hexes.
a. The Attacking Player adds plus two
(+2) DRM to the attack die roll.
15.2.3 No unit can attack or be attacked
more than once per Combat Phase.
b. German Panzer or Motorized Divisions bearing Out of Suipply markers
cannot receive the Panzer Division Integrity Bonus.
a. Swamp. Swamp gives no beneficial
DRM to a unit defending in it but the
combat strength of units attacking from
a swamp hex is halved. Artillery unit
support strengths are not halved when
firing from swamp hexes, but are halved
when firing into swamp hexes.
Design Note: Swamps are terrible places to
deploy and manuever ground combat units.
Artillery shells with point-detonating fuzes
were ineffective in the mire, and setting
time fuzes for airburst was an inexact science.
b. Major Rivers. Units attacking across a
major river hexside have their attack
strength halved, regardless of whether
other friendly units in the same combat
are on the far bank and are not attacking
across a major river hexside.
Note: Overruns are not attacks.
15.2.4 All units defending a given hex
must be attacked as a single, combined
defense strength. The defender cannot
withhold a unit in a hex under attack.
15.2.5 A given unit’s attack or defense
strength cannot be divided among different
combats or loaned to other units.
15.2.6 Multiple hex attacks. An attack can
involve any number of attacking or
defending units and can be directed against
more than one defending hex. For the
attack to be resolved as a single combat, the
conditions of 15.2.1 must be met, and all
the attacking units must be adjacent to all
the defending units.
c. The attacker may not allocate artillery
support strength to that attack.
d. The attacking force suffers an additional step loss if the final combat result
contains an asterisk [*].
15.3.3 The number of combats designated
to receive Attack Supply cannot exceed the
number of available, in-range ASPs.
15.4 Attacker Artillery Support
• This effect does not apply during Snow
Weather turns when major rivers are frozen.
• Artillery support strength is not halved
when firing across major river hexsides.
c. Cities and Major Cities. Armor-type
units are halved when attacking into
cities or major cities. Cities and major
cities also cause DRMs to the Attack
Die Roll [See CEC].
The attacker allocates artillery support to
each Attack Supplied attack as it occurs.
Refer to the combat chart pages of the
11x17 Chart Card for qualifying criteria.
15.5.3 Weather Effects
15.3 Determining Attack Supply
15.5 Basic Odds Determination
15.3.1 The Attacking Player declares
whether the attack will be Attack Supplied,
and designates the MSU or Dump
containing the ASP to be expended. At
least one ASP must be expended to place
an attack in Attack Supply. All attacking
15.5.1 The Attacking player totals the
attack and support strengths of all friendly
ground combat units involved in the attack.
Terrain and weather can reduce attack and
support strengths. Artillery support
b. Lingering Mud. Attacker and defender
artillery support factors are halved (retaining fractions) when firing into defender hexes affected by Lingering Mud
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
a. Mud. Attacker and defender artillery
support strengths are halved (retaining
fractions) during Mud Weather turns.
15.5.4 The defender totals the defense
strengths of all units which are the object of
Page 21
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
a specific attack. Artillery units in the defender
hex not qualified to contribute their support
strengths contribute their defense strengths
instead. All Untried defending units are now
flipped to their Tried sides. Any zero defense
strength units are removed immediately, and
are not counted as part of the defender force
in any way. Place zero strength UR/MG
units back in the opaque container.
Note: If all defending units in a declared
combat are zero defense strength units,
remove the Declared Attack marker and the
zero defense strength units (the attack is
cancelled and any ASP allocated to the
attack is not expended). Advance up to ten
SPs of friendly units that were designated to
attack into the newly-vacant hex. These
units cannot move further, nor can they be
re-allocated to other declared attacks.
15.5.5 Defender Artillery Support
a. The defender adds any artillery support
strength committed during the Reaction Phase to the defense strength for
the attack.
Note: The defender now checks supporting
defender artillery not in the defender hex. If
any of these units are now in an enemy
ZOC, they can no longer contribute their
support strengths (nor can other “available”
artillery units be substituted to replace them).
b. Defender artillery support strength cannot exceed total defense strength in any
attack. Excess support strength is ignored.
15.5.6 Supply Point Expenditure. The
Attacking player expends any ASP(s)
designated to provide Attack Supply for the
attack. If an ASP is used from a Dump, flip
it to its one-point MSU side. If both ASPs
from a Dump or the one ASP from an MSU
are expended, remove the counters from the
map for re-use on later turns.
15.5.7 Determine the Odds. Divide the
total attacking strength by the total defending
strength to arrive at a combat odds ratio,
which is rounded off, always in favor of the
defender (Example: 29 to 10 is 2-1 odds), to
the nearest ratio listed on the Combat Results
Table. In any attacks with final odds worse
than 1-4, the attacking units are
automatically eliminated (“e” result), and
the defending force suffers nothing. Combat
odds greater than 10-1 are resolved as 10-1.
Page 22
The attacker cannot voluntarily reduce the
odds; for example, he cannot declare 3-1
odds when he has 4-1 odds.
15.5.8 Attacker Retreat Orders. If desired,
the Attacking player now issues a No
Retreat or Additional Retreat Order for
the declared attack. (The Soviet Player
may be restricted when issuing Orders by
lack of operational, in-range HQs, lack of
available command points, or presence of
Non-Op HQs.) The appropriate retreat
marker is placed face up on any attacker
hex in the declared attack.
15.5.9 Any Retreat Order on the defender
hex is now flipped to its retreat option side.
15.6 Final DRM Determination
Using the catagories in this section, the
Attacking player nets out the friendly and
enemy DRMs to arrive at a final DRM
that will be applied to the combat die roll.
15.6.1 Terrain Effects DRMs. Only
defending units benefit.
a. Defending units benefit from the highest terrain DRM in the hex they occupy.
b. If there is hexside terrain in the defender hex(es) that could confer a DRM
to the defender, to receive the DRM all
defending units must be behind the
hexside terrain, and all attacking units
must attack through it.
c. Whenever the defender’s hex contains
hexside and hex terrain, the effect is
cumulative (such as hill behind a river).
d. When two or more defending hexes are
being attacked in a single combat, apply
the highest hex terrain DRM found in
any defender hex to the entire combat.
Applying hexside terrain DRMs is dependent on paragraph “b” above.
e. Refer to the Combat Effects Chart
15.6.2 Defender No Retreat DRM. When
in effect, apply +1 DRM [22.1 and 22.8].
15.6.3 Attacking Engineer Effects DRM.
When declared, apply -1 DRM. This DRM
applies when the attacking force contains
an engineer type unit (two or more engineer
units have no additional effect) and the
defender receives DRMs for city, major
city, fortified line, Strongpoint, or river (not
major river and towns) terrain.
15.6.4 Axis Super-Heavy (S-H)Artillery
DRM. Each Attack Supplied unit provides
a minus one (-1) DRM if the defending
force receives any positive DRMs for city,
major city, fortified line, or Strongpoint
terrain. Axis S-H DRMs (or S-H and
Engineer effects DRMs) cannot exceed the
Soviet DRMs received for the above terrain.
Play Note: Axis S-H Artillery units also
possess support strengths that add to Axis
attack strength.
15.6.5 Close Air Support (CAS) DRM. If
a CAS mission was flown in the hex, the net
CAS points [15.1.2] are now translated into
DRMs. Each Attacker CAS point equals a
minus one (-1) DRM. Each Defender CAS
point equals a plus one (+1) DRM.
15.6.6 Supply DRMs.
a. If one or more defending units bears an
Out of Supply marker, apply a -1 DRM.
b. If one or more attacking units is out of
Attack Supply, apply +2 DRM.
15.6.7 Combined Arms Bonus DRM.
a. The Attacker gains a -1 DRM if two
conditions are met. First, the attacking
force must contain at least one armortype unit (red attack factor) and at least
one reconnaisance, motorized infantry,
motorcycle, or engineer unit. Second,
the defending force must contain no
armor, AT, or AA units
b. Restrictions. The Combined Arms Bonus does not apply when all defending
units are behind river hexsides, major
river hexsides, or in swamp hexes, nondestroyed fortifications, cities, and major cities.
c. The Combined Arms bonus does not
apply during Mud or Snow weather.
Design Note: Due to lack of tactical
proficiency, single counter Soviet tank
divisions do not receive the Combined Arms
Bonus even though they contained
motorized infantry elements.
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
15.6.8 Panzer Division Integrity Bonus
15.8 Combat Resolution
15.8.1 Procedure.
a. When enough component units of a
German Panzer Division or German
Motorized Division are attacking the
same defender, the Axis player subtracts one (-1) from the die roll result for
that combat for each qualifying Panzer
and Motorized division. This bonus
applies even if the component units are
attacking from different hexes or if any
of them has been reduced in strength.
b. Motorized divisions do not automatically qualify for this bonus. There must
be as many qualifying Panzer divisions
in a given attack as there are Motorized
divisions in order for all of the Motorized divisions to qualify for the bonus.
a. Referring again to the CRT, locate the
odds column to be used for the combat.
b. Roll the die.
c. Find the die roll number in the lefthand column of the CRT.
d. Cross-index the die roll number with
the odds column. If there is no Final
DRM to be applied, the results box
where the die roll number and odds
column intersect is the Combat Result.
c. The following conditions allow a Division to qualify for this bonus:
e. If there is a positive Final DRM, go
down the column one box for each DRM
number (i.e., a +2 DRM would cause a
move two boxes down on the column).
This becomes the Combat Result.
1. None of the necessary component
units can bear an Out of Supply
marker (unless the division is participating in an attack that is Attack
f. If there is a negative Final DRM, go up
the column one box for each DRM
number (i.e., a -3 DRM would cause a
move three boxes up on the column).
This becomes the Combat Result.
2. A Panzer Division must have three
component parts present: its Panzer
regiment plus one of its motorized
infantry regiments plus either the
second motorized infantry regiment
or the recon unit.
g. Positive and negative DRMs that remain unused when the zero (0) or eleven
(11) boxes on any odds column are
reached are lost (overkill).
3. The Motorized Division must have
all three of its units present (two
motorized infantry regiments and the
recon unit).
Exception: Any SS motorized division needs
only three of its four component units present
to qualify. The SS LAH brigade also qualifies
if its two component units are present.
15.7 Netting DRMs
Net out all the Attacker and Defender
DRMs. Each plus one (+1) DRM offsets a
minus one (-1) DRM. The positive or
negative DRM total remaining after
offsetting is the Final DRM.
Important Note: Final DRMs can never be
greater than +3 or -3.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
h. After obtaining the Combat Result, remove the Declared Attack and Numeric markers from the defender hex
before implementing the result.
16.0 Combat Results
16.1 The CRT
Each box on the CRT is divided into an
upper result that applies to the Attacker
and a lower result that applies to the
c. Elimination ( e ). All affected units are
destroyed in combat and removed from
d. Asterisk ( * ). Possible additional result.
e. Retreat ( R ). All the remaining affected
units are retreated.
16.1.2 Defender artillery units not in a
defender hex or attacker artillery units not
adjacent to a defender hex suffer no combat
16.1.3 Artillery units in a defender hex are
subject to all combat results, as are attacker
artillery units adjacent to the defender hex.
16.2 No Result
The combat has not caused serious loss to
the affected units.
16.3 Step Losses
16.3.1 When a loss of combat strength is
required, the owner removes the indicated
number of combat strength levels (called
steps) from the total force, not from each
unit in that force.
Play Note: No Retreat and Additional
Retreat orders may increase or decrease
stated step losses [16.6.1].
16.3.2 A combat unit possesses up to four
steps. For both sides, all units with a printed
defense strength (on their full-strength
side) of eight (8) or more have four steps.
All units with a printed defense strength of
five (5) or more have three steps. All other
units with values on both sides of their unit
counter have two steps. Those with values
on only one side of their counter have one
step; however, Soviet HQs, Untried units,
Axis super-heavy artillery units, and
Ukrainian Nationalist units are all one step
units even though they have values printed
on both sides.
16.1.1 Combat results are
a. No Result ( ---- ). Nothing happens.
There is no step loss and no retreat after
b. Step Loss (1,2,3 or 4). The affected
force loses one to four steps as indicated.
16.3.3 Extracting Losses. When called for
on the Combat Results Table, a unit takes
losses in steps. When a four-step unit takes
its first loss, place a Step Loss marker directly
on its Full Strength side. A Step Loss marker
lowers the unit’s attack and defense strengths by
two (-2) each for all purposes. If that unit
Page 23
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
4 - Step
1 Step
1 - Step
Step Loss
Step Loss
16.5.2 Special Situation Asterisk Losses.
Engineers and armor type units may be
required to lose steps due to asterisk results.
a. Engineers. Pre-conditions for loss:
3 Step
2 - Step
2 Step
3 - Step
Step Loss
loses another step, remove the marker and
flip the unit to its reverse (Reduced
Strength) side. A third step loss is indicated
by placing a Step Loss marker on top of the
reduced unit, that decreases its Reduced
Strength attack and defense strengths by
two points each. A fourth step loss removes
the unit from play. A unit losing more
strength levels than it has available is
removed from play.
16.3.4 When a unit is removed from play
due to combat losses, it is placed
immediately in either the Cadre Box or the
Eliminated Box, depending on how it was
eliminated. Units eliminated by an “e”
result, or removed because they cannot
retreat due to being completely surrounded
by enemy units or impassable terrain, are
placed in the Eliminated Box. One-step
units which suffer a step loss during Overrun
go to the Cadre Box. All other units reduced
beyond their last step are placed in the
Cadre Box.
16.3.5 Step losses and victory points.
Whenever an armor or non-Guard artillery
step is lost, move the appropriate loss marker
one box to the right on the Axis or Soviet
step loss track. When the step loss marker
reaches the right-most box of the Soviet or
Axis step loss track, move the marker back
to the zero box and increase the VP total
by one (for Soviet losses), or decrease the
VP total by one (for Axis losses).
Page 24
1. One or more engineer steps are part
of a declared attack.
2. The Attacking Player has declared
engineer effects and has received the
-1 DRM.
4 Step
than the printed step loss if an asterisk result
were obtained. An Axis force attacking
without Attack Supply against a Soviet
fortification would lose two steps over and
above the printed step loss on an asterisk
b. Asterisk results against engineers
Note: Each Soviet Guard step loss is worth
+1 VP. It is posted directly to the VP track,
bypassing the step loss track entirely.
16.4 Elimination
Catastrophic loss! The entire affected force
is removed and placed in the Eliminated
Box (except for Soviet MG/UR units,
which go back into the MG/UR opaque
16.5 Asterisk (*) Results
16.5.1 Asterisk (*) results on the CRT can
mandate an additional step loss if any of
the following conditions apply:
a. The attack was made without Attack
Supply (regardless of the supply status
of the attacking units).
b. The attack is a declared mandated attack (Soviet only).
c. The attack is made against a non-destroyed fortification (all attacking units
must attack through fortified line
hexsides for the asterisk to be in effect
for fortified line hexes).
These asterisk results are cumulative. A
Soviet force, not Attack Supplied, making
a mandated attack on an Axis defender in
a Strongpoint would lose three steps more
1. If the result is an asterisk only, the
engineer unit must take the step loss.
2. If the result is a numerical step loss
and an asterisk, the engineer must
take the first numerical step loss. If
steps remain after the engineer has
lost the first step, any other attacking
unit can fulfill those losses.
Example One: An Attack Supplied Axis
force attacks a Soviet force in a Strongpoint.
The attacking force contains an engineer
step, and engineer effects have been declared.
The combat result is asterisk (*) only. No
numerical step loss is mandated, but the
asterisk mandates an extra step loss due to
attacking a fortification. Because engineer
effects were declared, an engineer step must
be the first step lost.
Example Two: The situation in Example
one remains unchanged, except that the
combat result obtained is “1* .” The Axis
force would have to lose two steps—one for
the numerical loss, and another for the asterisk
because a non-destroyed fortification was
attacked. Because engineer effects were
declared, the first step loss must be an engineer
step. The engineer step satisfies the numerical
result. Any other Axis step can satisfy the
asterisk result.
Example Three: Same situation as Example
One, but the combat result is “1” (no asterisk).
One Axis step must be lost, but it doesn’t
have to be the engineer step. (Even though
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
engineer effects were declared, it takes the
asterisk result to require the first step loss to
be an engineer step).
a. If all No Retreat units are German
(including SS), there is no further No
Retreat loss.
Example Four: Refer back to Example One.
This time, however, the Axis Player does
not declare engineer effects. The engineers
are still part of the attack force, but they are
not providing the -1 DRM against the
fortification. The asterisk still requires an
Axis step loss for attacking the fortification,
but the engineers are not required to lose a
step to satisfy it.
b. All other attacker or defender No Retreat unit combinations must now take
one more step loss unless all defending
units occupy a city, major city, hill,
mountain, alpine, woods, or any nondestroyed fortification hex.
c. Armor Attrition. Armor-type units (red
attack factors) may be required to take
the first step of an asterisk combat result
when attacking or defending if:
1. The attacking force contains one or
more steps of armor, and
2. The defending force has one or more
steps of armor, AT, or AA units, and
3. Engineer effects are not declared (engineer units take precedence over all
other units for taking the first step
loss when engineer effects are declared), and
4. The combat result contains a numerical result and an asterisk. (An
armor step, in effect, is mandated by
the asterisk to satisfy the numerical
step loss result. An asterisk alone will
not cause an armor step loss).
Note: Any time the attacker must lose an
armor step to armor attrition, the defender
must satisfy the first step of any numerical
step loss with an armor, AT, or AA step .
16.6 Retreats
16.6.1When a combat result includes the
Retreat (“R”) result, in most cases the
owning player immediately moves each
affected unit two hexes in any direction
away from the hex it occupied during the
Declared Attack.
Exception 1: Units bearing a No Retreat
marker (or stacked with a qualifying NKVD
unit) are not required to retreat when they
receive an “R” result. Remove the No Retreat
marker and apply one step loss in addition to
the printed combat result.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Exception 2: If the combat result indicates
an “R” for units bearing an Additional
Retreat marker (either attacking or
defending), remove the Additional Retreat
marker and retreat each affected unit three
hexes instead of the normal two-hex retreat.
Special features of Additional Retreat:
a. The retreat path is always determined
by the non-owning player, however, the
non-owning player cannot willfully retreat
units through hexes where they would be
destroyed during retreat if other safe retreat
path hexes are available. If several “safe”
retreat paths are available to the non-owning
player, he is free to use any of them, and can
retreat units into positions where they face
assured destruction later.
b. Units bearing Additional Retreat
markers cannot retreat through even one
hex in an uncontested enemy ZOC [16.6.6].
c. Units bearing Additional Retreat
markers may take lighter step losses. If the
combat result for the force contains both an
“R” result and a numerical result (Examples:
1R, 2R, or 3R), the number of steps lost is
reduced by one.
16.6.2 Some units cannot retreat. Dumps,
Bridge Units, zero MA units, and Axis
Super-Heavy Artillery units on their firing
sides are removed if forced to retreat. Bridge
Units and Dumps are set aside for re-use.
Ground combat units go to the Eliminated
Box or the opaque UR/MG cup (depending
on unit type).
Note: Ground combat units forced to retreat
off a map-edge are removed from play and
placed in the Cadre Box [10.5.7].
16.6.3 Some units have restricted retreat
paths. Super-Heavy Artillery units on their
mobile sides can only retreat through
hexsides crossed by motorways, main roads,
or minor roads (on Dry, non-Lingering
Mud weather turns only). Armored Trains
or Railroad Artillery can only retreat
through rail hexsides. Flotillas can only
retreat through hexsides crossed by canals,
major rivers, coastal waters, or sea. Units
that cannot follow their restricted retreat
paths are removed from play and placed in
the Eliminated Box.
16.6.4 Allowed Retreats Through Enemy
ZOCs. Units may retreat through a hex
occupied by one or more friendly ground
combat units even if enemy units project
ZOCs into that hex (friendly control of the
hex negates the ZOCs).
16.6.5 Prohibited Retreats Through
Enemy ZOCs. Units can never retreat
through two consecutive vacant hexes in
enemy ZOCs. Any units that would have
to do so are removed from the map and
placed in the Eliminated Box.
16.6.6 Retreat Through One Enemy ZOC.
Unless bearing an Additional Retreat
marker [16.6.1 Exception 2], a unit (or
stack) can retreat through one vacant hex
in an enemy ZOC, but may be destroyed in
the process.
1. When the retreat is concluded, the
unit (or stack) automatically loses
one step, and a die roll is made to
determine the fate of the remaining
steps. [Refer to the Retreat Table on
the 11x17 Chart Card.] Any Soviet
HQ that retreated through the Axis
ZOC is immediately flipped to its
Non-Op side.
2. Roll the die and apply any necessary
Play Note: There is a substantial DRM
penalty to the retreat die roll for retreating
artillery units. Players may voluntarily
remove artillery units and place them in the
Eliminated Box prior to retreating rather
than compromise an entire stack’s chances
of escape by retreating artillery and nonartillery units together.
3. If the modified die roll is three or
less, the retreat has succeeded, and
no further loss occurs. If the modified die roll is four or greater, the
Page 25
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
retreat attempt has failed. Remove
all retreating units and place them in
the Cadre Box.
16.6.7 Retreats and stacking. A unit can
retreat through a hex containing friendly
units, even if that means (temporarily)
exceeding stacking limits. A unit cannot end
its retreat in violation of stacking limits. If it
has no alternative but to be overstacked in
the second hex of retreat, move it one extra
hex away from its original combat position.
If still over-stacked in the third hex, it is
removed and placed in the Cadre Box.
16.7 Advance After Combat
When any defender hex is vacated as a
result of combat, attacking units can
advance into that hex (subject to terrain
and stacking limitations). Advances are
useful in cutting off the retreat of enemy
units whose combat has not yet been
16.7.1 A player must exercise the option to
advance immediately, before resolving any
other combats. A player is not forced to
advance a unit. After advancing, units
cannot attack again in that phase under any
16.7.2 Only victorious non-artillery
attacking units that participated in that
combat can advance.
16.7.3 The advance must be into the hex
that was attacked. Advancing units ignore
enemy ZOC to enter the hex.
16.7.4 Units cannot violate stacking limits
at the end of an advance after combat.
16.7.5 In the case of multiple hex combat,
victorious units can be advanced from any
hex from which the attack was made and
into any adjacent defender hex, subject to
stacking and terrain limitations.
17.0 Airpower
Air units represent virtually all the tactical
combat aircraft used by both sides. Each air
unit equals one fighter or bomber group of
forty to eighty planes.
17.1 Air Units and Missions
17.1.1 There are two types of air units in
the game: Fighters (marked “F” on the
counters) and Bombers (marked “B”). Air
units do not have “steps” like ground units
and so cannot be taken as losses in ground
combat, although they are subject to losses
from air combat [17.2] or AA Fire [17.3].
Design Note: All air units have their aircraft
type marked on the counter. This is for
historical reference only. The Soviets usually
employed more than one aircraft type in
their air formations, so the type listed is the
prevailing type in that unit.
Both sides have “dummy” air units to aid in
deceiving the opponent concerning the
content of an air mission [17.1.4].
17.1.2 Air units for both sides are kept in
the appropriate box of the Air Operations
Card whenever they are not in use. The
capacity of each box is unlimited.
17.1.3 A player may perform missions with
as many air units (that are in the Ready
Box) as he desires during each game-turn.
An air unit is not available to fly a mission
unless it is in the Ready Box.
17.1.4 Air Missions. Each air unit (actual
or dummy) in the Ready Box may perform
one air mission per game turn. Both Axis or
Soviet air units may conduct CAS missions.
Only Axis air units can conduct Interdiction
missions, but Soviet fighter units may
intercept such missions. Both sides may
allocate a maximum of three air units
(including dummy air units) to a single
CAS or Interdiction mission.
17.1.5 When allocating an air mission, the
owning player simply places his air unit(s)
in the target hex desired (he does not move
them hex by hex across the map); this is
called the mission hex. There is no range
limitation, but each side can allocate only
one mission per hex during each combat
Page 26
17.1.6 Axis air units performing an
Interdiction mission can be placed
anywhere on any map. Soviet fighters
opposing an Interdiction mission are placed
in any Interdiction Mission hex. The Axis
player first allocates all Interdiction missions
(and then the Soviet sends opposing
fighters) during the Axis Air Interdiction
Phase of each game-turn.
17.1.7 Both sides are eligible to perform
CAS missions with Ready air units during
either player’s Combat Phase. The mission
hex for a CAS mission must be a hex
containing a Declared Attack marker. The
attacking player first allocates his CAS
missions, and then the defending player
allocates his CAS missions.
Play Note: Defender CAS missions can be
placed on mission hexes (hexes with
Declared Attack markers) that contain no
attacker CAS mission units.
17.1.8 Air units are placed upside down on
their mission hex. Their identity and
strength is unknown to the enemy player
until air combat [see 17.2] is resolved.
17.1.9 As units complete their mission for
the game-turn, they are returned to the
Flown Box. If they were affected by air
combat results or AA Fire results, they
might be returned to the Flown, Damaged,
or Destroyed Boxes instead [17.2 and 17.3].
17.2 Air Combat
When both players fly air units to perform
a mission in the same hex, air combat may
occur between those units.
17.2.1 Flip opposing air units over to their
front sides. Return any “dummy” air units
to their respective Flown Boxes.
17.2.2 Determine which air units on both
sides are firing units or mission units. In all
Interdiction missions, the Axis player
declares first. In CAS missions, the first
player to declare is the player who has
declared the ground attack against the
mission hex the air units occupy.
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
a. Mission units. Any air unit designated
as a mission unit cannot fire during air
combat. Mission unit Air Combat Ratings (ACRs) are used solely to defend in
air combat.
one player has more firing units than
the other, excess firing units may “gang
up” on any enemy air unit. Firing units
attacked by more than one enemy unit
can only fire at the first attacker.
1. All air units with unit type symbol
“B” are automatically mission units.
b. Each player rolls one die for each firing
unit, referring to the Air Combat Table
for results. All fire is considered to be
simultaneous, so all firing units fire before any results are applied.
2. Dual purpose fighter units. Some
fighter (“F” unit type) units on both
sides possess CAS ratings in addition to their ACRs. In any CAS
mission where dual purpose fighters
are revealed, the owning player must
immediately declare whether those
fighters are mission units or firing
units. The declaration is irreversible.
Additionally, most Axis fighter units
carry an interdiction rating that
makes them dual purpose interdiction units. In any Interdiction mission where Axis fighters are present,
the Axis player must immediately
declare whether each fighter is serving as a mission or a firing unit.
Again, the declaration is irreversible.
b. Firing units. All fighter (“F” unit type)
units not designated as mission units
are automatically firing units.
17.2.3 Air Combat Determination
Players first determine which side has Air
Initiative for this combat. Roll one die and
refer to the Air Initiative Table. If the
result indicates that the mission units get
through to the target and there is no air
combat, players return all firing units to
their Flown Boxes. Only mission units may
continue the mission. The Air Combat
Procedure is concluded. If the mission
units are subject to AA fire, go to section
17.3. If not, they now perform their mission
and are also returned to their Flown Boxes.
If the result indicates that one side has Air
Initiative or Local Tactical Advantage,
combat occurs using the procedure in 17.2.4
17.2.4 “Firing” in Air Combat
a. The player who has Air Initiative or
Local Tactical Advantage now selects
which friendly air units fight which
enemy air units. All enemy firing units
must be engaged by friendly firing units
before attacking any mission units. If
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
c. To fire, subtract the target unit’s Air
Combat Rating (ACR) from that of the
firing unit. Then roll one die and refer
to the column on the Air Combat Table
which is equal to this difference.
Example: A Bf-109 (ACR of 4) firing at a
MiG 3 (ACR of 2) fires on the “+2” column
of the Air Combat Table. The MiG 3
returns fire on the “-2” column.
1. Don’t use Dummy air units. Keep all
units face up at all times. Make the
best moves you can for each side.
2. Keep the Dummy air units. After
performing Readiness die rolls, separate each side’s Ready air units into
two groups: all firing units in one
group, all mission units in the other.
Place one Dummy unit with each
group. Then flip all air units to their
unknown sides. When you allocate
air missions, allocate blindly, so you’ll
know only the number of air units of
each type that you will allocate to
each mission, not their identities or
values. Reveal them normally during
combat, and you’ll be surprised! Once
air units are revealed, make the best
moves you can for each side.
17.3 AA Fire
d. Air Combat Results. Referring to the
Air Combat Table, players apply air
combat results to each combat. Air units
affected by air combat results are returned to their respective air operations
cards. Aborted units return to the Flown
Boxes, damaged units to the Damaged
Boxes and eliminated units to the Destroyed Boxes. If Local Tactical Advantage is in effect, proceed to paragraph
“e” below. If not, proceed to paragraph
e. Local Tactical Advantage. If the Air
Initiative result allows one player Local
Tactical Advantage, and if that player
now has any unengaged firing units after
the initial round of combat, he selects a
new target (with no restrictions) for
each of them. To be unengaged, a firing
unit has forced its initial round air opponent to return to the Flown, Damaged, or Destroyed Boxes. Regardless
of air unit type, the targets of such fire
cannot return fire. Each new air combat
is resolved [refer to paragraphs b, c, and
d again for procedure].
f. Surviving mission units will continue
the mission. Return all surviving firing
units to their respective Flown Boxes.
Note to Solitaire Players: There are two
good ways to play this air system solitaire.
17.3.1 After the completion of the Air
Combat Procedure, surviving mission units
may undergo AA Fire from eligible units.
For purposes of eligibility, AA Fire is
considered to be coming from the mission
hex and all six surrounding hexes. If any
unit in those hexes is eligible, AA Fire
takes place. Otherwise, there is no AA
Fire, and the mission units resolve their
missions . AA Fire against mission units is
resolved on the AA Fire Table.
17.3.2 Eligibility. All ground combat units
are eligible for AA Fire except:
a. Soviet non-HQ, non-AA units of less
than division size.
b. All Soviet and Axis cavalry units.
c. Axis units that have a “No ZOC” band.
17.3.3 To resolve AA Fire, each player
fires once against each enemy mission unit
in the mission hex (regardless of the number
of ground units). Apply the DRMs listed
below the AA Fire Table. Aborted mission
units return to their Flown Boxes. Damaged
mission units return to their Damaged
Boxes. Destroyed mission units go to the
Destroyed Boxes.
17.3.4 Mission units that survive AA Fire
successfully perform their mission and
return to their respective Flown Boxes.
Page 27
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
18.0 Fortifications
18.2 Fortified Lines
There are two types of fortifications:
fortified lines and Strongpoints.
Strongpoints are available to both players,
but fortified lines benefit only the Soviet
Fortified lines represent concrete pillboxes
and bunkers. All fortified lines have been
printed on the map.
18.1 Common Features
18.1.1. Any friendly non-destroyed
Strongpoint blocks tracing an enemy
Supply Route through the hex it occupies.
Any friendly non-destroyed fortified line
hexside blocks tracing an enemy Supply
Route through that hexside. Enemy
fortifications must be destroyed before a
friendly supply route can be traced through
a hex (hexside) or before rail conversion
can occur.
18.1.2. It always costs one additional MP
to enter any type of non-destroyed enemy
fortification hex. (If the hex contains a
fortified line, movement must be across a
fortified line hexside to pay the extra MP.)
In hexes containing both fortified lines and
Strongpoints, the cost is still +1 MP
regardless of the hexside crossed.
18.1.3. All fortifications continue to confer
defensive benefits to friendly units until
they are destroyed.
18.1.4. Any completed enemy fortification
is destroyed when any friendly division or
engineer unit remains in the fortification
hex during its Engineering Phase.
Play Note: German Panzer and Motorized
Divisions must have enough of their
component units together in a fortification
hex to qualify for Panzer Division Integrity
[15.6.8] before they can destroy a
18.1.5. Any enemy fortification under
construction is destroyed simply by moving
any friendly ground combat unit into or
through the hex.
18.1.6 Overruns may be conducted into a
fortification hex so long as they meet the
conditions of para 11.4.2c.
Page 28
18.2.1 Fortified lines are a hexside feature.
If all Axis units are attacking into hexsides
containing fortified lines, then the Axis
player adds one (+1) to his die roll result for
that combat, cumulative with other effects.
If even one Axis unit attacks through a
hexside not covered by the fortified line,
the DRM does not apply.
18.2.2 The Axis player may not use the
Combined Arms Bonus if all Axis units in
that combat are attacking across nondestroyed fortified line hexsides.
18.2.3 The Soviet player can build a
Strongpoint on top of a fortified line hex,
if the hex is in General Supply.
18.2.4 Once destroyed, a fortified line hex
cannot be rebuilt.
18.3 Strongpoints
Strongpoints represent field fortifications
prepared for defense from all directions.
Strongpoints must be built; they are not
printed on the map.
18.3.1 Both players can build Strongpoints.
Construction can start on any hex in
General Supply. The construction hex
cannot already contain another
Strongpoint. A Strongpoint under
construction has no effect on play.
18.3.2 Over the course of a full game, the
number of Strongpoints allowed on the
map for both sides is unlimited; the countermix does not constitute a design limit.
18.3.5 Construction Procedure. During
the friendly Engineering Phase, place the
Strongpoint with its “Under Construction”
side showing. There is no additional cost
to enter a hex with a Strongpoint that is
under construction. During the next
friendly Engineering Phase, flip
Strongpoints that are under construction
over to their completed side if the
construction hex is still in General Supply.
The construction process is now complete.
Soviet construction can be speeded by
engineers [22.3.1]. Construction can take
place in an enemy ZOC.
18.3.6 Normal Combat Effects. Units
defending in a hex containing a Strongpoint
cause a +1 DRM to the combat die roll.
Additionally, the attacker is not allowed to
use the Combined Arms Bonus. A
Strongpoint built in a fortified line hex
confers “all round defense.” The combat
effects DRM for such a hex is +1 for all six
18.3.7 Special Combat Effects. When a
Soviet Strongpoint is built on a fortified
line hex that is within four hexes of a
friendly Soviet city or major city hex, the
DRM for attacking through a fortified line
hexside becomes +2. (This represents
defensive works built in depth by the civilian
worker brigades recruited from the cities.)
If even one Axis unit attacks through a
hexside not covered by the fortified line,
the DRM is +1.
19.0 Railroad Conversion
The Soviet Union had a track width
different from that of the other European
19.1 Rail Hex Status
18.3.3 Due to limited construction
materials, the Soviet player cannot begin
the construction of more Strongpoints per
game-turn than allowed by the results of
his Soviet Replacements Table die roll
[7.2a]. Strongpoint replacements cannot
be accumulated from turn to turn.
19.1.1 At any time during a game, a
particular railroad hex will be either friendly
or enemy. Only friendly railroad hexes can
be used for friendly rail movement and/or
tracing friendly supply. The scenario set-up
instructions specify rail hexes friendly to
the Soviet and Axis Players.
18.3.4 Axis strongpoints cannot be built
unless an engineer unit [22.3.2] is present
in the hex, and if scenario instructions
allow construction.
19.1.2 Soviet Union Rail Hexes. Each
Soviet Union border hex is eligible to receive
a Railcut marker with an arrow pointing
toward the rail hexes in the Soviet Union.
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
Players may use these markers. Scenario
set-up instructions will not mandate placing
them because every rail hex in the Soviet
Union is friendly only to the Soviet player
until an Axis Railhead marker occupies or
passes through the hex. For the Axis player,
the only friendly rail hexes in the Soviet
Union are those under or behind Axis
Railhead markers.
19.1.3 Both players can convert rail hexes
during their respective Engineering Phases.
All hexes converted in a single phase can be
added only to a functioning railroad net
[6.4]. A player cannot purposely leave gaps,
although gaps may appear later due to
enemy action [19.4].
19.2 Axis Rail Conversion
19.2.1 To convert a rail hex, the Axis player
is not required to have a unit occupying
that hex. Instead, he has conversion points
(as indicated in the scenario instructions)
available every game-turn, that he may
expend to convert any rail hex that is:
a. in General Supply, and
b. not in an enemy ZOC (unless a friendly
unit occupies the hex), and
c. adjacent to a friendly Railhead marker.
(As each rail hex is converted, the Railhead marker is moved into that hex,
making the next hex on the line to be
converted adjacent to the Railhead.)
Play Note: Previously converted rail hexes
bearing Soviet Railcut markers are always
eligible for re-conversion .
A swamp hex or marsh hex costs two
conversion points; all other hexes cost one
conversion point. During Mud or Snow
weather, all hexes cost two conversion
points. As the Axis player expends the
conversion points, he converts the affected
hexes immediately by moving his Railhead
marker or removing Railcut markers
Exception: Conversion of a rail hex
containing an enemy fortification cannot
occur until the first friendly Engineering
Phase after the fortification has been
destroyed [18.1.1].
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
19.2.2 During each turn, the Axis Player
can spend conversion points to advance the
Railhead markers on several rail lines, but
no more than four conversion points can be
spent to move any single Railhead marker.
Unused conversion points are lost; they
may not be accumulated from turn to turn.
Play Note: The Axis player should remember
that moving through a railroad hex does not
convert it. The Soviet player can still use it
to move units by rail deep behind the Axis
front line.
19.3 Soviet Rail Conversion
19.2.3 The Axis player uses Railhead
markers to indicate the extent of his rail
conversion, as follows:
a. As the Axis player spends conversion
points, he moves the Railhead marker
into the converted hex.
b. Whenever a Railhead marker is moved
into a rail junction hex (one where multiple rail lines converge), the Axis player
immediately places additional Railhead
markers oriented toward each rail line
which enters the hex. If the Axis Player
still has conversion points available, construction may proceed along one of the
rail lines exiting the junction hex, and
that Railhead marker may be advanced.
The remaining Railhead markers may
be advanced as desired during the next
Axis Engineering Phase, subject to conversion point availability.
c. A Railcut marker without an arrow indicates that just the hex containing the
marker is not converted and not available for use by the Axis player. When an
Axis Railhead marker enters a rail hex
containing a Soviet Railcut marker without an arrow, remove the Railcut marker.
d. Railcut markers with an arrow indicate
that the hex with the marker and all
hexes in the direction of the arrow are
not converted for use by the Axis player,
and are available for use by the Soviet
player. When an Axis Railhead marker
enters a hex containing an “arrow”
Railcut marker where the arrow points
away from the Railhead marker, the
Railcut marker is moved back one hex
to the next friendly Soviet rail hex. The
“arrow” marker is only removed when it
enters a rail hex containing a Railcut
marker without an arrow, or a hex containing a Railcut marker where the arrow points toward the Axis Railhead.
The Soviet player can convert an Axis rail
hex during his Engineering Phase only if a
Soviet engineer unit currently occupies the
hex [22.3.1]. The engineers cannot have
engaged in combat or strategic or railroad
movement during that player segment. If
the above conditions are met, the Soviet
player may immediately push back the
Railhead marker and place a Rail Cut
marker to indicate its conversion, or remove
a Railcut marker to make a line operational
for the Soviets.
19.4 Cutting Rail Lines
During his Engineering Phase, the Soviet
player may place a Rail Cut marker on any
Axis-converted rail hex which is currently
occupied by any Soviet combat unit. Axis
units may never cut rail hexes.
Design Note: We do not allow the Axis
player to cut rail lines because generally, the
Axis did not destroy Soviet railroads during
this time period . They expected instead to
capture and to put them to their own use.
The Soviets, on the other hand, destroyed
Axis railroads.
20.0 Using Replacements
Both players may expend available
Replacement Points (RPs) during their
respective friendly Engineering Phases. RPs
may be expended to strengthen on-map
units, or rebuild units destroyed in combat.
20.1 On-map Replacements
During the friendly Engineering Phase,
add one step to each unit marked to receive
replacements [10.1.1 and 10.2.1] and
decrease the RPs available by one for each
step added. Units receiving replacements
can regain only one step per turn. Units
cannot receive an RP if in an enemy ZOC,
or if unable to trace a Supply Route to a
Supply Source [6.5.1 and 6.5.2].
Page 29
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
20.2 The Unit Rebuilding Chart
This chart depicts the amount of rebuilding
necessary to make units combat-worthy
again. There are three unit status boxes on
the chart ranging from Eliminated(lowest)
to Active (highest). Units move from lower
boxes to higher boxes, one box per turn, as
they receive replacements.
Exception: Units marked with the “Cannot
Rebuild” symbol cannot receive
replacements regardless of the box they
20.3.1 One Soviet type I RP expended
allows the Soviet Player to draw one UR/
MG unit from the opaque cup.
20.3.2 Each UR/MG unit drawn goes
directly to the map during the Replacement
Phase of the Strategic Segment, and is
placed untried:
a. On any friendly Soviet city or major city
in General Supply, or
b. On any friendly Soviet fortification hex
in General Supply.
20.2.1 The Eliminated Box. Units in this
box have lost most equipment and a majority
of their troops. One RP will move one
eligible unit up to the Cadre Box [Refer to
Unit Rebuilding Chart].
20.3.3 Restrictions. UR/MG units cannot
be placed in any hex already containing a
UR/MG unit. UR/MG units cannot be
placed in an enemy ZOC.
20.2.2 The Cadre Box. Units in this box
have lost some of their troops and much
equipment, but can be returned to combat
fairly quickly. One (or two) RPs will move
one unit of the appropriate unit type to:
21.0 Soviet Surrender
a. The Active Box. Units arrive from the
Cadre Box at their one-step strength
level. They are eligible to enter the map
in the next game-turn as reinforcements,
or they may remain in the Active Box
for as long as desired. Units beginning
the Replacement Phase in the Active
box may regain one step per turn through
receipt of the appropriate RP in lieu of
entering the map. Non-Op HQs may
roll for recovery of Operational Status.
b. The Map (Soviet Only). This can be
any friendly Soviet major city or city in
General Supply. (A Soviet city cannot
be in an Axis ZOC.) Only one unit at its
one-step strength level may be placed in
a city or major city, and such units
cannot move during the turn of placement.
It is well known that many surrounded
Soviet units surrendered during the
campaign, but Guards and NKVD units
[22.8.3], as well as Soviet units in cities,
would most often fight to the death.
21.1 Procedure
21.1.1 During the Soviet Surrender Phase
of each game turn, the Soviet Player makes
a surrender check for each Soviet occupied
hex that:
a. Is in an Axis ZOC, and
b. Cannot trace a Supply Route of any
length to any friendly non-surrounded
Soviet major city or map-edge supply
source regardless of the presence of
MSUs or Dumps.
Exception to ‘a’, above: Soviet units in Major
City hexes are subject to surrender even
though adjacent Axis units cannot project
ZOCs into Major City hexes.
20.3 Soviet UR/MG Units
Unless specified by Scenario instructions,
these units are not placed on the Unit
Rebuilding Chart. All UR/MG units not
on-map or on set-up charts are kept in an
opaque cup. When drawn during the
Replacement Phase, the UR/MG units are
picked at random, sight unseen, with their
untried sides up [22.9].
Page 30
Design Note: Although Soviet MSUs,
Dumps, and surrounded major cities can
keep isolated Soviet units in General Supply,
they cannot prevent Soviet Surrender
(during 1941 the Soviets often surrendered
even when well-supplied).
21.1.2 Refer to the Soviet Surrender Table
and roll the die for each qualifying hex. Modify
the die roll by all applicable Table DRMs. If
the modified die roll results in surrender, all
Soviet units in the hex are removed and placed
in the Eliminated Box. If the result is no effect,
the Soviet units remain in the hex.
22.0 Special Units
A number of specialized units were used by
both sides to perform specific tasks in
movement, combat, and other procedures.
22.1 Operational Soviet HQs
Operational Soviet HQ units (the front
side of HQ counters) serve several important
command functions in the game.
22.1.1 Every Operational Soviet HQ has a
Command Range of four hexes. The range is
traced without regard to terrain or enemy units
and their ZOC. When counting the range, do
not count the hex occupied by the HQ unit.
22.1.2 Command Value, as printed on the
Operational HQ counter, has three
functions which can all be exercised during
any game turn. It indicates:
a. The number of non-motorized units which
theOperational HQ can activate for movement at the beginning of any one Motorized Movement Phase [10.2.4c]. The HQ
cannot activate itself. To be activated, units
must be within Command Range of the
activating HQ. Soviet Guards are activated in addition to those allowed by the
HQ’s command value [22.8.1]. Place Activated markers on any units activated.
b. The number of motorized units (again,
within Command Range) eligible to be
moved by each OperationalHQ during
the Soviet Reaction Phase [14.1.1].
c. The number of “Additional Retreat” or
“No Retreat” markers that can be placed
during a single game segment on eligible combats within an Operational
HQ’s range [14.3 and 15.5.8].
Example: If there are two combats but the
only HQ within range has a command value
of one (1), a retreat option can be placed on
only one of those combats.
22.1.3 Command value cannot be accumulated
from turn to turn or lent to other HQs. Air
units can interdict command value [13.2.5].
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
22.2 Non-Operational HQs
The “Achilles Heel” of the Soviet Army
was its rigid command structure.
22.2.1 Each Soviet HQ is back-printed
with a Non-Operational side. Instead of a
Command Value, the Non-Op side has a
Recovery Value. Each Non-Op HQ is still
a one-step unit with a stacking value of
one. Each Non-Op HQ retains a
Command Range of four hexes (not
counting the HQ hex).
22.2.2 If the Command Range of
Operational and Non-Op HQs overlap,
the Non-Op HQ’s Command Range takes
precedence in any hex where the overlap
occurs, and Non-Op HQ effects supercede
Operational HQ effects.
22.2.3 A Soviet HQ is placed on its NonOp side when:
b. Bridge units cannot be placed, or if
already placed, cannot be moved.
c. Soviet air units cannot execute CAS
missions on any defender hexes, but
Soviet fighter units can still intercept
Axis Interdiction and CAS missions.
d. Under no circumstances can more than
one Soviet artillery unit contribute its
support strength to any given combat.
e. NKVD units no longer confer No Retreat when occupying towns, cities or
major cities.
f. Any Soviet ground combat unit that
begins its movement outside of a NonOp HQ’s Command Range can enter
and freely move within that command
range. Once any such unit ceases moving within four hexes of a Non-Op HQ,
it becomes subject to the Movement
a. Scenario Set-Up Instructions specify.
b. The HQ receives an Overrun marker.
c. The HQ retreats through a vacant hex
in an Axis ZOC.
22.2.4 A Non-Op HQ cannot:
a. Issue No Retreat or Additional Retreat
b. Activate non-motorized units (including Guards units) during the Soviet
Motorized Movement Phase.
c. Allow motorized units within its Command Range to move during the Soviet
Reaction Phase.
22.2.5 So long as a Soviet HQ remains on
its Non-Op side, the following restrictions
apply to all hexes located within its
Command Range:
a. No new regular Strongpoints can be
placed, but “E” strongpoints may still be
placed. Strongpoints on their “Under
Construction” sides may be completed
and flipped.
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
g. Movement Restriction. A Non-Op Soviet HQ may always move during the
Soviet Movement Phase. Also during
each movement phase, the number of
Soviet ground combat units that begin
movement within the Command Range
is limited to one less than the Non-Op
HQ’s Recovery Value. For example, if
the recovery value were three, two Soviet ground combat units located within
the Non-Op HQ Command Range
could move during the Soviet motorized movement phase (if motorized),
and the same (or different) two units
could move during the Soviet movement phase.
Play Note: Moving a Non-Op HQ can be
critical, because the four hex Command
Range moves with it. Moving the Command
Range frees up units to move which would
otherwise remain restricted if the Command
Range were not moved.
22.2.6 Recovery of Operational Status
a. Method One. Unless prohibited by scenario instructions, during the Game
Turn Interphase the Soviet Player rolls
the die for each Non-Op HQ desired. If
the die roll is greater than the HQ
Recovery Value, the HQ remains NonOperational. If the die roll is equal to or
less than the HQ Recovery Value, flip
the HQ over immediately to its Operational side.
b. Method Two. Unless prohibited by scenario instructions, during the Game
Turn Interphase the Soviet Player may
declare that one Non-Op HQ within
the scenario map area will be disbanded.
No more than one Non-Op HQ can be
disbanded per turn. The declaration to
disband has to be made in lieu of the
recovery value die roll for that HQ (you
can’t fail the die roll and then decide to
disband the HQ). The disbanded HQ
is removed from the map and placed in
the Cadre Box. The Axis Player scores
+2 VPs for each Non-Op HQ disbanded.
22.3 Engineers
22.3.1 A Soviet Engineer unit can place a
completed Strongpoint during the same
game-turn it is received [18.3.5]. Place a
completed Strongpoint marker under any
engineer in General Supply during the
Engineering Phase. That engineer cannot
have engaged in combat during that player
segment or conducted strategic or railroad
movement, or have converted railroad hexes
22.3.2 An Axis Engineer unit is required to
emplace an Axis Strongpoint. That
engineer cannot have engaged in combat,
or strategic or railroad movement during
this game-turn. To construct the
Strongpoint, place it with its Under
Construction side up on the same hex as
the Engineer. Turn the Strongpoint over
to its completed side during the next friendly
Engineering Phase if an Engineer is in that
hex (same restrictions).
22.3.3 An Engineer unit must occupy a
town hex during Mud turns in order for
friendly Air Transport missions to begin or
end in the hex.
22.3.4 A motorized engineer unit must be
included in any overrun attempt against
city, major city, or fortification hexes.
Page 31
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
22.4 Bridge Units
Historically, many bridge construction
engineers were available to both sides and
frequent use was made of pontoon bridges,
even across major rivers.
22.4.1A Bridge Unit creates a bridge across
an adjacent river or major river hexside.
Orient the arrow on the counter to point
directly at the bridged hexside. A bridge
negates the cost to cross that hexside.
22.4.2 The owning player can place this unit
as desired on any vacant or friendly occupied
hex adjacent to a river or major river. The
hex must be in General Supply. Bridge Unit
placement occurs only during the friendly
Movement Phase of the player turn, but it
may occur at any point during the phase.
22.4.3 Bridge Placement. As long as the
hex a Bridge Unit occupies is in General
Supply, it may be picked up and placed on
any other map hex that is in General Supply.
It is also permissible to “store” bridge units
off-map for extended periods of time. When
needed, simply place them on any map hex
in General Supply.
Note: Soviet Non-Op HQs can limit bridge
placement and movement [22.2.5b].
22.4.4 No more than two friendly Bridge
Units per map can be in use on any turn.
22.4.5 A Bridge Unit is a non-combat unit
and has no defense strength. It cannot be
moved except as above and is removed instead
of retreating when other units in its hex are
forced to retreat. A removed Bridge Unit may
be placed on any eligible on-map hex during
any future friendly Movement Phase. A bridge
is removed if an enemy unit moves into its hex.
Phase, but not both in the same game turn.
It can be moved into but not through an
enemy ZOC. It can be moved on friendly
railroad hexes last moved over by an Axis
unit but not those converted to Axis use.
22.7.2 Soviet S-H artillery. At this time,
the Soviets pressed their super-heavies into
a tactical fire support role. Soviet S-H
Artillery functions as normal Soviet artillery
units with the following exceptions:
22.5.2 An Armored Train blocks Axis LOCs
through the hex it occupies. An Armored
Train cannot carry or transport units.
Armored Trains are not “armor” type units
for purposes of movement or combat.
Armored trains cannot be rebuilt with type
A RPs, but only from Armored Train RPs.
a. Movement restrictions [22.7.1]
22.5.1 An Armored Train can move only
on friendly connected railroad hexes, up to
48 hexes per turn (subject to enemy air
interdiction effects). It does not count
against Rail Capacity. It can be moved
during either the Soviet Motorized
Movement Phase or the Soviet Movement
Page 32
Play Note One: Soviet S-H units are counted
against the four artillery unit per combat
22.6 Soviet Flotillas
22.6.1 Flotillas can be moved up to 16
hexes along connected canal, major river,
coastal, or sea hexes, subject to Axis Air
Interdiction. Movement can occur during
the Soviet Movement Phase or the Soviet
Motorized Movement Phase, but not both.
Flotillas may move into, but not through
an enemy ZOC. (Remember, however,
that enemy ZOCs do not extend through
major river and sea hexsides.)
22.6.2 Flotillas block Axis LOCs through
the hexes they occupy. Flotillas may not
carry or transport other units. Flotillas suffer
all combat or overrun results. Destroyed
flotillas cannot be rebuilt—there are no
flotilla replacements.
22.6.3 Flotillas can be overrun by motorized
units on the same side of a major river as the
flotilla (technically the land units can’t
dash “through” a flotilla, but they can shoot
it up as they move past it on the bank).
Flotillas in coastal hexes can also be overrun
(same reasoning).
22.6.4 Flotillas defending alone in a
fortification hex do not receive the
fortification DRM.
22.5 Armored Trains
The game units represent groups of trains,
numbered for their controlling NKVD or
Army railroad security regiments.
b. Soviet S-H units bearing Activated
markers cannot contribute their support strength to any combat.
22.7 Super-Heavy Artillery
Super-Heavy (S-H) Artillery units possess
the heaviest of the artillery pieces, the true
monsters designed to reduce the strongest
fortifications to rubble.
22.7.1 Movement. Both Axis and Soviet
S-H Artillery observe the same movement
restrictions [10.5.10 and 10.5.11].
Play Note Two: Soviet Coast Defense
Artillery is treated in all respects as Soviet SH Artillery.
22.7.3 Axis S-H artillery (Including
Railroad Artillery) functions differently in
several ways.
a. Axis S-H units are one step units, but
the counters are two-sided to depict two
different modes. The front side is the
Mobile side. Note the blank range box
and the zero support strength. S-H units
on their Mobile sides may move, but
they cannot provide any support strength
to Axis Declared Attacks.The back side
represents the Support mode, with
printed range, support strength, and
attack DRM. The Support mode MA is
zero. S-H units in Support mode cannot move, but may contribute support
strengths and DRMs.
b. Axis S-H units change modes during
the Axis Engineering Phase. If the S-H
unit has not moved during the Axis
Movement Phase, it may be flipped
from Mobile mode to Support mode.
(It may then provide support next turn.)
If the S-H unit is in Support mode, it
may be flipped to Mobile mode and
moved during the next Axis Movement
c. Axis S-H units cannot provide Support
strengths or DRMs on defense. Axis SH units contribute their Defense
strengths only if occupying defender
d. Axis S-H artillery does not count against
the four artillery unit per attack limit.
Each S-H unit contributes its support
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
strength and DRM only to attacks where
the defender hex contains any combination of city, major city, fortified line, or
Strongpoint terrain.
Play Note: The DRMs supplied by attacking
Axis S-H and engineer units combined
cannot exceed the DRMs the Soviet player
gains for city, major city, fortified line, or
Strongpoint terrain in the defender hex.
22.7.4 No type of Soviet or Axis S-H
Artillery can be rebuilt with A Type
Replacement Points.
22.8 Soviet Guards and NKVD
22.8.1 Soviet Guards. During the Soviet
Motorized Movement Phase, the Soviet
player can activate one Guards unit per inrange Operational HQ. This activation is
in addition to activation allowed by an
HQ’s Command Value, and is allowed
even if Interdiction has reduced the
Command Value to zero [13.2.5a].
Play Note: Non-Op Soviet HQs may not
allow Guard activation [22.2.4b].
22.8.2 Soviet NKVD Units. These internal
security troops were not under army control,
but in the emergency conditions of 1941
many were committed to front line duty.
Whenever any NKVD unit defends in a
major city, city, or town hex, it makes the
No Retreat option mandatory and takes
the last step of loss. If more than one
NKVD step occupies a defender hex, only
one of those steps need be the last step lost.
Play Note: Non-Op HQs negate the NKVD
No Retreat effect [22.2.5e].
lacked the HQ element that UR units
22.9.1 All UR/MG units have Tried and
Untried modes. The back sides of the
counters represent the Untried mode, where
the unit values are not known. UR/MG
units are normally placed on-map in their
Untried mode. The front side of the counter
showing unit values is the Tried mode.
UR/MG units are flipped from their
Untried sides to their Tried sides by the
Soviet player in the Soviet Movement Phase
[11.6] or during combat [15.5.4]. Zero
strength UR/MG units are removed from
the map immediately when flipped to their
Tried sides.
22.9.2 UR/MG units in Untried mode
cannot move, but each Untried UR/MG
unit exerts a ZOC. They are treated as
ground combat units, and are subject to
supply restrictions and Soviet Surrender.
22.9.3 On-Map Placement. Unless
specified differently by scenario
instructions, all UR/MG units are placed
in an opaque cup prior to set-up. For initial
set-up, UR/MG units are drawn randomly,
sight-unseen, and placed Untried side up
on the applicable map hexes as specified by
the Scenario Set-Up Card. All UR/MG
units removed from the map due to combat
loss or zero strength are returned to the
opaque cup (where they may be re-drawn).
22.9.4 UR/MG units in the opaque cup
after Scenario set-up may only enter play
through the expenditure of replacement
points [20.3].
22.10 Soviet Militia
22.8.3 Surrender die rolls receive a favorable
DRM for any hex in which there is at least
one Guards or NKVD unit [see Surrender
All Soviet units with yellow unit type boxes
are Militia units (for commentary on Militia
unit distinctions, see the Play Book). Militia
units function as normal Soviet ground
combat units, but with some differences.
22.9 Soviet UR/MG Units
22.10.1 Militia units (except for zero
strength units) with infantry or cavalry unit
type symbols may be converted into I Type
Replacement Points during the
Replacement Phase [7.2c]. Untried Militia
units cannot be converted until they have
been flipped to their Tried sides.
Soviet UR (Ukreplyonni Raion) units
represent Fortified Area commands—
groups of machine gun units and sundry
fortress defense troops under an HQ.
Machine Gun (MG) battalions often had
fortress or border guard units attached, but
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
22.10.2 Untried Militia. Unless Scenario
instructions specify differently, during setup the Soviet Untried Militia units are
placed in a second opaque cup to be drawn
at random for on-map placement. Militia
units placed on their Untried sides may not
be flipped by the Soviet player during the
Soviet Movement Phase. Their actual
strengths may only be revealed during
Design Note: Militia performance was
wildly erratic. Soviet Commanders were
often the last to know how their Militia
units performed.
Untried Militia units removed from the
map for any reason do not go back into the
opaque cup, but are placed instead on the
Soviet Unit Rebuilding Chart where they
can return to play through the normal
replacement process.
22.10.3 Militia units cannot be placed or
moved voluntarily more than five hexes
from their placement city (do not count the
city/major city hex, but do count the hex
occupied by the unit). If forced to retreat
outside of the five hex radius, however,
they no longer carry any restriction.
22.10.4 Istrebitel’nyye (Istr) units cannot
be reformed.
22.11 Reserve Units
These were training units pressed into
front-line duty. Any Soviet unit bearing a
“RES” unit designation may also be
converted into Soviet “I” Type Replacement
Points during the Replacement Phase
22.12 Soviet Garrisons
22.12.1 Garrison units are designated as
such on the Soviet Set-up Cards. A garrison
unit cannot move from its garrison hex
until released. Garrisons are released on a
hex-by-hex basis. Once a garrison hex is
released, all garrison units in that hex are
released; there is no further need to maintain
any unit at that location.
22.12.2 Release all units in a single garrison
hex immediately when:
Page 33
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
a. The hex is attacked, or
b. Is judged to be out of General Supply, or
no MP cost in the hex containing the
division. The RSC enters play in a supply
state identical to the division that detached
c. An enemy unit moves adjacent, or
d. Is released by an “R” result on the Soviet
Replacements Table [7.2.e2], or
e. Is released by a release date listed in the
scenario instructions.
Note: There are a limited number of
Garrison Hex markers available to mark
garrison hexes, especially those hexes where
garrison and non-garrison units are stacked
together. Feel free to make more of these
22.13 Soviet Partisans
Later in the war, Partisans significantly
affected Axis operations. The early war
Partisans were usually swept up in the
fighting, serving as ordinary infantry. Unless
specified by Scenario instructions, Partisans
function in all respects as infantry type
23.0 Regt. Substitute Counters
Only the Axis player can use regiment
substitute counters.
23.1 Steps and RSCs
Each step in a German Infantry Division is
equal to one Regiment Substitute Counter
(RSC). Any full or reduced strength German
Infantry, Mountain, Security, or Light
divisions can detach all but their last step as
Note: The SSLAH Brigade and the Gross
Deutschland (GD) Motorized Regiment
also qualify, even though they are motorized
type units and the RSCs will move as nonmotorized units.
23.2 Detachment
One or more RSCs per turn can be detached
from any qualifying German division. The
division may be in a Soviet ZOC.
Detachment occurs before the division’s
movement. Detached RSCs are placed at
Page 34
scenario play count toward VP totals
24.1.4 It is possible for the Axis player to
have a “negative” VP total.
23.3 Recombination
For More Information
Qualifying divisions can recombine with
RSCs. The division and one or more RSCs
must occupy the same hex at the end of the
friendly Movement Phase. Recombining
does not cost any MPs. Any understrength
division may recombine with any RSCs up
to its original full strength step level .The
division assumes the lowest supply status
of all units combining in the hex. RSCs
cannot combine to recreate a previously
eliminated division counter.
Note: RSCs are generic, but the countermix limits the number that can be on-map
at any one time.
24.0 How to Win
Do you have questions about this game, or
about other GMT Games products? For
quickest response, contact us online at the
following addresses:
[email protected] (Vance von Borries)
[email protected] (Tony Curtis)
[email protected] (Gene Billingsley)
For questions regarding ordering, general
product information, C3i subscriptions, or
replacement parts, please contact the GMT
office directly at:
The Axis player wins the game by scoring
Victory Points (VPs) required for victory
in the scenario being played. The Soviet
player wins by preventing an Axis victory.
[email protected]
24.1 Victory Points
(800)523-6111 (Phone—US and Canada)
(209)583-1236 (Phone)
(209)582-7775 (Fax)
VPs are awarded for controlling certain
map locations, by causing enemy HQ,
Guards, armor, and artillery step losses,
and for certain actions players take. The
actual number of VPs gained or lost is
listed on each Scenario Victory Point
Schedule. Only the Axis player receives
VPs. Those “earned” by the Soviet player
are subtracted from the Axis total.
or by phone or fax to:
or by mail to:
GMT Games
PO Box 1308
Hanford, CA 93232
24.1.2 VPs for locations are awarded at the
moment any location is occupied or
controlled [3.0b] by an Axis ground unit.
Add the VPs for capture to the Axis VP
total. If the location is subsequently retaken by the Soviets, subtract the VPs
originally awarded from the Axis VP total.
24.1.3 Guards or Armor type units starting
any scenario at reduced strength may have
their “lost” steps counted toward VP totals
[see Playbook Scenario instructions]. Only
countable steps lost during the course of
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
-AAA Combat (17.3)-------------------------------27
Additional Retreat--------------------------------Attacker Orders (15.5.8)---------------------22
-----Defender Orders (14.3)-----------------------20
-----Reduced Losses (16.6.1)--------------------25
Air: Combat Procedure (17.2)-------------------26
-----CAS Mission Procedure (17.1)----------------26
-----CAS Mission Results (15.1.2)-----------------20
-----Firing Units (17.2.2)--------------------------28
-----Interdiction Procedure (17.1)------------------26
-----Interdiction Effects (13.2)---------------------19
-----Mission Units (17.2.2)------------------------28
-----Readiness Procedure (9.0)----------------------9
-----Transport Procedure (11.7)-------------------17
-----Unit Definition (2.3.3b)------------------------2
-----Unit Types (17.1)---------------------------26
Armor Attrition (16.5.2.c)-------------------25
Armored Trains (22.5)----------------------------32
Attack (See Combat)--------------------------------Attack Strength ------------(How to Read Unit Card)
Attack Supply (See Supply)-----------------------Attack Supply Point (ASP) (See Supply)-----Artillery: Attack Support (15.4)-----------------21
-----Defense Support (14.2)-----------------------20
-----Defending (15.5.5)---------------------------22
-----In Overruns (11.4.2f)-------------------------15
-----Qualified to Support ---------------(11x17 Card)
-----Super-Heavy (22.7)---------------------------32
-----Super-Heavy DRM (15.6)---------------------21
-----Support Strength -------(How to Read UnitsCard)
---------Units Unable to Retreat (16.6.2)-----------25
-----Step Loss (16.3)-------------------------------23
Combined Arms Bonus (15.6.7)--------------22
Command Range (See Headquarters)----------------Command Value (See Headquarters)-----------------Contiguous Hex (3.0.c)------------------------------3
Controlled Hex (3.0.b)------------------------------2
-DDeclaring Attacks(12.0)---------------------17
Defender Reaction (See Reaction)--------------------Defender Retreat Orders (See Retreat Orders)--------Defense Strength -----------(How to Read Units Card)
Die Roll Modification (DRM):----------------------Attack and Defense DRMs (15.6)-------------22
-----Definition (2.5.2)------------------------------2
-----Overrun DRMs -(Overrun Table on 11z17 Card)
Dumps (See Supply)-------------------------------
-EEnemy, definition (3.0a)-----------------------------2
Engineers (22.3)-----------------------------------31
Expending Replacement Points (See Replacements)---
-FFlotilla Movement (11.2)---------------------------14
Flotillas, description (22.6)-------------------------32
Fortifications:-----------------------------------------Common Features (18.1)---------------------28
-----Fortified Lines (18.2)-------------------------28
-----Strongpoints (18.3)----------------------------28
-G-BBridge Units (22.4)---------------------------------31
-CClose Air Support (CAS) (See Air)-------------------Combat: Attacker Artillery Support (15.4)--------21
-----Attacker Retreat Orders (15.5.8)--------------22
-----Attack Supply Needed (15.3)------------------21
-----CAS Missions (15.1)--------------------------20
-----Declaring Attacks (12.0)----------------------17
-----Defender Artillery Support (15.5.5)-----------22
-----Die Roll Modifiers (DRMs) 15.6)-------------22
-----Odds Determination (15.5)--------------------21
-----Order of Attack Resolution (15.0)-------------20
-----Organizing Declared Attacks (15.2)----------20
-----Resolving Declared Attacks (15.8)-------------23
Combat Results: Advance (16.7)---------------26
-----Asterisk Results (16.5)-------------------------24
-----Elimination (16.4)-----------------------------24
-----Retreats (16.6)--------------------------------25
---------Additional Retreat (16.6.1)--------------25
---------Effects of Enemy ZOC’s (16.6.4-6)--------25
---------No Retreat (16.6.1)------------------------25
---------Restricted Retreat Paths (16.6.3)-----------25
---------Retreat Procedure (16.6.4-6)--------------26
---------Stacking during Retreats (16.6.7)---------26
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Garrisons (22.12)---------------------------------33
Ground Combat Unit (2.3.3d)-----------------------2
Ground Non-Combat Unit (2.3.3c)------------------2
Ground Unit Movement (see Movement)------------Guards Units (22.8)--------------------------------33
-HHeadquarters:-----------------------------------------Operational (22.1)----------------------------30
---------Capabilities (22.1.2)----------------------30
---------Command Range (22.1.1)----------------30
---------Command Value (22.1.2)-----------------30
-----Non-Operational (Non-Op) (22.2)------------31
---------Command Range (22.2.1)----------------31
---------How It Becomes Non-Op (22.2.3)---------31
---------Limitations (22.2.4)----------------------31
---------Recovery of Operational Status (22.2.6)---31
---------Recovery Value ---(How to Read Units Card)
---------Removal of Non-Op HQ (22.2.6)----------31
---------Supersedes Op HQ Effects (22.2.2)--------31
-IInfiltration Movement (11.5)----------------------16
Interdiction (See Air)--------------------------------
-LLine of Communication (LOC) (See Supply)---------
-MMandated Attack Declaration (12.4)---------------17
Mandated Attack Execution (15.2.1c - Note)------21
Militia (22.10)------------------------------------33
Mobile Supply Unit (MSU) (See Supply)------------Movement:---------------------------------------------Affected By:---------------------------------------------Interdiction (13.2)------------------------19
---------Terrain (10.7)----------------------------12
---------Weather --(MPCC & Effects on Move Charts)
---------Zones of Control (10.6)-------------------11
-----Air Transport (11.7)--------------------------17
-----Flotilla Movement (11.2)---------------------14
-----How to Move Ground Units (10.4)------------10
-----Infiltration Movement (11.5)-----------------16
-----Motorized Movement Phase (10.2)------------10
-----Movement Allowance (How to Read Units Card)
-----Movement Phase (10.1)----------------------9
-----Non-Mot Units Paying Mot Costs (10.5.10)---11
-----One Hex Movement (10.5.3 - Exception)-----11
-----Overrun Movement (11.4)-------------------15
-----Railroad Movement (11.1)--------------------14
-----Reaction Movement (14.1)-------------------20
-----Road Movement:----------------------------------------Dry Weather Rates (10.7.7)---------------12
---------Non-Dry Weather Rates (10.7.8)----------13
-----Sea Transport (11.7.8)------------------------17
-----Strategic Movement (11.3)-------------------14
-----Super-Heavy Artillery (10.5.11)--------------11
-----Untried UR/MG Movement (11.6)------------16
-NNKVD Units (22.8)--------------------------------33
No Retreat---------------------------------------------Attacker Orders (15.5.8)---------------------22
-----Defender Orders(14.3)---------------------20
-----Increased Loss(16.6.1)---------------------25
Non-Op HQ (See Headquarters)---------------------
-OOne Hex Movement (10.5.3 - Exception)-----------11
Operational HQ (See Headquarters)-------------Overrun (See Movement)-------------------------Overrun Effects (11.4.4)---------------------------16
-PPanzer Division Integrity (15.6.8)------------23
Partisans (22.13)-----------------------------------34
-RRailcuts (19.4)-------------------------------------29
Railroad Conversion (19.0)------------------------28
Railroad Movement (see Movement)---------------Range, Artillery----- ( Refer to How to Read Units Card
and Quals for Artillery Support on 11x17 Chart Card)
Page 35
Barbarossa: Army Group Center
Reaction:-----------------------------------------------Defender Artillery Support (14.2)-------------20
-----Defender Retreat Orders (14.3)---------------20
-----Movement Allowed (14.1)--------------------20
Regiment Substitute Counters, Axis (23.0)---------34
Reinforcements:---------------------------------------Arrival (8.1)-----------------------------------8
-----Rebuilt Units (8.4)-----------------------------9
-----Scheduled Reinforcements (8.2)----------------8
-----Special Reinforcement Pools (8.3)--------------8
-----Untried Militia (8.5)---------------------------9
Replacements:-----------------------------------------Expending Replacement Points (20.0)--------30
-----Receiving Axis Replacement Points (7.3)--------8
-----Receiving Soviet Replacement Catagories (7.1)-7
Reserve Units (22.11)------------------------------33
Retreat:-------------------------------------------------Additional Retreat (16.6.1)-------------------25
-----Attacker Retreat Orders (15.5.8)--------------22
-----Defender Retreat Orders (14.3)--------------20
-----No Retreat (16.6.1)---------------------------25
-----Non-Allowed Retreats (16.6.2 - 3)-------------25
-----Retreat Through Enemy ZOC (16.6.4 - 6)-----25
-----Stacking and Retreats (16.6.7)-----------------26
-SSet - Up Codes --(How to Read Units Card & Playbook)
Soviet Surrender (21.0)---------------------------30
Special Units:------------------------------------------Armored Trains (22.5)------------------------32
-----Bridge Units (22.4)---------------------------31
-----Engineers (22.3)------------------------------31
-----Flotillas (22.6)--------------------------------32
-----Garrisons (22.12)-----------------------------33
-----Guard/NKVD (22.8)--------------------------33
-----Militia (22.10)-------------------------------33
-----Operational Headquarters (22.1)--------------30
-----Non-Op Headquarters (22.2)-----------------31
-----Partisans (22.13)-----------------------------34
-----Reserve Units (22.11)-------------------------33
-----Super-Heavy Artillery (22.7)------------------32
-----UR/MG Units (22.9)--------------------------33
Stacking (3.e)--------------------------------------3
Stacking during and after Retreats (16.6.7)--------26
Stacking Limit (3.e.2)------------------------------3
Supply:--------------------------------------------------Attack Supply (6.8)----------------------------6
---------Attack Supply Points (ASPs) (6.8.1)--------6
---------Dumps (6.8.3)-----------------------------6
---------Mobile Supply Units (MSUs) (6.8.4)--------6
-----Attack Supply Determination (15.3)-----------21
-----Attack Supply Expenditure (15.5.6)----------22
-----LOCs (6.2)------------------------------------4
-----Out of Supply Effects ((6.7)---------------------5
-----Railroad Nets (6.4)-----------------------------5
-----Road Nets (6.3)--------------------------------5
-----Sources (6.5)-----------------------------------5
-----Supply Routes (6.1)----------------------------4
-----Supply States (6.6)-----------------------------5
----------Emergency (6.6.3)-------------------------5
Page 36
----------General (6.6.2)----------------------------5
----------Out of Supply (6.6.4)---------------------5
Support Strength -----------(How to Read Units Card)
-TTerminology (3.0)----------------------------------2
-UUntried Militia:---------------------------------------Conversion to “I” Repls (22.10.1)--------------33
-----Description (22.10)--------------------------33
-----Entry (8.5)------------------------------------9
-----Placement (22.10.2-3)------------------------33
UR/MG Units:-------------------------------------------Description (22.9)----------------------------33
-----Entry into Play (20.3.2)-----------------------30
-----Replacement Procedure (20.3)----------------30
-----Untried Status (22.9)--------------------------33
-VVictory Points (VPs) (24.1 - 4)---------------------34
-WWeather:-------------------------------------------- -----Determination (5.1)---------------------------3
-----Effects Upon:-------------------------------------------Inland Sea (10.7.10)----------------------13
---------Major Rivers (10.7.9.d - e)----------------13
---------Movement (MPCC & Effects on Move Chart)
---------Road Movement (10.7.7 - 8)---------------12
---------Swamps (10.7.11)-------------------------13
-----Lingering Mud and Snow (5.1.4)----------------4
Withdrawal (8.6)------------------------------------9
-ZZone of Control (ZOC):------------------------------Affected by Terrain (3.0.f.4)-------------------3
-----Affected by Weather (3.0.f.3)------------------3
-----Effects:--------------------------------------------------on Combat (15.2)--------------------------20
---------on Combat Declaration (12.5 - 7)----------18
---------on Overrun (11.4.2.d)--------------------15
---------on Railroad Transport (11.1.2)------------14
---------during Retreats (16.6.4 - 6)---------------25
---------on Supply Routes (6.1.2 )-------------------4
-----Loss due to Overrun (11.4.4.a)----------------16
-----Loss due to Step Reduction (3.0.f.2 Note)-------3
-----No ZOC Bands (3.0.f.2)------------------------3
Rules Booklet
The Opening Battles, 1941
Copyright © GMT Games, 1998
Page 37
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