encineeinc - American Radio History

encineeinc - American Radio History
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VIDEO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
VIDEO SERVERS and DISK -BASED STORAGE .COMPLEX ROUTING for POST-PRODUCTION
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UTAH SCIENTIFIC
Contents
June 1994
Volume 36
Number 6
BROaDCaST
enGineeRinG
WorldCup
USA94
Page 38
VIDEO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS:
THIS MONTH...
If you can shoot it, route it and store it, you've
accomplished most of what you need for video
production. This month's feature coverage looks
at ways to do all of these tasks and more in new,
innovative and cost-effective ways
23
.
8 FCC Update
FCC compliance checklist
10 Strictly TV
From desktop to video servers, disk use for video is increasing.
30
Management
Engineering image is important
14
16
38
By Curtis Chan
Getting away from the black box.
44
By Marcus Weise
High tech, advanced features and smarter heads combine to make better pictures.
Troubleshooting
52
Technology News
Transmission Technology
Update
International Committee
80 Applied Technology
Handling audio and video in digital and analog forms is a challenge to today's
routers.
58
Tektronix Profile
COLUMNS:
4 News
6 Editorial
91 Industry Briefs
99 Classifieds
104 Advertisers'
Index
World Cup Soccer '94
By Gerald M. Walker
The quadrennial spectacle will feature many firsts this time, particularly for U
audiences.
SBE
84 Applied Technology
Virtual crosspoints
87 New Products
96 Field Report
Studio Audio and Video SADiE
Audio/Video Routing Systems
By Curtis Chan
Tubes us. solid-state devices
78
Studio Cameras
Selecting the right location
Power PC
72 Re: Radio
Back to basics
74
Digital Effects Systems
Production
LAN technology
20
Complex Routing for Post-Production
By Andrew Delle
Creating a unified control system solves many of the problems.
Audio for HDTV
12
Disk-Based Video Storage
By David Leathers
DEPARTMENTS:
2
Page 58
Page 23
62
Wrist -Watch Profits
By John C. Kean
Dick Tracy move over
of the action.
66
- the MessageWatch
is here, and
broadcasters get a pie(
"Radio in Transition:" Implementing RBDS
By Skip Pizzi
Getting RBDS on
the air sooner rather than later has its advantages.
ON THE COVER:
Cover photography by Douglas Schwartz Photography. Video images courtes
Rushes, London, England. Featured Utah Scientific equipment includes the MC
master control system and the Digistore disk -based video playback device.
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Only Thing
It Can't Do Is Open
A Bottle Of Wine.
Telex V- Series headsets do it all. Their unique modular design mike them the most
versatile headsets you can buy, with interchar_gea)le mic and cable assemblies that let
you use one headset for most any application.
Comfort and sound quality are second to none, with
revolutionary floating earcups that automatically adjust to
any head size And, like our other Telex headsets ased by
pilots arad NFL coaches, the durabilty is built in. Of course,
parts and accessories are easy to get and always available.
See and hear for yourself. For the Telex pro audio dealer
nearest you, call 1-800-392-3497 (416- 431 -4975 =n Canada).
The VSe'fes Maybe we should have called it the saws army headset
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EDITORIAL
Brad Dick, Editor
Skip Pizzi, Technical Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
Dawn Hightower, Senior Associate Editor
Deanna Rood, Associate Editor
Tom Cook, Senior Managing Editor
Carl Bentz, Directory Editor
News
By Dawn Hightower,
would be built -in to conventional TV
broadcast signals: BlueMont Telecom,
Montreal, Quebec; Centris Communication/Leitch Video, Columbia, MD; Digideck
Inc., Menlo Park, CA; Radio Telecom and
Technology Inc., Riverside, CA; and Wave Phore Inc., Tempe, AZ. Each company
hopes to have its system chosen by the
National Data Broadcasting Committee
(NDBC), a voluntary standards -setting
group sponsored by the NAB and the
Electronic Industries Association (ER).
The selection of a data broadcasting
standard is important because it will allow broadcasters to participate in the
information superhighway and offer consumers digital services built-in to today's
analog TV broadcast signal. At data rates
of hundreds of kilobits per second, a
variety of digital video, audio and computer services can be offered to consumers and may also provide a second revenue stream for broadcasters.
The NDBC will evaluate all the proposals, select one or more practical systems,
initiate evaluation tests and recommend
voluntary standards. Testing is expected
to begin in the last quarter of this year.
For more information, contact Lynn
Claudy at NAB at 202-429-5346 (fax 202775 -4981) or Brian Markwalter at EIA at
senior associate editor
Broadcasters oppose spectrum royalty fee proposal
The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) opposes the creation of spectrum royalty fees to help pay for implementation of the GATT treaty.
Broadcasters would be charged a 1%
gross receipts tax the first year, with the
amount increasing 1% every year for five
years. The proposal is designed to raise
$4.8 billion during the first five years of
its implementation.
NAB opposes the tax for the following
reasons:
A spectrum royalty gross receipts tax
will have a devastating impact on thousands of broadcasters. Many radio and
TV stations lost money last year. A tax on
gross receipts will put many of those
stations out of business.
Broadcasters already pay millions of
dollars in business taxes, FCC fees and
cost -of- regulation fees. They also pay for
using the spectrum through providing
the public free -of- charge with news,
weather, public service, local and other
public interest programming.
Broadcasting is dependent on ad revenues, so the cost of spectrum royalties
cannot be passed on to consumers.
The creation of new fees goes against
the foundation of broadcasting. Broadcasters receive licenses to serve the public interest in exchange for providing free,
over -the -air service. By charging broadcasters for their spectrum licenses, the
government is reneging on that contract.
Congress rejected the notion of auctioning mass media or broadcast spectrum last year, when it passed legislation
creating spectrum auctions for other
types of spectrum. The new royalty proposal goes against the Congressional recognition that broadcasters' role is unique
among spectrum users.
To use spectrum royalty fees to help
offset the costs of implementing a trade
treaty is absurd. Broadcasting is not involved in these trade issues, and entertainment issues were not included in the
GATT agreement.
202-457-7733 (fax 202 -457-4985).
announces
standard
EIA
The Electronics Industry Association
(ER) has announced the official release
of its extended data service (EDS) standard "Recommended practice for line 21
data service," EIA -608 document. The
document was developed by the EIAs
Television Data Systems Subcommittee
(TDSS), and describes a method for full
use of the VBI line 21 field 2 for additional
captioning and other extended data services. The first draft of the EIA-608 document was released in April of 1993. An
initial prototype was shown at NAB '93.
Since that time the document has undergone final revisions and has been approved as an EDS standard by EIA members, the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) and the TDSS committee. Products incorporating EDS technology were shown for the first time at
NAB '94. EDS can provide program name
and description, length in hours and minutes, rating, category type and amount of
time until a program concludes, and other information such as time of day and
emergency weather reports.
Standards group reviews
infopike proposals on data
broadcasting
The following industry groups have
submitted data broadcasting proposals
as they vie for the industry standard for
delivery of high -speed data services that
4
Broadcast Engineering
EDS
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
ART
Ruth Knotts, Associate Art Director
BUSINESS
Raymond E. Maloney, President
Cameron Bishop, Group Vice President
Dennis Triola, Publisher
Tom Brick, Marketing Director
Stephanie Hanaway, Group Director, Special Projects
Kathryn Buckley, Promotions Manager
Sandra Tomczak, Promotions Coordinator
Dee Unger, Director Adverrismg Services
Nancy Hupp, Advertising Production Manager
Susan Jones, Advertising Coordinator
Chris Coughlin, List Rental Sales Representative
Doug Coonrod, Corporate Art Director
Virginia Picotte, Circulation Manager
Customer Service: 913 -967-1707 or 80i)-441 -0294
TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
Eric Neil Angevine, Broadcast Acoustics
John H. Battison, Antennas/Radiation
Dennis Ciapura, Radio Technology
Dane E. Ericksen, P.E., Systems Design
John Kean, Subcarrier Technology
Donald L. Markley, Transmission Facilities
Harry C. Martin, Legal
Curtis Chan, Audio/Video Technology
MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS
Sustaining Members of:
Acoustical Society of America
Society of Broadcast Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and TV Engineers
Member,
American Business Press
Member,
IPA International
MP
VBPA
BROADCAST ENGINEERING is edited for
corporate management, engineers/technicians and
other station management personnel at
commercial and educational radio and TV stations.
teleproduction studios, recording studios, CAIN
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Qualified persons include consulting engineer$ and
dealer /distributors of broadcast equipment.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING (ISSN1007 -1994) is
published monthly, except semi-monthly in
November, and mailed free to qualified persons
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described above. Second-class postage paid at
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offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
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CORRESPONDENCE
Editorial and Advertising: 9800 Metcalf, Overland
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Editorial fax: 913-967 -1905. Advrt.
a 1994 by Intertec Publishing
All rights reserved.
faxe 913 -967 -1904.
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Editorial
The changing face of
American broadcasting
The
stone foundation of broadcast television was shaken on May 24 with the
announcement by Fox Broadcasting of the addition of 12 new affiliates. Although Fox
looked the part of a winner, CBS, ABC and NBC scrambled to
put a best light on the situation where they all lost stations.
When Fox out bid CBS last fall for NFL's National Football
Conference broadcast rights, some saw it as a big mistake.
After all, how could the network make any money with the
games being broadcast in some markets by second -tier
stations. Well, those pundits apparently didn't know Rupert
Murdoch very well. The NFL contract was clearly but one
step in his bold plan to become not just another "me -too"
network, but a full -time player in every sense of the word.
Here at my home base, the talk around the drinking
fountain wasn't so much what our former NBC affiliate will
be broadcasting as a Fox affiliate, but who's going to get the
NBC network. The viewers don't really care whether the
Simpsons is on Channel 4 or 41. What they do care about is
their favorite soap opera and local baseball team.
The larger issue isn't what afternoon soaps will be on what
stations, but how this realignment may affect the entire
national network structure. In one sense, it weakens all the
networks. The pie isn't any bigger, it just will be divided
among four semi-equal players instead of three semi -equal
players. And if Paramount and Time Warner have their way
and launch their networks, look for more affiliate shakeups.
This mega deal may remind you of the TCI -Bell Atlantic
story. While the transaction was never completed, the mere
audacity of such an arrangement shook the media world. Although the deal eventually fell from its own weight, it clearly set the tone for future ventures.
The key point for terrestrial broadcasters is that the Fox announcement is but
another example of the changing nature of this business. While station managers and
engineers shouldn't quake in their boots about the recent changes, they should
recognize that sitting back and assuming the view (or channel) won't change is more
than short -sighted. It's suicidal.
Brad Dick, editor
6
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
See spot.
See spot run.
See spot run without
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Who needs the aggravation?
With the new OPTIMOD -TV
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1994 AKG Acoustics, Inc. Orban and OPTIMOD are registered trademarks of AKG Acoustics, Inc. All other trademarks are property
Circle (12) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
of their respective companies.
FCC Update
Better safe than sorry
Harry C. Martin and
Andrew S. Kersting
Broadcasters should periodically conduct a self- inspection of all facilities, including their transmission site and tower, to ensure compliance with applicable
FCC rules and regulations. The first step
in reviewing a station's technical operation is to check the areas where FCC
inspectors most often issue violations.
See the inspection checklist for the pertinent sections of the FCC rules.
Broadcasters need to periodically conduct a self -inspection of their facilities.
This is not only good business practice,
it's the law. The point of such an examination is to ensure that the station is in
compliance with all FCC regulations.
The first step in such a process is to
review your station's technical operation
and the place to begin is where FCC inspectors are issuing violation notices.
The example checklist will help you to
identify those technical areas often targeted by the FCC for a close look.
Work through this list. Look closely at
these areas for the stations for which you
are responsible. For some engineers
(chief operators) this process will need
to be completed for each station. (Editors
note: The NAB publications department
has a guidebook called the NAB Guide for
Broadcast Station Chief Operators, which
provides a checklist that engineers and
managers can use for technical and nontechnical areas. The cost is $30 for members and $60 for non -members. It may be
ordered by calling 1- 800 -368-5644.)
Although it may take some time to work
through the list, it represents time well
spent. The last thing any engineer or
manager wants is a notice of violation or
even a fine for not complying with FCC
rules. The adage "Better safe than sorry,"
certainly applies here.
FCC
initiates inquiry into broadcast
and cable EEO regulations
The FCC has initiated an inquiry regarding the effectiveness of its EEO rules governing the broadcast and cable industries. The commission is requesting inMartin and Kersting are attorneys with Reddy, Begley & Martin,
Washington, DC.
8
Sample FCC inspection checklist
--
All towers are correctly painted
(17.50)
AM towers are properly fenced
(73.49)
All current station authorizations (including
-
--
auxiliary) are posted
(73.1230(a))
(73.1230(a) & (b))
Contract chief operator agreements are on file
(73.1870(b)(3))
Chief operator's and all duty operators' licenses posted
(73.1230(a) &(b))
AM monitor point descriptions are correct
(73.158)
Chief operator is making weekly station log review
(73.1870(c)(3))
Station logs for the past two years are available and complete
(73.1840)
All station logs indicate a weekly EBS test sent and received
(73.961)
Remote control and metering operational and calibrated (73.1410)
Most recent equipment performance measurements available and complete
Chief operator is designated in writing and posted
- - --
-
(73.1590)
-
Transmitted signal meets FCC specifications and is in accordance with station
license (73.44/73.317)
(i) Operating power within limits (90%-105 %)
(73.1560)
(ii) Modulation within limits 100%
(73.1570)
Operators are properly trained (73.1860)
EBS receiver working and tuned to proper station
(73.932)
--
-
-
-
test transmissions OK.
(i) Both tones present
(73.906)
(ii) Each tone modulates transmitter at 40%
(73.906(c))
(iii) Tone duration 20-25 seconds
(73.906(d))
EBS encoder is FCC -type accepted (i.e. no tones on cart)
(73.942(a))
EBS checklist with authenticator envelope at operator duty position
(73.908)
EBS
-
formation to assist it in preparing its Oc1994 report to Congress on the
effectiveness of its EEO policies as required by the 1992 Cable Act.
The FCC noted that some broadcasters
believe they have unique difficulties attracting and retaining minority employees because they are located in small
markets.
In addition, the commission proposed
changes in its standard inquiry letters,
which currently request recruitment and
hiring information for the last three years
of the license term. The FCC requested
comment concerning whether its inquiry letters should be revised to request
information for the entire license term,
or for some lesser period of time.
The commission also requested corn ments concerning whether part -time
employees no longer should be considered in an EEO review, or, alternatively,
how much consideration should be giv-
tober
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
-
-
en to part -time hires in light of the FCC's
emphasis on full-time positions.
In another initiative, the FCC asked whether it should supplement its renewal inquiry procedures by conducting on-site
audits of broadcasters in certain cases.
Date line
Annual ownership reports or
ownership certifications for commercial broadcast stations in the
following states must have filed
by Aug. 1, 1994: North Carolina,
South Carolina, Illinois, Wisconsin and California. In addition, TV
stations in California, and LPTVs
and TV translators in Kansas and
Nebraska must file their renewal
applications by Aug. 1, 1994.
The V4228 Digital Varicomb Decoder
Vistek Electronics is proud to announce the launch of the
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The propriety
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Digital Varicomb Decoder V4228
The flexib litt' of configuration allows the
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(
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Tell. (818) 562'. 6544 Fax. (818) 562 3342
Strictly TV
Audio for HDTV
By Curtis Chan
On the HDTV news scene, a letter from
the
addressed to FCC chairman
Richard Wiley, asked for limitations on
the uses of the full HDTV bandwidth.
MSTV's president, Margita White, said
that she regrets the letter's objection to
ancillary services because it introduced
"discord and confrontation near the end
of a historical cooperative process." The
letter further pointed out broadcasters
NCTA,
have been able to use the vertical interval of NTSC for non -broadcast commercial purposes for years, and turning over
part of the HDTV channel to such uses
would simply be an extension of that.
White concluded the cable industry
would be the major beneficiary of the
quick introduction of HDTV because it
didn't have to wait for the ratification of
the standard to begin its own service.
The HDTV audio standard
This month's focus turns to the acceptance of Dolby's AC -3 digital coding system, which was selected by the Grand
Alliance to deliver multichannel digital
surround sound for HDTV. Furthermore,
AC -3 has been approved by the FCC's
Technical Subgroup for the Advisory
Committee on Advanced Television Service for incorporation and testing later
this year. AC -3's 2- channel form is already
being offered by General Instrument, as
an integral part of its DigiCipher II all digital satellite and cable TV systems.
AC -3
Dolby AC -3 is a perceptual digital audio
coding technique designed to take maximum advantage of human auditory masking. AC -3 allows for the storage or transmission of up to six audio channels in
less bandwidth than is required for only
one channel on a CD. The current SMPTErecommended 5.1 channel system running at rates as low as 320kb /s, comprises five full bandwidth channels representing left, center, right, left- surround,
right- surround and a low-frequency sub -
woofer channel.
AC -3 is fundamentally an adaptive transChan is president of Chan and Associates, a marketing consulting
service for audio, broadcast and post-production, Fullerton, CA.
10
form-based coder using a frequency -linear, critically sampled filter bank technique. The advantage of the filter bank-
20 -bit dynamic range digital audio signals over a wide frequency range. Sampling rates of 32, 44.1 and 48kHz are sup-
based coding is signal components and
corresponding quantization noise components are each kept within critical
bands. This derives maximum benefit
from the masking characteristics of the
human ear, and minimizes the resulting
data rate needed for perceptually noisefree coding. In the presence of wideband
transients, the transform block length of
the filter bank can be dynamically reduced to contain quantization noise within a small temporal region about the transient. That is, AC -3 divides the audio spectrum of each channel into narrow frequency bands of different sizes optimized
with respect to the frequency selectivity
of human hearing. This makes it possible
to sharply filter coding noise so that its
frequency is forced to stay close to the
frequency components of the audio signal being coded. By reducing or eliminating coding noise wherever there are no
audio signals to mask it, the sound quality of the original signal can be subjectively preserved. In this way, bits are distributed among the filter bands as needed by the particular frequency spectrum
or dynamic nature of the program material. A built-in model of auditory masking
allows the coder to alter its frequency
selectivity to make sure a sufficient number of bits are used to describe the audio
signal in each band, thus ensuring that
the noise is fully masked.
To capitalize on the multiplicity of channels, a dynamic bit allocation technique
assigns bits across frequencies and channels as needed from a common bit pool,
while taking into account both intra- and
interchannel masking effects. This cornmon bit pool technique allows channels
with greater frequency content to demand more data than channels with less
frequency content. It can also be used as
a selective and powerful noise reducer
where strong sounds in one channel can
be used to mask noise in other channels.
Finally, coding gain is derived from separating and independently coding high frequency carrier and envelope information. As a result, AC -3 can process at least
ported with subsequent data rates from
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
as low as 32kb/s for a single mono channel to a high of 640kb /s.
Forethought
absence of matrix-based (adding
and subtracting of signals) processing
has no impact on already-matrixed program material, such as Dolby Surround
Lt /Rt signals applied to two of the five
full- bandwidth AC -3 channels. In addition, the bitstream syntax and decoder
operation have been designed to allow
future encoder algorithm improvements
to be compatible with current decoder
hardware. The data format and overall
system operation have been designed to
allow editing at a block level without the
signal having to be re- encoded. The data
input to the decoder can be rocked back
and forth, and when fed in reverse block
order, the decoder will properly reproduce the audio time -reversed. Last, it's
anticipated that an AC -3 encoder might
be able to derive an amplitude compression signal that would allow the listener
to select compressed, partially -compressed or undercompressed sound presentation.
AC -3's
AC -3 on a chip
One of the primary design objectives of
AC-3 was to facilitate implementation on,
and portability across, multiple DSP platforms. Initially, the encoder used six
27MHz Motorola 56001 chips; the decoder needed 11. Early units employed a
pipeline architecture that imposed significant data-passing overhead. Recently, the encoder and decoder have been
realized on silicon. Versions of both have
each been implemented on a single Zoran ZR-38000 chip.
By coding a multiplicity of channels as
a single entity, Dolby's AC -3 is able to
achieve greater coding efficiency than is
possible with equivalent single-channel
coding techniques.
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Management
Engineering image is
important
By Rick Morris
Sam had been a chief engineer
for the
last five years. The general manager who
hired him had taken another job, and the
national sales manager was promoted to
general manager. The new GM didn't understand what engineering was all about.
He turned down most of the capital requests for the year, saying that the station was running fine. Sam's salary review also was lower than last year's. It
was clear that the GM didn't understand
what Sam did or how well he did it. Sam
listened to others at the station who said
that upper management never understood or cared about the engineering
department and couldn't understand the
complexities of the engineering part of the
business. He decided it was up to him to
change that attitude.
The best engineers
can be their own worst enemy
Well -run engineering departments are
marked by the fewest problems. A good
engineering department maintains near
100% transmitter system reliability, keeps
problems down by performing routine
maintenance, responds quickly to repair
requests and handles remotes without a
hitch. Compare this performance level
with other departments in a station. Programmers are successful if one in five of
their program picks are a success; salespersons achieve top status by making
only one in 10 sales. But an engineer who
maintains only 90% transmitter reliability could be fired for excessive off-the-air time.
Often, general managers who supervise
chief engineers understand little about
what they do. It's up to you to make others
aware of the good job you're doing.
Educating others
The lack of understanding of what the
engineering department does goes beyond the GM to interaction with all de-
partments. If someone doesn't understand what it takes to provide the requested services, they won't support your
requests for resources to meet those needs.
Morris is an assistant professor of radio/TV/film at Northwestern
University. He is a former chief engineer and a former manager of
engineering and maintenance for a major TV network.
12
Benefits of an "engineering literate" station are enormous. It takes time and training to become a good broadcast engineer. However, there is nothing so complex about broadcast engineering that
you cannot impart an understanding of
the issues and abilities to your non-technical colleagues.
Your goal in this process is to impart an
understanding of: 1) the capabilities of
the existing facilities of the station, 2) the
limitations of the existing facilities of the
station, 3) additional capabilities that new
resources could provide and, 4) the challenges and performance of your department in meeting the needs of other departments. If other departments have an
understanding of these concepts, they
will know what you're working with, your
challenges and successes, will appreciate when you perform well for them, and
can advocate for new equipment.
Educate the station painlessly
Watch the content of your communications outside of the department. For example, suppose you are chief at a UHF TV
station and your final visual klystron is
showing its age and has tripped off a
couple of times so you're sure that a
replacement will be required soon. If
you're a good engineer, you will order the
replacement tube and when the old one
fails, slip into multiplex operation and
replace the klystron on the first overnight available. The engineering department would look good; however, no one
would know about the high level of skill
and forethought you had brought to the
situation.
Instead of just replacing the klystron,
and going on with business as usual, you
should speak up at the GM's weekly staff
meeting, and discuss how you identified
that a klystron was failing, and explain
that it is the main power tube for the
station. Without it the station would put
most of its coverage area at risk. However, because engineering is prepared for
these situations, a new klystron has been
shipped and will be standing by for replacement and off -air time will be minimized.
This defines the engineering concept
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
...an engineer who
maintains 90% transmitter reliability could
be fired for excessive
off-the -air time.
and places the action in terms that are
relevant and important to other departments (minimizing off-air time /protecting revenue). It also educates other departments about the work engineers do.
After the klystron has been replaced, issue a memorandum thanking your engineering staff for their swift and competent action. A memo is a good way to
make public your department's success
while also providing positive feedback to
your employees.
If your station has a newsletter, use it to
educate others on the successes and challenges of engineering. Also, when someone asks you a question, take the time to
make sure they understand the answer.
This is a chance to spend a few extra
minutes and give a mini -tutorial to someone that is interested in finding answers.
The solution to not being appreciated is
communication. You are already doing a
good job, and you need to help others
understand that.
Educating your boss (technically)
the general manager,
take extra time to explain the technical
basis for your decisions and why equipment, parts or people are important to
achieve the station's goals. Be farsighted. Generate position papers on the future challenges facing the engineering
department. It is better to have discussed
the costs and benefits of Radio Data Services, or the new equipment that you
need, before the GM has identified the
business imperative. By making sure that
the GM is engineering literate, you will
help him to identify business opportunities, protect existing revenue, and prepare him to respond to questions from
group headquarters.
As you work with
Constant
Constant.
Change.
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So, regardless of what digital format the future holds -from D1 to HDTV-turn on the
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Production
Selecting the
right location
By David Leathers
When
your production hits the road,
plenty of factors need to be considered
when selecting a suitable remote location. First, before starting a location
search or site survey, you must fully understand what the director is looking for
and what will occur on the shoot. Then
you can examine prospective sites in an
informed and careful manner.
Although the director or field producer
will be concerned with the right look, it is
only one of the many concerns that your
thorough location evaluation should address. Start by checking out any limitations to access and availability at a location. If a site can only be used one day a
week, the production manager must know
this early on to avoid scheduling problems.
Next, consider the logistical needs for
water, power, restrooms, telephones,
food, meal areas, make -up and wardrobe
space. Locate the closest emergency/
medical facilities and services; this is
especially important when stunts or special effects are involved. For longer -term
projects, a secure area to store equipment or a place to set up a production
office is often necessary. If there are minors involved, you'll need classroom
space, as well.
What about the surrounding noise? If
there is an airport nearby, this can ruin
live sound and result in time delays (or
costly post -production fixes) for recorded takes.
Other important considerations include
the number of talent and crew, whether
utility or portable generator power will
be used, the number and types of vehicles involved, whether dressing rooms
will be needed, and what other special
equipment might be required. Determine
any existing or potential traffic and accessibility problems, and ensure adequate parking will be available. Oversized
vehicles may require special parking permits, especially if their specific location
is critical during the shoot. This is particularly important in crowded urban environments where shoot permits obtained
in advance will guarantee that temporary no-parking is enforced by local poLeathers is president of Eye Square, Culver City, CA.
14
lice to reserve the required locations for
your vehicles.
Will overnight accommodations or a
shuttle bus for talent and crew be required? If so, for how long and how many
people? When other crews or the public
will also be traveling to the area at the
same time, reserve your accommodations
well in advance. Also book a few extra
rooms that you can cancel without charge
at the last minute if they aren't needed.
Locations and the shooting schedule
Even after deciding on a location, try to
have a viable back -up site in mind. Many
factors can affect a production, so having
a "Plan B" is important. Also consider the
following preparation issues:
Special access and permits: Certain locations may present problems or restrictions for stunts or special effects. They
often may require additional preparation
time and special permits, which could
require access to the location many days
before the actual shoot.
Period pieces: For dramatic productions with scripts set in anything other
than the present, location elements may
have to be made to fit the desired period.
For example, a 1950's street scene can't
have 1990 -vintage streetlights. Special
sets may have to be constructed, requiring time to be allotted and scheduled.
Interiors/exteriors, day/night: Know in
advance whether indoor and /or outdoor
sites will be used on location, and whether daytime and /or night-time scenes will
be shot. This will affect scheduling and
the amount of control you'll need on the
surrounding areas. Shooting at night can
simplify and complicate location shoots.
Neighbors may object to having a crew
working all night; on the other hand, in a
downtown area, there may be no one
around who cares. For scheduling purposes, determine the hours of daylight
available and the times of local sunrise
and sunset when evaluating any location.
Seasons and weather: The time of year
also will determine the suitability of many
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
locations. Along with shorter daylight
hours in winter months in the northern
hemisphere, unusual weather conditions
may also occur during other times of the
year in certain areas. A location's propensity for fog, high winds, snow, ice,
rain, tornadoes, hurricanes, excessive
heat /humidity, bitter cold or other inclemency will be well known by local
residents and meteorologists. Knowing
about these problems ahead of time can
help keep things on schedule.
Of course, volatile weather conditions
are sometimes just what a producer
needs. When one production company
did a recent Budweiser spot, it wanted
10 -foot waves on the north shore of Hawaii during a 4-week summer shooting
window. The weather service they consulted advised them that those conditions would be highly unlikely and instead suggested Mexico, Tahiti or Fiji due
to the storm patterns. The producer paid
heed and sent a small second unit to Fiji,
leaving the main crew in Hawaii filming
beach scenes. This strategy paid off, getting them the shots they needed at minimum expense.
Help is available
Before you set out on a search for locations, take advantage of the resources
that are available. Local and state film
commissions can be helpful, especially
for areas you are not familiar with. They
can supply you with pictures, labor and
housing costs, weather patterns and other valuable information, usually at no
cost. If the budget allows, consider using
a location service, which typically charges the production company for its work.
Many weather services also are available. Some are free and others charge a
fee for providing more detailed, up-tothe-minute reports on specific areas.
A location scout must be able to think
like a producer, a director, a cameraman,
a production manager and virtually every other key crew member. The more
information that scouts can gather before the location-search or site -survey
process begins, the better equipped they
will be to suggest the best locations.
SADIE 2.1
There's a lot more
behind a
SADiETM
than
you might think. Our job
doesn't finish when you purchase your SADiE system.
For a start you can tele-
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or just a chat from early
morning 'til late evening,
seven days a week and
because we combine our
sales and service into one
customer support operation, you'll most likely be
speaking to the same per-
son that sold you your
SADiE. And
if
your system
stops working don't let
anyone tell you -break(
downs never happen!' ) cus-
tomer support will get you
up and running again as
rapidly as possible. As our
support team often work
lt's the little things that matter
with clients on actual projects, we really understand SADiETM and the
pressures of audio production. Every
ware
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we know you are the best advertisement for
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Finally, we don't try to make money out of maintaining your
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fader, pan and mute
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even faster editing
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DISK EDITOR
background networking
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Troubleshooting
LAN
technology
Security within the network will be the
single most important administrative
task. All users on the network will be
given a log-on name and password by the
network supervisor. It's also the supervisor's job to assign users appropriate
"rights" to programs or data that reside
on the network file server. Network security has four levels:
Password gives user access to the file
Selecting the right network
By Kevin McNamara
In the
PC -based network world, there
client-server or peer are two choices
to -peer. When most people think of networks, they envision expensive computing apparatus. This may be true in larger
operations, however, many businesses
are using plain old PCs with a minimal
amount of additional "stuff." Depending
on your specific needs, you must decide
which type of network operating system
to purchase. Key factors to consider are:
-
y
GENERAL
SALES
MANAGER
SALES
ADMIN
SALES
FORCE
Figure
ADMIN
CHIEF
ENGINEER
PROMOTION
DIRECTOR
BUSINESS
MANAGER
-
-
SECURITY LEVELS
WIRE
SERVICE
GATEWAY TO MINI/
MAIN FRAME SYSTEM
SYSTEM
OPERATOR
TRAFFIC
MANAGER
GENERAL
MANAGER
GROUP
RIGHTS
GROUP
BUSINESS
ADMIN
RIGHTS
OTHER
USERS
1. A basic LAN layout for a broadcast facility. Note the various security levels and the use
-
McNamara is engineering manager for WGAYM/WRC radio.
Washington, DC.
Broadcast Engineering
-
information the user can
User's rights
access, create or modify
further limits the usAttribute rights
er's ability to change a file or directory
(i.e. deleting, copying, viewing)
File server
allows user to access/
manipulate functions of the file server
(i.e. shutdown or modification of the system, addition or deletion of users)
ALL
RIGHTS
PROGRAMMING DEPARTMENT
ON -AIR FUNCTIONS, NEWS,
AUTOMATION TRANSMITTER
OPS SHOW PREP
1) number of users, 2) types of applications, 3) ease of administration, 4) protection of data, 5) security issues, and 6)
the ability to interface with other operating systems (i.e. UNIX, Mac, OS /2, etc.).
Another factor that is important, but
may get overlooked is, "What does the
network need to accomplish ?" The answer may differ among system users. Have
meetings with staff members who will be
affected, initially or in the future. Use the
meetings to establish present and longterm requirements, such as: Who needs
which applications? Who needs to share
devices (i.e. printers, modems)? How will
critical data be preserved? Be detailed
and take lots of notes. At the conclusion
of the meetings there should be enough
information to draw a matrix that associates specific users to specific tasks. This
will form the basis for the next step
choosing an operating system.
16
-
y
PROGRAM
DIRECTOR
PROGRAMMING
GEN. & ADMINISTRATIVE
FILE
SERVER
FILE
SERVER
VI
SALES
MANAGER
server
rest are "clients." A file server is in the
business of serving files and, once properly configured, will hold the applications and data files common to the network. It also handles the network operating system and related utilities.
Novell presently offers three versions
ENGINEERING
PROGRAMMING
FILE
SERVER
SALES
FILE
SERVER
Client-server networks
Novell has dominated the "client -server" market. In client- server networks, one
computer must be a "file- server" and the
-
version
of network operating systems
3.11, 3.12 and 4.01. Version 3.12 is an
upgraded version of 3.11 that fixes some
bugs from the prior release and adds
support for CD -ROM drives in the file
server. Version 4.01 is a new operating
system suited for large networks that
contain multiple file servers in multiple
locations (also called wide area networks
or enterprise networks). However, its use
is not limited to just large systems.
If you're concerned about losing data
because of a disk drive failure, Novell
supports disk mirroring (two identical
drives, one controller) or disk duplexing
(two drives, two controllers). A tape backup system also is recommended.
The directory structure of a hard drive
on a file server is different from that of
the PC on your desk. The highest level in
the directory structure of a network hard
drive is called a "volume" and is similar to
the letter designations assigned to disk
drives in DOS. Unlike DOS, a volume can
span up to 32 hard disks.
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
USER
RIGHTS
of servers to group common areas.
Peer-to-peernetworks
-
Let's say that your needs are more generic you would like to have access to
files that reside on Bob's PC, use the laser
printer on Susan's desk and the CD ROM
drive on Ed's machine. It would also be
nice to have access to the fax/modem. A
peer -to-peer network may be the solution. Any computer with a disk drive con-
nected to the network can be a file server.
Ethernet (bus or hub) is the topology of
choice for interconnection.
Peer networks are easy to assemble
add an NIC to each computer, connect
the cables and install the software. You
can then redirect resources (disk drives,
printers, CD -ROMs, modems) to and from
the computers that are attached. In practice, once the redirection is assigned, the
PC looks and acts as it would normally,
except that there may be additional drives
available. One final thing to be aware of is
peer -to-peer networks offer only limited
security at the directory and file levels of
each PC attached.
-
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Technology News
Power PC
By Curtis Chan
Everyone, including broadcasters, using a desktop or workstation computer
will ultimately benefit from the continual
improvements in CPU design. This month,
we'll look at the PowerPC family and see
how it compares with Intel's Pentium.
The PowerPC or PPC for short, was jointly designed by Apple, IBM and Motorola.
The PPC prefix is IBM's terminology, while
Motorola uses the MPC (not to be confused with Multimedia PC) prefix.
RISC advantages
and market challenges
Although the lines between reduced
instruction set computer (RISC) and complex instruction set computer (CISC) are
blurring, RISC architecture offers many
fundamental benefits over CISC. Some of
these benefits include small sets of simple hard -wired instructions that execute
fast; superscalar pipelined design that
breaks instruction execution into manageable steps; multiple instruction execution and intelligent large register sets
to reduce RAM access needs. With regard
to pipelining, the PPC's architecture divides the processing of an instruction
like an assembly line process. A CPU with
a single pipeline is a scalar processor,
CPUs with multiple pipelines are called
superscalar. Additional pipelines improve
performance in a non-linear fashion because conflicts for resources frequently
arise. These conflicts force the processor to freeze one or more pipelines until
shared resources are available.
These benefits do not necessarily mean
RISC is better than CISC in all instances,
nor do the PPC's so-called technological
advantages mean it will be widely accepted. Many challenges remain in order for
PPC to expand into the mainstream of
desktop computing.
Key differences
Let's look at some key differences between the PPC and x86/Pentium families.
First, the PPC 601 is designed around a
0.6 micron, 4 -metal layer CMOS process,
which results in a small die size. This
Chan is president of Chan and Associates, a marketing consulting
service for audio, broadcast and post -production, Fullerton, CA.
20
translates to lower manufacturing costs
(as compared to the first -generation Pentium using a 0.8 micron process). The 4metal layer process eliminates the pad
ring normally surrounding a processor
core, further reducing the size and cost
of manufacturing. The PPC 603/604/620
will be based on a 0.5 micron process.
Second, the PPC specification defines an
architecture that can be implemented in
several ways. Third, to Intel's advantage,
the CISC Pentium is touted to be superior
on almost all applications not requiring
floating-point operations, which translate to most business -oriented programs.
On the other hand, an RISC-based system's strength, in theory, lies in floating point operations, which include technical, graphical and scientific software.
Fourth, x86/Pentium systems have secondary caches ranging from 64k to 256k,
most PPC systems have none due to their
large primary cache sizes. Fifth, PPC's
RISC technology uses a large register set,
which lets programs store many variables
on the chip, reducing memory access.
Sixth, unlike x86 systems, PPC chips contain on -board variable clock multipliers,
enabling them to operate at multiple frequencies internally and externally. Last,
the original Pentiums consumed upward
of 12W, newer versions consume 4W, and
its new -generation 0.6 micron, 3.3V/4Wbased Pentiums, the current PPC 601
chips operate at 8W
PPC family tree
Just as x86 describes an entire family of
CPUs, so does the PowerPC designation.
There are four PowerPC entries; the PPC
601, 603, 604 and 620. Each processor
places a different emphasis on performance, power consumption and price.
IBM and Motorola will introduce their
own versions of other PPC products including a series of embedded controllers.
The PPC 601 was designed as a strategic transitional product. It diverges slightly from the PPC architecture, in part so
that it can be a better bridge to the IBM
POWER (Performance Optimization With
Enhanced RISC) architecture. It also runs
on 3.6V instead of the 3.3V standard. It's
offered at 50/66 and 80MHz speeds with
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
power consumption around 8W for the
80MHz version.
The PPC 603 is supposed to be as fast as
the 601 but will have a new design. The
603 will be optimized for use in portables
and energy-saving desktop computers. It
will run on 3.3V and have extensive power management features, including shutting down of all non -active portions of its
circuitry. The 66 /80MHz versions will use
a 0.5 micron process and consume 3W.
The line between CISC
and RISC is blurring.
Moving upscale, the 32 -bit PPC 604,
which will debut next year, promises to
double the PPC 601's performance with
its dual pipeline architecture. Aimed at
high-end desktop, workstation and network server applications, the PPC 604
will offer vendors strong price /performance and multiprocessor capability at
affordable prices.
The cream of the crop, designed to compete with Intel's P6 (Pentium's next generation), will be the 64-bit PPC 620. Expect to see similar integer performance
as the 604 but with incredible floatingpoint capability. The PPC 620 is targeted
at the extreme high end and will probably find applications in superservers and
processor clusters for mainframes and
supercomputers.
Conclusion
The line between CISC and RISC is blurring. The Pentium incorporates a number of features that were once the domain of RISC, like superscalar operations.
Similarly, present PPC chips diverge from
traditional RISC theory by incorporating
more than 200 instructions (128 theoretical for RISC). The bottom line is markets
are big enough for multiple players and
users ultimately will decide for themselves which operating system running
on which processor will be best suited
for their application.
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23
30
38
44
52
Video production
systems
Take advantage of digital solutions in your
facility so you won't be left in the analog dust.
re's never been a more exciting
time for those involved in video production. From Toasters to Air -Play to ClipBoxes, manufacturer have brought a
wealth of products and feature sets to the
market. For the users, this ill represents
a veritable plethora of goodies.
Even five years aga, few would have
guessed at the power nd capability that
can now be placed on d hsktop. From
print -quality graphics. to Emmy award winning special effects, it you can creatively think of it, th .re ïs. robably a
desktop system capable of producing it.
Thi; month's feature coverage looks at
some of the hottest video technologies,
DVSs, routing, carieras and the sexiest technology of them al
videos servers.
And if that's not enough, WSN's editor -inchief. Jerry Walker, shows ycu how the
World Cup Soccer matches will be covered
by U. î. broadcasters. With a total projected
TV audience of more than 31 illion (yes,
that'. billion) there's no ro 3 -n for error.
Maybe you're in the mood to make money.
In "Wrist-Watch Rrofits we'll show you
-
bow FM stations ire us_ng a new version
of "Dck Tracy" watche 3 to increase their
station's revenue stream.
So don't he left in the analog (lust.
Lear. how y ou can app y the ideas o
your production 'acility )rbroadcaststation before your competition beats you
bo the digital solution.
,e)
1
Brad Dick, editor
Edit Suite #1 at Pacific Video Resources, San Francisco. One of two Complete Digital Component Editing Suites that support bcth D1 and Digital Betatem fo r:-na,s.
Suites include: SONY DVS aoOOSwitcher, DME5000 and D/ FXComposium graphics and etectssystem. Both Edit Suites can beconfig used for NTSCor PAL operaticn.
www.americanradiohistory.com
From desktop to video servers, disk use for video is increasing.
By David
Leathers
As disk drives improve, the number of uses for the technology continues to
ncrease. Over the last several years, hard drives have gotten large enough to
store reasonable amounts of video. At the same time, disk drive arrays have
gotten fast enough to play back that video at 60 rields per second. These facts,
:manned with the benefits of random- access and digital storage, are making it
advantageous to replace tape machines wísth disk-based storage systems in
severai applications.
t this year's NAB, there were
more than 100 manufacturers moving video on and off of hard drives.
The applications and equipment
configurations cover a wide spectrum. This acceleration in technology development is increasing
exponentially as manufacturers
aad users gain experience in applying disk storage technology in
video past - production and broadcast environments. New generations of products are appearing at
every level that promise to transfarm operations in all video applications.
Desktop technology
3asic SCSI hard drive technolo, the basis for mass storage in all
carrent levels of systems, is get- The Silicon Graphics Challenge server product family.
ting predictably much better, faster and cheaper. Advances in caSeagate leads the way with several dramatic
pacity, speed and reliability along with draproducts.
The "Elite 9" is a fourth generation
matic drops in the cost per megabyte are
exciting and encouraging for the continued of the Llite product line, with 500,000-hour
rapid development of desktop video technol- MTBF rating. It formats to about 9.IGB, deogy. There are now dozens of non-linear edit- pending on sector sire and system requireing systems in delivery or advanced develop- ments. =t drops the cost-per -megabyte to bestages that will deliver good quality low SO cents for small purchase end -users. The
video. The advances in SCSI drives and afford - Elite 9 has an internal data rate of up to 7.9MB/s.
The second generation of the Seagate Barra able RISC technology will increase the peneline, the Barracuda 4, is a 4.3GB (formatcada
professional
solutions
into
of
desktop
trationted), 3.5 -inch form factor, half-height SCSI drive
applications.
with a fast spindle rate of 7,200rpm_ It's capable
of a high sustained data rate of up to 8.7MB/s
Leathers -s president of Eye Square, Hollywood, CA, and operates
the Broadcast EngineeringiVideo Systems Digital Media Lab.
and hasa MTBF rating of 900,000 hours. In the
ant
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering 23
year or so the Barracuda
2 (the 2.4GB little brother
of the Barracuda 4) has
been in the field, it has
performed well in a variety of systems. The Barracudas come in SCSI,
SCSI -2 fast and SCSI -2 fast
and wide configurations.
In perhaps its most ex-
citing
development,
Seagate is introducing 2head parallel processing
drives. These drives effectively accomplish the
same functionality as using two drives in a striped
array. Striping is the pro- Hewlett-PackardBroadcast Video Server capable ofstoringsixhours with up to 51 hours available as an option.
cess of splitting data between two drives, usually on separate
SCSI channels to accomplish a doubling
of data throughput. The Seagate Barracuda 2 2HP and the Hawk 2LP family
provide this internal striping effect withBy Carlos W. Suarez
in a single drive by using two heads and
a buffer to move data on and off the drive
No one knows where the path of the inSeveral server vendors were contacted
twice as fast. Under optimum SCSI-2 fast/
formation superhighway wilt end, howev- for this article. Silicon Graphics of Mouner, several companies are working hard at tain View, CA, is providing software for the
wide conditions the units are capable of
building the first models. To re -tool for this video server and setback boxes, as well as
processing 20MB /s.
highly digital world, changes within the video
the server itself for the Time Warner CaIBM also has two high-performance SCSI
production and broadcast communities will ble trial. This trial is scheduled for first
drives
4GB and a 2GB. Both drives
need to continue accelerating rapidly. Every phase implementation later this year. Achave a maximum data rate of 5.22MB/s.
technology area will be touched, and cased
cording to Jim Barton, general manager of
The 3.5 -inch, 2GB version has an MTBF
captioning is no exception.
Silicon Graphic's Broadcast Group, closed
rating of 750,000 hours. The 4GB, 5.25 For real -time closed -captioning applicacaptioning will not be addressed until the
inch drive has an MTBF of 375,000 hours.
tions, the immediate impact will likely be second release. He does not perceive that
Other drives have been introduced, noless dramatic because captioning information
supporting closed captioning will be a difcan normally be merged liveat the head-end.
ficult technical issue and believes it can
tably the Micropolis AV line and a line of
For future live or semi-live situations where
be solved by implementing minor software
high -performance drives from Fujitsu,
merging at the head -end for some reason
changes. Thedate for the second release has
that appear to be optimized for video
might not be possible, the problems of digital
not been set.
and audio applications.
conversion will be the same as those for offAnother vendor, Philips Consumer ElecMany random access computer video
line closed captioning.
tronics of Knoxville, TN, is developing softsystems are not compatible with drives
Technologies such as vi deo servers and nonware for the highly publicized Bell Atlantic
using thermal re- calibration (TCAL).
linear editing systems are generally geared
trials in Washington, DC. Brian Smith, vice
They require drives with either no TCAL
more toward off-fine production environments.
president of market development for video
or with on-board processors that proIn those environments, closedcaptioningis percommunications explainedthat closed -capformed onspecialized SMPTE-timecode-based,
tioning support is built intoits first release.
vide "smart thermal re- calibration." Smart
off -line editing equipment. Whether for realFor digital non-linear editing applicaTCAL, as it's called, will not go into retime (live) or off -line applications, whenever
tions, support of closed captioning is considcalibration when it senses drive activity.
information is converted into digital format, the
ered somewhat less of a priority. The key
There are a number of other issues that
system design must preserve the closed -capvendors developing off-line editing products
tend to be application and product spetioningdataoritwill be lost.
are at early stages in their development procific. With the constant changes in both
Several companies have announced inicesses for implementation ci closed captionsystems' requirements and drive specitial implementations of video servers. Most
ing. Currently, after the video has been editfications, systems integrators like Rorke
of the methods being implemented today
ed on a non -linear editing system, it is closed
Data Systems, who are video application
require the digitization, compression and captioned using an off-line caption editing
transmission cd the original video from the system. This 2-system process works well for
savvy and market a wide range of prodhead -end. The information is decom- many applications. However, this methodalucts, are a good source of information.
pressed at the receiving end. Generally, ways requires re- editing the material
some sort of motion compression technique
through an off -line captioning system when
Full bandwidth digital disk recorders
is implemented. In all cases explored, the
additional changes are needed. RepresenIn the area of digital disk recorders,
method used was MPEG orMPEG II. Unfor- tatives at Avid Technology and Matrox
there have been significant improvetunately, when the information is com- were contacted for this article. Avid exments and enhancements to real-time
pressed in this manner, the closed- caption- plained that it is exploring methods for
uncompressed DDRs from Abekas and
ing information generally is lost. To get
dealing with closed -captioning informaAccom.
around this, captioning information needs
tion directly from within the product. The
to be treated as a separate datastream withcompany was clear that we will need to
Abekas has the new Hexus system. The
in the MPEG specification.
look to future releases of the company's
Hexus combines two to six Abekas A-66
products before we will see this capability
DDRs in a tower configuration. Each chandesigned in.Matrox is also reviewing how to
is
Suarez
principal
of
the
Naples
Cupertino
Group,
a
marnel can be used by a separate workstaketing and technology consulting service for interactive add this capability to its systems.
tion in a workgroup or they can be used
television and media technology, Santa Clara, CA.
together to provide more than six min-
Avoiding closed -captioning problems
with disk-based systems
-a
24
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Med a Pool
is
the video server system from BTS that is shattering everyone's
idea of what tapeles= recording should :e.
BTS
for the Frst time revealed idea
shattering features si.ch as
Expandable Tine
frcrr 10 minites to hundreds of lours of video on -line!
Expandable Channels
from one user to a dozen or mare can have
simultaneous real -time access to the entire pool of storage.
Variable Data Compression Pon ful
to
bandwidth I0-bit CCIR 656 video
ary level of compression, you choose the quality of each video clip.
Unparalleled Reliability.
RAID error correction perfectly corrects all
errors and disk failu-es. Redundant ho- swappable drives, elec-ronics, power
supplies and fans gJarar tee that you stay operationcl when your revenue
steam depends on it.
Media Pool provides the first professional video alternative to tape.
Circle (16) on Feply Card
Call toll -free (800) 962 -4BTS
Outside the U.S. and Canada,
call (805) 584 -4700
Microsoft unleashes
its Tiger
utes
of
uncompressed D-1 instantly
accessible and controllable storage. The
Hexus is controlled
either via ethernet or
By Carlos W. Suarez
links.
Accom has the innovative Work Station
Disk (WSD). The WSD
has a capacity of 32
seconds of uncompressed D-1 video. In
D-1 /RS -422
addition to ethernet,
D-1, RS -422 and RS-232
ports, it has a direct
SCSI interface for the
workstation. This creates a much faster interface than ethernet,
or the frame -by-frame
transfer process cur- IBM -9000 scalable video servers based on IBM's ES/9000 series
capable of serving thousands of simultaneous video-multimerently used to move are
dia streams.
uncompressed video
directly on and off workstation hard subsystem that provides up to 8.5 mindrives. Because the drive/bus /processor utes of real -time 8:1 compressed D -1 or
combinations currently available in desk- Betacam quality on specially configured
top systems cannot process data at rates 2.4GB Fujitsu SCSI-2 disk drives. It is
sufficient for real -time video transfer, the capable of motion JPEG compression
WSD SCSI interface becomes the best
ratios as low as 3:1. Multiple drives can be
alternative for moving uncompressed vid- added to the system to expand the comeo on and off the desktop. The WSD inter- pressed storage capacity to more than
face also allows control of an external
an hour of compressed D-1. It is compatvideo device from the WSD keyboard. ible with the Mac environment and works
This means the workstation operator can as a video device in real time. The quality
move data /video between a tape machine, of the Video Explorer card and the low
the WSD and the workstation without compression ratios make it a practical
having other control systems involved in device in the most demanding environthe process.
ments.
There is a relatively new generation of
ASC of Burbank, CA, has introduced
video DDRs built on desktop computer the Virtual Recorder (VR). The VR is a
platforms. Sierra Design Labs has a fam- digital random access storage system.
ily of real -time digital disk recorders called
It has Betacam component, RGB, SQuick-Frame. Quick-Frame systems come video and composite video I /Os and
in a range of configurations with or withtwo channels of 16 -bit audio in and
out compression. The newest entry is the out. Video is stored at compression
Quick-Frame EX24 that provides almost ratios that are dynamically variable to
24 minutes of uncompressed 8-bit D-1 in
accommodate quality or data rate re51i4 inches of rack space. The system will
quirements up to 8:1. The Virtual Resupport expansion units for up to 180 corder is rapidly catching on as a way
minutes of storage. It supports VTR - to provide random access "video for
compatible RS -422 control, true non- audio" to digital audio workstations.
linear playback, 8/10 bit and 525/625
selectable video formats and has etherVideo servers
net and multifunction SCSI interfaces.
Different perspectives on exactly what
The Quick-Frame EL line, which has a video server is provide different definibeen shipping since mid-1993, starts at tions. One way to look at it is mechanical,
a 3- minute capacity.
that is an inventory of the components.
Hewlett -Packard has developed a 4:2:2 A typical video server might include one
video disk recorder that was developed or more fast processors, a large array of
jointly with Sierra Design Labs. It uses mass storage devices in a RAID or other
Sony Betacam RS -422 control protocol high throughput configuration and a soland stores three, six or 12 minutes of id -state buffer for real -time video and
uncompressed D-1 video, depending on audio outputs. Other components may
include internal processing schemes for
configuration.
Advanced Digital Imaging's Digital Mag- uncompressed D-1 video and various
ic system uses the Intelligent Resources
MPEG and /or JPEG compression, interVideo Explorer card for D-1 input and faces for multiple inputs, outputs workoutput to a high -performance Macintosh stations and terminals.
26
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Microsoft has recently entered the
"server" game with the announcement
of its Tiger media server technology.
The software is based on the Windows
NT advanced server operating system.
Tiger software is designed to be flexible, scalable, reliable and cost- effective. The number of servers implemented can be scaled up as needed
from one to virtually any number. Tiger is designed to be hardware independent and deployable across a wide
range of hardware. Distribution media can include cable television, LANs,
WANs or telecommunications networks.
The server softwareis one of the first
major server announcements that can
be implemented on lower-cost PC pro-
cessor technology. Microsoft believes
many applications will not require the
higher cost and performance platforms.
With this design, multiple low-cost servers can be linked and controlled by the
Tiger software so they function as asingle, virtual massive server. Because of
its inherent scalability, additional servers can be easily added as required by
the application.
Using a proprietary file system, Microsoft claims to have achieved greater
reliability and solved the inherent problems of continuous-media servers. The
file system allows for bits of files to be
stored over anarray of storagedevices.
Two copies of each video file are stored
acrossthestoragemediaMicrosoft believes
that this method is as effective and less
expensivethanotherredundancymethods.
Fault tolerance is provided through the
distributed systemdesign, nosinglefaflure
will stop the system.lfadiskfails, the system will compensate by redirecting the
data, the same is true if a disk server fails.
Intel, Compaq and General Instrument have announced plans to implement this technology for video server
applications. Intel recently demonstrated a video -on- demand application on its scalable multiserver. The
configuration used 16 Pentium -based
nodes capable of delivering more than
3,000 simultaneous video streams with
full VCR control. The demonstration
system also included 64GB of hard
disk capacity capable of storing more
than 50 feature-length films.
General Instrument plans to develop solutions for the cable head-end,
the broadband network and the inhome set-top interactive terminal using the Tiger architecture. A first -generation interactive terminal for multimedia applications is being developed that will deliver introductory
interactive services including programming guides, video -on-demand
and home shopping.
Suarez is principal of the Naples Cupertino Group,
a marketing and technology consulting service for
interactive television and media technology, Santa
Clara, CA.
`Management -&anted
to control cats.
My operators zevnted
less handling of tapes.
Maintenance wanted
high reliabity.
I wanted
excellent video q. aliy.
DigiStore ht-d
the answer."
-Fred Lass, Chef'Enginee.WRGB-TV, Sche rctady, NY
DIGISTORE 18 VIDEO TECHNOLOGY WORTH WATCHING.
Fred J ass is careful. When it comes to reliable
storage and dependable quality, he demands only the
best for his operation.
He chose DigiStore, the leading installed video
playback server in the broadcast industry. Like Fred,
dozens of general managers and chief engineers
realize that digital storage is the future.
DigiStore is superb video quality and automated
dubbing and scheduling software designed to
augment or replace traditional videotape cart
machines. The perfect spot buffer, DigiStore supports
library expansion for thousands of commercials,
promos, and interstitchals. DigiStore's AdWare gives
you daily reconciliation and as-run logs.
DigiStore has the flexibility to plug into your
operation today -without requiring extra software or
new equipment.
So don't wait to call DigiStore, 801-328 -1839. Don't
wait to save on maintenance, support, and makegoods. Choose DigiStore, the sound, realistic choice
for automating broadcast spot output that's good
enough for the best station engineers.
digistore
180
Wright Brothers Drive
Salt Lake City, Utah 84116 U.S.A.
Phone: 801-328 -1839
Fax: 801-328 -3668
DYNATECH
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Circle (17) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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The Media Pool from BTS, a fully redundant media server developed for broadcast and postproduction. Compression can be used if desired, but is not required.
From the system's perspective, a server may be defined as a highly accessible,
large- capacity random access storage
device that ties together a number of
workstations and their functions. With
today's technology, this can be a dangerous perspective. Users who expect to
find a server in the form of a box that they
can use to tie together several disparate
hardware and software systems to share
data and increase productivity are likely
to be disappointed. Standards and systems continue to evolve and many of the
cross -platform and even cross- application incompatibilities with the same platform make it difficult at best to use servers as the glue that is hoped for.
Perhaps because of this, there is an
emerging trend toward the development
of large, dedicated array systems under
single manufacturers with the processing, software, electronics and storage to
provide hundreds of hours of random
access full-bandwidth storage that is
instantly and simultaneously available
in a multi -user, multiworkstation envi-
ronment.
Silicon Graphics has the Challenge servers as part of its developing Silicon Studio approach to building a video environment on its Onyx line. Actually, the full
range of Silicon Graphics workstations
can be tied together on a network. As the
video I/O capabilities of Serius video becomes available to the larger systems
and Galileo video for the Indigo 2 system,
a true all -encompassing video solution is
conceivable. Many of the software applications on SGI are already operating at
the most advanced levels. The Challenge
servers can accommodate up to 32 hours
of uncompressed D-1 video.
Ciprico has the Spectra 6000 disk arrays. Using hot -swappable RAID technology, they can be configured up to 16GB
per unit. It is available in a variety of
Circle (18) on Reply Card
28
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
configurations and provides transfer
rates in the 19MB /s range. It is designed
to work with and has software drivers
available for the full range of SGI work-
stations.
Broadcast uses
The Dynatech DigiStore is a multichannel all- digital video spot playback machine. With seven systems in the field, it
is the leading system of its type today. A
single DigiStore unit can have as many as
14 2GB (9GB soon) drives on each of
three channels. It provides instantaneous
and programmable access to hours of
high -quality storage at variable compression ratios. It is compatible with other
automation systems and also does program delay duties.
Avid's disk-based AirPlay system is now
in use in two stations. The AirPlay provides random access to clips, spots,
bumpers, opens, closes and standbys.
Channelmatic offers the Adcart/D digital ad insertion system. It promises to be
a high -performance, cost -effective system that interfaces with a variety of software modules for traffic and verification.
BTS has announced the Media Pool.
The Media Pool promises to take the
concept a step further with a system that
can be scaled up to include access to
hundreds of hours of storage that can be
accessed by up to 16 workstations or
terminals simultaneously at full bandwidth. It also will feature various compression ratios. The system, which is expected to deliver this year, will initially
have all the components for spot insertion and management, program delay and
VTR emulation.
Tektronix has introduced the Profile,
designed and built around off -the -shelf
components. Profile is capable of up
to four channels of digital or analog
video, with up to four audio channels
and are not yet available in multigigabyte
sizes.
Disk drives are complex mechanical
devices that have numerous moving parts
and consume a significant amount of
power. A new generation of storage products based on holography is being developed. (See "Technology News," February 1994.) Holographic storage involves
scanning special multilayered media with
lasers. Storage density is already 10 times
greater than current magneto-optical or
The major
advantage
to storing
video and
audio hard
drives is the
speed and
convenience
of random
access.
optical recording technologies. Holographic storage devices also have few
moving parts and low power consumption. As work proceeds on these devices,
rapid improvements are possible, as is
the likelihood this technology will be of
interest to broadcasters in the future.
Quantel's Dylan, a disk array consisting of 20 SCSI drives that can
deliver CCIR 601 images at faster than video rates.
per video channel.
Disk -based video is not limited to a
specific application. As the technology
continues to improve, expect to see these
systems in a wide variety of uses, and
doing a lot of the work currently being
done by tape-based systems.
Beyond
disk-based storage
The major advantage to storing video
and audio hard drives is the speed and
convenience of random access. Howev-
are looking to replace linear tape -based technologies in
many applications, they still leave some
er, while disk drives
Editor's note: For additional information, see "Video Servers," May 1994; Applied Technology, Tektronix Profile, this
issue, pg. 80; and the upcoming Applied Technoogy on the
Quantel Clipbox in July.
issues unaddressed.
Cost of storage, system flexibility and
compatibility between systems and sites
are all concerns in today's applications.
Removable magneto-optical disk technologies are in limited use in video today.
They are improving in performance and
can add to a system's flexibility. However,
they still lack the speed required for
highest performance of many systems
1114
For more information on diskbased video storage, circle (339)
on Reply Card.
Universal Audio/Video S nc Generation
Digitai Audio Conversion, Processing & Sync
Dir ital Audio Transmission
Synchrono AES/E30 Digital Audio Routing
.1'
AES/E3U &Time Code Routing
RS -422 Control Data Routin
NV011efi
Call for our Digital Audio
Design Handbook and
Product Catalog
DEFINING THE CREATIVE EDGE
OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
NVISION, INC.
P.O.
Box 1658
Nevada City, CA 95959
916/265 -1000
800/719 -1900
V
Circle (9) on Reply Card
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
29
Complex routing for
post -production
Creating a unified control system solves
many of the problems.
By Andrew Delle
In
1974 The
Post Group was founded in
Los Angeles. By 1990, the company had
The Bottom Line
With the wide variety of
equipment available, the
number ofpossible facility
configurations is almost
infinite. Tying the equipment
together can be a daunting
task. Faced with the problem
and given the resources to
solve it, custom hardware
and software can be used to
streamline operations to the
benefit of all concerned.
Despite the up-front costs, the
payback can be significant
and long-term, making the
overall process cost-effective.
outgrown its primary facility and digital
technology needed to be incorporated
into the operation. A separate facility
was built to house the digital equipment
while the primary facility continued to
house the analog edit bays. This arrangement worked fine until 1992.
The marketplace became saturated, and
efficiency and labor costs became new
concerns for management. It was decided to renovate the primary editing facility cosmetically and technically in two
phases. Phase one required rearranging
public space along with a complete technical rebuild. Phase two involved moving
the D-1 edit bays to consolidate all editing under one roof.
Designing for efficiency
Operational efficiency simply had to
improve. The facility's large routing matrices were all controlled separately. In
addition, too much equipment was accessible only by direct patching. The rout er's final equipment load was determined
to be more than 60 broadcast VTRs, 11
channels of DVE, 13 digital disk recorders and eight channels of character generation. This equipment would feed the
switchers for eight edit bays.
The Post Group has always avoided
dedicating equipment to a particular
room. Today's multitude of tape formats
makes this an even more complex problem. The new facility needed to be designed around one unified routing system, not necessarily one routing switcher, but one central control network that
Delle is vice president of engineering tor The Post Group, Los
Angeles, CA.
30 Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
appears as one router to operators. The
system required custom software and
hardware unavailable from any manufacturer.
Designing custom software and hardware was nothing new at The Post Group.
Several specialized routing systems had
been developed over the years. The next
step was to design a system that incorporated all these old ideas into one system.
The system incorporates 23 separate
matrices from 192x160 to 8x4. The control system consists of 16 IBM PCs networked to two industrial computers then
to the matrices via standard RS-232/422
serial ports.
Custom panels were
rejected quickly due to
the rigid design rules
dictated when you cut
holes in metal.
Human interfaces
Various human interfaces were studied
including custom control panels, CRT/
keyboard terminals, mouse -driven "Window" programs, and touchscreens. Custom panels were rejected quickly due to
the rigid design rules dictated when you
cut holes in metal. The interface had to
be flexible and reconfigurable. Text-based
CRT terminals were deemed awkward
because of the numerous keystrokes required. A Windows program would be
state -of-the -art, but required operator
training and substantial memoryand CPU
horsepower to achieve the needed operational speed. Touchscreens were select-
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i`
D
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I
T A L
I
Since its inception as the nation's first advertiser-
supported basic cable network in 1980, USA
L
E
A D E R S
.
in Jersey City, NJ. The new Center handles all of
our post -production needs and our entire network
Networks has aggressively fulfilled its mandate to
origination, including the signals for USA's East
create a cable network providing a wide variety of
and West Coast feeds, the Sci -Fi Channel and our
programming for all family members.
blackout programming.
USA's programming
is
seen in over 98 percent
of America's cable households.
Our network features
exclusive original dramatic series and situation
At the heart of our
facility is the Panasonic
Digital M.A.R.C. Type
111
comedies. We produce over 24 origi-
nal World Premiere movies per year
featuring top Hollywood stars, and
we
continue
to license top -rated off-
network series. To our coverage of
The Masters, we've added
11
"THE LOOK VIEWERS DEMAND,
AND THE EFFICIENCIES A
GROWING COMPANY.REQUIRES'
KAY KOPLOVITZ
President & Chief Exend rr
USA Networks
PGA
Tour Golf Tournaments. In 1994, we'll add the
automated record /playback
French Open Tennis Championships to the
library system. The system
more than 90 hours of the U.S. Open Tennis
uses 10 Panasonic
Championships.
Al -D350 D -3 VTRs with a
In 1992, we launched the Sci -Fi Channel,
backup system, and
1994 we will launch USA Network for Latin
major source of all program
America. The Sci -Fi Channel formula blends classic
and commercial material
favorites and contemporary off-network sci-fi shows.
seen on USA Network and
Its movies are theatrical blockbusters and original
the Sci -Fi Channel throughout the day.
Premieres" series.
To
accommodate our expanding networks,
USA created a completely digital Broadcast Center
For more information calf
1- 800
r
completely redundant
now in 15 million homes nationally, and in April,
productions that are part of our "Planetary
Ott,
is
the
In post -production, we are using the first non-
linear edit systems with Panasonic D -3 VTRs.
Our four edit suites connect
machines, including
-528 -8601 (Upon request, enter product code 18) One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094.
12
to a "pool" of videotape
Panasonic D -3s.
© 1994 Matsushita Electric Corporation of America
Our decision
to use the
Panasonic M
.
R.C. system was
the right decision. We've achieved the look our viewers demand
and
the efficiencies that a growing company in a highly competi-
tive field requires. Panasonic worked with us to develop the right
software and provided extensive training to our employees.
Panasonic's strategy offers
a
simple, combined composite and
component digital system that provides all digital solutions for diverse
video recording applications through
the eventual HDTV era.
The Digital M.A.R.C. has run so much faster and more
Panasonic believes that digital
composite and component
signal equipment will
continue to co -exist for
many years. The company
sees interrelated D -3/D -5
facilities with each equipment performing the tasks
to which it is best suited.
Kay Koplovitz is
founder, president and
chief executive officer of
USA Networks. She contin-
ues to be one of America's
most influential corporate
executives, charting new
territory and keeping her
network in the vanguard of
the television industry.
Whether it's buying
off- network series, making
World Premiere movies, or
building the cable industry's
first all- digital Broadcast
accurately that we got an unexpected bonus: a few extra minutes
of air-time in our schedule. We're using it to promote more of our
Center, Kay Koplovitz and USA
Networks have never been reluctant
to be first.
programming to our viewers.
It's the industry's visionaries who
We firmly believe that we have the highest -quality, best
see an all -clear path to the future.
Panasonic
designed Broadcast Center anywhere.
Broadcast &Television Systems Company
www.americanradiohistory.com
Continued from page 32
3. Control panel input from edit bay (RS -485)
4. Timeline control from the edit controller (RS-422)
5. Timeline control from the A84 D -1
switcher (RS -485)
6. Menu video output (analog video)
Each of these signals requires a separate "patch" to move this DVE from one
room to another. The margin for error
plus the time required to reconfigure is
quite high. In our system, an operator or
editor touches the DVE icon for that device and the desired bay channel position. All the signals are switched
within /3oth of a second.
face. Any changes including the front
panel of the tape machine are copied to
all stations eliminating the need for exclusive lock -outs.
With all facility functions under the supervision of one system a tally system
was implemented for all tape machines.
The EWT (electronic white tape) displays
above each VTR indicate the controlling
source, the status of the destination lock,
and the video standard being supplied to
the VTR (PAL/NTSC). The display consists of an 8- character 0.6 -inch LED display linked through a separate RS -422
receive -only network. The physical inter-
1
central file server, there still must be
some place to store the master crosspoint status. These industrial computers
hold this and also provide protocol conversion from the network to the individual manufacturer's matrices. From these
computers, 20 RS-232 ports connect to
the routers through a changeover switch,
a simple relay array with diode control
logic for reliability.
The low-level controllers are custom
interfaces used where a matrix does not
have an RS-232/422 port. Custom microcontrollers are fabricated with an RS -232
input and parallel outputs to control routers, such as the Grass Valley
DPM 1325 8x4. Sub low-level con-
Additional control
capabilities
Another feature of the software is automated PAL/NTSC
switching. The D-1 bays are dual
standard, an efficient means to
switch between standards was
needed. Switching reference
black is done by an analog router. However, this is only part of
the problem. Much of the dual
standard equipment requires
internal DIP switches to be
changed and the CPUs reset.
Normally this means calling an A close -up of one of the touchscreen workstations, note
engineer to power down, re- displays in the background.
move cards, and restore operation to each device. To address this, all face is simple RJ11 telephone wire looped
devices have been modified with relays though each display. These devices were
or open collector circuits to allow re- also fabricated in-house due to the cusmote switching. These circuits are wired tom requirements.
to a large GPI device on the router network. When a room is switched to anothHardware components
er standard, the equipment assigned is
The physical hardware of this control
automatically switched and reset within system can be broken down into three
seconds.
major sections: high -level controllers,
Another feature of the software is inte- low-level controllers, and sub low -level
grated TBC control. Although there are
several good systems on the market, none
of them provided a total unified interface
Because its roots in
to the router. The staff wanted to be able
to control a machine's TBC from any locaheavy industry,
tion without having to work with two
ARCNET
is extremely
control panels and fighting with time sharresilient
reliable.
ing within the TBC control systems router. The ARCNET network has sufficient
bandwidth to support several stations
controlling many TBCs in real time. The controllers. High -level controllers are the
level control device or "pot" is a trackball actual touchscreen computers. Each
integrated into the workstation keyboard. computer has the operating program on
The keyboard is also used to type in its own disk. It is important to realize the
personalized names for the level memo- network is merely a high-speed data transries rather than simply numbering them.
port medium. There is no "file server" as
Ten memories are provided for every with most computer networks. Other
machine at each station exclusively, plus high -level controllers include the TBC
they can be copied to any other station. interfaces, the PAL/NTSC switcher conMore than 60 interfaces were designed
troller, and the EWT display controller.
and built from the component level up to These devices communicate with our prointerface with the various tape machines. prietary ARCNET protocol.
These custom interfaces are self- configAlso on the ARCNET network are the
uring for the type of machine connected,
two I/O processors (primary and standi.e. analog voltage or RS-422 control interby). Although the system contains no
of
and
36 Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
trollers are supplied by the router frame manufacturers as required. Because our physical
router system is made by Utah
Scientific, our RS -232 output
talks to its PL320 controllers,
which in turn, drive the matrices with proprietary protocol.
The key here is redundancy
and reliability. With a system
this large, you can only imagine
the financial repercussions of a
single -point failure. The software was carefully written to
the EWT
prevent this. Any touchscreen
computer may fail but will affect only that station. Stations
may depart from or join the network without any disruption to the system. As mentioned, the two I/O processors are redundant through a relay switcher. Sub lowlevel controllers have their own backups
as provided by the manufacturers.
ARCNET distribution was carefully designed to reduce the effects of cable
breakage or shorts. All of the custom
interfaces have spare cards in inventory
to circumvent extended down time. A
single matrix may fail but complete system failure for any length of time is not
likely. The post-production business can
tolerate downtime measured in minutes
without substantial revenue loss. Broadcasters, on the other hand, cannot afford
signal loss at any time. The design outlined could be further enhanced to provide absolute on -line redundancy.
At the beginning of this article we mentioned the need to increase operational
efficiency. Since the commissioning of
this system, downtime relating to equipment setup and configuration has been
virtually eliminated. Although the costs
in materials and man-hours to design and
build such a system may be high, the
revenue savings paid back will offset these
costs several fold. In addition, other factors that contribute to the bottom line,
but can't be directly measured, include
staff morale and client satisfaction.
TRICE
THE TEST FOR THE BEST
If you're faced with replacing your UHF transmitter, don't make
that investment until you've compared the Harris Sigma'
Series family of IOT transmitters to its competition.
Take a moment to consider these important questions.
COMPETITION
HARRIS
1. Which transmitter has total system automatic gain control
to keep power output from drifting?
2. Which transmitter design is impervious to AC power
interruptions or transients up to 6 kV with proven results?
3. Who can offer you multiple sources for final amplifiers
backed up with proof of performance data?
4. Which transmitter features full broadband correction for
channels 14 -69 for each IOT in the transmitter?
5. Which transmitter has the component accessibility and ease
of service you'll like most 10 years after the purchase is made?
6. Which transmitter manufacturer has the reputation for
introducing transmission technology when it works, but not
until it works?
7. Who has the most on- the -air experience and the
broadest line of UHF TV transmitters?
8. Which manufacturer supports its large installed base of
equipment with a multi -million dollar inventory of parts and
parts department that is staffed around the clock, every
day of the year?
a
9. Which manufacturer can you call 24 hours a day, 365 days
a year, and speak to a service engineer who provides help so
you stay on the air or get back on the air as quickly as possible?
NOTE: The short answer to each of these questions is Harris. For the whole story
call us. U.S. and Canada: 217 -222 -8200 or fax 217 -224 -1439.
International: 217 -222 -8290 or fax 217- 224 -2764.
W HARRI S
ALLIED
,g,
Circle (26) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
1991 Harr s Corr
oracr
Digital effects
systems
Getting away from the black box.
IBy Curtis Chan
The age of interconnected proprietary black boxes is rapidly drawing to a close. Except for high-end
products selling to boutique markets, the domain of low- to mid -
The Bottom Line
Digital video effects units
were once proprietary black
boxes. Today, many of those
black boxes have been
replaced by high-performance
computers, running specialized software. Many standard
DVE moves can be accomplished on today's desktop
systems simply by adding the
right software. However, the
high -end still exists. Top -ofthe -line DVEs are capable of
sophisticated real-time effects
that were only dreamed of
just a few years ago.
market black boxes has given way
to cross -compatible computer platforms integrated with the latest
generation of plug-ins and running
customized software. This article
will focus on how DVEs are becoming more software -based, and
what's new in the latest generation
of high -end DVEs.
Improvements in chip design and
fabrication technology have allowed DVE manufacturers to integrate high -end performance features onto silicon, resulting in greater cost efficiencies. The next generation of DSP ASICs will make it
cost efficient to simply develop
code and port it over to a common
computer platform. Consider that
one day in the near future, it is
possible the production environment might be nothing more than
multiple workstations linked to a
massive client/server network.
A digital video effect done on a high -end effects
system.
Market realities
(Photo courtesy of Quanta)
It simply boils down to money
and the economics of doing business. First, realize that much of the latest lished computing, connectivity and optechnology within this industry is bor- erating system platforms. Because there
rowed from larger markets, such as the are multiple sources for vendors, DVE
computer or information technology in- companies can realize the benefits of
dustries. Second, the computer industry shortened development times. Last, the
has generously supplied us with estab- financial leap -of -faith is small if a company invests in the development of code
rather than fronting capital costs for
Chan is president of Chan and Associates, a marketing consultproduct development and manufacturing.
ing service for audio, broadcast and post- production, Fullerton,
CA.
It wasn't all that long ago that DVEs (and
38
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
there's
in-,*
New
R
Wij To
Store And Retrieve
Digital Video Io
Real Time.
:
Inrroducing The
Spectra 6000
,
u1(
Disk
Rííij.
I11I11i
Visual computing just got a whole lot easier. By taking an
open system approach to storing and retrieving digital video,
Ciprico's Spectra 6000 disk array delivers real -time performance together with unmatched flexibility.
Seamless integration with Silicon Graphics workstations
give you the flexibility to switch between digital video applications, i.e. from paint to composite to animation to on- or
off -line editing. This impressive versatility eliminates the
need for "dedicated use" digital disk recorders (DDRs) and
can save you plenty.
Spectra 6000's performance characteristics redefine the
concept of productivity. Standard SCSI -2 drives support real time data transfer rates. Plus, now you can work with storage
capacities of several minutes of on-line digital video (as
opposed to the old DDR capacity limitations of under a
minute!). Each array can provide up to 16GB of storage and
can be combined with other arrays for additional capacity.
Spectra 6000's fault tolerant design and optional redundant
power supply assure continuous on-line performance and no
loss of data.
-
For more information about the Spectra 6000 disk array
the new way to store and retrieve digital video,
call us at 1-800-727-4669.
In the USA
In Europe:
2800 Campus Drive
Plymouth, MN 55441
1800 SCSI -NOW (727 -4669)
In MN: (612) 551 -4000
Fax: (612) 551 -4002
7
Circle (27) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Clerewater Place, Lower \\'av
Newbury, Berkshire RG13 414
England
(44) 635 -873666
Fax: (44) 635-871996
CIPRICO
any other production equipment) were
built on the philosophies of "one button,
one function" and "size is proportional
to price." The result was a control panel
or black box with an assortment of blinking lights, buttons, knobs and sometimes
a joystick. The control panel was usually
connected to a rack -mount unit, which
could take an entire rack. Unlike today's
software-based systems, updates were
rare and new effects were a long time
coming.
Then, small entrepreneurial companies
started to spring up with hybrid DVE systems based on commercial- off -the-
shelf computer platforms. These
were coupled with DSP technology
and controlled by software. At the
same time, companies began offering feature -rich video plug -ins for
the masses. Combined with powerful code, these DVEs sparked a revolution toward low -cost, performance-oriented products.
design have also allowed for proprietary
high -speed processing with novel approaches to digital filtering. Such progress
has given way to systems being able to
support up to 10 -bit 4:2:2:4 (upsampling
to 8:4:4:8) processing with real -time 3 -D
capability along with numerous upgradable effects. High-quality anti -aliasing filters reduce noise components. Faster
processing times combined with DSP/
software also allow for frame /field -based
processing in DVEs. Newer systems also
offer selection of digital serial component /composite inputs and outputs for
pristine video quality.
Being in a not -so- perfect world with
switcher in a "downstream" mode. Last,
high -end systems are designed to interface to the real world much easier than
their lower-priced cousins. For instance,
most high-end systems have comprehensive interfaces that provide flexibility
in controlling external input selectors,
edit controllers, switchers and routers.
Effects, effects and effects
One of the things you won't find lacking
in high -end systems is the endless stream
of upgradable effects. Aside from standard effects, recursive, lighting and nonlinear effects are on the rise. Recursive
effects, such as trail, motion -decay, mul-
tifreeze, time strobe and keyframe
strobe can be accommodated. Good
DVEs also give independent control
over each effect. On the non-linear
side, new effects are coming like wave,
flag, ripple, rings, mosaic glass, split
slide, defocus and sepia. Together
with lighting and shading effects control, modifiers, such as intensity, pattern, position and color allow precise
image creation resulting in 3-D realism
for non -linear effects.
The degree of control and the specialization of the effects are also what
sets high -end systems apart. Aside
from controlling each effect's attributes, such features as keyframe
storage add to the overall value. With
most functions, intermediate values
between the keyframes are automatically calculated and trajectories interpolated to complete the sequence.
Motion paths between keyframes can
be quickly modified. Various types of
motion paths, such as linear, spline,
smooth and step are available. Independent function time line processing gives higher control flexibility.
Newer systems also incorporate world
and set camera views, letting the user
manipulate each image in source, target, `world' or camera space.
Software and DSP advantages
Using a common computer platform comprised of dedicated plugins for the host, an add-on processor for the necessary video opera-
tions and controlling it with powerA "Rubik's cube" effect done on a mid-to high -end system.
ful code, has several advantages.
One primary benefit of coupling (Photo courtesy ofMicrotime.)
powerful software to a computer is
the ability to emulate specific control functions. The computer's keyboard and mouse with an optional
dedicated controller is usually all
that's needed. GUI's offer two additional benefits: 1) powerful performance features can be mapped on
the screen using menus, dedicated
icons and submenus, and 2) software updates are easily added. Instead of dedicated hard keys, soft
keys combined with menu parameters allow instant access to multiple
functions.
The computer also allows for the Screen -shot of a 16:9 page-turn effect within a 4:3 image.
(Photo courtesy of Abekas.)
integration of 3-D modeling and anEpilogue
imation software with real-time digital multiple formats, system flexibility would
The advancements in software -coneffects. Because the software and pro- be a godsend. To this end, several com- trolled DVE devices will continue at a
cessor share the same frame, sophisti- panies offer analog and digital compo- rapid pace. Parallel advancements in DSP/
cated effects rivaling much larger sys- nent and composite I /O. In digital compo- CPU design, along with higher -power
tems can be performed. Another benefit nent, systems can switch between 525/ computers will give rise to a new generis the raw processing power of the new
60 and 625/50. With built-in routers, DVEs
ation of cost -effective DVEs for the lowgeneration of CPUs /DSPs on the market. can accommodate multiple inputs per to -mid end markets. For the high-end,
Three-D rendering times are significant- channel and, in some cases, control ex- computer-based client/server technololy improved as is the level of filtering and
ternal switcher buses giving program- gy may replace the separate functionalmotion prediction emulated through soft- mable input control to the front or back ities of the DVE /switcher/editor within
ware and DSP. Furthermore, options are of the DVE channel. In addition, high -end the next half decade. It's going to be a
easier to design because of the common systems usually employ internal sync bumpy ride, but with profitable opportucommunications backbone. Plug-ins might generators that allow the system to gen- nities for the visionary companies.
include an add-on still-store or a full band- lock to color black or bars and memorize
width key channel for added effects, new- source timing on an input -by-input basis.
For more information on digital video
er DVEs support 4:3 and 16:9 operation.
This feature allows transformed images
effects, circle (336) on Reply Card. See
to be sent to a switcher for "upstream"
also "Digital Video Effects Systems" on
Higher -end improvements
manipulation or allows the transformed
p. 61 of the BE Buyers Guide.
The advancement in DSP and software images to be re -timed to the output of a
40
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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As
post and broad-
cast facilities upgrade
their systems, many are turning to serial digital video technology. Although such systems offer many advantages, they require
new design and construction skills
from the engineering manager. The
August issue of Broadcast Engineering magazine will provide the guidance needed to properly design and
build your facility's new serial digital
suite or master control room. Don't
miss this important "clip -and-save"
feature article.
Photo at right:
One of the latest high tech installations to use serial digital video
technology is the DirectTV facility in Castle
Rock, CO. The serial digital routing system,
installed by Sony System Integration Division, is among the world's largest. It consists of five interconnected matrices
the
largest of which is a 512x512 serial digital
router.
-
Your Station Operates 24 Hours a Day
So Do We
Meet the Continental Service Team. They are available 24 hours a day, 365 days a
year to assist you with solutions to any technical service questions. These people
have many years experience troubleshooting equipment in the field and are
knowledgeable about all Continental transmitters and accessories.
Continental offers the best service in the broadcast industry.
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42
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Cowta.zLon.
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FAX: 214 -381 -4949
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Belt -pack and plug-on transmitters are available in
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Studio cameras
High tech, advanced features and smarter heads
combine to make better pictures.
By Marcus Weise
In the past year there have been some
interesting advances in studio cameras,
in both lenses and camera electronics.
The new generation of cameras comes
with greatly enhanced capabilities, greatly reduced weight and little change in
price. Cameras can output digital and
analog signals in both 4:3 and 16:9 formats. In addition, they can accommodate
The Bottom Line
Cameras can output
digital and analog
signals in both 4:3 and
16:9 formats.
extraordinarily long cable
runs without signal deterioration. This article will
look at how these new features have changed the
studio camera.
For years the studio camera
has defined the "look "ofa
facility. Newscasts, promotions and commercials have
all been shot through the
"eye "ofstudio cameras.
Quality images are primary to
a facility's success, and one of
the best ways to achieve them
is through atop-of-the-line
studio camera.
Weise is president of Marcus and Associates, Hollywood, CA.
44
Broadcast Engineering
Lens technology
Because the camera output is no better than its
input, current lens technology needs to be considered. A standard lens
has a dome shaped or
A newly installedB:SLDK- 10 atMEt opolc Studios, New York. Pictured
with the camera are Philip J. Mancino, Metropolis executive vice
president(lef) and Robert C. Weisberger,, Metropolis presidentand CEO.
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
spherical cross section.
Light passing through a
spherical lens does not all
focus at the same point
on the focal plane. This
causes distortions including spherical aberration,
chromatic aberration and
geometric distortion.
These aberrations are
nothing new and are traditionally corrected by
adding additional elements to the lens. The development of the aspherical lens shape is an attempt to correct these
problems without adding
new ones. The aspherical
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Its easy with Nikkor ENG lenses from Nikon. Nikkor TV lenses
use the same glass and coating technologies that have made
Nikon optics the professionals' standard for quality, worldwide.
And when you compare costs with other 2/3 inch ENG lenses,
you'll be convinced of the value Nikon delivers.
Plus, Nikon service is second to none. We have service
facilities across the country, and you are guaranteed a
free loaner lens within 48 hours through our Express
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Prices quoted are suggested retail prices and are
subject to change without notice.
Loaner Service rogram.
Quality, performance, affordability, service -when you
add it all up you'll see why more and more video professionals are choosing Nikkor TV lenses.
To learn more about the value of owning Nikkor
TV lenses, call I- 800 -52 -NIKON or (908)935 -0175
for our brochure. Or write to Nikon Electronic Imaging,
1300 Walt Whitman Road, Melville, NY 11747.
NikonIMAGING
ELECTRONIC
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ities. New CCDs feature 900 lines
or more of resolution. Combined
with camera signal path bandwidths of 12MHz for green and
10MHz each for red and blue,
these CCDs can produce a high
quality image. Both triax and fiber systems are available. The
optical fiber systems available
for some cameras offer true digital transmission.
Another feature is picture -inpicture (PIP) in the viewfinder,
which allows the operator to see
other images the control room
wants to send. PIP's might include special effects setups so
The Thomson Broadcast 77111544.
cable connections as options. Cameras
have also become considerably lighter.
Also, some cameras allow the camera
head to be fully remote controlled from
a base station by telephone line or radio
unit, which increases flexibility for re-
With a fiber-optic
cable, runs up to 12
miles without signal
deterioration are
possible.
motes, particularly sports.
Other features include dual motor-driven filter wheels and full auto-setup and
diagnostics on camera functions. The
filter wheels are in addition to electronic
color temperature compensation or white
and black balancing, thus allowing for
some interesting in-the-camera color effects. Particular colors or neutral density filters can be added during shooting to
create or enhance the feelings in a scene
without waiting for post -production.
Many of the studio cameras offer storage systems for camera setups. One type
of solid -state memory storage card holds
up to 20 setups. The change in setup is
instantaneous. This means at the touch
of a button the camera can be re-balanced for different studio lighting or a
completely different show. Another card
shape can be varied or customized to meet the needs
of the lens or the job required. However, the basic
concept is to focus all the
light rays at the same point
on the focal plane.
Improvements in glass
composition have also created an increase in resolution and a decrease in chromatic aberration or color
distortion that naturally oc-
curs when light passes
through the lens. This improved glass allows a lens
formerly used only in 4:3 to
The AQ -235W from Panasonic is 169/4:3 switchable.
be used in 16:9 as well. Because of its capacity for increased resolution, the 16:9 format is the camera operator can set
much more demanding of lenses.
framing and still have the
Several companies have created diag- camera shot in the viewfinder.
nostic programs or software for their
Cameras have through-thecameras and lenses. These programs lens auto -setup systems.
make it possible to troubleshoot and They also have a great deal
of video correction capability, such as flesh tone detail,
6- vector color correction
Flesh tone detail
and automatic digital shadallows color
ing correction. Flesh tone
correction of the flesh
detail allows color correction of just the flesh tones
independent
tones
of
independent of the rest of
the rest of the colors
the colors in the picture. Bein the picture.
cause we are sensitive to
what true skin tones are and
not as concerned with the The HK-377fromlkegami, which features ahorizontalresolutionof
service these units quickly. By hooking colors that make up the rest 900 TV lines.
into a computer, the diagnostic func- of the picture this becomes a desirable storage system only holds one setup per
tions can be carried out remotely. Also, feature in color correction.
card but the card can be used in more
a running track record can be kept if
Many manufacturers are using 2/3-inch than one camera. This ensures a good, if
desired. The results can be sent by mo- chips for their studio cameras. The larg- not perfect, match if the same card is
dem to the manufacturer in the event the er the chip the more pixels can be put on
used to set up more than one camera.
problem cannot be fixed locally. Techni- it, which can increase image detail. DeSeveral cameras offer long cable run
cians can then analyze the problem and pending on the application, half -inch chips compensators. For example, when using
make suggestions to correct it.
are another good option. Many cameras 14.5mm triax, cable runs of up to 8,000
offer digital as well as analog outputs, feet can be accommodated. With a fiber Camera technology
which means choices from serial compo- optic cable, runs up to 12 miles without
The quality of CCD chips has improved, nent digital to component analog. Many signal deterioration are possible.
increasing density and resolving capabil- manufacturers offer triax and fiber-optic
Continued on page 50
46
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
THOMSON BROADCAST would like to thank the National Academy of
Television Arts and Sciences for once again recognizing the experience
and savoir-faire of the mother of digital with an Emmy Award. In 1993,
THOMSON BROADCAST's continual efforts to promote serial digital
technology, enhanced by the technical mastery of THOMSON- CSF /LER
and super- efficient SGS- THOMSON VLSI components, have been
unanimously lauded by the video domain. As both
systems integrator, THOMSON BROADCAST offers
a
a
manufacturer and
full gamut of digital
products which operate at the peak of performance. Cameras, routing
switchers, color correctors, interfaces, production and post -production
switchers, still stores, and master control rooms have all been conceived
within the most sophisticated realm of research and development
so that
you can reap the benefits of tomorrow's technology today. Our drive to
push the envelope of efficiency is visible in the 9200 switcher and the
whole range of the 9000 series, which capitalize on the advantages of the
latest THOMSON BROADCAST digital technology for the greatest
satisfaction of video professionals.
THOMSON BROADCAST
9200 Component Digital Switcher
THOMSON BROADCAST
-
17, rue du Petit -Albi - B.P. 8244 - 95801 Cergy- Pontoise Cedex FRANCE -
USA - THOMSON BROADCAST, Inc
-
49, Smith Street - P.O. Box 5266
-
ENGLEW00D NJ 07631
-
`3 (33) 1.34.20.70.00.
USA -
r
UNITED KINGDOM - THOMSON BROADCAST, Ltd -18, Horton Road - DATCHET - BERKSHIRE SL3 9ES - ENGLAND -
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- Fax
:
(33) 1. 34.20.70.47.
201) 569 1650 - Fax (1 - 201) 569 1511
(44 - 753) 581 122 - Fax : (44 - 753) 581 196
:
Aastraksia Tel: +61 2 88 88 222 Fax: +61 2
Austria Tel: +43 601 01 0 Fox: +43 601 01
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loaokx
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40 78 22 57
481 87 79
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88 80 440
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+851 481 86 70
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10/LDK
LDK
LOP
he touch of a button is all it takes to go from
ne format tc another (and back again) with the
LDK 10 studio camera and its lightweight, compa
and por.able companion the LDK 10P.
Both incorporate a iew BTS developmen
Dynami; Pixel Management (DPM) sensors.
This exciting technology spares you the
laborious task of changng optical blocks or the
costly e:pense of additi )nal DVEs. Whilst
simultaneously setting the superlative standards
horizontal resolution that
100 pixels
in both 4:3
and ló:ß formats bring. And without changing in be
angle of view.
Other remarkable aspects of these 2/3" DPM
sensors include no loss on vertical resolution, a
highlight compression/dynamic range in excess
of 60001.. Plus the highest possible sensitivity over
ail camera
lens apertures.
And like all BTS cameras of course, the LDK 10
and LDE l0P with their DPM sensors, employ Fraane
Transfer technology. So naturally, you get neither lag
nor smear. Just a truly iutstanding performance.
To discover more ajout how these
exceptionally talented cimeras put the power of
DPM technology at your fingertips, you'd be well
advised to study our free
brochur,s.
Use the reader reply
service, and copies will be
sent to you. instantly.
BTS
as Broadcast Television Systems, Inc.
)4 West Cochran Street, Simi Valley. CA 93065. U.S.A.
',all U.S. and Canada, .oil-free:
A PHILIPS COMPANY
r ., tin .,
Spain
Tel
.34
Switzerland
1
404 4200
Tel
+41
United Kingdom
Tel:
JSA /Canada lei
+1
1
Fax:
488 23
+44
7
+341326 6527
51
34 30
Fax: +41
31
1
488 32 43
23 Fox. +44
1
34 30 28 34
(800) 962 - 4BTS
Cread,i/e
she i°.ozdeyy (44 ,67-6
801 917 1551 Fax: +1 801 972 0837
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Continued from page 46
Borrowing something from consumer cameras, many manufacturers offer
variable speed shutters. Speeds vary
from /60th of a second to /2,000th of a
second. This allows the operator to
shoot video from a computer monitor
without flicker or phasing bars. A highspeed shutter also allows the shooting
of action shots without blurred images.
same time. The 4:3 recording can be
used today and the 16:9 recording archived for a later date. The additional
recordings can be accomplished without having to reshoot a scene just to
accommodate the other formats.
Future needs
In preparing for the future, cameras
are now switchable from a 4:3 aspect
ratio to the new 16:9 format. Because of
this, these cameras should not become
obsolete in the near future. There is still
some debate as to how the change in
size should be accomplished. At the
present time, the sides of the 16:9 image are cut off to produce a 4:3 image.
There are those who would rather see a
letter box -type image in 4:3 with black
at the top and bottom. In this way none
of the image would be lost from the
sides. However, the viewer would be
correction can be
done in the camera
before shooting.
I
I
Scene -to -scene color
Summary
Several of the cameras allow for full
remote control of all camera functions. This includes the usual production operations, such as white and
black levels, and remote control of all
the setup functions and correction
circuits. In the area of set up, most
cameras now offer excellent control
of picture details; automatic flesh tone adjustment, 6- vector color
correction, automatic
shading correction and
best of all, setup memory storage. Storage of
setup parameters allows the immediate recall of either exactly the
same setup used earlier or whatever was de-
cided upon in advance.
Scene -to -scene color
correction can be done
in the camera before
shooting.
Today, many of the
studio cameras have 2/3inch CCDs, with from
The JVCKY-27, setup in a studioconfiguration. Many facilities are
400,000 to 600,000 pixopting to use EFP-style cameras forstudio use.
els. Bandwidth over triseeing an image in a form they may not ax is between 10MHz and 12MHz for
be used to. In conjunction with this each of the RGB channels. Resolution
switchable aspect output there is also a can be upward of 900 lines. Auto new possibility in changing the scan- setups and diagnostics are almost unining output available from the camera. versal.
One manufacturer is offering a camera
With all of these features available,
with progressive and interlace scan the only thing that remains to be seen
output. (See "Cameras with Progres- is what will be added next year.
sive and Interlace Scan," at right.)
In the midst of all this, just in case
you're still not sure, an aspect ratio
For more information on studio
converter has been developed. Camercameras, circle the following
as switched between 4:3 and 16:9 asnumbers on Reply Card:
pect ratios still can only output one
format at a time. This device, when
BTS (328)
hooked to a 16:9 camera output can
Hitachi (329)
output both formats simultaneously. It
Ikegami (330)
accepts component analog 16:9 and outJVC (331)
puts serial component digital 16:9, seriPanasonic (332)
al component digital 4:3 and analog
Sony (333)
component 4:3. Simultaneous outputs
Thomson Broadcast (334)
allow all formats to be recorded at the
4
50
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
Cameras with
progressive and
interlace scan
The standard output from a video camera,
whether it is analog or digital, is the successive lines from one field followed by the successivelines from the next. Each field is composed of every other line of the frame, first
the odd lines followed bythe even lines. The
result is two fields that interlace to produce
one frame. Each field is half the picture. In
tube cameras the target is scanned by the
beam in this manner, and becomes the output. In a chip or CCD camera the information
is read out from the sights or pixels on the
chip. Progressive scan systems, ontheother
hand, output the entire image, generallyscanningit from top to bottom. Each frame is output complete, rather than as two separate
fields.
Because of persistence of vision, images
shown at a rate greaterthan 30 times a second
appear as continuous motion. However, dependingonthe number of images per second,
they may exhibit some flicker. Consequently,
in aTV scanning system, breaking the image
up into two parts (fields) reduces flicker
problems as well as accommodates transmission and spectrum space requirements. Picturequalitysuffers, however. Thenumberof
horizontal lines is not that high in current
analog systems and showing half the picture
at a time does not help matters.
Among other reasons, HDTV was created to
address the low-resolution (number of horizontal lines) aspect of current TV standards.
The need still exists for greater than 30 images asecond, and digital technology allows
the 60 fields or images each second to be full
images rather than half. In that case, cameras
would output 60 frames per second rather
than fields, providing 60 full images a second
ratherthan 30.
One way to create a progressive and interface scanning system in a CCD camera is to
store the image information in two field buffers. Each buffer holds one field. When used in
the interlace mode, the image data is read
from each buffer alternately, producing interlaced fields. In the progressive scan mode,
single lines from each buffer alternate to the
output creating a full frame. Thus, instead of
one image split into two parts as in the field
interlace mode, there is a full image each
time oratotal of 60 frames each second. The
end result is a doubling of the number of
frames and an increase in the resolving capability of the camera. lt becomes obvious the
image quality would be enhanced. Add to
this high -definition scanning with its increased line output and the results should be
the best images aTV system has to offer.
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Audio/video routing
systems
Handling audio and video in digital and
analog forms is a challenge to today's routers.
By Curtis Chan
The Bottom Line
Performance, reliability and
flexibility are critical to any
switching topology. Successful
systems provide all three at a
reasonable cost. These
challenges are solved in
various ways by the current
crop ofaudio/video routers.
Today's best systems offer
their users flexible architecture, configurable intelligent
control and the ability to
handle digital and wideband
analog signals of numerous
formats.
With the variety of analog and digital
signals used in today's multiformat production environment, a signal routing
system must be extremely versatile and
able to accommodate changes in the facility it supports.
The three key functions of today's routing systems are:
1.
2.
3.
An ability to handle I/O assignments.
The ability to perform virtual mapping.
Flexibility to handle multiple formats.
The following describes how these operations are handled by current routers.
Chan is president of Chan and Associates, a marketing consulting service for audio, broadcast and post -production, Fullerton,
CA. Respond via the BE FAXback line at 913 -967 -1905.
Broadcast Engineering
One of the unique
attributes of routers is
virtual mapping.
Router functions
Input and output assignment Present day routers allow free assignment of
inputs and outputs so that sources and
destinations on different levels can be
grouped under a single source or destination name. Multiple crosspoints can
also be switched simultaneously with a
single keystroke and saved in memory.
With this feature, the complete system
can be updated with a few keystrokes.
Virtual mapping: One of the unique
attributes of routers is virtual mapping,
of which there are two types. In the first,
a single routing matrix can be mapped to
operate as a number of separate routers.
For instance, a single 32x32 matrix can be
divided into a 20x20 and a 12x12 router or
two 16x16 routers. The second type of
mapping allows multiple routers or matrices to be mapped into a larger, virtual
routing level. This is useful in tie-line
52
management of routers when selecting
signals across two or three routing
switchers. By selecting the source and
destination points, the control system
automatically establishes the desired
routing path, and an auto-protect Function prevents the selected path From
interruption.
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Multiformat operation: Today's routers
can operate in a multiformat environment, which eliminates the need to provide separate routing systems for different signals. Intelligence in the router also
protects the source and destination
paths so that each is fed the correct
format signal. Most wideband analog
routers have bandwidths of 30MHz, but
RGB routers have typical bandwidths of
250MHz. With the advent of digital video
and the integration of low -cost chip sets
for serialization and deserialization, digital composite and component video can
be supported. Data rates are 143Mb /s for
composite NTSC, 177Mb /s for composite PAL, 270Mb /s for digital component
and 360- 400Mb /s for 16x9 (at 18MHz)
digital component.
Routing system architecture
Routing features vary depending upon
the cost and complexity of the system. To
meet the basic requirements of today's
production environment, however, four
router matrix types are available: analog/
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digital video, digital audio, data (RS -422A,
RS-232 or GPI) and time code.
The number of matrices and the maximum size of the router depend mainly on
the matrix type. Control typically comes
from a PC or dedicated control panel. In
addition, crosspoint switching and assignment can be controlled from either
Monitor display and/or PC control center: The monitor display usually involves
a dumb terminal that displays the status
of events and allows simple data entry,
such as changing of source names and
log events. The control center can be a
dition, reclocking takes place only at the
point of entry and exit from the router,
resulting in a cleaner, jitter -free signal.
General-purpose resource unit (GPRU):
Although not always necessary, a GPRU
can house a variety of interfaces for
user interface (GUI)
for system configuration and control
panel programming. The GUI display can
also allow off-line storage, editing and
recall of all configurations.
PC using a graphical
distributed intelligent remote -control
units or from a master management system. Source and destination displays are
either displayed on the control unit(s)
via an LCD, LED, fluorescent or video
display.
Typical routing system components are
described below. In most cases, RS -232 is
used for communication between the terminals and ethernet is used between routers and control units. (See Figure 1.)
Main routing array: The heart of any
routing system is the router matrix. Each
router frame is equipped with a full facility controller card that can control the
router as a stand -alone switcher or as
part of a larger multilevel router. In most
cases, frames can be connected via a
proprietary protocol or IEEE 802.3 on
ethernet to allow larger matrices or multilevel systems to be
built up. To maintain
high reliability, most
PC
controllers have full
(FOR
SYSTEM
redundancy.
CONFIGThe main switcher
URATION)
frame can support
multiple standards
via plug-in modules.
In most cases, partitioning the frame with
different modules results in a shared multiformat architecture
on the same chassis.
Broadcast Engineering
multiformat
Routing time code
easier access. Interfaces might include
video status reporting, cue and tally routing, multiplexed control interface and
GPI I /O. The front panel of the GPRU can
be fully customizable and fitted with specific switches, displays and key panels.
and machine control
Despite the best efforts of ANSI/SMPTE
time -code standard 12M -1986, inconsistencies of implementation abound, which
complicate the proper routing of time
code around a facility. Today's professional equipment uses either balanced
or unbalanced and twisted pair or BNC
for time code I /O. On top of that, neither
the amplitude nor slew rate is controlled,
Master and remote-control panels: Control panels can be simple push -button, X-Y
programmable or complex multibus alphanumeric programmable units. On the
simple end, push- button strips with each
button dedicated to a source/
destination can
TERMINAL
be used with a
(FOR
STATUS
standard routDISPLAY
er. Moving up,
AND DATA
and the problems usually get worse as
tape speed increases in ATRs and VTRs.
The easiest solution uses a time-code
router, which processes the input time
code as a digital signal, routes it as asynchronous bi -phase data, then reprocesses the signal to ensure correct rise times
and amplitude. Typical time -code routers can pass signals from '/30 to 100x play
at 32 frames /sec, keep a constant output
amplitude between +1.9dBu /+2.6dBu and
maintain the output rise -time propor-
environment.
J
RS
232
-j
ROUTER FRAME
(AUDIONIDEO)
DISPLAY UNITS
tional to the play
speed.
Routing RS -422A
ENTRY)
ETHERNET
ROUTER FRAME
(TIME CODE/
MACH. CONTROL)
y.
CONTROL PANELS
LT
The basic switcher
begins with a rearmounted I/O connector panel and cabling. Next comes some sort of matrix
card like a 16x32 and a pair of output
buffer cards for each n output (e.g., n =
32). These building blocks are combined
to develop the desired matrix configurations. Today's largest and most advanced
routers can be flexibly configured by
combining small (e.g., 16x16) arrays into
large matrices of 1,024x1,024 or even
larger. Intelligent hardware /software control interfaces can accommodate up to
32 levels of control.
Signal processing is crucial to signal
integrity in these systems, and many companies now use dedicated chip sets for
this purpose. For instance, one manufacturer's modular approach includes five
chips: crosspoint, serializer, deserializer,
regenerator and equalizer. This eliminates
unnecessary signal processing, equalization and jitter while also reducing power
consumption, heat, size and cost. In ad54
Today's routers can
operate in a
ETHERNET
TALLIES,
GENERAL
CUES &
PURPOSE
INTERFACES
RESOURCE
.-.
TO
OTHER
UNIT (GPRU)
EQUIPMENT
VIDEO
XY programmable panels with either push-
VIDEO
STATUS
DISPLAY
machine control signals can also be problematic. On a bad day,
mapping RS -422A
through a router
is
like facing midtown
-
Manhattan during
rush hour
every
other street is one -
way and sometimes
it is better just to sit it
out. Because commands are transmittire 7. A typical routing system conpositive feedback.
ted on one balanced
figuration.
These allow breakpair and received on
away sequences to be built for single - another, the system's crosspoint count,
button takes, and they can use any com- wiring density and complexity are inherbination of control levels. Warning ently double that of a simple program
prompts are usually given to indicate router.
selection of inhibited, non-existing or
To further complicate matters, internal
protected sources. On the high-end, mul- circuitry within the machine reassigns
tibus control panels can control multiple the interface pin assignments to allow it
switcher blocks with single keypad entry, to operate in either controlled or controland their status will appear on alphanu- ling mode. Whether the switch is physimeric displays. These types also offer cal or under software control, traditional
memory registers to store frequently routing can't adapt to a reversal of data
used combinations. Most multibus pan- direction. Finally, when sending a comels can select any source with up to four mand down a daisy chain of slaved deviclevels of breakaway, and send it to as es, it is difficult to discern which of the
many as eight destinations, with the press slaved devices is responding or having a
of a single key.
bus-contention problem.
button or alphanumeric entry provide breakaway capability and
fir
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Traditionally, relay or analog audio routers were used to switch machine control
data, which became an expensive proposition. Newer routers can fully address
RS-422A switching with NRZI data rates
up to 5Mb/s, however, and they have the
ability to dynamically configure each I/O
port to one of three states: controlling,
controlled or high-impedance. Executed
automatically with each take command,
this transparent changeover action in
the router emulates the mode -swapping
capability of the external machines and
simplifies system configuration.
Hints on routing system design
For the most part, handling video sig-
nals is relatively straightforward. The
trouble usually starts when you have to
mix analog and digital audio along with
the video. The following are some hints
that might make your job easier in designing your routing system for a audio/
video digital facility.
is small compared to the benefits, even if
asynchronous routing is used.
Today's most
advanced routers can
be flexibly configured
into large matrices up
to 1,024x1,024.
Plan your routing options: Use synchronous digital routing for on-air situations
or frame-accurate editing. Use asynchronous routing for pegged circuits (i.e.,
where routing remains fixed throughout
a session), and for mixed sample -rate
audio production. A small asynchronous
router as a preselector to a synchronous
router will allow sharing of resources to
process wild inputs.
Synchronize and standardize your facility: For synchronous routing, lock all
Consider fully digital audio switching
Direct digital transfers across dissimilar
format machines will eliminate unneces-
Also, sample -rate convert wild inputs to
sary conversions, save equipment costs
and configuration time. The overall cost
the facility master time base. It might
make sense to convert all analog signals
to digital early in the path (i.e., ahead of
the router) to keep the quality as high as
possible before converting back to analog. As is the case for video, define an inhouse full -scale digital audio reference
level and stick to it.
Arming yourself with today's technology, a few house standards and some basic
knowledge will allow you to navigate
smoothly through the increasingly complex labyrinth of audio/video signal routing and distribution. There is no more
important element in the infrastructure
of a broadcast or production facility.
Editor's note: The author wishes to thank Bimey Dayton
and Charles Meyer at NVision for their assistance in preparing
this article.
For more information on
4 audio
/video routers, circle
audio and video to a common reference.
(335) on Reply Card. See
also `Routing Switchers, " p.
56 of the 1994 BE Buyers
Guide.
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Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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World Cup
Soccer
'94
USA94
OOO......
WorldCup
It
The quadrennial spectacle will feature
many firsts this time, particularly for U.S.
audiences.
oikip
By Gerald M. Walker
The
most bizarre aspect of the 1994
World Cup is that the host country is not
The Bottom Line
-
It's being called the biggest
broadcast show on Earth
the 1994 World Cup Football
Championships, which begin
this month with the United
States as host for the first
time. Even with the infinitesimal U.S. audience for "soccer" (as they call it), the Cup
has had enormous impact:
Stadiums have been altered,
real grass has replaced
artificial turf (even inside the
Pontiac Silverdome), and a
massive communications
network has been installed.
The broadcasts will also be
unusually free from commercial interruption. Overall, the
games are estimated to have
a $4 billion economic impact
on the United States.
the host broadcaster. The rights as host
broadcaster went to EBU Sports International (ESI), a U.S. corporation formed by
the European Broadcasting Union. ESI
has established its offices in Atlanta, and
created the International Broadcast Center (IBC) in Dallas, using a combination of
experienced World Cup broadcasters
from the EBU and American staffers familiar with the high-tech style of U.S.
sports broadcasting.
As host broadcaster, ESI is charged with
originating and transmitting the World
Feed for all 52 matches. Feeds will be in
classic international style
non-biased
with standard soccer graphics and replays and no unilateral elements, such as
on- camera appearances of the commentators.
ESI will also provide facilities and services at the IBC and the nine competition
venues for nearly 100 rights -holding radio and TV broadcasters from other countries. This includes studios and production facilities for the broadcasters' unilateral coverage, along with scheduling
of satellite time and other interconnection services. ESI will also provide broadcasters with statistical information about
the 24 participating teams, the venues
and the game in general.
-
Setting up the IBC
All video in and out of the IBC will be in
NTSC format. This includes NTSC satel-
lite delivery, so conversion will be done
by foreign rights -holders upon receipt, if
necessary. The bulk of the IBC's equipment is rented, so use of easily available
Walker is editor -in -chief of World Broadcast News. Respond via
the BE FAXback line at 913 -967 -1905.
58
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
hardware was essential. In keeping with
its conservative philosophy, the IBC video format is Beta SP.
Conservative or not, the ESI procurement is big. More than 1,000 people will
be employed at ESI during the Cup. There
will be nine production trucks, 120 cameras, 250 VTRs, 5,000 videocassette tapes,
1,100 commentary positions, 1,800 audio
commentary circuits, more than a dozen
satellites, and almost 40,000 miles of fiber-optic cable in use.
Backhaul challenges
World Cup '94 has already been labeled
the largest satellite broadcast effort in
history. Surprisingly, the biggest challenge to the production was choosing
and organizing a workable system within
the American climate of regulatory freedom, which allows so many communications providers to coexist.
Nevertheless, ESI has harnessed this
abundance to serve up the Cup to a cumulative world audience estimated to be
32 billion by the time the Final rolls around
on July 17 in Los Angeles. An expected
two billion will watch that game alone. All
of the international feeds will be live
no tape delays will be provided by ESI
so most of these 32 billion viewers will be
ignoring time zones to view the action.
This also implies that there is no room for
failure.
After the first round, satellite links will
be especially challenging. This is because
it will be impossible to plan which countries' teams will play in later rounds and
how much demand there will be for preand post -game feeds. ESI will have a single day to make connections and routes
that it had three months to prepare for in
the first round. To deal with this, ESI has
"warehoused" satellite capacity to use as
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needed through the later
rounds. Adding in the regional birds used for transmission in other parts of the
the Dallas IBC. The network
will tap into the IBC's information pool to support its
own commentators, however. ABC will employ the same
trucks and backhaul links
that it uses to cover NFL
world, as many as 30 satellites could be involved during the World Cup.
Football.
ABC/ESPN doit
the American way
For FSPN, no sweat
Sports and ESPN caESPN will embellish its covble network are the joint U.S.
erage with remote-control
rights-holders for the World
cameras behind the goals
Cup matches. ABC will cover
and a unilateral Super Slo11 matches, including the fiMo system for some games.
nal championship game.
(Security requirements limESPN will cover the other 41
it what ESPN and ABC can
The Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA, is the site of the 1994 World Cup Final. Other
matches, so all 52 games will matches will be held in New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC, Boston, do with on -field ENG camerbe televised in the United Chicago, Detroit, Orlando and Dallas.
as, hence the reliance on
States. Both broadcasters
remote -controlled camerwill combine the World Feed with aug- imposed on the on- screen "game clock"
as.) ESPN will also provide reverse angle
mentation from their unilateral cameras, during play. (There is no real stadium coverage, and its commentators will have
plus their own commentators.
game clock in soccer. The official clock is on-screen drawing capability. Like ABC,
The biggest accommodation that Amer- the responsibility of the officials on field, ESPN will use its usual domestic satellite
ican broadcasters have made for the Cup who have discretionary power over the backhaul links.
coverage is the decision to forego com- time.)
The result of all this will be the first time
mercial interruptions during play. ComBecause ABC Sports has been covering an entire World Cup has been available in
mercials will be aired during the pre- NFL or college football at most of the English on U.S. television. It also will be
game, half-time and post -game segments stadiums involved in the World Cup, they presented in a distinctly American TV
only. Major sponsors' logos will be super- have no need for a unilateral facility at
style
except for the commercials.
ABC
-
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Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
the Skin Detail to soften the complexion and to give
your stars a more youthful appearance. A high resolution viewfinder has its own VF DTL (Viewfinder
Detail) and PIP (Picture -In- Picture) circuits. The HK377 has an AHD (Auto Hue Detect) circuit for "skin
tone capture." Master Control Panels are equipped
with memory card I/O Ports. A "Snap Shot File"
permits control and scene file data to be written into,
and read quickly, for shooting parameter replication.
Current users include: ABC (20/20, World News
Tonight, Good Morning America, All My Children,
Loving, Prime Time Live, etc.), CBS (Late Show with
David Letterman, 60 Minutes , CBS Evening News,
Sunday Morning, etc.); Disney/MGM, MTI, TNN,
Turner Entertainment Network, Goodyear Blimp,
Unitel Mobile Video, GC & Co., and Channels 2 and
13 Buenos Aires.
Shoot your stars, with the HK-377. Call the nearest
Ikegami Regional Office.
The HK -377 Ultra- wideband Studio/Field CCD
Camera System has the highest resolution, sensitivity
and pixel count of any NTSC camera currently
available. The camera employs newly -developed
2/3" FIT CCDs, each with more than 600,000 pixels.
An ultra -wideband triax system with 10MHz
bandwidth for each RGB channel delivers an
unprecedented 900 TV Lines resolution at the base
station output. The new hase
station has provisions for
digital signal output
The HK-377P portable companion
offers the same performance
characteristics as the HK-377 and
operates through the same Base
Station or can be configured for
stand-alone operation.
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the demands of high -quality
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Ieaa m i
Wrist -watch profits
Dick Tracy move over- the MessageWatch is here,
and broadcasters get a piece of the action.
The Bottom Line
FM subcarrier applications
are about to get a boost as
From a broadcast engineer's perspective, leasing subcarrier capacity is like
renting out a guest room in your home.
The additional revenues it provides must
be balanced against the overall cost of
management and oversight of one or more
subcarrier lessees. The Advanced Corn-
the long-awaited wrist-watch
pager debuts. Buoyed by the
name recognition of a
popular watch manufacturer,
STS plans to expand its network of radio stations to cover all major metropolitan areas in the United States by 1995. It
is also planning to establish ACTT networks in a number of countries including
Canada, China, France, Japan and the
Netherlands, with the goal of becoming
the first global subcarrier network.
The ACTT subcarrier
communications protocol is called the High Speed Data System
(HSDS). It is based on a
packet -oriented, time -di-
this service could become
the most successful
subcarrier service ever
launched. It provides
subcarrier-leasing opportunities for multiple FM stations
in every market as the
system builds its planned
worldwide coverage.
The MessageWatch circuit board.
munications and Time- keeping Technology (ACTT"') system from Seiko Telecommunication Systems (STS) of Beaverton,
OR, is a subcarrier lessee who, like a good
housemate, strives to be neat, quiet, relatively undemanding of physical space
and financially stable.
Now installed at 13 FM stations in Portland, OR, and Seattle (areas well -known
for their challenging terrain conditions),
the ACTT system is used to broadcast
paging and other data to approximately
12,000 MessageWatch wearers in those
markets. The MessageWatch combines a
Seiko electronic timepiece with a versatile pager in a men's -sized wrist watch.
Kean is BE's consultant on subcarrier technology, and a consulting engineer at Moffet, Larson & Johnson, Falls Church, VA.
Respond vua the BE FAXback line at 913-967 -1905.
62
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
vision multiplexed (TDM)
scheme with a raw data
rate of 19kb /s. The HSDS
FM- subcarrier channel is
centered at 66.5kHz, to
be compatible with international subcarrier spec-
trum standards of 53kHz
to 75kHz and the (stereo-compatible) U.S.
standard of 53kHz to 99kHz. The center
frequency is 3.5 times the 19kHz stereo
pilot, which allows phase -locking to the
pilot for ease of receiver implementation. The subcarrier is summed onto the
FM station's baseband signal with a typical injection of 10% (7.5kHz deviation).
ACTT keeps to itself
subcarrier applications it is critical that the subcarrier not interfere with
the main audio channel in a way that
would affect perceived audio quality.
There are two principal considerations
in this regard. The first relates to the
transmission filter and out-of -band attenuation. HSDS filtering at the transmitter
is implemented digitally with a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. The subcarriIn FM
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The ACTT system
broadcasts data to
approximately 12,000
Message Watch
wearers in Portland
and Seattle.
er energy is attenuated more than 60dB
at the channel edges.
Figure 1 shows a spectrogram of an
actual FM station operating with processed stereo audio and an HSDS subcarrier. The 19kHz stereo pilot is plainly visible at a level approximately 20dB below
reference modulation (±75kHz peak deviation). The 38kHz L-R subchannel energy
extends from approximately 23kHz to
53kHz. The HSDS subcarrier centered at
66.5kHz in Figure 1 shows the steep attenuation slopes provided by digital filtering. (Due to the integration time of the
filters in the spectrum analyzer, the indicated level of the modulated subcarriers
is less than their steady-state values.)
The HSDS spectrum has been shown to
be compatible with
RBDS
have demonstrated HSDS has no noticeable interference with the main channel
audio. To demonstrate this performance,
recordings of mobile stereo FM reception have been presented by STS at various local SBE meetings.
High data-transmission rate
The ACTT system currently operates
one of the world's highest data transmission rates for paging -style personal communications services (PCS) devices. The
66.5kHz subcarrier is a double -sideband,
suppressed-carrier, PSK amplitude -modulated signal using a technique of controlled intersymbol interference called
duobinary encoding to achieve 1bit /s /Hz
efficiency. At 19kb /s, HSDS is 16 times
faster than the current RBDS standard
The Message Watch
combines an electronic
timepiece with a versatile pager in a men's sized wrist watch.
ity to use multiple-station transmissions
and retransmissions of paging and other
data. This ensures high reliability, especially in multipath situations where signal "collisions" can cause loss of data.
The use of multiple FM stations for transmission within a single market is accommodated by the ACTT system's use of
frequency-agile receivers, precise time offset message transmission on each station, and transmitted lists. By transmitting the same message from one or more
stations, using short time delays (offsets)
between transmissions, the HSDS protocol affords ample time for a patented,
frequency-agile antenna in the ACTT receiver module to change its tuned FM
frequency to a clear signal containing a
message packet. (The antenna also
adapts to whether the watch is being
worn, and even to the wrist diameter of
the wearer.)
The multiple-station capability of the
HSDS protocol not only ensures high
message reliability, but also allows FM
stations to be easily networked together
into a single system. It achieves this
through the following technique.
Along with formatting, address, Univer-
sal Coordinated
Time (UTC) and
service,
message data, each
HSDS protocol data
packet contains a
list of surrounding
FM stations using
which operates at
57kHz. After thor-
ough testing of
RBDS receivers, STS
has determined
that the HSDS modulation spectrum
L+R
PILOT
the protocol. By
L-R
reading this list and
then automatically
adjusting its subcarrier receiver to
an available signal,
an ACTT receiver
module can operate continuously as
it moves out of one
FM station's broadcast area and into
another's. With this
ubiquitous coverage capability, STS
plans to cover the
United States, and
HSDS
4---
degrades RBDS by
an average of less
than 1dB, based on
10
the typical RBDS bit dB /div.
error rate (BER)
performance of 10-2
and the recommended
(minimum) RBDS injection level of 2.66 %.
Regarding spectral space requirements, as implied
earlier, the ACTT
70
80
90
10o
10
20
30
40
50
60
o
subcarrier is friendKHz
KHz
eventually the
ly to existing stereo
world, with a unimain channel auFigure 1. Baseband spectrum display of actual stereo -FM station running 66.5kHz HSDS
fied global ACTT
dio, RBDS and
subcarrier.
network.
92kHz subcarrier
It also means that many FM stations
services. Only existing 67kHz subcarrier and eight times faster than the new
services would have to be removed to 2,400bit /s paging code standard. This may have an opportunity to share in STS's
accommodate ACTT transmission.
means radio stations in a market may be success by providing the system's delivery channels on their subcarriers.
The second potential interference able to serve millions of subscribers.
source is non -linear mixing of the subcarHSDS allows the use of extremely small
rier and the main -channel audio caused receivers with extremely long battery life.
by multipath. As a countermeasure, the Receivers may have duty cycles that
For more information on the
HSDS protocol uses data -randomization
range from continuously on to as low as
Seiko Telecommunication
to "whiten" the signal, thereby avoiding 0.01 %, providing flexibility to optimize
Systems ACTT system, circle
generation of perceptible beat notes message delay, data throughput and bat(318) on Reply Card.
(birdies). Extensive testing and opera- tery life.
tional experience in Seattle and Portland
Unique to the HSDS protocol is its abil-
4
64
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Implementing
RBDS
Getting RBDS on the air sooner rather than
later has its advantages.
By Skip Pizzi, technical editor
The Bottom Line
The Radio Broadcast Data
System (RBDS) has been an
official U.S. standard for
about a year, and the industry is slowly beginning to
implement it. The classic
"chicken and egg" problem
has kept it from rapid
success, with most receiver
manufacturers waiting for the
number of RBDS stations and
the consumer demand for
RBDS radios to increase.
Broadcasters needn't wait to
reap the benefits from RBDS,
however. New "industrial"
applications can allow the
service to turn some quick
profits.
FM radio stations in the United States
have gradually begun to implement RBDS.
The 57kHz subcarrier service has a lot of
features to offer (see "Rx for New Radio
Profits," March 1992), but its ultimate
consumer acceptance in this country is
still uncertain. A critical mass of stations
has not yet begun to offer RBDS (although
the number is slowly growing). Also, the
quantity of receivers on the U.S. market
capable of displaying RBDS data is still
tiny. With only a few notable exceptions,
major receiver manufacturers
including the important car radio makers
have maintained a wait- and-see attitude
- -
about
The downside
adopters of RBDS have
become more familiar with the system,
they have encountered stumbling blocks
that are impeding RBDS from reaching its
full potential. Consider the following:
As the early
RBDS.
Major receiver
manufacturers have
maintained a wait -andsee attitude about
RBDS.
Nevertheless, RBDS encoding hardware
is relatively inexpensive and easy to install. (See "Re: Radio," May 1992.) The
starting point is an RBDS coder, which is
a programmable data modulator and
57kHz subcarrier generator in a single
box. RBDS data is generated either by the
coder's internal processor or by an external PC connected to the coder via RS -232
(or both). Incoming data via telco line
from a third -party client can also be incorporated. The composite FM signal is
sampled by the coder for synchronization of the 57kHz subcarrier and its
1,187.5Hz word clock to the 19kHz pilot.
Finally, the RBDS coder output is sent to
the stereo generator's subcarrier input,
66
data settings are initialized, and RBDS
service is up and running.
Space requirements are typically a few
rack units and perhaps some desktop
space for a PC (or just a laptop). Coder
costs are typically under $5,000, although
a station can spend from about $2,500 to
$10,000 or more to implement RBDS.
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Is it RDS or RBDS? The Radio Data
System (RDS) was developed in Europe
in the 1980s. It is now in relatively widespread use there among state -sponsored/
controlled and other public broadcast-
ers. (Private commercial /independent
stations in Europe have not yet fully embraced the system.) Subsequently, the
U.S. variant of RDS was developed, using
the same core technology but with different coding definitions and other details.
To distinguish between systems, the U.S.
standard is called Radio Broadcast Data
System (RBDS). However, receiver manufacturers are generally sticking with the
"RDS" terminology in labeling and marketing RBDS -equipped receivers in the
United States. Naturally, this has caused
some confusion within the industry.
Not all RBDS radios are created equal.
For a radio receiver to display the RDS/
RBDS logo, not all RBDS functions have to
be included. In fact, no current RBDS
radio incorporates every possible function of the system, and probably few ever
will. The RBDS receiver standard is vol-
Ca+ Be 1Jlr 1C
Your
Phone System
Weirdo on line one. Bitter psycho on two. Irritated
mom on three. Religious zealot on four. Talk shows
seem so simple. At least your phone system is, if
it's the new TS612 from Gentner.
The TS612 is a six -line (expandable to 12)
Telephone System. It features Gentner's
Direct Connect TechnologyTM, which
allows you to hook it into a regular
phone line. Plus, its built -in handset and
keypad eliminate the need for another
screening phone. With the TS612, you
can talk to callers (even the Pizza Guy)
off -air, while other callers are on -air.
Technologically, the TS612 features built -in mix minus, to compliment Gentner's digital audio enhancement. It has two DCT
Superhybrids, automatic level control, dual air control surfaces,
optional screener control surface, and dual audio bus operation.
You also have DCT connection to your hard disk or studio PC, for
the
screening and controlling calls. But what would you expect
TS612 was designed specifically for talk shows.
-
See your Gentner rep today, or call
1- 800 -945 -7730 and make your life
easier with the TS612. After all,
that psycho's still on line two.
Gentner
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Stuf
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (32) on Reply Card
untary. Receiver manufacturers
need only to comply with it to
the level that they feel is appropriate to a product and its market. (Some encoders are not fully capable of implementing all
the RBDS standard's features.)
to serve third -party functions
for industrial users (i.e., nonlisteners), such as paging or
Differential GPS. (See "Radio
in Transition," December
1993). Meanwhile, most of the
new higher -speed subcarrier
data services are targeting
non-PAD applications. It may
The RBDS data rate is low. With
the advent of several new non RBDS subcarrier data systems
offering data rates up to 19kb/s
(see "Wrist -Watch Profits," p.
62), some broadcasters have
questioned the wisdom of establishing a subcarrier service
with a data rate of only 1.2kb /s.
be some time before any of
these new systems are actually producing revenue for their
host stations (if ever). RBDS is
already an accepted standard,
and hardware is in production.
New third -party RBDS applications continue to develop,
The EIA is promoting the cause of RBDS within the consumer electronand a station can support sevSufficient consumer demand ics industry. This display appeared at the 1993 Summer CES in Chicago,
eral of these services simultawhere more than a dozen FM stations were broadcasting RBDS data.
has not been demonstrated. RBDS
neously on the so-called Group
service is unlike anything ever
3 (and other) data packets of
presented to the broadcast consumer. It an hardware that has been adapted to its RBDS service. Furthermore, RBDS does
is unclear if listeners will accept and use
RBDS operation. This can make it expennot preclude the use of other higher the text data and "smart- radio" features sive or difficult to use.
frequency, higher data -rate subcarriers
delivered by RBDS. Traffic data and emerby an FM station, using either existing or
gency alerting functions seem to be the
The upside
proposed technologies. Therefore, no avonly items that are considered generally
There is hope on the horizon regarding enues to future datacasting growth are
desirable to today's average user.
some of the problems just mentioned. closed by implementing RBDS today.
For example, RBDS proponents argue that
Concerning consumer demand, the EIA
Encoding hardware is still largely Euro- even at only 1.2kb /s, RBDS can still pro- has recently begun a survey of consumer
centric. Much of the RBDS equipment
vide a significant amount of program - preference for RBDS services. Results
available to U.S. broadcasters is Europe- associated data (PAD), plus some ability should be available soon. EIA is also con-
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year, RDS /RBDS consumer
radios are being purchased by
your listening audience, which
means the time is right to pursue the
revenue opportunities RDS /RBDS has
to offer.
RE AMERICA continues its
is
tradition as the leader in RDS /RBDS
technology, now with a family of
products. Whether you choose the
RE 533 for single -user datacasting or
the RE 532 for multi -user datacasting, RE has the right encoder to
meet your budget and operational
needs.
RE takes the
risk out of choosing
encoder by employing flashprom technology in both
the RE 533 and the RE 532. Future
upgrades and enhancements are
simply downloaded via disc soffware available from RE. You make
the choice, the RE family has got
you covered.
an
RDS /RBDS
re
RE AMERICA, INC.
Available through:
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Harris Allied
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Circle (39) on Reply Card
68
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
31029 Center Ridge Rd.
Westlake, Ohio 44145
Phone: (216) 871 -7617 A. Fax: (216) 871 -4303
WHAT IF YOU COULD
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:H
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WHEN QIÓJÁLITV
OUNTS
ducting training and awareness workshops for broadcasters
and retailers about the RBDS service.
Meanwhile, second -generation RBDS encoding hardware is
now becoming available, which is more appropriate and
configurable to current and future U.S. needs.
Monitoring the RBDS signal
stations begin to implement RBDS, it has become
necessary to monitor for presence and quality of the subcarrier and its data. Just putting an RBDS radio in your car and
checking the display on the ride home is not enough.
Responding to this need, a few manufacturers have released RBDS monitors with many special features. Currently,
these monitors are designed either as rack-mounted, dedicated devices or as PC- based, software- driven systems.
One important feature that some of these monitors provide
is the ability to measure the actual injection level of the 57kHz
RBDS subcarrier. This is critical because at its nominal recommended level of 2.6 %, the RBDS subcarrier may fall outside
the injection measurement tolerance of some FM modulation
monitors. Another useful feature on some RBDS monitors is a
tunable front end, allowing a station to closely monitor its
competitors' RBDS signals.
As radio
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Short -term vs. long-term benefits
Although only about 2% of U.S. FM stations have implemented RBDS, there may be considerable advantages (and minimal risk) for stations adding the service today. Short -term
payback to broadcasters on their RBDS implementation may
come from industrial users of third -party applications, while
the value -added advantages of PAD and "smart- radio" RBDS
features may not be experienced until later.
Industrial RBDS applications and hardware may soon experience significant expansion. For example, RBDS paging, which
to date has been dominated by one or two companies, may
soon have several new players and much wider availability.
Other industrial RBDS receivers have also been developed,
providing enhancements that make them appropriate for
new mobile data applications. These features include addressability, custom configurability, integrated locating ability
and full RBDS feature -set decoding.
Because of their easily targeted markets and valuable services, industrial applications may achieve quick viability and
profitability. It may benefit stations to be among the first to
implement RBDS in their markets, thereby attracting thirdparty service providers to established 57kHz subcarriers.
Although it will take time before RBDS provides service to
large numbers of listeners, it may bring an earlier revenue
boon to stations via its other uses.
4 For more information
on RBDS encoding hardware,
circle the following numbers on Reply Card:
AEV
Broadcast Electronics
Circuit Research Labs
Modulation Sciences
RE America
Rohde & Schwarz
SCA Data Systems
Teli AB
Tectan
Circle (41) on Reply Card
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Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Re: Radio
Back to basics
By John Battison, P.E.
I've been meeting quite
a few new en-
trants to the radio field recently. Despite
the industry's current loss of technical
positions, it seems that some young men
and women are going into radio station
work. Some radio stations are also offering LPTV as an extra service
sort of
"radio with pictures"
and these will
-
-a
also need technical help.
To my surprise, some of these new AM/
FM/LPTV combo stations do not have a
steady, or contract, technician or engineer. It is amazing what some station
managers will do when establishing an
operation. Recently I visited an AM /FM/
LPTV operation. For part of its programming, the station simulcast a popular
talk -radio show on AM and LPTV. The day
that I was there the station had audio
problems. Everything was normal on the
AM side, but no audio was being broadcast on the LPTV signal. I tried to track
down the audio path through a maze of
unlabeled cables in master control. I finally discovered that for some unknown
reason, the LPTV audio feed for this simulcast came from the AM air monitor.
No audio signal was present because
someone had flipped an output selector
switch on the air monitor, cutting off the
AM audio feed to LPTV master control.
I asked why they didn't use a hardwired audio line from the AM console to
the LPTV switcher, but no one seemed to
know why or perhaps how to do it. (Because this was a regular daily program,
hard wiring seemed an obvious solution.)
In earlier times, technical and operations personnel had to know the basics
and understand how things worked. They
had to know what to try if something
failed. They also had to know what was
inside the black boxes
although the
equipment was often not in a black box,
but rather on a breadboard.
-
Paths toward competence
The much -maligned First Class Radiotelephone Operator's License was finally
laughed out of use by the proliferation of
Battison, BE'sconsultant on antennas and radiation, owns John H.
Battison and Associates, a consulting engineering company in
Loudonville, near Columbus, OH.
72
Broadcast Engineering
"5-week wonders" who memorized answers and became DJ /engineers on the
strength of a dubious certification. Yet, in
its earlier days, the "first ticket" had great
value. There was a large number of "first
phones" who studied engineering while
taking transmitter readings every halfhour and became competent engineers.
Unfortunately, that number is growing
smaller every day.
In earlier times, technical personnel had to
know the basics and
understand how
things worked.
items, such as transmitters or RF/antenna components are usually best serviced
at the station.
In another nearly extinct tradition, station personnel built a lot of the station's
equipment from scratch. Sometimes this
was the result of the exact device's unavailability off -the -shelf, or because of its
prohibitive expense. In other cases, long
delivery dates or simply the chief engineer's love of construction projects was
the reason. I expect that many of these
home -brew items cost more than' their
store -bought equivalents when ''labor
charges were included. Yet the knowledge acquired while designing and constructing the project was an intangible
and invaluable element. Few stations allow this today.
Some powerful advice
The SBE has attempted to remedy the
situation with its broad range of certification by examination. Failure to join SBE
or take its exams does not mean that an
individual is incompetent. It is important, however, when looking for a new job
to have some certificate that attests to
your abilities. Passing an SBE test generally indicates that a person has reached
a specified level of knowledge, and, in
some cases, experience.
Fewer do-it-yourselfers
There seems to be an increasing tendency to send pieces of equipment back
to manufacturers for service. In many
cases, this makes more sense than having some ham-fisted individual with a
100W soldering iron attempting to change
a transistor. More seriously, the cost of
the test equipment and spare parts stock
required to repair modern black boxes
often makes it uneconomical, not to mention the time and know-how required at
the station.
On the other hand, the enthusiastic
engineer wants to know what's in the box
and feels honor-bound to repair it. There
is a point at which labor costs become
untenable, and engineers must recognize
this. Returning small units to the manufacturer makes some sense, but large
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
One of the first important lessons to
newcomers is the advice to not believe
everything you are told. For example, we
tend to assume that because incoming
power from the utility is identified as
"240V, single -phase, 60Hz," that it truly is
just that. If you are having unexplained
equipment problems take a look at the
quality of your primary power that is
delivered from the utility company. Sine
waves are not always sine waves. Sometimes they have spikes that can damage
equipment and put you off the air. Modem solid -state and computerized equipment can be fussy about pure waveforms.
This can make veteran broadcasters
envious of older tube equipment
but
then consider who among newer technical personnel could work with it? I know
of one recent hire that fell through when
the prospective individual said to station
management, "Oh, it's a tube transmitter? I don't think I could handle it -never
mind." How disappointing. Here was a
chance to learn something new, an important motivation that seems to be missing from today's technical personnel in
radio. This type of attitude will not help
new technical people succeed in the future broadcast environment.
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Transmission Technology
Tubes vs. solid -state
devices
By Don Markley
When
Einstein was a young man, he
briefly worked as a patent examiner. He
was good, and was able to cut through
the rhetoric of patent applicants and
quickly evaluate the basic principles involved in each application.
Although solving the problems involved
in selecting a new transmitter will not win
you a Nobel prize, it will keep the
suits in the front office happier. However, the Einstein analogy applies.
lel configuration. These amplifiers normally operate in a "soft- fail" manner,
wherein the failure of one amplifier mod-
ule only reduces the total power output
and does not take the transmitter off-theair. Also, virtually all modern transmitters have hot plug-in capability and diagnostic systems
that permit a
failed module
to be identified
Sweep aside the rhetoric and look at
the bottom line, which is money.
Solid -state devices have improved
significantly for high-power applications from 100MHz to 1GHz. The
number of devices found in each
amplifier has decreased as the
power-handling ability of the devices has increased. The "catch
22" that has always surrounded
high-power design involves heat
and capacitance. When the junction area is made larger to better
dissipate heat, the junction ca-
and removed
from the transmitter while
maintaining
normal operation. The mod-
ules
significant. Let's compare small FM transmitters with either a solid -state or a tube
final amplifier. We'll assume only one tube
will be used in the transmitter.
Looking at a Class A FM station, we will
assume a transmitter power output (TPO)
of 3.8kW is needed. A careful search of
the literature finds a solid-state transmitter for $36,500. Being thorough, you also
look for a tube-type transmitter. The nearest thing is a 5kW model that lists for
$36,300. At first glance it looks like the
sensible move is to buy the solid-state
system. Just think of the huge increase in
reliability.
Wait. Now is the time to do your Einstein
imitation and look at the basics. While
the mean time between failure
(MTBF) of solid-state devices is normally higher
than for a tube, it is
not infinite. In addition, the solid-
state transmitter
has replaced one
pacitance increases, reducing
the maximum frequency at
which the device can be used.
vacuum device
with several solid -state devices.
For all practical
Therefore,
purposes, VHF television has gone totally solid-state. Effi-
the
MTBF of the overall
amplifier has been
by 1 /n,
ciency has never
where n is the number
The 60kW TH760 Diacrode, one
been the significant
of devices. It really isn't
of the newest JOTs from Thomson
item of interest for
Tubes Electronics.
that simple. Many other
the big boys who play
things are involved like
in that arena. Regard- A Harris Platinum series solid-state
high-voltage supplies, tube sockets, etc.
module used for VHF can be
less, the solid -state
r e - In any case, it is not unreasonable to
transmitters for VHF approach tube effi- paired and, in some cases, bench tested assume a module may fail once every two
ciency and the costs are about the same. while the rest of the system plays on. years (rough approximation).
The improvement in dependability that Many manufacturers proclaim their modWhen an RF amplifier module fails, you
accompanied the conversion to solid - ules to be "field repairable," which is a are back to the field -repairable 747 synstate transmitters has been a significant nice feature if you have the personnel drome. The typical technician is experifactor as well as stability and the broad- and parts. Of course, Boeing's 747 can be enced in audio and is not ready for one of
band nature of the amplifiers.
called "field repairable" if you like.
these modules. Therefore, the module
Virtually all solid -state transmitters use
ends up going back to the factory for
multiple amplifiers operating in a paralFM transmitters
repairs. For this system, the module exIn smaller applications, such as a small
change price is approximately $1,100. A
Markley is president of D.L. Markley and Associates Inc., Peoria,
FM station, other criteria may be more
new spare is about $2,300. On the other
IL.
reduced
t
74
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
In 1986, Comark invented
IUT transmission technology.
Eight years later, we still
set the world's standard.
Despite what you may have heard, IOT technology wasn't born yesterday. We saw its potential to change the
transmitter industry quite some time ago.
We showed the first Klystrode amplifier at NAB in 1986, and put the first IOT transmitter into full -time
broadcast service in 1988. Since then, we've used more than three million hours of on- the-air experience to lead the
way in IOT research & development.
In 1991, our patented aural carrier corrector technology and advanced linearity corrector were developed to
meet today's requirements for high efficiency common amplification transmission. And in 1992 we introduced the
exclusive DUAL USETm system that lets you operate with NTSC today and, in the future, convert to D -HDTV.
But we didn't stop there. At NAB 1993, we introduced our third generation IOT system, the 10X. Its ultra linear
Class A drivers, optically -isolated solid state control logic, constant impedance output filter, leading -edge crowbar
design and IEC -215 implementation make it the most advanced UHF-TV transmitter in the world today.
So if you're looking for the most advanced, proven IOT
solution, go with the company that's been pioneering the technology
for eight years -not eight months. For more information, or to
request a set of our latest HDTV TECH BRIEFS;M call us today
at 1- 800 -688 -3669.
0
1994
I COMARK
A THOMSON-CSFCOMPANY
Route 309 & ,Advance Lane Will c, l':A 18915
TEL: (800) 688 -3669 FAX: (215) 822-9129
Cumuli Communications, Inc.
Circle (44) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
1990 Emmy
\ward for
Engineering
vel Imes
hand, the tube transmitter probably uses
a 4CX3500A in the final amplifier. A new
tube will cost around $2,000 or a rebuilt
can be had for about $1,100. With care,
the tube should last for about two years
in a 24 -hour-per -day operation.
So, what is left to help you in your
decision? The most significant item is
efficiency. The 3.8kW solid-state model
will draw 10.5kW from the power line.
Don't get sidetracked listening to the
salesman tell you about amplifier efficiency. All that counts is what shows up
on the meter outside of the building. The
5kW tube model will draw 7.9kW from the
line when operating at 3.8kW TPO. This
will result ¡Ft a difference of more than
$2,200 per year at $0.10 /kWH. Now you
have a better idea of the real numbers
involved and can make a rational, in-
formed decision.
UHF transmitters
The differences grow much faster when
looking at UHF TV transmitters. At low
power levels, such as 1.0kW for LPTV and
translators, the prices are close for either version. As a result, many manufacturers and users have opted for the soft fail mode with its accompanying reduc-
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Cable size is clearly marked on crimp
ferrules eliminating guesswork.
With the emerging digital video standards, BNC
connectors play a vital role in assuring the quality of
the distributed signal. Mismatched BNC connector
impedance can be a major source of signal degradation.
Reflections caused by mismatches degrade digital bit
streams, making it impossible to recover the digital
information correctly. What was trouble for 4.5 MHz analog transmission
can be a disaster for a 270 Mbps serial digital signal!
ADC has designed and manufactured a BNC plug with true 7552
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Conclusion
Changes in technology will continue to
reduce the gap between the two transmitter types. One manufacturer has announced a line of solid -state transmitters
with liquid -cooled modules, which results
in a significant reduction in junction tern perature. Reducing junction temperature
can double the MTBF of the solid -state
devices. As the failure rate of modules is
reduced, the gap between price and efficiency is narrowed.
For VHF transmitters, solid -state is
about the only choice. For FM units, solid -state devices are becoming a viable
alternative with minor real price differences at the lower power levels. At power
levels above 10kW, the old -fashioned tube
amplifier still appears to be the choice in
normal circumstances.: or UHF transmitters, the big break-point in power levels appears to be between 1kW and 5kW.
For some specific users with well- defined
needs, the solid -state transmitter could
be the choice. Otherwise, the lOT appears to be the tube of choice for the
immediate future. But in another few
years, who knows?
more information on solid-state
0 Fordevices,
circle (315). For more
information on tube devices, circle
(316) on Reply Card.
registered trademark of CE Plastics.
Circle (45) on Reply Card
76
tion in down time. Because of this, solidstate units have essentially taken the
market. As the power levels increase, the
differences become more apparent.
At a power output of 10kW, one manufacturer offers an excellent tetrode amplifier system. The power consumption for average picture is about 20kW
and the cost is less than $200,000. A new
solid -state transmitter with a power consumption of 30kW for average picture is
just under $400,000. The cost for a replacement tube is much higher than in
the previous example, but the number
and complexity of the amplifier modules
has also increased.
For the next example, we will look at a
30kW transmitter. A single IOT will provide that power level for just under
$325,000. The power consumption will
be 56kW for average picture with 10%
aural. To match this with a solid -state
transmitter requires paralleling two 15kW
amplifiers. The price would be about
$1,100,000 with a power consumption of
92kW. You have to want a solid -state transmitter to swallow those numbers.
Still, the solid -state transmitter could
be a viable alternative. For example, a
stand -by transmitter in a major market
would be much better if it could be placed
on the air in seconds rather than waiting
for the tubes to warm up. Also, the soft fail mode is a selling point, especially
when a few minutes off the air can cost
several thousand dollars in lost revenues.
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
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SBE Update
Going international
The International Committee
By Martin Sandberg
Wuxiandian
Gongchengshi
(Chinese)
Ingénieur radio
Rundfunktechniker
(French)
(German)
This is the way "radio engineer" sounds
around the world. The universality of
broadcast engineering requires that a
common platform for the exchange of
knowledge and standards be supported
and spread about the world. The languages are different, but opportunities
for cooperation are the same.
The laws of physics that relate to broadcasting know no political boundaries. The
broadcast engineer in Africa and his counterpart in Europe have similar requirements. They face the same problems,
work with the same tools and parts, and
come up with similar solutions.
The knowledge that comes from experience and training is a necessary ingredient. There is no need to reinvent the
wheel whenever a problem arises. Broadcast engineers are providing the best
broadcasting with the electronics available. Engineers can share information
that will raise the level of technical expertise for the entire industry. The art is
changing rapidly and a method to keep
current is required.
The Society of Broadcast Engineers has
taken advantage of this opportunity to
share information. SBE members are
found in more than 100 chapters and in
25 countries. The society is affiliated with
broadcast engineering organizations in
Korea, Belize, Mexico, India, Canada, Philippines, Brazil and Uruguay. The local
chapters, through their meetings and
technical presentations, inform the membership of state -of-the-art developments
in broadcast engineering.
Sandberg is a member of the SBE board of directors and
chairman of the International Committee. He is also an
engineering consultant.
78
Ingeniero de
radiocomunicaciones
(Spanish)
The SBE has established standards for
professional competence through the
program of certification. The SBE national office provides study guides, SBE Radio Operators Certification Handbooks
and certification examinations. These levels of certification are accepted around
the world.
The benefit of these affiliations is the
sharing of technical expertise, technical
papers and friendships. The society is
translating the study guide into Spanish,
and in the future, will have available study
The SBE Bookstore
Members of the Society of Broadcast
Engineers have available to them the
SBE Bookstore. In conjunction with CRC
Press, Inc., McGraw -Hill Professional
Book Group and other publishers, it is
possible for SBE members to purchase
industry resources at 20% off the retail
price. These books are a collection of
the most outstanding group of experts
in the industry.
In addition to resource books, members can order study guide software
for the different levels of certification.
Other merchandise, such as membership and certification pins, hats, mugs
and shirts are also available.
To have these resources at your fingertips, contact the SBE Bookstore at:
Society of Broadcast Engineers, 8445
Keystone Crossing, Ste. 140, Indianapolis, IN 46240.
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Radio Engineer (U.S.A.)
The universality of
broadcast engineering
requires that a
common platform for
the exchange of
knowledge and
standards be
supported and spread
about the world.
guides and certification examinations in
additional languages. The society is exploring a program for the exchange of
broadcast engineers with other countries.
These exchanges for short periods will
permit engineers to view operations and
techniques of stations in other countries.
Through the International Committee,
the SBE continues to develop communication with broadcast engineering organizations in other countries. If you, or
your organization, are interested in learning more about affiliating with the SBE,
contact: Chairman, SBE International
Committee, Society of Broadcast Engineers, 8445 Keystone Crossing, Ste. 140,
Indianapolis, IN 46240 (USA).
The Society of Broadcast Engineers is a
dedicated group with dedicated members, eager to share their collective knowledge with colleagues around the world.
Members look forward to each opportunity to expand their own understanding
of broadcast engineering from those in
other countries.
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Ó
Applied Technology
Tektronix Profile
By Jeff Noah
Disk recording technology has been the
personal computer industry to minimize
cost. Second, it optimizes the motion
JPEG compression algorithm and uses
high data rates to preserve image quality. Third, it provides an open -platform
system architecture and on -board processor to simplify the porting of existing applications or the development
of new ones.
catalyst precipitating the tremendous
success non -linear off -line editing systems have experienced in the last few
years. However, the use of disk recorders
outside that application has been limited
by the image quality they offer or the
significant expense of storing relatively
small amounts of video.
Tektronix' Profile Professional disk
recorder overcomes these limitations
in three basic ways. First, it uses many
off -the-shelf commodity items from the
Open architecture,
standard components
Figure shows the basic architecture
and major components of the Profile disk
recorder system. The backbone of the
system is a 17 -slot EISA motherboard with
1
Noah is a technical writer for Tektronix Television Division.
Beaverton. OR.
an integral 32x32 CCIR 601 8-bit parallel
digital component router. Besides offering speed, the EISA bus makes adding
many personal computer peripherals a
no- brainer. Controlling the bus is an offthe-shelf PC -on -a -card with an i486DX2/
66 processor. A 340MB IDE hard drive and
support the processor board.
Because potential applications are
broad, the architecture allows many
possible combinations of video and audio I /O. With this in mind, all video I/O
and analog audio I/O are added as options. Analog composite, parallel composite digital, and serial component dig3.5 inch floppy drive
Profile Block Diagram
EISA
Bus
Video Format
J,
Video
Record
Clock
Interface Card
(Input)
Video
Interface Card
(Ou put)
Parallel Component Digital 8 -Bit
Playback
Clock
Mix/
Effects
Control
Reference
Gen lock
32 x 32
Video Router
Parallel CCIR 601
486
Processor
System
*340MB /IDE
Drive
Mouse
3.5 Inch
Floppy
Real -time
Processor
Common Disk Array
To External Disk Drives
Keyboard
VGA
*Commodity parts.
Figure
1.
Card
VGA
Monitor
Block diagram of the Profile. Note the use of common computer parts throughout the design, thereli reducing cost and simplifying spare
parts requirements.
80
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
..
ital video 1/0 are available. Digital audio
makes its way into or out of Profile as
embedded AES/EBU audio on a serial
digital component video channel. Analog audio is digitized at a 48kHz sample
rate by an off-the -shelf 16-bit linear PCM
digitizer card. All audio is routed over the
EISA bus, and Profile allows recording of
four channels of digital audio for each
video codec channel.
Once video is inside the platform, it
travels across the 32x32 router to installed
devices. With high -speed video data transfer occurring on the router, the EISA bus
is free for control functions and passing
audio data. The integral router also eliminates the expense and hassle of an external router and the associated wiring
and system timing.
To get video onto and off the disk
array, Profile employs motion JPEG
codecs and SCSI-2 fast /wide disk control. The base instrument includes one
codec /disk controller card that provides two bidirectional codec channels
and two SCSI-2 control channels. Achieving four bidirectional codec channels
simply requires adding a second codec /disk controller card.
The disk array consists of four or eight
2.1GB or 4GB, off -the -shelf drives providing up to 160 minutes of video storage. An external expansion chassis doubles that capacity by adding up to 16
drives to the array.
Commodity parts keep system costs
significantly lower than an architecture
built from custom parts. And as technology breakthroughs occur, the modular
architecture will accept the best technology the industry has to offer. This
open system approach minimizes the
expense and difficulty of upgrades, and
also eliminates built-in obsolescence.
Careful compression
One of the most significant engineering challenges facing the designers of
disk recorders is the balancing act between image quality and storage time.
The best image quality requires full -bandwidth recording, but compressionless
With high -speed video
data transfer occurring on the router, the
EISA bus is free for
control functions and
passing audio data.
recording eats up gigabytes at an alarming rate. Conversely, high compression
ratios significantly reduce the number
of gigabytes per minute needed for stor-
.,...Y.
age, but wreak havoc on image quality.
Profile attacks the image quality /storage time /cost equation from two directions. First, all disk drives in the array are
commodity items. This avoids the expense often associated with proprietary
hardware, while at the same time leaving
the platform open to developers of new
The backbone of the
system is a 17-slot
motherboard
with an integral 32x32
CCIR 601 8 -bit parallel
digital component
router.
EISA
applications.
Second, the compression coefficients
for the motion JPEG algorithm were chosen to optimize image quality, not to
maximize bandwidth reduction. The compression ratio can be varied on a field -by-
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benefit of digital technology. They are also suitable for interconnection from
camera to monitor and for analog video distribution.
The cables are RG -6U size, so they're smaller, require less space, and
weigh less than standard precision video cables. They also offer 20% lower
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Specify the cables that will go the distance
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e Copyright
1994. Belden Inc
Circle (57) on Reply Card
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
81
field basis to optimize storage time. The
resulting image quality level depends on
the amount of information in the source
material and the available disk I/O bandwidth. The unit is capable of data rates of
about 48Mb /s per channel. To achieve
image quality equivalent to that of a Betacam SP deck using metal tape, a 24Mb /s
per channel data rate is all that is needed.
In contrast to other compression
schemes, motion JPEG compression does
not introduce motion artifacts. The combination of commodity recording media
ratio
can be varied on a
field -by-field basis to
optimize storage time.
The compression
and optimized compression results in a
cost-effective device capable of outputting a video signal with image quality
equal to or better than that of a high -end
Channelmatic invented
commeriial insertion...
now, we' s4
tionizing it.
component analog VTR. Storage time
works out to approximately five minutes
of video (and four channels of digital
audio) per gigabyte.
The video I/O interface boards were
designed in-house, using decades of experience to eliminate potential sources
of significant video degradation.
Open platform, open opportunities
Subtle design considerations extend
the unit's range of applications beyond
what might normally be expected in a
disk recorder. Up to four video channels
can be recorded or played back simultaneously. What's more, the codec channels are not tied to a physical disk or set
of disks, meaning any channel can access any information at just about any
time. For example, channel one could be
writing to the disk array while channels
two, three and four could be reading the
information written by channel one with
only fractions -of-a- second delay. In this
mode, Profile could be thought of as a
virtual VTR with four sets of heads that
could each independently read or write
to any spot on the tape.
In order to more closely duplicate the
operation of a VTR, all the information
contained by the source material is captured
not just picture information
but information in the vertical interval as
well. Losing closed -captioning, teletext
or Nielsen codes is unacceptable and
would eliminate the possibility of using a
disk recorder as a play-to-air device in
broadcast applications.
-
- AdoarND
!.1
1`+!'`.
ADCABT/D... The Next Generation.
first Digital Ad /Program Insertion System.
The
A Complete Compressed DIGITAL solution for
Television Automation and the new Superhighway.
1990
FIRST FULL -FEATURED AUTOMATED TAPE COMPILING /EDITING SYSTEM
SPOT TAPE INTERCONNECT SYSTEM
1986
RANDOM ACCESS AD INSERTION SYSTEM
1980
1988
FIRST SATELLrE- DELIVERED
FIRST AUTOMAT C DUBEItZ INSERTION S"ETEM
1982
1%3
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FIRST MICRO-COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR CABLE
1979 FIRST
e?_OUENTIAL AD INSERTION SYSTEM
CNANNELIYIATIC
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Alpine,
CA 91901
(619) 445.2691
'
Fax (619)0445. 3293.800. 766.7171
Circle (64) on Reply Cary
82
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
Profile could be
thought of as a virtual
VTR with four sets of
heads that could each
independently read or
write to any spot on
the tape.
As mentioned, video and audio I/O cards
are added as options. Many of the options take up one or more of the EISA
slots on motherboard. Among the options are: an NTSC composite input channel that requires two slots, a card that
adds two serial digital component inputs
and outputs (one slot), four composite
analog output channels (one slot), a composite digital input channel (two slots)
and composite digital output channel
(one slot). A video combiner card can be
added for mix effects (one slot), and four
channels of analog audio input and output also require a single slot. Other options include a 2- button mouse and 101
Profile applies the best
of today's video corn
pression technology to
a set of well -defined
-
applications.
key keyboard, an ethernet LAN adapter
and 17 -inch color monitor and VGA display board. The LAN adapter and VGA
card take a single slot each. A bypass and
breakout adapter converts the audio
DB25 connector to four male and four
female XLRs. It can also bypass the inputs to outputs in the event of failure.
Conclusion
Profile applies the best of today's video compression technology to a set of
well- defined applications previously
considered beyond the scope of traditional uses for disk recorders. Applications already identified for the platform
include disk caching for tape library
The Tektronix Profile, a professional disk recorder that uses optimized motion JPEG
compression.
four simultaneous I/O channels and high
image quality at a reasonable cost, new
applications for the platform continue
to surface.
For more information
on the Tektronix Profile,
circle (317) on Reply Card
management systems, spot playout,
store -and-forward and time delay. With
eyou're
even when
on cue,
This powerful programming not only allows you to cue
to music, which eliminates dead air, it makes cross -fades
and accuracy a snap. A jog wheel allows fast, repeatable
searching. And as an added advantage, instant start-up is
available with an optional RAM buffer.
And all this in a heavy -duty half rack package that can take the knocks
of a busy studio environment
while offering truly outstanding
sound quality day after day.
Believe it or not, the biggest mistake that happens
in the studio isn't a tracking error or a
missed cue, it's not owning a TASCAM
TASCAM
CD -601. Because the CD -601 was specifically designed with such precise cueing,
looping and programming functions,
your music is always on cue, even when you're not.
CD
601
TASCAM CD-601
To err may be human,
TRACK
INDEX
PI-CH
FRAME
1-ï
SEC
8
SINGLE
AUTO CUE
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SEMEN
O O O
ON LINE
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il
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but you'll never go wrong
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For post -production users,
the full function remote
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addition: you get three
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spotting effects, and direct
locating to any track, index
or time reference location.
ANN
TASCAM.
;!ANEA
Take advantage of our experience.
01993 TEAC America,
Inc. 7733 Telegraph Road, Montebello, CA 90640 213/726-0303.
Circle (58) on Reply Card
June 1994 Broadcast Engineering 83
Applied Technology
Virtual crosspoints
By Mike Andrews and
Steve Monsen
Today, more than ever, facilities
point technology is used.
Figure 1 shows the evolution of
routing systems from analog to large
serial digital systems with virtual
crosspoints. In Figure la, a classic
simple routing system is shown with
are recognizing the need for larger
and more powerful routing systems
for signal distribution. Many devices, including editors, mixers and
preview switchers, are able to control a crosspoint matrix for source
the house router and preview
switcher router separate. The out-
selection and auxiliary routing.
This demands an overall control
system that allows any number of
different control devices to con-
puts of the preview switcher connect to the house router under a
house router control system.
trol a large router.
With a DYN control system (but
In a traditional routing system,
no virtual crosspoints) a routing
the various control systems are The AlphieEX, a component digital switcher capable of using switcher would connect the preisolated by the crosspoints of the virtual crosspoint technology.
view switcher output to the house
various routing switchers that
router. The preview switcher outmake up the system. What is now needed functibrs into a single large router, re- put could be routed to a point in the
is facility integration to the point that a
placing the original two or three routers system by the use of a control panel. A
single large routing switcher can handle used in the parallel digital and analog coax cable from the preview switcher
all the needs.
systems.
output to the house router would be
The first digital edit suites used many
used, as shown in Figure lb. Figure lc
Virtual crosspoints
small routing switchers, parallel digital
shows how a virtual crosspoint elimias well as analog. The three main funcFor the single large router, with internal nates the need for the coax and saves
tions of these routers were: 1) house partitions, to function properly in the one input BNC and one output BNC,
routing, 2) source selection for switch - system (that is, to preview switch and replacing them with an internal regisers, and 3) preview switching. Serial dig- source select), it must be able to switch ter connection from a virtual destinaital routing systems now combine these in real tiime. Another problem has been
tion (in this example, virtual destinathe ability of router partitions to "talk" to tion 65 is used) to a virtual source (65).
Andrews and Monsen are product managers for Utah Scientific.
each other without wasting external BNC This method frees valuable router crosSalt Lake City.
connect'ons. This is where virtual cross- spoints for other uses.
The beauty of virtual
crosspoints is they remove the need for the
external connections.
PREVIEW
SWITCHER
10
PREVIEW
SWITCHEF
10
11
HOUSE
ROUTER
11
HOUSE
ROUTER
HOUSE
ROUTER
(16 X 16)
(16 X 16)
j26
BNC CABLE CONNECTING F;OUTER
DESTINATION AND .SOL FCES
STANDARD ANALOG
ROUTING SYSTEM
Using virtual crosspoints,
the routers are able to
make connections between router partitions
without having to patch
between actual input and
PREVIEW
SWITCHER
DIGITAL ROUTER WITH
INTERNAL PARTITICN ELT
WITH NO VIRTUAL CROSSFC INTS
<
output connections.
16
1
DYN ROUTER UTILIZING
INTERNAL PARTITION AND
VIRTLAL CROSSPOINTS
Figure 1. The evolution of routing switchers, from (a) separate crosspoints and control to (b) separate crosspoints
with common control and today, (c) the use of virtual crosspoints.
84
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
A
64x64 router, for exam-
ple, cannot have any
more physical inputs or
outputs. It can, however,
have internal registers or
internal patch panels for
the source and destination values.
Virtual crosspoints are
in addition to the standard crosspoints of the
router. For example, in a
Advanced
Television:
An Industry First
On September 26 -28, the broadcast industry's top
players will gather at beautiful Hilton Head to set the
agenda for the high definition and digital future. Join
us for what is sure to be big news-the first national
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and managing advanced television
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You'll learn how the industry's leaders are tackling
the digital challenge. You'll discover new ways to build
today for tomorrow's implementation. You'll learn how
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our industry. And you'll find out how it is possible to
survive in the new world of multimedia, DBS, cable
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Plan now to attend. Mark it on your calendar. And
fax us right away at 312/922 -1408 to be included in all
information mailings for this event.
-or
Fax this page to 312/922 -1408
HDTVNEWSL
Attn: Chris Lotesto
Or call Chris at 1 -800- 458 -0479
September 26 -28, 1994
Crystal Sands Resort
Hilton Head, SC
I'm interested in this important event, "Advanced
Television: Bit by Bit Into the Future." Please make
sure I'm included in all the mailings.
Name
Title
Company
Division/Department
Address
City, State, Zip, Country
Phone
Fax
Organized by:
Intertec Publishing, publishers of Broadcast Engineering and World
Broadcast News and Advanced Television Publishing, publishers of
the HDTV Newsletter.
Broadcast Engineering /Intertec Publishing,
9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
www.americanradiohistory.com
64x64 DYN router, there are
64 standard crosspoints
and 32 virtual crosspoints.
In 128x128 configuration of
the DYN, there are 64 vir-
tual crosspoints. From an
economic viewpoint, it is
as if with a 64x64 router,
you get an additional 32x32
virtual router. In many applications these extra virtual crosspoints could actually save a facility the
expense of buying an additional router.
For a real example, Fig-
ure 2 shows a compact
component digital switch er (AlphieEX) in a large
system. An Alphie can have
a maximum of 16 inputs. In
this system there are 15
inputs plus a programma ble/switchableinput.This allows any of the router
sources to be connected
to the Alphie inputs using a virtual crosspoint
and the house router con-
ucts for broadcasters and
post -production houses
will be driven by quality
issues. Recently, quality is-
DYN ROUTER
0
16 INPUTS
SOURCE
SELECTOR
ALPHIE EX
o
DESTINATIONS
CONTROLLED
BY ALPHIE
CONTROL
PANEL
DESTINATIONS
CONTROLLED
HOUSE
ROUTER
BY ROUTER
CONTROL
PANEL
Figure 2. A conventional Alphie system, which hus u maximum of 16 inputs,
one or more of which can be supplied by a router crosspoint.
DYN ROUTER
0
16 INPUTS
SOURCE
SELECTOR
ALPHIE EX
A VIRTUAL
SOURCE,
SELECTED,
FROM
ALPHIE
PANEL
O
HOUSE
ROUTER
DESTINATIONS
CONTROLLED
BY ALPHIE
CONTROL
PANEL
DESTINATIONS
CONTROLLED
BY ROUTER
CONTROL
PANEL
trol panel.
The Alphie usually has
65
16 sources that can be
VIRTUAL
ROUTER
mapped inside the serial
A VIRTUAL DESTINATION
CONTROLLED FROM
router to any of the router
ROUTER PANEL
outputs, while the house
AN INTERNAL ROUTER
router panel is controlling
CONNECTION
the auxiliary routing destinations. Using this system, Figure 3. An Alphie system using a virtual crosspoint, which allows the inputs
the inputs to the Alphie to be selected directly from the Alphie control panel, rather than a router panel.
can be altered only by It also free.s the router outputs, which are no longer needed.
changing the router mapping using the PC. Applying
virtual crosspoint technolACCJM AXIAL
ogy to this system, Alphie
ABEKAS LINK
ACC DM AXIAL
ALPHA 500/1
inputs can be switched from
the control panel without
ALPHA 500/2
using any physical outputs
MCI /500
ALPHIE/1
of the router. This is shown
DYN SERIAL
i
'
1
ROUTING
SWITCHER
in Figure 3.
ALPHIE/2
sues have lead to increased
use of 4:4:4:4 signals in the
telecine suites of high -end
post -production houses. This
translates into the need for
routing the 4:4:4:4 signals.
Theoretically, the problem of routing 4:4:4:4 is not
difficult. A 4:4:4:4 signal is
the same as two serial signals, having a data rate of
2x270 Mb /s. The two signals must be treated as separate signals, and they are
not interchangeable. The
signals can be routed with
existing serial digital technology as long as the 4:4:4:4
signal is treated as a
matched pair of signals and
is routed to a matched destination pair.
There are two main requirements:
1. D -1, D-2
PAL, D-2 NTSC
and 4:4:4:4 can all be routed in the same chassis.
2. Blocking must be ensured when different for-
mats are chosen (i.e.,
avoid
D-1
to
D -2
or D -1 to
4:4:4:4 etc.)
DYN routers were designed for the eventuality
of 4:4:4:4 and a simple
software upgrade is available that allows existing
DYN routers to route 4:4:4:4
signals for telecine suites.
The software upgrade allows 4:4:4:4 signals to be
treated as matched pairs,
and allows the user to define different formats all
within one router.
Any format can be routed
from a standard control
Further developments in
serial digital distribution
SONY 9100/1
have arisen as facilities have
MCl/
PREVIEW
become more complex, in[SONY 9100/1
HOUSE
stalling, for instance, multiCONTROL
system. In addition, the
SYSTEM
ple digital edit suites. Figmatched -pair solution deure 4 shows a facility with
veloped for 4:4:4:4 has othfour component digital edit
er potential applications,
Figure 4. Block diagram illustrating the power of the Alpha Image contro
suites (two Alpha 500 rooms system. Using multiple control interfaces (MCIs), the system can be used to such as matched -pair vidand two Alphie rooms) run- feed several switchers.
eo and key.
ning off the Alpha Image MCI
(multiple control interface) connected where a master control has a set number
Editor's note: For additional background on routing systems and
to the central DYN router. Such facility of inputs. Like the Alphie system, the virtual crosspoints, see "Three -Stage Switcher Design, "Septem integration had not been available be- house router control panel can be used ber 1991, Multiformat Routing," September 1991, "CBS Edit 12,'
March 1994, and the upcoming August feature on "Building Serial
fore. In fact, it is now possible to run up to provide a selectable input to the mas- Digital Facilities."
to eight switchers using more than one ter control switcher. The configuration
Alpha MCI system.
can save one output on the house router
In addition to the applications with
and one input on the source selector.
For more information on virtual
Alpha Image switchers, virtual cross crosspoint routers, circle (337)
points are also useful in broadcast appliAn unquenchable thirst for quality
on Reply Card.
cations, such as master control suites
Further developments in digital prod"
y
86
Broadcast Engineering
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
New Products
Video server
Video server /Editing systems
By Hewlett-Packard
By Accom
Axial 2010 on-
line editing system: offers high -
resolution
graphics display, simultaneous control of
12 serial devices, EDL timeline
displays, and
networking caHP broadcast video server: provides
disk -based on-line storage and delivery
of six hours to 51 hours of broadcastquality video and audio; includes the HP
Ad Management System and on-line file
management software running on a
broadcast -control workstation; system
architecture is scalable.
pabilities; user
definable controls and displays
with soft knobs and soft keys.
systems; routes high-resolution computer graphics video, encoded broadcast
video including HDTV, NTSC, PAL and
SECAM; 864 to 1,728 video crosspoints
and 1,728 to 3,456 audio crosspoints per
rack unit.
Circle (354) on Reply Card
Measurement grade switchers
By Tektronix
ASW -100 series
measurement grade
switchers: two analog multiplexers; the
switchers serve as routing switchers, permitting the inputs and outputs of analog
audio test equipment to be switched between multiple signal sources and destinations.
Circle (353) on Reply Card
Scrambling system /Control
panel /Sync generator
By Leitch
Circle (350) on Reply Card
Modular video processing system
By Nova Systems
NovaBlox Video Processing System:
new signal processing components and
additional chassis configurations.
NovaMate XT: component transcoding
TBC /frame sync features YUV, Y/C and
composite inputs and outputs; median
filter noise reducer /DOC option plus RGB
and U-dub in /out options.
NovaY/C Max: image enhancer and Y/C
decoder /encoder for sharper pictures;
variable Y/C timing correction plus wide band Y/C and composite transcoding.
Axial WSE workstation editor: allows
users of paint, graphics, animation, and
compositing software running on Silicon
Graphics systems to perform on-line editing; interfaces to virtually all VTRs,
switchers, mixers; effects devices are
standard; features custom Q -Pad user
control panel; fingertip controls include
jogging, searching, cuing, and mark or
set in /out.
Brontostore video server disk-based
storage and presentation system; manages clips containing still frames, real-time
video, key, and audio; network can have
up to 32 nodes offering up to 53 hours of
uncompressed D-1 video plus audio.
ViewGuard: new and enhanced high
security TV scrambling system; uses
"high- tech" digital circuitry; provides
transmission over terrestrial and satellite networks; contains ALU for decryption control and authorization and AGC
of incoming video.
Circle (352) on Reply Card
Routing systems
By Dynair Electronics
Circle (355) on Reply Card
Digital audio tool box
By Nvision
Digital Audio Tool Box: system of three
modules for interface, conversion and
synchronization; the NV1050 4- channel
sample rate converter accepts any AES/
EBU format signal at sample rates between
32 and 50kHz; the NV1055 4-channel digital audio mix/minus and routing module
allows four channels of AES-format I/O to
be intermixed and phase inverted.
Circle (356) on Reply Card
System 2000: high performance, ultra compact, video and stereo audio routing
Alphanumeric X -Y remote control panel: uses an 8 -level control system to command all Leitch routers.
SPG-1680N sync pulse generator module: a sync generator on a card; can be
housed in any Leitch 680 series video DA
frame, or as the SPG- 1680MB in a standalone, self -powered, mix box.
Circle (351) on Reply Card
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering 87
New Products
UHF transmitters
By Harris Allied
Parametric equalizer
By dbx
UltraVision series 5, 10 and 15kW
UHF TV transmitters: available in models for any CCIR
system and color formats with
NICAM, IRT and
BTSC multichannel sound; replaces tubes with
broadband (470-
and configuration screen, internal flop-
py disk drive, direct aux bus control,
and auto setup on the chroma key.
Circle (364) on Reply Card
Tape erasers
242 parametric equalizer 5 -band, parametric equalizer with three bands of fully
parametric peak/dip equalization and two
bands of shelving filters; independent
860MHz) power
amplifiers modfüliìi
ules that are interchangeable for visual and aural.
By Weircliffe
control of bands.
Circle (358) on Reply Card
Graphics/Production switcher
Circle (363) on Reply Card
By Grass Valley
TypeDeko: a graphics system based
on the Windows NT operating system;
Camera support equipment
By Cinekinetic
Clever Clamp: camera support that
enables camera operator to clamp a camera to any vertical, horizontal or angled
support; available with either a 100 or
150mm bowl.
Circle (359) on Reply Card
Model 1200 component digital production switcher: features built -in setup
features special effects including rolls,
crawls, fades, dissolves, wipes, flips and
tumbles at variable or programmable
speeds; video inputs and outputs are
composite, Y/C, YUV /RGB and linear key
and are selectable as NTSC or Pal.
BTE 220 shielded tape eraser: capable
of erasing six Hi8 or 8mm metal particle
tapes at one time for a throughput of 270
tapes per hour; shielded to restrict exposure of non -ionizing low- frequency electromagnetic radiation; can be connected
to a standard 120V power source.
Circle (370) on Reply Card
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88
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
LEADER.
JAMPRO ANTENNAS, INC.
6340 Sky Creek Drive
Sacramento, California USA 95828
(916) 383 -1177 phone
(916) 383-1182 fax
New Products
Fiber -optic video transmitter
Monitor for surround sound
By Math Associates
By Wohler Technologies
AMP -SUR: housed in a magnetically
shielded 2U chassis, incorporates sur-
Fibercube: selfcontained fiber
optic video trans-
round sound decoder,
for all four channels.
mitter designed
to convert CCTV
cameras and other video signal
sources to fiber
optics; EX-5505
module
clips
LED level
meter
Circle (368) on Reply Card
HDTV recorders
By Recognition Concepts
onto the BNC video output connector of the camera.
Circle (360) on Reply Card
Power conditioners catalog
By Superior Electric
C a t a l o g
WHC194: an 8page catalog describing WHC series STABILINE
'
WHC Series STABILINE
Power Conditioners
HDTV Series: line of digital video disk
recorders; four disks combined by adding a video interface card that conforms to
the SMPTE 240/260M HDTV standard.
power conditioners for AC power
systems up to 600
VAC; units feature ratings from
12 to 33kVA single phase, 10 to
125kVA three phase.
Circle (365) on Reply Card
Audio restoration device
By HHB/Cedar
AZ-1 Azimuth Corrector: detects and
corrects phase problems and time delays left between left and right channels
of stereo signals; easy to operate.
Circle (361) on Reply Card
Circle (366) on Reply Card
Oscilloscope
By B +K Precision
Model 2190A: an improved 100 MHz, 3channel, 6-trace oscilloscope; maximum
sensitivity is lmV per division, accuracy
is better than 3 %, and rise time is less
than 3.5ns; sweep speed is adjustable
from 5Ons /div. to 0.5s /div. in 22 calibrat
ed steps with fine adjustment.
Circle (371) on Reply Card
Routing switcher
By Knox Video
RS 12x2 matrix routing
Go
Tapeless!
High Capacity
Uncompressed
Component Digital
Video Disk Recorders.
That's right. The tapeless suite is
here. For virtually any project.
The Quick -Frame is redefining
creative opportunities for
satisfied clients all over the
world
to 90 minutes in less
than 37 inches of rack space.
M
switcher:stereo
audio /composite video router in a streamline 11/2" chassis; front panel push -button operation and can also be controlled
via RS -232 input; front panel LED indicators display present routes at all times.
Circle (367) on Reply Card
-3
Starting at under $39,000,
Quick -Frame offers seamless
real -time non -linear playback for
telecine, broadcast, edit suite and
animation/effects. Just plug it
in
need for expensive
-no
equipment re- investmentsand no need for tape!
AS -101
Audio Switcher
Illuminated and legendable control buttons
Instant or overlap switching
Front panel accessible level controls
Options include: RS -232 interface, remote
control, relay -follow- switch outputs
Network proven quality and reliability
P.O.
Box 1342 Bellingham, WA 98227
1- 800 -645 -1061
FAX (206) 676 -4822
Conex Electro -Systems, Inc.
Circle (50) on Reply Card
SCSI and Ethernet, of course.
Quick -Frame
...it's D1...it's here...and it works!
Call for Information
(702) 831 -7837
Fax: (702) 831 -5710
Circle (49) on Reply Card
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
5
Broadcast Engineering 89
New Products
Surge suppressors
RF
By EFI
By Bird Electronic Corporation
Moduload series RF load resistor: self -
power measurement products
Suspension and lighting
By Sachtler
cooled transmission line termination;
ideal for CW, AM, FM, SSB, TV and
pulsed transmission systems.
Model 6085 broadband high -power RF
calorimeter fast, accurate, and easy-tooperate power measurement; measurement uncertainties of better than +/ -3%
of readings; optional interface board available for automated testing applications.
Circle (357) on Reply Card
Portable broadcast mixer
By AEQ
TLE -02: portable broadcast mixer with
frequency extender; allows 2 -way com-
Omni-Phase power line filters: improved
version of transient voltage surge suppressors featuring an audible alarm, a new
system for internally encapsulating the
suppressor elements for increased safety,
and an optional weather -tight enclosure
for installation in rugged operating environments.
munication to two totally independent
wires through the digital hybrid incorporated within the equipment; functional
with two or four wires; features three
audio inputs and auxiliary program output; universal power supply via transformer or eight batteries
Circle (372) on Reply Card
Circle (362) on Reply Card
Teleclimber: a barrel hoist with a
rated payload of more than 140 kg (310
lbs) weighing less than 90 kg (195 lbs),
able to take 4 metric tons.
Circle (369) on Reply Card
STANDARD
EQUIPMENTI
Canare Patchbays handle every 75Q
standard in your plant, from Baseband
Video to High Resolution Computer
Graphics and, the studio interface
standard of tomorrow...Serial Digital.
Plus you get the following:
WIDEST BANDWIDTH
DC
- 600MHz
LONGEST LIFESPAN
"Microswitch" contacts
EASIEST INSTALLATION
Jacks Screw To Front
PERFECTLY COMPATIBLE
Your Cords or Ours
BEST BOTTOM LINE
Less Expensive!
Call, or write today for a FREE
technical brochure with complete
specifications and the numbe- of your
local Canare dealer.
VWJ2-S
CANA/
Straight thru 7552 terminating
Normal thru 75
L2
511 5TH Street, Unit G, San Fernando, CA 91340
VWJ2 -W
terminating
(818) 365.2446
Circle (59) on Reply Card
90
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
FAX (818) 365.0479
,=
Industry Briefs
CORP
NOTHING REMAINS
THE SAME
BUSINESS SCENE
Sachtler, Munich, Germany, received an order to equip four
new studios for TV Globo, Brazil, with Sachtler Gridclimbers,
Scenery Hoists, Pantographs, Lite Trolleys and 2kW and 5kW
fixtures. Sachtler AG, Munich, developed Gridclimber hoists
based on the well -proven Sachtler hoist modules.
Whatever the size ... Worldwide,
Storeel can help!
..........*ylllAll.{
Sony Electronics, Montvale, NJ, was selected by the Associated Press as primary provider of equipment for APTV, AP's
international TV news service to be launched later this year.
Sony sold several Digital Betacam VTRs to CBS Television
City and Entertainment News Television. Americom purchased
a Sony Library Management System with six Sony Digital
Betacam VTRs
Leitch, Chesapeake, VA, was awarded a multimillion dollar
contract to supply each of NBC and Fox Broadcasting Company with ViewGuard encryption systems to scramble broadcasts of the National Football League games, commencing in
September 1994.
McCurdy Radio Industries, Toronto, and Philip Drake Electronics, England, have joined forces in an international marketing and manufacturing agreement. McCurdy Radio will
manufacture and market the Drake DCS3000 Digital Communications System in North America. Philip Drake will market the
McCurdy M /2000 Broadcast Automation System and the McCart digital audio storage system throughout Europe.
Technology is transforming the tape
storage industry. Keeping in touch with
customer requirements is our top
priority. Call Storeel today when space
saving becomes your priority.
3337 West Hospital Avenue, Post Office Box 80523, Atlanta, Georgia 30341
404- 458-3280, Fax 404 -457 -5585
Call Today For A Free System Design Consultation
Tailored To Your Individual Requirements
Circle (51) on Reply Card
Magni Systems, Portland, OR, marks its tenth anniversary
this month and celebrates the milestone with key customer
start -up and operation on its newest video monitoring product, and announcement of nine major patent awards.
Video Design Pro, Las Cruces, NM, received an order from
PESA, Atlanta, for VidCAD engineering automation software.
PESA will supply Atlanta Olympic Broadcasting, 1996, with
broadcast equipment and systems designs, installation and
integration.
Solid State Logic, Oxford, England, installed one of the latest
consoles with Ultimation as part of a major refurbishment of The Town House Studios, London.
SSL G Plus
Quantel, Darien, CT, has opened a new headquarters office
service the South Central region (TX, LA, OK, MS,
and western TN). The address is: The Meridian Building, 1425
in Dallas to
Greenway Dr., Suite 470, Irving, TX 75038.
Quantel also sold customized Picturebox packages to: FOX
TAPE, Hollywood; KCBS -TV, Los Angeles; KDAF -TV, Dallas;
WCVB -TV, Needham, MA; WLWT -TV, Cincinnati; and WRC -TV,
Washington, DC.
Arrakis Systems, Fort Collins, CO, and Gentner Communications, Salt Lake City, have introduced new technology protocol and product systems resulting from a strategic alliance
between the two companies. The protocol, GAP2, which defines the method of linking telephone technology to hard disk
studio systems, is the platform on which the companies' new
"Smartphone Systems" family is based.
Cabinet
Design
Kit
This simple design kit
helps you plan and
order equipment
cabinets more
efficiently. Specially
designed "Rack Ruler" lets you
measure electronics equipment for accurate rack
size. With this information, Winsted will design rack
cabinets specifically for your electronics.
Write today or call TOLL-FREE
1
THE WINSTED CORPORATION
10901
Continued on page 92
-800- 447-2257
Hampshire Ave. So. Minneapolis, MN 55438 (612) 944 -8556
FAX 612-944-1546
Preferred by Professionals Worldwide
Circle (52) on Reply Card
June
www.americanradiohistory.com
1994
Broadcast Engineering
91
Industry Briefs continued from page 91
ENCO Systems, Farmington Hills, Ml, has relocated its headquarters to the Detroit, MI, area. For more information, contact:
ENCO Systems, 24403 Halsted Rd., Farmington Hills, MI 483351669; phone 800 -362 -6797 or 810 -476 -5711; fax 810 -476-5712.
Comark Communications, Colmar, PA, acquired the RCA Broadcast Transmitter Service Business & Parts from General Electric.
Harrison by GLW, Nashville, TN, and AT & T Digital Studios
Systems, Greensboro, NC, announced a strategic alliance for
the development and delivery of digital products.
Vyvx, the TV services affiliate of WilTel, Houston, andVDI, Los
Angeles, have announced the formation of a service to deliver
spot advertising to local TV broadcasters.
360 Systems, Westlake Village, CA, moved to a new facility.
The address is: 5321 Sterling Center Dr., Westlake Village, CA
91361; phone 818 -991 -0360; fax 818-991 -1360.
TouchVision Systems, developers of D/Vision, Chicago, sold
20 turnkey D/Vision-Pro systems to CBS News.
Comprompter, La Crosse, WI, installed Comprompter's complete electronic newsroom system with 20 workstations at NBC
affiliate WPSD-TV. Comprompter also installed a small electronic newsroom at WYHS -TV, Miramar, FL.
Fast Electronics U.S., Natick, MA, has moved its corporate
headquarters to the Silicon Valley area. The new address is:
One Twin Dolphin Dr., Redwood City, CA 94065; phone 415-8020772; fax 415 -802-0746.
LOGO INSERTERS
WITH
908 Series
TIME/TEMP OPTIONS
PEOPLE
John Schwan has been named vice president worldwide sales
for the production business unit of Dynatech Video Group, Salt
Lake City.
Robert L. Wilson has been appointed executive vice president, chief operating officer, and chief financial officer for
Accom.
Daniel W. Castles has been appointed president of Grass
Valley Group, Inc., Grass Valley, CA, a subsidiary of Tektronix.
Stanley D. Becker and Robert M. Polan have been appointed
to positions with Louth Automation, Menlo Park, CA. Becker
will be responsible for engineering management and product
development. Polan will be responsible for all southeastern
and northeastern U.S. sales.
R. Jensen has joined Comprompter, Inc., La Crosse,
as an account representative for computer newsroom sales.
Gerald
WI,
Patrick A. Burns has been appointed vice president and
general manager of West Coast operations of the Chyron
Corporation, Melville, NY.
Alex Osadzinski has been named vice president of marketing at the Grass Valley Group, Grass Valley, CA,.
Steve Gordoni has joined 360 Systems, Tarzana, CA, as sales
engineer.
Tired of fighting ac power system
problems?
Get the answers you need.
330
It's as easy as A,B,C!
A) You create the logos in your favorite graphics program.
B) Run QSI Key Edit software and set transparency levels to your images.
C) Save your logos to a 3.5" floppy and ...
the 908 does the rest!
rll
Logo
áfweiÁ-T'
4i99f4
shown
24 bit (petalled)
color
Built in linear
keyer
8 Programmable
GPI pons
Linear fader
Mouse controlled
menu driven
Reposition logos
Transparency
adjust
Separate menu
output
1
rack unit high
Stand alone
Handbook
Jerry
i
I
V
CPI
SYSTEM
with
Whitaker
Topics include:
AC transients
Lightning effects
Grounding
Power distribution
AC system design
Standby power
Power conditioning
Safety
embossed Time/Temp
Menu Output
Programmable GPI Macros: The
powerful automated programs that will
908 series allows the user to construct
execute with a simple contact closure.
Programs are assembled on the menu output using an internal command
structure. They may then be saved to disk and or linked to any one of the 8
GPI contacts located on the 908 rear panel.
Example: A GPI macro could be constructed to perform the following: load a
logo from disk, fade logo onto screen, wait 1 minute, fade logo off screen, wait
20 minutes, repeat and continue until GPI contact releases.
Time and Temp Option:
This version of the 908 enables
the reception of RS232 data from
various devices for on screen
updating of time, temp, latitude
and longitude,etc. Users can
design Chier own fonts or use the
fonts provided with the 908TMP
_rf
systems, inc.
Written by Jerry C. Whitaker, an authority on ac
power system design and transient suppression.
From CRC Press and the Intertec Information
Age Catalog, AC Power Systems is an authoritative handbook that explains what you need to
know to protect electronic systems from power
outages, transients, and related disturbances.
Southeast Salem Business Park
7B Raymond ave Unit 8 Salem NH. 03079
Phone (803)893 -7707 Fax (603)893 -7714
Circle (48) on Reply Card
92
C.
200+ illustrations
display
Video Output
Features:
AC
Power Systems
pages
Broadcast Engineering
June
1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
To order call 1- 800-543 -7771
Catalog #CT -714 $39.95
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE"
For Fax (24 Hours)
For Orders & Info Call
800 -947-9928
800 -947 -7008
212 -444 -5028
212- 242 -1400
119 WEST 17TH STREET
Panasonic
1411Fiar
970 Power-MAX
WJ - MX5O
designed for power -hungry
professionals who have
high- current draw situations and long run times.
Highest capacity quick -charge capable 12 Volt 14-AMP sintered nicad power pack (removable).
Rugged high -grade, black leather belt case: chassis assembly with dual 3-pin XLR inputs for pack interchange without
shutdown.
2,500-cycle cell life provides lowest cost per cycle.
Microprocessor -controlled 5-step multi -colored power
indicator display.
Belt with cellpack weighs a comfortable 7.5 lbs
Charge in little over two hours with the optional 650 -III
Intel! quick Fast charger.
Dual outputs allow simultaneous powering of two devices
(eg. camera and light). Output configurations include cigarette lighter and 4 -Din XLR in any combination.
Includes Power -MAX belt and power chassis, 14 -amp cell
pack in 12V or 13.2 volt configuration, model 600
overnight charger, comprehensive owner's manual. Fits
waist size 29" -44 ".
Model 5850C
Power Station Series
the 5850C adds simultaneous side -by -side waveform
and vector monitoring. Featured is an electronically-generated vector scale that precludes the need for fussy
centering adjustments and eases phase adjustments
from relatively long viewing distances. Provision is made
for selecting the phase reference from either (A or B)
inputs or a separate external timing reference.
Digital A/V Mixer
Model 5860C
Digital effects including strobe, still, mosaic, negative/positive, paint
monochrome, strobe, trail, and AV synchro
Real -Time compression - the entire source image is compressed inside a wipe pattern
"Scene Grabber" makes it possible to move a pattern, upholding the initially trimmed -in picture
integrity.
Non Additive Mix (NAM): selects between A and B sources, passing only the signal with the highest luminance value.
Fade -in and fade -out video, audio, titles individually or synchronously faded.
Down stream keyer with selectable sources from character generator or external camera.
Incorporates 8 separate memories that enable virtually instant recall of frequently used effects
8 preset effects include: Mosaic Mix, Position Stream, Corkscrew, Bounce, Flip, Shutter, Vibrate, and Satellite.
Audio mixing capability ot5 sources with 5 audio level adjustments.
Light
Thanks to on -board control IC's using NRG's Light -Gate
technology, light intensity can be infinitely adjusted by the
user within a range of 10% to
100% of the lamp's rated
power. You can instantly
adjust light output to exactly
meet changing light requirements, all without changing
hot bulbs or fussing with power
rabbit diffusion filters. Best of all,
the Vari -Light Pro virtually eliminates
color shift and dramatically conserves
precious battery power by using only the
power required for the selected light level.
Accomodates bulbs from 20W to 100W DC.
Prismatic Pyrex dispersion grid provides smooth even light
ouput and reduced glare without changing light intensity.
Sturdy all -metal click tilt mounting bracket with unique
ratchet action. Eliminates shake during action shooting.
Front retainer assembly pops off for instant bulb access
without the bother of screws.
Rugged milled aluminum light head disperses heat and
provides years of service under adverse conditions.
Vectorscope
An ideal companion for the 5860C Waveform Monitor,
Four input switcher and any two sources can be routed to the program busses
Two -channel digital trame synchronization permits special effects in each of the
NB busses.
Combination of 7 basic patterns and other effects creates 287 wipe patterns.
External edit control input for RS -232 or RS -422 serial controls. Also
has GPI input.
Wipe boundary effects: soft/border (bold, 8 back colors available)
NEW
VARI -LITE PRO
DC On- Camera
LEADER
Broadcast &Television Systems
The 970 Power -MAX is
Professional
NEW YORK, N.Y. 10011
AG -DP800
S -VHS FIT 3 -CCD
Waveform Monitor
A two -input waveform monitor, the 586DC features 1H, 1V.
2H, 2V, 1 ps/div and 2V MAG time bases as well as vertical
amplifier response choices of flat, IRE (low pass), chroma
and DIF -STEP. The latter facilitates easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase signal. A PIX MON output
jack feeds observed (A or B) signals to a picture monitor,
and the unit accepts an external sync reference. Built-in calibrator and on -off control of the DC restorer is also provided.
SuPERcnm
Digital Signal Processing Camcorder
Three high -density 380,000 pixel CCDs with half-pitch
pixel offset to over 700 lines of horizontal resolution, a S/N
ratio exceeding 60dB and remarkable sensitivity of f8 at
2000 lux result in simply extraordinary image quality.
Additionally the Frame Interline Transfer (FIT) CCDS minimize vertical smear, so you maintain impressive picture
quality even in very bright illumination.
Uses advanced digital signal processing circuitry which
provides four valuable benefits.
1) Consistently reliable up-to -spec performance.
2) Fine adjustment of a wide range of parameters.
3) Memory storage and instant recall of specific settings.
4) More flexible and higher quality image processing,
as well as easier maintenance.
Some of the DSP circuits and their functions:
CHROMA DETAIL - This function compensates for poor resolution In the high chroma areas of the picture.
DARK DETAIL - Determines optimum degree of contour enhancement in dark areas to deliver crisp, natural -looking images
HIGHLIGHT COMPRESSION - Expands the dynamic range of the highlighted areas and prevents halation. The highlight compression circuit allows a wide dynamic range producing detailed images even against bright backlight or daylight.
FLARE CORRECTION CIRCUIT - Compensates for unsteady black caused by light or by a subject's movements.
Six Scene File modes. There are two user modes for custom digital parameter settings including Horizontal Detail, Vertical Detail,
Chroma and Dark Detail, and Color Correction. The four preset modes are normal, fluorescent, special and sparkling.
In addition to regular ACC (Automatic Gain Control), Supercam has a Super High Gain mode. At F1.4 this enables shooting under
illumination as low as 2 lux while retaining detail and calor balance.
Synchro Scan function allows flicker-free shooting of computer monitors. Electronic shutter increments can be set variably from
1/61 seconds to 1/253 of a second.
Built-in Internal time code generator lets you record with SMPTE LTCNITC (LongitudinalNertical Internal) time code
26 -pin connector for direct signal output from camera section for easy backups using 2nd VCR equipped with 26 -pin connector.
Two hi -fi stereo audio channels with a dynamic range of 80 dB, as well as two linear audio channels with Dolby NR. Normal/Hi -Fi
recording is selectable and the levels of all four channels with Dolby NR. NormaVHi -Fi recording is selectable and the levels of all
tour channels are controllable. Uses XLR connectors to further ensure high -quality sound.
Phantom power can be supplied to an optional microphone. Power can be switched off to prevent battery drain when not in use.
Model 5864A
Waveform Monitor
A
fully portable waveform monitor for field use, the
Model 5864A is a two- channel unit that provides 2H and
2V sweeps with MAG. FLAT and IRE response, and normal and X4 gain.
Model 5854
Vectorscope
2- channel portable vectorscope is ideal for field use and
features A and B phase reference, fixed and variable
gain. Both units shown with optional battery holder and
NP -1 type battery.
MAGNI
MOM
MM -400
Designed to replace expensive original- manufacture AC power
supplies, the affordable Power Stations deliver precisely-regulated 12 -volt DC power from AC sources worldwide. Highcurrent capability allows for powering not only large camcorders, dockables, decks, and cameras, but lights, monitors.
and other high draw 12-volt equipment as well.
The stations provide up to 9 amps of precisely regulated DC
power eliminating the need for battery power in stationary
applications where an AC source is available. The Power
Stations exceeds all original manufacturer performance specifications.
Available in different configurations: The 12560 features a
single cigarette or 4-pin output and up to 5 amps of out but current. The t29100 features dual outputs in any comination of cigarette or 4-pin and 9 amps of output current
capability.
Fosterer
High- current output
Worldwide voltage selection
Rugged steel case
-pin or
cigarette lighter outputs
Lighted power switch
4
Power Station -2 Series
Just plug the
PowerStation -2 into
any AC outlet in the
world and out comes
perfectly regulated
12 -volt DC power
through tour 4 -pin XLR connectors and one cigarette lighter
connector. It uses an advanced pulse- width -modulated
power supply which allows for ultra -light weight and small
size It operates with little heat even at full output. The
PowerStation-2 is the ultimate multiple- output professional
power source for cameras. decks, lights, monitors, and a
host of other video accessories.
85 -264 volts worldwide auto-adjusting input (just plug in).
Supply is fully protected from overcurrent.
Ultra -light weight - under 3 lb.
Outstanding 300,000 hour mean time between failure is
far in excess of any other manufacturer.
Ultra- efficient PWM regulation generates far less heat than
linear type supplies.
Provides the ultimate in performance and reliability in a
universally compatible and compact package.
.
The MM -400 is a combination waveform and vector
monitor especially configured for the cost-conscious
producer. A low -cost alternative to CRT-based waveform monitoring the MM -400 produces a video picture
of the input signal's waveform and displays it on any
video monitor. It provides a simple, affordable and
accurate way to set camera levels before a shoot, or to
check time base correctors and color fidelity in editing.
Problems like hue shift, smearing. muddy contrast and
loss of detail are easily identified for correction.
"EWAG- Dß840/AG -Dß850
S -VHS
Slow- Motion Editing System
Editing machines truly designed for professionals
The AG -DS840 player and AG -Dß850 Editing VCR are state -of-the -art
S-VHS editing machines that provide the quality required for professional video production and even broadcast systems. Equipped with
Panasonic's advanced digital technology they offer features such as
Digital VHS Circuitry, Digital 3 -D Time Base Correctors, Digital Slow
Motion, and Digital Noise Reduction. They also have built-in Time Code
Generator /Readers for frame accurate editing, and component video output for connection to MII and Betacam machines.
FEATURES:
AG-Dß840á AG -DSB50 Features:
They provide clear, noise -free, high quality slow playback. Playback
speed, including Digital Still is selectable in 10 steps ( -1/4, -1/8, -t/16,
-1/25, D, -1/25, +1/16. +1/8, +1/4, +1/2).
Bui0 -in enhanced performance, 3- dimensional digital TBC with a correction range
of one field. With the VCRs continuously retaining one field in memory, the data is used for
3-D type processing thereby providing excellent dropout compensation.
Digital Signal Processing for improved picture quality, and for maintaining uniform picture quality during
editing. A Chrome Aperture Compensation (CAC) circuit eliminates color blurring and expands chroma bandwidth.
Other digital processing circuits include:
- Digital Noise Reduction (DNR): Processes Y and C signals separately to boost S/N Ratio by minimizing noise during playback.
- Digital Comb Filter: Uses an advanced 3- dimensional system for complete Y/C separation. The result is reduced color and
luminance blurring.
switching during slow motion playback.
Employs amorphous video heads that have a higher magnetic coercivity than conventional ferrite heads. Expanded color signal
frequency response from the amorphous heads enhances picture quality by minimizing colar blurring.
They have built-in LTCNITC (Longitudinal/Vertical Interval) time code reader /generators for absolute frame accurate editing.
Equipped with component outputs allowing easy connection to other component video equipment This allows high quality
transfer of S-VHS source material to Betacam or MII.
Equipped with RS -422 (9 -Pin) serial interlace. The standard control system for professional broadcast machines.
ID (Intelligent Ouest) mechanism delivers precise, high -speed operation. plus the reliability needed. The dual -loading system
achieves high -speed response while protecting tapes and heads from damage. The tape transport mechanism uses five direct
drive motors, including two reel drive motors. Automatic head cleaning is also provided.
Capstan Control System with large capstan spindle allows high-speed search at 320 normal speed.
Four channel audio including two hi-ti stereo channels with a dynamic range of 90dB as well as two linear channels with Dolby
NR. Each audio channel has its own input (AG -DS850 only) and output with individual channel-level setting capability. All audio
- Switching Noise Mask Circuit: Effectively eliminates noise caused by head
channels use XLR connectors.
Provides 16:9 wide aspect compatibility. so they are fully equipped for the next generation of televisions.
3 rack units high. they are unbelievably compact for easy space saving installation. 19 " rack- mountable with optional AG -M730.
WE ARE AUTHORIZED PANASONIC INDUSTRIAL VIDEO DEALERS. ALL PANASONIC VIDEO INCLUDE ONE YEAR USA WARRANTY
Circle (60) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Converts waveform or vector display information into a
standard video signal which can be displayed on a
video monitor or routed around a video facility. no
need for additional expensive monitors. Switch
between pictures and waveforms at the push of a button.
Incorporates an advanced SC/H phase and color frame
indicator that is a must for editing and post production.
At a glance it tells you if a signal's subcarrier -to- horizontal phase is properly adjusted and if the signal's
color frame matches the house black burst connected
to the MM -400 external reference input.
Works anywhere and with any analog video format
NTSC, PAL, Component or S-Video. It has automatic
detection between NTSC and PAL formats.
Three loop-through inputs can accept three composite
signals or one component, or RGB signal
No complex displays or special test signals are
required for component video monitoring
Interchannel timing and amplitude display make component analog monitoring easy. has color bar limit
markings for Betacam, M -II and SMPTE formats.
Waveform and vectorscope controls, including channel, sweep speed, position control, phase rotation are
on easy -to-see dedicated pushbuttons.
Besides instant toggling between picture and waveform, a mix mode combines waveform and picture displays for simultaneous viewing.
The MM -400 can be readily used by even novice operators. It has easy-to- understand set -up menus for display color, Interchannel timing, SC/H phase alarm.
Usable in any video facility of any size for displaying
signals. its low cost makes it affordable by the smallest
studio, while its features and performance make it ideal
for monitoring in high -end facilities as well.
ON PARTS AND LABOR.
-
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE
FOR ORDERS CALL:
PHOTO -VIDEO
PROFESSIONAL VIDEO TAPE
H471S
S
-VHS Double Coated
ST -60
_..__ ............
7.69
ST- 120....._
__..
_...
.8.49
.8.99
M221 Hi 8 Double Coated
Metal Particles
P630HMP.....___. 4.99
Metal Evaporated
E630HME
8.79
E66OHME .....................11.29
E6120HME ....................15.79
P660HMP ................ 7.19
P6120HMP .
9.69
FAX
(24 HOURS):
800 -947 -9928
800 -947 -7008
212- 444 -5028
212- 242 -1400
SANYO
V GVR -S950
S -VHS
ST- 30 ____.
OR
Single Frame Recording VCR
Single-Frame Animation Controller eliminates the need for separate or
computer plug-in animation controllers. Industry- standard protocols, make
it compatible with most popular graphic and animation software packages
SMPTE Time Code Generator and Reader with Bult-in Drop and Non Drop
3A.
Frame Read/Write is fully programmable from ai external computer and
resettable from the front panel.
Video and Audio Switcher with Two independent Video and Audio Channels. Each video channel contains both composite and
5-Video inputs. Each audio channel contains two linear and two Hi -Fi inputs Switching can be performed either manually. or
under RS232 or RS422 control. Video and audio channels are switched independently letting you perform break -away edits.
Auto-Sensing Single RS422/RS232 Input eliminates the need for optional external interfaces. Interlace requirements are automatically sensed and adjusted within the recorder.
Input and Playback Video Processing allows adjustments to the video level of the incoming signal. Signal levels and hue can be
adjusted during playback.
AMPEX BTS
187 KCA 3/P U -matie Broadcast (In Box)
KCA05......._.6.49 KCA10..
.6.89 KCA15............7.29
KCA20 ..........7.69 KCA30...
.8.49 KCA60..........11.79
3/4 U -matte Master Broadcast (In
187 BCA
85510 (mint) 8.49
8C520 mini 9.59
297 SPA 3/4"
Box)
BCAI O_._.....8.57 BCA20........... 9.59
BCA30........10.20 BCA60...._....14.39
U -nmtic SP
SPS10(mini) .............10.21
SPA20 .....................10.85
SPA30 ._..................12.40
Master Broadcast (In Box)
SPA10. ..........................10.20
SPS20 (mini)..................10.85
SPA60 ............._............18.20
208 Betacsm Master BMade0N ON Box)
4.89 BC -10A (small)
5.89
BC -20A (smallI)......... ... 7.59 BC -30A (small)........... 9.69
BC- 30LA.._..12.89 BC- 60LÁ......28.49 BC- 90LA.....30.99
8C -SA (small).
.
Master Broadcast (In Box)
BC -5A (small)......._.....15.99 BC -10A (small) ..........18.49
398 Beta
BC -20A
BC -5LÁ
SP
(small)..... ....20.49
..................__..15.99
BC
-30A (small) ..........22.39
18.49
13C-101..A.
BC- 20LÁ ................__. 20.49
BC- 60LÁ ................_.._29.95
BC- 3GLA............._..._.22.39
BC- 90LÁ....._...._...._.46.95
maxelle
BI Certified
8mm Hlgh4mde
P6-60 HG BO .............. 4.99
P6 -120 HG BO. .... _.
MI Certified HI -8 Metal Cassettes
P6 -60 HM 80............_.6.49
P6 -120 HM B0 ....
PA PLUS
T -30
Expihxial
..............2.29
2.69
Plus ...
Plus ...
HG0 -PLUS
T -60
.
6.49
Betacam SP-2000 PRO Series
Plus
Exaltaxlal VHS (Box)
HGKT -120 Plus ......
3.79
Broadcast Quality Expitaxlal VHS (Box)
T -30 BO ........................5.49
T -60 BO..................
T -120 BO ................................... ...............................
6.99
S-VHS
Player
SVO -9600
S -VHS
Player/Recorder
BD
BO Certified
ST -31 80..
ST -126 BO...
Professional S-VHS (le Box)
6.49 ST-62 BD................
7.69
O CA
ST -182 BD..............
3/4" High Grade
m/Mbam
KCS -10 FIG (mini).
6.99
KCA -5 HG ................._..7.29
KCA -20 HG .._........._._.8.99
OCA
8 Sleeve
KCS -20 HG (mini)...
KCA -10 HG ...........
KCA -30 HG ...._.......
.
7.69
8.29
9.49
3/4" Broadcast m/Album & Sleeve
7.49
KCS -10 BO (mini)
KCA -5 BO.._.._.
KCS -20 BO (mini)
KCA -10 BO
KCA -30 BO
7.69
8.99
Bt(._
8.49
8.29
9.99
HI-8 Professional Metal Video Cassettes
P6 -30
HMPX........_.......5.99
P6 -30
P6 -60
P6 -60 AMP %.................8.59
P6- 120HMP
%
..............11.69
PR
T
HMEX..__........ 8.49
HMEX..............11.99
P6- 120HMEX _....._....15.99
Series Professional Grade VHS
T- 60PR...__..2.79
T- 120PR.__...3.29
-30PR _.... 2.49
PM Series Premier Grade Professional VHS
T- 3OPM........3.49
T
-60PM
..
4.09
T- 120PM.......4.99
BA Series Premier Hi -Grade Broadcast VHS (In Box)
T -30BA ........3.79
T
-60BÁ .........429
,611.11%
yas
6.99
14.99
T- 1208A.....,..5.29
The SVP -9000 S -VHS player and SVO -9600 recorder are designed as mufti- purpose machines with the use
of various optical interface boards. By selecting one or more of a particular board, they become dedicated
machines for satellite recording, office viewing, video library, sports analysis and editing. At the same time,
they adhere to Sonys professional VTR concept of reliable mechanism, rigid construction and easy operation, ensuring reliable and reliable operaticr in the industrial and professional environment.
They both teeters:
Automatic repeat and
Using the S-VHS format, they deliver superb pr.ure playback and recording. With newly developed Digtal V/C separator maintained picture quality even in composite.
Newly developed video cross talk canceller eliminates color
blur providing more accurate color and sharper images.
Four channel audio system - Two Hi -fi with a dteeamic
range of 90d8 and two linear channels with Do ty NR.
Two direct -drive reel motors provide rapid response and
smooth operations. Mode transitions such as FOP to REC,
FAST FWD to PLAY, STOP to REWIND are instaianeous.
Picture search from -10 to .10 times normal speed.
SYNC IN for synchronizing with other video sources
automatic rewind can be accompushed with programmed operation.
is a TIMER switch for either REC or PLAY (SVP9000 PLAY only) when selected automatically executes the
selected mode when the power is tamed on. This is very
useful for unattended operation such as satellite recording.
Auto head cleaner - each time a cassette is loaded or
ejected, a cleaning roller automatically passes over the
video /FM audio heads removing tape residue and providing preventive care of the tape heads.
The SVO -9600 features sensor recording. When video signais are input, it automatically starts recording.
19 EIA rack mountable plus adjustable front controls.
There
Optional Interlace Cards:
SVBK-100 33 -pin interface board allows remote control of basic VTR functions.
SVBK -120 RS-232 interlace board allows for machine control from a computer.
MOST -120 ....................8.59
Broadcast Standard (In Bee)
KOS -10 BRS (mini)._... 7.99
KCS -20 BRS (mini)......0.69
KCA -10 BRS ........ _... 7.89 KCA -20 BRS ................8.39
KCA -30 BRS
9.29 KCA-O BRS ........._...12.99
XII 3/P U -matic Broadcast Master On Box)
KCS -10 X8R (mini).__ 8.49
KCS -20 XBR (mini)......9.79
8.19
BRS 3/4- U -matic
NEWTEK
VIDEO TOASTER 4000
.
KCA -10 XBR.......__.._. 8.99
KCA -30 XBR ...............11.49
KCA -20 SOR....._....._.10.29
KCA -60 XBR............_.14.99
O
BCT-5M (small)
.16.99
BOT-20M (small) _.. 21.29
BCT- 5ML.._.. _._.... .16.99
BCT- 20ML....
21.39
BCT- 60ML...____.. 31.99
BCT -10M (small)...__.19.29
BCT -30M (small) ......23.29
BCT- 10ML.__...........19.29
BCT -30ML .............__23.49
BCT- 90ML.._......_....49.95
The NovaBlox Video Processing System is comprised of
individual function modules called NovaCards. The rage of
NovaCard modules includes time base correctors, frame
synchronizers, sync generators, encoders, decoders,
transcorders, distribution amplifiers and routing switches.
NovaCards have the flexibility of plugging into either a computer or one of four NovaChassis that hold from one to -5
modules. NovaCards fit into an IBM or compatible eversion slot including Amiga. Most of the NovaCards utilize
RS -232 serial date for operational control and include NS,
Windows, and Amiga software. For desktop and portable
applications, the C -28 chassis hold two cards. There is Aso
the C -4 single rackmount chassis that accommodates up to
four NovaCards and the three rack C-15 NovaFrame, whch
features 15 slots. To provide operational control when
using one of the NovaChassis there are two NovaTro Seial
Control Units to choose from. They provide LCD status sisplay with four button operation or the NovaTrol/2 which gas
enhanced operation with dedicated function controls one
LCD status display.
C-20
C-2A
NOVAMATE TBC/Frame Synchronizer
One of the NovaCard modules of the NovaBlox system, tie
NovaMate is a unique TBC /Frame Synchronizer that sate fies a wide range of VCR signal correction and video interface requirements from desktop video to satellite systems.
NovaMate plugs directly into a computer or one of several
chassis configurations. Control is performed either by software or NovaTrol control unes. The flexibility of its modular
design and microprocessor control plus its superior quaity
make NovaMate the ideal alternative to stand -alone and
computer based TBCs.
WE CARRY ALL OTHER NOVACARDS:
ENCODERS, DECODERS, TRMBCOBERS,
DISTRIBUTIONAMPLIFIERS AND ROUTING SWITCHERI
HsRITA
BSG -50
Blackburst/Sync /Tone Generator
The B5G -50 provides an economical means for generus ng
the most common RS -170A video timing signals used to
operate various video switchers, effects generators, TBCs,
VCRs, cameras and video edit controllers.
6 BNC video/pulse outputs
Now available 6 blackburst, 4 sync, 2 subcarrier
Each sync output individually settable for composite sync,
composite blanking, H- drive, or V- drive.
Separate buffer for each output- maximum signal iselatbn
1KHz, OdB sinewave audio tone output, locked to vices
Outputs can easily be configured to meet
specific user and equipment needs .......................6266
Color Bar /Sync/ Tone Generator
Generates full/SMPTE color bars, blackburst and composite sync signals.
Built-in timer can automatically switch video outpuarm
color bars to color black after 30 or 60 seconds. Easy and
convenient for producing tape leaders and striping tapes
with color bars and black.
Front panel selection of full -field or SMPTE color bar patterns or colorblack (blackburst( video output.
Includes crystal -controlled, 1KHz, 0dB audio tone output.
Outputs: video, sync, ref trame, 1 KHz, 0dB
Audio tone switches to silence and color bars change to
black when using 30/60 second timer
Fully RS-170A SC/H phased and always correct.
WE STOCK THE FULL LINE OF
HORITA PRODUCTS INCLUDING:
-mallo SP Broadcast (In Bea)
KSP -S10 (mini)........... 9.19 KSP -S20 (mini)..........10.69
KSP -10 ........................ 9.69
KSP- 20.......................10.99
KSP -30......_.........._...12.49 KSP -60 ......................16.39
BCT B Macao Broadcast Standard (In Box)
BCT-5G (small).._....._. 4.99 BCT -10G (small)
5.89
BCT-20G (small)....... .. 7.39
BCT -30G (small) _... ..9.39
BCT- 5GL.........._.......__9.29
BCT- 10GL..._.__...._..10.39
BCT- 2OGL ................... 11.69
BCT -3061....._._......_12.89
BCT- 60GL..._......._._ 23.99
BCT- 90GL...._._......._30.90
OCT Metal Botanam SP Broadcast Master (Box)
IMP 31/4"
NovaBlox
VIDEO PROCESSING SYSTEM
CSG -50
SVBK-140 RS -422 interface board allows either machine to be configured into any professional system.
SVBK -150 Digital Noise Reducer board reduces jitter, noise and Y/C delay and provides clear, crisp still frames.
SVBK -160 SMPTE Time Code interlace board On only be used with SVBK -140 board).
MQ Master Quality S-VNS (In Box)
MOST- 60.........____
RUSH SERVICE
AVAILABLE
PBC 2800 Player/Recorder
Same as PBC-2600 plusBuie -in comprehensive edging facilities
Dynamic Motion Control with memory provides slow motion
editing capabilitiy (when used with a player VTR equipped
with DT function)
More than 90 minutes of recording/playback time using
L-size Metal (for both recording and playback) or Oxide (tor
playback only) cassettes.
Built-in LTCNITC/User Ns generator and reader. also built in character generator
Y/R - Y/B -Y component signal inputs and outputs via BNC or
12 -pin Betacam DUB connectors. Also has S -Video input and
output.
PROFESSIONAL S -VHS SYSTEM
SVP -9000
OVERNIGHT AND
Same as PBC 2600 plusDynamic Tracking (DT) provides broadcast quality noiseless
playback within -1 to .3 times normal speed
SONY
8.49
2.59
2.79
PBC 2650 Player with
Dynamic Tracking (DT)
PBC 2600 Player
VHS
1-120 Plus ..............
HGXT-60 Plus ..............3.49
Broadcast Television Systems
Superior picture quality to any other professional system.
Brings virtual Betacam SP quality within the budgets of professional users.
More than 90 minutes of playback time using L -site Metal or
Oxide cassettes.
High -speed picture search provides recognizable mlor pictures at up to 10 times normal speed in forward and reverse
(24 times normal speed in monochrome)
Two longitudinal audio channels with Dolby C -type NR
(Noise Reduction) system
Equipped with RS-422 9 -pin serial interlace which is broadcast standard protocol.
Built-in Time Base Corrector with advanced high quality digital dropout compensator
Optional BVR -50 provides remote control of the -BC.
Built-in LTCNITC /User Bits reader, and character generator
User friendly dial menu operation, enhanced sericeability
with bunt-in sett diagnostics
Y/R - V/8 -Y component signal outputs via BNC o- 12 -pin
Betacam DUB connectors. Also has S -Video outpd.
Optional BKW-2020 provides LI-matic DUB output capability.
.
WO -50 - Window Dub Inserter
TG -50 - Generator/Inserter
TRG-50 - Generator/Inserter/Search Speed Read it
- Has all of the above plus RS-232 control.
LTC -VITC Translator
1/1.1*-50 - VITC -To-LTC Translator
VLT -60PC - VITC -To -LTC Translator / RS-232 Control
RLT -50- Hi8 (EVO- 9800/9850)TC to LTC Transla or
TSG -SO - NTSC Test Signal Generator
SCT -50 - Serial Control Titler "Industrial" CG,
Time -Date Stamp, Time Code Captiaeiap
TRG -50PC
VG-50 -VITC Generator,
Production Switcher
Luminance Keyer
Frame Grabber/Frame Store
CtnmaPX Color Processor
Dlq tal Video Effects
Character Generator
ToasterPalnt
Dual Frame Buffers Genfock
Llghlwave 30
ALL VIDEO COMES WITH A SEVEN-DAY SATISFACTION MONEY -BACK GUARANTEE
www.americanradiohistory.com
SAG -50- Sate Area, Convergence Pattern and
Oscilloscope Line Trigger and Generator
...FOR PHOTO & VIDEO"
TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER:
800 221
-5743
212
119 WEST 17TH STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10011
Store & Mail Order Hours:
807 -7479
Sun 10 -4:45
FAX 24
OR
HOURS:
212
366 -3738
Mon & Tues 9 -6
Wed & Thurs 9 -7:30
Sat Closed
Fri 9 -2
RUSH OR OVERNIGHT SERVICE AVAILABLE (extra charge)
SONY
EVW -300
MILLER
Fluid Heads & Tripods
The silky, smooth action of
each Miller Fluid Head is the
product of the finest quality
cast and machined parts functioning together in a fluid environment. They are engineering
or
The EVW -300 is a complete one piece camcorder which includes a variety of
innovative and advanced operational features. So, whether your shoots require
basic recording capabilities or premier performance, the EVW -300 offers a wide range of features and remarkable recording
quality to best suit your needs.
effectively against ambient
Postures:
Miller 20 - Series II Fluid Head
Includes independent pan and tilt locks. bubble level, dual
pan handle carriers and integrated 75mm ball levelling.
lightweight Tripod
Weighs only 4.5 lbs., supports up to 30 lbs.
Minimum height down to 24', maximum height to 57'.
Extremely portable, folds down to 33'
Engineered from thermoplastic moldings, diecast alloy
and hard anodized tubular alloy.
Fast one turn, captive leg locks
Includes 75mm (3') ball levelling bowl
RUN /FREE RUN and User Bits.
of automatic adjustment functions for different lighting conditions: ATV/ (Auto Trace White Balance) - optimum
white balance is always ensured during recording, even for changes in color temperature. Conventional white balance adjustment is still provided with the Auto White Balance. AGC (Automatic Gain Control) - in addition to manual Gain Up AGC provides linear gain up in the range of 0 dB to 18 dB. Intelligent Auto Iris - where the lighting between subject and background
is different (subject is underexposed) the Intelligent Auto Iris automatically adjusts the lens iris for proper exposure.
Selectable Gain -up from 1 dB to 18 dB in 1 dB steps for Mid 8 High positions.
Clear Scan function - provides a variety of selection of shutter speeds ranging from 60 -200 Hz allowing recording of
almost any computer display without flicker.
Compact, lightweight (12 lbs with NP -1B) ergonomic design provides well balanced and extremely comfortable operation.
TOSHIBA
0420 - 2 -Stage Tripod
TSC -200
3 -CCD Hi-8 Camcorder
SystDm 20 Catalog 1838
System 20 ENO Cat. /399
420 2 -stage tripod
Miller 20 fluid head
410 tripod spreader with foot pads .......................1895.00
I
I
Vinten
Vision
SD 12 and SD 22
Pan and Tilt Heads with Serial Drag
The Vision SD 12 and SO 22 are the first heads with the
"Serial Drag" pan and tilt system. The system consists of
h" CCD chips mounted with spatial offset technology deliver resolution of 700 horizontal lines
Low noise design provides extreme sensitivity of F8.0 at 2000 lux. Min. illumination 7.5 lux with excellent color reproduction
New LNA (low noise amplifier) delivers a S/N (signal-to- noise) ratio of 62d8 - the highest achieved for this type of camera
26-pm connector outputs Y/C or component video signal allowing hook up to a portable S -VHS, Mil or Betacam recorder and
simultaneously record with Hi-8.
Ouick -start 15" viewfinder needs no warm up time so you never miss a shot. Zebra pattern in the viewfinder alerts operator
to excessive video levels.
Genlock capability allows synchronization with other cameras. Also full calibration functions are buie -in as well as color bar generator.
Variable high speed shutter from 1/60 to 12000 second
Built-in 8mm time code generator records an absolute address to every frame
High -performance back electret condenser mic records to all three audio tracks. Low cut filter eliminates wind noise.
Very low power consumption. Draws only 16 watts per hour allowing 100 minutes of recording time with 1 NP-1B battery.
Body made of magnesium alloy previously found only on broadcast cameras. Still only 13 lbs. in standard configuration.
3
-
viewfinder.
Fits into back seat and fastens securely with seat belt.
Holds camera with on -board battery attached.
Lid closes with Velcro for quick -opening or secure with
full- length zippers.
Two trim exterior pockets and clip board pocket.
Dual purpose rear pouch is an expandable battery chamber
or all- purpose pocket
antoZauer
Logic Series DIGITAL
Gold Mount Batteries
P
Vision Two Stage ENG and
Carbon Fibre ENG Tripods
.JVC GY X2
Three 1/2" CCD image sensor delivers 650 lines of horizontal resolution
New micro -lens technology provides exceptional sensitivity of F7.0 at 2000 lux
and new LOLUX mode lets you shoot with almost no light! Now you can shoot superb
footage with excellent color balanced at a mere 3 lux illumination
The Logic Series DIGITAL batteries are acknowledged to
be the most advanced in the rechargeable battery indus-
Variable Scan View allows flicker -free shooting of a computer monitor.
Quick Record Mode - when turned on the camera is set to the auto iris even if lens is set at manual. Also activated is (ALC)
Automatic Level Control and EEI Extended Electronic Iris which provides both variable gain and variable shutter. Now you can
shoot continuously from dark room to bright outdoors without having to adjust gain, iris or ND filter.
Full Time Auto White circuit lets you move from incandescent to fluorescent to outdoor lighting without changing white balance or the filter wheel.
Genlock input allow synchronization with other cameras.
Dual output system allows camera output to be connected directly to an external recorder
KY-27UB
The ultimate in lightweight and innovative tripods, they are
available with durable tubular alloy (Model #3513) or the
stronger and lighter, axially and spirally wound carbon fiber
construction ( Model #3523). They incorporate torque safe
clamps to provide fast, safe and self- adjusting leg clamps.
"Torque Safe" requires no adjustment. Its unique design
adjusts itself as and when required, eliminating the need
for manual adjustment and maintenance and making for
a much more reliable clamping system.
New hip joint eliminates play and adds rigidity.
They both feature 100mm levelling bowl, fold down to a
compact 28 ", and support 45 lbs.
The #3513 weighs 6.5 lbs and the #3523 CF (Carbon
Fibre) weighs 5.2 lbs.
Vision 12 Systems
All Vision 12 systems include #33643 SD 12 dual fluid and
lubricated friction drag pan /tilt head, single telescoping pan
bar and clamp with 100mm ball base.
SD-12A System
3364 -3 SD -12 Pan and tilt head
3518 -3 Single stage ENG tripod with 100mm bowl
3363 -3 Lightweight calibrated floor spreader.
80-120 System
3364-3 SD-12 Pan and tilt head
3513 -3 Two -stage ENG tripod with 100mm bowl
3314-3 Heavy -duty calibrated floor spreader
Vision 22 Systems
All Vision 22 systems include #3386-3 SO-22 dual fluid and
lubricated friction drag pan and tilt head, single telescoping
pan and clamp with dual 100mm /150mm ball base.
.
3 -CCD S -VHS CAMCORDER
LT
3386-3 SD-22 Pan and tilt head
3219-52 Second telescoping pan bar and clamp
3516-3 Two -stage EFP tripod with 150mm bowl.
3314-3 Heavy-duty calibrated floor spreader
Designed for working from the back of a van or the trunk
of your car. The top loading case has a wide open fold
back top that stays neatly out of the way. It's lighter and
more compact than shipping cases, thus saving valuable
storage space. With other equipment crowded around it
the sturdy built -in frame provides added protection.
Heavy duty shoulder strap 8 comfortable leather hand grip.
crush proof aluminum guard protects
Carry it in crowds
orvr
a
unique, permanently- sealed fluid drag and an advanced
lubricated friction drag. So for the first time, one head gives
you all the advantages of both fluid (viscous) and lubricated (LF) drag systems - and none of their disadvantages.
Achieve the smoothest pans and tilts regardless of speed,
drag setting and ambient temperature.
Simple, easy-to -use external control for perfect balance.
Patented spring- assisted counter -balance system permits
perfect "hands -off" camera balance over full 180° of tilt.
Instant drag system breakaway and recovery overcome
inertia and friction for excellent "whip pans ".
Consistent drag levels in both pan and tilt axis.
Flick on. flick oh pan and tilt caliper disc brakes.
Greater control, precision. flexibility and "touch" than any
other head on the market.
Touch activated, time delayed illuminated level bubble.
Working conditions from as low as -40° up to +60°C.
5D 12 weighs 6.6 lbs and supports up to 35 lbs.
SO 22 weighs 12.7 lbs and supports up to 55 lbs.
SD-22E System
FOR CAMCORDERS OR STAND ALONE CAMERAS
Variety
Two extension sections on each leg. Operates at low levels
as well as normal heights without the use of mini legs.
High torsional rigidity, no pan backlash
Weighs 6.61ós., supports 50 lbs.
Very portable, folds to 27'
Includes 75mm (3') ball levelling bowl with model 420
model 402 includes 100mm (4') ball levelling bowl.
440 Lightweight tripod
Miller 20 II fluid head
410 tripod spreader with foot pads .......................1549.00
Quick-Draw Professional
Equipped with three high density 1/2 IT Hyper HAD image sensors. Has an excellent sensitivity of F8.0 at 2,000 lux. high S/N
of 60 dB, and delivers over 700 lines of horizontal resolution.
Provides high quality PCM digital stereo and single channel AFM Hi -Fi recording. Has XLR balanced audio connectors.
Quick start 1.5' viewfinder with 550 lines of resolution plus Zebra pattern video level indicator and color bar generator
Quick -start recording - takes only 0.5 seconds to go from REC PAUSE to REC MODE for immediate recording in the field
Buis -in 8mm Time Code generator records absolute addresses. (Either non -drop frame or drop frame mode may be selected.) Furthermore the EVW -300 incorporates a variety of time code features such as Time Code PRESET/RESET, REC
moisture and dust.
Continuously adjustable fluid drag control
Sliding/Ouick Release camera platform
Weighs only 4lbs. will handle cameras up to 22 lbs.
Counterbalance system designed to compensate for nose
heavy or tail heavy camera configurations, and permits
fingertip control of the camera throughout the tilt range.
a
race
Hi -8 3 -CCD CAMCORDER
masterpieces, built to operate
even under extreme conditions.
They are engineered to exceptionally fine tolerances and their
mechanisms are protected
#440 -
PHOTO -VIDEO
3 -CCD Color Video Camera
New y,- CCDs with 380,000 pixels (360,000 effective) with advanced electronics delivers resolution of 750 horizontal lines and reduced smear.
Special low reflection membrane for CCD shielding screen greatly reduces
smear while minimizing light leakage.
Min. illumination 7.5 lux with 111.4 lens, +18dB.
Sensitivity of f/8.0 at 2000
LOLUX mode allows shooting scenes that were previously impossible due to insufficient lighting. CCDs are maximized for low
light sensitivity equivalent to an electronic gain of 24dB plus a JVC pixel readout system which provides an additional 6dB.
Together they provide +30dB without the noise and picture degradation normally associated with this much gain. Excellent color
balance is maintained even down to 1.5 lux illumination.
Auto Shooting Mode where you only have to zoom, focus and record. All other parameters are controlled automatically.
Enhanced ALC (Automatic Level Control) mode for continuous shooting in all light levels. This allows continuous automatic
shooting from dark interiors to bright outdoors. Also features an aperture priority mode. Manually set ins for desired depth of
focus, and ALC circuit automatically achieves correct video level.
The Multi -Zone Iris Weighting system gives preference to objects in the center and lower portions of the picture. The Automatic
Peak/AverageDetection (APB) provides intelligence to ignore unusual objects such as bright lights.
Auto knee circuitry extends a scene's light to dark dynamic range reproduction by up to five times without overexposure.
Has large 1.5 -inch viewfinder with 500 lines of resolution and SMPTE color bars. Status system provides audio levels, accumulated or remaining recording time and VTR operation. Also battery voltage and camera setup. Zebra pattern indication and safety
zones with a center marker are also provided.
Equipped with Variable Scan function. This allows flicker -free shooting of computer screens, Variable scan enables a precise
shutter speed from 160.2 to 1/96.7 of a second in 256 increments to be set, matching a computers scan rate. Almost any com-
puter display can be clearly recorded.
Star fitter creates dramatic 4 -point star effects. Users can also select from a wide range of optional filters.
Advanced Memory System (AMS) stores customizable settings for various shooting conditions.
Camera head is designed for durability and light weight. Provides excellent resistance to vibration and impact, for enhanced reliability. Overall balance is perfect with all controls optimally located for ease of use.
Uses just 12.4 watts of power with camera adapter and viewfinder, so battery time can be allocated to VTR operation.
Easily adjustable pedestal and detail enhancement through the Camera Setup Menu.
Docks directly to the JVC BR-S42211. BR-5411 UB and BR- S420CU professional S -VHS recorders. Optional adapters available for
other models.
Minimum Shipping USA (Except Al( 8 HI) 57.00, up to
3
lbs. Add 60C for each additional Ib. For ins. add 400 per $100.
Circle (61) on Reply Card
Pd
1994 8811 Photo
-
try. In addition to the comprehensive sensors integral to
all Logic Series batteries, each DIGITAL battery has a
built -in microprocessor that communicates directly with
Anton/Bauer InterActive chargers, creating significant new
benchmarks for reliability, performance, and life. They
also complete the communications network between battery. charger and camera. With the network in place, DIGITAL batteries deliver the feature most requested by cameramen: a reliable and accurate indication of remaining
battery power.
DIGITAL PRO PACS
The Digital Pro Pac is the ultimate professional video battery and is recommended for all applications. The premium heavy duty Pro Pac cell is designed to deliver long life
and high performance even under high current loads and
adverse conditions. The size and weight of the Pro Pac
creates perfect shoulder balance with all camcorders.
DIGITAL PRO PAC 14 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
14.4v 60 Watt Hours. 5 1/8 tbs.
Run time: 2 hours á 27 watts, 3 hrs. ® 18 watts
DIGITAL PRO PAC 19 LOGIC SERIES NICAn BATTERY
13.2v 55 Watt Hours. 4 3/4 lbs.
Run time: 2 hours all 25 watts, 3 hours ®17 watts
DIGITAL MAGNUM COMPACS
Extremely small and light weight (almost half the size and
weight of a Digital Pro Pac), the powerful Compac
Magnum still has more effective energy than two NP style
slide -in batteries. The high voltage design and Logic Series
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Field Report
Studio Audio and
Video SADiE
By Ian Britton
Metro
Radio operates a group of commercial radio stations in northern England. The company's commercial production department has as its core business the production of effective radio
advertising for the stations' clients.
In the fall of 1993, the department was
planning an upgrade of its 8-track analog system when we encountered Studio
Audio and Video's SADiE at an exhibition. This caused us to change our minds
about the direction of the upgrade. Three
months later, a SADiE system was installed, and we have never looked back.
Performance at a glance:
A fast and user- friendly disk-based digital
audio workstation
Operates on IBM-compatible PCs in Windows .3.1 environment
Eight-track system with mixing and powerful audio processing
Screen displays and design philosophy
keep teaming curve short
Appropriate for radio and TV production
applications
Can be outfitted with removable SCSI
drives for efficient accommodation of
multiple ongoing projects
Setup and operation
SADiE is a PC -based digital
audio disk editor, using a 486
computer running under
You record into SADiE just like any tape
machine except you give each recording
a name and then the computer automatically allocates take numbers. Once audio is in the system, you can work on it as
if it's in a word processor: cut, copy,
paste, change the EQ, slow it down, compress it, even play it backward. It really is
that simple. All editing is non- destructive, so at any time you can start a job
again. The audio is actually stored on a
SCSI drive that holds up to two hours of
stereo, or four hours of mono audio (on
the basic system costing $9,995). At
Metro Radio, we have since added another SCSI drive to increase our storage to five
hours stereo or 10 hours
mono.
and Windows 3.1. A
turnkey system includes the
Real-world advantages
PC, SADiE software, a digital
In this facility, SADiE has
audio processing card, an
been used exclusively for
analog converter/time -code
producing radio commercard, 1.2GB SCSI drive for
cials. It has been standard
storing audio data and a
practice for us to record
breakout box. The system
one basic commercial with
has two inputs and four out17 different inserts or tags,
puts, all available in S/PDIF,
to run on 17 different staAES /EBU and analog fortions. On an 8 -track tape
mats. Up to eight tracks can
system, this involved a few
be played simultaneously. Inhours work. On SADiE the
terconnections to the rest
same job can be completof the studio are straightfored in less than half the
ward using the breakout box
time. On more complex
that is supplied.
jobs SADiE can save even
The system's operating inmore time.
structions are clear and conAnother common discicise, which meant that by
pline in commercial prothe end of day one we were The author at work on SADiE, in the Metro Radio Group's production studio duction is making ads with
making commercials on the in Newcastle, England.
precise, standard running
system. It was always our
lengths (typically in increintention to attend a SADiE training course after the first month, but we found ments of 10 seconds). Working on a multhe system so easy to use that in the end titrack tape system, it could take 20 minwe didn't bother. The system was clearly utes to lay all the sound for a 40-second
Britton is production manager at Metro Radio Group PLC,
designed by sound engineers who have spot, only to discover it was two secNewcastle, England. Respond via the BE FAXback line at 913967 -1905.
made it operate in an intuitive way.
onds short. Another 20 minutes of work
DOS 6
96
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
followed to re-lay everything. With SADiE
it only takes 10 minutes to lay all the
sound, and if it comes up short, it's just
a minute's work with the mouse to respace everything.
SADiE also will allow you to mix the
sound using faders on the screen. There
is even automation on the faders so you
can build up a complex mix and then
store it for later use. Alternatively, it is
possible to mix down internally to one
stereo pair.
The system allows great flexibility in
editing announcer tracks to correct errors or piece together the perfect take.
The same can be done for music beds.
By placing multiple versions of a bed
After eight months
of constant use, we are
pleased to report that
we have had no
problems.
into SADiE, you can cut any version you
want. You can also perform some beautiful music edits. For example, I recently
turned out a 30-second, 40-second and
50-second version of Mozart's "Marriage
of Figaro." SADiE has had such a positive
effect on our productivity we now handle the complete production load for
two radio stations. This amounts to an
average of 100 finished commercials a
week.
In another recent case, a client called
and asked for her 30-second ad to be
recut to 20 seconds. Fifteen minutes later the job was done. Her boss then
changed his mind, so we cut it yet another way instead. Eventually, the client
was delighted with the end product
so much so that a bottle of champagne
arrived on our doorstep the next day.
SADiE has other features that we never
have occasion to use but perhaps some
would find useful. For instance, you can
use SADiE to help in the production of
CD-R discs. You load all the audio into
the system, add the cues and the system
will speak directly to a CD-R recorder,
automatically placing all the cues appropriately. You can also do all the prep-
-
FREE
44pg Catalog
&
ir
TUONO, HIC,
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LI
Reliability
When we decided to invest in a SADiE
system, one area of concern was how
reliable it was going to be. Stories abound
on other hard disk editors crashing in
the middle of a session. If SADiE were to
crash at anytime, it would have an unacceptable impact on the running of the
studio. Clients would lose faith and the
facility's image would suffer. After eight
months of constant use we are pleased
to report that we have had no problems.
The system has even survived power
outages with no ill effects.
Since Metro Radio has invested in
SADiE, two other production companies
have visited the station to see the system in operation. In both cases they
have gone out and bought one.
By now you will have gathered that
staff members at this operation are fans
of the SADiE system, and all of its benefits. You need to get your hands on one
to fully appreciate all it could do for your
business. The management at Metro
Radio will tell you that SADiE's biggest
impact has been on the bottom line. The
system has made us a smarter operation, allowing us to offer a better service
to our clients while at the same time
becoming more profitable.
See "Radio SADiE" on page 98
Editor's note: Field Reports are an exclusive BEfeature for
broadcasters. Each report is prepared by the staff of a
broadcast station, production facility or consulting company.
These reports are performed by the industry and for the
industry. Manufacturer's support is limited to providing loan
equipment, and to aiding the author if requested.
It is the responsibility of Broadcast Engineering to publish the
results of any device tested, positive or negative. No report
should be considered an endorsement or disapproval by
Broadcast Engineering magaz ne.
E, OSC
i
more information on
4StudioForAudio
and
Video's SADiE,
circle (338) on Reply Card.
For AM, FM, SCA
and TV modulation monitors.
E
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COMMUNICATIONS C I/O
803 - 843 -4343
Circle (54) on Reply Card
June 1994
Broadcast Engineering 97
Radio SADiE
/II`
.
By Richard Dean
;
The installation of 24 SADiE systems
at the BBC's Network Radio facility in
Bristol, southwest England, has done
more than save time and tape costs. It
has turned an ardent sticky-tape and
razor -blade man into an almost evangelically zealous technological convert.
Ian Bell, senior history and travel producer for BBC Radio 4 features department, admits to having harbored a
/y%
s
IN
1111121'
block? The first step is to log raw
material recorded on DAT and
load it into the disk editor. The
next step is to go through the
footage and make the edit decisions. This is where the digital
workstation approach really
scores over traditional meth-
-
ods. Not only are individual actions reversible
there are 25
strong skepticism toward computer - layers of undo on the latest soft- SADiE in a studio at the BBC's network radio producbased editing techniques before the ware release
but the original tion facility in Bristol, England. This is one of 24 SADiE
systems now in use at that facility.
radio network installed its first SADiE remains intact.
last summer. By fall, he was convinced.
Because SADiE operates in a Microsoft
Perfect) on the lower half of the screen.
So how does an old -style 1/4 -inch pro- Windows environment, other applicaThis allows him to time scripts while
ducer get along without a trusty edit tions can share the screen. When Bell is
keeping an eye on the progress of
working on presenter links or the instrucexisting tracks in the upper window.
Dean is chief correspondent, Europe for World Broadcast
tions for ambiences or music, he likes to
News. Respond via the BEFAXback line at 913 -967-1905.
run a word processor (in this case WordApplications abound
At BBC's Pebble Mill facility, where
much of the network's radio drama
originates, all six SADiE systems have
removable SCSI drives. This enables
all original recordings to be transGCe
Shielded
ferred to studio post -production sysTape
tems, where engineers can immediErasers
Features
ately add music and effects without
Shields your employees from low
having to load edited DAT material
frequency electromagnetic radiation.
onto disk first.
Full erasure without spoking.
Modern design and construction.
Another advantage of this "transRack mountable.
portable media" approach is that any
Low weight & small footprint.
errors in existing work can be correctLow power consumption.
ed in its native format. By opening up
Very competitive pricing.
World Class Quality'" since 1964
a SADiE Processor window, the operator offers a console's worth of digital
Call Today 1- 800 -227 -8887
signal processing functions, available
Preco Inc.. 7720 East Evans Road. Scottsdale, Arizona (602) 483 -6645 Fax 1602) 483 -9357
to each channel, and all performed in
Canada call. The Pringle Division (416) 222 -2447
real -time. Like most other parameters,
Circle (63) on Reply Card
these are set with the mouse, and can
be saved to disk for reuse on other
material. All major input /output signal standards and digital sampling
rates also are supported, plus analog
IN
I/O and SMPTE or MIDI time code.
The secret to SADiE's speed is that
the audio is processed through a cusYOUR
tom- designed internal card (which appears in a number of OEM products
including the Lightworks video editVB1
ing system), leaving the 486 host computer to concentrate on rememberVBI232 Encoder r Decoder board plugs into
LEITCH or GRASS VALLEY GROUP DA frames.
ing edit decision lists and supporting
screen graphics.
The VBI 232 allows any RS232 data to be transparently
"When I started at Birmingham in
inserted and recovered from a user selectable line in the
1979, I thought my Uher portable ATR
and typewriter were the ultimate tools
vertical blanking interval of a baseband video signal
of the trade," Bell recalls fondly. "I
- THINK OF THE POSSIBILITIES!
have since concluded if reluctantly
at first
that however good you are
with a razor, there are some SADiE
edits that are simply not possible any
40 West Wilmot St., Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1H8
other way."
-
is
WEIRCLIPPE
In
DATA TRANSMISSION
EDE
VERTICAL BLANKING
PT
TR-.
WO
broadcast video systems ltd.
Telephone:(905)764 -1584
Fax:(905)764 -7438
Circle (62) on Reply Card
98
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
-
BE FAXback survey
Broadcast Engineering magazine is always interested in what readers want to know. You can help us in
planning our coverage of industry issues by completing this questionnaire.
Please complete the following questions and mail or fax it back by Aug.
Engineering magazine, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212 -2215)
1.
(Fax 913 -967-1905) (Mail to Broadcast
Name
Title
Address
State, zip
Fax # (optional)
Telephone number (optional)
(Respondents who provide their telephone number may be called by BE editors so we can better understand your concern.)
Type of facility: Radio
Market ADI
TV
Other (describe)
Post -Production
Please answer those questions pertaining to your type of facility, as well as the common -issue questions.
Common issues:
(All respondents should answer these questions.)
1) Describe one area of technology you need to know more about
2) Do you use any electronic communication service? (CompuServe, Prodigy, America On -Line, Internet)
What service do you use'?
Yes
No
How often? Daily
Weekly
Once or more per month
No
3) Do you have CD -ROM capability? Yes
4) Would you use the BE BBS to provide feedback to our editors and for other purposes? Yes
No
5) What kinds of articles would you like to see more of'?
facility questions:
TV
No
your facility planning now to implement HDTV? Yes
If so, when will you first make a purchase?
2) Is your facility planning on implementing any non -HDTV 16:9 production capability? Yes
No
3) Does your facility have non -linear editing capability? Yes
1) Is
If not, when do you plan to add that capability?
If yes, what brand of editor are you using?
4) What primary use in your facility do you see for
5)
How many do you have?
video servers?
What percent of your equipment/facility is digital? Audio
How long will
it be
No
Video
until your facility is 90% digital?
Radio facility questions:
No
your station planning now to implement RBDS? Yes
first make an RBDS equipment purchase?
No
If yes, what dayparts?
Is your station automated? Yes
Concerning cart replacement, do you favor a digital cart machine or a PC -based hard disk/file server?
No
Does your station have a digital audio workstation? Yes
When?
No
If no, do you plan to purchase one? Yes
No
Does your station use switched 56 or ISDN services? Yes
If so, for what purposes?
No
Are you involved in an LMA or duopoly -type arrangement? Yes
If so, how would you describe the results of that arrangement so far?
What types of radio technology do you need to know more about?
1) Is
If yes, when will you
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
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the leading professional
EDITOR - VIDEO SYSTEMS,
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MAINTENANCE ENGINEER opening at Century Ill at
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ENGINEER WANTED: Northern Ontario company looking for a full -time engineer to maintain 2 A.M. radio
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743, P.O. Box 12901, Overland Park, KS 66282 -2901.
ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENT ENGINEERING: SCETV
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planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of technical facilities used in the production
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FULL TIME INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION TECHNICIAN at Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College - Rice
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one year post -secondary education and four years full time work experience. WITC Office and Technical
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CHIEF ENGINEER, Las Vegas, NV. New 24 -hour cable
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Chief will be responsible for design, construction, maintenance and training in this state of the art facility.
Please mail resume to: Robert Porter, 4009 Rand Ct.,
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 -4704. Fax 818 -986 -3979.
MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN for studio /transmitter.
Experienced In Sony Beta Cart, Beta SP Players, as well
as 1" VTRs. Other equipment includes GVG 1600's, GVG
300, Sony BVE 5000 editor and Harris TVE 120S transmitter. Send resume and salary requirements to Chief
Engineer, WGBS -TV, 420 North 20th Street, Phila, PA
19130 or Fax to (215) 563-5786. No phone calls please.
M/F EOE.
RANGE: $39,254 -$58,882. 40 HOURS PER WEEK, POSITION #: 119768. For More Information Contact: Ethel
Brown, Personnel Assistant, (803) 737 -3457.
KMGH TV is seeking a Maintenance Engineer. Must have
5 years experience in a TV station maintenance situation, component level troubleshooting skills, Associates
degree in Electronics, and FCC General class license.
Good interpersonal skills, and ability to work well under
pressure needed. Must be willing to work nights and
weekends. Send or Fax resume to KMGH TV, Attn: Ron
Hays, 123 Speer Blvd., Denver, CO 80203. Fax: 303-8615694.
June 1994 Broadcast Engineering
101
Classified
HELP WANTED
AVID TECHNOLOGY
BROA DCAST PRODUCTS GROUT'
With over 4,000 installations worldwide, Avid is the global
market leader in disk -based technology for recording, editing, and
playback. Our rapid expansion into the broadcast industry is being
fueled by the overwhelming success of our digital news gathering
and commercial playback systems. We are pleased to offer the
following opportunities:
O
40{
adcast Maintenance Engineers
As a broadcast engineer, you will provide in -depth technical support
to all members of our Broadcast Products Group. Working in a fast paced environment, you will assist the Support, Engineering, Sales
and Marketing departments with daily technical and operational
issues; maintain,repair and update temo systems; test new product
developments, and assist the field sales force with operational and
technical issues. Candidates must have at least 3 years' engineering
experience in a broadcasting environment. Knowledge of computer
systems highly desirable. Dept. BME
Comer Support
G
OS
Representative
As a customer support representative, you will respond to customer
inquiries, provide on -site technical support, and collaborate with
Engineering to test new product development. We seek an individual
with excellent troubleshooting, diagnostic and communication
abilities to provide front line telephone customer support. Candidates
must have at least 2 years' experience in the broadcast industry.
Computer systems experience is required, as are strong customer
support skills. Dept. CSR
%ff
We need an aggressive Broadcast
Engineer for Cleveland's busiest technical
team. Studio, RF, & Remote experience
necessary. SBE Certification preferred.
FAX or send your resume FAST to:
Barry Thomas, Dir., Eng.
WMJUWMMS/WHK
310 Lakeside Ave., 6th Floor
Cleveland, OH 44113
FAX #: 216- 696-3299
EOE
HEADLINE
`JVV
NEWS
TELEVISION ENGINEERS
Turner Broadcasting System, the
leading News, Sports and Entertainment system in satellite communications, has career opportunities for
engineers with broadcast maintenance
experience. These positions demand
an extensive background in television
engineering and at least two years of
training in electronics technology.
Turner Broadcasting System offers an
excellent benefit and compensation
program. Send resumes to:
Jim Brown, Corp. Engineering
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
One CNN Center, Box 105366
Atlanta, Georgia 30348 -5366
TBS is an equal
opportunity employer.
EQUIPMENT WANTED
are Engineers
a software developer on our Broadcast products team, you will
finalize architecture, design, code and test features. AirPlay, Avid's
disk -based playback system for broadcast television, incorporates
video compression, disk -array and high -speed networking technology with an easy -to -use Macintosh interface. NewsCutter, Avid's digital nonlinear editing system for news applications, gives you instant
random access to material stored on high -speed disks, with built-in
tools for titling and transition effects. Bachelor's degree in Computer
Science or equivalent, with a minimum of 5 years' related experience
is required. Strong C programming skills; C ++ experience highly
desirable. Dept. BSE
In addition to a competitive salary and excellent benefits
package, Avid offers an upbeat, exciting environment that is
conducive to professional growth.
Interested candidates should forward a
resume to the corresponding Department
at: Avid Technology, Inc., Metropolitan
Technology Park, One Park West,
Tewksbury, MA 01876, FAX (508) 6401552. An Equal Opportunity Employer.
102
00009 !ßl[7
MAKE IT SO!
Broadcast Engineering June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
WANTED: USED VIDEO EQUIPMENT. Systems or components. PRO VIDEO & FILM EQUIPMENT GROUP: the largest
USED equipment dealer in the U.S.A. (214) 869-0011.
CASH PAID -
for used Klystron and UHF transmitter
parts, production equipment, S -VHS tape equipment, elc.
Must be reasonably priced...Call 205 -718-0003 or Fax list
and prices to 205 -764-7750.
TRAINING
FCC GENERAL CLASS LICENSE. Cassette
recorded
lessons for home study. Our 30th year preparing
radio technicians for the license. Bob Johnson Telecommunications. Phone (310) 379 -4461.
SERVICES
9teelaad ;Dsadccct4, Sec.
Sewúc9 tie world wlti quality
aeóutlt tdea aücee 1940.
CALL TODAY FOR A FREE INFORMATION PACKET
75412 Highway 25
Covington, LA 70433
800 -624-7626
504- 893 -1243
Fax 504- 892 -7323
BIG DOG COMMUNICATIONS
System Design and Integration
Installation Troubleshooting
DIGITAL VIDEO RF AUDIO
(209) 962 -6254
P.O. Box 39, Groveland, CA 95321
Classified
HELP WANTED
ABC RADIO
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
MANAGER/D -CART
AMERICA AND UK /EUROPE
a
The Australian Broadcasting
Corporation is looking for two
D-CART Customer Service
Engineer /Managers, one for the
Americas (based in New York) and
one for United Kingdom /Europe
region (based in London).
D -CART is the revolutionary
multi -user audio system pioneered
by the ABC. This leading edge
technology is now being used by the
world's largest broadcasters.
Development work is continuing to
expand D -CART into other
industries and applications
including a fully digital on-air audio
mixer.
The success of D-CART in the
Americas and UK /Europe has
created a need for locally based
Customer Service Engineers who
will provide local and regional
technical support for current and
future customers in America,
Canada, Mexico (New York position);
and UK /Europe (London based
position).
You will:
Be responsible for all customer
D -Cart support issues within the
Americas /European region.
Develop and direct appropriate
programs and procedures for the
maintenance, planning,
installation, commissioning, and
technical operations for the
D -CART customers in the
Americas/Europe.
Ensure the prescribed D -CART
technical standards are met
efficiently and effectively.
Oversee and /or perform planning,
maintenance, installation, and/or
commissioning duties for
D-CART in the Americas/Europe.
Liaise and consult with ABC
D-CART Marketing, the
Technical Research and
Development staff, marketing
partners, and external customers
as required.
Perform appropriate duties in
other areas connected with
support of ABC Digital systems as
required.
Apply corporate EEO policies.
It is expected that you will have
extensive experience (5 years +) in
digital audio systems including the
planning, installation, maintenance,
and technical operation of both
hardware and software components
of similar broadcast and /or audio
systems.
You will also have a high level of
communication skills and
demonstrated abilities in the
administration of service personal
and software and hardware
management.
As well as being suitably
qualified, the ability to speak a
second language appropriate to the
region would be desirable.
This position will be on a
contract basis to the Australian
Broadcasting Corporation for
an initial period of six months,
with options to renew. Salary is
negotiable and determined by
qualifications and the specific
terms of the contract.
Initial enquiries should be
directed to Reem Saad on
+612 333 2209 Australia or by
fax to +612 333 1413.
Applications quoting Reference
Number ZNR41936/37 should
be sent to the Employment
Officer -Southside, ABC,
GPO Box 9994, Sydney NSW
2001 Australia or by fax to
+612 333 3444.
Applications close 1.7.94.
This is an equal employment opportunity and the
ABC promotes a smoke -f ree work environment
Apply for a FREE
subscription to
the industry's
leading information
source, Broadcast
Engineering.
Turn to the reader
service card in this
issue and fill out
the subscription
application section.
Soon you could
be receiving
monthly issues
of Broadcast
Engineering ..
FREE!
.
BRODCST
encineeRmc
Note: Sign and date the
form to speed processing.
Advertise in BE Classifieds and see how your money speaks for you.
Call Renée Hambleton TODAY! at (913) 967 -1732 or fax (913) 967 -1735
June 1994 Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
103
Page
Number
Abekas Video Systems
ADC Telecommunications
Audio Processing Tech. Ltd.
Avid Technology
Belar Electronics Laboratory
Belden Wire & Cable
17
13,76
Reader
Service
Number
415 -369 -5111
7
5,45 .... 800 -726 -4266
41
232 -371 -110
5
11
800 -949 -AVID
97
53
215 -687 -5550
81
57
800 -235 -3364
- Video
93,94 -95
Broadcast Video Systems Ltd.
98
BTS Broadcast
TV Systems
25,48 -49
Canare Cable, Inc.
90
Canon USA Broadcast Lens
55
Center Video Industrial Co.
79
60,61
Channelmatic
Ciprico
Clear -Com Intercom Systems
Comark Communications, Inc.
Conex Electro Systems
Continental Electronics
Dorrough Electronics
Dynatech Video Group
EEV, Inc.
Garner Industries
G C Video, Inc.
Gentner Communications
Grass Valley Group
Harris Allied
Hitachi Denshi America
IBC -International
Broadcasting Convention
Ikegami Electronics, Inc.
Intertec /HDTV Conference
Intertec Info Age Books
Advertiser
Hotline
70
B &H Photo
Cipher Digital, Inc.
Ad Index
Page
Reader
Service
Number
Number
Advertiser
Hotline
Leitch Incorporated
BC
Lightwave Systems, Inc.
Magni Systems, Inc.
60
36
800 -231 -9673
214 -741 -5142
69
40
800 -237 -5964
Matrox Electronic Systems
Maxell Corp Of America
Midwest
51
23
800 -361 -4903
11
14
800 -533 -2836
101
71
708 -251 -0001
45
20
800 -NIKON -US
29
2
905 -764 -1584
AudioNideo Exchange
Nikon Electronic Imaging
NVision, Inc.
9
916 -265 -1000
800 -962 -4BTS
Opamp Labs, Inc.
97
55
213 -934 -3566
59
818 -365 -2446
12
510 -351 -3500
38
201 -816 -2900
56
800 -621 -4354
Orban, Div. of AKG Acoustics
7
Panasonic Broadcast & TV
34-35
QS! Systems, Inc.
92
82
64
619 -445 -2691
100
70
301 -695 -0200
39
27
612 -551 -4037
59
35
75
44
510 -527 -6666
215 -822 -0777
89
50
206 -734 -4323
42
29
56
1,27
65
100
16,22
67
37
IFC
..
800 -221 -5662
214- 381 -7161
34
818 -999 -1132
3,17 .... 608 -273 -5828
37
800 -DIAL-EEV
72
32A -B
18 -19
..
62
800 -228 -0275
505 -293 -6516
32
801 -975 -7200
8
800 -343 -1300
26
800 -622 -0022
1
516 -921 -7200
IBC
46
71- 240 -3839
61
24
201 -368 -9171
85
800 -458 -0479
92
913 -967 -1856
Jampro Antennas, Inc.
88
JVC Professional Products Co. ... 33
Lectrosonics
43
47
916 -383 -1177
19
800 -JVC -5825
800 -821 -1121
30
Quantel
53
RE America, Inc.
68
Recognition Concepts, Inc.
28
Rorke Data, Inc.
57
Sachtler Corp. of America
21
Sealevel Systems, Inc.
97
Sharp Copier Division
77
Sierra Design Labs
89
Sierra Video Systems
31
Storeel
91
Studio Audio & Video Limited
15
Tascam/Teac America, Inc.
83
Telex Communications, Inc.
3
Thomson Broadcast
47
Thomson Tubes Electroniques ....71
Ultimatte
41
Utah Scientific /Dynatech
Video Group
1
Valcom
63
Vistek Electronics Limited
9
Weircliffe
98
The Winsted Corporation
91
WJMK
73
800 -524 -0864
48
603 -893 -7707
31
203 -656 -3100
39
216- 871 -7617
702 -882 -7817
18
15
800 -328 -8147
516 -867 -4900
54
803 -843 -4343
49
702 -831 -7837
10
916 -478 -1000
404 -458 -3280
33
51
6
58
4
353 -648 -888
213 -726 -0303
800 -554 -0716
42
800 -882 -1824
201 -812 -9000
28
818 -993 -8007
21
3
800 -453 -8782
25
519 -824 -3220
13
628- 531 -221
602- 483 -0303
612 -944 -8556
407 -367-0703
63
52
43
Advertising sales offices
NEW YORK, NEW YORK
Gordon & Associate
Josh Gordon
210 President Street
Brooklyn, NY 11231
Telephone: (718) 802 -0488
FAX: (718) 522 -4751
Joanne Melton
888 7th Avenue, 38th Floor
New York, NY 10106
Telephone: (212) 332-0628
FAX: (212) 332-0663
OXFORD, ENGLAND
Richard Woolley
Intertec Publishing Corp.
Unit 3, Farm Business Centre,
Clifton Road, Deddington,
Oxford OX 15 4TP England
Telephone: (0869) 38794
FAX: (0869) 38040
Telex: 837 -469 13ES G
04
Broadcast Engineering
AGOURA HILLS, CALIFORNIA
Duane Hefner
5236 Colodny Ave., Suite 108
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Telephone: (818) 707 -6476
FAX: (818) 707 -2313
SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
MC' Magazine Communications Marketing Corp.
Jason Perlman
Telephone: (310) 458 -9987
FAX: (310) 393 -2381
Deborah Kern
Phone: 310-458 -8080
FAX: 310 -393 -2381
501 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 401
Santa Monica, CA 90401
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
Vvtas Urbonas
55 East Jackson, Suite 1100
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 435-2361
FAX: (312) 922 -1408
June 1994
www.americanradiohistory.com
TOKYO, JAPAN
Orient Echo, Inc.
Mashy Yoshikawa
1 101 Grand Maison
Shimomiyabi -Cho 2 -18
Shinjuku -ku, Tokyo 162, Japan
Telephone: (3) 3235 -5961
FAX: (3) 3235 -5852
Telex: J -33376 MYORIENT
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
OVERLAND PARK, KANSAS
Renée Hambleton
P.O. Box 12901
Overland Park, KS 66282
(913) 967 -1732 FAX: (913) 967 -1?3>
ANY WAY YOU
SEND IT THE
MESSAGE IS
LOUD AND CLEAR
word of mouth, through the mail, comments and reviews in magazines and more
Byrecently through radio, satellite and cable television, the message comes through loud
and clear.
IBC is the broadcast and electronic media event of the year. Organised by
people working in broadcasting and associated fields, dedicated to giving
you value for money, IBC offers something for everyone in the
industry.
Helpful people, a great Exhibition, a superb Technical
Programme with Papers, Panel Sessions and Workshops,
a wide range of Social Events in a City with easy access and
excellent facilities, you really can't afford to miss it.
Contact: Sarah Campbell. International Broadcasting Convention
Savoy Place, London. WC2R OBL United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)71 240 3839 Fax: +44 (0)71 497 3633
Circle (46) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
/
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4
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AMSTERDAM 16 -20
SEPTEMBER 1994
A
loreserve Your Stiil
!r.:1T.if1e
Quality!
Store both Component and Composite Stills in a Dual Format STILL FILE® and
eliminate the unnecessary transcoding quality losses of a single format stil! store.
Component
Used in
Composite
Graphics
Used in Production
Sample Rate Conversion
Encode
4:2:2
4Fsc
D1, DCT
D2, D3
Digital Betacam
Sample Rate Conversion
Decode
D to A
D to A
A to D
A to D
Crossing this line
impairs signals
only by adding
Quantizing Noise
Encode
RGB
Betacam
NTSC
Decode
Crossing this (line greatly impairs signals by
reducing bandwidth and introducing artifacts.
ßîr,,.;.
The Dual Format STILL FILE® stores
BOTH Component and Composite stills
using one STILL FILE® maintaining the
highest quality images by remaining in
the original format without transcoding.
But When You Do...
with the Dual Format
which transparently
It should be done
STILL FILE®
transcodes all images in the
background, producing the same
superior quality as the high -priced
dedicated transcoders.
STILL FILE
DUAL FORMAT
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123
LEITCH®
Circle (2) on Reply Card
Leitch Incorporated, 920 Corporate Lane, Chesapeake, VA 23320 Tel: (800) 231 -9673 or (804) 548 -2300 Fax: (804.) 548 -4088
Leitch Video International Inc., 220 Duncan Mill Rd. #301, North York, ON, Canada M3B 335 Tel: (800) 387 -0233 or (416) 455 -9640 Fax: (416) 445 -0595
Leitch Europe Limited, 24 Campbell Ct., Bramley, Basingstoke, Hants., U.K. RG26 5EG Tei: +44 (0) 256 880088 Fax: +44 (0) 256 880428
www.americanradiohistory.com
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