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296 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
Network Protocols Dictionary: From A to Z and 0 to 9
A
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Numbers
AAL: ATM Adaptation Layer
137
The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) relays ATM cells between
the ATM Layer and higher layers. When relaying information
received from the higher layers, it segments the data into ATM
cells. When relaying information received from the ATM Layer,
it must reassemble the payloads into a format the higher layers can understand. This operation, which is called Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR), is the main task of AAL. Different
AALs (AAL0, AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4 and AAL5) were defined in
supporting different traffic or services expected to be used.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.363
AAL0: ATM Adaptation Layer Type 0
ATM Adaptation Layer Type 0 (AAL0) refers to raw ATM cells.
AAL0 payload consists of 48 bytes without a special field.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.366.2
AAL1: ATM Adaptation Layer Type 1
137
ATM Adaptation Layer Type 1 (AAL1) supports constant bit
rates, time-dependent traffic such as voice and video. AAL1 is
used for connection-oriented, delay-sensitive services requiring constant bit rates (CBR), such as video and voice traffic.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.366.2
AAL2: ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2
137
ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 (AAL2) is designed for variable
bit rate video transfer. AAL2 is perfect for low-rate voice traffic,
with compression, silent and idle channel suppression. AAL
type 2 is subdivided into the Common Part Sublayer (CPS )
and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS ).
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.366.2
AAL3/4: ATM Adaptation Layer Type 3/4
137
ATM Adaptation Layer Type 3/4 (AAL3/4) is designed for variable bit rate, delay-tolerant data traffic requiring some sequencing and/or error detection support. AAL 3/4 supports
both connectionless and connection-oriented links, but is primarily used for the transmission of SMDS packets over ATM
networks.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.366.2
AAL5: ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5
137
ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5 (AAL5) is designed for variable
bit rate, delay-tolerant connection-oriented data traffic requiring minimal sequencing or error detection support. AAL5 supports connection-oriented, VBR services. AAL5 is used predominantly for the transfer of classic IP over ATM and LANE
traffic. AAL5 uses SEAL and is the least complex of the current
AAL recommendations. AAL5 has no per-cell length or per-cell
CRC fields, and offers low bandwidth overhead and simpler
processing requirements in exchange for reduced bandwidth
capacity and error-recovery capability.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.366.2
AARP: AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol 272
AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP), similar to the
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), maps AppleTalk nodes
addresses at the network layer to the physical layer (usually
MAC) addresses. The AARP table allows for management of
the Address Mapping Table on the managed device.
Apple Protocol
ACSE: Association Control Service Element
219
Association Control Service Element (ACSE), an application
layer protocol in the OSI model defined by ISO, is designed
to establish and release an application-association between
two AEIs and to determine the application context of that association. The ACSE supports two modes of communication:
connection-oriented and connectionless. For the connectionoriented mode, the application association is established and
released by the reference of ACSE connection-oriented services. For the connectionless mode, the application association
exists during the invocation of the single ACSE connectionless
mode service, a UNIT-DATA.
ISO / ITU-T Specification: ISO 8650 / X.227
ADCCP: Advanced Data Communications Control
Protocol
Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol(ADCCP) is
a bit-oriented data link control protocol that places data on a
network and ensures proper delivery to a destination. ADCCP
is based on the IBM’s SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control)
protocol. The HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) by ISO and
the LAPB(Link Access Protocol-Balanced) by ITU/CCITT are
based on the ADCCP.
ANSI Specification: ANSI X3.66
ADSL Lite
152
ADSL Lite, also known as universal ADSL, splitterless ADSL or
G.lite, is one of the Digital Subscriber Line technologies that allows broadband data access over normal phone lines (twisted
pair cables, also called POTS). ADSL Lite offers a maximum of
1.5 Mbit/s downstream and 512 kbit/s upstream and does not
require the use of phone line splitters.
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
ADSL: Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line
152
Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is one of the
Digital Subscriber Line technologies that allows broadband
data access over normal phone lines (twisted pair cables, also
called POTS). ADSL allows higher speed for data downstream
than upstream, and this is why the word “Asynchronous” is
there. For conventional ADSL, downstream rates start at 256
kbit/s and typically reach 8 Mbit/s within 1.5 km (5000 ft) of the
DSLAM-equipped central office or remote terminal. Upstream
rates start at 64 kbit/s and typically reach 256 kbit/s but can
go as high as 1024 kbit/s. The name ADSL Lite is sometimes
used for the slower versions.
ANSI/ITU-T Protocols
ADSP: AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol
272
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) is a session-level
protocol that provides symmetric, connection-oriented, fullduplex communication between two sockets on the AppleTalk
network. In addition, it handles flow-control and reliability and
provides a data channel for the hosts, which is a simple trans-
Network Protocols Dictionary 297
Appendices
port method for data accross a network. ADSP is a connectionoriented protocol that guarantees in-sequence data delivery
with flow control.
Apple Protocol
AEP: AppleTalk Echo Protocol
272
AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP) is a transport layer protocol in
the AppleTalk protocol suite designed to test the reachability
of network nodes. AEP generates packets to be sent to the
network node and is identified in the Type field of a packet as
an AEP packet. The packet is first passed to the source DDP.
After it is identified as an AEP packet, it is forwarded to the
node where the packet is examined by the DDP at the destination. After the packet is identified as an AEP packet, the packet
is then copied and a field in the packet is altered to create an
AEP reply packet, and is then returned to the source node.
Apple Protocol
AES: Advanced Encryption Standard
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard
developed by NIST. AES is intended to specify an unclassified,
publicly-disclosed, symmetric encryption algorithm. AES has a
fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192 or 256
bits.
NIST Specification: Federal Information Processing Standards
Publication 197
AES-CMAC
AES-CMAC, abbreviation of Advanced Encryption StandardCipher-based Message Authentication Code, is an authentication algorithm based on CMAC with the 128-bit Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES). AES-CMAC achieves a security
goal similar to that of HMAC. Since AES-CMAC is based on
a symmetric key block cipher, AES, and HMAC is based on
a hash function, such as SHA-1, AES-CMAC is appropriate
for information systems in which AES is more readily available
than a hash function.
IETF Specification: RFC 4493
AES-CMAC-PRF-128
AES-CMAC-PRF-128, abbreviation of Advanced Encryption Standard-Cipher-based Message Authentication CodePseudo-Random Function-128, is an authentication algorithm
based on AES-CMAC. AES-CMAC-PRF-128 is identical to
AES-CMAC except that the 128-bit key length restriction is
removed.
IETF Specification: RFC 4615
AFP: Apple Filling Protocol
272
Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), formerly AppleTalk Filing Protocol,
is the protocol for communicating with AppleShare file servers. Built on top of ASP, it provided services for authenticating
users (extensible to different authentication methods including
two-way random-number exchange) and for performing operations specific to the Macintosh HFS filesystem.
Apple Protocol
AFP: AppleTalk Filing Protocol
272
AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP), renamed to Apple Filing Protocol now, is the protocol for communicating with AppleShare
file servers. Built on top of ASP, it provided services for authenticating users (extensible to different authentication methods
including two-way random-number exchange) and for performing operations specific to the Macintosh HFS file system.
Apple Protocol
AH: Authentication Header
97
Authentication Header, a protocol in the IPsec (Internet Security) suite, is used to provide connectionless integrity and
data origin authentication for IP datagrams, and to provide protection against replays. This protection service against replay
is an optional service to be selected by the receiver when a
Security Association is established. AH provides authentication for as much of the IP header as possible, as well as for
upper level protocol data. However, some IP header fields may
change in transit and the value of these fields, when the packet
arrives at the receiver, may not be predictable by the sender.
The values of such fields cannot be protected by AH. Thus the
protection provided to the IP header by AH is only partial in
some cases.
IETF Specification: RFC 2402
Airline protocol
Airline protocol refers to the airline reservation system data
and the protocols, such as P1024B (ALC), P1024C (UTS), and
MATIP, that transport the data between the mainframe and the
Agent Set Control Unit (ASCU).
AKE: Augmented Key Exchange
Augmented Key Exchange(AKE) is a key exchange protocol
for public key cryptography systems.
IETF Protocol
ALC: Airline Control Protocol
Airline Control Protocol (ALC) is a data link layer polled protocol that runs in full-duplex mode over synchronous serial (V.24)
lines and uses the binary-coded decimal (BCD) character set.
ANDNA: Abnormal Netsukuku Domain Name
Anarchy Abnormal Netsukuku Domain Name Anarchy (ANDNA), similar to the Domain Name System (DNS), is the distributed, non-hierarchical and decentralised system of hostname
management in Netsukuku. The ANDNA database is scattered
inside all the Netsukuku and works in the following way: in order to resolve a hostname, we just have to calculate its hash.
The hash is nothing more than a number (IP), and the node
related to that IP is called andna_hash_node. The hash_node
will keep a small database, which associates all the hostnames related to it with the IP of the node, which has registered the
same hostnames.
APON: ATM Passive Optical Network
ATM Passive Optical Network (APON), or ATM PON, is the
initial PON specification defined by the FSAN (Full Service Access Network) group using ATM as their layer 2 signaling protocol. Use of the term APON led users to believe that only ATM
services could be provided to end-users, so the FSAN decided
to broaden the name to Broadband PON (BPON). BPON systems offer numerous broadband services including Ethernet
access and video distribution.
FSAN Group Protocol
APPC: Advanced Program-to-Program Communications
Page262
Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC), a
protocol roughly in the OSI presentation and session layers,
is a programming interface standard in the IBM SNA system
that allows interconnected systems to communicate and share
the processing of programs. Originally developed by IBM as a
remote transaction processing tool between Logic Units (LUs),
APPC is now used to provide distributed services within a heterogeneous computing environment. APPC establishes and
298 Appendices
tears down connections between communicating programs,
and consists of two interfaces, a programming interface and a
data-exchange interface. The former replies to requests from
programs requiring communication; the latter establishes sessions between programs.
IBM Protocol
AppleTalk
272
AppleTalk is a multi-layered protocol suite of Apple Computers,
providing internetwork routing, transaction and data stream service, naming service and comprehensive file and print sharing
among Apple systems using the LocalTalk interface built into
the Apple hardware. AppleTalk ports to other network media
such as Ethernet by the use of LocalTalk to Ethernet bridges
or by Ethernet add-in boards for Apple machines. Many thirdparty applications exist for the AppleTalk protocols.
Apple Protocol
APPN: Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking
267
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN) is an enhancement to the original IBM SNA architecture. APPN, which includes a group of protocols, handles session establishment
between peer nodes, dynamic transparent route calculation
and traffic prioritization. Using APPN, a group of computers
can be automatically configured by one of the computers acting as a network controller so that peer programs in various
computers will be able to communicate with each other using
specified network routing.
IBM Protocol
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
83
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) performs mapping of an
IP address to a physical machine address (MAC address for
Ethernet) that is recognized in the local network. For example,
in IP Version 4, an address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet local
area network, however, addresses for attached devices are 48
bits long.
IETF Specification: RFC 826
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
is 8-bit code for character representation (7 bits plus parity).
ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications
equipment, and other devices that work with text. Most modern
character encodings have a historical basis in ASCII. It defines
codes for 33 non-printing, mostly obsolete control characters
that affect how text is processed, plus 95 printable characters
as follows: !”#$%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>? @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_ `abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~
ANSI Protocol
ASE: Application Service Element
Application Service Element (ASE), defined by ISO, is a protocol in the presentation layer of the OSI seven layer model
which provides an abstracted interface layer to service application protocol data units (APDU). Because applications and
networks vary, ASEs are split into common application service
element (CASE) and Specific-application service elements
(SASEs).
ISO Protocol
ASN.1: Abstract Syntax Notation One
230
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), an ISO/ITU-T standard,
describes data structures for representing, encoding, transmit-
Network Protocols Dictionary
ting, and decoding data. It provides a set of formal rules for describing the structure of objects regardless of language implementation and physical representation of these data, whatever
the application, whether complex or very simple.
ISO Specification: X.680
ASP: AppleTalk Session Protocol
272
AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP), a protocol developed by
Apple Computers, provides session establishment, maintenance, and teardown, as well as request sequencing. ASP is
built on top of AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) which is
the original reliable session-level protocol for AppleTalk.
Apple Protocol
ATCP: AppleTalk Control Protocol
272
AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP) is the protocol that establishes and configures AppleTalk over PPP. ATCP is responsible
for configuring, enabling, and disabling the AppleTalk protocol
modules on both ends of the point-to-point (PPP) link. ATCP
uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol (LCP). ATCP packets may not be exchanged until
PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase. ATCP
packets received before this phase is reached should be silently discarded.
Apple Protocol
ATIP: AppleTalk Tunneling Through IP
AppleTalk Tunneling Through IP (ATIP) is a protocol that allows an AppleTalk WAN with two or more native AppleTalk
networks to be connected through a tunnel built on a TCP/IP
internet. This protocol is replaced by AppleTalk Update-based
Routing Protocol (AURP).
IETF Protocol
ATM Layer
136
The ATM layer, the layer 2 in the ATM reference model, provides an interface between the ATM adaptation layer (AAL)
and the physical layer. This layer is responsible for relaying
cells from the AAL to the physical layer, such as SONET, for
transmission, and from the physical layer to the AAL for use at
the end systems.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.361
ATM UNI
140
The ATM User-to-Network Interface (UNI) signaling protocols
within the Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) are responsible for ATM call and connection control, including call establishment, call clearing, status enquiry and point-to-multipoint
control between ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or
between a private ATM switch and the public carrier ATM network. ATM UNI signaling message uses the Q.931 message
format, which is made up of a message header and a variable
number of Information Elements.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Specification: ITU-T I.432
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
134
The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) comprises a protocol suite under the ATM reference model, which establishes
a mechanism to carry all traffic on a stream of fixed 53-byte
packets (cells). A fixed-size packet can ensure that the switching and multiplexing function is carried out quickly and easily.
ATM is a connection-oriented technology, i.e. two systems on
the network should inform all intermediate switches about their
service requirements and traffic parameters in order to establish communication.
ATM Forum and ITU-T Protocol
Network Protocols Dictionary 299
Appendices
ATMARP: ATM Address Resolution Protocol
ATM Address Resolution Protocol (ATMARP) is a specialised
variant of ARP used to resolve layer-three (IP) addresses to
layer-two (ATM NSAP or E.164) addresses in the Classical IP
(CLIP) over ATM network environment. The main difference to
traditional ARP is that - because ATM lacks a broadcast facility
- there is a single designated ATMARP server whose layer-two
address has to be configured statically in each client.
IETF / ITU-T Protocol
ATP: ALPS Tunneling Protocol
ALPS Tunneling Protocol is a protocol used to transport ALPS
data across a TCP/IP network between an ALC/UTS router
and an AX.25/EMTOX router. It consists of a set of messages
(or primitives) to activate and deactivate ALPS ATP circuits
and to pass data.
ALPS Protocol
ATP: AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
272
AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP), built on top of Datagram
Delivery Protocol (DDP), is a transport-level protocol that provides a loss-free transaction service between sockets. The
service allows exchanges between two socket clients in which
one client requests the other to perform a particular task and
to report the results. ATP binds the request and the response
together to ensure the reliable exchange of request-response
pairs.
Apple Protocol
AURP: AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol
272
The AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol (AURP) is a
transport layer protocol in the AppleTalk protocol suite that allows two or more AppleTalk internetworks to be interconnected
through a TCP/IP network to form an AppleTalk WAN. AURP
is a method of encapsulating AppleTalk traffic in the header of
a foreign protocol, allowing the connection of two or more discontiguous AppleTalk internetworks. This connection is called
an AURP tunnel. In addition to its encapsulation function,
AURP maintains routing tables for the entire AppleTalk WAN
by exchanging routing information between exterior routers.
Apple Protocol
B
BACP: Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
In October 1999 Banyan became ePresence, an internet service provider. At the same time, it announced the obsolescence
of VINES and other Banyan products.
Banyan Protocol
BAP: Bandwidth Allocation Protocol
160
The Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) can be used to manage the number of links in a multi-link bundle. BAP defines
datagrams to coordinate adding and removing individual links
in a multi-link bundle, as well as specifying which peer is responsible for various decisions regarding managing bandwidth
during a multi-link connection. BAP provides a set of rules
governing dynamic bandwidth allocation through call control.
Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) is the associated control protocol for BAP to connect two peers.
IETF Specification: RFC 2125
Basic NAT: Basic Network Address Translation 22
Basic Network Address Translation (Basic NAT) is a method
by which IP addresses are mapped from one group to another,
transparent to end users. Network Address Port Translation,
or NAPT, is a method by which many network addresses and
their TCP/UDP ports are translated into a single network address and its TCP/UDP ports. Together, these two operations,
referred to as traditional NAT, provide a mechanism to connect
a realm with private addresses to an external realm with globally unique registered addresses.
IETF Specification: RFC 3022
BCAST: Broadcast Protocol
Broadcast Protocol (BCAST), a Novell protocol in the NetWare
suite, deals with announcements from the network running
Netware to inform the user when receiving a message.
Novell Protocol
BCP: Bridging Control Protocol
161
The Bridging Control Protocol (BCP), a protocol in the PointPoint Protocol (PPP) suite, is responsible for configuring the
bridging protocol parameters on both ends of the point-to-point
link. BCP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the
Link Control Protocol. BCP packets cannot be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase. BCP
packets received before this phase is reached are discarded.
IETF Specification: RFC 3518
BEEP: Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
160
The Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) is the associated control protocol for Bandwidth Allocation Protocol.
BACP provides Multilink PPP peers with the ability to govern
link utilization. Once peers have successfully negotiated using
BACP, they can use the Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP)
to negotiate bandwidth allocation.
IETF Specification: RFC 2125
Banyan VINES Protocols
Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Service (VINES) is a
protocol stack defined by Banyan Company, derived from
the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocols. VINES is
based on the UNIX operating system and uses a client/
server architecture. The Banyan suite includes the following protocols: VARP (VINES Address Resolution Protocol);
VIP (VINES Internet Protocol); ICP (Internet Control Protocol); RTP (Routing Update Protocol); IPC (InterProcess
Communications Protocol); SPP (Sequenced Packet Protocol); NetRPC (NetRemote Procedure Call); SteetTalk.
Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol(BEEP) is a framework
for creating network application protocols, that is intended to
abstract out the common features that have traditionally been
duplicated in each protocol implementation. BEEP is a generic
application protocol kernel for connection-oriented, asynchronous interactions. BEEP permits simultaneous and independent exchanges within the context of a single application useridentity, supporting both textual and binary messages.
IETF Specification: RFC 3080
BFD: Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a network protocol
used to detect faults between two forwarding engines. BFD
provides low-overhead, low-latency detection of faults even on
physical media that don’t support failure detection of any kind,
such as ethernet, virtual circuits, tunnels and MPLS LSPs. BFD
establishes a session between two endpoints over a particular
link. If more than one link exists between two systems, multiple BFD sessions may be established to monitor each one of
them. The session is established with a three-way handshake,
300 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
and is torn down the same way.
IETF Protocol
BGMP: Border Gateway Multicast Protocol
67
Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP) is a protocol for inter-domain multicast routing. BGMP natively supports “sourcespecific multicast” (SSM). To also support “any-source multicast” (ASM), BGMP builds shared trees for active multicast
groups and allows domains to build source-specific, inter-domain distribution branches where needed. Building upon concepts from PIM-SM and CBT, BGMP requires that each global
multicast group be associated with a single root. However, in
BGMP, the root is an entire exchange or domain, rather than
a single router.
IETF Specification: RFC 3913
BGP: Border Gateway Protocol
51
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) runs over TCP and is
an inter-Autonomous System routing protocol. BGP is the only
protocol that is designed to deal with a network of the Internet’s
size and the only protocol that can deal well with having multiple connections to unrelated routing domains. It is built on
experience gained with EGP. The primary function of a BGP
system is to exchange network reachability information with
other BGP systems.
IETF Specification: RFC 1771
BGP-4: Border Gateway Protocol version 4
51
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the routing protocol
used to exchange routing information across networks. BGP
runs over TCP and is an inter-Autonomous System routing protocol. Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGP-4), the current
version of BGP, provides a set of mechanisms for supporting
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR). These mechanisms
include support for advertising a set of destinations as an IP
prefix and eliminating the concept of network “class” within
BGP. BGP-4 also introduces mechanisms which allow aggregation of routes, including aggregation of AS paths.
IETF Specification: RFC 4271
BIC: Broadband Inter Carrier
Broadband Inter-Carrier (BIC), also known as Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface (BICI) or BISDN Inter-Carrier Interface, is
an ITU-T standard that defines the protocols and procedures
needed for establishing, maintaining, and terminating broadband switched virtual connections between public networks.
ITU-T Protocol
BICC: Bearer Independent Call Control
Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC) is a signaling protocol
based on N-ISUP that is used to support narrowband ISDN
service over a broadband backbone network without interfering with interfaces to the existing network and end-to-end
services. BICC was designed to be fully compatible with existing networks and any system capable of carrying voice messages.
ITU-T Specification: Q.1901
B-ICI: BISDN Inter Carrier Interface
BISDN Inter Carrier Interface (B-ICI), also known as Broadband Inter-Carrier Interface (BCI), is based on Broadband
ISDN User Part (B-ISUP) signaling messages and parameters.
BICI is an interface connecting two different ATM based public
network providers or carriers. B-ICI is used to facilitate end-toend national and international ATM/BISDN services. The B-ICI
specification also includes service specific functions above the
ATM layer required to transport, operate and manage a variety
of intercarrier services across the B-ICI.
ITU-T Protocol
BIDIR-PIM: Bi-directional PIM
Bi-directional PIM (BIDIR-PIM) is one of the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) protocols based on PIM-SM. The main
difference of BIDIR-PIM from PIM-SM is in the method used to
send data from a source to the RP. Whereas in PIM-SM data is
sent using either encapsulation or a source-based tree, in BIDIR-PIM the data flows to the RP along the shared tree, which
is bi-directional. The main advantage of BIDIR-PIM is that it
scales very well when there are many sources for each group.
However, the lack of source-based trees means that traffic is
forced to remain on the possibly inefficient shared tree. BIDIRPIM is not used often in real world.
IETF Protocol
BISDN: Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
153
Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN or
Broadband ISDN) is designed to handle high-bandwidth applications. BISDN currently uses ATM technology over SONETbased transmission circuits to provide data rates from 155 to
622 Mbps and beyond, in contrast to the traditional narrowband ISDN (or N-ISDN), which is only 64 kps basically and up
to 2 Mbps maximum.
ITU-T Protocol
BISUP: Broadband ISDN User Part
278
Broadband ISDN User Part (BISUP) is a protocol intended to
support services such as high-definition television (HDTV),
multilingual TV, voice and image storage and retrieval, video
conferencing, high-speed LANs and multimedia. Since BISDN
is not deployed widely so far, so is not the BISUP.
ITU-T Specification: Q.2763
BISYNC
BISYNC, also known as Binary Synchronous Communication
(BSC), is an old IBM protocol that was originally designed for
batch transmissions between the IBM S/360 mainframe family
and IBM 2780 and 3780 terminals. BISYNC establishes rules
for transmitting binary-coded data between a terminal and a
host computer’s BISYNC port. While BISYNC is a half-duplex
protocol, it will synchronize in both directions on a full-duplex
channel. BISYNC supports both point-to-point (over leased or
dial-up lines) and multipoint transmissions. BISYNC was replaced by SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control).
IBM Protocol
Bluetooth
196
Bluetooth, defined in IEEE 802.15, is for wireless personal
area networks (WPANs), which has characters such as shortrange, low power, low cost, small networks and communication of devices within a Personal Operating Space. Bluetooth
is for wireless transmission between a wide variety of devices
such as PCs, cordless phone, headsets and PDAs within 10meter range.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.1
BMP: Burst Mode Protocol
252
The Burst Mode Protocol (BMP), a protocol in the Novell NetWare suite, was designed to allow multiple responses to a single request for file reads and writes. Burst Mode increases the
efficiency of client/server communications by allowing workstations to submit a single file read or write request and receive
Network Protocols Dictionary 301
Appendices
up to 64 kilobytes of data without submitting another request.
BMP is actually a type of NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) packet
(Request type = 7777H).
Novell Protocol
BOOTP: Bootstrap Protocol
10
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is a UDP/IP-based protocol
which allows a booting host to configure itself dynamically and
without user supervision. BOOTP provides a means to notify
a host of its assigned IP address, the IP address of a boot
server host and the name of a file to be loaded into memory
and executed. Other configuration information, such as the local subnet mask, the local time offset, the addresses of default
routers and the addresses of various Internet servers, can also
be communicated to a host using BOOTP.
IETF Specification: RFC 951
BPDU: Bridge Protocol Data Unit
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU), a protocol in the PPP suite,
refers to some of “hello packets” of the spanning tree protocol
sent out at intervals to exchange information among bridges in
the network. BPDUs help describe and identify attributes of a
switch port and allow for switches to obtain information about
each other.
IETF Protocol
BPON: Broadband Passive Optical Network
Broadband Passive Optical Network (BPON) is renamed from
the ATM PON (APON) which is defined by the Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group. Since using of the term APON led
users to believe that only ATM services could be provided to
end-users, the FSAN decided to broaden the name to Broadband PON (BPON). BPON systems offer numerous broadband
services including Ethernet access and video distribution.
FSAN Group Protocol
BSC: Binary Synchronous Communication
Binary Synchronous Communication (BSC), also known as
bisync, is an old IBM protocol that was originally designed for
batch transmissions between the IBM S/360 mainframe family
and IBM 2780 and 3780 terminals. BISYNC establishes rules
for transmitting binary-coded data between a terminal and a
host computer’s BISYNC port. While BISYNC is a half-duplex
protocol, it will synchronize in both directions on a full-duplex
channel. BISYNC supports both point-to-point (over leased or
dial-up lines) and multipoint transmissions. BISYNC was replaced by SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control).
IBM Protocol
BVCP: Banyan VINES Control Protocol
Banyan VINES Control Protocol(BVCP), as defined in IETF
RFC 1763, is responsible for configuring, enabling, and disabling the VINES protocol modules on both ends of the pointto-point (PPP) link. In order to establish communications over
a point-to-point link, each end of the PPP link must first send
LCP packets to configure and test the data link. After the link
has been established and optional facilities have been negotiated as needed by the LCP, PPP must send BVCP packets to
choose and configure the VINES network-layer protocol. Once
BVCP has reached the Opened state, VINES datagrams can
be sent over the link. The link will remain configured for communications until explicit LCP or BVCP packets close the link
down, or until some external event occurs (such as an inactivity timer expires or network administrator intervention).
IETF Specification: RFC 1763
C
C7: Common Channel Signaling 7
276
Common Channel Signaling 7 (CCS7 or C7), also known as
Signaling System #7 (SS7), is a telecommunications protocol suite defined by the ITU-T which is used by the telephone
companies for interoffice signalling SS7 uses out of band or
common-channel signalling (CCS) techniques. SS7/C7 uses a
separated packet-switched network for the signalling purpose.
SS7 is known as C7 outside North America.
ITU-T Protocol
CCMP: Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining
Message authentication code Protocol
Counter mode with Cipher-block chaining Message authentication code Protocol(CCMP) is an encryption protocol in the
802.11i standard. The CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of
the AES encryption algorithm and utilizes 128-bit keys, with a
48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection.
IEEE Specification: 802.11i
CCP: Compression Control Protocol
Compression Control Protocol (CCP), a protocol in the Pointto-Point Protocol suite, configures, enables, and disables data
compression algorithms on both ends of the point-to-point
link.
IETF Protocol
CCS7: Common Channel Signaling 7
276
Common Channel Signaling 7 (CCS7 or C7), also known as
Signaling System #7 (SS7), is a telecommunications protocol suite defined by the ITU-T which is used by the telephone
companies for interoffice signalling SS7 uses out of band or
common-channel signalling (CCS) techniques. SS7/C7 uses a
separated packet-switched network for the signalling purpose.
SS7 is known as C7 outside North America.
ITU-T Protocol
CDDI: Copper Distributed Data Interface
Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI), a version of FDDI
using twisted pair cables, provides data rates of 100 Mbps and
uses dual-ring architecture to provide redundancy. CDDI supports distances of about 100 meters from desktop to concentrator. The CDDI standard is officially named as the TwistedPair Physical Medium-Dependent (TP-PMD) standard. It is
also referred to as the Twisted-Pair Distributed Data Interface
(TP-DDI).
ANSI Protocol
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a second generation
(2G) cellular technology defined by Qualcomm in IS-95 and
IS-2000. Other widely used multiple access techniques for cellular are Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). CDMA technologies are
evolving into CDMA2000 to meet the challenges. CDMA2000
is the 3rd Generation solution based on IS-95.
Qualcomm Protocol
CDMA2000: Code Division Multiple Access 2000
Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000) is the 3rd
Generation solution based on CDMA IS-95, which supports
3G services as defined by the ITU 3G standards IMT-2000.
CDMA2000 defines both an air interface and a core network.
CDMA2000 has already been implemented as an evolutionary step from cdmaOne as CDMA2000 provides full backward
302 Appendices
compatibility with IS-95B.
Qualcomm Protocol
cdmaOne
cdmaOne is the commercial name for a CDMA (Code Division
Multiple Access) system defined by the consortium including
Qualcomm, AT&T Wireless and Motorola. The IS-95 standard
is part of cdmaOne as the air interface.
Qualcomm Protocol
CDP: Cisco Discovery Protocol
241
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is primarily used to obtain
protocol addresses of neighboring devices and discover the
platform of those devices. CDP can also be used to show information about the interfaces your router uses. CDP is mediaand protocol-independent and runs on all Cisco-manufactured
equipment, including routers, bridges, access servers and
switches.
Cisco Protocol
CEP: Certificate Enrollment Protocol
Certificate Enrollment Protocol (CEP) is a certificate management protocol jointly developed by Cisco Systems and VeriSign, Inc. CEP is an early implementation of Certificate Request Syntax (CRS), which is a standard of IETF under the
PKIX group. CEP specifies how a device communicates with
a CA, including how to retrieve the public key of the CA, how
to enroll a device with the CA, and how to retrieve a certificate revocation list (CRL). CEP uses Public Key Cryptography
Standard (PKCS) 7 and PKCS 10 as key component technologies.
Cisco Protocol
CGMP: Cisco Group Management Protocol
242
Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) limits the forwarding of IP multicast packets to only those ports associated with
IP multicast clients. These clients automatically join and leave
groups that receive IP multicast traffic, and the switch dynamically changes its forwarding behavior according to these requests.
Cisco Protocol
CHAP: Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
163
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is used
to periodically verify the identity of the peer using a 3-way
handshake. This is done upon initial link establishment and
may be repeated any time after the link has been established.
CHAP uses a challenge/response authentication mechanism
where the response varies every challenge to prevent replay
attacks.
IETF Specification: RFC 1994
CIF: Cells in Frames
Cells in Frames (CIF) is an ATM Protocol for ATM over LAN but
with Variable Length Packets. CIF allows ATM to be embedded
into various frame based legacy protocols (Ethernet & Token
Ring), using only one ATM header for up to 31 cells from the
same virtual circuit in a packet. The specification of CIF over
PPP and Sonet is underway. A significant feature of CIF is that
ATM can be transported to workstations without changing the
legacy NIC card because the necessary processing is done in
simple downloaded software “SHIM” on the workstation.
ETSI & ECSA Protocol
CIFS: Common Internet File System
286
The Common Internet File System (CIFS), an enhanced ver-
Network Protocols Dictionary
sion of Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB), is the standard
way that computer users share files across intranets and the
Internet. CIFS enables collaboration on the Internet by defining a remote file-access protocol that is compatible with the
way applications already share data on local disks and network file servers. CIFS runs over TCP/IP and utilizes the Internet’s global Domain Naming Service (DNS) for scalability,
and is optimized to support slower speed dial-up connections
common on the Internet. CIFS can be sent over a network to
remote devices using the redirector packages. The redirector
also uses CIFS to make requests to the protocol stack of the
local computer.
Microsoft Protocol
CLAW: Common Link Access for Workstations
Common Link Access for Workstations (CLAW) is a Data link
layer protocol to transport data between the IBM mainframe
and the Channel Interface Processor (CIP) in TCP/IP environments. CLAW improves efficiency of channel use and allows
the CIP to provide the functionality of a 3172 in TCP/IP environments and support direct channel attachment. The output
from TCP/IP mainframe processing is a series of IP datagrams
that the router can switch without modifications.
IBM Protocol
CLDAP: Connectionless Lightweighted Directory
Access Protocol
Connectionless Lightweighted Directory Access Protocol
(CLDAP) is defined in RFC 3352. CLDAP is not deployed in
real network.
IETF Specification: RFC 3352
CLNP: Connectionless Network Protocol
235
Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) is an ISO network
layer datagram protocol by the layers defined in the Reference
Model for Open Systems Interconnection (ISO 7498). CLNP
provides fundamentally the same underlying service to a transport layer as IP in the TCP/IP environment. Therefore, CLNP is
also called ISO-IP. Another OSI protocol in the network layer
is CONP (Connection-Oriented Network Protocol), which provides connection-oriented services at the network layer.
ISO Specification: X.213
CLTP: Connectionless Transport Protocol
Connectionless Transport Protocol (CLTP) provides for endto-end Transport data addressing (via Transport selector) and
error control (via checksum), but cannot guarantee delivery or
provide flow control. It is the OSI protocol stack, equivalent of
UDP of TCP/IP protocol stack.
ISO Protocol
CMAC: Cipher-based Message Authentication Code
Cipher-based Message Authentication Code (CMAC) is an authentication algorithm defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Also called NIST-CMAC, it is a
keyed hash function that is based on a symmetric key block cipher, such as the Advanced Encryption Standard [NIST-AES].
CMAC is equivalent to the One-Key CBC MAC1 (OMAC1) submitted by Iwata and Kurosawa [OMAC1a, OMAC1b]. OMAC1
is an improvement of the eXtended Cipher Block Chaining
mode (XCBC) submitted by Black and Rogaway [XCBCa,
XCBCb], which itself is an improvement of the basic Cipher
Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC).
XCBC efficiently addresses the security deficiencies of CBCMAC, and OMAC1 efficiently reduces the key size of XCBC.
There are a few variations of CMAC available, such as AES-
Network Protocols Dictionary 303
Appendices
CMAC and AES-CMAC-PRF-128 defined by IETF.
NIST Specification: Special Publication 800-38B
CMIP: Common Management Information Protocol
220
Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), an ISO
protocol used with the Common Management Information
Services (CMIS), supports information exchange between
network management applications and management agents.
CMIS defines a system of network management information
services. CMIP supplies an interface that provides functions
which may be used to support both ISO and user-defined management protocols.
ITU-T/ISO Specification: ITU-T X.700, X.711 and ISO 9595,
9596
CMIS: Common Management Information Service
220
Common Management Information Service (CMIS), an ISO
protocol used with the Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP), supports information exchange between network
management applications and management agents. CMIS defines a system of network management information services.
CMIP supplies an interface that provides functions which may
be used to support both ISO and user-defined management
protocols.
ITU-T/ISO Specification: ITU-T X.700, X.711 and ISO 9595,
9596
CMOT: CMIP Over TCP/IP
222
CMIP Over TCP/IP (CMOT) is a network management protocol using ISO CMIP to manage IP-based networks. CMOT
defines a network management architecture that uses the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) Common
Management Information Services/Common Management Information Protocol (CMIS/CMIP) in the Internet.
IETF Specification: RFC 1189
CONP: OSI Connection-Oriented Network Protocol
236
OSI Connection-Oriented Network Protocol (CONP) is an OSI
network layer protocol that carries upper-layer data and error
indications over connection-oriented links. Two types of OSI
network layer services are available: Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) and Connection-Mode Network Service
(CMNS). CONP, based on the X.25 Packet-Layer Protocol
(PLP), provides the interface between CMNS and upper layers.
ISO Protocol
COPS: Common Open Policy Service
128
The Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol is a simple query and response protocol that can be used to exchange
policy information between a policy server (Policy Decision
Point or PDP) and its clients (Policy Enforcement Points or
PEPs). One example of a policy client is a RSVP router that
must exercise policy-based admission control over RSVP usage. At least, one policy server exists in each controlled administrative domain. The COPS protocol has a simple but extensible design.
IETF Specification: RFC 2748
CR-LDP: Constraint-based LDP
81
Constraint-based LDP (CR-LDP) is one of the protocols in the
MPLS architecture. It contains extensions for LDP to extend
its capabilities, such as setup paths, beyond what is available
for the routing protocol. For instance, a LSP (Label Switched
Path) can be set up based on explicit route constraints, QoS
constraints and other constraints.
IETF Specification: RFC 3212
CRS: Certificate Request Syntax
Certificate Request Syntax (CRS) describes syntax for certification requests. A certification request consists of a distinguished name, a public key, and optionally a set of attributes,
collectively signed by the entity requesting certification. Certification requests are sent to a certification authority, which
transforms the request into an X.509 public-key certificate.
IETF Specification: RFC 2986
CSMA/CA: Carrier Sense Multi-Access/Collision
Avoidance
179
Carrier Sense Multi-Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
is one of the methods in CSMA. CSMA is a network access
method used on shared network topologies such as Ethernet
for a node to verify the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared physical medium. In Collision Avoidance
(CA), collisions are avoided because each node signals its intent to transmit before actually doing so. This method is not
popular because it requires excessive overhead that reduces
performance. CA is used in wireless LAN communications.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multi-Access/Collision Detection
179
Carrier Sense Multi-Access (CSMA) is a network access method used on shared network topologies such as Ethernet for a
node to verify the absence of other traffic before transmitting
on a shared physical medium. Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
is one of the methods often used in Ethernet to avoid possible
collision, in which when a collision occurs, and both devices
stop transmission, wait for a random amount of time, then retransmit.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
CSMA: Carrier Sense Multi-Access
179
Carrier Sense Multi-Access (CSMA) is a network access
method used on shared network topologies such as Ethernet
for a node to verify the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared physical medium. CSMA devices attached to
the network cable listen (carrier sense) before transmitting. If
the channel is in use, devices wait before transmitting. Multiple
Access(MA) indicates that many devices can connect to and
share the same network. All devices have equal access to use
the network when it is clear. Even though devices attempt to
sense whether the network is in use, there is a good chance
that two stations will attempt to access it at the same time.
There are two methods for avoiding these so-called collisions:
Carrier Sense Multi-Access/Collision Avoidance and Carrier
Sense Multi-Access/Collision Detection.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
CSLIP: Compressed Serial Link Internet Protocol
Compressed Serial Link Internet Protocol (CSLIP), also known
as Van Jacobsen TCP header compression, is an extension
of SLIP that, when appropriate, allows just header information
to be sent across a SLIP connection, reducing overhead and
increasing packet throughput on SLIP lines. CSLIP can reduce
the TCP header from 40 bytes to seven bytes but with no effects on UDP.
304 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
and most of the KDE applications can be controlled by scripts
via the DCOP mechanism.
IETF Specification: RFC 1114
CTERM: Command Terminal
Command Terminal (CTERM) is a protocol in the Digital Network Architecture for the terminal emulation. CTERM uses
DECnet to provide a command terminal connection between
DEC terminals and DEC operating systems such as VMS and
RSTS/E.
DEC/HP Protocol
D
DAP: Data Access Protocol
Data Access Protocol (DAP) is a protocol in the Digital Network
Architecture to provide remote file access to systems supporting the DECnet.
DEC/HP Protocol
DAP: Directory Access Protocol
Directory Access Protocol (DAP), defined in ISO X.500, is a
global directory service. Its components cooperate to manage
information about objects such as countries, organizations,
people, machines, and so on in a worldwide scope. It provides
the capability to look up information by name (a white-page
service) and to browse and search for information (a yellowpage service). A subset of X.500 is used to define the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), which supports
TCP/IP. LDAP is more popular in real implementation.
ISO&ITU Specification: ISO
DCAP: Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol
11
The Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol (DCAP) is an
application layer protocol used between workstations and routers to transport SNA/NetBIOS traffic over TCP sessions. DCAP
was introduced to address a few deficiencies in the Data Link
Switching Protocol (DLSw). The implementation of the Data
Link Switching Protocol (DLSw) on a large number of workstations raises the important issues of scalability and efficiency.
IETF Specification: RFC 2114
DCE/RPC: Distributed Computing Environment / Remote Procedure Calls
Distributed Computing Environment / Remote Procedure Calls
(DCE/RPC), commissioned by the Open Software Foundation
in a “Request for Technology, includes a group of technologies
to call procedures from one application in another application
over the network, without having to know about what computer the other application is running on. The usual underlying
concerns of a Remote Procedure Call system, such as how,
where, who, security and encryption are all hidden behind an
extremely well-defined interface. DCE/RPC’s reference implementation (version 1.1) is available under the BSD-compatible
(Free Software) OSF/1.0 license, and is available for at least
Solaris, AIX and VMS.
Open Software Foundation Protocol
DCOP: Desktop COmmunication Protocol
Desktop COmmunication Protocol(DCOP) is a light-weight
interprocess and software componentry communication system. DCOP allows applications to interoperate, and to share
complex tasks. Essentially, DCOP is a “remote control” system, which allows an application or a script to enlist the help of
other applications. It is built on top of the X Window System’s
Inter-Client Exchange protocol. K Desktop Environment (KDE)
applications and the KDE libraries make heavy use of DCOP,
DCP: Data Compression Protocol over Frame Relay
Data Compression Protocol (DCP), defined in FRF.9, defines
data compression over Frame Relay. The compression mechanisms can be implemented on both switched virtual circuits
(SVC) and permanent virtual circuits (PVC). Their use is negotiated at the time the Frame Relay data link connection identifier (DLCI) is initiated. It applies to unnumbered information
(UI) frames encapsulated using Q.933 Annex E and FRF.3.1.
It may be used on Frame Relay connections that are interworked with ATM using FRF.5. DCP is logically decomposed
into two sublayers: the DCP Control sublayer, and the DCP
Function sublayer.
ITU-T Specification: FRF.9
DCPCP: Data Compression Protocol Control Protocol
Data Compression Protocol Control Protocol (DCPCP) is used
to enable, disable, and optionally configure Data Compression
Protocol (DCP). DCPCP has two modes of operation: Mode-1
operation is required; Mode-2 operation is optional. Mode-2
provides full negotiation capabilities to enable, disable, and
configure DCP using the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Link
Control Protocol (LCP) negotiation procedures. Mode-1 uses
a subset of the Mode-2 negotiation primitives with simplified
procedures to enable and disable DCP with the default DCFD
and default parameter values.
IETF Protocol
DDDS: Dynamic Delegation Discovery System
The Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) defines a
mechanism for using Domain Name System (DNS) as the database for arbitrary identifier schemes. DDDS is used to implement lazy binding of strings to data, in order to support dynamically configured delegation systems. The DDDS functions by
mapping some unique string to data stored within a DDDS Database by iteratively applying string transformation rules until a
terminal condition is reached. Enum(E164 NUmber Mapping)
is defines as a DDDS application to resolve phone numbers
into data stored in DNS.
IETF Specification: RFC 3401
DDP: Datagram Delivery Protocol
Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP), a protocol in the AppleTalk suite, is for socket-to-socket delivery of datagrams over
an AppleTalk network. DDP was the lowest-level data-link-independent transport protocol. It provided a datagram service
with no guarantees of delivery. All application-level protocols in
the AppleTalk suite, including the infrastructure protocols NBP,
RTMP and ZIP, were built on top of DDP.
Apple Protocol
DECnet
274
DECnet is a protocol suite developed and supported by Digital Equipment Corporation (Digital or DEC, now part of HP).
Several versions of DECnet have been released. The original DECnet allowed two directly attached minicomputers to
communicate. Subsequent releases expanded the DECnet
functionality by adding support for additional proprietary and
standard protocols. Currently, two versions of DECnet are in a
wide use: DECnet Phase IV and DECnet plus (DECnet V). The
DECnet now is part of the HP OpenVMS.
DEC/HP Protocol
Network Protocols Dictionary 305
Appendices
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
11
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a communications protocol enabling network administrators to manage
centrally, and to automate, the assignment of IP addresses in
a network. In an IP network, each device connecting to the
Internet needs a unique IP address. DHCP lets a network administrator supervise and distribute IP addresses from a central point and automatically sends a new IP address when a
computer is plugged into a different place in the network.
IETF Specification: RFC 2131 and RFC 3396
DIAG: Diagnostic Responder protocol
Diagnostic Responder protocol (DIAG), a protocol in the Novell
NetWare suite, is used for connectivity testing and information
gathering. By default, Novell NetWare clients use the Diagnostic Responder to reply to diagnostic requests.
Novell Protocol
DiffServ
94
DiffServ defines an architecture for implementing scalable service differentiation in the Internet. A “Service” defines some
significant characteristics of packet transmission in one direction across a set of one or more paths within a network. These
characteristics may be specified in quantitative or statistical
terms of throughput, delay, jitter and/or loss, or may otherwise
be specified in terms of some relative priority of access to network resources.
IETF Specification: RFC 2474 and RFC 2475
DISL: Dynamic Inter-Switch Link Protocol
247
Dynamic Inter-Switch Link Protocol (DISL), a Cisco protocol,
simplifies the creation of an ISL trunk from two interconnected
Fast Ethernet devices. Fast EtherChannel technology enables
aggregation of two full-duplex Fast Ethernet links for highcapacity backbone connections. DISL minimizes VLAN trunk
configuration procedures because only one end of a link needs
to be configured as a trunk.
Cisco Protocol
DLSw: Data-link switching
268
Data-link switching (DLSw) provides a forward mechanism for
transporting IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and
network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) traffic over an IP
network. DLSw does not provide full routing, but instead provides switching at the SNA Data Link layer (i.e., layer 2 in the
SNA architecture) and encapsulation in TCP/IP for transport
over the Internet.
IBM Protocol
DMDP: DNSIX Message Deliver Protocol
DNSIX Message Deliver Protocol(DMDP) provides a basic
message-delivery mechanism for all DOD Network Security
for Information Exchange (DNSIX) elements.
DNA: Digital Network Architecture
274
Digital Network Architecture (DNA), defined by Digital Equipment Corporation now part of HP, is essentially a set of documents which define the network architecture in general, states
the specifications for each layer of the architecture, and describes the protocols which operate within each layer.
DEC/HP Protocol
DNCP: DECnet (DNA) Phase IV Control Protocol 274
DECnet Phase IV Control Protocol (DNCP), also known as
DNA Phase IV Routing Control Protocol (DNCP), is responsible for configuring, enabling, and disabling the DNA Phase
IV Routing protocol modules on both ends of the point-to-point
link (PPP). DNCP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol (LCP). DNCP packets may
not be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer
Protocol phase. DNCP packets received before this phase is
reached should be silently discarded.
DEC/HP Protocol
DNS: Domain Name System or Service
12
Domain Name System or Service (DNS) is a distributed Internet directory service. DNS is used mostly to translate between domain names and IP addresses and to control Internet
email delivery. Most Internet services rely on DNS to work, and
if DNS fails, web sites cannot be located and email delivery
stalls.
IETF Specification: RFC 1034
DOCSIS: Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
157
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS),
developed by CableLabs and approved by the ITU, defines interface requirements for cable modems involved in high-speed
data distribution (both MPEG and IP data) over cable television system networks. Other devices that recognize and support the DOCSIS standard include HDTVs and Web-enabled
set-top boxes for regular televisions.
CableLab Specification: ITU J.112
DQDB: Distributed Queue Dual Bus
203
Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) is a Data-link layer communication protocol for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs),
specified in the IEEE 802.6 standard and designed for use in
MANs. DQDB is designed for data as well as voice and video
transmission and is based on cell switching technology (similar
to ATM). DQDB, which permits multiple systems to interconnect using two unidirectional logical buses, is an open standard that is designed for compatibility with carrier transmission
standards such as SMDS.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.6
DRARP: Dynamic Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
Dynamic Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (DRARP),
an extensions to the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
(RARP), is used to acquire (or allocate) a protocol level address given the fixed hardware address for a host. Its clients
are systems being installed or reconfigured, and its servers are
integrated with other network administration services. The protocol, along with adjunct protocols as briefly described here,
supports several common styles of “Intranet” administration
including networks which choose not to support the simplified
installation and reconfiguration features enabled by DRARP.
IETF Protocol
DRIP: Duplicate Ring Protocol
Duplicate Ring Protocol (DRIP), a Cisco protocol, runs on Cisco
routers and switches that support Virtual LAN networking, and
is used to identify active Token Ring VLANs. DRIP information
is used for all-routes explorer filtering and detecting the configuration of duplicate Token ring Concentrator Relay Function
(TrCRF) across routers and switches, which would cause a
TrCRF to be distributed across ISL trunks. DRIP sends advertisements to a multicast address so the advertisements are received by all neighboring devices. The advertisement includes
VLAN information for the source device only.
306 Appendices
Cisco Protocol
DRP: Director Response Protocol
The Director Response Protocol (DRP) is a simple User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based application developed by Cisco
Systems. It enables Cisco’s DistributedDirector product to query routers (DRP Server Agents) in the field for Border Gateway
Protocol (BGP) and Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing
table metrics between distributed servers and clients.
Cisco Protocol
DS0: Digital Signal level 0
Digital Signal level 0 (DS0) is a basic digital signaling rate of 64
kbit/s, corresponding to the capacity of one voice-frequencyequivalent channel. The DS0 forms the basic unit for the digital multiplex transmission hierarchy in both the European and
North American systems. The DS0 rate may support twenty 2.4
kbit/s channels, ten 4.8 kbit/s channels, five 9.67 kbit/s channels, one 56 kbit/s channel, or one 64 kbit/s clear channel.
ANSI Protocol
DS1: Digital Signal level 1
Digital Signal level 1 (DS1) is a T-carrier signaling scheme
devised by Bell Labs. Technically, DS1 is the data transmitted over a physical T1 line, however, the terms DS1 and T1
are often used interchangeably. A DS1 circuit is made up of
twenty-four 8-bit channels (DS0’s), each channel being a 64
kbit/s DS0 multiplexed pseudo-circuit. A DS1 is also a full-duplex circuit, meaning you can (in theory) send 1.536 Mbit/s and
receive 1.536 Mbit/s simultaneously. A total of 1.536 Mbit/s of
bandwidth is achieved by sampling each of the twenty-four 8bit DS0’s 8000 times per second. It is a widely used standard
in telecommunications in North America and Japan to transmit
voice and data between devices. E1 is used in place of T1
outside of North America and Japan.
ANSI Protocol
DS3: Digital Signal level 3
Digital Signal level 3 (DS3) is a digital signal level 3 T-carrier
and it is also called T3. The data rate for this type of signal
is 44.736 Mbit/s. DS3 can transport 28 DS1 level signals or
transport 672 DS0 level channels within its payload. DS3 is a
standard for North America and Japan. Other part of the world
uses a similar standard called E3.
ANSI Protocol
DSL: Digital Subscribe Line
158
Digital Subscriber Line(DSL) is a modem technology for
broadband data access over ordinary copper telephone lines
(POTS) from homes to businesses. There are many flavors
of DSL, collectively called xDSL, such as ADSL (and G.Lite),
HDSL, SDSL, IDSL and VDSL etc. xDSLs sometimes are referred to as last-mile (or first mile) technologies because they
are used only for connections from a telephone switching station to a home or office, not between switching stations.
ANSI Protocol
DSMCC: Digital Storage Media Command and Control
Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC), Part
6 of MPEG-2, is an ISO/IEC standard developed to provide the
control functions and operations specific to managing MPEG1 and MPEG-2 bitstreams. These protocols may be used to
support applications in both stand-alone and heterogeneous
network environments. In the DSM-CC model, a stream is
sourced by a Server and delivered to a Client. Both the Server
Network Protocols Dictionary
and the Client are considered to be Users of the DSM-CC network. DSM-CC defines a logical entity called the Session and
Resource Manager (SRM) which provides a (logically) centralized management of the DSM-CC Sessions and Resources.]\
ANSI/ITU Protocol
DSn: Digital Signal Level n
Digital Signal Level n (DSn), also known as Tn, is a group of
classification of digital circuits, which is a time division multiplexed hierarchy of standard digital signals used in telecommunications systems. The DS technically refers to the rate and
the format of the signal, whereas the T designation refers to
the equipment providing the signals. In practice, DS and T are
used synonymously; for example, DS1 and T1, DS3 and T3.
ANSI Protocol
DTP: Dynamic Trunking Protocol
243
Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), a Cisco proprietary protocol
in the VLAN group, is for negotiating trunking on a link between
two devices and for negotiating the type of trunking encapsulation (802.1Q) to be used. There are different types of trunking
protocols. If a port can become a trunk, it may also have the
ability to trunk automatically and, in some cases, even negotiate what type of trunking to use on the port. This ability to
negotiate the trunking method with the other device is called
dynamic trunking.
Cisco Protocol
DUP: Data User Part
278
Data User Part (DUP), an application protocol in the SS7/C7
protocol suite, defines the necessary call control and facility registration and cancellation related elements for circuitswitched data transmission services.
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
DUNDi: Distributed Universal Number Discovery
Distributed Universal Number Discovery (DUNDi) is a Peer-toPeer (P2P) protocol for providing services equivalent to those
provided by Electronic Numbering (ENUM). DUNDi has an advantage above ENUM because that it is far more resilient, as it
lacks a central point of failure. DUNDi can be used to augment
DNS and it is developed with Voice over IP (VOIP) services.
IETF Protocol
DVMRP: Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
68
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is an Internet routing protocol that provides an efficient mechanism for
connectionless message multicast to a group of hosts across
an internetwork. DVMRP is an “interior gateway protocol”
(IGP), suitable for use within an autonomous system but not
between different autonomous systems.
IETF Specification: RFC 1075
Dynamic IISP: Dynamic Interim-Interswitch Signaling Protocol
Dynamic Interim-Interswitch Signaling Protocol (Dynamic IISP)
is a dynamic version of the ATM Forum standard Interim Inter-Switch Signaling Protocol, that automatically reroutes ATM
connections in the event of link failures. Dynamic IISP was an
interim solution until PNNI Phase 1 was completed.
E
E1 or E-1
E1 or E-1 is the European/China format for digital signal trans-
Appendices
mission, while T1/DS1 is for the North America/Japan. E1 carries signals at 2 Mbps with 32 channels at 64Kbps each, where
30 DS0 channels for voice/data and 2 channels for signaling
and controlling. For T1, it carries signals at 1.544 Mbps with
24 channels at DS0 64Kbps each. E1 and T1 lines may be
interconnected for international use.
ITU-T Protocol
E3 or E-3
E3 or E-3 is the European/China format for digital signal transmission, while T3/DS3 is for the North America/Japan. E3 carries data at a rate of 34.368 Mbps. E3 can carry 16 E1 channels. E3 and T3 lines may be interconnected for international
use.
ITU-T Protocol
EAP: PPP Extensible Authentication Protocol
162
The PPP Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is for PPP
authentication. EAP supports multiple authentication mechanisms. EAP does not select a specific authentication mechanism at Link Control Phase, but rather postpones this until the
Authentication Phase. This allows the authenticator to request
more information before determining the specific authentication mechanism. This also permits the use of a “back-end”
server which actually implements the various mechanisms
while the PPP authenticator merely passes through the authentication exchange.
IETF Specification: RFC 2284
EAP-TLS: Extensible Authentication Protocol Transport Layer
Security Extensible Authentication Protocol - Transport Layer
Security(EAP-TLS) is an encrypted authentication scheme
based on Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). EAP-TLS
was created by Microsoft and accepted by the IETF.
IETF Specification: RFC 2716
EAP-TTLS: Extensible Authentication Protocol–Tunneled Transport Layer Security
Extensible Authentication Protocol–Tunneled Transport Layer Security (EAP-TTLS) is an encrypted authentication scheme
based on Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and easier
to manage than Extensible Authentication Protocol–Transport
Layer Security (EAP-TLS). EAP-TTLS is a proprietary protocol
which was developed by Funk Software and Certicom, and is
supported by Agere Systems, Proxim, and Avaya.
Funk Software Protocol
EAPOL: EAP over LAN
EAP over LAN (EAPOL), defined in the IEEE 802.1X, offers
an effective framework for authenticating and controlling user
traffic to a protected network, as well as dynamically varying
encryption keys. EAPOL is a standard for passing Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) over a wired or wireless LAN.
In the wireless environment, 802.1X also describes a way for
the access point and the wireless user to share and change
encryption keys, and adds some messages which help smooth
operations over wireless. The key change messages help solve
the major security vulnerability in 802.11, the management of
WEP keys. With 802.1X, WEP is brought up to an acceptable
level of security for most companies.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1x
ECHO: Echo Protocol
Echo Protocol (ECHO) is defined in RFC 862 for testing and
measurement purposes in an IP network. A host may connect
Network Protocols Dictionary 307
to a server that supports the ECHO protocol, on either TCP or
UDP port 7. The server then sends back any data it receives.
Current testing and measurement of IP networks is more commonly done with ping and traceroute defined in the ICMP.
IETF Specification: RFC 862
ECP: Encryption Control Protocol
Encryption Control Protocol (ECP), a protocol in the PPP suite,
can be used to ensure that only authorized devices can establish a PPP connection. ECP is responsible for negotiating and
managing the use of encryption on a PPP link.
IETF Specification: RFC 1968
EGP: Exterior Gateway Protocol
51
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is for exchanging routing information between two neighbor gateway hosts in a network of
autonomous systems. EGP is commonly used between hosts
on the Internet to exchange routing table information. The protocol is based on periodic polling using Hello/I-Heard-You (I-HU) message exchanges to monitor neighbor reachability and
Poll commands to solicit Update responses.
IETF Specification: RFC 904
EIGRP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
244
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an
enhanced version of IGRP. IGRP is Cisco’s Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol used in TCP/IP and OSI internets. It is regarded as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) but has also been
used extensively as an exterior gateway protocol for inter-domain routing.
Cisco Protocol
ELAP: EtherTalk Link Access Protocol
EtherTalk Link Access Protocol (ELAP) is a link-access protocol used in an AppleTalk over Ethernet network. ELAP is built
on top of the standard Ethernet data link layer.
ENUM: E164 NUmber Mapping
Electronic Numbering (ENUM or Enum), also refered to as
“E164 NUmber Mapping”, is a suite of protocols to unify the
telephone system with the Internet by using E.164 addresses
with Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDDS) and Domain Name System (DNS). ENUM is a standard adopted by
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that uses the domain name system (DNS) to map telephone numbers to Web
addresses or uniform resource locators (URL). The goal of
the ENUM standard is to provide a single number to replace
the multiple numbers and addresses for an individual’s home
phone, business phone, fax, cell phone, and e-mail.
IETF Specification: RFC 3761
EoS: Ethernet over SONET/SDH
151
Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EoS) refers to a group of industry standard specifications for optimal transport of Ethernet
through SONET/SDH, because Ethernet is not directly supported over the SONET/SDH network traditionally. Basically,
EoS capability turns the Sonet/SDH MAN/WAN infrastructure
backbone into a transparent Ethernet segment for attached
servers and clients.
ITU-T Protocol
EPON: Ethernet Passive Optical Network
Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), defined by IEEE
802.3ah, is a point to multipoint (Pt-MPt) network topology
implemented with passive optical splitters, along with optical
fiber PMDs that support this topology. EPON is based upon
308 Appendices
a mechanism named MPCP (Multi-Point Control Protocol),
which uses messages, state machines, and timers, to control
access to a P2MP topology. Each ONU in the P2MP topology
contains an instance of the MPCP protocol, which communicates with an instance of MPCP in the OLT. On the basis of the
EPON/MPCP protocol lies the P2P Emulation Sublayer, which
makes an underlying P2MP network appear as a collection of
point-to-point links to the higher protocol layers (at and above
the MAC Client). It achieves this by prepending a Logical Link
Identification (LLID) to the beginning of each packet, replacing two octets of the preamble. In addition, a mechanism for
network Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM)
is included to facilitate network operation and troubleshooting.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.2ah
ES-IS: End System to Intermediate System Routing
Exchange Protocol
237
End System to Intermediate System Routing Exchange Protocol (ES-IS), developed by ISO, permits End Systems and
Intermediate Systems to exchange configuration and routing
information to facilitate the operation of the routing and relaying functions of the Network Layer in the ISO network environment. In an ISO network, there are End Systems, Intermediate
Systems, Areas and Domains. End systems are user devices.
Intermediate systems are routers. Routers are organized into
local groups called “areas” and several areas are grouped together into a “domain”.
ISO Specification: ISO 8473
ESMTP: Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (ESMTP) is the extended version of the original Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), which includes additional functionality, such as delivery notification and session delivery. All the features of ESMTP
are included in the latest version of SMTP as defined in RFC
2821 and the ESMTP is no longer necessary.
IETF Specification: RFC 2821
ESP: Encapsulating Security Payload
98
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), a key protocol in the
IPsec (Internet Security) architecture, is designed to provide
a mix of security services in IPv4 and IPv6. The IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) seeks to provide confidentiality
and integrity by encrypting data to be protected and by placing
the encrypted data in the data portion of the IP ESP. Depending on the user’s security requirements, this mechanism may
be used to encrypt either a transport-layer segment (e.g., TCP,
UDP, ICMP, IGMP) or an entire IP datagram. Encapsulating
the protected data is necessary to provide confidentiality for
the entire original datagram.
IETF Specification: RFC 2406
Ethernet
179
Ethernet protocols refer to the family of local area networks
(LAN) covered by a group of IEEE 802.3 standards. In the Ethernet standard, there are two modes of operation: half-duplex
and full-duplex. In the half-duplex mode, data are transmitted
using the popular Carrier-Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol on a shared medium. The main
disadvantages of the half-duplex are the efficiency and distance limitation, in which the link distance is limited by the minimum MAC frame size. This restriction reduces the efficiency
drastically for high-rate transmission. Therefore, the carrier
extension technique is used to ensure the minimum frame size
of 512 bytes in Gigabit Ethernet to achieve a reasonable link
Network Protocols Dictionary
distance.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
EtherTalk
EtherTalk, full named as EtherTalk Link Access Protocol
(ELAP), places AppleTalk’s DDP formatted packets in Ethernet frames. EtherTalk enables the implementation of AppleTalk
using Ethernet as a delivery system.
Apple Protocol
F
FANP: Flow Attribute Notification Protocol Page291
Flow Attribute Notification Protocol (FANP) is a protocol between neighbor modes which manages cut-through packet
forwarding functionalities. In cut-through packet forwarding, a
router doesn’t perform conventional IP packet processing for
received packets. FANP indicates mapping information between a datalink connection and a packet flow to the neighbor
node. It helps a pair of nodes manage mapping information.
By using FANP, routers such as the CSR (Cell Switch Router)
can forward incoming packets based on their datalink-level
connection identifiers, bypassing usual IP packet processing.
FANP generally runs on ATM networks.
Toshiba Protocol
Fast Ethernet
181
Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T) offers a speed increase ten times
that of the 10BaseT Ethernet specification, while preserving
such qualities as frame format, MAC mechanisms and MTU.
Such similarities allow the use of existing 10BaseT applications and network management tools on Fast Ethernet networks. Officially, the 100BASE-T standard is IEEE 802.3u.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3u
FC-0 Layer
FC-0, also known as FC-PH(the physical layer), is the lowest
level of Fibre Channel. FC-0 defines the physical links in the
system, including the fibre, connectors, optical and electrical
parameters for a variety of data rates.
ANSI Protocol
FC-1 Layer
FC-1, also known as FC-PH, is the data link layer in the Fibre
Channel protocols. FC-1 implements the 8b/10b encoding and
decoding of signals. FC-1 defines the transmission protocol including serial encoding and decoding rules, special characters
and error control. The transmission code must be DC balanced
to support the electrical requirements of the receiving units.
The Transmission Characters ensure, that short-run lengths
and enough transitions are present in the serial bit stream to
make clock recovery possible
ANSI Protocol
FC-2 Layer
FC-2, also known as FC-PH, is the network layer protocol in the
Fibre Channel suite. FC-2 is defined by the FC-PI-2 standard,
which consists of the core of FC. The framing rules of the data
to be transferred between ports, the different mechanisms for
controlling the three service classes and the means of managing the sequence of a data transfer are defined by FC-2.
ANSI Protocol
FC-3 Layer
FC-3 is the common services layer in the Fibre Channel protocol suite, a thin layer that could eventually implement functions
like encryption or RAID. The FC-3 level of the FC standard
Network Protocols Dictionary 309
Appendices
is intended to provide the common services required for advanced features such as: Striping to multiply bandwidth using
multiple N_ports in parallel to transmit a single information unit
across multiple links; Hunt groups for more than one Port to
respond to the same alias address; and Multicast to deliver a
single transmission to multiple destination ports.
ANSI Protocol
FC-4 Layer
FC-4, the highest level in the Fibre Channel structure, defines
the application interfaces that can execute over Fibre Channel. FC-4 specifies the mapping rules of upper layer protocols
using the FC levels below. FC-4 is a layer in which other protocols, such as SCSI, are encapsulated into an information unit
for delivery to FC2.
ANSI Protocol
FCIP: Fibre Channel Over TCP/IP
209
Fibre Channel Over TCP/IP (FCIP) describes mechanisms
that allow the interconnection of islands of Fibre Channel storage area networks over IP-based networks to form a unified
storage area network in a single Fibre Channel fabric. FCIP
relies on IP-based network services to provide the connectivity
between the storage area network islands over local area networks, metropolitan area networks or wide area networks.
IETF Specification: RFC 3821
FCP: Fibre Channel Protocol
208
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) is the interface protocol of SCSI
on the Fibre Channel. FCP maps the SCSI commands to the
Fibre Channel transport layer.
ANSI Protocol
FCS: Fibre Channel Standards
The Fibre Channel Standards (FCS) define a high-speed data
transfer mechanism that can be used to connect workstations,
mainframes, supercomputers, storage devices and displays.
FCS addresses the need for very fast transfers of large volumes of information and could relieve system manufacturers of
the burden of supporting the variety of channels and networks
currently in place, as it provides one standard for networking,
storage and data transfer. Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) is the
interface protocol of SCSI on the Fibre Channel.
ANSI Protocol
FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
197
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a set of ANSI protocols for sending digital data over fiber optic cable. FDDI networks are token-passing (similar to IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
protocol) and dual-ring networks and support data rates of up
to 100 Mbps. FDDI networks are typically used as backbone
technology because the protocol supports a high bandwidth
and a great distance. A related copper specification similar
to FDDI protocols, called Copper Distributed Data Interface
(CDDI), has also been defined to provide 100 Mbps service
over twisted-pair copper.
ANSI Specification: X3T9.5 and X3T12
FDDI II: Fiber Distributed Data Interface II
Fiber Distributed Data Interface II (FDDI II or FDDI-2) is an
ANSI standard that enhances FDDI. FDDI II provides isochronous transmission for connectionless data circuits and connection-oriented voice and video circuits.
ANSI Protocol
Fibre Channel
208
Fibre Channel is a group of multi-gigabit speed network tech-
nology primarily used for Storage Networking using both coaxial cable or fiber. There are three major Fibre Channel topologies: Point-to-Point (FC-P2P) in which two devices are
connected back to back; Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL), in which all
devices are in a loop or ring; and Switched Fabric (FC-SW),
in which all devices are connected to Fibre Channel switches.
Fibre Channel is a layered protocol. It consists of 5 layers,
namely: FC0, FC1, FC2, FC3 and FC4.
ANSI Protocol
Finger User Information Protocol
13
The Finger user information protocol provides an interface to a
remote user information program (RUIP). Finger is a protocol,
based on the Transmission Control Protocol, for the exchange
of user information using TCP port 79. The local host opens a
TCP connection to a remote host on the Finger port. A RUIP
becomes available on the remote end of the connection to process the request. The local host sends the RUIP a one line
query based upon the Finger query specification and waits for
the RUIP to respond.
IETF Specification: RFC 1288
FLAP: FDDITalk Link Access Protocol
FDDITalk Link Access Protocol (FLAP) is the AppleTalk protocol used for the FDDI interface. The FLAP protocol resides in
the Data Link Layer of the OSI Reference Model.
Apple Protocol
Frame Relay
171
Frame Relay is a WAN protocol for LAN internetworking which
operates at the physical and data link layer to provide a fast
and efficient method of transmitting information from a user
device to another across multiple switches and routers. Frame
Relay is based on packet-switched technologies similar to
x.25, which enables end stations to dynamically share the network medium and the available bandwidth. It employs the following two packet techniques: a) Variable-length packets and
b) Statistical multiplexing. It does not guarantee data integrity
and discards packets when there is network congestion. In reality, it still delivers data with high reliability.
ITU-T Protocol
FreeDCE
FreeDCE is the Open Group’s reference implementation of
Distributed Computing Environment/Remote Procedure Calls
(DCE/RPC) updated to be interoperable with Free Software
development practices. FreeDCE is DCE 1.1 reworked, and
it includes an up-to-date implementation of DCEThreads that
actually works with the Linux 2.4 and 2.6 kernels on x86 hardware and also on AMD64 processors.
Open Group Protocol
FSSRP: Fast Simple Server Redundancy Protocol
Fast Simple Server Redundancy Protocol (FSSRP), an improvement of the ATM LAN Emulation (LANE) Simple Server
Replication Protocol (SSRP), creates fault-tolerance using
standard LANE protocols and mechanisms. FSSRP differs
from LANE SSRP in that all configured LANE servers of an
Emulated LAN (ELANE) are always active. FSSRP-enabled
LANE clients have virtual circuits (VCs) established to a maximum of four LANE servers and broadcast and unknown servers (BUSs) at one time. If a single LANE server goes down,
the LANE client quickly switches over to the next LANE server
with BUS resulting in no data or LE-ARP table entry loss and
no extraneous signalling.
Cisco Protocol
310 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
FST: Fast Sequenced Transport
ITU-T Specification: G.707
Fast Sequenced Transport (FST) is a connectionless, sequenced transport protocol that runs on top of the IP protocol.
Source-Route Bridging (SRB) traffic is encapsulated inside of
IP datagrams and is passed over a FST connection between
two network devices (such as routers). FST speeds up data
delivery, reduces overhead, and improves the response time
of SRB traffic.
FTAM: File Transfer Access Management Protocol
223
The File Transfer Access and Management protocol (FTAM),
an ISO application protocol, offers file transfer services between client (initiator) and server (responder) systems in an
open environment. FTAM also provides access to files and
management of files on diverse systems. Similar to FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) and NFS (Network File System) in the TCP/
IP environment, FTAM is designed to help users access files
on diverse systems that use compatible FTAM implementations.
ISO Protocol
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
14
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) enables file sharing between
hosts. FTP uses TCP to create a virtual connection for controling information and then creates a separate TCP connection
for data transfers. The control connection uses an image of
the TELNET protocol to exchange commands and messages
between hosts.
IETF Specification: RFC 959
FUNI: Frame-based User-to-Network Interface
Frame-based User-to-Network Interface (FUNI), developed by
the ATM Forum, is for users with the ability to connect between
ATM networks and existing frame-based equipment such as
routers and switches. FUNI uses a T1/E1 interface and offers
a relatively easy and cost-effective method for users to take
advantage of ATM infrastructure or an ATM backbone, while
not having to replace existing equipment with more expensive
ATM equipment.
ITU-T Protocol
G
G.703
G.703, a standard based on PCM standard, specifies voice
over digital networks. Voice to digital conversion according to
PCM requires a bandwidth of 64 kbps (+/- 100 ppm), resulting
in the basic unit for G.703. G.703 specifies the physical and
electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces at a
rate up to 140Mbit/s.
ITU-T Specification: G.703
G.704
G.704 defines the synchronous frame structure used at primary and secondary hierarchy levels on G.703 interfaces up
to 45Mbit/s. The conventional use of G.704 on a 2Mbit/s primary rate circuit provides 30 discrete 64kbit/s channels, with a
further 64kbit/s channel available for common channel signalling.
ITU-T Specification: G.704
G.707
G.707 defines the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Bit
Rates.
G.708
G.708 defines the Network Node Interface (NNI) for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
ITU-T Specification: G.708
G.709
G.709 defines the Synchronous Multiplexing Structure.
ITU-T Specification: G.709
G.711
120
G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding released in
1972. It is primarily used in telephony. G.711 represents 8-bit
compressed pulse code modulation (PCM) samples for signals
of voice frequencies, sampled at the rate of 8000 samples/second. G.711 encoder will create a 64 kbit/s bitstream. There are
two main algorithms defined in the standard: mu-law algorithm
(used in North America & Japan) and a-law algorithm (used in
Europe and other countries).
ITU-T Specification: G.711
G.721
120
G.721 is a 32 kbps Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) speech compression algorithm. The sampling
rate is 8 KHz. G.721 produces toll quality speech. With transmission error rates higher than 10.4, the perceived quality of
G.721 is better than G.711. G.721 is the first ADPCM standard.
Later came the standards of G.726 and G.727 for 40, 32, 24
and 16 kbps.
ITU-T Specification: G.721
G.722
120
G.722 is a wideband speech coding algorithm supporting bit
rates of 64, 56 and 48 kbps. In G.722, the speech signal is
sampled at 16000 samples/second. G.722 can handle speech
and audio signal bandwidth upto 7 kHz, compared with 3.6
kHz in narrow band speech coders. G.722 coder is based on
the principle of Sub Band - Adaptive Differential Pulse Code
Modulation (SB-ADPCM). The signal is split into two subbands and samples from both bands are coded using ADPCM
techniques.
ITU-T Specification: G.722
G.723 or G.723.1
120
G.723, also known as G.723.1 in more precise terms, is a
standard-based voice codec providing voice quality (300 Hz
to 3400 Hz) at 5.3 / 6.3 kbps. It was designed for video conferencing/telephony over standard phone lines, and is optimized
for real-time encoding & decoding. G.723.1 is part of the H.323
(IP) and H.324 (POTS) standards for video conferencing.
ITU-T Specification: G.723
G.726
120
G.726 is a ITU-T speech codec based on ADPCM operating at
bit rates of 16-40 kbit/s. The most commonly used mode is 32
kbit/s, since this is half the rate of G.711, thus increasing the
usable network capacity by 100%. G.726 specifies how a 64
kbps A-law or µ-law PCM signal can be converted to 40, 32, 24
or 16 kbps ADPCM channels where the 24 and 16 kbps channels are used for voice in Digital Circuit Multiplication Equiment
(DCME) and the 40 kbps is for data modem signals (especially
modems doing 4800 kbps or higher) in DCME.
ITU-T Specification: G.726
G.727
120
G.727 is an embedded Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Mod-
Network Protocols Dictionary 311
Appendices
ulation (ADPCM) algorithms at rates of 40, 32, 24 and 16 kbit/
s. G.727 defines the transcoding law when the source signal
is a pulse-code modulation signal at a pulse rate of 64 kbit/s
developed from voice frequency analog signals as fully specified by G.711.
ITU-T Specification: G.727
G.728
120
G.728, based on the Low-Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction (LD-CELP) compression principles, is a 16 kbps compression standard. G.728 has an algorithmic coding delay of 0.625
ms. G.728 normally compresses toll quality speech at 8000
samples/second. G.728 Annex G (G.728 G) is a fixed point
specification of the coder working at a bit rate of 16000 bits/
second. G.728 Annex I (G.728 I) is the packet loss concealment (PLC) technique used along with G.728 G. G.728 coders
are widely used for applications of telephony over packet networks, especially voice over cable and VoIP, where low delay
is required.
ITU-T Specification: G.728
G.729
120
G.729 is an audio data compression algorithm for voice that
compresses voice audio in chunks of 10 milliseconds. G.729
does coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using Conjugate-Structure
Algebraic-Code-Excited Linear-Prediction(CS-ACELP). G.729
is mostly used in Voice over IP (VoIP) applications for its low
bandwidth requirement. Standard G.729 operates at 8 kbit/s,
but there are extensions, which provide also 6.4 kbit/s and 11.8
kbit/s rates for marginally worse and better speech quality respectively. Also very common is G.729a which is compatible
with G.729, but requires less computation.
ITU-T Specification: G.729
G.780
G.780 defines the terms for SDH Networks and Equipment.
ITU-T Specification: G.780
G.781
G.781 defines the structure of Recommendations on Equipment for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
ITU-T Specification: G.781
G.782
G.782 defines types and characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Equipment.
ITU-T Specification: G.782
G.783
G.783 defines characteristics of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Equipment Functional Blocks.
ITU-T Specification: G.783
G.7xx
120
G.7xx is a suite of ITU-T standards for audio compressions
and de-commpressions. It is primarily used in telephony. In
telephony, there are 2 main algorithms defined in the standard, mu-law algorithm (used in America) and a-law algorithm
(used in Europe and the rest of the world). Both are logarithmic, but the later a-law was specifically designed to be simpler
for a computer to process. G.7xx codec suite includes G.712,
G.721, G.722, G.723, G.726, G.727, G.728, G.729 etc.
ITU-T Specification: G.7xx
G.803
G.803, an ITU-T standard, defines the architecture of transport
networks based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
ITU-T Specification: G.803
G.804
G.804 is the ITU-T framing standard that defines the mapping
of ATM cells into the physical medium.
ITU-T Specification: G.804
G.832
G.832, an ITU-T standard, defenes the transport of SDH elements on PDH networks, the trame and multiplexing structures.
ITU-T Specification: G.832
G.Lite
158
G.Lite, also known as ADSL Lite and Splitterless ADSL, is one
of the Digital Subscriber Line technologies that allows broadband data access over normal phone lines (twisted pair cables, also called POTS). G.Lite offers a maximum of 1.5 Mbit/s
downstream and 512 kbit/s upstream and does not require the
use of phone line splitters.
ITU-T Protocol
GARP: Generic Attribute Registration Protocol 187
The Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) provides
a generic framework whereby devices in a bridged LAN, e.g.
end stations and switches, can register and de-register attribute values, such as VLAN Identifiers, with each other. In doing so, the attributes are propagated to devices in the bridged
LAN, and these devices form a “reachability” tree that is a subset of an active topology. GARP defines the architecture, rules
of operation, state machines and variables for the registration
and de-registration of attribute values.
IETF Specification: IEEE 802.1q
GDP: Gateway Discovery Protocol
Gateway Discovery Protocol (GDP) is a Cisco protocol based
on UDP that allows hosts to dynamically detect the arrival of
new routers as well as determine when a router goes down.
Cisco Protocol
151
GFP: Generic Framing Procedure
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP), an encapsulation scheme
for Ethernet over SONET/SDH, is defined by ITU-T G.7041.
GFP allows mapping of variable length, higher-layer client
signals over a transport network like SDH/SONET. The client
signals can be protocol data unit (PDU) oriented (like IP/PPP
or Ethernet Media Access Control [MAC]) or can be blockcode oriented (like fiber channel). GFP has two modes: GFP-F
and GFP-T. GFP-F maps each client frame into a single GFP
frame. GFP-T allows mapping of multiple 8B/10B client data
frames into an efficient 64B/65B block code for transport within
a GFP frame.
ITU-T Specification: G.7041
GGP: Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP) is a MILNET protocol
specifying how core routers (gateways) should exchange
reachability and routing information. GGP uses a distributed
shortest-path algorithm. The Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol is
obsolete.
Gigabit Ethernet Protocol
182
The Gigabit Ethernet protocol, based on the Ethernet protocols, has a theoretical maximum data rate of 1000 Mbps, using shorter frames with carrier Extension. It is published as
the IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab supplements to the IEEE 802.3
base standards.
312 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
IETF Specification: RFC 1436
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z, 802.3ab
GIOP: General Inter-ORB Protocol
GPON: Gigabit Passive Optical Network
General Inter-ORB Protocol(GIOP) is the abstract protocol by which Object Request Brokers (ORBs) communicate.
Standards associated with the protocol are maintained by the
Object Management Group (OMG). GIOP is implmented in
various environment and Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) is
the implementation of GIOP for TCP/IP, which is used in the
CORBA framework for accessing objects across the Internet.
OMG Protocol
Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON), an extension of
BPON, is a PON technology operating at bit rates of above
1 Gb/s. Apart from the need to support higher bit rates, the
overall protocol has been opened for re-consideration and
the sought solution should be the most optimal and efficient
in terms of support for multiple services, OAM&P functionality
and scalability.
ITU-T Protocols
GMM/SM: GPRS Mobility Management/Session Management
GPRS Mobility Management/Session Management (GMM/
SM) protocol supports mobility management functionality of a
mobile such as GPRS attach, GPRS detach, security, routing
area update, location update. The main function of the Session
Management (SM) layer is to support PDP context handling of
the user terminal. SM comprises of procedures for the PDP
context activation, deactivation, and modification. The GMM
layer uses the services of the Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP) over the Iu interface to provide these
services.
ETSI Protocol
GMM: GPRS Mobility Management
GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) is a GPRS signaling protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming, authentication, and selection of encryption algorithms. GPRS Mobility
Management, together with Session Management (GMM/SM)
protocol support the mobility of user terminal so that the SGSN
can know the location of a mobile station (MS) at any time and
to activate, modify and deactivate the PDP sessions required
by the MS for the user data transfer.
ETSI Protocol
GMPLS: Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching
80
Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) enhances
MPLS architecture by the complete separation of the control
and data planes of various networking layers. GMPLS enables
a seamless interconnection and convergence of new and legacy networks by allowing end-to-end provisioning, control and
traffic engineering even when the start and the end nodes belong to heterogeneous networks.
IETF Specification: RFC 3945
GMRP: GARP Multicast Registration Protocol 188
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) is a Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) application that provides
a constrained multicast flooding facility similar to IGMP snooping. GMRP and GARP are industry-standard protocols defined
by the IEEE 802.1P.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1q
Gopher
Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network
protocol designed for the Internet. Its goal was similar to that
of the World Wide Web, and it has been almost completely displaced by the Web. The Gopher protocol offers some features
not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored in it. Its text menu interface
is well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on
remote computer terminals, common in universities at the time
of its creation.
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) technology runs at
speeds up to 115Kbit/sec., compared with the 9.6Kbit/sec. of
older GSM systems. It enables high-speed wireless Internet
and other communications such as e-mail, games and applications. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient
use of limited bandwidth. It’s particularly suited for sending
and receiving small amounts of data, such as e-mail and Web
browsing, as well as large volumes of data.
ETSI Protocol
GRE: Generic Routing Encapsulation
95
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a protocol for encapsulation of an arbitrary network layer protocol over another
arbitrary network layer protocol.In the most general case, a
system has a packet, namely a payload, which needs to be encapsulated and delivered to some destination. The payload is
first encapsulated in a GRE packet. The resulting GRE packet
can then be encapsulated in some other protocol and then forwarded. This outer protocol is called the delivery protocol.
IETF Specification: RFC 2784
GSM: Global Service for Mobile Communication
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), origionally
known as Groupe Spécial Mobile, is a digital cellular system
defined by ETSI based on TDMA narrowband technology.
GSM allows up to eight simultaneous communications on the
same frequency. GSM is widely deployed in Europe and some
Asian Countries, competing with CDMA which was developed
by Qualcomm and deployed mainly in the US.
ETSI Protocol
GSMP: General Switch Management Protocol
General Switch Management Protocol (GSMP) is designed to
control a label switch. GSMP allows a controller to establish
and release connections across the switch, to add and delete
leaves on a multicast connection, to manage switch ports, to
request configuration information, to request and delete reservation of switch resources, and to request statistics. The protocol is asymmetric, the controller being the master and the
switch being the slave. Multiple switches may be controlled
by a single controller and a switch may be controlled by more
than one controller.
ITU-T Protocol
GTP: GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) allows end users of a GSM
or UMTS network to move from place to place whilst continuing to connect to the internet as if from one location at the
GGSN. It does this by carrying the subscriber’s data from the
subscriber’s current SGSN to the GGSN which is handling the
subscriber’s session. GTP version zero supports both signalling and user data under one generic header. It can be used
with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission
Network Protocols Dictionary 313
Appendices
Control Protocol) on the registered port 3386. GTP version one
is used only on UDP. The control plane protocol GTP-C (Control) uses the registered port 2123 and the user plane protocol
GTP-U (User) uses the registered port 2152.
ETSI Protocol
GVRP: GARP VLAN Registration Protocol
189
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol(GARP) VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a GARP application that provides 802.1Q-compliant VLAN pruning and dynamic VLAN
creation on 802.1Q trunk ports. GVRP is an application, defined in the IEEE 802.1P standard, which allows for the control
of 802.1Q VLANs.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11q and 802.1p
H
H.225
106
H.225, a key protocol in the H.323 VOIP architecture defined
by ITU-T, is a standard to cover narrow-band visual telephone
services defined in H.200/AV.120-Series Recommendations.
It specifically deals with those situations where the transmission path includes one or more packet-based networks, each
of which is configured and managed to provide a non-guaranteed QoS, which is not equivalent to that of N-ISDN, such that
additional protection or recovery mechanisms beyond those
mandated by Rec.
ITU-T Specification: H.225
H.225.0
106
H.225.0 is the specific document number for RAS, use of
Q.931, and use of RTP under the H.323 VOIP architecture. It
is also called as H.225.
ITU-T Specification: H.225.0
H.235
108
H.235 is the security recommendation for the H.3xx series
systems. In particular, H.235 provides security procedures for
H.323-, H.225.0-, H.245- and H.460-based systems. H.235 is
applicable to both simple point-to-point and multipoint conferences for any terminals which utilize H.245 as a control protocol.
ITU-T Specification: H.235
H.245
109
H.245, a control signaling protocol in the H.323 multimedia
communication architecture, is for the exchange of end-to-end
H.245 messages between communicating H.323 endpoints/
terminals. The H.245 control messages are carried over H.245
control channels. The H.245 control channel is the logical channel 0 and is permanently open, unlike the media channels. The
messages carried include messages to exchange capabilities
of terminals and to open and close logical channels.
ITU-T Specification: H.245
H.248
110
H.248, also known as Media Gateway Control protocol (Megaco), is for the control of elements in a physically decomposed
multimedia gateway, enabling the separation of call control
from media conversion. Megaco is a result of joint efforts of the
IETF and the ITU-T Study Group 16. Therefore, the IETF defined Megaco is the same as ITU-T Recommendation H.248.
ITU-T Specification: H.248
H.261
122
H.261 is the video coding standard of the ITU. It was designed
for data rates which are multiples of 64Kbit/s and is sometimes
called p x 64Kbit/s (p is in the range 1-30). These data rates
suit ISDN lines, for which this video codec was originally designed. H.261 transports a video stream using the real-time
transport protocol, RTP, with any of the underlying protocols
that carry RTP.
ITU-T Specification: H.261
H.263
123
The H.263, by the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU), supports video compression (coding) for video-conferencing and video-telephony applications. H.263 was developed to stream video at bandwidths as low as 20K to 24K
bit/sec and was based on the H.261 codec. As a general rule,
H.263 requires half the bandwidth to achieve the same video
quality as in the H.261. As a result, H.263 has largely replaced
H.261. H.263 uses RTP to transport video streams.
ITU-T Specification: H.263
H.264
124
The H.264, also named Advanced Video Coding (AVC), is the
MPEG-4 Part 10. H.264 is jointly developed by ITU and ISO.
H.264 supports video compression (coding) for video-conferencing and video-telephony applications. The H.264 video
codec has a very broad rang of applications that covers all
forms of digital compressed video from, low bit-rate Internet
streaming applications to HDTV broadcast and Digital Cinema
applications with nearly lossless coding. H.264 is designed as
a simple and straightforward video coding with enhanced compression performance, to provide a “network-friendly” video
representation.
ITU-T Specification: H.264
H.323
105
H.323, a protocol suite defined by ITU-T, is for voice transmission over internet (Voice over IP or VOIP). In addition to voice
applications, H.323 provides mechanisms for video communication and data collaboration, in combination with the ITU-T
T.120 series standards. H.323 is one of the major VOIP standards, on a par with Megaco and SIP.
ITU-T Specification: H.323
H.450.2
H.450.2 is the call transfer supplementary service in the H.323
VOIP architecture.
ITU-T Specification: H.450.2
H.450.3
H.450.3 is the call diversion supplementary service in the
H.323 VOIP architecture.
ITU-T Specification: H.450.3
HDLC: High Level Data Link Control
174
The High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol, an ISO
data link layer protocol based on the IBM SDLC, ensures that
data passed up to the next layer has been received exactly as
transmitted (i.e. error free, without loss and in the correct order). Another important function of HDLC is flow control, which
ensures that data is transmitted only as fast as the receiver
can receive it. There are two distinct HDLC implementations:
HDLC NRM (also known as SDLC) and HDLC Link Access
Procedure Balanced (LAPB). The later is the more popular
implementation. HDLC is part of the X.25 stack.
IBM Protocol
HDSL: High Data Bit Rate DSL
158
High Data Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL), also known
as High Speed DSL or High data-rate DSL, provides equal
314 Appendices
bandwidth for both downloads and uploads. HDSL is one of
oldest DSL technologies. HDSL can carry as much on a single
wire of twisted-pair cable as can be carried on a T1 line (up to
1.544 Mbps) in North America or an E1 line (up to 2.048 Mbps)
in Europe over a somewhat longer range and is considered an
alternative to a T1 or E1 connection.
ETSI/ITU-T Protocol
HDSL2: 2nd generation HDSL
HDSL2, the 2nd generation HDSL (High Data Bit Rate Digital
Subscriber Line), is a variant of HDSL which delivers 1.5 Mbps
service each way, supporting voice, data, and video using either ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), private-line service
or frame relay over a single copper pair. This ATIS standard
(T1.418) for this symmetric service gives a fixed 1.5 Mbps rate
both up and downstream. HDSL2 does not provide standard
voice telephone service on the same wire pair. HSDL2 differs
from HDSL in that HDSL2 uses one pair of wires to convey 1.5
Mbps whereas ANSI HDSL uses two wire pairs.
ATIS Protocol
HDSL4: 4th generation HDSL
HDSL4, the 4th generation HDSL (High Data Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line), is an enhanced version of HDSL2 which
achieves about 30% greater distance than HDSL or HDSL2 by
using two pairs of wire (thus, 4 conductors), whereas HDSL2
uses one pair of wires.
ATIS Protocol
HELLO
HELLO protocol is an early version of routing protocol for TCP/
IP network using a distance-vector algorithm. HELLO does not
use hop count as a metric. Instead, it attempts to select the
best route by assessing network delays and choosing the path
with the shortest delay. HELLO protocols also contain routing
information in the form of a set of destinations that the sending router is able to reach and a metric for each. The HELLO
protocol was developed in the early 1980s and documented in
RFC 891. The name “HELLO” is capitalized and it should not
be confused with the hello process used by a few protocols.
IETF Specification: RFC 891
HPR-APPN: High Performance Routing for Advanced
Peer-to-Peer Network
High Performance Routing for Advanced Peer-to-Peer Network (HPR-APPN), an IBM SNA component for dynamic routing across arbitrary network topologies, is an extension of the
SNA APPN network. Two new components (Rapid Transport
Protocol (RTP) and Automatic Network Routing (ANR)) in
HPR-APPN provides some key advancements such as: Nondisruptive path switching; Better utilization of high-speed communication paths; An advanced congestion control methodology.
IBM Protocol
HSRP: Hot Standby Router Protocol
245
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is designed to support
non-disruptive failover of IP traffic in certain circumstances and
to allow hosts to appear to use a single router and to maintain
connectivity even if the actual first hop router they are using
fails. In other words, the protocol protects against the failure
of the first hop router when the source host cannot learn the
IP address of the first hop router dynamically. Multiple routers
participate in this protocol and, in concert, create the illusion of
a single virtual router.
IETF and Cisco Specification: RFC 2281
Network Protocols Dictionary
HTML: HyperText Markup Language
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language
designed for the creation of web pages with hypertext and other information to be displayed in a web browser. HTML is used
to structure information — denoting certain text as headings,
paragraphs, lists and so on — and can be used to describe, to
some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document.
IETF Specification: RFC 1866
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
16
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application level
protocol with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP
has been in use by the World-Wide Web global information
initiative since 1990.
IETF Specification: RFC 2616
16
HTTPS: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) refers to the
HTTP running on top of TLS or SSL for secured transactions.
HTTPS is not to be confused with S-HTTP, a security-enhanced version of HTTP developed and proposed as a standard by IETF.
HVPLS: Hierarchical Virtual Private LAN Service
Hierarchical Virtual Private LAN Service (HVPLS) is introduced to improve the scalability of VPLS, which is a layer 2
Virtual Private Network (VPN) services over Ethernet networks. The HVPLS standards allow the creation of hierarchies
with a hub-and-spoke arrangement. The full mesh of tunnels
is maintained between the hub sites (designated as PEs). The
CE equipment is connected to an MTU-s router, which is connected to a PE router, thus providing the hierarchy.
IETF Protocol
I
IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
5
The IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is one of the
most popular network architecture models. Although now
considered a legacy networking model, SNA is still widely deployed. SNA was designed around the host-to-terminal communication model that IBM’s mainframes use.
IBM Protocol
ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
52
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an integrated part
of the IP suite. ICMP messages, delivered in IP packets, are
used for out-of-band messages related to network operation
or mis-operation. ICMP packet delivery is unreliable, so hosts
can’t count on receiving ICMP packets for any network problems.
IETF Specification: RFC792 and 950
ICMPv6: ICMP for IPv6
52
ICMP for IPv6 (ICMPv6) is a revision of ICMP for IPv6. The
original Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is designed
for IP version 4. ICMPv6 is used by IPv6 nodes to report errors encountered in processing packets, and to perform other
internet-layer functions, such as diagnostics (ICMPv6 “ping”).
ICMPv6 is an integral part of IPv6 and must be fully implemented by every IPv6 node. In addition, the multicast control
functions of the IPv4 Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) are
now incorporated in the ICMPv6.
IETF Specification: RFC 2461, 2463
ICP: Internet Control Protocol in VINES
Appendices
Internet Control Protocol(ICP), a network layer protocol in the
Banyan VINES protocol stack, defines exception-notification
and metric-notification packets. Exception-notification packets
provide information about network layer exceptions; metric-notification packets contain information about the final transmission used to reach a client node.
Banyan Protocol
IDP: Internet Datagram Protocol
Internet Datagram Protocol (IDP), a protocol in the Xerox protocol stack, is a simple, unreliable datagram protocol which is
used to support the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction for the Internet Protocol (IP) family. IDP sockets are connectionless and
normally used with the sendto and recvfrom subroutines. The
connect subroutine can also be used to fix the destination for
future packets, in which case the recv or read subroutine and
the send or write subroutine can be used.
Xerox Protocol
IDPR: Interdomain Policy Routing
Interdomain Policy Routing (IDPR) is an OSI exterior routing
protocol that dynamically exchanges policies between autonomous systems. IDPR encapsulates interautonomous system
traffic and routes it according to the policies of each autonomous system along the path.
IETF Specification: RFC 1479
IDRP: Inter-Domain Routing Protocol
238
The Inter-Domain Routing Protocol (IDRP), which provides
routing for ISO defined network environments, is similar to
BGP in the TCP/IP network. In an ISO network, there are End
Systems, Intermediate Systems, Areas and Domains. End
systems are user devices. Intermediate systems are routers.
Routers are organized into local groups called “areas”, and
several areas are grouped together into a “domain”. Inter-Domain Routing Protocol (IDRP) is designed to provide routing
among domains. IDRP, working in conjunction with CLNP,
ES-IS, and IS-IS, provides complete routing over the entire
network.
ISO Specification: ISO 10747
IDSL: ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
158
ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL) is a technology allowing
existing ISDN subscribers to access the Internet using POTS
dial service. Similar to ISDN, IDSL uses a single-wire pair to
transmit full-duplex data at 128 kbps and at distances of up to
RRD range, and IDSL uses a 2B1Q line code to enable transparent operation through the ISDN “U” interface. Also, the user
can use existing ISDN CPE to make the CO connections. However, unlike ISDN, ISDL is terminated at the Service Provider
by a data equipment instead of through the voice switch.
ANSI/ITU Protocol
FCP: Internet Fibre Channel Protocol
Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) is a gateway-to-gateway protocol which provides fiber channel fabric services to
fiber channel devices over a TCP/IP network. iFCP uses TCP
to provide congestion control, error detection and recovery. iFCP’s primary objective is to allow interconnection and networking of existing fiber channel devices at wire speeds over an IP
network. The protocol and method of frame address translation
defined permit the attachment of fiber channel storage devices
to an IP-based fabric by means of transparent gateways.
IETF Specification: RFC 4172
IFMP: Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol
Network Protocols Dictionary 315
Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol (IFMP) is a protocol for allowing a node to instruct an adjacent node to attach a layer
2 label to a specified IP flow. The label allows more efficient
access to cached routing information for that flow. The label
can also enable a node to switch further packets belonging
to the specified flow at layer 2 rather than forwarding them at
layer 3.
IETF Protocol
IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
69
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), a multicasting
protocol in the internet protocols family, is used by IP hosts
to report their host group memberships to any immediately
neighboring multicast routers. IGMP messages are encapsulated in IP datagrams, with an IP protocol number of 2. IGMP
has versions IGMP v1, v2 and v3.
IETF Specification: RFC1112, RFC2236 and RFC3376
IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
246
The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a routing protocol to provide routing within an autonomous system (AS). In
the mid-1980s, the most popular interior routing protocol was
the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Although RIP was quite
useful for routing within small- to moderate-sized, relatively
homogeneous internetworks, its limits were being pushed by
network growth. The popularity of Cisco routers and the robustness of IGRP encouraged many organizations with large
internetworks to replace RIP with IGRP.
Cisco Protocol
IIOP: Internet Inter-ORB Protocol
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) is a protocol used in the
CORBA framework for accessing objects across the Internet.
IIOP is the implementation of General Inter-ORB Protocol
(GIOP) for TCP/IP. It is a concrete realization of the abstract
GIOP definitions.
OMG Protocol
IISP: Interim Inter-switch Signaling Protocol
Interim Inter-switch Signaling Protocol (IISP) is an ATM signaling protocol that provides static routing in ATM networks. It is a
subset of the ATM NNI (Network-to-Network Interface) specification in which administrators need to manually configure
routes. IISP, formerlly called PNNI 0, was an interim solution
until PNNI Phase 1 is completed.
ITU-T Protocol
IKE: Internet Key Exchange Protocol
99
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol is a key protocol in the
IPsec architecture. IKE processes can be used for negotiating virtual private networks (VPNs) and also for providing a
remote user from a remote site (whose IP address need not be
known beforehand) access to a secure host or network. IKE is
a hybrid protocol using part of Oakley and part of SKEME in
conjunction with ISAKMP to obtain authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP, and for other security associations
such as AH and ESP for the IPsec DOI.
IETF Specification: RFC 2409
IKEv2: Internet Key Exchange version 2
99
Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2), a replacement for
Internet Key Exchange (IKE), is an IPsec (Internet Protocol
Security) standard protocol used to ensure security for virtual
private network (VPN) negotiation and remote host or network
access.
IETF Specification: RFC 4306
316 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
ILMI: Interim Local Management Interface
Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) is an interim specification used to provide network management functions between end users and networks and between private and public
networks in an ATM network. ILMI allows bi-direction exchange
of management information between UNI Management Entities (UMEs) within UNI peers. Management information related to the Physical Layer, ATM Layer, Virtual Path Connections,
Virtual Channel Connections, Address Registration, as well as
ATM Layer Statistics, is represented in a standard MIB structure called the ATM UNI ILMI MIB.
ITU-T Protocol
IMA: Inverse multiplexing over ATM
Inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA) defines a sublayer-1 protocol for building a virtual link that consists of multiple physical
T1 or E1 links. The IMA protocol handles link failure and automatic link recovery, and it also adds and deletes links while
keeping the IMA group in service.
ATM Forum Protocol
IMAP: Internet Message Access Protocol
18
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a method of accessing electronic mail or bulletin board messages that are
kept on a mail server. IMAP permits a “client” email program
to access remote message stores as if they were local. Email
stored on an IMAP server can be manipulated from a desktop
computer remotely, without the need to transfer messages or
files back and forth between these computers. The current version of IMAP is IMAP version 4.
IETF Specification: RFC 3501
IMAP4: Internet Message Access Protocol version 4
18
Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) is the
current verson of IMAP, a method of accessing electronic mail
or bulletin board messages that are kept on a mail server. IMAP
permits a “client” email program to access remote message
stores as if they were local. Email stored on an IMAP server
can be manipulated from a desktop computer remotely, without
the need to transfer messages or files back and forth between
these computers. The Key features for IMAP4 include:· Fully
compatible with Internet messaging standards, e.g. MIME. ·
Allows message access and management from more than one
computer. · Allows access without reliance on less efficient file
access protocols. · Provides support for “online”, “offline” and
“disconnected” access modes. · Supports concurrent access
to shared mailboxes · Client software needs no knowledge
about the server’s file store format.
IETF Specification: RFC 3501
IMT-2000
International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) is a
group of technologies defined by ITU-T for the third generation
mobile telephony. It can also be applied to mobile telephone
standards that meet a number of requirements in terms of
transmission speed and other factors.
ITU-T Protocol
INAP: Intelligent Network Application Part
Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) is a signaling protocol used in the intelligent network architecture. It is part of the
SS7/C7 protocol suite, typically layered on top of the TCAP
protocol. INAP, a European parallel definition of IN standards
based on the American AIN 0.1, is used to query databases for
a variety of functions not related to call setup and tear down.
The INAP messages are encoded using ASN.1. SCCP is used
for the INAP message routing. TCAP is used to separate the
transactions apart.
ITU-T Protocol
InARP: Inverse Address Resolution Protocol
83
Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (InARP), also known as
Inverse ARP, is an addition to ARP to provide address mapping in Frame Relay environment. Basic InARP operates
essentially the same as ARP with the exception that InARP
does not broadcast requests, since the hardware address of
the destination station is already known in the Frame Relay
network.
IETF Specification: RFC 2390
Integrated IS-IS: Integrated Intermediate System-toIntermediate System
Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (Integrated IS-IS), also known as Dual IS-IS, is a routing protocol
based on the OSI routing protocol IS-IS but with support for IP
and other protocols, in addition to OSI protocols. Integrated
IS-IS implementations send only one set of routing updates,
making it more efficient than two separate implementations.
IETF Specification: RFC 1195
IP: Internet Protocol
54
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network layer (Layer 3 in the
OSI model) protocol that contains addressing information and
some control information to enable packets to be routed in a
network. IP is the primary network layer protocol in the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. IP is
equally well suited for both LAN and WAN communications.
IETF Specification: RFC 791
IPBCP: IP Bearer Control Protocol
IP Bearer Control Protocol (IPBCP) is used for the exchange of
media stream characteristics, port numbers and IP addresses
of the source and sink of a media stream to establish and allow
the modification of IP bearers. IPBCP is also known as BICC
(Bearer Independent Call Control) IP Bearer Control Protocol,
because it is suitable for use in IP network environments where
the BICC protocol is deployed. The information exchanged
with IPBCP is done during BICC call establishment. IPBCP
can be used also in other environments.
ITU-T Specification: Q.1970
IPC: InterProcess Communications protocol
Interprocess Communication Protocol (IPC), a transport layer
(layer 4) protocol in the VINES protocol stack, provides both
datagram and reliable message delivery service.
Banyan Protocol
IPCP: IP Control Protocol
84
IP Control Protocol (IPCP) define the Network Control Protocol for establishing and configuring the Internet Protocol (IPv4)
over PPP, and a method to negotiate and use Van Jacobson
TCP/IP header compression with PPP.
IETF Specification: RFC 1332
IPHC: IP Header Compression
IP Header Compression (IPHC) is a scheme to compress IP,
TCP and UDP headers to increase bendwidth efficiency. It is
necessary over low and medium bandwidth links such as dial
up and wireless communications. The IP Header Compression defined in the IETF RFC 2507 supports compression of
Network Protocols Dictionary 317
Appendices
multiple IP headers including IPv4 and IPv6, UDP and TCP
headers on a per hop basis. This header compression scheme
compresses the UDP and TCP headers typically down to 2 to
5 bytes (without UDP or TCP checksum).
IETF Protocol
IPsec AH: IPsec Authentication Header
97
IPsec Authentication Header (IPsec AH), a key protocol in
the IPsec (Internet Security) architecture, is used to provide
connectionless integrity and data origin authentication for IP
datagrams, and to provide protection against replays. This latter (optional) service may be selected by the receiver when a
Security Association is established. AH provides authentication for as much of the IP header as possible, as well as for
upper level protocol data. However, some IP header fields may
change in transit and the value of these fields when the packet
arrives at the receiver may not be predictable by the sender.
IETF Specification: RFC 2402
IPsec IKE: Internet Key Exchange
99
IPsec Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol is a key protocol
in the IPsec architecture. IKE processes can be used for negotiating virtual private networks (VPNs) and also for providing a
remote user from a remote site (whose IP address need not be
known beforehand) access to a secure host or network. IKE is
a hybrid protocol using part of Oakley and part of SKEME in
conjunction with ISAKMP to obtain authenticated keying material for use with ISAKMP, and for other security associations
such as AH and ESP for the IPsec DOI.
IETF Specification: RFC 2409
IPsec: IP Security
96
IP Security (IPsec) provides security services at the network
layer by enabling a system to select required security protocols, determine the algorithm(s) to use for the service(s) and
put in place any cryptographic keys required to provide the
requested services. IPsec can be used to protect one or more
“paths” between a pair of hosts, between a pair of security
gateways or between a security gateway and a host.
IETF Specification: RFC 2401
IPv4: Internet Protocol version 4
54
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), defined in the RFC 791,
is the most widely deployed networking technology. When
people talk about IP, most likely it refers to the IPv4. IPv6 is
the new version of Internet Protocol (IP) based on IPv4. The
Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol in
the OSI model that contains addressing information and some
control information to enable packets being routed in network.
IP is the primary network-layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol
suite. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), IP
represents the heart of the Internet protocols.
DARPA/IETF Specification: RFC 791
IPv6: Internet Protocol version 6
55
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the new version of Internet
Protocol (IP) based on IPv4. It is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control
information enabling packets to be routed in the network. IPv6
is also called the next generation IP or IPng.
IETF Specification: RFC 2460
IPv6CP: IPv6 Control Protocol
84
IPv6 Control Protocol (IPv6CP) defines the Network Control
Protocol for establishing and configuring the IPv6 over PPP,
and a method to negotiate and use Van Jacobson TCP/IP
header compression with PPP.
IETF Specification: RFC 2472
IPX: Internetwork Packet Exchange
255
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the legacy network
protocol used by the Novell NetWare operating systems to
route packets through an internetwork. IPX is a datagram protocol used for connectionless communications—similar to IP
(Internet Protocol) in the TCP/IP suite. Higher-level protocols,
such as SPX and NCP, are used for additional error recovery
services.
Novell Protocol
IPXCP: IPX PPP Control Protocol
IPX PPP Control Protocol (IPXCP), a protocol in the Novell
NetWare stack, is for the configuration of the IPX network-layer protocol over PPP.
Novell Protocol
IPXWAN: Novell IPX over Various WAN Media
IPXWAN is a protocol of Novell IPX over Various WAN Media that negotiates end-to-end options for new links. When a
link comes up, the first IPX packets sent across are IPXWAN
packets negotiating the options for the link. When the IPXWAN
options have been successfully determined, normal IPX transmission begins.
IETF Specification: RFC 1634
IRCP: Internet Relay Chat Protocol
19
Internet Relay Chat Protocol (IRCP), which is well-suited to
running on many machines distributely, enables teleconferencing on the Internet. The IRC protocol has been developed on
systems using the TCP/IP network protocol, although there is
no requirement that this remains the only environment in which
it operates. The IRC protocol is a text-based protocol, with the
simplest client being any socket program capable of connecting to the server.
IETF Specification: RFC 1459
IRDP: ICMP Router Discovery Protocol
57
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) enables a host to determine the address of a router that it can use as a default
gateway. IRDP is similar to ES-IS in the OSI network but used
with IP.
IETF Specification: RFC 1256
ISAKMP: Internet Security Association and Key
Management Protocol
100
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
(ISAKMP), a key protocol in the IPsec (Internet Security) architecture, combines the security concepts of authentication,
key management and security associations to establish the required security for government, commercial and private communications on the Internet.
IETF Specification: RFC 2408
iSCSI: Internet Small Computer System Interface
212
Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is a TCP/
IP-based protocol for establishing and managing connections
between IP-based storage devices, hosts and clients, for creating a Storage Area Network (SAN). The SAN makes possible to use the SCSI protocol in network infrastructures for
high-speed data transfer at the block level between multiple
elements of data storage networks.
IETF Specification: RFC 3347 and RFC 3720
318 Appendices
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
Network Protocols Dictionary
154
227
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a system with
digitized phone connections. For decades, telephony has used
purely analogue connections. This is the first protocol to define
a digital communications line that allows for the transmission of
voice, data, video and graphics, at high speeds, over standard
communication lines. The various media are simultaneously
carried by bearer channels (B channels) occupying a bandwidth of 64 kbits per second (some switches limit bandwidth to
56 kb/s). A defined data channel (D channel) handles signaling
at 16 kb/s or 64 kb/s, depending on the service type.
ITU-T Protocol
The ISO Virtual Terminal (VT) service and protocol (ISO VTP)
allows a host application to control a terminal with screen and
keyboard and similar devices, like printers. In addition, VTP
also supports the less common application-application and terminal-terminal communication.
ISO Specification: ISO 9040
ISO-IP: ISO Internetworking Protocol
235
IS-IS: Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
239
Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a routing protocol developed by the ISO. It is a link-state protocol
where ISs (routers) exchange routing information based on a
single metric to determine network topology. It behaves similarly to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) in the TCP/IP network.
ISO Protocol
ISL: Inter-Switch Link Protocol
247
Inter-Switch Link Protocol (ISL), a Cisco proprietary protocol,
maintains VLAN information as traffic flows between switches
and routers. Inter-Switch Link (ISL) tagging accomplishes the
same task as 802.1Q trunking but uses a different frame format. ISL trunks are Cisco proprietary and define only a pointto-point connection between two devices, typically switches.
The name Inter-Switch Link hints at this design. ISL frame
tagging uses a low-latency mechanism for multiplexing traffic
from multiple VLANs on a single physical path.
Cisco Protocol
iSNS: Internet Storage Name Service
213
Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) facilitates scalable configuration and management of iSCSI and Fibre Channel (FCP)
storage devices in an IP network, by providing a set of services
comparable to that available in Fibre Channel networks. iSNS
thus allows an IP network to function at a comparable level of
intelligence to a Fibre Channel fabric. iSNS allows the administrator to go beyond a simple device-by-device management
model, where each storage device is manually and individually
configured with its own list of known initiators and targets.
IETF Specification: RFC 4171
iSNSPL: Internet Storage Name Service Protocol
Internet Storage Name Service Protocol (iSNSP) is a flexible
and lightweight protocol that specifies how Internet Storage
Name Service (iSNS) clients and servers communicate. It is
suitable for various platforms, including switches and targets
as well as server hosts.
IETF Specification: RFC 4171
ISO Protocols
217
ISO Protocols are a group of protocols defned by the nternational Organization for Standardization (ISO based on the
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. The OSI model
defines the communications process into 7 layers, dividing the
tasks involved in moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups.
ISO Protocool
ISO VTP: ISO Virtual Terminal service and protocol
ISO Internetworking Protocol refers to the Connectionless Network Protocol(CLNP) as the primary network layer protocol in
an OSI network. It is similar to the IP (Internet Protocol) in the
TCP/IP network.
ISO / ITU-T Specification: X.213
ISO-PP: ISO Presentation Protocol
231
The ISO Presentation Protocol (ISO-PP) is for information
transit between open systems using connection oriented or
connectionless mode transmission at the presentation layer of
the OSI 7 layer model. An application protocol is specified in
terms of the transfer of presentation data values between application entities (PS users), using the User data parameter of
presentation service primitives.
ISO / ITU-T Specification: X.216
ISO-SP: OSI Session Layer Protocol
232
The OSI Session Layer Protocol (ISO-SP) provides session
management, e.g. opening and closing of sessions. In case
of a connection loss, it tries to recover the connection. If a
connection is not used for a longer period, the session layer
may close it down and re-open it for next use. This happens
transparently to the higher layers. The Session layer provides
synchronization points in the stream of exchanged packets.
ISO / ITU-T Specification: X.215
ISO-TP: OSI Transport Protocol
233
The OSI Transport Protocol (ISO-TP) manages end-to-end
control and error checking to ensure complete data transfer.
It performs transport address to network address mapping,
makes multiplexing and splitting of transport connections and
also provides functions such as Sequencing, Flow Control and
Error detection and recover.
ISO / ITU-T Specification: X.214
ISUA: SS7 ISUP-User Adaptation Layer
SS7 ISUP-User Adaptation Layer (ISUA), an integral part of
the OpenSS7 SIGTRAN stack, is an SS7 Signalling User Adaptation Layer for providing ISUP-User signalling over SCTP.
ISUA is intended to be used on a Provider/User basis where
ISUP resides on a Signalling Gateway (SG) and ISUP call control applications reside on an Application Server (AS).
IETF Specification: RFC 4233
ISUP: ISDN User Part
279
The ISDN User Part (ISUP), a key protocol in the SS7/C7 signaling system, defines the protocol and procedures used to
set-up, manage and release trunk circuits that carry voice and
data calls over the public switched telephone network (PSTN)
between different switches. ISUP is used for both ISDN and
non-ISDN calls.
ITU-T Protocol
ITOT: ISO Transport Service on top of TCP
44
ISO Transport Service on top of TCP (ITOT) is a mechanism
that enables ISO applications to be ported to a TCP/IP network. There are two basic approaches which can be taken
Network Protocols Dictionary 319
Appendices
when “porting” ISO applications to TCP/IP (and IPv6) environments. One approach is to port each individual application
separately, developing local protocols on top of TCP. A second
approach is based on the notion of layering the ISO Transport
Service over TCP/IP.
ISO Protocol
IUA: ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer
ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer(IUA), a protocol in the
SIGTRAN protocol suite, defines a method for backhauling of
ISDN Q.921 User messages over IP using the Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP). IUA is used between a Signaling Gateway (SG) and Media Gateway Controller (MGC). It is
assumed that the SG receives ISDN signaling over a standard
ISDN interface.
IETF Specification: RFC 4233
Kerberos
88
Kerberos is a network authentication protocol. Kerberos is
designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. This is accomplished without relying on authentication by the host operating
system, without basing trust on host addresses, without requiring physical security of all the hosts on the network, and under
the assumption that packets traveling along the network can
be read, modified and inserted at will.
MIT / IETF Specification: RFC 1510
Kermit
JMODEM
Kermit is a very slow telecom data-transfer protocol developed
at Columbia University, and used primarily in VAX environments, although widely ported. Like any other telecom datatransfer protocol, it’s purpose is to break a data stream into
blocks, and provide flow-control, error detection, and re-transmission on the transfer of the blocks.
Columbia University Protocol
JMODEM is a file transfer protocol developed by Richard
Johnson in 1988. It is similar to the seminal XMODEM in most
ways, but uses a variable-sized packet in order to make better
use of the available bandwidth on high-speed modems.
L2CAP: Logical Link Control and Adaptation Proto196
col
J
JFIE: JPEG File Interchange Format
JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIE) is a standard created by
the Independent JPEG Group. JFIE specifies how to produce
a file suitable for computer storage and transmission (such as
over the Internet) from a JPEG stream.
JPEG Protocol
JNG: JPEG Network Graphics
JPEG Network Graphics (JNG) is a JPEG-based graphics
file format. JNG is a lossy single-image member of the PNG
(Portable Network Graphics) format family. It encapsulates a
JPEG datastream in PNG-style chunks, along with an optional
alpha channel and ancillary chunks that carry color-space information and comments. While JNG is primarily intended as
a subformat of the MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics)
format, standalone JNG files are also possible. Unlike JFIF
(the usual JPEG file format), JNG supports transparency. The
structure of JNG files is essentially the same as that of PNG
files, differing only in the slightly different signature and the use
of different chunks.
W3C Protocol
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a commonly used
standard method of lossy compression for photographic images. The file format which employs this compression is also
called JPEG. The common file extensions for this format are
.jpeg, .jfif, .jpg, .JPG, or .JPE. JPEG itself specifies only how
an image is transformed into a stream of bytes, but not how
those bytes are encapsulated in any particular storage medium. A further standard, created by the Independent JPEG
Group, called JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format), specifies
how to produce a file suitable for computer storage and transmission (such as over the Internet) from a JPEG stream. In
common usage, when one speaks of a “JPEG file” one generally means a JFIF file, or sometimes an Exif JPEG file. There
are, however, other JPEG-based file formats, such as JNG,
and the TIFF format can carry JPEG data as well.
JPEG Protocol
K
L
LogicalLink Control and Adaptation Protocol, typically short
as L2CAP, is used within the Bluetooth protocol stack at the
data link layer. It passes packets to either the Host Controller
Interface (HCI) or on a hostless system, directly to the Link
Manager.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.1
L2F: Layer 2 Forwarding protocol
91
Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) protocol, originally developed by
Cisco, uses tunneling of PPP over IP to create a virtual extension of a dial-up link across a network, initiated by the dial-up
server and transparent to the dial-up user. L2F is used to establish a secure tunnel across a public infrastructure (such as
the Internet) that connects an ISP POP to an enterprise home
gateway. This tunnel creates a virtual point-to-point connection
between the user and the enterprise customer’s network.
Cisco Specification: RFC 2341
L2TP: Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
92
The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), defined by IETF based
on the Microsoft Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and
Cisco Layer 2 Forward Protocol (L2F), is used for integrating
multi-protocol dial-up services into Internet Service Provider’s
Point of Presence. L2TP defines an encapsulation mechanism
for transporting multiprotocol packets across layer 2 point-topoint links and it enables the operation of a virtual private network over the Internet.
IETF Specification: RFC 2661
LANE NNI: LAN Emulation NNI
142
The LAN Emulation NNI (LNNI), a protocol in the ATM suite,
defines the behavior of these LANE service components as
seen by each other, the procedures necessary to provide a
distributed and reliable LAN Emulation Service. A single
ELAN may be served by multiple LECSs, LESs, BUSs and
SMSs. Each LES, BUS and SMS serves a single ELAN, while
an LECS may serve multiple ELANs. LANE service components interconnect with multiple VCCs for Configuration, Status, Database Synchronization, Control and Data forwarding.
The LNNI specification provides multivendor interoperability
among the components serving an ELAN so that consumers
320 Appendices
may mix and match the LANE Service implementations of different vendors.
ITU-T Protocol
LANE UNI: LAN Emulation UNI
144
The LAN Emulation UNI (LANE), a protocol in the ATM suite,
defines the protocols and interactions between LAN Emulation
Clients (LE Clients) and the LAN Emulation Service, including
initialization, registration, address resolution, and data transfer
procedures. Each LE Client connects across the LUNI to a
single LES and BUS, may connect to a single LECS, and may
have connections to multiple SMSs.
ITU-T and ATM Forum Protocol
LAPB: Link Access Procedure, Balanced
175
Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) is a data link layer
protocol used to manage communication and packet framing
between data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuitterminating equipment (DCE) devices in the X.25 protocol
stack. LAPB, a bit-oriented protocol derived from HDLC, is
actually the HDLC in BAC (Balanced Asynchronous Class)
mode. LAPB makes sure that frames are error free and properly sequenced.
ITU-T Protocol
LAP-D: Link Access Procedure, D-Channel
155
Link Access Procedure, D-Channel (LAP-D), a Layer 2 protocol in the ISDN suite, is used to do call setup and other signaling over the D Channel. Data transmissions take place on B
channels. LAP-D is almost identical to the X.25 LAP-B protocol. LAPD is defined in the ITU Q.921 protocol.
ITU-T Protocol
LAPF: Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Services
173
Link Access Procedure for Frame Mode Services (LAPF),
as defined in ITU Q.922, is an enhanced LAPD (Q.921) with
congestion control capabilities for Frame Mode Services in
the Frame Relay network. LADF is used in the Frame Relay
network for end-to-end signaling. LAPF conveys data link service data units between DL-service users in the User Plane
for frame mode bearer services across the ISDN user-network
interface on B-, D- or H-channels.
ITU-T Specification: Q.922
LAP-H: Link Access Procedure for H-Channel
Link Access Procedure for H-Channel (LAP-H) performs the
same function as B-Channel (LAPB) but operates at rates exceeding DS-0 (64 Kbps). The H-Channel is good for fast facsimile, video, high-speed data, high-quality audio, and multiple
info streams at lower data rates.
ITU-T Protocol
LAP-M: Link Access Procedure for Modems
Link Access Procedure for Modems (LAP-M) is the data link
protocol used by V.32 error-correcting modems. When two
LAPM modems establish a session, they transmit data in
frames using bit-oriented synchronous techniques. An attached computer still sends data to the LAPM modems as
standard asynchronous input, but the modem transmits it as
frames.
ITU-T Protocol
LAPS: Link Access Procedure-SDH
Link Access Procedure - SDH (LAPS), a variant of the original LAP protocol, is an encapsulation scheme for Ethernet
over SONET/SDH. LAPS includes data link service and pro-
Network Protocols Dictionary
tocol specification used in transporting IP packets over SDH
networks. LAPS provides a point-to-point unacknowledged
connectionless service over SONET/SDH. LAPS enables the
encapsulation of IPv6, IPv4, PPP, and other higher-layer protocols. X.86 Defines Ethernet over LAPS.
ITU-T Protocol
LAT: Local Area Transport protocol
274
Local Area Transport (LAT) protocol, a protocol in the DECnet,
is designed to handle multiplexed terminal traffic to/from timesharing hosts. Local Area Transport is a non-routable networking technology to provide connection between the DECserver
90, 100, 200, 300, 700 and DECserver 900 Terminal Servers
and Digital’s VAX and Alpha host computers via Ethernet, giving communication between those hosts and serial devices
such as video terminals and printers. The protocol itself was
designed in such a manner as to maximize packet efficiency
over ethernet by bundling multiple characters from multiple
ports into a single packet for Ethernet transport. Over time,
other host implementations of the LAT protocol appeared allowing communications to a wide range of Unix and other nonDECnet operating systems using the LAT protocol.
DEC/HP Protocol
LAVC: Local Area VAX Cluster protocol
Local Area VAX Cluster protocol (LAVC) belongs to the DECnet protocol suite for communications between DEC VAX computers in a cluster.
DEC/HP Protocol
LCAS: Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) is a method of using SONET/SDH overhead to communicate the status of a Virtually Concatenation (VC) connections. LCAS allows re-adjust
of link capacity without traffic loss or network error. LCAS is
a key enabler of Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EoS) networks.
The LCAS mechanism can also automatically decrease the
capacity if a VC/SPE in a VCG experiences a failure in the network, and increase the capacity when the fault is repaired.
ITU-T Protocol
LCP: Link Control Protocol
164
The Link Control Protocol (LCP), a protocol in the Point-toPoint protocol (PPP) suite, is used to automatically agree upon
the encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of packets, detect a looped-back link and other common
misconfiguration errors and terminate the link. Other optional
facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer
on the link and determination when a link is functioning properly and when it is failing. LCP is versatile and portable to a
wide variety of environments.
IETF Specification: RFC 1570
LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
20
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is designed to
provide access to the X.500 Directory while not incurring the
resource requirements of the Directory Access Protocol (DAP).
LDAP is specifically targeted at simple management applications and browser applications that provide simple read/write
interactive access to the X.500 Directory and is intended to be
a complement to the DAP itself.
IETF Specification: RFC 3377
LDCELP: Low-delay CELP
Low-delay CELP (LSCELP) is a CELP voice compression algorithm providing 16 kbps, or 4:1 compression. LSCELP has
Network Protocols Dictionary 321
Appendices
been standardized in ITU-T Recommendation G.728.
ITU-T Specification: G.728
LDP: Label Distribution Protocol
81
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is a signaling protocol in the
MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) architecture. In the
MPLS network, 2 label switching routers (LSR) must agree on
the meaning of the labels used to forward traffic between and
through them. LDP defines a set of procedures and messages
by which one LSR (Label Switched Router) informs another of
the label bindings it has made.
IETF Specification: RFC 3036
LE_ARP: LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol
LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol (LE_ARP) provides the ATM address that corresponds to a MAC address.
ATM Forum Protocol
LEAP: Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol
Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP), also
known as Cisco-Wireless EAP, is a Cisco security technology
that builds on Wi-Fi’s WEP encryption. Basically, it changes
the WEP key dynamically during a session to make it less likely that a snooper will be able to derive the key. LEAP provides
username/password-based authentication between a wireless
client and a RADIUS server like Cisco ACS or Interlink AAA.
LEAP is one of several protocols used with the IEEE 802.1X
standard for LAN port access control.
Cisco Protocol
LLAP: LocalTalk Link Access Protocol
272
LocalTalk Link Access Protocol (LLAP) is a link-level protocol
that manages node-to-node delivery of data on a LocalTalk/
AppleTalk network. LLAP manages bus access, provides a
node-addressing mechanism, and controls data transmission
and reception, ensuring packet length and integrity.
Apple Protocol
LLC: Logic Link Control
198
Logic Link Control (LLC) is the IEEE 802.2 LAN protocol that
specifies an implementation of the LLC sublayer of the data
link layer. IEEE 802.2 LLC is used in IEEE802.3 (Ethernet) and
IEEE802.5 (Token Ring) LANs to perform some functions.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.2
LLC2: Logical Link Control, type 2
Logical Link Control,type 2 (LLC2) is a connection-oriented
LLC-sublayer protocol. LLC2 (IEEE 802.2) is widely used in
LAN environments, particularly among IBM communication
systems connected by Token Ring.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.2
LMP: Link Manager Protocol
Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is a data link layer protocol in
the Bluetooth protocol stack. LMP carries out link setup, authentication, link configuration and other protocols. It discovers
other remote Link Manager (LM) and communicates with them
via the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). To perform its service
provider role, the LM uses the services of the underlying Link
Controller (LC).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.1
LocalTalk
272
LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the data link and
physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple
Computer. LocalTalk uses CSMA/CD and specifies a system
of shielded twisted pair cabling, plugged into self-terminating
transceivers, running at a rate of 230.4 kbit/s.
Apple Protocol
LPP: Lightweight Presentation Protocol
42
Lightweight Presentation Protocol (LPP) describes an approach for providing “streamlined” support of OSI application
services on top of TCP/IP-based network for some constrained
environments. LPP was initially derived from a requirement
to run the ISO Common Management Information Protocol
(CMIP) in TCP/IP-based networks.
IETF Specification: IETF 1085
LQR: Link Quality Report
Link Quality Report (LQR), a protocol in the Point-to-Point
Protocol (PPP) suite, specifies the mechanism for link quality
monitoring and reporting for PPP communications. Data communications links are rarely perfect. Packets can be dropped
or corrupted for various reasons (line noise, equipment failure,
buffer overruns, etc.). To determine when, and how often, the
link is dropping data. Routers, for example, may want to temporarily allow another route to take precedence. An implementation may also have the option of disconnecting and switching
to an alternate link. The process of determining data loss is
called “Link Quality Monitoring”.
IETF Protocol
LU: Logic Unit
263
Logical Units (LUs) are functions in the IBM Systems Network
Architecture including LU0, LU1, LU2, LU3, LU6.2, for communication session management. Each SNA node contains one
or more logical units (LUs). An LU provides a set of functions
that are used by Transaction Programs (TPs) and end users
to provide access to the network. LUs communicate directly
with local TPs and devices. For example, a TP running on a
workstation that uses the AIX operating system can communicate with a TP on an AS/400 computer as easily as it can with
a TP on another AIX workstation, as long as both TPs use the
same LU type.
IBM Protocol
LU 6.2: Logical Unit 6.2
262
Logical Unit 6.2 (LU 6.2) is a term in the IBM SNA network,
which provides peer-to-peer communications between programs in a distributed computing environment. The IBM APPC
also runs on LU 6.2 devices.
IBM Protocol
M
M2PA: MTP2 Peer-to-peer user Adaptation
129
MTP2 Peer-to-peer user Adaptation layer (M2PA), a protocol
in the SIGTRAN protocol suite, enables SS7 signaling messages over IP using Stream Control Transmission Protocol
(SCTP). M2PA is intented to be used on a Peer-to-Peer basis
and replace the functionality provided by a traditional SS7 link.
M2PA is for an OpenSS7 Network Device.
IETF Specification: RFC 4165
M2UA: MTP2-User Adaptation layer
129
MTP2-User Adaptation layer (M2UA), a protocol in the SIGTRAN protocol suite, is for backhauling of SS7 MTP2-User
signaling messages over IP using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). M2UA is intended to be used on a Provider/User basis where MTP Level 2 resides on a Signalling
322 Appendices
Gateway (SG) and MTP Level 3 resides on an Application
Server (AS). It is not intended for peer-to-peer operation: that
is, it is not intended to emulate a signalling link between two
SCTP endpoints.
IETF Specification: RFC 3331
M3UA: MTP3-User Adaptation layer
129
MTP3-User Adaptation layer (M3UA), a protocol in the SIGTRAN protocol suite, supports transport of SS7 MTP3-User
signaling over IP using Stream Control Transmission Protocol
(SCTP). M3UA is intented to be used on a Provider/User basis
where MTP Level 3 resides on a Signalling Gateway (SG) and
MTP Users reside on an Application Server (AS).
IETF Specification: RFC 3332
MacIP: Macintosh Internet Protocol
Macintosh Internet Protocol (MacIP) tunnels IP datagrams inside AppleTalk for a Macintosh client communicating over an
AppleTalk network to a MacIP server. The MacIP server pulls
the IP packet out of the AppleTalk datagram and forwards it as
Native IP. MacIP is ideal for Macs using LocalTalk or AppleTalk
Remote Access (ARA) at the Data Link Layer (OSI Layer 2).
These data links only support AppleTalk. By tunneling IP inside
of AppleTalk packets, IP connectivity can be gained through
the MacIP server.
Apple Protocol
MAP: Manufacturing Automation Protocol
Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) is a network architecture created by General Motors to meet the specific needs
of the factory floor. MAP specifies a token-passing LAN similar
to IEEE 802.4.
GM Protocol
MAP: Mobile Application Part
281
The Mobile Application Part (MAP), one of the protocols in the
SS7 suite, allows for the implementation of the mobile network
(GSM) signaling infrastructure. The premise behind MAP is
to connect the distributed switching elements, called mobile
switching centers (MSCs), with a master database, called the
Home Location Register (HLR). The HLR dynamically stores
the current location and profile of a mobile network subscriber.
The HLR is consulted during the processing of an incoming
call.
ITU-T Protocol
MAPOS: Multiple Access Protocol over SONET /
SDH
Multiple Access Protocol over SONET/SDH (MAPOS) is a protocol extension to SONET/SDH that has high performance,
supports multiple access, broadcast and multicast transmission. MAPOS is connection-less, like IP, with simple design
and seamless interconnectivity for LAN and WAN.
ITU-T and MAPOS Org Protocol
MARS: Multicast Address Resolution Server Page70
Multicast Address Resolution Server (MARS) is a mechanism
for supporting IP multicast over an ATM network. A MARS
serves a group of nodes (known as a cluster); each node in the
cluster is configured with the ATM address of the MARS. The
MARS supports multicast through multicast messages of overlaid point-to-multipoint connections or through multicast servers. ATM-based IP hosts and routers use a MARS to support
IP multicast over the ATM Forum’s UNI 3.0/3.1 point-to-multipoint connection service. Clusters of endpoints share a MARS
and use it to track and disseminate information identifying the
Network Protocols Dictionary
nodes listed as receivers for given multicast groups.
IETF Specification: RFC 2022
MATIP: Mapping of airline traffic over IP
Mapping of airline traffic over IP (MATIP) is a protocol for transporting airline reservation, ticketing, and messaging traffic over
TCP/IP.
IETF Specification: RFC 2351
MBGP: Multiprotocol BGP
71
The multiprotocol BGP (MBGP) adds capabilities to BGP to
enable multicast routing policy throughout the Internet and to
connect multicast topologies within and between BGP autonomous systems. In other words, multiprotocol BGP (MBGP) is
an enhanced BGP that carries IP multicast routes. BGP carries
two sets of routes: one set for unicast routing and one set for
multicast routing. The routes associated with multicast routing
are used by the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) to build
data distribution trees.
IETF Specification: RFC 2858
Megaco: Media Gateway Control Protocol Page110
The Media Gateway Control Protocol (Megaco), is for the
control of elements in a physically decomposed multimedia
gateway, enabling the separation of call control from media
conversion. The Media Gateway Control Protocol (Megaco) is
a result of joint efforts of the IETF and the ITU-T Study Group
16. Therefore, the IETF-defined Megaco is the same as ITU-T
Recommendation H.248.
ITU-T Specification: H.248
MEL CAS: Mercury Exchange Limited Channel Associated Signaling
Mercury Exchange Limited Channel Associated Signaling
(MEL CAS) is a voice signaling protocol used primarily in the
United Kingdom.
MFTP: Multisource File Transfer Protocol
Multisource File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) is designed for the
purpose of file sharing. This is the communication protocol
used by such clients as eMule and eDonkey and, in its extended implementation, by the Overnet network.
MGCP: Media Gateway Control Protocol
111
Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) is a VOIP protocol,
used between elements of a decomposed multimedia gateway, which consists of a Call Agent containing the call control
“intelligence” and a media gateway containing the media functions, e.g., conversion from TDM voice to Voice over IP.
Cisco/ Telcordia Specification: IETF RFC 3435
MHS: Message Handling Service
Message Handling Service, defined in ISO X.400 specifications, is for email transmission specified by the ITU-T. ISO.
X.400 is common in Europe and Canada, and is an alternative
to the more popular email protocol, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which is defined by IETF. X.400 uses a binary
format so it is easy to include binary contents without encoding
it for transfer. Also, it is harder for people to fake email addresses and contents than with SMTP, where text messages
are used.
ISO Specification: ISO X.400
Microsoft CIFS: Common Internet File System 286
The Common Internet File System (Microsoft CIFS), an enhanced version of Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB), is
the standard way that computer users share files across in-
Network Protocols Dictionary 323
Appendices
tranets and the Internet. CIFS enables collaboration on the Internet by defining a remote file-access protocol that is compatible with the way applications already share data on local disks
and network file servers. CIFS runs over TCP/IP, utilizes the
Internet’s global Domain Naming Service (DNS) for scalability
and is optimized to support slower speed dial-up connections
common on the Internet.
Microsoft Protocol
Microsoft SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
287
The Simple Object Access Protocol (Microsoft SOAP) is a
lightweight and simple XML-based protocol that is designed to
exchange structured and typed information on the Web. SOAP
can be used in combination with a variety of existing Internet
protocols and formats, including Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME), and can support a wide
range of applications from messaging systems to remote procedure calls (RPCs).
Microsoft Protocol
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
21
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) specifies how
messages must be formatted so that they can be exchanged
between different email systems. MIME is a very flexible format, permitting one to include virtually any type of file or document in an email message. MIME messages can contain text,
images, audio, video, or other application-specific data.
IETF Specification: RFC 2049
MISTP: Multiple Instances Spanning Tree Protocol
Multiple Instances Spanning Tree Protocol (MISTP) is a Cisco standard which allows several VLANs to be mapped to a
reduced number of spanning-tree instances. This is possible
since most networks do not need more than a few logical topologies. Each instance handles multiple VLANs that have the
same Layer 2 topology. The Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) Protocol defined in IEEE 802.1s is based on the Cisco MISTP.
Cisco Protocol
MLP: Multilink Procedure
Multilink Procedure (MLP), added upper sublayer of the LAPB,
operates between the packet layer and a multiplicity of single data link protocol functions (SLPs) in the data link layer
(X.25).
ISO Specification: ISO 7776
MNG: Multiple-image Network Graphics
Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG) is a public file format
for animated images. MNG is closely related to the PNG image
format as an animation-supporting version of PNG.
W3C Protocol
MNP: Microcom Networking Protocol
Microcom Networking Protocol (MNP) is a type of error correcting/compression protocol. MNP were commonly used on
early high-speed (2400 bit/s and higher) modems. Originally
developed for use on Microcom’s own family of modems, the
protocol was later openly licensed and used by most of the
modem industry, notably Telebit, USRobotics and Hayes. MNP
was later supplanted by v.42bis, which was used almost universally on the first v.32bis modems in the early 1990s. MNP
has many versions, MNP 1 to MNP 10. Each class/version
generally improved performance over earlier versions, which
were retained only for backward-compatibility reasons.
Microcom Protocol
Mobile IP
59
Mobile IP is the key protocol to enable mobile computing and
networking, which brings together two of the world’s most powerful technologies, the Internet and mobile communication. In
Mobile IP, two IP addresses are provided for each computer:
home IP address which is fixed and care-of IP address which
is changing as the computer moves. When the mobile moves
to a new location, it must send its new address to an agent at
home so that the agent can tunnel all communications to its
new address timely.
IETF Specification: RFC 3344 and RFC 3775
MODEM7
MODEM7, also known as MODEM7 batch or Batch XMODEM,
is a protocol for file transfer capable of batch transfers. MODEM7 was used only for a short time, replaced by more capable batching protocols such as YMODEM.
MOP: Maintenance Operation Protocol
Maintenance Operation Protocol(MOP), a protocol in the DECnet suite, is a utility services such as uploading and downloading system software, remote testing and problem diagnosis.
For example, MOP can be used to download a system image
to a diskless station.
DEC/HP Protocol
MOSPF: Multicast Extensions to OSPF
72
Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF) provides enhancements to OSPF Version 2 to support IP multicast routing. The
enhancements have been added in a backward-compatible
fashion; routers running the multicast additions will interoperate with non-multicast OSPF routers when forwarding regular
(unicast) IP data traffic.
IETF Specification: RFC 1584
MOUNT
MOUNT is a Netowrk File System protocol used to initiate client access to a server supporting NFS. The NFS mount protocol facilitates the fucntions that allow NFS clients to attach
remote directory trees to a mount point in the local file system.
A mount point is an empty directory or subdirectory, created as
place to attache a remote file system. In order to mount a file
system from an NFS server, a user needs an account on the
machine where the file system resides. The NFS client passes
the UID and GID of the process requesting the mount to the
NFS server. The server then validates the request. Mount protocol also allows the server to grant remote access privileges
to a restricted set of clients via export control.
SUN Specification: NFS
MP: Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol
165
MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (MultiPPP, MP or MLP), also
known as PPP Multilink protocol, is a method for splitting, recombining and sequencing datagrams across multiple logical
data links. This work was originally motivated by the desire to
exploit multiple bearer channels in ISDN, but is equally applicable to any situation in which multiple PPP links connect two
systems, including async links. MP is based on an LCP option
negotiation that permits a system to indicate to its peer that it is
capable of combining multiple physical links into a “bundle”.
IETF Specification: RFC 1990
MPEG: Motion Pictures Experts Group
Motion Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group
of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio
324 Appendices
encoding standards. MPEG includes hundreds of members
worldwide from various industries, universities, and research
institutions. MPEG’s official designation is ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29
WG11. MPEG has defined a group of standards over the years
including MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-3, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and
MPEG-21.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPEG-1
MPEG-1 is a group of audio and video coding standards defined by Moving Picture Experts Group(MPEG). MPEG-1 video
is used by the Video CD format. MPEG-1 consists of several
“parts”: Part 1, Synchronization and multiplexing of video and
audio; Part 2, Compression codec for non-interlaced video signals; and Part 3, Compression codec for perceptual coding of
audio signals. MP3 is the MPEG-1 audio layer 3 in MPEG-1
Part 3.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPEG-2
MPEG-2 is a group of coding standards for digital audio and
video, agreed upon by Moving Pictures Experts Group(MPEG).
MPEG-2 is typically used to encode audio and video for broadcast signals, including direct broadcast satellite and Cable TV.
MPEG-2, with some modifications, is also the coding format
used by standard commercial DVD movies. MPEG-2 includes
a few parts: Systems part (part 1) defines Transport Stream to
carry digital video and audio over somewhat-unreliable media,
and are used in broadcast applications. The Video part (part 2)
provides support for interlaced video. The MPEG-2 Audio part
(Part 3) enhances MPEG-1’s audio by allowing the coding of
audio programs with more than two channels. In MPEG-2 AAC
(Part 7), audio can alternatively be coded in a non-backwardscompatible way, which allows encoders to make better use of
available bandwidth.
ISO/IEC Specification: ISO/IEC 13818
MPEG-21
The MPEG-21 standard defines an open framework for multimedia applications by Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG).
Specifically, MPEG-21 defines a “Rights Expression Language”
standard as means of sharing digital rights/permissions/restrictions for digital content from content creator to content
consumer. As an XML-based standard, MPEG-21 is designed
to communicate machine-readable license information and do
so in a “ubiquitous, unambiguous and secure” manner.
ISO/IEC Specification: ISO 21000
MPEG-3
MPEG-3 is a group of audio and video coding standards agreed
upon by Moving Picture Experts Group(MPEG). MPEG-3 was
designed to handle HDTV signals in the range of 20 to 40 Mbit/
s. It was soon discovered that similar results could be obtained
through slight modifications to the MPEG-2 standard. Shortly
thereafter, work on MPEG-3 was discontinued.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPEG-4
124
MPEG-4 is a video CODEC for web (streaming media) and
CD distribution, conversational (videophone), and broadcast
television. MPEG-4 absorbs many of the features of MPEG1 and MPEG-2 and other related standards, adding new features such as (extended) VRML support for 3D rendering, object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and VRML
objects), support for externally-specified Digital Rights Management and various types of interactivity. MPEG-4 consists
Network Protocols Dictionary
of several standards—termed “parts”. Profiles are also defined
within the individual “parts”, so an implementation of a part is
ordinarily not an implementation of an entire part.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPEG-47
MPEG-47 is a nickname of the combination of MPEG-4 and
MPEG-7, which refers to use MPEG-4 to do the content CODEC and distribution and use MPEG-7 to facilidate the distribution with metadata.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPEG-7
MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard defined
by Moving Picture Experts Group(MPEG). It is very different
from other MPEG CODEC standards like MPEG-1, MPEG-2
and MPEG-4. It uses XML to store metadata, and can be attached to timecode in order to tag particular events, or synchronise lyrics to a song.
ISO/IEC Protocol
MPLS: Multiprotocol Label Switching
78
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), an architecture for fast
packet switching and routing, provides the designation, routing, forwarding and switching of traffic flows through the network. More specifically, it has mechanisms to manage traffic
flows of various granularities. It is independent of the layer 2
and layer 3 protocols, such as ATM and IP. MPLS is used as
the protocol for the core network for the next generation networking (NGN).
IETF Specification: RFC 3031
MPOA: Multi Protocol Over ATM
146
The Multi Protocol Over ATM (MPOA) deals with the efficient
transfer of inter-subnet unicast data in a LANE environment.
MPOA integrates LANE and NHRP to preserve the benefits
of LAN Emulation, while allowing inter-subnet, internetwork
layer protocol communication over ATM VCCs without requiring routers in the data path. MPOA provides a framework for
effectively synthesizing bridging and routing with ATM in an
environment of diverse protocols, network technologies and
IEEE 802.1 virtual LANs.
ITU-T Protocol
MPP: Multichannel Point-to-Point Protocol
Multichannel Point-to-Point Protocol (MPP) supports inverse
multiplexing, session management, and bandwidth management. MPP enables the combination of up to 30 individual
channels into a single high-speed connection. MPP consists
of two components: a low-level channel identification, error
monitoring, and error recovery mechanism, and a session
management level for supporting bandwidth modifications and
diagnostics. MPP enables the Ascend unit to add or remove
channels from a connection as bandwidth needs change without disconnecting the link. This capability is called Dynamic
Bandwidth Allocation, or DBA.
Ascend Communication Protocol
MPPC: Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression Protocol
Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression Protocol (MPPC) is
a scheme of representing arbitrary Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP) packets in a compressed form. The MPPC algorithm
is designed to optimize processor utilization and bandwidth
utilization in order to support a large number of simultaneous
connections. The MPPC algorithm is also optimized to work
Network Protocols Dictionary 325
Appendices
efficiently in typical PPP scenarios (1500 byte MTU, etc.). The
MPPC algorithm uses an LZ [3] based algorithm with a sliding
window history buffer. The MPPC algorithm keeps a continous
history so that after 8192 bytes of data has been transmitted
compressed, there is always 8192 bytes of history to use for
compressing, except when the history is flushed.
IETF / Microsoft Specification: RFC 2118 and RFC 3078
MSDP: Multicast Source Discovery Protocol Page73
The Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) describes a
mechanism to connect multiple PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
domains together. Each PIM-SM domain uses its own independent RP(s) and does not have to depend on RPs in other
domains.
IETF Specification: RFC 3618
MS-RDP: Microsoft’s Remote Desktop Protocol
Microsoft’s Remote Desktop Protocol (MS-RDP) is designed
to provide remote display and input capabilities over network
connections for Windows-based applications running on a
server. When TS 4.0 was released, RDP was a new protocol
based on an existing ITU T.120 family of protocols with limited
features and performances. Windows 2000 Terminal Services
and the RDP 5.0 protocol includes several critical new features
together with some significant performance improvements
over all types of network connections, including LAN, WAN,
and dial-up.
Microsoft Protocol
MSRPC: Microsoft Remote Procedure Call
Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (MSRPC) is the Microsoft
implementation of the DCE RPC mechanism. Additions include support for Unicode strings, implicit handles, inheritance
of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM), and
complex calculations in the variable-length string and structure paradigms already present in DCE/RPC. Microsoft also
added new transport protocols for DCE RPC, the ncacn_np
transport, which use named pipes carried into the SMB protocol. MSRPC was used by Microsoft to seamlessly create a
client/server model in Windows NT/2000/2003. For example,
the Windows Server domains protocols are entirely MSRPC
based, as is Microsoft’s DNS administrative tool. Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5’s administrative front-ends are all MSRPC
client/server applications, and its MAPI was made more secure by “proxying” MAPI over a set of simple MSRPC functions
that enable encryption at the MSRPC layer without involving
the MAPI protocol.
Microsoft Protocol
MST: Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) Protocol defined in the IEEE
802.1s was based on the Cisco’s Multiple Instances Spanning Tree Protocol (MISTP). MST combines the best aspects
from both the Cisco Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST+) and
the 802.1q. The idea is that several VLANs can be mapped to
a reduced number of spanning tree instances because most
networks do not need more than a few logical topologies.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1s
MTP: Message Transfer Part
282
Message Transfer Part (MTP), a protocol in the SS7/C7 protocol suite, transfers signal messages and performs associated functions, such as error control and signaling link security.
Message Transfer Part (MTP) also provides reliable routing
within a network. MTP has has three layers: Layers 1 (physical), 2 (data), and 3 (network).
ITU-T Specification: Q.7XX-series
MTP1: Message Transfer Part Level 1
Message Transfer Part Level 1 (MTP1), a SS7 physical layer
unit, defines the physical, electrical, and functional characteristics of the digital signaling link.
ITU-T Specification: Q.7XX-series
MTP2: Message Transfer Part level 2
282
Message Transfer Part Level 2 (MTP2) is the signalling protocol at the data link layer of SS7/C7 protocol suite. MTP2
provides error detection, sequence checking, and initiates
retransmission in case of erroneous reception of messages.
MTP Level 2 uses packets called signal units to transmit SS7
messages. There are three types of signal units: Fill-in Signal
Unit (FISU), Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU), Message Signal
Unit (MSU).
ITU-T Specification: Q.7XX-series
MTP3: Message Transfer Part level 3
282
Message Transfer Part level 3 (MTP3) is the signalling protocol
at the network layer of SS7/C7 protocol suite. MTP3 provides
routing functionality to transport signaling messages through
the SS7 network to the requested endpoint. Each network element in the SS7 network has a unique address, the Signaling
Point Code (SPC). Message routing is performed according to
this address.
ITU-T Specification: Q.7XX-series
MultiPPP: MultiLink Point to Point Protocol
165
MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (Multilink PPP, MultiPPP or
MP), also known as PPP Multilink protocol, is a method for
splitting, recombining and sequencing datagrams across multiple logical data links. This work was originally motivated by
the desire to exploit multiple bearer channels in ISDN, but is
equally applicable to any situation in which multiple PPP links
connect two systems, including async links. MultiPPP is based
on an LCP option negotiation that permits a system to indicate
to its peer that it is capable of combining multiple physical links
into a “bundle”.
IETF Specification: RFC 1990
MZAP: Multicast-Scope Zone Announcement Protocol
74
Multicast-Scope Zone Announcement Protocol (MZAP) is for
the discovery of the multicast administrative scope zones
that are relevant at a particular location. MZAP also provides
mechanisms to discover common misconfigurations of administrative scope zones.
IETF Specification: RFC 2776
N
NARP: NBMA Address Resolution Protocol
Page60
The NBMA Address Resolution Protocol (NARP) allows a
source terminal (a host or router), wishing to communicate
over a Non-Broadcast, Multi-Access (NBMA) link layer network, to find out the NBMA addresses of a destination terminal
if the destination terminal is connected to the same NBMA network as the source.
IETF Specification: RFC 1735
NAT: Network Address Translation
22
Network Address Translation (NAT) is a method by which IP
addresses are mapped from one group to another, transparent
to end users. The need for IP Address translation arises when
a network’s internal IP addresses cannot be used outside the
326 Appendices
network either for privacy reasons or because they are invalid
for use outside the network. Network topology outside a local
domain can change in many ways.
IETF Specification: RFC 3022
NAUs: Network Accessible Units
263
Network Accessible Units (NAUs) are the IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) components to facilitate the communication between a Transaction Program (TP) and the SNA
network, formerly called “network addressable units”. NAUs
are unique network resources that can be accessed through
unique local addresses by other network resources. SNA provides the following types of NAUs: Physical units (PU), Logical
units (LU) and Control points (CP).
IBM Protocol
NBFCP: NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol
NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol (NBFCP) is a network control protocol for establishing and configuring the NBF protocol over Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) links. The NBF Control
Protocol (NBFCP) is responsible for configuring, enabling, and
disabling the NBF protocol modules on both ends of the pointto-point link. NBFCP uses the same packet exchange mechanism as the Link Control Protocol. NBFCP packets MUST
NOT be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer
Protocol phase. NBFCP packets received before this phase
is reached should be silently discarded. NBFCP is only applicable for an end system to connect to a peer system or the
LAN that peer system is connected to. It is not applicable for
connecting two LANs together due to NetBIOS name limitations and NetBIOS name defense mechanisms.
IETF Specification: RFC 2097
NBMA: Non-Broadcast Multi-Access
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) network allows only data
transfer from one computer to another over a virtual circuit or
across a switching device. The NBMA network is the opposite
of a broadcast network, on which multiple computer devices
are connected through a shared cable. The typical NBMA networks are Frame Relay, ATM and X.25 networks.
Novell Protocol
NBP: Name Binding Protocol
Name Binding Protocol (NBP) is the AppleTalk transportlevel protocol used for translating network device names to
addresses and manages the use of names on AppleTalk networks. NBP enables AppleTalk protocols to understand userdefined zones and device names by providing and maintaining translation tables that map names to their corresponding
socket addresses.
Apple Protocol
NBSS: NetBIOS Session Service
265
The NetBIOS Session Service (NBSS) is one of two ways
by which applications may communicate with each other, the
alternative being the NetBIOS Datagram service. NetBIOS
Session Service is for connection-oriented communications.
NBSS lets two computers establish a connection for a “conversation”, allows larger messages to be handled, and provides
error detection and recovery. The bulk of all NetBIOS traffic
generated on a network occurs using the NetBIOS Session
service, which utilizes TCP port 139. File and printer services
are the primary user of the NetBIOS Session service. Another
common use for NBSS is the networked application: Server
Manager, User Manager, Event Viewer, Registry Editor, and
Performance Monitor.
Network Protocols Dictionary
IBM Protocol
NCP: NetWare Core Protocol
256
The Novell NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) manages access
to the primary NetWare server resources. NCP makes procedure calls to the NetWare File Sharing Protocol (NFSP) that
services requests for NetWare file and print resources. NCP
is the principal protocol for transmitting information between a
NetWare server and its clients.
Novell Protocol
NCP: Network Control Protocols
The Network Control Protocol (NCP), a protocol in the Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP) suite, provides services in the PPP
link connection process to establish and configure different
network-layer protocols such as IP, IPX or AppleTalk. After a
NCP has reached the opened state, PPP will carry the corresponding network-layer protocol packets. Any supported network-layer protocol packets, received when the corresponding
NCP is not in the opened state, must be silently discarded. The
most commonly used NCPs are IP Control Protocol (IPCP)
and IPv6CP.
IETF Specification: RFC 3435
NCS: Network-based Call Signaling
112
Network-based Call Signaling (NCS), based on the Media
Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), is the VOIP signaling protocol adopted by the CableLab as a standard for PacketCable
embbed clients, which is a network element that provides:
• Two or more traditional analog (RJ11) access lines to a voiceover-IP (VoIP) network.
• Optionally, one or more video lines to a VoIP network
IETF Protocol
NDMP: Network Data Management Protocol
214
The Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is an open
protocol for enterprise-wide network based data management.
NDMP defines a network-based mechanism and protocol for
controlling backup, recovery, and other transfers of data between primary and secondary storage.
SNIA Protocol
NDS: NetWare Directory Services
NetWare Directory Services (NDS), based on X.400, is the Novell’s directory services for Netware, Windows NT, and Unix.
The NDS directory represents each network resource (user,
hardware, or application) as an object of a certain class, where
each class has certain properties. The directory is hierarchical,
divided into branches by rules of containment.
Novell Protocol
NetBEUI: NetBIOS Extended User Interface Page266
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is an extended
version of NetBIOS that lets computers communicate within a
local area network. NetBEUI formalizes the frame format that
was not specified as part of NetBIOS, so is sometimes called
the NetBIOS frame (NBF) protocol.
IBM Protocol
NetBIOS Datagram Service
265
The NetBIOS Datagram Service is one of two ways by which
applications may communicate with each other, the alternative
being the NetBIOS Session service. The NetBIOS Datagram
Service provides connectionless and broadcast-oriented communications, making use of the UDP transport-layer protocol,
port number 138. The Datagram service, because it uses UDP,
is faster and more efficient but does not provide guaranteed
Network Protocols Dictionary 327
Appendices
NHRP: NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol
delivery of packets.
IBM Protocol
NetBIOS Session Service
265
The NetBIOS Session Service (NBSS) is one of two ways by
which applications may communicate with each other, the alternative being the NetBIOS Datagram service. The bulk of
all NetBIOS traffic generated on a network occurs using the
NetBIOS Session service, which utilizes TCP port 139. File
and printer services are the primary user of the NetBIOS Session service. Another common use for NBSS is the networked
application: Server Manager, User Manager, Event Viewer,
Registry Editor, and Performance Monitor.
IBM Protocol
NetBIOS: Network Basic Input Output System 265
Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS), created by
IBM originally, defines a software interface and standard methods providing a communication interface between the application program and the attached medium. NetBIOS, a session
layer protocol, is used in various LAN (Ethernet, Token Ring,
etc) as well as WAN environments, such as TCP/IP, PPP and
X.25 networks.
IBM Protocol
NetRPC: NetRemote Procedure Call
The NetRemote Procedure Call (NetRPC) protocol, a protocol
in the session/presentation layer of the VINES protocol stack,
is used to access VINES applications such as StreetTalk and
VINES Mail. A program number and version identify all VINES
applications. Calls to VINES applications must specify the program number, program version, and the specific procedure
within the program, where applicable.
Banyan Protocol
NetWare
254
NetWare is a Novell network operating system (NOS) that
provides transparent remote file access and numerous other
distributed network services, including printer sharing and support for various applications such as electronic mail transfer
and database access. NetWare specifies the upper five layers
of the OSI reference model, and runs on any media-access
protocol (Layer 2). In addition, NetWare runs on virtually any
kind of computer system, from PCs to mainframes. NetWare
and its supporting protocols often coexist on the same physical
channel with many other popular protocols, including TCP/IP,
DECnet, and AppleTalk.
Novell Protocol
Network Protocol
6
Network Protocols define the rules and procedures for the network communications. A protocol is a formal set of rules, conventions and data structure that governs how computers and
other network devices exchange information over a network.
In other words, a protocol is a standard procedure and format
that two data communication devices must understand, accept
and use to be able to talk to each other.
NFS: Network File System
288
Network File System (NFS), originally developed by Sun Microsystems and then extended by IETF, allows file sharing
over network among different types of systems. In other words,
NFS was designed for remote file access and sharing over
network with various types of machines, operating systems,
network architecture and transport protocols.
SUN Specification: RFC 3530
61
NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is used by a
source station (host or router) connected to a Non-Broadcast,
Multi-Access (NBMA) subnetwork to determine the internetworking layer address and NBMA subnetwork addresses of
the “NBMA next hop” towards a destination station. If the destination is connected to the NBMA subnetwork, then the NBMA
next hop is the destination station itself. Otherwise, the NBMA
next hop is the egress router from the NBMA subnetwork that
is “nearest” to the destination station.
IETF Specification: RFC 2332
NIS: Network Information Service
Network Information Service (NIS), previously known as Yellow Page protocol, is a directory service used for name look-up
and general table enumeration. Each NIS database consists
of key-value pairs, maps, and domains. NIS defines a set of
key-value pairs as a map. Each map belongs to a domain that
is a category of maps. This hierarchy of key-value pairs, maps,
and domains provides a generic structure for modeling a database of information. An optional component to a NIS server
database implementation is the NIS binder (YPbind) server.
NIS uses YPbinder servers to provide addressing information
about NIS database servers to potential clients.
Sun Protocol
NLSP: NetWare Link Services Protocol
257
The NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) is a link-state routing protocol in the Novell NetWare architecture. NLSP is based
on the OSI Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (ISIS) protocol and was designed to replace IPX RIP (Routing
Information Protocol) and SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol), Novell’s original routing protocols that were designed for
small-scale internetworks.
Novell Protocol
NLSP: Network Layer Security Protocol
Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP) is an OSI protocol for
end-to-end encryption services at the top of OSI layer 3. NLSP
is derived from the Secure Data Network System (SDNS) protocol but is much more complex.
ISO Specification: ISO 11577
NNI: Network Node Interface
Network Node Interface (NNI), also known as Network-to-Network Interface, is the standard interface between ATM switches. The term is also used with frame relay. NNI makes network
routing possible.
ITU-T Protocol
NNI: Network-to-Network Interface
Network-to-Network Interface (NNI), also known as Network
Node Interface, is an internal interface within a network linking
two or more elements. Many technologies such as ATM (ATM
PNNI), Frame Relay (Frame RElay NNI) require this type of
interface for the communication between network devices.
ITU-T Protocol
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol
22
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) specifies a protocol
for the distribution, inquiry, retrieval and posting of news articles, using a reliable stream (such as TCP port 119) serverclient model. NNTP is designed so that news articles need
only be stored on one (presumably central) server host, and
subscribers on other hosts attached to the network may read
news articles using stream connections to the news host. The
328 Appendices
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) established the technical foundation for the widely used Newsgroups.
IETF Specification: RFC 977
Novell NetWare
254
Novell NetWare is a Novell network operating system (NOS)
that provides transparent remote file access and numerous
other distributed network services, including printer sharing
and support for various applications, such as electronic mail
transfer and database access. NetWare specifies the upper
five layers of the OSI reference model and runs on any media
access protocol (Layer 2). In addition, NetWare runs on virtually any kind of computer system, from PCs to mainframes. NetWare and its supporting protocols often coexist on the same
physical channel with many other popular protocols, including
TCP/IP, DECnet and AppleTalk.
Novell Protocol
NPAT: Network Port Address Translation
22
Network Port Address Translation (NPAT), also known as Port
Address Translation (PAT), is a feature of a Network Address
Translation (NAT) device that translates not only IP addresses
but also TCP or UDP ports between a host and port on an outside network to a host and port on an inside network. NPAT allows one single IP address to be used for many internal hosts.
With NPAT one outside IP address can account for over 64000
inside hosts.
IETF Protocol
NSP: Network Services Protocol
Network Services Protocol (NSP), a protocol in the DECnet
suite, provides reliable virtual connection services with flow
control to the network layer Routing Protocol.
DEC/HP Protocool
NTP: Network Time Protocol
23
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a time synchronization system for computer clocks through the Internet network. It provides the mechanisms to synchronize time and coordinate
time distribution in a large, diverse internet operating at rates
from mundane to light wave. It uses a returnable time design
in which a distributed sub-network of time servers, operating
in a self-organizing, hierarchical master-slave configuration,
synchronizes logical clocks within the sub-network and to national time standards via wire or radio. The servers can also
redistribute reference time via local routing algorithms and
time daemons.
IETF Specification: RFC 1305
O
OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol
The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol is based on the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and designed to be a compatible component of ISAKMP. OAKLEY was proposed as a protocol “by
which two authenticated parties can agree on secure and secret keying material.
IETF Specification: RFC 2412
OC: Optical Carrier
Optical Carrier (OC) is a group of signal bandwidth in a SONET
fiber optic network with many defined levels. It is typically denoted as OC-n, where n is the multiplexing factor of the basic
rate of 51.8 Mbit/s. The currently defined levels are:
OC-1 -- 51.8 Mbit/s
OC-3 -- 155.52 Mbit/s
Network Protocols Dictionary
OC-12 -- 622.08 Mbit/s
OC-24 -- 1.244 Gbit/s
OC-48 -- 2.488 Gbit/s
OC-96 -- 4.976 Gbit/s
OC-192 -- 9.953 Gbit/s
OC-256 -- about 13 Gbit/s
OC-384 -- about 20 Gbit/s
OC-768 -- about 40 Gbit/s
OC-1536 -- about 80 Gbit/s
OC-3072 -- about 160 Gbit/s
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC1: Optical Carrier One
Optical Carrier One (OC1 or OC-1) is a SONET line with a
transmission speed of 51.84 Mbit/s (payload: 50.112 Mbit/s;
overhead: 1.728 Mbit/s) using optical fiber. OC-1 is the basic
rate for the SONET optical fiber lines and the other rate levels
of SONET are multipled based on the OC-1 speed. OC-1 is
equivalent to STS-1 (Electrical level) and STM-0 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC12: Optical Carrier 12
Optical Carrier 12 (OC12 or OC-12) is a fiber optic network line
with a SONET rate of 622.08 Mbit/s (payload: 601.344 Mbit/s;
overhead: 20.736 Mbit/s) or 12 times the basic SONET signal
transmitting rate of 51.84 Mbit/s (OC-1). OC-12 lines are commonly used by Service Providers as WAN connections. This
connection speed is often used by mid-sized (below Tier 2)
internet customers, such as web hosting companies or smaller
ISPs buying service from larger ones. OC-12 is equivalent to
STS-12 (Electrical level) and STM-4 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC192: Optical Carrier 192
Optical Carrier 192 (OC192 or OC-192) is a SONET rate of
9953.28 Mbit/s (payload: 9621.504 Mbit/s; overhead: 331.776
Mbit/s) over optic fiber lines, or 192 times the basic 51.84
Mbit/s SONET signal (OC-1). The WAN version of 10 Gigabit
Ethernet is designed to interoperate with OC-192. As of 2006,
OC-192 connections are the most common for use on the
backbones of large ISPs. OC-192 is equivalent to STS-192
(Electrical level) and STM-64 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC3: Optical Carrier 3
Optical Carrier 3 (OC3 or OC-3) is a optic fiber line using
SONET with a transmission speed of 155.52 Mbit/s (payload:
150.336 Mbit/s; overhead: 5.184 Mbit/s), or 3 times the basic
51.84 Mbit/s SONET signal (OC-1). OC-3 is equivalent to STS3 (Electrical level)and STM-1 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC48: Optical Carrier 48
Optical Carrier 48 (OC48 or OC-48) is a fiber optic line with
a SONET rate of 2488.32 Mbit/s (payload: 2405.376 Mbit/s;
overhead: 82.944 Mbit/s) or 48 times the basic SONET signal
transmitting at 51.84 Mbit/s. OC-48 connections are used as
the backbones of many regional ISPs. OC-1 is equivalent to
STS-48 (Electrical level) and STM-16 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC768: Optical Carrier 768
Optical Carrier 768 (OC768 or OC-768) is a fiber optic line with
a SONET rate of 39,813.12 Mbit/s (payload: 38,486.016 Mbit/
s; overhead: 1327.104 Mbit/s), or 768 times the basic SONET
rate of 51.84 Mbit/s (OC-1). It’s often referred to as “40 Gbit”.
Network Protocols Dictionary 329
Appendices
OC-768 is equivalent to STS-768 (Electrical level) and STM256 (SDH).
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC96: Optical Carrier 96
Optical Carrier 96 (OC96 or OC-96) is a fiber optic line with a
SONET rate of 4976 Mbit/s, or 96 times the basic SONET rate
of 51.84 Mbit/s (OC-1). It’s not used much in the real world.
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OC-n: Optical Carrier level n
Optical Carrier level n (OC-n) is a group of signal bandwidth
in a SONET fiber optic network with many defined levels. It is
typically denoted as OC-n, where n is the multiplexing factor of
the basic rate of 51.8 Mbit/s. The currently defined levels are:
OC-1 -- 51.8 Mbit/s
OC-3 -- 155.52 Mbit/s
OC-12 -- 622.08 Mbit/s
OC-24 -- 1.244 Gbit/s
OC-48 -- 2.488 Gbit/s
OC-96 -- 4.976 Gbit/s
OC-192 -- 9.953 Gbit/s
OC-256 -- about 13 Gbit/s
OC-384 -- about 20 Gbit/s
OC-768 -- about 40 Gbit/s
OC-1536 -- about 80 Gbit/s
OC-3072 -- about 160 Gbit/s
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
OpenSS7
OpenSS7, also known as LinuxSS7, is an open-source development project to provide robust and GPL’ed SS7 stack for
Linux and other UN*X operation systems. The website of this
organization is: http://www.openss7.org.
Open Group Protocol
OpenSSL
The OpenSSL is a collaborative project to develop a robust,
commercial-grade, full-featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-strength
general purpose cryptography library. The project is managed
by a worldwide community of volunteers that use the Internet
to communicate, plan, and develop the OpenSSL toolkit and
its related documentation. The OpenSSL toolkit is licensed under an Apache-style licence, which means that you are free to
get and subject to some simple license conditions.
OpenSSL Protocol
OSI Model: OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model
2
OSI Network Architecture 7 Layers Model (OSI Model or OSI 7
Layers Model) is a reference model developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1984, as a conceptual framework of standards for communication in the network across different equipment and applications by different
vendors. It is now considered the primary architectural model
for inter-computing and inter-networking communications.
Most of the network communication protocols used today have
a structure based on the OSI model.
ISO Protocol
OSI NLCP: OSI Network Layer Control Protocol
OSI Network Layer Control Protocol (OSI NLCP), a protocol
in the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) suite, is responsible for
configuring, enabling and disabling the OSI protocol modules
on both ends of the PPP link.
IETF Specification: RFC 1337
OSI 7-Layer Reference Model
2
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) 7-Layer Reference Model, also known as OSI model or 7 layers model or OSI reference
model, is a reference model developed by ISO (International
Organization for Standardization) in 1984, as a conceptual
framework of standards for communication in the network
across different equipment and applications by different vendors. It is now considered the primary architectural model for
inter-computing and inter-networking communications. Most
of the network communication protocols used today have a
structure based on the OSI model. The OSI model defines the
communications process into 7 layers, dividing the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers
into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. A task or
group of tasks is then assigned to each of the 7 OSI layers.
Each layer is reasonably self-contained, so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently. This
enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers.
OSP: Open Settlement Protocol
Open Settlement Protocol(OSP) is a client/server protocol defined by the ETSI TIPHON to establish authenticated connections between gateways, and to allow gateways and servers
to transfer accounting and routing information securely. OSP
allows service providers to roll out VoIP services without establishing direct peering agreements with other ITSPs.
ETSI Protocol
OSPF: Open Shortest Path First
62
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an interior gateway protocol which is used for routing between routers belonging to a
single Autonomous System. OSPF uses link-state technology
in which routers send each other information about the direct
connections and links which they have to other routers. Each
OSPF router maintains an identical database describing the
Autonomous System’s topology. From this database, a routing
table is calculated by constructing a shortest path tree. OSPF
recalculates routes quickly in the face of topological changes,
utilizing a minimum of routing protocol traffic. OSPF has two
primary versions OSPFv2, which is designed for IPv4 and OSPFv3 for IPv6.
IETF Specification: RFC 2328
OSPFv3: Open Shortest Path First version 3
62
Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3), also known
as OSPF for IPv6, is an interior gateway protocol for routing
between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System
in IPv6 networks. OSPFv3, based on the widely deployed
OSPFv2, has maintained many fundamental mechanisms of
OSPFv2. Changes between OSPFv2 for IPv4 and OSPFv3
include the following: 1) Addressing semantics have been removed from OSPF packets and the basic LSAs. 2) New LSAs
have been created to carry IPv6 addresses and prefixes. 3)
OSPF now runs on a per-link basis, instead of on a per-IP-subnet basis. 4) Flooding scope for LSAs has been generalized.
5) Authentication has been removed from the OSPF protocol
itself, instead relying on IPv6’s Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload.
IETF Specification: RFC 2740
P
330 Appendices
P3P: Platform for Privacy Preferences
The Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) is a protocol allowing Websites to declare their intended use of information they
collect about browsing users. Designed to give users more
control of their personal information when browsing, P3P was
developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and officially recommended on April 16, 2002.
W3C Protocol
PAgP: Port Aggregation Protocol
Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) aids in the automatic creation of Fast EtherChannel links. PAgP packets are sent between Fast EtherChannel-capable ports in order to negotiate
the forming of a channel.
Cisco Protocol
PAP: Password Authentication Protocol
167
The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), a Link Control
Protocol in the PPP suite, provides a simple method for the
peer to establish its identity using a 2-way handshake. This is
done only upon initial link establishment. Unlike CHAP, PAP
passes the password and the host name or username in the
clear (unencrypted). PAP does not itself prevent unauthorized
access but merely identifies the remote end. The router or access server then determines whether that user is allowed access.
IETF Specification: RFC 1994
PAP: Printer Access Protocol
Printer Access Protocol (PAP), a protocol in the AppleTalk
suite, manages the virtual connection to printers and other
servers in an AppleTalk network.
Apple Protocol
PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) is used in UMTS
3G network to map higher-level protocol characteristics onto
the characteristics of the underlying radio-interface protocols,
providing protocol transparency for higher-layer protocols.
PDCP also provides protocol control information compression.
3GPP Specification: 3GPP TS 25.323
PEAP: Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol(PEAP), a protocol developed by Microsoft, Cisco and RSA Security as an
open standard, is used to authenticate wireless LAN clients
without requiring them to have certificates. PEAP is a method
to securely transmit authentication information, including passwords, over wireless networks. PEAP utilizes Transport Layer
Security (TLS) to set up an end-to-end tunnel to transfer the
user’s credentials without having to use a certificate on the
client. PEAP uses only server-side public key certificates to
authenticate clients by creating an encrypted SSL/TLS tunnel
between the client and the authentication server, which protects the ensuing exchange of authentication information from
casual inspection.
IETF Draft Protocol
PEP: Packet Exchange Protocol
Packet Exchange Protocol(PEP), an Xerox protocol, provides
a semi-reliable packet delivery service that orients towards
single-packet exchanges.
Xerox Protocol
PGM: Pragmatic General Multicast
75
Network Protocols Dictionary
Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM) is a reliable transport protocol for applications that require ordered or unordered, duplicate-free, multicast data delivery from multiple sources to
multiple receivers. PGM is specifically intended as a workable
solution for multicast applications with basic reliability requirements rather than as a comprehensive solution for multicast
applications with sophisticated ordering, agreement and robustness requirements. Its central design goal is simplicity
of operation with due regard for scalability and network efficiency.
IETF Specification: RFC 3208
PIC: Pre-IKE Credential Provisioning Protocol
Pre-IKE Credential (PIC) Provisioning Protocol is a proposed
replacement for the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol. PIC
presents a method to bootstrap IPSec authentication via an
“Authentication Server” (AS) and legacy user authentication
(e.g., RADIUS). The client machine communicates with the
AS using a key exchange protocol where only the server is
authenticated, and the derived keys are used to protect the
legacy user authentication. Once the user is authenticated, the
client machine obtains credentials from the AS that can be later used to authenticate the client in a standard IKE exchange
with an IPSec-enabled security gateway. The later stage does
not require user intervention. The proposed server-authenticated key exchange uses an ISAKMP-based protocol, similar
to a simplified IKE exchange, and arbitrary legacy authentication is supported via the use of the EAP protocol.
IETF Protocol
PIM: Protocol Independent Multicast
77
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) refers to a group of multicast routing protocols, each optimized for a different environment. There are two main PIM protocols: PIM Sparse Mode
and PIM Dense Mode. A third PIM protocol, Bi-directional
PIM(BIDIR-PIM), is less widely used. All PIM protocols share
a common control message format. PIM control messages are
sent as raw IP datagrams, either multicast to the link-local ALL
PIM ROUTERS multicast group, or unicast to a specific destination.
IETF Specification: RFC 2362
PIM-DM: PIM Dense Mode
76
PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM), one of Protocol Independent Multicast protocols, is mainly designed for multicast LAN applications, while the PIM-SM is for wide area, inter-domain networks.
PIM-DM implements the same flood-and-prune mechanism
that Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) and
other dense mode routing protocols employ. The main difference between DVMRP and PIM-DM is that PIM-DM introduces
the concept of protocol independence. PIM-DM can use the
routing table populated by any underlying unicast routing protocol to perform reverse path forwarding (RPF) checks.
IETF Specification: RFC 3973
PIM-SM: PIM Sparse Mode
77
PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), one of Protocol Independent
Multicast protocols, is for efficiently routing to multicast groups
that may span wide-area (WAN and inter-domain) internets,
while PIM-DM is mainly for LAN. The protocol is not dependent
on any particular unicast routing protocol and is designed to
support sparse groups. It uses the traditional IP multicast model of receiver-initiated membership, supports both shared and
shortest-path trees and uses soft-state mechanisms to adapt
to changing network conditions. It can use the route informa-
Appendices
tion that any routing protocol enters into the multicast Routing
Information Base (RIB).
IETF Specification: RFC 2362
PMAP: Port Mapper
The Port Mapper (PMAP) protocol manages the allocation
of transport layer ports to network server applications, which
eliminates the need to reserve permanently a port number for
each application because only the PMAP application itself requires a reserved port. Server applications obtain a port by
requesting a port assignment using PMAP. Clients wanting to
access an application first call the PMAP program through a
well-known port to obtain the transport port registered to the
application. The client then calls the application directly using
the registered port.
Sun Protocol
PLP: Packet Level Protocol
Packet Level Protocol (PLP), also known as X.25 Level 3 protocol, is a network layer protocol in the X.25 protocol stack.
ITU-T Protocol
PNG: Portable Network Graphics
Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an extensible file format
for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster
images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and
can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color,
grayscale, and truecolor images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits. PNG
is designed to work well in online viewing applications, such as
the World Wide Web, so it is fully streamable with a progressive display option. PNG is robust, providing both full file integrity checking and simple detection of common transmission
errors. Also, PNG can store gamma and chromaticity data for
improved color matching on heterogeneous platforms.
IETF Specification: RFC 2083
PNNI: ATM Private Network-Node Interface Page147
Private Network-Node Interface (PNNI), a critical ATM network-to-network signaling protocol, provides mechanisms
to support scalable, QoS-based ATM routing and switch-toswitch switched virtual connection (SVC) interoperability. The
PNNI is a hierarchical, dynamic link-state routing protocol. It is
designed to support large-scale ATM networks. PNNI is based
on UNI 4.0 and Q.2931.
ITU-T Protocol
POP: Post Office Protocol
24
The Post Office Protocol(POP) is designed to allow a workstation with an email client to dynamically access a mail drop on
a server host over the TCP/IP network. POP3 is the version
3 (the latest version) of the Post Office Protocol, which has
obsoleted the earlier versions of the POP protocol: POP1 and
POP2. POPs are not intended to provide extensive manipulation operations of mail on the server; normally, mail is downloaded and then deleted.
IETF Specification: RFC 1939
POP1: Post Office Protocol version 1
The Post Office Protocol version 1 (POP1) is designed to allow a workstation with an email client to dynamically access a
mail drop on a server host over the TCP/IP network. POP1 has
been obsoleted by the latest version POP3.
IETF Specification: RFC 918
POP2: Post Office Protocol version 2
The Post Office Protocol version 2 (POP2) is designed to al-
Network Protocols Dictionary 331
low a workstation with an email client to dynamically access a
mail drop on a server host over the TCP/IP network. POP2 has
been obsoleted by the latest version POP3.
IETF Specification: RFC 937
POP3: Post Office Protocol version 3
24
The Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is designed to allow
a workstation with an email client to dynamically access a mail
drop on a server host. POP3 is the version 3 (the latest version) of the Post Office Protocol. POP3 transmissions appear
as data messages between stations. The messages are either
command or reply messages. POP3 is not intended to provide
extensive manipulation operations of mail on the server; normally, mail is downloaded and then deleted.
IETF Specification: RFC 1939
Port Number
293
Port numbers are associated with TCP and UDP protocols
designed to distinguish multiple applications running on a
single device with one IP address from one another. Since
many network applications may be running on the same machine, computers need something to make sure the correct
software application on the destination computer gets the data
packets from the source machine, and to make sure replies
get routed to the correct application on the source computer.
This is accomplished through the use of the TCP or UDP “port
numbers”. In the TCP and UDP header, there are “SourcePort” and “DestinationPort” fields which are used to indicate
the message sending process and receiving process identities
defined. The combination of the IP address and the port number is called “socket”.
PoS: Packet over SONET/SDH
168
Packet Over SONET/SDH (PoS) is a technology that maps
IP datagrams into the SONET frame payload using Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP). Packet over SONET (PoS) is a highly
scalable protocol that overcomes many of the inefficiencies
of ATM, while providing legacy support to internetworks with
existing SONET architectures. PoS provides a mechanism to
carry packets directly within the SONET synchronous payload
envelope (SPE) using a small amount of High-Level Data Link
Control (HDLC) or PPP framing. PoS has three layers:
Top layer: IP encapsulation into PPP
Mid layer: Framing of PPP with HDLC
Bottom layer: Mapping into SONET
IETF Specification: RFC 2615
PP: ISO Presentation Protocol
231
The ISO Presentation Protocol (PP), also known as ISO-PP,
is for information transit between open systems using connection-oriented or connectionless mode transmission at the
presentation layer of the OSI 7 layer model. An application protocol is specified in terms of the transfer of presentation data
values between application entities (PS users), using the User
data parameter of presentation service primitives.
ISO Protocol
PPP Multilink Protocol
165
The PPP Multilink protocol, also known as Multilink PPP (Multilink PPP, MultiPPP or MP), is a method for splitting, recombining and sequencing datagrams across multiple logical data
links. This work was originally motivated by the desire to exploit
multiple bearer channels in ISDN, but is equally applicable to
any situation in which multiple PPP links connect two systems,
including async links. PPP MultiLink protocol is based on an
LCP option negotiation that permits a system to indicate to its
332 Appendices
peer that it is capable of combining multiple physical links into
a “bundle”.
IETF Specification: RFC 1990
PPP NCP: Network Control Protocol in PPP
166
The Network Control Protocol (NCP), a protocol in the Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP) suite, provides services in the PPP
link connection process to establish and configure different
network-layer protocols such as IP, IPX or AppleTalk. After an
NCP has reached the opened state, PPP will carry the corresponding network-layer protocol packets. Any supported network-layer protocol packets received when the corresponding
NCP is not in the opened state must be silently discarded. The
most commonly used NCPs are IP Control Protocol (IPCP)
and IPv6CP.
IETF Specification: RFC 1661
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol
159
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) suite provides a standard
method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over pointto-point links. PPP was originally devised as an encapsulation
protocol for transporting IP traffic between two peers. It is a
data link layer protocol (layer 2 in the OSI model) in the TCP-IP
protocol suite for synchronous modem links, as a replacement
for the non-standard layer 2 protocol, SLIP. However, other
protocols other than IP can also be carried over PPP, including
DECnet and Novell’s Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX).
IETF Specification: RFC 1661
PPP-BPDU: PPP Bridge Protocol Data Unit
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU), a protocol in the PPP suite,
is some “hello packets” of the spanning tree protocol sent out
at intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network. BPDUs help describe and identify attributes of a switch
port and allow for switches to obtain information about each
other.
IETF Protocol
PPPoA: PPP over ATM AAL5
169
PPP over ATM AAL5 (PPPoA) describes the use of ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) for framing PPP encapsulated packets.
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard method
for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point
links.
IETF Specification: RFC 2364
PPPoE: PPP over Ethernet
170
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) provides the ability to connect a
network of hosts over a simple bridging access device to a remote Access Concentrator. With this model, each host utilizes
its own PPP stack, and the user is presented with a familiar
user interface. Access control, billing and type of service can
be done on a per-user, rather than per-site, basis.
IETF Specification: RFC 2516
PPTP: Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
93
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), defined originally by
Microsoft, is a protocol that allows corporations to extend their
corporate network through private “tunnels” over the public Internet, which is known as a virtual private network (VPN). VPN
enables a company not to lease private lines but to use the
public networks for wide-area communication securely. PPTP
is replaced by an IETF standard called Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).
Microsoft Protocol
PVST: Per-VLAN Spanning Tree
Network Protocols Dictionary
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) maintains a spanning tree
instance for each VLAN configured in the network. It uses ISL
Trunking and allows a VLAN trunk to be forwarding for some
VLANs while blocking for other VLANs. Since PVST treats
each VLAN as a separate network, it has the ability to load
balance traffic (at layer-2) by forwarding some VLANs on one
trunk and other VLANs on another trunk without causing a
Spanning Tree loop.
Cisco Protocol
PVST+: Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus
Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (PVST+), an enhancement
to the 802.1Q specification and unsupported on non-Cisco
devices, maintains a spanning tree instance for each VLAN
configured in the network. PVST+ is a new version of PVST,
uses ISL Trunking and allows a VLAN trunk to be forwarding
for some VLANs while blocking for other VLANs. Since PVST
treats each VLAN as a separate network, it has the ability to
load balance traffic (at layer-2) by forwarding some VLANs on
one trunk and other Vlans on another trunk without causing a
Spanning Tree loop.
Cisco Protocol
PUP: PARC Universal Protocol
PARC Universal Protocol (PUP), also known as PARC Universal Packet, developed at Xerox PARC, is an early internetworking protocol suite for network routing and packet delivery.
In the 1980s, Xerox used PUP as the base for the Xerox Network Services (XNS) protocol suite; some of the protocols in
the XNS suite (e.g. the Internetwork Datagram Protocol) were
lightly modified versions of the ones in the PUP suite, but others are quite different, reflecting the experience gained with
PUP.
Xerox Protocol
Q
Q.2931
148
Q.2931, based on Q.931, is a signaling protocol, which specifies the procedures for the establishment, maintenance and
clearing of network connections at the B-ISDN user network
interface. The PNNI and the UNI specifications are based on
Q.2931. The procedures are defined in terms of messages exchanged.
ITU-T Specification: Q.2931
Q.730
Q.730, an ITU-T specification, defines the ISDN User Part
(ISUP) supplementary services.
ITU-T Specification: Q.730
Q.700
Q.700, an ITU-T specification, provides an introduction to
CCITT Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.700
Q.703
Q.703, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 (SS7) - Message Transfer Part, Signalling Link.
ITU-T Specification: Q.703
Q.704
Q.704, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 (SS7) - Message Transfer Part, Signalling System No. 7
- Signalling Network Functions and Messages.
ITU-T Specification: Q.704
Q.705
Network Protocols Dictionary 333
Appendices
ITU-T Specification: Q.737
Q.705, an ITU-T specification, defines the System No. 7 - Signalling network structure.
ITU-T Specification: Q.705
Q.761
Q.706, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 - Message Transfer Part Signalling Performance.
ITU-T Specification: Q.706
Q.762
Q.706
Q.712
Q.712, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 (SS7) - Definition and Function of SCCP Messages.
ITU-T Specification: Q.712
Q.713
Q.713, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 - SCCP Formats and Codes.
ITU-T Specification: Q.713
Q.716
Q.716, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 - Signalling connection control part (SCCP) performance.
ITU-T Specification: Q.716
Q.725
Q.725, an ITU-T specification, defines Signalling System No. 7
- Signalling performance in the telephone application.
ITU-T Specification: Q.725
Q.731
Q.731, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for numbering identification supplementary services using
Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.731
Q.732
Q.732, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for call offering supplementary services using Signalling
System No. 7(SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.732
Q.733
Q.733, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for call completion supplementary services using No. 7
Signalling System (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.733
Q.734
Q.734, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for multiparty supplementary services using Signalling
System No. 7.
ITU-T Specification: Q.734
Q.735
Q.735, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for community of interest supplementary services using
SS7.
ITU-T Specification: Q.735
Q.736
Q.736, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for charging supplementary services using Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.736
Q.737
Q.737, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for additional information transfer supplementary services
using Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
Q.761, an ITU-T specification, provides Signalling System
No.7 (SS&) – ISDN user part (ISUP) functional description.
ITU-T Specification: Q.761
Q.762, an ITU-T specification, defines the general function of
messages and Signals of the ISDN User Part (ISUP) of Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.762
Q.763
Q.763, an ITU-T specification, defines the formats and codes of
the ISDN User Part (ISUP) of Signalling System No. 7 (SS7).
ITU-T Specification: Q.763
Q.764
Q.764, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 - ISDN User Part (ISUP) Signalling Procedures.
ITU-T Specification: Q.764
Q.766
Q.766, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No.7 - Performance Objectives in the Integrated Services Digital Network Application.
ITU-T Specification: Q.766
Q.772
Q.772, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 (SS7) - Transaction Capabilities Information Element
Definition.
ITU-T Specification: Q.772
Q.773
Q.773, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 (SS7) - Transaction Capabilities Formats and Encoding.
ITU-T Specification: Q.773
Q.774
Q.774, an ITU-T specification, defines the Signalling System
No. 7 - Transaction Capabilities Procedures.
ITU-T Specification: Q.774
Q.850
Q.850, an ITU-T specification, defines the usage of cause and
location in the Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 1 and
the Signalling System No. 7 ISDN User Part.
ITU-T Specification: Q.850
Q.920
Q.920, an ITU-T specification, together with Q.921, defines the
ISDN UNI data link layer.
ITU-T Specification: Q.921
Q.921
Q.921, an ITU-T specification, together with Q.920, defines
ISDN user-network interface - Data link layer - General aspects.
ITU-T Specification: Q.921
Q.922
Q.922, an ITU-T specification, defines the Link Access Procedure/Protocol (LAPF), which is an enhanced LAPD (Q.921)
with congestion control capabilities for Frame Mode Services
in the Frame Relay network. LADF is used in the Frame Relay network for end-to-end signaling. LAPF conveys data link
service data units between DL-service users in the User Plane
for frame mode bearer services across the ISDN user-network
334 Appendices
interface on B-, D- or H-channels.
ITU-T Specification: Q.922
Q.922A
Q.922A is an ITU-T specification for Frame Relay encapsulation.
ITU-T Specification: Q.922A
Q.930
Q.930, an ITU-T specification, defines the Digital Subscriber
Signalling System No 1 (DSS1) - ISDN user - network interface layer 3 - General aspects.
ITU-T Specification: Q.930
Q.931
156
Q.931, the network layer protocol in the telecommunication
architecture, is used in ISDN for call establishment and the
maintenance and termination of logical network connections
between two devices. Q.931 is one of the network layer (layer
3) protocols in the telecommunication architecture specified by
the ITU Q series documents Q.930 through Q.931.
ITU-T Specification: Q.931
Q.932
Q.932, an ITU-T specification, defines the generic procedures
applicable for the control of supplementary services at the
user-network interface. These procedures expand on the basic call-control functions defined in Q.931.
ITU-T Specification: Q.932
Q.933
Q.933, an ITU-T specification, defines Digital subscriber Signalling System No.1 (DSS 1) - Signalling specification for
frame mode basic call control.
ITU-T Specification: Q.933
Q.939
Q.939, an ITU-T specification, defines service indicator coding
examples.
ITU-T Specification: Q.939
Q.93B
Q.93B, an evolution of ITU-T recommendation Q.931, is an
ITU-T specification for signaling to establish, maintain, and
clear BISDN network connections.
ITU-T Specification: Q.93B
Q.950
Q.950, an ITU-T specification, defines ISDN supplementary
services.
ITU-T Specification: Q.950
Q.951
Q.951, an ITU-T specification, provides stage 3 description
for number identification supplementary services using DSS1,
such as Calling line identification presentation (CLIP); Calling
line identification restriction (CLIR); Connected line ID and Malicious Call Identification (MCID).
ITU-T Specification: Q.951
Q.952
Q.952, an ITU-T specification, provides stage 3 description for
additional information transfer supplementary services using
DSS1 (Digital subscriber Signalling System No.1), including
Diversion supplementary services and Explicit Call Transfer
(ECT).
ITU-T Specification: Q.952
Q.953
Network Protocols Dictionary
Q.953, an ITU-T specification, defines Stage 3 description for
call completion supplementary services using DSS 1 such as
Call waiting, Call hold, Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers (CCBS), Terminal Portability (TP) and Call Completion on
No Reply (CCNR).
ITU-T Specification: Q.953
Q.954
Q.954, an ITU-T specification, provides the Stage 3 description for multiparty supplementary services using DSS 1, such
as Conference calling and Three-party service.
ITU-T Specification: Q.954
Q.955
Q.955, an ITU-T specification, provides Stage 3 description for
community of interest supplementary services using DSS 1,
such as Closed user group and Multi-level precedence and
preemption.
ITU-T Specification: Q.955
Q.956
Q.956, an ITU-T specification, defines Integrated services digital network (ISDN) - Stage 3 service description for charging
supplementary services using DSS 1 such as Clause 2 - Advice of charge (AOC) and Clause 3 - Reverse charging.
ITU-T Specification: Q.956
Q.957
Q.957, an ITU-T specification, provides Stage 3 description for
additional information transfer supplementary services using
DSS 1: User-to-User Signalling (UUS).
ITU-T Specification: Q.957
QLLC: Qualified Logical Link Control
269
Qualified Logical Link Control (QLLC) is an IBM-defined datalink layer protocol that allows SNA data to be transported
across X.25 networks. When SNA is used over X.25, it uses
the qualifier-bit (Q-bit) in the X.25 packet header to indicate
special link control information. This information is relevant
for SNA control between the two systems communicating with
each other but is of no concern to X.25 link control.
IBM Protocol
QSPN: Quantum Shortest Path Netsukuku
Quantum Shortest Path Netsukuku(QSPN) is the routing algorithm used by Netsukuku to find the best routes in the network.
It is optimised to run on a real network, i.e. cannot be used on
a map without simulating the nodes which send each other the
QSPN packets.
QSIG: Q Signaling
Q Signaling(QSING) is a common channel signaling protocol
based on ISDN Q.931 standards and used by many digital
PBXs.
ITU-T Protocol
R
RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
89
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a
protocol for carrying authentication, authorization and configuration information between a Network Access Server which
desires to authenticate its links and a shared Authentication
Server. RADIUS uses UDP as the transport protocol. RADIUS
also carries accounting information between a Network Access Server and a shared Accounting Server.
Appendices
IETF Specification: RFC 2865 and 2866
RADSL: Rate Adaptive DSL
Rate-adaptive Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (RADSL) is
a variation of ADSL which automatically adjusts the connection
speed depanding on the quality and length of the telephone
line. In RADSL, the broadband modem is configured at startup
to test the phone line and adjust the data rate. RADSL typically
operates at a lower date rate than regular ADSL. Like ADSL,
RADSL provides relatively more bandwidth for downloads and
less for uploads.
ITU-T Protocol
RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part
Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) is the Radio
Network Layer signaling protocol used in a UMTS system on
the Iu interface. It is responsible for functions including the setting up of a RAB (Radio Access Bearer) between the CN (Core
Network) and the RNC (Radio Network Controller).
ITU-T Protocol
RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
85
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) allows a physical machine in a local area network to request its IP address
from a gateway server’s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
table or cache. A network administrator creates a table in a
local area network’s gateway router that maps the physical
machines’(or Media Access Control [MAC]) addresses to corresponding Internet Protocol addresses.
IETF Specification: RFC 903
RAS: Registration, Admission and Status
106
Registration, Admission and Status (RAS), defined in the ITUT H.225.0/RAS, is the protocol between endpoints (terminals
and gateways) and gatekeepers. The RAS is used to perform
registration, admission control, bandwidth changes, status,
and disengage procedures between endpoints and gatekeepers. An RAS channel is used to exchange RAS messages.
This signaling channel is opened between an endpoint and a
gatekeeper prior to the establishment of any other channels.
ITU-T Specification: H.225
RCP: Remote Copy Protocol
Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), a command on the Unix operating systems, is a protocol that allows users to copy files to and
from a file system residing on a remote host or server on the
network. RCP uses TCP to ensure the reliable delivery of data.
But RCP can use kerberos for authentication. This command
has been largely superseded by more secure methods, such
as the scp and sftp commands based on SSH.
Unix Protocol
RDP: Reliable Data Protocol
45
Reliable Data Protocol (RDP) is a connection-oriented transport protocol designed to efficiently support the bulk transfer of
data for such host monitoring and control applications as loading/dumping and remote debugging. It attempts to provide only
those services necessary, in order to be efficient in operation
and small in size.
IETF Specification: RFC 1115
RDP: Remote Desktop Protocol
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a Microsoft protocol designed to provide remote display and input capabilities over
network connections for Windows-based applications running
on a server. RDP was first released with Windows Terminal
Services (TS) 4.0 based on an existing ITU T.120 family of
Network Protocols Dictionary 335
protocols with limited features and performances. Windows
2000 TS and the RDP 5.0 protocol include several critical new
features together with some significant performance improvements over all types of network connections, including LAN,
WAN, and dial-up.
Microsoft Protocol
RFC: Request for Comments
Request for Comments (RFC), a series of documents about
the Internet technologies, started in 1969 (when the Internet
was the ARPANET). The documents discuss many aspects of
computing and computer communication focusing in networking protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, but also
including meeting notes, opinion, and sometimes humor. The
specification documents of the Internet protocol suite, as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its
steering group (the IESG), are published as RFCs. Many of
the TCP/IP protocols and PPP protocols are defined by rfc’s.
IETF Protocol
RGMP: Router Port Group Management Protocol
249
The Router Port Group Management Protocol (RGMP) is defined by Cisco Systems to address the limitations of Internet
Group Management Protocol (IGMP) in its Snooping mechanism. RGMP is used between multicast routers and switches
to restrict multicast packet forwarding in switches to those
routers where the packets may be needed. RGMP is designed
for backbone switched networks where multiple, high-speed
routers are interconnected.
Cisco Protocol
RIP: Routing Information Protocol
63
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a standard for exchange
of routing information among gateways and hosts. This protocol is most useful as an “interior gateway protocol”. In a nationwide network such as the current Internet, there are many
routing protocols used for the whole network. The network will
be organized as a collection of “autonomous systems”. Each
autonomous system will have its own routing technology, which
may well be different for different autonomous systems. The
routing protocol used within an autonomous system is referred
to as an interior gateway protocol, or “IGP”.
IETF Specification: RFC 1058
RIP2: Routing Information Protocol version 2
63
Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP2) is an extension
of the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), intended to expand
the amount of useful information carried in the RIP2 messages
and to add a measure of security. RIP2 is a UDP-based protocol. Each host that uses RIP2 has a routing process that sends
and receives datagrams on UDP port number 520. RIP and
RIP2 are for the IPv4 network while the RIPng is designed for
the IPv6 network.
IETF Specification: RFC 2453
RIPng: Routing Information Protocol for the IPv6
64
Routing Information Protocol for the IPv6 (RIPng), is based on
protocols and algorithms used extensively in the IPv4 Internet. In an international network such as the Internet, there are
many routing protocols used for the entire network. The network will be organized as a collection of Autonomous Systems
(AS). Each AS will have its own routing technology, which may
differ among AS’s. The routing protocol used within an AS is
336 Appendices
referred to as an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). A separate
protocol, called an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), is used
to transfer routing information among the AS’s.
IETF Specification: RFC 2080
RIPX: Routing Information Protocol for IPX
Routing Information Protocol for IPX (RIPX), a Novell NetWare
protocol, is used to collect, maintain and exchange correct
routing information among gateways within the Internet for
NetWare nodes.
Novell Protocol
rlogin: remote login
25
Remote login (rlogin) is a UNIX remote login command that
allows an authorized user to log in to other UNIX machines
(hosts) on a network and to interact as if the user were physically at the host computer. Once logged in to the host, the user
can do anything that the host has given permission for, such as
read, edit or delete files.
IETF Specification: RFC 1282
RLP: Radio Link Protocol
Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is a link layer protocol used for
2G(GSM and cdmaOne) and CDMA-2000 (3G) networkbased error correction to ensure robust data transmission.
RLP terminates at the Mobile Station(MS) and the Interworking Function(IMF) generally located at the Mobile Switching
Centre(MSC). Cellular networks such as GSM and CDMA and
CDMA-2000 use different variations of RLP.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.20
RM Cell: Resource Management Cell
Resource Management (RM) cell is a protocol in the ATM suite
for Available Bit Rate (ABR) services. RM Cells are used to
convey ATM network status (available bandwidth, congestion
levels) and request peak cell rates for ATM blocks. RM cells
are standard 53-byte ATM cells with the payload type field in
the header set to a binary value of 110. Forward RM cells are
sent to the destination end-system on the same VC as data
cells and at an interval defined by the number of RM cells
(NRM) parameter. By default, a source ABR device sends one
forward RM cell for every 32 data cells.
ITU-T Protocol
RMON: Remote Monitoring
26
Remote Monitoring (RMON) is a standard monitoring specification that enables various network monitors and console systems to exchange network-monitoring data. RMON provides
network administrators with more freedom in selecting network-monitoring probes and consoles with features that meet
their particular networking needs. RMON has two versions:
RMON1 and RMON2.
IETF Specification: RFC 2819 and RFC 2021
RMON1: Remote Network Monitoring version 1
Remote Network Monitoring version 1 (RMON1 or RMONv1)
can now be found on most modern network hardware, defined
9 MIB groups for basic network monitoring.
IETF Specification: RFC 2819
RMON2: Remote Network Monitoring version 2
Remote Network Monitoring version 2 (RMON2 or RMONv2)
is an extension of RMON that focuses on higher layers of traffic above the medium access control (MAC) layer. RMON2 has
an emphasis on IP traffic and application level traffic. RMON2
allows network management applications to monitor packets
on all network layers.
Network Protocols Dictionary
IETF Specification: RFC 2021
ROSE: Remote Operations Service Element Protocol
224
The Remote Operations Service Element Protocol (ROSE),
an ISO protocol, is a protocol that provides remote operation
capabilities, allows interaction between entities in a distributed
application and, upon receiving a remote operations service
request, allows the receiving entity to attempt the operation
and report the results of the attempt to the requesting entity.
The ROSE protocol itself is only a vehicle for conveying the
arguments and results of the operation as defined by the application.
ISO Protocol
RP: DECnet Routing Protocol
274
DECnet Routing Protocol (RP), similar to Routing Information Protocol in the IP network, distributes routing information
among DECnet hosts.
DEC/HP Protocol
RPC Mount Procedures
RPC Mount Procedures are the services for the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) to initiate client access to a server supporting RPC.
Sun Protocol
RPC NFS Procedures
RPC NFS Procedures refer to the Network File System (NFS)
implementation using the RPC Protocol. All NFS operations
are implemented as RPC procedures.
Sun Protocol
RPC: Remote Procedure Call
43
Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol for requesting a
service from a program located in a remote computer through
a network, without having to understand the underlayer network technologies. RPC presumes the existence of a low-level
transport protocol, such as TCP or UDP, for carrying the message data between communicating programs.
Sun / IETF Specification: RFC 1831
RPC-PMP: RPC Port Mapper Procedures
RPC Port Mapper Procedures are the Port Mapper (PMAP)
protocol which manages the allocation of transport layer ports
to network server applications, which eliminates the need to reserve permanently a port number for each application because
only the PMAP application itself requires a reserved port.
Sun Protocol
RPR: Resilient Packet Ring
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), defined by the IEEE’s 802.17
working group, is a Layer 2 MAC-based technology to bring
SONET-like abilitites to metro Ethernet networks, by adding
support for a ring topology and fast recovery from fiber cuts
and link failures at Layer 2. RPR uses Ethernet switching and
a dual counter-rotating ring topology to provide SONET-like
network resiliency and optimized bandwidth usage, while delivering multipoint Ethernet/IP services. RPR maintains its own
protection scheme and uses physical-layer alarm information
and Layer 2 protocol communications to detect node and/or
link failures. When a failure is detected, the RPR switching
mechanism restores networks in less than 50 milli-seconds.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.17
rsh: Remote Shell Protocol
Remote Shell Protocol (rsh) is a protocol that allows a user to
Network Protocols Dictionary 337
Appendices
execute commands on a remote system without having to log
in to the system. For example, rsh can be used to remotely
examine the status of a number of access servers without
connecting to each communication server, executing the command, and then disconnecting from the communication server.
rsh originated as part of the BSD Unix operating system as
part of the rlogin package on 4.2BSD in 1983. rsh has since
been ported to other operating systems. rsh is mostly replaced
by a more secured protocol called Secure Shell protocol(SSH)
in today’s environment.
RSS: Really Simple Syndication
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a lightweight XML format
designed for sharing headlines and other Web content. RSS
becomes a popular means of sharing content between sites.
RSS solves myriad problems webmasters commonly face,
such as increasing traffic, and gathering and distributing news.
RSS can also be used for additional content distribution services.
W3C Protocol
RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), defined in the IEEE
802.1w, is an evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
defined in IEEE 802.1d. RSTP provides for faster spanning
tree convergence after a topology change. RSTP provides a
loop free topology for any LAN or bridged network.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802
RSVP: Resource Reservation Protocol
65
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a resource reservation setup protocol designed for quality integrated services
over the Internet. RSVP is used by a host to request specific
qualities of service from the network for particular application
data streams or flows. RSVP is also used by routers to deliver
quality-of-service (QoS) requests to all nodes along the path(s)
of the flows and to establish and maintain state to provide the
requested service. RSVP requests will generally result in resources being reserved in each node along the data path.
IETF Specification: RFC 2205
RSVP-TE: Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic
Extension
82
The Resource Reservation Protocol – Traffic Extension
(RSVP-TE) is an addition to the RSVP protocol for establishing
label switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks. The extended
RSVP protocol supports the instantiation of explicitly routed
LSPs, with or without resource reservations. It also supports
smooth rerouting of LSPs, preemption and loop detection.
IETF Specification: RFC 3209
RSUP: Reliable SAP Update Protocol
Reliable SAP Update Protocol (RSUP) is a bandwidth-saving
protocol developed by Cisco for propagating services information. RSUP allows routers to reliably send standard Novell
SAP packets only when the routers detect a change in advertised services. RSUP can transport network information either
in conjunction with or independently of the Enhanced IGRP
routing function for IPX.
Cisco Protocol
RTCP: RTP Control Protocol
127
The RTP control protocol (RTCP) is based on the periodic
transmission of control packets to all participants in the session, using the same distribution mechanism as the data packets. The underlying protocol must provide multiplexing of the
data and control packets, for example using separate port
numbers with UDP.
IETF Specification: RFC 3350
RTMP: Real Time Messaging Protocol
Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Adobe Systems (formerly Macromedia)
that is primarily used with Macromedia Flash Media Server to
stream audio and video over the internet to the Macromedia
Flash Player client. The default connection port is port 1935.
Adobe Protocol
RTMP: Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP), based on Routing Information Protocol (RIP), is a communication protocol
used by AppleTalk to ensure that all routers on the network
have consistent routing information. RTMP establishes and
maintains the routing information that is required to route datagrams from any source socket to any destination socket in an
AppleTalk network. Using RTMP, routers dynamically maintain
routing tables to reflect changes in topology.
Apple Protocol
RTP: Rapid Transport Protocol
Rapid Transport Protocol (RTP) provides pacing and error recovery for IBM APPN data as it crosses the APPN network.
With RTP, error recovery and flow control are done end-toend rather than at every node. RTP prevents congestion rather
than reacts to it.
IBM Protocol
RTP: Real-Time Transport Protocol
126
The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end
delivery services for data with real-time characteristics, such
as interactive audio and video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. Applications typically run
RTP on top of UDP to make use of its multiplexing and checksum services; both protocols contribute parts of the transport
protocol functionality. However, RTP may be used with other
suitable underlying network or transport protocols.
IETF Specification: RFC 3550
RTP: VINES Routing Table Protocol
VINES Routing Table Protocol (RTP), a network layer protocol
in the VINES protocol stack, distributes network topology information. Routing update packets are broadcast periodically by
both client and service nodes. These packets inform neighbors
of a node’s existence and also indicate whether the node is a
client or a service node. In each routing update packet, service
nodes include a list of all known networks and the cost factors
associated with reaching those networks.
Banyan Protocol
RTSE: Reliable Transfer Service Element
226
Reliable Transfer Service Element (RTSE), an ISO application
layer protocol, provides for the reliable transfer of bulk data
by transforming the data into a string of octets, then breaking the string into segments and handing each segment to the
Presentation Layer for delivery. Checkpoints are established
between segments. Through the services of the Presentation
Layer, RTSE uses the activity management services of the
Session Layer to manage the transfer of the collection of segments that make up the bulk data.
ISO Protocol
RTSP: Real-Time Streaming Protocol
113
The Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) establishes and
338 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
controls either a single or several time-synchronized streams
of continuous media, such as audio and video. RTSP does not
typically deliver the continuous streams itself, although interleaving of the continuous media stream with the control stream
is possible. In other words, RTSP acts as a “network remote
control” for multimedia servers. RTSP provides an extensible
framework to enable controlled, on-demand delivery of realtime data, such as audio and video.
IETF Specification: RFC 2326
RUDP: Reliable UDP
46
Reliable UDP (RUDP) is a simple packet-based transport protocol which was intended as a reliable transport protocol to
transport telephony signaling across IP networks. RUDP is designed to allow characteristics of each connection to be individually configured so that a number of protocols with different
transport requirements can be implemented simultaneously
not on the same platform.
IETF Specification: draft
S
S/MIME: Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail
21
Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail (S/MIME), a secure version of MIME, is defined to support encryption of email messages. S/MIME provides the following cryptographic security
services for electronic messaging applications: authentication,
message integrity and non-repudiation of origin and privacy
and data security. S/MIME can be used by traditional mail user
agents (MUAs) to add cryptographic security services to mail
that is sent, and to interpret cryptographic security services
in mail that is received. However, S/MIME is not restricted to
mail; it can be used with any transport mechanism that transports MIME data, such as HTTP.
IETF Specification: RFC 2632 and RFC 2633
SABP: Service Area Broadcast Protocol
Service Area Broadcast Protocol (SABP) is a 3G UMTS protocol for information broadcasting services, which allows cellular
operators to deliver information such as stock prices, traffic
information, weather reports and emergency alerts to mobile
users within selected cells of the network.
3GPP TS 25.419 Specification: 3GPP
SAN: Storage Area Network
207
Storage Area Network (SAN) is a high-speed network or subnetwork whose primary purpose is to transfer data between
computer and storage systems. A storage device is a machine
that contains nothing but a disk or disks for storing data. A
SAN consists of a communication infrastructure, which provides physical connections, and of a management layer, which
organizes the connections, storage elements and computer
systems so that data transfer is secure and robust.
SAP: Service Advertising Protocol
114
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP), a protocol in the Novell’s
Netware suite, provides information about what servers are
available on the network. SAP is used to inform network clients, via routers and servers, of available network resources
and services.
Novell Protocol
SAP: Session Announcement Protocol
114
Session Announcement Protocol (SAP) is an announcement
protocol that is used to assist the advertisement of multicast
multimedia conferences and other multicast sessions and to
communicate the relevant session setup information to prospective participants.
IETF Specification: RFC 2974
SAS: Serial Attached SCSI
215
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) is an evolutionary replacement for
the Parallel SCSI physical storage interface. Serial Attached
SCSI offers much faster communication and easier configuration. In addition, Serial Attached SCSI provides device compatibility with Serial ATA and uses similar cabling.
ANSI Protocol
SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part
283
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP), a routing protocol
in the SS7 protocol suite (in layer 4), provides end-to-end routing for TCAP messages to their proper databases. SCCP offers enhancements to MTP level 3 to provide connectionless
and connection-oriented network services, as well as to address translation capabilities.
ITU-T Protocol
SCCP: Skinny Client Control Protocol
118
Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP or Skinny) is a Cisco
proprietary protocol used between Cisco Call Manager and
Cisco VOIP phones. It is also supported by some other vendors. For VOIP solutions, the end station of a LAN or IP-based
PBX must be simple to use, familiar and relatively cheap.
SCCP defines a simple and easy to use architecture, while the
H.323 recommendations produce quite an expensive system.
An H.323 proxy can be used to communicate with the Skinny
Client using the SCCP.
Cisco Protocol
SCP: Session Control Protocol
Session Control Protocol (SCP), a DECnet protocol, manages
logical links for DECnet connections.
DEC/HP Protocol
SCSI: Small Computer System Interface
215
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), an ANSI standard,
is a parallel interface standard used by Apple Macintosh computers, PCs and many UNIX systems for attaching peripheral
devices to computers. SCSI interfaces provide for faster data
transmission rates than standard serial and parallel ports. In
addition, you can attach many devices to a single SCSI port.
ANSI Protocol
SCSP: Server Cache Synchronization Protocol
Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP) is designed to
solve the generalized cache synchronization/cache-replication
problem for distributed protocol entities. SCSP synchronizes
caches (or a portion of the caches) of a set of server entities of
a particular protocol which are bound to a Server Group (SG).
The client/server protocol which a particular server uses is
identified by a Protocol ID (PID). SGs are identified by a SGID.
The combination PID/SGID identifies both the client/server
protocol for which the servers of the SG are being synchronized as well as the instance of that protocol. An example of
types of information that must be synchronized can be seen in
NHRP using IP where the information includes the registered
clients’ IP to NBMA mappings in the SG LIS. The algorithm
used in SCSP is quite similar to that used in Open Shortest
Path First (OSPF) protocol.
IETF Specification: RFC 2334
SCTP: Stream Control Transmission Protocol 130
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), a part of the
Network Protocols Dictionary 339
Appendices
Signalling Transport (SIGTRAN) protocol family, was designed
to transport PSTN signaling messages (SS7/C7) over IP networks but is capable of broader applications. SCTP is a reliable transport protocol operating on top of a connectionless
packet network such as IP. SCTP is designed to address the
limitations and complexity of TCP while transporting real time
signaling and data such as SS7/C7 over an IP network. SCTP
can also run on top of the UDP layer.
IETF Specification: RFC 2960
SDCP: Serial Data Control Protocol
Serial Data Control Protocol (SDCP), a link control protocol in
the PPP suite, is responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling the Serial Data Transport Protocol (SDTP) modules on
both ends of the point-to-point link. SDTP together with its associated protocol SDCP was developed for using PPP’s many
features to provide a standard method for synchronous data
compression. STDP and SDTP represent a component of a
proposal to use PPP to provide compression of synchronous
data in DSU/CSUs.
IETF Specification: RFC 1963
SDH: Synchronous Data Link Hierarchy
Synchronous Data Link Hierarchy (SDH) is a European standard for data transmission over optical fiber network equivalent to SONET of North America. SDH’s basic unit, the STM-1
(Synchronous Transport Module-level 1), operates at 155.52
Mbit/s. Transmission rates of up to 10 Gbit/s can be achieved
in today’s SDH systems, and the 40 Gbit/s systems are possible. SDH systems are fully compatiable to SONET systems.
ITU-T Specification: G.707, G. 708 and G.709
SDLC: Synchronous Data Link Control
270
The Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) protocol is an
IBM data link layer protocol for use in the Systems Network
Architecture (SNA) environment.The data link control Layer
provides the error-free movement of data between the Network Addressable Units (NAUs) within a given communication
network via the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) Protocol. The flow of information passes down from the higher
layers through the data link control Layer and is passed into
the physical control Layer.
IBM Protocol
SDP: Session Description Protocol
115
The Session Description Protocol (SDP) describes multimedia
sessions for the purpose of session announcement, session
invitation and other forms of multimedia session initiation.Session directories assist the advertisement of conference sessions and communicate the relevant conference setup information to prospective participants. SDP is designed to convey
such information to recipients.
IETF Specification: RFC 2327
SDP: Service Discovery Protocol
The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP or Bluetooth SDP) in the
Bluetooth protocol stack provides special means for applications in the Bluetooth environment to discover which services
are available and to determine the characteristics of those
available services. The SDP defines how a Bluetooth client’s
application shell acts to discover available Bluetooth servers’
services and their characteristics. The protocol defines how client can search for a service based on specific attributes without the client knowing anything of the available services. The
SDP provides means for discovery of new services become
becoming available when the client enters an area where a
Bluetooth server is operating. The SDP also provides functionality for detecting when a service is no longer available.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.1
SDSL: Single-line Digital Subscriber Line
158
Single-line Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL), also known as
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line, is one variaton of DSL
technologies that provides equal bandwidth for both uploads
and downloads. SDSL delivers 1.544 Mbps both downstream
and upstream over a single copper twisted pair. The use of a
single twisted pair limits the operating range of SDSL to 10,000
feet (3048.8 meters).
ANSI/ITU Protocol
SDSL: Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
158
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL), also known as Single-line Digital Subscriber Line, is one variaton of DSL technologies that provides equal bandwidth for both uploads and
downloads. SDSL delivers 1.544 Mbps both downstream and
upstream over a single copper twisted pair. The use of a single
twisted pair limits the operating range of SDSL to 10,000 feet
(3048.8 meters).
ANSI/ITU Protocol
SDTP: Serial Data Transport Protocol
Serial Data Transport Protocol (SDTP), a network-level protocol in the PPP suite, is used for synchronous serial data
compression over a PPP link, provides encapsulation and an
associated Serial Data Control Protocol (SDCP) for transporting serial data streams over a PPP link. SDTP together with its
associated protocol SDCP were developed for the purpose of
using PPP’s many features to provide a standard method for
synchronous data compression. STDP and SDTP represent a
component of a proposal to use PPP to provide compression
of synchronous data in DSU/CSUs.
IETF Specification: RFC 1963
SER: Serialization packet
Serialization packet (SER), a protocol in the Novell NetWare
suite, ensures that a single version of NetWare is not being
loaded on multiple servers.
Novell Protocol
SGCP: Simple Gateway Control Protocol
Simple Gateway Control Protocol (SGCP), a Cisco protocol
for VOIP, is designed for media gateway control and signaling. SGCP controls Voice over IP gateways by an external call
control element (called a call-agent). SGCP is not deployed in
the real world and is obsoleted by the Media Gateway Control
Protocol (MGCP) and Megaco.
Cisco & Telcordia Protocol
SGML: Standardized Generalized Markup Language
Standardized Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is an international standard for the definition of system-independent,
device-independent methods of representing text in electronic
form. SGML is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. XML is derived from SGML and
now dwarfs SGML in terms of breadth of application. XML is
a profile—a specific subset of SGML—designed to be simpler
to parse and process than full SGML, and to have more lightweight internationalization. XML is a simplification of SGML for
general-purpose applications.
ISO Specification: ISO 8879
SGMP: Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol
Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol (SGMP) is a network
340 Appendices
management protocol that was considered for Internet standardization and later evolved into SNMP.
IETF Specification: RFC 1028
SHDSL: Symmetric High-speed DSL
Symmetric High-speed DSL (SHDSL), also known as G.shdsl,
achieves 20% better loop-reach than older versions of symmetric DSL. SHDSL causes much less crosstalk into other
transmission systems in the same cable, and multi-vendor interoperability is facilitated by the standardization of this technology. SHDSL systems may operate at many bit-rates, from
192 kbps to 5.7 Mbps, thereby maximizing the bit-rate for each
customer. G.shdsl specifies operation via one pair of wires, or
for operation on longer loops, two pairs of wire may be used.
For example, with two pairs of wire, 1.2 Mbps can be sent over
20,000 feet of 26 AWG wire. SHDSL is best suited to dataonly applications that need high upstream bit-rates. Though
SHDSL does not carry voice like ADSL, new voice-over-DSL
techniques may be used to convey digitized voice and data
via SHDSL.
ITU-T Specification: G.991.2 or “Symmetric HDSL”
Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line
Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL) is a
form of Digital Subscriber Line similar to HDSL but providing
T1 or E1 connections over a single twisted-pair copper line.
See SHDSL.
S-HTTP: Secure HTTP
17
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) is a secure message-oriented communications protocol designed for use in conjunction with
HTTP. S-HTTP is designed to coexist with HTTP’s messaging
model and to be easily integrated with HTTP applications.
IETF Specification: RFC 2660
Signaling System #7 (SS7)
276
Signaling System #7 (SS7) is a telecommunications protocol
suite, defined by the ITU-T, which is used by telephone companies for interoffice signaling. SS7 uses out-of-band or common-channel signaling (CCS) techniques, which use a separated packet-switched network for the signaling purpose. SS7
is also known as Common Channel Signaling System 7 (CCS7
or C7) outside North America.
AT-T Protocol
SIGTRAN: Signaling Transport
129
Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) refers to a protocol stack for
the transport of Switched Circuit Network (SCN) signaling protocols (such as SS7/C7 an Q.931) over an IP network. SIGTRAN, an evolution of the PSTN signaling, defines adaptors
and a core transport capabilities that blend SS7 and packet
protocols to provide users with the best both technologies
have to offer. Applications of SIGTRAN include: Internet dialup remote access, IP telephony interworking with PSTN and
other services as identified.
IETF Specification: RFC 2719
SIMPLE: Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions
Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence
Leveraging Extensions(SIMPLE) is an open standard instant
messaging (IM) and presence protocol suite based on Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP). SIMPLE applies the SIP to the problems of: 1) Registering for presence information and receiving
notifications when such events occur, for example when a user
logs-in or comes back from lunch. 2) Managing a session of
Network Protocols Dictionary
real-time messages between two or more participants.
IETF Specification: RFC 3428
SIP: Session Initiation Protocol
116
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer control
protocol that can establish, modify and terminate multimedia
sessions such as Internet telephony calls. SIP can also invite
participants to already existing sessions, such as multicast
conferences. Media can be added to (and removed from) an
existing session. SIP transparently supports name mapping
and redirection services, which supports personal mobility; users can maintain a single externally visible identifier regardless
of their network location.
IETF Specification: RFC 3261
SIP: SMDS Interface Protocol
SMDS Interface Protocol(SIP) is used for communications between CPE and SMDS carrier equipment. SIP provides connectionless service across the subscriber network interface
(SNI), allowing the CPE to access the SMDS network. SIP is
based on the IEEE 802.6 Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB)
standard for cell relay across metropolitan-area networks
(MANs). SIP consists of three levels. SIP Level 3 operates at
the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer
of the OSI reference model. SIP Level 2 operates at the MAC
sublayer of the data link layer. SIP Level 1 operates at the
physical layer of the OSI reference model.
Bellcore
SIP-T: SIP for Telephones
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Telephones (SIP-T), previously known as SIP-BCP-T, is a mechanism that uses SIP
to facilitate the interconnection of the PSTN with IP. SIP-T allows traditional IN-type services to be seamlessly handled in
the Internet environment. It is essential that SS7 information
be available at the points of PSTN interconnection to ensure
transparency of features not otherwise supported in SIP. SS7
information should be available in its entirety and without any
loss to the SIP network across the PSTN-IP interface. SIPT defines SIP functions that map to ISUP interconnection requirements.
IETF Specification: RFC 3372
Skinny
118
Skinny, also known as Skinney Client Control Protocol (SCCP),
is a Cisco proprietary protocol used between Cisco Call Manager and Cisco VOIP phones. It is also supported by some
other vendors. For VOIP solutions, the end station of a LAN
or IP-based PBX must be simple to use, familiar and relatively
cheap. SCCP defines a simple and easy to use architecture,
while the H.323 recommendations produce quite an expensive
system. An H.323 proxy can be used to communicate with the
Skinny Client using the SCCP.
Cisco Protocol
SLIP: Serial Line IP
86
Serial Line IP (SLIP) is a protocol used for point-to-point serial
connections running TCP/IP. SLIP is commonly used on dedicated serial links, and, sometimes, for dialup purposes, and is
usually used with line speeds between 1200bps and 19.2Kbps.
SLIP is useful for allowing mixes of hosts and routers to communicate with one another (host-host, host-router and routerrouter are all common SLIP network configurations).
IETF Specification: RFC 1055
SLP: Service Location Protocol
28
Appendices
The Service Location Protocol (SLP) provides a scalable framework for the discovery and selection of network services. Using this protocol, computers using the Internet no longer need
so much static configuration for network services and networkbased applications. This is especially important as computers
become more portable, and users less tolerant or less able to
fulfill the demands of network system administration.
IETF Specification: RFC 2165
SMB: Sever Message Block
261
Server Message Block (SMB) protocol is an IBM protocol for
sharing files, printers, serial ports, etc between computers.
The SMB protocol can be used over the Internet on top of the
TCP/IP protocol or other network protocols, such as Internetwork Packet Exchange (Novell IPX) and NetBEUI.
IBM Protocol
SMDS: Switched Multimegabit Data Service
204
Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) is a broadband
networking technology, developed by Bellcore and based on
the IEEE 802.6 DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus) technology.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.6
SMLCPP: Serving Mobile Location Center Peer to
Peer Protocol
Serving Mobile Location Center Peer to Peer Protocol (SMLCPP) is a transport protocol for the communication between
the Serving Mobile Location Centers (SMLCs). The main functions of SMLCPP are: 1) allowing an SMLC to ask for and obtain information about Radio Interface Timing (RIT), as known
from measurements done by LMUs not under its direct control;
2) allowing an SMLC, that controls deciphering keys in the location area, to sent them to other SMLCs in the same location
area.
ETSI Specification: ETSI GSM 08.31
SMPP: Short Message Peer to Peer
Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) is a protocol for exchange short messages between SMS peer entities such as
short message service centers. SMPP is often used to allow
third parties (e.g. value-added service providers like news organisations) to submit messages, often in bulk.
Aldiscon/Logica Protocol
SMRP: Simple Multicast Routing Protocol
The Simple Multicast Routing Protocol (SMRP) is a transport
layer protocol developed to route multimedia data streams over
AppleTalk networks. It supports Apple Computer’s QuickTime
Conferencing (QTC) technology. SMRP provides connectionless, best-effort delivery of multicast datagrams and relies on
underlying network layer protocols for services. In particular,
SMRP facilitates the transmission of data from a single source
to multiple destinations.
Apple Protocol
SMS: Short Message Service
Short Message Services is a mechanism of delivery of short
messages over the mobile networks. SMS was originally designed as part of GSM, but is now available on a wide range
of networks, including 3G networks. There are two forms of
SMS: Short Message Service - Point-to-Point (SMS-PP) and
Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). The message length is 140 bytes. Larger contents (known as long SMS
or concatenated SMS) can be sent segmentedly over multiple
messages, in which case each message will start with a user
Network Protocols Dictionary 341
data header (UDH) containing segmentation information.
3GPP Specification: GSM 03.40 and GSM 03.41
SMS-CB: Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast
Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB), a form of
Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages
over the mobile networks, allows messages (advertising, public information, etc.) to be broadcast to all mobile users in a
specified geographical area.
3GPP Specification: GSM 03.40
SMS-PP: Short Message Service - Point to Point
Short Message Service - Point to Point (SMS-PP), a form of
Short Message Service for the delivering of short messages
over the mobile networks, provides, allows messages to be
sent from an individual to another.
3GPP Specification: GSM 03.40
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
29
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol designed
to transfer electronic mails reliably and efficiently. SMTP is a
mail service modeled on the FTP file transfer service. SMTP
transfers mail messages between systems and provides notification regarding incoming mail.
IETF Specification: RFC 2821
SNA NAU: Network Accessible Units
263
Network Accessible Units (NAUs), formerly called “network addressable units”, are the IBM Systems Network Architecture
(SNA) components to facilitate the communication between
a Transaction Program (TP) and the SNA network. NAUs
are unique network resources that can be accessed through
unique local addresses by other network resources.
IBM Protocol
SNA: System Network Architeture
5
The Systems Network Architecture (SNA) defined by IBM is
one of the most popular network architecture models. Although
now considered a legacy networking model, SNA is still widely deployed. SNA was designed around the host-to-terminal
communication model that IBM’s mainframes use.
IBM Protocol
SNACP: SNA PPP Control Protocol
SNA PPP Control Protocol (SNACP), is responsible for configuring, enabling and disabling SNA on both ends of the pointpoint link (PPP). SNACP uses the same packet exchange
mechanism as the Link Control Protocol (LCP). SNACP packets may not be exchanged until PPP has reached the Network-Layer Protocol phase. SNACP packets received before
this phase is reached should be silently discarded. There are
two SNA Network Control Protocols; one for SNA over LLC
802.2 and the other for SNA without LLC 802.2.
IETF Specification: RFC 2043
SNAP: SubNetwork Access Protocol
199
The SubNetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) is a standard for
the transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks. In
other words, IP datagrams can be sent on IEEE 802 networks
encapsulated within the 802.2 LLC and SNAP data link layers
and the 802.3, 802.4 or 802.5 physical network layers.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.2
SNDCP: Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol
The Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) provides services to the higher layers which may include
342 Appendices
connectionless and connection-oriented mode, compression,
multiplexing and segmentation. SNDCP is used in a number
of different technologies. The General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS) uses the SNDCP layer services. SNDCP can operate
within the Mobile Station (MS) or Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN) depending on the option selected by the customer.
ETSI Protocol
SNI: Subscriber Network Interface
Subscriber Network Interface (SNI) refers to the TDM access
links such as DS0, DS1/T1, DS3/T3, E1, E3 that connects
CPE and an SMDS switch of the PSTN network.
ANSI Protocol
SNMP MIB: Simple Network Management Protocol
Management Information Base
Simple Network Management Protocol Management Information Base (SNMP-MIB) is managed objects that could be
accessed via a virtual information store through the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Objects in the MIB
are defined using the mechanisms defined in the Structure of
Management Information (SMI).
IETF Specification: RFC 3418
SNMP-OID: SNMP Object Identifiers
SNMP Object Identifiers (SNMP-OID) are the sequences of integers on the path leading from the root of the tree to a named
object. SNMP uses an Object Identifier (OID) to specify the
exact parameter to set or get in the tree.
IETF Protocol
SNMP-RMON: SNMP Remote Network Monitoring
SNMP Remote Network Monitoring (SNMP-RMON), also
known as Remote Monitoring (RMON), is a standard monitoring specification that enables various network monitors and
console systems to exchange network-monitoring data. RMON
provides network administrators with more freedom in selecting network-monitoring probes and consoles with features that
meet their particular networking needs. RMON has two versions: RMON1 and RMON2.
IETF Specification: RFC 2819 and RFC 2021
SNMP-RMON1: SNMP Remote Network Monitoring
version 1
SNMP Remote Network Monitoring version 1 (SNMP-RMON1),
also known as RMON1, RMONv1, which can now be found on
most modern network hardware, defined 9 MIB groups for basic network monitoring.
IETF Specification: RFC 2819
SNMP-RMON2: SNMP Remote Network Monitoring
version 2
SNMP Remote Network Monitoring version 2 (SNMP-RMON2),
also known as RMON2, is an extension of RMON that focuses
on higher layers of traffic above the medium access control
(MAC) layer. RMON2 has an emphasis on IP traffic and application level traffic. RMON2 allows network management applications to monitor packets on all network layers.
IETF Specification: RFC 2021
SNMP-SMI: SNMP Structure of Management Information
SNMP Structure of Management Information (SNMP-SMI) is a
collection of managed objects, residing in a virtual information
store. The SMI is divided into three parts: module definitions,
object definitions, and notification definitions. There are two
Network Protocols Dictionary
types of SMI: SMIv1 and SMIv2.
IETF Specification: RFC 1155 v1 and RFC 2578 v2
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
30
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the standard
protocol developed to manage nodes (servers, workstations,
routers, switches and hubs, etc) on an IP network. SNMP enables network administrators to manage network performance,
find, solve network problems and plan for network growth.
Network management systems learn of problems by receiving
traps or change notices from network devices implementing
SNMP.
IETF Specification: RFC 1157, 1441, 3410
SNMPv1: Simple Network Management Protocol
version 1
31
Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 (SNMPv1)
is a simple request/response protocol. The network management system issues a request to the managed devices that
return responses. This behavior is implemented by using one
of four protocol operations: Get, GetNext, Set and Trap. The
Get operation is used by the NMS to retrieve the value of one
or more object instances from an agent. If the agent responding to the Get operation cannot provide values for all the object
instances in a list, it does not provide any values.
IETF Specification: RFC 1157
SNMPv2: Simple Network Management Protocol
version 2
32
Simple Network Management Protocol version 2 (SNMPv2) is
an evolution of SNMPv1. The Get, GetNext, and Set operations used in SNMPv1 are exactly the same as those used in
SNMPv2. However, SNMPv2 adds and enhances some protocol operations. The SNMPv2 Trap operation, for example,
serves the same function as that used in SNMPv1 but uses
a different message format and is designed to replace the
SNMPv1 Trap.
IETF Specification: RFC 1441
SNMPv3: Simple Network Management Protocol
version 3
34
Simple Network Management Protocol version 3 (SNMPv3)
adds security and remote configuration capabilities to the previous versions. The SNMPv3 architecture introduces the Userbased Security Model (USM) for message security and the
View-based Access Control Model (VACM) for access control.
The architecture supports the concurrent use of different security, access control and message processing models.
IETF Specification: RFC 3410
SNTP: Simple Network Time Protocol
35
The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is an adaptation
of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) used to synchronize computer clocks on the Internet. SNTP can be used when the ultimate performance of the full NTP implementation is not needed or justified. When operating with current and previous NTP
and SNTP versions, SNTP involves no changes to the NTP
specification or known implementations, but rather a clarification of certain design features of NTP which allow operation
in a simple, stateless remote-procedure call (RPC) mode with
accuracy and reliability expectations similar to the UDP/TIME
protocol.
IETF Specification: RFC 2030
SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
287
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a lightweight proto-
Appendices
col intended for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It uses XML technologies to
define an extensible messaging framework providing a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. The framework has been designed to be
independent of any particular programming model and other
implementation specific semantics.
W3C Protocol
SOCKS
102
The SOCKS protocol, also known as authenticated firewall
traversal (AFT), provides a framework for client-server applications in both the TCP and UDP domains to conveniently
and securely use the services of a network firewall. SOCKS
enables a proxy server to accept requests from client users in
a company’s network so that it can forward them across the
Internet. SOCKS uses sockets to represent and keep track of
individual connections. The client side of SOCKS is built into
certain Web browsers and the server side can be added to a
proxy server.
IETF Specification: RFC 1928
SOCKS v5
102
The SOCKS v5 is the latest version of the SOCKS protocol,
which provides a framework for client-server applications in
both the TCP and UDP domains to conveniently and securely
use the services of a network firewall. SOCKS v5 provides
stronger authentication than the SOCKS Version 4. SOCKS
v5 extends the SOCKS v4 model to include UDP, and extends
the framework to include provisions for generalized strong authentication schemes. It also adapts the addressing scheme to
encompass domain-name and IPv6 addresses.
IETF Specification: RFC 1928
SONET/SDH: Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) 150
The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy (SDH), often combined as SONET/SDH, are
a set of related standards for synchronous data transmission
over fiber optic networks that are often used for framing and
synchronization at the physical layer. SONET is the United
States version of the standard published by the American National Standards Institutue (ANSI). SDH is the international
version of the standard published by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Transmission rates of up to 10
Gbit/s can be achieved in today’s SONET/SDH systems and
the 40 Gbit/s systems are possible. SONET/SDH systems are
fully compatiable with each other.
ANSI / ITU-T Protocol
SONET: Synchronous Optical Network
150
The Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), the US version
of the standard published by the American National Standards
Institutue (ANSI), is a set of standards for synchronous data
transmission over fiber optic networks that are often used for
framing and synchronization at the physical layer. SONET is
based on transmission at speeds of multiples of 51.840 Mbps,
or STS-1. SDH is the international version of the standard published by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
Transmission rates of up to 10 Gbit/s can be achieved in today’s SONET systems, and the 40 Gbit/s systems are possible. SONET systems are fully compatiable to SDH systems.
ANSI Specification: ANSI T1.105
SPANS: Simple Protocol for ATM Network Signaling
Simple Protocol for ATM Network Signaling (SPANS) was de-
Network Protocols Dictionary 343
veloped by FORE Systems for use in ATM networks. The protocol specifies the signaling messages that are exchanged between hosts and the ATM network to perform functions such as
opening and closing connections. These functions allow hosts
and routers to use an ATM LAN as a subnet of a larger internet. In what follows, the term “network” is used to refer to the
network of ATM switches, and is distinct from the end systems
that communicate with the network.
FORE Systems Protocol
SPP: Sequenced Packet Protocol in VINES
The Sequenced Packet Protocol (SPP), a transport layer protocol in the VINES protocol stack, provides a reliable virtual
connection service for private connections.
Banyan Protocol
SPP: Sequenced Packet Protocol (Xerox)
Sequenced Packet Protocol (SPP), a transport layer protocol
in the Xerox protocol stack, provides a reliable virtual connection service for private connections.
Xerox Protocol
SPX: Sequenced Packet Exchange
259
The Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) protocol is Novell’s
legacy transport layer protocol providing a packet delivery service for Novell NetWare network. SPX is based on the Xerox Sequenced Packet Protocol (SPP). SPX operates on top
of IPX and is used in Novell NetWare (prior to NetWare 5.0)
systems for communications in client/server application programs, e.g. BTRIEVE (ISAM manager). SPX performs equivalent functions to TCP. The newer versions of NetWare services
are run on top of TCP/IP.
Novell Protocol
SRB: Source Routing Bridging
Source Routing Bridging (SRB) is a method of bridging originated by IBM and popular in Token Ring networks. In an SRB
network, the entire route to a destination is predetermined; in
real time, prior to the sending of data to the destination. SRBs
store and forward the frames as indicated by the route appearing in the appropriate frame field. Since its initial proposal, IBM
has offered a new bridging standard: the source-route transparent (SRT) bridging solution. Although SRT bridging has
achieved support, SRBs are still widely deployed.
IBM Protocol
SRCP: Simple Resource Control Protocol
Simple Resource Control Protocol(SRCP) is a set of extensions to MGCP to allow the VSC to poll the gateway about its
current configuration.
Cisco Protocol
SRP: Spatial Reuse Protocol
Spatial Reuse Protocol (SRP) is the underpinning of Cisco’s
proprietary metropolitan IP offerings, and will be a key component of the IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring (RPR).
Cisco Protocol
SRTP: Sequenced Routing Update Protocol
Sequenced Routing Update Protocol (SRTP) is VINES protocol that assists VINES servers in finding neighboring clients,
servers, and routers.
VINES Protocol
SS7: Signaling System 7
276
Signaling System #7 (SS7) is a telecommunications protocol
suite, defined by the ITU-T, which is used by telephone com-
344 Appendices
panies for interoffice signaling. SS7 uses out-of-band or common-channel signaling (CCS) techniques, which use a separated packet-switched network for the signaling purpose. SS7
is also known as Common Channel Signaling System 7 (CCS7
or C7) outside North America.
ITU-T Protocol
SSCOP: Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol
Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) is a
data link layer protocol in the B-ISDN suite that guarantees
the delivery of ATM signaling packets. SSCOP is responsible
for providing mechanisms for the establishment, release and
monitoring of signaling information exchanged between peer
signaling entities. SSCOP is positioned within the AAL architecture.
ITU-T Specification: ITU Q.2110
SSH: Secure Shell Protocol
90
Secure Shell Protocol(SSH) is a Unix-based command interface and protocol for secure remote login and other secure
network services over an insecure network. It is widely used by
network administrators to control Web and other kinds of servers remotely. SSH is actually a suite of utilities - slogin, ssh,
and scp - that are secure versions of the earlier UNIX utilities,
rlogin, rsh, and rcp. SSH consists of three major components
: (1) Transport Layer Protocol [SSH-TRANS]; (2) User Authentication Protocol [SSH-USERAUTH]; (3) Connection Protocol
[SSH-CONNECT].
IETF Specification: RFC 4251
SSL/TLS: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport
Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
101
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol provided privacy and data integrity between
two communicating applications. The protocol is composed
of two layers: the TLS Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake Protocol. At the lowest level, layered on top of some
reliable transport protocol (TCP) is the TLS Record Protocol.
SSL was renamed to TLS by IETF. But the SSL name has
gained enough popularity, and people still call the protocol SSL
or SST/TLS.
IETF Specification: RFC 2246
101
SSL: Secure Socket Layer
The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), a protocol originally defined
by Netscape, is a commonly-used protocol for managing the
security of a message transmission on the Internet. SSL has
been succeeded by Transport Layer Security (TLS). But the
SSL name has gained enough popularity, and people still call
the protocol SSL or SST/TLS. The protocol is composed of
two layers: the TLS Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake
Protocol. At the lowest level, layered on top of some reliable
transport protocol (TCP) is the TLS Record Protocol. SSL is
included as part of both the Microsoft and Netscape browsers
and most Web server products.
IETF Specification: RFC 2246
SSM: Source Specific Multicast
Source Specific Multicast(SSM) is a datagram delivery model
that supports one-to-many applications, also known as broadcast applications. SSM is intended to provide unambiguous
semantics to the designers of the protocols and host interfaces
used in conjunction with source-specific multicast.
IETF Specification: RFC 3569
Network Protocols Dictionary
SSP: Switch-to-Switch Protocol
Switch-to-Switch Protocol (SSP), specified in the DLSw standard, allows routers to establish DLSw connections, locate
resources, forward data, and handle flow control and error recovery.
IBM Protocol
SSRP: Simple Server Replication Protocol
Simple Server Replication Protocol (SSRP), also known as
Simple Server Redundancy Protocol, is an ATM LANE Services redundancy protocol. With SSRP, it is possible to have
more than one LES/BUS running in a LANE cloud and creates
fault-tolerance using standard LANE protocols and mechanisms.
ATM Forum Protocol
STM: Synchronous Transmission Module
Synchronous Transmission Module (STM), also known as
Synchronous Transfer Mode, is the basic rate of transmission
of the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network transmission standard. It
has a bit rate of 155.52 Mbit/s and is the SDH equivalent of an
OC-3 (SONET).
ITU-T Protocol
STM-0: Synchronous Transmission Module level
zero
Synchronous Transmission Module level zero (STM-0) is the
SDH ITU-T fiber optic network transmission standard. It has a
bit rate of 51.84 Mbit/s and is the SDH equivalent of an OC-1
(SONET).
ITU-T Protocol
STM-1: Synchronous Transmission Module level
one
Synchronous Transmission Module level one (STM-1) is the
basic rate of transmission of the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network
transmission standard. It has a bit rate of 155.52 Mbit/s and is
the SDH equivalent of an OC-3 (SONET).
ITU-T Protocol
STM-4: Synchronous Transmission Module level 4
Synchronous Transmission Module level 4 (STM-4) is one of
the transmission mode of the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network
transmission standard. It has a bit rate of 622.08 Mbit/s and is
the SDH equivalent of an OC-12 (SONET).
ITU-T Protocol
STM-n: Synchronous Transmission Module level n
Synchronous Transmission Module n (STM-n), also known as
Synchronous Transfer Mode n, refers to a group of the transmission modes of the SDH ITU-T fiber optic network transmission standard, which is the multiplexing “n” of the STM-1
frames.
ITU-T Protocol
STP: Spanning-Tree Protocol
200
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP), as defined in IEEE 802.1D, is a
link management protocol that provides path redundancy while
preventing undesirable loops in the network. For an Ethernet
network to function properly, only one active path can exist
between two stations. Loops occur in networks for a variety
of reasons. The most common reason for loops in networks is
a deliberate attempt to provide redundancy—in case that one
link or switch fails, another link or switch can take over.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1D
StreetTalk
Network Protocols Dictionary 345
Appendices
StreetTalk is an application protocol in the VINES protocol
stack which maintains a distributed directory of the names
of network resources. In VINES network, names are global
across the Internet and independent of the network topology.
Banyan Protocol
STS-1: Synchronous Transport Signal level 1
Synchronous Transport Signal level 1(STS-1) is the basic
building block signal of SONET, operating at 51.84 Mbps.
Faster SONET rates are defined as STS-n, where n is a multiple of 51.84 Mbps.
STS-3c: Synchronous Transport Signal level 3, concatenated
Synchronous Transport Signal level 3, concatenated(STS-3c)
is the SONET format that specifies the frame structure for the
155.52-Mbps lines used to carry ATM cells.
SUA: SS7 SCCP-User Adaptation Layer
SS7 SCCP User Adaptation Layer (SUA), a protocol in the
SIGTRAN protocol stack, provides SCCP-User signalling over
SCTP. SUA is intended to be used on a Provider/User basis
where SCCP resides on a Signalling Gateway (SG) and SCCP
Users reside on an Application Server (AS).
IETF Specification: RFC 3868
syslog
36
syslog, also known as syslog protocol, is a standard for forwarding log messages in an IP network. The term “syslog” is
often used for both the actual syslog protocol, as well as the
application or library sending syslog messages.
IETF Specification: RFC 3164
T
T.120
CACS) provides access control for routers, network access
servers and other networked computing devices via one or
more centralized servers. TACACS provides separate authentication, authorization and accounting services. There are three
versions of TACACS and the third version is called TACACS+,
which is not compatible with previous versions.
Cisco Protocol
TACACS+: Terminal Access Controller Access Con250
trol System (version 3)
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (version 3),
also known as TACACS+, provides access control for routers,
network access servers and other networked computing devices via one or more centralized servers. TACACS provides
separate authentication, authorization and accounting services. TACACS+ is not compatible with previous versions of
TACACS.
Cisco Protocol
TALI: Tekelec’s Transport Adapter Layer Interface
47
Tekelec’s Transport Adapter Layer Interface (TALI), a protocol
in the SIGTRAN suite, is the interface of a Signaling Gateway, which provides interworking between the Switched Circuit
Network (SCN) and an IP network. Since the Gateway is the
central point of signaling information, not only does it provide
transportation of signaling from one network to another, but
can also provide additional functions such as protocol translation, security screening, routing information and seamless access to Intelligent Network (IN) services on both networks.
IETF Specification: RFC 3094
TAP: Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol
119
The T.120, an ITU-T standard, is made up of a suite of communication and application protocols. T.120 protocols are designed for multipoint Data Conferencing and real time communication, including multilayer protocols which considerably
enhance multimedia, MCU and codec control capabilities. Depending on the type of T.120 implementations, the resulting
product can make connections, transmit and receive data and
collaborate using compatible data conferencing features, such
as program sharing, whiteboard conferencing and file transfer.
ITU-T Specification: T.120
T.30
The T.30, an ITU-T standard, describes the overall procedure
for establishing and managing communication between two
fax machines.
ITU-T Specification: T.30
T.38
The T.38, an ITU-T standard, defines procedures for real-time
Group 3 facsimile communication over IP networks.
ITU-T Specification: T.38
TABS: Telemetry Asynchronous Block Serial
Telemetry Asynchronous Block Serial (TABS) is an AT&T polled
point-to-point or multipoint communication protocol that supports moderate data transfer rates over intra-office wire pairs.
AT&T Protocol
TACACS: Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
250
The Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TA-
Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP) is a simple protocol
dedicated to the forwarding of alphanumeric pages. Although
the features and capabilities of TAP are in TDP, the TAP protocol may co-exist with TDP. The TAP protocol may be utilized to
forward binary data to RF-linked computers if input is formatted and processed.
TARP: TID Address Resolution Protocol
TID Address Resolution Protocol (TARP) is a protocol defined
in Telcordia (a.k.a Bellcore) GR-253 standard document for
SONET and used in OSS to resolve a TL1 TID to a CLNP address (NSAP). Many legacy SONET systems still use TARP to
translate Target Identifier of a SONET node.
Telcordia Protocol
TBOS: Telemetry Byte Oriented Serial Protocol
Telemetry Byte Oriented Serial(TBOS) protocol is an open
standard for network management, originally developed by
Bellcore for AT&T. TBOS transmits alarm, status, and control
points between NE and OSS. TBOS defines one physical interface for a direct connection between the telemetry equipment and the monitored equipment.
AT&T Protocol
TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part
284
Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP), a protocol in
the SS7 protocol suite, enables the deployment of advanced
intelligent network services by supporting non-circuit-related
information exchange between signaling points, using the
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connectionless
service. TCAP also supports remote control—ability to invoke
346 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
features in another remote network switch.
ITU-T Specification: Q.773
TCP Port Numbers
Cisco Protocol
293
TCP Port Numbers are designed to distinguish multiple applications running on a single device with one IP address from
one another. In the TCP header, there are “SourcePort” and
“DestinationPort” fields which are used to indicate the message sending process and receiving process identities defined. The combination of the IP address and the port number
is called “socket”.
IANA Protocol
TCP/IP
8
The TCP/IP protocol suite establishes the technical foundation
of the Internet. Development of the TCP/IP started as DOD
projects. Now, most protocols in the suite are developed by
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) under the Internet
Architecture Board (IAB), an organization initially sponsored
by the US government and now an open and autonomous
organization. The IAB provides the coordination for the R&D
underlying the TCP/IP protocols and guides the evolution of
the Internet. The TCP/IP protocols are well-documented in the
Request For Comments (RFC), which are drafted, discussed,
circulated and approved by the IETF committees. All documents are open and free and can be found online in the IETF
site listed in the reference.
IETF Protocol
TCP/IP Four Layers Architecture Model
4
TCP/IP architecture does not exactly follow the OSI model.
Unfortunately, there is no universal agreement regarding how
to describe TCP/IP with a layered model. It is generally agreed
that TCP/IP has fewer levels (from three to five layers) than the
seven layers of the OSI model. We adopt a four layers model
for the TCP/IP architecture.
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
48
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the transport layer
protocol in the TCP/IP suite which provides a reliable stream
delivery and virtual connection service to applications through
the use of sequenced acknowledgment, with retransmission of
packets when necessary. Along with the Internet Protocol (IP),
TCP represents the heart of the Internet protocols.
IETF Specification: RFC 793
TCS: Telephony Control Protocol Specification
The Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) is a protocol in the Bluetooth protocol stack that defines ways to send
audio calls between Bluetooth devices. It also controls the device mobility management procedures. It can be used to create a three-in-one phone:
1) On the move, a mobile phone connected to a cellular network;
2) At home, a cordless phone connected to a PSTN via a gateway or base station;
3) At the office, an intercom.
IEEE Specification: 802.15.1
TDP: Tag Distribution Protocol
Tag Distribution Protocol (TDP), a two-party protocol defined
by Cisco originally, runs over a connection-oriented transport
layer with guaranteed sequential delivery. The MPLS protocol, based on the TDP, has gained popularity among service
providers as the protocol for next generation multiple service
networks.
TDP: Telocator Data Protocol
Telocator Data Protocol (TDP) is a suite of protocols used for
sending messages from a computer, through a paging system,
to a mobile receiving computer. Together, these protocols define the flow of messages from input devices through several
processing steps until the entire message is received by an
RF-linked computer. The set is compromised of several protocols, including TME, TRT, and TMC.
TELNET: Terminal Emulation Protocol in a TCP/IP
environment
37
TELNET is the terminal emulation protocol in a TCP/IP environment for the remote access of a terminal (client) to a server.
TELNET uses the TCP as the transport protocol to establish
connection between server and client. After connecting, TELNET server and client enter a phase of option negotiation that
determines the options that each side can support for the connection. Each connected system can negotiate new options
or renegotiate old options at any time. In general, each end of
the TELNET connection attempts to implement all options that
maximize performance for the systems involved.
IETF Specification: RFC 854
TFTP: Trivial File Transfer Protocol
38
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a simple protocol to
transfer files. It has been implemented on top of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) using port number 69. TFTP is designed
to be small and easy to implement and, therefore, lacks most
of the features of a regular FTP. TFTP only reads and writes
files (or mail) from/to a remote server. It cannot list directories
and currently has no provisions for user authentication.
IETF Specification: RFC 1350
THDR: Transport Layer Header
Transport Layer Header (THDR), a protocol in the IBM SNA
suite, is used by RTP endpoints to provide correct processing
of the packet.
IBM Protocol
TIFF: Tagged Image File Format
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is a file format mainly for
storing images, including photographs and line art. Originally
created by the company Aldus, now part of Adobe Systems for
use with PostScript printing, TIFF is a popular format for high
color-depth images, along with JPEG and PNG. TIFF format
is widely supported by image-manipulation applications such
as Photoshop by Adobe, GIMP, and Paint Shop Pro by Jasc,
by desktop publishing and page layout applications, such as
QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign, and by scanning, faxing,
word processing, optical character recognition, and other applications.
Adobe Protocol
Time Protocol
Time Protocol allows time clients to obtain the current time-ofday within one-second resolution from Time servers.
IETF Specification: RFC 868
Timeplex BRE: Bridge Relay Encapsulation
Bridge Relay Encapsulation (BRE) is a proprietary Ascom
Timeplex protocol that extends bridging across WAN links by
means of encapsulation. The BRE version 2 (BRE2) sits directly on the link layer protocol, requires less configuration and
provides its own routing protocol.
Ascom Timeplex Protocol
Appendices
TKIP: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is part of the IEEE
802.11i encryption standard for wireless LANs security. TKIP
utilizes RC4 stream cippher with 128 bit key for encryption and
64 bit key for authentication. TKIP is the next generation of
WEP (Wired Equivalency Protocol). TKIP provides per-packet
key mixing, a message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism, thus fixing the flaws of WEP.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11i
TLAP: TokenTalk Link Access Protocol
TokenTalk Link Access Protocol (TLAP) is a link-access protocol used in an AppleTalk network. TLAP is built on top of the
standard Token Ring data-link layer.
Apple Protocol
TLS: Transport Layer Security Protocol
101
Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, based on SSL developed by Netscape, provides privacy and data integrity between
two communicating applications. TLS is used extensively by
web browsers to provide secure connections for transferring
credit cards numbers and other sensitive data. Though SSL
was superseeded to TLS by IETF, but the SSL name has
gained enough popularity and people still call the protocol SSL
or SST/TLS. The protocol is composed of two layers: the TLS
Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake Protocol. At the lowest level, layered on top of some reliable transport protocol
(TCP) is the TLS Record Protocol.
IETF Specification: RFC 2246
TMC: Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol
Telocator Mobile Computer Protocol (TMC) is the protocol that
operates between the Radio Frequency (RF) receiver and the
mobile computer, which is the ultimate recipient of data sent
from the Message Entry Device (MED).
TME: Telocator Message Entry Protocol
Telocator Message Entry Protocol (TME) defines the protocol
operating between the Message Entry Device (MED) and Paging Message Processor (PMP).
Token Ring
198
Token Ring is a LAN protocol, defined in IEEE 802.5, where all
stations are connected in a ring and each station can directly
hear transmissions only from its immediate neighbor. Permission to transmit is granted by a message (token) that circulates
around the ring.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.5
TOP: Technical Office Protocol
Technical Office Protocol (TOP) is an applications layer network application and protocol stack for office automation developed by Boeing. TOP is very similar to MAP except at the
lowest levels, where it uses Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) rather than
Token Bus (IEEE 802.4).
Boeing Protocol
Toshiba FANP: Flow Attribute Notification Protocol
Flow Attribute Notification Protocol is a protocol between
neighbor modes which manages cut-through packet forwarding functionalities. In cut-through packet forwarding, a router
does not perform conventional IP packet processing for received packets. FANP indicates mapping information between
a datalink connection and a packet flow to the neighbor node.
It helps a pair of nodes manage mapping information.
Toshiba Protocol
TP: ISO Transport Protocol
233
Network Protocols Dictionary 347
The OSI Transport layer protocol (ISO-TP or TP) manages
end-to-end control and error checking to ensure complete
data transfer. It performs transport address to network address
mapping, makes multiplexing and splitting of transport connections, also provides functions such as Sequencing, Flow Control and Error detection and recover. Five transport layer protocols exist in the OSI suite, ranging from Transport Protocol
Class 0 through Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP0, TP1, TP2,
TP3 & TP4). The protocols increase in complexity from 0-4.
TP0-3 work only with connection-oriented communications, in
which a session connection must be established before any
data is sent; TP4 also works with both connection-oriented and
connectionless communications.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TP0: ISO Transport Protocol Class 0
233
Transport Protocol Class 0 (TP0), one of the five transport layer protocols existing in the OSI suite, performs segmentation
(fragmentation) and reassembly functions. TP0 discerns the
size of the smallest maximum protocol data unit (PDU) supported by any of the underlying networks, and segments the
packets accordingly. The packet segments are reassembled
at the receiver.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TP1: ISO Transport Protocol Class 1
233
Transport Protocol Class 1 (TP1), one of the five transport layer protocols existing in the OSI suite, performs segmentation
(fragmentation) and reassembly, plus error recovery. TP1 sequences protocol data units (PDUs) and will retransmit PDUs
or re-initiate the connection if an excessive number of PDUs
are unacknowledged.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TP2: ISO Transport Protocol Class 2
233
Transport Protocol Class 2 (TP2), one of the five transport layer protocols existing in the OSI suite, performs segmentation
and reassembly, as well as multiplexing and demultiplexing of
data streams over a single virtual circuit.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TP3: ISO Transport Protocol Class 3
233
Transport Protocol Class 3 (TP3), one of the five transport
layer protocols existing in the OSI suite, offers error recovery,
segmentation and reassembly, and multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit. TP3 also
sequences PDUs and retransmits them or re-initiates the connection if an excessive number is unacknowledged.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TP4: ISO Transport Protocol Class 4
233
Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP4), one of the five transport layer protocols existing in the OSI suite, offers error recovery, performs segmentation and reassembly, and supplies multiplexing
and demultiplexing of data streams over a single virtual circuit.
TP4 sequences PDUs and retransmits them or re-initiates the
connection if an excessive number are unacknowledged. TP4
provides reliable transport service and functions with either
connection-oriented or connectionless network service. TP4
is the most commonly used of all the OSI transport protocols,
which is similar to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in
the TCP/IP suite.
ISO Specification: ISO Document 8073
TRIP: Telephony Routing over IP
132
Telephony Routing over IP (TRIP) is a policy-driven inter-ad-
348 Appendices
ministrative domain protocol for advertising the reachability of
telephony destinations between location servers and for advertising attributes of the routes to those destinations. TRIP’s
operation is independent of any signaling protocol; hence TRIP
can serve as the telephony routing protocol for any signaling
protocol.
IETF Specification: RFC 3219
TRISL: Token Ring Inter-Switch Link
Token Ring Inter-Switch Link(TRISL) is a Cisco protocol for
interconnecting multiple routers and switches and maintaining
VLAN information as traffic goes between routers and switches. The TRISL feature provides a method to transport native
Token Ring frames from multiple VLANs across a 100-MB Fast
Ethernet link.
Cisco Protocol
TUA: TCAP-User Adaptation Layer
TCAP-User Adaptation Layer (TUA) TUA is an SS7 Signalling User Adaptation Layer for providing TCAP-User signalling
over SCTP. TUA is intended to be used on a Provider/User
basis where TCAP resides on a Signalling Gateway (SG) and
TCAP Users reside on an Application Server (AS). TUA is an
integral part of the OpenSS7 SIGTRAN stack.
IETF Protocol
TUD: Trunk up-down
Trunk up-down(TUD) is a protocol used in ATM networks that
monitors trunks and detects when one goes down or comes
up. ATM switches send regular test messages from each trunk
port to test trunk line quality. If a trunk misses a given number
of these messages, TUD declares the trunk down. When a
trunk comes back up, TUD recognizes that the trunk is up,
declares the trunk up, and returns it to service.
TULIP: TCP and UDP over Lightweight IP
TCP and UDP over Lightweight IP (TULIP) is a protocol for
running TCP and UDP applications over ATM, in which only
the IP protocol field is carried in each packet, and everything
else being bound at call set-up time. In this case, the implicit
binding is between the IP entities in each host. Since there
is no further routing problem once the binding is established,
since AAL5 can indicate packet size, since fragmentation cannot occur, and since ATM signaling will handle exception conditions, the absence of all other IP header fields and of ICMP
should not be an issue. Entry to TULIP mode would occur as
the last stage in SVC signaling, by a simple extension to the
encapsulation negotiation. TULIP changes nothing in the abstract architecture of the IP model, since each host or router
still has an IP address which is resolved to an ATM address.
It simply uses the point-to-point property of VCs to allow the
elimination of some per-packet overhead. The use of TULIP
could, in principle, be negotiated on a per-SVC basis or configured on a per-PVC basis.
IETF Specification: RFC 1932
TUNIC: TCP and UDP over Nonexistent IP Connection
TCP and UDP over Nonexistent IP Connection(TUNIC) is a
protocol for running TCP and UPD applications over ATM.
In this case, no network-layer information is carried in each
packet and everything is bound at virtual circuit set-up time.
The implicit binding is between two applications using either
TCP or UDP directly over AAL5 on a dedicated VC. If this can
be achieved, the IP protocol field has no useful dynamic function. However, in order to achieve binding between two appli-
Network Protocols Dictionary
cations, the use of a well-known port number in classical IP or
in TULIP mode may be necessary during a call set-up.
IETF Specification: RFC 1932
TUP: Telephone User Part
285
The Telephone User Part (TUP) provides the signaling backbone between switching elements for basic call establishment,
supervision, and release of circuit switched network connections for telecommunications services. TUP supports analog
and digital circuits, and limited call management signaling.
TU-T Specification: Q.763
U
UA: User Adaptation Layers
User Adaptation Layers (UA) are a collection of the Signaling User Adaptation Layers in the SIGTRAN protocol suite.
UA includes: SS7 TCAP-User Adaptation Layer (TUA), SS7
SCCP-User Adaptation Layer (SUA), SS7 ISUP-User Adaptation Layer (ISUA), SS7 MTP3-User Adaptation Layer (M3UA),
SS7 MTP2-User Adaptation Layer (M2UA), SS7 MTP2-User
Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer (M2PA), ISDN-User Adaptation
Layer (IUA), and Tekelec’s Transport Adapter Layer Interface
(TALI).
IETF Protocol
UB Net/One: Ungermann-Bass Net/One
Ungermann-Bass Net/One (UB Net/One) is a routing protocol developed by UB Networks, that uses hello packets and
a path-delay metric, with end nodes communicating using the
XNS protocol. There are a number of differences between the
manner in which Net/One uses the XNS protocol and the usage common among other XNS nodes.
UB Networks Protocol
UDLP: UniDirectional Link Protocol
UniDirectional Link Protocol (UDLP) is used by inexpensive,
receive-only antennas to receive data via satellite.
UDP Port Numbers
293
UDP Port Numbers are designed to distinguish multiple applications running on a single device with one IP address from
one another. In the UDP header, there are “SourcePort” and
“DestinationPort” fields which are used to indicate the message sending process and receiving process identities defined. The combination of the IP address and the port number
is called “socket”.
IANA Protocol
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
49
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport
layer (layer 4) protocol in the OSI model which provides a simple and unreliable message service for transaction-oriented
services. UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes. UDP protocol ports distinguish multiple
applications running on a single device from one another.
IETF Specification: RFC 768
UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a
3G cellular network technology that uses WCDMA (Wideband
Code Division Multiple Access), which was operating in 25
countries as of mid-2005. The transmission rates range from a
theoretical 384K bit/sec. for phones that are moving up to 2M
bit/sec. for stationary devices.
ETSI Protocol
Network Protocols Dictionary 349
Appendices
UNI: User Network Interface
V.35
The User-to-Network Interface (UNI) signaling protocol within
the Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) are responsible
for ATM call and connection control, including call establishment, call clearing, status enquiry and point-to-multipoint
control between ATM end users and a private ATM switch, or
between a private ATM switch and the public carrier ATM network. ATM UNI signaling message uses the Q.931 message
format, which is made up of a message header and a variable
number of Information Elements.
ITU-T Protocol
URL: Uniform Resource Locator
39
V.35 is an ITU-T standard describing a synchronous, physical layer protocol used for communications between a network
access device and a packet network. V.35 is most commonly
used in the United States and in Europe, and is recommended
for speeds of up to 48 kbps.
ITU-T Specification: V.35
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first
part of the address indicates what protocol used, and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where
the resource is located.
IETF Specification: RFC 1738
V5.2-User Adaptation Layer (V5UA) is a protocol in the SIGTRAN protocol stack for the backhauling of V5.2 messages over
IP using the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).
This protocol may be used between a Signaling Gateway (SG)
and a Media Gateway controller (MGC). It is assumed that the
SG receives V5.2 signaling over a standard V5.2 interface.
IETF Specification: RFC 3807
Van Jacobson
50
UTS: Universal Terminal Support
Universal Terminal Support(UTS) is a data link layer protocol
(P1024C) that runs in full-duplex mode over synchronous serial (V.24) lines and uses the ASCII character set.
UWB: Ultra-Wide-Band
194
Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB), also called digital pulse, is a wireless
technology defined in IEEE 802.15.3 for transmitting digital
data over a wide swath of the radio frequency spectrum with
very low power. Because of the low power requirement, it can
carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to
reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power.
It can carry large amounts of data (maximum bandwidth of
1Gbps) and can be used for multimedia content transfer, highresolution radar, ground-penetrating radar, and radio locations
systems.
IEEE Specification: 802.15.3
V
V.24
V.24 is an ITU-T standard for a physical layer interface between DTE and DCE. V.24 is essentially the same as the EIA/
TIA-232 standard.
ITU-T Specification: V.24
V.25bis
V.25bis is an ITU-T specification describing procedures for call
setup and tear-down over the DTE-DCE interface in a PSDN.
ITU-T Specification: V.25bis
V.32
V.32 is an ITU-T standard serial line protocol for bidirectional
data transmissions at speeds of 4.8 or 9.6 kbps.
ITU-T Specification: V.32
V.32bis
V.32bis is an ITU-T standard that extends V.32 to speeds up
to 14.4 kbps.
ITU-T Specification: V.32bis
V.34
V.34 is an ITU-T standard that specifies a serial line protocol. V.34 offers improvements to the V.32 standard, including higher transmission rates (28.8 kbps) and enhanced data
compression.
ITU-T Specification: V.34
V.42
V.42 is an ITU-T standard protocol for error correction using
Link Access Procedure for Modems (LAPM).
ITU-T Specification: V.42
V5UA: V5.2-User Adaptation Layer
Van Jacobson is a compressed TCP protocol which improves
the TCP/IP performance over low speed (300 to 19,200 bps)
serial links and solves problems in link-level framing, address
assignment, routing, authentication and performance.
IETF Specification: RFC 1144
VARP: VINES Address Resolution Protocol
VINES Address Resolution Protocol (VARP), similar to the
ARP in an IP network, is responsible for the mapping of VINES
network address with the Data Link layer address of devices.
VARP entities are classified as either address-resolution clients or address-resolution services. Address-resolution clients
usually are implemented in client nodes, whereas addressresolution services typically are provided by service nodes.
Banyan Protocol
VC: Virtual Concatenation
Virtual Concatenation (VC), an encapsulation scheme for
Ethernet over SONET/SDH, allows for non-standard SONET/
SDH multiplexing in order to address the bandwidth mismatch
problem. Using virtual concatenation, the SONET/SDH transport pipes may be “right-sized” for Ethernet transport. Virtual
Concatenation is a technique that allows SONET channels to
be multiplexed together in arbitrary arrangements. This permits custom-sized SONET pipes to be created that are any
multiple of the basic rates. Virtual concatenation is valid for
STS-1 rates as well as for Virtual Tributary (VT) rates. All the
intelligence to handle virtual concatenation is located at the
endpoints of the connections, so each SONET channel may be
routed independently through the network without it requiring
any knowledge of the virtual concatenation. In this manner, virtually concatenated channels may be deployed on the existing
SONET/SDH network with a simple endpoint upgrade. All the
equipment currently in the center of the network need not be
aware of the virtual concatenation.
ITU-T / IEEE Protocol
VCI: Virtual Channel Identifier
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) is a label used in Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM). VCI has 12 bits in length and is used for
routing from end user to end user and functions as service access point. The VCI labels are owned by network nodes, and
get randomized quite quickly as connections come and go.
350 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
ITU-T Protocol
VDSL: Very-high-data rate Digital Subscriber Line
158
Very-High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) is one of
the DSL technologies with asymmetric upstream and downstream. VDSL transmits high-speed data over short reaches
of twisted-pair copper telephone lines, with a range of speeds
depending on actual line length. The maximum downstream
rate under consideration is between 51 and 55 Mbps over lines
up to 1000 feet (300 m) in length. Downstream speeds as low
as 13 Mbps over lengths beyond 4000 feet (1500 m) are also
common. Upstream rates are at speeds from 1.6 to 2.3 Mbps
and maybe higher with enhancement.
ANSI/ITU Specification: G.993
VDSL2: Second Generation VDSL
Second Generation VDSL (VDSL2), an enhanced version
of VDSL, specifies 8 profiles that address a range of applications including up to 100 Mb/s symmetric transmission on
loops about one hundred meters long (using a bandwidth of
30 MHz), symmetric bit-rates in the 10-30 Mb/s range on intermediate length loops (using a bandwidth of 12 MHz), and
asymmetric operation with downstream rates in the range of
10-40Mb/s on loops of lengths ranging from 3km to 1km (using a bandwidth of 8.5 MHz). VDSL2 includes most of the advanced feature from ADSL2. The rate/reach performance of
VDSL2 is better than VDSL.
ITU-T Specification: G.993.2
VINES IPC: VINES Interprocess Communication
Protocol
VINES Interprocess Communication Protocol (IPC), a transport layer (layer 4) protocol in the VINES protocol stack, provides both datagram and reliable message delivery service.
Banyan Protocol
VINES NetRPC: NetRemote Procedure Call
The VINES NetRemote Procedure Call (NetRPC) protocol, a
protocol in the session/presentation layer of the VINES prtocol
stack, is used to access VINES applications such as StreetTalk and VINES Mail. A program number and version identify all VINES applications. Calls to VINES applications must
specify the program number, program version, and the specific
procedure within the program, where applicable.
Banyan Protocol
VINES RTP: VINES Routing Table Protocol
VINES Routing Table Protocol (RTP), a network layer protocol
in the VINES protocol stack, distributes network topology information. Routing update packets are broadcast periodically by
both client and service nodes. These packets inform neighbors
of a node’s existence and also indicate whether the node is a
client or a service node. In each routing update packet, service
nodes include a list of all-known networks and the cost factors
associated with reaching those networks.
Banyan Protocol
VINES SPP: Sequenced Packet Protocol
The VINES Sequenced Packet Protocol (SPP), a transport
layer protocol in the VINES protocol stack, provides a reliable
virtual connection service for private connections.
Banyan Protocol
VINES StreetTalk
VINES StreetTalk is an application protocol in the VIENS proto-
col stack which maintains a distributed directory of the names
of network resources. In VINES network, names are global
across the Internet and independent of the network topology.
Banyan Protocol
VINES: Virtual Integrated Network Service
Virtual Integrated Network Service (VINES) is a protocol stack
defined by Banyan Company, derived from the Xerox Network
Systems (XNS) protocols. VINES is based on the UNIX operating system and uses a client/server architecture. The Banyan
suite includes the following protocols: VARP (VINES Address
Resolution Protocol); VIP (VINES Internet Protocol); ICP (Internet Control Protocol); RTP (Routing Update Protocol); IPC
(InterProcess Communications Protocol); SPP (Sequenced
Packet Protocol); NetRPC (NetRemote Procedure Call);
StreetTalk. In October 1999, Banyan became ePresence, an
internet service provider. At the same time, it announced the
obsolescence of VINES and other Banyan products.
Banyan Protocol
VIP: VINES Internet Protocol
VINES Internet Protocol (VIP), the key protocol in the Banyan
VINES protocol stack, performs the network layer (Layer 3) activities such as internetwork routing. VINES network layer addresses, similar to the IP addresses, are 48-bit entities subdivided into network (32 bits) and subnetwork (16 bits) portions.
Banyan Protocol
VLAN: Virtual LAN
185
Virtual LAN (VLAN) refers to a logical network in which a group
of devices on one or more LANs that are configured so that
they can communicate as if they were attached to the same
wire, when in fact they are located on a number of different
LAN segments. Because VLANs are based on logical, instead
of physical, connections, they are very flexible for user/host
management, bandwidth allocation and resource optimization.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1q
VOIP Protocols
103
Voice over IP (VOIP) uses the Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit
voice as packets over an IP network. Using VOIP protocols,
voice communications can be achieved on any IP network regardless of whether it is Internet, Intranet or Local Area Network (LAN). In a VOIP-enabled network, the voice signal is
digitized, compressed and converted to IP packets and then
transmitted over the IP network. VOIP signaling protocols are
used to set up and tear down calls, carry information required
to locate users and negotiate capabilities.
ITU-T / IETF Protocol
VOIP: Voice over IP
103
Voice over IP (VOIP) uses the Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit
voice as packets over an IP network. Using VOIP protocols,
voice communications can be achieved on any IP network regardless it is Internet, Intranets or Local Area Networks (LAN).
In a VOIP-enabled network, the voice signal is digitized, compressed and converted to IP packets and then transmitted over
the IP network. VOIP signaling protocols are used to set up and
tear down calls, carry information required to locate users and
negotiate capabilities. The key benefits of Internet telephony
(voice over IP) are the very low cost, the integration of data,
voice and video on one network, the new services created on
the converged network and the simplification of management
of end users and terminals.
VPCI: Virtual Path Channel Identifier
Network Protocols Dictionary 351
Appendices
In an ATM cell, the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and the Virtual
Channel Identifier (VCI) together form the routing field, also
called VPCI, which associates each cell with a particular channel or circuit. The VCI is a single-channel identifier; the VPI allows grouping of VCs with different VCIs and allows the group
to be switched together as an entity. However, the VPIs and
VCIs have significance only on the local link; the contents of
the routing field will generally change as the cell traverses from
link to link. These fields, in UNI, can support up to 16 million
users to network sessions.
ITU-T Protocol
VPI: Virtual Path Identifier
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) is a routing label used in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) header. The VPI, together with
the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI), identifies the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on
its way to its destination. VPI field has 8 to 12 bits: 8 in the case
of user-network interface and 12 in the case of network-network interface. The 4 extra bits in the network-network interface allows support for an expanded number of VPC internal
to the network, which can be used for network management.
A VPI of 0 indicates that this PVC is a virtual channel connection (VCC). A nonzero value indicates that this is a virtual path
connection (VPC).
ITU-T Protocol
VPLS: Virtual Private LAN Service
Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) is an MPLS application defined by IETF. It allows geographically dispersed sites to share
an ethernet broadcast domain by connecting each site to an
MPLS-based network, as if they were in the same local area
network (LAN). The wide area network (WAN) and metropolitan area network (MAN) become transparent to all customer
locations. Ethernet VPN, based on VLPS and MPLS, provides
more benefits than other alternative layer 2 or 3 VPN technologies.
IETF Protocol
VRML: Virtual Reality Modeling Language
Virtual Reality Modeling Language(VRML) is a language defined by the W3C for displaying three-dimensional objects on
the World Wide Web. It is the 3-D equivalent of HTML. VRML
allows Web developers to create three-dimensional (3-D)
space and 3-D objects in full color with special texture, animation, and lighting effects. This means users can move in three
dimensions on a VRML Web page as they do with a video
game or flight simulator.
W3C Protocol
VRRP: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
66
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) specifies an election protocol that dynamically assigns responsibility for a virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on a LAN. The VRRP
router controlling the IP address(es) associated with a virtual
router is called the Master and forwards packets sent to these
IP addresses. The election process provides dynamic fail-over
in the forwarding responsibility should the Master become unavailable. This allows any of the virtual router IP addresses
on the LAN to be used as the default first hop router by end
hosts.
IETF Specification: RFC 2338
VTP: VLAN Trunking Protocol
251
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco Layer 2 messaging
protocol that manages the addition, deletion and renaming of
VLANs on a network-wide basis. Virtual Local Area Network
(VLAN) Trunk Protocol (VTP) reduces the administration in a
switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one
VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the
domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN
everywhere. VTP is a Cisco proprietary protocol that is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products.
Cisco Protocol
W
WAE: Wireless Application Environment
The Wireless Application Environment (WAE) is the top-most
level in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite, which
combines both the WWW and Mobile Telephony technologies.
WAE provides the operators and service providers with an interoperable environment on which they can build applications
and services for hand-held client devices. WAE includes the
micro-browser that contains functionality for using not only
WML and WML Script as previously stated, but also Wireless
Telephony Application, namely (WTA and WTAI) -- telephony
services and programming interfaces as well as content formats including well-defined data formats, images, phone book
records and calendar information.
WAP Forum Protocol
WAIS: Wide Area Information Server
Wide Area Information Server(WAIS) is a distributed database
protocol developed to search for information over a network.
WAIS supports full-text databases, which allow an entire document to be searched for a match. WAIS system has been replaced by the Web based search engines. There are few, if
any, WAIS servers in existence on the Internet today.
ANSI Specification: ANSI Z39.50
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) refers to a group
of related technologies and protocols widely used as a de
facto standard protocol in providing Internet access to mobile
phones or other thin-client devices. Typical use of the WAP
protocol involves a website transmitting scaled-down versions
of normal web pages specifically optimized for use by wireless telecommunications devices. When used with Wireless
Markup Language (WML), for example, hyperlinks can be accessed by the numbers of 0 through 9 in addition to assigned
hotkeys on a user’s phone.
WAP Forum / OMA Protocol
WaRP: Wavelength Routing Protocol
Wavelength Routing Protocol (WaRP) is a protocol that enables the
provisioning, routing, protection, and restoration of virtual wavelength paths (VWP) through an optical network based on intelligent communication between Cisco 15900 Series Wavelength
Routers.
Cisco Protocol
WCCP: Web Cache Communication Protocol
Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP), a Web-caching
protocol developed by Cisco and then standardized by IETF,
specifies interactions between one or more routers and one or
more Web caches to establish and maintain the transparent
redirection of selected types of traffic flowing through a group
of routers. The selected traffic is redirected to a group of Web
caches with the aim of optimizing resource usage and lowering
response time.
352 Appendices
IETF/Cisco Protocol
W-CDMA: Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access
Wideband Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access(W-CDMA
or WCDMA), also known as UMTS in Europe, is a 3G standard
for GSM in Europe, Japan and the United States. It’s also the
principal alternative being discussed in Asia. It supports very
high-speed multimedia services such as full-motion video,
Internet access and video conferencing. It uses one 5-MHz
channel for both voice and data, offering data speeds of up to
2 Mbps.
ITU-T Specification: IMT-2000 direct spread
WDOG: Watchdog protocol
Watchdog protocol (WDOG) provides constant validation of
active workstation connections and notifies the NetWare operating system when a connection may be terminated as a result
of lengthy periods without communication.
Novell Protocol
WDP: Wireless Datagram Protocol
The Wireless Datagram Protocol(WDP), a protocol in WAP
architecture, covers the Transmission Layer Protocols in an
Internet model. As a general transport service, WDP offers
to the upper layers an invisible interface independent of the
underlying network technology used. In consequence of the
interface common to transport protocols, the upper layer protocols of the WAP architecture can operate independent of the
underlying wireless network. By letting only the transport layer
deal with physical network-dependent issues, global interoperability can be acquired using mediating gateways.
WAP Forum / OMA Protocol
Wellfleet BOFL: Wellfleet Breath of Life
Wellfleet Breath of Life (Wellfleet BOFL) is a proprietary header of Bay Networks (now part of Nortel) used as a line sensing
protocol on Ethernet LANs to detect transmitter jams. Synchronous lines run WFLT STD protocols to determine if the line is
up and Dial backup PPP lines.
BAY Networks / Nortel Protocol
Wellfleet SRB: Source Routing Bridging
Wellfleet Source Routing Bridging (Wellfleet SRB) is a proprietary header of Bay Networks (now part of Nortel) which passes
Token Ring information over WAN lines.
BAY Networks / Nortel Protocol
WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.11b, that
is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN)
with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN. WEP is based on a security
scheme called RC4 that utilizes a combination of secret user
keys and system-generated values. The original implementations of WEP supported the so-called 40-bit encryption, having
a key of length 40 bits and 24 additional bits of system-generated data (64 bits total). Research has shown that 40-bit WEP
encryption is too easy to decode, and consequently product
vendors today employ 128-bit encryption (having a key length
of 104 bits, not 128 bits) or better.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11b
Whois
39
The whois protocol retrieves information about domain names
from a central registry. The whois service is provided by the
organizations that run the Internet. Whois is often used to
Network Protocols Dictionary
retrieve registration information about an Internet domain or
server. It can tell you who owns the domain, how their technical contact can be reached, along with other information.
IETF Specification: RFC 954
WiFi: Wireless Fidelity
190
Wireless Fidelity (WiFi or Wi-Fi), originally Nick named for
802.11b for wireless LAN with bandwith up to 11 Mbps, now refers to the entire wireless LAN technologies including 802.11a,
802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n etc. Wi-Fi is actually the industry name for wireless LAN (WLAN) communication technology
related to the IEEE 802.11 family of wireless networking standards.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11
WINS: Windows Internet Name Service
Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) provides a distributed database for registering and querying dynamic NetBIOS
names to IP address mapping in a routed network environment. WINS supports name resolution, the automated conversion of computer names to network addresses, for Windows
networks. Specifically, WINS converts NetBIOS names to IP
addresses on a LAN or WAN. WINS is to NetBIOS names as
what Domain Name Service (DNS) is to domain names - a
central mapping of host names to network addresses.
Microsoft Protocol
WiMax: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
205
WiMax, abreviated from Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a popular name of the 802.16 wireless metropolitan-area network standard, including both 802.16-2004 for
fixed WiMAX and 802.16-2005 for mobile WiMAX. WiMax has
a range of up to 31 miles. Data rates for WiMax can reach up
to 75 Mbps (Fixed) or 15 Mbps (Mobile). A number of wireless
signaling options exist ranging anywhere from the 2 GHz range
up to 66 GHz. WiMax is primarily aimed at making broadband
network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. WiMax technology can deliver
high-speed Internet access to rural areas and other locations.
WiMax also offers an alternative to satellite Internet services.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16
WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
190
Wireless local-area networks (WLAN or wireless LAN) use radio waves to connect a user device to a LAN, which extends
an existing wired local area network. WLAN provides Ethernet
connections over the air and operate under the 802.11 family
of specifications developed by the IEEE. WLANs are built by
attaching a device called the access point (AP) to the edge
of the wired network. Clients communicate with the AP using
a wireless network adapter similar in function to a traditional
Ethernet adapter. The WLAN technology is defined by the
IEEE 802.11 family of specifications, namely, 802.11, 802.11a,
802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n. All use the Ethernet protocol
and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision
avoidance instead of CSMA/CD) for path sharing.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11
WML: Wireless Markup Language
Wireless Markup Language (WML), based on HTML and
XML, delivers Internet content to small wireless devices, such
as browser-equipped cellular phones and handheld devices,
which typically have very small displays, slow CPUs, limited
memory capacity, low bandwidth and restricted user-input ca-
Network Protocols Dictionary 353
Appendices
pabilities. WML demands less memory and processing power
from browsers than HTML and JavaScript. WML also includes
features that tailor it for the relatively small display sizes of
today’s wireless devices. WML and HTML differ in significant
ways. Although WML strips some features from HTML and coopts others, WML also incorporates some powerful programming constructs not found in HTML like variables, tasks, and
events. WML implements a stricter tag syntax than HTML and
includes a DTD for use with XML parsers.
W3C Protocol
WSP: Wireless Session Protocol
The Wireless Session Protocol (WSP), a protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite, provides the Wireless
Application Environment a consistent interface with two services: connection-oriented service to operate above the Transaction Layer Protocol (WTP) and a connectionless service that
operates above either secure or non-secure datagarm service
(WDP). Currently, the protocols of the WSP family provide
HTTP/1.1 functionality and semantics in a compact encoding,
long lived session state with session suspend-and-resume
capabilities, a common facility for reliable and unreliable data
push as well as a protocol feature negotiation. These protocols are optimised to be used in low-bandwith bearer networks
with relative long latency in order to connect a WAP client to a
HTTP server.
WAP Forum / OMA Protocol
WTLS: Wireless Transport Layer Security
The Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) protocol, a
protocol in the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite, is
based on Transport Layer Security (TLS) or formely known as
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). It is designed to be used with
other WAP protocols and to support narrow-band networks. It
uses data encryption with a method that is negotiated at the
start of the session to provide privacy, data integrity, authentication and denial-of-service protection. The latter is needed
in cases when data is replayed or not properly verified. When
that happens, WTLS detects the misuse and rejects the data
in order to make many typical denial-of-service attacks harder
to accomplish.
WAP Forum / OMA Protocol
WTP: Wireless Transaction Protocol
The Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP), a protocol in the
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) suite, operates efficiently
over either secure or non-secure wireless datagram networks.
It provides three different kinds of transaction services, namely
unreliable one-way, reliable one-way and reliable two-way
transactions. This layer also includes optional user-to-user
reliability by triggering the confirmation of each received message. To reduce the number of messages sent, the feature of
delaying acknowledgements can be used.
WAP Forum / OMA Protocol
X
X Protocol
41
The X Window System Protocol, also known as X Window or
X Protocol, is a graphics architecture used as the graphical
system on UNIX systems (primarily) and Linux systems. The X
Window System is also used, less commonly, on VMS, MVS,
and MS-Windows systems. X Window System (X Protocol)
provides an inherently client/server-oriented base for displaying windowed graphics. X Window provides a public protocol
by which client programs can query and update information on
X servers.
X.org Protocol
X Window
41
The X Window System Protocol, also known as X Window or
X Protocol, is a graphics architecture used as the graphical
system on UNIX systems (primarily) and Linux systems. The X
Window System is also used, less commonly, on VMS, MVS,
and MS-Windows systems. X Window System (X Protocol)
provides an inherently client/server-oriented base for displaying windowed graphics. X Window provides a public protocol
by which client programs can query and update information on
X servers.
X.Org Protocol
X.121
X.121 is an ITU-T address format of the X.25 protocol suite
used as part of call setup to establish a switched virtual circuit between Public Data Networks (PDNs), connecting two
network user addresses (NUAs). It consists of just fourteen
digits and is sent over the Packet Layer Protocol (PLP) after
the packet type identifier (PTI). IP addresses can be mapped
to X.121 as described in RFC 1236.
ITU-T Specification: X.121
X.21
X.21 is an ITU-T standard for serial communications over synchronous digital lines. The X.21 protocol is used primarily in
Europe and Japan.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.21bis
X.21bis is an ITU-T standard that defines the physical layer
protocol for communication between DCE and DTE in an X.25
network.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.25
176
X.25, an ISO and ITU-T protocol for wide area network (WAN)
communications, is a packet-switched data network protocol
which defines the exchange of data as well as the control of information between a user device, called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), and a network node, called Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE). X.25 specifies LAPB, a data-link-layer
protocol, and PLP, a network-layer protocol. Frame Relay has,
to some degree, superseded X.25.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.28
X.28 is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the terminal-toPAD interface in X.25 networks.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.29
X.29 is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the form for
control information in the terminal-to-PAD interface used in
X.25 networks.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.3
X.3 is an ITU-T recommendation that defines various PAD parameters used in X.25 networks.
ITU-T Specification: X.25
X.400
227
X.400 is the Message Handling Service protocol for email
transmission specified by the ITU-T and ISO. X.400 is com-
354 Appendices
mon in Europe and Canada and is an alternative to the more
popular email protocol, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP),
which is defined by IETF. X.400 uses a binary format so it is
easy to include binary contents without encoding it for transfer.
Also, it is harder for people to fake email addresses and contents than with SMTP, where text messages are used.
OSI / ITU-T Specification: X.400
X.500
229
X.500, the directory Access Protocol by ITU-T (X.500) and
also ISO (ISO/IEC 9594), is a standard way to develop an
electronic directory of people in an organization so that it can
be part of a global directory available to anyone in the world
with Internet access.
OSI / ITU-T Specification: X.500
X.509
X.509 is an ITU-T standard for public key infrastructure (PKI).
X.509 specifies, amongst other things, standard formats for
public key certificates and a certification path validation algorithm. X.509 was initially issued in 1988 and was begun
in association with the X.500 standard and assumed a strict
hierarchical system of certificate authorities (CAs) for issuing the certificates. The X.500 system has never been fully
implemented, and the IETF’s public-key infrastructure working
group has adapted the standard to the more flexible organization of the Internet. In fact, the term X.509 certificate usually refers to the IETF’s PKI Certificate and CRL Profile of the X.509
v3 certificate standard, as specified in RFC 3280, commonly
referred to as PKIX.
ITU-T Specification: X.509
X.75
X.75 is the signaling protocol for X.25, which defines the signaling system between two PDNs. X.75 is essentially an Network-to-Network Interface (NNI).
ITU-T Specification: X.75
X.86
X.86 is a physical interface sublayer (PHY) for 802.3 Ethernet
Media Access Control (MAC) frames, which provides for the
encapsulation of 802.3 MAC frames in a sublayer-level address and control frame, LAPS. X.86 allows 802.3 Ethernet
switches and Hubs to interface directly with SDH (Recommendation G.707) transmission infrastructure for point-to-point
data-link communications over Wide Area Networks (WANs).
The data transfer rates for this new PHY reflect the various
concatenated and non-concatenated payload rates in the SDH
standard.
ITU-T Specification: X.86
X3T9.5: X Display Manager Control Protocol
X Display Manager Control Protocol (X3T9.5) isused to communicate between X terminals and workstations running the
UNIX operating system.
X.Org Protocol
XCAP: XML Configuration Access Protocol
Extensible Markup Language (XML) Configuration Access
Protocol (XCAP) allows a client to read, write and modify application configuration data, stored in XML format on a server.
XCAP maps XML document sub-trees and element attributes
to HTTP URIs, so that these components can be directly accessed by HTTP. XCAP is a set of conventions for mapping
XML documents and document components into HTTP URIs,
rules for how the modification of one resource affects another,
Network Protocols Dictionary
data validation constraints, and authorization policies associated with access to those resources.
IETF Protocol
XDR: eXternal Data Representation
eXternal Data Representation(XDR) is a standard for the description and encoding of data. XDR is useful for transferring
data between different computer architectures, and it has been
used to communicate data between such diverse machines as
the SUN WORKSTATION*, VAX*, IBM-PC*, and Cray*. XDR
fits into the ISO presentation layer and is roughly analogous
in purpose to X.409, ISO Abstract Syntax Notation. The major
difference between these two is that XDR uses implicit typing,
while X.409 uses explicit typing.
IETF Specification: RFC 4506
xDSL: Digital Subscriber Line
158
xDSL refers to a collection of Digital Subscriber Line(DSL)
technologies, which is a modem technology for broadband
data access over ordinary copper telephone lines (POTS)
from homes to businesses. xDSL refers collectively to all types
of DSL, such as ADSL (and G.Lite), HDSL, SDSL, IDSL and
VDSL etc. They are sometimes referred to as last mile (or first
mile) technologies because they are used only for connections
from a telephone switching station to a home or office, not between switching stations.
ANSI/ITU-T Protocol
Xerox IDP: Internet Datagram Protocol
290
Internet Datagram Protocol (IDP), a protocol in the Xerox protocol stack, is a simple, unreliable datagram protocol which is
used to support the SOCK_DGRAM abstraction for the Internet Protocol (IP) family. IDP sockets are connectionless and
normally used with the sendto and recvfrom subroutines. The
connect subroutine can also be used to fix the destination for
future packets, in which case the recv or read subroutine and
the send or write subroutine can be used.
Xerox Protocol
XGCP: eXternal Media Gateway Control Protocols
eXternal Media Gateway Control Protocols(XGCP) refers to
a group of VOIP media gateway control protocols, including
SGCP and MGCP.
XMPP: Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
40
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is designed to stream XML elements for near-real-time messaging,
presence, and request-response services. XMPP is based on
the Jabber protocol, an open and popular protocol for instant
messaging.
IETF Specification: RFC 3920
XML: Extensible Markup Language
Extensible Markup Language (XML), a subset of SGML, defines a syntax that lets you create markup languages to specify
information structures. Information structures define the type
of information, for example, subscriber name or address, not
how the information looks (bold, italic, and so on). External
processes can manipulate these information structures and
publish them in a variety of formats. Text markup language
designed to enable the use of SGML on the World Wide Web.
XML allows you to define your own customized markup language. XML tags are not predefined. You must define your
own tags. XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an
XML Schema to describe the data. XML is not a replacement
Network Protocols Dictionary 355
Appendices
for HTML. Actually, XML and HTML are complimentary to each
other.
W3C Protocol
XMLDSIG: XML Digital Signatures
XML Digital Signatures (XMLDSIG) is a standard for creating
and managing digital signatures using Extensible Markup Language (XML).
IETF Specification: RFC 3275
XKMS: XML Key Management Specification
XML Key Management Specification (XKMS) is a standard for
encrypting information based on Extensible Markup Language
(XML). XKMS comprises two services: the XML Key Information Service (X-KISS) and the XML Key Registration Service
Specification (X-KRSS).
W3C Protocol
XNS: Xerox Network System
Xerox Network System (XNS) is a suite of protocols, providing
routing capability and support for both sequenced and connectionless packet delivery. Many PC networking companies,
such as 3Com, Banyan, Novell, and UB Networks used a variation of XNS as their primary transport protocol.
Xerox Protocol
XON/XOFF
XON/XOFF is software data flow communications protocol
for controlling the flow of data between computers and other
devices. X stands for transmitter. XON/XOFF is frequently referred to as “software flow control”. Typically, the receiver will
send an XOFF character, when it can’t take any more data
(e.g. it may need time to process something), and when it can
once again take more data, will send an XON character to the
transmitter.
XOT: X.25 Over TCP
253
X.25 Over TCP(XOT) is developed by Cisco to transport X.25
over IP internets. The X.25 Packet Level requires a reliable
link level below it and normally uses LAPB. XOT is a method
of sending X.25 packets over IP internets by encapsulating the
X.25 Packet Level in TCP packets.
IETF Specification: RFC 1613
Xmodem
XMODEM is a simple file transfer protocol in 1977 which became extremely popular in the early bulletin board system
(BBS) market, largely because it was so simple to implement.
It was also fairly inefficient, and as modem speeds increased,
this problem led to the development of a number of modified
versions of XMODEM to improve performance or address other problems with the protocol. The later versions of XMODEM:
YMODEN, especially the ZMODEN protocol developed based
on the XMODEM, had much better performance and replaced
XMODEM in the early 1990s.
Y
Ymodem
YMODEM is a protocol for file transfer used between modems.
YMODEM was developed by Chuck Forsberg as the successor to XMODEM and MODEM7. The original YMODEM was
essentially the same as XMODEM except that it sent the file’s
name, size, and timestamp in a regular XMODEM block before
actually transferring the file. Sending the file size solved XMODEM’s problem of superfluous padding at the end of the file.
YP: Yellow Pages protocol
The Yellow Pages (YP) protocol, now known as Network Information Service (NIS), is a directory service used for name lookup and general table enumeration. Each YP database consists
of key-value pairs, maps, and domains. YP defines a set of
key-value pairs as a map. Each map belongs to a domain that
is a category of maps. This hierarchy of key-value pairs, maps,
and domains provides a generic structure for modeling a database of information. An optional component to a YP server
database implementation is the YP binder (YPbind) server.
YP uses YP-binder servers to provide addressing information
about YP database servers to potential clients.
Sun Protocol
Z
ZigBee
194
ZigBee, defined in the IEEE 802.15.4, is the technology used
in the low data rate Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
for home control, building automation industrial automation.
ZigBee covers up to 330 feet (about 100 meters) in the bandwidth of 20 to 250 kbps.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.4
ZIP: Zone Information Protocol
Zone Information Protocol (ZIP), an AppleTalk session layer
protocol, manages the relationship between network numbers
and zone names. ZIP is used by NBP to determine which networks contain nodes that belong to a zone.
Apple Protocol
Zmodern
ZMODEM is a file transfer protocol, developed by Chuck Forsberg in 1986, to improve file transfers over X.25 network. In
addition to dramatically improved performance compared to
older protocols XMODEM and YMODEM, ZMODEM also offered restartable transfers, auto-start by the sender, an expanded 32-bit CRC, and control character quoting, allowing
it to be used on networks that might “eat” control characters.
ZMODEM became extremely popular on bulletin board systems in the early 1990s, displacing earlier protocols such as
XMODEM, YMODEM and JMODEM.
Numbers
802.1
802.1 is the IEEE protocol suite for internetworking of LAN,
MAN, WAN, LAN security, and management. 802.1 protocol suites include 802.1D, 802.1P, 802.1Q, 802.1S, 802.1W,
802.1X, etc.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1
802.11
190
802.11 is a group of wireless specifications developed by the
IEEE for wireless local area network (WLAN) communications.
It details a wireless interface between devices to manage
packet traffic to avoid collisions. Some common specifications
include the following: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n,
etc.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11
802.12
802.12 is an IEEE standard which defines the 100 VG-Any
LAN standard. 808.12 specifies the physical layer and the
MAC sublayer of the data link layer. IEEE 802.12 uses the
demand priority media-access scheme at 100 Mbps over a variety of physical media.
356 Appendices
Network Protocols Dictionary
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.12
802.15
194
IEEE 802.15, a group of standards of wireless communicatoins defined by IEEE, is for wireless personal area networks
(WPANs). IEEE 802.15 has characters such as short-range,
low power, low cost, small networks and communication of devices within a Personal Operating Space. The current technologies included in the IEEE 802.15 family are: 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), 802.15.2 (UWB) and 802.15.4 (ZigBee).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15
802.16
205
The IEEE 802.16 refers to a group of standards that defines
wireless communications between a subscriber site and a core
network such as the public telephone network (PSTN) and the
Internet. It is called Wireless MAN technology, which is also
branded as WiMAX. This wireless broadband access standard
provides the missing link for the “last mile” connection in metropolitan area networks where DSL, Cable and other broadband access methods are not available or too expensive.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16
802.2
IEEE 802.2 LAN protocol specifies an implementation of the
LLC sublayer of the data link layer. IEEE 802.2 LLC is used
in IEEE802.3 (Ethernet) and IEEE802.5 (Token Ring) LANs to
perform these functions:
a. Managing the data-link communication
b. Link Addressing
c. Defining Service Access Points (SAPs)
d. Sequencing
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.2
802.3
179
802.3 is a group of IEEE standards which defines the Ethernet
LAN protocols. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical fiber and twisted-pair cables:
10 Mbps -- 10Base-T Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
100 Mbps -- Fast Ethernet (IEEE 802.3u)
1000 Mbps -- Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3z)
10 Gbps -- 10Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
802.4
IEEE 802.4 defines the media access control (MAC) layer for
bus networks that use a token-passing mechanism (token bus
networks). This is an application of the concepts used in token
ring networks. The main difference is that the endpoints of the
bus do not meet to form a physical ring. The IEEE 802.4 Working Group is disbanded.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.4
802.5
198
802.5 is an IEEE standard for Token Ring technologies where
all stations are connected in a ring, and each station can directly
hear transmissions only from its immediate neighbor. Permission to transmit is granted by a message (token) that circulates
around the ring. Token Ring as defined in IEEE 802.5 is originated from the IBM Token Ring LAN technologies. Both are
based on the Token Passing technologies. While they differ in
minor ways, but they generally compatible with each other.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.5
802.6
203
802.6 is an IEEE standard which defines Distributed Queue
Dual Bus (DQDB) protocol for Metropolitan Area Networks
(MANs). DQDB is designed for data as well as voice and video
transmission based on cell switching technology (similar to
ATM). DQDB, which permits multiple systems to interconnect
using two unidirectional logical buses, is an open standard that
is designed for compatibility with carrier transmission standards
such as SMDS, which is based on the DQDB standards.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.6
1000BaseCX or 1000Base-CX
182
1000BaseCX, also known as 1000Base-CX, is a physical layer
specification for Gigabit Ethernet transmission over a special
balanced 150 ohm cable shorter than 25m. This cable is a
type of shielded cable. In order to minimize safety and interference concerns caused by voltage difference, both transmitters
and receivers will share a common ground. The return loss
for each connector is limited to 20db to minimize transmission
distortions. The connector type for 1000Base-CX will be a DB9 connector or HSSDC.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseF or 1000Base-F
182
1000BaseF, also known as 1000Base-F, is a physical layer
baseband specification for Ethernet communications over optical fibers. 1000Base-F uses 8B/10B ANSI X3T11 Fibre Channel FC-1 frame encoding, serializer/deserializer (SERDES)
and NRZ on the fiber, clocked at 1250 Mbaud. 1000BaseF can
support a fiber cable length of 500m full duplex on multimode
fiber fiber, and of 2-3km full duplex on single mode fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseLH or 1000Base-LH
182
1000BaseLH, also known as 1000Base-LH, is a physical layer
specification for Gigabit Ethernet over fiber optic cabling as defined in IEEE 802.3z. LH stands for long haul, and 1000BaseLH uses long wavelength laser (1310nm) over multimode
and single-mode fiber. 1000BaseLH can support a maximum
distance of 550m for multimode fiber, and of 10km for single
mode fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseLX or 1000Base-LX
182
1000BaseLX, also known as 1000Base-LX, is a physical layer
specification for Gigabit Ethernet over fiber optic cabling as
defined in IEEE 802.3z. LX stands for long wavelength, and
1000Base-LX uses long wavelength laser (1310nm) over multimode and single-mode fiber as opposed to 1000Base-SX,
which uses short wavelength laser over multimode fiber. The
maximum distance of fiber is 550m for multi mode and 5km for
single mode.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseSX or 1000Base-SX
182
1000BaseSX, also known as 1000Base-SX, is a physical
layer specification for Gigabit Ethernet over fiber optic cabling
as defined in IEEE 802.3z. SX stands for short wavelength,
and 1000Base-SX uses short wavelength laser (850nm) over
multimode fiber as opposed to 1000Base-LX, which uses
long wavelength laser over both multimode and single mode
fiber. The maximum distance of (multimode) fiber, based on
1000BaseSX, is 550m.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseT or 1000Base-T
182
1000BaseT, also known as 1000Base-T, is a physical layer
standard that supports data transfer rates up to 1000 Mbps (1
Gbps) over twisted pair cables up to 100m. The 1000BASE-
Network Protocols Dictionary 357
Appendices
T standard is defined in the IEEE 802.3ab. Like Ethernet,
1000BaseT is based on the CSMA/CD LAN access method.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ab
1000BaseX or 1000Base-X
182
1000BaseX identifies various Gigabit Ethernet physical layer
standards as defined in IEEE802.3z, such as 1000BaseLX,
1000BaseSX, 1000BaseCX and 1000BaseLH. Basically, all
standards included in 1000BaseX uses 8B/10B coding scheme
with 8 bits of data and 2 bits of error-correction data. Each
specification allows various cable (fiber or copper) lengthes,
and uses different cable media.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
1000BaseZX
1000BaseZX (or 1000Base-ZX) is a Cisco specified standard
for gigabit Ehternet communication. 1000BaseZX operates on
ordinary single-mode fiber-optic link spans up to 43.5 miles (70
km). Link spans up to 62.1 miles (100 km) are possible using
premium single-mode fiber or dispersion-shifted single-mode
fiber. 1000BaseZX uses a long wavelength laser (1550 nm).
The 1000BASEZX GBIC is intended to be used as a Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) component for Gigabit Ethernet interfaces found on various switch and router products. It
operates at a signaling rate of 1250 Mbaud, transmitting and
receiving 8B/10B encoded data.
Cisco Protocol
100BaseFX or 100Base-FX
181
100BaseFX, also known as 100Base-FX, is a 100-Mbps
baseband Fast Ethernet specification. 100BaseFX, a part of
100BaseX defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard, uses 4B/5B
block encoding for Fast Ethernet over fiber-optic cabling. The
fiber distance that the 100BaseFX can support is: 412m half
duplex on Multi Mode fiber, 2km full duplex on Multi Mode fiber,
and 15-20km full duplex on Single Mode fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
100BaseT or 100Base-T
181
100BaseT, also known as 100Base-T or fast Ethernet, is a
physical layer standard that supports data transfer rates up to
100 Mbps (100 megabits per second). 100BASE-T is based
on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over Category 3 or
better twisted-pair cable. The 100BASE-T standard is defined
in the IEEE 802.3u. Like Ethernet, 100BaseT is based on the
CSMA/CD LAN access method.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3u
100BaseT4 or 100Base-T4
181
100BaseT4, also known as 100Base-T4, is a 100-Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification using four pairs of Category
3, 4, or 5UTP wiring. To guarantee proper signal timing and
quality, a 100BaseT4 segment cannot exceed 100 meters in
length. 100BaseT4 is part of the IEEE 802.3 standard.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
100BaseTX or 100Base-TX
181
100BaseTX, also known as 100Base-TX, is a 100-Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification using two pairs of either UTP
or STP wiring, based on 4B/5B signal encoding. The first pair
of wires is used to receive data, and the second to transmit
data. To guarantee proper signal timing and quality, a 100BaseTX segment cannot exceed 100 meters in length. 100BaseTX is part of the 100BaseX as defined in the IEEE 802.3u
standard.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3u
100BaseX or 100Base-X
181
100BaseX, including 100BaseFX and 100BaseTX, is a 100Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification based on IEEE
802.3 standard using 4B/5B block encoding for Fast Ethernet
over fiber-optic cabling (FX) and two pairs (TX).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3u
100VG-AnyLAN
100VG-AnyLAN, originally developed by Hewlett-Packard, is
a 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet and Token Ring media technology
using four pairs of Category 3, 4, or 5 UTP cabling. 100VGAnyLAN can be made to operate on existing 10BaseT Ethernet networks. 100VG-AnyLAN is defined in the IEEE 802.12
standard.
IEEE Protocol
10Base2 (10Base-2 or 10Base2 Thin)
179
10Base2, also called Cheapernet or ThinNet, is a 10-Mbps
baseband Ethernet specification using a 50-ohm thin coaxial
cable. 10Base2, defined in the IEEE 802.3a specification, has
a distance limit of 185 meters per segment. 10Base2 is based
on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over a thin coaxial
cable.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10Base5 (10Base-5 or 10Base Thick)
179
10Base5, also called ThickNet, is a 10-Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using a standard (thick) 50-ohm baseband
coaxial cable. 10Base5, which is part of the IEEE 802.3 baseband physical layer specification, has a distance limit of 500
meters per segment. 10Base5 is based on Manchester signal
encoding transmitted.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10BaseF or 10Base-F
179
10BaseF, also known as 10Base-F, is 10 Mbps Ethernet system based on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over
fiber optic cable. 10BaseF includes 10BaseFL, 10BaseFB and
10BaseFP and is defined in IEEE 802.3j specification.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10BaseFB or 10Base-FB
179
10BaseFB, also called as 10Base-FB, is a 10-Mbps baseband
Ethernet specification using fiber-optic cabling. 10BaseFB is
part of the IEEE 10BaseF specification. It is not used to connect user stations, but instead provides a synchronous signaling backbone that allows additional segments and repeaters to
be connected to the network. 10BaseFB segments can be up
to 2,000 meters long (1.24 miles).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10BaseFL or 10Base-FL
179
10BaseFL, also called as 10Base-FL, is a 10-Mbps baseband
Ethernet specification using fiber-optic cabling. 10BaseFL is
part of the 10BaseF specification and, while able to interoperate with FOIRL, is designed to replace the FOIRL specification. 10BaseFL segments can be up to 1,000 meters long if
used with FOIRL, and up to 2,000 meters if 10BaseFL is used
exclusively.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10BaseFP or 10Base-FP
179
10BaseFP, also called 10Base-FP, is a 10-Mbps fiber-passive baseband Ethernet specification using fiber-optic cabling.
10BaseFP is part of the 10BaseF specification. It organizes a
number of computers into a star topology without the use of re-
358 Appendices
peaters. 10BaseFP segments can be up to 500 meters long.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10BaseT or 10Base-T
179
10BaseT, also known as 10Base-T, is a transmission medium
specified by IEEE 802.3i that carries information at rates up to
10Mbps in baseband form using unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
conductors with low cost Level 3 or better UTP wiring up to 100
meters (328 ft.). 10BaseT uses RJ45 connectors and sometimes 50-pin AMP connectors to a patch panel.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
10GBase
183
10GBase is a set of standards as defined by IEEE 802.3ae
for Gigabit Ethernet system to operate in full-duplex mode
only, over fiber optic media. There are a few media types,
which are designed for use in either local or wide-area networking. This provides the 10 Gigabit Ethernet system with
the flexibility needed to operate in local area networks (LAN),
metropolitan area networks (MAN), regional area networks
(RAN) and wide area networks (WAN). IEEE 802.3ae provides support to extend the 802.3 protocol and MAC specification to an operating speed of 10 Gb/s. Several Physical
Coding Sublayers known as 10GBASE-X, 10GBASE-R and
10GBASE-W are specified, as well as significant additional
supporting material for a 10 Gigabit Media Independent Interface (XGMII), a 10 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface (XAUI),
a 10 Gigabit Sixteen-Bit Interface (XSBI) and management.
The 10GBase includes 10GBASE-S, a 850nm wavelength serial transceiver which uses two multimode fibers; 10GBASE-L4,
a 1310nm wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transceiver
which uses two multi-mode or single mode fibers; 10GBASEL, a 1310nm wavelength serial transceiver which uses two
single mode fibers; and 10GBASE-E, a 1550nm wavelength
serial transceiver which uses two single mode fibers.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-CX4
183
10GBase-CX4 is a 10-gigabit Ethernet protocol using 4-laned
copper InfiniBand connectors. 10GBase-CX4, developed by
IEEE 802.3ak working group, is a lower-cost switch interface.
10GBase-CX4 uses the XAUI (10 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface) specified in 802.3ae, and the 4X connector used for
InfiniBand. Rather than attempt to transmit 10 gigabits over a
single copper link, the 802.3ak specification uses four transmitters and four receivers operating differentially over a bundle
of very thin twin-axial cables to transmit 2.5G bit/sec each at a
baud rate of 3.125 GHz per channel with 8B10B coding. This
requires four differential pairs in each direction for a total of
eight twin-axial channels per assembly. 10GBase-CX4 can
support a cable length up to 25-meter.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ak
10GBASE-E or 10GbE
183
10Gbase-E, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, is for single mode
fiber (SMF based on G.652) with 1550 nm laser transceiver
with a bandwidth of 10 Gbps. 10GBase-E allows optical signal
transmission up to 40km. The 10GBASE-ER media types is
designed for use over dark fiber, while the 10GBASE-EW media type is designed to connect to SONET equipment.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-ER
183
10GBase-ER is a mode of 10GBase-E supporting a link length
of up to 40 kilometers on single mode fiber (SMF based on
G.652) using optical wavelength 1550nm. The 10GBASE-ER
Network Protocols Dictionary
media types is designed for use over dark fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-EW
183
10GBase-EW is a mode of 10GBase-E supporting a link length
of up to 40 kilometers on single mode fiber (SMF based on
G.652) using optical wavelength 1550nm. 10GBASE-EW media type is designed to connect to SONET equipment.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-L
183
10GBase-L, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, is for single mode
fiber (SMF based on G.652) with 1310 nm laser transceiver
with a bandwidth of 10 Gbps. 10GBase-E allows optical signal
transmission up to 10km. The 10GBASE-LR media type is designed for use over dark fiber, while the 10GBASE-LW media
type is designed to connect to SONET equipment.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-LR
183
10GBase-LR is a mode of 10GBase-L supporting a link length
of 10 kilometers on standard single-mode fiber (SMF) (G.652).
10GBASE-LR media type is designed for use over dark fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-LW
183
10GBase-LW is a mode of 10GBase-L supporting a link length
of 10 kilometers on standard single-mode fiber (SMF) (G.652).
10GBASE-LW media type is designed to connect to SONET
equipment.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-LX4
183
10GBase-LX4, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, uses wave division multiplexing technology to send signals over four wavelengths of light carried over a single pair of fiber optic cables.
The 10GBASE-LX4 system is designed to operate at 1310 nm
over multi-mode or single-mode dark fiber. The design goal for
this media system is from 2 meters up to 300 meters over multimode fiber or from 2 meters up to 10 kilometers over singlemode fiber, with longer distances possible depending on cable
type and quality.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-S
183
10GBase-S, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, is for multimode fiber (MMF) with a 850-nm laser transceiver with a bandwidth
of 10 Gbps. It can support up to a 300-meter cable length. The
10GBASE-SR media type is designed for use over dark fiber,
while the 10GBASE-SW media type is designed to connect to
SONET equipment.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-SR
183
10GBase-SR, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, is a mode of
10GBase-S for multimode fiber (MMF) with a 850-nm laser
transceiver with a bandwidth of 10 Gbps. It can support up to
a 300 meters cable length. The 10GBASE-SR media type is
designed for use over dark fiber.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-SW
183
10GBase-SW, as defined by IEEE 802.3ae, is mode of
10GBase-S for multimode fiber (MMF) with a 850-nm laser
transceiver with a bandwidth of 10 Gbps. It can support up to
a 300 meters cable length. The 10GBASE-SW media type is
designed to connect to SONET equipment.
Network Protocols Dictionary 359
Appendices
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBASE-T
183
10GBASE-T is a standard proposed by the IEEE 802.3an committee to provide 10 Gigabit/second connections over conventional unshielded twisted pair cables (Category 5e or Category
6 or Category 7 cables). 10GBASE-T allows the conventional
RJ-45 used for Ethernet LANs. 10GBASE-T can support signal
transmision at the full 100m distance specified for LAN wiring.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3an
10GBase-ZR
183
transmission over relatively short distances at 20 – 54 Mbps
in the 2.4 GHz band. The 802.11g also uses the orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme.
802.11g is compatible with older 802.11b.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11g
802.11i
Page191
10GBASE-ZR, supporting link lengths of up to about 80 kilometers on SMF, is a 10 Gigabit Ethernet specification that is
not part of the IEEE 10 Gb Ethernet standard but is built according to Cisco optical specifications. 10GBase-ZR uses the
1550nm laser wavelength.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
802.11i, also called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2), is the
standard for WLAN security. IEEE 802.11i enhances the WEP
(Wireline Equivalent Privacy), a technology used for many
years for the WLAN security, in the areas of encryption, authentication and key management. WPA 2 supports the 128bit-and-above Advanced Encryption Standard, along with
802.1x authentication and key management features. It also
uses TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) which rotates key
periodically to improve WLAN security.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11i
10Broad36 is an obsolete standard for carrying 10 Mbit/s Ethernet signals over a standard 75-ohm CATV cable with a 3600
meter range.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3
802.11j is the IEEE standard to the 802.11 family of standards
for wireless local area networks (WLANs) for 4.9 GHz - 5 GHz
frequency use of WLAN systems in Japan.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11j
1Base5 refers to an obsolete standard to carry 1 Mbps over a
unshielded twisted pair for StarLAN Ethernet.
IEEE Protocol
The 802.11k is the Radio Resource Management standard
to provide measurement information for access points and
switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently. It may,
for example, better distribute traffic loads across access points
or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11k
802.11n
190
10Broad36
1Base5
2B1Q: 2 Binary 1 Quaternary
2 Binary 1 Quaternary (2B1Q) is a full duplex physical layer
encoding method used in ISDN and other digital communication technologies. In 2B1Q, two binary bits are encoded into
one quaternary signal, doubling the effectiveness of transmission.
ANSI Specification: T1.601
802.11a
190
802.11a is an extension to IEEE 802.11 that applies to wireless
LANs and provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. 802.11a
uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS. 802.11a, actually newer than 802.11b, offers significantly more radio channels than the 802.11b and has a shorter range than 802.11g. It
isn’t compatible with 802.11b.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11a
802.11b
190
802.11b, also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi, is an
extension to IEEE 802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and
provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1
Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11b uses only DSSS. 802.11b
was a ratification to the original 802.11 standard, allowing wireless functionality comparable to Ethernet.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11b
802.11e
802.11e, an IEEE standard, is the quality-of-service specification over a LAN, in particular, the 802.11 Wi-Fi standard. The
standard is considered of critical importance for delay-sensitive applications, such as Voice over Wireless IP and Streaming Multimedia. The protocol enhances the IEEE 802.11 Media
Access Control (MAC) layer.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11e
802.11g
190
802.11g is an extension to IEEE 802.11 which offers wireless
802.11j
802.11k
802.11n is the IEEE Standard for WLAN enhancements for
higher throughput designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. and to cover a range up to 400
meters. IEEE 802.11n technology is also known as Multiple
Input, Multiple Output (MIMO).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11n
802.11r
The 802.11r is the Fast Roaming standard to address-maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to
another. This is especially important in applications that need
low latency and high quality.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11r
802.11s
802.11s, an IEEE standard, is designed to deal with mesh networking in wireless communication. It is predicted to be ratified
in mid-2008.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.11s
802.11x
190
802.11x refers to a group of evolving wireless local area network (WLAN) standards that are elements of the IEEE 802.11
family of specifications. 802.11x should not be mistaken for
any one of its elements because there is no single 802.11x
standard. The 802.11 family currently includes six over-theair modulation techniques that all use the same protocol. The
most popular (and prolific) techniques are those defined by
the b, a, and g amendments to the original standard; security
was originally included and was later enhanced via the 802.11i
amendment. 802.11n is another new modulation technique.
Other standards in the family (c–f, h, j) are service enhancements and extensions or corrections to previous specifica-
360 Appendices
tions. 802.11b was the first widely accepted wireless networking standard, followed by 802.11a and 802.11g.
IEEE Protocol
802.15.1
195
802.15.1 is an IEEE wireless technology standard based on
the Bluetooth technology. It is used for short range network
monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless
personal area network (WPAN).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.1
802.15.3
194
802.15.3 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is
used for short range network monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN).
802.15.3 is also called UWB.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.3
802.15.4
194
802.15.4 is an IEEE wireless technology standard that is
used for short range network monitoring and control applications, which is called wireless personal area network (WPAN).
802.15.4 is also called Zigbee.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.15.4
802.16-2004
205
802.16-2004, also known as 802.16d, is an IEEE standard
for the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16-2004
product profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) system profile. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16-2004 standard
supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) services -- the latter of which delivers full
duplex transmission on the same signal if desired. Mobile
WiMAX will do the same.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16-2004
802.16-2005
205
802.16-2005, also known as 802.16e, is an IEEE standard
addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE
802.16-2005 is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX”, after the
WiMAX forum for interoperability. 802.16-2005, based on an
existing WiMax standard 802.16a, adds WiMax mobility in the
2 to 6 GHz licensed bands.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16-2005
802.16a
205
802.16a is an IEEE wireless communications specification for
metropolitan area networks (MANs) as part of a set of standards known as 802.16 or WiMAX. The 802.16a standard was
developed for wireless MANs operating between 2 GHz and 11
GHz, at data speeds of up to 75 megabits per second (Mbps).
802.16a has been replaced by later standards in the family
802.16d (802.16-2004) and 802.16e (802.16-2005).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16a
802.16d
802.16d, also known as 802.16-2004, is an IEEE standard for
the fixed wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE 802.16d product
profile utilizes the OFDM 256-FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
system profile. The Fixed WiMAX 802.16-2004 standard supports both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division
duplex (FDD) services -- the latter of which delivers full duplex
transmission on the same signal if desired.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16-2004
802.16e
205
802.16e, also known as 802.16-2005, is an IEEE standard
Network Protocols Dictionary
addressing mobility of wireless broadband (WiMax). IEEE
802.16e is sometimes called “Mobile WiMAX”, after the
WiMAX forum for interoperability. 802.16e, based on an existing WiMax standard 802.16a, adds WiMax mobility in the 2 to
6 GHz licensed bands. 802.16e allows for fixed wireless and
mobile Non Line of Sight (NLOS) applications primarily by enhancing the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.16-2005
802.1ad
802.1ad, an IEEE standard also referred to as “Q-in-Q” tag
stacking, builds on the IEEE’s 802.1Q (Virtual LANs) to enable
stacked VLANs. IEEE 802.1ad is an amendment to IEEE standard IEEE 802.1Q-1998, intended to develop an architecture
and bridge protocols to provide separate instances of the MAC
services to multiple independent users of a Bridged Local Area
Network in a manner that does not require cooperation among
the users, and requires a minimum of cooperation between the
users and the provider of the MAC service.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1ad
802.1D
802.1D is an IEEE specification which defines Spanning-Tree
Protocol (STP). STP is a link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in
the network. For an Ethernet network to function properly, only
one active path can exist between two stations. Loops occur
in networks for a variety of reasons. The most common reason
for loops in networks is a deliberate attempt to provide redundancy -- in case that one link or switch fails, another link or
switch can take over.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1d
802.1P
186
IEEE 802.1p specification enables Layer 2 switches to prioritize traffic and perform dynamic multicast filtering. The prioritization specification works at the media access control (MAC)
framing layer. The 802.1p standard also offers provisions to
filter multicast traffic to ensure it does not proliferate over layer
2-switched networks.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1p
802.1Q
185
802.1Q is an IEEE standards, also known as virtual LAN
(VLAN), which allows multiple bridged networks to transparently share the same physical network link without leakage of
information between networks. IEEE 802.1Q also defines the
meaning of a virtual LAN or VLAN with respect to the specific
conceptual model underpinning bridging at the MAC layer and
to the IEEE 802.1D spanning tree protocol.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1q
802.1s
802.1s is an IEEE standard for the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST) Protocol, which was based on the Cisco’s Multiple Instances Spanning Tree Protocol (MISTP). MST combines the
best aspects from both the Cisco Per-VLAN Spanning Tree
(PVST+) and the 802.1q. The idea is that several VLANs can
be mapped to a reduced number of spanning tree instances
because most networks do not need more than a few logical
topologies.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1s
802.1w
802.1w is an IEEE standard which defines the Rapid Span-
Network Protocols Dictionary 361
Appendices
ning Tree Protocol (RSTP), an evolution of the Spanning Tree
Protocol. RSTP provides for faster spanning tree convergence
after a topology change. RSTP provides a loop free topology
for any LAN or bridged network.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1w
802.1x
193
802.1x is an IEEE standard for port-based network access
control, particularly useful for securing 802.11 wireless local
area networks (WLANs). The IEEE 802.1X offers an effective
framework for authenticating and controlling user traffic to a
protected network, as well as dynamically varying encryption
keys. 802.1X ties a protocol called EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) to both the wired and wireless LAN media
and supports multiple authentication methods, such as token
cards, Kerberos, one-time passwords, certificates and public
key authentication. Therefore, 802.1X is also known as EAP
over LAN (EAPOL).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.1x
802.20
802.20 is an IEEE standard of Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) by specifying new mobile air interfaces for wireless broadband. 802.20 is a competing standard with 802.16e.
802.16e, based on 802.16a, adds mobility in the 2 to 6 GHz
licensed bands, while 802.20, a brand new standard, aims for
operation in licensed bands below 3.5GHz and with a peak
data rate of over 1 Mbit/s.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.20
802.22
802.22 is an IEEE standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN). IEEE 802.22 specifies a cognitive air interface
for fixed, point-to-multipoint, wireless regional area networks
that operate on unused channels in the VHF/UHF TV bands
between 54 and 862 MHz. Signals at these frequencies can
propagate 40 km or more from a well-sited base station, depending on terrain.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.22
802.3ab
182
IEEE 802.3ab, also known as 1000BaseT, is a standard for
gigabit ethernet over copper wiring cable (Cat 5e or better).
1000BASE-T uses all four cable pairs for simultaneous transmissions in both directions through the use of echo cancellation and a 5-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-5) technique.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ab
802.3ad
IEEE 802.3ad defines the technology called Ethernet link aggregation. Link aggregation is a computer networking term
which describes using multiple Ethernet network cables/ports
in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any
single cable or port. Other terms for this also include “ethernet trunk”, “NIC teaming”, “port teaming”, “port trunking”, “NIC
bonding” and “link aggregate group” (LAG).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ad
802.3ae
183
802.3ae is an IEEE 10-Gigabit Ethernet standard, which offers
data speeds up to 10 billion bits per second but preserves similar benefits to those of the preceding Ethernet standard. 10Gigabit Ethernet is used to interconnect local area networks
(LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and metropolitan area
networks (MANs). 10-Gigabit Ethernet uses the familiar IEEE
802.3 Ethernet media to access control (MAC) protocol and
its frame format and size. However, it supports the full duplex
mode but not the half-duplex operation mode, and it only functions over optical fiber. So it does not need the carrier-sensing
multiple-access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol
as it is used in other Ethernet standards.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ae
802.3af
802.3af (often erroneously called 802.11af) is an IEEE standard which describes a mechanism for Power over Ethernet
(PoE). The standard provides the capability to deliver both
power and data over standard Ethernet cabling. Power over
Ethernet enables remote devices (such as VoIP phones or
Wireless Access Points) to operate without a separate power
source. The elimination of line voltage AC power simplifies
equipment installation and fosters safety in most areas.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3af
802.3ah
802.3ah, an IEEE Data-link OAM specification, provides utilities for monitoring and troubleshooting Ethernet links, which
are vital for carrier deployment. The IEEE 802.3ah EFM specification defines OAM as an optional sublayer just above the
Ethernet media access controller (MAC). The OAM sublayer
consists of a parser block, a multiplexer block, and a control
block. All three blocks communicate with an OAM client, which
is the “brains of the IEEE 802.3ah management architecture.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3ah
802.3u
181
802.3u is an IEEE standard for the Fast Ethernet (100BASET). Fast Ethernet has the same frame format, MAC mechanisms, and MTU as the original Ethernet. Such similarities
allow the use of existing 10BaseT applications and network
management tools on Fast Ethernet networks.
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3u
802.3z
182
802.3z is an IEEE standard for the Gigabit Ethernet over fiber
and cable, which has a physical media standard 1000BaseX (1000BaseSX -- short wave covers up to 500m, and
1000BaseLX -- long wave covers up to 5km). The IEEE 802.3ab
defines the Gigabit Ethernet over the unshielded twisted pair
wire (1000Base-T covers up to 75m).
IEEE Specification: IEEE 802.3z
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