Xantrex 120 VAC/60 User's Manual
™
SW Series Inverter/Chargers
With Revision 4.01 Software
Owner’s Manual
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
PRODUCT MATERIALS PACKAGE
Thank you for choosing Xantrex products to meet your powering needs. We make every effort to ensure
that your inverter/charger is properly packaged for shipping including the following:
q Owner’s Manual;
q Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS);
q Red and black battery terminal covers with attaching hardware;
q Hardware package (AC access panels with screws, crimp-on terminals);
q Trace™ bumper sticker;
If any of the above listed materials are missing from your package, or if it is unsatisfactory in any manner,
please contact our Service department at 360-435-8826; or, fax this page explaining the discrepancy to
360-474-0616. Please provide:
Model Number: ________________________________
Serial Number: ________________________________
Comments:
Visit our web site at www.traceengineering.com for more information and answers to frequently asked
questions.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ..................................................................................................... 1
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ....................................................................................................................................1
SPECIAL NOTICES................................................................................................................................................2
PERSONAL PRECAUTIONS..................................................................................................................................3
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 5
UNIT IDENTIFICATION................................................................................................................................ 7
MODEL NUMBER...................................................................................................................................................7
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS...................................................................................... 9
CONTROL PANEL..................................................................................................................................................9
AC SIDE ...............................................................................................................................................................12
DC SIDE ...............................................................................................................................................................14
INSTALLATION.......................................................................................................................................... 15
QUICK INSTALL ...................................................................................................................................................16
COMPLETE INSTALL...........................................................................................................................................17
FUNCTIONAL TEST .................................................................................................................................. 31
MENU SYSTEM.......................................................................................................................................... 33
OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................................................................................33
USER MENU MAP................................................................................................................................................34
SETUP MENU MAP..............................................................................................................................................35
USER MENU ........................................................................................................................................................36
SETUP MENU ......................................................................................................................................................44
OPERATION............................................................................................................................................... 57
THEORY OF OPERATION ...................................................................................................................................57
POWER VS. EFFICIENCY ...................................................................................................................................59
INVERTER CAPACITY VS TEMPERATURE .......................................................................................................60
OPERATING MODES...........................................................................................................................................61
INVERTER MODE ................................................................................................................................................62
CHARGER MODE ................................................................................................................................................64
INVERTER/CHARGER MODE .............................................................................................................................69
GENERATOR SUPPORT MODE .........................................................................................................................71
AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL MODE ...................................................................................................73
UTILITY BACKUP MODE .....................................................................................................................................81
UTILITY INTERACTIVE MODE ............................................................................................................................83
ENERGY MANAGEMENT MODE.........................................................................................................................90
PEAK LOAD SHAVING MODE.............................................................................................................................92
IN BRIEF...............................................................................................................................................................92
LOW BATTERY TRANSFER (LBX) MODE ..........................................................................................................93
USING MULTIPLE INVERTERS...........................................................................................................................95
TECHNICAL INFORMATION..................................................................................................................... 99
BATTERY TYPE ...................................................................................................................................................99
BATTERY SIZING...............................................................................................................................................101
BATTERY BANK SIZING....................................................................................................................................102
BATTERY CARE AND MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................104
BATTERY INSTALLATION .................................................................................................................................106
BATTERY HOOK-UP CONFIGURATIONS.........................................................................................................107
BATTERY CABLE INDUCTANCE ......................................................................................................................110
APPLICATIONS..................................................................................................................................................111
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE............................................................................................................................112
INVERTER/CHARGER TERMINOLOGY............................................................................................................115
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES (60 Hz Models) ........................................................................................118
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES (50 Hz Models) ........................................................................................119
DIMENSIONS .....................................................................................................................................................121
INSTALLATION DIAGRAMS ..............................................................................................................................121
USER SETTINGS WORKSHEETS.....................................................................................................................123
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................ 128
OPTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................... 128
OTHER PRODUCTS .......................................................................................................................................... 129
REFERENCE TABLES AND GRAPHS .............................................................................................................. 130
STORAGE CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................................................... 133
WARRANTY/REPAIR INFORMATION .................................................................................................... 135
LIMITED WARRANTY........................................................................................................................................ 135
WARRANTY REGISTRATION ........................................................................................................................... 135
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY.................................................................................................................................... 135
WARRANTY OR REPAIR SERVICE REQUIRED.............................................................................................. 136
INDEX ....................................................................................................................................................... 137
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX OF FIGURES
Figure 1, Identification Label .................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 2, SW Series Inverter/Charger .................................................................................................... 9
Figure 3, Control Panel........................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 4, AC Side ................................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 5, Internal Components and Indicators ..................................................................................... 13
Figure 6, Aux and Gen Control Relays ................................................................................................. 14
Figure 7, DC Side ................................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 8, Air Flow Intake Location ........................................................................................................ 18
Figure 9, AC Input/Output Power Connection ...................................................................................... 19
Figure 10, Warning Label ..................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 11, Battery to Inverter Cable Connection .................................................................................. 24
Figure 12, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: No External AC Source Connected........................... 27
Figure 13, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: External AC Source Connected ................................ 28
Figure 14, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: Neutral Bonded To Ground ....................................... 28
Figure 15, Multiple Point Ground System ............................................................................................. 29
Figure 16, Single Point Ground System ............................................................................................... 29
Figure 17, Trace™ SW Series Inverter Simple Block Diagram ........................................................... 57
Figure 18, Trace™ SW Series Inverter Output Waveform................................................................... 58
Figure 19, Trace™ SW Series Efficiency Curves .................................................................................. 59
Figure 20, Inverter Capacity vs. Temperature ...................................................................................... 60
Figure 21, Three-Stage Battery Charging ............................................................................................ 64
Figure 22, BTS (Battery Temperature Sensor) .................................................................................... 65
Figure 23, Two Wire Start Wiring Diagram .......................................................................................... 76
Figure 24, Three Wire Start Wiring Diagram (HONDA Type) .............................................................. 77
Figure 25, Three Wire Start Wiring Diagram (ONAN Type)................................................................. 77
Figure 26, Relay RY7 and RY8 Sequence ........................................................................................... 78
Figure 27, Selling Power From A DC Charging Source; Hypothetical Time Of Day Oper. History ...... 85
Figure 28, Selling Power Stored In The Batteries; Hypothetical Time Of Day Operational History...... 86
Figure 29, Utility Interactive Line-Tie System With Battery Backup Flow Diagram .............................. 88
Figure 30, Overvoltage Protection for Battery ...................................................................................... 89
Figure 31, Series Configuration: 6-Volt Battery Wiring....................................................................... 107
Figure 32, Series Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring..................................................................... 107
Figure 33, Parallel Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring ................................................................... 108
Figure 34, Series-Parallel Configuration: 6-Volt Battery Wiring.......................................................... 109
Figure 35, Series-Parallel Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring........................................................ 109
Figure 36, AC Waveforms .................................................................................................................. 116
Figure 37, SW Series Dimensions: With AC Access Covers – Showing Knockout Sizes ................. 120
Figure 38, Installation Diagram, 120 VAC, 1 Phase, Grid Connected, Generator Backup ................ 121
Figure 39, Installation Diagram, 240 VAC, 3 Wire, Grid Connected, Generator Backup ................... 122
Figure 40, AWG Wire Size ................................................................................................................. 131
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX OF TABLES
Table 1, AC Input and Output Wiring Connections .............................................................................. 19
Table 2, Minimum Recommended Battery Cable Size vs. Cable Length............................................. 22
Table 3, Battery Cable To Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size ..................................................................... 23
Table 4, Charging Setpoints For Common Battery Types.................................................................... 67
Table 5, Typical Wattage Of Common Appliances ............................................................................ 101
Table 6, Battery Charging: Charging Setpoints .................................................................................. 104
Table 7, Battery State of Charge Voltage ........................................................................................... 105
Table 8, Battery Cable Inductance ..................................................................................................... 110
Table 9, Power Consumption Of Common Appliances ...................................................................... 130
Table 10, AWG to Metric Wire Conversion Chart .............................................................................. 130
Table 11, Minimum Recommended Battery Cable Size vs. Cable Length......................................... 131
Table 12, Battery Cable to Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size................................................................... 131
Table 13, Recommended Minimum AC Wire Sizes (75° C)............................................................... 132
Table 14, Knockout/Hole Size To Conduit Size Required .................................................................. 132
Table 15, Safety Ground Wire Sizes .................................................................................................. 132
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS!
This manual contains important safety and operating instructions as prescribed by UL Standards for the
Trace™ SW Series Inverter/Chargers for use in residential and commercial applications. This manual
specifically covers products with the revision 4.01 software.
The 120 VAC/60 Hertz models of the SW Series Inverter/Chargers are ETL listed to UL Standard 1741
(Draft), Static Inverters and Charge Controllers for use in Photovoltaic Systems. The 12 and 24 VDC,
120 VAC/60 Hertz models of the SW Series Inverter/Chargers are ETL listed to UL standard 458, Power
Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Craft.
The 120 VAC/60 Hertz models of the SW Series Inverter/Chargers are also ETL listed to Canadian
Standard CSA - C 22.2 No. 107.1 - M1, Commercial and Industrial Power Supplies.
The following Model Numbers of the SW Series Inverter/Chargers listed above comply with the following
EU directives:
•
89/336/EEC, “Council Directive of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of Member States
relating to Electromagnetic compatibility” (EMC)
•
73/23/EEC, “Council Directive of 19 February 1973 on the harmonization of the laws of Member
States relating to electrical equipment for use within certain voltage limits” (LVD)
SW2612E
SW4548AHC
SW4548EPV
SW2612A
SW3048E
SW2612EHC SW4548EHC
SW2612AHC
SW3048AHC
SW4548E3PH
SW3024E
SW3048EHC
SW3024E
SW3048EPV
SW3048E3PH
SW3048E
SW3024AHC
SW3024A
SW3048APV
SW4548APV
SW3048A
SW3024EHC
SW3048E
SW4548E
SW4548A
The compliance of the above mentioned products with the Directives is confirmed through the
application of the following essential requirements:
Emissions and Immunity
EN 50091-1
Safety
EN 50091-2 and
EN 60950
NOTE: To achieve compliance to EN50091-1, Conducted RF emissions, product must not be
connected to AC mains. Compliance is assured for off-grid applications only.
As the manufacturer we declare under our sole responsibility that the above mentioned products comply
with the above named directives.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
1. Before using the SW Series Inverter/Charger, read all instructions and cautionary markings on:
(a) the inverter/charger; (b) the batteries and; (c) all appropriate sections of this manual.
WARNING - To reduce risk of injury, charge only deep-cycle lead acid, lead antimony, lead calcium,
gel cell, absorbed glass mat, or NiCad/NiFe type rechargeable batteries. Other types of batteries
may burst, causing personal injury and damage.
2. Do not expose inverter/charger to rain, snow or liquids of any type. The inverter is designed for indoor
mounting only. Protect the inverter from splashing if used in vehicle applications.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
1
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
3. Use of battery cable or custom attachment not recommended or sold by Xantrex Technology Inc. for
the SW Series Inverter/Charger may result in a risk of fire, electric shock, or injury to persons.
4. Do not disassemble the inverter/charger. Take it to a qualified service center when service or repair is
required. Incorrect re-assembly may result in a risk of electric shock or fire.
5. To reduce risk of electric shock, disconnect all wiring before attempting any maintenance or cleaning.
Turning off the inverter will not reduce this risk. Solar modules produce power when exposed to light.
Cover them with opaque material before servicing any connected equipment.
WARNING – RISK OF EXPLOSIVE GASSES
(a) WORKING IN VICINITY OF A LEAD ACID BATTERY IS DANGEROUS. BATTERIES
GENERATE EXPLOSIVE GASES DURING NORMAL BATTERY OPERATION. FOR THIS
REASON, IT IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE THAT EACH TIME BEFORE SERVICING
EQUIPMENT IN THE VICINITY OF THE BATTERY, YOU READ THIS MANUAL AND
FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY.
(b) To reduce risk of battery explosion, follow the instructions in this manual and those published
by the battery manufacturer as well as manufacturer of any additional equipment used in the
vicinity of the battery. Review all cautionary markings on these products.
SPECIAL NOTICES
1. Tools required to make AC and DC wiring connections: Wire strippers; 1/2" (13MM) open-end or
socket wrench; Phillips #2 screwdriver; flat blade 1/4" (6MM) screwdriver.
2. No terminals or lugs are required for hook-up of the AC wiring. AC wiring must be copper wire and
rated for 75°C or higher. The maximum wire size for the AC terminals is #6 AWG (4.11 mm diameter).
Battery cables must be rated for 75°C or higher. Crimped and sealed copper ring terminal lugs with a
5/16 hole should be used to connect the battery cables to the DC terminals of the inverter/charger.
Soldered cable lugs are also acceptable.
3. Torque all AC wiring connections to 20 inch-pounds. Torque all DC cable connections to 10-15 footpounds. Avoid dropping metal tools onto the batteries. A short-circuit could result in a spark, fire or
possible explosion.
4. This inverter/charger is designed for use with a battery supply with a nominal voltage that matches the
last two digits of the model number (e.g., 12 Volt with an SW2512).
5. For instructions on mounting, see the MOUNTING section on page 17 of this manual.
NOTE: Do not use the keyhole mounting slots for permanent installations. For battery installation
and maintenance refer to the battery manufacturer’s instructions.
6. No AC or DC disconnects are provided as an integral part of this inverter. Both AC and DC
disconnects must be provided as part of the system installation. Refer to the INSTALLATION section
beginning on page 15 for more information.
7. No overcurrent protection for the battery supply is provided as an integral part of this inverter.
Overcurrent protection of the battery cables must be provided as part of the system installation. Refer
to the INSTALLATION section beginning on page 15 and the DC DISCONNECT AND
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION section on page 23 for more information.
8. No over current protection for the AC output wiring is provided as an integral part of this inverter.
Overcurrent protection of the AC output wiring must be provided as part of the system installation. Refer to
the INSTALLATION section on page 15 and the AC WIRING section on page 18 for more information.
9. The AC output neutral conductor and DC negative conductors are not connected (bonded) to the
inverter chassis. Both the input and output conductors are isolated from the enclosure and each other.
System grounding, if required by sections 690-40, and 690-42 of the National Electric Code,
ANSI/NFPA 70-1996, is the responsibility of the system installer. All installations must comply with
local and national electrical codes and standards.
Page
2
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
10. GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS - This inverter/battery charger should be connected to a grounded,
permanent wiring system. For most installations, the negative battery conductor should be bonded to
the grounding system at one (and only one point) in the system. All installations should comply with
national and local codes and ordinances. Refer to the SYSTEM GROUNDING section on page 26 for
more information.
PERSONAL PRECAUTIONS
1. Someone should be within range of your voice or close enough to come to your aid when you work
near batteries.
2. Have plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid contacts skin, clothing, or eyes.
3. Wear complete eye protection and clothing protection. Avoid touching eyes while working near
batteries. Wash your hands when done.
4. If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water. If acid enters eye,
immediately flood eye with running cool water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention immediately.
(a) Baking soda neutralizes lead acid battery electrolyte.
(b) Vinegar neutralizes spilled NiCad and NiFe battery electrolyte.
(c) Keep a supply on hand in the area of the batteries.
5. NEVER smoke or allow a spark or flame in vicinity of a battery or generator.
6. Be extra cautious to reduce the risk of dropping a metal tool onto batteries. It could short-circuit the
batteries or other electrical parts that may result in a spark which could cause an explosion.
7. Remove personal metal items such as rings, bracelets, necklaces, and watches when working with a
battery. A battery can produce a short-circuit current high enough to weld a ring or the like to metal,
causing severe burns.
8. NEVER charge a frozen battery.
9. If necessary to remove the battery, make sure all accessories are off. Then, remove the grounded
terminal from the battery first.
10. If a remote or automatic generator control system is used, disable the automatic starting circuit and/or
disconnect the generator from its starting battery while performing maintenance to prevent accidental
starting.
11. Provide ventilation to outdoors from the battery compartment. The battery enclosure should be
designed to prevent accumulation and concentration of hydrogen gas in “pockets” at the top of the
compartment. Vent the battery compartment from the highest point. A sloped lid can also be used to
direct the flow to the vent opening location.
12. Clean battery terminals. Be careful to keep corrosion from coming in contact with eyes.
13. Study all the battery manufacturer’s specific precautions, such as removing or not removing cell caps
while charging and recommended rates of charge.
14. For flooded lead acid batteries, add distilled water in each cell until the battery acid reaches the level
specified by the battery manufacturer. This helps purge excessive gas fumes from the cells. Do not
overfill. For a battery without cell caps, carefully follow the manufacturer’s recharging instructions.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
3
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Page
4
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Congratulations! You are the proud owner of the finest inverter on the market today - and one very
complex piece of equipment. The Trace™ Sine wave (SW Series) Inverter/Charger has many features
and capabilities previously either non-existent, or found only in separate products.
With proper installation, the inverter will operate satisfactorily for many applications straight out of the box,
using the factory default settings. To fully utilize the inverter's generator interactive, or utility interactive
capabilities, it is necessary to understand the way the inverter operates and then tailor its operation via the
Control Panel and the USER and SETUP menu systems. This manual will provide the necessary
information. However, it is recommended that you consult with your authorized dealer to ensure correct
installation and maximum utilization of the numerous features of this product. If you do not understand any
aspect of installation, contact your authorized Xantrex dealer/installer for assistance.
If you intend to operate the inverter in a utility interactive mode, in which power will be sold to the utility,
you must contact the local utility office and get their approval. The utility may require additional information
that may not be included in this manual. Please contact your authorized Xantrex dealer/installer for
assistance.
As a minimum, you should read the sections of the manual that relate to your type of installation. The
MENU SYSTEM section, beginning on page 33, explains how to make changes to the inverter’s
user/setup menus. The OPERATION section, beginning on page 57, explains how the inverter works in
each of its different operating modes. Focus on the operating modes that relate best to your type of
installation and make the appropriate selections and adjustments. Installation diagrams are provided for
many of the various applications. This menu system provides control of the inverter, allows features to be
enabled, and allows setting of operating parameters.
This is a long manual and much of it is fairly technical. Throughout this manual terms may be used that
are unfamiliar, see the INVERTER/CHARGER TERMINOLOGY glossary on page 115 for clarification. If
you are an insomniac, properly used, this manual is guaranteed to provide several good nights of sleep.
Note: This manual is specific to the REVISION 4.01 software. Some features discussed may not
be included in previous software revisions provided in inverters manufactured before March
1996.
You can verify that the inverter is using REVISION 4.01 software by checking under the TRACE
ENGINEERING (3) menu heading. The second menu item should read REVISION 4.01. If your inverter
includes a previous software version, please contact your authorized Xantrex dealer regarding upgrade
options.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
5
INTRODUCTION
Page
6
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
UNIT IDENTIFICATION
UNIT IDENTIFICATION
This section describes the marking and location of the model and serial numbers for SW Series
Inverter/Chargers. Use this section to determine the type and model of your inverter/charger. The unit
identification label on the left side panel of the inverter/charger will show the serial number, model
number, listings, ratings, and date of manufacture.
Model Number
DC Input Voltage
Operating Range
AC Input/Output
Phase,
Waveform,
Frequency and
Voltage
Quarter and Year of
Manufacture
Product Code and Serial
Number
Figure 1, Identification Label
MODEL NUMBER
The Model Number of your inverter determines the different features your unit may have. Consider the
following unit with a SW4024 model number:
SW
40
24
*
Model
Power
Nominal DC
Voltage
AC Voltage/Options
Model: The first letter(s) (SW) indicate the model, in this case the SW Series.
Power: The first and second positions in the model number indicate the continuous AC power output in
hundreds of VA (Volt-Amps). Power levels available start at 2500 up to 5500 Volt-Amps with different DC
voltages. In the example above, 40 would stand for a 4000 VA (4 kVA), continuous-output inverter.
Input/Output DC Voltage: The number (24) following the power rating indicates an inverter/charger that
is designed to convert 24 VDC input to an AC voltage output, and charge 24 VDC batteries when
powered by the same AC voltage. Available DC voltages are 12, 24 and 48 volt models.
Input/Output AC Voltage/Options: The letter following the power rating indicates what AC voltage and
frequency or particular option this inverter/charger is specifically designed to provide. No letter after the
DC voltage number indicates an AC voltage of 120 VAC/60 Hz and requires the same AC voltage and
frequency (120 VAC/60 Hz) to charge the inverter batteries. Available voltages range from 105 to 240
VAC at 50 or 60 Hz.
See the SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES section, on page 121, for the different models available.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
7
UNIT IDENTIFICATION
Page
8
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
The SW Series Inverter/Chargers have an integral, full function Control Panel with LED status indicators.
The following components are also included: inverter/charger circuit breaker; battery temperature sensor
(BTS) port, remote port, and a stacking port.
Stacking Interface
Remote Interface
Control Panel
AC Side
DC Side
BTS Sensor Input
Circuit Breaker
Figure 2, SW Series Inverter/Charger
CONTROL PANEL
The Control Panel, on the front of the SW Series Inverter/Charger, provides the controls and displays
needed to adjust, control and monitor the operation of the unit. The control panel is operational whenever
DC power is applied to the inverter DC input terminals.
Figure 3, Control Panel
Eight pushbuttons are used to select the various menus, menu items and operating setpoint values for the
unit, including the ability to turn the inverter on and off. A Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) presents the various
system settings and data as selected by the operation of the MENU BUTTONS on the control panel. Eight
LED indicators are provided to show the operating condition of the inverter, battery charger, AC inputs and
self-protection systems.
DISPLAY
The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) displays data as selected by the menu buttons. Refer to the USER
MENU, beginning on page 36, and the SETUP MENU, beginning on page 44, for specific information on
the Menu Items, functions and display information.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
9
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
CONTRAST CONTROL
The CONTRAST adjustment enables you to adjust the contrast of the LCD display screen to accommodate
changing lighting conditions. Less contrast is usually preferable in brighter lighting conditions.
RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS BUTTON
The RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS button returns all of the inverter settings (except for the TIME OF
DAY settings) to the factory default values. The default values will be re-entered only when this button is
pushed from a specific menu item in the USER MENU. You must first select the TRACE ENGINEERING
(3) menu heading and then go to the first menu item, which will display “PRESS RESET NOW FOR
DEFAULTS”. Once this reset button is pressed from this menu item, you must reprogram all settings
required by your installation into the inverter.
Removing DC power from the inverter will also return the inverter to the factory default values
(including the TIME OF DAY settings). You must then reprogram the inverter with the required settings
for proper operation of your system. Recording your settings on the USER SETTINGS WORKSHEET, in
the TECHNICAL INFORMATION section of this manual, will make the reprogramming of the inverter
much easier.
The reset button is also used to re-synchronize the remote control (SWRC) display if the characters become
jumbled. Pressing the reset button anywhere in the menu system (except the PRESS RESET NOW FOR
DEFAULTS menu item) will re-synchronize the display, but the default values will not be reset.
MENU BUTTONS
ON/OFF MENU BUTTON (Red)
Pressing the red ON/OFF MENU button at any time will take you directly to the SET INVERTER menu
item of the INVERTER MODE (1) menu heading. There are four options available from this menu item.
The first letter of the selected item will be underlined. Pressing the red ON/OFF MENU button will move
the cursor one position to the right, selecting the next item. You can also use the SET POINTS buttons to
move either right or left.
GEN MENU BUTTON (Green)
Pressing the green GEN MENU button at any time will display the SET GENERATOR menu item of the
GENERATOR MODE (2) menu heading. There are four options available from this menu. The first letter
of the selected item will be underlined. Pressing the green GEN MENU button will move the cursor one
position to the right, selecting the next item. You can also use the SET POINTS buttons to move either
right or left.
MENU ACCESS/ADJUSTMENT BUTTONS (Black)
The MENU HEADING buttons are used to move either up or down through the selection of menu
headings. Once a menu heading is selected, the MENU ITEM buttons are used to move up or down
through the list of related menu items. The SET POINTS buttons change the value of a parameter or
select a mode, for the selected menu item.
LED STATUS INDICATORS
The Control Panel features eight colored LED indicators that identify the various operating conditions of
the inverter. Unless otherwise indicated, the LED’s will be "solid" in appearance, when illuminated.
LINE TIE (Yellow)
Selecting SELL from the GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading will
enable sell mode. This should only be done with utility connected systems and after you have received the
approval of the local utility. This mode allows excess power to be sent into the utility grid.
INVERTING (Yellow)
The inverter is operational and AC output is available. If this LED is blinking, the inverter is in the search
mode and is looking for an AC load greater than the SET SEARCH WATTS setting.
Page
10
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
AC1 IN GOOD (Green)
Indicates that AC power is present at the AC HOT IN 1 and NEUTRAL IN 1 input terminals. This input is
intended for utility power. When an AC source is connected to the input terminals, it will start to blink slowly
(once a second) to show the AC voltage has been detected. After the inverter has connected to the AC
source, the LED will be solid. If the LED starts to blink during operation, utility power has been dropped.
AC2 IN GOOD (Green)
Indicates that AC power is present at the AC HOT IN 2 and NEUTRAL IN 2 input terminals. This input is
intended for generator power. When an AC source is connected to the input terminals, it will start to blink
slowly (once a second) to show the AC voltage has been detected. After the inverter has connected to the
AC source, the LED will be solid. If the LED starts to blink during operation, generator power may have been
dropped.
This LED will also blink slowly (once a second) when the automatic generator control system is enabled.
When the generator has started, it will continue to blink slowly until the generator has been connected. If the
generator does not successfully start, the AC 2 IN GOOD LED will stop blinking and the red ERROR LED will
turn on. The ERROR CAUSES (5) menu heading will indicate a GENERATOR SYNC ERROR condition.
BULK (Yellow)
This indicator will be on to indicate the inverter is in the Bulk or Absorption charge stage. This indicator will
go off and the FLOAT indicator will illuminate when the battery voltage has been held near the SET BULK
VOLTS DC setting for the time period determined by the SET ABSORPTION TIME setting from the
BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading.
If the EQ mode is selected from the SET GENERATOR menu item under the GENERATOR MODE (2)
menu heading, the BULK LED will slowly blink while the charger completes the equalization process.
FLOAT (Green)
This indicator will be on when the battery voltage has reached the Float Stage of the charging process. It
will now regulate the charging process to the SET FLOAT VOLTS DC setting from the BATTERY
CHARGING (10) menu heading. The SET FLOAT VOLTS DC setting provides a maintenance charge to
the battery until another Bulk Charge Cycle is initiated or the AC source is disconnected. If a generator is
manually controlled and powering the battery charger, the FLOAT indicator will come on to indicate that
the generator should be turned off, since the battery is now fully charged.
This indicator is also used to indicate the regulation setpoint when the inverter is operating as an Utility
Interactive Inverter (SELL mode). The indicator will blink slowly to indicate the battery is regulated to the
SET BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC setting from the BATTERY SELLING (17) menu heading, and the
indicator will be “solid” to indicate the battery is regulated to the SET FLOAT VOLTS DC setting from the
BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading.
ERROR (Red)
Indicates that an operating error has occurred (refer to the ERROR CAUSES (5) menu heading for a list
of possible causes). To reset the inverter, press the red ON/OFF MENU button and then select OFF and
then ON with the SET POINTS buttons or by pressing the red button several times.
This indicator will blink slowly to indicate that the AC source frequency is not well-adjusted (3 to 7 hertz
from nominal). You can use the LED blink to help adjust the AC source frequency. Once the frequency is
within 3 hertz of your nominal frequency, the LED will turn off.
OVERCURRENT (Red)
The load requirement has exceeded the inverter’s maximum output AC amps. A sustained overcurrent
condition will require a manual reset by pressing the red ON/OFF MENU button and then selecting OFF
and then ON with the SET POINTS buttons or by pressing the red button several times. Momentary
flashing of the red OVERCURRENT indicator means that the inverter has reached it maximum output AC
amps and has automatically reset itself. This may occur during motor startups and is acceptable.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
11
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
AC SIDE
Figure 4 shows the components located on the AC side of the inverter. The removable AC Access Panels
cover and protect the Internal Components and Indicators, such as the AC Terminal Block, BTS
Connection, LED status indicators (for the AC1 and Gen Control relays) and the Aux and Gen Control
relay terminals. Refer to the INSTALLATION section beginning on page 15, for all wiring connections.
Inverter/
Charger
Circuit Breaker
Identification
Label
Knockouts
(Also On Side}
Remote
Port
Three
Removable
Access Panel
(One Panel on
Side)
Stacking
Port
Figure 4, AC Side
REMOTE PORT
The SW Series Inverter/Charger can be controlled remotely from the unit by plugging in a Sine wave
Remote Control (SWRC) or Sine wave Communications Adapter (SWCA).
The SWRC remote control is a full function, programmable remote control with backlit LCD which
duplicates the functions of the integral Control Panel.
The SWCA serial communications interface adapter allows for remote setup, adjustment, monitoring and
troubleshooting of SW Series Inverter/Chargers from a personal computer and allows modem access
monitoring over long distances.
See the APPENDIX, OPTIONS section, starting on page 128, for a complete description of the SWRC
Remote Control and SWCA Serial Communications Adapter.
STACKING PORT
The stacking port allows multiple SW Series Inverter/Chargers to be used in the same system. The
inverters can be used in a “SERIES” configuration to operate 240 Vac loads and to connect to
120/240 Vac power systems. A series stacking interface cable (SWI) is required to connect the series
stacking ports of the inverters. This port is also used to connect two units in a “PARALLEL” configuration.
The parallel stacking interface cable (SWI/PAR) allows two inverters to be connected to provide twice the
continuous and surge capability at the same AC voltage. See the USING MULTIPLE INVERTERS section
on page 95 for more information.
INVERTER/CHARGER CIRCUIT BREAKER
This circuit breaker protects the unit’s internal wiring while the unit is inverting or charging. It is not used
for the pass-through current. This is not a branch-circuit rated breaker, separate output breakers are
required. Press the breaker to reset (to reset on 48-volt units, move the breaker handle to the ON
position).
Page
12
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
INTERNAL COMPONENTS AND INDICATORS
Additional components and indicators are located behind three removable AC Access Panels located on
the AC Side of the unit. They include the AC Terminal Block, BTS Connector, three LED indicators and
the Aux and Gen Control Relay Connectors.
RY7 (Yellow)
LED
RY8 (Green)
LED
AC1 Relay
(Red) LED
AC
Terminal Block
BTS
Connector
Aux and Gen Control
Relay Connectors
AC
Safety Ground
Figure 5, Internal Components and Indicators
LED INDICATORS
Three LED indicators allow visual indication of operation of the RY7, RY8 and AC1 relays.
RY7 (Yellow) LED
Allows visual indication of relay RY7 operation. During the automatic generator control sequence, the
LED will be on to show that RY7 is closed (engaged) from the N.O. to the COM contacts, and will be
off when RY7 is opened (disengaged).
RY8 (Green) LED
Allows visual indication of relay RY8 operation. During the automatic generator control sequence, the
LED will be on to show that RY8 is closed (engaged) from the N.O. to the COM contacts, and will be
off when RY8 is opened (disengaged).
AC1 RELAY (Red) LED
Allows visual indication of AC1 relay operation. The LED will be on when the AC1 relay is closed
(engaged). This LED along with the test-jumper adjacent to the LED is used by utilities to perform
voltage and frequency tests to qualify the SW Series Inverter/Charger for line-tie applications.
BTS PORT
The battery temperature sensor (BTS) can be connected (plugged in) at the RJ-11 four-conductor
connector, located on the AC Circuit Board. The BTS provides information that enables the three-stage
standby battery charger to “fine tune” the battery charge voltages for better charging performance, greater
efficiency and longer battery life.
AC TERMINAL BLOCK
A six position terminal block is provided to make the AC connections. The terminal block is located on the
AC Circuit Board. The terminal block is used to hardwire all AC input and output connections.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
13
CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND COMPONENTS
AC SAFETY GROUND
The AC Safety Ground is used to connect the inverter chassis to the AC Grounding System.
AUXILIARY AND GENERATOR CONTROL RELAY CONNECTORS
Generator Control
Relay Connectors
Auxiliary Control
Relay Connectors
Figure 6, Auxiliary and Generator Control Relay Connectors
DC SIDE
Figure 5 shows the components located on the DC side of the inverter. Refer to the INSTALLATION
section for the battery wiring connections to the Battery Terminals and the DC Ground.
DC
(Equipment)
Ground
Battery
Terminal
(-)
Battery
Terminal
(+)
Figure 7, DC Side
BATTERY TERMINALS
Caution: Before connecting the battery cables to the inverter, verify the correct battery voltage
and cable polarity using a voltmeter. The inverter is not reverse polarity protected. If the
positive terminal of the battery is connected to the negative terminal of the inverter and
vice versa, severe damage will result. If necessary, color-code the cables with colored tape or
heat shrink tubing: RED for positive (+); BLACK for negative (-) to avoid polarity problems.
DC (EQUIPMENT) GROUND
This connection is used to connect the exposed chassis of the inverter to the DC grounding system. The
terminal accepts wires from #14 AWG to #2 AWG.
Page
14
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
This section is very important, since it tells you how to properly install your SW Series Inverter/Charger.
It becomes very frustrating when your inverter system does not perform properly, simply because care
was not taken during installation. Please read this entire section carefully. You will save time and avoid
common mistakes.
This section also describes the requirements and recommendations for installing the SW Series
Inverter/Charger. In the U.S., the National Electrical Code (NEC) defines the standards for both the AC
and DC wiring in residential, commercial and RV applications. It will list the requirement for wire sizes,
overcurrent protection and installation methods and requirements. There are still many other variables not
covered by the NEC. Most are determined by the level of automatic operation, the amount of external AC
and DC power to be controlled and the loads to be operated.
The NEC standards and regulations are described here in general for your convenience, and are not
represented as comprehensive or complete. For comprehensive and complete official standards and
regulations, write the address listed below:
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
National Electrical Code Handbook
1 Batterymarch Park,
PO Box 9101
Quincy, MA 02269-9101
617-770-3000.
Before beginning the installation of the SW Series Inverter/Charger, read all instructions. Disconnect all
sources of AC and DC power to prevent accidental shock. Disable and secure all AC and DC disconnect
devices and automatic generator starting devices.
All installations should meet all local codes and standards and be performed by qualified
personnel such as a licensed electrician. Although the DC electrical system may be “low voltage”,
significant hazards may be present, particularly from short circuits of the battery system. Inverter systems
by their nature involve power from multiple sources (inverter, generator, utility, batteries, solar arrays etc.)
that add hazards and complexity that can be very challenging.
After you have finished installing your unit, continue with the FUNCTIONAL TEST section on page 31.
This Functional Test should be completed prior to configuring your unit’s Menu System for your specific
operation.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
15
INSTALLATION
QUICK INSTALL
This section provides installers, licensed electrical contractors, and knowledgeable laymen the essential
steps to quickly install the Trace™ SW Series Inverter/Charger. If you haven’t had experience with the SW
Series Inverter/Charger, you are urged to skip this section and read the entire INSTALLATION section
before installing the inverter/charger.
MOUNTING
Mount the unit securely in a clean, dry, properly ventilated enclosure. Do not mount the unit in the same
enclosure as vented or maintenance-free type vented batteries. Bolt the unit securely. Allow adequate
clearance to allow access to the indicators or controls.
DC CABLING
1. Connect an appropriate sized cable from the positive batter terminal (or battery bank) to the inverter’s
positive (red) terminal. See Table 12 in the Appendix to determine the proper size cable and length of
run needed to use with your inverter model and for your specific application. The National Electric
Code (NEC) requires the use of a DC fuse or disconnect with this cable. See Table 12 in the Appendix
to determine the correct fuse or breaker to use.
2. Connect an appropriate sized cable from the negative battery terminal to the negative (black) inverter
terminal. Torque all terminals to 10-15 foot-pounds. NOTE: A 'snap' caused by charging the internal
capacitors may occur when first connecting the cable. This can be avoided by first removing the DC
fuse or opening the disconnect in the positive battery cable.
3. Connect a cable from the inverter’s DC Chassis Ground to the system ground.
AC IN CABLING
1. See Table 13 in the Appendix to determine the appropriate AC wire size.
2. Remove the knockout from the inverter chassis and install a strain relief or conduit in which to route
the AC cabling in and out.
3. Connect the black wire from the hot side of the AC power to the terminal labeled AC HOT IN 1 (AC
HOT IN 2 if a generator is the AC source) on the inverter.
4. Connect the white wire from the neutral side of the AC power source to the terminal labeled
NEUTRAL IN 1 (NEUTRAL IN 2 if a generator is the AC source) on the inverter.
5. Connect the green wire from the ground of the AC power source to the AC Ground Terminal of the
inverter/charger.
AC OUT CABLING
1. Connect the black wire between the terminal marked AC HOT OUT to the hot bus of your AC load
center or AC sub-panel.
2. Connect the white wire from the terminal marked NEUTRAL OUT to the neutral bus of your AC load
center or sub-panel.
3. Connect the AC Ground Terminal of the inverter to the safety ground bus of the AC load center or
sub-panel.
WRAP UP
1. Secure all wiring with wire ties or other non-conductive fasteners to prevent chafing or damage. Use
strain-reliefs, grommets, or conduits to prevent damage to the wiring where it passes through any
apertures. Tighten all connections to the correct torque (AC Connections at 20 inch-pounds; DC
Connections at 10-15 foot-pounds).
2. Make a final check of all wiring, then reconnect to the AC power source.
3. Turn the inverter ON and check inverter operation (See the FUNCTIONAL TEST section on page 31).
Page
16
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
COMPLETE INSTALL
UNPACKING
Before beginning, unpack the inverter/charger; record the
serial number on the inside cover of this booklet and on the
warranty card. Right now, please do the following:
•
Verify that you have everything listed on the Packaging
Materials sheet. If any items are missing, please call
Customer Service at (360) 435-8826.
•
Save your “proof-of-purchase”, You will need the “proof-ofpurchase” to obtain warranty service.
•
Keep the original carton and packing materials. If you
need to return your inverter for service, you should ship it
in the original carton. It is also the best way to keep the
inverter safe if it needs to be moved.
LOCATION
Inverters are sophisticated electronic devices and should be treated accordingly. Treat the inverter as you
would any fine piece of electronic equipment. When selecting the location for the inverter, don't think of it
in the same terms as the other interfacing equipment, e.g. batteries, diesel generators, motor generators,
washing machines etc. It is a highly complex microprocessor controlled device. There are nearly 500,000
silicon junctions in its output devices and integrated circuits. The crystal oscillator runs at 4 megahertz.
The drive circuitry timing is accurate to a thousandth of a second. Genetically speaking, it is a cousin to
stereo equipment, television sets or computers. The use of conformal-coated circuit boards, plated copper
bus bars, powder coated metal components, and stainless steel fasteners improves tolerance to hostile
environments. However, in a corrosive or condensing environment (one in which humidity and/or
temperature change cause water to form on components) all the ingredients for electrolysis are present water, electricity and metals. In a corrosive or condensing environment, the life expectancy of the
inverter is indeterminate and the warranty is voided.
Caution: Install the inverter in a dry, protected location away from sources of high temperature
and moisture. Exposure to saltwater is particularly destructive and potentially hazardous.
Locate the inverter as close to the batteries as possible in order to keep the battery cable length short.
Do not locate the inverter directly above the batteries or in the same compartment as vented batteries.
Batteries generate hydrogen sulfide gas, which is very corrosive to electronic equipment and everything
else. They also generate hydrogen and oxygen. If these gases accumulate, an arc caused by the
connecting of battery cables or the switching of a relay could ignite the mixture. Mounting the inverter in a
ventilated enclosure with sealed batteries is acceptable.
Ensure the inverter is located in an area that prevents insects and rodents from entering the inverter, as
the inverter can provide a warm habitat in a cold environment. This may involve installing the inverter in an
enclosure and include mesh screens or nets over any openings to ensure the unit is kept well ventilated.
This inverter can create RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). Keep this in mind when determining the
placement of the inverter. You should locate the inverter as far away as possible from any electronic
devices that may be susceptible to RFI.
MOUNTING
UL Standard 1741 (draft) requires that the inverter be mounted on a vertical surface (on a wall) and that
the keyhole slots not be used as the only method of mounting. The purpose of the wall mounting
requirement is to orient the inverter so that its bottom cover, which has no holes, will not allow burning
material to be ejected in case of an internal fire.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
17
INSTALLATION
Use 1/4" minimum diameter bolts for mounting. The mounting must be capable of supporting twice the
weight of the inverter in order to comply with UL 1741. If this unit is used in a mobile application (i.e. RV,
Boat) secure the inverter to a shelf or deck to prevent movement. Place flexible washers on the mounting
screws or bolts between the shelf or deck and the inverter chassis to reduce vibration.
VENTILATION
Installation of the inverter in a properly ventilated enclosure is necessary for efficient operation of the unit.
The inverter’s thermal shutdown point will be reached sooner than normal in a poorly ventilated
environment and will result in a lower peak power output, reduced surge capability, and potentially shorter
inverter life.
Note: Do not operate the inverter in a closed-in area or restrict ventilation in any way.
Testing has shown that the volume of the enclosure is not as important as the overall ventilation. A
minimum airspace clearance of 1½ inches around the top and bottom and 3 inches of clearance at the left
and right sides of the inverter will provide adequate ventilation. Because the top and bottom of the SW
Series chassis is not vented, clearance between the enclosure and the top of the inverter is not critical. A
fresh air intake port should be provided directly to the left side and an exhaust port on the right side will
allow cool outside air to flow through the inverter and back out of the enclosure.
Top
Left
(AC Side)
Right
(DC Side)
AIR
FLOW
Bottom
Figure 8, Air Flow Intake Location
AC WIRING
This section describes AC wiring requirements and recommendations; including AC connections; wire
sizing; overcurrent devices; GFCIs; external relays; hookup procedure; and neutral-to-ground switching.
Your local electrical code and the National Electrical Code (NEC) define the standards for AC installation
wiring, but there are still many installation variables to be considered. Consult the local code and the NEC
for the proper wire sizes, connectors and conduit. All installations should meet all local codes and
standards and be performed by qualified personnel such as a licensed electrician.
AC INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS
A six position terminal block is provided to make the AC connections. The terminal block is located on the
left-hand side of the inverter, enclosed under a cover plate (See INTERNAL COMPONENTS AND
INDICATORS on page 13 for location.). The terminal block can accept up to # 6 AWG stranded wire and
is used to hardwire all AC connections. For 120 VAC inverters, we recommend 6 AWG (THHN) wire for
full utilization of the inverter’s 60 amp AC pass through capability. The code requires that disconnect
switches be provided in the AC input and output wiring circuits. AC circuit breakers in an AC load center
can be used to meet this requirement. The wiring both in and out of the inverter must also be protected
from short circuits and overloads by a fuse or circuit breaker. Typically, a 60 amp circuit breaker will
protect #6 AWG wiring. Consult your local code for more information and for other wire sizes.
Page
18
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
Note: The three neutral terminals are common to each other and can be used in any combination or
order. In a residential application, it is often easier to only connect one AC neutral wire to the inverter and
make the other neutral connections at a central point such as in the AC load center, etc. In mobile
installations, the AC system must have the neutral physically isolated from the ground throughout the load
distribution powered by the inverter. The SW Series Inverter/Charger does not include neutral to ground
switching for the AC electrical system. This must be done externally from the inverter. See the NEUTRALTO-GROUND BOND SWITCHING (RV AND MARINE APPLICATIONS) section on page 27 for more
information.
AC Terminal Block
(TB1)
AC IN 2
From
Generator Power
1a
1b
2a
2b
3a
3b
4a
4b
5a
5b
6a
6b
AC IN 1
From
Utility Power
AC OUT
To
AC Loads
Figure 9, AC Input/Output Power Connection
Before making any AC connections, make sure that the inverter is disconnected from the battery (or
battery bank). Feed the wires through conduit fittings located on the left side or left bottom side of the
inverter. (Note: Conduit fittings must be purchased separately and are required by code to comply with
residential and commercial installations).
The AC wiring both in and out of the inverter must also be protected from short circuits and overloads by a fuse
or circuit breaker. Consult the NEC or your local code for more information and for other wire sizes. Table 13 on
page 132 gives suggestions for wire sizing. Follow the wiring guide on the circuit board inside the cover plate
(see Figure 9, above). Connect the AC wiring as follows (from front to back when wall mounted):
Table 1, AC Input and Output Wiring Connections
AC CONNECTIONS
AC TERMINAL BLOCK #
WIRE COLOR
PURPOSE
AC HOT IN 1
1b
Black (Hot)
Utility Power
NEUTRAL IN 1
3b
White (Neutral)
Utility Power
AC HOT IN 2
2b
Black (Hot)
Generator
NEUTRAL IN 2
4b
White (Neutral)
Generator
AC HOT OUT
6b
Black or Red (Hot)
AC Loads
NEUTRAL OUT
5b
White (Neutral)
AC Loads
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
19
INSTALLATION
AC INSTALLATION GUIDELINES
The following steps are a basic guideline for installation and connection of the AC wiring into and out of
the inverter.
1. Disconnect the inverter from the battery bank (if already connected), by either removing the DC side
fuse, or opening the DC disconnect. Then remove the AC wiring compartment cover from the front of
the inverter by removing the two screws on the cover.
2. If conduit will be utilized (consult code, it may be required in your installation), determine which
knockout(s) will be utilized and remove them from the inverter. Using appropriate conduit connectors,
fasten the conduit to the inverter. Feed all AC wiring through the conduit and into the inverter AC
terminal block. Be sure to leave yourself several extra inches of wire to work with. Remember that you
need at least two sets of three conductor wiring, one for AC Hot, Neutral, and Ground into the inverter,
and another for AC Hot, Neutral and Ground out of the inverter to the loads. Torque all AC terminals
to 10 to 15 inch-pounds.
3. Connect the Hot (black) and Neutral (white) wires from the AC source(s) to the appropriately labeled
terminals in the AC terminal block. The Safety Ground (green) should be connected to the terminal
stud labeled “AC Ground” bolted to the chassis. Repeat the procedure for the AC wiring going to the
AC sub-panel which will power the loads, except connect these wires to the terminals labeled AC HOT
OUT.
4. Inspect all wiring for proper installation and then replace the access cover using the two screws to
secure it.
IMPORTANT PRECAUTION
The AC output of the inverter must at no time be connected directly to utility power or a generator.
This condition can be far worse than a short circuit. If the inverter survives this condition, it will shut down
until corrections are made. Connection to a utility or generator must be only done internally by the
inverters built-in relays. This allows the inverter to first synchronize to the other AC sources waveform,
preventing damage. Connect the utility or generator to the provided input terminals AC HOT IN 1 or AC
HOT IN 2 respectively.
When the inverter output is connected directly to an external source, the inverter will shut down and
indicate an error on the control panel. Checking the ERROR CAUSES menu heading will show a YES for
the AC SOURCE WIRED TO OUTPUT menu item. Either determine the source of the AC or call a
qualified electrician to correct the situation.
EXTERNAL TRANSFER RELAYS
It is not acceptable to switch the AC input from one AC source to another while the inverter is
connected. This applies whether the inverter is in battery charging mode or inverter mode. Switching the
AC input from one source to another can result in a loss of synchronization that can cause a severe
overcurrent condition that is far worse than short circuiting the inverter. Two separate AC inputs are
provided to eliminate the need for use of external transfer relays. If a transfer relay is used, it must provide
a center “OFF” position (“break before make”) that causes a loss of input power to the inverter for a period
of at least 100 milliseconds. This will allow the inverter to disconnect from the original AC input and then
re-synchronize to the new AC source although the same AC input terminal is being used. During the
transition period, the inverter will have to operate the load while it re-synchronizes to the new AC source
(about a thirty-second period at the minimum). Most transfer relays will switch too fast for the inverter to
detect - and will cause the inverter to lose synchronization with the AC source. This is indicated by the
inverter shutting down upon transfer and the red overcurrent LED indicator flashing or turning on.
Manually, hand operated transfer switches may be acceptable since the transfer time can be slow enough
for the inverter to detect. The switch must go through a center “off” position. They are often used to switch
from one generator to another. Since the inverter has a separate AC input for a utility grid, a transfer
switch is not required to switch from the utility grid to a back-up generator. The inverter will not allow the
generator to be connected to the utility - if both are available, the generator will be disconnected and the
inverter will connect to the utility on AC HOT IN 1.
Page
20
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
120 VAC GROUND FAULT INTERRUPT OUTLETS (GFI’S)
Xantrex has tested the following 120 VAC GFI’s and found them to work satisfactorily with our inverters:
LEVITON
PASS & SEYMOR
ACE Hardware
6599
1591 4A957
ACE 33238
WARNING LABEL
A warning label is provided to inform all personnel that an inverter is installed in your electrical system.
This label should be installed at the electrical panel that is being powered by the inverter. Be cautious until
the inverter is disconnected from your electrical system.
!
Figure 10, Warning Label
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
21
INSTALLATION
DC WIRING
CAUTION: The inverter’s maximum peak current requirements are high. If battery cables are too
small and/or connections are loose, efficiency and maximum output power are degraded. Small
cables or loose connections may cause dangerous overheating and a fire.
BATTERY CABLE SIZING
The larger the battery cables the better. Undersized cables result in additional stress on the inverter, lower
efficiency, reduced surge power and lower peak output voltage. Don’t use cables that are too small and
degrade the efficiency that we have worked so hard to achieve and you have paid so much to own.
Also, don’t use cables that are too long - the shorter the better. The lower the DC system voltage, the
shorter the cables need to be. If long cables are required, either oversize them substantially, or switch to a
higher voltage system, such as 24 Vdc or 48 Vdc. On 12-Vdc system, cables may need to be doubled up
(paralleled) to get maximum performance from the inverter.
NOTE: Do not separate the positive and negative cables - taping them together in parallel is
best. This reduces the inductance of the wire resulting in a better waveform and reduces the
current in the inverter’s filter capacitors. Make the battery cables as short as possible.
Although large cables may seem expensive, spending an additional $100 or more to ensure the
performance of your inverter is a wise investment. Using cables that are too small is like putting cheap
tires on a high performance sports car - the results will be disappointing.
If the system is expected to operate at the inverter’s continuous power level rating for long periods of time
(over an hour), larger disconnects and cables may be required. Most systems do not operate at full
capacity for periods exceeding an hour and can operate satisfactorily with the following cable and
disconnects shown. If your system includes enormous batteries or has a very large DC source able to
continuously power the inverter (such as a hydroelectric plant, etc.) then increasing the disconnect and
cable sizes may be required to prevent nuisance tripping of a breaker or blowing of fuses.
The following table gives recommended minimum cable sizes for various cable run lengths and inverter
voltages. Use only all copper cables. These recommendations may not meet all local code or NEC
requirements.
Table 2, Minimum Recommended Battery Cable Size vs. Cable Length
INVERTER
MODEL
TYPICAL
DC
AMPS1
NEC
AMPS2
1 TO 3 FEET
ONE WAY
SW2512
267 Amps
334 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
3 TO 5 FT
ONE WAY
5 TO 10 FT
ONE WAY
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
Not Recommended
Not Recommended
SW2612E
278 Amps
348 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW3024E or J
160 Amps
201 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW4024 or W, K
214 Amps
267 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW3048E or J
80 Amps
100 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
SW4048 or K
107 Amps
134 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
2
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW4548E or A
120 Amps
150 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
SW5548
147 Amps
184 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
1
TYPICAL DC AMPS is based on Low Battery Voltage with an efficiency of 85%.
2
NEC AMPS is based on Low Battery Voltage, an efficiency of 85%, and a 125% NEC de-rating.
WARNING! Battery cables that are too small will melt and burn the first time the inverter is
operated at high power levels.
Page
22
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
DC DISCONNECT AND OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
For safety and to comply with regulations, battery over-current protection is required. Fuses and
disconnects must be sized to protect the wiring in the system. The fuse or disconnect is required to open
before the wire reaches its maximum current carrying capability.
For residential and commercial electrical systems, the National Electrical Code requires both overcurrent
protection and a disconnect switch. These installation parts are not supplied as part of the inverter.
However, Xantrex offers a DC rated, UL listed, circuit breaker disconnect specifically designed for use
with Trace™ inverters for applications requiring NEC compliance. Two amperage ratings are available - a
DC250 (250 amps) and a DC175 (175 amps). These disconnects are available in a single or double pole
configuration to handle either one or two inverters. The DC disconnect enclosure will accommodate up to
four smaller breakers for use as DC load disconnects, PV array disconnects, etc. and the top is designed
to allow direct connection of up to two Xantrex charge controllers. The Trace™ DC disconnect is not
designed to accept doubled (paralleled) cables which may be required for long cable runs. Also, the plastic
red and black covers on the end of the inverter is not designed to accommodate dual cables. If dual
cables are used, the optional conduit box (SWCB) should be used.
When sizing the DC disconnect, the expected continuous load on the inverter is used to determine the DC
current involved. You must account for the efficiency loss through the inverter (see the POWER VS.
EFFICIENCY section on page 59 in this manual) which increases the DC current draw. Divide the
maximum continuous current draw by the lowest efficiency to determine the DC current, a 25% safety
margin should be included to comply with the code requirements. When a breaker has been selected as
the overcurrent device, tighter sizing may be acceptable since the breaker is more easily reset when
compared to a high current, bolt-in type fuse.
Marine and RV installations typically do not require conduit or a means of disconnection, although
overcurrent protection (fuse) is required. Xantrex offers a fuseblock (TFB) that provides the code required
inverter overcurrent protection for residential, commercial, RV and Marine applications.
TFB’s include a fast acting, current limiting class-T fuse to protect your battery, inverter and high
amperage cables from damage by short circuits and overloads. This fuse provides extremely fast
protection when a short circuit occurs. When properly selected, it also has a time delay that allows the
inverter to surge to full power without blowing the fuse. A slide off cover prevents accidental contact with
the fuse’s live terminals. For maximum protection, install the fuseblock within 18 inches (45 cm) of the
battery. The fuses are available in 110, 200, 300, and 400 amp sizes.
Use Table 3 below, to determine the proper size disconnect (breaker) or fuse for the battery cables you
are using. These recommendations may not meet all local code or the NEC requirements, consult your
applicable electrical code for more information regarding acceptable fuse and cable sizes.
Table 3, Battery Cable To Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size
CABLE SIZE
REQUIRED
RATING IN
CONDUIT
MAXIMUM
BREAKER SIZE
RATING IN
“FREE AIR”
MAXIMUM
FUSE SIZE
# 2 AWG
115 amps
125 amps*
170 amps
175 amps*
00 AWG
175 amps
175 amps
265 amps
300 amps*
0000 AWG
250 amps
250 amps
360 amps
400 amps*
*The NEC allows rounding up to the next standard fuse size from the cable rating, i.e. 150-amp cable size
rounds up to a standard 175-amp fuse or breaker size. The term "free air" is defined by the NEC as cabling that
is not enclosed in conduit or a raceway. Cables enclosed in raceways or conduits have substantially lower
continuous current carrying ability due to heating factors.
Contact your Xantrex dealer to order the inverter disconnects/fuses or see the OTHER PRODUCTS
section in this manual on page 129 for more information.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
23
INSTALLATION
BATTERY CABLE CONNECTIONS
Cables must have crimped (or preferably, soldered and crimped) copper compression lugs unless
aluminum mechanical lugs are used. Soldered connections alone are not acceptable. We suggest using
high quality, UL-listed Xantrex battery cables. These cables are available in a specific assortment of sizes
from 1-½ to 10 feet, and in 2/0 or 4/0 AWG. They are color-coded and have pressure-crimped, sealed-ring
terminals. Contact your Xantrex dealer to order. Figure 11, illustrates proper method to connect the battery
cables to the SW Series Inverter/Charger.
Do not place anything
between battery cable lug
and terminal surface.
Assemble exactly as shown.
2/0 Copper Compression Lug
2/0 Aluminum Mechanical Lug
Figure 11, Battery to Inverter Cable Connection
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE - BATTERY CABLES
CAUTION: THIS INVERTER IS NOT REVERSE POLARITY PROTECTED. If the positive
terminal of the battery is connected to the negative terminal of the inverter and vice versa, the
result will be instantaneous failure of nearly every power transistor. This type of damage is
obvious and requires an extensive rebuilding of the inverter at your own cost. It is not covered by
the warranty.
Ensure that the inverter is off before connecting or disconnecting the battery cables and that all
AC power is disconnected from the inverter’s inputs.
Determine the correct size battery cable to use for your installation from Table 2, on page 22 and the
proper size disconnect/fuse from Table 3, Battery Cable To Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size on page 23.
Color-code the cables with colored tape or heat shrink tubing [the standard colors are red for positive (+)
and black for negative (-)]. Always double-check the polarity with a voltmeter before making the battery
connections
Install the over-current device (fuse or circuit breaker) between the inverter and battery - as close as
possible to the battery - in the ungrounded conductor [typically the positive (red) cable]. Connect a cable
from the battery negative terminal to the negative (black) terminal on the inverter.
Observe Battery Polarity! Place the battery cable ring terminals over the stud and directly against the inverter’s
battery terminals. Red is positive (+), Black is negative (-). Use a 1/2-inch wrench or socket to tighten the 5/16
SAE nut to 10-15 foot/pounds. Do not place anything between the cable ring terminal and the flat metal
part of the terminal or overheating of the terminal may occur. DO NOT APPLY ANY TYPE OF ANTIOXIDANT PASTE until after the battery cable wiring is tightened to 10–15 foot-pounds!
Note: Connecting the battery cables to the inverter battery terminals may cause a brief spark or arc
- usually accompanied by a "snapping" sound. This is normal - don’t let it scare you. It is simply the
internal capacitors of the inverter being charged.
Page
24
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
CONTROL WIRING
More advanced installations will require additional wiring to interface the inverter to other components of
the system. Proper installation is important to ensure the reliability of the system.
Although the circuits may carry little or even no actual power, the use of quality wire in conduit is
recommended to provide good results. All circuits should also be fused at the source of the power in the
circuit to provide both protection and indication of problems with the control circuit. Consult local code and
the NEC for minimum wire size and type required based on the length that you want to run.
The AC circuit board provides male type push on connectors and you are provided crimp-on terminals in
your hardwire package to connect to these Aux and Gen Control relays. These terminals allow easier
connection of a variety of wire sizes and allow faster installation and troubleshooting. This circuit board
also includes two LED indicators to allow visual indication of the generator control sequence provided by
relays RY7 and RY8. These relays are not intended to directly control the starter motor or operate the
ignition system - rather they can be used to send a signal or operate the coil of another higher amperage
device which does the actual switching of the power.
CAUTION: A fuse rated at 5 amps or less must be included to protect each of the relays.
Damage to these relays is not covered by the Warranty and requires the inverter to be returned to
a service center for repair.
GEN CONTROL WIRING
The configuration of the starting relays on all SW Series inverters allows starting of both Honda and Onan
type generators. The COM terminals of relay RY7 and RY8 are separated and both the normally open and
normally closed contacts are provided.
It is much easier to make the connections to the generator if a remote control terminal or connector is
available on the generator. This sometimes requires that the generator optional remote control panel be
purchased. This allows examination of how the generator remote control panel works - which is what the
inverter’s generator control system in the inverter must duplicate.
Connection of the inverter’s generator control relays in the inverter to the generator’s remote control panel
also eliminates the need to make modifications and thus violate the generator’s warranty.
You should also ensure that there is a switch to allow disabling of the automatic generator control system
at the generator. This will allow local control of the generator, preventing starting while servicing, etc.
AUX RELAY WIRING
The auxiliary relays are RY9, RY10, and RY11 and can be used to control external power sources or
loads. The voltage settings that determine when the relays are activated are individually adjustable. The
relays are connected to a terminal block located in the wiring compartment at the left end of the inverter
and must be fused to prevent damage if they are miswired or a short-circuit occurs . The maximum fuse
size must not exceed 5 amps and the fuses should be located as close as possible to the source of power
e.g. generator battery.
REMOTE CONTROL WIRING
An optional remote control panel for the SW Series Inverter/Charger is available (Trace™ part number
SWRC or SWRC/50FT) which provides complete duplication of the control panel on the front of the
inverter. It is connected to the REMOTE PORT on the left side (AC side) of the inverter (see page 12 for
the location of the REMOTE PORT) through a provided cable. Two cable lengths are available - 25 feet (8
meters) or 50 feet (16 meters). Distances longer than 50 feet (16 meters) are not recommended. The
remote control cable should be kept away from sources of radio frequency interference such as motors
and antennas. The cable must be protected from abrasion and hot surfaces.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
25
INSTALLATION
SYSTEM GROUNDING
GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS - This inverter/charger should be connected to a grounded, permanent
wiring system. For most installations, the negative battery conductor should be bonded to the grounding
system at one (and only one point) in the system. The subject is more easily discussed if it is divided into
three separate subjects; Chassis Ground, Ground Rods and Bonding. The grounding requirements vary
by country and application. All installations should comply with national and local codes and ordinances.
Even system designers and electricians often misunderstand system grounding. Consult local codes and
the NEC for specific requirements. Refer to Table 15, page 133 for safety ground wire sizes.
EQUIPMENT OR CHASSIS GROUNDS
This is the simplest part of grounding. The idea is to connect the metallic chassis of the various
enclosures together to have them at the same voltage potential, which reduces the possibility for electric
shock. It also provides a path for fault currents to flow through to blow fuses or trip circuit breakers. The
size of the connecting conductors should be coordinated with the size of the overcurrent devices involved.
Under some circumstances, the conduit and enclosures themselves will provide the current paths.
GROUNDING ELECTRODES/GROUND RODS
The purpose of the grounding electrode (often called a ground rod) is to “bleed” off any electrical charge
that may accumulate in the electrical system and to provide a path for “induced electromagnetic energy” or
lightning to be dissipated. The size for the conductor to the grounding electrode or grounding system is
usually based on the size of the largest conductor in the system. Most systems use a 5/8” (16 mm) copper
plated rod 6 feet (2 meters) long driven into the earth as grounding electrode. It is also common to use
copper wire placed in the concrete foundation of the building as a grounding system. Either method may
be acceptable, but the local code will prevail. Connection to the ground electrode should be done with
special clamps located above ground where they can be periodically inspected.
Many large systems use multiple ground rods. The most common example is providing a direct path from
the solar array to earth near the location of the solar array. Most electrical codes want to see the multiple
ground rods connected by a separate wire with its own set of clamps. If this is done, it is a good idea to
make the connection with a bare wire located outside of the conduit (if used) in a trench. The run of buried
wire may be a better grounding electrode than the ground rods! Well casings and water pipes can also be
used as grounding electrodes. Under no circumstance should a gas pipe or line be used. Consult local
codes and the NEC for more information.
BONDING THE GROUNDING SYSTEM
This is the most confusing part of grounding. The idea is to connect one of the current carrying conductors
(usually the AC neutral and DC negative) to the grounding system. This connection is why we call one of
the wires “neutral” in the North American type electrical systems. You can touch this wire and the
grounding system and not be shocked. When the other ungrounded conductor (the hot or positive)
touches the grounding system, current will flow through it to the point of connection to the grounded
conductor and back to the source. This will cause the overcurrent protection to stop the flow of current,
protecting the system. This point of connection between the grounding system (ground rod, vehicle
frame, boat hull, etc.), the current carrying grounded conductor (AC neutral and DC negative), and the
equipment grounding conductor (green ground wire, equipment ground) is often called a “bond”. It is
usually located in the overcurrent protection device enclosures (both AC and DC). Although it can be done
at the inverter, codes do not generally allow it since the inverter is considered a “serviceable” item that
may be removed from the system. In residential systems, it is located at the service entrance panel, after
the power has gone through the kilowatt-hour meter of the utility. In mobile applications (RV and marine)
this “bond” is provided by the different AC sources on board, see NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND BOND
SWITCHING (RV AND MARINE APPLICATIONS) on page 27.
Bonding must be done at only one point in an electrical system. Our systems inherently have two separate
electric systems - a DC system and an AC system. This means that two bonding points will occur in all
inverter applications. The bonding point will also be connected to the equipment (chassis) grounding
conductors. It is common to have two separate conductors connect the ground electrode and the two
bonding points. Each conductor should use a separate clamp.
Page
26
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
In some countries, the neutral is not bonded to the grounding system. This means you may not know
when a fault has occurred since the overcurrent device will not trip unless a “double” fault occurs. In some
marine electrical codes, this type of system is used.
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND BOND SWITCHING (RV AND MARINE APPLICATIONS)
As required by NEC code and UL specification 458, inverter/charger installations in the U.S. that are used
in RV or Marine applications employ ground-to-neutral switching. The purpose for this requirement is to
ensure that all the neutral conductors are connected (“bonded”) to a single ground point in a three-wire
(hot, neutral and ground) AC system. This prevents a voltage difference from developing between the
vehicle/boat’s AC neutral and the external AC source’s (generator or shore power) neutral, which may
cause an electric shock or cause nuisance tripping of GFI’s. The SW Series Inverter/Charger does not
include Neutral-to-Ground switching and must be provided in the AC installation.
When the unit is operating as an inverter, the AC output neutral should be connected or “bonded” to the
frame/hull (chassis ground). When an external AC source (AC shore cord) is provided, the inverter’s AC
output neutral should be disconnected from the frame/hull (chassis ground) and allow the “bond” to be
provided by the external AC source. The requirement to switch the neutral can be met by your inverter
internally or can be easily met by using an external relay to connect and disconnect the external AC
source’s neutral. If another AC source (on-board generator) is included in the RV or boat, this AC source
neutral is required to be connected to ground when it is being used, and to disconnect all other neutrals
from ground. An AC transfer switch can be used if it switches both the shore cords and generators neutral.
In some marine applications, neutral-to-ground switching is not required or acceptable. The potential for
galvanic corrosion caused by small leakage currents between boats with dissimilar metals is present. The
proper and safe ways to prevent this is by using galvanic isolators or include an isolation transformer for
the AC input. Disconnecting the common ground between the AC and DC system could contribute
to a hazardous and potentially fatal situation.
The figures below graphically describes the neutral-to-ground switching system for the two cases in
question: the unit operating as an inverter feeding the AC subpanel, and the unit connected to an external
AC source (generator, shore power, etc.).
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND
“BOND” is provided by this relay
for the entire AC system
No external AC
source is present
INVERTER
(AC Terminal Block)
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND SWITCHING
RELAY (provided in the AC installation):
Connects the output neutral to chassis or
vehicle ground when AC is not present at
inverter input. This assures all equipment in
the vehicle is referenced to the same
ground.
AC PANEL
(RV/Marine)
AC HOT IN
EARTH GROUND
NEUTRAL
AC NEUTRAL IN
HOT
CHASSIS GROUND
RY1
AC HOT OUT
GROUND
AC NEUTRAL OUT
The neutral conductor should
not be connected to the
equipment grounding
conductors or enclosures.
Figure 12, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: No External AC Source Connected
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
27
INSTALLATION
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND “BOND” is
provided by an external AC source for
the entire AC system
INVERTER
(AC Terminal Block)
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND SWITCHING RELAY
(Provided in the AC installation): Connects the
neutral from external AC source, and neutral of
the AC panel loads together when AC is applied
to the inverter input.
AC PANEL
(RV/Marine)
AC HOT IN
AC NEUTRAL IN
HOT
EARTH GROUND
CHASSIS GROUND
NEUTRAL
AC SOURCE
RY1
GROUND
AC HOT OUT
The neutral conductor
should not be
connected to the
equipment grounding
conductors or
enclosures.
AC NEUTRAL OUT
Figure 13, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: External AC Source Connected
Figure 14, graphically shows the current path if no ground switching was employed in a multiple AC
source system. If one neutral was tied to the AC subpanel ground buss and another neutral tied to the
vehicle or chassis ground, the two different ground points would now form a current carrying conductor
with the frame/hull (chassis ground) acting as the “wire” between the two different ground points. This
means any ground point in the vehicle or boat becomes a potential current carrying conductor, which
could result in an electric shock. Any form of Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) such as those found
in bathroom outlets, will pop if a ground loop (a situation where a voltage difference exist between multiple
ground points) is created.
If, however, the ground switching system were in place, it would ensure that there is only one ground point
in the system at all times. This would be either the vehicle/boat ground or the external AC source ground,
but never both at once.
AC SOURCE
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND
“BOND” is provided by
the external AC source
NEUTRAL-TO-GROUND SWITCHING RELAY
(Provided in the AC installation): Connects the
neutral from external AC source, and neutral of
the inverter output (AC panel loads) together
when AC is applied to inverter input.
INVERTER
(AC Terminal Block)
AC PANEL
(RV/Marine)
AC HOT IN
AC NEUTRAL IN
GFI’s will
nuisance trip
with multiple
Neutral-toGround bonds
HOT
EARTH GROUND
CHASSIS GROUND
RY1
GROUND
AC HOT OUT
AC NEUTRAL OUT
NEUTRAL
GFI
Another NEUTRALTO-GROUND
“BOND” is
incorrectly provided
in the AC panel.
The neutral
conductor should
not be connected to
the equipment
grounding
conductors or
enclosures.
Figure 14, Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching: Neutral Bonded To Ground
Page
28
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INSTALLATION
GROUNDING VS. LIGHTNING
This information is intended to provide basic grounding techniques that will help prevent inverter damage
due to lightning. It is not intended to be a complete course on grounding or a guarantee against protection
during a lightning strike situation. The NEC is the ultimate authority as to legitimate grounding techniques
for your electrical system.
If an electrical system has components grounded at different points in the earth, large voltage differences
will exist between these points during a lightning strike (See Figure 15). If this voltage appears between
the AC and DC side of the inverter, it will fail. All Trace™ inverters are designed to withstand a minimum
of 1750 volts between AC and ground, and 500 volts between DC and ground.
ONE GROUND FOR ALL EQUIPMENT
The first step in inverter protection is to make sure that all equipment in the system is physically
grounded at the same location. This assures that there is no voltage potential between grounds in the
system (See Figure 15 and Figure 16). No voltage means no current flow through the system.
Practically speaking, this would mean connecting the generator and battery grounds together, as well
as the case or “safety” grounds in the system, and then attaching all to the same earth grounding rod
(See the NEC for specific information on grounding requirements, and hardware).
In severe conditions, the generator frame should physically be isolated from the earth by a wood
frame or some other insulating means. This assures that the single point ground system is
maintained.
KEEP EQUIPMENT CLOSE TOGETHER
All equipment involved in a system should physically be located as close as possible to one another.
This reduces the potential that is developed between the ground site and the individual components of
the system during a lightning strike. This single point grounding greatly reduces the potential for
lightning damage to electrical equipment.
If you are unable to achieve single-point grounding due to large distances between equipment or other
variables, other means of lightning protection must be considered. Consult a reputable lightning
protection company.
Equipment acts as a
conductor due to
voltage between the
grounds. Bad!
Lightning
Strike
Equipment all grounded at
same point. No voltage
across system, and no
current flow through
equipment and wiring.
Lightning
Strike
GENERATOR
Generator
Ground
INVERTER
Inverter
Ground
Voltage
Difference
BATTERY
BANK
Battery
Ground
Generator
Ground
Voltage
Difference
Figure 15, Multiple Point Ground System
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
GENERATOR
INVERTER
Inverter
Ground
BATTERY
BANK
Battery
Ground
Zero Voltage Difference
across Component Grounds
Figure 16, Single Point Ground System
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
29
INSTALLATION
Page
30
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
FUNCTIONAL TEST
FUNCTIONAL TEST
Once the AC and DC wiring have been installed and connected, take a moment to go back over all
connections and make sure they are secure and have been installed properly. Ensure that there is no AC
or DC power provided to the inverter/charger and that all AC loads are disconnected from the output of the
inverter.
The below steps will complete a functional test of the inverter. If any area fails, figure out why before
proceeding. The TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE section, starting on page 112, will hopefully help solve
problems you may encounter.
1. After ensuring the correct polarity, apply battery (DC) power to the inverter by turning on the battery
bank DC disconnect or connecting the proper fuse inline to the battery to complete the battery circuit.
The inverter will power up, the LCD display will be on, but the inverter will remain in the OFF mode.
2. Press the red ON/OFF MENU switch twice (SEARCH then ON) to turn the inverter on.
Monitor your INVERTING LED (Yellow) to ensure what mode you are in:
•
Off – The Inverter/Charger is off. This is the default position of the inverter upon power-up. No
inverter or pass-thru power will be applied to the AC loads.
•
One blink/sec – The Inverter/Charger is in the Search mode and is looking for an AC load greater
than the SEARCH WATTS setting (default = 16 watts).
•
On – Indicates the Inverter/Charger is on. The inverter will produce a low audible “buzz” is able to
provide power to the AC loads.
If the inverter does not produce an low audible “buzz” or come on, check all connections. Check the
inverter’s DC voltage on the positive (+) and negative (–) terminals. If the DC voltage is low, the
battery bank needs to be charged externally. Charge the battery bank and restart the functional test.
3. With the inverter ON, check the AC voltage on the AC output terminal of the inverter and ensure you
get the correct AC voltage for your particular unit. After confirming the correct AC voltage, connect
your AC output breaker and place a load on the inverter (plug in a light or other load to an outlet the
inverter is powering), and make sure it works.
4. Check your battery charger. To charge your batteries, provide AC power - by plugging in a power
cord or turning on the AC input breaker - to the AC HOT IN 1 and NEUTRAL IN 1 terminals on the
inverter. The AC1 IN GOOD (Green) light will initially blink until AC power has synchronized and then
turn solid to indicate the AC power is getting to the inverter. After a minimum 20 second delay, the
Battery BULK LED (Yellow) or FLOAT LED (Green) on the inverter should be on. This indicates the
charger is working properly. The Control Panel lights should indicate which charge stage (bulk or float)
the inverter is currently in. Any AC loads powered by the inverter should also work at this point since a
portion of the AC input power (Utility or Generator) is passed through the inverter to power the loads.
5. Disconnect AC power. Take away the AC input power by turning the AC power breaker off, or
unplugging the AC power cord. The inverter should transfer to inverter mode immediately. The
INVERT (yellow) LED coming on will indicate this. The inverter will begin to produce an low audible
“buzz” as it takes power from the batteries and uses it to power the loads. The loads should continue
to operate uninterrupted.
6. This completes the functional test, if all areas pass, the inverter is ready for use. If any of the inverter’s
internal setpoints are to be adjusted, consult the MENU SYSTEM section starting on page 33.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
31
FUNCTIONAL TEST
Page
32
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
MENU SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
The operation of the inverter is determined by the settings in the menu system. The menu system is
divided into a USER MENU and a SETUP MENU. Each of the menu systems is divided into MENU
HEADINGS and MENU ITEMS. The menu headings break the menu into groups of related menu items.
At the Menu Item level a setting can be adjusted, a mode can be selected or information can be displayed.
When a number is included with the graphic of the menu heading or menu item in this manual, the values
shown are the default value and are for a 12-volt domestic (120VAC/60Hz) model SW Series
Inverter/Charger. For 24 volt systems multiply the DC settings shown by 2, for 48 volt systems multiply the
DC settings shown by 4.
•
The USER MENU provides the controls and settings needed on a daily basis. It allows you to turn on
the inverter and generator, read the AC and DC meters, check on an error cause and even adjusts
the inverter’s time clock.
•
The SETUP MENU provides all of the settings required to configure the inverter to operate in the
necessary modes for your installation. They are separated from the USER MENU to reduce tampering
and simplify the daily operation of the inverter.
The SW Series Inverter/Charger MENU SYSTEM is accessed through the CONTROL PANEL on the front
of the unit. To access the SETUP MENU, press both the red ON/OFF MENU and green GEN MENU
buttons at the same time once. The display will show INVERTER SETUP (9). This is simply the
continuation of the same menu system of the USER MENU. If you select a menu heading less than nine,
or press either the red or green buttons, you will have to re-enter the setup menu by pressing the red and
green buttons at the same time again.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
33
MENU SYSTEM
USER MENU MAP
Menu Heading
Menu Item
Setpoint
The values shown are the factory default values for
Model SW2512.
See the USER and SETUP menu item descriptions
for default values for other models.
Information
Push buttons on
Control Panel
MENU HEADINGS
Inverter Mode
Generator Mode
1
2
Trace
Engineering
Meters
3
Error Causes
4
5
Time of Day
00:00:00
6
Set Inverter
OFF SRCH ON CHG
Set Generator
OFF AUTO ON EQ
Press reset now
for defaults
Inverter/charger
Amps AC
00
Over Current
NO
Set Clock hour
00:00:00
CHG avail. Only
in FLT mode.
Gen under/over
speed
NO
Revision 4.01
Input amps AC
00
Transformer
overtemp
NO
Set Clock minute
00:00:00
Press red or
setpoint button
Generator start
error
NO
5916 195th St NE
Arlington, WA
Load
amps AC
00
Heatsink
overtemp
NO
Set Clock second
00
to move.
Move cursor to
Generator sync
error
NO
98223 USA
Battery actual
volts DC
12.6
High Battery
voltage
NO
Inverter OFF to
resetOverCurrent
Gen max run time
error
NO
Ph 360-435-8826
Fax 360-435-2229
Battery TempComp
volts DC
12.6
Low Battery
voltage
NO
Load Amp Start
Ready
NO
Inverter
volts AC
Generator Timer
00
Inverter breaker
tripped
NO
Voltage Start
Ready
Grid (AC1)
volts AC
Start Quiet
Time h:m
08:00
7
00
AC source wired
to output
NO
Exercise Start
Ready
NO
Generator (AC2)
volts AC
00
External error
(stacked)
NO
End Quiet
Time h:m
Move cursor to
GEN OFF to reset
Read Frequency
Hertz
60
Generator start
error
NO
Gen doesn’t run
During quiet
Generator error.
AC1 & AC2 volts
valid only when
Generator sync
error
NO
time unless batt
volts is less.
If no start in 5
trys then error.
inverter synced
to that input.
Gen max run time
error
NO
than LBCO volts
for 30 seconds.
If Gen starts &
runs for 5 min
Batt volt actual
is used for
Gen under/over
speed
NO
To defeat timers
set start = end.
then stops the
inverter will
LBCO,HBCO,LBX,
LBCI,sell volts,
Inverter breaker
tripped
NO
If exercise day
set to 1 then
not attempt
restart until
and gen starting
gen auto start
conditions are
Batt volt temp
comp is used,
again satisfied.
for float, bulk, eq
& aux relays
NO
08:00
MENU ITEMS
gen will always
start @ endquiet
If Gen runs for
More than max
Run time then
Error.
Under/Over speed
Will cause a
End User Menu
Sync error in 10
minutes
Page
34
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
8
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
SETUP MENU MAP
The SETUP MENU provides all the controls and settings needed when installing or adjusting the
system. To access the SETUP MENU, press both the red ON/OFF MENU and green GEN MENU buttons
on the Control Panel at the same time. To exit the SETUP MENU, press the red ON/OFF MENU button or
press the down MENU HEADING button until you reach the USER MENU (menu headings 1-8).
MENU HEADINGS
Inverter Setup
Battery Charging
10
AC Inputs
11
Gen Auto Start
setup
12
Gen starting
details
Set Grid Usage
FLT SELL SLT LBX
Set Bulk
volts DC
Set Grid (AC1)
amps AC
60
Set Load Start
amp AC
20
Set RY7 Function
GlowStop Run
Set Relay 9
volts DC
Set Low battery
cut out VDC 11.0
Set Absorption
time h:m
02:00
Set Gen (AC2)
amps AC
30
Set Load Start
delay min
5.0
Set Gen warmup
seconds
60
R9 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
Set LBCO delay
minutes
10
Set Float
volts DC
13.4
Set Input lower
limit VAC
108
Set Load Stop
delay min
5.0
Set Pre Crank
seconds
10
Set Relay 10
volts DC
14.8
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
13.0
Set Equalize
volts DC
14.4
Set Input upper
limit VAC
132
Set 24 hr start
volts DC
12.3
Set Max Cranking
seconds
10
R10 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
Set High battery
cut out VDC 16.0
Set Equalize
time h:m
02:00
Set 2 hr start
volts DC
11.8
Set Post Crank
seconds
30
Set Relay 11
volts DC
15.0
Set search
watts
48
Set Max Charge
amps AC
20
Set 15 min start
volts DC
11.3
R11 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
Set search
spacing
59
Set Temp Comp
LeadAcid
NiCad
Read LBCO 30 sec
start VDC
11.0
Close on batt >
setpoint.
Set Exercise
period days
Open on batt <
setpoint - Hys
9
14.4
13
MENU ITEMS
30
Auxiliary Relays
R9 R10 R11
14
14.5
Set Maximum run
time h:m
08:00
Relays have 2
second delay on
Set Max Run time
to 0 to defeat.
Close, 0.1 sec
delay on open
Set Exercise to 0
to defeat.
See menu 9 to
to set LBCO.
Bulk Charge
Trigger Timer
15
Low Battery
Transfer (LBX) 16
Battery Selling
17
Grid Usage Timer
18
Information file
battery
19
Set Start Bulk
time
00:00
Set Low Battery
TransferVDC 11.3
Set Battery Sell
volts DC
13.4
Start Charge
time
21:00
Batt temp comp
changes battery
To disable timer
set to 00:00
Set Low battery
cut in VDC 13.0
Set Max Sell
amps AC
End Charge
time
voltage reading
away from actual
If grid timer
active set bulk
See menu 9 to
enable LBX mode.
See menu 9 to
enable SELL mode.
After Start
Charge time:
HBCO resets at:
6v/48, 3v/24 and
time after start
charge time.
Make sure LBX is
above LBCO volts.
Make sure LBX is
above LBCO volts.
SELL mode
charges battery.
1.5v/12v under
HBCO.
In SLT mode don’t
disable this
FLT mode
charges battery
LowBattTransfer
used in LBX, FLT
timer. It is the
daily chg time.
After End Charge
time:
Modes only. Goes
back to battery
SELL mode sells
battery to AC1.
at LowBattCutIn
(aka LBCI).
FLT mode drops
AC1 and inverts
For LBX mode set
below LBCI so
Timer on when
start < > end;
charger won’t
cycle batteries
timer off when
start = end
up and down and
set LBCO below.
30
21:00
End Setup Menu
20
Sell and float
modes use timer
SLT and LBX mode
ignore timer
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
35
MENU SYSTEM
USER MENU
The USER MENU provides all the controls and settings needed on a daily basis. It allows you to turn on
the inverter and generator, read the AC and DC meters, check on an error cause and even adjust the
inverter’s time clock.
MENU HEADINGS
Inverter Mode
1
Generator Mode
2
Trace
Engineering
Allows control of the inverter and enables the search and charger only
modes.
Allows control of the generator, enables automatic operation or triggers an
equalization charge cycle. This menu heading is used only if a generator is
included and controlled by the inverter.
3
Provides information for accessing Xantrex. Also provides the software
revision number and allows resetting to the factory default values.
4
Allows monitoring of the DC battery voltage, AC voltages and AC current of
the inverter and other AC sources.
5
Provides an indication of the cause of an error condition. Check this menu
heading if the red ERROR LED indicator is illuminated on the control panel.
6
Sets the internal 24-hour clock. This is used for time sensitive operating
modes and to determine the “quiet time” period for generator run lockout.
Meters
Error Causes
Time of Day
Generator Timer
7
Used to set a run lockout period called “quiet time”. During quiet time, the
generator starts only if the battery voltage reaches the LBCO 30 sec start
VDC setting.
Used to display that you have reached the end of the USER MENU.
End User Menu
8
Page
36
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
INVERTER MODE (1) MENU HEADING
Set Inverter
OFF SRCH ON
CHG
Allows turning the inverter ON and OFF, enabling the SEARCH mode or selecting the charger only mode
CHG. The inverter always starts in the OFF position when powered up. Pressing the red ON/OFF MENU
button on the control panel can also access this display. Use the SET POINTS button to move the single
space cursor under the desired selection or you can continue to push the red button to move the cursor to
the right.
•
OFF - Disables the inverter. When the OFF position is selected, no power will be provided to the AC
loads even if an AC source is available. This is the default position of the inverter upon power-up.
•
SRCH - Enables the automatic load search mode control system. This system will turn on the
inverter if a large enough load is connected. If not enough AC loads are detected, the INVERTING
LED will blink slowly. The required AC load level is adjustable in the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu
heading of the SETUP MENU.
•
ON - Allows the inverter to provide AC voltage to the output and energize the AC loads either
from the battery or any “synchronized” AC source available on the input. This position must be
manually selected.
•
CHG - Allows the inverter to operate only as a battery charger. AC power will be available to the
AC loads only if an AC source is available and “synchronized”. This mode is used to prevent
discharge of the batteries by the AC loads when a utility outage occurs. This mode is only operational
on the AC1 input and when the SET GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER SETUP (9)
menu heading is in the FLT mode. When a different mode under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu
heading is selected, this position will be locked out. Selecting the ‘CHG’ mode will disable the
Automatic Generator control features.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
CHG Avail. Only in FLT mode. Press red or setpoint button to move.
Move cursor to Inverter OFF to reset Overcurrent
GENERATOR MODE (2) MENU HEADING
Set Generator
OFF AUTO
ON
EQ
Allows the generator to be turned ON and OFF or enables AUTO-matic and EQualization operation. This
menu display always starts in the OFF position when the inverter is powered up. Pressing the green GEN
MENU button on the control panel can access this display. Use the SET POINTS button to move the
single space cursor under the desired selection. You can also push the green button again to move the
cursor to the right.
•
OFF - Disables the ‘auto start’ system or turns off a generator that has been started by the
inverter. Also resets the automatic generator control system after an ERROR condition has occurred.
•
AUTO - Enables the automatic generator control features. When the battery voltage or load amps
reach the auto start settings for the required time period, the generator will be started unless the timer is
in the “quiet time” period. The generator will only start if the SET LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting
under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading is reached for over 30 seconds continuously. If the
generator is started automatically based on battery voltage, the generator will shut off automatically once
the battery has completed the BULK and ABSORPTION stages of the battery charging process. If the
generator is started automatically based on load amps, as set in under the GEN AUTO START SETUP
(12) menu heading, the generator will turn off once the load current has decreased below the LOAD
START AMPS continuously for the LOAD STOP DELAY MIN period. The AUTO-matic generator control
operation is disabled if the ‘CHG’ mode under INVERTER MODE (1) menu heading is selected.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
37
MENU SYSTEM
•
ON - Starts the generator that is controlled by the inverter. If this position is selected, it will
manually turn on the generator that is connected to the GEN CONTROL relays. The OFF position
must be selected to manually turn the generator off.
•
EQ - Triggers the battery charger to complete the equalization process. If an AC source is
connected to the AC HOT IN 1 terminals, then the equalization process will begin. If no AC source is
connected to the AC HOT IN 1 terminals, then the generator will start the equalization process the
next time the generator is automatically started. Once the equalization process has been completed,
the cursor will return to the AUTO position. If you are battery charging - in FLOAT charge - from the
Utility or a manually controlled generator, you may initiate another BULK charge by moving the cursor
through EQ.
Gen under/over
speed
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic generator control system has detected that the
generator frequency is with in acceptable tolerance, but is not well adjusted. This error condition will cause
the red ERROR LED to blink, but will not cause the automatic generator control system to shut down the
generator.
The ERROR LED can be used to indicate when the generator frequency is well adjusted. When the
frequency is within is within 3 hertz of the nominal value (57 to 63 for 60 Hz units, 47 to 53 for 50 Hz units),
the LED will be off. Once outside this window, the LED will blink slowly. A frequency meter is also provided
in the METERS (4) menu heading to allow a more precise adjustment of the generator. It is able to
indicate the frequency of the generator only after the inverter has been able to synchronize to the
generator. The acceptable frequency range for the SW Series is 53 to 67 Hertz for 60-Hertz models and
44 to 56 Hertz for 50-Hertz models.
Generator start
error
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic generator control system was not able to successfully
start the generator. The system completes five start cycles and requires that the generator operate for a
minimum of 5 minutes before the starting attempts counter is cleared. To manually clear this error, select
OFF and then AUTO or ON from the SET GENERATOR menu item, which can also be accessed by
pressing the green GEN MENU button on the control panel.
Generator sync
error
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic generator control system was not able to successfully
connect to the generator after it was running. If the generator runs for 10 minutes without operating in the
AC voltage and frequency tolerance windows, then the automatic control system stops the generator and
indicates an error condition. To manually clear this error, select OFF and then AUTO or ON from the SET
GENERATOR menu item, which can also be accessed by pressing the green GEN MENU button on the
control panel.
Gen max run time
error
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the generator ran for a period of time that exceeded the SET MAX
RUN TIME menu item setting under the GEN AUTO START SETUP (12) menu heading. This error
indication will only light to let the user know that the generator ran longer than originally expected. This
may be caused by many variables such as; excessive AC or DC loads operating while the generator is
trying to charge the battery; the generator operating near the INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC setting; or the
batteries no longer holding a charge. This error LED is an advisory indication only and will not allow the
inverter to stop the generator. To disable the MAX RUN TIME, set the time to zero. To manually clear this
error, select OFF and then AUTO or ON from the SET GENERATOR menu item, which can also be
accessed by pressing the green GEN MENU button on the control panel.
Page
38
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
Load Start Amps
Ready
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic control system has started or is about to start the
generator because the AC load current has reached the LOAD START AMPS setting. The automatic start
is delayed by the time period set by the LOAD START DELAY MIN setting in the GEN AUTO START
SETUP (12). This allows checking why the generator was automatically started.
Voltage Start
Ready
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic control system has started or is about to start the
generator because the DC battery voltage reached one of the START VOLTS settings. The automatic
start is delayed by the time period of the START VOLTS setting involved in the GEN AUTO START
SETUP (12). This allows checking why the generator was automatically started.
Exercise Start
Ready
NO
If YES is displayed, it indicates that the automatic control system has started or is about to start the
generator because the EXERCISE PERIOD DAYS setting has been reached. This allows checking of why
the generator was automatically started.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
Move cursor to GEN OFF to reset Generator error. If no start in 5 trys then error.
If Gen starts & runs for 5 min then stops the inverter will not attempt restart until gen auto
start conditions are again satisfied. If Gen runs for more than max run time then error.
Under/Over speed will cause a Sync error in 10 minutes.
TRACE ENGINEERING (3) MENU HEADING
Press reset now
for defaults
Allows resetting of all menu item settings to the factory default values. This also occurs when the battery is
disconnected from the inverter. The RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS button on the control panel will
only reset the default values if it is pressed while this menu item is displayed. All factory default settings
will be reset except for the TIME OF DAY (6) clock.
If the RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS button is pressed while in any other menu item or menu
heading, only the control panel display (and remote control display) is reset, no settings will be reset. This
is useful for clearing any garbled display information. This may be encountered when a remote display is
initially connected or when a remote is used in a high electrical noise environment such as a vehicle
application.
Revision
4.01
Displays the software revision. Used to ensure compatibility with other units when stacked, etc.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
5916 195th St NE Arlington, WA 98223 USA
Ph 360-435-8826
Fax 360-435-2229
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
39
MENU SYSTEM
METERS (4) MENU HEADING
The current meters provided measure only the real, in phase component of the current. This is the portion
of the power that actually uses power from the battery. This allows better estimation of the DC power
drawn by the load or the battery charger. This may cause the reading to vary from other AC meters.
NOTE: The meters do not display a (+) symbol for positive values.
Inverter/charger
Amps AC
00
All models
Range: -64 to +64 Amps
Reads AC amperage. Positive (+) amps indicates inverter is charging the batteries. Negative (-) amps
indicate the inverter is powering the AC loads and the batteries are being discharged.
Input
Amps AC
00
All models
Range: -64 to +64 Amps
Reads total AC input current from the grid (AC1) or generator (AC 2). The reading is positive (+) if the
inverter is drawing power from the utility grid to charge the battery or power AC loads and negative (-) if
the inverter is selling power into the utility grid (only available if SELL mode is enabled).
Load
Amps AC
00
All models
Range: 00 to 64 Amps
Reads the current that is going to the AC loads. This reading is always positive (+).
Battery actual
volts DC
12.6
12 VDC models
Range: 5.0 to 17.5 VDC
Battery actual
volts DC
25.2
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5 VDC
Battery actual
volts DC
50.4
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0 VDC
Reads the battery voltage. Similar to the voltage reading of a standard DC voltmeter. The actual battery
voltage value is used for the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT; HIGH BATTERY CUT OUT, LOW BATTERY
TRANSFER, LOW BATTERY CUT IN and BATTERY SELL VOLTS settings.
Battery TempComp
volts DC
12.6
Battery TempComp
volts DC
25.2
Battery TempComp
volts DC
50.4
12 VDC models
Range: 5.0 to 17.5 VDC
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5 VDC
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0 VDC
Note: The BTS must be installed for temperature compensation to be operational.
Reads the battery voltage after it has been adjusted based on the battery’s temperature. This value is
used by the battery charger for its regulation settings. The value will decrease from the actual battery
voltage if the battery is cold and will increase if the battery is hot, which may give the appearance that the
batteries are being overcharged during winter and undercharged in the summertime. This improves the
performance of the batteries in cold weather and reduces gassing in hot weather. If you are using a NiCad
or other alkaline type battery, be sure to adjust the SET TEMP COMP menu item under the BATTERY
CHARGING (10) menu heading of the SETUP MENU to NiCad.
Inverter
volts AC
120
Standard models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Inverter
volts AC
230
“E” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Inverter
volts AC
105
“ J & K” models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Inverter
volts AC
220
“W” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Reads the RMS value of the inverter’s AC output voltage. When synchronized to an AC source, the
inverter AC output voltage would match the AC inputs value.
Page
40
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
Grid (AC1)
volts AC
120
Standard models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Grid (AC1)
volts AC
230
“E” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Grid (AC1)
volts AC
105
“J & K” models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Grid (AC1)
volts
220
“W” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Reads the RMS value of the AC voltage at the inverter’s AC HOT 1 input and NEUTRAL IN 1 terminals.
This is usually the connection for the utility grid. Value will drift around before inverter has synchronized.
Generator (AC2)
volts AC
120
Standard models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Generator (AC2)
volts AC
230
“E” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Generator (AC2)
volts AC
105
“J & K” models
Range: 00 to 255 VAC
Generator (AC2)
volts AC
220
“W” models
Range: 00 to 510 VAC
Reads the RMS value of the AC voltage at the inverter’s AC HOT 2 input and NEUTRAL IN 2 terminals.
This is usually the connection for a back-up, fuel-powered generator. Value will drift around before inverter
has synchronized.
Read Frequency
Hertz
60
60 Hz models
Range: 53 to 67 Hz
Read Frequency
Hertz
50
50 Hz models
Range: 44 to 56 Hz
Reads the frequency of the AC source that the inverter is synchronized to. This value may drift around
until the inverter has synchronized to the source. Once synchronized, the inverter follows the frequency of
the AC source it is connected to.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
AC1 & AC2 volts valid only when inverter synced to that input.
Batt volt actual is used for LBCO, HBCO, LBX, LBCI, sell volts and gen starting.
Batt volt temp comp is used for float, bulk, eq & aux relays
ERROR CAUSES (5) MENU HEADING
When an error has occurred, the red ERROR LED on the control panel will be illuminated. If a generator
error has occurred, the ERROR LED will blink slowly. This menu is provided to assist with the investigation
into the error cause. If an error condition has occurred, the word NO will be changed to YES. To reset the
error, turn the inverter OFF and then ON.
Over Current
NO
Too large of a load was connected or the AC output wiring was short-circuited. This can occur in inverter
or charger mode. To clear this fault, disconnect the loads and restart the inverter. To restart, push the red
ON/OFF MENU button on the control panel and then select OFF and then ON or SRCH. Reconnect the
loads one at a time to find the load or combination of loads that cause the problem. If the inverter will not
restart with all loads and inputs disconnected remove all AC wiring from the terminal block and try to
restart again. If it restarts, the problem is with the wiring. If it does not restart, refer to the
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE on page 112.
Transformer
overtemp
NO
Heatsink
overtemp
NO
The transformer or power transistors have exceeded their safe operating temperature and the inverter has
turned off. When operating as a battery charger, the inverter will reduce its charging rate to prevent
overheating. As an inverter, overheating can be caused by attempting to operate too large of a load for too
long, a failure of the inverter cooling fans, or that the air flow into or out of the inverter is being blocked.
The inverter will automatically reset once it has cooled. While the inverter has shut down, AC power from
any AC source will not pass through the inverter to power AC loads. Any power management provided by
the inverter will not be able to occur while the inverter is off.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
41
MENU SYSTEM
High Battery
voltage
NO
Battery voltage was above the HIGH BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. This can be caused by the solar
array or other charging source not being regulated. Check the controller for proper operation. Some
controllers have a “equalize” setting which over-rides the normal operation, allowing the battery voltage to
be unregulated. Return the controller to the “normal” setting and check for proper operation. If you are
using NiCad type batteries, you will need to increase the HIGH BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. The
inverter will automatically reset once the battery voltage has dropped 1.5 volts below the HBCO setting for
a 12 VDC system, 3 volts for a 24 VDC system and 6 volts for a 48 VDC system.
Low Battery
voltage
NO
Battery voltage is below the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. The inverter has shut off to prevent
over-discharge of the battery. Allow the battery to recharge or connect to an AC source such as a back-up
generator. The inverter will reset when the battery exceeds the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting.
AC source wired
to output
NO
Reports that an AC voltage source was connected directly to the AC output. This can be caused by
improper wiring or incorrect installation of the inverter. Check the AC input and output wiring. This
condition is much worse than a short circuit and may cause damage to the inverter. Find the cause and
correct the problem before restarting the inverter. A defective utility or generator AC input relay could
cause this condition. To test, disconnect all input wiring from AC inputs 1 and 2 and restart the inverter. If
the AC IN GOOD LED indicator on the control panel glows, then the inverter’s internal relay is defective.
External error
(stacked)
NO
A problem has occurred with the series interface cable or one of the inverters operated in series. Check the
cable for damage and replace it to see if the problem is corrected. Also, check the connecting AC wiring.
Generator start
error
NO
Indicates that the automatic generator control system was not able to successfully start the generator. The
system completes five start cycles and requires that the generator operate for a minimum of 5 minutes
before the starting attempts counter is cleared. To manually clear this error, select OFF and then AUTO or
ON from the SET GENERATOR menu item, which pressing the green GEN MENU button on the control
panel can access.
Generator sync
error
NO
Indicates that the automatic generator control system was not able to successfully connect to the
generator after it was running. If the generator runs for 10 minutes without operating in the AC voltage and
frequency tolerance windows, then the automatic control system stops the generator and indicates an
error condition. To manually clear this error, select OFF and then AUTO or ON from the SET
GENERATOR menu item, or press the green GEN MENU button on the control panel can access.
Gen under/over
speed
NO
Indicates that the automatic generator control system has detected that the generator frequency is not well
adjusted. This error condition will cause the red ERROR LED to illuminate, but will not cause the
automatic generator control system to shut down the generator. If the inverter can not synchronize to the
generator after a 10-minute period, then the GENERATOR SYNC ERROR condition will be reached.
Page
42
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
The ERROR LED can be used to indicate when the generator frequency is well adjusted. When the
frequency is within ± 5% of the nominal value, the LED will be off. Once outside this window, the LED will
be on. A frequency meter is also provided in the METERS (4) menu heading to allow a more precise
adjustment of the generator. It is able to indicate the frequency of the generator only after the inverter has
been able to synchronize to the generator. The acceptable frequency range for the SW Series is 53 to 67
Hertz for 60-Hertz models and 44 to 56 Hertz for 50-Hertz models.
Inverter breaker
tripped
NO
The inverter’s output AC circuit breaker on the left end of the chassis has tripped or is “open”. Operating
too large of an AC load may cause this. Reduce the loads connected and reset the circuit breaker by
pressing it in or moving the handle depending upon the type of breaker included.
TIME OF DAY (6) MENU HEADING
Provides the reference for any time functions enabled. Does not reset when the “PRESS FOR FACTORY
DEFAULTS” button is pressed. Will reset only if DC power to the inverter is lost.
Set Clock hour
00:00:00
Indicates and allows setting of the hours for the internal clock. This setting is based on a 24-hour clock
and adjusts in 10-minute increments.
Set Clock minute
00:00:00
Indicates and allows setting of the minutes for the internal clock.
Set Clock second
00
Indicates and allows setting of the seconds for the internal clock.
GENERATOR TIMER (7) MENU HEADING
Start Quiet
Time h:m
08:00
Generator will not be started during this period unless the actual battery voltage reaches the LOW
BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting for a continuous period of 30 seconds. Causes the automatic generator
control system to ignore the AC load and battery voltage start settings. The quiet time period is usually set
for the sleeping hours.
End Quiet
Time h:m
08:00
This setting finishes the quiet time period, allowing the generator to start as required by the settings of the
GEN AUTO START SETUP (12) menu heading in the SETUP MENU. To disable the quiet time, set the
start and end times equal. The generator exercise system will start at this time setting and will run for 15
minutes if the generator exercise timer has reached the SET EXERCISE DAYS menu item setting. For
example, if the SET EXERCISE DAYS menu item is set for 1, then the generator will start every day at
this time. To disable the generator exercise system, set the SET EXERCISE DAYS menu item to zero.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
Gen doesn’t run during quiet time unless batt volts is less than
LBCO volts for 30 seconds, or load > load start amps.
To defeat timers set start = end.
If exercise day set to 1 then gen will always start @ end quiet.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
43
MENU SYSTEM
SETUP MENU
The SETUP MENU provides all the controls and settings needed when installing or adjusting the system.
To access the SETUP MENU, press both the red ON/OFF MENU and green GEN MENU buttons at the
same time on the control panel of the inverter or remote control. To exit, simply go to one of the USER
MENU headings numbers 1 through 8, or press the red ON/OFF MENU or green GEN MENU button
once.
MENU HEADINGS
Inverter Setup
9
Use to program and adjust the operation of the inverter. Also allows
adjustment of how the inverter/ charger mode uses the utility grid.
Use to adjust the operation of the battery charger.
Battery Charging
10
11
Use to adjust the operating characteristics of the utility grid (AC1) and the
generator (AC2) inputs.
Gen Auto Start
setup
12
Use to setup the when the automatic generator control system and the
maximum run time allowed
Gen starting
details
13
Use to adjust the starting sequence of the automatic generator control
system.
Auxiliary Relays
R9 R10 R11
14
Use to adjust the operation of the auxiliary signal relays for controlling
external power sources or system loads.
Bulk Charge
Trigger Timer
15
Use to set a time when the battery will be given a bulk charge cycle from the
utility grid (AC1) input. Usually only used when SLT mode is enabled.
Low Battery
Transfer (LBX)
16
AC Inputs
Use to set up the transfer voltage setting for the LBX mode.
17
Use to control the SELL mode when it is used to discharge a battery into the
utility grid. Also allows setting of the maximum sell amps.
18
Use to control when the inverter/charger mode uses the utility grid for the
FLT and SELL modes.
Battery Selling
Grid Usage Timer
Information File
battery
Provides information about the operation of some settings and meters.
19
Used to display that you have reached the end of the SETUP MENU.
End Setup Menu
20
Page
44
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
INVERTER SETUP (9) MENU HEADING
Set Grid Usage
FLT SELL SLT
LBX
•
FLT - Float will try to maintain the batteries at the float voltage level. This can be used when the
source of power is a utility grid or a generator. When AC power is available, the inverter will complete
a full three stage charge cycle and then hold the battery at the float level until the source of utility
power is no longer available. This is the default setting and is appropriate for use with stand-alone
systems with back-up generators or utility back-up systems. FLT mode does not sell excess power
into the utility grid. If a DC power source is available and the battery is full, its power will be used to
directly power the AC loads connected to the inverter output even though the AC power is also
connected to the loads. If more power is available from the DC source than is required to power the
AC loads, the battery voltage will increase above the float level. An external charge control device –
such as the Trace™ C40 Load/Charge controller - is therefore required to prevent over charging of the
battery.
•
SELL – SELL mode enables the inverter to “sell” the excess power to the grid (AC HOT IN 1
only). This mode must have the approval of the local power utility prior to its use. In the US,
utility companies are required by law to purchase any excess power generated by their customers;
however, they decide what can be connected and what safety requirements must be met. Be advised:
some utilities will be more receptive than others will. The most advantageous configuration is called
“NET” metering where only one meter is installed and spins either direction. The purchase and sell
prices are equal. “Dual” metering requires two meters and is less desirable since the power you sell is
usually worth only a fraction of the price for the power you purchase. Power from any DC source, such
as a solar array, and a battery can be sold. When power from a DC source is available, it will be used
to power any AC loads connected to the AC output first. Any excess power available from the system
will be sold “into” the utility gird through the AC HOT IN 1 terminals.
•
SLT - The silent mode does not maintain the battery at float voltage all the time. The battery
charger only operates for part of each day. AC power from the utility grid is passed through the
inverter to the loads 24 hours a day. Once a day, at the time prescribed by the BULK CHARGE
TRIGGER TIMER, the batteries are given a bulk and absorption charge cycle. The inverter will
perform a bulk charge once per day from the grid, charging the battery to near the SET BULK VOLTS
DC setting until the battery charger has held the battery near the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting for
the ABSORPTION TIME period setting. The inverter will then go totally silent and will wait for the utility
power to fail, or until the next day when it performs another bulk charge. After each power outage, the
inverter will perform another bulk charge cycle once the AC source has returned. This is typically used
only in utility back-up applications.
•
LBX - The low battery transfer mode allows a system to automatically switch between utility
connected and stand alone battery operation. In this mode, the inverter will power the loads from
the battery and solar array (or other energy source) until the battery voltage drops to the LOW
BATTERY TRANSFER VDC setting. It will then connect to the utility grid and charge the battery. The
loads will be powered by the utility until the battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC
setting. The inverter will then disconnect the utility and power the loads from the battery and any other
source of DC power connected. This mode is often used instead of the SELL mode because approval
from the utility is not required - no power will be sent into the utility distribution system when LBX is
selected. To use the LBX mode, the AC source (utility power) must be connected to AC1 input only,
transfer to the inverter will not occur if the AC source is connected to the AC2 input. If AC is present
on the AC1 input in the LBX mode, the AUTO GENERATOR CONTROL MODE will be disabled.
CAUTION: If the system is not properly sized, the LBX mode can result in frequent transfers
from the battery to the utility and result in poor performance of the system and excessive
energy consumption from the utility. The daily output of the alternative power source (solar,
wind etc.) should be able to meet the daily power requirements of the loads being operated
under typical conditions. See the low battery transfer mode section for more information.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
45
MENU SYSTEM
Set Low Battery
cut out VDC
11.0
Set Low Battery
cut out VDC
22.0
Set Low Battery
cut out VDC
44.0
12 VDC models
Range: 08.0 to 16.0
24 VDC models
Range: 16.0 to 32.0
48 VDC models
Range: 32.0 to 64.0
This setting controls when the inverter turns off due to a low battery voltage condition. The inverter will turn
off only after this level has been reached for the period of time set by the following item. When the
automatic generator control system is used, the generator will be started when the battery voltage has
dropped below this value for 30 seconds continuously. This will occur even during the quiet time period.
This setting is not temperature compensated.
Set LBCO delay
minutes
15
All models
Range: 00 to 255
This setting controls how long the inverter delays before turning off due to a low battery voltage condition.
The inverter will turn off only after the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC level has been reached for this
period of time continuously. If you are using the automatic generator control system, don’t set this delay
period shorter than the amount of time it takes the generator to start and connect or the power will go off
and then back on when the generator auto starts due to a LBCO condition.
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
13.0
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
26.0
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
52.0
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 17.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.0
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 70.0
This setting controls when the inverter turns back on once it has shut off after the battery reached the
LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. It is also used to control when the system resumes powering the
AC loads from the inverter when LBX mode is being used. In LBX mode, the best performance will often
be achieved if this setting is higher than the BULK and FLOAT VOLTS DC setting in order to reduce
cycling of the system. The DC charging sources (wind, solar etc.) must then cause the battery voltage to
rise above the charger settings before the system resumes inverter mode operation. This setting is not
temperature compensated.
Set High battery
cut out VDC
16.0
Set High battery
cut out VDC
32.0
Set High battery
cut out VDC
64.0
12 VDC models
Range: 00.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 00.0 to 33.0
48 VDC models
Range: 00.0 to 66.0
This is the battery voltage at which the inverter turns off. The inverter will automatically restart once the
battery voltage has dropped 1.5 VDC below the HBCO setting for 12 VDC systems, 3 VDC for 24 VDC
systems, and 6 VDC for 48 VDC systems. This setting is not temperature compensated.
Set search
watts
48
All models
Range: 00 to 240
The sensitivity threshold of the search mode circuit is adjustable. If set to zero, it is effectively disabled.
The sensitivity is only adjustable in increments of 16 watts.
Set search
spacing
59
All Models
Range: 10 to 255*
The length of time between each search pulse is also adjustable. The setting is in cycles. Therefore, a
setting of 60 would generate search pulses that are 1 second apart. The range of settings is from 10 to
255 cycles, which equals a search pulse from 6 times a second to once every 4.25 seconds. This
adjustment can be used to speed up the response of the search circuit, which will reduce the delay when
starting a load. Reducing the spacing increases the power consumption of the inverter when it is in the
search mode, reducing the benefit of it. Typically, the default value is acceptable.
Page
46
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
BATTERY CHARGING (10) MENU HEADING
Note: See the battery section of this manual for recommended setting for different battery types.
Set Bulk
volts DC
14.4
12 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 16.0
Set Bulk
volts DC
28.8
24 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 32.0
Set Bulk
volts DC
57.6
48 VDC models
Range: 40.0 to 64.0
Sets the voltage level that will be maintained during the first and second stage of the charging process.
This will be the maximum voltage at which the batteries will be charged. This setting will be
compensated for the battery temperature if the BTS sensor is installed.
Set Absorption
time h:m
02:00
All models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
Sets the time period that the batteries will be held near the SET BULK VOLTS DC level for the second
stage of the battery charging process, this ensures that the battery is well charged. If the automatic
generator control system is used, the generator will turn off when the batteries have been held near the
SET BULK VOLTS DC setting until the ABSORPTION TIME period has elapsed. This time is an
accumulating or up/down type timer - it counts up while the voltage is near the BULK setting and counts
back down if the voltage drops. This makes the process more reliable and predictable. If the system
designer wants to minimize generator operation, a shorter time may be used. If the system designer wants
to ensure that the batteries are fully charged before stopping the charging process, then a longer setting
may be used. If the ABSORPTION TIME is set to zero (00:00) the unit will not provide any absorption
charge time and go straight to the float charge stage after reaching near the BULK voltage setting.
Set Float
volts DC
13.4
12 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 16.0
Set Float
volts DC
26.8
24 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 32.0
Set Float
volts DC
53.6
48 VDC models
Range: 40.0 to 64.0
Sets the voltage level that will be maintained at the final stage of the charging process. This is important for
systems which are connected to utility power since the battery charger will often be in this stage most of the
time. This setting will be compensated for the battery temperature if the BTS sensor is installed.
Set Equalize
volts DC
14.4
12 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 16.0
Set Equalize
volts DC
28.8
24 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 32.0
Set Equalize
volts DC
57.6
48 VDC models
Range: 40.0 to 64.0
Sets the voltage level that the batteries will be limited to during the equalization process. This will be the
maximum voltage at which the batteries will be charged. This setting will be compensated for the
battery temperature if the BTS sensor is installed.
Set Equalize
time h:m
02:00
All models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
Sets the amount of time battery voltage must exceed the BULK VOLTS DC setting before the equalization
process is considered to be completed. If the automatic generator control system is used; it will turn off the
generator when this timer has reached its setting, and return the cursor from the EQ to the AUTO position.
This time is an accumulating or up/down type timer - it counts up while the voltage is above the BULK
setting and counts back down if the voltage drops below the BULK setting for a period of time.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
47
MENU SYSTEM
Set Max Charge
amps AC
20
12 VDC models
Range: 01 to 25
Set Max Charge
amps AC
30
24 VDC & 48 VDC models
Range: 01 to 35
Set Max Charge
amps AC
15
“E & W” models
Range: 01 to 18
Set Max Charge
amps AC
35
“J & K” models
Range: 02 to 40
Sets the maximum amount of AC input current that the battery charger will use to charge the battery. This
can be used to limit the charger output as well. The charger will “back-off” if the combination of AC loads
and the charger reaches the AMPS AC setting of the AC INPUT connected to prevent overloading the
source or tripping breakers. This process occurs automatically.
Set Temp Comp
LEADACID
NICAD
All models
Allows selection of the battery type for the battery temperature compensation system. This effectively
reduces the battery charging set points when the battery is hot and increases them when the battery is
cold. The battery charging set points change ±0.005 volts per degree Celsius for the LEADACID setting
and ±0.003 volts per degree Celsius per battery cell for the NICAD setting. These battery setpoint
changes occur if the battery temperature is higher or lower than 25° C (77°F), and will only occur if the
battery temperature sensor (BTS) is installed. The setting should be changed from the default setting only
if NiCad or Nickel Iron batteries are used.
AC INPUTS (11) MENU HEADINGS
Set Grid (AC1)
amps AC
60
Standard models
Range: 00 to 63
Set Grid (AC1)
amps AC
30.0
“E & W” models
Range: 00 to 31.5
Set Grid (AC1)
amps AC
60
“J & K” models
Range: 00 to 63
This setting determines the level in AC amps at which the inverter begins to back-off the battery charger
or operates in parallel to reduce the load on the utility grid. Typically, this is set to the size of the AC circuit
breaker that feeds the AC HOT IN 1.
Set Gen (AC2)
amps AC
30
Standard models
Range: 00 to 63
Set Gen (AC2)
amps AC
15.0
“E & W” models
Range: 00.0 to 31.5
Set Gen (AC2)
amps AC
30
“J & K” models
Range: 00 to 63
This setting determines the level in AC amps at which the inverter begins to back-off the battery charger or
operates in parallel to reduce the load on the generator. Typically, this is set to the size of the generator’s
circuit breaker feeding the inverter (AC HOT IN 2) or the maximum output amperage ability of the generator.
Set Input Lower
limit VAC
108
Standard models
Range: 80 to 111
Set Input Lower
limit VAC
206
“E” models
Range: 170 to 220
Set Input Lower
limit VAC
88
“J & K” models
Range: 70 to 90
Set Input Lower
limit VAC
196
“W” models
Range: 160 to 210
Sets the lowest voltage at which the inverter is allowed to be connected to the utility grid (AC INPUT 1) or
the generator (AC INPUT 2). When the AC input voltage reaches this level, the inverter will stop battery
charging and begin to invert in parallel with the AC source to reduce the load. If the voltage continues to
drop, the inverter will disconnect and will power the loads from the battery. NOTE: Typically the INPUT
LOWER LIMIT VAC setting will be based upon the minimum AC voltage tolerable by the AC loads.
Set Input Upper
limit VAC
132
Standard models
Range: 128 to 149
Set Input Upper
limit VAC
254
“E” models
Range: 250 to 298
Set Input Upper
limit VAC
112
“J & K” models
Range: 105 to 129
Set Input Upper
limit VAC
244
“W” models
Range: 240 to 288
Sets the highest voltage at which the inverter is allowed to be connected to the utility grid (AC INPUT 1) or
generator (AC INPUT 2). This is also the maximum voltage at which the inverter will sell power into the line if
SELL is enabled. When this voltage is reached the inverter will disconnect and power the AC loads from the
battery. If this voltage drops below this setting, the inverter will reconnect the loads to the AC source.
Page
48
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
GEN AUTO START SETUP (12) MENU HEADING
Set Load Start
amps AC
33
All models
Range: 00 to 63
Sets the AC load current that will initiate the automatic generator control system when the current remains
above this setting continuously for the LOAD START DELAY MIN period.
Set Load Start
delay min
05.0
All models
Range: 00.0 to 25.5
Sets the time delay period that will initiate automatic generator control system when the current remains
above the LOAD START AMPS AC setting continuously for this time period.
Set Load Stop
delays min
05.0
All models
Range: 00.0 to 25.5
Sets the amount of time that the automatic generator will continue to run after the load current
(determined by the LOAD AMPS AC meter) decreases below the LOAD START AMPS AC setting.
Set 24 hr start
volts DC
12.3
Set 24 hr start
volts DC
24.6
Set 24 hr start
volts DC
49.2
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the battery voltage that will initiate the automatic generator control system if the voltage remains
below this setting continuously for 24 hours. This setting is not temperature compensated. This 24-hour
start is defeated if the QUIET TIME under GENERATOR TIMER (7) is enabled.
Set 2 hr start
volts DC
11.8
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
Set 2 hr start
volts DC
23.6
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
Set 2 hr start
volts DC
47.2
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the battery voltage that will initiate the automatic generator control system if the voltage remains
below this setting continuously for 2 hours. This setting is not temperature compensated. This 2-hour start
is defeated if the QUIET TIME under GENERATOR TIMER (7) is enabled.
Set 15 min start
volts DC
11.3
Set 15 min start
volts DC
22.6
Set 15 min start
volts DC
45.2
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the battery voltage that will initiate the automatic generator control system if the voltage remains
below this setting continuously for 15 minutes. This setting is not temperature compensated. This 15minute start is defeated if the QUIET TIME under GENERATOR TIMER (7) is enabled.
Read 30 sec LBCO
start VDC
11.0
Read 30 sec LBCO
start VDC
22.0
Read 30 sec LBCO
start VDC
44.0
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Displays the battery voltage setting that will initiate the automatic generator control system if the voltage
remains below the setting continuously for 30 seconds. This setting is not temperature compensated. This
display is linked and is adjusted by the SET LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC menu item setting under the
INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading. This 30-second start will attempt to start the auto start generator
even if the QUIET TIME under GENERATOR TIMER (7) is enabled.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
49
MENU SYSTEM
Set Exercise
period days
30
All models
Range: 00 to 255
Sets a maximum number of days allowed between operation of the generator. When an internal counter
reaches the number of days set, the generator will be started at the END QUIET TIME menu item setting.
The run time is fixed at 10 minutes. If the generator is manually or automatically operated for 5 minutes at
any time during this period, then this counter will reset and the period will start again. If this menu item is
set for 1 day, then the generator will start everyday at this time. If the period is set to zero, then the
exercise system will be disabled. If power is present at the AC1 input, the generator will not be connected
to during the exercising operating period.
Set Maximum run
time h:m
08:00
All Models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
This setting provides an indication that the generator operated excessively after it was automatically or
manually started. Once this time period is reached, the error LED will flash and a GEN MAX RUN TIME
ERROR condition will be indicated in the GENERATOR MODE (2) menu heading. This error is an
advisory only error and does not stop the generator and the inverter/charger will continue to operate
normally. While the error condition exists, the generator can be started manually or automatically. To reset
the error condition, press the green GEN MENU button to select OFF, then the AUTO or ON. Setting the
time to 00:00 defeats this function.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
Set Max Run Time to 0 to defeat. Set exercise to 0 to defeat. See menu 9 to set LBCO.
GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) MENU HEADING
Set RY7 Function
GlowStop Run
All Models
Allows Relay 7 (RY7) to provide two different generator start routines. The relay labeled RY7 is used to
either provide a STOP signal or a RUN signal. It can also be used to provide a GLOW signal on diesel
generators with glowplugs. Note that the right side choice, RUN, is the default.
When RUN is selected as the function of the RY7 relay, the RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts remain closed
while the generator is running. The RY7 N.C. (normally closed) contact is open (not connected to the common
terminal) while the generator is running. When the generator is off, the RY7 N.C. terminal is connected to the
RY7 COM terminal. This configuration is useful for starting a two wire (auto crank) type generator.
When GLOWSTOP is selected as the function of the RY7 relay, the RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts
remain open while the generator is running. The contacts close only when it is time for the generator to be
stopped, then re-open. This is useful for generators that require a stop signal to shut down the generator.
The GLOWSTOP setting can also be used for diesel generators. This relay can be used to provide both
the GLOW and STOP signals. When this is done the generator will be given both GLOW and STOP
signals before cranking and when stopping.
Set Gen warmup
seconds
60
All Models
Range: 16 to 255
Sets the number of seconds the generator is allowed to warm up before the load is connected and the
battery charger started. If the generator is located in a cold location (below freezing), a longer setting may
be required.
Page
50
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
Set Pre Crank
seconds
10
All Models
Range: 00 to 255
Sets the number of seconds the system delays closing of relay RY8 - the star signal relay - once relay
RY7 is closed. See the AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL MODE for more information. This period
may also be the amount of time that the glow plugs will be on if they are connected to the automatic
control system.
Set Max Cranking
seconds
10
All Models
Range: 00 to 15
Sets the maximum number of seconds the starter will be cranked during the starting sequence by closing
relay RY8. See the AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL MODE for more information.
Set Post Crank
seconds
30
All Models
Range: 00 to 255
Sets the number of seconds the system will delay after completing the start sequence. If the generator has not
started, this sequence will be repeated up to 5 times. See the AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL MODE
for more information. This period is provided to allow the starter motor to cool off. It can also allow generators
with built in warm-up delay contactors to provide AC output before the inverter attempts a re-crank cycle.
AUXILIARY RELAYS (14) MENU HEADING
Three voltage-controlled relays are provided to simplify installations that have battery voltage related tasks
to perform. They are single pole double throw, five amp relays. Both the normally closed and normally
open contacts are available for each relay. The operation of the relays is individually controlled and
adjustable. The three auxiliary relays operate independently of the inverter/charger status (being on or off).
Both the normally open (N.O.) and normally closed (N.C.) contacts are available for each of these auxiliary
relays. Use the crimp-on terminals provided in the hardware package to connect to these contacts.
CAUTION: These relays are not intended to directly control a load or charging source - rather
they can be used to send a signal or operate the coil of another higher amperage device which
does the actual switching of the power. A fuse rated at 5 amps or less should be included to
protect each of the relays. Damage to these relays from overloading is not covered by warranty
and requires the inverter to be returned to a repair center. This also applies to the relays that are
provided to start a generator.
The SET RELAY VOLTS DC setting sets the voltage trip point for each of the auxiliary relays (9, 10, and
11). When the battery voltage exceeds this setting, the relay energizes and closes the N.O. and COM
terminals on the relay. This setting is compensated for the battery temperature when the BTS is used.
There is no intentional time delay (0.1 sec) on the reaction for this setting; this allows fast response to
rapid voltage changes in the system
The HYSTERESIS VOLTS DC setting determines the voltage difference between when the relay
becomes energized and when it is de-energized. This is an “active high” type of control. The N.O. and
COM terminals of the relay close (relay is energized) when the battery voltage exceeds the AUX RELAY 9
VOLTS DC setting and opens (relay is de-energized) at this setting minus the R9 HYSTERESIS VOLTS
DC setting. The N.O. and COM terminals of the relay remain open (de-energized) until it again reaches
the AUX RELAY 9 VOLTS DC setting. (For example, the default setting energizes the relay when the
voltage exceeds 14.5 VDC and de-energizes when it drops below 13.5 VDC for 12-volt systems). There is
an intentional 2-second time delay to reduce cycling.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
51
MENU SYSTEM
Set Relay 9
volts DC
14.5
12 VDC Models
Range: 05.0 to 17.6
Set Relay 9
volts DC
29.0
24 VDC Models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
Set Relay 9
volts DC
58.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the voltage trip point for the auxiliary relay number 9. This setting is compensated for the battery
temperature when using the BTS. There is no intentional time delay on the reaction for this setting. This
allows fast response to rapid voltage changes in the system.
R9 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
12 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R9 Hysteresis
volts DC
02.0
24 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R9 Hysteresis
volts DC
04.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 00.2 to 25.6
The hysteresis setting for relay number 9. There is an intentional 2-second time delay to reduce cycling.
Set Relay 10
volts DC
14.8
12 VDC Models
Range: 05.0 to 17.6
Set Relay 10
volts DC
29.5
24 VDC Models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
Set Relay 10
volts DC
59.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the voltage trip point for the auxiliary relay number 10. This setting is compensated for the battery
temperature when using the BTS. There is no intentional time delay on the reaction for this setting. This
allows fast response to rapid voltage changes in the system.
R10 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
12 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R10 Hysteresis
volts DC
02.0
24 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R10 Hysteresis
volts DC
04.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 00.2 to 25.6
The hysteresis setting for relay number 10. There is an intentional 2-second time delay to reduce cycling.
Set Relay 11
volts DC
15.0
12 VDC Models
Range: 05.0 to 17.6
Set Relay 11
volts DC
30.0
24 VDC Models
Range: 10.0 to 35.5
Set Relay 11
volts DC
60.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 20.0 to 71.0
Sets the voltage trip point for the auxiliary relay number 11. This setting is compensated for the battery
temperature when using the BTS. There is no intentional time delay on the reaction for this setting. This
allows fast response to rapid voltage changes in the system.
R11 Hysteresis
volts DC
01.0
12 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R11 Hysteresis
volts DC
02.0
24 VDC Models
Range: 00.1 to 12.8
R11 Hysteresis
volts DC
04.0
48 VDC Models
Range: 00.2 to 25.6
The hysteresis setting for relay number 11. There is an intentional 2-second time delay to reduce cycling.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
Close on batt > setpoint. Open on batt < setpoint – hys.
Relays have 2 seconds delay on close, 0.1 sec delay on open.
Page
52
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) MENU HEADING
Set Start Bulk
time
00:00
All Models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
Starts the bulk charge process at the time shown. Setting to 00:00 defeats this function. This setting
should be enabled when using the SLT mode so that the batteries are charged once each day. With the
GRID USAGE TIMER enabled, the START BULK TIME setting should be set near the beginning of the
charging time window for best operation. Since the battery will usually be fully charged when this timer
setting is reached, the battery charger will usually reach the ABSORPTION stage of the charging process
quickly and will then hold the battery near the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting for the ABSORPTION TIME
setting (default time period is 2 hours). This setting does not need to be adjusted if you are using FLT
mode with a generator. This setting works with the AC1 HOT IN 1 input only.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
To disable timer set to 00:00. If grid timer active set bulk time after start charge time.
In SLT mode don’t disable this timer. It is daily chg time.
LOW BATTERY TRANSFER (16) MENU HEADING
Set Low Battery
Transfer VDC
11.3
Set Low Battery
Transfer VDC
22.6
Set Low Battery
Transfer VDC
45.2
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 33.0
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 66.0
This is the voltage at which the inverter transfers the loads from the battery to the utility grid. It is used only
with the LBX and FLT modes. This setting is not temperature compensated. The transfer will occur only if
the battery voltage remains below this setting for 20 seconds. The system returns to powering the AC
loads from the battery once the battery voltage has reached the LOW BATTERY CUT IN setting. This
setting works with the AC1 HOT IN 1 input only.
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
13.0
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
26.0
Set Low battery
cut in VDC
52.0
12 VDC models
Range: 05.0 to 16.5
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 33.0
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 66.0
This setting controls when the inverter turns back on once it has shut off when the battery reached the
LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. It is also used to control when the system resumes powering the
AC loads from the inverter when LBX mode is being used. In LBX mode, the best performance will often
be achieved if this setting is higher than the BULK and FLOAT VOLTS DC setting in order to reduce
cycling of the system. The DC charging sources (wind, solar etc.) must then cause the battery voltage to
rise above the charger settings before the system resumes inverter mode operation. This setting is not
temperature compensated
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
See menu 9 to enable LBX mode.
Make sure LBX is above LBCO volts.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
53
MENU SYSTEM
BATTERY SELLING (17) MENU HEADING
Note: See the battery section of this manual for recommended settings for different battery types.
Set Battery Sell
volts DC
13.4
Set Battery Sell
volts DC
26.8
Set Battery Sell
volts DC
53.6
12 VDC models
Range: 5.0 to 16.0
24 VDC models
Range: 10.0 to 32.0
48 VDC models
Range: 20.0 to 64.0
Sets the level to which the batteries will be discharged when power is being sold from the batteries to the
grid. This is only used if the SELL mode is enabled and the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) is programmed.
This setting will not be adjusted for the battery temperature if the temperature sensor is installed.
Set Max Sell
amps AC
30
Standard models
Range: 01 to 35
Set Max Sell
amps AC
Set Max Sell
amps AC
15.0
“E” models
Range: 01 to 18
35
Set Max Sell
amps AC
“J & K” models
Range: 01 to 40
16.5
“W” models
Range: 01 to 18
Sets the maximum AC amps allowed to be delivered to the utility grid from a solar array and/or the
batteries during utility interactive operation. This is only used if the SELL mode is enabled. If batteries are
being “sold” into the utility grid, this setting together with the SET BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC setting
determines the depth of discharge the batteries will experience. Note: The default setting will vary
between models with different continuous output power ratings.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
See menu 9 to enable SELL mode. Make sure LBX is above LBCO volts.
GRID USAGE TIMER (18) MENU HEADING
The Grid Usage Timer selects when power may be drawn from the utility grid for battery charging. It is
used only when either the FLT or SELL modes are selected in the SET GRID USAGE menu item under
the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading. Utility Power must be connected to the AC1 for this timer to be
operational.
Start Charge
time
21:00
All Models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
End Charge
time
21:00
All Models
Range: 00:00 to 23:50
FLT mode: After the START CHARGE TIME, the inverter turns on the battery charger, connects the
utility grid and powers the AC loads from the utility grid and charges the battery to the FLOAT VOLTS DC
setting. At the END CHARGE TIME, the inverter disconnects from the utility grid and powers the loads
from the battery.
SELL mode:
•
With the GRID USAGE TIMER enabled (the START CHARGE TIME is different from the END
CHARGE TIME), the inverter will charge the battery to the FLOAT VOLTS DC setting at the START
CHARGE TIME. After the END CHARGE TIME, the inverter turns off the battery charger and begins
to “sell” power into the utility grid from the battery (or any other DC sources available and connected to
the batteries) to the SELL VOLTS DC setting. The current will be limited to a maximum level
controlled by the MAX SELL AMPS AC menu item setting under the BATTERY SELLING (17) menu
heading.
•
With the GRID USAGE TIMER disabled (the START CHARGE TIME beginning time is equal to the
END CHARGE TIME), the inverter will use the utility grid (or any other DC sources available and
connected to the batteries) to maintain the batteries to the FLOAT VOLTS DC setting.
In the SELL mode, battery voltage will be held near the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting for the adjustable
ABSORPTION TIME period setting after an AC failure or upon encountering a BULK CHARGE TRIGGER
TIMER event.
Page
54
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
MENU SYSTEM
In either mode, the SET START BULK TIME menu item setting under the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER
TIMER (15) menu heading can be used to increase the battery charging regulation voltage to the BULK
VOLTS DC setting.
Note: By setting the beginning time equal to the ending time, the grid usage timer feature is defeated.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as additional Menu Items.
After Start Charge time: SELL mode charges battery. FLT mode charges battery.
After End Charge time: SELL mode sells battery to AC1. FLT mode drops AC1 and inverts.
Timer on when start <> end. Timer off when start = end;
Sell and float modes use timer. SLT and LBX mode ignore timer.
INFORMATION FILE BATTERY (19) MENU HEADING
This Menu Heading provides additional information about the battery charging system. It has no user
adjustable settings.
INFORMATION DISPLAY
The following information is displayed as Menu Items.
Batt temp comp changes battery voltage reading away from actual.
HBCO resets at: 6v/48, 3v/24 and 1.5v12 under HBCO.
LowBatt Transfer used in LBX, FLT modes only.
Goes back to battery at LowBattCutIn (aka LBCI).
For LBX mode set below LBCI so charger won’t cycle batteries up and down set LBCO below.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
55
MENU SYSTEM
Page
56
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
OPERATION
The SW Series Inverter/Charger can be configured as a simple stand-alone unit, working in conjunction
with your generator to handle loads too large for the generator alone, allowing two-wire or three-wire
generators to be turned on and off based on battery voltage or loads amp size, or functioning as a utility
interactive inverter which will allow you to send excess power back to the utility grid. Often, the inverter will
be set-up to operate in several modes at the same or different times - such as operating as an
inverter/charger in utility back-up mode with automatic generator control mode and generator support
mode during extended utility outage periods. The extensive configurations available are described in this
section will allow you to enhance and customize your inverter’s particular operation.
Before operating the SW Series Inverter/Charger, ensure that the unit is installed in accordance with the
instructions in the INSTALLATION section beginning on page 15.
THEORY OF OPERATION
The SW Series inverters employ a new patented inverter design. This design uses a combination of three
transformers, each with its own low frequency switcher, coupled in series and driven by separate
interconnected micro-controllers. In essence, it is three inverters linked together by their transformers.
MicroControllers
Battery
Bridges are “mixed” by
Micro-Controllers
Controlling the H-Bridges.
Low
Frequency
H-Bridge
Transformer
Low
Frequency
H-Bridge
Transformer
Low
Frequency
H-Bridge
Transformer
AC
Loads
Figure 17, Trace™ SW Series Inverter Simple Block Diagram
By mixing the outputs from the different transformers, a sine wave is produced. Shown in Figure 18, is the
output waveform from a Trace™ SW Series Inverter/Charger. Notice the “steps” form a staircase that is
shaped like a sine wave. The total harmonic distortion in this sine wave approach is typically 3-5%. The
multi-stepped output is formed by modulation of the voltage through mixing of the transformers in a
specific order. Anywhere from 34-52 “steps” per AC cycle are present in the waveform. The heavier the
load or lower DC input voltage the more steps there are in the waveform.
This type of inverter solves many of the problems associated with high frequency or ferroresonant sine
wave inverters. The low frequency method described has excellent surge ability, high efficiency (typically
85 to 90%), good voltage and frequency regulation, and low total harmonic distortion.
The inverter runs in two basic formats: as a stand-alone inverter (converting DC to AC), or as a parallel
inverter (with its output synchronized to another AC source). In inverter mode, only 60 Hz (50 Hz for export
units) waveforms are created. As the battery voltage rises, waveforms with progressively fewer steps are
generated. More steps are used when battery voltage decreases. Since the battery voltage tends to drop
with increased load, the waveform has increased number of steps with heavier AC loads.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
57
OPERATION
Figure 18, Trace™ SW Series Inverter Output Waveform
The inverter is able to synchronize with other AC sources before connecting it to the AC load. The
frequency of the AC source is tracked and the inverter constantly adjusts its frequency to maintain a lock.
A normally open contactor is used to parallel the inverter’s output and the AC source.
The inverter’s power topology is bi-directional. If the waveform created by the inverter has a higher voltage
than the paralleled AC source, then power flows from the batteries to the load. If the waveform generated
has a lower voltage than the AC source, power flows from the source to the battery. The various modes of
operation use different algorithms for determining the size of the waveform to be created by the inverter. In
battery charger mode, for example, waveforms smaller than the AC source are created to cause current to
flow into the batteries. This process is fully regulated to provide a three-stage charge cycle. If the level of
AC current exceeds the user programmed generator or grid size, and then the inverter will switch to a
generator support mode and create waveforms that are larger than the AC source. This causes power to
flow from the batteries to the AC loads to prevent overloading of the AC source.
In utility-interactive mode, the inverter can operate as a battery charger or paralleled AC source to the
utility grid. If an external source such as solar panels attempts to raise the batteries above the float voltage
setting, the inverter will try to hold the battery voltage at the float voltage level by “selling” the excess
power into the utility grid. This is done by increasing the inverter’s output voltage level. This moves the
excess DC power from the solar array to the AC utility grid, preventing the battery from being overcharged.
If the utility grid connected to the inverter is de-energized, the inverter can not regulate the battery voltage.
Some external control device, such as Trace™ C40 Load/Charge controller, must be provided to prevent
damage to the battery.
Page
58
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
POWER VS. EFFICIENCY
There are two primary losses that combine to create the efficiency curve of the SW Series inverter. The
first is the energy that is required to operate the inverter at full output voltage while delivering no current.
This is the no load or idle power. At low power levels, the idle power is the largest contributor to efficiency
losses. At high power, the largest source of loss is a result of the resistance in the transformer and power
transistors. The power lost here is proportional to the square of the output power. For example, losses at
2000 watts will be four times higher than losses at 1000 watts. This graph represents a typical inverter’s
efficiency while operating resistive loads. Inductive loads such as motors are run less efficiently due to the
impact of power factor losses.
100%
90%
80%
30%
20%
SW5548
40%
SW4548E
SW2612E
50%
SW2512
Efficiency
60%
SW4024 / SW4048
SW3024E / SW3048E
70%
10%
0%
5500
5250
5000
4750
4500
4250
4000
3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
Power (VA)
Figure 19, Trace™ SW Series Efficiency Curves
The SW Series offers an extremely good efficiency curve. The inverter reaches high efficiency at very low
AC load levels, which is important because the inverter often spends the majority of the time at the lower
power range. The high efficiency is maintained over a wide power range. Only when operating at high
power levels at or above the continuous power levels does the efficiency begin to drop off. Since this
usually only occurs for short periods of time, the impact may be negligible.
If your application involves the inverter powering heavy loads for significant periods of time, selecting a
model with a higher continuous power rating and a higher DC input voltage would improve the operation of
the system. Since the low power efficiency of all the SW Series is extremely good, oversizing the inverter
does not reduce system performance.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
59
OPERATION
INVERTER CAPACITY VS TEMPERATURE
The current protection circuit in the SW Series Inverter/Charger is temperature compensated, therefore
the maximum sized load that the inverter can run changes with temperature. As the temperature of the
power devices (FET’s) increase, the allowable current is reduced. When the available current is reduced,
the capacity of the inverter to run loads is reduced.
The graph below shows the effect temperature has on the inverter’s capacity to run loads, notice that the
inverter reduces its capacity at temperature above 25 °C. The temperature derating graph assumes that
the inverter is at sea level and the airflow to the inverter is unrestricted.
Temperature Derating for SW Series Inverters
120
100
Percent
of
total
rated
power
capacity
80
60
40
20
0
25
32.5
40
47.5
55
62.5
70
77.5
85
92.5
100
Temperature °C
Figure 20, Inverter Capacity vs. Temperature
Page
60
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
OPERATING MODES
The SW Series Inverter/Charger can be used in a wide variety and combination of operating modes:
•
Inverter Mode - DC to AC inverter with sine wave output, high starting surge, power saving search
mode, low idle current, and very high efficiency DC to AC conversion.
•
Charger Mode - Low AC current distortion, three stage, temperature compensated, high amperage
battery charger.
•
Inverter/Charger Mode - Automatic transfer from inverter to battery charging upon presence of utility
or generator AC power source.
•
Generator Support Mode - Automatic “no glitch” switching from charger mode to inverter mode
allowing the inverter to assist the generator in starting and powering large loads. Adjustable generator
support current and voltage thresholds.
•
Automatic Generator Control Mode - Automatic generator starting, based on the battery voltage
reaching an adjustable voltage setting or the AC loads exceeding an amperage setting. Both start
conditions include adjustable time delays. Once started, the inverter operates in battery charger mode
until battery is charged to the float stage or until the AC load is reduced. The generator is then shut off
and the loads are powered from the battery through the inverter. Automatic generator exercising of the
generator and adjustable quiet time period to reduce generator operation may be programmed in the
setup menu.
•
Utility Backup Mode - Phase synchronized fast AC transfer switching for utility backup power supply
applications. Includes adjustable AC transfer voltage and line conditioning ability.
•
Utility Interactive Mode - Excess power from charging sources or stored power from the battery can
be “sold” back into a utility grid. Also allows selling of the stored energy in the battery during a specific
time period.
•
Energy Management Mode - Onboard clock to set inverter and charger operating time periods. This
mode can be used with “time of day” metering to shift energy consumption to off-peak periods.
•
Peak Load Shaving Mode - Used to limit the draw of AC loads from a utility grid by powering it from
the batteries. The batteries are recharged when the AC loads are reduced. This can “level” the load
on a utility.
•
Low Battery Transfer Mode - Automatic transfer of the AC loads from the batteries to the utility when
the system reaches an adjustable low battery voltage setting. Independent settings allow control of
when the AC loads return to battery once it is recharged.
Often, the inverter will be set-up to operate in several modes at the same or different times - such as
operating as an inverter/charger in utility back-up mode with automatic generator control mode and
generator support mode during extended utility outage periods.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Numerous additional features are provided to enhance and customize the inverter's operation for the
various operational modes:
•
Automatic generator control system with adjustable quiet time period to reduce generator operation.
•
Three-stage battery charging with fully adjustable charge settings and battery temperature sensing.
•
AC and DC voltmeters and AC ammeters to allow monitoring of inverter, generator, and utility grid.
•
On-board 24-hour clock for programming of generator quiet time and utility interactive modes.
•
Adjustable sellback current level for utility interactive mode.
•
Two separate AC inputs for utility and generator sources with utility priority.
•
Three independently adjustable auxiliary signal relays for controlling charging sources, loads etc.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
61
OPERATION
INVERTER MODE
BATTERY
DC
INVERTER
AC
AC LOADS
IN BRIEF
The inverter makes a stepped approximation to a sine wave. The number of steps typically varies from 34
to 52 per cycle. Lower battery voltage and/or higher output power level increases the number of steps.
Higher battery voltage decreases the number of steps. Distortion varies from 3% to 5%. The inverter is
able to control the AC output voltage, allowing the inverter to also sell power into a utility grid or assist
during the operation of heavy loads by operating in parallel with another AC power source such as a
engine powered generator.
SEARCH MODE CONTROL
An automatic search mode circuit is available to minimize the power draw of the inverter when no loads
are being operated. This reduces the power consumption from 16 watts with no load to less than 1 watt
(when using the default settings). To do this, the output is reduced to pulses of a single AC cycle with an
adjustable delay between pulses. These pulses are used to detect the presence of a load. When a load is
detected, the inverter’s output goes to full 120 VAC output. The sensitivity of the detection circuit and the
spacing of the pulses are user adjustable using the Control Panel.
This feature can save a considerable amount of power, particularly in smaller systems that do not have
loads operating all of the time. In larger systems, this feature may not result in as much savings. If
continuous operation of an AC load is required (such as when powering a microwave clock, VCR timer,
computer, or fax machine), then using the search mode is not recommended.
To enable the search mode: Select SRCH mode from the SET INVERTER menu item, accessible by
pushing the red ON/OFF MENU button. Pressing the red ON/OFF MENU button can also access the
SRCH mode. It is also located as the first menu item under the INVERTER MODE (1) menu heading.
Pressing the red ON/OFF MENU button again will move the cursor one position to the right. The SET
POINT buttons can also be used to move the cursor right or left. To disable the search mode, select ON
from the SET INVERTER menu item.
Successful operation of the system utilizing the search mode requires some initial tuning of the search
mode settings to match the loads connected in the system. If the loads change significantly, re-tuning of
the settings may be required. The benefit of the search mode circuit only is realized if the inverter is able
to enter the energy saving search mode for substantial periods of the day. Occasional checking of the
yellow INVERT LED operation should be done to ensure that the search mode is being used when all of
the loads are turned off (it should blink slowly if it is searching for a load).
SETTING SEARCH MODE WATTS
The search mode is user adjustable to allow fine-tuning of its operation. The settings are located under
the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading in the SETUP MENU. The following example explains the
operation:
Example: With the SEARCH WATTS setting at 32, a 50-watt load will bring the inverter to full output
voltage. However, a 30-watt load will leave the inverter in its energy saving search mode. If the sensitivity
is increased by lowering the setting to 16, a 20-watt load will bring the inverter out of the search mode,
while a 5-watt load will not.
When in the search mode, the yellow INVERT LED will blink slowly and the inverter will make a ticking
sound. At full output voltage, the yellow INVERT LED will stay on and the inverter will make a steady
humming sound. When the inverter is used as an uninterruptible power supply, the search mode should
be defeated.
Page
62
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
Example A: If the SEARCH WATTS is set at 32 and a 30-watt incandescent light is turned on, the inverter
will detect the light. The initial load of the bulb is much greater than 32 watts when its filament is cold.
When the light gets bright, the filament heats up and the light becomes a 30-watt load. Since this is below
the setting of 32, the inverter will not detect it and the light will turn off. This can cause cycling of the
inverter between on and off.
Example B: If the SEARCH WATTS setting is 32 and a 40-watt florescent light is turned on, the inverter
will not detect the light. The light presents a smaller load than 32 watts until the gas in the florescent tube
ionizes and begins to glow. This problem is more common with the non-electronic type fluorescent bulbs.
Example C: There are some appliances that draw power even though they are turned off. TVs with instant
on circuits, microwave ovens with digital displays and VCRs with clocks are examples. These loads can
present a dilemma. If the SEARCH WATTS is set higher than the combination of these loads, then an
additional load must be used to bring the inverter out of the search mode before the appliances can be
turned on. If the SEARCH WATTS is set lower than this combination of loads, then the inverter and the
loads will be left on. This will put an additional drain on the batteries (three such 15-watt loads would
amount to an additional 45 amp/hours per 24 hours in a 24 VDC system). One solution is to turn these
items off by using an extension cord with a rocker switch, a switched outlet, or a circuit breaker for the
circuit. Unfortunately, this solution does not allow a clock to retain its setting and may cause it to blink
constantly while operating.
SETTING SEARCH MODE SPACING
The SET SEARCH SPACING menu item is calibrated in cycles. To test for loads once each second,
adjust this setting to 59 (for 60 Hz models); to test for loads about twice a second, adjust the setting to 30.
NOTE: The lower the search spacing value – the less time it takes for the inverter to bring up a load. The
lower the setting), the greater the power consumption while in the search mode, thus reducing power. The
factory default value (59) is acceptable for most applications. The range is from 4 to 255.
LOW BATTERY PROTECTION
When the actual battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT menu item setting for the LBCO
DELAY period, the inverter shuts off to prevent the battery from being over-discharged. If the inverter is
setup to automatically start a backup generator (Gen Auto Start Menu), then it will start once the battery
reaches the LBCO setting for the selected time (30 seconds, etc).
Any of the following three conditions will return the inverter to normal operation, after a LBCO condition:
1. Power is applied to the AC HOT IN 1 or AC HOT IN 2 input terminals, allowing the inverter to operate
as a battery charger.
2. The inverter is manually restarted by pushing the red ON/OFF button and selecting OFF and then
SRCH or ON.
3. Battery voltage rises above the SET LOW BATTERY CUT IN menu item setting.
While the inverter is shut off due to the battery reaching the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT settings, the red
ERROR LED will be illuminated. When the battery voltage increases to the LOW BATTERY CUT IN
setting, the inverter will automatically turn back on and the ERROR LED will turn off.
ADJUSTING THE LOW BATTERY PROTECTION
There are three settings used to prevent over-discharge of the battery. These settings are located under
the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading. See the SETUP MENU section for instructions on accessing
these settings.
The SET LOW BATTERY CUT OUT menu item determines the voltage level that the battery must reach for
it to be considered low. The inverter will continue to operate until the voltage has continuously remained
below this setting for the time period from the SET LBCO DELAY menu item. Once the inverter has shut off,
the battery voltage must rise above the value from the SET LOW BATTERY CUT IN menu item.
The default LOW BATTERY CUT OUT setting may be lower than what is often recommended for many
applications by battery manufacturers. It is set to allow maximum performance from the inverter, not to
maximize the life of the battery. If the system is properly designed, the inverter should not reach the LBCO
setting very often. If the system is expected to utilize the LBCO control on a regular basis, then increasing
this setting is recommended.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
63
OPERATION
CHARGER MODE
AC SOURCE
AC
CHARGER
BATTERY
DC
IN BRIEF
When AC power is available, the inverter can operate as a very powerful battery charger with low current
distortion. Power is drawn over the full AC cycle. This improves the performance with low AC input voltage
or with small generators.
The SW Series Inverter/Charger includes the ability to automatically “back-off” the battery charger to
prevent overloading a generator or tripping a circuit breaker when other AC loads are being operated
through the inverter. This improves system reliability and allows greater use of the power available. The
charger will also be turned off if the AC voltage drops to an adjustable lower limit VAC setting.
THREE STAGE CHARGING PROCESS
The charging cycle uses three stages. During the initial "Bulk Charge" stage, the inverter charges at
maximum rate allowed by the SET MAX CHARGE AMPS AC setting. This causes the battery voltage to
rise over time. After the battery voltage nears the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting, the charger starts the
second or “Absorption” stage. During this phase, the charge rate is gradually reduced while the battery
voltage is held near the bulk voltage setting. This ensures that the battery is fully charged. The final "Float"
stage is initiated when the battery has been held near the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting for the
adjustable ABSORPTION TIME period setting. At this point, the battery voltage is allowed to fall to the
FLOAT VOLTS DC voltage setting, where it is maintained until another bulk charge cycle is initiated. This
reduces gassing of the battery and keeps it fully charged. A new three-stage charge cycle is initiated after
an AC source is reapplied to the AC HOT input terminals, or daily if the BULK CHARGER TRIGGER
TIMER (15) is enabled and if AC power is available continuously.
Bulk Stage
Charging
Started
Absorption Stage
Float Stage
Bulk Volts Setting
DC Voltage
Increased Voltage
Absorption Time
Float Volts Setting
Constant Voltage
Reduced Voltage
Max Charge Amps
Setting
AC Current
Constant Current
If a generator was started automatically by the
inverter to charge the battery, it will be shut off when
the charger reaches the float stage after the
bulk/absorption period. (GENERATOR must be in
AUTO mode)
Reduced Current
Reduced Current
Time
Figure 21, Three-Stage Battery Charging
Page
64
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR (BTS)
A plug-in external Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS), which is provided,
automatically fine-tunes the charging process of the battery charger in
relation to temperature. When the temperature sensor is installed, the
charge voltage is adjusted either higher or lower than the BULK and
FLOAT setpoints based on temperature. The BATTERY TEMP COMP
VOLTS DC menu item under the METERS (4) menu heading shows this
adjusted charge voltage.
If the temperature sensor is NOT installed and if the battery is subjected to
large temperature variations, a shorter battery life cycle may be expected.
Install the BTS on the side of the battery below the electrolyte level. It is best
if the sensor is placed between batteries and if the batteries are placed in
an insulated box to reduce the influence of the ambient temperature outside
the battery enclosure. Ventilate the battery box at the highest point to
prevent hydrogen accumulation.
Figure 22, BTS (Battery
Temperature Sensor)
The BTS provided may be extended beyond the standard 15 feet by an
additional 20 feet using standard telephone cables with RJ-11 plugs.
CHARGER ONLY OPERATION
When the CHG mode is selected, the inverter will operate only as a charger. This is useful for unattended
operation where a power failure might allow the inverter to drain the batteries by powering an AC load
unnecessarily. To allow the Charger Only mode, FLT must be selected from the SET GRID USAGE menu
item under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading in the SETUP MENU (FLT is the factory default
setting).
This feature is commonly used in marine applications where the inverter operates a refrigeration system
from the batteries. Normally, the engine’s alternators keep the batteries charged. When docked, a shore
cord is connected to the inverter to power the battery charger and run the refrigerator.
AC INPUT REQUIREMENTS
When an AC source is applied to the AC input, the AC1 IN GOOD or AC2 IN GOOD LED indicator will
blink slowly once the AC voltage has been detected. If the AC source is acceptable, the inverter will
synchronize to it after a delay period has passed. Once synchronized, the inverter will close an internal
relay, connecting the AC source to the AC loads, indicated by the green AC IN GOOD LED (ON solid),
and begin charging the batteries, indicated by the orange BULK LED (ON solid).
The AC source, connected to the inverter’s AC HOT IN 1 and AC HOT IN 2 terminals, is used to power
both the battery charger and the AC loads while the inverter is in the battery charger mode. There are
several settings, listed below, that involve the AC INPUT. See the USER SETTINGS WORKSHEET on
page 123 for factory default settings.
INPUT AC VOLTAGE
The AC HOT IN 1 and AC HOT IN 2 inputs share the same upper and lower limits for restricting
connection to an acceptable AC voltage operating window.
The AC input voltage window is typically set to the minimum / maximum range that the AC loads can
tolerate - the inverter itself can operate over an extremely wide voltage range. The upper and lower
settings are adjustable with the Control Panel and are located under the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading
in the SETUP MENU.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
65
OPERATION
AC CURRENT LEVEL
The maximum current draw into the AC HOT IN 1 terminal can be adjusted by the SET GRID (AC1)
AMPS AC menu item. The maximum current draw into the AC HOT IN 2 terminal can be adjusted by the
SET GEN (AC2) AMPS AC menu item. These adjustments are used to “back off” the battery charger’s
AC current draw while other AC loads are being powered through the inverter. This prevents the
overloading of the AC source and prevents nuisance tripping of the AC source circuit breakers.
FREQUENCY
AC HOT IN 1 is the Utility Power connection point. The frequency tolerance is 53 to 67 Hz for 60 Hz
models (44 to 56 for 50 Hz models). The typical transfer delay is approximately 30 seconds once the AC
HOT IN 1 terminals are energized. When the SELL mode is enabled from the SET GRID USAGE menu
item, the transfer delay period is typically 90 seconds and the frequency tolerance is restricted to 58 to 62
Hz for 60 Hz models (48 to 52 Hz for 50 Hz models).
AC HOT IN 2 is used as a fuel-powered generator connection point. There is a default 60-second delay
before transfer occurs. This gives the generator time to stabilize before being loaded. Frequency tolerance
is 53 to 67 Hz for 60 Hz models (44 to 56 for 50 Hz models). The fuel-powered generator must be stable
for the inverter to synchronize and connect.
DELAY PERIOD
The delay period, approximately 30 seconds, occurs after the AC source has been applied to the AC HOT
IN 1 terminal. If SELL mode is enabled (from the SET GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER
SETUP (9) menu heading) and a power outage occurs, reconnection back to the utility power will be
delayed for a period of at least 90 seconds. This delay allows the utility distribution system to stabilize
before the inverter resumes selling power back to the utility. It is not adjustable.
The delay period for the AC HOT IN 2 terminal is adjustable through the SET GEN WARMUP SECONDS
menu item under the GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) menu heading. This allows the generator to reach a
stable operating condition before being loaded. The default generator warm-up period is 60 seconds.
Once warmed up, the inverter synchronizes to the generator. If the AC source is not stable, the inverter
may not be able to synchronize and will not connect. If the generator runs for 5 minutes without the
inverter being able to connect, then the generator will be shut off and the ERROR LED indicator will be
illuminated. A GENERATOR SYNC, YES error condition will be displayed in the ERROR CAUSES (5)
menu heading on the Control Panel.
RECOMMENDED BATTERY CHARGER SETTINGS
The settings for the battery charger primarily depend upon the battery chemistry and construction. Other
factors such as usage, age and battery bank size need to be considered as well. The battery charger
settings will automatically adjust if the temperature compensation sensor is installed. If it is not installed,
the settings should be adjusted manually to allow for the typical battery temperature. This may require
seasonal readjustment for optimum performance.
The default settings are typical values for liquid, lead acid battery applications. They will work satisfactorily
for many systems.
CAUTION: To prevent battery damage and achieve maximum performance, adjust the battery
charger settings to the manufacturer’s recommendations. NiCad (or alkaline) battery users must
also adjust the SET TEMP COMP menu item setting. The battery charger settings are located
under the BATTERY CHARGER (10) menu heading in the SETUP MENU.
The SET MAX CHARGE AMPS AC menu item will need to be reduced if you are using a small battery
bank. High charge rates can cause a small battery to overheat. This may cause damage and is not an
efficient way to recharge the battery. With the Control Panel, adjust the charger for a maximum rate that is
less than 1/5 of the battery capacity for efficient recharging. For example, if the battery is rated at 500
amp-hours, set the maximum charge rate for 100 amps DC. Since the setting is adjusted in amps AC
drawn by the battery charger, divide the DC charge rate by 8 for 12 volt systems, 4 for 24 volt systems and
2 for 48 volt systems (these factors are for 120 VAC systems and include the power lost in the battery
charger). If the example battery bank of 500 amp hours was a 24 volt system, the maximum AC amps
setting should be around 25 amps AC (500 x 1/5 = 100 amps DC, 100 / 4 = 25 amps AC.)
Page
66
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
Once the battery voltage nears the BULK VOLTS DC setting, the voltage will be held at this level while the
current into the battery tapers off. The time allowed for this tapering period is called the ABSORPTION
TIME period. This setting is very important for systems which use generators since it determines how long
a generator will run and when the generator shuts off. Using a generator to “trickle” charge a battery is not
efficient and should be avoided. Some users may want to decrease the ABSORPTION TIME to keep
generator-running time to a minimum. This may result in the batteries not being fully charged. The higher
the BULK VOLTS DC setting and the longer the ABSORPTION TIME period, the more fully charged the
battery would be when the charger is shut off. Often, the generator is used only to “BULK CHARGE” the
battery and the solar array is allowed to trickle charge the battery to a full charge condition.
The following chart provides a guideline in setting the battery charger settings for several different types of
batteries. The battery manufacturer is the best source of information and should be consulted if your
battery type is not shown. Since the settings also depend on the system design, other factors may apply.
Table 4, Charging Setpoints For Common Battery Types
TYPICAL BULK AND FLOAT SETPOINTS FOR COMMON BATTERY TYPES
Battery Type
Bulk Volts
Float Volts
Equalizing Charge Process
Sealed Gel
Lead Acid battery
14.1 VDC BULK
13.6 VDC FLOAT
Not Recommended - Consult manufacturer
A.G.M.
Lead Acid battery
14.4 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Charge to 15.5 VDC or as per manufacturer
Maintenance-Free RV/Marine
Lead Calcium Battery
14.4 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Not Recommended - Consult manufacturer
Deep-Cycle, Liquid Electrolyte
Lead Antimony Battery
14.6 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Charge to 15.5 VDC or as per manufacturer
NiCad or NiFe Alkaline Battery*
(using 10 cells in series)
16.0 VDC BULK
14.5 VDC FLOAT
Consult manufacturer
Note: Values shown are for 12 volt systems. For 24 volt systems multiply the settings shown by 2.
For 48 volt systems multiply the settings shown by 4. These settings are guidelines, refer to your
battery manufacturer for specific settings.
EQUALIZING BATTERIES (UNSEALED OR VENTED BATTERIES ONLY)
In many of the inverter/charger applications, batteries are subjected to less than ideal operating
conditions. This can result in significant differences in the state-of-charge level between the individual
battery cells. Furthermore, the low charge rates and extended periods at partial charge levels can result in
both stratified battery electrolyte and inactive areas of battery plate material. If the condition is allowed to
remain for extended periods of time, the battery can “sulfate” and become unusable.
To correct this condition, many manufacturers recommend a periodic “equalization” charge to mix up the
electrolyte, re-activate unused battery plate material, and bring up all of the individual cells to a full state of
charge. This requires that the battery be given a controlled “overcharge” by increasing the charge voltage
for a limited period of time. The voltage and time required are both dependent upon the amount of
correction required. The more frequently the batteries are equalized, the lower the equalize voltage and
shorter the time period.
Equalizing a battery is only recommended on unsealed or vented batteries. The process will cause the
electrolyte to gas and will release hydrogen and oxygen in the process. The chance of explosion due to
the accumulation of these gasses is therefore a realistic hazard. The batteries must be provided with good
ventilation with no ignition sources present. Some users have found that the battery cell caps are subject
to clogging during an equalization charge and therefore remove them during this process. Since the
batteries may rapidly bubble while being charged, it is advised that the battery be refilled only after the
equalization process is finished (if the battery electrolyte level is low, add enough to cover the plates
before charging).
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
67
OPERATION
The battery manufacturer or supplier should be consulted before equalizing to provide the recommended
process and settings. During the equalization process, check the temperature of each battery every hour
by momentarily feeling the battery case. If the batteries are excessively warm (too hot to keep your hand
on), terminate the charging immediately. Let the batteries cool before checking the need for further
equalization charging.
A manual or automatically controlled equalization charge process is available in the SW Series
Inverter/Charger. This equalization process can be powered by any AC source. The SET EQUALIZE
TIME H: M menu item under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading sets the amount of time that
the battery voltage must exceed the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting before the equalization process is
completed. This timer is an accumulating type and does not reset if the voltage momentarily drops below
the bulk voltage setting. During the equalization process, the voltage is limited to the level of the SET
EQUALIZE VOLTS DC menu item under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading.
To start the equalization process (either manually or automatically):
Select EQ from the SET GENERATOR menu item, by pressing the green GEN MENU button on the
Control Panel. During the equalization process, the BULK LED will flash slowly to indicate that the EQ
position has been selected from the SET GENERATOR menu item.
To manually equalize the batteries, AC power must be available at the AC HOT IN 1 (utility power) or AC
HOT IN 2 (generator) terminals. If utility power is not available, the generator must be manually started.
The inverter uses this power to start the battery charger and begin the equalization process. Equalization
will continue to run for the amount of time programmed. When the equalization process finishes, the
FLOAT LED will come on (as long as utility or generator power is still available).
NOTE: If the generator was manually started to equalize the batteries, it must be manually shut off
once equalization has completed. Return the cursor to the OFF position in the SET GENERATOR
menu item (accessible by pressing the green GEN MENU button on the Control Panel).
If the automatic generator control system is selected, the inverter will complete an equalization charge
process during the next - automatically started - generator run period.
Page
68
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
INVERTER/CHARGER MODE
UTILITY GRID
AC
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC LOADS
AC
DC
GENERATOR
BATTERY
IN BRIEF
The SW Series Inverter/Charger is capable of automatically transferring AC loads from the inverter to a
utility grid or generator. Once transferred, the inverter can recharge the battery. The inverter/charger can
transfer upon the availability of AC power (FLT mode), either at a specific time each day (using the GRID
USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading), or upon a low battery condition (LBX mode).
TRANSFERRING UPON AVAILABILITY OF AC POWER
When AC power is supplied to the AC HOT IN 1 or AC HOT IN 2 input, the inverter automatically transfers
from inverter mode to battery charger mode. Before transferring, the inverter verifies that both the AC
input voltage and frequency are within tolerance. It then synchronizes waveforms and connects to the
inverter’s AC output without interruption of power.
The FLT mode is the default mode (see the GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER SETUP (9)
menu heading) and may be used with AC power supplied to either the AC HOT IN 1 or AC HOT IN 2
input. This is the proper mode for most utility connected applications or for use with a back-up generator
that is being manually or automatically started.
The SLT mode is used only with AC power supplied to the AC HOT IN 1 input. The SLT mode is selected
from the GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading. In this mode, the only
operational difference is that the battery charger will only be engaged for a single period of time each day,
set by the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) menu heading setting. This reduces the power
consumption of the inverter over the period of a day. It is also used in applications where the slight noise
of the inverter might be undesirable, such as at night. AC power continues to be passed through the
inverter’s transfer relay while the charger is not engaged. If the AC source fails, the inverter will turn on
automatically and power the connected AC loads. When utility power returns, the AC loads will be
reconnected to the utility and the battery charger will complete a bulk charge cycle. Once this has been
completed the battery charger will turn off, but the loads will remain connected to the utility.
TRANSFERRING BASED ON BATTERY VOLTAGE
The LBX mode is used only with AC power supplied to the AC HOT IN 1 input. The LBX mode is selected
from the GRID USAGE menu item under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading. In this mode, the
decision to transfer to and from charger mode will be based upon the battery voltage. With LBX enabled,
the SET LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting and the SET LOW BATTERY TRANSFER VDC setting
determine the DC transfer voltages. When the battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY TRANSFER
VDC setting for more then 20 seconds, the AC loads are transferred from the inverter to the utility. If the
battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting, the AC loads are transferred from the
utility to the inverter. The low battery transfer system includes a 20 second delay so that large loads are
less likely to cause a transfer to the utility grid during motor startup, etc.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
69
OPERATION
While connected to the utility, the battery charger will be engaged. Some applications may want to allow
the alternate power source (solar, wind or hydro) to recharge the battery instead of allowing the utility to
provide the power. The only option is to program the SET MAX CHARGE AMPS AC menu item under the
BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading to the minimum value, 1 amp AC, and set the BULK VOLTS
and FLOAT VOLTS settings, also under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading, to a low value.
TRANSFER TIME
Normally there is no transfer time from the inverter to utility power or generator. The inverter operates in
parallel with the AC source at all times - even when battery charging. This allows the transfer from inverter
to the utility grid or generator to be interruption-free and virtually unnoticeable.
However, in SELL mode, when the utility grid fails, the inverter will reach the overcurrent protection
system setting (since it is will try to power everything that is connected to the grid). The inverter will
momentarily shut off while it opens the internal AC input relay. Once the relay has opened, the inverter will
begin to operate within a single cycle. This results in a 20 millisecond transfer period. Most AC loads,
including computers, will not be affected during the transfer.
Page
70
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
GENERATOR SUPPORT MODE
GENERATOR
AC
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC LOADS
DC
BATTERY
IN BRIEF
The factory default settings are intended to operate the inverter as an inverter/charger connected to a
generator. When the generator is off, the inverter will power the AC loads from the battery. Once the
generator is started, the AC loads will be transferred to the generator and the inverter will become a
battery charger and store the unused power in the batteries for later use. The inverter will automatically
limit the draw of the battery charger to prevent overloading the generator. When the generator is turned off
it will be disconnected and the inverter will instantly take over and power the AC loads from the batteries.
Generator support does not require that the automatic generator control system be used.
To operate in this mode the system must be set-up as follows:
•
Connect the generator AC output to the inverter’s AC HOT IN 2 and NEUTRAL IN 2 terminals.
•
Connect the AC loads to the inverter’s AC HOT OUT and NEUTRAL OUT terminals.
•
Adjust the battery charger parameters to match the requirements of the batteries connected (if the
factory defaults listed in the technical section are not satisfactory).
•
Adjust the SET GEN (AC2) AMPS AC menu item located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading, to
the continuous output ability of the generator. This allows the generator support feature to function
correctly, preventing the generator from being overloaded. The generator’s output should be de-rated
for altitude and if propane or natural gas is the power source. It is best to error on the low side for this
setting, or to experiment with higher settings after the system has been operational.
•
Adjust the SET INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading, to the
lowest AC voltage that the AC loads can tolerate. If the generator is pulled down to this level while
powering a load, the inverter will back-off its battery charging or even operate in parallel to reduce the
load on the generator. Keep in mind that when the inverter supports the generator it uses energy from
the batteries to power the AC loads. Therefore, when generator support occurs, the batteries can be
discharging instead of recharging even though the generator is running.
•
Adjust the SET INPUT UPPER LIMIT VAC located in the AC INPUT (11) menu heading, to the
highest voltage that the generator will be allowed to operate without being considered out of tolerance.
At this voltage the inverter will disconnect to protect the AC loads. When the voltage returns to the
operating window, the inverter will require a minimum of 20 seconds to re-synchronize and connect
the generator to the loads.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
71
OPERATION
GENERATOR SUPPORT/OVERLOAD PROTECTION
This battery charger is quite powerful and, without limits, could overload a generator. When the generator
is running, it has to power both the battery charger and any connected AC loads. If the AC load current,
combined with the charge current, exceeds the SET GEN (AC2) AMPS AC setting, the charge rate will
automatically be reduced to avoid overloading the generator or tripping its circuit breaker.
If the amount of current demanded by the AC load is greater than the GEN (AC2) AMPS AC setting, the
inverter is capable of supplementing the generator’s power. The inverter attempts to hold the current
drawn from the generator at the setting of the GEN (AC2) AMPS AC. This allows the generator to start
larger loads than it could normally and reduces the load on the generator during motor start-ups.
Generator support is also available if AC voltage falls to the SET INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC. In this case,
the inverter will assist the generator as long as there is power flowing from the generator to the load. This
is typically used when a large AC load is being operated and the generator’s AC output voltage drops.
For example, if you have a 20 amp generator and the GEN SIZE AMPS AC setting is at 15 amps, the
inverter will start providing additional power from the batteries whenever the load reaches 15 amps or
higher (even though it may not be required). When setting the GEN SIZE AMPS AC value, allow for
headroom but do not set the value too low.
While the inverter is supporting the generator, the BULK or FLOAT LED Indicator will remain on even
though the inverter may not be battery charging. The INVERTER/CHARGER AMPS AC meter will indicate
the support process by displaying “negative” current flowing from the inverter to the loads. The INPUT
AMPS AC will also drop during this process while the LOAD AMPS AC remains the same.
120 VAC VS. 120/240 VAC GENERATORS
In the US, generators are available with either 120/240 VAC “split phase” or 120 VAC only output. Some
generators can be rewired in the field, or have a switch, for changing from one output to the other. If a
system uses only one inverter, having the generator put out all of its power at 120 VAC is advantageous. If
two inverters are used, having the generator wired for 120/240 VAC output is better.
If you are using one inverter and can not rewire your generator for 120 VAC, or have a combination of 120
and 240 VAC loads which need to be operated, you may need to include a balancing transformer to allow
full use of the generator output at 120 VAC. This allows the battery charger to use power from both
“halves” of the generator, instead of only half of it. Xantrex offers a balancing transformer (Part Number T240) for this purpose. See OTHER PRODUCTS section on page 129 or contact your inverter supplier for
more information.
If your generator can be wired for 120 VAC output and you are using only one inverter, 240 VAC loads can
be operated from the system by using a transformer in a step-up configuration. This is common for deep
well submersible well pumps. If the step-up is done on the pump side of the pressure switch or manual
switch for the pump (run 120 VAC through the switch then step it up to 240 VAC), the transformer will not
interfere with using the search mode or increase idle current draw by the inverter when the pump is off.
When two inverters are operating in a “series stacked” configuration (120/240 VAC); each inverter
operates as a separate inverter. One inverter can be battery charging with the excess power from one half
of the generator, while the other inverter is supporting the generator by operating in parallel to support a
heavy 120 VAC load on that half of the system. This allows greater utilization of limited system capacity
and is very useful when starting large 120 VAC loads such as water pumps or compressors.
Two 120 VAC/60 HZ inverters can be used to provide 240 VAC. This provides both 120 and 240 VAC
since a center “neutral” is provided between the two inverters. If a 240 VAC only AC source is connected
to the AC input terminals of the inverter without this center neutral, unacceptable operation will result. To
allow connection of a 240 VAC only source, a small (500 VA) autotransformer must be connected across
the 240 VAC input and to the AC neutral terminals of the inverters. This will allow the inverter to operate
properly. No transformer is required on the AC output side - the 240 VAC can be taken directly from the
two AC hot output terminals (one from each inverter).
Page
72
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL MODE
GENERATOR
AC
CONTROL
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC LOADS
DC
BATTERY
IN BRIEF
Automatic start/stop control of a back-up generator can be used with any of the other operating modes. If
used with an application that includes utility power, the generator will be started only if the utility power is
not available. It is not possible to use both generator and utility power at the same time. If the generator is
manually started while the inverter is connected to utility power, the inverter will ignore the generator and
not connect to it. With utility power connected to the AC HOT IN 1 terminals, the automatic generator start
and stop control is disabled.
Extensive control of automatic generator operation is available through the items under the menu
headings GEN AUTO START SETUP (12), GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) and GENERATOR TIMER
(7). The generator can be set to start based on four different low battery voltage levels with different delay
times for each. A quiet time period can be set that restricts the generator from starting during defined
hours of the day. The generator will be started during the quiet time period only if the battery voltage
reaches the setting of the SET LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC MENU ITEM for a continuous 30-second
period of time.
To operate in this mode the system must be set-up as follows:
•
Connect the generator AC output to the inverter’s AC HOT IN 2 and NEUTRAL IN 2 terminals.
•
Connect the AC loads to the inverter’s AC HOT OUT and NEUTRAL OUT terminals.
•
Select AUTO from the SET GENERATOR menu item, accessed by pressing the green GEN MENU
button. The AUTO mode is disabled if the CHG mode under INVERTER MODE (1) menu heading is
selected.
•
Adjust the battery charger parameters to match the requirements of the batteries connected (if the
factory defaults listed in the technical section are not satisfactory).
•
Adjust the SET GEN (AC2) AMPS AC menu item, located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading, to
the continuous output ability of the generator. This allows the generator support feature to function
correctly, preventing the generator from being overloaded. The generator’s output should be derated
for altitude and if propane or natural gas is powering it. It is best to error on the low side for this
setting, or to experiment with higher settings after the system has been operational.
•
Adjust the SET INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC menu item, located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu
heading, to the lowest AC voltage that the AC loads can tolerate. If the generator is pulled down to this
level while powering a load, the inverter will back-off its battery charging or even operate in parallel to
reduce the load on the generator. Keep in mind that when the inverter supports the generator it uses
energy from the batteries to power the AC loads. Therefore, when generator support occurs, the
batteries can be discharging instead of recharging even though the generator is running.
•
Adjust the SET INPUT UPPER LIMIT VAC menu item, located in the AC INPUT (11) menu heading,
to the highest voltage that the generator will be allowed to operate without being considered out of
tolerance. At this voltage the inverter will disconnect to protect the AC loads. When the voltage returns
to the operating window, the inverter will require a minimum of 20 seconds to re-synchronize and
connect the generator to the loads.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
73
OPERATION
GEN CONTROL RELAYS
CAUTION: All circuits connecting the auto generator control system MUST be protected
with fuses rated at 5 amps or less. The warranty does not cover damage to these relays.
Fuses should be located as close as possible to the point of connection to the larger conductors
providing power from the battery. A fuse must be used, even if the circuit is providing only a “dry
contact” or “ground” connection - it will prevent damage if the connection is miswired or if the
cable connecting the inverter to the generator is damaged.
The generator control relays are not intended to directly control the starter motor or operate the ignition
system - rather they are used to send a signal to operate the coil of another higher amperage device
which does the actual switching of power. For location and wiring information on the GEN CONTROL
RELAYS, see AUXILIARY AND GENERATOR CONTROL RELAY on page 14.
The SW Series Inverter/Charger provides two relays, labeled RY7 and RY8, to allow starting of many
types of generators. Two LED indicators provide status indications whether RY7 or RY8 have been
energized.
The relay labeled RY7 is used to provide either a STOP signal or a RUN signal. It can also be used to
provide a GLOW signal on diesel generators with glow-plugs. The relay labeled RY8 is used to provide a
crank signal for the starter of the generator engine. It is not used on two-wire type (auto cranking)
generators. The COM (common) terminals of the relays are separated and both the N.O. (normally open)
and N.C. (normally closed) contacts of the relays are provided.
It is much easier to make the connections to the generator if a remote control terminal or connector is
available on the generator. This sometimes requires that the generator optional remote control be
purchased. This also allows examination of how the generator remote control works - which is what the
inverter’s generator control system in the inverter must duplicate.
Connection of the GEN CONTROL RELAYS to the generator remote control also eliminates the need to
modify the generator and violate the warranty of the generator.
You should also add a switch to allow disabling of the automatic generator control system at the generator
to allow local control of the generator, preventing starting while servicing, etc. Many generators include this
switch with the optional remote control.
GENERATOR STARTING SCENARIOS
The generator can be set to start based on the four following scenarios:
AUTOMATICALLY
(1)
AC Current: The generator starts whenever the current travelling through the inverter to the AC
loads remains above the LOAD START AMPS AC setting for the selected LOAD START DELAY
MIN period. The current can be monitored by the LOAD AMPS AC menu item under the METERS
menu. The generator will start, unless the timer is in the “quiet time” period, at which time it will only
start if the READ LBCO 30 SEC START VDC setting is reached. Whenever the generator starts
automatically, based on load amps, it will shut off once the load current drops below the LOAD
START AMPS value for the selected LOAD STOP DELAY MIN period.
(2)
Battery Voltage: The generator starts whenever the battery voltage reaches one of the four
adjustable low battery voltage levels for the selected delay periods (24 hours, 2 hours, 15 minutes, or
30 seconds). The low battery voltage levels are set under the GEN AUTO START SETUP. Actual
battery voltage can be monitored from the BATTERY ACTUAL VOLTS DC menu item under the
METERS menu. The generator will start, unless the timer is in the “quiet time” period, at which time it
will only start if the SET LOW BATTERY CUTOUT VDC or READ LBCO 30 SEC START VDC
setting is reached. Whenever the generator starts automatically, based on low battery voltage it will
shut off once the BULK and ABSORPTION stages of the battery charging have completed, thus
fully recharging the batteries.
Page
74
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
(3)
Time (Exercise Period Days): The generator is automatically started at a pre-selected time
whenever it exceeds a set number of days without running. Once the start command is initiated,
the generator starts and runs for 15 minutes to ensure that it remains fully operational and that the
generator’s starting battery is maintained at an optimal state of charge. To set generator start
time, go to END QUIET TIME under the GENERATOR TIMER menu. To set the number of days
between exercise periods, go to SET EXERCISE PERIOD DAYS under the GEN AUTO START
SETUP menu. If the value is set to 10, the generator will start every tenth day of continuous nonoperation. To disable this feature, set the value to zero.
MANUALLY
(4)
Manual Start – The generator can be manually started by selecting ON from SET GENERATOR
directory under the GENERATOR MODE menu. In manual mode, the generator MUST be
manually switched OFF by selecting OFF from the SET GENERATOR menu item.
GENERATOR STARTING AND STOPPING CONFIGURATIONS
Two different generator start routines are available to allow use with a wider variety of generator types.
The sequence of closing and opening of the RY7 relay changes depending upon what position the
underlining cursor is in from the SET RY7 FUNCTION menu item under the GEN STARTING DETAILS
(13) menu item. The choices are GLOWSTOP or RUN.
When RUN is selected as the function of the RY7 relay, the RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts remain
closed while the generator is running. This is usually wired to the ignition system of the generator engine
and/or a fuel solenoid valve. The normally closed contacts of this relay are also available on the terminal
block, marked RY7 N.C. The normally closed contact is open (not connected to the common terminal)
while the generator is running. When the generator is off, the RY7 N.C. terminal is connected to the RY7
COM terminal. This configuration is useful for starting many HONDA brand generators as well as some
others. This should also be used to select when the RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts are used to control
a two wire (auto crank) type generator.
When GLOWSTOP is selected as the function of the RY7 relay, the RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts
remain open while the generator is running. The contacts close only when it is time for the generator to be
stopped. This is useful for generators that require a stop signal to shut down the generator. The
GLOWSTOP configuration is useful for starting ONAN brand generators.
The GLOWSTOP setting can also be used for diesel generators. The RY7 COM and RY7 N.O. contacts
will be closed during the PRE CRANK SECONDS period. This relay can be used to provide both the
GLOW and STOP signals. When this is done the generator will be given both GLOW and STOP signals
before cranking and when stopping. This is done on many diesel generators by their own starting systems.
You should also check that the control system also powers the glow plugs during the cranking signal - the
generator manufacturer or dealer can provide more information.
The terminals RY8 COM and RY8 N.O. provide contacts that remain closed only during the generatorcranking period. This is usually wired to the starter solenoid (relay) of the generator engine. This relay
closes after an initial PRE CRANK delay period (the default MAX CRANKING SECONDS period is 10
seconds). Relay RY8 will open after a half-second delay, once the inverter senses an AC voltage above
80 VAC on the AC HOT IN 2 terminals. If the voltage remains for the POST CRANK period, relay RY8 will
remain open. If the generator doesn’t start, it will close again after a POST CRANK delay period. The
inverter will attempt to start the generator up to 5 times (the number of times the inverter tries to start the
generator is fixed at 5 attempts). If the required voltage level is not reached, relay RY7 opens (in RUN
mode) to “kill” the generator before a restart is attempted. This reduces the chance that the starter motor
will be engaged on a spinning generator engine. This protection is inherent in the GLOWSTOP mode.
The generator will be stopped when the battery charger has kept the temperature compensated battery
voltage near the BULK VOLTS DC setting for the ABSORPTION TIME period.
When it is time to stop the generator, relay RY7 will open or close (depending on which RY7 FUNCTION
is selected), stopping the generator. This will occur after a 40 second cool down period. If the generator
does not stop, the inverter will continue to charge the battery at the FLOAT VOLTS DC.
The transfer from generator to inverter will be less noticeable if you manually turn off the generator from
the inverter’s Control Panel instead of from the generator’s off switch. This allows the inverter to first
disconnect the generator before it is turned off, reducing problems with voltage sags during the transition.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
75
OPERATION
GENERATOR AUTO START REQUIREMENTS AND TYPES
In order for the generator to be automatically started, it must include electric start and an automatic choke.
An automatic primer system may also be required on natural gas and propane powered generators. The
generator should also include remote start ability with accessible remote start terminals or a connector.
Protective systems for low oil pressure, over temperature, starter lockout and over crank control are
valuable features that will prevent generator damage and increase system reliability. “Two wire” start
generator are recommended highly because of the greater simplicity for automatic starting and because
they are intended for remote/automatic/unattended operation.
Generators used can be fueled by gasoline, propane or diesel fuel. Propane is often the best choice for
residential applications due to the ease of fuel storage and delivery, cost, safety, and ease of starting.
Since propane is required for the cooking stove, water heater and space heating as well, most residential
applications will already have a tank and propane service. Gasoline is also common, but can be difficult to
transport and store on site safely. Most small generators do not hold much fuel in their built-in tanks refitting the generator to use marine outboard motor type fuel tanks is often a good solution for limited fuel
capacity. This eliminates the need to pour fuel into the tank of a hot generator - which can be very
dangerous. Diesel is a much safer fuel to use and store. Diesel generators can operate with very little
maintenance and have very long lives. The only problems with diesel are the higher initial cost, difficulty
with starting in cold weather and possible need for the additional control of the glow plugs before starting.
Generators can be either air or water-cooled. Water-cooled units are usually more quiet but can require
more maintenance. Low speed (~1800 / 1500 rpm) generators are preferred by many system designers
as they often provide longer life due to less mechanical wear and tear.
TWO WIRE START GENERATORS
Generator starting requirements can be divided into two categories – two-wire start types and three-wire
start types. The two-wire start type generator is more simple and the easiest to automate. To start, simply
connect the two “remote control” wires together and it starts. The generator provides its own cranking
control circuit for start-up. To stop, simply disconnect the two wires. The wires can be connected by a
switch or relay. To enable automatic start, connect the two wires from the generator to Relay RY7 COM
and RY7 N.O. of the inverter and connect the generator output to AC HOT IN 2 input of the inverter. Two
wire start generators are specifically designed for unattended operation and usually include all of the
safety and protection devices from the factory. They are highly recommended due to the ease of hook-up
and troubleshooting that they allow.
GEN CONTROL RELAYS
COM
RY7
N.O.
2 WIRE TYPE GENERATOR
5 AMP
FUSE
REMOTE
START/STOP
TERMINALS
Figure 23, Two Wire Start Wiring Diagram
When a two-wire start type generator is used, multiple loads can signal the generator to run. A good
example is a float switch in a water storage tank. When the water level drops, the float switch closes a set
of contacts, which signals the generator to run. When the tank is full, the float switch opens its contacts
and the generator stops. The float switch can be used in parallel with the automatic control system of the
inverter. Either “switch” can start the generator. This allows easy automation of the entire system. For this
type of generator, select RUN from the SET RY7 FUNCTION menu item under the GEN STARTING
DETAILS (13) menu heading. This is the default setting of this menu item.
Page
76
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
THREE-WIRE START GENERATORS
Three-wire start generators do not include automatic engine cranking control system. Separate
control of the starter motor requires additional interaction between the inverter’s auto-control system and
the generator. This also adds complexity to the installation since more wires must be connected and
more programming of the inverter is required. Troubleshooting can also be more difficult.
The automatic control system controls the starter much like a person does when starting a car engine.
The starter is turned on for short periods of time and then turned off. If the engine starts up while cranking,
the starter is turned off after a 1/2-second delay. If the engine does not start, the starter is turned on again
after a delay period. This is repeated until either the generator starts or the maximum number of start
attempts is reached.
The common term “three-wire start” may be misleading - the actual number of wires used may be four or
more. It simply means that control of the starter motor is done separately from the generator. Most threewire start generators are not designed for automatic, unattended operation. The generator supplier should
be consulted regarding additional safety components required for your installation. The automatic control
system only provides the starting and stopping signals based on what the batteries need. It will not shut off
the generator if a problem such as low oil pressure occurs.
Three-wire start type generators can be divided into two basic types - “Honda” types and “Onan” types.
The Honda type uses an automotive type starting circuit as previously discussed. Operating a switch that
is first turned to “RUN” and then momentarily held to a “START” position starts it. Once the engine has
started, the switch is released and it returns to the “RUN” position. To shut down the generator, the switch
is placed in the “OFF” position. For this type of generator, relay RY7 duplicates the “RUN” position and
relay RY8 duplicates the “START” position, cranking the starter motor. For this type of generator, select
RUN from the SET RY7 FUNCTION menu item under the GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) menu heading.
This is the default setting of this menu item.
GEN CONTROL RELAYS
HONDA TYPE GENERATOR
COM
RY7
COM
RY8
5 AMP FUSE
STOP SWITCH
CONTACTS
5 AMP FUSE
START SWITCH
CONTACTS
N.O.
N.O.
Figure 24, Three Wire Start Wiring Diagram (HONDA Type)
Onan type generators use a different starting sequence. Most Onan type generators use a three-position
momentary type switch that controls their operation. To start the generator, the switch is held to the
“START” position. This energizes the ignition system and cranks the starter motor. Once the engine has
started, the switch is released and it returns to a center off position. The starter motor then stops cranking
but the ignition system remains energized. To shut down the generator, the switch is held to the “STOP”
position until the engine dies. Once the handle is released, it returns to the center position. For this type of
generator, relay RY8 duplicates the “START” position and relay RY7 is used to duplicate the “STOP”
position (using the common and normally open contacts). Some generators use a similar system with two
push button switches - one to start and one to stop.
GEN CONTROL RELAYS
HONDA TYPE GENERATOR
COM
RY7
5 AMP FUSE
N.O.
STOP SWITCH
CONTACTS
COM
RY8
START SWITCH
CONTACTS
N.O.
Figure 25, Three-Wire Start Wiring Diagram (ONAN Type)
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
77
OPERATION
Most diesel generators are controlled like the Onan type, except that they also require that glow plugs be
operated before the generator start is attempted. The SW Series Inverter/Charger automatic generator
control system can also provide glow plug control. The addition of an external relay may be required to
operate the glow plugs due to the amperage required by the glow-plugs and to separate the stop signal
circuit. For this type of generator, select GLOWSTOP from the SET RY7 FUNCTION menu item under the
GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) menu heading.
3-TO-2 WIRE CONVERTERS
Another option for three-wire start-type generators is a 3-to-2-wire converter which vary from simple relays
to advanced microprocessor types. Onan offers a simple 3-to-2-wire converter that works well for many
installations. Universal 3-to-2 wire converters can be used with virtually any generator as well as control
glow plugs for diesel generators. These also feature additional system components to signal the
generator control system to start.
GENERATOR CONTROL SEQUENCE
The relays close in a specific sequence to start the generator. Some of the timing periods are adjustable
through the GEN STARTING DETAILS (13) menu heading. GLOWSTOP has been added to the
sequence for diesel generator applications. RY7 can be configured for either “RUN” or “GLOWSTOP”
operation. The two control relays complete the following sequence:
The ’auto generator control sequence’ is initiated if the battery voltage remains below the ’Set start volts DC’ setting (unless
’Start/End Quiet time h:m’ is enabled) for the required period of time or the ’Read LBCO 30 sec start VDC’ setting for 30 seconds;
or if the load amps reaches the ’Load Start amp AC’ setting longer than the ’Set Load Start delay min’ period. The manual
generator control sequence is initiated if generator is manually turned on via ’Set Generator’ to ON.
First ’auto
generator
start
attempt’
The auto generator stop sequence
is initiated if: (1) The battery
voltage has been held at the ’Set
Bulk volts DC’ setting for the ’Set
Absorption time h:m’ period or (2)
The load amps drops below the
’Load Start amps AC’ setting for
longer than the ’Set Load Stop
delay min’ period.
The generator will stop
immediately with an
inverter fault or if ’Set
Generator’ is set to
OFF. Also a "Kill Before
Cranking" signal is
enabled before the next
'auto generator start
attempt'
Next ’auto
generator
Start
sequence
has been
initiated
Second
‘auto
generator
start
attempt’
RY7
OFF
RUN (or)
GLOWSTOP
OFF
ON
OFF (engages to the N.C. position)
START
DELAY
PERIOD
SET PRE
SET MAX
CRANK
CRANKING
SECONDS SECONDS
SET GEN
WARM-UP
SECONDS
8 SECS
FIXED
10 SECS.
DEFAULT
10 SECS
DEFAULT
60 SECS
DEFAULT
(RY8 goes
off with a
1 sec delay
when
AC HOT IN
>80 VAC)
(Starts once
voltage
exceeds
80 VAC)
ON
RY8
Time (Sec) 0
OFF
ON (engages to the N.O. position)
8
18
LOCK ON
GOOD
DELAY
PERIOD
GEN-RUN PERIOD
12 SECS
FIXED
(Starts when
AC is within
108 to 132
VAC
and
53-67 Hz)
(Determined by the
voltage and time
settings under the
’BATTERY
CHARGING’ heading
or by the current and
delay min settings
under the ’GEN
AUTO START
SETUP’ heading)
COOL
DOWN
PERIOD
40 SECS
FIXED
ON
ON
OFF
Generator is
off and
waiting for
next ’auto
generator
start
sequence
START
DELAY
PERIOD
ON
8 SECS
FIXED
SET PRE
CRANK
SECONDS
10 SECS.
DEFAULT
(Only used
with ’Set
Generator’ to
AUTO)
OFF (engages to the N.C. position)
28
88
100
+100 +140
0
8
18
GEN CONTROL RELAYS
OFF = relay contact closed from N.C. to COM (relay disengaged)
ON = relay contact closed from N.O. to COM (relay engaged)
Figure 26, Relay RY7 and RY8 Sequence
Page
78
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
GENERATOR STOP COOL DOWN PERIOD
When the automatic generator stop system is used to stop the generator, the generator is disconnected
from the inverter first by opening the AC relay inside the inverter. This allows a very clean transition from
the generator to the inverter. The STOP signal is provided immediately if the generator is manually shut
off from the Control Panel. If the generator is shut off automatically the generator will be allowed to run for
an additional 40 seconds before the STOP signal is provided. This allows the generator to cool down
before it is turned off. This is very important for turbocharged generators as it allows cooler oil to reach the
turbo. If the generator does not stop after the 40 second cool down period when the stop signal is sent,
then the inverter will reconnect to the AC source and remain connected as long as it is available.
If the generator is stopped manually from the Control Panel, the generator is stopped immediately with no
cool down.
GENERATOR ERROR CAUSES
The red ERROR LED indicator will blink slowly if one of the following generator errors occurs:
•
GEN UNDER/OVER SPEED: Indicates that the generator has synchronized with the inverter/charger
but the frequency is not well adjusted (63 - 67 on the high-end or 53 - 57 on the low end).
•
GENERATOR START ERROR: The automatic control system will attempt to start the generator 5
times by closing the starting relay RY8 for up to the MAX CRANKING SECONDS setting, or the
inverter senses an AC voltage above 80-volts AC on the AC HOT IN 2 terminal. Once the inverter
senses 80 volts AC on the AC HOT IN 2 terminal, after a half-second delay, RY8 opens. After
successfully running for 5 minutes, the start attempts counter resets to zero. If the generator dies
within the 5-minute period of being started, the inverter will attempt to restart the generator. An
unsuccessful run is considered a failed start attempt. After 5 start attempts, the ERROR LED
illuminates and the generator control system shuts down. If the generator dies after successfully
running for 5 minutes, the start attempt counter will be reset to zero and the inverter will only restart
the generator if the auto start voltage setting or load amps AC setting is reached for the required time
delay period.
•
GENERATOR SYNC ERROR: Indicates that the generator was running but was not operating within
the voltage and frequency tolerances and not able to connect (out of sync), or the unit can not
maintain synchronization (AC voltage or frequency is out of tolerance).
•
GEN MAX RUN TIME ERROR: Indicates that the generator ran for a period of time that exceeded the
SET MAXIMUM RUN TIME setting. This setting is intended to indicate excessive generator operation
if the system has not been able to fully charge the battery. Operating heavy loads while charging, an
unstable generator or even low electrolyte levels in the battery can cause this. This may also occur
with systems that have very large batteries, requiring long charge periods, or systems with small
generators with limited battery-charging ability. If the default value results in repeated error conditions,
increasing the SET MAXIMUM RUN TIME menu item setting may be necessary for your application.
When using the automatic generator control system to complete a equalization cycle, the additional
time required for the EQ cycle should be considered in order to prevent reaching the SET MAXIMUM
RUN TIME menu item setting and causing a GEN MAX RUN TIME ERROR. This is an advisory error
only and does not stop the generator.
To clear a generator start error, access the SET GENERATOR menu item by pressing the green GEN
MENU button and move the cursor from AUTO or ON to OFF in the SET GENERATOR menu item. This
clears all the generator error conditions and resets the start attempts counter.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
79
OPERATION
EQUALIZATION CHARGING, AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM
An automatic equalization charge process is available in the SW Series Inverter/Charger. To start the
equalization process, select EQ from the SET GENERATOR menu item, accessible by pressing the green
GEN MENU button on the Control Panel.
During the next automatic generator run period, the inverter can be set to complete an equalization charge
process. You must first select EQ from the SET GENERATOR menu item. The generator will start the
equalization process the next time the generator is automatically started and will automatically stop and
return the cursor to the AUTO position in the SET GENERATOR menu item once the equalization period
has been completed.
The SET EQUALIZE TIME menu item under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading sets the
amount of time that the battery voltage must exceed the BULK VOLTS DC setting before the equalization
process is considered to be completed. This timer is an accumulating type timer that does not reset if the
voltage drops momentarily below the bulk voltage setting. During the equalization process, the voltage will
be limited to the level of the SET EQUALIZATION VOLTS DC menu item.
During the equalization process, the BULK LED will flash slowly to indicate that the EQ position has been
selected from the SET GENERATOR menu item. When the process has finished, the FLOAT LED will be
on if the generator or utility power is still available.
Page
80
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
UTILITY BACKUP MODE
UTILITY GRID
GENERATOR
AC
AC
MAIN
AC BREAKER
PANEL
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC
ADDITIONAL
AC BREAKER
SUB-PANEL
AC
DC
AC
NON-CRITICAL
AC LOADS
BATTERY
CRITICAL
AC LOADS
IN BRIEF
SW Series Inverter/Chargers provide an excellent utility system backup under the majority of powering
applications. Whenever a shorted grid condition affects voltage or frequency, the inverter disconnects
itself from the grid and continues to support the AC load using battery power. Typical transfer time under
a shorted grid condition is instantaneous.
Depending upon the type and amount of load, the transfer may, at times, be noticeable. This is due to the
inverter’s output reaching the overcurrent trip level as it tries to maintain the load before the internal relay
transfers to battery power.
To operate the system in utility backup mode:
•
Connect utility AC power to the inverter's AC HOT IN 1 and NEUTRAL IN 1 terminals.
•
Connect the AC loads to the inverter's AC HOT OUT and NEUTRAL OUT terminals.
•
Adjust the battery charger parameters if the factory default values are not satisfactory. For UPS
applications with small battery banks, lower the battery-charging rate.
•
Adjust the GRID (AC1) AMPS AC menu item to match the amperage of the circuit breaker supplying
AC to the inverter input. This setting is located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading - (See UTILITY
SUPPORT/OVERLOAD PROTECTION, on page 82).
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
81
OPERATION
UTILITY SUPPORT/OVERLOAD PROTECTION
This battery charger is very powerful and without limits could draw more current than is available from the
AC input source. When the utility grid is available, the grid has to power both the battery charger and any
AC loads connected. If AC charge current combined with any AC load current exceeds the GRID (AC1)
AMPS AC menu item setting, the charge rate will be automatically reduced to keep from tripping the utility
grid breaker.
In addition, the inverter will support utility grid in the event that excessive loads threaten to trip the AC
breaker. If the amount of power demanded by the AC loads is greater than the GRID (AC1) AMPS AC
menu item setting, the inverter will contribute power to operate the AC loads. This will limit the AC current
drawn from the utility system.
This ability allows the utility line to be sized closer to the typical draw of the system, instead of being sized
to the maximum load. This may save considerable cost if a utility extension or upgrade is being installed.
The savings can even offset part or all of the inverter / battery system in some situations.
While the inverter is supporting the AC loads, the battery will be discharging. Typically, utility line support is
required for only short period of time during heavy power usage that will not cause the battery to be
significantly drained.
USING SLT MODE (SILENT MODE)
In SLT mode the batteries are charged only once a day, at a time prescribed in the BULK CHARGE
TRIGGER TIMER (15) menu heading. Selecting SLT in the SET GRID USAGE menu item, located under
the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading enables it. During the rest of the day the battery charger is
turned off and the utility grid powers the AC loads. If a utility outage occurs, the inverter turns on and runs
the loads. When power returns, the inverter will return to the SLT mode after it has completed the Bulk
and Absorption stages of the battery charging process. The advantage of SLT mode is silent operation
and slightly less power consumption under most conditions and quieter operation since the battery charger
is off most of the time. The disadvantage of SLT mode is the loss of the natural power conditioning ability
of the inverter and the ability to “back off” the AC input which prevents overloading or circuit breaker
tripping (except during the time that the inverter is charging). The transition from utility to inverter when an
outage occurs may also be more noticeable.
When using this mode, a START BULK TIME must be entered from the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER
TIMER (15) menu heading. If the timer is defeated by setting it to 00:00, no bulk charging will take place
on a daily basis except immediately after a grid failure has occurred and the power has been restored.
The default setting is 00:00 that defeats the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER.
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS
Utility backup applications usually are designed to discharge the battery at a higher rate for a shorter
duration than alternative energy applications. Typically, batteries capacity ratings are for discharge periods
of 20 hours. This means that a 100-amp hour battery can deliver 5 amp hours for 20 hours. It cannot
deliver 100 amp hours for 1 hour. Battery manufactures can provide de-rating curves for their products. If
the battery is not large enough, unsatisfactory performance may result. For the best performance,
oversizing of the battery is strongly recommended.
Page
82
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
UTILITY INTERACTIVE MODE
UTILITY GRID
kWh METER
AC
MAIN AC LOADS
NOT PROVIDED
WITH BACK-UP
SOLAR ARRAY
DC
AC
OUTDOOR AC
DISCONNECT
AC
AC
BACKED UP
AC LOADS
SUB-PANEL
INVERTER/
CHARGER
GROUND FAULT
PROTECTION
DC
DC
BATTERY
DC
OVERVOLTAGE
PROTECTION
IN BRIEF
In this mode, SW Series Inverter/Chargers can be used to move power from the DC system into the AC
utility grid. This is often called “selling” power since the utility pays for the power you produce. It is
relatively simple to set the inverter up to accomplish this. However, this type of installation is so new that
many utility companies have not formalized their regulations regarding acceptable installations.
Regulations will vary from one utility to another. The utility companies have a right and a need to be
careful about how power is fed into their system. Utility interactive should be done with the assistance
of your dealer and must be done with the approval of the local utility company.
As a minimum, an outdoor mounted AC disconnect should be installed at the service entrance or next to
the utility meter. It should be clearly labeled “SOLAR ELECTRIC SYSTEM AC DISCONNECT”. This will
allow utility and emergency personnel to easily and safely isolate the system from the utility grid if required.
This disconnect should be lockable (by the utility) and installed between the AC HOT 1 INPUT of the
inverter and the circuit breaker in the AC load center connected to the utility grid. This allows the utility to
shut off the system if a problem occurs.
Since a utility interactive installation requires an understanding of your local utility code, limited diagrams
and details are included in this manual. Consult your utility or your local Xantrex dealer.
To operate the system in utility interactive mode, set-up the system as follows:
•
Connect utility AC power to the inverter's AC HOT IN 1 and NEUTRAL IN 1 terminals.
•
Connect the critical AC loads that are required to be backed-up, to the inverter’s AC HOT OUT and
NEUTRAL OUT terminals.
•
Use the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) and the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) with the battery
charger parameters adjusted under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading to determine the
battery voltage level you require for your batteries.
•
Select SELL from the SET GRID USAGE menu item in the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading.
•
Adjust the GRID (AC1) AMPS AC menu item located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading (See
UTILITY SUPPORT/OVERLOAD PROTECTION, on page 82) to match the amperage of the circuit
supplying AC to the inverter input.
•
Adjust the AC input voltage parameters using the SET INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC and the SET
INPUT UPPER LIMIT VAC menu items, both located in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading to match
the AC voltage requirements of your connected utility.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
83
OPERATION
THEORY OF OPERATION
When SELL mode is selected from the SET GRID USAGE menu item located under the INVERTER
SETUP (9) menu heading in the SETUP MENU, the inverter will move any excess power not required to
charge the batteries into the utility grid.
In SELL mode, the inverter can be thought of as a battery charger that is able to operate in either direction
- it can send excess power from the battery back into the utility grid instead of drawing power from the
utility to charge the battery. To regulate the battery charging process, the inverter takes DC power from
the solar array and converts it to AC power that supplies other AC loads through the utility grid. The
inverter is more accurately described as a utility interactive battery charger. This means that the inverter
will control battery voltage whenever utility power is connected and available. If a utility outage occurs, the
inverter can not control the battery voltage. Some external control must be provided by the system to
prevent damaging the battery as the solar array tries to overcharge the battery.
In a solar array configuration, a charge controller is not needed when the inverter is operational in SELL
mode and utility is connected. If the inverter was turned off, or utility power was to fail, the batteries could
quickly be over-charged. One of the inverter’s voltage controlled relays can be used to protect the
batteries in case of utility failure. It would be programmed to open an additional external relay that controls
the solar panels at a battery voltage above the battery charger’s BULK VOLTS DC setting. Please see the
OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR THE BATTERY section on page 89 for more information.
UTILITY INTERACTIVE ISLANDING PROTECTION
In utility interactive mode, the inverter is capable of detecting several types of failures.
•
Grid shorted - Normally, when the utility power fails, the inverter momentarily tries to power the entire
neighborhood. This condition looks like a short circuit to the inverter and causes it to reach the
overcurrent protection setting and shuts off. It then opens its internal relay and disconnects from the
utility grid. This protective system operates instantly.
•
Grid open - The inverter can tell when there is no current being delivered to the grid and it will
disconnect. This is used when a disconnect switch is opened or the power line which feeds the
installation is cut. This protective system operates instantly.
•
Islanding - This occurs when the grid has failed and the "neighborhood" that the inverter is powering
requires a power level that the inverter can supply. This condition is called “islanding”. The islanding
detection circuit checks grid condition on each cycle. The inverter watches the utility grid and waits for
it to rise a couple of volts before it begins to invert again. This is done on each cycle when SELL
mode is activated. Typically, disconnect is achieved in a few cycles after the utility has failed. If a large
electric motor is connected, it may provide enough generator capacity that the inverter thinks the grid
is still connected. This can fool this protective system. Two additional protective systems are provided
to then handle this condition, over/under frequency and over/under voltage detection.
•
Over/Under Frequency - Since the inverter is locked onto the frequency of the utility grid, the
frequency of the islanding system will drift out of regulation in a short amount of time during an
islanding condition. This protective system may require a couple of seconds to respond. The settings
are 58 and 62 Hertz for 60 Hertz models (48 and 52 Hertz for 50-Hertz models) and are not
adjustable.
•
Over/Under Voltage - Since the inverter does not try to regulate the voltage of the utility grid while
selling power into it, the AC voltage will drift out of regulation in a short amount of time during an
islanding condition. This protective system may require a couple of seconds to respond. The default
settings are 108 VAC as the lower limit and 132 VAC as the upper limit. These settings are adjustable.
Page
84
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
SELLING POWER - FROM A DC CHARGING SOURCE
The simplest and default operation of the SW Series Inverter/Charger in the SELL mode is to “sell” the
excess power from the charging source to the utility when the batteries are full. In this mode, the battery
voltage is held to the regulation level determined by the SET BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC setting. Since
the SET BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC setting is defaulted to the same value as the SET FLOAT VOLTS
DC setting, the inverter will sell the power from the charging source (wind, hydro or solar, etc.), but will
hold the battery at a charged level.
The regulation process can also be accomplished and allow the three stage charging (float, bulk and
absorption) of the batteries to occur each day by enabling the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15).
The batteries will be maintained at the SET FLOAT VOLTS DC setting until the SET START BULK TIME,
which will charge the batteries near the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting until the end of the ABSORPTION
TIME.
This operating mode offers the individual system owner with several advantages. The batteries would not
be cycled thereby increasing their life and the batteries would be fully charged in case of a power failure,
resulting in greater system efficiency.
Begin Day
00:00
End Day
23:59
20:00
Time
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer is
enabled (not the default setting)
Float Volts
DC Setting
DC Volts
Set Float
Volts DC
DC Volts
13.0
13.4
Set Start Bulk
time
20:00
Battery Sell Volts
DC Setting
Bulk Volts
DC Setting
Set Battery Sell
Volts DC 13.4
Set Bulk Volts
DC
14.4
Sell to grid period
when the current from
the DC source is greater
than needed to maintain
the Float/Sell Volts DC
setting.
Charging from the DC
source (wind, hydro or
solar) has started
Set Absorption
time h:m 02:00
Absorption Time
POSITIVE (+) = Inverter is drawing power from grid.
NEGATIVE (-) = Inverter is selling power to grid.
AC amps
Input
amps AC
00
AC amps to grid (-)
AC amps from grid (+)
{
{
Max Sell Amps
AC Setting
Charging from the DC
source (wind, hydro or
solar) has stopped
Battery
charging from
grid has
started
Set Max Sell
amps AC
30
Max Charge
Amps AC Setting
Set Max Charge
amps AC
30
LEGEND
Display/Settings
on Control Panel
Information
Figure 27, Selling Power From A DC Charging Source; Hypothetical Time Of Day Operational History
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
85
OPERATION
SELLING POWER - STORED IN THE BATTERIES
Power stored in the batteries can also be sold into the utility grid. This can be used together with the solar
array or alone without a solar array. The inverter can be programmed to sell the energy in the batteries at
a specific time and then to recharge the batteries at another time. Both the discharge level and discharge
rate can be adjusted to control the battery selling process.
Selling the power stored in the batteries can be used to level the output of the combined solar array and
battery system. This is beneficial during conditions of cloudy weather when the solar array output will vary
with each cloud that passes over. To set-up this ability, adjust the SET BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC menu
item under the BATTERY SELLING (17) menu heading for the maximum discharge voltage level
acceptable. The SET MAX SELL AMPS AC menu item should be set for the expected maximum output of
the solar array. Next, access the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading to allow setting of the time
period that the battery will be allowed to recharge during by adjusting the SET START CHARGE TIME and
SET END CHARGE TIME menu items. Outside of this time period, the inverter will sell the power stored in
the battery to the utility grid until the voltage reaches the BATTERY SELL VOLTS DC setting.
This mode can use the battery to maximize the output of the system during a specific period of time. An
example of these setting follows:
Begin Day
00:00
Time
Battery charging
from grid has
stopped
08:00
End charge
time
08:00
Float Volts
DC Setting
Set Float
Volts DC
13.4
Set Float
Volts DC
13.4
Battery Sell Volts
DC Setting
Bulk Volts
DC Setting
Set Battery Sell
Volts DC 12.4
Set Bulk Volts
DC
14.4
20:00
End Day
23:59
Bulk charging
has started
Set Start Bulk
time
20:00
Absorption Time
Max Sell
Amps Setting
Max Charge
Amps Setting
Set Max Sell
amps
30
Set Max Charge
amps AC
30
AC amps
00
AC amps from grid (+)
18:00
Set Absorption
time h: m 2:00
POSITIVE (+) = Inverter is drawing power from grid.
NEGATIVE (-) = Inverter is selling power to grid.
AC amps to grid (-)
Battery charging
from grid has
started
Start charge
time
18:00
DC Volts
Charging from the
DC source (wind,
hydro or solar) has
started.
Input
amps AC
10:00
{
{
LEGEND
Display/Settings
on Control Panel
Information
Figure 28, Selling Power Stored In The Batteries; Hypothetical Time Of Day Operational History
Page
86
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
A system that includes 2400 watts of solar array is able to produce approximately 18 amps of AC power at
120 VAC. The output is most needed from 12:00 noon to 18:00 by the utility. If the GRID USAGE TIMER
is set to a START CHARGE TIME of 18:00 and a END CHARGE TIME of 12:00 noon, the inverter will sell
the battery from 12:00 noon to 18:00. The energy in the batteries will be used only if the solar array is not
able to provide enough power to reach the 18 amps AC (determined by the MAX SELL AMPS AC setting
under the BATTERY SELLING MENU (17) menu heading. The battery will assist the solar array to meet
the 18 amps AC MAX SELL AMPS AC setting during the battery sell period. If the battery reaches the
SELL VOLTS DC setting during the sell period, the AC output current will slowly taper down to the solar
array’s output level and the battery will not be further discharged. At 18:00, the battery will charge at the
rate allowed by the SET MAX CHARGE AMPS AC (2 amps AC is the lowest setting allowed). The battery
will be recharged only to the FLOAT VOLTS DC setting unless the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER
(15) menu heading is used to trigger a bulk charge cycle.
This system offers the utility several advantages. The system can be relied on for a specific amount of
output at a set time. The AC output of the system from 12 noon to 4 PM will not vary with the level of
sunlight (after all, the AC loads on the grid do not suddenly drop when a cloud passes over). Only if it is
extremely cloudy will the system not produce its rated output for the full time period - which would not be
as important since the ambient temperature would not be as high.
This operating mode does not provide an individual system owner with many added values. The wear and
tear on the batteries would be avoided and greater efficiency achieved if the standard sell mode was used.
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS
Batteries are required for utility inter-tie operation of this inverter. The batteries can, however, be small if
the system does not provide back-up power in case of utility failure. Two thousand watt/hours is sufficient
(100 amp/hours at 24 volts is 2400 watt hours). This can be achieved by using two “Group 27” sized
batteries for a 24-volt system. This is a very common size for RV and boat applications. Since the
batteries are not cycled excessively, sealed batteries may be used with good success.
CAUTION: If using gelled batteries, the battery charger must be set to the appropriate settings or
battery damage will occur.
BATTERY REGULATION LEVEL - SELL MODE
In the SELL mode, the regulation level of the battery is determined by the charge cycle (FLOAT or BULK)
and the settings of the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) and the GRID USAGE TIMER (18).
The SET START CHARGE TIME menu item setting under the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15)
menu heading can be used to increase the battery charging regulation voltage to the SET BULK VOLTS
DC setting. The battery voltage will be held near the SET BULK VOLTS DC menu item setting under the
BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu heading for the adjustable ABSORPTION TIME period setting upon
encountering this BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER event or after a loss of AC power to the AC HOT IN
1 input terminal.
The inverter will charge the battery to the FLOAT VOLTS DC setting at the START CHARGE TIME with
the GRID USAGE TIMER enabled (the START CHARGE TIME beginning time is not equal to the END
CHARGE TIME). This is indicated by the FLOAT LED indicator being on. After the END CHARGE TIME,
the inverter turns off the battery charger and begins to “sell” power into the utility grid from the battery (or
any other DC sources available and connected to the batteries) to the SELL VOLTS DC setting. The
FLOAT LED indicator blinking indicates this. The current will be limited to a maximum level controlled by
the MAX SELL AMPS AC menu item setting under the BATTERY SELLING (17) menu heading.
With the GRID USAGE TIMER disabled (the SET START CHARGE TIME beginning time is equal to the
SET END CHARGE TIME) and the inverter in the FLOAT charge cycle, the inverter will use the utility grid
(or any other DC sources available and connected to the batteries) to maintain the batteries to the SET
FLOAT VOLTS DC setting. This is indicated by the FLOAT LED indicator being on.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
87
OPERATION
UTILITY INTERACTIVE OPERATION WITH UTILITY BACKUP
The SW Series Inverter/Charger is capable of operating both as a utility interactive and a stand-alone
inverter. This allows the system to normally sell the excess power to the utility and, once an outage has
occurred, provide power to the AC loads from the battery.
The loads that will be provided with utility backup during outages must be isolated from the non-utility
backed-up loads. This usually requires the addition of an AC load center sub panel for the output of the
inverter.
UTILITY INTERACTIVE
LINE-TIE SYSTEM WITH
BACKUP OF CRITICAL AC
LOADS
NOTE: THE BUY AND SELL METERS
CAN BE COMBINED
INTO ONE TWO-WAY METER
IF NET BILLING IS ALLOWED.
UTILITY GRID
120/240 VAC
kWh METER WITH
DETENTS (ONEWAY) 120/240
VAC
kWh METER WITH
DETENTS (ONEWAY) 120/240
VAC
“BUY” METER
“SELL” METER
DESIGNATES
BI-DIRECTIONAL
CURRENT PATH
AC DISCONNECT
(LOCKABLE)
SERVICE
ENTRANCE
PANEL
120/240 VAC
AC LOADS
120/240 VAC
BREAKER
60A/120 VAC
(OPTIONAL)
kWh METER WITH
DETENTS (ONEWAY)
120 VAC
BREAKER
60A/120 VAC
FUSED
DISCONNECT
60A/120 VAC
NEMA 3R
OUTDOOR TYPE
“PRODUCED”
METER
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS
(FOR HOUSE)
NEXT TO THE
INVERTER
#6 AWG
REQUIRED
AC LOADS
TO BE
BACKED UP
120 VAC ONLY
OUTDOORS NEXT
TO THE UTILITY
SERVICE
ENTRANCE
AC SUBPANEL
FOR UTILITY
BACK-UP AC
LOADS
FUSED
DISCONNECT
60A/120 VAC
“PRODUCED”
METER
AC OUTPUT
TERMINALS
NEXT TO THE
INVERTER
FUSED
DISCONNECT
60A/120 VAC
AC INPUT
TERMINAL
TRACE SW-SERIES
INVERTER/CHARGER
120 VAC
DC BATTERY
TERMINALS
WIND
GENERATOR
SOLAR
ARRAY
FUSED
DISCONNECT
CONTROLLER
BATTERY
STORAGE
SYSTEM
FUSED
DISCONNECT
BATTERY
DISCONNECT
PV CHARGE
CONTROLLER
Figure 29, Utility Interactive Line-Tie System With Battery Backup Flow Diagram
Page
88
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR THE BATTERY IN SELL MODE
Normally, the inverter will regulate the charging process of the battery by selling excess power into the
utility grid. The battery will receive a three-stage charge routine as previously described. If the utility grid is
not available (due to an outage or tripped AC input circuit breaker, etc.) or if the inverter shuts off, then the
inverter is not able to sell the excess power and the battery voltage will not be regulated, resulting in
possible overcharging of the battery.
Therefore, a separate control is required to provide overvoltage protection for the battery when an outage
has occurred. The AUX Relays in the SW Series Inverter/Charger are designed to control an externally
connected power relay that would disconnect the solar array and stop the charging process. The voltage
and hysteresis (difference between opening and closing voltage) are both adjustable. The external relay
can be either a standard mechanical type or a mercury displacement type, depending on the voltage and
current required. The mercury displacement type relay is usually required when the system voltage is 48
VDC or if the current of the solar array exceeds about 20 amps. Multiple relays can be used if the solar
array is divided into several source circuits (do not parallel relays for higher current). Another option is to
use a charge controller such as the Trace™ C40. For more on the C40 MULTI-FUNCTION
CONTROLLER, see page 129.
A typically wiring configuration for this overvoltage protection is as follows:
This circuit does draw a small amount of power all of the time to power the coil of
the relay. Other circuits are possible but may have other drawbacks. This circuit
provides protection against overcharging the batteries.
SOLAR ARRAY
+P
-N
NORM.
OPEN
120VAC
COIL
RELA
AC OUTPUT - NEU
AC OUTPUT - HOT
5 AMP
FUSE
SW - SERIES
INVERTER
-N
+P
AUX RELAY 9 COM.
AUX RELAY 9 N.C.
+P
-N
BATTERY BANK
Figure 30, Overvoltage Protection for Battery
AUX RELAYS
Three voltage-controlled relays are provided to simplify installations that have battery voltage related tasks
to perform. They are single pole double throw, five amp relays. Both the normally closed and normally
open contacts are available for each relay. The operation of the relays are individually controlled and
adjustable via the user menu. The battery voltage at which each of these relays are activated (SET
RELAY 9, 10 or 11 VOLTS DC) and the number of volts by which the battery voltage must drop before
the relay is de-activated (R9, R10 or R11 HYSTERESIS VOLTS DC) are both individually adjusted for
each relay. The three AUX Relays operate independently of the inverter or charger. For location and wiring
information on the AUX Relays, see the AUXILIARY AND GENERATOR CONTROL RELAY section on
page 14.
CAUTION: These relays are not intended to directly control a load or charging source - rather
they can be used to send a signal or operate the coil of another higher amperage device which
does the actual switching of the power. A fuse rated at 5 amps or less should be included to
protect each of the relays. Damage to these relays from overloading is not covered by warranty
and requires the inverter to be returned to a repair center. This also applies to the generator
control relays.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
89
OPERATION
ENERGY MANAGEMENT MODE
UTILITY GRID
AC
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC LOADS
DC
BATTERY
IN BRIEF
The purpose of this mode is to manage how utility power is used. One method is to charge the batteries at
a favorable time and then use the power later. This is often desirable when time of day metering is
available. A solar array is not required, but can be used to reduce the discharging of the battery. Since the
most expensive power is often during the afternoon, the solar array may be a valuable addition. This mode
is an alternative to utility interactive systems. This mode does not involve “selling” power into the utility grid
and therefore does not usually require the approval of the utility. The same system is also able to operate
as a utility back-up system to provide power when an outage occurs.
In order to disconnect from the grid during a specific period of the day and operate only as an inverter, a
window of time is created during which battery charging is allowed. Outside this window, the inverter will
power the load from the battery. If the battery gets low, the system will transfer back to the utility and
recharge the battery.
To operate the system in Energy Management Mode, set up the system as follows:
•
Connect utility AC power to the inverter’s AC HOT IN 1 and NEUTRAL IN 1 terminals.
•
Connect AC loads to the inverter’s AC HOT OUT and NEUTRAL OUT terminals.
•
Set the GRID (AC1) AMPS AC menu item, in the AC INPUTS (11) menu heading, to match the
amperage of the circuit supplying AC to the inverter input (See UTILITY SUPPORT/OVERLOAD
PROTECTION on page 82).
•
Set the SET GRID USAGE menu item, under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading, to FLT.
•
Set the SET START CHARGE TIME menu item, under the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading,
to the time the inverter connects to the utility. This is the beginning of the time the battery charger is
allowed to operate and the end of the inverter operating period.
•
Set the SET END CHARGE TIME menu item, under the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading, to
the time that the inverter disconnects from grid and begins to run the loads from the battery. At this
time, the battery charger will stop charging. If the battery voltage falls to the LOW BATTERY
TRANSFER VDC menu item setting during the inverter operating time period, the AC loads will be
reconnected to the utility grid and the battery will be charged to the FLOAT VOLTS DC or LOW
BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting, whichever is lower. This prevents over-discharging the battery. The
battery will be charged until the next END CHARGE TIME is reached.
•
Set the START BULK TIME menu item under the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) menu
heading to a time after the START CHARGE TIME menu item setting. This allows delaying of the bulk
charge cycle to a later time. Before the bulk charge is started, the battery will be charged only to the
float voltage level. The START BULK TIME is usually set to occur during the lowest cost rate period.
Adjusting the SET FLOAT VOLTS DC menu item to just above the normal at rest voltage (12.6 VDC)
will reduce the amount of charging that occurs in the between time periods, yet will allow limited
charging to prevent sulfation of the battery while being partially discharged.
Page
90
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
The system should be designed so that the battery is able to operate the loads for the entire peak rate
period without reaching the low battery transfer voltage. This may require that heavy loads be operated
only during the non-peak rate period.
This mode may be advantageous when the utility offers time-of-day metering that allows you to buy power
at a variable rate during different time periods. For example, the rate may be only $0.04 per kilowatt-hour
from midnight to 6 AM, but $0.16 during the peak period from noon to 6 PM. The in-between periods might
cost $0.08 per kilowatt-hour. The idea is to not use utility power during the peak period and to charge the
battery at night, during the off-peak period. A solar array is not required but, since it produces the most
power during the peak period, it will reduce the amount of power required from the battery.
The greater the difference between the peak and off-peak rates, the greater the value of this operating
mode. When combined with a solar array, this mode may be more economic than operating the system in
low battery transfer mode.
If the battery is full and power is available from the solar array, it will be used to directly power the AC
loads connected to the inverter output, even though the utility grid is also connected to the loads. If the
amount of power exceeds the AC loads connected, the battery voltage will increase. An external solar
array controller is required to limit the battery voltage to a safe level and to prevent overcharging and
possible damage to the battery when only light loads are being powered.
Note: The round-trip net energy efficiency of charging and discharging a Deep Cycle battery rarely
exceeds 50%. In order for this technique to be cost effective, the off-peak rate foe electricity should be no
more than half of the on-peak rate. The cost of battery replacement should also be calculated and
included when evaluating this technique.
To program the inverter for the example above:
•
Set the SET GRID USAGE menu item, under the INVERTER SETUP (9) menu heading, to FLT.
•
Set the START CHARGE TIME menu item, under the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading, to 6
PM (18:00).
•
Set the END CHARGE TIME menu item, under the GRID USAGE TIMER (18) menu heading, to
NOON (12:00).
•
Set the SET START BULK TIME menu item, under the BULK CHARGE TRIGGER TIMER (15) menu
heading, to a time after MIDNIGHT (00:30) to delay most of the recharging for the cheapest period.
•
Setting the SET FLOAT VOLTS DC menu item, under the BATTERY CHARGING (10) menu
heading, to the nominal full battery voltage level will reduce the amount of battery charging that occurs
between time periods, yet will allow limited charging to prevent sulfation of the battery while sitting
partially discharged.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
91
OPERATION
PEAK LOAD SHAVING MODE
UTILITY GRID
AC
INVERTER/
CHARGER
AC
AC LOADS
DC
BATTERY
IN BRIEF
The inverter can also be used to limit the maximum draw the AC loads place on the utility grid. Many
utilities impose a surcharge on their customers based on the peak load used by a facility. The SW Series
Inverter/Charger can be configured to provide all of the power above a specified level, eliminating the
surcharges. With the Control Panel, simply adjust the SET GRID (AC1) AMPS AC menu item to the
maximum value allowed by the utility without the peak load surcharge. All AC loads must be connected to
the output of the inverter through the 60-amp AC transfer relay located internally. Multiple inverters may be
required for larger applications with individual groups of loads connected to each inverter. This can be
used in addition to time of day metering and still allows the inverter to provide a utility back-up function in
addition.
This mode is also useful for applications where AC loads require more power than a utility connection is
able to supply. This often occurs in mobile applications where only a 15-amp outlet may be available. The
inverter can provide the excess power above the 15 amps when the load is operating. If this condition
occurs intermittently, then the inverter will be able to recharge the batteries between the heavy load
periods. This can eliminate the need to increase the size of a utility supply circuit, providing substantial
savings that can offset the cost of the inverter.
This mode is used in some vehicle applications to improve the power quality by reducing the load placed
on the AC line cord. The inverter provides the “start-up” power to eliminate brown out problems
experienced when starting air conditioners, etc. This also prevents tripping AC source circuit breakers
when heavy loads are operating.
Page
92
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
LOW BATTERY TRANSFER (LBX) MODE
UTILITY GRID
kWH METER
AC LOADS
SUB-PANEL
SOLAR ARRAY
AC
DC
AC
AC LOADS
MAIN PANEL
AC
INVERTER
CHARGER
GROUND FAULT
PROTECTION
DC
DC
BATTERY
DC
OVERVOLTAGE
PROTECTION
Low Battery Transfer mode is an alternative way of operating “off the grid” using the utility for backup
power instead of a generator. The system essentially operates as a stand-alone power system,
independent of the utility grid. When the system is no longer able to keep up with the power requirements
of the AC load, discharging the batteries to the LOW BATTERY TRANSFER VDC setting, the inverter
connects to the utility grid. It then feeds utility power directly to the load and recharges the batteries.
When the battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting, the inverter disconnects from
the utility grid and once again operates the AC load from the batteries. Since power is never sold back to
the utility, this configuration does not require utility approval.
Simple in concept, this configuration may not provide the desired results. Incompatible settings and poor
system designs (i.e., having excessive loads connected and/or low output of the charging source caused
by undersizing the system or poor weather conditions affecting PV array output) often cause frequent
cycling to and from the grid, thus reducing efficiency. Such cycling can actually increase power
consumption from the utility grid.
The most common problem occurs when the LOW BATTERY CUT IN setting is lower than the BULK
VOLTS DC setting, causing the batteries to only partially recharge before transferring off utility power.
Since the batteries are not fully recharged, they can only support the load for a limited amount of time.
This results in rapid cycling (every day or even multiple times per day) between the battery system and the
utility grid. One way to reduce the amount of cycling is to set the MAX CHARGE AMPS AC value to its
minimum setting of 2 amps AC; however, this increases the system’s dependency on the utility grid.
If the system is also used for utility backup, performance could be drastically affected if the batteries are
not fully charged when the utility outage occurs.
The best performance can be achieved by recharging the battery from the utility grid and then waiting until
the alternative power source (usually solar panels or a wind generator) has excess power available
beyond what it takes to power the AC load. The system will continue to hold the batteries at the float
voltage level until the alternative power source raises the battery voltage to a level that exceeds the battery
charger settings before transferring. This is done by setting the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting
higher than the BULK VOLTS DC and the FLOAT VOLTS DC settings. Once the battery is full, the
charger will maintain the battery at the float voltage setting. If the alternative power source is able to
contribute power, it will be used to offset the amount of power that the AC load draws from the utility grid.
If the alternative power source is able to produce more power than the load requires, the battery voltage
will then increase above the float level until it reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting. At this
time, the system will then transfer to the battery and operate “off the grid.” This reduces the amount of
cycling by waiting until improved charging conditions (good sun or good wind) exist before transferring
back to the battery.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
93
OPERATION
Once the system has transferred back to the battery, the battery voltage will continue to increase if the
power from the alternative source exceeds the loads. This can result in the battery voltage reaching the
HIGH BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting unless a charge control device limits the battery voltage. Note
that the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting must be set below the external charge controllers regulation
setting or the system would never transfer back to the battery. The best compromise involves setting the
BULK VOLTS DC equal to the FLOAT VOLTS DC default value, and setting the LOW BATTERY CUT IN
VDC setting to the default BULK VOLTS DC setting. Make sure the external charge controller is set
slightly higher than the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC setting so that the voltage can be reached without
the charging source shutting off.
The LOW BATTERY TRANSFER VDC setting must be always set higher than the LOW BATTERY CUT
OUT VDC setting. If utility back-up operation is expected, keep the LOW BATTERY TRANSFER VDC
setting high to prevent excessive discharging of the battery. It should not be set to a level that is higher
than the normal at rest battery voltage level or the system will transfer whenever no alternative power
source is available (such as each night with solar). If the utility grid is not energized, the inverter will
operate the AC loads until the battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT OUT VDC setting. It will
then shut off and only reset if the battery voltage reaches the LOW BATTERY CUT IN VDC level or the
utility power becomes available again.
If time of day metering is available from your utility, you might consider the ENERGY MANAGEMENT
MODE as it may offer a more economical way to operate the system.
Page
94
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
USING MULTIPLE INVERTERS
Multiple SW Series Inverter/Chargers can be used in the same system. There are some limitations to the
design of the system for successful and reliable operation. For North American applications, the inverters
can be used in a “series” configuration to operate 240 VAC loads and to connect to 120/240 VAC power
systems. Series stacking of “E” versions (230 VAC / 50 Hz) would result in 230/460 VAC power.
Two inverters can also be connected together and operated in parallel to provide twice the power at the
same output AC voltage. The inverters can operate in parallel as battery chargers from the same AC
source connected to the same battery. The AC input terminals and DC terminals would then be all in
parallel. The inverters will synchronize individually to the AC source and then connect.
“SERIES” STACKED OPERATION
As mentioned, in North America two inverters can be connected in a “series” stacked configuration to
provide 120 and 240 VAC output.
When series stacked, you get twice the power of a single inverter available for operating 240 VAC loads,
but only one inverter’s power is available for operating a single large 120 VAC load. Separate 120 VAC
loads can be operated from either inverter. Do not connect the AC output terminals of the inverters in
parallel - this will not work. A special stacking interface cable (SWI) is required to connect the series
stacking ports of the inverter to ensure the output voltage waveforms of the two inverters are phase
synchronized and locked 180 degrees from each other. This allows connection to 120/240 VAC
generators and utility grids. The 120 VAC loads are split and connected to either inverter. Both of the
inverters operate completely independently - except their frequency is locked. They do not operate as a
master-slave device as previous inverters have. One inverter can be in battery charger mode while the
other is inverting to power an AC load. This independent operation allows many new possible applications
and abilities that were previously not possible.
When inverters are series stacked, they do coordinate all operations that affect 240 VAC loads. This
requires that the inverters turn on together and switch to another AC source at the same time. If either
inverter shuts down, both inverters are inoperable.
If no 240 VAC loads are required to be operated, then the need and benefits of stacking are reduced.
Stacking adds complexity and will cause both of the inverters to shut down if either inverter goes into an
error condition. With separate (un-stacked) inverters, only one will shut down if over-loaded, etc.
When two inverters are connected to a 120/240 VAC distribution system without using the stacking
interface cable, the AC neutral wiring must be capable of handling twice the inverter output. This is due to
the lack of synchronization between the inverters. If both inverters are operating in exact synchronization
(as opposed to operating 180 degrees out of synch.), then the AC neutral will carry the current of both
inverters, which was split among the two AC hot conductors. This often is not a problem since the AC
distribution system may be oversized to handle the higher output level of a generator. When an AC source
is connected to the inverters, the inverters will synchronize independently and transfer at different times.
This is not a problem if no 240 VAC loads are connected to the output of the system.
WARNING: You must connect the two chassis of the inverters together and to the grounding
system by their grounding lugs or a hazardous voltage may be present on the chassis of the
inverters.
INPUT/OUTPUT BYPASS BREAKER SWITCH – 240 VAC LOADS
An inverter “bypass-breaker switch” diverts power around an inverter and is meant to be used only during
times of maintenance or to remove the inverter out of the installation. There is a possibility with a multiple
inverter installation stacked in “series” (120/240 VAC) with two bypass switches installed, that one inverter
bypass breaker switch could be in the Bypass Operation position (power diverted around the inverter’s)
and the other inverter bypass breaker switch could be in the Normal Operation position (power passing
thru the inverter). The resulting output of the two bypass switches may be less than 240 VAC, which could
cause problems with any 240 VAC loads that are not protected against an AC phase shift.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
95
OPERATION
240 VAC/60 HZ ONLY ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
Two 120 VAC / 60 HZ inverters “series” stacked can be used to provide 240 VAC. This provides both 120
and 240 VAC since a center “neutral” is provided between the two inverters. If a 240 VAC only AC source
is connected to the AC input terminals of the inverter without this center neutral, unacceptable operation
will result. To allow connection of a 240 VAC only source to 120 VAC inverter’s, a small (2000 VA) autotransformer must be connected across the 240 VAC source with the center of the transformer connected
to the AC neutral terminals of the inverters. This will allow the inverter to operate properly. No transformer
is required on the AC output side - the 240 VAC can be taken directly from the two AC hot output
terminals (one from each inverter).
“PARALLEL” STACKED OPERATION
The parallel stacking interface allows twice the continuous and surge capacity to be available on a single
output circuit from two inverters. The pass-through capacity is also doubled when connected to an AC
source such as a fuel-powered generator or a utility grid. The inverter’s operate in parallel and split the
loads between them. The inverters must be identical models and must have software revision REV 4.01 or
higher software. The inverters must be connected to the same battery bank with equivalent cabling (both
in length and in cable size). The inverter negative terminals of the inverters must be connected together
either at the inverters or at a location close to the inverters (within 18 inches / 0.5 meters).
The parallel stacking interface cable (SWI/PAR) simply plugs into the stacking port on the left end of each
inverter and allows the two inverters to operate as a single inverter. The interface method is based on the
series stacking system offered for the SW Series inverters since their introduction for the North American
market. The parallel stacking system operates the inverters in phase by having one of the inverters
operate as the MASTER and the other as a SLAVE. When an AC source is connected, the MASTER first
synchronizes to the AC source, then connects to it and battery charges. Since the SLAVE follows the
master and is set-up with a longer warm-up delay, the SLAVE inverter is already synchronized when it
transfers the loads and starts battery charging. This allows very smooth transitions from inverter mode to
charger mode.
The parallel stacking interface system allows doubling of the AC pass through capacity. This is useful
when large generators are used. Both inverters will battery charge as allowed by the settings in each of
the inverters.
The hook-up depends upon the other components included in the system and whether it was ordered as
only inverters, a power panel system, or a power module system. With the power module system, the
paralleling enclosure is eliminated and all of the wiring is completed for you. With the individual inverters
and the power panel system, the paralleling enclosure and parallel stacking interface cable must be
installed on site. The paralleling enclosure is connected to each of the inverter’s outputs and is also
connected to the AC loads being powered.
At this time, the paralleled inverters are intended to operate as a single unit. In case of an inverter fault or
error condition, both inverters turn off as one. When the error has been corrected, the inverter will
automatically or manually reset depending upon the type of error condition.
If an inverter failure occurs, the parallel stacking interface can be manually bypassed and the special
parallel stacking interface cable can be removed to allow temporary operation on one unit.
GENERATOR CONTROL SETTINGS
When using two units in parallel, it is recommended that only the SLAVE inverter be used to control the
generator. This is required because the generator control system includes a cool down timer that causes
the controlling inverter to disconnect from the generator before it turns the generator off. If the MASTER
controls the generator, then the SLAVE may not stay in sync with the MASTER during the cool-down
period since it will remain in sync with the generator and not follow the MASTER. There currently is no
adjustment for the cool-down period, so restricting the generator control to the SLAVE is the only solution
available at this time.
The SLAVE also must be set with a longer warm-up period than the MASTER in order to prevent them
from trying to synchronize to the generator at the same time. When the MASTER synchronizes first, the
SLAVE will automatically sync after its warm-up period passes. This also makes the transfer from inverter
to generator smoother and less noticeable.
Page
96
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
OPERATION
BATTERY CHARGING WITH MULTIPLE INVERTERS
The inverters can operate in parallel as battery chargers from the same AC source connected to the same
battery. The AC input terminals and DC terminals would all be in parallel. The inverters will synchronize
individually to the AC source and then connect.
When multiple inverters are connected to the same battery and operated as in battery charger mode, the
settings of the inverters are best set to the same settings. Only when a system is being operated in
automatic generator control mode should staggered settings be used.
The most significant problem with multiple inverters charging the same battery is the voltage ripple caused
on the battery. This causes the chargers to not reach their full output - two battery chargers on the same
battery may not provide twice the charging rate to fill the battery in half the time. The higher the charger
rate and/or the smaller the battery, the more pronounced this problem would be. The only way to reduce
the problem is to individually cable each inverter and to connect them at opposite “corners” of the battery
bank. Keeping the cable size as short as possible also helps.
Since the inverters will all be charging the same battery, one inverter may taper off first and finish the bulk
stage before the others. When a single inverter has reached the float stage, it is best to turn off the
generator at this time. It may take a longer period of time for the remaining inverters to reach the float
stage. Running the generator to only power an inverter that is float charging is very inefficient and should
be avoided.
If multiple Battery Temperature Sensors are installed, ensure they are all connected to the same location
(battery). This will also help prevent one inverter from tapering off first.
AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL WITH MULTIPLE INVERTERS
Several considerations must be taken into account when using the automatic generator controlling system
with multiple inverters. The inverter that controls the generator – referred to as the “generator controlling”
inverter - along with the other inverter which does not control the generator - referred as the “nongenerator controlling” inverter - must be programmed differently to achieve the best results. The two
inverters should be programmed with the same BULK VOLTS DC and FLOAT VOLTS DC settings, but
with the ABSORPTION TIME on the “non-generator controlling” inverter to a longer setting. This will
ensure that the charge current is shared between the two inverters more equally during the absorption
stage by preventing one of the inverters from switching to float before the other. When the inverter that
controls the generator reaches float, it will shut down the generator.
The same consideration should be made if you are trying to equalize the batteries. The two
inverter/chargers should be programmed with the same EQUALIZE VOLTS DC settings, but with the
EQUALIZE TIME on the “non-generator controlling” inverter to a longer setting. When you are ready to
start the equalization process (either manually or automatically) you must select EQ from the SET
GENERATOR menu item on both inverters (accessible by pressing the green GEN MENU button on the
Control Panel). This will allow both units to help bring the voltage to the EQ voltage level. During the
equalization process, the BULK LED will flash slowly on each inverter to indicate that the EQ position has
been selected from the SET GENERATOR menu item.
If you manually equalized your batteries – by using a manually started generator or utility power - the
FLOAT LED will come on to indicate that the equalization process has finished. You must return the
cursor to the OFF position in the SET GENERATOR menu item on both inverter/chargers once the
equalization period has been completed.
If the automatic generator control system is used to equalize your batteries, the equalization process will
begin during the next - automatically started - generator run period. When the equalization period has
been completed, the generator will automatically stop and the cursor under the SET GENERATOR menu
item will return to the AUTO position on the “generator controlling” inverter. At this time, you must
manually return the cursor in the SET GENERATOR menu item on the “non-generator controlling” inverter
from EQ back to OFF or you will allow this inverter to charge up to the EQ voltage the next time the
generator comes on.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
97
OPERATION
Page
98
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY TYPE
This section of the manual is included to help you better understand the factors involved with battery
charging, care, and maintenance, by discussing the physical make-up and characteristics of chemical
storage batteries. This is not intended to be an exhaustive discussion of battery types, but simply a
guideline. The manufacturer of each specific battery is the best authority as to its use and care.
Batteries come in different sizes, types, amp hours, voltages and chemistries. There are nearly as many
descriptions of exactly how batteries should be charged, as there are people willing to offer explanations.
It is not possible here to discuss all aspects in detail. However, there are basic guidelines you can follow
that will help in battery selection and ensure that the batteries are better maintained than the majority.
See the INVERTER/CHARGER TERMINOLOGY on page 115 for a brief description of terms that appear
in this section with which you may not be familiar.
SELECTION OF BATTERY TYPE
There are two principal types of batteries: starting and deep-cycle. There are several different types of
battery chemistries including liquid lead-acid, nickel-iron (NiFe), nickel-cadmium (NiCad), alkaline, and
gel-cell. Batteries are either sealed or vented.
STARTING BATTERY
These are designed for high cranking power, but not deep cycling. Don’t use them. It does not hurt the
inverter - they simply will not last long in a deep cycle application. The way they are rated should give a
good indication of their intended use. "Cold Cranking Amps", is a measure of the amperage output that
can be sustained for 30 seconds. Starting batteries use lots of thin plates to maximize the surface area of
the battery. This allows very high starting current but lets the plates warp when the battery is cycled.
TELEPHONE COMPANY BATTERY
Second-hand telephone company batteries are often available at far below original cost. They are often
used to power the telephone system for short power outages. They are sometimes used successfully in
remote home systems. Typically, they are a lead calcium type battery, similar in construction to a starting
battery. Therefore, they should not be repeatedly discharged more than 20% of their amp/hr rating. Keep
this in mind when evaluating their amp/hr to cost ratio.
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY
This is the type of battery best suited for use with inverters. The physical dimension of the plates are
thicker and the active material that holds the charge is more dense to increase cycle life. The “deep cycle”
type of battery is designed to have the majority of their capacity used before being recharged. They are
available in many sizes and in either “non-sealed” or “sealed” types.
NON-SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERY
The most common type of deep cycle battery is the non-sealed, liquid electrolyte battery. Non-sealed
types have battery caps. The caps should be removed periodically to check the level of electrolyte.
When a cell is low, distilled water should be added. The electrolyte level should be checked monthly
and topped up if needed after recharging.
The most common “non-sealed” deep cycle battery is the type used with boats and motor homes.
They typically are called “Group 27” batteries and are similar in size to a large truck battery. They are
12-volt batteries rated at 80 to 100 amp-hours. Often the deep cycle claim is over-stated. They do
work better than a car battery, but are not recommended for anything but the smallest systems.
Another popular and inexpensive battery of this type is the "golf cart" battery. It is a 6-volt battery rated
at 220 amp-hours. They can be cycled repeated to 80% of their capacity without being damaged. This
is the minimum quality of battery that should be used with SW Series inverter applications.
Many systems use the L16 type of battery. These are 6-volt batteries rated at 350 amp-hours and are
available from a number of manufacturers. They are 17 inches in height and weigh up to 130 pounds
each - which may be troublesome in some applications such as RV or marine installations.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
99
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Type 8D batteries are available with either cranking or deep cycle construction. The deep cycle
versions are 12-volt batteries rated at 200 amp hours or so. Since they are most commonly used to
start truck engines, you should make sure you purchase the deep cycle version.
SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERIES
CAUTION: if using gelled batteries, the battery charger must be set to the appropriate settings
or battery damage will occur.
Another type of deep cycle battery construction is the sealed "valve regulated" lead acid battery. They
are a rechargeable battery which recombines suppressed gases, thus eliminating the need to add
water. Since they are tightly sealed, these batteries will not leak and can be installed in certain
applications where ’liquid type’ batteries could not be installed.
While there are many manufacturers of quality non-sealed batteries, there are only a few
manufacturers of suitable sealed batteries. Don’t confuse sealed batteries with “maintenance free”
batteries - the later is typically a standard liquid electrolyte type battery without caps for adding water when the electrolyte gets low you replace the battery.
The advantages of true “deep cycle” sealed batteries are no maintenance (does not require acid
checks or periodic watering), long life (800 cycles claimed) and low self-discharge. The disadvantage
is high initial cost and because water cannot be added, they are less tolerant of overcharging.
Two methods are used to seal batteries by a process of immobilizing the electrolyte, which in turn
eliminates free-flowing acid. Both these methods can be used in inverter applications.
Gel Cell: Silica gel is added to the electrolyte, causing it to 'set' in gelatin form.
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM): Highly absorbent glass mat separators are used between each
plate to retain the liquid electrolyte.
Even with all the advantages of sealed batteries, there is still a place for the standard flooded deep
cycle battery. Sealed batteries will cost 2 to 2.5 times as much as “liquid” or flooded batteries. In many
installations, where the batteries are set in an area where you don't have to worry about fumes or
leakage, a standard or industrial deep cycle is a better economic choice.
NICAD AND NICKEL IRON (NIFE) BATTERY
Trace™ inverters and battery chargers are optimized for use with lead acid batteries that have a nominal
voltage of 2.0 volts per cell. NiCad/NiFe batteries (also called alkaline batteries) have a nominal cell
voltage of 1.2 volts per cell. The nominal voltage of a NiCad/NiFe battery bank can be made the same as
a lead acid bank by juggling the number of cells (10 cells for 12 volts, 20 cells for 24 volts and 40 cells for
48 volt systems). However, the NiCad/NiFe battery bank must be charged to a higher voltage to fully
recharge and will drop to a lower voltage during discharging compared to a similarly sized lead acid type
battery. This makes the job for the inverter/charger much more difficult.
The easiest way to use NiCad/NiFe batteries with a 24 volt inverter is to use nineteen NiCad/NiFe cells in
the battery bank instead of the usual twenty. This will reduce the battery bank charging voltage
requirements to about the same level as a lead-acid bank; so more standard charger settings can be
used. The problem with this approach is that the battery voltage will drop as low as 18 volts to fully
discharge the battery.
A second option on 12-, 24- and 48-volt systems is to adjust the SET BULK VOLTS DC to its maximum
setting. This will provide a complete charge although it may require a longer charging period to completely
recharge the battery compared to using a higher charge voltage (or lesser number of cells) were used.
The ABSORPTION TIME setting may be set shorter than with lead acid batteries since NiCad/NiFe
batteries do not require an absorption stage. If the battery storage requirements are large, industrial grade
2 volt batteries are often more suitable.
Note: In alternative energy applications (solar, wind, hydro) all DC charge controllers must be set to a level
below the inverter HIGH BATTERY CUT OUT setting or the inverter may shut off unexpectedly.
Page
100
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY SIZING
Batteries are the inverter’s fuel tank. The larger the batteries, the longer the inverter can operate before recharging
is necessary. An undersized battery bank results in reduced battery life and disappointing system performance.
Batteries should not be discharged more than 50% of their capacity on a regular basis. Under extreme conditions
(such as a severe storm or a long utility outage), cycling to a discharge level of 80% is acceptable. Totally
discharging a battery may result in permanent damage and reduced life.
For stand-alone applications, it is common to size a battery to provide between 3 and 5 days worth of storage
before the battery requires recharging. The power contribution from other charging sources is not included in this
calculation to duplicate the conditions present during a cloudy or windless period. This is often referred to as the
“number of days of autonomy”. If the system is a hybrid system with daily generator run periods, then the battery
size may be smaller. During cloudy periods the generator would be expected to run longer.
Utility connected applications often have very small batteries. If the system does not provide utility backup function,
the minimum battery capacity recommended is 320 amp-hours @ 12 vdc, 160 amp-hours @ 24 vdc, and 80 amphours @ 48 vdc. If utility back up is required, larger batteries will be needed.
ESTIMATING BATTERY REQUIREMENTS
In order to determine the proper battery bank size, it is necessary to compute the number of amp hours that will be
used between charging cycles. When the required amp hours are known, size the batteries at approximately twice
this amount. Doubling the expected amp hour usage ensures that the batteries will not be overly discharged and
extends battery life. To compute total amp hours usage, the amp hour requirements of each appliance that is to be
used are determined and then added together.
You can compute your battery requirements using the nameplate rating of your appliances. The critical formula is
Watts = Volts X Amps. Divide the wattage of your load by the battery voltage to determine the amperage the load
will draw from the batteries.
If the AC current is known, then the battery amperage will be:
(AC current) X (AC voltage) = DC amps
(battery voltage)
Multiply the amperage by the number of hours the load will operate and you have, reasonably enough, amp-hours.
Motors are normally marked with their running current rather than their starting current. Starting current may be 3 to
6 times running current. Manufacturer literature may provide more accurate information compared to the motor
nameplate. If large motors will be started, increase the battery size to allow for the high demand start-ups require.
Follow this procedure for each item you want to use with the inverter. Add the resulting amp hour requirements for
each load to arrive at a total requirement. The minimum properly sized battery bank will be approximately double
this amount. This will allow the battery to be cycled only 50% on a regular basis.
Table 5, Typical Wattage Of Common Appliances
TYPICAL APPLIANCE WATTS
Appliance
One FL Light
B&W TV (12”)
Color TV (19”)
Computer
Stereo or VCR
Hair Dryer or Iron
Vacuum or coffee maker
3/8” Drill
Watts
10
100 - 500
150
200 - 350
50
1000
1200
500
Appliance
Microwave (compact)
Microwave (full size)
Toaster
Hot Plate
Washer/Dryer
Blender
*Refrigerator (3 cu ft)
*Refrigerator (12 cu ft)
Watts
600 - 800
1500
1000
1800
375 - 1000
400
180
480
* Refrigerators and icemakers typically only run about 1/3 of the time, therefore the running wattage is 1/3 of the total wattage of
the appliance.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
101
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY BANK SIZING
EXAMPLE
Complete the steps that follow to calculate your inverter’s battery bank capacity. No two installations will
require exactly the same battery bank capacity. The following example provides a guide for determining
your needs. Read through the example and then complete the worksheet on the following page.
STEP 1-4: Determine your Average Daily Watt-Hours Needed.
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
APPLIANCE RUNNING
WATTS
(X) HOURS USED
EACH DAY
(X) DAYS USED
EACH WEEK
(÷ 7 = ) AVERAGE DAILY
WATT-HOURS NEEDED
Microwave
600
0.5
7
300
Lights (x4)
40
6
7
240
Hair Dryer
750
0.25
3
81
Television
100
4
7
400
Washer
375
1
2
107
480/3 = 160
24
7
3840
1200
1
1
171
AC APPLIANCE
Refrigerator*
Vacuum cleaner
STEP 1:
Determine what appliances the inverter will power and enter the Appliance Running Wattage
of each appliance.
*-
Refrigerators and icemakers typically only run about 1/3 of the time, therefore the running
wattage is 1/3 of the total wattage of the appliance.
STEP 2:
Determine the number of hours (or fractions of hours) you will use the appliance each day;
STEP 3:
Multiply the number of days you will use the appliance during the week; this is your Weekly
Watt Hours Needed;
STEP 4:
Divide your Weekly Watt Hours Needed by 7 to obtain the Average Daily Watt Hours
Needed;
STEP 5:
Total Average Daily Watt Hours Needed to determine your Total Daily
Watt Hours Needed.
Total Daily Watt Hours Needed
5,139
STEP 6:
STEP 7:
STEP 8:
Multiply your Total Daily Watt Hours Needed (Step 5) by the number of
anticipated days of autonomy (days between charging, usually 1 to 5)
to determine your Autonomy Battery Size (example used 3 days).
Autonomy Battery Size
(Watt Hours)
15,417
Multiply your Autonomy Battery Size (Step 6) x 2 to allow for a 50%
maximum battery discharge in normal operation and an additional
50% for emergency situations to obtain your Rough Battery Size in
watt-hours.
Rough Battery Size (Watt Hours)
Multiply your Rough Battery Estimate x 1.2 to allow for an efficiency of
80%. This number is your Safe Battery Size in watt-hours.
Safe Battery Size (Watt Hours)
Convert your Safe Battery Size to amp-hours. Divide Safe Battery Size
by the DC system voltage (i.e., 12, 24 or 48 VDC; example used 24volts). This number is your Safe Battery Size in amp-hours, which is
the battery bank capacity needed before recharging.
Safe Battery Size (Amp Hours)
30,834
37,001
STEP 9:
Page
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 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
1,542
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
WORKSHEET
Complete the steps that follow to calculate your inverter’s battery bank capacity.
STEP 1-4: Determine your Average Daily Watt Hours Needed.
AC APPLIANCE
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
APPLIANCE RUNNING
WATTS
(X) HOURS USED
EACH DAY
(X) DAYS USED
EACH WEEK
(÷ 7 = ) AVERAGE DAILY
WATT HOURS NEEDED
STEP 1:
Determine what appliances the inverter will power and enter the Appliance Running Wattage
of each appliance.
STEP 2:
Determine the number of hours (or fractions of hours) you will use the appliance each day;
STEP 3:
Multiply the number of days you will use the appliance during the week; this is your Weekly
Watt Hours Needed;
STEP 4:
Divide your Weekly Watt Hours Needed by 7 to obtain the Average Daily Watt-Hours
Needed;
STEP 5:
Total Average Daily Watt Hours Needed to determine your Total Daily
Watt Hours Needed.
Total Daily Watt-Hours Needed
.
STEP 6:
STEP 7:
STEP 8:
Multiply your Total Daily Watt Hours Needed (Step 5) by the number of
anticipated days of autonomy (days between charging, usually 1 to 5)
to determine your Autonomy Battery Size (example used 3 days).
.
.
Multiply your Autonomy Battery Size (Step 6) x 2 to allow for a 50%
maximum battery discharge in normal operation and an additional
50% for emergency situations to obtain your Rough Battery Size in
watt hours.
Rough Battery Size (Watt-Hours)
Multiply your Rough Battery Estimate x 1.2 to allow for an efficiency of
80%. This number is your Safe Battery Size in watt-hours.
Safe Battery Size (Watt-Hours)
Convert your Safe Battery Size to amp-hours. Divide Safe Battery Size
by the DC system voltage (i.e., 12, 24 or 48 VDC; example used
24 volts). This number is your Safe Battery Size in amp hours, which is
the battery bank capacity needed before recharging.
Safe Battery Size (Amp-Hours)
.
.
STEP 9:
.
Autonomy Battery Size
(Watt Hours)
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
.
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
.
.
.
Page
103
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY CARE AND MAINTENANCE
If you have read the battery charger mode section of this manual, you already have a good idea of the
stages of battery charging that combine to promote fast charging and ensure long battery life. Basically,
there are five charger-related considerations to properly care for your batteries.
•
Charge Rate - The maximum safe charge rate is related to the size and type of your batteries.
Standard vented lead acid batteries (with battery caps) can be charged at a high rate - equal to their
capacity. Small batteries may require a lower charge rate. Check with the battery manufacturer. Adjust
the MAX CHARGE AMPS AC setting to control the charging rate.
•
Bulk Voltage - This is the maximum voltage the batteries reach during the normal charging process.
Gel cell batteries are usually set to a lower value, while non-sealed batteries are set to the higher.
Adjust the SET BULK VOLTS DC setting to control the battery voltage during the BULK and
ABSORPTION stages.
•
Float Voltage - The batteries experience less gassing if they are maintained at a lower voltage than the
voltage at which they are charged. Adjust the FLOAT VOLTS DC setting to control the battery voltage.
•
Temperature Compensation - Temperature affects the optimum voltage values for the bulk and float
charging stages. The Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS) automatically fine-tunes these voltages for you.
•
Equalization (Non-Sealed Batteries Only) - Many experts recommend that batteries be "equalized"
(A fancy term for over-charged) every month or two. However, a leading battery manufacturer
recommends equalizing only when low or wide ranging specific gravity (± 0.015) are detected after
fully charging a battery. Since the individual battery cells are not exactly identical, some may still have
sulfate on their plates after a complete charge cycle. On the other hand, if the batteries never received
a full charge, all plates will have sulfate left on them. If the sulfate remains on the plates for an
extended period of time, it will harden and seal off a percentage of the plate area, reducing the
capacity of the battery. By equalizing the batteries, the entire sulfate is removed from the plates.
Additionally, the gassing that result stirs up the electrolyte which tends to stratify. Stratification
concentrates the sulfuric acid in the bottom of the cell while the top becomes watery. This corrodes
the plates. Equalization is accomplished by charging batteries above a voltage of 2.6 VDC per cell.
This is over 15 VDC for a 12 VDC system, 30 for a 24 VDC system and 60 for a 48 VDC system.
Since equalizing is basically overcharging the battery, which can be harmful to battery's life and
performance, it is done only when required.
CAUTION: Equalization should be done only with standard electrolyte batteries. If you
have sealed or gel cell batteries, check first with the battery manufacturer before
equalizing. DC loads should be disconnected before equalization to protect them from damage
by the high battery voltage involved.
Table 6, Battery Charging: Charging Setpoints
TYPICAL BULK AND FLOAT SETPOINTS FOR COMMON BATTERY TYPES
Battery Type
Bulk Volts
Float Volts
Equalizing Charge Process
Sealed Gel
Lead Acid battery
14.1 VDC BULK
13.6 VDC FLOAT
Not Recommended - Consult manufacturer
A.G.M.
Lead Acid battery
14.4 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Charge to 15.5 VDC or as per manufacturer
Maintenance-Free RV/Marine
Lead Calcium Battery
14.4 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Not Recommended - Consult manufacturer
Deep-Cycle, Liquid Electrolyte
Lead Antimony Battery
14.6 VDC BULK
13.4 VDC FLOAT
Charge to 15.8 VDC or as per manufacturer
NiCad or NiFe Alkaline Battery*
(using 10 cells in series)
16.0 VDC BULK
14.5 VDC FLOAT
Consult manufacturer
Note: Values shown are for 12-volt systems. For 24-volt systems, multiply the settings shown by
two. For 48-volt systems, multiply the settings shown by four. These settings are guidelines, refer to
your battery manufacturer for specific settings.
Page
104
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
MONTHLY MAINTENANCE
At the minimum, check the level of the electrolyte in each battery cell once a month. It should be above
the top of the plates but not completely full. Most batteries have a plastic cup that the electrolyte should
just touch when full. Don’t overfill the batteries or the electrolyte will spill out of the batteries when they are
being charged. Only refill the batteries with distilled water - “spring” water and regular tap water may have
high levels of minerals that can poison the battery chemistry and reduce battery performance and life.
It is also good to check the battery interconnections for tightness and corrosion. If any corrosion is found,
disconnect the cables and carefully clean with a mild solution of baking soda and water. DO NOT ALLOW
THE SOLUTION TO ENTER THE BATTERY. Rinse the top of the battery with clean water when finished.
To reduce the amount of corrosion on the battery terminals, coat them with a thin layer of petroleum jelly
or anti-corrosion grease available from automotive parts stores or battery suppliers. Do not apply any
material between the terminal and the cable lugs - the connection should be metal to metal. Apply the
protective material after the bolts have been tightened.
BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE
A good estimate of a battery’s state of charge can be made by measuring the voltage across the battery
terminals with the battery at rest (No energy input, no energy output) for at least three hours. These
readings are best taken in the early morning, at or before sunrise, or in late evening. Take the reading
while almost all loads are off and no charging sources are producing power. Connect a voltmeter across
the positive and negative outputs of the battery or battery bank. Voltages are for a 12 volt battery system.
For 24-volt systems, multiply by 2; for 48-volt systems, multiply by 4. Monitor your cell voltage, if you
measure more than a 0.2 volt difference between each cell, you may need to equalize (Do not equalize
Gel Cell Batteries). The following table will allow conversion of the readings obtained to an estimate of
state of charge. The table is good for batteries at 77°F that have been at rest for 3 hours or more. If the
batteries are at a lower temperature, you can expect lower voltage readings.
Table 7, Battery State of Charge Voltage
PERCENT OF
FULL CHARGE
12 VOLT DC SYSTEM
CELL VOLTAGE
100%
12.7
2.12
90%
12.6
2.10
80%
12.5
2.08
70%
12.3
2.05
60%
12.2
2.03
50%
12.1
2.02
40%
12.0
2.00
30%
11.8
1.97
20%
11.7
1.95
10%
11.6
1.93
0%
<=11.6
<=1.93
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
105
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY INSTALLATION
CAUTION: Batteries can produce extremely high currents if they are short-circuited. Be
very careful when working around them. Read the important safety instructions at the start
of this manual and the battery supplier’s precautions before installing the inverter and
batteries.
LOCATION
Batteries should be located in an accessible location with nothing restricting the access to the battery caps
and terminals on the tops. At least 2 feet of clearance above is recommended. They must be located as
close as possible to the inverter, but can not limit the access to the inverter and the inverter’s DC
disconnect. With the SW Series inverter, the batteries are best located to the right side. This is where the
DC connections are located.
Battery to inverter cabling should be only as long as required. For 12 VDC systems, do not exceed 5 feet
(one way) if 4/0 AWG cables are used. For 24 VDC systems, do not exceed 10 feet (one way) if 4/0 AWG
cables are used. For 48 VDC cables, do not exceed 10 feet (one way) if 2/0 AWG cables are used, or 20
feet (one way) if 4/0 AWG cables are used.
BATTERY ENCLOSURES
The batteries must be protected inside a ventilated, lockable enclosure or room to prevent access by
untrained personnel. The enclosure should be ventilated to the outdoors from the highest point to prevent
accumulation of hydrogen gasses released in the battery charging process. An air intake should also be
provided at a low point in the enclosure to allow air to enter the enclosure to promote good ventilation. For
most systems, a 1-inch diameter vent pipe from the top of the enclosure is adequate to prevent
accumulation of hydrogen. A sloped top can help direct the hydrogen to the vent location and prevent
pockets of hydrogen from occurring. The enclosure should also be capable of holding at least one battery
cell’s worth of electrolyte incase a spill or leak occurs. It should be made of acid resistant material or have
an acid resistant finish applied to resist the corrosion from spilled electrolyte and fumes released. If the
batteries are located outside, the enclosure should be rainproof and include mesh screens over any
openings to prevent insects and rodents from entering. Before putting the batteries in, cover the bottom of
the enclosure with a layer of baking soda to neutralize any acid that might be spilled in the future.
BATTERY TEMPERATURE
The effective capacity of a battery is reduced when cold. This phenomenon is more significant with lead
acid type batteries compared to alkaline types. When the internal temperature of a lead acid battery is
32 °F (0 °C) the capacity can be reduced by as much as 50%. This effectively reduces the size of the
system’s “gas tank”, requiring more frequent “refueling” by the backup source (usually a generator). This
should be considered when designing the system. If extremely cold temperatures are expected at the
location of a system, either a heated equipment room or alkaline batteries should be considered.
If the system is located in an unheated space, an insulated enclosure is highly recommended for the
batteries. During the charging process, the batteries release heat due to the internal resistance of the
battery. If the batteries are insulated, the heat can be kept in the batteries to keep them warmer. This will
substantially increase the performance of the system.
Insulated battery enclosures also ensure that the temperatures of the individual battery cells are more
consistent, preventing unequal charging which can cause battery failure (some cells will be overcharged
while others are undercharged).
The batteries should also be protected from high temperature as well. This can be caused by high
ambient temperatures, solar heating of the battery enclosure, or heat released by a closely located
generator. High battery temperatures will result in short battery life and should be avoided by ventilating
the enclosure and reducing the external heat sources by shading and insulation.
Page
106
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY HOOK-UP CONFIGURATIONS
Battery banks of substantial size are generally created by connecting several smaller batteries together.
There are three ways to do this. Batteries can be connected in series, to increase voltage; in parallel to
increase amp-hour capacity; or in series – parallel, to achieve the required voltage and capacity.
The cables which connect the individual batteries together to make a larger battery “bank” should be
connected together will heavy cables. The actual size of the cable depends upon whether the batteries are
connected in parallel or series. Generally, the cables should not be smaller than the inverter cables - if the
main cables are 4/0 AWG, the battery interconnects should be 4/0 AWG.
Remember, for safety and to comply with UL regulations, battery over-current protection is
required in the ungrounded battery cable.
SERIES CONNECTION
When batteries are connected with the positive terminal of one to the negative terminal of the next, they
are connected in series. In a series configuration, the battery bank has the same amp/hour rating of a
single battery, but an overall voltage equal to the sum of the individual batteries. This is common with 24
volt or higher battery-inverter systems.
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
FUSED
DISCONNECT
24V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 100 Amp Hours)
12V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 100 Amp Hours)
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
48V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 100 Amp Hours)
Each individual 6-volt battery capacity = 100 amp hours
Figure 31, Series Configuration: 6-Volt Battery Wiring
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
12V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
24V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 50 Amp Hours)
48V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 50 Amp Hours)
Each individual 12-volt battery capacity = 50 amp hours
Figure 32, Series Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
107
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
PARALLEL CONNECTION
Batteries are connected in parallel when all the positive terminals of a group of batteries are connected
and then, separately, all the negative terminals are connected. In a parallel configuration, the battery bank
have the same voltage as a single battery, but an amp/hour rating equal to the sum of the individual
batteries. This is usually only done with 12-volt battery-inverter systems.
12V
12V
12V
12V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
12V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 200 Amp Hours)
Each individual 12-volt battery capacity = 50 amp hours
Figure 33, Parallel Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring
SERIES - PARALLEL CONNECTION
As the name implies, both the series and parallel techniques are used in combination. The result is an
increase in both the voltage and the capacity of the total battery bank. This is done very often to make a
larger, higher voltage battery bank out of several smaller, lower voltage batteries. This is common with all
battery-inverter system voltages. The smaller, lower voltage batteries are first connected in series to
obtain the needed voltage, then these ‘batteries, connected in series’ sets are connected in parallel to
increase the battery bank capacity.
The best arrangement when using a series-parallel configuration is to connect all the smaller, lower
voltage batteries in parallel, then connect all these ‘batteries in parallel’ into series sets to obtain the
needed voltage. This configuration is often called “cross-tying”. This is less convenient and requires
additional cables but reduces imbalances in the battery, can improve the overall performance and in a
“shorted cell” scenario, would cause only the battery(s) that are actually in parallel with the “shorted”
battery to discharge. This would allow you to re-configure your battery bank with the other batteries that
are in parallel with the shorted/discharged battery(s) and still be operational only at a lower capacity.
The more efficient “cross-tying” method is shown in Figure 34 and Figure 35 as “dash” (- - -) lines. If
“cross-tying” is not desired, the dash lines shown may be ignored.
Page
108
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
FUSED
DISCONNECT
12V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 200 Amp Hours)
6V
24V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 200 Amp Hours)
6V
6V
6V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
6V
48V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 200 Amp Hours)
Each individual 6-volt battery capacity = 100 amp hours
NOTE: If “cross-tying” is not required, the “dash” (- - -) connections are not needed.
Figure 34, Series-Parallel Configuration: 6-Volt Battery Wiring
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
12V
FUSED
DISCONNECT
24V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 100 Amp Hours)
FUSED
DISCONNECT
48V INVERTER
(Total Battery Capacity
= 100 Amp Hours)
Each individual 12-volt battery capacity = 50 amp hours
NOTE: If “cross-tying” is not required, the “dash” (- - -) connections are not needed.
Figure 35, Series-Parallel Configuration: 12-Volt Battery Wiring
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
109
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
BATTERY CABLE INDUCTANCE
When current passes through a conductor a magnetic field is set up around the conductor. As this
magnetic field builds, it induces voltage in any conductor that is close by, and it induces a voltage in the
original conductor. The voltage induced into the original conductor is called self-inductance, and tends to
oppose the current that produced it.
The magnitude of the self-induced voltage is proportional to the size of the loop formed by a wire. The
larger the loop, the larger the self-induced voltage. The positive and negative battery cables in a system
are in reality only a single circuit (wire), and so the inductance of the battery circuit depends on how the
cables are physically positioned or arranged with respect to one another.
If battery cables are separated by a distance, they have much more inductance than if they are close
together. If the two battery cables were coaxial there would be virtually no induced current flow since the
magnetic fields would cancel one another. However, we don’t have coaxial battery cables, but we can
approximate them by taping the cables together every four to six inches. When the cables are taped
together, the magnetic fields around each battery cable tend to cancel each other. When cables are
separated the magnetic fields add together and increase the inductance of the battery cables. If you aren’t
convinced that taping battery cables together helps reduce inductance, consider the following table of
information collected by Xantrex. We tested two sixteen foot long #4/0 AWG battery cables connected
together at one end and parallel to one another.
Table 8, Battery Cable Inductance
Distance Between
Battery Cables
Taped Together
12” Separation
48”+ Separation
Inductance
in micro-Henries
3.3
6.0
8-9
The above table shows that with only a foot of distance between the battery cables the inductance almost
doubles, and at four feet between cables the inductance is almost three times the inductance of cables
taped together.
Since the induced voltage in a conductor varies as the inductance times the rate of change of current in
the inductor, the induced voltage may be three times greater than it would be if cables were not taped
together. For more advanced readers, consider flyback effects and the induced voltage spikes can get into
the thousands of volts range if the battery were suddenly removed from the circuit (worst case).
These induced voltage changes cause ripple in the battery cables and must be absorbed or filtered by the
filter capacitors in the inverter. This ripple will lead to eventual premature breakdown of the filter capacitors
and performance loss in the inverter.
In addition to the problems mentioned, the induced current opposes the applied current (battery current)
which directly causes a loss of inverter performance as greatly reduced efficiency.
To avoid this problem, route your positive and negative DC cables in parallel, as close together as
possible. Secure the cables against movement with clamps or straps every 18 inches. Avoid routing
conductors near heat sources such as dry exhaust or furnace piping. Avoid chafing sources such as
steering cables, engine shafts, and throttle connections.
Hopefully this information gives a much more realistic and clear idea of why battery cables should be kept
short and close together. Maximum performance is the goal of any well designed power system and the
details such as this will help achieve the goal.
Page
110
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
APPLICATIONS
RESISTIVE LOADS
These are the loads that the inverter finds the simplest and most efficient to drive. Voltage and current are
in phase, or, in this case, in step with one another. Resistive loads usually generate heat in order to
accomplish their tasks. Toasters, coffee pots and incandescent lights are typical resistive loads. Larger
resistive loads--such as electric stoves and water heaters--are usually impractical to run off an inverter.
Even if the inverter could accommodate the load, the size of battery bank required would be impractical.
INDUCTIVE LOADS
Any device that has a coil of wire in it probably has an inductive load characteristic. Most electronic
devices have transformers (TV’s, stereos, etc.) and are therefore inductive. Typically, the most inductive
loads are motors. The most difficult load for the inverter to drive will be the largest motor you manage to
start. With inductive loads, the rise in voltage applied to the load is not accompanied by a simultaneous
rise in current. The current is delayed. The length of the delay is a measure of inductance. The current
makes up for its slow start by continuing to flow after the inverter changes AC voltage polarity.
Inductive loads, by their nature, require more current to operate than a resistive load of the same wattage
rating, regardless of whether power is being supplied by an inverter, a generator or grid. Induction motors
(motors without brushes) require 2 to 6 times their running current on start-up. The most demanding are
those that start under load e.g. compressors and some pumps. The largest motor of this type that the
inverter will run varies from 1/2 to 3/4 hp. Of the capacitor-start motors, typical in drill presses, band saws,
etc., the largest you may expect to run is 1 to 1.5 hp. Universal motors are generally easier to start. The
inverter may start up to 2.5 hp universal motors. Since motor characteristics vary, only testing will
determine if a specific load can be started and how long it can be run.
SUBMERSIBLE WELL PUMPS
The well pump is often the hardest load to start for inverter system. Submersible pump motors are
particularly hard because the motor is very narrow (in order to fit down the well) and draws extremely high
starting current.
When selecting a pump, check the LOCKED ROTOR AMPS in the motor specifications. This is usually
the best guide to the maximum load the pump will place on the inverter. It must be less than the AC amps
noted under the Maximum Output (RMS) given in the Specifications And Features section starting on
page 118. Pump suppliers and well drillers often oversize the pump considerably in order to reduce
complaints of poor pressure, low flow, etc. Get several quotations and explain that you are very concerned
about the inverter being able to power the pump. It makes sense to operate a smaller pump longer instead
of a larger pump for a shorter period of time when you are powering it from batteries or a solar electric
system.
When buying a pump, select a three-wire type. This refers to the electrical configuration of the power and
starting windings in the pump motor. A three-wire pump requires a separate box at the top of the well for
the starting circuit - a two-wire pump has the start electronics built inside. The separate starting box is
preferred. If possible, select a relay type starting box instead of an all-electronic type - the relay types have
been found to work better with inverters and generators. The relay types also allow use of a larger or
additional starting capacitor - it may help if the inverter has a hard time starting the pump. Consult your
pump supplier for more information.
If a 220/240-Vac motor is required, you must either use two 120 Vac inverters in a stacked configuration
or include a step-up transformer in the system. When used with a well pump, connect the step-up
transformer after the pressure switch in order to reduce the load the transformer itself puts on the inverter.
This requires that 120 Vac instead of 240 Vac be connected to the pressure switch.
As a last resort, consider powering the well pump directly from the generator instead of the inverter. Many
systems do not have enough battery capacity or excess power to handle a load as heavy as a well pump.
Using the generator with a storage tank with several days capacity may be more economical than
oversizing the inverter, battery and solar array just to power the well pump.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
111
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Page 1
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
INVERTER - If ERROR LED comes on, see ERROR CAUSES section
PROBLEM
Unit will not come on
(no LED’s are on) and the
Control Panel Display is blank or off
Unit comes on, but goes off quickly
(several attempts made)
INDICATION
SOLUTION
DC voltage on the inverter’s DC
terminals is incorrect.
Check the battery voltage, fuses or
breakers and DC cable connections to
the inverter
DC voltage on the inverter’s DC
terminals is correct
Have unit serviced
Excessive load on output, unit is in over-temperature protection (needs to cool
down), incorrect battery voltage.
See ERROR CAUSES section
No AC power output
INVERTING LED is on, with no ERROR
LED.
Correct AC voltage on Control Panel display but no AC voltage on inverter AC
terminal block.
Look at Control Panel display under
‘Inverter volts’ and check AC voltage on
inverter AC terminal block.
Correct AC voltage on Control Panel display and on inverter AC terminal block.
Check for open circuit breaker on the inverter. If circuit breaker on the inverter is not
open (popped), have the inverter serviced.
Check for open AC output breakers or fuses and bad output wire connections
AC voltage on Control Panel display or inverter AC terminal block is incorrect: have
unit serviced
Have unit serviced
AC1/AC2 IN GOOD LED is flashing
(with no AC connected to the input).
No AC power output
INVERT LED is flashing.
AC load too small for Search mode
circuit to detect
Reduce search watts setting, increase
load above search watts setting, or defeat
search mode by selecting ON.
Low AC power output or
Low surge power
INVERT LED is on
Insufficient DC current being provided
to the inverter to operate the AC loads
Check the battery voltage, fuses or
breakers and cable connections.
(AC inductive loads are not running at
full speed).
Ensure the battery bank is sufficient
(check for low DC voltage while running
the load).
Ensure the cable length and size is
correct (see owner's manual for correct
cable). Tie the battery cables together to
reduce inductance.
Page
112
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Page 2
BATTERY CHARGER - If ERROR LED comes on, see ERROR CAUSES section.
PROBLEM
AC IN GOOD LED is flashing, but will
not start charging
(allow 40 seconds to synchronize)
INDICATION
SOLUTION
AC frequency at the AC input terminal
is out-of- tolerance (too high or low) or
AC voltage outside ‘Upper/Lower VAC
limit’ settings
If AC source is a generator, adjust AC
voltage or frequency accordingly.
AC frequency at the AC input terminal
drops out-of- tolerance (too high or low)
or AC voltage falls outside
‘Upper/Lower VAC limit’ settings.
If AC source is generator, adjust AC
voltage/frequency accordingly.
Check for the correct AC voltage or
frequency at the AC input terminal.
Charger drops off before full
charging has finished. (No ERROR
comes on)
Check for the correct AC voltage or
frequency using the Control Panel.
Charger drops off before full
charging (or equalization) has
finished
ERROR LED flashes and AC output
drops momentarily.
Charger drops off before full
charging has finished.
Reduce your ‘Set AC Amps’ setting to
limit the pull on the AC source.
Open the ‘Upper/Lower VAC limit’
settings “window” to allow
synchronization.
Circuit breaker on inverter is open
Engage circuit breaker on side of unit
(press hard on breaker button to ensure
it is engaged)
Ambient temperature may be high
causing unit to overheat and ramp down
the charging.
Cool the unit down or check the inverter
cooling fan, or check for anything
preventing air flow
Cold temperature around batteries with
BTS (Battery Temperature Sensor)
installed may be causing unit to reach
HIGH BATTERY CUTOUT setting
Disconnect BTS during charging or
increase HIGH BATTERY CUTOUT
setting.
See ERROR CAUSES section
(ERROR comes on)
Charger output is low
Loose or corroded battery connections
Check and clean all connections
Loose AC input connections
Check all AC wiring connections
Weak/soft batteries
Replace batteries
Battery cables too small or too long
Refer to cable and battery
recommendations in owner’s manual
Batteries being charged above the
Bulk/Float setting
NOTE: To bring batteries that are cold to the correct state of charge may require
charging at a higher voltage. Remove the BTS and determine if your voltage returns
to the bulk/float voltage
Temperature probe is installed
Refer to the 'Battery TempComp volts
DC' reading while charging.
(a) Ensure that the temperature probe
is not in a cold area or has not fallen off
the batteries.
(b) Ensure that there is no other DC
charging source on the batteries
Temperature probe is not installed
Refer to the ''Battery actual volts DC'
reading while charging.
Ensure that there is no other DC
charging source on the batteries
LBX mode is enabled, but you do not
want the unit to go into Float mode
Ensure your 'Set Low Battery Cut In
VDC' setting is lower than the 'Set Bulk
volts DC'' setting
Low Battery Cut In voltage is set to high
to prevent the charger from going into
the float charge
(Float LED is ON)
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
113
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Page 3
ERROR CAUSES - ERROR LED is On or Flashing (look under the ERROR CAUSES display)
INDICATION
SOLUTION
OVER CURRENT
Excessive load on the AC output
Disconnect all wires on the AC input and output.
TRANSFORMER OVERTEMP or
HEATSINK OVERTEMP
Charging: AC input voltage may be too high, check for high input ac voltage
Unit is warm/hot to the touch
Let inverter cool down and try
restarting.
Reset the inverter by pressing the On/Off switch to OFF, then to SRCH or ON. If
unit comes on, then check AC wire system (shorts or miswired)
Inverting: operating too large of a load for too long, remove excessive loads
Ambient temperature may be high
Inverter cooling fan may have failed – hold a piece of paper to inverter vents to
check fan, (fan is hard to hear).
Inverter airflow intake may be blocked (small clearance or clogged).
MAX CHARGE AMPS setting needs to be lowered (charging setting is too high
based on ambient temperature around inverter).
HIGH BATTERY VOLTAGE or
LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE
Battery voltage is not within the High or
Low battery cut-out settings.
LOW AC OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Check for the correct battery voltage at the inverter’s DC input terminals.
High battery voltage: Ensure your DC source is regulated below your High battery
cut-out or adjust your HIGH BATTERY CUT-OUT to a higher setting
Low battery voltage: Check for an external DC load on the batteries. Check the
condition of batteries and recharge if possible or adjust your LOW BATTERY CUTOUT to a lower setting.
The cause for this error could be high battery voltage or an excessively large load.
The AC output voltage has fallen below
SET INPUT LOWER LIMIT VAC
setting.
AC SOURCE WIRED TO OUTPUT
Indicates that an AC source was wired
directly to the AC output.
GENERATOR START ERROR
Five attempts were made to start the
generator without obtaining the correct
input AC voltage or frequency
GENERATOR SYNC ERROR
Indicates that the generator was
running but was not operating within the
voltage or frequency tolerances and
was not able to connect
Check for proper AC input and output wiring (output of inverter is wired to an AC
source)
Reset the auto generator control system by selecting OFF and then AUTO or ON
from the SET GENERATOR menu.
Check the generators output voltage and frequency (ensure that the 'Set Input lower
or upper limit VAC' is set correctly)
GEN MAX RUN TIME ERROR
This is an advisory ERROR only and will not cause any other effect.
Indicates that the generator ran for a
period of time that exceeded the 'SET
MAX RUN TIME'
If you continue to have repeated error conditions, then increasing the SET
MAXIMUM RUN TIME menu item setting, under the GEN AUTO SETUP (12) menu
heading, may be necessary for your application.
GEN UNDER/OVER SPEED
(a) Voltage has not reached 80 VAC during the 'MAX CRANK PERIOD' or
Indicates that five 'Auto generator start
attempts' have occurred without
successfully starting the generator
(b) Voltage did not maintain >80 VAC for the majority of time while the inverter was
charging
Error LED is flashing (no error under
ERROR CAUSES display)
No problem with AC source or inverter. The error LED is a visual indicator to fine
tune your AC frequency (this error does not affect operation)
AC source frequency is just out of
tolerance
(53-57 Hz or 63-67 Hz)
Page
114
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
INVERTER/CHARGER TERMINOLOGY
The following is a glossary of terms with which you may not be familiar while reading this manual. They
appear in the description of inverter and battery charger operation.
Absorption Stage - In this second stage of three-stage charging, the batteries are held at a constant
voltage (the bulk voltage setting) and the battery is charged to its maximum capacity.
AC - Alternating Current. Electrical current that varies with time. The rate at which the voltage changes
polarity is the frequency in Hertz (Hz).
Ampacity – The ampacity of a wire is its current carrying capacity with reference to the cross-sectional
area of the conductors, the temperature rating of the insulation and the ambient temperature.
Automatic Transfer Relay (inside the inverter) - An automatic switch that switches between inverter
and charger mode depending on availability of AC input power. If AC is present, the unit will be a
battery charger; when AC goes away, the unit becomes an inverter.
Bulk Charge Stage - This is the first of the three stages in three stage charging. In this stage, a constant
current is fed to the batteries and as they accept the current the battery voltage will rise.
Current (Amps) - The volume of electricity flowing through a conductor. Equivalent to a volume of water
flowing through a hose.
DC - Direct Current. Electrical current that does not vary with time.
Deep Cycle - A deep cycle occurs when a battery is discharged to less than 20% of its capacity (80%
depth-of-discharge).
Deep Cycle Battery - A battery designed to be routinely discharged to 20% of its maximum capacity
without damage. This is the type of battery most commonly used with an inverter system.
Digital VoltMeter (DVM):
True RMS - A voltmeter that incorporates a RMS converter to read true RMS for any waveform
shape.
Averaging Type - A voltmeter that requires a sine wave waveform shape to provide an accurate
reading.
Efficiency - Usually given as a percentage, efficiency is the ratio of the output to the input. The efficiency
changes with power output levels of any inverter.
Electrolyte - Typically a mixture of water and sulfuric acid, it is commonly referred to as battery acid.
Equalization - Controlled “overcharging” of the battery causing it to bubble and mix. This reduces
stratification.
Float stage - During the third stage of three stage charging, the voltage and current are reduced to a level
that will trickle charge or maintenance charge the battery. This assures the battery remains fully
charged even while sitting.
Fuse or Disconnect- An electrical pressure relief valve. When current exceeds a preset limit the fuse or
disconnect will fail before the wiring or equipment it is protecting. Disconnects are also called circuit
breakers. These are usually resettable and can act as a switch to turn off power to equipment for
servicing.
Grid (The grid) - Also called the utility grid, this refers to the public power distribution system.
Impedance - Opposition to flow of alternating current (AC)
Islanding - The condition present when the utility power grid fails and the inverter attempts to power the
grid. An inverter which is “islanding protected” senses the loss of AC power from the grid and does not
back feed into the grid system.
LED - Light Emitting Diode. A light made up of semi-conducting material.
Line Tie - Term used when the inverter is connected to the public power or “grid” system.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
115
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Load(s) - Any electrical item which draws power. (i.e., lights, radio, washer/dryer, refrigerator, etc.)
Locked Rotor Amps - The current drawn by an electric motor with the shaft or rotor stopped and locked
in position. This can be used to determine if an inverter has enough surge current to start a motor. If
the inverter is capable of producing more amperage than the locked rotor amps rating of a motor, it
will most likely start the motor easily.
Modified Sine wave - Also called a quasi sine wave or a modified square wave. This output looks like a
one step staircase. Most loads that will run from a sine wave will run from a modified sine wave.
However, things such as clocks and furnace controllers may have trouble. (See graph below)
Figure 36, AC Waveforms
NEC - National Electric Code. The guidelines and acceptable practices for electrical installations. It is a
book published every three years.
Off Grid - Not connected to public power in any way
Output Waveform- Shape of the wave that alternating current makes as its voltage rises and falls with
time.
Pass Through Current - The amount of current the inverter can safely pass directly from the AC input to
the AC output.
Plates - Originally made of lead, now fabricated from lead oxide. Plates connect to the battery terminals
and provide a structure for the chemicals that create current. There are several plates in each cell;
each insulated from the other by separators.
PV - Photovoltaic. Solar powered.
Resistance - The opposition to flow of direct current (DC)
RMS - Root Mean Square, a measure of AC voltage that would provide the equivalent heating value
across a resistor as a DC source of the same voltage.
Sellback or Selling Back To The Grid - Some inverters have the capability to take energy stored in
batteries or from solar panels and put it back into the utility grid. The Public Utility Company will then
pay you for using your energy. Check with the Public Utility Company before attempting this.
Sine Wave – An AC waveform that looks like rolling waves on water. It rises and falls smoothly with time.
The grid puts out a sine waveform. Any plug in AC equipment will operate from a sine wave output.
This is shown in Figure 36, AC Waveforms.
Square Wave - The simplest AC waveform, this is shown in Figure 36, AC Waveforms. Some types of
equipment behave strangely when run from a square wave.
Page
116
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Stacking:
Series - Two inverters operating together to produce twice the power and voltage of a single inverter.
Required when operating 240 VAC loads and separate 120 VAC loads from either inverter.
Parallel - Two inverters operating together to provide twice the continuous and surge capacity on a
single output circuit. Required when a single load is too large for one inverter.
The units must be stackable, and an interface cable must be utilized. See the manual for details on
stacking if it is an option.
Stratification - Over time, a battery’s electrolyte (liquid) tends to separate. The electrolyte at the top of the
battery becomes watery while at the bottom it becomes more acidic. This effect is corrosive to the
plates.
Sulfating - As a battery discharges, its plates become covered with lead sulfate. During recharging, the
lead sulfate leaves the plates and recombines with the electrolyte. If the lead sulfate remains on the
plates for an extended period of time (over two months), it hardens, and recharging will not remove it.
This reduces the effective plate area and the battery’s capacity.
Temperature Compensation - Peak available battery voltage is temperature dependent. As ambient
temperatures fall, the proper voltage for each charge stage needs to be increased. An optional
temperature-probe (BTS) automatically re-scales charge-voltage settings to compensate for ambient
temperatures. The compensation slope based on cell voltage is -2.17 mv per degree Fahrenheit
(30 mv per degree Celsius) per cell for lead-acid batteries.
Voltage - The pressure of electrical flow. Equivalent to water pressure in a hose.
Watts - Measure of power output or utilization. Watts = Volts x Amps.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
117
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES (60 Hz Models)
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
MODEL
SW2512
SW4024
SW4048
SW5548 SW4024K SW4048K SW4024W
General Specifications
Nominal DC Input Voltage
12 Vdc
24 Vdc
48 Vdc
48 Vdc
24 Vdc
48 Vdc
24 Vdc
AC Output Voltage (RMS)
120 vac
120 vac
120 vac
120 vac
105 vac
105 vac
220 vac
Nominal Frequency
60 Hz
60 Hz
60 Hz
60 Hz
60 Hz
60 Hz
60 Hz
2500 VA
4000 VA
4000 VA
5500 VA
4000 VA
4000 VA
4000 VA
Continuous Output (@ 25°C)
21 amps AC
33 amps AC
33 amps AC
46 amps AC
38 amps AC
38 amps AC
18 amps AC
Maximum Output (RMS)
60 amps AC
78 amps AC
78 amps AC
78 amps AC
78 amps AC
78 amps AC
39 amps AC
90%
94%
95%
96%
94%
95%
94%
Automatic Transfer Relay
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
30 amps AC
Maximum Charging Rate
150 amps DC
120 amps DC
60 amps DC
75 amps DC
120 amps DC
60 amps DC
120 amps DC
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
Continuous Power @ 20°C
Efficiency (peak)
Charger Regulation Method
DC Input Requirements
Search Mode
0.08 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.025 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.025 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
On Mode (no load - idle)
1.0 A (12 W)
0.66 A (16 W)
0.33 A (16 W)
0.40 A (20 W)
0.66 A (16 W)
0.33 A (16 W)
0.66 A (16W)
At Full Rated Power
275 amps
200 amps
100 amps
137 amps
200 amps
100 amps
200 amps
Short Circuited Output
700 amps
360 amps
180 amps
180 amps
360 amps
180 amps
360 amps
44 to 66 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
22 to 33 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
22 to 33 Vdc
Input Voltage Range
11.8 to 16.5 Vdc 22 to 33 Vdc
AC Output Characteristics
AC Output Waveform
Sine wave, 34 to 52 steps per cycle
Voltage Regulation
± 2%
Total Harmonic Distortion
3 to 5% (stand alone operation)
Power Factor Allowed
-1 to 1
Frequency Regulation
± 0.04% (crystal regulated)
Load Sensing Range
16 to 240 Watts
Standard Features
Control Panel
Built-in 2 line back-lit alphanumeric liquid crystal display with eight LED status indicators
Low Battery Protection
Adjustable low battery cut out and cut in with current compensation
Battery Temperature Sensor
Auto Generator Control system
Auxiliary Relays
15 foot plug in battery temperature sensor with phone type jack (can be extended)
Automatic generator control system for two and three wire start generators (no glow-plug control)
Three user adjustable voltage controlled signal relays for control of loads or charging sources
Fan Cooling
Variable speed brushless DC fans
Options
Remote Control Panel
Stacking Interface for 2X power
(* requires two inverters)
Conduit Box
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWI *
(120/240 vac)
SWI*
(120/240 vac)
SWI *
(120/240 vac)
SWI *
(120/240 vac)
No
No
No
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
Environmental Limitations
Enclosure Type
Indoor, ventilated, steel chassis with powdercoat finish
32°F to 104°F (0°C to +40°C) (output will meet specified tolerances)
Specified Temp Range
Allowed Temperature Range
-40°F to 140°F (-40°C to +60°C) (output may not meet specified tolerances)
Non-operating Temperature
-67°F to 284°F (-55°C to +75°C)
Altitude Limit Operating
15,000 feet (5000 meters)
Altitude Limit Non-operating
50,000 feet (16,000 meters)
Dimensions - Inverter Only
15” (38 cm) high, 22.5” (57 cm) wide, 9” (23 cm) deep (when wall mounted)
Dimensions - Shipping
20.5” (52 cm), 27” (69 cm), 15.5” (40 cm)
Mounting
Wall or Shelf Mount
Weight - Inverter Only
90 lb (42 kg )
105 lb (48 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
136 lb (63 kg )
105 lb (48 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
Weight - Shipping
96 lb (44 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
143 lb (65 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
Page
118
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
SPECIFICATIONS AND FEATURES (50 Hz Models)
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
MODEL
SW2612E SW3024E SW3048E SW4548E SW3024J SW4048J SW4548A
General Specifications
Nominal DC Input Voltage
12 Vdc
24 Vdc
48 Vdc
48 Vdc
24 Vdc
48 Vdc
48 Vdc
AC Output Voltage (RMS)
230 Vac
230 Vac
230 Vac
230 Vac
105 Vac
105 Vac
240 Vac
Nominal Frequency
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
50 Hz
2600 VA
3300 VA
3300 VA
4500 VA
3300 VA
4000 VA
4500 VA
Continuous Output (@ 25°C)
11 amps AC
14 amps AC
14 amps AC
20 amps AC
31 amps AC
33 amps AC
20 amps AC
Maximum Output (RMS)
28 amps AC
34 amps AC
34 amps AC
34 amps AC
78 amps AC
78 amps AC
34 amps AC
90%
94%
95%
96%
94%
95%
96%
Automatic Transfer Relay
30 amps AC
30 amps AC
30 amps AC
30 amps AC
60 amps AC
60 amps AC
30 amps AC
Maximum Charging Rate
150 amps DC
100 amps DC
50 amps DC
60 amps DC
100 amps DC
60 amps DC
60 amps DC
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
3 stage
Continuous Power @ 20°C
Efficiency (peak)
Charger Regulation Method
DC Input Requirements
Search Mode
0.08 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.025 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
0.025 A (1 W)
0.04 A (1 W)
On Mode (no load - idle)
1.6 A (12 W)
0.66 A (16W)
0.33 A (16 W)
0.40 A (20 W)
0.40 A (20 W)
0.33 A (16 W)
0.40 A (20 W)
At Full Rated Power
300 amps
166 amps
83 amps
137 amps
137 amps
83 amps
137 amps
Short Circuited Output
700 amps
320 amps
160 amps
180 amps
180 amps
160 amps
180 amps
11.8 to 16.5 Vdc
22 to 33 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
44 to 66 Vdc
Input Voltage Range (VDC)
AC Output Characteristics
AC Output Waveform
Sine wave, 34 to 52 steps per cycle
Voltage Regulation
± 2%
Total Harmonic Distortion
3 to 5% (stand alone operation)
Power Factor Allowed
-1 to 1
Frequency Regulation
± 0.04% (crystal regulated)
Load Sensing Range
16 to 240 Watts
Standard Features
Control Panel
Built-in 2 line back-lit alphanumeric liquid crystal display with eight LED status indicators
Low Battery Protection
Adjustable low battery cut out and cut in with current compensation
Battery Temperature Sensor
15 foot plug in battery temperature sensor with phone type jack (can be extended)
Auto Generator Control system
Automatic generator control system for two and three wire start generators (no glow-plug control)
Auxiliary Relays
Three user adjustable voltage controlled signal relays for control of loads or charging sources
Fan Cooling
Variable speed brushless DC fans
Options
Remote Control Panel
Stacking Interface for 2X power
(*requires two inverters)
Conduit Box
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
SWRC
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
SWCB
Environmental Limitations
Enclosure Type
Indoor, ventilated, steel chassis with powdercoat finish
32°F to 104°F (0°C to +40°C) (output will meet specified tolerances)
Specified Temp Range
Allowed Temperature Range
-40°F to 140°F (-40°C to +60°C) (output may not meet specified tolerances)
Non-operating Temperature
-67°F to 284°F (-55°C to +75°C)
Altitude Limit Operating
15,000 feet (5000 meters)
Altitude Limit Non-operating
50,000 feet (16,000 meters)
Dimensions - Inverter Only
15” (38 cm) high, 22.5” (57 cm) wide, 9” (23 cm) deep (when wall mounted)
Dimensions - Shipping
20.5” (52 cm), 27” (69 cm), 15.5” (40 cm)
Mounting
Wall or Shelf Mount
Weight - Inverter Only
95 lb (43 kg )
105 lb (48 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
136 lb (63 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
105 lb (48 kg)
136 lb (63 kg)
Weight - Shipping
110 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
143 lb (65 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
111 lb (50 kg)
143 lb (65 kg)
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
119
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
DIMENSIONS
Figure 37, SW Series Dimensions: With AC Access Covers – Showing Knockout Sizes
Page
120
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
INSTALLATION DIAGRAMS
The following diagrams and information is provided to assist you or your system installer with the design
and installation of the Trace™ SW Series Inverter/Charger. Due to the variety of applications, models
available, and differences in local and national electrical codes, these diagrams and information should be
used as general guidelines only. You must consider your application and local and national electrical
codes when designing and installing your system.
Figure 38, Installation Diagram, 120 VAC, 1 Phase, Grid Connected, Generator Backup
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
121
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Figure 39, Installation Diagram, 240 VAC, 3 Wire, Grid Connected, Generator Backup
Page
122
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
USER SETTINGS WORKSHEETS
Your SW Series Inverter/Charger may have USER and/or SETUP operating settings that are different or
are changed from the standard factory settings. The USER DEFAULT settings are the same for all
models. The SETUP DEFAULT settings are dependent on the specific model of the SW Series
Inverter/Charger. Worksheets are provided for domestic (US) models. Use the following Worksheets to
record your specific USER and SETUP operating settings for:
SW Series Inverter/Charger – Model SW
, S/N
.
USER MENU
MENU HEADING
MENU ITEM
SELECTION
RANGE
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
USER
SETTINGS
Inverter Mode
1 Set Inverter
OFF SRCH ON CHG
OFF
Generator Mode
2 Set Generator
OFF AUTO ON EQ
OFF
None
Gen Under/Over Speed
DISPLAY
NO
None
Generator Start Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
Generator Sync Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
Gen Max Run Time Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
Load Amp Start Ready
DISPLAY
NO
None
Voltage Start Ready
DISPLAY
NO
None
Exercise Start Ready
DISPLAY
NO
None
Trace Engineering
3 Revision 4.01
DISPLAY
Meters
4 Inverter/Charger Amps AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Input Amps AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Load Amps AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Battery Actual Volts DC
DISPLAY
Battery Volts
None
Battery TempComp Volts DC
DISPLAY
Battery Volts
None
Inverter Volts AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Grid (AC1) Volts AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Generator (AC2) Volts AC
DISPLAY
00
None
Read Frequency Hertz
DISPLAY
60
None
DISPLAY
NO
None
Transformer Overtemp
DISPLAY
NO
None
Heatsink Overtemp
DISPLAY
NO
None
High Battery Voltage
DISPLAY
NO
None
Error Causes
5 Over Current
Low Battery Voltage
DISPLAY
NO
None
Low AC Output Voltage
DISPLAY
NO
None
Manual Off
DISPLAY
NO
None
AC Source Wired to Output
DISPLAY
NO
None
External Error (Stacked)
DISPLAY
NO
None
Generator Start Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
Generator Sync Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
Gen Maximum Run Time Error
DISPLAY
NO
None
None
Gen Under/Over Speed
DISPLAY
NO
SET HR/MIN/SEC
00:00
7 Start Quiet Time H:M
00:00 – 23:59
08:00
End Quiet Time H:M
00:00 – 23:59
08:00
Time of Day
6
Generator Timer
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
None
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
123
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
SETUP MENU – 12 VDC (120 VAC/60HZ) MODELS
To access the SETUP MENU, press the RED and GREEN buttons on your CONTROL PANEL (or
SWRC) at the same time. To exit the Setup Menu, press the ON/OFF MENU button or use the down
MENU HEADING button until you reach the USER MENU (menu headings 1 – 8).
MENU HEADING
Inverter Setup
MENU ITEM
SELECTION
RANGE
9 Set Grid Usage
FLT SELL SLT LBX
FLT
0.80 – 25.5
11.0
Set Low Battery cut out VDC
Set LBCO delay minutes
00 - 255
15
Set Low battery cut in VDC
00.0 – 16.5
13.0
Set High battery Cut Out VDC
00.0 – 16.5
16.0
00 - 240
48
Set search watts
Set search spacing
Battery Charging
10 Set Bulk volts DC
Set Absorption time h:m
02:00
10.0 – 16.0
13.4
Set Equalize volts DC
10.0 – 16.0
14.4
Set Equalize time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
02:00
11 Set Grid (AC1) amps AC
Set Gen (AC2) amps AC
60
30
108
Set Input upper limit VAC
128 - 149
132
12 Set Load Start amps AC
00 - 63
33
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set Load Stop delay min
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set 24 hr start volts DC
05.0 – 25.5
12.3
Set 2 hr start volts DC
05.0 – 16.5
11.8
Set 15 min start volts DC
05.0 – 16.5
11.3
Read LBCO 30 sec start VDC
05.0 – 16.5
11.0
Set Exercise period days
00 - 255
30
Set Maximum run time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
08:00
GlowStop Run
Run
Set Gen warmup seconds
16 - 255
60
Set Pre Crank seconds
00 - 255
10
01 - 15
10
13 Set RY7 Function
00 - 255
30
00.0 – 16.5
14.5
R9 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
01.0
Set Relay 10 volts DC
00.0 – 16.5
14.8
R10 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
01.0
Set Relay 11 volts DC
00.0 – 16.5
15.0
R11 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
01.0
00:00 – 23:50
00:00
05.0 – 16.5
11.3
14 Set Relay 9 volts DC
15 Start Bulk Time H:M
Low Battery Transfer (LBX) 16 Set Low Battery transfer VDC
Set Low Battery cut in VDC
Battery Selling
17 Set Battery Sell volts DC
Grid Usage Timer
18 Set Start Charge time h:m
Set Max Sell amps AC
End Stop Charge time h:m
Page
124
00 - 63
80 - 111
Set Post Crank seconds
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer
20
LeadAcid
Set Input lower limit VAC
Set Max Cranking seconds
Auxiliary Relays R9 R10
01 - 25
LeadAcid Nicad
00 - 63
Set Load Start delay min
Gen Starting Details
59
14.4
00:00 – 23:50
Set Temp Comp
Gen Auto Start Setup
00 – 255
10.0 – 16.0
Set Float volts DC
Set Max Charge amps AC
AC Inputs
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
05.0 – 16.5
13.0
10.0 – 16.0
13.4
01 - 25
30
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
USER
SETTINGS
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
SETUP MENU – 24 VDC (120 VAC/60HZ) MODELS
To access the SETUP MENU, press the RED and GREEN buttons on your CONTROL PANEL (or
SWRC) at the same time. To exit the Setup Menu, press the ON/OFF MENU button or use the down
MENU HEADING button until you reach the USER MENU (menu headings 1 – 8).
MENU HEADING
Inverter Setup
MENU ITEM
SELECTION
RANGE
9 Set Grid Usage
FLT SELL SLT LBX
FLT
16.0 – 35.5
22.0
Set Low Battery cut out VDC
Set LBCO Delay minutes
00 - 255
15
Set Low battery cut in VDC
10.0 – 35.5
26.0
Set High battery cut out VDC
10.0 – 33.0
32.0
00 - 240
48
Set search watts
Set search spacing
Battery Charging
10 Set Bulk volts DC
Set Absorption time h:m
02:00
20.0 – 32.0
26.8
Set Equalize volts DC
20.0 – 32.0
28.8
Set Equalize time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
02:00
11 Set Grid (AC1) amps AC
60
30
Set Input lower limit VAC
80 - 111
108
Set Input upper limit VAC
128 - 149
132
12 Set Load Start amps AC
00 - 63
33
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set Load Stop delay min
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set 24 hr start volts DC
10.0 – 35.5
24.6
Set 2 hr start volts DC
10.0 – 35.5
23.6
Set 15 min start volts DC
10.0 – 35.5
22.6
Read LBCO 30 sec start VDC
10.0 – 35.5
22.0
Set Exercise period days
00 - 255
30
Set Maximum run time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
08:00
GlowStop Run
Run
13 Set RY7 Function
Set Gen warmup seconds
16 - 255
60
Set Pre Crank seconds
00 - 255
10
Set Max Cranking seconds
01 - 15
10
00 - 255
30
10.0 – 35.5
29.0
R9 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
02.0
Set Relay 10 volts DC
10.0 – 35.5
29.5
R10 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
02.0
Set Relay 11 volts DC
10.0 – 35.5
30.0
R11 Hysteresis volts DC
00.1 – 12.8
02.0
00:00 – 23:50
00:00
10.0 – 35.5
22.6
Set Post Crank seconds
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer
30
LeadAcid
00 - 63
Set Load Start delay min
Auxiliary Relays R9 R10
01 - 35
LeadAcid Nicad
00 - 63
Set Gen (AC2) amps AC
Gen Starting Details
59
28.8
00:00 – 23:50
Set Temp Comp
Gen Auto Start Setup
00 – 255
20.0 – 32.0
Set Float volts DC
Set Max Charge amps AC
AC Inputs
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
14 Set Relay 9 volts DC
15 Start Bulk Time H:M
Low Battery Transfer (LBX) 16 Set Low Battery transfer VDC
Set Low Battery cut in VDC
10.0 – 35.5
26.0
20.0 – 32.0
26.8
Battery Selling
17 Set Battery Sell volts DC
01 - 35
30
Grid Usage Timer
18 Set Charge time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
End Charge time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
Set Max Sell amps AC
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
USER
SETTINGS
Page
125
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
SETUP MENU – 48 VDC (120 VAC/60HZ) MODELS
To access the SETUP MENU, press the RED and GREEN buttons on your CONTROL PANEL (or
SWRC) at the same time. To exit the Setup Menu, press the ON/OFF MENU button or use the down
MENU HEADING button until you reach the USER MENU (menu headings 1 – 8).
MENU HEADING
Inverter Setup
MENU ITEM
SELECTION
RANGE
9 Set Grid Usage
FLT SELL SLT LBX
FLT
32.0 – 70.0
44.0
Set Low Battery cut out VDC
Set LBCO delay minutes
00 - 255
15
Set Low battery cut in VDC
20.0 – 71.0
52.0
Set High battery cut out VDC
20.0 – 66.0
64.0
00 - 240
48
Set search watts
Set search spacing
Battery Charging
10 Set Bulk volts DC
Set Absorption time h:m
02:00
40.0 – 64.0
53.6
Set Equalize volts DC
40.0 – 64.0
57.6
Set Equalize time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
02:00
11 Set Grid (AC1) amps AC
Set Gen (AC2) amps AC
60
30
108
Set Input upper limit VAC
128 - 149
132
12 Set Load Start amps AC
00 - 63
33
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set Load Stop delay min
00.0 – 25.5
05.0
Set 24 hr start volts DC
20.0 – 71.0
49.2
Set 2 hr start volts DC
20.0 – 71.0
47.2
Set 15 min start volts DC
20.0 – 71.0
45.2
Read LBCO 30 sec start VDC
20.0 – 71.0
44.0
Set Exercise period days
00 - 255
30
Set Maximum run time h:m
00:00 – 23:50
08:00
GlowStop Run
Run
Set Gen warmup seconds
16 - 255
60
Set Pre Crank seconds
00 - 255
10
00 - 15
10
13 Set RY7 Function
00 - 255
30
20.0 – 71.0
58.0
R9 Hysteresis volts DC
00.2 – 25.6
04.0
Set Relay 10 volts DC
20.0 – 71.0
59.0
R10 Hysteresis volts DC
00.2 – 25.6
04.0
Set Relay 11 volts DC
20.0 – 71.0
60.0
R1 Hysteresis volts DC
00.2 – 25.6
04.0
00:00 – 23:50
00:00
20.0 – 71.0
45.2
14 Set Relay 9 volts DC
15 Start Bulk Time H:M
Low Battery Transfer (LBX) 16 Set Low Battery transfer VDC
Set Low Battery cut in VDC
Battery Selling
17 Set Battery Sell volts DC
Grid Usage Timer
18 Set Start Charge time h:m
Set Max Sell amps AC
End Stop Charge time h:m
Page
126
00 - 63
80 - 111
Set Post Crank seconds
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer
30
LeadAcid
Set Input lower limit VAC
Set Max Cranking seconds
Auxiliary Relays R9 R10
01 - 35
LeadAcid Nicad
00 - 63
Set Load Start delay min
Gen Starting Details
59
57.6
00:00 – 23:50
Set Temp Comp
Gen Auto Start Setup
20 – 255
40.0 – 64.0
Set Float volts DC
Set Max Charge amps AC
AC Inputs
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
20.0 – 71.0
52.0
40.0 – 64.0
53.6
01 - 35
30
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
00:00 – 23:50
21:00
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
USER
SETTINGS
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
127
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
OPTIONS
Options available for the SW Series Inverter/Charger include a choice of remote controls, and a battery
temperature control.
SWRC
The optional SWRC Remote Control (SWRC or SWRC/50FT) has the ability to communicate with and
adjust settings in the SW Series Inverter/Charger. It is operational whenever DC power is applied to the
inverter DC input terminals.
The SWRC is connected to the remote control port labeled REMOTE* on the left side (AC side) of the SW
Series Inverter/Charger, using the provided DB-25 communications cable. Two cable lengths are available
- 25 feet (8 meters) or 50 feet (16 meters). Distances longer than 50 feet (16 meters) are not
recommended.
The SWRC displays its information on a LCD screen, which duplicates the functions of the integral Control
Panel on the SW Series Inverter/Charger, but it allows these functions to be performed and/or observed
from a remote location (up to 50 feet from the inverter). Once the desired changes have been made, the
SWRC may be unplugged and these changes will be retained, except if the inverter is completely powered
down. When the SWRC is connected to the inverter, the inverter’s status LED’s still operate normally.
Installation and operating instructions are included with the SWRC.
∗
You may connect either the SWRC or SWCA. Both options cannot be connected at the same time.
SWCA
The Sine wave Communications Adapter (SWCA) serial communications interface adapter allows for
remote set-up, adjustment, troubleshooting and monitoring of SW Series inverters from a personal
computer and allows modem access monitoring over long distances. The SWCA allows direct access of
up to eight SW Series inverters via standard telephone type wire.
The SWCA is connected to the remote control port labeled REMOTE* on the left side (AC side) of the SW
Series Inverter/Charger, using the provided DB-25 communications cable.
∗
You may connect either the SWRC or SWCA. Both options cannot be connected at the same time.
The SWCA provides the following features:
•
Remote set-up: The SWCA is capable of direct connection to a modem for use in remote sites
where a computer is not desired. This makes remote set-up simple and easy for end users, dealer,
distributors or anyone familiar SW Series Inverter/Chargers. With an on-site modem and cellular
communications network, costly trips are no longer necessary. Simply dial up your onsite modem and
reset or adjust your systems via a virtual control panel simulation.
•
Troubleshooting: In the event that problems occur in the field, the SWCA can be used to do simple
troubleshooting by accessing meters and error conditions from your home or office. This feature is
great for new users and allows dealers to guide their customers through simple set-up and adjustment
problems that would usually require on-site assistance. An ideal service program for authorized
Xantrex service centers distributors and dealers.
•
Monitoring: By simply paralleling the four-cable conductor, access to eight adapters is made
possible. Further long-term monitoring can be made via an external data-logging device.
SWCB
The SWCB conduit box consists of a metal enclosure for connection to the SW Series Inverter/Charger
and is provided to meet applicable codes and safety standards. The SWCB may be fitted to the DC side of
the SW Series Inverter/Charger. The SWCB has ½”, ¾” and 2” knockouts for attaching conduit hardware.
Page
128
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
APPENDIX
OTHER PRODUCTS
Contact your Xantrex dealer for details of any of the products below.
C40 MULTI-FUNCTION CONTROLLER
The C40 Multi-Function Controller may be used as a PV (solar) charge controller, DC load controller, or
DC diversion regulator. The unit works with 12, 24, or 48 volts systems and is rated at 40 amps
continuous capacity. Other features of the C40 Multi-Function Controller are field adjustable setpoints,
temperature compensation and protection, electronic overload protection with manual or auto-reset ability,
optional LCD meter and an optional battery temperature compensation sensor (BTS).
C12 CHARGE CONTROLLER
The C-12 Charge Controller is a 12 amp 3 stage solar charge controller, DC load, and automatic lighting
control center. The C12 Charge Controller is fully protected against overload, short-circuit, and reverse
polarity. It is ideal for controlling lighting systems as it uses a PV array as an electric eye to “see” when it is
dark, so it knows when to turn on the lights! Automatic reset, battery over discharge and overcharge
protection, two-stage lightning protection and surge suppression, and optional temp compensation sensor
are a few of the features of the C12 Charge Controller .
SW SERIES POWER PANEL SYSTEMS
Pre-assembled complete power panels featuring the SW Series Inverter/Chargers are now available.
Each panel is complete and complies with all codes (it is ETL listed). All you do is connect to the battery
and hook up AC loads. An AC system bypass allows AC loads to operate while the inverter is locked out
for servicing.
TM500 TRACE™ METER (BATTERY STATUS MONITOR)
The Trace™ TM500 battery status monitor features seven data-monitoring functions and two alarms that
monitor battery state of charge, real-time amps, total charging amps, total load amps, days since fully
charged, cumulative amp-hours, recharge alarm and full charge indicator. Mounts up to 50 feet from the
batteries. Easily configured for liquid lead-acid or gel cell batteries. Works with 12, 24, or 48-volt systems
with an optional 48V shunt board.
STEP-UP/STEP-DOWN (BALANCING) TRANSFORMER
The Trace™ T240 Transformer uses high efficiency transformer technology and is constructed with high
temperature rated materials. This provides an unusually high efficiency device for voltage conversion from
an inverter, generator or conventional AC source. The T240 Transformer has two identical windings that
can be connected and used for line isolation, voltage step-up and step-down or generator balancing. The
3.9 Kva continuous power of the T240 Transformer is sized to take advantage of the Trace™ inverter line.
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION – FUSES AND DISCONNECTS
The Trace™ fuseblock (TFB) protects your battery, inverter, and high amperage cables from damage by
short circuits and overloads. Simply select the proper size fuseblock and install between the inverter and
battery in the ungrounded conductor (typically the positive cable).
TFB’s include a fast acting, current limiting class-T fuse. This fuse provides extremely fast protection
when a short circuit occurs. When properly selected, it also has a time delay that allows the inverter to
surge to full power without blowing the fuse.
TFB’s provide the code required inverter overcurrent protection for RV and Marine applications. A slide off
cover prevents accidental contact with the fuse’s live terminals. For maximum protection, install the
fuseblock within 18 inches (45 cm) of the battery.
For residential and commercial electrical systems, the National Electrical Code requires both overcurrent
protection and a disconnect switch. Xantrex offers the DC250 and DC175 circuit breaker disconnects with
enclosure for applications requiring NEC compliance. The DC250 and DC175 are also designed to accept
2-inch conduit to protect the inverter and battery cables.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
129
APPENDIX
REFERENCE TABLES AND GRAPHS
Table 9, Power Consumption Of Common Appliances
TIME IN MINUTES
APPLIANCE
WATTS
5
15
30
60
120
240
Single PL Light
10
.1
.3
.7
1.3
2.7
5.3
B & W TV
50
.4
1
2
4
8
17
Computer
100
1
2
4
8
17
34
Color TV
200
2
4
8
17
34
67
Blender
400
3
8
17
34
67
133
Skil Saw
800
6
17
34
67
133
266
Toaster
1000
8
23
46
93
185
370
Microwave
1200
10
28
57
114
227
455
Hot Plate
1800
15
44
88
176
353
706
AMP-HOURS
If the current draw at 120 VAC is known, then the battery amperage at 12VDC will be 10 times the AC
amperage divided by the efficiency (90% in this table).
Motors are normally marked with their running rather than their starting current. Starting current can be
five times running current. Keep this in mind when sizing a motor into a system.
Refrigerators and icemakers typically run about 1/3 of the time. Therefore, their average battery current
draw is 1/3 what their amp rating would indicate.
Table 10, AWG to Metric Wire Conversion Chart
AWG
DIAMETER/MM
AREA/MM²
DC RESISTANCE
1000 FT
14
1.63
2.08
3.14
12
2.05
3.31
1.98
10
2.59
5.27
1.24
8
3.26
8.35
0.778
6
4.11
13.3
0.491
4
5.19
21.2
0.308
2
6.54
33.6
0.194
1
7.35
42.4
0.154
0 (1/0)
8.25
53.4
0.122
00 (2/0)
9.27
67.5
0.0967
000 (3/0)
10.40
85.0
0.0766
0000 (4/0)
11.68
107.2
0.0608
Note: Stranded wire sizes and ampacity for 75°C.
Page
130
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
APPENDIX
SIZE
DIAMETE
R
SIZE
DIAMETE
R
14
12
.073 .072
2/0
.420
3/0
.475
10
.115
8
.146
4/0
.530
6
.184
4
.235
250 MCM
.580
3
.281
300 MCM
.635
2
.295
350 MCM
.690
1
.335
400 MCM
.730
1/0
.380
500 MCM
.820
Note: Sizes shown are for the conductor – do not include any insulation when determining your wire
size.
Figure 40, AWG Wire Size
Table 11, Minimum Recommended Battery Cable Size vs. Cable Length
INVERTER
MODEL
TYPICAL
DC
AMPS1
NEC
AMPS2
1 TO 3 FEET
ONE WAY
SW2512
267 Amps
334 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
3 TO 5 FT
ONE WAY
5 TO 10 FT
ONE WAY
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
Not Recommended
Not Recommended
SW2612E
278 Amps
348 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW3024E or J
160 Amps
201 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW4024 or W, K
214 Amps
267 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW3048E or J
80 Amps
100 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
SW4048 or K
107 Amps
134 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
2
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
2
SW4548E or A
120 Amps
150 Amps
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
SW5548
147 Amps
184 Amps
#4/0 AWG/107 mm
#2/0 AWG/67.4 mm
2
1
TYPICAL DC AMPS is based on Low Battery Voltage with an efficiency of 85%.
2
NEC AMPS is based on Low Battery Voltage, an efficiency of 85%, and a 125% NEC de-rating.
Table 12, Battery Cable to Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size
CABLE SIZE
REQUIRED
RATING IN
CONDUIT
MAXIMUM
BREAKER SIZE
RATING IN
“FREE AIR”
MAXIMUM
FUSE SIZE
#2 AWG
115 amps
125 amps*
170 amps
175 amps*
#2/0 (00) AWG
175 amps
175 amps
265 amps
300 amps*
#4/0 (0000) AWG
230 amps
250 amps*
360 amps
400 amps*
* The NEC allows rounding up to the next standard fuse size from the cable rating, i.e. 150-amp cable size
rounds up to a standard 175-amp size.
The term "free air" is defined by the NEC as cabling that is not enclosed in conduit or a raceway. Cables
enclosed in raceways or conduits have substantially lower continuous current carrying ability due to
heating factors.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
131
APPENDIX
Table 13, Recommended Minimum AC Wire Sizes (75° C)
•
INVERTER
MODEL
FULL
PASS-THRU
CAPABILITY
FUSE/BREAKER
REQUIRED
CABLE SIZE
REQUIRED
IN CONDUIT
CABLE SIZE
REQUIRED
IN “FREE AIR”*
105-120 VAC
UNITS
60 amps
60 amps
# 6 AWG (THHN)
# 8 AWG (THHN)
220-240 VAC
UNITS
30 amps
30 amps
# 10 AWG (THHN)
# 10 AWG (THHN)
The term "free air" is defined by the NEC as cabling that is not enclosed in conduit or a raceway.
Cables enclosed in raceways or conduits have substantially lower continuous current carrying ability
due to heating factors.
Table 14, Knockout/Hole Size to Conduit Size Required
KNOCKOUT OR HOLE
DIAMETER
TRADE SIZE OF CONDUIT
INCHES
MM
INCHES
7/8 (.875)
22.2
½
1 3/32 (1.093)
27.8
¾
1 23/64 (1.359)
34.5
1
1 23/32 (1.719)
43.7
1¼
1 31/32 (1.968)
50.0
1½
2 15/32 (2.468)
62.7
2
3
76.2
2½
Table 15, Safety Ground Wire Size Table
The ground wire should be sized per NEC 250-95. The following table is derived from this portion of the
NEC code.
Battery DC Disconnect Size
Page
132
Minimum Size of Copper
Ground Wire
30 Amp or 60 Amp
#10 AWG
100 Amp
#8 AWG
200 Amp
#6 AWG
300+ Amps
#2 AWG or greater
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
APPENDIX
Storage Checklist
If the SW Series Inverter/Charger is used in a vehicular application such as a motor coach, truck, or
boat, certain steps must be taken prior to seasonal storage. These steps are especially important for
maintaining batteries as well as ensuring the automatic generator function, if installed, is disabled.
Preparation for Storage
Interior Storage
•
Check that all batteries are fully charged.
•
Press the SW Inverter/Charger’s green, GEN MENU pushbutton to access the
SET GENERATOR menu. Select OFF to disable the auto generator start feature.
•
Configure the vehicle’s electrical system for the correct shore power service settings.
•
Connect the vehicle’s shore power cord to a properly rated receptacle (confirm it is live).
•
Press the SW Inverter/Charger’s red, ON/OFF MENU pushbutton to access the
SET INV menu. Select CHG to put the unit into the charger only mode.
•
Switch OFF all unnecessary AC and DC loads.
WARNING: DO NOT STORE THE VEHICLE INDOORS WITH THE AUTO GEN START
FEATURE ENABLED. GENERATORS EXHAUST DANGEROUS FUMES WHEN RUNNING.
Exterior Storage
For exterior storage, follow the same steps as above. If shore power is not available, enable the AutoGen Start feature and ensure there is enough fuel available to run the generator for charging the batteries.
The generator will automatically start and stop, depending on the batteries’ state-of-charge.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
133
APPENDIX
Page
134
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
WARRANTY/REPAIR INFORMATION
WARRANTY/REPAIR INFORMATION
LIMITED WARRANTY
Xantrex Technology Inc. warrants its power products against defects in materials and workmanship for a
period of two (2) years from the date of purchase and extends this warranty to all purchasers or owners of the
product during the warranty period. This warranty is void under the following circumstances:
(1)
improper and/or unauthorized repair not provided by Xantrex Technology Inc., or its Authorized
Service Centers;
(2)
when the product is installed or exposed or exposed to an unsuitable environment as evidenced
by generalized corrosion or biological infestation;
(3)
abnormal use of the product or use in violation of the instructions;
(4)
when used as a component parts of a product expressly warranted by another manufacturer.
Xantrex Technology Inc., agrees to supply all parts and labor or repair or replace defects covered by this
warranty with parts or products of original or improved design, at the company’s option. Xantrex
Technology Inc., also reserves the right to improve the design of its products without obligation to modify
or upgrade those previously manufactured. Defective products must be returned to Xantrex Technology
Inc., or its Authorized Service Center in the original packaging. The cost of transportation and insurance
on items returned for service is the responsibility of the customer.
All remedies and the measure of damages are limited to the above. Xantrex Technology Inc., shall in no
event be liable for consequential, incidental, contingent, or special damages, even if Xantrex Technology Inc.,
has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Any and all other warranties, expressed or implied,
arising by law, course of dealing, course of performance, usage of trade or otherwise, including, but not
limited to, implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are limited in duration for
a period of two (2) years from the original date of purchase.
Some countries or states do not allow limitations on the term of an implied warranty, or the exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damage, which means the limitations and exclusions of this
warranty, may not apply to you. Even though this warranty gives you specific legal rights, you may also
have other rights that vary from state to state.
WARRANTY REGISTRATION
Complete the warranty card and mail it to Xantrex Technology Inc., within 10 days from the date of
purchase. keep your bill of sale as proof of purchase, should any difficulties arise concerning the
registration of the warranty card.
Warranty Registration is tracked by model and serial numbers only, not by owner’s name. Therefore, any
correspondence or inquiries made to Xantrex Technology Inc., must include the model and serial number
of the product in question.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
As a general policy, Xantrex Technology Inc., does not recommend the use of any of its products in life
support applications where failure or malfunction of the Trace Engineering product can be reasonably
expected to cause failure of the life support device or to significantly affect its safety or effectiveness.
Xantrex Technology Inc., does not recommend the use of any of its products in direct patient care.
Xantrex Technology Inc., will not knowingly sell its products for use in such applications unless it receives
in writing assurances satisfactory to Xantrex Technology Inc., that (a) the risks of injury or damage have
been minimized, (b) the customer assumes all such risks, and the liability of Xantrex Technology Inc., is
adequately protected under the circumstances
Examples of devices considered to be life support devices are neonatal oxygen analyzers, nerve
stimulators (whether used for anesthesia, pain relief, or other purposes), autotransfusion devices, blood
pumps, defibrillators, arrhythmia detectors and alarms, pacemakers, hemodialysis systems, peritoneal
dialysis systems, neonatal ventilator incubators, ventilators for both adults and infants, anesthesia
ventilators, and infusion pumps as well as any other devices designated as “critical” by the U.S. FDA.
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
135
WARRANTY/REPAIR INFORMATION
WARRANTY OR REPAIR SERVICE REQUIRED
If your product needs repair at the factory, it must be shipped fully insured in the original packaging or
equivalent (shipping damage is not covered under warranty and will likely delay the repair and return of
your unit). The shipper will not accept any damage claims – even if insured - on products damaged
through improper packaging (i.e., peanuts, soft foam, undersized boxes, etc.). If possible, avoid sending
products through the mail.
Warranty or repair service should be performed only at an Authorized Xantrex Service Center, or at the
Xantrex Technologies factory. Unauthorized service performed on any Trace™ product will void the
existing warranty.
You must notify Xantrex Technology Inc., before returning any equipment for repair. To obtain an RMA
(Return Merchandise Authorization number, please contact our Warranty Coordinator at:
Phone: 360-435-8826
Fax: 360-474-0616
Email: tracewarranty@traceengineering.com
Please provide:
Model Number: _____________________________
Serial Number: _____________________________
Purchase Date: _____________________________
Problem: __________________________________
.
Ship the item for repair to:
Trace Engineering Company, Inc.
Attn: Service Department.
RMA # ___________
th
5916 195 NE
Arlington, WA 98223
Be sure to include in the package:
1. Complete return shipping address (P.O. Box numbers are not acceptable) and telephone number
where you can be reached during work hours.
2. A detailed description of any problems experienced, including the make and model numbers of any
other equipment in the system, types and sizes of loads, operating environment, time of unit operation
and temperature.
3. If your unit has not been registered, a copy of your proof of purchase or (purchase receipt) is required
for Warranty repair.
Repaired products will be returned freight C.O.D., unless sufficient return shipment funds are included
with the unit.
Products sent to the factory from outside the U.S. must include return freight funds, and sender is fully
responsible for all customs documents, duties, tariffs, and deposits.
Record the model and serial numbers on your product and retain for your files.
Page
136
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INDEX
INDEX
Absorption Time ..............................................................100
AC Inputs, Menu (11) ........................................................48
AC Pass Through Ability....................................................18
AC Safety Ground .............................................................14
AC Side .............................................................................12
AC Source Wired To Output, Menu ( 5).............................42
AC Terminal Block.............................................................13
AC Wiring ..........................................................................18
AC Input Connections....................................................18
AC Output Connections .................................................18
Installation Guidelines ...................................................20
AC1 In Good LED..............................................................11
AC1 Relay Indicator...........................................................13
AC2 In Good LED..............................................................11
Automatic Generator Control Mode .............................61, 73
Generator Auto Start Requirements...............................76
Three Wire Start Generators .....................................77
Two Wire Start Generators ........................................76
Generator Control Sequence .........................................78
Equalization Charging................................................80
Generator Error Causes.............................................79
Generator Stop Cool Down Period.............................79
Generator Exercising .....................................................75
Generator Start/Stop Configurations..............................75
Generator Starting Scenarios ........................................74
Automatic ..................................................................74
Manual.......................................................................75
Aux and Gen Control Relays .............................................14
Aux Relays ............................................................ 14, 25, 89
Auxiliary Relays, Menu (14) ...............................................51
AWG ...............................................................................132
AWG to Metric Wire Conversion......................................130
AWG Wire Size ...............................................................131
Sizing ............................................................................ 22
Battery Charging
Absorption Time............................................................ 54
Absorption Time................................................ 64, 67, 87
AC Input Requirements................................................. 65
Bulk Charging .......... 45, 53, 55, 64, 67, 69, 82, 83, 87, 90
Bulk Voltage................................................................ 104
Charge Rate................................................................ 104
Charger Only Operation ................................................ 65
Charging Setpoints................................................ 67, 104
Equalization Charging ........ 38, 47, 67, 68, 79, 80, 97, 104
Float Charging .....................................47, 65, 87, 97, 104
Float Voltage ............................................................... 104
Max Charge Amps ...................................................... 104
Multiple Inverters........................................................... 97
Charger Settings ....................................................... 97
Recommended Battery Charger Settings ...................... 66
Selecting Battery Type .................................................. 48
State of Charge........................................................... 105
Temperature Compensation......................................... 104
Battery Charging, Menu (10) ............................................. 47
Battery Overvoltage Protection ......................................... 89
Battery Selling..................................................54, 83, 86, 87
Battery Selling, Menu (17)................................................. 54
Battery Sizing.......................................................... 101, 102
Example...................................................................... 102
Worksheet .................................................................. 103
Battery TempComp Volts DC, Menu ( 4)........................... 40
Battery Temperature Sensor (BTS)................................... 97
Battery Terminals.............................................................. 14
Bonding The Grounding System ....................................... 26
BTS Port ........................................................................... 13
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer............. 55, 64, 69, 82, 83, 87, 90
Bulk Charge Trigger Timer, Menu (15) .............................. 53
Bulk Charging .............. 45, 53, 55, 64, 67, 69, 82, 83, 87, 90
Bulk LED........................................................................... 11
B
C
Battery...............................................................................99
Amphour Usage.............................................................101
Battery Type
Deep Cycle Battery....................................................99
Absorbed Glass Mat ............................................100
AGM ....................................................................100
Gel Cell................................................................100
Maintenance Free................................................100
Non-sealed Lead Acid ...........................................99
Sealed Lead Acid ................................................100
NiCad/NiFe Battery..................................................100
Starting Battery..........................................................99
Care And Maintenance ................................................104
Enclosure ....................................................................106
Hook Up Configurations...............................................107
Parallel Connection..................................................108
Series Connection ...................................................107
Series-Parallel Connection ......................................108
Hydrogen Sulfide Gas....................................................17
Installation ...................................................................106
Monthly Maintenance...................................................105
Polarity ...........................................................................24
Temperature................................................................106
Terminals ......................................................................14
Battery Actual Volts DC, Menu ( 4) ....................................40
Battery Cable
Battery To Inverter Cabling ..........................................106
Cable Inductance.........................................................110
Cable Size vs. Cable Length.................................. 22, 131
Connections ..................................................................24
Installation Procedure ....................................................24
Maximum Breaker/Fuse Size.......................................131
C12 Charge Controller .................................................... 129
C40 Multi-Function Controller.......................................... 129
Charger Mode ................................................................... 61
AC Input Requirements................................................. 65
Charger Only Operation ................................................ 65
Recommended Battery Charger Settings ...................... 66
Circuit Breaker
Inverter/Charger ............................................................ 12
Compressors ........................................ See Inductive Loads
Conduit ............................................................................. 20
Conduit Box (SWCB) ................................................ 23, 128
Conduit Connectors .......................................................... 20
CONTRAST Control.......................................................... 10
Control Panel ...................................................................... 9
CONTRAST Control...................................................... 10
Display ............................................................................ 9
LED Status Indicators ................................................... 10
AC1 In Good ............................................................. 11
AC2 In Good ............................................................. 11
Bulk........................................................................... 11
Error.......................................................................... 11
Float.......................................................................... 11
Inverting .................................................................... 10
Line Tie ..................................................................... 10
Overcurrent ............................................................... 11
Menu Buttons................................................................ 10
GEN MENU Button ................................................... 10
Menu Access/Adjustment Buttons............................. 10
MENU HEADING Buttons ......................................... 10
MENU ITEM Buttons................................................. 10
ON/OFF MENU Button.............................................. 10
SET POINTS Buttons ............................................... 10
A
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
137
INDEX
RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS Button ................... 10
Control Wiring ................................................................... 25
Aux Relay Wiring........................................................... 25
Fusing ............................................................... 25, 74, 89
Gen Control Relays ....................................................... 25
Remote Control Wiring.................................................. 25
Input Amps AC, Menu ( 4) .............................................40
Inverter Volts AC, Menu ( 4) ..........................................40
Inverter/Charger Amps AC, Menu ( 4)............................40
Load Amps AC, Menu ( 4) .............................................40
Read Frequency Hertz, Menu ( 4)..................................41
Software Revision, Menu ( 3).........................................39
D
E
DC Disconnect And Overcurrent Protection ...................... 23
DC Ground........................................................................ 14
DC Side ............................................................................ 14
DC Wiring ......................................................................... 22
Battery Cable Connections............................................ 24
Battery Cable Sizing...................................................... 22
Default Setting
End Charge Time, Menu (18) ........................................ 54
End Quiet Time, Menu ( 7) ............................................ 43
R 9 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14).............................. 52
R10 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14)............................. 52
R11 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14)............................. 52
Read 30 Sec LBCO Start VDC, Menu (12).................... 49
Set 15 Min Start Volts DC, Menu (12) ........................... 49
Set 2 Hr Start Volts DC, Menu (12) ............................... 49
Set 24 Hr Start Volts DC, Menu (12) ............................. 49
Set Absorption Time, Menu (10).................................... 47
Set Aux Relay 9 Volts DC, Menu (14) .......................... 52
Set Aux Relay 10 Volts DC, Menu (14).......................... 52
Set Aux Relay 11 Volts DC, Menu (14).......................... 52
Set Battery Sell Volts DC, Menu (17) ............................ 54
Set Bulk Volts DC, Menu (10) ....................................... 47
Set Clock Hours, Menu ( 6) ........................................... 43
Set Clock Minute, Menu ( 6).......................................... 43
Set Clock Second, Menu ( 6) ........................................ 43
Set Equalize Time, Menu (10) ....................................... 47
Set Equalize Volts DC, Menu (10)................................. 47
Set Exercise Period Days, Menu (12)............................ 50
Set Float Volts DC, Menu (10)....................................... 47
Set Gen (AC2) Amps AC, Menu (11)............................. 48
Set Gen Warmup Seconds, Menu (13) ......................... 50
Set Generator, Menu ( 2) .............................................. 37
Set Grid (AC1) Amps AC, Menu (11)............................. 48
Set Grid Usage, Menu ( 9) ............................................ 45
Set High Battery Cut Out VDC, Menu ( 9) ..................... 46
Set Input Lower Limit VAC, Menu (11) .......................... 48
Set Input Upper Limit VAC, Menu (11) .......................... 48
Set Inverter, Menu ( 1) .................................................. 37
Set LBCO Delay Minutes, Menu ( 9) ............................. 46
Set Load Start Amps AC, Menu (12) ............................. 49
Set Load Start Delay Min, Menu (12) ............................ 49
Set Load Stop Delay Min, Menu (12)............................. 49
Set Low Battery Cut in VDC, Menu ( 9) ......................... 46
Set Low Battery Cut In VDC, Menu (16) ........................ 53
Set Low Battery Cut Out VDC, Menu ( 9) ...................... 46
Set Low Battery Transfer VDC, Menu (16) .................... 53
Set Max Charge Amps AC, Menu (10) .......................... 48
Set Max Cranking Seconds, Menu (13) ......................... 51
Set Max Sell Amps AC, Menu (17)................................ 54
Set Maximum Run Time, Menu (12).............................. 50
Set Post Crank Seconds, Menu (13) ............................. 51
Set Pre Crank Seconds, Menu (13)............................... 51
Set RY7 Function, Menu (13) ........................................ 50
Set Search Spacing, Menu ( 9) ..................................... 46
Set Search Watts, Menu ( 9)......................................... 46
Set Temp Comp, Menu (10).......................................... 48
Start Bulk Time, Menu (15) ........................................... 53
Start Charge Time, Menu (18)....................................... 54
Start Quiet Time, Menu ( 7)........................................... 43
Dimensions ..................................................................... 120
Display
Battery Actual Volts DC, Menu ( 4)................................ 40
Battery TempComp Volts DC, Menu ( 4) ....................... 40
Generator (AC2) Volts AC, Menu ( 4)............................ 41
Grid (AC1) Volts AC, Menu ( 4) ..................................... 41
End Charge Time .................................................. 86, 87, 90
End Charge Time, Menu (18) ............................................54
End Quiet Time, Menu ( 7) ................................................43
Energy Management Mode..........................................61, 94
Equalization Charging............ 38, 47, 67, 68, 79, 80, 97, 104
Equalizing Batteries...........................................................67
Equipment Or Chassis Grounds ........................................26
Error Causes
AC Source Wired To Output, Menu ( 5) .........................42
Exercise Start Ready, Menu ( 2) ....................................39
External Error (Stacked), Menu ( 5) ...............................42
Gen Max Run Time........................................................50
Gen Max Run Time Error, Menu ( 2)..............................38
Gen Under/Over Speed, Menu ( 2) ................................38
Generator Start Error, Menu ( 2) ....................................38
Generator Start Error, Menu ( 5) ....................................42
Generator Sync Error, Menu ( 2)....................................38
Generator Sync Error, Menu ( 5)....................................42
Generator Under/Over Speed, Menu ( 5) .......................42
Heatsink Overtemp, Menu ( 5).......................................41
High Battery Voltage, Menu ( 5).....................................42
Inverter Breaker Tripped, Menu ( 5) ...............................43
Load Start Amps Ready, Menu ( 2)................................39
Low Battery Voltage, Menu ( 5)......................................42
Overcurrent, Menu ( 5)...................................................41
Transformer Overtemp, Menu ( 5) .................................41
Voltage Start Ready, Menu ( 2)......................................39
Error Causes, Menu ( 5) ....................................................41
Error LED .................................................. 11, 38, 41, 66, 79
Estimating Battery Requirements ....................................101
Exercise Period ............................................... 39, 43, 50, 75
Exercise Start Ready, Menu ( 2) ........................................39
External Error (Stacked), Menu ( 5) ...................................42
External Transfer Relays ...................................................20
Page
138
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
F
Float Charging ......................................... 47, 65, 87, 97, 104
Float LED ..........................................................................11
FLT mode .............................................................. 45, 53, 54
Frequency Tolerance.........................................................66
Fuse Block (TFB) ..............................................................23
Fuses and Disconnects ...................................................129
Battery Cable Disconnect/Breaker Rating......................23
G
Gen Auto Start Setup, Menu (12) ......................................49
Gen Control Relays ............................................... 14, 25, 74
Gen Max Run Time Error...................................................79
Gen Max Run Time Error, Menu ( 2)..................................38
GEN MENU Button............................................................10
Gen Size Amps AC Setting................................................72
Gen Starting Details, Menu (13) ........................................50
Gen Under/Over Speed .....................................................79
Gen Under/Over Speed, Menu ( 2) ....................................38
General Precautions ............................................................1
Generator
120/240 VAC Generators...............................................72
Automatic Control...........................................................78
Automatic Start...................................... 68, 71, 77, 79, 97
With Multiple Inverters ...............................................97
Automatic Start/Stop......................................................73
Control...........................................................................51
Control Relays ..........................................................50, 74
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INDEX
Cool Down Period....................................................75, 79
Equalization Charging...................... 38, 47, 68, 79, 80, 97
Exercise Period .............................................................50
Frequency ...............................................................38, 42
Gen Control Wiring ........................................................25
Maximum Run Time ......................................................50
Spin Up .........................................................................31
Start Routines.................................................... 50, 75, 76
Start Status ...................................................................39
Starting and Stopping ....................................................37
Status ............................................................................37
Three Wire Start ............................................................77
Two Wire Start...............................................................76
Warm-up time................................................................66
Generator (AC2) Volts AC, Menu ( 4) ................................41
Generator Auto Start Requirements ..................................76
Two Wire Start Generators ............................................76
Generator Control Sequence .............................................78
Equalization Charging....................................................80
Generator Error Causes ................................................79
Generator Max Run Time ..............................................79
Generator Stop Cool Down Period.................................79
Generator Error Causes ....................................................79
Gen Max Run Time Error...............................................79
Gen Under/Over Speed .................................................79
Generator Start Error .....................................................79
Generator Sync Error.....................................................79
Generator Exercising .........................................................75
Generator Max Run Time ..................................................79
Generator Mode, Menu ( 2) ...............................................37
Generator Start Error.........................................................79
Generator Start Error, Menu ( 2)........................................38
Generator Start Error, Menu ( 5)........................................42
Generator Start/Stop Configurations..................................75
Generator Starting Scenarios ............................................74
Automatic ......................................................................74
Manual...........................................................................75
Generator Stop Cool Down Period.....................................79
Generator Support Mode .............................................61, 71
Generator Support/Overload Protection.............................72
Generator Sync Error.........................................................79
Generator Sync Error, Menu ( 2)........................................38
Generator Sync Error, Menu ( 5)........................................42
Generator Timer, Menu ( 7) ...............................................43
Generator Under/Over Speed, Menu ( 5)...........................42
GFI (Ground Fault Interrupt) ..............................................21
Grid (AC1) Volts AC, Menu ( 4) .........................................41
Grid Usage Timer ...................................... 54, 69, 83, 86, 90
Grid Usage Timer, Menu (18) ............................................54
Ground Fault Interrupt (GFI) ..............................................21
Grounding..........................................................................26
Grounding Electrodes/Ground Rods ..................................26
Grounding Vs. Lightning ....................................................29
H
Heatsink Overtemp, Menu ( 5)...........................................41
High Battery Voltage, Menu ( 5).........................................42
I
Identification Label...............................................................7
Induced Voltage ..............................................................110
Inductive Loads ...............................................................111
Information Display
Menu ( 1) Inverter Mode ................................................37
Menu ( 2) Generator Mode ............................................39
Menu ( 3) Trace Engineering .........................................39
Menu ( 4) Meters ...........................................................41
Menu ( 7) Generator Timer ............................................43
Menu (12) Gen Auto Start Setup ...................................50
Menu (14) Auxiliary Relays ............................................52
Menu (15) Bulk Charge Trigger Timer............................53
Menu (16) Low Battery Transfer ....................................53
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Menu (17) Battery Selling.............................................. 54
Menu (18) Grid Usage Timer......................................... 55
Menu (19) Information File Battery ................................ 55
Information File Battery, Menu (19) ................................... 55
Input Amps AC, Menu ( 4)................................................. 40
Input Lower Limit VAC ...................................................... 48
Input Requirements
AC Current .................................................................... 66
AC Voltage.................................................................... 65
Delay Period ................................................................. 66
Frequency..................................................................... 66
Installation Diagrams ...................................................... 121
Internal LED Indicators...................................................... 13
AC1 Relay Indicator ...................................................... 13
RY7 Indicator ................................................................ 13
RY8 Indicator ................................................................ 13
Inverter
Unpacking..................................................................... 17
Inverter Breaker Tripped, Menu ( 5) .................................. 43
Inverter Mode.............................................................. 61, 62
Low Battery Protection .................................................. 63
Search Mode................................................................. 62
Theory of Operation ...................................................... 57
Block Diagram........................................................... 57
Output Waveform...................................................... 58
Inverter Mode, Menu ( 1)................................................... 37
Inverter Setup, Menu ( 9) .................................................. 45
Inverter Ventilation ............................................................ 18
Inverter Volts AC, Menu ( 4).............................................. 40
Inverter/Charger
Circuit Breaker .............................................................. 12
Inverter/Charger Amps AC, Menu ( 4)............................... 40
Inverter/Charger Mode ................................................ 61, 69
Transfer Time ............................................................... 70
Transferring Based On Battery Voltage......................... 69
Transferring Upon Availability Of AC Power .................. 69
Inverter/Charger Terminology.......................................... 115
Inverting LED .................................................................... 10
Islanding Protection .......................................................... 84
K
Knockout/Hole Size To Conduit Size............................... 132
L
LED Status Indicators ....................................................... 10
AC1 In Good ................................................................. 11
AC2 In Good ................................................................. 11
Bulk............................................................................... 11
Error.............................................................................. 11
Float.............................................................................. 11
Inverting .................................................................. 10, 31
Line Tie ......................................................................... 10
Overcurrent ................................................................... 11
Life Support Policy .......................................................... 135
Lightning ........................................................................... 29
Line Tie LED ..................................................................... 10
Load Amps AC, Menu ( 4)................................................. 40
Load Start Amps Ready, Menu ( 2) ................................... 39
Loads: 240 VAC.......................................................... 72, 95
Location ............................................................................ 17
Locked Rotor Amps ........................................................ 111
Low Battery Cut Out VDC ................................49, 53, 63, 94
Adjustment.................................................................... 63
Low Battery Protection ...................................................... 63
Low Battery Transfer Mode ......................................... 45, 61
Low Battery Transfer, Menu (16)....................................... 53
Low Battery Voltage, Menu ( 5) ......................................... 42
M
Max Charge Amps ...................................................... 87, 93
Max Sell Amps .................................................................. 86
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
139
INDEX
Menu ( 1) Inverter Mode .................................................... 37
Menu ( 2) Generator Mode ................................................ 37
Menu ( 3) Trace Engineering............................................. 39
Menu ( 4) Meters............................................................... 40
Menu ( 5) Error Causes..................................................... 41
Menu ( 6) Time of Day ...................................................... 43
Menu ( 7) Generator Timer................................................ 43
Menu ( 9) Inverter Setup ................................................... 45
Menu (10) Battery Charging .............................................. 47
Menu (11) AC Inputs ......................................................... 48
Menu (12) Gen Auto Start Setup ....................................... 49
Menu (13) Gen Starting Details ......................................... 50
Menu (14) Auxiliary Relays................................................ 51
Menu (15) Bulk Charge Trigger Timer ............................... 53
Menu (16) Low Battery Transfer ........................................ 53
Menu (17) Battery Selling.................................................. 54
Menu (18) Grid Usage Timer............................................. 54
Menu (19) Information File Battery .................................... 55
Menu Buttons.................................................................... 10
GEN MENU Button ....................................................... 10
Menu Access/Adjustment Buttons................................. 10
MENU HEADING Buttons ............................................. 10
MENU ITEM Buttons..................................................... 10
ON/OFF MENU Button.................................................. 10
SET POINTS Buttons.................................................... 10
MENU HEADING Buttons ................................................. 10
Menu Headings
Setup Menu................................................................... 44
User Menu .................................................................... 36
MENU ITEM Buttons......................................................... 10
Menu Map
Setup Menu................................................................... 35
User Menu .................................................................... 34
Meters, Menu ( 4).............................................................. 40
Model Identification ............................................................. 7
Model Number .................................................................... 7
Mounting ........................................................................... 17
Multiple Inverter Stacking Port .......................................... 12
Multiple Inverters............................................................... 95
Automatic Generator Control......................................... 97
Battery Charging ........................................................... 97
Charger Settings ....................................................... 97
Parallel Stacked Operation............................................ 96
Generator Control Settings........................................ 96
Series Stacked Operation ............................................. 95
240 VAC Input/Output Breaker.................................. 95
240 VAC Only Systems............................................. 96
N
NEC code ....................................................................... 132
Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching................................... 27
External AC Source Connected..................................... 28
RV And Marine Applications.......................................... 27
O
ON/OFF MENU Button...................................................... 10
Options ........................................................................... 128
Remote Control ........................................................... 128
SineWave Communications Adapter........................... 128
SWCA......................................................................... 128
SWRC......................................................................... 128
Other Products................................................................ 129
C12 Charge Controller ................................................ 129
C40 Multi-Function Controller...................................... 129
Overcurrent Protection ................................................ 129
SW Series Power Panel Systems ............................... 129
T240 Transformer ....................................................... 129
TM500 Trace Meter (Battery Status Monitor)............... 129
Over-Current Device ......................................................... 24
Overcurrent LED ............................................................... 11
Overcurrent Protection .................................................... 129
Overcurrent, Menu ( 5) ...................................................... 41
Page
140
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
P
Parallel Stacked Operation ................................................96
Generator Control Settings ............................................96
Peak Load Shaving Mode..................................................61
Personal Precautions ..........................................................3
Power Consumption Of Common Appliances ..................130
Power Vs. Efficiency..........................................................59
Press Reset Now For Defaults, Menu ( 3)..........................39
Q
Quick Install.......................................................................16
AC In Cabling ................................................................16
AC Out Cabling..............................................................16
DC Cabling ....................................................................16
Mounting........................................................................16
Wrap Up ........................................................................16
R
R 9 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14) ..................................52
R10 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14) .................................52
R11 Hysteresis Volts DC, Menu (14) .................................52
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) ..................................17
Read 30 Sec LBCO Start VDC, Menu (12) ........................49
Read Frequency Hertz, Menu ( 4)......................................41
Recommended Minimum AC Wire Sizes.........................132
Remote Control (SWRC) .................................................128
Remote Port ......................................................................12
Repair Required ..............................................................135
RESET TO FACTORY DEFAULTS Button........................10
Resistive Loads ...............................................................111
Reverse Polarity ..........................................................14, 24
RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) ..................................17
RY7 Indicator.....................................................................13
RY8 Indicator.....................................................................13
S
Safety Instructions ...............................................................1
General Precautions ........................................................1
Personal Precautions.......................................................3
Special Notices................................................................2
Search.............................................................................112
Search Mode .....................................................................62
Sell Mode .................................................. 45, 54, 66, 70, 84
Input Amps AC ..............................................................40
SELL Mode........................................................................54
Selling Power.....................................................................85
From A DC Charging Source .........................................85
Stored In The Batteries..................................................86
Serial Number .............................................................7, 135
Series Stacked Operation..................................................95
240 VAC Input/Output Breaker ......................................95
240 VAC Only Systems .................................................96
Set 15 Min Start Volts DC, Menu (12)................................49
Set 2 Hr Start Volts DC, Menu (12)....................................49
Set 24 Hr Start Volts DC, Menu (12)..................................49
Set Absorption Time, Menu (10) ........................................47
Set Aux Relay 9 Volts DC, Menu (14)...............................52
Set Aux Relay 10 Volts DC, Menu (14) ..............................52
Set Aux Relay 11 Volts DC, Menu (14) ..............................52
Set Battery Sell Volts DC, Menu (17).................................54
Set Bulk Volts DC, Menu (10)............................................47
Set Clock Hours, Menu ( 6) ...............................................43
Set Clock Minute, Menu ( 6) ..............................................43
Set Clock Second, Menu ( 6).............................................43
Set Equalize Time, Menu (10) ...........................................47
Set Equalize Volts DC, Menu (10) .....................................47
Set Exercise Period Days, Menu (12) ................................50
Set Float Volts DC, Menu (10) ...........................................47
Set Gen (AC2) Amps AC, Menu (11) .................................48
Set Gen Warmup Seconds, Menu (13)..............................50
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
INDEX
Set Generator, Menu ( 2)...................................................37
Set Grid (AC1) Amps AC, Menu (11).................................48
Set Grid Usage, Menu ( 9).................................................45
Set High Battery Cut Out VDC, Menu ( 9)..........................46
Set Input Lower Limit VAC..................................... 71, 72, 73
Set Input Lower Limit VAC, Menu (11)...............................48
Set Input Upper Limit VAC ..........................................71, 73
Set Input Upper Limit VAC, Menu (11)...............................48
Set Inverter, Menu ( 1).......................................................37
Set LBCO Delay Minutes, Menu ( 9)..................................46
Set Load Start Amps AC, Menu (12) .................................49
Set Load Start Delay Min, Menu (12).................................49
Set Load Stop Delay Min, Menu (12) .................................49
Set Low Battery Cut in VDC, Menu ( 9) .............................46
Set Low Battery Cut In VDC, Menu (16) ............................53
Set Low Battery Cut Out VDC, Menu ( 9)...........................46
Set Low Battery Transfer VDC, Menu (16).........................53
Set Max Charge Amps.................................................66, 70
Set Max Charge Amps AC, Menu (10)...............................48
Set Max Charge Amps Setting...........................................64
Set Max Cranking Seconds, Menu (13) .............................51
Set Max Sell Amps AC, Menu (17) ....................................54
Set Maximum Run Time, Menu (12) ..................................50
SET POINTS Buttons ........................................................10
Set Post Crank Seconds, Menu (13) .................................51
Set Pre Crank Seconds, Menu (13) ...................................51
Set RY7 Function, Menu (13) ............................................50
Set Search Spacing, Menu ( 9)..........................................46
Set Search Watts, Menu ( 9) .............................................46
Set Temp Comp, Menu (10) ..............................................48
Setup Menu .......................................................................44
Menu (14) Auxiliary Relays ............................................51
Menu (15) Bulk Charge Trigger Timer............................53
Menu Headings .............................................................44
Menu Map .....................................................................35
Silent (SLT) Mode........................................................45, 82
SineWave Communications Adapter (SWCA) .................128
SLT (Silent) Mode........................................................45, 82
Software Revision......................................................1, 5, 96
Software Revision, Menu ( 3).............................................39
Special Notices....................................................................2
Specifications and Features .................................... 118, 119
50 Hz Models...............................................................119
60 Hz Models...............................................................118
Stacking - Parallel .............................................................96
Stacking - Series ...............................................................95
Stacking Inverters (120/240 VAC) ...............................72, 95
Stacking Port .....................................................................12
Start Bulk Time, Menu (15)................................................53
Start Charge Time ................................................. 86, 87, 90
Start Charge Time, Menu (18) ...........................................54
Start Quiet Time, Menu ( 7) ...............................................43
SW Series Power Panel Systems....................................129
SWCA .............................................................................128
Remote Monitoring ......................................................128
Remote Setup .............................................................128
Remote Troubleshooting .............................................128
SWCB (Conduit Box)................................................. 23, 128
SWRC .............................................................................128
System Grounding.............................................................26
Bonding The Grounding System ....................................26
Equipment Or Chassis Grounds ....................................26
Grounding Electrodes/Ground Rods ..............................26
Grounding Vs. Lightning ................................................29
Neutral-To-Ground Bond Switching ...............................27
T
T240 Transformer............................................................129
TFB (Fuse Block) ..............................................................23
Theory of Operation...........................................................57
Block Diagram ...............................................................57
Output Waveform ..........................................................58
Three Wire Start Generators .............................................77
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Time of Day Metering............................................ 90, 92, 94
Time of Day, Menu ( 6) ..................................................... 43
Torque
Wire Connections.......................................................... 20
Trace Engineering Menu, ( 3)............................................ 39
Trace Meter (TM500) ...................................................... 129
Transfer Time ....................................................... 20, 70, 81
Inverter/Charger Mode .................................................. 70
Transferring Based On Battery Voltage
Inverter/Charger Mode .................................................. 69
Transferring Upon Availability Of AC Power
Inverter/Charger Mode .................................................. 69
Transformer Overtemp, Menu ( 5)..................................... 41
Two Wire Start Generators ............................................... 76
U
Universal motors ................................... See Inductive Loads
Unpacking......................................................................... 17
User Menu ........................................................................ 36
Menu Headings ............................................................. 36
Menu Map ..................................................................... 34
User Settings Worksheet ................................................ 123
Setup Menu – 12 VDC ................................................ 124
Setup Menu – 24 VDC ................................................ 125
Setup Menu – 48 VDC ................................................ 126
User Menu .................................................................. 123
Using Multiple Inverters..................................................... 95
Utility Back-Up ............................................................ 88, 92
Utility Back-Up Mode................................45, 61, 90, 94, 101
Battery Requirements ................................................... 82
Silent (SLT) Mode ......................................................... 82
SLT (Silent) Mode ......................................................... 82
Utility Support/Overload Protection ............................... 82
Utility Inter-Active Mode .............................................. 61, 83
Battery Overvoltage Protection...................................... 89
Islanding Protection ...................................................... 84
Selling Power ................................................................ 85
From A DC Charging Source .................................... 85
Stored In The Batteries ............................................. 86
Utility Back-Up .............................................................. 88
Utility Support/Overload Protection ................................... 82
V
Ventilation ......................................................................... 18
Voltage Start Ready, Menu ( 2)......................................... 39
W
Warning Label................................................................... 21
Warranty
Corrosion ...................................................................... 17
Generator...................................................................... 25
Not Covered...................................................... 24, 25, 51
Shipping Address........................................................ 136
Warranty Registration And Repair............................... 135
Well pumps........................................... See Inductive Loads
Inverter Surge .............................See Locked Rotor Amps
Wiring
AC Wiring ..................................................................... 18
AC Input Connections ............................................... 18
AC Output Connections ............................................ 18
Installation Guidelines ............................................... 20
Control Wiring ............................................................... 25
Aux Relay Wiring ...................................................... 25
Fusing ........................................................... 25, 74, 89
Gen Control Relays................................................... 25
Remote Control Wiring.............................................. 25
DC Wiring ..................................................................... 22
Battery Cable Connections........................................ 24
Battery Cable Sizing.................................................. 22
Worksheet
Battery Sizing.............................................................. 103
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
Page
141
INDEX
User Settings .............................................................. 123
Setup Menu – 12 VDC ............................................ 124
Setup Menu – 24 VDC ............................................ 125
Setup Menu – 48 VDC ............................................ 126
User Menu .............................................................. 123
Page
142
 2001 Xantrex Technology, Inc.
5916 - 195th Street N. E.
Arlington, WA 98223
Telephone: 360/435-8826
Fax: 360/435-2229
www.traceengineering.com
SW Series Inverter/Charger
Part No. 2031-5
Rev. C: February 2001
5916 - 195th Street N.E., Arlington, WA 98223
Phone: (360) 435-8826
visit our website at: www.traceengineering.com
Fax: (360) 435-2229
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