Grays Harbor College Accident Prevention Program

Grays Harbor College Accident Prevention Program
Grays Harbor College
Accident Prevention Program
1620 Eward P. Smith Drive
Aberdeen, Washington 98520
August 2011
Chapter 1
General Safety Policy & Procedures
The Campus Safety Policy
Grays Harbor College personnel believe in the dignity and importance of each individual employee and their
right to a safe and healthful working environment. Employee initiative and diligence in promoting this program
will reflect directly upon the conservation of the college's resources. The most effective influence on
employees will be the example and guidance of co-workers. In order to promote this belief, the following
statements constitute the safety and health policy for Grays Harbor College.
The prevention of accidents and the elimination of safety hazards is the inherent responsibility of every
individual employed at this institution.
Administrators and supervisors have an added responsibility to insure that safety training and education of
personnel is accomplished.
Campus organizational units must implement applicable sections of the campus’ accident prevention
program and the Washington Administrative Code emphasizing the integration of safety measures so that
safety and job performance become one.
Accident prevention activities will be reinforced by a systematic evaluation of ways to minimize physical
hazards within the workplace.
Location of the Safety Program
A copy of the entire Grays Harbor College Accident Prevention Program is located in the Security Office
(Room 2323), the Human Resources Services Office (Room 2307), and the Campus Operation’s office (700
Bldg.) and on line at the GHC web site. Employees need to be familiar with the Accident Prevention Program
contents and are encouraged to offer recommendations or suggestions for improving workplace safety.
Employees can submit recommendations or suggestions to their supervisor or any member of the safety
Administrative Responsibility
Grays Harbor College is responsible for establishing, supervising and enforcing in a manner that is
effective in practice:
A. A safe and healthful working environment.
B. An accident prevention program as required by WAC 296-307-030.
C. Training programs to improve the skill and competency of all employees in the field of occupational
safety and health. Such training will include on-the-job instructions on the safe use of powered
materials handling equipment, machine tool operations, use of toxic materials and operation of utility
systems prior to assignments to jobs involving such exposures and such training will be documented.
Provide for first-aid training and certification. Those employees trained in first-aid will also be required to
receive training in blood borne pathogens.
The Safety Committee has the overall responsibility for establishing, implementing and overseeing the campus
safety program. However, day to day implementation, oversight and monitoring is the responsibility of each
department head or supervisor and individual employees.
Employee's Responsibility
The term employee shall include all full-time, temporary, or part-time classified, staff, faculty or students
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employed by the college. It is the responsibility of every employee to:
Coordinate and cooperate with other employees in an attempt to eliminate accidents. Failure to observe
workplace safety and/or a demonstrated pattern of accidents may result in corrective action and/or
progressive discipline where appropriate.
Study and observe all safe work practices governing their work.
Employees should offer safety suggestions, wherein such suggestions may contribute to a safer work
Apply the principles of accident prevention in their daily work and use proper safety devices and protective
equipment as required by Grays Harbor College.
Properly care for all personal protective equipment.
Make a prompt report to their immediate supervisor of each industrial injury or occupational illness,
regardless of the degree of severity.
Report hazardous conditions (unsafe equipment, floors, etc.) and unsafe acts to supervisor and the campus
safety officer.
Observe all hazard warning and no smoking signs.
Keep aisles, walkways, and working areas clear of slipping/tripping hazards.
10. Know the location of fire/safety exits and evacuation procedures.
11. Keep all emergency equipment such as a fire extinguishers, fire alarms, exit doors, and stairways clear of
12. Not be under the influence of alcoholic beverages or drugs during working hours, when on college
business, or on college property.
13. Refrain from fighting, horseplay, or distracting fellow workers.
14. Operate only the equipment for which authorized and properly trained, and observe safe operating
procedures for this equipment.
15. Know the location of first-aid kits and spill kits in work areas.
16. Follow proper lifting procedures at all times.
17. Ride as a passenger in a vehicle only if it is equipped with a rider's seat.
18. Be alert to see that all guards and other protective devices are in their proper places prior to operating
19. Refrain from wearing frayed, torn, or loose-fitting clothing, jewelry, open toed shoes, or long unrestrained
hair near moving machinery or other sources of entanglement, or around electrical equipment.
20. Actively support and participate in the college's efforts to provide a safety program.
21. In order to insure the safety and health of themselves and other employees, an employee must promptly
report non work-related injuries, physical conditions, or other limitations that might adversely affect the
employee’s ability to safely perform work tasks. This also includes reporting to the supervisor, all
medications or physical restrictions prescribed to them by their physician that could affect the ability to
safely perform work tasks.
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22. See Appendix A for locations of eye wash stations, first-aid kits, spill kits, and CPR mouth protectors.
Employees will not operate any equipment that does not meet applicable codes and standards.
Campus Safety Committee
A safety committee has been established with representatives from faculty, staff, students and exempt
employees (the number of employee-elected members must equal or exceed the number of employer-selected
members) in order to assist in the detection and elimination of unsafe conditions and work procedures.
The committee will operate under the following guidelines:
A. The terms of the employee-elected members shall be one year. There is no limit to the number of
terms a representative can serve.
B. The frequency of meetings must be determined by the committee, but the committee shall meet at least
six times a year.
D. The chairperson shall be elected by members of the safety committee.
E. The date, hour, and location of meetings shall be determined by the committee.
F. The length of each meeting shall not exceed one hour except by majority vote.
G. Member attendance, subjects discussed, and documentation shall be maintained on file for a period of
one year. Copies of the minutes of committee meetings shall be provided to the members of the safety
committee and are available from the Chief of Campus Operations.
The committee or its designee will perform the following functions:
Assist in-house safety inspections.
Assist in accident investigation to uncover trends.
Review accident reports to determine means of eliminating repeated accidents.
Receive and evaluate employee suggestions.
Monitor the safety program effectiveness.
The committee will assist supervisors, as needed, in conducting inspections of their respective work areas
to determine what hazardous conditions and/or practices exist.
A. Inspections shall be conducted according to the following sources:
(1) College’s Accident Prevention Program.
(2) Employee suggestions.
(3) Previous accident experience of the college.
B. The supervisor shall follow-up committee recommendations in one of the following ways:
(1) Carrying out the recommendations.
(2) Explaining why no action can be taken.
(3) Proposing an alternative.
C. Findings of the inspection will be reviewed and discussed at the next scheduled safety committee
meeting. Unresolved problems resulting from this inspection will be forwarded through the safety
committee to the college president.
Accident Reporting, Investigating and Record Keeping
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Accident Reporting Procedures
All work-related injuries, illness, and/or property damage (regardless of the severity) must be reported by
the employee to the supervisor.
Physical Injuries - Employees
Get medical attention, if necessary, and have the assisting physician complete the appropriate forms
required for the Department of Labor and Industries.
Report accident to their supervisor.
Obtain an Occupational Injuiry/Accident Report form from the Human Resources Office (forms are
also available on-line). Complete and submit to immediate supervisor within two working days, if
If appropriate, complete leave slip and forward to Human Resources Office.
Physical Injuries - Students, Volunteers, Visitors
Get medical attention, if necessary.
Report accident to your supervisor, Chief of Campus Operations or Vice President for Student
Complete Incident Report (available on-line or from the Chief of Campus Operations or Vice
President for Student Services Office).
Vehicle Accidents
Accidents involving travel or vehicles should be reported to the proper law enforcement agency and the
standard Washington Motor Vehicle Collision Report filed with the appropriate agencies. A State of
Washington Vehicle Accident Report must be filed in the administrative services office within two
working days.
Property Accidents
Losses or claims involving district property or property of the general public shall be reported to the
administrative services office.
Reporting Other Limitations
In order to insure the safety and health of themselves and other employees, an employee must promptly
report non work-related injuries, physical conditions, or other limitations that might adversely affect the
employee’s ability to safely perform work tasks. This also includes reporting to the supervisor, all
medications or physical restrictions prescribed to them by their physician that could affect the ability to
safely perform work tasks.
Reporting of Fatality or Multiple Hospitalization Incidents
Within eight (8) hours after the fatality or probable fatality of any employee from a work-related incident
or inpatient hospitalization of an employee from a work-related incident, the administrative services
office will orally report the incident in person to the nearest office of the Department of Labor and
Industries, or by telephone using the OSHA toll-free central telephone number, 1-800 321-6742. If the
campus does not learn of the incident at the time it occurs, the campus will report the incident within
eight (8) hours of the report to a representative of the campus. This applies to each fatality or multiple
inpatient hospitalization that occurs within 30 days of the incident. Each report must include the
following information:
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Name of campus.
Location of the incident.
Time of the incident.
Number of fatalities or hospitalized employees.
Contact person & telephone number.
A brief description of the incident.
Preserving the Incident Scene
The first priority in every incident resulting in injury is the safety and health of the injured and all other
workers. While assisting the injured, care should be taken to preserve the incident scene intact as much
as possible to enable those investigating the incident to accurately determine the causes.
Reporting Near Misses
Near misses or close calls often precede incidents of a similar nature. Therefore, near misses or close
calls should be reported to the supervisor so corrective steps can be taken to prevent further occurrences.
Incident Investigations
An investigation of the cause of any incident that causes serious injuries, with immediate symptoms, will
be conducted as soon as possible after the emergency actions are completed. The investigation will be
conducted by the Chief of Campus Operations. The immediate supervisor of the injured employee,
witnesses, employee representative, and any other person with the special expertise required to evaluate
the facts relating to the cause of the incident. The findings of the investigation will be reviewed by the
safety committee and kept for further reference.
Record Keeping and Posting
Grays Harbor College maintains a record of occupational injuries and illnesses. Those injuries that are
recordable are entered onto OSHA 101 and 200 forms. Copies of the OSHA 200 form (with the names
of injured persons removed or concealed) will be posted annually, in the payroll office. Note:
Recordable cases include:
Every occupational death.
Every industrial illness.
Every occupational injury that involves one of the following:
Inability to perform all phases of regular job.
Inability to work full time on regular job.
Temporary assignment to another job.
Medical treatment beyond first-aid.
The Human Resource Office is responsible for posting and keeping posted the WISHA Poster, Job Safety
and Health Protection; form F416-081-000 furnished by the Division of Industrial Safety and Health,
Department of Labor and Industries. The posters will be placed in a conspicuous place where other
notices to employees are customarily posted. Appropriate steps will be taken by the safety officer to
assure that such notices are not altered, defaced, or covered by other materials.
Vehicle Accidents
In the event a state or college owned vehicle or a private vehicle of a person on state business is involved
in a traffic accident, the driver will take care of the accident scene and then promptly notify their
immediate supervisor or lead for further instructions. The supervisor/lead will then notify the Chief of
Campus Operations. No vehicle shall be moved from the scene until the police arrive, unless a greater
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hazard would be created by failure to remove said vehicle from the scene. The driver must remain at the
scene, may offer aid to the injured, and exchange information.
Emergency Procedures
To report a death, life threatening emergency or catastrophe, employees are to dial 911 and describe the location
and emergency to the dispatcher, and then notify their supervisor.
Accident Prevention
Administrative Inspections
The safety officer and area supervisors will perform safety inspections on a regular basis for the purpose
of reducing accidents by locating hazardous conditions and implementing corrective measures. In order
to maintain maximum program effectiveness, a periodic review and update of this safety program will be
performed to reflect changes in laws, workplace conditions or equipment.
Reporting Possible Hazards
Employees should report to the supervisor possible workplace hazards such as unsafe conditions or
unsafe equipment. This assists the safety program in responding to changes in workplace conditions.
State Safety Inspections
In the event of an inspection by Department of Labor and Industries compliance representatives, the
safety officer will accompany them. An effort will be made to immediately correct where possible, any
hazards that are identified and assist in answering any questions they might have.
Safety Training
Periodic training of employees will be conducted to review existing safety procedures, to examine new
requirements, and to improve the safety practices of all employees.
Safety Bulletin Boards
A safety bulletin board must be installed and maintained in every fixed establishment employing eight or
more persons, sufficient in size to display and post safety bulletins, newsletters, posters, accident
statistics and other safety educational material. Safety bulletin boards is located in the Human Resources
Disposing of Hazardous Materials
A hazardous material is any substance in any quantity or form that could jeopardize health, safety, or property.
Such materials include toxic chemicals, flammable liquids or solids, poisons, corrosives, compressed gases and
others. Check with your supervisor for instructions when disposing of any potentially hazardous material.
Proper procedures must be followed.
Reasonable Accommodation
The campus will provide reasonable accommodation as specified in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
for those qualifying employees making a request. Employees may request reasonable accommodation through
their supervisor or the human resources office.
The Following is Forbidden
Remove, displace, damage, destroy or carry off any safety device, safeguard, notice, or warning, furnished
for use in any employment or place of employment.
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Interfere with the use of any method or process adopted for the protection of any employee, including self,
in such employment, or place of employment.
Failure or neglect to do everything reasonably necessary to protect the life and safety of employees.
Smoking in the Workplace
Smoking is only allowed in parking lots (except childcare lot) and designated smoke areas on campus.
No staff member will partake or be under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotics (drugs) during
working hours. The rule does not apply to persons taking prescription drugs/narcotics as directed by a
physician, unless such use shall endanger the employee or others. Employees taking prescribed medications
which could impair their judgment or ability to operate equipment should advise their supervisor prior to
starting work under the influence of any such medication.
15.0 Violence Prevention Program
Employees will be made aware of the campus violence prevention program. Information about personal safety
can be found on the college’s web pages under Safety and Secuiryt. Any employee who believes they have a
special risk should immediately report their concerns to their supervisor, Chief of Campus Operations or Human
Resource Office.
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Chapter 2
Hazard Communication Program
General Information
The following Hazard Communication Program developed by Grays Harbor College is designed to help
employees understand the hazardous chemicals in their workplace. The written program will be updated
periodically and kept with the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for review by any interested employee or
Common Hazardous Chemical Procedures
Approved type containers must be used for gasoline and other flammable or combustible solvents. Equipment
power cords must be disconnected before cleaning with solvents. Proper fire prevention procedures can be
found in the Fire Prevention chapter. Proper ventilation must be used when there is the possibility of fumes or
vapors accumulating.
The manufacture’s recommended procedures must always be followed. These procedures can be found on each
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Material Safety Data Sheets are explained below.
Container Labeling
Supervisors are responsible for verifying proper labeling of containers delivered to Grays Harbor College. All
containers received for use will be clearly legible in English and:
be clearly labeled as to the contents.
have an appropriate hazard warning.
list the name and address of the manufacturer on the label.
The original manufacturer’s label is sufficient or a copy of the original if a label has become damaged. A hand
written label will also be acceptable if it is clearly legible in English and contains the same original information.
Secondary Containers
Secondary containers are smaller workplace containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred
for employee use. All secondary containers must be labeled with a copy of the original manufacturer's
label or a generic label identifying the contents, including any hazard warning.
Exceptions: secondary containers that contain fluids and are used on a frequent or occasional basis must
be properly labeled. Secondary containers used by one employee and emptied at the end of the shift, are
not required to be labeled.
Annual Review and Updating
The campus safety committee will annually review the effectiveness of the campus' labeling program and
update it as needed.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Supervisors are responsible to see that MSDS are ordered and received with each chemical purchased in that
department. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide detailed information about various chemicals.
MSDS are divided into eight sections:
Product Identification: name and emergency phone number.
Hazardous Ingredients: ingredients contained in the chemical.
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Physical Data: what it looks like, odor, boiling point, etc.
Fire & Explosion: if it explodes or burns, how to put it out.
Health & Hazard Data:
A. Symptoms that develop quickly (acute).
B. Symptoms that develop slowly (chronic).
C. The three most likely ways it can enter the body (breathing, absorbed through the skin, swallowing).
Reactivity Data: how it becomes unstable- high temp., dropping, etc.
Spill or Leak Procedures: what to do.
Safe Handling and Use: any special protection required.
A master file of MSDS, for hazardous chemicals to which employees of Grays Harbor College might
potentially be exposed, is kept in the MSDS folder located in each supervisor’s office and available for viewing.
Reviewing and Updating MSDS
Each supervisor will review incoming MSDS sheets for new and significant health or safety information
and will see that any new information is passed on to the shop supervisor and affected employees.
MSDS will be updated annually or as needed.
Hazardous Chemicals List
A list of hazardous chemicals employees are exposed to will be kept in the MSDS folder. This list will
be reviewed and updated regularly by supervisor.
New Chemical Hazards
Before any new chemical is introduced into the workplace, each employee will be given hazardous chemical
information by the supervisor in the same manner as during the initial Hazard Communication training.
New Chemical Labeling
Each supervisor must verify that new containers of hazardous chemicals are properly labeled before they
are brought into the specific work area. Labels must be legible.
New Chemical MSDS Information
Each supervisor is responsible for seeing that the MSDS on any chemicals are available in their areas.
Multi-Employer Work Places
The supervisor is responsible for exchanging the following information with other employers whenever
independent contractors are on a jobsite with Grays Harbor College employees:
The nature of chemical hazards being introduced.
A list of specific hazardous chemicals to be used.
The location of the appropriate MSDS.
The Grays Harbor College labeling program.
Employee Training and Information
The safety officer is responsible for developing, implementing, and monitoring the employee training and
information program. Prior to starting work, each new employee of Grays Harbor College will attend a health
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and safety orientation given by their immediate supervisor or director of safety and security. A completed form
documenting the training and signed by the employee and supervisor must be completed and filed with the
safety office. The initial training and subsequent upgrading will emphasize the information listed below.
Initial Training/Orientation
The new employee health and safety orientation must include the general subjects listed on the “New
Employee Safety Orientation” form as well as the following hazardous chemical information and
An overview of the requirements contained in the Hazard Communication Standard.
Chemicals present in their workplace operations.
Location and availability of the written hazard program.
Physical and health effects of the hazardous chemicals.
Methods and observation techniques used to determine the presence or release of hazardous
chemicals in the work area.
How to lessen or prevent exposure to these hazardous chemicals through usage of control/work
practices and personal protective equipment.
Steps Grays Harbor College has taken to lessen or prevent exposure to these chemicals.
Emergency procedures to follow if exposed to these chemicals.
How to read labels and review MSDS to obtain appropriate hazard information.
10. Location of MSDS file and location of hazardous chemical list.
After participating in the training session or orientation, each employee will sign the campus form to
verify that they have received the training and understand the Grays Harbor College Hazard
Communication Policy.
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Chapter 3
Training and Safety Orientations
Training is an ongoing process, beginning with an initial orientation and continuing with regular safety
meetings, instruction and review. All are designed to enhance an employee’s knowledge, understanding or skill
in identifying hazards in their workplace and applying safe work procedures. The goal is a safer workplace for
New Employee Safety Orientation
Every new employee (including full-time and those transferred from another college) will attend a safety
orientation session.
Among other topics the orientation will cover:
The Grays Harbor College safety program.
How to report work-related injuries and illness.
How to report unsafe practices and conditions.
Use and care of personal protective equipment (Training by Supervisor).
Actions in the event of emergency.
Identification of hazardous materials or situations (Training by Supervisor).
On-the-job safety procedures (Training by Supervisor).
Additional Review and Training
Periodic training of employees will be conducted to review existing safety procedures, to examine new
requirements, and to improve the safety practices of all employees.
Non-Routine Work Tasks
If an employee is given a special job that is new or unfamiliar, or differs from routine work assignments,
the supervisor is responsible for providing training so the employee is able to:
Identify new workplace hazards (including chemicals).
Know how to protect themselves.
Safety Meetings
Grays Harbor College employees in moderate or greater risk environments (as specified by the safety
committee) will attend monthly safety meetings conducted by departmental supervisor or weekly
supervisor/employee “tool box” meetings. The following are the main safety topics which will be
covered, as needed, in the meetings:
Safety topics of immediate employee interest.
A review of any safety inspections conducted since the last safety meeting.
A review of any citations to assist in the correction of hazards.
An evaluation of any safety concerns submitted since the last meeting to determine if the cause of
the unsafe acts or conditions has been identified and corrected.
Acts or conditions that have been identified and corrected.
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Other general safety or safety training topics as needed.
Additional unscheduled safety briefings may be called at any time, should a situation warrant an
immediate sharing of safety information. Departmental safety meetings will be documented, available
for workers to see, and maintained on the premises for one year.
Hazardous Chemical Training
Training Objectives
The following are the training objectives for each employee in the required HAZCOM training program:
Develop safe work practices and attitudes.
Instruct employees as to chemical hazards.
To inform and motivate employees to protect themselves by preventing exposure to hazardous
chemicals. Inform employees of personal protective methods.
Instruct employees on reading and understanding labels and MSDS Sheets.
To inform employees of the Hazard Communication (Worker Right-To-Know) Standard.
Training Program Topics
Each of the following topics will be explained in the materials or in the training session:
An overview of the requirements contained in the Hazard Communication Standard.
Chemicals present in their workplace operations.
Location and availability of the Grays Harbor College written hazard program.
Physical and health effects of the hazardous chemicals.
Methods and techniques used to determine the presence or release of hazardous chemicals in the
work area.
How to lessen or prevent exposure to these hazardous chemicals through proper control/work
practices and personal protective equipment.
Steps Grays Harbor College has taken to lessen or prevent exposure to these chemicals.
Emergency procedures to follow if exposed to these chemicals.
How to read labels and review MSDS to obtain appropriate hazard information.
10. Location of MSDS file and hazardous chemical list.
Other Safety Training
Periodic review of the campus safety program and materials or presentations of new information will be carried
out through the weekly/monthly safety meetings or other means, such as:
Grays Harbor College handout materials or information.
Review of labels or MSDS on new hazardous materials.
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Demonstrations or discussions of protective equipment, procedures and safety concerns.
Records of safety and health training sessions and other training will be kept in the human resources office.
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Chapter 4
Tools, Equipment, & Personal Protection
General Protection
Employees may only utilize machinery, tools, materials or equipment, whether owned by the employee or the
college, that meet the safety or health requirements of this program or any applicable Washington
Administrative Code (WAC).
Selecting the proper tool or piece of equipment for a particular job is an important step in maintaining a safe
workplace. Tools or equipment may only be used in accordance with the manufacturers designed or intended
Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used to protect against injuries or damage from
various types of hazards. Before each days’ use employees must carefully inspect personal protective
equipment, clothing, devices, tools and equipment to make sure they are in good condition. Those items found
to be defective must be taken out of service. Some specific requirements are listed below.
Employees must be trained by supervisor so that each employee knows what PPE is required for the
various work area or tasks which he or she may be assigned. Employees should know:
When PPE is necessary.
What PPE is necessary.
How to put on the equipment correctly.
How to adjust and remove equipment.
The limitations of the PPE.
Proper care, maintenance, life and disposal of the PPE.
Training records must be kept by supervisor and should include the name of the employee, the date(s) of
the training, and identify the document as a certification of training.
The Chief of Campus Operations is responsible for assuring compliance with this policy. Retraining may
be necessary if an employee does not use the equipment as required. Disciplinary action, up to and
including termination, may be necessary for employees who repeatedly do not follow safety procedures
when using equipment.
Personal Protective Equipment Specifications
Equipment purchased after July 5, 1994 should meet the most current ANSI standard. Eye protection
purchased after this date should meet ANSI Z87.1 - 1989. Head protection should meet ANSI Z89.1 1986. Foot protection should meet ANSI Z41 - 1991. The safety equipment vendor should supply
written evidence that PPE purchased by Grays Harbor College meets these ANSI standards.
Occupational Head Protection
Persons working around machinery or in locations which present a hair catching or fire hazard must wear
caps or other type of head covering which completely covers the hair. Caps with metal buttons or metal
visors may not be worn around electrical hazards.
Note 1: The following is the Washington State definition of hair lengths considered hazardous:
When the length would exceed the circumference of exposed revolving shafts or tools in fixed
machines by 200 percent.
When the length would exceed the radius of pressure rolls with exposed in-running nip points.
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When the employee is exposed to an ignition source and the employee may, with hair aflame, run
into an area containing class-1 flammable liquids or combustible atmospheres.
When exposures require personal protective devices, such as mask-type respirators or ear-cup-type
hearing protection devices, and hair, either facial or head, would interfere with a proper seal.
Note 2: When hair length is judged hazardous from a hair catching standpoint [instances (a) or (b)
under interpretations in Note 1] minimal confinement must be within netting which controls all loose
Note 3: If hazardous from fire hazard aspects [instance (c) of Note 1] the hair must be confined within a
solid-type material.
Eye and Face Protection
The WISHA standard requires employees to use appropriate eye or face protection when exposed to eye
or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids, or caustic liquids, chemical
gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation. Further, each affected employee must use eye
protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Grays Harbor
College will supply appropriate eye and face protection (safety glasses, goggles, face shields, welding
face shields, etc.) to affected employees for their personal use. Employees who wear prescription glasses
will be provided with safety eye wear that fits over the glasses.
Eye protection must be worn whenever there is a reasonable possibility that an eye injury could occur.
Eye wash stations are located in each science lab, the automotive shop, and the nursing lab in the 2000
Suitable eye protection may include safety glasses, goggles, face shields or approved dark glasses. The
degree of hazard indicates the type of eye protection.
Eye protection is required in operations involving welding, drilling, chipping, hammering, or other
hazardous equipment and operations.
Illumination of Work
Whenever natural light is insufficient to illuminate work operations, artificial illumination should be
provided to enable the work to be performed safely.
Hand Protection
The OSHA standard requires employees to use appropriate hand protection when their hands are exposed
to hazards such as those from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations; severe
abrasions; punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful radiation or temperature extremes.
Hands must be kept out of the immediate cutting area or point of operation of any cutting type of
equipment. In addition gloves should be worn to protect the hands from cuts, abrasions or other material
handling hazards.
Foot Protection
The State of Washington requires employees to wear “substantial” footwear made of leather or other
equally firm material whenever there is a danger of injury to the feet through falling or moving objects,
or from burning, cutting, penetration, electrical or like hazard.
Substantial Footwear Definition and Requirements
Substantial footwear is made of leather or other equally firm material and must satisfy the following
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The soles and heels of such footwear must be of a material that will not create a slipping hazard.
Footwear that has deteriorated to a point where it does not provide the required protection may not
be used.
Traditional tennis shoes with canvas tops, or thin or soft soled athletic shoes, open toed sandals,
slippers, dress shoes or other similar type shoes may not be worn in performing hazardous
operations. Soft or athletic-type soles with uppers of leather or other substantial material may be
approved by the shop supervisor for use where firm footing is desired and where a minimal danger
exists of injury to feet from falling or moving objects (shoes or boots must be approved by the shop
Hearing Protection
Hearing protection should be worn whenever an employee is exposed to high or long duration noise
levels such as grinders or other abrasive equipment. Sound levels may not exceed 85 dB TWA, without
a formal hearing protection program. Soft ear protectors are supplied by each department for lower level
noise exposures and employees are required to use them.
Clothing sufficient to protect against the hazards of the operations being performed must be used. Loose
shirt sleeves or coverall sleeves are not allowed. Sleeves should be buttoned or rolled up.
Rings, earrings, wrist watches and other jewelry must not be worn where they create a potential safety
Hand And Power Tools
Employees will use proper tools suitable to the job being done; only safe tools in good repair may be kept or
used on the premises or on the job.
Hand Tools
Using the proper tool for the job is essential. The following guidelines apply to all tools, equipment and their
Cutting tools must be kept sharp. Exercise caution when using sharp cutting instruments, especially when
encountering resistance. Cut, if possible, away from the body.
Hammers and other tools having separable handles must have the handle securely fastened to the tool.
Wrenches having jaw openings at right angels or less than 180 degrees to the handle must be placed on the nut
with the jaw opening in the direction the handle is to move. Use the correct size wrench and test for slippage on
the nut before exerting pressure. Don’t use a piece of pipe or a "cheater" to extend the handle for leverage; use
a larger wrench. Be aware of equipment torque specifications. Wrenches with cracked or spreading jaws must
not be used.
Screw Drivers. The tips of screw driver blades should be sharpened. They should be properly dressed to fit
screw slots. A screwdriver must not be used as a cutting tool.
Tools with mushroomed heads must not be used.
Ram Set Tools. No employee may operate a ram set tool without a valid operator's license.
Insulation and Electrical Work
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Handles of tools such as pliers, screw drivers and similar tools may be covered with insulation for improvement
of grip or to avoid unexpected short circuits, but this covering must not be relied on for insulation or protection
against personal injury on voltages above 250 volts.
Screwdrivers having metal shanks extending through the handles must not be used for electrical work.
Metallic tapes or metallic rules must not be used near electrical equipment. Cloth tapes with metal reinforcing
will be considered metallic tapes.
Tool Storage
Tools temporarily stored or laid aside on the job must be placed so as not to create a stumbling, falling or
similar hazard. They may not be left on ladders or in traffic areas. Tools with sharp edges must be covered or
stored in such a way as to guard against a cutting hazard.
Particular care must be used when working in an elevated position. Tools must not be left unsecured. They
must be kept in containers.
Electrical Tools and Equipment
Extension Cords and Trouble Lights
Extension cords used for lighting supply must be of a type that have conductors enclosed in common
rubber sheaths and must be waterproofed for their entire length except at terminals. Ordinary twisted
lamp cords and metallic sockets do not meet these requirements. Lamps for trouble lights must be
enclosed in guards.
Lamp guards must be gas-proof on trouble lights used in possible explosive atmospheres. Lamp guards
must be of non-conducting material on trouble lights used in location with exposed electrical contact
Electrical Power Cords
All power cords must be three conductor type with proper ground plug (UL approved) enclosed in
common rubber waterproof sheaths.
All power tools must be insulated and properly grounded with three conductor type cords and ground
The plug on power or extension cords must not be tampered with. The ground connection on the power
plug must not be cut off or removed at any time.
Extension cords that are frayed, worn or with missing ground prongs must not be used. Extension cords
must have sufficient capacity for the portable power electric tool to be used.
Portable Electric Tools
Electric cords supplying portable power tools must be rubber sheathed with adequate terminal
connections, and must include a ground wire attached to the tool casing and to an outlet ground or other
low resistance ground.
Portable electric power tools must be grounded. If double insulated tools are used, they must be
distinctively marked.
The user must thoroughly inspect portable electric power tools and cords before use. Extension cords
must not be used in lieu of fixed wiring.
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Employees using portable electric power tools should first assure themselves of a firm stance, and secure
the piece being worked on in such a way as to prevent unexpected turning or other movement.
Portable electric power tools with frayed or worn cords, missing ground prongs or lose or worn parts may
not be used.
Accident Prevention Tags
Do not use any machinery, tool, material, or equipment which is not in safe operating condition.
Unsafe machines, tools, materials or equipment should be identified as unsafe by tagging or locking the controls
(if applicable), and notifying the supervisor.
The tag should indicate the name of the person placing the tag, the nature of the problem and the date. When
the unsafe condition is corrected the tag and/or lock can be removed and the tool or equipment returned to
Power Equipment
Always shut off power when finished using a piece of equipment even if you have to leave for a short period of
time. Approved eye protection must be used when working with grinders or equipment that might project
Bench Grinder
The tool support must be positioned at or above the center line of the wheel and be kept as close to the
wheel as possible without touching but never more than 1/8 inch away. Use the face and not the side of
the wheel for grinding. The grinding wheel must be checked for cracks, breaks, or defects and defective
wheels reported to the supervisor. Small items should be held with pliers to keep hands away from the
Portable Grinders
Immediately before mounting, all wheels must be closely inspected and sounded by the user (ring test) to
make sure they have not been damaged in transit, storage, or otherwise. Wheels should be tapped gently;
if they sound cracked (dead) they must not be used.
Note: Wheels should be tapped gently with a light non-metallic implement, such as the handle of a
screwdriver for light wheels, or a wooden mallet for heavier wheels. This is known as the “ring test.”
Drill Press or Lathe
Always remove the key from the chuck; never allow it to remain in the chuck. Check the speed, drill bit
or tool to make sure it matches the size, thickness or type of material being machined. Drill bits and
cutting tools must be kept sharp. Too fast a speed may break, overheat or damage the bit or tool. Proper
eye protection is required when using this equipment.
Power Cutoff Saw
Approved eye protection and ear protection must be worn when performing operations using the power
cutoff saw. Those working in close proximity to the power cutoff saw or grinders should also use
personal protective equipment.
The upper hood must completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include
the end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade must be guarded to the full
diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and
remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being
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Circular or Chain Saws
All hand-held powered circular saws having a blade diameter-greater than 2 inches, without positive
accessory holding means must be equipped with a constant pressure switch or control that will shut off
the power when the pressure is released. All hand-held gasoline powered chain saws must be equipped
with a constant pressure throttle control that will shut off the power to the saw chain when the pressure is
The guard must be kept in proper condition. All portions of the saw blade must be enclosed or guarded,
except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table. Bandsaw
wheels must be fully encased. The front and back of the band wheels must remain either enclosed by
solid material or by wire mesh or perforated metal. Such mesh or perforated metal must be not less than
0.037 inch (U.S. Gage No. 20), and the openings must be not greater than three-eighths inch.
Solid material used for this purpose will be of an equivalent strength and firmness. The guard for the
portion of the blade between the sliding guide and the upper-saw-wheel guard will protect the saw blade
at the front and outer side. This portion of the guard must be self-adjusting to raise and lower with the
guide. The upper-wheel guard must conform to the travel of the saw on the wheel, and the top member
of the guard should have at least a 2-inch clearance outside the saw and be lined with smooth material,
preferably metal. Effective brakes should be provided to stop the wheel in case of blade breakage.
The bandsaw must have a tension control device to indicate a proper tension for the standard saws used
on the machine, in order to assist in the elimination of saw breakage due to improper tension.
Feed rolls of bandsaws must be protected with a suitable guard to prevent the hands of the operator from
coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The edge of the metal guard must come to
within three-eighths inch of the plane formed by the inside face of the feed roll in contact with the stock
being cut.
Press Operations
Presses must only be used for their intended purpose. Presses must be clearly marked with the
manufacturer’s stated load capacity, with the rating visible from the point of operation.
Instruction to operators. Operators must be trained and instructed in the safe methods of operation
before starting work on a press. The employee will be supervised to insure correct use of safe
Work area. Employees must maintain adequate clearance between machines so that movement of one
operator will not interfere with the work of another. Ample room for cleaning machines, handling
material, work pieces, and scrap must also be maintained. All surrounding floors must be kept in good
condition and free from obstructions, grease, oil and water.
Overloading. Presses may only be operated within the tonnage and weight ratings specified by the
Freedom from movement. Work being pressed must be free from slippage or unintended movement.
No smoking around the tops of batteries or in the vicinity of a battery which is being charged. Explosive
fumes may be emitted during charging or operating batteries and all potential sparks or flames must be
kept away from the top of any liquid cell battery. Do not disconnect the cables while the charger is
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Fixed and Portable Woodworking Machines
This section applies to the use of fixed and portable power tools for processing materials that generate
chips or dust from wood, reconstituted wood products, or plastics in the processing of a wood piece.
“Point of operations” means that point at which cutting, shaping, boring, or forming is accomplished
upon the stock.
“Push stick” means a narrow strip of wood or other soft material with a notch cut into one end and
which is used to push short or narrow pieces of material through saws.
“Block” means a short block of wood, provided with a handle similar to that of a plane and a shoulder at
the rear end, which is used for pushing short stock over revolving cutters.
“Jigs and Fixtures” are devices for holding, supporting or restraining material from movement while
operations are being performed.
8.10 General Woodworking Machine Construction
Each machine should be so constructed as to be free from sensible vibration when the largest size tool is
mounted and run idle at full speed.
Arbors and mandrels should be constructed so as to have firm and secure bearing and be free from play.
Saw frames or tables should be constructed with lugs cast on the frame or with an equivalent means to
limit the size of the saw blade that can be mounted, so as to avoid excessive speed caused by mounting a
saw larger than intended.
Circular saw fences should be so constructed that they can be firmly secured to the table or table
assembly without changing their alignment with the saw. For saws with tilting tables or tilting arbors the
fence should be so constructed that it will remain in a line parallel with the saw, regardless of the angle of
the saw with the table.
Circular saw gages should be so constructed as to slide in grooves or tracks that are accurately machined,
to insure exact alignment with the saw for all positions of the guide.
Hinged saw tables should be so constructed that the table can be firmly secured in any position and in
true alignment with the saw.
All belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and moving parts should be guarded.
It is recommended that each power-driven machine be provided with a disconnect switch that can be
locked in the off position.
The frames and all exposed, non current-carrying metal parts of portable electric machinery operated at
more than 90 volts to ground should be grounded and other portable motors driving electric tools which
are held in the hand while being operated should be grounded if they operate at more than 90 volts to
ground. The ground should be provided through use of a separate ground wire and polarized plug and
Combs (feather boards) or suitable jigs should be provided at the workplace for use when a standard
guard cannot be used, as in dadoing, grooving, jointing, molding and rabbeting.
8.11 Table Saw
The table saw guard must completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of
the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting must be arranged so that the hood will
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automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut without
offering any considerable resistance to the insertion or passage of material being sawed.
The hood must be strong enough to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting,
and handling. It must also protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It must be
made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely to cause tooth breakage. The material
should not shatter when broken, should be non-explosive, and should be no more flammable than wood.
The hood must be so mounted as to insure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true
alignment with the saw. The mounting must be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or
other force tending to throw it out of line.
Unusual Shapes
When a hood-type guard cannot be used because of unusual shapes or cuts, a jig or fixture that will
provide equal safety for the operator must be used. Combs (featherboards) or suitable jigs must be used
when a standard guard cannot be used, as in dadoing, grooving, jointing, molding, and rabbeting. On the
completion of such operations, the guard must be immediately replaced.
Push Stick
A push stick must be used on short or narrow stock or when there is a possibility of the hand contacting
the blade.
Spreader and Anti-kickback Devices
Each table saw should be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being
thrown back on the operator. The spreader should be made of hard tempered steel, or its equivalent, and
should be thinner than the saw kerf. It should be of sufficient width to provide adequate stiffness or
rigidity to resist any reasonable side thrust or blow tending to bend or throw it out of position. The
spreader should be attached so that it will remain in true alignment with the saw even when either the
saw or table is tilted, and should be placed so that there is not more than 1/2-inch space between the
spreader and the back of the saw when the largest saw is mounted in the machine. The provision of a
spreader in connection with grooving, dadoing, or rabbeting is not required. On the completion of such
operations; the spreader should be immediately replaced.
8.12 Radial Arm Saws
The radial arm saw may be guarded with a fixed enclosure, fixed barrier guard, or a manually adjusted
guard or a standard automatic adjusting guard. In those instances where an alternate fixed-type guards is
used, it must provide protection equivalent to the protection afforded by the automatically adjusting
The upper hood should completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will
include the end of the saw arbor. The upper hood should be constructed in such a manner and of such
material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect
sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade should be guarded
to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the
stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation
being performed.
An adjustable stop should be provided to prevent the forward travel of the blade beyond the position
necessary to complete the cut.
Installation should be in such a manner that the front end of the unit will be slightly higher than the rear,
so as to cause the cutting head to return to the starting position in the following manner when released by
the operator:
The cutting head or carriage should return to the rest or starting position in a gentle motion.
The cutting head or carriage should not bounce or recoil when reaching the rest or starting position.
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The cutting head or carriage will remain in the rest or starting position.
Each radial arm saw used for ripping should be provided with non kick-back fingers or dogs located on
both sides of the saw so as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw
it back toward the operator. They should be designed to provide adequate holding power for all the
thickness of material being cut. Ripping and ploughing must be against the direction in which the saw
turns. The direction of the saw rotation must be conspicuously marked on the hood. In addition, a
permanent label not less than 1 1/2 inches by 3/4 inch with standard proportional lettering should be
affixed to the rear of the guard hood at approximately the level of the arbor, where the blade teeth exit the
upper hood during the operation of the saw, reading as follows: "Danger: Do not rip or plough from this
end." Such a label should be colored standard danger red.
8.13 Jointer
The planer or jointer cutting head knife must not project out greater than one-eighth inch beyond the
cylindrical body of the head.
The opening in the table must be kept as small as possible. The clearance between the edge of the rear
table and the cutter head must not be more than one-eighth inch. The table throat opening must not be
more than two and one-half inches when tables are set or aligned with each other for zero cut.
The jointer guard must cover all the section of the head on the working side of the fence or gage. The
guard must effectively keep the operator's hand from coming in contact with the revolving knives. The
guard must automatically adjust itself to cover the unused portion of the head and must remain in contact
with the material at all times.
The jointer guard must cover the section of the head back of the gage or fence.
8.14 Shaper
The cutting head of the shaper must be enclosed with a cage or adjustable guard so designed as to keep
the operator's hand away from the cutting edge. The diameter of circular shaper guards must be not less
than the greatest diameter of the cutter. In no case is a warning device of leather or other material
attached to the spindle be acceptable.
8.15 Planer
The planer must have all cutting heads covered by a metal guard. If it’s made of sheet metal, the material
used must be not less than 1/16 inch in thickness, and if cast iron, it should be not less than 3/16 inch in
Feed rolls should be guarded by a hood or suitable guard to prevent the hands of the operator from
coming in contact with the in-running rolls at any point. The guard should be fastened to the frame
carrying the rolls so as to remain in adjustment for any thickness of stock.
If the planers is used in thicknessing multiple pieces of material simultaneously, means must be provided
to prevent kickback.
8.16 Sanding Machines
Each drum sanding machine must have an exhaust hood, or other guard if no exhaust system is required,
so arranged as to enclose the revolving drum, except for that portion of the drum above the table, if a
table is used, which may be necessary and convenient for the application of the material to be finished.
Belt sanding machines should be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs on
to a pulley. These guards should effectively prevent the hands or fingers of the operator from coming in
contact with the nip points. The unused run of the sanding belt should be guarded against accidental
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Always inspect ladders carefully prior to each use. Never use a ladder which appears to be unsafe. The
following is a brief description of some ladders and their uses:
Step ladders
A step ladder provides a reasonably stable base for carrying on work when both hands must be used. It is
usually equipped with a pail shelf for tools and materials. The steps of the ladder in most cases are flat
and wide enough for comfortable standing. These ladders are self-supporting with wide spread bases.
Step ladders should be used where the space in which the ladder is placed is sufficiently large to permit
the proper placement of the ladder.
A step ladder is a temporary elevated base from which to work. It should not be used to move between
different levels.
Proper Use:
The ladder should be placed on a firm, level base. If this requires blocking, then the blocking and the
ladder must be firmly tied or anchored.
The ladder should be placed so that the work can be done without leaning or stretching past the side rails.
All step ladders should be opened fully so that the spreaders lock themselves in the open position.
If it is necessary to reach a greater height, use a longer ladder. It is dangerous to use boxes or other items
to increase the height of a ladder.
Unless a ladder is equipped with a top platform and guardrails, operations should be conducted from no
greater height than two steps from the top of the ladder.
Tools and materials should be removed from the top and pail shelf before the worker descends. Nothing
should ever be left on a ladder.
Straight, Extension & Fixed Ladders
Straight ladders are used in places where a step ladder cannot be used due to limited space and heights
greater than twenty feet. A straight ladder should not exceed thirty feet in length.
Extension ladders should not be more than sixty feet in total length, with a single section limited to
thirty-one feet, and the total length limited to sixty feet.
Proper Use:
The procedures for the inspection and placement of step ladders applies to straight ladders. There is,
however, an additional factor in placing a straight ladder properly. The base of a straight ladder must be
placed at a distance from the vertical wall equal to one fourth the working length of the ladder.
Ladders must be long enough to extend at least 3 (three) feet above the top landing.
Straight ladders must always be placed so that the top of the two rails are against a solid support. They
should be lashed, preferably at top and bottom, to prevent movement. If it is not possible to lash the
ladder in position, a helper should hold the ladder firmly.
When it is necessary to work from a straight ladder, the highest level one may work from is the third rung
from the top.
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Extension ladders should be raised and lowered with care. The length of an extension ladder determines
the number of personnel required for raising and lowering. Generally, it is permissible for one employee
to raise or lower extension ladders up to 28 feet in length. Two employees are generally required for
ladders 29 feet and up to 40 feet.
When raising a ladder with two people, lay the ladder on the ground with one person standing at the foot.
The second person should raise the opposite end and "walk it up" to the vertical position. Then, braced
securely by both people, the ladder may be extended and placed in position for use. To lower the ladder,
reverse the procedure, raising the top first to clear the hooks.
Keep hands and fingers in the clear at all times to avoid crushing.
Using a Ladder
Always face the ladder while ascending or descending it. Never carry materials or tools while climbing
or descending a ladder except in an appropriate tool pouch. Always be certain that shoes are free of mud
and grease to prevent falls.
Ladder Inspection
Guidelines for proper inspection and maintenance of ladders are as follows:
Inspecting Step Ladders
Be sure that hinge spreaders are securely fastened to the ladder and can be opened to the fullest extent
without binding.
Inspect steps to be certain that they are tight. A loose step is one that can be moved, even slightly, by
hand. See that the ladder doesn't wobble or shake due to damage and side strain. Check safety feet for
proper condition.
Inspecting Straight Ladders
Inspect the rails and rungs to be certain that they are not cracked, split or broken. Repair slivered or
splintered areas.
On extension ladders, check the extension locks and pulley. A lock that is defective should be replaced.
Check the rung sections exposed to wear by the action of the extension locks. See that the safety feet are
in good condition and operating properly.
Determine that the extension locks are securely fastened in position to the side rail. If there is any
indication of the side rail splitting at the bolt or rivet holes, remove the ladder from service. Inspect the
connecting joints of sectional ladders. The metal plate of the grooved ends of the sections should be
rigidly secured in position, and the rivet or bolt should be positioned firmly.
Check the outside rung extensions at the top of each section to determine that there is no deterioration,
cracking, or loosening of the rung. All members of each section and its support should be sound and
firmly secured.
Before using a ladder, carefully inspect it to determine whether it is in sound condition. If there is any
defect no matter how slight, withdraw it from use immediately. Have the ladder inspected by a qualified
person, and if it cannot be placed in perfect condition, destroy it. Substandard ladders should never be
All portable ladders should be kept coated with a protective material such as paint, varnish, lacquer, etc.
Paint is a satisfactory coating for a new ladder if a careful inspection is made by an experienced person
and the ladder is not to be sold. Ladders should not be placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder
unless the door is blocked open, locked shut, or guarded by a worker.
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Ladders should never by lengthened by splicing additional sections to them. The only ladder that can be
spliced is a fixed ladder that is permanently installed to a structure. Unattended ladders should never be
left standing. They should be closed and lowered to the ground or floor.
General Hoisting and Crane Requirements
Only designated personnel are be permitted to operate a campus lifting or hoisting devise. Prior to initial use all
new and altered equipment must be inspected to insure that it is safe and in proper operating condition. Rated
capacity of slings, ropes and equipment must not be exceeded. The rated capacity of a rope or sling often is
reduced to 50% when the angle of loading approaches 60 degrees from the vertical.
10.1 Maintenance Procedure
Any unsafe conditions disclosed by an inspection must be corrected before operation of the hoist or lift is
resumed. Adjustments and repairs may be done only by designated personnel.
After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane may not be operated until all guards have been
reinstalled, safety devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment removed.
10.2 Load Limit
The manufacturers recommended load limit must be clearly displayed on the hoisting devise or crane.
The rated load limit must never be exceeded. The manufacturers recommendations must be followed.
Allowance must be made for windy conditions and work suspended when severe.
10.3 Equipment Guards
Guards must be securely fastened. Each guard will be capable of supporting without permanent
distortion, the weight of a two hundred-pound person unless the guard is located where it is impossible
for a person to step on it.
Railings must also be able to withstand a 200 pound force in a horizontal direction without deflection.
Railings on vertical lifts must meet the requirements of a standard guard rail. A standard guard rail
consists of a top rail, intermediate rail, toe board, and posts, and has a vertical height of 36 inches to 42
inches from upper surface of top rail to the floor or platform. Each length of railing must be smoothsurfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail is located halfway between the top
rail and the floor or platform.
10.4 Hooks
Hooks must meet the manufacturer's recommendations and must not be overloaded. Safety latch type
hooks must be used.
10.5 Refueling Self Propelled Equipment
Refueling with portable containers may only be done with approved safety type containers equipped with
automatic closing spout and flame arrester. A container is “approved” if it is listed or approved by one of
the following:
Factory Mutual Engineering Corp.
Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Department of Transportation or
U.S. Coast Guard
Machines may not be refueled with the engine running.
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10.6 Operating Near Electric Power lines
Employees, lift equipment or devises of any kind may not approach nearer than 10 feet to any power line
(under 50,000 volts).
10.7 Operators
Training is required before operating any aerial lift equipment (vertical lift, forklift...etc.). Each operator
must be familiar with the manufacturers recommendations, safe practices and equipment limitations.
Annual refresher training may be required.
10.8 Alloy Steel Chains
Chains used for overhead lifting must be proof tested alloy steel. Welded alloy steel chain slings must
have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and sling
Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments,
when used with alloy steel chains, must have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain. The use
of job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such
attachments are prohibited.
If at any time any three foot length of chain is found to have stretched one-third the length of a link it
must be discarded. The practice of placing bolts or nails between two links to shorten chains is
Splicing broken chains by inserting a bolt between two links with the heads of the bolt and the nut
sustaining the load, or passing one link through another and inserting a bolt or nail to hold it, is
prohibited. Annealing of chains is prohibited.
10.9 Wire Rope
Only wire ropes may be used that have a capacity exceeding 5 times the manufacturers recommended
safe working load for a particular lifting job. Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles
must be covered or blunted. Wire rope must not be secured by knots.
Limitations. The following limitations apply to the use of wire rope:
An eye splice made in any wire rope must have not less than three full tucks.
Note: This requirement does not preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be
shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited.
Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or
lowering, or in pulling loads, must consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
Wire rope may not be used, if in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires
exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear,
corrosion, or defect.
10.10 Natural Rope, And Synthetic Fiber
Natural or synthetic fiber ropes must be inspected for wear, mold or damage before each use. They may
only be used if the manufacturers recommended load capacity exceeds the load by a factor of 5 times.
10.11 Portable Cranes (Cherry Pickers or Boom Hoists)
The capacity must be clearly marked and never exceeded. Periodic inspection for cracks or other
evidence of wear or damage should be conducted and recorded.
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Cranes, Supports and Jacks
All cranes, jacks, supports and lift equipment should be marked with the manufacturers rated load limit. The
rated load limit of the crane, support, jack...etc. must never be exceeded. Hoisted or jacked equipment must be
secure from movement before working on it. Equipment must be properly blocked and thoroughly supported
before work may be performed under it. Check to insure everyone is clear before lowering equipment onto
blocks or supports. Only approved chains, cables or slings may be used for lifting equipment.
Wooden blocks should be placed between the metal jack-stands and metal equipment to prevent slippage or
11.1 Jack Types
A jack is an appliance for lifting and lowering or moving horizontally a load by application of a pushing
Note: Jacks may be of the following types: Lever and ratchet, screw and hydraulic.
Rating. The rating of a jack is the maximum working load for which it is designed to lift safely that load
throughout its specified amount of travel.
The operator must make sure that the jack used has a rating sufficient to lift and sustain the load.
The rated load must be legibly and permanently marked in a prominent location on the jack by casting,
stamping, or other suitable means.
Compressed Air Use
Compressed air may not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30 p.s.i. at the point of
operation and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment.
12.1 Compressed Air Tools
In the use of compressed air tools, care should be used to prevent the tool from being shot from the gun.
When momentarily out of use the gun should be laid in such position that the tool cannot fly out if the
pressure is unexpectedly released. When not in use, all tools should be removed from the gun.
In disconnecting a compressed air tool from the air line (portable air compressor), care should be
exercised first to shut off the pressure and then to operate the tool to exhaust the pressure remaining in
the hose. Tools using quick release couplings may be detached without shutting off the pressure.
Compressed air hose or guns must not be pointed at or brought into contact with the body of any person.
12.2 Pneumatic Powered Tools and Hose
The operating trigger on portable hand-operated utilization equipment must be so located as to minimize
the possibility of its unanticipated operation and must be arranged to close the air inlet valve
automatically when the pressure of the operator's hand is removed.
A tool retainer must be installed on each piece of utilization equipment which, without such a retainer,
may eject the tool.
Hose and hose connections used for conducting compressed air to utilization equipment must be
designed for the pressure and service to which they are subjected.
Only the valve should be used to turn off air pressure. Never crimp the hose to shut off the pressure.
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Structures and Overhead Work
Where overhead work is in progress protective measures must be initiated to prevent tools or other objects from
falling and contacting those below. Hard hats must be worn wherever working beneath other workers or
equipment or if there is a possibility of injury from falling objects.
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Chapter 5
Lifting Injuries
Grays Harbor College is committed to helping reduce back injuries at work by emphasizing good lifting
techniques, but basic safety is a shared responsibility—it requires your constant awareness of these techniques
whenever you lift, both on and off the job.
How To Lift Properly
Assume a stable stance and check for firm footing before lifting. The feet should be kept apart with one foot
positioned in front of the other, toes pointed out.
Knees should be bent; don't bend at the waist. Keep the principles of leverage in mind at all times.
Don't lift more than you are capable of safely lifting. Use dollies, hand trucks or other material handling
devices when appropriate to lift heavy, bulky or awkward items.
Tighten stomach muscles. Abdominal muscles support your spine when you lift, offsetting the force of the
load. Train muscle groups to work together.
Lift with your legs. Let your powerful leg muscles do the work of lifting, not your weaker back muscles.
Keep load close. Don't hold the load away from your body. The closer it is to your spine, the less force it
exerts on your back.
Keep your back upright. Whether lifting or putting down the load, don't add the weight of your body to the
load. Avoid twisting the torso while lifting. Move the feet if it is necessary to turn.
There is a growing body of evidence that the use of back supports may contribute to increased back injuries in
some cases and a recent study by NIOSH (the research arm of OSHA) has confirmed these findings.
Therefore, some are suggesting that if “back supports“ or “lifting supports” are worn when performing lifting
tasks, wearers should be aware that the “back support” should only serve as a reminder to lift properly, using
proper lifting techniques. It should not be used to attempt to lift beyond what the person is normally able to lift
safely without it. Instruction or training in the proper use of lifting devices is advised.
How to Avoid Lifting Injuries
Know Your Strength: Get the assistance of a second person whenever needed.
Plan Ahead: Find a place to put what you're carrying. Do doors need to be opened? Are there any obstacles in
your path?
Be sure your footing is secure: One foot can be forward of the other to attain good balance.
Lift and carry the right way:
Use arm and leg muscles: This means keeping your back straight and the load close to your body.
Grasp object firmly: Hold it so that your fingers won't be pinched if the load should shift.
Be sure you can see: Have plenty of light and be able to look over your load.
Set object down using arm and leg muscles: Rest one corner first so hands don't get caught underneath.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Chapter 6
Office, Shipping & Receiving
Safety Is Important
Safety in the office, shipping & receiving areas is like safety anywhere else. It doesn't just automatically
happen but it’s the result of the individual effort of everyone concerned.
Many mishaps in offices nationwide stem from the fact that these areas are frequently considered nonhazardous areas and therefore safety is often not emphasized. The following are some suggestions to help
reduce some of the hazards found in these areas.
Some General Tips
Come to work rested: Fatigue is a frequent factor in mishaps. It can cause a person to loose concentration,
become distracted or fail to give full attention to their work.
Think about safety and follow safety rules: Before doing something, ask yourself if what you are about to do is
going to be safe for yourself or others. In this way, safe work habits can develop quickly.
No practical jokes: This causes many mishaps. They have no place in the work area and should be avoided.
Know your emergency procedures: Fire, first-aid and emergency numbers.
How to Avoid Lifting Injuries
Know your strength: Get the assistance of a second person whenever needed.
Plan ahead: Find a place to put what you're carrying. Do doors need to be opened? Are there any obstacles in
your path?
Be sure your footing is secure: One foot can be forward of the other to attain good balance.
Lift and carry the right way: See Chapter 5.
Preventing Mishaps Caused by Falling
Keep the floor clean: Small or loose objects can cause someone to slip, trip or fall.
Use aisles: Avoid taking short cuts between desks when wastebaskets, phone and extension cords or other
objects are located there.
Keep file and desk drawers closed: Especially if they are left unattended.
Watch your step: Don't read while walking, nor obstruct your vision with tall loads. Report burned out lights
Wipe up wet spots: Carry beverages in covered containers or on trays to help prevent spills.
Foot Protection: Wear shoes that protect from cuts, crushing, liquids or slipping. In offices, lower heels are
less fatiguing.
Keep chairs solidly on the floor: Tilting back in chairs can cause injuries.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Preventing Filing And Storage Accidents
Avoid overloading top drawers: That can bring the cabinet down on you. Too much weight near the front of a
drawer can also cause overbalancing.
Close one drawer before opening another: Prevents bangs on the head or unexpected trips.
Close drawer gently using handles: Fingers can get pinched if you use top or sides of drawers.
Don't struggle with stuck drawers or doors: That's an easy way to cause back injury or bring everything down
on you - if stuck, get assistance and have it repaired.
Don’t stand on chairs, boxes or other unstable objects: These could slip out from underneath you, causing you
to fall and hurt yourself.
Preventing Machine Accidents
Know-how: Read instructions or listen to them carefully. Never use machines you don't know how to operate.
Be sure mechanical guards are in place every time you use a machine: If a machine guard has been temporarily
removed be sure it's replaced before using the machine. Watch your hands and use caution.
Turn machines off before: Making adjustments, applying flammable solutions (only if needed) or whenever
leaving a machine, even for a minute.
Be alert for electrical hazards: Electric current is capable of causing injury or death. If a machine overheats,
smokes or sparks, or you feel even a slight shock, unplug it and have it repaired.
Check machine position before use: Typewriters, fax machines, photocopiers, and adding machines should be
firmly on the working surface.
Keep liquids away from electrical machines, keyboards or chords: Electricity and water do not mix.
Electric Fans: Do not remove protective guards from fans. Ensure that fan guards have openings no larger than
one-half inch. Do not place fans in aisles and doorways.
Preventing Supply Room Accidents
Good housekeeping: Cleanliness makes work easier and conditions safer. Keep aisles clear and shelves orderly
with materials secure.
Store chemicals and flammables: Carefully label them and seal in approved containers (see HAZCOM section).
Dispose of shipping and packing materials: Loose debris can cause falls and is a fire hazard.
Opening packages: The safest way is to inspect for sharp projections and rough edges. Cut away from body,
use right tool for the job.
Use ladders: Don’t rely on chairs or shelves for support. Use a ladder that is sturdy, with the feet set firmly on
the ground. Face the ladder when climbing, avoid stretching, get off the ladder to move it and avoid carrying
more than you can safely handle.
Preventing Cuts And Punctures
Utility knives & other cutting instruments: Care should be taken around hands or in unusual positions. In most
cases cutting away from your hand or body is the preferred method.
Sharp or pointed objects: Store them separately, in a drawer.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Paper cutters: Require attention- guards work- don't cut too many sheets at one time.
Broken glass: Sweep up pieces instead of picking them up by hand. Glass splinters can be picked up with a
damp towel.
Bloodborne safety concerns: If broken glass, clothing or objects have blood on them, place them in an
approved hazardous container for proper handling and disposal.
Fire Prevention
Keep used cigarettes and matches off the floor and out of wastebaskets.
Smoking is not permitted where any flammable liquid is being used.
Outlets and extension cords should not be overloaded. If plugging in heavy equipment, check the adequacy of
the circuit.
Identify cord insulation damage. Inspect and report any damage to switches, fixtures, and wires.
Three prong plugs provide protection from shock. Keep electrical equipment properly grounded.
Know where fire extinguishers are located and know how to use them!
Know the location of fire exits.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Chapter 7
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
This program explains the policies and procedures to be used by employees who perform maintenance or
service on machinery and equipment in order to prevent the accidental release of hazardous energy. This
program also lists training requirements for employees and a method that the college will use to ensure that the
program and its procedures are being used and are up to date. This program was written because Grays Harbor
College realizes that employees who service or work around machines or equipment that is being serviced can
be exposed to hazards which may cause serious injury if energy from power sources and energy stored in the
machine or equipment is not placed under control during service. This program was written to conform to the
requirements of the Washington Administrative Code WAC safety standards.
Policy and Compliance
It is the policy of Grays Harbor College that machines or equipment shall be completely isolated from all
energy sources and made inoperative during maintenance or service when unexpected energizing, start-up, or
release of stored energy could occur and cause injury. This will be accomplished by attaching the appropriate
lockout devices and information tags to energy isolating devices and otherwise disabling the machine or
equipment by following specific written energy control procedures contained in this program. No employee
shall attempt to start or use any machine or equipment which is locked out or tagged out. Any employee who
fails to follow this policy will be subject to the disciplinary procedures of the college.
Electric Cord and Plug Connected Equipment
No lockout or tagout is required for electrical equipment connected by cord and plug when the hazards of
unexpected energization or start up is controlled by unplugging the equipment and the authorized employee
maintains exclusive control of the lug while performing the service or maintenance.
Lockout Tools and Materials
The following devices will be made available for use by authorized employees:
Lock: An individually identified Master lock keyed padlock is provided to each authorized employee. This
lock is different in color from other locks used at this workplace and is only to be used for lockout
purposes. Each lock is issued with only one key so that the authorized person to whom it is issued except
under special conditions explained elsewhere in this program can open it.
Information tag: A sample of a properly filled out tag is shown in an appendix at the end of this
document. Tags must always be used to provide the required information at each lockout or tagout point on
the machine or equipment. The tag is designed to withstand any conditions in this workplace that might
cause it damage. The tag must be used with a non-reusable self-locking cable tie or equivalent method that
will withstand 50 pounds before failing.
Lockout Procedures
A general lockout procedure is included at the end of this program. It shall be used by authorized
employees as a checklist for locking out any machine or equipment that:
Has a single energy source that can be easily identified and isolated with a single lockout device that
is controlled only by the authorized employee(s). For example, an electrical lockable disconnect
switch adjacent to the machine or equipment represents such a case.
Has no stored, leftover, or re-accumulated energy potential (such as flywheels, capacitors, springs,
static electricity, or udder dies of press brakes).
Does not create hazards for other employees when serviced.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Has not had an accident in connection with service or maintenance.
Tagout Procedures
Specific tagout procedures are included at the end of this program for each machine or piece of
equipment which has an energy isolating device that cannot be locked out with a lock and information
tag because there is no place to attach the lock. The procedure written for all of this type of equipment
shall be used by authorized employees as a tagout checklist for the specific device. Each tagout
procedure requires an extra step in de-energizing the machine or equipment to compensate for the lack of
a lock on the energy source. Extra steps might include removing a component such a wiring connections,
blocking a switch, opening an extra switch or removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of
accidental activation. These machines or equipment will be provided with lockable energy isolating
devices as the future need arises for major repair, replacement, modification, or relocation of the machine
or equipment.
Employees are cautioned that:
Tags are warning devices and do not provide the physical restraint that is provided by a lock.
When a tag is attached to an energy-isolating device, it is not to be removed without permission of
the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise
Tags must be legible and understandable by all employees who may come across them in order to be
Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials that will withstand the environmental
conditions in which they are used.
Tags must be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot accidentally fall or be
pulled off.
Tags may evoke a feeling of false security. The authorized employee should periodically check that
employees understand that a tag has been placed and that the tag is still properly attached and
Group Lockout
When maintenance or service of a machine or equipment is done by more than one authorized employee,
one of the authorized employees will be designated as the project manager. The project manager is
responsible to ensure that the energy control procedure is followed and that no employee is exposed to a
hazard during and at the conclusion of the project. The following procedure will be initiated to ensure
that all employees engaged in the project are protected by a lock under their control. A hasp will be used
at each lockout point that will permit each authorized employee to attach his/her lockout device to the
energy-isolating device. The project manager is always the last authorized employee to remove his/her
Shift Changes
When the servicing or maintenance of a machine or equipment takes longer than a single shift, the
appropriate control measure shall be used:
If control does not need to be transferred to a new work crew, then the locks or tags of the authorized
employee(s) shall remain on the energy isolating devices to protect against accidental activation of
the machine or equipment by other employees while the authorized employees are away.
If control must be passed on to a crew on the following shift, then the incoming crew shall review
the appropriate lockout/tagout procedure with the outgoing crew and at each point where a lock or
tag must be placed, and at each point where a lock or tag must be placed, the outgoing crew will
remove their locks/tags and the incoming crew will attach theirs.
Removing Locks or Tags when Authorized Employee is Unavailable
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
If an authorized employee who applied a lock or tag is not present to remove it, use the following
procedure if the lock or tag must be removed:
The Director of Campus Operations shall ensure that the authorized employee whose lock or tag
must be removed is not at the workplace.
The Director of Campus Operations shall use the spare key located in the locked credenza in the
facilities office to remove the lock and/or to remove the information tag.
All reasonable efforts shall be made to contact the authorized employee to tell him/her that the lock
or tag has been removed.
The Director of Campus Operations shall ensure that the authorized employee has been informed
before resuming work at the workplace.
Outside Contractors
Whenever an outside contractor does work at this workplace which requires the use of a lockout
procedure, Grays Harbor College will exchange information with the contractor about the energy control
programs of each organization. The college will also inform its authorized and affected employees about
any differences in the procedures of the two organizations that might cause confusion. It is the
responsibility of the outside contractor to ensure that its employees comply with the restrictions and
prohibitions of the energy control procedures of the college.
Supervisors will provide training to all employees as outlined below. A training record will be
maintained to document that each employee has received the appropriate training and refreshers.
Each authorized employee will be trained to recognize the types and magnitudes of energy used at
this workplace along wit the methods of isolation and control as described in this program, the
particular written energy control procedures that the employee will use, and the requirements of
WAC safety standards.
Each affected employee will be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
All other employees whose work may take them into an area where lockout is in progress will be
instructed about the procedure and prohibited from attempting to start or operate machines or
equipment which is locked or tagged out.
Energy Control Procedure Inspections
Grays Harbor College will conduct annual inspections of the written energy control procedures to ensure
that each procedure is being followed and that each procedure is providing adequate protection for
employees. An authorized employee will be designated as inspector for those energy control procedures
that (s)he does not use. The inspector will review the procedure with each authorized employee who
uses the procedure and also with affected employees if the procedure uses a tagout rather than a lockout.
The inspector will identify any deviations or inadequacies of the procedure and the procedure will be
modified and/or additional training will be provided as needed. A written record of the inspection will be
kept, including the identifying numbers of the machine or equipment on which the procedure was used,
the date of inspection, the names of employees included in the inspection, and the inspector’s name.
General Lockout Procedure
This lockout procedure shall be used when performing service or maintenance on any machine or equipment for
which accidental start-up could cause injury to employees. This procedure shall not be used when the machine
or equipment has multiple energy sources and isolating devices, or when the machine or equipment cannot be
locked out. In that case, a specific lockout or tagout procedure must be written for that machine or equipment.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Lockout Procedure Steps
Notify affected employees that the machine or equipment is going to be locked out for service or
Turn the machine or equipment off using the normal operating controls.
Identify the energy source, magnitude, and the location of the energy-isolating device
WARNING: If more than one energy source is identified, or if there is stored, residual, or re-accumulated
energy, this is the wrong procedure! Use the specific procedure written for this equipment.
Deactivate the energy-isolating device so that the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy
Each authorized employee working on the equipment shall apply his/her lock and information tag to
the energy isolation device.
Verify that the machine or equipment is disconnected from the energy source by first checking that
no employees are exposed, then operating the normal controls or otherwise testing to ensure that the
machine or equipment will not operate.
CAUTION: Return all operating controls to the neutral or ‘off’ position after verifying the isolation of the
The equipment is now locked out. If it is necessary at any time to temporarily energize the equipment for
testing or positioning purposes, then use the following steps:
Clear the equipment of all tools, materials, and employees.
Remove the lockout device(s).
Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.
De-energize the equipment and reapply the lockout device(s) using the procedure steps above
immediately after testing or positioning.
Release from Lockout
Inspect the work area to make sure that all tools and materials have been removed and that all guards
are in place.
Check that all employees are safely out of the way.
Verify that the normal operating controls are in the ‘off’ position.
Each authorized employee removes his/her lockout device and information tag.
NOTE: If an authorized employee is not available to remove his/her lock, the Director of Facilities and
Operation shall be contacted and the procedure listed in the Energy Control Program shall be followed
before removing any lock(s).
Re-energize the equipment.
Notify any affected employee that the servicing or maintenance is complete and that the equipment
is ready for use.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Chapter 8
First-Aid and Bloodborne Pathogens
This chapter should be periodically updated to remain current with and reflect changes in current practices,
Washington laws and Grays Harbor College operations.
Bloodborne Pathogens
Chapter 296-62-08001 WAC establishes requirements designed to reduce the risk of occupational exposure to
bloodborne pathogens and other infectious agents. Section (2) defines an "exposure incident" as "a specific eye,
mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious
materials that results from the performance of employee's duties", defines a "source individual" as "any
individual, living or deceased, whose blood or other potentially infectious materials may be a source of
occupational exposure to the employee;" and defines "occupational exposure" as "reasonably anticipated skin,
eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result
from the performance of an employee's duties."
Bloodborne Pathogens (And Other Infectious Agents)
A pathogen is a disease-causing agent such as bacteria. Bloodborne pathogens are organisms such as
viruses and bacteria carried in human blood. These organisms can cause illness by directly entering the
blood stream of an individual.
Illness caused by most bloodborne pathogens is relatively rare; the human body uses a variety of
defenses, including the skin, dense cellular material, the lymph system, and a complex disease-fighting
network of cells within the blood itself, to protect the blood stream against any invasions from the
outside. However, if the infected blood of one individual directly enters the blood stream of another
individual, the infection can be transmitted.
Other forms of infection can be transmitted by hand. (There are several organisms under this category.)
An example would be Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) HAV is not considered a bloodborne pathogen. HAV is
present in the feces of an infected individual and is primarily transmitted by person-to-person contact
(e.g. through fecal contamination and oral ingestion) when persons are careless about hand-washing after
going to the restroom, changing diapers, cleaning up fecal matter in bathrooms, etc.
Potentially infectious human body fluids include blood, semen, vaginal secretions, urine, feces, vomitus,
saliva, and any body fluids containing or suspected of containing blood.
Universal Precautions
The term "universal precautions" refers to a system of infectious disease control which assumes that
every direct contact with blood and "other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) is infectious” and
requires every employee exposed to direct contact with body fluids to be protected as though such body
fluids were infected with bloodborne pathogens (of primary concern are the human immunodeficiency
(HIV) and hepatitis B viruses (HBV).
Universal precautions, which are intended to supplement rather than replace recommendations for routine
infection control, prevent transfer of blood and OPIM . Primary methodology in use of protective
barriers, and may include such measures as engineering controls, good work and housekeeping practices,
and personal protective equipment. In most instances in the Grays Harbor College setting, universal
precautions will be accomplished through the use of gloves and, in the event of mouth-to-mouth
resuscitation, the use of a CPR mouth protector.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
The various exposures to infectious diseases can occur in any setting. The body fluids of all persons
should be considered to contain potentially infectious agents and contact with all body fluids should be
avoided to prevent the risk of infection.
Universal Precaution Procedures
Avoid direct skin contact with body fluids whenever possible.
Treat all blood and body fluids as contaminated.
Follow normal hygiene practices, including thorough washing of hands.
Wash all skin surfaces that become contaminated and wash hands immediately after removal of
Proper handwashing requires the use of soap, with vigorous scrubbing for approximately five
seconds, followed by thorough rinsing under a running stream of water for another five seconds.
Soap suspends easily removable soil and microorganisms, allowing them to be washed off. Running
water is necessary to carry away the dirt and debris.
Wear gloves when touching blood or body fluids of another individual or a contaminated surface,
(e.g., treating nose bleeds, bleeding abrasions, handling clothes soiled by urine or feces, cleaning
blood or other body fluids off of surfaces, etc.).
During administration of first-aid, wear gloves (located in body fluid cleanup kits) to keep the
victim's body fluids from coming in contact with you. During mouth-to-mouth resuscitation use a
CPR mouth protector available in the body fluid cleanup/CPR mouth protector kits.
Any employee with open wounds, weeping sores or chaffed, broken skin who will come in contact
with potentially contaminated sources is to wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as
rubber gloves, etc.
Cleaning/Decontamination Procedures: Body Fluid Spills
If a contamination (body fluid spill) occurs, call Campus Operations, extension 4114 or Campus
Operator 532-9020. In the evening call the custodian’s cell phone 591-4458.
First-Aid General Guidelines
The purpose of first-aid is to administer lifesaving techniques when absolutely necessary and to provide
employees with treatment for very minor injuries. The decision to send an employee for medical treatment lies
with the immediate supervisor and the employee. Employees must be allowed to seek medical treatment. If the
supervisor feels medical treatment is necessary the employee should comply.
First-aid supplies should be maintained in a cabinet or kit located near a sink with hot and cold water where
The names of employees sent for medical treatment must be recorded on appropriate WISHA and OSHA report
First-Aid Supplies and Provisions
First-Aid Kits
First-aid kits are provided by the college and will be maintained in accordance with the requirements of
the General Safety Standards.
First-aid kits are located in each building; contact your supervisor for location.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
First-AID Procedures
The practices covered in this chapter on first-aid are included as a basic first-aid practices review, they do not
replace first-aid training. Grays Harbor College supports the building of proper first-aid skills and CPR
techniques for the good of every employee.
Always make sure that 911 has been called first. If possible have two other people call 911 and then have them
call the campus switchboard (Dial 0) to get additional help and help direct the medics to the scene.
AED are located in all buildings on campus. Check the college’s web pages under safety and security for their
If medial assistance is required:
Do not move an injured person unless it is a life-threatening situation.
Have someone Call 911-FIRST - Then call GHC switchboard (Dial 0).
Tell the dispatcher your are reporting a medical emergency and give your name, location and
telephone number.
Stay with the injuried person and keep them calm and provide first aid as trained, until medical
help arrivies.
First-aid is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or has been suddenly taken ill until
professional emergency medical services can be obtained. The major objective is to save life. The main
functions are to:
Maintain Breathing
If the victim appears to be unconscious: Tap victim on the shoulder and shout, "Are you okay?"
Direct two people to call 911 and after they have 911 – call the campus switchboard (dial 0) from a
campus telephone.
If there is no response: Tilt the victim's head, chin pointing up. Place one hand under the victim's neck
and gently lift. At the same time, push with the other hand on the victim's forehead. This will move the
tongue away from the back of the throat to open the airway.
Immediately LOOK, LISTEN AND FEEL for air while maintaining the backward head tilt position place
your cheek and ear close to the victim's mouth and nose. Look for the chest to rise and fall while you
listen and feel for the return of air. Check for about 5 seconds.
If the victim is not breathing, put mouth protector on and give four quick breaths. Maintain the backward
head tilt, pinch the victim's nose with the hand that is on the victim's forehead to prevent leakage of air,
open your mouth wide, take a deep breath, seal your mouth around the victim's mouth and blow into the
victim's mouth with two quick but full breaths just as fast as you can. When blowing, use only enough
time between breaths to lift your head slightly for better inhalation. For an infant, give gentle puffs and
blow through the mouth and nose, and do not tilt the head back as far as for an adult.
Maintain Circulation
A person choking on food will die in four minutes. You can save a life using the Heimlich Maneuver.
Using the Heimlich Maneuver, you exert pressure that forces the diaphragm upward, compresses the air
in the lungs and expels the object blocking the breathing passages.
Have someone call 911, then call the campus switchboard (Dial 0).
The procedure for a victim who is standing or sitting follows:
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around his waist.
Place your fist thumb-side against the victim's abdomen, slightly above the navel and below the rib
Grasp your fist with your other hand and press into the victim's abdomen with a quick upward thrust.
4. Repeat several times if necessary.
When the victim is sitting, the rescuer stands behind the victim's chair and performs the maneuver in the
same manner.
Prevent Continued Loss of Blood
Heavy bleeding comes from wounds to one or more large blood vessels. Such loss of blood can kill the
victim in three to five minutes.
Have someone CALL 911.
Place pad or clean handkerchief, clean cloth, etc. directly over the wound and press firmly with your
hand or fingers. Apply pressure directly over the wound. Hold the pad firmly in place with a strong
bandage, neckties, cloth strips, etc. If possible, raise the bleeding part higher than the rest of the body,
UNLESS YOU SUSPECT BONES ARE BROKEN. Keep the victim lying down.
Prevent Shock
Remember that shock will follow any injury, in some degree, and it is therefore important to know the
symptoms and methods of preventative treatment.
Symptoms: Skin cold and clammy, face pale. Pulse weak and rapid. Cold perspiration, profuse on
forehead and hands. Breathing is shallow and sighing is frequent.
5.4.1 Overcoming or Preventing Shock
The same methods that overcome shock will prevent it.
Have someone call 911, then campus switchboard (Dial 0).
1. Give immediate first-aid.
2. Keep victim lying down.
3. Cover the victim only enough to prevent loss of body heat both through the air and the
4. Keep victim's airway open.
5. Elevate the victim's legs if there are no broken bones.
6. Get medical help as soon as possible.
Provide first-aid for shock to every severely wounded person, even before it has a chance to
Contact Emergency Medical Services - 911
Always make sure that 911 has been called first. If possible have two other people call 911 and then have them
call the campus switchboard (Dial 0) to get additional help and help direct the medics to the scene.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
The person giving first-aid must:
Avoid panic.
Do only those things necessary to sustain life and minimize injury until professional help arrives.
Look for an emergency medical identification signal device and/or a card to learn about the victim's needs
or necessary precautions.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Chapter 9
Forklift Operating Procedures (Powered Industrial Trucks)
Operator Training
Only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate a forklift. Operators will receive periodic
training or review in the safe operation of forklifts. See the supervisor for details.
Forklift Operation Guidelines
Forklifts shall not be driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed object.
No person is permitted to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any forklift, whether loaded or empty.
Unauthorized personnel are not permitted to ride on forklifts. An authorized rider may only ride if a safe
place to ride is established.
It is prohibited to place arms or legs between the uprights of the mast or outside the running lines of the
When leaving a forklift unattended, fully lower load engaging means, neutralize controls, shut off power,
and set brakes. Wheels must be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline. A forklift is considered
unattended when: (1) the operator is 25 feet or more away from the vehicle if it remains in view, or (2) the
operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in view.
When the operator of a forklift is dismounted and within 25 feet of the truck, still in view, the load
engaging means must be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement.
The forklift must be driven backwards if the load obstructs the drivers view.
When approaching a blind corner, an aisle, an area of pedestrian traffic, pedestrians in the area or similar
situations, the driver must sound the horn as a courtesy or warning.
Respecting the safety of other workers is the constant job and responsibility of the operator. Therefore
maintaining a safe speed at all times is an absolute necessity.
10. The forklift must not be driven with the load in a raised position. When approaching or leaving a loading
area the load must be kept in the proper traveling position, close to the ground.
11. Pallets placed onto shelving must be firmly supported by the two rails. Shelving members and supports
should be checked regularly for strength and stability. The load must not exceed the safe maximum storage
capacity of the shelving.
12. A safe distance must be maintained from the edge of ramps or platforms while on any elevated dock, or
platform or freight car. Forklifts may not be used for opening or closing freight car doors unless the forklift
is using an approved device specifically designed to open and close doors.
A. The design of the door opening or closing device will require the force applied by the device to the
door to be in a direction parallel with the door travel.
B. The forklift operator must be trained in the use of the door opening or closing device and keep the
operation in full view while opening and closing.
C. Employees or other persons will stand clear while the door is being moved with a device.
13. Brakes must be set and wheel blocks in place to prevent movement of trucks, trailers, or railroad cars while
loading or unloading. Although it is the responsibility of the driver of the truck, trailer ...etc. to set the
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brakes and chock (block) the wheels, it is the responsibility of the forklift operator to verify that the vehicle
has been properly secured from movement before driving onto the vehicle to load or unload it.
Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semi-trailer during loading or unloading when the trailer is not
coupled to a tractor. The flooring of trucks, trailers, and railroad cars must be checked for breaks and
weakness before they are driven onto.
14. There must be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, sprinkler system, etc.
15. An overhead guard shall be used as protection against falling objects. It should be noted that an overhead
guard is intended to offer protection from the impact of small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc.,
representative of the job application, but not to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.
16. A load backrest extension must be used whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of the load or part
of it from falling rearward.
17. Only approved industrial trucks (forklifts) shall be used in hazardous locations.
18. Whenever a forklift is equipped with vertical only, or vertical and horizontal controls and able to be
elevated with the lifting carriage or forks for lifting personnel, the following additional precautions must be
taken for the protection of personnel being elevated.
A. Use of a safety platform firmly secured to the lifting carriage and/or forks.
B. Means shall be provided whereby personnel on the platform can shut off power to the forklift.
C. Such protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by the operating conditions must be
19. Using forklifts as elevated work platforms. A platform or structure built specifically for hoisting persons
may be used providing the following requirements are complied with:
A. The structure must be securely attached to the forks and must have standard guardrails and toe boards
installed on all sides.
B. The hydraulic system must be so designed that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per
minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system. Forklifts used for elevating work platforms
must be identified that they are so designed.
C. A safety strap must be installed or the control lever must be locked to prevent the boom from tilting.
D. An operator must attend the lift equipment while workers are on the platform.
E. The operator must be in the normal operating position while raising or lowering the platform.
F. The vehicle must not travel from point to point while workers are on the platform except that inching
or maneuvering at very slow speed is permissible.
G. The area between workers on the platform and the mast must be adequately guarded to prevent contact
with chains or other shear points.
20. Fire aisles, access to stairways, and fire equipment must be kept clear.
Operation of the Forklift
If at any time a forklift is found to be in need of repair, defective, or in any way unsafe, the forklift must be
taken out of service until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
Fuel tanks may not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage must be avoided.
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Spillage of oil or fuel must be carefully washed away or completely evaporated and the fuel tank cap
replaced before restarting engine.
No forklift will be operated with a leak in the fuel system until the leak has been corrected.
Open flames shall not be used for checking electrolyte level in storage batteries or gasoline level in fuel
Lighting for Operating Areas
Controlled lighting of adequate intensity should be provided in operating areas.
Where general lighting is less than 2 lumens per square foot, auxiliary directional lighting must be provided
on the truck.
Control of Noxious Gases and Fumes
Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by forklift operations must not exceed the levels
specified in WAC safety standards.
Questions concerning degree of concentration and methods of sampling to ascertain the conditions will be
referred to a qualified industrial hygienist.
Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semi-trailer and prevent up-ending during the loading or
unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor.
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Chapter 10
Operating Campus Vehicles
These policies apply to all drivers including all new and existing Grays Harbor College (GHC) faculty, staff,
volunteers, contractors, and students who drive on behalf of GHC for official state business. They are adopted from
the Office of Financial Management’s (OFM) State Administrative and Accounting Manual (SAAM), Chapter 12 –
Transportation, and establish statewide accountability for the safe and efficient operation of vehicles by state
State drivers authorized to drive state vehicles or privately owned vehicles (POV) on official state business are
responsible to comply with all policies of Chapter 12 – Transportation. Failure to follow these policies may result
in disciplinary action, including deductions from salaries or other allowances due, suspension without pay, or
termination of employment.
Have in their possession a valid driver’s license as recognized by the State of Washington. The
Department of Licensing website provides information on valid licensing requirements at Drivers must also be 18 years or older and have two years of driving
All drivers operating any GHC owned or leased van/vehicle must complete GHC vehicle safety training
prior to the initial driving assignment. Van safety is covered in vehicle safety training. Vehicle safety
training must be renewed every two years.
Operate the vehicle at all times in a professional and safe manner, and comply with Washington traffic
laws, statewide policies, and GHC policies.
Present a valid driver’s license when requested by the supervisor or designee (supervisor or designee will
visually check the license).
Notify the supervisor by the end of the next business day upon notification by the applicable licensing
agency that your driver’s license has been suspended, revoked, or otherwise determined to be invalid.
Adjust driving speed and vehicle equipment due to changing weather conditions. Drivers are also
encouraged to alter travel plans as needed for personal safety due to inclement weather or sudden illness.
Do not drive while under the influence of intoxicating beverages or drugs (including prescription drugs)
that may affect the driver’s ability to operate motorized equipment.
Do not transport alcohol/intoxicating substances in a state vehicle unless transporting such substance is
within the scope of the driver’s official state duties as determined and directed by GHC. Under such
direction, all alcohol containers should be stored in the trunk or otherwise contained in accordance with
state law regarding open containers as referenced in RCW 46.61.519.
Do not transport firearms, weapons, or explosives (concealed or otherwise) unless the transportation of
such devices is in accordance with performance of official state business as directed by GHC.
10. Properly wear and require passengers to wear the vehicle’s safety belts at all times the vehicle is in
operation. Also, ensure that authorized passengers under the age of 16 years of age are properly restrained
in safety belts or car seats.
11. Do not use cell phones, blackberries or other hand held electronic equipment while driving. Use cell
phones and other electronic equipment when the vehicle is safely stopped. Exception: Cell phone use
when driving is permitted in emergency situations.
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12. Avoid the use of ear phones/buds to minimize distraction and inability to hear emergency warnings.
13. Safely organize and store equipment/supplies in the vehicle so they are secure in the event of a sudden
14. Do not transport non-college enrolled high school or younger children in 15 or 12 passengers full size vans
or other specialty vehicles not meeting state and federal school bus standards. Non-college enrolled high
school and younger children may be transported in mini-vans and sedans.
15. Follow GHC policies and procedures related to driving and vehicle use.
Must comply with ALL DRIVERS requirements listed in Section 2.0.
Vehicles may only be used for “Official State Business.” This includes activities performed by a state
employee, authorized volunteer or contractor, work experience program participant, and a student or
employee of another governmental jurisdiction as directed by his or her supervisor and authorized by
GHC to accomplish state programs or as required by the duties of his or her position or office. Personal
use of state-owned vehicles is not permitted.
When a state-owned or leased passenger motor vehicle is being operated, any person exercising control
over and/or operating the vehicle is expressly prohibited from engaging in the transportation of
“Unauthorized Passengers.” “Unauthorized passengers” are those passengers not engaged in performing
official state business and/or not specifically authorized by the supervisor. Unauthorized passengers can
include, but are not limited to, family members, relatives, friends, and pets.
Promptly pay fines to the appropriate jurisdiction for all parking tickets, citations or infractions received
while operating a state vehicle. Payment of fines and citations under these circumstances is the sole
obligation and responsibility of the driver and will NOT be reimbursed or paid by the state.
Purchase gas, oil, and other items with a state credit card and acquire emergency repairs to passenger
motor vehicles in accordance with applicable Department of General Administration motor vehicle
Follow College policies for reporting vehicle mechanical problems and arranging for service repairs or
maintenance (information is in the van books).
Be responsible for maintaining good appearance of the state vehicle.
Complete the State of Washington Vehicle Accident Report (SF 137) when an accident occurs, regardless
of severity. Vehicle Accident/Incident Procedures and SF 137 forms are located in the van books.
Comply with state policies that prohibit smoking in state vehicles and facilities.
10. Do not use radar or speed detecting devices in state vehicles.
11. Select well-lit, safe areas for parking state vehicles if possible. Place valuable equipment out of view and
lock the vehicle when unattended.
Must comply with ALL DRIVERS requirements listed in Section I above. Passenger requirements are
covered in item number three below.
When driving privately owned vehicles (POV) on official state business, drivers are to comply with the
state of Washington's liability insurance laws, chapters 46.29 and 46.30 RCW (proof of insurance and
insurance coverage requirements). If an accident occurs the driver’s personal automobile insurance is
primary and will be utilized prior to any possible provision of the state’s excess liability protection.
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Insurance deductibles and physical damage to the privately owned vehicle are the responsibility of the
privately owned vehicle’s driver or owner and are not reimbursable by the state. In the event the driver or
owner’s personal liability insurance coverage is exhausted, the state of Washington may provide excess
liability insurance.
Transporting of “Unauthorized Passengers” per section II. 3., in privately owned vehicles while driving on
official state business, is considered a personal decision. The state of Washington will not provide excess
liability protection to any unauthorized passengers in the event of an accident.
The driver is to operate a privately owned vehicle at all times in a professional and safe manner, and
comply with Washington traffic laws and regulations and all GHC policies pertaining to use of privately
owned vehicles.
Safety is a priority when driving a privately owned vehicle on official state business.
Reimbursement for the use of a privately owned vehicle is paid at the state’s established private vehicle
mileage reimbursement rates.
“Specified Drivers” are those individuals who, while driving on behalf of GHC:
Operate vehicles more than 1,000 miles per month at least 6 months out of the year (need not be
consecutive); and/or
Within a 24 month period have accumulated two or more at-fault accidents/incidents resulting in
damage to state vehicle and/or property of another party; and/or
Within a 24 month period have accumulated one or more at-fault accidents resulting in bodily injury
to driver, passenger or another party.
It is the responsibility of the supervisor to identify drivers who are “Specified Drivers” and to:
Review Chapter 12 Transportation, vehicle management (Sections 12.20); state driver
requirements related to driving a state vehicle (Subsection 12.30.20); accident reporting
(Subsection 12.30.30) and insurance coverage and requirements (Section 12.40).
Provide identified state driver with defensive driver/safe driving training.
For all accidents resulting in property damages or injuries involving any motor vehicle in use for
official state business, College drivers are to follow procedures below, as applicable:
Take whatever steps are necessary to protect yourself from further injury.
Assist any injured party, giving only the first aid you are qualified to provide.
Call 911 for medical assistance if needed.
Cooperate with local law enforcement. Provide facts only, limiting response to questions asked.
Provide information about yourself and the state vehicle to the other driver(s), e.g., name, GHC
contact person and their phone number (see van book), vehicle identification number (VIN), etc.
Obtain needed information from other driver(s). Identify witnesses, obtain addresses and phone
numbers. Forms are located in the van books and in the Campus Operations office.
Do not discuss your actions with parties other than law enforcement. Do not admit fault to other
parties or make any statements about the State’s response to the accident, financial or otherwise.
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Collect all required information necessary to complete the State of Washington Vehicle Accident
Report (SF 137). A POV driver involved in an accident must also complete the SF 137 from
(12.30.30.c). The SF 137 forms are located in the van books and the Campus Operations office.
Report the accident to your supervisor/coach and Campus Operations.
Have the state vehicle towed from the scene if not drivable. Information is located in the van
Complete the State of Washington Vehicle Accident Report (SF 137). The completed SF 137
must be mailed within two (2) working days to the Office of Financial Management (OFM) Risk
Management Division. The Campus Operations office will mail the completed form to OFM and
provide copies to the GHC Risk Manager and Director of Safety and Security.
Complete a Vehicle Collision Report if any injuries are sustained as a result of the accident or if
damages to vehicles/property exceed $700. This form is available from local law enforcement
offices, on-line at and in the van books. A copy of the
report will be given to the Campus Operations office. The Campus Operations office will
provide copies to the GHC Risk Manager and Director of Safety and Security.
Vehicle Condition
An employee assigned as driver of a campus vehicle is responsible for all matters pertaining to the safe
operation of the vehicle. Defects or repairs must be promptly reported. Vehicle cabs must be kept clean and
free of loose tools, etc. The windshield must be kept clean for good visibility.
The driver must make certain that emergency equipment required by state law is on the vehicle and in good
condition. Brakes, steering, horn, lights, and controls must be inspected and tested to insure that they are in
good repair and safe operating condition before the vehicle is used.
All motor vehicle trucks and trailers must be equipped with standard lights, horns, flags, flares, etc., to conform
to the State of Washington motor vehicles laws.
Tires worn beyond the point of safety must not be used. Precautions must be taken while inflating tires.
Vehicle Loads and Loading
All loads transported on trucks and/or trucks and trailers must be properly secured and distributed, and limited
to a safe operating load for driving conditions.
Safe methods of loading and unloading motor vehicle trucks and trailers must be observed at all times. The
truck driver is responsible for setting the brakes and chocking the wheels whenever a forklift is driven onto the
vehicle for loading and unloading purposes.
Drivers must observe laws and regulations regarding legal width, height, length, and axle loads of the vehicle
being operated.
Loads must be properly distributed and not piled too high. Loading must be such that the driver has clear vision
to the front, sides and rear. When necessary, they must be blocked, tied, or padded to prevent shifting or
If it is necessary to unload from the street side extra care and precautions should be used. Whenever possible,
work should be done from the curb side.
Vehicle Operation
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Campus vehicles are a constant statement about Grays Harbor College and should be driven in a manner so as
to create a favorable impression on the public. Show more than ordinary courtesy and consideration for other
drivers and pedestrians.
Secure all doors, end gate enclosures, and equipment before driving. Before starting either forward or
backward, check that no person or object is in the path of the vehicle.
Backing The Vehicle
To prevent accidents during the backing of trucks where vision is obstructed, a signal man will be stationed at a
point giving him a clear view of the rear of the truck and the operator of the truck at all times. Truck drivers
must sound their horn before starting to back, and must sound the horn intermittently during the entire backing
Waste Materials
Drivers or passengers must not throw objects from the vehicle. All materials being transported must also be
secured to prevent material from being blown off the vehicle.
Vehicle Safety Equipment
Each vehicle must have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher in the cab. Extinguishers must be inspected annually
or sooner to comply with federal law or other regulations.
The driver of the vehicle will be responsible for their use and availability.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
Chapter 11
Welding Procedures
Gas Welding and Cutting
Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders
The following procedures should be followed when handling gas cylinders:
Valve protection caps must be in place and secured.
Cylinders will be moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. They must not be
intentionally dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently.
Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a special carrier intended for this purpose, regulators must be
removed and valve protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved.
A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steadying device must be used to keep cylinders from being
knocked over while in use. Such cylinders are not considered to be "in storage." In storage,
cylinders should be secured.
Placing Cylinders
Cylinders must be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so that sparks,
hot slag, or flame will not reach them. When this is impractical, fire resistant shields must be
Cylinders must be placed where they cannot become part of an electrical circuit. Electrodes must
not be struck against a cylinder to strike an arc.
Fuel gas cylinders must be placed with valve end up whenever they are in use. They must not be
placed in a location where they would be subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of
artificial heat.
Use of Fuel Gas
Employees should understand and follow these safety procedures developed by the State of Washington:
Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve must be opened slightly and closed
immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or
dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve must stand to one side
of the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder must not be cracked where the gas
would reach welding work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition.
The cylinder valve must always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. For quick
closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders must not be opened more than 1 1/2 turns. When a special
wrench is required, it must be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so
that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. Nothing must be placed on
top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the
quick closing of the valve.
Fuel gas must not be used without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to the
cylinder valve.
Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve must always be closed and
the gas released from the regulator.
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If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a leak around the valve stem,
the valve must be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this action does not stop the leak, the use of
the cylinder must be discontinued, and it must be properly tagged and removed from the work area.
In the event that fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than from the valve stem, and
the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder must be properly tagged and removed from the work area. If
a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a leak through the valve seat, the
cylinder need not be removed from the work area.
If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder must be removed from the
work area.
Cylinders not having fixed hand wheels must have keys, handles, or non adjustable wrenches on
valve stems while in service.
Torches in use must be inspected before use for leaking shutoff valves, hose couplings, and tip
connections. Defective torches may not be used.
Torches must be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from
hot work.
Regulators and Gauges
Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators, including their related gauges, must be in proper working order
while in use.
Oil and Grease Hazards
Oxygen cylinders and fittings must be kept away from oil or grease. Cylinders, cylinder caps and valves,
couplings, regulators, hose, and apparatus must be kept free from oil or greasy substances and must not
be handled with oily hands or gloves. Oxygen must never be directed at oily surfaces, greasy clothes, or
within a fuel oil or other storage tank or vessel.
Fuel gas hose and oxygen hose must be easily distinguishable from each other. The contrast may be
made by different colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of touch.
Oxygen and fuel gas hoses must not be interchangeable. A single hose having more than one gas passage
must not be used.
When parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose are taped together, not more than 4 inches out of 12
inches must be covered by tape.
All hose in use, carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured fuel gas, or any gas or substance
which may ignite or enter into combustion, or be in any way harmful to employees, must be inspected at
the beginning of each working shift. Defective hose must be removed from service.
Hose which has been subject to flashback, or which shows evidence of severe wear or damage, must be
tested to twice the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than 300 p.s.i. Defective
hose, or hose in doubtful condition, must not be used.
Hose couplings must be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull
without rotary motion.
Boxes used for the storage of gas hose must be ventilated.
Hoses, cables, and other equipment must be kept clear of passageways, ladders and stairs.
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Clogged torch tip openings must be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills, or other devices designed
for such purpose.
Torches in use must be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking shutoff valves, hose
couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches must not be used.
Torches must be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from hot
Arc Welding and Cutting
Manual electrode holders.
Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting, and are of a
capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the electrodes, may be used.
Any current-carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or cutter grips
in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, must be fully insulated against the maximum
voltage encountered to ground.
Welding Cables and Connectors
Cables in need of repair may not be used. When a cable, other than the cable lead becomes worn to the
extent of exposing bare conductors, the portion thus exposed must be protected by means of rubber and
friction tape or other equivalent insulation.
Operating instructions.
Employees must follow these safe means of arc welding and cutting:
When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes must be removed and the holders
placed or protected so that they cannot make electrical contact with employees or conducting
Hot electrode holders may not be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to
electric shock.
The power supply switch to the equipment must be turned off whenever the welder has to leave his
work or stop for any appreciable length of time, or whenever the arc welding or cutting equipment
needs to be moved.
Any faulty or defective equipment must be reported to the shop supervisor.
Whenever practical, all arc welding and cutting operations must be shielded by non combustible or
flameproof screens which will protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the
direct rays of the arc.
Protective Clothing.
General Requirements. Employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations
will use proper personal protective equipment. Appropriate protective clothing required for any welding
operation will vary with the size, nature and location of the work to be performed. The following specified
protective clothing may be employed:
Eye Protection. Eye protection sufficient to protect the worker from harmful radiation must be used.
Employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening must be protected by filter lenses meeting the
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standard requirements. When two or more welders are exposed to each other's arc, filter lens goggles of a
suitable type must be worn under welding helmets. Hand shields to protect the welder against flashes and
radiant energy should be used when either the helmet is lifted or the shield is removed.
Gloves. Except when engaged in light work, all welders should wear flameproof gauntlet gloves.
Aprons. Flameproof aprons made of leather, or other suitable material may also be desirable as protection
against radiated heat and sparks.
Clothing. Woolen clothing preferable to cotton because it is not so readily ignited and helps protect the welder
from changes in temperature. Cotton clothing, if used, should be chemically treated to reduce its
combustibility. All outer clothing such as jumpers or overalls must be reasonably free from oil or grease.
Sleeves & Collars. Sparks may lodge in rolled-up sleeves or pockets of clothing, or cuffs of overalls or
trousers. It is therefore recommended that sleeves and collars be kept buttoned and pockets be eliminated from
the front of overalls and aprons. Trousers or overalls should not be turned up on the outside.
Note: For heavy work, fire-resistant leggings, high boots, or other equivalent means should be used.
Jackets & Caps. Jackets or shoulder covers made of leather or other suitable materials must be worn during
overhead welding or cutting operations. Leather skull caps should be worn under helmets to prevent head
Eye and Face Protective Wear
Employees must use eye and face protection equipment when machines or operations present potential
eye or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents.
Eye and face protection equipment required by this part should meet the requirements specified in
American National Standards Institute, Z87.1-1968, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and
Face Protection.
Employees whose vision requires the use of corrective lenses in spectacles, when required by this
regulation to wear eye protection, must be protected by goggles or spectacles of one of the following
Spectacles whose protective lenses provide optical correction;
Goggles that can be worn over corrective spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of the
Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective lenses.
Face and eye protection equipment must be kept clean and in good repair. The use of this type of
equipment with structural or optical defects is prohibited.
The table in the Appendix at the end of this chapter should be used as a guide in the selection of face and
eye protection for the hazards and operations noted.
Fire Prevention
When practical, objects to be welded, cut, or heated must be moved to a designated safe location or, if the
objects to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be readily moved, all movable fire hazards in the vicinity must
be taken to a safe place, or otherwise protected.
If the object to be welded, cut, or heated cannot be moved and if all the fire hazards cannot be removed,
positive means must be taken to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire
hazards from them.
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No welding, cutting, or heating is permitted where the application of flammable paints, or the presence of
other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard.
Suitable fire extinguishing equipment must be immediately available in the work area and must be
maintained in a state of readiness for instant use.
When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not
sufficient, additional personnel must be assigned to guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or
heating operation is being performed, and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work to
ensure that no possibility of fire exists. Such personnel will be instructed as to the specific anticipated fire
hazards and how the fire fighting equipment provided is to be used.
When welding, cutting, or heating is performed on equipment bodies, cowlings or casings, since direct
penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same precautions
must be taken on the opposite side as are taken on the side on which the welding is being performed.
All drums, pails, and other containers, which contain or have contained flammable liquids, must be kept
closed (except when removing or transferring the contents). Empty containers are to be removed to a safe
area apart from hot work operations or open flames.
Before welding, cutting, or heating is begun, all drums, containers, or hollow structures which have
contained toxic or flammable substances must either be filled with water or thoroughly cleaned of such
substances and ventilated and tested. When welding, cutting and heating on steel pipelines containing
natural gas, the pertinent portions of regulations issued by the Department of Transportation, Office of
Pipeline Safety, Minimum Federal Safety Standards for Gas Pipelines, must be followed.
Before heat is applied, a vent opening must be provided for the release of any built-up pressure caused by
the applying of heat to any drum, container, or hollow structure.
Ventilation And Protection In Welding, Cutting, And Heating.
General welding, cutting, and heating not involving toxic conditions or materials described in the following
sections, may normally be done without mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment. Suitable
mechanical ventilation or respiratory protective equipment must be used when unusual physical or atmospheric
conditions create an unsafe accumulation of contaminants.
Mechanical Ventilation.
For purposes of this section, mechanical ventilation must meet the following requirements:
Mechanical ventilation consists of either general mechanical ventilation systems or local exhaust
General mechanical ventilation must be of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to produce the
number of air changes necessary to maintain welding fumes and smoke within safe limits.
Local exhaust ventilation must consist of freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder
or burner as close as practicable to the work, that is of sufficient capacity and so arranged as to
remove fumes and smoke at the source and keep the concentration of them in the breathing zone
within safe limits.
Contaminated air exhausted from a working space must be discharged into the open air or otherwise
clear of the source of intake air.
Oxygen must never be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing,
or for cleaning the work area.
Welding, Cutting, or Heating Toxic Metals
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Welding, cutting, or heating in any enclosed spaces involving the metals specified below must be
performed with either general mechanical or local exhaust ventilation:
Zinc-bearing base or filler metals or metals coated with zinc-bearing materials.
Lead base metals;
Cadmium-bearing filler materials;
Chromium-bearing metals or metals coated with chromium-bearing materials.
Metals containing lead, other than as an impurity, or metals coated with lead-bearing materials;
Cadmium-bearing or cadmium-coated base metals;
Metals coated with mercury-bearing metals;
Beryllium-containing base or filler metals. Because of its high toxicity, work involving beryllium
must be done with both local exhaust ventilation and air line respirators.
Employees performing such operations in the open air will be protected by approved filter-type
respirators. Employees performing such operations on beryllium-containing base or filler metals will be
protected by approved air line respirators.
Other Employees
Other employees exposed to the same atmosphere as the welders or burners must be protected in the
same manner as the welder or burner.
Welding or Cutting Containers
Used containers. No welding, cutting, or other hot work may be performed on used drums, barrels, tanks or
other containers until they have been cleaned so thoroughly as to make absolutely certain that there are no
flammable materials present or any substances such as greases, tars, acids, or other materials which when
subjected to heat, might produce flammable or toxic vapors. Any pipe lines or connections to the drum or
vessel must be disconnected or blanked.
Venting and purging. All hollow spaces, cavities or containers must be vented to permit the escape of air or
gases before preheating, cutting or welding. Purging with inert gas is recommended.
Cleaning Compounds
Manufacturer's instructions. In the use of cleaning materials, because of their possible toxicity of
flammability, appropriate precautions such as manufacturer's instructions must be followed.
Degreasing. Degreasing or other cleaning operations involving chlorinated hydrocarbons will be so located
that no vapors from these operations will reach or be drawn into the atmosphere surrounding any welding
operation. In addition, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene should be kept out of atmospheres penetrated by
the ultraviolet radiation of gas-shielded welding operations.
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Welding Appendix
(page 1)
Welding Appendix (Page 1) Eye And Face Protection Selection Guide
GOGGLES, flexible fitting, regular ventilation
GOGGLES, flexible fitting, hooded ventilation
GOGGLES, cushioned fitting, rigid body
SPECTACLES, metal frame, with side shields
SPECTACLES, plastic frame with side shields
SPECTACLES, metal-plastic frame, with side shields
WELDING GOGGLES, eyecup type, tinted lenses
CHIPPING GOGGLES, eyecup type, clear safety lenses
WELDING GOGGLES, coverspec type tinted lenses
CHIPPING GOGGLES, coverspec type, clear safety lenses
WELDING GOGGLES, coverspec type, tinted plate lens
FACE SHIELD (available with plastic or mesh window)
*Non side shield spectacles are available for limited hazard use requiring only frontal protection.
**See the following table for filter lens shade numbers for protection against radiant energy.
7, 8, 9
2, 10 (for severe exposure
add 10 over 2)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7A, 8A
9, 11 (11 in combination with 4,
5 or 6 in tinted lenses, advisable)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
1, 3, 7A, 8A
(severe exposure add 10)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
7, 8 (10 in combination with 4, 5,
6, in tinted lenses)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10
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Welding Appendix
(page 2)
Welding Appendix (page 2) Filter Lens Shade Numbers For Protection Against Radiant Energy
Shades more dense than those listed may be used to suit the individual's needs
Welding Operation
Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16 to 5/32-inch diameter electrodes
Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch diameter electrodes
Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1/16 to 5/32-inch diameter electrodes
Shielded metal-arc welding 3/16 to 1/4- inch diameter electrodes
5/16-, 3/8-inch diameter electrodes
Atomic hydrogen welding
Carbon-arc welding
Torch brazing
Light cutting, up to 1 inch
Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches
Heavy cutting, over 6 inches
Gas welding (light), up to 1/8-inch
Gas welding (medium), 1/8-inch to 1/2-inch
Gas welding (heavy), over 1/2-inch
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Shade #
3 or 4
3 or 4
4 or 5
5 or 6
4 or 5
5 or 6
6 or 9
Chapter 12
Grounds - Power Mowers
Definition of Terms
Blade tip circle. The path described by the outermost point of the blade as it is rotated about its shaft axis.
Guards. A part or an assembly provided for shielding a hazardous area of a machine.
Catcher assemblies. Parts or combinations of parts which provide a means for collecting grass clippings or
Walk-behind mower. A mower either pushed or self-propelled and normally guided by the operator walking
behind the unit.
Operator area, walk-behind mowers. For discharge interference purposes, that area confined within a circle no
smaller than 30 inches in diameter, the center of which is located to the rear of the mower on its longitudinal
centerline 30 inches behind the nearest blade tip circle.
Power reel mower. A lawn-cutting machine utilizing a power source to rotate one or more helically formed
blades about a horizontal axis to provide a shearing action with a stationary cutter bar or bed knife.
Power rotary mower. A lawn-cutting machine utilizing a power source to rotate one or more cutting blades
about a vertical axis.
Lowest blade position. The lowest blade position under static conditions.
Riding mower. A powered, self-propelled lawn-cutting vehicle on which the operator rides and controls the
Sulky type mower. Normally, a walk-behind mower which has been converted to a riding mower by the
addition of a sulky.
Deadman control. A control designed so that it will automatically interrupt power to a drive when the
operator's actuating force is removed.
General Requirements
Proper hearing protection and eye protection must be worn where there is a hazard from either excessive
noise (above 85 DbA) or from projected objects.
Power lawnmowers of the walk-behind, riding-rotary types, and reel power lawnmowers designed for use
by employees must meet the design specifications in "American National Standard Safety Specifications
for Power Lawnmowers" ANSI B71.1-1968. These specifications do not apply to sulky-type mowers, flail
mowers, sickle-bar mowers, or mowers designed for commercial use.
All power-driven chains, belts, and gears must be so positioned or otherwise guarded to prevent the
operator's accidental contact, during normal starting, mounting, and operation of the machine.
A shutoff device must be provided to stop operation of the motor or engine. This device must require
manual and intentional reactivation to restart the motor or engine.
All positions of the operating controls must be clearly identified.
The words, "Caution. Be sure the operating control(s) is in neutral before starting the engine," or similar
wording must be clearly visible at an engine starting control point on self-propelled mowers.
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Walk-Behind And Riding Rotary Mowers
The mower blade must be enclosed except on the bottom and the enclosure must extend to or below the
lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position.
Guards which must be removed to install a catcher assembly must comply with the following:
A. Warning instructions must be affixed to the mower near the opening stating that the mower must not
be used without either the catcher assembly or the guard in place.
B. The catcher assembly or the guard must be installed on newly purchased mowers before they are put
into use.
C. The instruction manual must state that the mower must not be used without either the catcher assembly
or the guard in place.
D. The catcher assembly, when properly and completely installed, must not create a condition which
violates the limits given for the guarded opening.
Openings in the blade enclosure must meet WAC safety standards.
The word "caution" or stronger wording, must be placed on the mower at or near each discharge opening.
Blade(s) must stop rotating from the manufacturer's specified maximum speed within 15 seconds after
declutching, or shutting off power.
In a multi-piece blade, the means of fastening the cutting members to the body of the blade or disc must be
so designed that they will not become worn to a hazardous condition before the cutting members
themselves are worn beyond use.
The maximum tip speed of any blade must be 19,000 feet per minute.
Walk-Behind Rotary Mowers
The horizontal angle of the opening(s) in the blade enclosure, intended for the discharge of grass, must not
contact the operator area.
There must be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the discharge of
A. A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of 3 inches from the end of the discharge chute to the
blade tip circle.
B. A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use of tools.
The bottom of the bar must be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
The highest point(s) on the front of the blade enclosure, except discharge openings, must be such that any
line extending a maximum of 15 downward from the horizontal toward the blade shaft axis (axes) must not
intersect the horizontal plane within the blade tip circle. The highest point(s) on the blade enclosure front,
except discharge-openings, must not exceed 1 ¼ inches above the lowest cutting point of the blade in the
lowest blade position. Mowers with a swing-over handle are to be considered as having no front in the
blade enclosure and therefore must comply with WAC standards.
The mower handle must be fastened to the mower so as to prevent loss of control by unintentional
uncoupling while in operation.
A positive upstop or latch must be provided for the mower handle in the normal operating position(s). The
upstop must not be subject to unintentional disengagement during normal operation of the mower. The
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upstop or latch must not allow the center or the handle grips to come closer than 17 inches horizontally
behind the closest path of the mower blade(s) unless manually disengaged.
A swing-over handle, which complies with the above requirements, is permitted.
Wheel drive disengaging controls, except deadman controls, must move opposite to the direction of the
vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Deadman controls must comply with WAC standards and
may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
Riding Rotary Mowers
The highest point(s) of all openings in the blade enclosure, front must be limited by a vertical angle of
opening of 15 and a maximum distance of 1 1/4 inches above the lowest cutting point of the blade in the
lowest blade position.
Opening(s) must be placed so that grass or debris will not discharge directly toward any part of an operator
seated in a normal operator position.
There must be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the discharge of
A. A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of six inches from the end of the discharge chute to the
blade tip circle.
B. A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use of tools.
The bottom of the bar must be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
C. Mowers must be provided with stops to prevent jackknifing or locking of the steering mechanism.
Vehicle stopping means must be provided.
Hand-operated wheel drive disengaging controls must move opposite to the direction of vehicle motion in
order to disengage the drive. Foot-operated wheel drive disengaging controls must be depressed to
disengage the drive. Deadman controls, both hand and foot operated and may operate in any direction to
disengage the drive.
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Chapter 13
Fall Protection
Fall Protection Introduction
If anyone is exposed to a fall hazard of 10 feet or more in height, the employee must protect themselves by
using a proper fall restraint or fall arrest system or positioning device system as described below.
Fall Protection Work Plan
A fall protection work plan must be filled out for each job site where fall hazards of 10 feet or more exist. Any
items that apply should be filled in on the fall protection work plan form.
Employees who have been assigned to work in areas where fall hazards exist must:
Be knowledgeable in the fall protection equipment and procedures which apply.
Inspect fall protection devices and systems before use.
Fall Restraint (restrained from falling)
Fall restraint protection consists of any of the following:
A standard guardrail.
A safety belt and/or harness attached to securely rigged restraint lines.
A. Safety belts and/or harness must conform to ANSI standard:
1. Class I body belt.
2. Class II chest harness.
3. Class III full body harness.
4. Class IV suspension/position belt.
B. All safety belt and lanyard hardware assemblies must be capable of withstanding a tensile loading of
4,000 pounds without cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation.
C. Rope grab devices are prohibited for fall restraint applications unless they are part of a fall restraint
system designed specifically for the purpose by the manufacturer, and used in strict accordance with
the manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions.
D. All components must be compatible.
E. Components of fall restraint systems must be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage,
and other deterioration, and defective components should be removed from service if their function or
strength have been adversely affected.
F. Anchorage points used for fall restraint must be compatible of supporting four times the intended load.
G. Restraint protection must be rigged to allow the movement of employees only as far as the sides and
edges of the walking/working surface.
A warning line system together with a safety monitor system to protect workers engaged in duties between
the forward edge of the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges, including the leading edge, of a
low-pitched roof or walking/working surface.
Warning line and safety monitor systems are not allowed on surfaces exceeding a 4 in 12 pitch, and on any
surface whose dimensions are less than 45 inches in all directions.
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Fall Arrest Protection
Fall arrest protection consists of the following:
A Full Body Harness System
An approved Class III full body harness must be used.
Systems or components that have been subjected to impact loading must be immediately removed from
service and not used again unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and
suitable for reuse.
All safety lines and lanyards should be protected against being cut or abraded.
The attachment point of the body harness must be located in the center of the wearer’s back near
shoulder level, or above the wearer’s head.
Body harness systems must be rigged to minimize free fall distance with a maximum free fall distance
allowed of six feet, and such that the employee will not contact any lower level.
Hardware must be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of materials equivalent in strength.
Hardware must have a corrosion resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges be smooth to prevent damage
to the attached body harness or lanyard.
When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, no more than one employee may be attached to any one
Note: the system strength needs in the following items are based on a total combined weight of employee
and tools of no more than 310 pounds. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate
allowances must be made or the system will not be deemed to be in compliance.
Full body harness systems must be secured to anchorages capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per
employee except when self retracting lifelines or other deceleration devices are used which limit free fall
to two feet. Anchorages must be capable of withstanding 3,000 pounds.
Vertical lifelines (droplines) must have maximum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds except that self
retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet or less must have
a minimum tensile strength of 3,000 pounds.
Horizontal lifelines must have a tensile strength capable of supporting a fall impact load of at least 5,000
pounds per employee using the lifeline, applied anywhere along the lifeline.
Lanyards must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.
All components of body harness systems, unless otherwise specified, must be capable of supporting a
minimal fall impact load of 5,000 pounds applied at the lanyard point of connection.
Snap hooks may not be connected to loops made in webbing type lanyards.
Snap hooks may not be connected to each other.
Not more than one snap hook may be connected to any one D ring unless they are the double locking
Full body harness systems must be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear damage, and other
deterioration, and defective components removed from service if their function or strength have been
adversely affected.
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Safety Nets.
Safety net systems will not be used by Grays Harbor College.
Catch Platform.
If a catch platform is used:
A catch platform must be installed within 10 vertical feet of the work area.
The catch platforms width must be equal the distance of the fall but must be a minimum of 45 inches
wide and must be equipped with standard guardrails on all open sides.
Positioning Device Systems
Positioning devices must be rigged so that an employee cannot free fall more than two feet.
Positioning devices must have anchorages capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load
of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever is greater.
Connectors must be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.
Connectors must have corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges must be smooth to prevent
damage to interfacing parts of the system.
Connecting assemblies must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.
D-rings and snap-hooks must be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds without
cracking, breaking or taking permanent deformation.
Snap-hooks must be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent
unintentional disengagement of the snap-hook by depression of the snap-hook keeper by the connected
member, or must be a locking type snap-hook by the contact of the snap-hook keeper by the connected
member. As of January 1, 1998, only locking type snap-hooks must be used.
Unless the snap-hook is a locking type and designed for the following connections, snap-hooks must not
be engaged:
Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope.
To each other.
To a D-ring to which another snap-hook or other connector is attached.
To a horizontal lifeline; or
To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap-hook such that
unintentional disengagement could occur by the connected object being able to depress the
snap-hook keeper and release itself.
Positioning device systems must be inspected prior to each use for wear, damage and other deterioration
and defective components must be removed from service.
Body belts, harnesses and components must be used only for employee protection (as part of a personal
fall arrest system or positioning device system) and not to hoist materials.
Droplines or Lifelines
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If used in areas where the lifeline may be subjected to cutting or abrasion, it must be a minimum of 7/8
inch wire core manila rope. For all other lifeline applications, a minimum of ¾ inch manila or
equivalent, with a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pound, should be used.
Guarding of Low-Pitched Roof Perimeters
General Provisions
During the performance of work on low-pitched roofs with a potential fall hazard greater than 10 feet, all
employees engaged in the work must use the proper protection as follows:
By the use of a fall restraint or fall arrest systems.
By the use of a proper warning line and safety monitoring combination system when they are
working between the warning line and the roof edge.
Mechanical equipment can only be used and stored in areas where employees are protected by a
warning line system, or fall restraint, or fall arrest systems. Mechanical equipment cannot be used or
stored where the only protection is provided by a safety monitor.
Fall restraint or fall arrest systems are not required at points of access such as stairways, ladders, and
ramps, or when employees are on the roof only to inspect, investigate, or estimate roof level conditions.
Employees engaged in roofing on low-pitched roofs less than 50 feet wide, may elect to use a safety
monitor system without warning lines.
Warning Line Systems
Warning lines must be erected around all sides of the work area.
When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line must be erected not less than six
feet from the edge of the roof.
When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line must be erected not less than six feet
from the roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less
than 10 feet (3.1 m) from the roof edge which is perpendicular to the direction of mechanical
equipment operation.
The warning line must consist of rope, wire, or chain, and supporting stanchions erected as follows:
The rope, wire, or chain must be flagged at not more than six foot intervals with high-visibility
The rope, wire, or chain must be rigged and supported in such a way that its lowest point (including
sag) is no less than 36 inches from the roofs surface and its highest point is no more than 42 inches
from the roof surface.
After being erected, with the rope, wire, or chain attached, stanchions must be capable of resisting,
without topping over, a force of at least 16 pounds applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30
inches above the roof surface, perpendicular to the warning line, and in the direction of the roof
The rope, wire, or chain must have a minimum tensile strength of 200 pounds, and after being
attached to the stanchions, must be capable of supporting, without breaking, the loads applied to the
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The line must be attached at each stanchion in such a way that pulling on one section of the line
between stanchions will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections before the stanchion
tips over.
Access paths must be erected as follows:
Points of access, materials handling areas, and storage areas must be connected to the work area by a
clear access path formed by two warning lines.
When the path to a point of access is not in use, a rope, wire, chain, equal in strength and height to
the warning line, must be placed across the path at the point where the path intersects the warning
line erected around the work area.
Roof Edge Materials Handling Areas and Materials Storage
Employees working in a roof edge materials handling or materials storage area located on a low-pitched
roof with a ground-to-eve height greater than 10 feet must be protected from falling along all unprotected
roof sides and edges of the area.
When guardrails are used at hoisting areas, a minimum of four feet of guardrail must be erected on
each side of the access point through which materials are hoisted.
A chain or gate must be placed across the opening between the guardrail sections when hoisting
operations are not taking place.
When guardrails are used at bitumen pipe outlets, a minimum of four feet of guardrail must be
erected on each side of the pipe.
When safety belt/harness systems are used, they must not be attached to the hoist.
When fall restraint systems are used, they must be rigged to allow the movement of employees only
as far as the roof edge.
Materials must not be stored within six feet of the roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the roof
Leading Edge Control Zone
When performing leading edge work, the lead must ensure that a control zone be established according to
the following requirements:
The control zone must begin a minimum of six feet back from the leading edge to prevent exposure
by employees who are not protected by fall restraint or fall arrest systems.
The control zone must be separated from other areas of the low-pitched roof or walking/working
surface by the erection of a warning line system.
The warning line system must consist of wire, rope, or chain supported on stanchions, or a method
which provides equivalent protection.
The spacing of the stanchions and support of the line must be such that the lowest point of the line
(including sag) is not less than 36 inches from the walking/working surface, and its highest point is
not more than 42 inches from the walking/working surface.
Each line must have a minimum tensile strength of 200 pounds.
Each line must be flagged or clearly marked with high visibility materials at intervals not to exceed
six feet.
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After being erected with the wire, rope, or chain attached, stanchions must be capable of resisting
without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds applied horizontally against the stanchions 30
inches above the roof surface, perpendicular to the warning line and in the direction of the roof edge.
When positive means of fall restraint, or fall arrest are not utilized, a safety monitor system must be
implemented to protect employees working between the forward edge of the warning line and the leading
Safety Monitor System
A safety monitor system (SMS) may be used in conjunction with a warning line system as a method of
guarding against falls during work on low-pitched roofs and leading edge work only.
When selected, the lead must ensure that the safety monitor system is addressed in the fall protection
work plan, including the name of the safety monitor(s) and must ensure that the following requirements
are met:
The safety monitor system may not be used when adverse weather conditions create additional
A person acting in the capacity of safety monitor(s) must be trained in the function of both the safety
monitor and warning lines systems, and:
A. Be a competent person as defined above.
B. Have control authority over the work as it relates to fall protection.
C. Be instantly distinguishable over members of the work crew.
D. Engage in no other duties while acting as safety monitor.
E. Have a clear, unobstructed view and be able to maintain normal voice communication with the
workers under their protection.
F. Supervise no more than eight exposed workers at one time.
Control zone workers must be distinguishable from other members of the crew by wearing highly visible,
distinctive, and uniform apparel readily distinguishing them from other members of the crew only while
in the control zone.
Roofing Brackets
A roofing bracket is a bracket used in sloped roof construction, having provisions for fastening to the
roof or supported by ropes fastened over the ridge and secured to some suitable object.
Roofing brackets will be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof.
Brackets shall be secured in place by nailing in addition to the pointed metal projections. The nails
shall be driven full length into the roof. When rope supports are used, they shall consist of firstgrade manila of at least three-quarter inch diameter, or equivalent.
A substantial catch platform shall be installed below the working area of roofs more than 20 feet
from the ground to eaves with a slope greater than three inches in 12 inches without a parapet. In
width the platform shall extend two feet beyond the projection of the eaves and shall be provided
with safety rail, mid-rail, and toeboard. This provision shall not apply where employees engaged in
work upon such roofs are protected by a safety belt attached to a lifeline.
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Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices which is capable
of withstanding the forces specified in the application sections of chapter 296-155 WAC.
Approved means, for the purpose of this section; tested and certified by the manufacturer, or any recognized
national testing laboratory, to possess the strength requirements specified in this section.
Body belt means a Type 1 safety belt used in conjunction with lanyard or lifeline for fall restraint only.
Full body harness means a configuration of connected straps to distribute a fall arresting force over at least the
thighs, shoulders and pelvis, with provisions for attaching a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration devices.
Full body harness system means a Class III full body harness and lanyard which is attached to an anchorage or
attached to a horizontal or vertical lifeline which is properly secured to an anchorage(s) capable of withstanding
the forces specified in the applicable sections of chapter 296-155 WAC.
Catenary line - see horizontal lifeline.
Competent person means an individual knowledgeable of fall protection equipment, including the
manufacturer's recommendations and instructions for the proper use, inspection, and maintenance; and who is
capable of identifying existing and potential fall hazards; and who has the authority to take prompt corrective
action to eliminate those hazards; and who is knowledgeable of the rules contained in this section regarding the
erection, use, inspection, and maintenance of fall protection equipment and systems.
Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and
positioning device systems together. It may be on independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or
it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckler or D-ring sewn into a body belt or body
harness, or a snap-lock spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
Continuous fall protection means design and use of a fall protection system such that no exposure to an
elevated fall hazard occurs. This may require more than one fall protection system or a combination of
prevention or protection measures.
Control zone means the area between the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges of the
walking/working surface.
Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard,
tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a
substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during
fall arrest.
Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline
elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to
operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness
attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during
a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
Drop line means a vertical lifeline secured to an upper anchorage for the purpose of attaching a lanyard.
Failure means load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the
ultimate strength is exceeded.
Fall arrest system means the use of multiple, approved safety equipment components such as: body harnesses,
lanyards, deceleration devices, drop lines, horizontal and/or vertical lifelines and anchorages, interconnected
and rigged as to arrest a free fall.
Fall protection work plan means a written planning document in which the employer identifies all areas on the
job site where a fall hazard of 10 feet or greater exists. The plan describes the method or methods of fall
protection to be utilized to protect employees, and includes the procedures governing the installation, use,
inspection, and removal of the fall protection method or methods which are selected by the employer.
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Fall-restraint system means an approved device and any necessary components that function together to
restrain an employee in such a manner as to prevent that employee from falling to a lower level. When standard
guardrails are selected, compliance with applicable sections governing their construction and use shall
constitute approval.
Fall distance means the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
Free fall means the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body
belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard delongation, but includes any deceleration
device slide distance an self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before the operate and fall arrest forces occur.
Hardware means snap hooks, D rings, bucklers, carabiners, adjusters, O rings, that are used to attach the
components of a fall protection system together.
Horizontal lifeline means a vertical line from a fixed anchorage or between two horizontal anchorages and
used for attachment of a worker’s lanyard or lifeline device while moving horizontally; used to control
dangerous pendulum-like swing falls.
Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which generally has a connector at each end for
connecting the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
Leading edge means the edge of a floor, roof, or form work for a floor or other walking/working surface (such
as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or form work sections are placed,
formed, or constructed. A leading edge is considered to be a non-protected side and edge during periods when
it is not actively and continuously under construction.
Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang
vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorage's at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal
lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall protection system to
the anchorage.
Locking snap hook means a connecting snap hook that requires two separate forces to open the gate; one to
deactivate the gatekeeper and a second to minimize roll out or accidental disengagement.
Low-pitched roof means a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12.
Mechanical equipment means all motor or human propelled wheeled equipment used for roofing work, except
wheelbarrows and mopcarts.
Positioning belt means a single or multiple strap that can be secured around the worker’s body to hold the user
in a work position; for example, a lineman’s belt, a rebar belt, or saddle belt.
Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be
supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning.
Restraint line means a line from a fixed anchorage or between two anchorages to which an employee is
secured in such a way as to prevent the worker from falling to a lower level.
Roll out means unintentional disengagement of a snap hook caused by the gate being depressed under torque or
contact while twisting or turning; a particular concern with single action snap hooks that do not have a locking
Roof means the exterior surface on the top of a building. This does not include floors or form work which,
because a building has not been completed, temporarily become the top surface of a building.
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Rope grab means a deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the
lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial
locking, cam/level locking, or both.
Roofing work means the hoisting, storage, application, and removal of roofing materials and equipment,
including related insulation, sheet metal, and vapor barrier work, but not including the construction of the roof
Safety line - see lifeline.
Safety monitor system means a system of fall restraint used in conjunction with a warning line system only,
where a competent person as defined by this part, having no additional duties, monitors the proximity of
workers to the fall hazard when working between the warning line and the unprotected sides and edges,
including the leading edge of a low-pitched roof or walking/working surface.
Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard means a deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be
slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and
which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Shock absorbing lanyard means a flexible line of webbing, cable, or rope used to secure a body belt or harness
to a lifeline or anchorage point that has an integral shock absorber.
Single-action snap hook means a connecting snap hook that requires a single force to open the gate which
automatically closes when released.
Snap hook means a self-closing connecting device with a gatekeeper latch or similar arrangement that will
remain closed until manually opened. This includes single-action snap hooks that open when the gatekeeper is
depressed and double-action snap hooks that require a second action on a gatekeeper before the gate can be
Static line - see horizontal lifeline.
Steep roof means a roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12.
Toeboard means a low protective barrier that will prevent the fall of materials and equipment to lower levels
and provide protection from falls for personnel.
Unprotected sides and edges means any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a floor, roof,
ramp, or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system.
Walking/working surface means for the purpose of this section, any area whose dimensions are 45 inches or
greater in all directions, through which workers pass or conduct work.
Warning line system means a barrier erected on a walking and working surface or a low-pitch roof (4 in 12 or
less), to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected fall hazard(s).
Work area means that portion of a walking/working surface where job duties are being performed.
Grays Harbor College – Accident Prevention Program
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