installing child safety seats - Madison County Department of Health

installing child safety seats - Madison County Department of Health
safety
installing child safety seats
child safety seats are required
by law in every state because
they provide the best protection
for infants and young children.
Installing Child Safety Seats
February 2012
Child safety seats are required by law in every state because they
provide the best protection for infants and young children. However, correctly installing a child safety seat can be challenging,
especially with the wide variety of restraint systems, vehicle belt
systems and passenger vehicles available on the market today.
Selecting And Installing A Child Safety Seat
It is important to remember these guidelines:
•It must be appropriate for your child’s age, height and
weight.
•It must fit tightly into your vehicle and not move more than
1 inch from side to side and front to back at the belt path.
The back seat is the best place for the child safety seat.
•Always refer to the child safety seat instructions and vehicle
manufacturer’s instructions for weight limits, proper use
and installation.
•Avoid seats that are too old. All manufacturers are required
to include the model number and manufacture date on each
seat they produce. It can be found on a label attached to
the restraint usually on the bottom or the side of the seat.
Most manufacturers recommend replacing any child safety
seat over 6 years old.
Resources
•The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
rates child safety seats on how easy they are to properly
install. For more information, visit www.nhtsa.gov.
•A certified child passenger safety technician can check the
installation of your child safety seat and answer questions.
To find a technician or an inspection station near you, go to
www.nhtsa.gov.
•If your child’s safety seat has been in a vehicle that was
involved in a crash, check your child safety seat manufacturer’s recommendations for replacement, or call the
toll-free number on the side of the child safety seat. For
more information, visit the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) at www.nhtsa.gov.
•For information on state child restraint laws, visit the
following Web site:
• The Insurance Institute For Highway Safety (IIHS)
www.iihs.org/laws/childrestraint.aspx
•New child safety seats have a registration card. Register your
child’s safety seat with the manufacturer so you can be notified of any recall. To register, mail your registration card to
the manufacturer, or register on the manufacturer’s Web site.
This publication is not medical, safety, legal, tax, or investment advice. It is only a general overview of the subject presented. The USAA
Educational Foundation, a nonprofit organization, does not provide professional services for financial, accounting or legal matters. Consult
your tax and legal advisers regarding your specific situation. Information in this publication could be time sensitive and may be outdated.
The Foundation does not endorse or promote any commercial supplier, product or service.
child restraint recommendations
1
age group
type of seat
general guidelines
Infants/Toddlers
Infant seats and rear-facing convertible seats
All infants and toddlers should ride in a Rear-Facing Car Safety Seat
until they are 2 years of age or until they reach the highest weight or
height allowed by their car safety seat’s manufacturer.
Toddlers/
Preschoolers
Convertible seats and forward-facing
seats with harnesses
All children 2 years or older, or those younger than 2 years who have
outgrown the rear-facing weight or height limit for their car safety
seat, should use a Forward-Facing Car Safety Seat with a harness for
as long as possible, up to the highest weight or height allowed by their
car safety seat’s manufacturer.
School-aged
Children
Booster seats
All children whose weight or height is above the forward-facing limit
for their car safety seat should use a Belt-Positioning Booster Seat until the vehicle seat belt fits properly, typically when they have reached
4 feet 9 inches in height and are between 8 and 12 years of age.
Older Children
Seat belts
When children are old enough and large enough to use the vehicle
seat belt alone, they should always use Lap and Shoulder Seat Belts
for optimal protection.
All children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the Rear
Seats of vehicles for optimal protection.
Used with permission of the American Academy of Pediatrics. For additional car safety seat advice and other children’s health information, visit HealthyChildren.org, the official American Academy of Pediatrics website for parents.
2
Rear-Facing Infant Seats — Correct
Position The Infant Seat At The Correct Angle
✔
Rear-facing infant seat is positioned at an appropriate angle. Read
the manufacturer’s instructions to determine the correct angle for
your child’s infant seat to help ensure unobstructed breathing.
Some infant seats can be installed without the base. However, there
are some infant seats that cannot be installed without the base.
Therefore, you should always check the owner’s manual to be sure.
A THIN RECEIVING blanket can be inserted
between the harness buckle and the
child’s groin to take up the gap.
Getting The Correct Angle When NTBase
✔
If you do install an infant seat without the base, make sure
you get the correct angle. Rolled towels or foam noodles may
be used at the crack of the vehicle seat to position most infant
seats to the correct angle (approximately 30 to 45 degrees).
Read the manufacturer’s instructions to determine the correct
angle of the child safety seat and if the seat does not allow the
use of rolled towels or foam noodles. A thin rubber grip may be
placed on the vehicle seat to protect the seat.
Rear-Facing Infant Seats — Incorrect
Avoid The Upright Angle
✘
Rear-facing infant seat is positioned at an upright angle. This position could force the
child’s head to tilt forward and obstruct breathing.
Correct: Read the manufacturer’s instructions to determine the correct angle of the restraint.
Take Up The Slack
✘
Harness straps are loose and twisted.
✘
Harness chest clip is not fastened.
Correct: Keep harness straps snug,
straight and flat.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be
fastened at the middle of the chest and
level with the armpits.
Do Not Let The Clip Slip
✘
Add-on product has forced the harness chest clip to
slide out of position. An add-on product is anything
that is attached to the restraint that did not originally
come with the restraint. These products are not regulated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Some add-on products may void
the manufacturer’s warranty and liability. Some
child safety seats provide shoulder pads that can be
added to the shoulder straps. If used, the pads must
be properly positioned on the child’s shoulders. Read
the manufacturer’s instructions for proper use.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be at the middle
of the chest and level with the armpits.
3
4
Rear-Facing Infant Seats — Correct
Keep The Harness Chest Clip Level With The Armpits
✔
Harness straps on rear-facing infant seats should be at, or below, the
shoulders.
✔
Harness chest clip is positioned at the middle of the chest and is level with
the armpits. This keeps the shoulder straps in the correct position.
✔
✔
Harness straps are snug, straight and flat.
Top of the child’s head should be no closer than one inch to the top of the
plastic shell (rear-facing infant seat/convertible seat only). Coverings may
exceed the top of the plastic shell.
harness
chest clip
harness
straps
Rolled receiving blankets on either side of the child provide support.
position Receiving blankets from the top of the hips to the top of the
head to provide support. Do not put rolled receiving blankets underneath the child’s head/neck.
Rear-Facing Infant Seats — Incorrect
Blanket is between the child
and the harness straps.
✘
Correct: Remove bulky clothing
or blankets before placing the
child in the restraint system.
Never place blankets underneath or behind the child, or
inside the harness system.
Child is too tall and too old for the
infant seat. The child’s head is
above the top of the seat.
Correct: The top of the child’s
head should be at least 1 inch
below the top of the plastic shell
of a rear-racing infant seat.
✘
Harness chest clip is too low.
Correct: Harness chest clip should
be at the middle of the chest and
level with the armpits.
Never Place A Rear-Facing Seat In The
Forward-Facing Position
✘
Rear-facing infant seat is in the forward-facing position.
✘
Harness chest clip is not fastened.
Correct: All infants and toddlers should ride in a rearfacing safety seat until they are 2 years of age or until
they reach the highest weight or height allowed by their
safety seat’s manufacturer.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be fastened at
the middle of the chest and level with the armpits.
▼
✘
Avoid Seats That Are Too Small
▼
Take The Wraps Off
5
6
Rear-Facing Convertible Seats — Correct
Keep Straps Snug, Straight And Flat
✔
✔
✔
Harness straps are snug, straight and flat.
Harness straps are at, or below, the shoulders.
Harness chest clip is at the middle of the chest
and level with the armpits.
a convertible seat can be used as a replacement when the
child outgrows the height and weight recommendations of
an infant seat, but still needs to ride rear-facing. IT IS BEST
FOR CHILDREN TO RIDE REAR-FACING UP TO 2 YEARS OF AGE OR TO
THE HIGHEST WEIGHT or HEIGHT ALLOWED BY THE MANUFACTURER OF
THEIR CONVERTIBLE SEAT.
Position The Safety Seat At The
Correct Angle
✔
Child safety seat is positioned at an appropriate angle. Read the manufacturer’s
instructions to determine the correct angle for the child safety seat.
✔
✔
✔
Harness chest clip is at the middle of the chest and level with the armpits.
Harness straps are snug, straight and flat.
Vehicle seat belt is in the correct belt path.
Rear-Facing Convertible Seats — Incorrect
Do Not Take The Wrong Path
✘
Vehicle seat belt is in the wrong belt path for a rear-facing convertible seat.
✘
Child seat is positioned at an upright angle. This position could force
a younger child’s head to tilt forward and obstruct breathing.
Correct: Place seat belt in the correct belt path according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Correct: Check the manufacturer’s recommendation to determine the
correct angle for the child safety seat.
▼
Take Up The Slack
✘
Some child safety seats
provide shoulder pads
that can be added to
the shoulder straps.
If used, the pads must
be properly positioned
on the child’s shoulders.
Read the manufacturer’s
instructions for proper use.
Harness straps are loose, twisted and positioned
too high above the shoulders.
Correct: Adjust harness straps so that they are
snug, straight and flat and are positioned at, or
below, the shoulders.
✘
Harness chest clip is not fastened.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be fastened
at the middle of the chest and level with the
armpits.
7
8
Forward-Facing Convertible Seats — Correct
Position Straps At, Or Above, The Shoulders
✔
Harness straps on forward-facing child safety seats should be positioned
at, or above, the shoulders. Harness straps should be threaded through
the reinforced slots. Read the manufacturer’s instructions to determine
which slots are reinforced.
✔
✔
✔
Harness straps are snug, straight and flat.
Harness chest clip is at the middle of the chest and level with the armpits.
Mid-point of the back of the head is not above the top of the plastic shell.
Keep Straps Snug, Straight And Flat
✔
✔
Harness straps are snug, straight and flat.
Harness straps are at, or above,
the shoulders.
ALL CHILDREN 2 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, OR THOSE YOUNGER
THAN 2 YEARS OF AGE WHO HAVE OUTGROWN THE REAR-FACING
WEIGHT OR HEIGHT LIMIT FOR THEIR SAFEtY SEAT, SHOULD USE A
FORWArd-FACING SAFETY SEAT WITH A HARNESS FOR AS LONG AS
POSSIBLE, UP TO THE HIGHEST WEIGHT OR HEIGHT ALLOWED BY
THEIR SAFETY SEAT’S MANUFACTURER.
Forward-Facing Convertible Seats — Incorrect
Do Not Let The Clip Slip
▼
✘
Harness chest clip is positioned too low.
✘
Harness straps are loose.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be at
the middle of the chest and level with the
armpits.
Correct: Harness straps should lay snug,
straight and flat.
Some child safety seats provide shoulder pads that can
be added to the shoulder straps. If used, the pads must
be properly positioned on the child’s shoulders. Read
the manufacturer’s instructions for proper use.
Never Let Children Ride Unrestrained
✘
Child is unrestrained without a harness strap.
✘
Harness chest clip is not fastened.
Correct: Child should be properly restrained with harness straps. Most states require children under 4 years
of age to be properly restrained in an appropriate child
safety seat.
Correct: Harness chest clip should be fastened at
the middle of the chest and level with the armpits.
9
10
Forward-Facing seats — Correct
Combination Seat
✔
5-point harness is in the correct position. A 5-point harness seat must
be secured to the vehicle.
Child is in a combination seat. A combination seat is a type of forwardfacing child restraint that is used with an internal harness system to
secure a child up to 40 pounds or higher, and then, with the removal
of the internal harness, is used as a high-back belt positioning booster
(BPB) seat. Read the manufacturer’s instructions for more information.
Combination seats cannot be
used rear-facing.
Some child safety seats provide shoulder pads that can be added to
the shoulder straps. If used, the pads must be properly positioned
on the child’s shoulders. Read the manufacturer’s instructions for
proper use.
Forward-Facing Seats — Incorrect
11
Remove Internal Harness When Shoulders
Are Above All Harness Slots
✘
Harness straps are below the shoulders.
Correct: Internal harness system should be removed from combination seats and the
restraint should be used as a belt-positioning booster with the vehicle lap/shoulder belt.
▼
Position harness straps in a forward-facing child safety
seat at, or above — not below — the child’s shoulders.
Avoid Seats That Are
Too Big
✘
a certified child passenger safety
technician can check the installation
of your child safety seat and answer
questions. CONTACT THE NATIONAL
HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION
(NHTSA) FOR MORE INFORMATION.
Infant is too small for
the seat.
Correct: Infant should
be in a rear-facing
infant seat or rearfacing convertible
seat with harness
straps at, or below,
shoulder level.
12
Belt-Positioning Booster Seats — Correct
Always Use The Lap/Shoulder Belt With Booster Seats
✔
Child is in a high-back booster secured by the vehicle lap/shoulder belt. The lap belt is
snug across the child’s upper thighs and the shoulder belt is snug across the chest.
lap belt on
upper thighs
✔
Child is in a no-back
booster secured by the
vehicle lap/shoulder
belt. The lap belt is
snug across the child’s
upper thighs and the
shoulder belt is snug
across the chest.
✔
Child has head and
neck protection with
an adjustable head
restraint.
high-back booster
ALL CHILDREN WHOSE WEIGHT OR
HEIGHT IS ABOVE THE FORWARD-FACING
LIMIT FOR THEIR SAFETY SEAT SHOULD
USE A BELT-POSITIONING BOOSTER
SEAT UNTIL THE VEHICLE SEAT BELT
FITS PROPERLY, TYPICALLY WHEN THEY
HAVE REACHED 4 FEET 9 INCHES IN
HEIGHT AND ARE BETWEEN 8 AND 12
YEARS OF AGE.
High-back and no-back booster seats should
be used for a child who has outgrown a
child safety seat with internal harnesses
and is not tall enough (LESS THAN 4 FEET 9
INCHES TALL) for the vehicle seat belt system.
No-back booster
Belt-Positioning Booster Seats — Incorrect
Never Use Just The Lap Belt With Booster Seats
✘
Child is restrained with a vehicle lap belt only. Children can be severely
injured if not properly restrained in a lap/shoulder belt.
Correct: For upper body protection, a lap/shoulder belt should always
be used with a booster.
Always position the lap portion of the vehicle seat
belt snug across the upper thighs (pelvic bone) and
the shoulder belt snug across the chest.
Do Not Allow Children To Play With Hard Toys And Other Objects
✘
Hard toys and other objects can become dangerous projectiles during hard
braking and crash situations.
Correct: Use soft toys only.
✘
Child is restrained with a vehicle lap belt only. Children can be severely injured
if not properly restrained in a lap/shoulder belt.
Correct: For upper body protection, a lap/shoulder belt should always be
used with a booster.
Never use pillows, towels or books as a
booster seat — doing so can compromise
your child’s safety.
▼
13
14
Seat Belt Systems — Correct
Keep The Lap Belt Low On The Upper Thighs
✔
Child is sitting straight against the back of the vehicle seat
with his knees bent comfortably at the edge of the seat.
✔
The shoulder belt is snug across the chest and the vehicle
lap belt fits snug and low over the upper thighs.
✔
Child has head and neck protection with an adjustable head restraint.
Children should sit straight against the back of the vehicle seat with knees
bent comfortably at the edge of the seat. The vehicle’s shoulder belt should
fit snug across the chest and the lap belt snug and low over the upper thighs.
Seat Belt Systems — Incorrect
Never Put A Small Child In A Seat Belt
✘
Child is too short to be in a vehicle lap/shoulder belt. The vehicle
shoulder belt is under the child’s arm. This can cause serious injuries
in a crash.
Correct: Child should be in a forward-facing seat with an internal harness.
Only children who are tall enough (4 feet 9 inches or taller) can fit properly
in vehicle seat belts.
✘
Child’s legs do not bend at the edge of the seat.
Correct: Child should be sitting straight against the back of the vehicle seat
with his knees bent comfortably at the edge of the seat.
Never Put A Shoulder Belt
Behind The Back
✘
Always position the lap
portion of the vehicle
seat belt across the upper thighs (pelvic bone)
and the shoulder belt
snug across the chest.
Vehicle shoulder belt is behind the child’s
back. Children can be severely injured if not
properly restrained in a lap/shoulder belt.
Correct: Shoulder belt should fit snug
across the chest.
✘
Lap belt is on the child’s abdomen.
Children can be severely injured if
not properly restrained in a lap/
shoulder belt.
Correct: Lap belt should fit securely
on the child’s upper thighs.
15
16
Things To Avoid
The “Child Crusher” Position
✘
Lap-held child is unrestrained in the front seat and is sitting in front of the passenger
side airbag. This is the “child crusher” position.
Correct: Child should be properly restrained in the back seat. Never hold a child while
riding in a vehicle.
A Lack Of Restraint
✘
Child is unrestrained in the
front seat and is sitting too
close to the dash and the
passenger side air bag.
Correct: Child should be
properly restrained in the
back seat.
✘
Children under 13 YEARS OF AGE
should be properly restrained in
the back seat of the vehicle.
Child is wearing a backpack.
Correct: Children should
never wear backpacks in the
vehicle. Backpacks can limit
the effectiveness of restraint
systems.
Air Bags
17
Keep Children Under 13 Years Of Age Properly Restrained
In The Back Seat
✘
Rear-facing child safety seat is in the front seat directly in the
air bag deployment zone.
Correct: Child should be properly restrained in the back seat
of the vehicle.
Air bags can cause serious injury or death
to children, especially infants in rear-facing
child safety seats. Children under 13 years of
age should be properly restrained in the back
seat of the vehicle.
Air Bag Deployment Zone
Forward-facing child safety seat is in the air bag
deployment zone.
Correct: Child should be properly restrained in the
back seat of the vehicle.
A
De ir Ba
plo
y g
Zon ment
e
▼
✘
18
Warning Labels
Seat Belt
♦
Child Safety Seat
Vehicle seat belt
system with an air
bag warning label.
♦
Child safety seat
with an air bag
warning label.
Air bag warning
labels can be in a
variety of locations.
By law, all restraint
systems are required
to have an air bag
warning label.
Vehicle Visor
♦
Vehicle visor with an air bag
warning label.
Lower Anchors And Tethers For Children (LATCH)
19
Latch Child Safety Seat Attachment
♦
LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children) is an alternative way
to attach the child safety seat to the vehicle and designed to simplify
child safety seat installations. LATCH secures a child safety seat to the
vehicle using straps from the child safety seat that connect to special
metal anchors in the vehicle. However, unless both the vehicle and the
child safety seat are compatible with the LATCH system, then the vehicle’s safety seat belt will need to be used to secure the child safety seat.
Parents must read the vehicle manufacturer’s instructions to determine
if the vehicle is equipped with the LATCH system and to locate the
latch anchors in the rear seating positions. It is important to note
that installing child safety seats with either the vehicle’s seat belt or
the LATCH system are equally safe as long as the child safety seat is
installed correctly and fits securely in the vehicle.
The LATCH system and the
vehicle’s seat belt system
should never be used
together.
Upper Tether Attachment
♦
For forward-facing seats, you must use both the lower
attachments and the top tether strap. Most rear-facing
seats do not allow for the use of the upper tether. Read
your child safety seat instructions for proper use.
20
Compatibility Issues
Pickup Truck Jump Seats
♦
Child safety seats cannot
be used safely in sidefacing pickup truck jump
seats. Side-facing jump
seats are unsafe for a
child safety seat under all
circumstances.
Seat Buckles
♦
jump seat
extended
webbinG
front of
vehicle
Contoured Seats
♦
Buckles on extended webbing can
make it difficult to
install a child safety
seat in the correct
position.
Contours in a vehicle seat or a hump in the center
can make it difficult or impossible to install a child
safety seat in the correct position. To be sure a
child safety seat will fit properly in your vehicle, try
installing it before you purchase it.
Things To Remember
21
Lock It Up
✔
Some vehicle seat belt systems require additional hardware
such as a locking clip to lock the child restraint. Newer seat
belt systems have a built-in locking mechanism. Refer to the
vehicle manufacturer’s instructions to determine whether to
use a locking clip to secure the child safety seat.
Use your hand to press the child safety seat
tightly into the vehicle cushion. If you cannot get a tight fit, put your weight into the
child safety seat, compress the vehicle seat
and tighten the seat belt as much as possible. The seat should not move more than
1 inch from side to side and front to back.
locking
clip
Seat Belt
latch
plate
seat belt
buckle
Special Needs
✔
Premature infants and children with respiratory difficulties, orthopedic
challenges, neurological and behavioral problems may require special
child restraints. For more information, visit the American Academy
of Pediatrics (AAP) at www.aap.org.
Information in this publication was current at the time it was printed. However, the Foundation cannot guarantee that Web sites and phone numbers listed in this
publication have not changed since then.
If a Web site address or phone number has changed since you received this publication, log onto a search engine and type in keywords of the subject matter or
organization you are researching to locate such updated information.
USAA is the sponsor of The USAA Educational Foundation.
The USAA Educational Foundation www.usaaedfoundation.org is a registered trademark of The USAA Educational Foundation.
© The USAA Educational Foundation 2012. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be copied, reprinted or reproduced without the express written consent of The USAA Educational Foundation, a nonprofit organization.
70544-0212
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement