Yamaha | DX100 | User's Manual | Yamaha dx100 User's Manual

Yamaha dx100 User's Manual
YAMAHA
®
AUTHORIZED
PRODUCT MANUAL
DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE ALGORITHM SYNTHESIZER
YAMAHA
®
DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE ALGORITHM SYNTHESIZER
OWNER’S MANUAL
CONGRATULATIONS!
Your Yamaha DX100 Digital Programmable Algorithm Synthesizer incorporates stateof-the-art digital FM tone generation technology, providing extraordinarily vibrant, rich
voices and outstanding playability. The DX100 has a programmable 24-voice INTERNAL
memory (RAM) from which any voice can be selected at the touch of a button, two
96-voice PRESET (ROM) memories (a total of 192 fine preset voices!), a 96-voice BANK
memory that permits storage of PRESET voices in any configuration for one-touch selection, and a cassette interface that permits unlimited storage of FM voices. Of course,
the DX100 is fully programmable, allowing you to create your own FM voices or sound
effects. Broad MIDI compatibility is also provided so the DX100 can control or be
controlled via other MIDI-compatible music equipment.
To ensure that you gain maximum benefit from all the performance and flexibility provided
by the DX100, we urge you to read this owner’s manual thoroughly while actually trying
out all of the available functions.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I: SETTING UP..................................................
1. Audio Outputs ..........................................................
2. Optional Foot Switch.. ............................................
3. Optional BC-1 Breath Controller.. ............................
4. Headphones ..............................................................
5. MIDI Terminals.. .......................................................
6. Cassette ...................................................................
7. Battery, AC Power Adaptor......................................
8. Power-ON, Low Battery LED Indicator ....................
9. LCD Contrast Control.. .............................................
10. ID Function.. .............................................................
11. When using dry batteries.. .......................................
CHAPTER II: PLAYING THE DXl00 ...................................
1. DX100 Voice Memory Configuration........................
2. The INTERNAL PLAY Mode .....................................
3. The BANK PLAY Mode.............................................
The SHIFT Mode.. ..................................................
4. The 192-Voice PRESET Memory..............................
PRESET SEARCH...................................................
CHAPTER III: THE FUNCTION MODE.. ..............................
1. Accessing the FUNCTION Mode..............................
2. Entering Function Data ............................................
3. The Performance Parameters .................................
4. Tuning Functions.. ....................................................
5. Memory Management Function...............................
6. MIDI Functions .........................................................
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3
4
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5
6
6
7
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10
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17
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CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING .............................
1. The Basics of FM Synthesis.. ...................................
2. The EDIT and COMPARE modes .............................
3. The Voice Parameters .............................................
4. STORING Voice Data................................................
5. Two Approaches to Creating Your Own Voices ......
CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE.. ...........
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS.. ...........................................
MIDI DATA FORMAT.. .......................................................
1. Transmission Conditions .........................................
2. Transmission Data.. .................................................
3. Reception Conditions.. .............................................
4. Reception Data.. .......................................................
5. System Exclusive Data ............................................
VOICE/FUNCTION DATA.. .................................................
DATA NAME.. ....................................................................
1
24
24
29
30
38
38
40
44
45
45
46
49
50
53
57
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PRECAUTIONS
1. Location
Avoid locations exposed to direct sunlight or other sources of heat. Also avoid
locations subject to vibration, excessive dust, cold or moisture.
2. Cleaning
Do not attempt to clean the exterior with chemical solvents, as this may damage
the finish. Clean with a soft, dry cloth.
3. Service and
Modifications
Do not open the cabinet or attempt to make your own repairs or modifications to
any part of the instrument. Such actions may not only result in electrical shock or
damage, but will also void the product warranty. Refer all servicing to a qualified
Yamaha service center.
4. Relocation
When moving the instrument be sure to unplug the AC adaptor (PA-1210, optional)
as well as all other connecting cables.
5. HandIing
Avoid applying excessive force to switches and slide controls, dropping or rough
handling. The DX100 is ruggedly constructed using reliable solid-state circuitry,
nonetheless it is a fine instrument that should be treated with care.
6. Electrical Storms
(Lightning)
7. EIectromagnetic
Fields
Digital circuitry such as that used in the DX100 is sensitive to voltage spikes and
surges. Be sure to remove all connecting cables in the event of an electrical storm.
Digital circuitry is also sensitive to electromagnetic fields such as those produced
by television sets, radio receivers, transmitters, transceivers, etc. The DX100 should
be kept at least several feet from such sources in order to prevent possible random
malfunctions.
2
CHAPTER I: SETTING UP
1. Audio Outputs
2. Optional Foot
Switch
3. Optional BC-1
Breath Con troller
4. Headphones
5. MIDI Terminals
6. Cassette
The DX100 has a single mono audio output for its tone generator channel. This
is labelled OUTPUT. It permits sending a mono signal to either a mono or stereo
sound system, or a mixing console for recording or PA applications.
The FOOT SW phone jack is for an optional footswitch. It accepts a Yamaha FC-4
or FC-5 footswitch or equivalent for portamento/sustain control: press for portamento or sustain; release to damp or turn portamento off.
Yamaha’s unique BC-1 breath controller is plugged into the mini-jack on the rear
panel.
The PHONES jack accepts any standard pair of stereo headphones. The audio signal
is delivered to the headphones in mono. Headphone volume is controlled via the
VOLUME control on the top panel.
These terminals are used when connecting the DX100 to other MIDI (Musical
Instrument Digital Interface) compatible equipment such as digital sequence recorders, modular FM voice generators, drum machines, etc. The MIDI OUT terminal
transmits MIDI data from the DX100 to other MIDI equipment. The MIDI OUT
terminal will normally be connected to the MIDI IN terminal of the receiving
equipment. The MIDI IN terminal receives MIDI data from external MIDI equipment
such as a digital sequence recorder, music computer or modular FM voice generator.
The DX100’s MIDI IN terminal will normally be connected to the MIDI OUT terminal
of the transmitting equipment. The MIDI THRU terminal re-transmits the data received at the MIDI IN terminal. Thus, data received via the DX100 MIDI IN terminal
can be simultaneously sent to other MIDI equipment.
The DIN connector end of the supplied cassette cable is plugged into the DX100
CASSETTE connector. The three plugs on the other end of the cable should be
connected to a cassette data recorder (the kind normally used with personal
computers, etc.) as follows:
RED cassette deck microphone input.
WHITE cassette deck earphone output.
BLACK
cassette deck remote input (where applicable)
7. Battery, AC Power
Adaptor
The DX100 operates off 6 “C” size batteries which are inserted in the battery
compartment in the bottom of the synthesizer. Or, insert the optional PA-1210
AC power adaptor cord into the DC IN jack located on the rear panel of the DX100,
and then plug the standard 2-prong plug into an AC wall socket. Be sure that your
local line voltage matches that specified on the PA-l210. You will find the POWER
switch next to the DC IN jack on the rear panel of the DX100.
3
NOTE:
When setting up your system, be sure to turn the DX100 and any effects units
used on BEFORE turning the main amplifier system on. This will prevent the
initial power-on shock surge from possibly damaging your amplifier and
speaker system.
The DX100 features a Power-ON LED indicator, located immediately to the right
of the LCD indicator on the top panel. It glows when the Power switch on the rear
8. Power-ON, Low
Battery LED Indicator panel is turned ON. Additionally, it flashes to warn of low battery power should
such an occasion arise (batteries provide approximately 10 hours of continual use.)
9. LCD Contrast
Control
10. ID Function
An LCD Contrast Control, located on the back panel immediately behind the LCD
indicator, is provided in the DX100 to provide a clearly visible readout under most
lighting circumstances.
It is possible to change the “Welcome to DX!” message which appears when the
power is first switched ON to anything you like-your name, for example. To change
the ID, hold the KEY SHIFT button while turning the power ON. The current ID
message will be displayed with a cursor over the first character.
<Welcome to DX!>
The cursor can then be moved to any character position on the display by successively pressing the KEY SHIFT button.
<Welcome to DX!>
Choose the position to enter a new character, then using the DATA ENTRY slider
or buttons, select the new character from the available character set.
Move the cursor to the next character position and enter the next character as
described above. When your new ID message is complete, simply press any button
other than the KEY SHIFT, DATA ENTRY, STORE or FUNCTION buttons to enter
the normal operation mode. The new ID message you have entered will now be
displayed every time you turn the instrument ON.
4
11. When using dry
batteries
Insert 6 AA size dry batteries (optional). Remove the cover at the rear of the main
unit and set the batteries while checking the polarity. When doing so, be sure to
set the ribbon for removing batteries under the second one from the left.
After inserting the dry batteries, replace the cover of the battery case.
*AC power operation
When operating this unit on AC power, it is recommended to use an economical
AC adapter (optional).
DX100 CONNECTIONS
5
CHAPTER II: PLAYING THE DX100
1. DX100 Voice
Memory
Configuration
The DX100 has three different voice memories which serve different purposes. They
are:
The 24-voice INTERNAL memory.
This voice memory is used for quick selection of voices for performance, and it is
to this memory that original voices you have edited or programmed are initially
stored. Cassette LOAD and STORE operations are also carried out to and from the
24-voice INTERNAL memory. Voices from the 192-voice PRESET memory may
also be stored in the INTERNAL memory.
The 96-voice BANK memory (4 BANKS x 24 voices each).
The BANK memory incorporates four 24-voice BANKS-A, B, C and D. The BANK
is most useful for storing groups of voices you have arranged for specific purposes.
The different banks may be programmed with different voice groups you need for
different “sets” in a performance, you can categorize your voices into BANKS (i.e.
piano-type voices in one bank, brass in another, etc.), any combination you like.
The BANK can be loaded with voices from the PRESET memory (described below)
or from the INTERNAL memory using the EDIT BANK function.
The 192-voice PRESET memory.
This is a read-only memory which contains 192 FM voices. These are organized
into two groups of 96 voices each. The first group is accessible in the NORMAL
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mode, while the second group is accessed in the SHIFT mode (these modes will
be described below. These voices may be selected and stored in the BANK or
INTERNAL memories as desired. They can also be directly accessed and played
using the PRESET SEARCH function.
The chart below shows the overall DX100 voice memory configuration. The VOICE
EDIT BUFFER is a special memory into which a voice is called when selected.
Whether you select a voice from the INTERNAL memory, the BANK memory, or
the PRESET memory, it is placed in the VOICE EDIT BUFFER from which it can
be played, edited, stored in another memory location or saved onto cassette.
NOTE:
The voices in the PRESET memory are numbered as follows: each group of
96 voices–the NORMAL group and the SHIFT group–is further subdivided
into four groups of 24 voices each (101–124, 201–224, 301–324, and
401–424). Thus you have NORMAL group voices 101–424, and SHIFT group
voices 101–424.
2. The INTERNAL
PLAY Mode
To access the 24–voice INTERNAL memory, enter the INTERNAL PLAY mode by
pressing the INTERNAL PLAY button. Next, select a voice from the INTERNAL
memory by pressing the corresponding voice selector button (1–24). At this point,
the LCD display will indicate the voice number, and voice name. These are preceded
by a "P", indicating that the INTERNAL PLAY mode has been selected.
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In this mode, you can play any of the voices currently in the DX100’s 24-voice
INTERNAL memory individually.
3. The BANK PLAY
Mode
The BANK PLAY mode enables you to access the 96 BANK memory locations.
These initially contain the first group of 96 voices from the 192-voice PRESET
ROM. Using the SHIFT mode, however, you can also access the second group
of presets while in the BANK PLAY mode. Later, you can store any voices you like
in any order in the these BANKS.
While in the INTERNAL PLAY mode, press any of the BANK buttons;BANK
A–BANK D. This will select the appropriate BANK, and the 24 voices in that bank
can be selected by pressing any of the DX100’s 24 voice buttons.
PA 2 NewElectro
The SHlFT Mode
By entering the DX100 SHIFT mode while in BANK PLAY, the correspondingly
numbered voice from the second group (SHIFT group) of preset voices will be
selected. Note that in the BANK PLAY mode this only applies to voices which have
been stored in the BANK memory from the 192-voice PRESET memory. Voices
stored in the BANK from the 24-voice INTERNAL memory will not change when
the SHIFT mode is selected.
To enter the SHIFT mode, hold down the INTERNAL PLAY button and press the
+1 button. To return to the NORMAL mode hold down the INTERNAL PLAY button
and press the -1 button.
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4. The 192-Voice
PRESET Memory
The DX100 comes with 192 different pre-programmed voices in an internal ROM
(Read Only Memory).These voiced can be loaded singly into the DX100's selectable
24-voice INTERNAL memory, or into any location in the DX100 bank memory.
THE 192 PRESET ROM VOICES
NORMAL MODE VOICES
G r o u p
Group 2
1
01
IvoryEbony
02
Oprt
03
Honkey
04
Elec
05
06
01
Solid
Group 3
Brass
Group
01 E a s y
Synth
0 1 Glocken
Clav
02 H a m a r i m b a
02
Synthe Bass
02 E a s y
Tonk
03
Mono Bass
03 > > W O W < <
Grand
04
Elec Bass
04 Metal Keys
Pianobells
05
Fretless
05 P i c k P l u c k
Acous
Elec
06
H o r n s
06 S / H S y n t h
06 G o o d V i b e s
Old Electro
07
Flugelhorn
07 H e a v y s y n t h
07 R a c i n g
NewElectro
08
Hard Brass
08 H a r m o s o l o
08
09 H i g h T i m e s
07
08
piano
03 S t e e l
Drums
04 T u b e
Bells
05 T e m p l e g o n g
Car
Helicopter
09
Power Brass
09 F e e d
L e a d
09 A l a r m
Piano
10
BC1Trumpet
10 M o n o
L e a d
10 D o p p l a r
11 Vibrabelle
11
S t r i n g s
11 L y r i s y n
11 S t o r m W i n d
1 2 Pianobrass
12
Silk Cello
12 S c h m o o c h
12 B i r d s
1 3 JazzORGAN
13
Orchestra
13 C l a r a n e t t e
1 4 Ham<n>Eggs
14
Solo Violin
14 P a n
15 ClubOrgan
15
Box Cello
15 L e a d
16
<6 Tease>
16
Richstring
16 M o n o
17 G e n t l e P i p e
17
5th String
17 F l u t e w o o d
18 F u l l R a n k s
18
Harpsi low
18 < B C 1 >
19
Plukguitar
19
Harpsi Hi
19 B C 1
20 S o f t H a r p
20
Fuzz Clav
20 T i m p a n i
20 W i n d b e l l s
21
10
Wood
Call
13 H o l e
FX
i n
1
14 <<Smash>>
Floot
Reed
15 F M S Q U A R E
S a x
16 F M
P U L S E
17 F M S A W T O O T H
S a x
18 L F O
Hrmnca
N O I S E
19 P I N K
N O I S E
J a z z G u i t
21
Clear Clav
21 X y l o s n a r e
21 S
22 O l d B a n j o
22
Squeezebox
22 S y n b a l l s
22 W h i s t l i n g
23 K o t o k o t o
23
C e l e s t e
23 C l o c k w o r k s
23 V
24 F o l k G u i t
24
Circustime
24 H e i f e r B e l l
24 M a r s
y
o
n
v
i
c
o
e
t o
x
s
? ?
Shift Mode Voices
Group
G r o u p
Group 2
1
01
Piano 1
01
Clickorgan
0 1 Rich Strg 1
02
Piano 2
02
Drawbars
0 2 Rich Strg 2
03
Piano 3
03
Guitar 2
0 3 Rich Strg 3
04
Piano Vel
04
Fuzz Guit
0 4 Pizzicato
05
Honkeyton 2
0 5
Brt Guitar
05 Harpsicrd 1
G r o u p 4
3
0 1 Snare Bass
0 2 Snare Drum 1
0 3 Snare Drum 2
0 4 Tom Toms
0 5 Steel Drum 2
06
Deep Grand
06
Z i t h e r
06
2
0 6 Synth Perc
07
PhaseGrand
07
H a r p
1
07 C l a v
1
0 7 Xylophone 1
08
Left Hand
08
L
e
08
C l a v
2
0 9 Elec Grnd
09
S i t a r
09
Mute Clav 1
10
E Grnd Vel
10
SynthBass1
1 0 Mute Clav 2
11
E Piano 1
11
SynthBass2
11
LeadSynth 1
1 1 Glocken 2
u
t
Harpsicrd
0 8 Xylophone 2
09 Marimba
1 0 Mamarimba
12
E Piano 2
12
Pluck Bass
12
Cheeky
12 V i b e
13
E Piano 3
1 3
Flap Bass
13
RubberBand
1 3 Tublar Bells
14
E P String
14
Uprt
14
Hollowlead
14 B e l l s
15
Hard
Times
15
B a s s
1
15
Huff Talk
1 5 Wild War!!
16 PercoPiano
16
B a s s
2
16
Harmonica 1
16 Y S 1 1
17 O r g a n
1
17
Brass 3
17
Harmonica 2
18 O r g a n
2
18
Brass 4
18
Horn
1 8 Winds
19 E l e c O r g a n
19
Brass
5
19
Flute 1
1 9 Shogakko
2 0 16 8 4 2 F
20
Brass
6
20
Flute 2
2 0 Fantasy
O b o e
21
Bass
21 T h e a t e r
21
Brass
22 SmallPipe
22
Strings1
2 2 Trombone
23 M i d P i p e
23
Strings 2
2 4 BigPipe
24
Strings 3
21
7
17 W a v e
Space chime
22
Ghosties
2 3 BC1 Horns
23
Space Talk
24 B a s s o o n
2 4 Zing Plop
The PRESET voice can also be accessed directly and played using the PRESET
SEARCH function.
9
4
PRESET SEARCH
This function allows you to directly access the voices in the PRESET memory, in
the order they appear in the PRESET memory.
PRESET SEARCH is accessed in the FUNCTION mode. To enter the FUNCTION
mode press the FUNCTION button. Then press any of the PRESET SEARCH selectors to access the corresponding voices (these are the same as the BANK A–D
selectors used in the BANK PLAY mode). In the NORMAL (NON-SHIFT) mode,
the PRESET SEARCH selectors call PRESET voice groups 101–124, 201–224,
301–324, and 401–424 from the NORMAL preset voice group. In the SHIFT mode
(described in “The BANK PLAY Mode”, above), the correspondingly numbered
voices from the SHIFT preset voice group are selected. The 24 voices in each group
are selected by pressing the corresponding voice selector. After selecting PRESET
SEARCH 101–124, for example, the LCD will appear as follows:
“F” indicates that you are in the FUNCTION mode PRESET SEARCH function.
This function lets you review the voices in the PRESET memory. It is also possible
to store a voice selected in this mode into any of the 24–voice INTERNAL memory
locations using the STORE function described later in this manual.
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CHAPTER III: THE FUNCTION MODE
The FUNCTION mode permits access to four groups of functions: tuning functions, MIDI functions, memory
management functions, and performance functions. In this chapter we’ll describe each of these functions; what
they do and how they are programmed.
1. Accessing the
FUNCTION Mode
2. Entering Function
Data
The FUNCTION mode is called by pressing the FUNCTION button. Individual
parameters to be programmed are then called by pressing the appropriate voice
button. Note that when the FUNCTION mode is active, pressing a voice button
calls the corresponding FUNCTION parameter. These functions are printed in brown
below each voice button. Note also that there are two exceptions: the PITCH B
(Pitch Bend) MODE SET and KEY SHIFT KEY SET buttons are NOT included among
the voice buttons. These function buttons are located immediately above the DATA
ENTRY -1 and +1 buttons. When the FUNCTION mode is called, the LCD should
look something like this.
The display will read “F M.Tune= 0”, indicating that the FUNCTION mode is active,
plus the name of the selected function and its current data. In the example above,
the MASTER TUNE function is called (press the 1 button), and the data is currently
set at 0.
Once the desired function has been selected, its value can be altered using either
the linear DATA ENTRY slider located to the left of the panel, or the adjacent -1 /+1
buttons.
Moving the DATA ENTRY slider away from you increases the value of the selected
parameter, and moving the control towards you decreases the data value. Pressing
the -1 button decreases the value of the selected parameter by one (decrements),
and pressing the +1 button increases the value by one (increments). While the
DATA entry slider is valuable for quickly approaching the desired value with parameters that have a large data range, the +1 and -1 buttons permit precise
step-wise location of a specific value. The switches are also easier to use with
parameters that only have two values, i.e. ON (1) or OFF (0). In some cases you
will be required to answer YES or NO to prompts which will appear on the LCD
display. The -1 /+1 buttons are also used for this purpose.
3. The Performance
Parameters
“Performance parameters” are programmable parameters which pertain mainly to
real-time performance effects, such as how the pitch bend and modulation wheels
affect the sound. After a function is selected using the corresponding button, it
can be incremented with further pressing of the same button.
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* Note that performance parameters 13 through 24 can be individually stored for
each voice. They must therefore be stored in the appropriate INTERNAL RAM voice
memory location after editing using the STORE function (see CHAPTER IV: VOICE
PROGRAMMING, 4. Storing Voice Data).
13: POLY/MONO
This function selects either the POLY or MONO note output mode. Voice programmed with the POLY mode permit simultaneous playing of up to 8 notes. In
the MONO mode the DX100 acts as monophonic keyboard.
Once the POLY/MONO function is selected, subsequent presses on the 13 button
alternate between the POLY and MONO modes. The DATA ENTRY buttons can
also be used: the -1 button selects POLY and the +1 button selects MONO.
14: PITCH BEND RANGE
This function sets the pitch range of the pitch bend wheel located to the left of
the DX100 panel. The pitch bend wheel automatically centers at normal pitch. It
then may be moved upward (away from the player) to raise the pitch, or moved
downward (toward the player) to lower the pitch by the specified amount. The
Pitch Bend direction can also be reversed: Hold down the PITCH B MODE SET
button while switching the DX100 power ON. This provides the same depth of
effect, but in the opposite direction of wheel movement, which can be useful in
performance situations.
The data range is from 0 to 12. At 0, the pitch bend wheel is off. Each increment
between 1 and 12 represents a semitone, i.e. the pitch variation between any white
key and a black key immediately next to it. Thus, if this function is set to 12, maximum
travel of the pitch bend wheel either above or below center position produces a
one-octave pitch variation.
The DATA ENTRY slider and -1/+1 buttons can be used to enter data. Once the
PITCH BEND RANGE function is called, subsequent presses on the 14 button
will increment (increase) the data value.
PITCH B MODE: MODE SET
This function button, located immediately above the DATA ENTRY -1 button, offers
a choice of three pitch bend wheel modes: Low, High and Kon. In the Low mode,
the pitch bend wheel affects only the lowest note played on the keyboard. In other
words, if a chord is played, the pitch bend wheel will affect only the pitch of the
lowest note in the chord-this makes it possible to produce some interesting effects.
The High mode is just the opposite, only the highest note played will be affected
by the pitch bend wheel. In the Kon (Key on) mode, all notes played are affected
simultaneously by the pitch bend wheel.
The DATA ENTRY slider and -1/+1 buttons or PB MODE button can be used to
select the desired mode.
NOTE:
The PB MODE parameter is NOT individually programmable for each voice.
12
15: PORTAMENTO MODE
Two different portamento modes are available: Full Time Portamento and Fingered
Portamento. When the POLY/MONO function is set to POLY (button 13), only
the Full Time Portamento mode is accessible. In the MONO mode, you have a choice
between the Full Time and Fingered portamento modes.
(1) “Full T. Porta” (MONO and POLY modes): A conventional portamento effect
in which portamento occurs whenever a new note is played.
(2) “Fingered Porta” (MONO mode): Portamento only occurs if the previously
played note is held while the next note is played. This mode is useful in recreating the effect of guitar string bending techniques, acoustic bass or bass
guitar slide effects, etc. If you lift your hand off the DX100 keyboard between
notes, there will be no portamento effect.
Once the PORTAMENTO MODE function is called, subsequent presses on the 15
button alternate between the two available portamento modes only if the MONO
note output mode is selected. The DATA ENTRY or -1/+1 buttons can also be
used to select the desired portamento mode.
16: PORTAMENTO TIME
This function sets the speed of the portamento effect.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, portamento is off. A setting of 99 produces
the longest portamento effect.
Data can be entered using the DATA ENTRY slider and -1 /+1 buttons. Once the
PORTAMENTO TIME function has been called, subsequent presses on the
16(PORTAMENT TIME) buttons will increment the data value.
17: FOOT SWITCH ASSIGN
This function selects SUSTAIN or PORTAMENTO footswitch operation for the
Yamaha FC-4 or FC-5 footswitch plugged into the rear-panel footswitch jack.
Depending upon which of the two functions has been called via the 17 button
(select using -1/+1 buttons), the footswitch, when pressed, will operate correspondingly. When it is not pressed, the selected effect is OFF. The PORTAMENTO
function parameters are adjustable via the PORTAMENTO MODE and PORTAMENTO TIME buttons (15 and 16, respectively). In the SUSTAIN mode, the footswitch will sustain notes played to the limit set by the ENVELOPE GENERATOR
D2R parameter (see 18: D2R, this chapter) when it is set to a rate other than 0,
even though the keys have been released. If the EG D2R is set to 0, then the D1L
level will be maintained until the footswitch is released.
18: MODULATION WHEEL RANGE, PITCH
As you move the DX100 modulation wheel away from you, an increasing amount
of LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator) modulation is applied to the selected voice.
13
LFO modulation can be made to modulate the pitch of the voice, producing a range
of vibrato type effects. This function is used to set the maximum depth of pitch
modulation which can be applied using the modulation wheel. The actual effect
produced depends on the settings of the LFO parameters, these will be discussed
in CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate
voice PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter must be set to a value higher
than 0 for pitch modulation to be effective. The voice PITCH MODULATION
SENSITIVITY parameter will also be discussed in CHAPTER IV. The data range
is from 0 to 99. At 0, pitch modulation is OFF, and rotating the modulation wheel
will cause no pitch modulation to be applied to the voice. A setting of 99 produces
the greatest possible pitch modulation depth.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider or buttons. Once this function is
called, subsequent presses on the 18 button will increment the data value.
NOTE:
Modulation Wheel control direction is reversed simultaneously along with the
Pitch Bend Wheel when the PITCH B MODE SET button is pressed while
turning on the power to the DX100.
19: MODULATION WHEEL RANGE, AMPLITUDE
As you move the DX100 modulation wheel away from you, an increasing amount
of LFO modulation is applied to the selected voice. LFO modulation can be made
to modulate the amplitude (level) of specified voice elements (operators), producing
a range of tremolo or timbre modulation (wah-wah) type effects. This function
is used to set the maximum depth of amplitude modulation that can be applied
using the modulation wheel. The actual effect produced depends on the settings
of the LFO parameters, these will be discussed in CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate voice AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter must be set to a value higher than 0 for amplitude
modulation to be effective. The voice AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY
parameter will also be discussed in CHAPTER IV.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, amplitude modulation is OFF, and rotating
the modulation wheel will cause no amplitude modulation to be applied to the voice.
A setting of 99 produces the greatest possible pitch modulation depth.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider or buttons. Once this function is
called, subsequent presses on the 19 button will increment the data value.
The Yamaha Breath Controller
The optional Yamaha BC-1 breath controller is a unique way of adding musical
expression as you play the DX100 keyboard. The BC-1 is held in the mouth just
like the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. Blowing harder or softer into the BC-1
mouthpiece produces a corresponding effect. The breath controller can be used
to apply varying amounts of pitch or amplitude LFO modulation, just like the
modulation wheel. In addition, it can be set up to directly affect pitch, amplitude
or timbre in response to breath pressure. Set to directly affect amplitude (EG BIAS),
for example, the breath controller can be used to apply realistic tonguing effects
to brass and other wind instrument sounds.
The four BREATH parameters listed below determine just how the breath controller
will affect the DX100’s sound. These parameters may be set individually, or combined for more complex effects.
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20: BREATH RANGE, PITCH
This function is used to set the maximum depth of LFO pitch modulation that can
be applied using the breath controller. The actual effect produced depends on the
settings of the LFO parameters-these will be discussed in CHAPTER IV: VOlCE
PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate voice PITCH MODULATION SENSlTlVlTY parameter must be set to a value higher than 0 for pitch
modulation to be effective. The voice PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter will be discussed in CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, pitch modulation is OFF, and applying breath
pressure to the breath controller will cause no pitch modulation to be applied to
the voice. A setting of 99 produces the greatest possible pitch modulation depth.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider and -1 /+1 buttons. Once this function
is called, subsequent presses on the 20 button will increment the data value.
21: BREATH RANGE, AMPLITUDE
This function is used to set the maximum depth of LFO amplitude modulation that
can be applied using the breath controller. The actual effect produced depends
on the settings of the LFO parameters–these will be discussed in CHAPTER IV:
VOICE PROGRAMMING. Note, however, that the appropriate voice AMPLITUDE
MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter must be set to a value higher than 0 for
amplitude modulation to be effective. The voice AMPLITUDE MODULATION
SENSITIVITY parameter will be discussed in CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, amplitude modulation is OFF, and applying
breath pressure to the breath controller will cause no amplitude modulation to be
applied to the voice. A setting of 99 produces the greatest possible pitch modulation
depth.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider or -1 /+1 buttons. Once this function
is called, subsequent presses on the 21 button will increment the data value.
22: BREATH RANGE, PITCH BIAS
This function permits breath pressure applied to the BC-1 breath controller to directly
control the pitch of the voice. In other words, the LFO has no effect. Only your
breath pressure directly affects the pitch of the voice.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 50, pitch bias is OFF. A setting of 99 permits
a 4-octave pitch increase, and a setting of 0 permits a 4-octave pitch decrease to
be produced through the breath controller.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider and -1 /+1 buttons. Once this function
is called, subsequent presses on the 22 button increment the data value.
15
23: BREATH RANGE, EG BIAS
This function permits breath pressure applied to the BC-1 breath controller to directly
control the amplitude or timbre of the voice, according to settings of the corresponding voice parameters which will be covered in CHAPTER IV. The LFO has
no effect–only your breath pressure directly affects the amplitude or timbre of the
voice.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, EG bias is OFF. A setting of 99 permits the
greatest amplitude or timbre variation to be produced through the breath controller.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY control and -1/+1 switches. Once this
function is called, subsequent presses on the 23 button increment the data value.
24: VOICE NAME
This function moves the LCD cursor from left to right, allowing you to name any
new voice or sound you have created before storing it. When button 24 is pressed,
the cursor flashes over the first letter in the name of the voice presently occupying
a space in the lNTERNAL memory. The DATA ENTRY slider or -1/+1 buttons
are used to increment or decrement the alphabetical selection (A to Z), along with
many other symbol selections, while subsequent presses on the VOICE NAME
CURSOR button move the LCD cursor to the immediate right.
KEY SET
During either of the normal DX100 play modes, pressing the KEY SHIFT button
instantly transposes the pitch of the entire DX100 keyboard up or down to a key
programmed using this function. When KEY SHlFT is engaged, the letter “K” will
appear at the left side of the LCD display until the KEY SHlFT button is pressed
again, returning the keyboard to normal pitch.
Pressing this button in the FUNCTION mode permits a shift to the desired pitch
when the KEY SHlFT button is pressed while in either of the play modes.
The transpose range for the KEY SHIFT function is plus or minus two octaves. The
data range is from -24 to +24, with 0 corresponding to standard keyboard pitch.
Each increment corresponds to a shift in pitch of one semitone-a setting of 2 would
therefore raise the pitch of the entire keyboard a whole step.
lmmediately after calling the KEY SET function, data can be entered simply by
pressing a key on the keyboard within a plus/minus two-octave range of C3 (middle
C). The pressed key then assumes the pitch of C3, and all other keys are adjusted
accordingly. Pressing the A2 key, for example, produces a setting of -3. Pressing
a key higher than C5 results in a +24 setting. This method of data entry, can only
16
be used once after this function is called. Subsequent changes must be made using
the DATA ENTRY slider and -1 /+1 buttons after the INTERNAL PLAY mode and
KEY SHIFT function have been entered in succession.
and KEY SHIFT function have been entered in succession.
NOTE:
The KEY SET function can not be individually programmed for each voice
This section includes a single function: MASTER TUNE ADJ.
4. Tuning Functions
1: MASTER TUNE ADJ
This is the DX100 MASTER TUNE function. All voices are affected simultaneously.
The programmable data range is from -64 to +63. When set to 0, the pitch of the
A3 key is the standard 440 Hz. At the lowest setting of -64, the overall pitch of
the keyboard is 100 cents (1 semitone) lower than standard pitch. At the highest
setting of +63, the overall pitch of the keyboard is 100 cents higher than standard
pitch.
Use the DATA ENTRY slider or -1 /+1 buttons to enter the data for this parameter.
Once the MASTER TUNE function is called, subsequent presses on the 1 button
will increment the data value.
5. Memory
Management
Functions
The memory management functions include functions for loading voices from the
DX100’s 192–voice PRESET memory, for storing and the 24 INTERNAL memory
voices to and from cassette tape, initializing the voice memory, recalling voice data
from a special “safety” buffer memory, and turning the DX100 memory write/protect
function ON and OFF.
6: RECALL EDIT
In addition to the voice edit buffer, the DX100 has a special edit recall buffer memory
which maintains the last edited voice data. if, after editing or creating a new voice,
you inadvertently call new data into the voice edit buffer by pressing one of the
voice selector buttons before storing the edited voice data, the voice you had spent
so much time editing will be erased from the edit buffer. If only one error of this
type has been made, the edited data still resides in the Backup voice buffer and
can be recalled into the voice edit buffer using this function.
To do this, first press the FUNCTION button, then the RECALL EDIT button. The
LCD will read “Recall Edit ?” Confirm your intention to recall the data into the voice
edit buffer by pressing the +1 button. The DX100 will again respond, this time
with “Are You Sure ?” Press the +1 button again to actually execute the recall edit
function. The EDlT mode will then be automatically entered, and the voice edit
buffer will contain the data called from the Backup voice buffer. Pressing another
function button, the PLAY mode button or the EDIT mode button during the above
process will abort the recall edit function.
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7: INIT VOICE
This function sets all voice parameters in the voice edit buffer to their “initialized”
values, permitting voice programming from an effectively neutral set of values—a
“clean slate”.
When this function is called, the LCD will read “Init. Voice?” Confirm your intention
to initialize the voice edit buffer by pressing the +1 button. The DX100 will then
ask you to reconfirm your intention to initialize the voice with “Are You Sure ?”
Press the +1 button again to actually execute the initialize operation. Once executed,
the DX100 will automatically enter the EDIT mode, ready for voice programming.
Pressing another function button, the PLAY mode button, or the EDIT mode button
prior to the final step in the above process will abort the voice initialize function.
8: BANK EDIT
The BANK EDIT function allows you to load PRESET voices of the normal mode
or shift mode and 24 INTERNAL memory voices into any of the 96 BANK memory
locations, in the order you desire. In PRESET memory, they are immovable. If, for
example, you want to have 10 specific voices all in consecutive memory locations
18
for convenience and ease of selection during a performance, you would use the
BANK EDIT function to place your 10 required voices in locations 1–10 in BANK
A.
There are 4 entire banks in the BANK memory. This means you can have 4 personally-arranged 24-voice groups to choose from, i.e., separate BANK for each
set in a performance.
To enter the BANK EDIT function, press the FUNCTION button, followed by the
BANK EDIT button. The LCD will respond with “Edit BANK?” Reaffirm your intention to complete the process by pressing the +1 button. The LCD will again
respond, this time with “BANK? (A-D)”. Select a BANK for editing, and in succession the button corresponding to the voice you want to change. Now, select
a new voice for that position by using the DATA ENTRY slider or the -1/+1 buttons.
Finally, you may select an additional voice to change, or press INTERNAL PLAY
to exit the BANK EDIT function.
The following diagram shows approximately where in the DATA ENTRY control
range the INTERNAL and PRESET voices are located.
IN NORMAL MODE
IN SHIFT MODE
NORMAL MODE PRESETS
101 ~ 424
SHIFT MODE PRESETS
101 ~ 424
INTERNAL RAM 1 ~ 24
INTERNAL RAM 1 ~ 24
DATA
ENTRY
NOTE:
The BANK memories are not actually loaded with the voice data, but the voice
number. Thus, when a BANK memory location is selected, the voice corresponding to the voice number stored in that location is called from its memory
in either the INTERNAL or PRESET memories.
9: CASSETTE SAVE/VERIFY
This function actually incorporates two “sub-functions”: SAVE and VERIFY. After
calling this function, subsequent presses on the 9 button alternate between the
SAVE and VERIFY sub-functions. Normally, however, you will start with the SAVE
function, which saves the entire contents of the DX100’s INTERNAL voice memory
onto cassette tape. The VERIFY function is then used to check the saved data against
the data still in INTERNAL memory, to ensure that no errors occured in the SAVE
process.
Before using this function, make sure that an appropriate data cassette recorder
is properly connected to the DX100, as described in CHAPTER I: SETTING UP.
19
When this function is initially called, the LCD will read “Save to Tape ?” Confirm
your intention to save the contents of the 24 voices to cassette tape by pressing
the +1 button. The display will then read “Save ready?” At this point, reconfirm
that the cassette recorder is set up properly, make sure a suitable blank tape is loaded
into the cassette recorder, and start the recorder running in the RECORD mode.
To begin the actual save operation, press the +1 button. Pressing the -1 button
prior to the final step in the above process will abort the CASSETTE SAVE function.
As the DX100 saves each voice to tape, the LCD display will indicate the voice
number being saved.
When all 24 voices have been saved, the DX100 will automatically go into the
VERIFY mode, permitting you to check that the data was recorded properly.
Stop the cassette recorder. The LCD will now read “Verify Tape ?” To verify, first
rewind the tape to the beginning of the file just saved, then press the +1 button
in response to the “Verify Tape ?” display, which should be showing. The display
will now read “Verify ready?” Press the +1 button, then start the cassette recorder
running in the PLAY mode. The DX100 will now read each voice from the cassette
tape, and compare it with the corresponding voice data in the INTERNAL voice
memory, as the LCD indicates the verification process. If the cassette and INTERNAL
data matches, the display will read “Verify Completed”. Any PLAY mode can then
be entered simply by pressing the corresponding mode selector button.
If an error is encountered, this will be displayed on the LCD. If this happens, go
back and try the SAVE process—followed by the VERIFY process—one more time.
If the error persists, then you may have to carefully adjust the record and/or playback
level of the cassette recorder, or use a higher quality recorder or tape. Be sure to
check that all cassette connections are made properly.
10: LOAD
This function loads a complete set of 24 voices from cassette tape into the DX100’s
INTERNAL voice memory. Before using this function make sure that all cassette
connections have been properly made, as described in CHAPTER I: SETTING
UP. Also make sure that the DX100’s MEMORY PROTECT function (12) is OFF.
When this function is initially called, the LCD will read “Load Tape ?” Confirm your
intention to load a complete set of 24 voices from cassette tape into the RAM voice
memory (remember, this will erase any voices previously in the RAM memory) by
pressing the +1 button. The LCD will now read “Load all ready ?” At this point,
make sure the appropriate cassette tape is loaded into the recorder and is rewound
to the beginning of the desired voice file. To execute the load operation, press the
20
DATA ENTRY YES button again and start the cassette recorder running in the PLAY
mode. Pressing the -1 button prior to the final step in the above process will abort
the CASSETTE LOAD function. The DX100 will indicate each voice on the LCD
as it is loaded. When the load function is completed, the LCD will read “Load
Completed”.
Stop the cassette recorder and turn the DX100’s MEMORY PROTECT function
back ON. The LOAD function can be interrupted at any time by pressing the -1
button. This can, however, result in incomplete data loading, possibly causing
“garbled” voice data to appear in one memory location.
NOTE:
Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function back ON after a successful
LOAD operation.
11: LOAD SINGLE
This function allows you to load a single voice from a previously saved 24-voice
cassette file into the DX100's voice edit buffer, after which it can be stored in any
voice location using the STORE function. Make sure the MEMORY PROTECT
function (12) is OFF before using the LOAD SINGLE function.
When this function is initially called, the LCD will read “Load Single ?” Press the
+1 button to go onto the next step. The LCD will now read “Tape ?? to BUFF?”
You must now enter the voice number of the voice you wish to load from cassette—do
this by pressing the corresponding voice memory selector button. The selected voice
number will appear in the LCD display. Then, make sure the appropriate cassette
is loaded in the cassette recorder and is rewound to the beginning of the voice file
containing the desired voice, press the +1 button, and start the cassette recorder
running in the PLAY mode. The DX100 will automatically locate the selected voice
and load it into the voice edit buffer, while the LCD reads “Search Tape”, followed
by the tape number. When finished, the display will read “Load Completed”. The
LOAD SINGLE function can be interrupted by pressing the -1 button. Doing this
may, however, result in garbled voice data in the DX100’s voice edit buffer.
The loaded voice may now be stored into any voice location by holding down the
STORE button while pressing the voice button. This must be done before another
voice button is pressed if you desire to keep the loaded voice in memory. Otherwise,
the loaded voice data in the voice edit buffer will, be erased and replaced by the
voice data called by the pressed voice button.
NOTE:
Be sure to turn the MEMORY PROTECT function (12) back ON after a
successful LOAD operation.
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DX21 CASSETTE LOAD
NOTE:
If you have a voice set programmed on a Yamaha DX21 Digital Programmable
Algorithm Synthesizer, these voices can be transferred from data cassette into
the DX100. Of course, since the DX100 has 24 voice memories while the
DX21 has 32, using the DX100 cassette LOAD operation will load only the
first 24 voices of the DX21 32-voice set into the INTERNAL memory. The
other voices (25—32) can be loaded using the DX100 LOAD SINGLE function.
The voice numbers for voices 25 through 32 are accessed by pressing the
STORE, FUNCTION, EDIT, INTERNAL PLAY, and BANK A—D buttons.
12: MEMORY PROTECT
This function turns the DX100 MEMORY PROTECT function on or off. When on,
the internal RAM voice memory cannot be altered using the STORE or CASSETTE
LOAD functions. The MEMORY PROTECT function does not affect the voice edit
buffer, so the INIT VOICE, RECALL EDIT, and CASSETTE LOAD SINGLE functions
will operate whether MEMORY protect is on or off.
When this function is called, the LCD will read either “M. Protect:on” or “M.
Protect:off”, according to the current state of the MEMORY PROTECT function
(MEMORY PROTECT is automatically turned ON each time mains power to the
DX100 is turned ON). The -1/+1 buttons and DATA ENTRY control are used to
turn MEMORY PROTECT on or off.
6. MIDI Functions
This group of functions deals with parameters which control the transmission and
reception of MIDI data via the DX100's MIDI OUT and MIDI IN terminals. This
section will describe how each parameter is programmed, while actual operational
details will depend entirely on the type of MIDI equipment with which the DX100
will be used.
2: MIDI ON-OFF
This function turns transmission and reception via the DX100's MIDI terminals
on or off. When on, the DX100 can transmit or receive MIDI data to or from external
MIDI equipment. When off, no MIDI data interchange is possible.
This function is turned on or off using the -1/+1 buttons or DATA ENTRY slider.
3: CHANNEL
The DX100 is capable of receiving or transmitting data on any of the 16 available
MIDI channels, or receiving in the OMNI mode which enables reception on all
channels simultaneously. This function is used to set the desired MIDI receive or
transmit channel or activate the OMNI receive mode. The receive or transmit channel
22
is normally set to match the transmission or reception channel of the MlDI equipment
to which the DX100 is connected.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY control or -1/+1 buttons. Subsequent
presses on the CHANNEL button call the “Omni: on/off”, “Midi R Ch=1–16”, and
“Midi T Ch=1–16” selection modes.
4: CH INFO
This is the MIDI channel information “button”. It turns transmission and reception
of all MIDI BASIC EVENT DATA and OTHER EVENT DATA (with the exceptions
noted below) ON or OFF. This function is turned ON or OFF using the -1/+1
buttons.
Data transmitted and received whether this function is OFF or ON is:
* KEY ON/OFF
* SUSTAIN FOOTSWITCH ON/OFF
* PITCH BEND WHEEL POSITION
* MONO/POLY MODE SWITCH
Data received whether this function is ON or OFF is:
* ALL NOTES OFF
Data NOT transmitted when this function is OFF is:
* MODULATION WHEEL POSITION
* BREATH CONTROLLER DATA
* DATA ENTRY CONTROLLER AND SWITCH DATA
* VOLUME (DATA ENTRY control in PLAY mode)
* PORTAMENTO FOOTSWITCH ON/OFF
* PROGRAM CHANGE (VOICE NUMBER) DATA
Data not received when this function is OFF is:
* ALL OF THE ABOVE
* PORTAMENTO TIME
NOTE:
The above MIDI data is generally common to all keyboards and equipment
compatible with the MIDI system. Due to differences in the features provided
by some manufacturers, however, complete compatibility can not be guaranteed.
5: SYS INFO
This function turns transmission and reception of MIDI SYSTEM EXCLUSIVE
INFORMATION data ON or OFF. The -1/+1 buttons are used to turn this function
ON or OFF. When this function is ON, voice parameter changes made in the DX100’s
EDIT or FUNCTION modes are transmitted in real time.
If the SYS INFO button is pressed again, the “Midi Transmit?” display will appear.
If the YES button is then pressed, then the DX100 will perform a bulk dump of
all voice data–INTERNAL RAM voices 1 through 24. Voices 25–32 will be dumped
as INIT VOICE parameters.
23
CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING
1. The Basics of FM
Synthesis
Before you begin actually programming or editing your own voices, a basic understanding of how digital FM synthesis works will be necessary. In the following
explanation, we will learn how the DX100’s FM voice generator produces complex
voices. This information will help you to understand the process and make it easier
for you to create and edit your own voices.
OPERATORS
The Yamaha DX series FM digital synthesizers use pure sine waves that interact
to create the full harmonic spectrum for any voice. Each digital sine wave oscillator
is combined with its own envelope generator to form an “operator.”
Note that the operator’s oscillator has two inputs: one for the oscillator pitch data,
and one for modulation data.
CARRIERS AND MODULATORS
The DX100 voice generator has 4 operators. When the output of one operator is
fed to the modulation input of a second operator, i.e. the first operator modulates
the second, a whole spectrum of harmonics is created that can form an incredibly
diverse range of complex waveforms (including the more conventional triangle,
sawtooth, and square waveforms). All this from just two operators!
24
Operators do not have to be connected “vertically” in a modulator-carrier relationship, as shown above. The outputs of two operators can also be mixed-just
as the stops in an organ are mixed. In this case the sounds are simply added together
with no modulation effect.
ALGORlTHMS
We have seen two different ways that two operators may be combined. The DX100
uses four operators, offering many potential connection possibilities. These different
configurations of operator relationships are called “algorithms,” and the DX100
offers 8 algorithm choices. These are all printed right on the DX100 panel. In the
algorithm diagrams on the panel, the small boxes numbered 1 through 4 are the
operators.
ALGORITHM #1
HOW ALGORITHMS AFFECT THE SOUND
By changing the relative frequencies between operators in a modulator-carrier relationship, you change not only the fundamental pitch of the note, but also the
frequencies present in the harmonic structure. Thus, the timbre of the voice can
be precisely controlled. In addition, since each operator has its own envelope
generator (and a sophisticated one, too!), the harmonic structure of a note can
be programmed to vary over time, just as a plucked string changes its overtones
as the note decays.
Depending on the selected algorithm, operators can be stacked vertically, connected
horizontally, or both. In the vertical arrangement, when the output of one operator
is connected to the input of another the result is modulation. By convention, the
operator at the bottom of a stack of operators is known as a “carrier”. All operators
in the same stack above the carrier are “modulators”. By increasing the output level
of one or more modulators feeding a carrier, the number of harmonics in the resultant
sound is increased (its “bandwidth” is increased), making it more brilliant.
25
Most algorithms have multiple modulators and carriers. In one algorithm a given
operator may be a carrier, while in the next it might function as a modulator–the
only difference being how it is connected. In algorithm number 5 for example, there
are two vertical stacks of two operators, and the outputs of the carriers in these
stacks are connected in parallel (horizontally). Algorithm 5 has an equal number
of modulators and carriers–two modulators and two carriers.
ALGORITHM #5
On the other hand, all operators in algorithm 8 function as carriers. Note that no
modulation can occur in this algorithm (except for the feedback loop on operator
4–we’ll discuss that later). But algorithm 8 is ideal for creating rich organ voices–
think of each operator as different organ “stops,” which can be mixed together
as desired.
The algorithm alone, however, does not determine the actual sound of the voice.
The vital characteristics of the voice you create depend mostly on the frequencies
and levels you program into each operator. The 8 algorithms provided in the DX100
were specially selected because they offer the broadest range of voice programming
possibilities.
The results of using different frequency ratios, as well as different algorithms, are
shown graphically in the accompanying illustration. In the left column, you see the
waveforms created by 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 ratios between one modulator and one carrier.
In the right column, you see the waveforms which result from the same three ratios,
but when the two operators used are both carriers (connected horizontally, this
is known as additive synthesis).
26
Still more variations can be achieved by changing the relative output levels between
operators; the greater the level of the modulating operator, the more harmonics
are present.
FEEDBACK
Note that every algorithm has one operator with a “feedback loop”–represented
by a line from the output of the operator which feeds back to the input of the same
operator. In effect, a feedback loop means that the operator is modulating itself.
While every algorithm has one feedback loop, feedback is not necessarily used in
every voice. One of the DX100 editing functions permits the feedback level to be
set between 0 (no feedback) and 7 (maximum feedback).
ENVELOPE GENERATORS
Consider what happens when you play a note on an acoustic instrument. The level
of the sound initially goes up to some value, then eventually falls to nothing, following a pattern that is characteristic of the particular instrument played. For example, a low note on a pipe organ starts slowly when you press a key, because it
takes a while for the large column of air within the pipe to build up to maximum
oscillation level, and takes a while to die down once the key is released. A note
played on a wood block, on the other hand, starts quickly as the mallet strikes the
block, and stops quickly as the block stops resonating. The characteristic volume
pattern of any note played on any instrument is known as its “volume envelope.”
Most acoustic instruments also have a “timbre envelope,” in which the harmonic
27
content of the note changes (the timbre changes) from the time the note is initiated
to the time it decays.
Each of the 4 operators available in DX100 can be programmed with its own envelope. The envelope applied to a carrier will, generally, contribute to the overall
volume envelope of the note, while an envelope applied to a modulator will contribute to the timbre envelope of the note.
Here is a copy of the envelope diagram printed to the right of the algorithm diagrams
on the DX100 panel.
BASIC EG CURVE
This envelope diagram can be used as a guide in visualizing DX100 envelope settings
while you program or edit a voice.
Each envelope generator can be programmed with five different parameters: ATTACK RATE (AR), DECAY 1 RATE (D1R), DECAY 1 LEVEL (D1L), DECAY 2 RATE
(D2R), and RELEASE RATE. The RATE parameters determine how fast the envelope
moves from one level to the next. The term LEVEL is used rather than “volume”
because the envelope of the operator you’re working on could affect volume or
timbre, depending on whether it is a carrier or a modulator.
Any note begins at zero level when you press a key, then begins to approach
maximum EG level at a rate determined by the AR (Attack Rate) setting. The envelope may reach maximum level instantly, or it may take over 9 seconds depending
on the setting of AR.
When the envelope reaches maximum level, it immediately begins moving towards
the next level in the envelope–D1L (Decay 1 Level)–at a speed determined by the
setting of D1R (Decay 1 Rate).
The change from maximum EG level to D1R can be either a decrease in level or a
sustain at maximum level, depending on the values you choose for D1L.
After reaching D1L, the envelope then begins to decay toward zero level at a speed
determined by the setting of the D2R (Delay 2 Rate) parameter. If D2R is set to
0 (no decay), however, the note will be sustained at D1L for as long as you hold
the key. Now, when you release the key you have been holding, the envelope
will immediately begin to decay toward 0 level at a speed determined by RR (Release
Rate). In fact, at whatever point in the envelope you release the key, the envelope
will immediately begin moving toward 0 level at the set Release Rate. AR, D1R,
and D2R settings of 0 produce sustain at initial level, while an RR setting of 0
produces a slow decay. Thus ends the note envelope “history.”
28
2. The EDIT and
COMPARE Modes
To actually program or edit a voice, you need to enter the EDIT mode. This is done
by pressing the EDIT/COMPARE button in the group of buttons.
When the EDIT mode is activated, the LCD will indicate the operator ON/OFF status
(the group of four 1s or 0S), the currently selected voice parameter, and the currently
selected operator. The latter in the series applies only to parameters that deal with
individual operators. You will note, also, a capital letter “E” at the left side of the
LCD. This indicates that you are in the EDIT mode, but that the voice has not yet
been altered, i.e., it is an unedited voice. The last voice selected in the PLAY mode
will be selected for editing. The individual voice parameters are then selected by
pressing the corresponding voice buttons—all edit parameters are printed in purple
above the voice buttons. The selected parameter is then programmed using the
DATA ENTRY slider or -1/+1 buttons. The individual parameters will be described
in detail below.
Once the EDIT mode has been called and a parameter change has been made, a
small letter “e” will appear at the left side of the LCD, indicating that editing is in
progress. You can play the DX100 keys and listen to how parameter changes are
affecting the voice as you edit. In many cases, you will be editing an existing voice
and will want to compare the sound of the edited voice with the original voice.
This is done simply by pressing the EDIT/COMPARE button again. The small letter
“e” at the left side of the LCD will change to a “C”, indicating that the COMPARE
mode has been activated, and that the voice you will now hear is the original voice
before editing (the parameters displayed on the LCD will also revert to those of
the original voice). You can then return to the voice being edited by pressing the
EDIT/COMPARE button again. This can be repeated as many times as needed during
the editing process. The COMPARE mode can be entered from the EDIT or
FUNCTION modes after at least one data change has been made to the original
voice.
The EDIT/COMPARE mode can be exited by entering the FUNCTION mode, or
by pressing INTERNAL PLAY and selecting another voice. Please note that if you
exit the EDIT COMPARE mode and then select a new voice, ANY DATA YOU
HAVE EDITED WILL BE ERASED!!! This is because all editing is performed in a
special edit buffer memory which is the same memory to which a voice is called
when its button is pressed. Note that the presence of a small letter “p” at the left
side of the LCD means the edited voice has not been stored and will be erased if
you select a new voice. To save edited data, you must use the STORE function to
save the new data in one of the DX100’s 24 INTERNAL voice memories. The STORE
function will be discussed in CHAPTER IV: VOICE PROGRAMMING. If you do
make a mistake and lose the edited data, the DX100 has been provided with a special
temporary buffer memory from which the lost data can be recalled (assuming only
one error has been made) using the RECALL EDIT function. The RECALL EDIT
function will also be discussed in CHAPTER III: MEMORY MANAGEMENT.
29
3. The Voice
Parameters
The following is a brief description of each available voice parameter, how it is
programmed, and its effect. These parameters are selected by pressing the appropriately labelled (purple labels indicate voice parameters) button while the DX100
is in the EDIT mode.
PB MODE: OPERATOR SELECT
This switch (located immediately above the -1 DATA ENTRY button) selects the
operator to be worked on. Only one operator can be selected at a time. Only the
parameters for the selected operator will be displayed on the LCD panel.
In the EDIT mode, the currently selected operator number is displayed at the right
side of the LCD: for example, “OP3”. This only applies to parameters which can
be individually programmed for each operator. However, when parameters that affect
all operators simultaneously are called (the LFO WAVE, SPEED and DELAY parameters, for example), the current operator display will disappear from the LCD
and individual operators cannot be selected.
BANK A–DIOPERATORIAMS “ON-OFF”
Individually turns operators 1 through 4 ON or OFF. In many cases, a voice will
not require all operators in an algorithm. Operators that are not needed should
be turned OFF while editing. Also, during the voice creation process, it is a good
idea to start with all operators OFF and then turn them ON one at a time as you
program and add them to the algorithm. The four digits immediately preceding the
algorithm number on the LCD display represent the four operators, 1 through 4,
in order from left to right. When an operator is ON, a "1" appears in the corresponding
position, and when an operator is OFF a “0” appears in the corresponding position.
Each press on the BANK A through D buttons alternately turns the corresponding
operator ON and OFF.
When the AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY parameter is selected (10),
these buttons are used to determine to which operators the sensitivity setting will
apply.
When the EG COPY function is in use (see page 37), these buttons are used to
select the operator to which the data from the currently selected operator will be
copied.
1: ALGORITHM
Permits selection of any of the 8 available algorithms. The desired algorithm number
is selected using either the DATA ENTRY slider, -1/+1 buttons, or the parameter
button.
30
2: FEEDBACK
Feedback can be applied to one operator in each algorithm. Pressing this button
permits setting the amount (level) of feedback which will be applied.
The feedback level range is from 0 to 7. At 0, feedback is OFF, and at 7 maximum
feedback is applied.
Data is entered via the DATA ENTRY slider or buttons.
The LFO
“LFO” stands for Low Frequency Oscillator. This oscillator is used to apply modulation effects such as tremolo or vibrato to the DX100 voices. By setting the LFO
WAVE, SPEED, and SYNC parameters, you determine the effect that will be applied
to the currently selected voice when the modulation wheel or breath controller is
operated. The effect can also be applied without using the Wheel or Breath Controller
by adjusting the AMD and PMD parameters. The LFO parameters work together
with the MODULATION SENSITIVITY (9 and 10) parameters, and these must be
set carefully to achieve the desired effect.
3: LFO WAVE
Permits selection of the low frequency oscillator waveform. The available waveforms
are SAW UP (a rising sawtooth waveform), SQUARE, TRIANGL, and S/HOLD
(sample and hold). When used in conjunction with LFO SPEED, DELAY, LFO PMD,
and LFO AMD, a vast range of phase shifting and flanging-type effects can be
obtained. And depending upon the depth of your individual settings for any particular voice, these effects could range from subtle, sympathetic coloration of a
“piano” voice, or a “pipe organ” voice with an extremely broad low-frequency
sweep.
sawtooth
square
triangl
These waveforms are selected using the DATA ENTRY slider or buttons.
4: LFO SPEED
Permits setting the speed of the low frequency oscillator. The data range is from
0 to 99.0 corresponds to the slowest LFO speed (0.0008 Hz), and 99 corresponds
to the fastest LFO speed (55 Hz).
31
5: LFO DELAY
Permits setting a delay of between 0 and approximately 10.7 seconds before the
LFO modulation effect begins after a key is played. This is particularly useful for
simulating brass instruments, human voice, etc., in which a vibrato effect is gradually
applied after the note has been initiated.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 there is no delay, and a setting of 99 produces
an initial delay of approximately 10.7 seconds, which slowly increases over a period
of 10.7 seconds. With longer delay settings the modulation effect begins gradually
for a remarkably natural sound.
6: LFO PMD
This parameter sets the depth of pitch variation simultaneously produced by LFO
modulation for all operators. This function is independent from pitch modulation
produced by the modulation wheel and breath controller, and is always ON once
set.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0 pitch modulation is OFF, and a setting of 99
produces the greatest pitch variation, dependent on the PITCH MODULATION
SENSITIVITY setting, described below (9). When the PITCH MODULATION
SENSITIVITY parameter is set to maximum (7), the maximum pitch variation (PM
DEPTH = 99) will be ±800 cents.
Even if this parameter is set to 0, pitch modulation can still be applied via the
modulation wheel or breath controller.
7: LFO AMD
This parameter sets the depth of amplitude variation (tremolo or wow) simultaneously produced by LFO modulation for all operators. This function is independent from amplitude modulation produced by the modulation wheel or breath
controller, and is always ON once set.
The data range is from 0 to 99. At 0, amplitude modulation is OFF, and a setting
of 99 produces the greatest variation, dependent on the AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY setting (10). When the AMPLITUDE MODULATION
SENSITIVITY parameter is set to maximum (3). the maximum amplitude variation
(AM DEPTH = 99) will be + 96 dB peak-to-peak.
Even if this parameter is set to 0, amplitude modulation can still be applied via the
modulation wheel and breath controller.
8: LFO SYNC
32
The beginning of the LFO cycle is normally synchronized with key-on timing. This
parameter permits turning this synchronization on or off. All operators are affected
simultaneously.
When this parameter is on, the LFO cycle always begins from the peak of a positive
half-cycle (90 degrees phase angle) when a key is played. This produces a clear,
consistent attack on all notes.
When LFO KEY SYNC is OFF, the LFO cycle starts from a random point when a
key is played. This is the ideal setting when the LFO is being used to create natural-sounding chorus or phasing- type effects.
9: PITCH MODULATION SENSlTIVITY
This parameter sets the sensitivity of all operators to pitch modulation applied either
via the LFO PMD parameter, above, or via the modulation wheel or breath controller.
The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0, no pitch modulation can be applied, and at 7
the maximum pitch modulation can be achieved. When LFO PMD, above, is set
to 99, a setting of 7 produces a ±800 cent pitch variation.
10: AMPLITUDE MODULATION SENSITIVITY
This sets the operator’s sensitivity to LFO effects applied via the LFO PMD or AMD
functions, or via the modulation wheel or breath controller.
The application of LFO modulation to a carrier results in tremolo, and applied to
a modulator the result is a periodic variation in timbre similar to wah effects. Applied
to a modulator, the result is brilliance control.
The data range is from 0 to 3. At 0, amplitude modulation sensitivity is OFF and
no LFO effects can be applied to the selected operators. A setting of 3 produces
maximum sensitivity and therefore maximum effect depth.
The operators to which modulation sensitivity is to be applied are selected using
buttons BANK A through BANK D. The four digits—1 or 0—at the right side of the
LCD correspond to operators 1 through 4. When an operator is turned ON, i.e. able
to receive amplitude modulation, the corresponding digit will be a “1”. When OFF,
the corresponding digit will be a “0”. The operators are turned ON and OFF alternately each time the corresponding OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF button is pressed.
11: EG BIAS SENSITIVITY
This sets the operator’s sensitivity to EG BIAS effects applied via the breath controller. EG bias changes the overall output level from the operator. The harder you
blow into the breath controller, the higher the maximum envelope level. When EG
BIAS is applied to a carrier via the breath controller, the result is volume (expression)
control. Applied to a modulator, the result is brilliance control.
The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0, EG BIAS sensitivity is OFF and no EG BIAS
33
effects can be applied to the selected operators. A setting of 7 produces maximum
sensitivity and therefore maximum effect depth.
12: KEY VELOCITY
While the DX100 has no key velocity sensitivity of its own, its voice generators
will accept key velocity data from an external MIDI controller keyboard which does
have this feature. This function determines the sensitivity of each operator to
keyboard velocity sensitivity data from an external keyboard connected to the DX100
MIDI IN terminal (key velocity sensitivity = the harder you play a key, the louder
the note. Timbre variations are produced when keyboard sensitivity is applied to
a modulator),
The data range is from 0 to 7. At 0, key velocity sensitivity for the selected operator
is OFF. A setting of 7 produces the highest sensitivity, and therefore the greatest
effect. If KEY VELOCITY is set to other than 0, the volume produced when DX100
keys are pressed will decrease.
13: FREQUENCY RATIO
These parameters determine the actual frequency of each operator. For operators
which function as carriers, this determines the actual pitch of the sound produced.
For operators functioning as modulators, this determines the harmonic spectrum
of the sound produced.
Each operator can be set to any of 64 different frequency ratios, as follows:
DX100 OPERATOR FREQUENCY RATIOS
0.50
1.57
3.46
5.65
7.85
9.89
12.00
14.00
15.70
19.03
22.49
0.71
1.73
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.11
14.10
16.96
19.78
23.55
0.78
2.00
4.24
6.28
8.48
10.38
12.56
14.13
17.27
20.41
24.22
0.87
2.82
4.71
6.92
8.65
10.99
12.72
15.00
17.30
20.76
25.95
1.00
3.00
5.00
7.00
9.00
11.00
13.00
15.55
18.37
21.20
1.41
3.14
5.19
7.07
9.42
11.30
13.84
15.57
18.84
21.98
These frequency ratios have been carefully chosen as the most useful for voice
programming. A ratio of 1.00 sets the selected operator to standard pitch—a pitch
of 440 Hz will be produced when the A3 (A above middle C) key is pressed. A
ratio of 0.50 produces a pitch one octave lower, and a ratio of 2.00 produces a
pitch one octave higher than standard pitch, and so on. The fractional ratios -1.73,
for example—produce extremely complex waveforms when combined with operators
set to other ratios, permitting the creation of an unlimited variety of sound effects
including extremely realistic bells, explosions, etc. Even ratios are useful for creating
musical instrument sounds. It is possible to combine a modulator set to a fractional
34
ratio at a low operator level with even-ratio operators to add bite to a string sound
and many other effects.
The standard DX100 keyboard pitch is 8’; therefore, in terms of footage: 0.50 =
16’, 1.00 = 8’, and 2.00 = 4’.
14: DETUNE
This parameter permits slight detuning of the selected operator in relation to the
others, making it possible to create richer, fuller voice effects. If detune is applied
to carriers, the result is a thick, multi-instrument effect. Applied to modulators, the
result is a slight periodic variation in timbre similar to a phase shift effect.
The data range is from -3 to +3, for a maximum detuning range of + 2.6 cents.
At 0, no detune effect is produced.
15–19: ENVELOPE GENERATOR, AR, D1R, D1L, D2R, RR
ENVELOPE GENERATOR
These buttons select the specific envelope generator parameters to be worked on:
ATTACK RATE, DECAY 1 RATE, DECAY 1 LEVEL, DECAY 2 RATE, and RELEASE
RATE.
The data range for AR, D1R, AND D2R parameters is 0 to 31, with 31 being the
fastest rate (instantaneous) and 0 the slowest (i. e. no change). The RR parameter
has a data range of from 0 to 15, with 15 being fastest release and 0 being the
slowest.
The following EG curve shows the relationship between the RATE and LEVEL
parameters.
ENVELOPE GENERATOR
35
The following EG curves show the parameters for some common instruments.
PIANO E.G. CURVE
ORGAN E.G. CURVE
BRASS E.G. CURVE
20: OPERATOR OUT LEVEL
Permits setting the output level of the selected operator. The data range is from 0
to 99. At 0, the operator is OFF. A setting of 99 produces maximum output level
from the selected operator.
Varying the output level of an operator functioning as a carrier results in a change
in the overall level of the sound contributed to the voice by that operator. Varying
the output level of an operator functioning as a modulator results in a change in
the harmonic spectrum produced by the carrier, thereby changing the timbre of the
sound.
Data is entered using the DATA ENTRY slider or buttons.
21: RATE SCALING
This parameter makes it possible to gradually shorten the overall envelope length
(increase EG rate) as higher notes on the keyboard are played. This is particularly
useful for simulating the sound of stringed instruments such as piano or guitar, in
which the envelope of the higher notes is noticeably shorter than the lower notes.
36
4. Storing Voice Data
If you have edited any of the above voice parameters and wish to store the new
voice, you must use the STORE function BEFORE PRESSING ANY VOICE BUTTON
AFTER EXITING THE EDIT OR FUNCTION MODES, and store the new data in
one of the 24 INTERNAL memories. For this reason it is a good idea to have a free
memory location ready before you begin editing.
If you are editing and storing a voice to INTERNAL memory that was originally
selected from PRESET memory, you can still recall the original PRESET memory
voice at any time (PRESET memory will never change).
NOTE:
If the INTERNAL memory contains your own original voices, make sure that
any voices, you want to keep have been saved to cassette tape, so that they
can be recalled later.
To STORE a newly edited voice, first exit the EDIT mode by pressing the PLAY
mode button. Then, hold down the STORE button (this is the same as the EG COPY
button) and press the voice button to which you want to save the edited voice
data. The MEMORY PROTECT function must be OFF before attempting to use the
STORE function.
5. Two Approaches to
Creating Your Own
Voices
There are two basic approaches that can be taken when programming voices on
the DX100. First, you can run through all the existing voices, choose one that is
close to the sound you wish to create, and then edit that voice to create your own.
Second, you can “initialize” the voice edit buffer (see CHAPTER III: MEMORY
MANAGEMENT, 1. The Initialize Voice Function), setting all parameters to their
initial values, and begin programming your voice from scratch.
The first method, editing an existing voice, is generally a much more efficient approach. If, however, you are looking for a unique voice that is totally unlike any
of the available presets, it is probably best to initialize and start from scratch.
38
If you choose to program a voice from scratch, you’ll need to have a clear memory
location (or one containing a voice that you either don’t want or have already backed
up on cassette tape, so that when you’ve completed programming the voice, you
can save it). Since all editing is done in the separate voice edit buffer, nothing is
erased while you are actually programming the voice. But when you save the new
voice, whatever was in that memory location will be erased and replaced by the
new data.
39
CHAPTER V: VOICE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE
In this section we’ll go through the steps in creating a fairly percussive electric piano voice from scratch. This simple
example should help you understand the programming process.
Initialize a Voice
STEP 1:
Enter the FUNCTION mode (press FUNCTION button) and call the MEMORY
PROTECT function. Turn MEMORY PROTECT OFF.
Call INIT VOICE function and press the YES button twice. This initializes the voice
and automatically enters the EDIT mode. Select the ALGORITHM select parameter.
If you now play a note you will hear a sine wave.
Selecting the Algorithm
STEP 2:
STEP 3:
hi this voice there are two distinct sound components: the main piano decay sound
and a percussive attack "ping." For this purpose we’ll use algorithm 5, which has
two separate vertical “stacks” of two operators each.
The ALGORITHM parameter has already been called, so select algorithm 5 using
the DATA ENTRY controls.
Turn Operators 3 and 4 OFF
We’ll start by programming the main piano sound using the left operator stack in
algorithm five-operators 1 and 2. Turn operators 3 and 4 OFF-using the corresponding OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF buttons.
Since the voice has been initialized, the output level of operator 1 will be set at
90 and that of operator 2 will be 0, so at the moment we only hear the sound from
operator 1.
40
STEP 4:
Set the OP1 (carrier) EG
Select the ENVELOPE GENERATOR AR parameter, and select operator 1 by pressing
the OPERATOR SELECT button.
We want an instantaneous attack, so AR should be set at 31. Select the D1R
parameter and set to 10 for a relatively slow initial decay.
Select the D1L parameter and set to 10.
Select the D2R parameter and set to 8.
Select the RR parameter and set to 8.
Now play a note and listen to the volume envelope we’ve created. This is the basic
form of the electric piano voice.
STEP 5:
Copy OP1 (carrier) EG Parameters to OP2 (modulator)
Hold down the EG COPY button and press the OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF 2 button.
The EG parameters you just set for operator 1 have now been copied to operator
2. You can check this by selecting operator 2 (press OPERATOR SELECT) and
looking at the EG parameters (AR— RR).
STEP 6:
Set OP1 and OP2 Output Levels
In this step we’ll create the basic timbre of our piano voice.
First, select OP1, select the OPERATOR OUTPUT LEVEL parameter and set it to
99.
Next, select OP2 and set its output level to 66.
Play a key and note that we no longer have a simple sine wave. By increasing the
output level of OP2 we are modulating the carrier, OP1, thereby creating a more
complex waveform. In this case the frequency ratios of OP1 and OP2 are left at
their initialized values of 1.00, since this is the basic timbre we want for this voice.
STEP 7.
STEP 8:
Turn OFF OP1 and OP2, Turn ON OP3 and OP4
Now that we’ve created the basis for our piano voice, turn OP1 and OP2 OFF so
we can concentrate on creating the attack sound using the remaining operator stack
(OP3 and OP4). Now turn OP3 and OP4 ON.
Set OP3 (carrier) EG
Before we actually set the OP3 EG parameters, select OP3 using the OPERATOR
SELECT button, call the OPERATOR OUTPUT LEVEL parameter and set it to 99.
Now enter the following EG parameters:
AR = 31
D1R=13
41
D1L = 0
D2R = 0
RR = 10
STEP 9:
STEP 10:
STEP 11:
Copy OP3 (carrier) EG Parameters to OP4 (modulator)
Hold down the EG COPY button and press the OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF 4 button.
Raise OP4 (modulator) Output Level
Select OP4, select the OPERATOR OUTPUT LEVEL parameter and set it to 71.
Set OP4 Frequency Ratio
To get a metallic attack “ping,” we’ll set the OP4 output level frequence ratio to
7.00. With OP4 selected, press the OPERATOR FREQ RATIO button and set to
7.00.
Play a note and listen to the attack sound.
STEP 12:
Combine all Operators and Balance Levels
Turn OP1 and OP2 back on so we can here the combined sound of the two operator
stacks. Play a note. At this point the attack sound is far too loud, so we’ll reduce
the output level of OP3 to achieve a better balance.
Select OP3, press the OPERATOR OUTPUT LEVEL button and set to 70.
Play a note-our piano voice is improving.
STEP 13:
STEP 14:
Set Feedback Level
We can enhance the attack sound of the voice by adding just a touch of “bite”
using feedback. Select the FEEDBACK parameter and set to 5.
Set Keyboard Level Scaling
Play a few notes or chords across the range of the keyboard. At this point the
upper-range notes are a little to loud and tinny for proper overall keyboard balance.
Select the KEYBOARD LEVEL SCALING PARAMETER, select OP1 and set to 20.
Next, select OP2 and set to 30.
Try the entire keyboard range again—much better overall balance.
42
STEP 15:
Add Amplitude Modulation to OP2
As a final enhancement to our voice, let’s add just a touch of amplitude modulation
to OP2—the main piano sound modulator. This will create a subtle chorus effect.
Select the LFO WAVE parameter, set to triangle.
Select the LFO SPEED parameter, set to 28.
Select the AMD (Amplitude Modulation Depth) parameter, set to 52.
Select the MODULATION SENSITIVITY, AMPLITUDE parameter, set to 1 for OP2
only (press the OPERATOR/AMS ON-OFF button).
Now try the voice. That’s it! Name the new voice, if you like, by entering the
FUNCTION mode and using the VOICE NAME function. The only step that remains
is to store our new voice in a RAM memory location.
STEP 16:
Store Completed Voice in RAM
Press the INTERNAL button, then BEFORE DOING ANYTHING ELSE: hold down
the STORE button and press the voice selector to which you wish to store the
new voice.
As a final precaution, go back to the FUNCTION mode and turn
43
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Keyboard
49 keys, (Mini keybord)
Sound Source
FM Tone Generator (4 operators, 8 algorithms)
Simultaneous Note Output
8 notes, reverse priority
Internal Memory
24-voice internal RAM (alterable)
192-voice number bank (reading only)
96-voice number bank (alterable)
Effects
PITCH BLEND WHEEL, MODULATION, PORTAMENTO, SUSTAIN, KEY VELOCITY (reception only)
Controls
PITCH BEND, WHEEL, MODULATION WHEEL, VOLUME, LCD CONTRAST
External Control Terminals
BREATH CONTROL, FOOT SWITCH
Connecting Terminals
OUTPUT (normal output level -20dB/output impedance
(normal output level -16dB/output impedance 47
10k
or less), PHONES
or less), FOOT SWITCH
(PORTAMENTO ON-OFF/SUSTAIN ON-OFF), MIDI IN, MIDI OUT, ,MIDI
THRU, CASSETTE (transmission speed 1,200 baud), BREATH CONTROL, DC
IN
Power Supply
C-size batteries x 6 (Battery life: Approx. 10 hours)
Dimensions (W x H x D)
628(W) x 75(H) x 218(D)mm (24.7” x 2.9” x 8.6”)
Weight
2.7kg (5.91 bs)
Standard Accessories
SUM-2 batteries x 6, cassette cable, strap pincette, explanation cassette tape
Optional Accessories
FC4/FC5 Foot Switches, BC-1 Breath Controller, PA-1210 AC Adapter
*
0db-0.775Vr.m.s.
* Specifications and appearance are subject to change without notice
44
MIDI DATA FORMAT
1. Transmission
Conditions
ACTIVE SENSING
NOTE ON /OFF
SUSTAIN SWITCH
PITCH BENDER
POLY MODE
MONO MODE
MODULATION WHEEL
BREATH CONTROLER
DATA ENTRY SLIDER
VOLUME (DATA ENTRY
SLIDER : PLAY MODE)
PORTAMENTO SWlTCH
PROGRAM CHANGE
PARAMETER CHANGE
I VOICE BULK
32 VOICE BULK
45
2. Transmission Data
All MIDI data is transmitted when the MIDI ON/OFF function is ON. The MIDI
transmission channel is determined by the setting of the MIDI T CH function.
2-1. Channel Information
2-1-1 Channel Voice Message
(1) Key On/Off
Status
Note. no.
Velocity
1001nnnn(9n)
0kkkkkkk
01000000(40)
00000000(00)
n=channel no.
k=36(C1) ~ 84(C5)
Key on
Key off
1011nnnn(Bn)
0ccccccc
0vvvvvvv
n=channel no.
(2) Control Change
Status
Control no.
Control code
a) Transmitted whether MIDI CH INFO is ON or OFF
Control code.
V=0: OFF, 127: ON
Control no.
C=64: Sustain SW.
C=126: POLY mode
C=127: MONO mode
b) Transmitted when MIDI CH INFO is ON
Control No.
C=1: modulation wheel
C=2: breath control
C=6: data entry slider
C=7: volume (data entry)
C=65: portamento SW.
C=96: data entry +1
C=97: data entry -1
Control code
V=0 ~ 127
V=0 ~ 127
V=0 ~ 127
V=0 ~ 127
V=0: OFF, 127: ON
(3) Program Change
1100nnnn(Cn)
0ppppppp
Status
Program no.
n=channel no.
p=0 ~ 23: INTERNAL
p=24 ~ 119: BANK
This data is transmitted when a voice selector is pressed during the play mode,
when MIDI CH INFO is ON and MIDI SYS INFO is OFF.
(4) Pitch Bend
1110nnnn(En)
0uuuuuuu
0vvvvvvv
Status
Code (LSB)
Code (MSB)
n=channel no.
The transmitted data is as follows:
LSB
00000000
00000000
01111110
MSB
00000000
01000000
01111111
46
Lowest value
Center value
Highest value
2-2 System Information
2-2-1 System Real-Time Message
Active sensing
Status
11111110(FE)
Transmitted once approximately every 200 milliseconds
2-2-2 System Exclusive Message
Transmitted only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON
(1) Parameter Change
Status
ID no.
Substatus/ch. no.
Parameter group no.
Parameter no.
Data
EOX
11110000(F0)
01000011(43)
0001 nnnn(1n) n=channel no.
00010010(12)
0ppppppp
0ddddddd
11110111(F7)
This data is transmitted when voice or function Parameters are changed in the EDIT
or FUNCTION modes. The voice parameters transmitted are those given in voice
parameter table 5-2, and the function parameters transmitted are shown in
function parameter table 5-3.
(2) 1 Voice Bulk Data
Status
ID no.
Substatus / ch. no.
Format no.
Byte count
Byte count
Data
11110000(F0)
01000011(43)
0000nnnn(0n)
00000011(03)
00000000(00)
01011101(5D)
0ddddddd
Checksum
EOX
0ddddddd
0eeeeeee
11110111(F7)
n=channel no.
93 bytes
The data for one voice is transmitted when a voice selector is pressed in the PLAY
mode. Data in the voice edit buffer is transmitted when a format no. f=3 dump
request is received. The transmitted data is shown in voice parameter table 5-2.
The checksum is the lowest 7 bits of the two’s complement sum of all data bytes
(the same applies below).
Functions not available on this unit are set as follows:
CHORUS: 0
PEG PRI=99,
PR2=99,
PL1=50,
PL2=50,
FOOT VOLUME RANGE = 99
PR3=99
PL3=50
(3) 32 Voice BULK Data
Status
ID no.
Substatus/ch. no.
Format no.
Byte count
11110000(F0)
01000011(43)
0000nnnn(0n) n=channel no.
00000100(04)
00100000(20)
47
Byte count
00000000(00)
Data
0ddddddd
Checksum
EOX
0ddddddd
0eeeeeee
11110111(F7)
4096 bytes
The data of 32 voices, including the 24 voices in RAM memory, will be transmitted
if the YES key is pressed in response to the "MIDI Transmit?” display which appears
when the SYS INFO key is pressed twice in the FUNCTION mode. The data for
all 32 voices will also be transmitted when a format no. f=4 dump request is received.
The transmitted data is shown in voice data table 5-1. 55 bytes of 0’s are added
to the 73 bytes in this table, so 1-28 bytes are transmitted for each voice. 4096 bytes
are therefore transmitted for all 32 voices. Voices 25 through 32 are transmitted
with initialized voice parameters.
48
3. Reception
Conditions
49
4. Reception Data
All MIDI data is received when the MIDI ON/OFF function is ON. When a specific
MIDI receive channel has been selected using the MIDI R CH fuction, and the
OMNl mode is OFF, MIDI data will be recieved only on the specified channel.
MIDI data will be received on all channels when the OMNI mode is ON.
4-1. Channel Information
4-1-1 Channel Voice Message
(1) Key Off
Status
Note no.
Velocity
1000nnnn(8n)
0kkkkkkk
00000000(00)
n=channel no.
k=0(C-2) ~ 127(G8)
1001nnnn(9n)
0kkkkkkk
0vvvvvvv
n=channel no.
k=0(C-2) ~ 127(G8)
v=0: key off
v=1 ~ 127: key on
(2) Key On/Off
Status
Note no.
Velocity
The key on note level will vary according to the received velocity value (only when
the KEY VELOCITY setting is greater than 0). The range of this instrument is C#-1
to C7. If a higher or lower key number is received, it will be output within the range
limits. For example, received C#7 through C8 data will be output as notes in the
C#6 through C7 range.
(3) Control Change
1011nnnn(Bn) n-channel no.
0ccccccc
0vvvvvvv
Status
Control no.
Control code
a) Received whether MIDI CH INFO is ON or OFF
Control no.
C=64: Sustain sw.
Control code.
V=0~126: OFF, 127: ON
b) Received when MIDI CH INFO is ON
Control code
V=0 ~127
V=0 ~127
V=0 ~127
V=0 ~127
V=0 ~126: OFF, 127: ON
Control no.
C=1: modulation wheel
C=2: breath control
C=5: portamento time
C=7: volume
C=65: portamento SW.
(4) Program Change
1100nnnn(Cn) n=channel no.
0ppppppp
Status
Program no.
Recieved only in the PLAY mode when MIDI CH INFO is ON. Number 120 through
127 will be processed as 119.
(5) Pitch Bend
Status
Code(LSB)
Code(MSB)
1110nnnn
0uuuuuuu
0vvvvvvv
50
n=channel no.
Functions only on MSB data:
MSB
00000000
01000000
01111111
Lowest value
Center value
Highest value
4-1-2 Channel Mode Message
n=channel no.
1011nnnn
0ccccccc
0vvvvvvv
Status
Received whether MIDI CH INFO is ON or OFF
V=0
V=1
V=0
C=123
C=126
C=127
All notes OFF
MONO mode ON
POLY mode ON
4-2 System Information
4-2-1 System Real-Time Message
Active sensing
Status
11111110(FE)
within 300 milliseconds the MIDI receive buffer will be cleared and the currently
output note will be turned OFF.
4-2-2 System Exclusive Message
(1) Parameter Change (switch mode)
Status
ID no.
Substatus / ch. no.
Parameter group no.
Switch no.
Data
EOX
11110000(F0)
01000011(43)
0001nnnn(1n)
00001000 (08)
0mmmmm
0ddddddd
11110111(F7)
n=channel no.
d=0: OFF, 1 ~ 127: ON
All panel switches are controlled. The switch numbers are arranged as shown in
the illustration below. Received only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON.
(2) Parameter Change
The format is the same as the transmitted parameter change data. Received only
when MIDI SYS INFO is ON. Permits changing voice and function parameters
while the EDIT mode is active. It is also possible to change modes: PLAY, EDIT,etc.
The parameter no. and data received are show in voice parameter table 5-2 and
function parameter table 5-3.
51
(3) 1 Voice Bulk Data
Received only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON. The format is the same as for the
transmitted 1 voice bulk data. The 93 voice data bytes are read into the voice edit
buffer, replacing the current voice data. The 93 received data bytes are show in
voice parameter table 5-2.
CHORUS, FOOT VOLUME RANGE and PEG data are ignored.
(4) 32 Voice Bulk Data
Received only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON. The format is the same as for the
transmitted 32 voice bulk data. This data can be received only when the MEMORY
PROTECT function is OFF. The received voice data is stored in the 24 RAM voice
memory locations. Voices numbered 25 anf higher will be ignored. The “MIDI
RECEIVED!!” display appears to confirm complete reception of voice bulk data.
(5) Dump Request
Status
ID no.
Substatus/ch. no.
Format no.
EOX
11110000(Fn)
01000011(43)
0010nnnn(2n)
0fffffff
11110111(F7)
n=channel no.
f=3,4
Received only when MIDI SYS INFO is ON. When received the bulk data corresponding to the received format code will be dumped via MIDI OUT.
f=3:
f=4:
1 voice bulk data
32 voice bulk data
52
5-1. VOICE DATA (VMEM format)
5. System Exclusive
Data
Parameter no.
Parameter
P
0
ATTACK RATE
DECAY 1 RATE
DECAY 2 RATE
RELEASE RATE
DECAY 1 LEVEL
OP4
KEYBOARD SCALING LEVEL
AMPLITUDE MODULATION ENABLE/EG BIAS
SENSITIVITY/KEY VELOCITY
OUTPUT LEVEL
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
KEYBOARD SCALING RATE/DETUNE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP2
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP3
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP 1
19
20
29
30
39
40
41
42
43
44
LFO SYNC/FEEDBACK LEVEL/ALGORITHM
LFO SPEED
LFO DELAY
PITCH MODULATION DEPTH
AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEPTH
PITCH MODULATION SENSITIVITY/AMPLITUDE
MODULATION SENSITIVITY/LFO WAVE
TRANSPOSE
PITCH BEND RANGE
CHORUS SWITCH*/PLAY MODE/SUSTAIN FOOT SWITCH/
PORTAMENTO FOOT SWITCH/PORTAMENTO
MODE
PORTAMENTO TIME
FOOT VOLUME RANGE*
MODULATION WHEEL PITCH MODULATION RANGE
MODULATION WHEEL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE
BREATH CONTROL PITCH MODULATION RANGE
BREATH CONTROL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE
BREATH CONTROL PITCH BIAS RANGE
BREATH CONTROL EG BIAS RANGE
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
VOICE NAME 1
VOICE NAME 10
PITCH EG RATE 1
2
3
LEVEL 1
2
3
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
*
*
*
*
*
*
* :not used
53
5-2. VOlCE PARAMETERS (VCED format)
parameter no.
P
LCD Display
parameter
0
ATTACK RATE
AR
1
DECAY 1 RATE
2
DECAY 2 RATE
3
4
RELEASE RATE
DECAY 1 LEVEL
5
KEYBOARD SCALING LEVEL
D1R
D2R
RR
D1L
LS
6
KEYBOARD SCALING RATE
7
EG BIAS SENSITIBITY
MODULATION
OP4
RS
EBS
8
AMPLITUDE
9
KEY VELOCITY
ENABLE
KVS
10
OUTPUT LEVEL
OUT
11
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
F
12
DETUNE
DET
Data
Note
0 ~ 31
0 ~ 31
0 ~ 31
0 ~ 15
0 ~ 15
0 ~ 99
0 ~
0 ~
0, ~
0 ~
3
7
1
7
0 ~ 99
0 ~ 63
0 ~ 6
Center
= 3
13
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP2
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP3
SAME AS FOR OP4
OP1
25
26
38
39
51
52
ALGORITHM
53
FEEDBACK
54
LFO SPEED
ALG
FBL
LFS
LEVEL
55
LFO DELAY
56
PITCH MODULAITON DEPTH
57
AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEPTH
58
LFO SYNC
59
LFO WAVE
60
PITC H
61
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
TRANSPOSE
62
MOD U LATION
LFD
PMD
AMD
SYNC
LW
SEN SI TIV ITY
PAMS
AMS
MID. C
Poly Mide
SENSITIVITY
63
PLAY MODE POLY/MONO
64
PITCH BEND RANGE
65
PORTAMENTO
MODE
66
PORTAMENTO
TIME
67
68
FOOT VOLUME RANGE
SUSTAIN FOOT SWITCH
69
PROTAMENT FOOT SWITCH
70
CHORUS SWITCH
P Bend Range
Full T. Porta
Porta Time
0 ~ 7
0 ~ 7
0 ~ 99
0 ~ 99
0 ~ 99
0 ~ 99
0 ,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
~ 3
~ 7
~ 7
~ 48
, 1
~ 12
, 1
~ 99
Foot Sw
Foot Sw
0, 1
0 ,
1
71
MODULATION WHEEL PITCH MODULATION RANGE
MW Pitch
0 ~ 99
72
MODULATION WHEEL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE
MW Ampli
0 ~ 99
73
BREATH CONTROL PITCH MODULATION RANGE
BC Pitch
74
BREATH CONTROL AMPLITUDE MODULATION RANGE
BC Ampli
75
BREATH CONTROL PITCH BIAS RANGE
76
BREATH CONTROL EG BIAS RANGE
BC P Bias
BC E Bias
0
0
0
0
77
VOICE NAME 1
86
VOICE NAME 10
87
PITCH EG RATE 1
88
89
2
3
90
LEVEL 1
91
2
3
92
~
~
~
~
Pair
99
99
99
99
ASCll
32 ~ 127
(ASCll)
*:not used
54
5-3. FUNCTION PARAMETERS
Parameter no.
P
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
Parameter
LCD Display
Data
OPERATOR ENABLE/DISABLE
OPETATOR SELECT
EDIT MODE 1 = ON
FUNCTION MODE 1 = ON
STORE MODE 1 = ON
E, e
F, f
Mem Store
0, 1
0 ~3
0, 1
0, 1
0, 1
PLAY MODE 1 = ON
P,p
0 , 1
MASTER TUNE $40=CENTER
MIDI SWITCH I = ON
MIDI CH INFO
OMNI 0=OFF 1=ON
MIDI TRANS CH
MIDI RECV CH
MIDI SYS INFO
32 VOICE BULK DUMP
RECALL EDIT
INIT VOICE
SAVE
VERIFY
LOAD
LOAD SINGLE
M. Tune
Midi :
Ch.lnfo :
Omni :
Midi T Ch
Midi R Ch
Midi Sys.lnfo
0 ~ 127
MEMORY PROTECT 1 =ON
KEY SHIFT 24=CENTER
M .Protect
Key Shift
Bend Mode
K
C
0, 1
0, 1
0, 1
0 ~ I5
0 ~ I5
0, 1
1
Midi Transmit ?
Recall Edit ?
lnit Voice ?
Save to Tape ?
Verify Tape ?
Load Tape ?
Load Single ?
PITCH BEND MODE 1 =ON
KEY SHIFT
COMPARE
PITCH BEND MODE
PRESET SEARCH No.
BANK VOICE No.
BANK VOICE DATA
Note
0,
0,
0,
0,
0,
0~
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
127
, 1
~ 48
, 1
, 1
, 1
~2
~ 95
~ 95
0 ~ 119
*
55
Receive
only
[
Digital Programmable Algorium Synthesizer]
Model DX100
MIDI Implementation Chart
Transmitted
Function
Date : 5/10, 1985
Version : 1.0
Recognized
:
:
...
Basic
Channel
Default
Changed
1 1 -
Default
Messages
Altered
3
Mode
1 , 2 , 3 , 4
:
POLY, MONO (M=1) :
:
36 - 84
0 1 3 -
Note
Number
:
1 1 -
1 6
1 6
True voice
V e l o c i t y Note ON
Note OFF
x
x
After
Touch
x
x
x
x
o
o
Key's
Ch's
Pitch Bender
1
2
5
6
7
Control
9nH, v-64
9nH, v-0
o
o
x
o
o
o
x
*1
* 1
*1
* 1
16
16
:
:
:
v=1-127
:
:
0-12 semi
9 6
9 7
o
o
*1
*1
x
x
* 3
o
* 2
o
System
o
Exclusive
119
Sustain foot sw
Portamento f sw
Data entry +1
Data entry -1
0
0
-
127
119
* 1
:
:
* 2 :V o i c e
System : Song Pos
: Song Sel
Common : T u n e
x
x
x
x
x
x
:
:
:
System
:Clock
R e a l T i m e :Commands
x
x
x
x
:
:
Aux
x
x
o
x
x
o
o
x
:Local ON/OFF
:All Notes OFF
Mes- :Active Sense
sages: Reset
Notes:
All
*1
*2
*3
resolution
* 1
o
o
-
: 7 bit
o
*1
0
:
*1 :Modulation wheel
* 1 :B r e a t h c o n t r o l
*1 :Portamento time
:D a t a e n t r y k n o b
Data entry knob
in play mode
*1
Volume
o
o
o
memorized
:
:
o
o
o
x
64
65
Prog
Change : True #
memorized
127
108
Change
7
Remarks
(123, 126,
parameters
:
127) :
:
:
MIDI communication are enabled if MIDI switch is on.
= transmit/receive if CH information switch is on.
= transmit/receive if system information switch is on.
= transmit if CH informaiton switch is on and system
information switch is off.
M o d e 1 : OMNI O N ,
M o d e 3 : OMNI O F F ,
POLY
POLY
Mode 2
Mode 4
: OMNI O N ,
OMNI O F F ,
MONO
MONO
o :
x :
Yes
No
VOICE/FUNCTION DATA
DATA NAME :
DATE :
NUMBER :
PROGRAMMER :
57
DATA NAME
DATE :
PROGRAMMER :
No.
VOICE NAME
REMARKS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
58
FCC INFORMATION (USA)
While the following statements are provided to comply with
FCC Regulations in the United States, the corrective measures
listed below are applicable worldwide.
This series of Yamaha professional music equipment uses
frequencies that appear in the radio frequency range and if installed in the immediate proximity of some types of audio or video
devices (within three meters), interference may occur.
This series of Yamaha professional music equipment has been
type tested and found the comply with the specifications set for
a class B computing device in accordance with those specifications listed in subpart J of part 15 of the FCC rules. Those rules
are designed to provide a reasonable measure of protection
against such interference.
However, this does not guarantee that interference will not occur.
If your professional music equipment should be suspected of
causing interference with other electronic devices, verification
can be made by turning your professional music equipment off
and on. If the interference continues when your equipment is off,
the equipment is not the source of interference. If your equipment
does appear to be the source of the interference, you should try
to correct the situation by using one or more of the following
measures:
Relocate either the equipment or the electronic device that is
being affected by the interference.
Utilize power for the professional music equipment and the
device being affected that are on different branch (circuit breaker
of fuse) circuits, of install AC line filters.
In the case or radio or TV interference, relocate the antenna
or, if the antenna lead-in is 300ohm ribbon lead, changethe lead-in
to co-axial type cable.
If these corrective measures do not produce satisfactory results, please contact your authorized Yamaha professional products dealer for suggestions and/or corrective measures. If you
can not locate a authorized Yamaha professional products dealer
in your general area contact the professional music Service Department, Yamaha International. 6600 Orangethorpe Ave., Buena
park, CA90620, USA.
If for any reason, you should need additional information relating to radio or TV interference, you may find a booklet prepard
by the Federal Communications Commission helpful; “How to
Identify and Resolve Radio—TV Interference Problems”. This
booklet is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington D.C.
20402—Stock No. 004-000-00345-4.
SINCE 1887
NIPPON GAKKI CO., LTD. HAMAMATSU, JAPAN
85 08 0.5 CR Printed in Japan
YAMAHA
Yamaha Corporation of America
6600 Orangethorpe Avenue, P.O. Box 6600, Buena Park, CA 90622-6600
2/16/98 27792
DX100 OM
Recycled
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