null  User manual
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Melrose, MA 02176
Phone 781-665-1400
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Visit us at www.TestEquipmentDepot.com
Model: 4045B
Arbitrary Function Generator
USER MANUAL
1
Safety Summary
The following safety precautions apply to both operating and maintenance personnel and must be
observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Before applying
power, follow the installation instructions and become familiar with the operating instructions for this
instrument.
If this device is damaged or something is missing, contact the place of purchase immediately.
This manual contains information and warnings that must be followed to ensure safe operation as
well as maintain the meter in a safe condition.
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical
ground. This instrument is grounded through the ground conductor of the supplied, three-conductor
ac power cable. The power cable must be plugged into an approved three-conductor electrical
outlet. Do not alter the ground connection. Without the protective ground connection, all accessible
conductive parts (including control knobs) can render an electric shock. The power jack and mating
plug of the power cable must meet IEC safety standards.
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes. Operation of any
electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Instrument covers must not be removed by operating personnel. Component replacement and
internal adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Disconnect the power
cord before removing the instrument covers and replacing components. Under certain conditions,
even with the power cable removed, dangerous voltages may exist. To avoid injuries, always
disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE
Do not attempt any internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first
aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY THE INSTRUMENT
Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modifications to this instrument. Return
the instrument to B&K Precision for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained.
WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS
WARNING and CAUTION statements, such as the following examples, denote a hazard and
appear throughout this manual. Follow all instructions contained in these statements.
A WARNING statement calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or condition, which, if
not followed correctly, could result in injury or death to personnel.
A CAUTION statement calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or condition, which, if not
followed correctly, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the product.
WARNING:
Do not alter the ground connection. Without the protective ground connection, all accessible
conductive parts (including control knobs) can render an electric shock. The power jack and mating
plug of the power cable meet IEC safety standards.
WARNING:
To avoid electrical shock hazard, disconnect power cord before removing covers. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel.
CAUTION:
Before connecting the line cord to the AC mains, check the rear panel AC line voltage indicator.
Applying a line voltage other than the indicated voltage can destroy the AC line fuses. For continued
fire protection, replace fuses only with those of the specified voltage and current ratings.
2
CAUTION:
This product uses components which can be damaged by electro-static discharge (ESD). To avoid
damage, be sure to follow proper procedures for handling, storing and transporting parts and
subassemblies which contain ESD-sensitive components.
Compliance Statements
Disposal of Old Electrical & Electronic Equipment (Applicable in the European
Union and other European countries with separate collection systems)
This product is subject to Directive 2002/96/EC of the
European
Parliament and the Council of the European Union on
waste
electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) , and in
jurisdictions
adopting that Directive, is marked as being put on the
market after August 13, 2005, and should not be
disposed of as unsorted
municipal waste. Please utilize your local WEEE
collection
facilities in the disposition of this product and
otherwise observe all applicable requirements.
Safety Symbols
Refer to the user manual for warning information to
avoid hazard or personal injury and prevent
damage to instrument.
Chassis (earth ground) symbol.
On (Power). This is the In position of the power
switch when instrument is ON.
Off (Power). This is the Out position of the power
switch when instrument is OFF.
On (Supply). This is the AC mains
connect/disconnect switch at the back of the
instrument.
Off (Supply). This is the AC mains
connect/disconnect switch at the back of the
instrument.
3
CE Declaration of Conformity
The model 4045B meets the requirements of 2006/95/EC Low Voltage Directive and
2004/108/EC Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive with the following standards.
Low Voltage Directive
-
EN61010
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control,
and laboratory use.
EMC Directive
-
EN55011
For radiated and conducted emissions.
EN55082
Electrical discharge immunity
4
1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 7
1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 7
1.2 Description ............................................................................................. 7
1.3 Specifications ......................................................................................... 7
2
INSTALLATION ................................................................. 10
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3
Introduction ........................................................................................... 10
Package Contents ................................................................................ 10
Instrument Mounting ............................................................................. 10
Power Requirements ............................................................................ 10
Fuse Replacement................................................................................ 11
Grounding Requirements ...................................................................... 11
Signal Connections ............................................................................... 11
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS .......................................... 12
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
General Description .............................................................................. 12
Display Window .................................................................................... 13
Front Panel Controls ............................................................................. 13
Connectors ........................................................................................... 13
Output Connections .............................................................................. 14
MENU Keys .......................................................................................... 14
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
WAVEFORM Keys ................................................................................ 14
MODE Key ............................................................................................. 16
UTILITY Key .......................................................................................... 18
SWEEP Key........................................................................................... 19
MODULATION Key ............................................................................... 20
3.7 ON Key ................................................................................................. 27
3.8 Cursor Keys .......................................................................................... 27
3.9 Rotary Input Knob ................................................................................. 27
3.10 Power-On Settings.............................................................................. 28
3.11 Memory .............................................................................................. 28
3.12 Displaying Errors ................................................................................ 28
3.13 Quick Start .......................................................................................... 29
3.13.1
3.13.2
Selecting a Standard Waveform ...................................................... 29
Setting the Output ............................................................................. 29
5
3.13.3
3.13.4
4
Using Voltage Offset ........................................................................ 29
Storing and Recalling a Waveform Generator Setup..................... 30
PROGRAMMING .............................................................. 33
4.1 Overview.............................................................................................. 33
4.1.1 Connecting to USB (Virtual COM) Interface ...................................... 33
4.1.2 USB (Virtual COM) Settings ................................................................ 38
4.2 Device States....................................................................................... 38
4.2.1 Local State (LOCS) .............................................................................. 38
4.2.2 Remote State (REMS) .......................................................................... 38
4.3 Message Exchange Protocol ............................................................... 38
4.3.1 The Input Buffer ................................................................................... 38
4.3.2 The Output Queue ............................................................................... 38
4.3.3 Response Messages ........................................................................... 39
4.4 Instrument Identification ....................................................................... 39
4.5 Instrument Reset ................................................................................. 39
4.6 Command Syntax ............................................................................... 39
4.6.1 General Command Structure .............................................................. 39
4.7 Status Reporting .................................................................................. 42
4.7.1 The Error Queue .................................................................................. 42
4.7.2 Error Codes .......................................................................................... 42
4.8 COMMON COMMANDS ...................................................................... 45
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
System Data Commands..................................................................... 45
Internal Operation Commands ........................................................... 45
Device Trigger Commands ................................................................. 45
Stored Settings Commands ................................................................ 46
4.9 INSTRUMENT CONTROL COMMANDS ............................................. 46
4.9.1 Default Subsystem .............................................................................. 47
4.9.2 Arbitrary Subsystem ........................................................................... 57
6
1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
This manual contains information required to operate the B&K Precision model 4045B
Arbitrary Function Generator. This section covers the instrument’s general description,
specifications, and characteristics.
1.2 Description
The 4045B is a versatile high performance function generators with arbitrary capabilities.
Implemented using a DDS (direct digital synthesis) architecture, these instruments generate
stable and precise sine, square, triangle and arbitrary waveforms. The unit also provides
linear and logarithmic sweep for users needing sweep capability. An auxiliary TTL output at
the generator’s set frequency is available to synchronize external devices. The instrument can
also be remotely operated via the USB interface and is SCPI compatible.
1.3 Specifications
Model
Frequency Characteristics
Sine
Square
Triangle
Accuracy
Resolution
Output Characteristics
Amplitude Range
Resolution
Amplitude Accuracy
Flatness
Offset Range
Offset Resolution
Offset Accuracy
Output Impedance
Output Protection
4045B
0.01 Hz – 20 MHz
0.01 Hz – 20 MHz
0.01 Hz – 2 MHz
0.001% (10 ppm)
at < 500 Hz: 0.001% + 0.006 Hz
6 digits or 10 mHz
10 mVp-p to 10 Vp-p (into 50 Ω)
20 mVp-p to 20 Vp-p (open circuit)
3 digits (1000 counts)
± 2 % ± 20 mV of programmed output from 1.01 V – 10 V
± 0.5 dB to 1 MHz
± 1 dB to 20 MHz
- 4.99 V to 4.99 V (into 50 Ω)
10 mV, 3 digits
± 2 % ± 10 mV (into 50 Ω)
50 Ω ± 2 %
Protected against short circuit or accidental voltage practically
available in electronic laboratories, applied to the main output
connector
Waveform Characteristics
7
**Harmonic Distortion
0 – 1 MHz, < - 60 dBc
1 MHz – 5 MHz, < -50 dBc
5 MHz – 12 MHz , < -45 dBc
12 MHz – 20 MHz, < -60 dBc
Square Rise/Fall Time
< 20 ns (10% to 90% at full amplitude into 50 Ω)
Variable Duty
Square: 20% to 80 %, up to 2 MHz
Cycle/Symmetry
Triangle: 1 % to 99 % in 1% steps, up to 200 kHz
Symmetry Accuracy at 50% ± 1 %
Arbitrary Waveform Characteristics
Sampling Rate
20 ns to 50 s
Vertical Resolution
12 bits
Accuracy
0.001%
Resolution
4 digits
Waveform Length
2 – 1k points
Operating Modes
Continuous
Output continuous at programmed parameters
Triggered
Output quiescent until triggered by an internal or external
trigger, at which time one waveform cycle is generated to
programmed parameters. Frequency of waveform cycle is
limited to 1 MHz.
Gate
Same as triggered mode, except waveform is executed for the
duration of the gate signal. The last cycle started is completed.
Burst
2 – 65535 cycles
Trigger Source
Trigger source may be internal, external, or manual. Internal
trigger rate 0.1 Hz – 1 MHz (1μs – 10 s)
Modulation Characteristics
Amplitude Modulation
Internal
0.1 Hz – 20 kHz sine, square, or triangle waveform
External
5 Vp-p for 100% modulation, 10 kΩ input impedance
Frequency Modulation
Internal
0.1 Hz – 20 kHz sine, square, or triangle waveform
External
5 Vp-p for 100% modulation, 10 kΩ input impedance
Sweep Characteristics
Sweep Shape
Linear or Logarithmic, up or down
Sweep Time
10 ms to 100 s
Input and Output
Trigger IN
TTL compatible
Maximum rate 1 MHz
Minimum width > 50 ns
Input impedance 1 kΩ
Sync OUT
TTL pulse at programmed frequency
50 Ω source impedance
Modulation IN
5 Vp-p for 100% modulation
10 kΩ input impedance
DC to > 20 kHz minimum bandwidth
Counter Characteristics
8
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Sensitivity
General
Memory Storage
Arbitrary memory
Power Requirements
Max. Power Consumption
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Humidity
Dimensions
Weight
Safety Standards
50 Hz to 50 MHz
Auto ranging, up to 8 digits
± 0.02 % ± 2 digits
25 mVrms typical
Store up to 20 instrument settings
1,000 points in flash memory
100 V – 240 V AC ± 10% (90 V – 264 VAC), 47 – 63 Hz
< 30 VA
0 °C – 50 °C
-10 °C – 70 °C
95% RH, 0 °C – 30 °C
213 mm x 88 mm x 210 mm (WxHxD)
Approx. 2.5 kg
EN55011 for radiated and conducted emissions
EN55082
EN61010
*For square wave, resolution is up to 4 digits when frequency is > 20 kHz.
**5 Vp-p into 50 Ω.
Note: All specifications apply to the unit after a temperature stabilization time of 15 minutes
over an ambient temperature range of 23 °C ± 5 °C. Specifications are subject to change
without notice.
9
2 Installation
2.1 Introduction
This section contains installation information, power requirements, initial inspection and signal
connections for the 4045B signal generator.
2.2 Package Contents
Please inspect the instrument mechanically and electrically upon receiving it. Unpack all items
from the shipping carton, and check for any obvious signs of physical damage that may have
occurred during transportation. Report any damage to the shipping agent immediately. Save
the original packing carton for possible future reshipment. Every generator is shipped with the
following contents:
•
•
•
•
•
4045B DDS function generator
AC Power Cord
USB (type A to B) interface cable
Manual contained on CD
Certificate of Calibration
Verify that all items above are included in the shipping container. If anything is missing,
please contact B&K Precision.
2.3 Instrument Mounting
The 4045B Arbitrary Function Generator is intended for bench use. The instrument includes a
front feet tilt mechanism for optimum panel viewing angle. The instrument does not require
special cooling when operated within conventional temperature limits. It may be installed in a
closed rack or test station if proper air flow can assure removing about 15 W of power
dissipation.
2.4 Power Requirements
The 4045B can be operated from any source of 90V to 264V AC, frequency from 48Hz to
66Hz. The maximum power consumption is 30VA. Use a slow blow fuse of 1A, UL/CSA
approved as indicated on the rear panel of the instrument.
The instrument power fuse is located in the AC input plug. To access the fuse, first
disconnect the power cord and then remove the fuse box.
10
2.5 Fuse Replacement
There is a 1A, 250V rated slow blow fuse at the AC input. Should the fuse ever get blown,
follow the steps below to replace:
1. Locate the fuse box next to the AC input connector in the rear panel.
2. With a small flat blade screwdriver, insert into the fuse box slit to pull and slide out the fuse box
as indicated below.
3. Check and replace fuse if necessary.
Fuse box
Fuse box slit
Check/Remove Fuse
2.6 Grounding Requirements
For the safety of operating personnel, the instrument must be grounded. The central pin on
the AC plug grounds the instrument when properly connected to the ground wire and plugged
into proper receptacle.
WARNING
TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY DUE TO SHOCK, THE THIRD WIRE EARTH
GROUND MUST BE CONTINUOUS TO THE POWER OUTLET. BEFORE
CONNECTION TO THE POWER OUTLET, EXAMINE ALL CABLES AND
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UNIT AND THE FACILITY POWER FOR A
CONTINUOUS EARTH GROUND PATH.
THE POWER CABLE MUST MEET IEC/UL SAFETY STANDARDS.
2.7 Signal Connections
Use RG58U 50Ω or equivalent coaxial cables for all input and output signals to and from the
instrument.
11
3 Operating Instructions
3.1 General Description
This section describes the displays, controls and connectors of the function generator.
All controls for the instrument local operation are located on the front panel.
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
16
15
14
13
12
11
1
Power Button
Power ON/OFF unit
2
LCD Display
Displays all instrument data and settings
3
Function Keys
F1 – F4 function keys to select menu options
4
Waveform Buttons
Select Sine, Ramp/Triangle, Square or Arbitrary waveform shape
5
Numeric Keypad
Enter numeric values for parameters
6
Units Keys
Select unit of frequency, time, or voltage
7
Rotary Knob
Increment/decrement numerical values or menu selections
8
Cursor Keys
Move cursor (when visible) left or right
9
Enter Key
Confirm parameter entries
10
Output ON/OFF
Enable/Disable Output
12
11
Output BNC
Main output
12
SYNC OUT BNC
Sync output
13
14
UTIL Button
MODUL Button
Utility menu
Selects Modulation menu
15
SWEEP Button
Selects Sweep function menu
16
MODE Button
Selects Trigger mode menu
3.2 Display Window
The function generator has a color LCD display that can display up to 400 x 240 dots. When powering on
the unit, sine waveform is selected and current settings will appear in the display. The bottom of the display
shows a menu (selectable with function keys) that corresponds to the function, parameter, or mode display
selected.
3.3 Front Panel Controls
The front-panel controls select, display, and change parameter, function, and mode settings.
Use the numerical keypad, rotary input knob and the cursor movement keys to enter data into the
waveform generator.
To change a setting:
1. Press the key that leads to the parameter to change.
2. Move cursor using cursor keys to the appropriate position in the numeric field (if applicable).
3. Use the rotary input or the numerical keyboard to change the value of the displayed parameter. Changes
take effect immediately.
3.4 Connectors
The function generator has two BNC connectors on the front panel where you can connect coaxial cables.
These coaxial cables serve as carrier lines for output signals delivered from the function generator.
Output Connector
Use this connector to transfer the main output signal from the function generator.
Trig In Connector
Use this connector to apply an external trigger or gate signal, depending on the waveform generator
setting, to the generator. When the built-in frequency counter is enabled, this connector becomes an input
for the counter.
Sync Out Connector
Use this connector to output a positive TTL sync pulse generated at each waveform cycle.
13
Modulation In Connector
5V p-p signal for 100% modulation, 10Kohms input impedance with DC - >20 KHz bandwidth.
3.5 Output Connections
The waveform generator output circuits operate as a 50 Ω voltage source working into a 50 Ω
load. At higher frequencies, non-terminated or improperly terminated output causes
aberrations on the output waveform. In addition, loads less than 50 Ω reduce the waveform
amplitude, while loads more than 50 Ω increase waveform amplitude.
Excessive distortion or aberrations caused by improper termination are less noticeable at
lower frequencies, especially with sine and triangle waveforms. To ensure waveform integrity,
follow these precautions:
1. Use good quality 50 Ω coaxial cable and connectors.
2. Make all connections tight and as short as possible.
3. Use good quality attenuators if it is necessary to reduce waveform amplitudes applied to
sensitive circuits.
4. Use termination or impedance-matching devices to avoid reflections.
5. Ensure that attenuators and terminations have adequate power handling capabilities.
If there is a DC voltage across the output load, use a coupling capacitor in series with the
load. The time constant of the coupling capacitor and load must be long enough to maintain
pulse flatness.
Impedance Matching
If the waveform generator is driving a high impedance, such as a 1 MΩ input impedance
(paralleled by a stated capacitance) of an oscilloscope vertical input, connect the transmission
line to a 50 Ω attenuator, a 50 Ω termination and to the oscilloscope input. The attenuator
isolates the input capacitance of the device and terminates the waveform generator properly.
3.6 MENU Keys
These keys select the main menus for displaying or changing a parameter, function, or mode.
3.6.1 WAVEFORM Keys
These keys select the waveform output and display the waveform parameter menu
(frequency, amplitude and offset).
14
Sine Menu
F1: Frequency – Selects and displays the frequency. Change the frequency setting using the
cursor keys, rotary knob, or numerical keys.
F2: Amplitude – Selects and displays the amplitude. Change the amplitude setting using the
cursor keys, rotary knob, or numerical keys.
F3: Offset – Selects and displays the offset parameter. Change the offset by using the cursor
keys, rotary knob, or numerical keys. If a certain setting cannot be produced, the waveform
generator will display a “Setting Conflict” message.
Amplitude and offset settings interact and are bound by hardware restrictions. To obtain the
desired waveform, the amplitude and offset must satisfy the following formula:
(Vp-p)/2 + |offset| <= 5 volts
F4: Symmetry – When the Square or Triangle waveforms are selected, the SYMMETRY
(duty cycle) parameter is available. Change the symmetry (Triangle) or duty cycle (Square) by
using the cursor keys, rotary knob, or numerical keys. If a certain setting cannot be produced,
the waveform generator will display a warning message.
15
Square Menu
3.6.2 MODE Key
Selects the output mode: CONT (Continuous), TRIG (Triggered), GATE (Gated), and BRST
(Burst).
To select the output mode, press MODE, then press the function key that corresponds to the
desired Mode menu option, as shown:
Mode Menu
F1: Continuous – Selects continuous output.
F2: Triggered – Triggers one output cycle of the selected waveform for each trigger event.
F3: Gated – Triggers output cycles as long as the trigger source asserts the gate signal.
F4: Burst – Triggers ‘N’ number of output cycles for each trigger event, where N ranges from
2 to 65,535.
16
After selecting the TRIGGERED, GATED, or BURST menu, the trigger source menu is
available:
Trigger Menu
F1: Manual – Selects manual as the trigger source. To trigger the waveform generator,
press this MANUAL trigger button again.
F2: Internal – Selects the internal trigger generator as the trigger source. Change the
internal trigger rate displayed with the rotary input knob.
F3: External – Selects the external trigger signal as the trigger source. The trigger source
is supplied through the TRIG IN connector.
In BURST MODE, the F4 key displays N-Burst, representing the number of burst cycles to
output with each trigger. The N value can be changed from 2 to 65,535.
17
Burst Menu
3.6.3 UTILITY Key
Utility Menu
F1: Recall – Recalls a previously stored front-panel setup from the selected buffer. Change the
buffer number by using the rotary input knob. Valid storage buffer numbers are from 1 to 19
Buffer 0 is the factory default setup.
F2: Store – Stores the current front-panel setup to the specified storage buffer. Change the
buffer number by using the data keys or the rotary input knob. Valid storage buffer numbers
range from 1 to 19.
F3: Out-On Def – Selects the OUTPUT state on power-up. Select ON to enable or OFF to
disable the output on power-up.
F4: COUNTER – Enables the built-in frequency counter. The frequency of the signal
connected to the TRIG IN connector will be displayed. The counter is auto ranging with up to
8 digits of resolution.
18
Counter Screen
Press F1 - Off to turn off the counter.
3.6.4 SWEEP Key
Selects the Sweep Mode and allows entering of sweep parameters: Sweep Start, Sweep
Stop, and Sweep Rate.
To select the sweep mode, press SWEEP, then press the function key that corresponds to
the desired Sweep menu option, as shown:
Sweep Menu
F1: Off – Disables the sweep function.
F2: Linear – Selects the Linear sweep shape.
F3: Logarithmic – Selects the Logarithmic sweep shape.
F4: Set – Defines the Sweep Start and Stop frequencies.
19
Set Sweep Menu
3.6.5 MODULATION Key
Selects the AM or FM Modulation mode. To select the output mode, press MODUL key, then
press the function key that corresponds to the desired menu option, as shown:
Modulation Menu
Press F2 to select AM menu:
AM Menu
F1: % - Defines the modulation depth (from 0 to 100%)
F2: Frequency - Selects the modulation frequency, from 0.1 Hz to 20.00 kHz.
F3: Shape - Selects the modulating waveform between Sine, Square, or Triangle.
20
F4: External - Selects and enables the external modulation by an external signal applied to
the Modulation In connector in the rear panel.
Press F3 to select FM menu:
FM Menu
F1: Deviation - Defines the FM deviation frequency.
F2: Frequency - Selects the modulation frequency, from 0.1 Hz to 20.00 kHz.
F3: Shape - Selects the shape of the modulating waveform between Sine, Triangle, or
Square.
F4: External - Selects and enables the external modulation by an external signal applied to
the Modulation In connector in the rear panel.
3.6.6 ARBITRARY Key
Selects the Arbitrary waveform menu shown below:
21
Arbitrary Menu
F1: Frequency Rate - (Frequency) Selects and displays the frequency. Change the
frequency setting using the cursor keys, rotary knob or numerical
keys. If a certain wavelength can't produce the waveform at the
desired frequency, the waveform generator will display an “Out of
Range” error message.
Displays the Point Rate (for Arbitrary Waveform only). The Rate
parameter governs the rate at which waveform points are executed
and thus the frequency of the output. When you set this parameter,
the waveform generator will keep that execution rate for all waveform
lengths until it is changed.
F2: Amplitude - Selects the Amplitude parameter.
In Arbitrary mode, this setting defines the maximum peak-to-peak
amplitude of a full-scale waveform. If the waveform does not use the
full scale (data points from -2047 to +2047), then its actual amplitude
will be smaller.
F3:Offset
-Selects the Offset parameter. Change the offset by using the cursor
keys, rotary dial or numerical keys. If a certain setting cannot be
produced, the waveform generator will display a “Setting Conflict”
error message.
F4: Arb
- Selects the Arbitrary waveform editing menu:
22
Arbitrary Editing Menu
F1: Start - Selects the arbitrary waveform start address.
F2: Length - Selects the arbitrary waveform length. Use the START and LENGTH
keys to mark a selection of the waveform memory that will be executed.
Changing one of the arbitrary parameters as start and length cause an
updating of the output waveform to the new parameters. When exiting the
Arbitrary Menu by selecting a different waveform, a message to save the
Arbitrary wave will be displayed. Select YES or NO to save the new
waveform.
3.6.7 Arbitrary EDIT Menu
Enters data for creating arbitrary waveforms. You can enter data one point at a time,
as a value at an address, draw a line from one point (a value at an address) to another
point, create a predefined waveform, or combine these to create complex waveforms.
The valid data values range is -2047 to 2047. The valid waveform memory addresses
range from 1 to 1,000.
The data value governs the output amplitude of that point of the waveform, scaled to
the instrument output amplitude. Therefore, a value of 2047 corresponds to positive
peak amplitude, 0 corresponds to the waveform offset, and -2047 corresponds to the
negative peak amplitude.
23
Edit Menu
F1: Point
- This menu allows point-by-point waveform editing. When selected, the
following menu is displayed:
Point Menu
F2: Line
F1: Adrs
memory.
- Select the current address in the arbitrary waveform
F2: Data
- Selects the data point value at the current address. You
can change the point value from -2047 to 2047.
- This menu allows a line to be drawn between two selected points.
When selected, the following menu is displayed:
24
Line Menu
F1: From
F2: To
F3: Exec
- Selects the starting point address.
- Selects the ending point address.
- Displays the Confirmation menu, F1:NO and F2:YES
Confirmation Menu
F3: Predef
- (Predefined Waveforms) Selects one of the predefined
waveforms: Sine, Triangle, Square and Noise. Displays the
Predefined waveforms menu:
25
Predefine Menu
F1: Type
- Use the rotary dial to select the waveform Sine, Triangle,
Square or Noise. If Noise function is selected, a submenu is
displayed to allow adding the noise to an available
waveform or to generate it as a new noise waveform.
- Selects the starting point of the generated
waveform and data value.
F2: From Data
F3: Leng/Scale - Selects the length of the predefined waveform (number
of points for a full wave). Different waveforms have
different limitations on the length, as shown in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1: Waveform Length Limits for Predefined Waveforms
Wave
Sine
Triangle
Square
Noise
Minimum length
16
16
2
16
Divisible by
4
4
2
1
F3: Scale - Selects the scale factor of the waveform. 100% means that
the waveform spans the full scale of -2047 to 2047. Scale factors are
limited by the point data value of the starting point and automatically
calculated by the unit.
F4: Exec
- Prompts you to confirm whether to execute the selected
predefined waveform. Press NO to abort executing the predefined
waveform; press YES to execute the predefined waveform. On the
NOISE function menu options, ADD and NEW are available. Select ADD
26
to add noise to an existing waveform, or NEW to create a new noise
waveform.
F4:Show - Displays the Arbitrary waveform on the full LCD display. Press any
button to return to the MENU selection display.
Full Display
3.7 ON Key
Use this key to control the main output signal. When the output is active, the ON key will be
lit. By default, this will be ON (enabled) from a power-up. This can be changed by changing
the Out-On Def settings from the UTILITY menu.
3.8 Cursor Keys
Use these keys to move the cursor (when visible) either left or right. They are used in
conjunction with the rotary input knob to set the step size of the rotary input knob.
3.9 Rotary Input Knob
Use this knob to increase and decrease numeric values. The cursor indicates the low-order
27
position of the displayed value which changes when you rotate the knob (for straight numeric
entries only). For other types of data, the whole value changes when you rotate the knob.
3.10 Power-On Settings
At power-on, the waveform generator performs a diagnostic self-test procedure to check itself
for errors. If an error is found, an error code and text will appear in the display window. Other
error codes appear when you enter an invalid front-panel setting. For more information on
error codes, see the Error Indication section.
When the waveform generator finishes the diagnostic self-test routine, it enters the local state
(LOGS) and assumes power-on default settings. Table 1 lists the factory default settings or
selected after RECALL 0.
Table 1 – Power-on Default Settings
Key Function
Function
Frequency
Amplitude
Offset
Output
Sweep
Modulation
N-BURST
Trig Source
Trig Rate
Value
Sine
1.0000 kHz
5.00 V
0.00 V
OFF
OFF
OFF
2
Continuous
10 ms
Description
Output Waveform
Waveform Frequency
Peak-to-peak output amplitude
Zero DC offset
Output disabled
Sweep function disabled
Modulation function disabled
Wave per burst for burst mode
Continuous trigger
Internal trigger rate
3.11 Memory
The waveform generator uses non-volatile flash memory for storing the front panel settings.
Up to 20 front panel settings can be stored (includes storage location 0 for factory default
settings). One 1000 points Arbitrary waveform is stored in the flash non-volatile memory.
3.12 Displaying Errors
The waveform generator displays error messages when front-panel settings are either invalid
or may produce unexpected results.
Table 2 – Error Messages
Message Text
Out of range
Setting conflict
Empty location
Description
The set value is out of the instrument’s limits.
Settings conflict with another parameter setting or value.
Attempt to recall settings from an empty storage location.
28
Trig rate short
Save RAM
Must divide by 4
Must divide by 2
Internal trigger rate is too short to output waveform or burst.
New firmware installed.
Predefined wave length must be divisible by 4.
Predefined wave length must be divisible by 2.
3.13 Quick Start
This section explains how to generate various waveforms and modify the output waveform.
* Generating a waveform output
* Modifying waveform output
* Storing and recalling a waveform generator setup
3.13.1
Selecting a Standard Waveform
You can select several standard waveforms as: sine, triangle, square. Creating a standard
waveform requires selecting the waveform type, parameters and their settings that define the
waveform.
Generating a standard waveform requires the following:
* Selecting the waveform
* Setting the output frequency
* Setting the output amplitude and offset
3.13.2
Setting the Output
To set the output channel, press the Output ON key. The key will lit indicating the output is
enabled.
3.13.3
Using Voltage Offset
Through the offset parameter you can add a positive or negative DC level to the output
waveform.
To set voltage offset:
1. Select a waveform to display its menu.
2. Press F3:Offset to display the offset setting.
3. Use the rotary input knob or the numerical keys to set the voltage offset.
To turn the voltage offset OFF, repeat the steps above, but set the offset voltage level to 0.
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3.13.4
Storing and Recalling a Waveform Generator Setup
You can store front-panel setups inside the internal non-volatile flash memory. When you
recall a stored setup, the front-panel settings change to match the settings in the stored
setup.
Storing Setups
To store the front-panel setup:
1. Press UTILITY to display the menu.
2. Press F2:Store to select the Store mode.
3. Use the rotary input knob to select a buffer number. Valid buffer numbers range from 1 to 19
Buffer 0 is a read-only buffer that contains the default setup/power-on settings from Table 1.
The function generator will overwrite and store settings into a buffer that had settings
previously stored inside without a warning.
Recalling Setups
To recall stored front-panel setup:
1. Press UTILITY to display the menu.
2. Press F1:Recall to select the Recall mode.
3. Use the rotary input knob to select a buffer number. Valid buffers numbers range from 0 to 19.
Buffer 0 is a read-only buffer that contains the default power-on setup.
30
3.13.5 Creating an Arbitrary Waveform
You can create an arbitrary waveform using the following methods:
* Enter individual data points
* Draw lines between data points
* Create a predefined waveform
* Combine any of these methods
NOTE
You can use a software package such as Wave-X to create Arbitrary Waveforms.
For more information on supported software packages, please visit www.bkprecision.com
You can program any number of waveforms into waveform memory, keeping in mind the
addresses where one waveform ends and the other begins.
The waveform's frequency and amplitude are influenced by the number of data points
and their value in the waveform.
3.13.6 Entering Individual Data Points
The most basic way to program an arbitrary waveform is to enter data points for the
waveform, one data point at a time. While this can become tedious the auto-increment
function helps this process.
To enter individual data points into waveform memory, follow these steps:
1.
Press ARB main key to display the selection menu.
2.
Press F4 :ARB to display the arbitrary menu.
3.
Press F3:EDIT to display the Edit menu.
4.
Press F1:POINT, to select the point by point programming mode.
5.
Press F1:ADDRESS
6.
Use the rotary knob or the numerical keys to enter the address.
7.
Press F2:DATA.
8.
Use the rotary knob r the numerical keys to enter the value for the data point. Valid
entries range from –2047 to 2047.
9. Repeat steps 5 through 9 until you finish programming your arbitrary waveform.
NOTE
Each time you press ENTER to complete a data point entry in numerical mode, the
auto-increment address advances by one.
3.13.7 Setting the Arbitrary Frequency
The arbitrary waveform frequency is a function of the number of data points used to run
the waveform (the length parameter in the ARBITRARY menu) and the waveform
31
execution point rate. The waveform execution point rate is the execution time between
each point in the waveform. The total time taken to run one period of the waveform is
given by:
number of points X rate
Because the output frequency is a function of the rate and the number of points being
executed, the formula is given as:
frequency = ______1_________
number of points X rate
For example, to set the output frequency to 1000Hz, given the number of data points
used for the waveform output is 1000, calculate:
rate
=______1_____________
1000 points X 1000Hz
=1 us
EXAMPLE: Setting the Output Frequency
To set the output frequency of a 1000 point waveform in execution memory to 1000Hz,
set the rate to 1us:
ACTION
KEYSTROKES
Step 1. Set the output rate to 1 us (equivalent to
1000Hz output frequency)
PARAMETER
F1 :RATE
1
KHz/us
3.13.8 Setting the Amplitude
The following equation represents the relative output amplitude voltage relationship
between the front-panel amplitude peak-to-peak setting and the data point values in
waveform memory:
output voltage = amplitude p-p setting x data point value + offset
4095
Where 4095 is the data point value range in waveform memory.
32
Table 3-4: Relative Amplitude for Waveform Output (Examples)
Front-panel
Amplitude Setting
5V peak-to-peak
5V peak-to-peak
10V peak-to-peak
3.13.9
Relative Output
Amplitude Voltage
Data Point Value
2047
0
2047
2.5V positive peak
0V (offset voltage)
5Vpositive peak
Executing an Arbitrary Waveform
To load a waveform into execution memory, specify its starting address and length in the
ARBITRARY menu.
1. Select the channel to ON.
2. Press the ARB key and select the F4:ARB function.
3. Press F1:START to set the address. Valid entries range from 1 to 999.
4. Press F2:LENGTH to display the length of the waveform.
6. Use the rotary input knob or the numerical keys to enter the waveform length. Valid
entries range from 2 to 1000.
4 Programming
4.1 Overview
This section provides detailed information on programming the generator via the USB (virtual
COM) interface.
4.1.1 Connecting to USB (Virtual COM) Interface
Currently, the USB (virtual COM) interface supports Windows® XP/7 operating systems.
To connect to a PC for remote communication, please follow the steps below:
For Windows 7:
1. The USB driver is included in the CD that comes with the instrument.
2. Connect the included USB Type A to Type B cable to the generator and the computer, then
power on the instrument.
3. On most operating systems, it will attempt to automatically install, showing the following screen:
33
4. Click the “Close” button to stop the automatic search of the driver from Windows Update.
5. Now, go to Device Manager on the computer (Open up the “start” button, and right-click
“Computer” and select “Properties”. Click “Device Manager” link on the top left of the side
menu)
6. There will be an item listed under “Other devices” labeled “AT91USBSerial”. Right-click the item
and select “Update Driver Software…”
7. In the following window, select “Browse my computer for driver software”, and following this,
select “Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer”.
8. Now there will be a window listing Common hardware types. Click the “Next” button and select
on the following screen “Have Disk…”
34
9. From the “Install From Disk” window, click “Browse…” and locate and double-click the USB
driver file downloaded from the website labeled “atm6124_cdc.inf”.
10. Now click “OK”. It will show in the window under Model “AT91 USB to Serial Converter”. Click
“Next” and you will get the following note:
11. Go ahead and click “Yes”. When you get the following prompt, select “Install this driver software
anyway”.
12. The driver will now install. Once finished, under “Device Manager”, you should see under “Ports
(COM & LPT)” an item labeled “BK Precision USB to Serial Converter (COM#)”. The “COM#” is
the com port that can be used to access the virtual COM port for remote communication.
For Windows XP:
1. The USB driver is included in the CD that comes with the instrument.
2. Connect the included USB Type A to Type B cable to the generator and the computer, then
power on the instrument.
3. The following screen will appear.
35
4. Select “No, not this time” and click “Next”.
5. In the following screen, select “Install from a list or specific location (Advanced)” and click
“Next”.
6. In the next screen, select “Don’t search. I will choose the driver to install.” and click “Next” again.
7. In the following screen, click “Have Disk…”
8. From the “Install From Disk” window, click “Browse…” and locate and double-click the USB
driver file downloaded from the website labeled “atm6124_cdc.inf”. Select it and click “OK”.
9. The following screen will appear.
36
10. Click “Next”, and a prompt will appear:
11. Click on “Continue Anyway” and the driver will now install.
12. The driver will now install. Once finished, under “Device Manager” (This can be opened by:
Right-click “My Computer”->Select “Properties”->Select “Hardware” tab->Click “Device
Manager”), you should see under “Ports (COM & LPT)” an item labeled “BK Precision USB to
Serial Converter (COM#)”. The “COM#” is the com port that can be used to access the virtual
COM port for remote communication.
37
4.1.2 USB (Virtual COM) Settings
The USB (virtual COM) interface settings for the communication port are as follows:
BAUDRATE: 115200
PARITY: NONE
DATA BITS: 8
STOP BIT: 1
FLOW CONTROL: NONE
4.2 Device States
The device may be in one of the two possible states described below.
4.2.1 Local State (LOCS)
In the LOCS state, the device may be operated from the front panel.
4.2.2 Remote State (REMS)
In the REMS state, the device may be operated from the USB interface. Actuating any front
panel key will cause the device state to revert to the LOCS.
4.3 Message Exchange Protocol
The device decodes messages using the Message Exchange Protocol similar to the one
defined in IEEE 488.2. The following functions implemented in the MEP must be considered:
4.3.1 The Input Buffer
The device has a 128-byte long cyclic input buffer. Decoding of remote messages is begun as
soon as the input buffer is not empty, that is, as soon as the controller has sent at least one
byte to the device. Should the input buffer be filled up by the controller faster than the device
can remove the bytes and decode them, the bus handshake (CTS/RTS) is used to pause data
transfer until room has been made for more bytes in the buffer. This prevents the controller
from overrunning the device with data.
4.3.2 The Output Queue
The device has a 100-byte long output queue in which it stores response messages for the
controller to read. If at the time a response message is formatted the queue contains
previously formatted response messages, such that there are not enough places in the queue
38
for the new message, the device will hold off putting the message in the queue until there is a
place for it.
4.3.3 Response Messages
The device sends a Response Message in response to a valid query. All queries return a
single Response Message Unit.
4.4 Instrument Identification
The *IDN? common query is used to read the instrument's identification string. The
string returned is as follows:
BK, MODEL 4045B,0,V0.1
The “V0.1” reflects the firmware version number and will change accordingly.
4.5 Instrument Reset
state.
The *RST common command effects an instrument reset to the factory default power up
4.6
Command Syntax
4.6.1 General Command Structure
A Program Message is defined as a string containing one Program Message Units, which is an
instrument command or query. The Program Message is terminated by the Program Message
Terminator.
The Program Message Terminator consists of optional white space characters, followed by the
Linefeed (LF) character (0x0A).
The Program Message Unit can be divided into three sections as follows:
a) Program Header
The Program Header represents the operation to be performed, and consists of ASCII
character mnemonics. Two types of Program Headers are used in the MODEL 4045B:
Instrument-control headers and Common Command and Query headers. Common Command
and Query Program Headers consist of a single mnemonic prefixed by an asterisk ('*').
39
The mnemonics consist of upper - or lower-case alpha characters.
Example: The command to set the frequency to 1KHZ may be written in the
following ways:
FREQ 1KHZ
FREQ 1000HZ
FREQ 1000
FREQ 1E3
freq 1khz
freq 1000hz
freq 1000
freq 1e3
b) Program Header Separator
The Program Header Separator is used to separate the program header from the program
data. It consists of one or more white space characters, denoted as <ws>. Typically, it is a
space.
c) Program Data
The Program Data represent the values of the parameters being set, for example, the '1KHZ'
in the above
examples. Different forms of program data are accepted, depending on the command. The
Program Data types used in the instrument are:
i) Character program data
This form of data is comprised of a mnemonic made up of lower - or upper-case alpha
characters. As with Program Header mnemonics, some Character Data mnemonics have short
and long forms. Only the short or the long form may be used.
ii) Boolean data
Boolean data indicate that the parameter can take one of two states, ON or OFF. The
parameter may be character type
ON or OFF
or numeric. A numeric value is rounded to an integer. A non-zero result is interpreted as 1
(ON), and a zero result as 0 (OFF).
Queries return the values 0 or 1.
iii) NRf
40
This is a decimal numeric data type, where
NR1 indicates an integer number,
NR2 indicates a fixed point real number, and
NR3 indicates a floating point real number.
iv) Numeric value program data
This data type defines numeric values, as well as special cases of Character Data. Numeric
values may be specified in any of Integer, Fixed Point or Floating Point format. All parameters
which have associated units accept a suffix, which may be specified using upper or lower-case
characters. When the suffix is not specified, the numeric value is accepted in the default units,
which are Hertz for frequency, Seconds for time, and Volts for voltage. To set the frequency to
1KHz we can send one of the following commands:
FREQ 1000
FREQ 1E3
The special forms of character data accepted as numbers are
MAXimum: sets the parameter to its maximum value.
MINimum: sets the parameter to its minimum value.
For example, to set the frequency to its maximum value we can send the command
FREQ MAX
Some Program Message Units either require, or can accept, more than one data element.
Program data elements are separated from each other by the Program Data Separator. It is
defined as optional white space characters followed by a comma (','), which in turn is followed
by optional white space characters.
There are two types of Program Message Units: Command Message Units and Query
Message Units. A Query differs from a Command in that the Program Header is terminated
with a question mark ('?'). For example, the frequency might be queried with the following
query:
FREQ?
Some Query Message Units accept data, giving the device more specific information about
what is being queried. In many cases the Query Message Unit may optionally be supplied with
the MIN or MAX mnemonics as data. This tells the device to return the minimum or maximum
value to which the parameter may currently be set. For example,
FREQ? MAX
41
will return the maximum value to which the frequency may currently be set.
Not all Program Message units have query forms (for example, SAV), and some Program
Message Units might have only the query form (for example IDN?).
The instrument puts the response to the query into the output queue, from where it may be
read by the controller.
NOTE: All commands should be terminated with a <CR> carriage return or <LF> line
feed character. Any response string from a query command has both <CR> and <LF>
characters appended. For example, an amplitude query command will return
1.23<CR><LF>.
4.7 Status Reporting
The instrument is capable of reporting status events and errors to the controller.
4.7.1 The Error Queue
The error queue is used to store codes of errors detected in the device. It is implemented as a
cyclic buffer of length 10. The error queue is read with the following query:
ERR?
The first error in the queue is returned, and the queue is advanced.
4.7.2 Error Codes
The negative error codes are defined by SCPI. Positive codes are specific to the instrument.
The error message is returned in the form
<error number>,"<error description>"
A table of error numbers and their descriptions is presented here.
No error reported
0 - No error
Command Errors
A command error is in the range -199 to -100, and indicates that a syntax error was detected.
This includes the case of an unrecognized header.
42
-100
-101
-102
-103
-104
-108
-109
-110
-111
-112
-113
-120
-121
-123
-124
-128
-131
-134
-138
-140
-141
-144
-148
-158
-161
-168
-178
Command Error
Invalid character
Syntax error
Invalid separator
Data type error
Parameter not allowed
More parameters than allowed were received
Missing parameter
Fewer parameters than necessary were received
Command header error
Header separator error
Program mnemonic too long
The mnemonic must contain no more than 12 characters.
Undefined header
Numeric data error
Invalid character in number
Exponent too large
Too many digits
Numeric data not allowed
A different data type was expected
Invalid suffix
Suffix too long
Suffix not allowed
Character data error.
Invalid character data.
Incorrect character data were received.
Character data too long
Character data may contain no more than 12 characters.
Character data not allowed
String data not allowed
Invalid block data
An error was found in the block data
Block data not allowed
Expression data not allowed
Execution Errors
An execution error indicates that the device could not execute a syntactically correct
command, either since the data were out of the instrument's range, or due to a device
condition.
-200
Execution error
43
-211
-220
-221
-222
-223
-224
An attempt was made to RECALL the contents of an uninitialized stored
setting buffer.
Trigger ignored.
The *TRG common command was ignored due to the device not being in
the correct state to execute the trigger.
Parameter error.
A parameter is in the correct range, but conflicts with other parameters.
Settings conflict.
The parameter is out of range due to the current instrument state.
Data out of range.
Too much data.
The arbitrary waveform memory limit has been exceeded.
Illegal parameter value.
The parameter value must be selected from a finite list of possibilities.
Device-Specific Errors
An error specific to the device occurred.
-315
Configuration memory lost.
Device memory has been lost.
-330
Self-test failed.
-350
Queue overflow.
Error codes have been lost due to more than 10 errors being reported without being read.
Query Errors
A query error indicates that the output queue control has detected a problem. This could
occur if either an attempt was made to read data from the instrument if none was available, or
when data were lost. Data could be lost when a query causes data to be formatted for the
controller to be read, and the controller sends more commands without reading the data.
-410
Query INTERRUPTED.
Data were sent before the entire response of a previous query was read.
-420
Query UNTERMINATED.
An attempt was made to read a response before the complete program message meant to
generate that response was sent.
Warnings
The execution of some commands might cause an undesirable instrument state. The
commands are executed, but a warning is issued.
500
Trigger rate short
44
510
Output overload
"Trigger rate short" means that the period of the waveform is larger than the value of the
internal trigger rate. Thus not every trigger will generate a cycle (or burst) of the waveform.
4.8 COMMON COMMANDS
4.8.1 System Data Commands
*IDN? - Identification query
The identification query enables unique identification of the device over the GPIB. This query
should always be the last in a program message. It returns a string with four fields:
Manufacturer name
Model name
Serial number (0 if not relevant)
Version number
Command
Type:
Common Query
Syntax:
*IDN?
Response:
BK, MODEL 4045B,0,V1.1
4.8.2 Internal Operation Commands
*RST - Reset command
The Reset command performs a device reset. It causes the device to return to the
factory default power up state.
Type:
Syntax:
Common Command
*RST
4.8.3 Device Trigger Commands
a) *TRG - Trigger command
This command is analogous to the IEEE 488.1 Group Execute Trigger interface message, and
has the same effect. It is used to trigger the device to output a wave, and is accepted only
when the trigger mode is set to Trigger, Gate or Burst, and the trigger source is set to BUS.
Type:
Syntax:
Common Command
*TRG
45
4.8.4 Stored Settings Commands
*RCL - Recall instrument state
This command is used to restore the state of the device to that stored in the specified memory
location.
Arguments
Type
<NRf>
Range
0 to 19 (4045B). Non integer values are rounded before execution
Type:
Syntax:
Example:
Common Command
*RCL<ws><NRf>
*RCL 0 (Recall default state)
*RCL 9
*SAV - Save instrument state
This command is used to store the current instrument state in the specified memory location.
Arguments
Type:
Range:
Type:
Syntax:
Example:
<NRf>
0 to 9. Non integer values are rounded before execution
Common Command
*SAV<ws><NRf>
*SAV 2
Stored setting location 0 stores the factory defaults, and is a read-only location.
4.9 INSTRUMENT CONTROL COMMANDS
Instrument control commands are grouped into logical subsystems according to the SCPI
instrument model. The commands are comprised of mnemonics indicating the subsystem to
which the command belongs, and the hierarchy within that subsystem. When the command is
to be referred to the Root node, it should be prefixed with a colon (:). Mnemonics appearing in
square brackets [...] are optional. The '|' character is used to denote a choice of specifications.
The '<ws>' is used to denote a white space character.
Note: When controlling the instrument remotely, do not interrupt the instrument with
front panel interactions. Although the instrument will be automatically changed back to
LOCS (local) mode, subsequent remote commands may cause errors during
46
communication, in which will require a need of restarting the instrument before
continuing again with remote operations.
4.9.1 Default Subsystem
The Source Subsystem controls the frequency, voltage, amplitude modulation and clock
source. The command structure is as follows:
FUNCtion
FREQuency
AMPLitude
OFFSet
DCYCle
OUTPUT
SINusoid|SQUare|TRIangle|
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
ON/OFF
MODULation
OFF/AM/FM/INT/EXT
DEPTh
<numeric value>
MODFRequency <numeric value>
MODSHape SIN/TRI/ SQU
DEViation
<numeric value>
SWEep
SWRAte
SWSTArt
SWSTOp
ON/OFF/LIN/LOG
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
MODE
TRIG
TRAte
BURSt
CONT/ TRIG / GATE / BRST
INT / EXT
<numeric value>
<numeric value>
FREQuency <frequency>
The frequency command controls the frequency of the output waveform.
Arguments
Type:
Units:
Range:
Numeric.
MHz, KHz, Hz (default)
For SIN and SQU – 0.1 Hz to Max. frequency (see specifications),
For TRI – 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz,
For ARB - Dependent on the Point Rate and Wavelength.
Fmax = 1/(20nS * Wavelength)
Fmin = 1/(50S * Wavelength)
Rounding: The value is rounded to 5 digits or 100 mHz. (DDS) or 4 digits (ARB)
Command Type: Setting or Query
47
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Examples:
Response:
FREQuency<ws><frequency>[units]
FREQuency<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
FREQ 5KHZ
FREQ 5E3
FREQ MAXIMUM
FREQ MIN
FREQuency?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
FREQ?
FREQ? MAX
NR3
Considerations:
1) The MIN and MAX arguments refer to currently settable minimum or maximum.
2) FIXed is alias for CW.
Point Rate
RATE <point rate>
This command is used to set the point rate. It is coupled with the frequency of the
waveform by the relation:
Frequency = 1/(Point Rate * Wavelength)
Thus changing the point rate will result in a change in frequency.
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
s, ms, us, ns
Range:
20ns to 50s
Rounding:
to 4 digits
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
RATE<ws><point rate>[units]
RATE<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples: RATE 100NS
Query
Syntax:
RATe?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
Response:
NR3
Note: You can alternately use the :ARB:PRATe command.
AMPLitude <p-p amplitude>
48
The amplitude command is used to set the peak-to-peak amplitude of the output waveform.
Note that the amplitude and the offset are limited by the relation:
Peak Amplitude + |Offset| <= 5V
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
V, mV, VPP, mVPP
Range:
10mV to 10V
Rounding:
1mV for 10mV to 999mV. 10mV for 1V to 10V.
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
AMPLitude<ws><amplitude>[units]
AMPLitude<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples:
AMPL 2.5
AMPL 2.5V
AMPL MAX
Query
Syntax:
AMPLitude? <ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
Examples:
AMPL?
AMPL? MAX
Response:
NR2
Considerations:
1) The MAXimum amplitude is dependent on the offset.
2) The MAX and MIN arguments should not be used in a program message containing an
OFFSet command, since these values are evaluated during parsing, based on the current
value of the offset.
OFFSet <offset>
The offset command is used to set the DC offset of the output waveform. Note that the
amplitude and the offset are limited by the relation:
Peak Amplitude + |Offset| ≤ 5V
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
V, mV
Range:
10mV to 5V
Rounding:
To 10mV
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
OFFSet<ws><offset>[units]
49
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Examples:
Response:
Considerations:
OFFSet<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
OFFS 2.5
OFFS 2.5V
OFFS MAX
OFFSet?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
OFFS?
OFFS? MAX
NR2
1) The MAXimum offset is dependent on the amplitude.
2) The MAX and MIN arguments should not be used in a program message containing an
AMPLitude command, since these values are evaluated during parsing, based on the current
value of the amplitude.
FUNCtion
The function command is used to set the type of waveform to be generated by the instrument.
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting Syntax: FUNCtion<ws><SIN|SQU|TRI>
Examples:
FUNC SIN
FUNC TRI
FUNC ARB
Query Syntax: FUNCtion?
Examples:
FUNC?
Response:
SIN|TRI|SQU|ARB
DCYCle <duty cycle value>
This command is used to set the duty-cycle of the square wave or the symmetry of triangular
wave. The value is given in percent .
Arguments Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Syntax:
Query Syntax:
Response:
Numeric
None (percent implied)
1 to 99
To integer
Setting or Query
DCYCle <ws><duty cycle value>
DCYCle <ws>MINimum|MAXimum
DCYCle?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
NR3
50
OUT <state>
This command controls whether the output is ON or OFF.
Arguments
Type:
Boolean
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
OUT<ws>ON|1|OFF|0
Examples:
OUT ON
OUT 1
Query
Syntax:
OUT?
Response:
0|1
MODULation
This command activates or deactivates modulation:
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
MODULation OFF|AM|FM|INT|EXT
Examples: MODULation FM
MODULation OFF
MODULation EXT
Query
Syntax:
MODULation?
Response: OFF
|
AM INT |
AM EXT |
FM INT |
FM EXT
DEPTh
This command sets the AM modulation depth in %
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
none (implied %)
Range:
0 to 100
Rounding:
To integer
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
DEPTh<ws><percent depth>
51
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Response:
DEPTh<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
DEPTh 50
DEPTh?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
NR3
MODFRequency
This command sets the AM and FM modulating waveform frequency
Arguments
Type:
Units:
Range:
Numeric.
MHz, KHz, Hz (default)
Fmax = 20 KHz
Fmin = 0.01 Hz
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
MODFR<ws><frequency>[units]
MODFR<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples:
MODFR 5KHZ
MODFR 5E3
MODFR MAXIMUM
MODFR MIN
Query
Syntax:
MODFR?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
Examples:
MODFR?
MODFR? MAX
Response:
NR3
MODSHape
This command selects the modulating waveform shape
Arguments
Type:
Character
Options:
SINusoid, TRIangle, SQUare
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
MODSHape<ws><SIN|TRI|SQU>
Examples:
MODSHape SIN
MODSHape TRI
Query
Syntax:
MODSHape?
Response:
SIN|TRI|SQU
52
DEViation
This command sets the FM modulation deviation
Arguments
Type:
Units:
Range:
Numeric.
MHz, KHz, Hz (default)
Fmax = carrier frequency
Fmin = 0.01 Hz
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
DEViation<ws><frequency>[units]
DEViation<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples:
DEV 5KHZ
DEV 5E3
DEV MAXIMUM
DEV MIN
Query
Syntax:
DEViation?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
Examples: DEV?
DEV? MAX
Response: NR3
SWEep
This command activates or deactivates sweep:
Arguments
Type:
Boolean
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
SWE<ws>ON|OFF|LIN|LOG
Examples:
SWE ON
SWE LIN
Query
Syntax:
SWE?
Response:
OFF|LIN ON|LIN OFF|LOG ON|LOG OFF
Note: Sweep will automatically be active if set to Linear or Logarithmic.
SWRAte
53
This command sets the time for one complete sweep:
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
S, mS, uS, nS
Range:
10mS to 100S
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
SWRAte<ws><time>[units]
SWRAte<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples:
SWRAte 50MS
Query
Syntax:
SWRAte?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
Response:
NR3
SWSTArt
This command sets the start frequency of the sweep:
Arguments
Type:
Numeric.
Units:
MHz, KHz, Hz (default)
Range:
Dependent on the frequency range of the current function.
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
SWSTArt<ws><frequency>[units]
SWSTArt<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Examples:
SWSTArt 5KHZ
SWSTArt 5E3
SWSTArt MAXIMUM
SWSTArt MIN
Query
Syntax:
SWSTArt?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
Examples:
SWSTArt ?
SWSTArt ? MAX
Response:
NR3
SWSTOp
This command sets the stop frequency of the sweep:
Arguments
Type:
Numeric.
Units:
MHz, KHz, Hz (default)
Range:
Dependent on the frequency range of the current function.
Command Type: Setting or Query
54
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Examples:
Response:
SWSTOp<ws><frequency>[units]
SWSTOp<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
SWSTOp 5KHZ
SWSTOp 5E3
SWSTOp MAXIMUM
SWSTOp MIN
SWSTOp?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
SWSTOp ?
SWSTOp ? MAX
NR3
MODE <trigger mode>
This command is used to set the trigger mode.
Arguments
Type:
Options:
Character
CONTinuous
TRIGger
GATE
BURSt
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
MODE<ws><CONT|TRIG|GATE|BURS>
Examples:
MODE CONT
MODE BURS
Query
Syntax:
MODE?
Response:
CONT|TRIG|GATE|BURS
TRIGger <trigger source>
This command is used to select the trigger source, for use in the Trigger, Gate and Burst
trigger modes.
Arguments
Type:
Character
Command Type: Setting or Query
55
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Response:
TRIGger<ws><INT|EXT>
TRIG EXT
TRIG INT
TRIGger?
INT|EXT
BURSt <burst count>
This command is used to set the number of cycles to be output in the BURST mode. It is not a
standard SCPI command.
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Range:
1 to 65535
Rounding:
To integer value
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
BURSt<ws><value>
Examples:
BURS 100
BURS MAXIMUM
Query
Syntax:
BURSt?[<ws>MAXimum|MINimum]
Response:
NR1
Examples:
BURST?
BURS? MAX
TRAte <trigger rate>
Sets the rate of the internal trigger.
Arguments
Type:
Numeric
Units:
S, mS, uS, nS
Range:
1 uS to 10S
Rounding:
to 4 digits
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
TRAte<ws><value>[units]
56
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Response:
Examples:
TRAte<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
TRAte 10E-6
TRAte MIN
TRAte?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
NR3
TRAte?
TRAte? MIN
ERRor?
This query returns the first entry in the error queue, and removes that entry from the queue.
Command Type: Query only
Query
Syntax:
ERRor?
Response:
<Error number>, "<error description>"
4.9.2 Arbitrary Subsystem
The Arbitrary subsystem is not part of the SCPI standard. It was developed to suit the
needs of the instrument. Within this subsystem are found commands to:
1) control the point rate, start address, wavelength, and synchronization pulse address;
2) set values of the arbitrary waveform, either discretely or using predefined, copy or
draw functions;
3) protect an area of waveform memory;
4) set the state of the automatic update and increment features;
5) update the waveform.
The following shows the structure of the ARBitrary subsystem:
:ARBitrary
:PRATe <numeric value>
:ADDRess <numeric value>
:DATA <numeric value>|<arbitrary block>
:DRAW <numeric value>,<numeric value>
:PREDefined <shape>,<start address>,<length>,<scale>
:STARt <numeric value>
:LENGth <numeric value>
:SAVe
Point Rate
57
ARBitrary:PRATe <point rate>
This command is used to set the point rate. It is coupled with the frequency of the waveform by
the relation:
Frequency = 1/(Point Rate * Wavelength)
Thus changing the point rate will result in a change in frequency.
Arguments
Type:
Units:
Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Response:
Numeric
S, mS, uS, nS
20nS to 50S
to 4 digits
Setting or Query
:ARBitrary:PRATe<ws><point rate>[units]
:ARBitrary:PRATe<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
:ARB:PRAT 100NS
:ARBitrary:PRATe?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
NR3
Note: You can alternately use the RATE command.
Address
:ARBitrary:ADDRess <address>
This command sets the current address of the waveform. It is used to determine to where
arbitrary data are to be written.
Arguments
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Query
Syntax:
Response:
Numeric
1 to 1,000
to integer value
Setting or Query
:ARBitrary:ADDRess<ws><address>
:ARBitrary:ADDRess<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
:ARB:ADDR 100
:ARBitrary:ADDRess?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
NR1
Data
:ARBitrary:DATA <data>
58
This command is used to set the values of the waveform.
Arguments
Type:
Numeric Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Setting Syntax
Numeric:
Example
Query
Syntax:
Response:
Considerations:
Numeric. Definite form arbitrary block. Indefinite form arbitrary block
-2047 to 2047 ASCII
to integer value
Setting or Query
:ARBitrary:DATA<ws><numeric>{[,<numeric]}
:ARB:DATA 100,200,1000,2000,-2000
:ARBitrary:DATA?<ws><number of points>,ASCii
Data are returned in the decimal numeric form.
Line Draw
:ARBitrary:DRAW <start address>,<end address>
This command is used to generate a straight line between two points in the arbitrary waveform
memory.
Arguments
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Setting
Syntax:
Example:
Considerations:
Numeric.
1 to 500,000
to integer value
Setting only
:ARBitrary:DRAW<ws><start address>,<end address>
:ARB:DRAW 1,1000
1) The value of the data at the start and end points must first be set by the user, using the
:ARB:DATA command.
2) The range of the straight line cannot overlap with protected memory.
3) The end address must be greater than the start address.
Predefined waveforms
:ARB:PRED <shape>,<start address>,<length>,<scale>
This command is used to load the waveform memory with a specific type of waveform.
Arguments
Shape
Type:
Character
Options: SINusoid
SQUare
TRIangle
NOISe (Pseudo-Random Noise)
ANOise (Noise added to the current waveform)
59
Start Address
Type:
Numeric. The MIN and MAX forms both set the address to 1
Range:
1 to 1000
Rounding:
to integer value
Length
Type:
Range
Numeric.
SIN:
SQU:
TRI:
NOIS:
ANO:
Rounding:
Scale
Type:
Range:
Rounding;
Command Type:
Setting
Syntax:
Examples:
Considerations:
16 to 1000; divisible by 4
2 to 1000; divisible by 2
16 to 1000; divisible by 4
16 to 1000,
16 to 1000,
to integer value.
Numeric. MIN sets the scale to 1; MAX sets the scale to 100
1 to 100 (See considerations)
to integer value.
Setting only
:ARBitrary:PREDefined<ws> <shape>, <start>, <length>,<scale>
:ARB:PRED SIN,1,1e3,100
1) The start address and the length must meet the specification that. Start address + Length - 1
<= 1,000
2) The 'scale' refers to the scaling of the waveform as a percentage of full scale. A scale of
100% will, under the correct conditions, generate a waveform whose data values range from 2047 to +2047. These 'correct conditions' are set by the 'offset' value. This offset is the value of
the data at the start address, and determines the maximum scale settable. The following table
shows the data values required in order to achieve maximum scale.
SHAPE
SIN
SQU
TRI
NOIS
DATA
0
0
0
0
Start Address
:ARBitrary:STARt <start address>
This command sets the start address of the waveform to be run.
Arguments
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Numeric
1 to 999
to integer value
60
Command Type: Setting or Query
Setting
Syntax:
:ARBitrary:STARt<ws><start address>
:ARBitrary:STARt<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
Example:
:ARB:STAR 100
Query
Syntax:
:ARBitrary:STARt?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
Examples:
:ARB:START?
:ARB:STAR? MIN
Response:
NR1
Considerations: The start address and length must meet the condition:
Start Address + Length - 1 <= 1000
Wavelength
:ARBitrary:LENGth <length>
This command sets the length of the waveform being run.
Arguments
Type:
Range:
Rounding:
Command Type:
Setting
Syntax:
Example:
Query
Syntax:
Example:
Response:
Considerations:
Numeric
2 to 1000
to integer value
Setting or Query
:ARBitrary:LENGth<ws><length>
:ARBitrary:LENGth<ws>MINimum|MAXimum
:ARB:LENG 1E3
:ARBitrary:LENGth?[<ws>MINimum|MAXimum]
:ARB:LENG?
NR1
1) Changing the wavelength will change either the frequency.
2) The minimum wavelength is 2.
Save
:ARBitrary:SAVe
This command is used to save all unsaved arbitrary waveform data into non-volatile memory..
Arguments
Type:
none
Command Type: Setting only
Setting
Syntax:
:ARBitrary: SAVe
61
SERVICE INFORMATION
Return all merchandise to B&K Precision Corp. with pre-paid shipping. The flat-rate repair charge for Non-Warranty Service
does not include return shipping. Return shipping to locations in North America is included for Warranty Service. For overnight
shipments and non-North American shipping fees please contact B&K Precision Corp.
Include with the returned instrument your complete return shipping address, contact name, phone number and
description of problem.
LIMITED THREE-YEAR WARRANTY
B&K Precision Corp. warrants to the original purchaser that its products and the component parts thereof, will be free from
defects in workmanship and materials for a period of three years from date of purchase.
B&K Precision Corp. will, without charge, repair or replace, at its option, defective product or component parts. Returned
product must be accompanied by proof of the purchase date in the form of a sales receipt.
Exclusions: This warranty does not apply in the event of misuse or abuse of the product or as a result of
unauthorized alterations or repairs. The warranty is void if the serial number is altered, defaced or removed.
B&K Precision Corp. shall not be liable for any consequential damages, including without limitation damages resulting from
loss of use. Some states do not allow limitations of incidental or consequential damages. So the above limitation or exclusion
may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific rights and you may have other rights, which vary from state-to-state.
63
Index
Amplitude, 7, 15, 27
cursor, 27
duty cycle, 15
Errors, 28
factory default, 27
frequency, 15
Impedance Matching, 14
LCD, 13
Linear, 19
Offset, 15
recall, 29
safety, 2
Specifications, 7
store, 29
Symmetry, 15
Sync Out, 13
Test Equipment Depot - 800.517.8431 - 99 Washington Street Melrose, MA 02176 - TestEquipmentDepot.com
64
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