Proceedings Template - WORD
Internet Video Aggregator Engine
José Rodrigues da Mata Fernandes
Pedro Manuel de Sousa
Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049­001 Lisboa
Instituto Superior Técnico
Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049­001 Lisboa
+351 218 417 000
+351 218 417 000
[email protected]
[email protected]
The BeOnTV video platform was created in the year of
2006/2007, from the master's dissertation of engineer André
Filipe Freitas da Silva, by the company Link Consulting S.A.
Finished the platform development it’s Link most interest to
commercialize and decide future developments. This dissertation
concern is to gather useful information about upcoming
developments in Internet video market and to create the
functional prototype of BeOnTV mobile version.
In the words of Mr. Andre Silva, original developer of BeOnTV:
"The purpose of this master's dissertation is, fundamentally, to
create a platform that allows receiving and processing
multimedia content from users, to the extend that it is possible to
build television channels from a media base. The channels
created in this first phase will be transmitted only through the
Internet, considering for the future to make it available not only
for broadcast on television in the traditional format but also for
mobile phones.”.
This dissertation starts with an insightful analysis of BeOnTV
platform. It mostly matters to create useful BeOnTV
documentation that lists its requirements compromises and a
deep architecture analysis. We should end up with a great
understanding of BeOnTV true present development state.
One of the objectives of this thesis is a thorough analysis of
BeOnTV platform current developments, taking into account the
functional requirements and non-functional caught in the initial
phase of the project, namely to ensure an architecture that is
open to:
In the second and thirds sections this dissertation makes a survey
of the several types of television system in today society and ends
up covering the business aspects of video platform markets in the
Internet. Three business cases were identified: video aggregators,
internet television platforms and out-of-home television systems.
Each were analysed for features and business markets.
In the last two sections of this dissertation the Mobile BeOnTV
functional prototype was built. It starts however with a mobile
video state of art analysis from where followed Mobile BeOnTV
requirements and implementation analysis. Finally we present
the final prototype.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
General Terms
Documentations, Design,.
BeOnTV, Television systems, Internet video, Mobile application
development, Market analysis.
It will be the subject of this dissertation to study the television
according to its historical evolution, analysis of industry and
market for video on the Internet and the development of a
platform that supports the phone as an entry point for the
BeOnTV platform.
In the current state of the product, the platform BeOnTV is being
used only as an aggregator of media content. There is a website
that takes advantage of the services exposed by the platform,
which is limited to functions of multimedia content aggregator
but also includes some community functions.
Flexibility and adaptability to new realities;
Independence from technological platforms;
Ease to use.
After reviewing BeOnTV platform architecture, according to the
various implementation decisions, it was verified that the
platform complies with the requirements.
The emphasis of this section was to document BeOnTV platform.
There were two main objectives:
To qualify the platform according the business cases
identified later in the dissertation;
To compare with other similar platforms in the market
for video on the Internet.
Television is a very comprehensive subject that involves various
scientific fields. It is true that television's technology is
materialized in the form of transmitter, receiver and channel of
communication. However this is only a narrow perspective.
There are adjacent to the technological perspective, four others I
decided to consider: the historical, the social, the business and
ergonomics perspectives.
The historical perspective is a portrait of the origin and evolution
behind. The social perspective comes to the social and economic
aspects, including the market and its segmentation as well as
cultural issues. The business perspective treats aspects of the
companies involved, business models and logistics. The
ergonomics have been deployed to capture the models of user
interaction with the television and identify new service
opportunities associated with the use of television, considering
the user interaction aspects of each variant of existing television
3.1Analog Terrestrial Television
Designed in the thirties, and available to the general population
in the late forties, the television has emerged as a logical
consequence of physics and mathematics advances, particularly
in the disciplines of electromagnetism and theory waves. Today,
the focus of increased investment and technological development
have been the television set. [1]
The broadcasting of analogue TV is defined then as the
transmission of still images or dynamic, usually accompanied by
sound, via an electrical or electromagnetic signal, these signals
are received through an antenna and sent to the television that
summarizes and properly plays the images and sound. The two
main methods are NTSC and PAL, the first with predominance
in the United States and Japan, and the second in Europe. [2]
In its early years, television was aimed at a high social class, but
with the national broadcasting services and the affordability of
television equipment, it came to provide the massification of
television on the scale of at least one TV set unit per family.
Indeed, now it is estimated that 98.5% of U.S. homes are
equipped with at least one television. On average, each U.S.
citizen assists between 2h-3h of television per day. The analogue
terrestrial TV has a very important impact on culture, opening
the borders to globalization, in the distribution of information,
entertainment and cultural exchanges. [3]
Typically there are four players that operate on television. The
state, which sells licenses for spectrum issue of the television
channels. The TV channels, which buy the spectrum and rights to
television content and sell advertising time. The producers of
content like movies, football games and series. And the
advertising industry who have an intermediary role between
companies and television channels.
The model of interaction that characterizes the analogue
terrestrial television is called lean back. This model is
characterized by a passive posture of a user who consumes the
TV content without in any way react or act on such content. The
only interaction is through a remote control device, used to
choose between the TV channels as well as to configure existing
features related to the user experience, such as sound and picture
quality. The analogue terrestrial television does not allow great
mobility on the part of users, partly due to delivery methods for
analog signal (assumes that the television do not move) but
mainly by the very nature of television sets: they are part of the
house, are heavy and need to be connected to a stable energy
3.2Cable TV
The cable television, originally called "Community Antenna
Television", was created in the state of Pennsylvania in 1948, by
The Service Electric Company. Later, around the sixties, came to
spread in the United States and is today the main form of
delivery and access to television by its inhabitants. It reached
Europe, between the seventies and eighties, now splitting
audience with analog terrestrial television. [1]
The cable TV differentiates itself from analogue terrestrial
television by the way the analog signal is delivered to consumers,
initially replacing “air” analog signal diffusion by fiber optic or
coaxial cable signal diffusion.
Today, Cable TV allows for very affordable prices, namely due to
free market laws. In their basic packages, the available offers are
clearly targeted at the middle class. There are however premium
packages targeted for the high-middle class.
The actors are all similar to that of analogue terrestrial
television, with the exception of the television operator that
replaces the role of the state. However, the cost of installation
and operation are higher, which leads to rates that are charged to
the end-user, which can be extended to paid-subscriptions of
premium content for optional television and service options. The
State continues to exist only as a legislator, namely to ensure the
existence of television channels for public service.
Despite the superior capabilities of cable TV, as regards the
possibilities of interaction between the user and services adjacent
to the television content, the model of interaction is still mostly
lean back.
3.3Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
The Internet Protocol TV is the logical consequence of the
interest that the major telecommunications companies have in
making the most of their physical infrastructure in countries they
operate. It is, today, offered along with the Internet service
ADSL2+ and VoIP (Voice over IP), packages commonly
designated by Triple-Play.
By the end of the twentieth century the phone lines were only
used to carry telephone signals and data in analog form. In the
case of data services a device called modem was used. Modem's
function was to convert digital signal from the computer to an
analog signal to be transmitted over the telephone line, and do
the opposite to the analog signal that came from the line. With
ADSL2+, compression techniques are applied, so that data
transfer rate can rise to 25 Mbit/s. IPTV is implemented over
ADSL taking advantage of a reserved channel for television. [4]
The operators of IPTV lies an equal footing with cable TV
operators in the sense that the variety/quality of offerings is
similar. Because their maturity and time-to-market, cable
operators have some advantage at the moment.
Because services are delivered over a network based on Internet
protocols, other additional services can be mount which interact
with the Internet. Internet and TV content can be joint and
integrated, particularly with the aid of set-top boxes with disk to
digital information storage.
3.4Digital Terrestrial Television
Digital terrestrial TV is an implementation of digital technology
that offers a greater number of television channels and better
picture and sound quality, using air diffusion, which is captured
by conventional television antennas. By 2005 December the
European Union made a directive to its member states, decided
to choose the year 2012 from which all EU countries will have to
cease broadcast any analog television, marking the limit to the
period of transition from analogue to digital broadcasting. [6]
A typical digital terrestrial television system generates a stream
of compressed audio and video, codified at the data-link layer,
which is spread by a carrier (OFDM modulation in DVB-T) to
the physical level. Although the unidirectional nature of
broadcasting and reception, a return channel id described which,
under certain conditions, can be reserved to offer interactive
television services to the user.
Today its not known yet how the reality of digital terrestrial will
be, in Europe or the USA. From the outset it will be delivered by
the same actors with the same roles analogue terrestrial
television is, and the role of the state as regulator should be
maintained in the form of legislate access to television spectrum
from TV channels.
At the outset, the digital terrestrial television will share much of
ergonomic perspective associated with the analogue terrestrial
television. Except with regard to mobility (DVB-H) and the
possible existence of channels of interaction between television
content and user.
3.5Internet Television
Several studies [7] show that the Internet is the major competitor
of television, with regard for the time that people have in leisure
activities and distraction out of work. Another study [8] refers to
Internet Television as a sector growing rapidly, which is taking
part of users habits to the detriment of other Internet usage.
Other study argues that there is a tendency in the exchange of
television time on television traditional time for TV on the
The IETF, Internet Engineering Task Force, is an organization
whose work is to create the application protocols to use in
information transmission on the Internet. The streaming video on
the Internet is one of those areas, for which the IETF has created
some protocols such as HTTP, RTSP, the PSTN, the SCTP and
RTP. The ISO, International Organization for Standardization,
defines several formats of files that can be used to share or
stream multimedia content, namely the MPEG. Microsoft has
also created a format that is widely used today, the WMA. The
Adobe, with the Flash technology, also created a multimedia
format, the FLV, commonly used to embed video content on web
A study [9] shows the mass adoption of Internet habits of the
adult population in the U.S. It has been estimated that 73% of
the total population uses the Internet. Thus, it is noted that, the
already big, television market in the Internet is still growing
rapidly maybe playing a major role on the Internet of the future.
Even though, conceptually, the Internet is something completely
different from television, the architecture underlying the Internet
makes it possible for any company to embody the role of TV
operator, competing therefore with television operators for the
attention of their viewers. If, on the one hand, the Internet
evolved to delegate the task of producing content from companies
and professionals to ordinary citizens, some of the television
offer that today is on the Internet encompasses many TV
channels that operate on the traditional television services.
However many others possibilities arises such that of content
producers companies selling their content directly on the Internet
The model of interaction associated with the use of the Internet is
heavily lean-forward in the sense that the role of the user is
"working" towards information, contrasting with the lean-back
model, in which the user is "fueled" by the same information, not
taking any pro-active role in selecting and collecting the
information. No wonder, therefore, that online television
operators build their systems around social networks and allow
users themselves work together to build their own television
3.6Mobile Television
Mobile TV, also known as Mobile Broadcast Digital TV
(MDTV) combines the two best-selling products ever, the mobile
phone and television. Plans for Mobile TV came early, with the
formulation of standards: the ISDB-T in 1982, by Japan, the
DVB-H in 1993 after the creation of the Digital Video
Broadcasting Project and the T-DMB between 2001-2005 in
South Korea.
By definition, Mobile TV was thought as an implementation of
one of the various standards created for that purpose, including
the DVB-H, the ISDB-T, the DMB and MediaFLO. All these
standards use the basic fundamentals of digital signal
transmission by dissemination through radio waves (OFDM),
inherent in the digital terrestrial television. Also mobile
operators have a role in offering television services via the
phone, taking advantage of the new HSDPA networks, which
among other features, enable high rates in data transfer. Internet
Television is other option for television in the cellphone. The
basic requirement is there exists an Internet connection from the
mobile phone and some multimedia support. The Internet
connection can be established in two ways: through the existing
3G/UMTS network and, if the phone supports, through a WiFi
Several studies show good prospects regarding the existence of
an important market for mobile TV. In a study by Compete[11],
of the 2,500 people interviewed 13% showed interest in
subscribing a mobile TV service. Preferences are noted in the
type of content available, including: Live TV, news, weather,
movie trailers, short episodes, and sports highlights.
The phone offers new opportunities for television. Television
content may be adapted or built specifically for the phone. The
user's social network might form the basis of a peer-to-peer mode
of television interaction, where the sharing of the comment,
evaluation and other social tools are likely to complement the
television content. Finally, cellphone geographical context can
reflect itself in television services with geographical awareness.
The video on the Internet reached its critical mass only in 2006,
with the explosive increase in the provision of sites for sharing
(aggregators) of video. The principal leader in this market, the
YouTube portal, was later bought by Google costing the
exorbitant amount of 1.65 billion dollars. However, the evolution
of video on the Internet, since 2007 until today, show that the
video on the Internet is becoming a fundamental asset.
4.1Internet Television Platforms
Internet TV Platforms, give media owners the ability to control
how video is published on their own sites and syndicated across
the Internet. Rather than existing at a single destination, Internet
TV Platforms underlie thousands of properties and brands
creating economies of scale in technology, delivery and
distribution. [13]
There are two entities to consider when discussing the market for
Internet TV platforms. In this business, the service provider has
the responsibility to develop, promote and sell access to
technology platform that the subscriber uses to publish, syndicate
and monetize any content television, in the form of television
channel, which he holds.
There are also community and advertising platforms. Those can
relate to Internet TV platforms exposing services that help create
user value and monetize return.
Internet TV platforms are typically composed by seven
components: content management, media player, workflow and
performance analysis.
4.1.1Content Management
Is the component that helps manage the library of multimedia
This component handles the connection between the value
generated within the platform, with the various forms of content
Viral distribution of television channel;
Management of supply of television channels to
Virtual market for supply of television channels to
Relationships accounts management of affiliates;
Media player customization to affiliate websites.
The component of community deals with needed features in
order to engage a community of users around any television
streams the platform provides:
Addition, update and removal of videos;
Video metadata classification;
User management and authentication;
Video encoding services;
Multimedia content submission from users;
Thumbnail generation;
Video search system;
Community support functions, such as reviews,
evaluations and the like;
Content delivery networks (CDN) for video storage.
Integration with communities such as,, and so on;
4.1.2Media Player
Internet TV platforms provide and distribute a multimedia player
used to playback video and television content. This player,
usually Flash based, is incorporated in the media player module,
which features:
Viral distribution: video to email, RSS syndication or
blog posts;
Creation of video submission campaigns to users.
Selection of a player based on a set of templates
Customization of templates offered (color, fonts,
pictures, etc..) Via a WYSIWYG editing interface;
Customization of offered templates using a graphic
Construction and customization of templates using
javascript and actionscript APIs;
Dynamic generation of javascript code to insert the
player into a Web page.
4.1.3Workflow and Publishing
Workflow and publishing module adds support on the action of
creating television channels based on previously submitted
Management of roles depending on the value creation
Capacities of collaborative workflow supporting
simultaneous use of the platform by several users in
the process of value creation;
Television channel lineup management;
Automatic generation of XML Site Map and MRSS, to
search engines optimization.
The Internet TV platforms are marketed on the basis of services
selling while their customers use the services provided to
generate value in selling advertising or through contracts with
Insertion of advertising at the beginning, end or in
middle of a program;
Insertion of advertising in the program through screen
Banners or other site component synchronization with
television content;
Audience target management;
External advertising systems integration.
4.1.7Performance Analysis
This component goal is to collect all the information on the
platform operations:
Reports on performance and availability of services;
Reports on consumer behavior;
Reports on sales and interaction of users with
4.2Internet Video Aggregators
Aggregator of video content is any entity that offers a single
point of access to video content, either via a Web site or a standalone application built for that purpose. The aggregator of video
content typically does not hold responsibility for production of
content but their broadcasting rights. The business model of
content aggregator of television is almost always to gather the
largest aggregate amount of traffic from users on their access
point and earn money by selling advertising.
There are three types of content aggregators: video-sharing site,
commercial video portals and video social networking sites. The
video-sharing site lives mostly in the value created by the users
and access to its services is offered free of charge. The
commercial video portal lives on video content held by
professional entities and serves mainly as a point of distribution
to these entities. Video social networks live mostly with network
value which, according to Metcalfe's law, is the square of its
number of users.
4.2.1BeOnTV VS Sapo Vídeos
Under this dissertation a comparison was made between the
portals BeOnTV and Sapo Vídeos. The aim was to compare the
current development of portal BeOnTV compared to the widely
used Sapo Vídeos.
More listings: current videos; live channels;
More video metada: user;
Video interaction: send to email; publish to
blog; add to video list; add to favorites; report
More concepts: favorites; viral sharing;
customized pages; advertising; social
network; tag cloud; video lists; advanced
Flash player (WebTV);
Fixed categories: Animação, Animais, Arte e
Entretenimento, Blogs e Pessoas, Ciência e
Tecnologia, Cinema, Desporto, Erotismo,
Publicidade, Viagens e Lugares, Vida e
Lazer, Videojogos;
Video streaming: RTSP to live channels.
Video channels: dynamic lineups creation;
Silverlight video player;
Dynamic categories.
4.3Out-Of-Home Television
Television out-of-home is, by definition, the installation of an
television infrastructure in buildings, indoors or outdoors,
private spaces, and all those who would otherwise not match any
individuals private house of. There is a ranking that considers
three segments of out-of-home television: high-impact, retail and
captive audience.
High-impact: public and private spaces in areas of
person circulation, such as parks, the subway station
and avenues of the city. The television content should
be brief and adjusted to draw people attention;
Retail: Installed in shops and other centers of
commerce, such as malls. The television content should
be adapted to location target, trying to be relevant in
advertising displays.
Captive audience: Installed in any location where the
context requires people to a continuous attention to
television content. Includes planes, buses, halls. The
contents should be constructed to entertain people or,
otherwise, make the experience of waiting as pleasant
as possible.
4.4Market Analysis
A market analysis is conducted on the matters of video
aggregators, internet television platforms and advertising in the
web. This should be relevant to any organization involved in the
market such as: technology sellers, content producers and
advertising companies.
4.4.1Video in Internet Market
The video is a relatively new application on the Internet which
now has a widespread use. A number of forces that may have
been [14] responsible for the success of the video on the Internet
Easy and cheap access to connections to high-speed
Internet that anyone can install at home;
The creation of promotional initiatives on the part of
sites, networks and other channels that have begun to
release the video on their site, creating in their users a
different perception on the use of the Internet;
The innovation that happened at the application level
from where new business emerged that used the video
as a way to successfully reach people.
Another study [15] reflects the usage of the video on the Internet
by users. The first relevant figure refers to the use of Internet
video by about 57% of Internet users. The other figures shows an
equilibrium about the usage of Internet video, namely when
comparing for age, sex and financial health.
Other focus in the same study is about destination sites, how the
user engages in video and about preferred video content.
It is to note that YouTube is still leader of video aggregator
websites, with almost 50% of share (from age < 30 users). It is
shown also that almost 75% of users daily receive video links,
+/- 50% watch videos with other people, +/- 15% frequently
comment on video content and +/- 15% upload video.
Related to video content the three most popular content for video
in Internet is: news, comedy and music clips. To note that,
however, almost 57% of people respond they have watched to
virtually any kind of content.
A study by In-Stat [16] analyzes the market growth of video on
the Internet by 2012. Results show a sharp growth in this market
largely because the penetration of high-speed Internet for
widespread use of the population and the entry in the video
browsing habits of users of Internet.
4.4.2Internet Television Platform Market
CPV (Cost Per Visitor);
The Internet television platform is a new industry that initially
sought to establish its market in both professional and amateur in
the field. Today is knew that the Internet television platform
market is located almost exclusively in the professional sector.
CPC (Cost Per Click);
CPA (Cost Per Action);
Cost per conversion;
CPE (Cost Per Engagement).
There is no study published to date about Internet television
platform market but the investment volume and optimism of
some of the players in this area suggests that this may be a
particularly fertile market:
Yahoo! announced that it has acquired Maven
Networks, Inc., a leading online video platform
provider, to expand state-of-the-art consumer video and
advertising experiences on Yahoo!.com and Yahoo!’s
network of leading premium video publishers across
the web. Yahoo! acquired Maven Networks for
approximately $160 million;
Brightcove announced the closing of a $59.5 million
strategic funding round that will allow the Internet TV
company to accelerate international expansion and
solidify a market leading position as the Internet TV
market matures and consolidates in the coming year;
And others.
4.4.3Out-Of-Home Television Market
More than entertainment or source of useful information, the
television outside the home emerged as a way to deliver
advertising to people in a way that the attention was detained by
appealing content. The television industry out of the house
belongs to another industry called out-of-home media advertising
industry. This industry includes any method of sale advertising
outside the home, and includes: television, static outlets,
distribution of leaflets and advertising in consumer products.
This industry is now the second largest industry of the area of
advertising, with a sustained growth of around 7.9% annually.
In 2006 the market of out-of-home media was worth around 6.8
billion dollars and it is expected a growth in 2010 to 9.06 billion
dollars. [18] As for the television out-of-house, another study
[19] provides that in 2011 the market will be worth 2.25 billion
dollars, a growth of about 56% compared to 2007.
Another study [20] estimated that in 2011, 90% of retail stores
will be equipped with television sets for advertising of their
products and services.
4.4.4Internet Advertising Market
The Internet is now the largest market for advertising in the
world. A study conducted by comScore estimated that only in
January 2007 747 million people over age 15 used the Internet, a
growth of 10% compared to 2006. No wonder therefore that the
market of Internet advertising has a great value with sustained
growth which will continue for the next few years.
Advertising on the Internet can be achieved various ways, such
advertisements on videos, advertising in social networks, online
classified, advertising networks and advertising in the Mail.
There are several methods by which advertising is sold:
CPM (Cost Per Impression);
A study [21] was conducted to analyze the market of advertising
networks for the traffic volume generated and compare the
various players in the market. Google and DoubleClick are the
giants in the market, together capturing about 70% of the market
for the number of users who interact with their advertising
services and more than 82% of the domains that use their
advertising services
The market of Internet advertising is the advertising market with
the highest growth rate. A study by eMarketer [25] estimated the
market growth of Internet advertising. The market of Internet
advertising is worth 19.5 billion dollars in 2007 and is expected
to worth 36.5 in 2011, almost twice as much.
BeOnTV platform has many similarities with other portals, video
aggregators, including Sapo Video and YouTube. Both portals
have a mobile version that exposes some of the concepts and
available features. For Mobile BeOnTV we choose a subset of
functionality, enough for easy of use and sufficient to be an
useful service to its users.
5.1Functional requirements
Submit video content from the cellphone;
Search and navigate BeOnTV video content through
the cellphone;
Viewing of video content.
5.2Non-Functional requirements
Some non-functional goals were require to drive technological
and design decisions:
Fast prototype development;
Reduced cost of development;
Support for the widest possible range of mobile
Good application performance.
5.3Implementation Decisions
Some design decision had to be made according functional and
non-functional requirements:
Technology and development platform to create the
user interface;
Technology and methods to sending video from the
cellphone to BeOnTV;
Choose video format for use with BeOnTV and
Choose ideal parameters to encode video files;
Choose between the methods and technology for video
playback in the cellphone;
Learn BeOnTV modification for video reception and
cellphone video encoding.
Videos are encoded and stored at BeOnTV platform in the 3GP
format. It is encoded with the following parameters:
Encoder: H.263;
Dimension: 176x144;
Framerate: 10fps;
The dissertation deals with the implementation decisions
necessary for the choice of technologies used. Now I'm presenting
the final prototype, developed at the office of Link Consulting.
Also, the video is transferred to the cellphone using HTTP
protocol. The video files are stored and made accessible for the
Internet at BeOnTV application server.
5.4.1User Interface
5.4.3Video Upload
Videos are sent from the cellphone with the cellphone action
“MMS-to-Email”. There, a user composes a MMS message with
the video and issues a email message to a random generated
email address within BeOnTV (video submission mail address).
Illustration 4: Email
ustration 1: Mobile
BeOnTV Listings
ustration 2: Mobile
BeOnTV Video
For the development of the user interface we have used XHTML
MP + WCSS. These are the standards for Web development in
the cellphone. The business logic was conducted with Microsoft
ASP MVC framework. That was perfect for the fine grained
control achieved in the framework generates. Also, design
gidelines were used, namely the Mobile Web Best Practices [23]
from the W3C group.
This is achieved at BeOnTV platform by configuring an email
server and configuring a routine to fetch the videos from the
server. The method used was pooling to the email server.
This dissertation had a great guidance by business matters, for it
has been sponsored and developed with the help of Link S.A.
Consulting. For that matter three aspects were in great interest:
the platform BeOnTV assessment, video in Internet industry and
market analysis and develop the prototype for a mobile
application to BeOnTV services.
lustration 3: Video Playback
[22] Ad Spend in Out-of-Home Video Networks to Reach $2.25
Billion in 2011 – eMarketer
[14] Streaming Media Market Growth: 2005 – 2010 (Accustream
iMedia Res.)
[15] Online Vídeo (Pew Internet & Life – 2007)
[25] Get your fair share of the ad network pie – Attributor
[16] World Report on Online Vídeo (In-Stat Julho 2008)
[26] Online Ad Spend Growth Is Historic – eMarketer
[17] Brightcove CEO Discusses The Future And Failures Of
Online Video
[18] ([19] video/)
[21] Out-of-Home Media To Hit $9.06B By 2010: Study by
Veronis Suhler Stevenson
[24] Television Everywhere, by Allison Romano
[23] Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0
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