Multifunctional scroll sensor
US008531392B2
(12) United States Patent
Branton et a1.
(54)
MULTIFUNCTIONAL SCROLL SENSOR
(10) Patent N0.:
(45) Date of Patent:
(56)
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
Jeffrey R. Baker, Thousand Oaks, CA
(US); David Lee Stallard, Camarillo,
CA (US); Dustin J. Luck, West Hills,
CA (US)
CA (US)
(*)
Notice:
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 2072 days.
(21) Appl. N0.: 11/192,619
(22)
Filed:
A
A
A
A
11/1984
1/1985
9/1992
10/1994
Heredero
House
Gernet et a1.
Takemoto et a1.
5,867,158 A *
2/1999
5,952,912 A
9/1999 Bauer et a1.
7,046,230 B2 *
Murasaki et a1. ........... .. 715/785
5/2006 Zadesky et a1. ............. .. 345/156
2005/0134576 A1
2005/0140661 A1
6/2005 Lin et a1.
6/2005 Collins
2006/0033721 A1
2006/0038796 A1
2/2006 Woolley et a1.
2/2006 Hinckley et a1.
2007/0086724 A1*
4/2007
Grady et a1. .................. .. 386/46
* cited by examiner
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Troutman Sanders LLP
Prior Publication Data
US 2006/0028454 A1
4,482,883
4,494,105
5,151,677
5,353,004
Primary Examiner * William Boddie
Assistant Examiner * Leonid Shapiro
Jul. 29, 2005
(65)
Sep. 10, 2013
References Cited
(75) Inventors: Steve B. Branton, Ventura, CA (US);
(73) Assignee: Interlink Electronics, Inc., Camarillo,
US 8,531,392 B2
Feb. 9, 2006
Related U.S. Application Data
(60) Provisional application No. 60/598,684, ?led on Aug.
4, 2004.
(57)
ABSTRACT
An apparatus and method for using a scroll sensor providing
a touch sensitive control input surface for a plurality of con
trol functions is provided. The input surface is divided into a
plurality of regions. Each region is assigned to one of the
plurality of control functions. At least one of these control
functions accepts parametric control input. A ?rst touch is
received at one of the regions on the input surface. The control
function assigned to the touched region is selected. If the
(51)
G09G 5/00
(52)
selected control function is one of the control functions
Int. Cl.
(2006.01)
U.S. Cl.
USPC .......... .. 345/156; 345/169; 345/173; 345/174
(58)
Field of Classi?cation Search
USPC ................................ .. 345/156, 169, 1734179
See application ?le for complete search history.
200 ‘\
accepting parametric control input, a second touch on the
input surface is received as parametric control input during an
activationperiod for the selected control function. The second
touch may be received as parametric control input at any point
of the input surface.
22 Claims, 11 Drawing Sheets
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%% (9’
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DISPLAY '
DEVICE
VIDEO
PLAY/
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REM
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AUDIO
PLAY/
RECORD
DEVICE
COMPUTER
DEVICE
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Sheet 8 0f 11
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'Civil-WarfJournélmL' -f-
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Sheet 9 0f 11
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Sheet 11 0111
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/ 300
Divide an Annular Touch Pad into Regions P" 302
l
1
Assign each Region to a Control Function ~ 304
Receive a Touch on the Touch Pad Initiated / 306
at 21 Given Point on the Touch Pad
1
Select the Control Function Assigned to the Region K 308
Where the Given Point falls Within
if the Touch has Rotational Motion Initiated at the
Given Point
1
Receive the Touch as Parametric Control
Input for the Selected Control Function ’
FIG. 25
1
3 0
US 8,53l,392 B2
1
2
MULTIFUNCTIONAL SCROLL SENSOR
fashion, rotating various amounts in either direction may
cause audio volume or any other parameter to increase or
decrease at a certain rate.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED
APPLICATIONS
Although more planar than knobs, jog Wheels and shuttle
rings have the disadvantage of being primarily mechanical
and, therefore, someWhat large. A relatively neW class of
rotational input devices that are completely planar is the
annular touchpad. This is a planar annulus capable of sensing
an angular position of touch and rotational motion. One such
sensor is manufactured by Synpatics, Inc. and Works by sens
ing capacitance changes caused by the presence of a ?nger.
Another sensor is disclosed in commonly assigned U.S.
Patent Application Ser. No. 60/572,155 titled “Annular
Potentiometric Touch Sensor,” ?led May 18, 2004, Which is
incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Like a knob or
This application claims the bene?t of the Us. provisional
application Ser. No. 60/598,684 ?led Aug. 4, 2004.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to interface devices allowing
humans to provide control input.
2. Background Art
Portable or handheld consumer electronics, such as cell
a disk, the annular touchpad can indicate rotational motion,
phones, music players, and remote controls, are continuously
increasing their functionality and usefulness. There is a con
comitant need to increase the e?iciency and intuitiveness of
the methods used to interact With and control these devices.
One type of user input device that shoWs promise toWard this
goal is a rotational input.
the beginning and ending angles of the rotational motion, and
20
Input devices that require a primarily rotational input
include knobs, jog Wheels, shuttle rings, scroll Wheels in
computer mice, and the like. These devices typically use
rotational input to linearly vary some parameter such as audio
volume. The most ubiquitous example is the tuner knob on a
radio Where the rotational motion of the knob is mechanically
translated to linear motion of a frequency indicator. More
fully electronic devices may have a knob or other rotational
25
30
input device that causes linear action on some sort of elec
tion to volume as a knob is turned.
to integrate With a Wide variety of electronic devices.
Wheel may control various linear motions and actions in a
graphical user interface. These motions may include move
ment of a scroll bar or the scrolling of text, Web pages, or
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
40
rate extra functions for the scroll Wheel such as the moving the
The present invention provides a scroll sensor that enables
one of a plurality of functions to be chosen based on the
location of ?rst contact With the scroll sensor. The initiation of
linear indicators for volume and balance in several popular
music softWare applications such as Winamp, musimatch,
iTunes, and the like.
different control functionalities does not require the pressing
of a button, choosing from a menu, or other discrete and
45
tage of being rather large and protruding. Also, scroll Wheels
small enough to ?t on portable devices may be too small to be
easily usable. Jog Wheels are one type of a planar rotational
input device more aptly suited to small or portable electron
ics. Jog Wheels are disk-like input devices that are typically
include linear motion through menus or song lists, linear
adjustment of a volume slider, and the like. The exact control
function to Which the rotary motion is mapped is context
sensitive. The context may change only by means of a select
button or other buttons.
What is needed is a human interface that immediately and
intuitively alloWs for selection of functionality and paramet
ric input. This interface should be small, inexpensive and easy
A common type of rotational input device for computers is
the scroll Wheel on a mouse. When rotated by a user, the scroll
For small or portable electronics, knobs have the disadvan
indicate Where it Was ?rst grasped. The present invention
capitaliZes on this extra and unique capability of annular
touchpads to enhance the ef?ciency and intuitiveness of user
input to electronic devices.
An example system using an annular sensor is the Apple
iPod. This device translates rotational input from an annular
sensor into a control function. Various control functions
tronic display, such as changing the length of a bar in propor
images. Also, individual softWare applications may incorpo
the like. But unlike a knob or disk, the annular touchpad can
indicate Where a user ?rst touches in order to initiate the
rotational motion. This is analogous to a knob that could
cumbersome selection step. Instead, the choice of function
ality requires only that the rotational motion be initiated at a
speci?c location.
A method of using a scroll sensor providing a touch sensi
50
freely and continuously rotatable. One example use is in
tive control input surface for a plurality of control functions is
provided. The input surface is divided into a plurality of
regions. Each region is assigned to one of the plurality of
video playback or editing equipment Where rotating the jog
control functions. At least one of these control functions
Wheel may cause the display of subsequent or prior video
frames With some kind of time indicator displayed to shoW the
accepts parametric control input. A ?rst touch is received at
relative position of the currently displayed frame.
one of the regions on the input surface. The control function
55
assigned to the touched region is selected. If the selected
60
control function is one of the control functions accepting
parametric control input, a second touch on the input surface
is received as parametric control input during an activation
period for the selected control function. The second touch
may be received as parametric control input at any point of the
A second type of rotational input device is a shuttle ring.
This may be a ring that surrounds a jog Wheel or may be a
free-standing disk or knob. Typically a shuttle ring rotates
through a ?xed angle and When released may spring back to
an original position. The ring may sense either the force With
Which it is rotated aWay from its original position, the angular
distance rotated, or both. A shuttle ring is typically used to
select the rate at Which a parameter is changed. For example,
input surface.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the input sur
face is divided into a different plurality of regions based on
rotating a shuttle ring may cause video frames to advance at a
rate proportional to displacement. Rotating various amounts
clockWise may cause various speeds of video fast forWard,
and counterclockWise rotation may cause reWind. In a similar
the state of a controller.
65
In another embodiment of the present invention, the second
touch is continuous With the ?rst touch. In this case, the
activation period may continue until the second touch is ter
US 8,531,392 B2
3
4
minated. Alternatively, the activation period may continue for
FIGS. 7a-7e are schematic diagrams of annular patterns of
resistive material according to embodiments of the present
a preset amount of time after the second touch is terminated.
In various embodiment of the present invention, the control
functions may include control of volume, channel selection,
invention;
frequency, play list selection, stored digital item selection,
media play velocity, media play position, and the like. Mul
conductive traces and a sense line according to an embodi
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a sensor including three
ment of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of a processor according to
an embodiment of the present invention;
tiple control functions may include at least tWo navigation
controls With the parametric control input for each navigation
control specifying a desired change in navigation position
FIG. 10 is an isometric vieW illustrating a remote control
including a scroll sensor according to an embodiment of the
such as moving a cursor, scrolling a list of displayed items,
present invention;
and the like. Control functions may also include at least one
FIG. 11 is a block diagram of a home entertainment system
camera position control With the parametric control input
according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram illustrating channel selec
tion and volume control functionality according to an
specifying a desired change in a camera ?eld of vieW (e.g.,
pan, tilt, Zoom, focus, aperture). Control functions may fur
ther include at least one image vieWing control With the
parametric control input specifying a desired change in an
embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram illustrating video playback
functionality according to an embodiment of the present
image displayed vieW (e.g., pan, tilt, Zoom).
An apparatus including a scroll sensor and a controller is
also provided. The scroll sensor has an annular touch sensi
tive control input surface. The scroll sensor provides an out
put signal indicative of a touched position on the input sur
face. The controller receives a ?rst signal from the scroll
invention;
20
present invention;
FIG. 15 is a schematic diagram illustrating control of a
DVD player according to an embodiment of the present
sensor indicating a ?rst touch on the scroll sensor input sur
face. One of a plurality of control functions is selected based
on the touched position. A second signal is received from the
FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram illustrating control of video
playback and transport according to an embodiment of the
25
invention;
FIG. 16 is an on-screen electronic program guide navigable
scroll sensor indicating a second touch on the scroll sensor
by the present invention;
input surface. Control input is provided for the selected func
FIG. 17 is a schematic diagram illustrating controls for
navigating an electronic program guide according to an
tion based on the touched position of the second touch.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the controller
can change the control functions. The apparatus may include
a display indicating Which of the control functions are pres
30
FIG. 18 is a schematic diagram illustrating control of an
electronic program guide including a day control according to
ently selectable.
A remote control for use With an entertainment system is
also provided. The remote control includes a transmitter and
a scroll sensor having an annular touch sensitive control input
35
surface. A controller divides the touch sensitive control input
surface into at least tWo regions, each region corresponding to
one of a plurality of remote control functions. A ?rst signal
from the scroll sensor indicates a region selecting one of the
remote control functions. A second signal from the scroll
40
45
FIG. 24 is a schematic diagram illustrating a control of
multiple menus according to an embodiment of the present
panying draWings.
invention; and
50
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
EMBODIMENT(S)
55
Referring to FIG. 1, an exploded vieW draWing of a scroll
sensor 100 according to an embodiment of the present inven
tion is shoWn. The sensor 100 may be referred to as a ring
sensor, scroll sensor, or multipurpose knob. The sensor 100 is
FIG. 3 is a bottom vieW of a top substrate according to an
embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a top vieW of a bottom substrate having tWo
60
of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a top vieW of a bottom substrate having tWo
Widely spaced conductive traces according to an embodiment
of the present invention;
invention;
FIG. 25 is a ?owchart illustrating operation of a sensor in
accordance With an embodiment of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a top vieW of a bottom substrate having three
conductive traces according to an embodiment of the present
FIG. 23 is a schematic diagram illustrating control for
Wireless telephone control according to an embodiment of the
present invention;
out the invention When taken in connection With the accom
closely spaced conductive traces according to an embodiment
FIG. 21 is a block diagram of a portable data storage system
according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 22 is a schematic diagram illustrating control for
broWsing and vieWing a collection of images according to an
embodiment of the present invention;
selected remote control function.
FIG. 1 is an exploded vieW draWing of a sensor according
to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a top vieW draWing of a sensor according to an
an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 19 is a schematic diagram illustrating audio control
according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 20 is a schematic diagram illustrating control of audio
playback according to an embodiment of the present inven
tion;
sensor provides parametric control input. The transmitter
sends a signal specifying the parametric control input for the
The above objects and other objects, features and advan
tages of the present invention are readily apparent from the
folloWing detailed description of the best modes for carrying
embodiment of the present invention;
65
a planar annulus potentiometric touch sensor for determining
the angular location of a touch. The sensor 100 is “planar” in
the sense that While it may be many tens of millimeters across,
it is only approximately 0.5 mm thick. The sensor 100 is
annular since it may comprise a ring or a partial arc of a ring.
The sensor 100 is “potentiometric” in that it contains a resis
tive element across Which a potential is placed and a sense
element that contacts the resistive element such that the volt
US 8,531,392 B2
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5
age seen by the sense element is proportional to the location
Referring noW to FIG. 4, a top vieW of a bottom substrate
of the contact. The sensor 100 is a “touch” sensor in that its
102 having tWo closely spaced conductive traces (14011-140b)
siZe and operational force range are suitable for the detection
according to an embodiment of the present invention is
shoWn. This embodiment has a gap 142 in the resistor ring
104 and three conductive lines (14011-1400). The tWo drive
of light human ?nger force.
Preferred embodiments are made of layers. A bottom sub
strate 102, Which may be ?exible or rigid, is deposited on its
lines (14011-140b) near the gap 142 are used to set up an
electrical potential around the ring 104. The third line 1400 is
inside or top surface With an annular resistive material 104.
TWo or more highly conductive drive lines 140 intersect the
a tie breaker. Conductive traces 140 for the drive lines (14011
resistive material 104, preferably traversing the resistor ele
14019) and tie breaker 140c extend doWn the bottom pigtail
ment. The resistive material 104 may be polymer thick ?lm
carbon ink that is screen printed in place. The highly conduc
tive material may be polymer thick ?lm silver ink.
A ?exible top substrate 108 is deposited on its inside or
11211.
Referring noW to FIG. 5, a top vieW of a bottom substrate
102 having tWo Widely spaced conductive traces (140'11
20
140'b) according to an embodiment of the present invention is
shoWn. This embodiment has a continuous ring of resistive
material 104 With tWo drive lines (140'11-140'b) located oppo
site each other on the ring 104. A tie breaker conductive trace
140'c intersects the resistive ring 104 at the top of the ring 104.
Conductive traces 140' for the drive lines (140'11-140'b) and
tie breaker 140'c extend doWn the bottom pigtail 11211.
25
Referring noW to FIG. 6, a top vieW of a bottom substrate
102 having three conductive traces 140" according to an
embodiment of the present invention is shoWn. This embodi
ment has three drive lines (140"11-140"c) spaced at 120' inter
vals around the resistive ring 104. Conductive traces 140" for
bottom surface With a conductive sense layer 110. This sense
layer 110 is analogous to the Wiper of a mechanical potenti
ometer. The sense layer 110 may be a solid pattern or meshed
With a grid pattern. The sense layer 110 is typically a silver
polymer thick ?lm, but may be carbon or other conductive or
partially conductive material.
The bottom substrate 102 and the ?exible top substrate 108
are held together at the inner and outer radii of the annulus by
an adhesive spacer layer 114. The spacer layer 114 is thick
enough to prevent the inner faces of the top 108 and bottom
102 substrates from contacting except When the ?exible top
substrate 108 orbottom substrate 102 is touched by a user (not
the drive lines (140"11-140"c) extend doWn the bottom pigtail
shoWn).
11211.
The bottom substrate 102 may include a bottom pigtail
extension 11211 and top substrate 108 may include a top
annular patterns of resistive material (104'-104"") according
pigtail extension 1121). Each pigtail extension 112 may
Referring noW to FIGS. 711-7e, schematic diagrams of
30
include electrical traces 115 for making electrical contact
With drive lines 140, the sense layer 110 and other elements of
the sensor 100 as Will be further described beloW. The ends of
the pigtail extensions 112 may include a connector or the
pigtails 112 may be directly inserted into a connector as is
knoWn in the art. Other schemes for making electrical con
nections With the sensor 100 are also possible.
to embodiments of the present invention are shown. In addi
tion to a round or circular pattern of resistive material 104, a
Wide variety of annular shapes may be used. FIG. 711 illus
35
The sensor 100 may include a rear or bottom adhesive 106
for attaching the sensor 100 to a host device (not shoWn) such
trates a triangular annular region 104'. FIG. 7b illustrates a
hexagonal annular region 104". FIG. 70 illustrates a rectan
gular annular region 104'". FIG. 71! illustrates an ovoid annu
lar region 104"". FIG. 7e illustrates a semicircular annular
region 104"" . As Will be recogniZed by one of ordinary skill in
the art, a Wide variety of resistive patterns may be used With
as a printed circuit board. The sensor 100 may also include a 40 the present invention.
Referring noW to FIG. 8, a schematic diagram 160 of a
top adhesive layer 116 onto Which is attached a top protective
layer 118. The top protective layer 118 may be printed With a
sensor 100 including three conductive traces 140" and a sense
speci?c color, pattern, logo or the like.
The description of the present invention uses spatial refer
line 162" according to an embodiment of the present inven
tion is shoWn. The sensor 100 has four connections. Three of
ences such as top and bottom for clarity only. The sensor 100
may be used in any orientation. Further, While the sensor 100
is generally described as operating With a touch on the top
substrate 108 pushing the top substrate 108 onto the bottom
substrate 102, the sensor 100 Will also operate With a touch on
the bottom substrate 102 pushing the bottom substrate 102
into contact With the top substrate 108.
Referring noW to FIG. 2, a top vieW draWing of a sensor 100
according to an embodiment of the present invention is
shoWn. The three notches 120 are for alignment With the host
device. The tail 112 is for connection of the sensor 100 to the
circuit of the host device. To simplify construction of the
sensor 100, part ofthe tail 112 is the bottom pigtail 11211 built
from the bottom layer 102 and has conductors that face
upWards. The other part of the tail 112 is the top pigtail 1121)
built from the top layer 108 and has conductors facing doWn
45
mented in any small microcontroller. Described beloW is an
algorithm using one eight-bit analog-to-digital converter
50
the sense layer 11 0 that is pushed against the resistive ring 1 04
this layer extends doWn the top pigtail 11219.
(ADC) and three general purpose l/O lines. Instead of an
ADC, an op-amp voltage folloWer and a slope converter may
be used.
In the folloWing discussion, straight north (i.e., straight up)
is 0° (12 o’clock) and the angle increases clockWise. The
55
sensor 100 is oriented With the tail at 12 o’clock, placing the
drive lines 140" at 0°, 120° and 240°. The ring sensor 100 may
be thought of as divided into three Zones, With Zone 1 de?ned
as the 120° segment centered on D1, Zone 2 as the 120°
segment centered on D2, and Zone 3 as the 120° segment
60 centered on D3.
Ward.
Referring noW to FIG. 3, a bottom vieW of a top substrate
108 according to an embodiment of the present invention is
shoWn. The ?ne grid of highly conductive traces 126 forms
When the sensor 100 is touched. A single connection 130 to
the connections (i.e., D1-D3) are drive lines 140" for the
resistor ring 104. The fourth line (i.e., S) is the sense line 162".
Algorithms for measuring this sensor 100 may be imple
The ?rst part of the algorithm determines Which Zone is
being touched. The goal is to determine Which drive line (i.e.,
140"11-140"c) is closest to the point oftouch so that the other
tWo drive lines can be used in a later step to determine the
65
precise touch location. Finding Which drive line is closest to
the point of touch can be done With three measurements. In
each measurement, tWo of the drive lines are set high and one
US 8,531,392 B2
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8
is set low. The closest drive line will be the one with the lowest
ADC reading. Following are detailed steps for this measure
Finally, the result should be checked to see if it exceeds 359°.
ment:
of Vtheta to angle theta:
The following code example shows the complete conversion
1. Set lines D2 (i.e., 140"c) and D3 (i.e., 140"a) high, and
D1 (i.e., 140"b) low.
2. Measure the sense line S (i.e., 162") using theADC. Call
theta=(Vtheta* 15)/16; //convert from voltage to angle
this V1.
3. Set lines D1 and D3 high, and D2 low.
4. Measure the sense line S using the ADC. Call this V2.
5. Set lines D1 and D2 high, and D3 low.
6. Measure the sense line S using the ADC. Call this V3.
Then following code can be used to determine which Zone is
//Add necessary offsets
else if (2==Zone)
theta+=240;
else if (3==Zone)
theta+=0;
if(theta>359)
//sanity check angle
theta-=3 60;
being touched:
Because consecutive samples may straddle the rollover
from 359° to 0°, a compensation may be used for averaging
20
multiple samples. For example, a simple average of 358° and
2° would give 180° whereas the average should give 0°.
Although several methods are possible, the following is very
simple and does not require extensive code. In this descrip
tion, theta[0] is the most recent measurement, theta[l] is the
next most recent, and theta[n] is the nth measurement.
First, an average is calculated. Then the average is com
25
Once the Zone of touch is known, the actual angular touch
30
pared with theta[0]. If the average and theta[0] are too differ
ent (such as, for example, greater than 50°), then it is assumed
that the Zero-crossing problem has occurred. If so, all small
angles are offset by 360° and average recalculated. If the
result ends up greater than 359°, 360° is subtracted from the
result. Following is a code example:
position can be measured. The angle can be measured with a
single measurement. The rule is to drive the two lines that are
furthest from the touch point to perform the angle measure
ment. For example, if Zone 1 is being touched, then drive lines
two and three (i.e., D2, D3) will be used for the angle mea
surement. Following are steps for measuring the angle if Zone
1 is being touched:
1. Con?gure drive line D1 as an input, effectively discon
necting it from the sensor.
2. Set D3 low and D2 high (so that the potential increases
tempint = (theta[0]+theta[l]+theta[2]+theta[3])/4;
if(abs(tempint — theta[0]) > 50)
//If avg is weird
35
tempint+=theta[loop];
40
clockwise).
thetaiout—=3 60;
45
Referring now to FIG. 9, a schematic diagram 190 of a
processor 170 according to an embodiment of the present
invention is shown. Logic may be implemented in a micro
Because the ADC may be mixed with a few counts of noise,
a second measurement could be performed to “sanity check”
the results. This would be exactly the same as the measure
ment described above, but with the drive lines set so that the
50
from this measurement may be referred to as Vtheta_inverse.
Vtheta and Vtheta_inverse should be complements. The fol
lowing code example checks this condition:
if(ab s (2 5 5 —Vtheta —Vtheta-invers e< 1 0)
sensor_active_?ag:1 ;
In other words, if Vtheta and the complement of Vtheta_in
verse are not equal to within some tolerance (e. g., 10 counts),
then no valid touch was found (i.e., sensor_active_?ag:0).
Once Vtheta has been measured and the touch con?rmed,
55
processor 170 for determining the touch location. The system
190 may include clock circuitry 172, serial communication
circuitry 174, and the like as is commonly used with micro
controllers. In the embodiment shown, the microcomputer
170 includes one analog-to-digital converter (ADC) input
line (i.e., RAO) for the sense line S. In addition, three lines
(i.e., RA1-RA3) are used for driving the D1, D2 and D3 lines.
Each of these is con?gurable independently as output high,
output low or high-impedance input.
The system 190 of FIG. 9 may be used in a remote control
60
the angle of touch can be calculated. In the example provided,
the voltage Vtheta was measured by applying 256 counts over
an angle of 240°. Voltage can therefore be converted to angle
by multiplying by 240/256. Conveniently, 240/256 reduces to
the ratio 15/ 1 6. If the touch was in Zone 1, 1200 must be added
to the angle. If the touch was in Zone 2, 2400 must be added to
the angle. And if the touch was in Zone 3, no offset is required.
//If angle is small
// add 360°
if(thetaiout>359)
The angular resolution may be improved by measuring Vtheta
potential increases counterclockwise. In the Zone 1 example,
D2 would be set low and D3 would be set high. The voltage
if(theta[loop] < 50)
tempint+=3 60;
tempint/=4;
3. Measure the sense line S using the ADC. This measure
ment will be referred to as Vtheta.
several times and accumulating or averaging the results.
tempint=0;
for(loop=0; loop<4; loop++)
65
by including a transmitter 186 controlled by the microcon
troller 170. The transmitter 186 accepts electrical input, such
as a digital baseband signal, and produces a modulated output
as is known in the art. Output may be in the form of infrared
light, radio waves, ultrasound waves, and the like.
The system 190 of FIG. 9 may also include a display 178.
In the embodiment shown, the microcontroller 170 issues
display commands to a display processor 176 over a serial
link. The display processor 176 drives a display 178, such as
US 8,531,392 B2
10
situated on a top face. Typically, each device to be controlled
understands a limited set of commands. For example, a tele
vision, cable box or satellite tuner may accept commands to
an LCD screen, that is integrated into a remote control, music
player, portable digital information storage device, and the
like. Alternatively, the display 178 may be separate, such as a
television screen, computer screen, appliance screen, dash
board screen, and the like.
In the present invention, the touch sensor 100 permits
turn on, turn off, increase volume, decrease volume, increase
channel, decrease channel, receive channel digit, and the like.
The remote control 200 provides multiple functions simul
selecting betWeen multiple control functionalities. For
example, the sensor 100 (i.e., ring, input surface) may be
taneously through the annular scroll sensor 100. A ?rst touch
divided into one or more logical regions based on the state of
the controller 170. That is, one or more regions may be
de?ned on the input surface 100 based at least in part on the
state of the controller 170. Each region may be assigned to a
sensor 100 touched. A second touch provides input for the
function. An example is provided in FIG. 12. The scroll
sensor 100 is logically divided into tWo regions, roughly
indicated as the left half and the right half. The left half,
control function. Accordingly, each speci?c control function
may be initiated by touching the corresponding region of the
indicated by “CH,” provides channel selection. The right half,
indicated by “Vol,” provides volume control. By ?rst touch
selects one of these functions, based on the area of the scroll
ing the left area and then scrolling clockWise or counterclock
sensor 100.
Once a speci?c function is chosen, an activation period
Wise, a user can continuously increase or decrease, respec
begins. At any time during the activation period, regardless of
Where the rotational motion may proceed, the entire ring has
the initiated functionality. This selection process and subse
quent parametric input may be implemented as code in the
microcontroller 170. Alternatively, touch positions may be
transmitted to a remote controller (not shoWn) Which imple
ments function selection and parameter interpretation.
A single activation may be de?ned as being initiated by a
tively, the television channel. By ?rst touching the right area
and then scrolling clockWise or counterclockWise, a user can
continuously increase or decrease, respectively, the volume.
touch and continuing until the sensor 100 is no longer
touched. Alternatively, a single activation may be de?ned as
being initiated by an initial touch and continuing for a certain
amount of time after the sensor 100 is no longer touched, so
that a second touch Within a speci?ed amount of time quali?es
25
In either case, the remote control 200 receives the ?rst touch,
noting in Which region the scroll sensor 100 Was touched, then
Waits for a second touch before transmitting control signals.
Referring noW to FIG. 13, a schematic diagram illustrating
video playback functionality according to an embodiment of
the present invention is shoWn. Control functions arrayed
as belonging to same activation.
30
around the ring 100 (clockWise from top) are play, fast for
Ward, stop, and reWind. Touching ?rst at the top Will play
video at normal speed. Touching ?rst at the bottom Will stop
video playback. Touching ?rst at the right or left While video
is playing Will play the video at a ?xed higher speed forWard
20
The advanced method of using a ring sensor 100 could be
a useful input device in any of several portable or handheld
or reverse. Touching ?rst at the top then scrolling clockWise or
counterclockwise Will play video forward or reverse at a
electronic devices. Examples of portable handheld devices
higher speed that is proportional to the distance scrolled.
include remote controls for use With home entertainment
systems, portable music players, cell phones, portable digital
35
assistants, GPS systems, portable data storage devices, and
the like.
Simple single-touch controls may be interspersed With
scrolling controls. For example, in the example of video
transport control beloW, “play”# and “stop” do not require
40
further rotational input after the initial touch.
The state of the controller 170 (i.e., function and/or set of
functions offered) may be varied based on input from addi
frame by frame in either direction, at a speed that is propor
45
50
55
menu structures provided on many DVDs and the random
variable, these icons may be changed on the display 178.
access availability of information segments, are particularly
numeric keypad 204 and various mode select buttons 206. A
control button 208 may also be included in the center of the
Well suited to control With a scroll Wheel sensor 100. Arrayed
around the ring 100 clockWise from the top are jog control,
menu scrolling, shuttle control, and stop.
scroll sensor 100.
Referring noW to FIG. 11, a block diagram of a home
entertainment system 220 according to an embodiment of the
present invention is shoWn. The entertainment system 220
may include components such as a computer 228, a television
60
devices 226 (e.g., stereo, music players, etc.), video recording
If touched ?rst at the bottom edge, near the center of the
shuttle control, video is played at normal speed. Scrolling
aWay from the bottom in either direction Will cause video to
be played at a speed that is proportional to the distance
scrolled aWay from the bottom. This speed may range from
or other display device 222, audio recording and/or playback
and/ or playback devices 224, and the like. The remote control
200 typically includes a housing With the scroll sensor 100
video paused at the desired frame. Touching ?rst at the bottom
Will also pause the video. Scrolling aWay from the bottom in
either direction Will cause video to play at a speed that is
proportional to the distance scrolled aWay from the bottom.
This speed may range from very sloW motion to very fast
advance, in either direction forWard or reverse. Ceasing
touching Will leave the video playing in the chosen direction
at the chosen speed.
Referring noW to FIG. 15, a schematic diagram illustrating
control of a DVD player according to an embodiment of the
present invention is shoWn. DVD players, because of the
170 may hold a state variable indicating Which control func
tions are currently available. Each function may be indicated
by an icon on the ring or near the ring. If the functionality is
Referring noW to FIG. 10, an isometric vieW illustrating a
remote control 200 including a scroll sensor 100 according to
an embodiment of the present invention is shoWn. The remote
control 200 includes a circular scroll sensor 100. Pushbuttons
202 located near the periphery of the scroll sensor 100 may be
used to select the set of functions selectable by a ?rst touch of
the scroll sensor 100. The remote control 200 also includes a
tions arrayed around the ring 100 (clockWise from top) are jog
control, play, shuttle control, and stop. If touched ?rst at the
right edge, video is played at normal speed. If touched ?rst at
the left edge, video is stopped. Touching at the top Will pause
the video. Scrolling aWay from the top Will jog the video,
tional to the scrolling speed. Ceasing touching Will leave the
tional controls or through a hierarchical control system
implemented With the ring. In either case, the microcontroller
Referring noW to FIG. 14, a schematic diagram illustrating
control of video playback and transport according to an
embodiment of the present invention is shoWn. Control func
65
very sloW motion to very fast advance, in either forWard or
reverse, depending upon the direction of the second touch.
Ceasing touching Will leave the video playing in the chosen
US 8,531,392 B2
11
12
direction at the chosen speed. Touching ?rst at the left edge
stops the video. Touching at the top Will pause the video.
gation functions could include any number of dimensions.
For example, the tWo dimensions of a typical EPG (electronic
Scrolling away from the top Will jog the video, frame by
program guide) 234 that are vieWable at once are time on a
frame in either direction, at a speed that is proportional to the
horiZontal axis and channel number on a vertical axis. A third
scrolling speed. Ceasing touching Will leave the video paused
dimension may be “day-of-the-Week.” On the multipurpose
scroll ring 100 all of this navigation can be made immediately
available. The scroll ring 100 is divided into channel, time,
and day Zones. “Hour” broWsing could be initiated by touch
ing initially at a top right section, “channel” broWsing could
be initiated by touching ?rst at a top left section, and “day”
broWsing could be initiated by touching ?rst at the bottom.
Referring noW to FIG. 19, a schematic diagram illustrating
at the desired frame. Touching ?rst at the right edge and then
scrolling Will scroll through currently available menu items,
if any, in a cyclical manner. Releasing over a menu item Will
select that item. This permits multiple levels of menus to be
navigated. Alternatively, an item could be selected by press
ing a separate button that may be located in the center of the
scroll sensor 100 or elseWhere.
audio control according to an embodiment of the present
invention is shoWn. Home entertainment systems, automobile
Referring noW to FIGS. 16 and 17, a navigable on-screen
electronic program guide 234 and a schematic diagram illus
trating navigation controls, respectively, according to an
stereo systems, portable music players, and the like, often
embodiment of the present invention are shoWn. Current
scroll input sensors 100 are limited to one-dimensional navi
gation. That is, the rotational motion on the user input device
is translated to linear motion in a graphical user interface in
only one direction such as either horizontal or vertical. The
contain audio components. The scroll sensor 100 of the
present invention enables quick control of several possible
parameters by making these controls immediately available
through a common method. For example, control functions
20
multipurpose knob can be used for navigation or scrolling
through lists, matrices of choices, and the like, in multiple
dimensions immediately by touching the ring 100 ?rst in the
appropriate spot. In the example provided, touching ?rst at
may be arrayed around the ring 100 (clockWise from the top)
such as volume, treble, balance and bass. Touching initially
near one of the labeled controls enables scrolling to alter that
parameter. Touching ?rst at “Vol” and then scrolling clock
Wise or counterclockWise Will increase or decrease, respec
is primarily horiZontal, puts the multipurpose knob in “hori
tively, the audio volume from its current value. The Bass and
Treble controls are similar. Touching ?rst at “Bal” and then
Zontal navigation” mode. Any subsequent motion, anyWhere
moving counterclockWise or clockWise Will move the stereo
the top or bottom sections of the ring 100, Where any motion
25
on the ring 100, causes horiZontal parametric control such as
balance from its current setting further to the right or left,
scrolling, cursor motion, and the like. Similarly, touching ?rst
respectively.
at a left or right section, Where any motion is primarily ver
30
tical, puts the multipurpose knob in “vertical navigation”
mode. Any subsequent motion during the same activation,
anyWhere on the ring 100, causes vertical parametric control
such as scrolling, cursor motion, and the like. This mode of
navigation is termed “tangent navigation mode” since the
resulting navigation direction is tangential to the ring 100 at
the initially touched spot.
35
Selection of a program from an electronic program guide
234 (EPG) is e?iciently made using this navigation method.
An EPG 234 is typically a tWo-dimensional array of cells in a
graphical user interface. Each roW represents a channel and
each column a time slot. Each cell typically contains the name
of the program. The scroll sensor 100 may be con?gured for
accessing the EPG 234. At the top is a control for horiZontal
40
navigation and at the right side is a control for vertical navi
gation. These controls could also be placed at the bottom and
45
Referring noW to FIG. 20, a schematic diagram illustrating
control of audio playback according to an embodiment of the
present invention is shown. Audio playback devices, such as
a player for CDs, tapes, MPEG ?les, and the like, require
audio playback controls. Arrayed around the ring 100 clock
Wise from the top are controls for play, next track, stop,
previous track and pause. Touching ?rst at the top right starts
playback and further scrolling causes accelerated playback in
the direction of scrolling and at a speed proportional to the
distance scrolled. Touching ?rst at the loWer left or loWer right
causes a jump to a prior or later tracks, respectively, With
further scrolling causing jumps to further prior or later tracks.
Referring noW to FIG. 21, a block diagram of a portable
data storage system 240 according to an embodiment of the
present invention is shoWn. Portable data storage systems
right side, respectively, or duplicated to cover all four quad
240, including media players such as MPEG audio storage
and playback devices, alloW digital items to be stored and
easily transported. In the case of a media player, these digital
rants. Touching ?rst at the top edge of the sensor 100 and then
items are sound ?les Which can be played to a headphone
scrolling moves horiZontally through the matrix of choices.
Touching ?rst at the right edge and then scrolling moves
vertically through the matrix of choices. The current naviga
50
age. In this case, an interface is provided to both load items
tion position could be indicated by a cursor or by highlighting
cells in the display matrix 234. A button (not shoWn) in the
center of the scroll ring 100 or located elseWhere on the
remote control could be pressed to select the indicated choice.
Navigation through an EPG 234 or other matrix of choices
55
could also be achieved by reversing the scheme described
above, Where touching ?rst at a top or bottom section Would
put the multipurpose knob into vertical mode, and touching at
the left or right edges Would put the knob into horiZontal
mode. This mode is termed “ray navigation mode,” since the
navigation direction is along a ray from the center of the ring
100 through the initially touched spot.
Referring noW to FIG. 18, a schematic diagram illustrating
control of an electronic program guide 234 including a day
control according to an embodiment of the present invention
is shoWn. In addition to any number of directions, the navi
output. Portable data storage systems 240 may also be used to
carry digital items betWeen computers or for long-term stor
60
into the system and transfer items from the system.
The example provided in FIG. 21 is for an audio media
player. The system 240 includes a ring sensor 100 of the type
disclosed above. Other inputs 242, such as buttons and
sWitches, may also be provided. The ring sensor 100 and other
input(s) 242 provide input signals to a controller 244 Which
executes softWare to implement the present invention. One or
more input ports 246 alloW digital items to be loaded into data
storage 248. Input ports 246 typically include one or more
serial link, Wireless link, removable memory card reader, and
the like. Data storage 248 typically includes one or more of
solid state memory, magnetic disk, removable memory card,
65
and the like. On playback, an item is retrieved from data
storage 248 and sent to an audio output port 250 Which can
interface With headphones or speakers for converting to a
sound signal. A display 252 is typically included to provide
US 8,531,392 B2
13
14
control information to a user such as, for example, selection
Upon touching ?rst upon “phone book” the user is immedi
lists, audio output levels, control state, battery level, and the
like. If the media player 240 is also capable of displaying
images, such as still pictures, video, movies, and the like, the
ately scrolling through phone book entries.
In any of the above controls, the selection of a choice after
scrolling could be affected by ceasing to touch the sensor 100
after the appropriate choice has been scrolled to or, altema
display 252 may also offer an image vieWing screen.
Video playback on the portable media player 240 may be
controlled through the scroll sensor 100, for example, as
described above With reference to any of FIGS. 13-15. Audio
playback on the portable media player 240 may be controlled
through the scroll sensor 100, for example, as described With
reference to any of FIGS. 19 and 20. Menus may be traversed
by using the scroll sensor 100, for example, as described
tively, by pressing a separate select button.
As Wireless telephones become more advanced, they may
include portable music and/or video players. The ring sensor
100 may alloW for control of these features as described
above.
Referring noW to FIG. 24, a schematic diagram illustrating
a control of multiple menus according to an embodiment of
the present invention. Any device offering a plurality of
above With reference to FIG. 17.
menus may be easily controlled With the control sensor 100 of
Referring noW to FIG. 22, a schematic diagram illustrating
control for broWsing and vieWing a collection of images
according to an embodiment of the present invention is
the present invention. In the example shoWn, a ?rst touch
shoWn. Portable media players, remote controls, personal
digital assistants, Wireless telephones, and the like, may be
capable of holding and displaying a large number of images.
menu entry may be selected either by ceasing the second
touch or by touching another control, such as a button (not
selects betWeen one of four menus. A second touch anyWhere
on the scroll sensor 100 navigates amongst menu entries. A
20
In the case Where a photograph is larger than can be displayed
As Will be recogniZed by one of ordinary skill in the art, the
present invention may be applied to a Wide variety of devices.
The ring sensor 100 may be used to select options or navigate
on a screen at once, the touch sensor 100 could alloW for
panning in tWo dimensions. This may be achieved by the
con?guration of controls illustrated in FIG. 22. Touching the
sensor 100 ?rst in a top region and then rotating could alloW
panning in one direction, such as horiZontal. Touching ?rst in
a right side region could alloW for panning in the orthogonal
direction, such as vertical. Touching in a bottom region and
around a displayed map on a handheld or automotive GPS
25
system. For this or other vehicle-based applications, the scroll
sensor 100 may be mounted on the steering Wheel to provide
easy control access With minimal driver distraction. The
present invention may also be used to control the functions of
scrolling could Zoom in or Zoom out on the image. Touching
a remotely controlled camera. These functions can include
in a left side region and then subsequent scrolling could page
through a set of images.
Referring noW to FIG. 23, a schematic diagram illustrating
control for Wireless telephone control according to an
embodiment of the present invention is shoWn. Wireless
30
phones are another class of handheld devices Where a touch
sensor 100 according to the present invention may be advan
tageously applied. In addition, there are some scroll sensor
35
pan, tilt, Zoom, focus, aperture, and the like.
Any form of orthogonal, non-orthogonal or omnidirec
tional navigation can be easily supported by the present
invention. The navigation controls disclosed above can be
extended to multiple non-orthogonal directions (i.e., not just
x and y). For example, the ring 100 could be separated logi
cally into any number of Zones, such that touching a Zone
causes all further motion on the scroll sensor 100 during the
same activation period to be along a ray extending from the
100 control con?gurations that enhance more typical phone
center of the ring 100 through the initially touched Zone.
tasks. FIG. 23 illustrates a control con?guration that increases
the ef?ciency of typical Wireless telephone interactions.
shoWn) at the center of the scroll sensor 100.
40
There could be any discrete number or a continuum of Zones
ClockWise from top, the ring sensor 100 includes controls for
implemented by the ring sensor 100.
numerical input, text input, menu selection, and phone book.
Touching ?rst on the numerical input and then scrolling
alloWs the immediate input of a number. When ?rst touched,
need not be limited to a single set of functionalities. There can
the video display of the phone Would display a Zero in a ?rst
digit location. Scrolling to the right Would increase the num
ber being displayed in this ?rst location. Ceasing to touch the
sensor 100 When the desired number is being displayed
selects that number for that digit location and increments the
digit location by one. A second number could be similarly
chosen for the second digit location. A separate button (not
shoWn) on the phone, such as a select button in the center of
the scroll sensor 100, could dial the phone number that Was
entered.
Touching the sensor 100 ?rst on the right side of the sensor
100 enables text input. A ?rst letter for a ?rst letter position is
The method of using rotational input from the sensor 100
be multiple sets of functionalities. For example, a ring sensor
45
100 in a remote control for a home entertainment system
could control channel and volume in one context While
Watching TV, navigation for choosing programs from an elec
tronic program guide, audio parameters While listening to
music, and video transport While Watching a DVD. Selecting
50
betWeen multiple sets of functionalities could be accom
plished by pressing an additional button or the control func
tionality could sWitch automatically based on context.
Referring noW to FIG. 25, a ?owchart 300 illustrating
55
the present invention is shoWn. The operation begins With
operation of a sensor in accordance With an embodiment of
dividing a sensor, such as an annular touch pad, into a plural
chosen by scrolling until the desired letter is displayed. Ceas
ity of regions as shoWn in block 302. Each region is assigned
ing to touch the sensor 100 selects that letter and advances to
a control function as shoWn in block 304. The touch pad
receives a touch initiated at a given point on the touch pad as
a second letter position. Any number of desired letter posi
tions could be thus ?lled. The letters could include upper and
60
shoWn in block 306. The control function assigned to the
loWer, control characters such as “shift” or “shift lock,” a
region of the touch pad Where the given point falls Within is
space, special characters such as ampersand, and punctua
selected if the touch has rotational motion initiated at the
given point as shoWn in block 308. The touch is received as
parametric control input for the selected control function as
shoWn in block 310.
While embodiments of the invention have been illustrated
and described, it is not intended that these embodiments
tion. The selection of a number or a letter during numeric or
text input could alternately be ?naliZed by hitting a separate
select button (not shoWn).
Upon touching ?rst on “menu” and then scrolling, the user
is immediately scrolling through a system of menu choices.
65
US 8,531,392 B2
15
16
illustrate and describe all possible forms of the invention.
Rather, the Words used in the speci?cation are Words of
description rather than limitation, and it is understood that
various changes may be made Without departing from the
spirit and scope of the invention.
13. The method of claim 12 Wherein change in navigation
position comprises moving a cursor.
14. The method of claim 12 Wherein change in navigation
position comprises scrolling of a list of displayed items.
15. The method of claim 1 Wherein the plurality of control
functions comprises at least one camera control function and
Wherein the parametric control input speci?es a desired
change in at least one of pan, tilt, Zoom, focus, and aperture.
16. The method of claim 1 Wherein the plurality of control
functions comprises at least one image vieWing control and
Wherein the parametric control input speci?es a desired
What is claimed is:
1. A method comprising:
dividing an annular touch pad into a plurality of regions;
assigning each of the plurality of regions to one of a plu
rality of control functions;
change in at least one of pan, tilt, and Zoom.
receiving a touch on the touch pad initiated at a given point
on the touch pad; and
17. An apparatus comprising:
a scroll sensor having an annular touch sensitive control
if the given point falls Within one of the regions, selecting
input surface, the scroll sensor providing an output sig
the control function assigned to the one of the regions
and receiving the touch as parametric control input for
the selected control function;
Wherein selecting the control function requires that the
touch has rotational motion initiated at the given point.
2. The method of claim 1 further comprising dividing the
touch pad into a different plurality of regions based on the
nal indicative of a touch on the input surface initiated at
a given point on the input surface; and
a controller in communication With the scroll sensor, the
controller operative to
(a) receive the output signal from the scroll sensor,
20
state of a controller.
3. The method of claim 1 Wherein the selected control
function is activated for an activation period Which continues
until the touch is terminated.
4. The method of claim 1 Wherein the selected control
function is activated for an activation period Which continues
for a preset amount of time after the touch is terminated.
5. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
control functions comprises volume control and Wherein the
25
30
tions are selectable.
21. The apparatus of claim 17 Wherein the controller is
parametric control input speci?es a desired change in chan
35
the remote control comprising:
a scroll sensor having an annular touch sensitive control
frequency.
input surface, the scroll sensor providing an output sig
40
control functions comprises play list control and Wherein the
parametric control input speci?es a desired change in a
selected play list entry.
a given point on the input surface;
a controller in communication With the scroll sensor and
45
control functions,
(b) receive the output signal from the scroll sensor,
(c) if the given point falls Within one of the regions, select
50
11. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
12. The method of claim 1 Wherein the plurality of control
functions comprise at least tWo navigation controls and
Wherein the parametric control input for each navigation con
trol speci?es a desired change in navigation position.
the remote control function corresponding to the one of
the regions only if the touch has rotational motion initi
ated at the given point and receive the touch as paramet
ric control input for the selected remote control function,
control functions comprises media play position control and
Wherein the parametric control input speci?es a desired
change in media play position.
the transmitter, the controller operative to
(a) divide the input surface into at least tWo regions, each
region corresponding to one of a plurality of remote
10. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
change in media play velocity.
nal indicative of a touch on the input surface initiated at
a transmitter for transmitting a remote control signal; and
9. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
control functions comprises media play velocity control and
Wherein the parametric control input speci?es a desired
further operative to change the control functions in the plu
rality of control functions.
22. A remote control for use With an entertainment system,
control functions comprises frequency control and Wherein
the parametric control input speci?es a desired change in
control functions comprises stored digital item control and
Wherein the parametric control input speci?es a desired
change in a selected stored digital item.
the controller are part of a portable digital storage device.
20. The apparatus of claim 17 further comprising a display,
the display indicating Which of the plurality of control func
6. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
control functions comprises channel control and Wherein the
8. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
based on the given point on the input surface only if the
touch has rotational motion initiated at the given point
on the input surface, and
(c) provide control input for the selected function based on
the touch.
18. The apparatus of claim 17 Wherein the scroll sensor is
part of a remote control.
19. The apparatus of claim 17 Wherein the scroll sensor and
parametric control input speci?es a desired change in volume.
nel.
7. The method of claim 1 Wherein one of the plurality of
(b) select one function from a plurality of control functions
55
and
(d) control the transmitter to transmit a signal specifying
the parametric control input for the selected remote con
trol function.
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