Oracle Database Installation Guide

Oracle Database Installation Guide
[1]
Oracle®
Database
Installation Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1) for Linux
E41491-12
August 2015
Oracle Database Installation Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1) for Linux
E41491-12
Copyright © 2014, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Prakash Jashnani.
Contributing Author: Douglas Williams
Contributor: The Oracle Database 12c documentation is dedicated to Mark Townsend, who was an
inspiration to all who worked on this release.
Contributors: Saar Maoz, David Austin, Subhranshu Banerjee, Aparna Kamath, Janelle Simmons, Mark
Bauer, Gurumurthy Ramamurthy, Robert Chang, Jonathan Creighton, Sudip Datta, Jonathan Creighton,
John McHugh, Allan Graves, Sundar Matpadi, Thirumaleshwara Hasandka, Sagar Jadhav, Joel Kallman,
George Kotsovolos, Gopal Mulagund, Tammy Bednar, Benoit Dageville, Simon Law, Richard Long, Shekhar
Vaggu, Rolly Lv, Padmanabhan Manavazhi, Sreejith Minnanghat, Krishna Mohan, Rajendra Pingte, Kevin
Jernigan, Bryn Llewellyn, Hanlin Qian, Roy Swonger, Ranjith Kundapur, Aneesh Khandelwal , Barb
Lundhild, Barbara Glover, Ravi Thammaiah, Binoy Sukumaran, Hema Ramamurthy, Prasad Bagal, Martin
Widjaja, Ajesh Viswambharan, Eric Belden, Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Preethi Vallam, Rudregowda
Mallegowda , Satish Panchumarthy, Matthew McKerley, Trivikrama Samudrala, Apparsamy Perumal,
Akshay Shah, Sue Lee, Sangeeth Kumar, James Spiller, Kamal Tbeileh, Rich Long, Mark Fuller, Sunil
Ravindrachar, Sergiusz Wolicki, Eugene Karichkin, Joseph Francis, Srinivas Poovala, David Schreiner, Neha
Avasthy, Dipak Saggi, Sudheendra Sampath, Mohammed Shahnawaz Quadri, Shachi Sanklecha, Zakia
Zerhouni, Aravind Jayaraaman, Jai Krishnani, Mughees Minhas, Jim Erickson, Darcy Christensen, Ara
Shakian, Marcus Fallen, Clara Jaeckel, Namrata Bhakthavatsalam, Emily Murphy, Terri Winters, Kevin
Flood, Gavin Bowe, Christopher Jones, Mark Richwine, Mohit Singhal, Gurudas Pai, Rajesh Prasad, Peter
Wahl, Kiran Chamala, Dharma Sirnapalli, Ashmita Bose, Asad Hasan.
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Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Audience.....................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility ...................................................................................................................
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................
Conventions ...............................................................................................................................................
xiii
xiii
xiv
xv
Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Installation Guide ............................... xvii
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).................................................................................
xvii
1 Oracle Database Installation Checklist
Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation ......................................................................
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux......................................
Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation...............
Server Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation ........................
Storage and Recovery Checklist for Oracle Database Installation ................................................
OUI Checklist for Single Instance Oracle Database Installation ...................................................
Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation........................................................................
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-5
2 Overview of Oracle Database Installation
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release ....................................................
Planning the Installation ........................................................................................................................
Installation Considerations ....................................................................................................................
Hardware and Software Certification .............................................................................................
Third-Party Database Certification for Oracle SQL Developer............................................
Multiple Oracle Homes Support......................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation ...................
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server ......................................................................
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services........................................................................................
Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory Management.......................................
Restrictions for HugePages Configurations ...................................................................................
Oracle Database Installation Methods.................................................................................................
Interactive Installation Types ...........................................................................................................
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files ..............................................................
Oracle Database Editions........................................................................................................................
Database Security Notification Options..............................................................................................
2-1
2-1
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-7
iii
Database Configuration Options .......................................................................................................... 2-8
Preconfigured Database Types ........................................................................................................ 2-8
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation....................................................................... 2-8
Database Storage Options ...................................................................................................................... 2-9
File System .......................................................................................................................................... 2-9
Oracle Automatic Storage Management...................................................................................... 2-10
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups ....................................................... 2-10
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance............................................................... 2-11
Database Management Options ......................................................................................................... 2-11
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases.................................................................. 2-12
Management Options for Custom Databases ............................................................................ 2-13
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c .............................. 2-13
Database Backup and Recovery Options.......................................................................................... 2-14
Configuring Recovery .................................................................................................................... 2-14
Upgrade Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 2-14
Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade ............................................ 2-15
Upgrading the Operating System.......................................................................................... 2-15
Migrating to a New Computer .............................................................................................. 2-15
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management ................................................................. 2-15
3 Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs.........................................................
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images ...............................................
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN support........................................................
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network ..........................
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From DVDs or Images ................................................
Installing Oracle Linux with Public Yum Repository Support.......................................................
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks........................................................
Configure Ksplice Repository for Oracle Linux ............................................................................
Configure Additional Operating System Features .......................................................................
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
4 Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation .......................................................................
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation ......................................................................................
About Minimal Linux Installations ..........................................................................................
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration ......................................
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation ..................................................................
Completing a Default Linux Installation ........................................................................................
About Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel ....................................................
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM............................................................................................
Using Ksplice to Perform a Zero Downtime Update....................................................................
Logging In to the System as root ...........................................................................................................
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database ...........................................................................................
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration ............................................................
General Server Minimum Requirements........................................................................................
Server Storage Minimum Requirements ........................................................................................
Disk Space Requirements for Linux x86-64.............................................................................
iv
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-8
Disk Space Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z ......................................................... 4-9
Disk Space Requirements for the Temporary Directory ....................................................... 4-9
Server Memory Minimum Requirements....................................................................................... 4-9
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices .......................................................... 4-10
Using Installation Fixup Scripts......................................................................................................... 4-10
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z .............................................................. 4-11
About Operating System Requirements........................................................................................... 4-11
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms ..................................................... 4-11
Supported Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64 .......... 4-12
Supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64 .......... 4-13
Supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for x86-64 .......... 4-15
Supported SUSE Distributions for x86-64 ................................................................................... 4-16
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z ................................................... 4-16
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z.............. 4-17
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z.............. 4-17
Supported SUSE Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z .................................................... 4-18
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux ................................................................... 4-19
Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity .................................................... 4-20
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database......................................................................... 4-20
Installing Oracle ODBC Driver for Linux............................................................................. 4-20
Installation Requirements for PAM on Linux............................................................................. 4-20
About PAM and Login Authentication ................................................................................ 4-20
Installing PAM Library ........................................................................................................... 4-20
Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway ...................................................... 4-20
About Oracle Messaging Gateway........................................................................................ 4-21
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway .................................................................................. 4-21
Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol................................... 4-21
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins ......................................................................................... 4-21
Installing the LDAP Package.................................................................................................. 4-21
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux................................... 4-21
About Programming Environments and Oracle Database................................................ 4-22
Configuring Support for Programming Environments ..................................................... 4-22
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers ............................................................................. 4-22
Checking the Software Requirements .............................................................................................. 4-23
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux ............................................................................................ 4-23
Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux.............................................................. 4-24
Confirming Host Name Resolution................................................................................................... 4-24
Disabling Transparent HugePages .................................................................................................... 4-25
Identifying Required Software Directories ..................................................................................... 4-26
Oracle Base Directory ..................................................................................................................... 4-26
Oracle Inventory Directory............................................................................................................ 4-27
Oracle Home Directory .................................................................................................................. 4-28
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory .......................................................................... 4-28
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory............................................................................ 4-28
Creating an Oracle Base Directory................................................................................................ 4-30
Setting Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux ................................................................................................ 4-30
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files......................................... 4-31
v
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files ........................................................ 4-31
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System................................................ 4-31
Creating Required Directories....................................................................................................... 4-32
5
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users ................................................................ 5-1
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists ................................ 5-2
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist.......................... 5-2
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation ................................................................... 5-3
Descriptions of Job Role Separation Groups and Users ............................................................... 5-3
Oracle Software Owner For Each Oracle Software Product................................................. 5-3
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation ................................................. 5-4
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation................................................. 5-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation ......................... 5-5
Creating Job Role Separation Database Operating System Groups and Users......................... 5-6
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations ........................................................ 5-6
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations ....................................................... 5-7
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations ....................................... 5-7
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations .................................................. 5-7
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations ................................................. 5-7
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ......................... 5-7
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ....................... 5-8
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management......................... 5-8
When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User ................................................................. 5-8
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists......................................................... 5-8
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User............................................................................... 5-9
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User ............................................................ 5-9
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users................................................ 5-9
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration ...................................................... 5-11
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes................................................................................................... 5-11
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment ....................................................................... 5-13
Determining Root Script Execution Plan.......................................................................................... 5-16
6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server..............................
Checking Hardware and Memory Configuration.........................................................................
Server Memory Minimum Requirements.......................................................................................
Server Storage Minimum Requirements ........................................................................................
Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner ..........................
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM...........................................................................................................
About Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM .........................................................................................
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux .....................................................................
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS ................................................................................
Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations............................................................
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration ....................................................
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions ..................................................................
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations........................................
vi
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-7
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ............................................. 6-7
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management............... 6-8
Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ..... 6-10
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver ................................................................... 6-11
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA .............................. 6-11
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation ............................................ 6-11
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances ................................ 6-12
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only
Installation.............................................................................................................................................. 6-12
Installing the Software Binaries .................................................................................................... 6-13
Configuring the Software Binaries ............................................................................................... 6-13
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server..................... 6-14
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database Installation
6-14
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database ..... 6-19
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation.. 6-20
7
Installing Oracle Database
Preinstallation Considerations .............................................................................................................. 7-1
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode............. 7-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines ................................................................ 7-1
Selecting the Database Character Set .............................................................................................. 7-2
Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group................................... 7-3
Accessing the Installation Software ..................................................................................................... 7-4
Downloading Oracle Software......................................................................................................... 7-4
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN........................................................ 7-5
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal......................... 7-5
Extracting the Installation Files................................................................................................. 7-6
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk ......................................................................................... 7-7
Mounting Disks........................................................................................................................... 7-7
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk ........................................................ 7-8
Installing the Oracle Database Software ............................................................................................. 7-8
Running Oracle Universal Installer ................................................................................................. 7-9
Installing Oracle Database Examples................................................................................................ 7-18
8 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Creating a Database .................................................................................................................................
Required Postinstallation Tasks ...........................................................................................................
Downloading and Installing Patches ..............................................................................................
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks .................................................................................................
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script ..........................................................................................
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts ..........................................
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users .............................................................................
Setting Language Preferences for Client Connections..................................................................
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters ..............................................................................
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ...................................................................................
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
vii
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group........................... 8-4
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ........................................................................ 8-4
Enabling and Disabling Database Options..................................................................................... 8-5
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool.................................................... 8-6
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks .............................................................................................. 8-6
Configuring Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................... 8-7
Modifying the listener.ora File.................................................................................................. 8-7
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File .............................................................................................. 8-7
Configuring Oracle Label Security .................................................................................................. 8-7
Configuring Oracle Database Vault ................................................................................................ 8-7
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................... 8-8
Configuring Oracle Precompilers .................................................................................................... 8-8
Configuring Pro*C/C++ ............................................................................................................ 8-8
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN ..................................................................................................... 8-8
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer................................................................................................... 8-9
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases ....................................................................... 8-9
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB ................................................................................. 8-9
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases..................................................................................... 8-9
Configuring Direct NFS Client...................................................................................................... 8-10
About Direct NFS Client Configuration ............................................................................... 8-10
About the oranfstab File and Direct NFS Client.................................................................. 8-11
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS Client.................................................... 8-11
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters .................................................................................. 8-11
Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client ............................................ 8-12
Specifying Network Paths with the oranfstab File ............................................................. 8-12
Enabling Direct NFS Client .................................................................................................... 8-12
Disabling Direct NFS Client ................................................................................................... 8-14
Enabling HCC on Direct NFS Client ..................................................................................... 8-14
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer....................................................................................... 8-14
9 Getting Started with Oracle Database
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location ................................. 9-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express .......................................................... 9-1
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management .......................................................................... 9-2
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management................................................. 9-2
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities.......................................................................... 9-2
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus ........................................................................................ 9-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer .............................................................................. 9-3
Set Up the JDK Path for SQL Developer......................................................................................... 9-3
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords .................................................................................................... 9-4
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords........................................................................................... 9-7
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords .
9-8
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords ........................................................ 9-8
Identifying Databases ............................................................................................................................. 9-8
Locating the Server Parameter File ....................................................................................................... 9-9
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files ................................. 9-9
viii
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files ....................................................................................... 9-10
Locating Redo Log Files ................................................................................................................. 9-10
Locating Control Files..................................................................................................................... 9-11
10
Removing Oracle Database Software
About the Deinstallation Tool............................................................................................................
Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home ..................................................................................
Example of Running the Deinstallation Tool..................................................................................
Example of Running the Deinstall Command ................................................................................
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Database ........................................................
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure ......................................
A
10-1
10-5
10-5
10-6
10-6
10-7
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
How Response Files Work..................................................................................................................... A-1
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode.............................................................. A-2
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option for
Database Files A-3
General Procedure for Using Response Files ................................................................................ A-3
Preparing a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-3
Editing a Response File Template................................................................................................... A-3
Saving a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-4
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File ........................................................... A-5
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File....................................................... A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File............................................. A-8
Silent Mode of Database Configuration Assistant ....................................................................... A-8
Progress Only Mode of Database Configuration Assistant ........................................................ A-8
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode......................................... A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File.................................................................... A-9
About the Postinstallation Configuration File ............................................................................ A-10
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .............................................. A-10
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home ....................................................................................................................... B-1
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home...................................... B-3
C
Using NAS Devices
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices ......................................................................
Choosing Mount Points .........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files .......................................................................
Directory-Specific Guidelines ..................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files .............................................
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management...........
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-4
D How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux.......................................................................................... D-1
ix
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation .............................................................................. D-1
Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values ................................................................... D-3
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux ....................................................... D-4
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually........................................................................ D-4
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices ................................................................................... D-5
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB ...................................... D-5
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB............................................................................... D-5
Configuring Oracle ASMLIB to Maintain Block Devices..................................................... D-6
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software .................................................. D-6
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB ........................................................ D-8
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks...................................................................... D-9
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB .................................................................................................. D-11
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management............... D-12
About Device File Names and Ownership for Linux ......................................................... D-12
Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for Oracle ASM ................................... D-12
E
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database
Installing on Multihomed Computers ................................................................................................
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable .......................................................
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases ...............................................................................
Installing on Non-Networked Computers .........................................................................................
Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation......................................................
F
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard ..............................................................
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA ........................................................................
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture..................................................................................
File Systems........................................................................................................................................
Number of File Systems ............................................................................................................
Naming Conventions ................................................................................................................
Naming Directories...........................................................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention...........................................................................
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs).................................................
Referring to Path Names...........................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention........................................................................
Naming Subdirectories .............................................................................................................
Naming Database Files.....................................................................................................................
Separating Segments with Different Requirements.....................................................................
Identifying the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files ................................
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping ................................................................................
G
E-1
E-1
E-2
E-2
E-2
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-2
F-3
F-3
F-3
F-3
F-4
F-5
F-6
F-6
F-7
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
About Managing Ports ........................................................................................................................... G-1
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs .......................................................................................... G-1
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components ....................................................................... G-2
x
H
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages...............................................
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages .............................................
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG................................................
Installing Translation Resources .....................................................................................................
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages .........................................................
I
Troubleshooting
Verify Requirements ................................................................................................................................
Read the Release Notes ......................................................................................................................
X Window Display Errors........................................................................................................................
Remote Terminal Installation Error.......................................................................................................
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?.........................................................................................
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session .....................................................................................
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart..........................................................................
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS .................................................................................
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants..........................................................................................
Configuration Assistant Failure........................................................................................................
Irrecoverable Errors ............................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues.........................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues ...............................................................................................
Troubleshooting Memory Size Error.....................................................................................................
Troubleshooting File Descriptors Error................................................................................................
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling.........................................................................................
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation................................................................................................
Continuing Installations or Upgrades After Server Restarts............................................................
J
H-1
H-1
H-2
H-3
H-3
H-4
I-1
I-1
I-2
I-2
I-3
I-3
I-4
I-5
I-5
I-5
I-6
I-6
I-6
I-6
I-7
I-7
I-7
I-7
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
Installing Oracle Database ....................................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Tools ..........................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications ......................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways) ...............................
J-1
J-3
J-7
J-8
Glossary
Index
xi
xii
Preface
This guide explains how to install and configure Oracle Database for Linux. This guide
also provides information about Optimal Flexible Architecture, cloning an Oracle
home, troubleshooting the installation, and how to remove the database software.
The preface contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documentation
■
Conventions
Audience
This guide is intended for anyone responsible for installing Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1) on Linux systems. Additional installation guides for Oracle Database,
Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database Examples, and
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control are available on Oracle Technology
Network at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
See Also: Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64 to
install Oracle Database using the default settings
See Also:
To install Oracle Database using the default settings refer to:
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for IBM: Linux on System z
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support
through My Oracle Support. For information, visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
xiii
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documentation
The related documentation for Oracle Database products includes the following
manuals:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Licensing Information
■
Oracle Database Readme
■
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux
■
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
For information about Oracle error messages, see Oracle Database Error Messages
Reference. Oracle error message documentation is available only in HTML. If you have
access to the Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) Online Documentation Library, then
you can browse the error messages by range. After you find the specific range, use
your browser's "find in page" feature to locate the specific message. When connected to
the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search
feature of the Oracle online documentation.
Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database,
which is installed by default when you install Oracle Database. See Oracle Database
Sample Schemas for information about how these schemas were created and how you
can use them yourself.
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, visit Oracle Technology Network. You must register online before using
Oracle Technology Network; registration is free and can be done at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/community/join/overview/index.html
xiv
If you have a user name and password for Oracle Technology Network, then you can
go directly to the documentation section of Oracle Technology Network website at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
See Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux for important information that was not
available when this book was released. The release notes for Oracle Database is
updated regularly. The most recent version is available on Oracle Technology Network
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xv
xvi
Changes in This Release for Oracle Database
Installation Guide
This preface contains:
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)
See Also:
Oracle Database New Features Guide
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)
The following are changes in Oracle Database Installation Guide for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1):
■
New Features
■
Deprecated Features
■
Desupported Features
■
Other Changes
New Features
■
Oracle ASM Filter Driver
The Oracle ASM filter driver (Oracle ASMFD) feature is available starting with
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).
Oracle ASMFD is a kernel module that resides in the I/O path of the Oracle ASM
disks.
Oracle ASMFD rejects any write requests that are not issues by Oracle software.
This action eliminates accidental overwrites of Oracle ASM disks that would cause
corruption in an Oracle ASM disk and files within the disk group.
The filter has additional functionality to fence I/Os from entities that are no longer
communicating with Oracle ASM.
See "About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver" on page 6-11.
See "Using Oracle ASM Filter Driver" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
Oracle ASM Filter Driver is not supported on IBM: Linux on
System z.
Note:
xvii
■
Root Scripts Automation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle Universal Installer
provides options to automatically run root configuration scripts required during a
grid infrastructure installation. You also have the option to manually run the root
configuration scripts.
See "Determining Root Script Execution Plan" on page 5-16
■
Oracle Flex ASM
Oracle Flex ASM enables an Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical
server from the database servers. Many Oracle ASM instances can be clustered to
support a large number of database clients.
Oracle Database instances can be set up as clients to Oracle Flex ASM where
metadata is provided to the database instance by an Oracle Flex ASM instance that
may be on a different node than the database instance.
Note that Oracle Flex ASM can apply to a collection of databases, each one a single
instance but running in a Flex ASM Cluster.
See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Flex ASM
■
Deinstallation Tool Integrated with Installation Media
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the deinstallation tool is integrated with the
database installation media and is no longer provided on a separate installation
media.
See "About the Deinstallation Tool" on page 10-1 and "Change for Standalone
Deinstallation Tool" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
■
Simplified Oracle Label Security Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Label Security is installed by default as
part of the Oracle Database installation. You can no longer select Oracle Label
Security as a custom component during an Enterprise Edition database
installation.
See "Configuring Oracle Label Security" on page 8-7 and Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide.
■
Simplified Oracle Database Vault Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Vault is installed by default as
part of the Oracle Database installation. However, you can configure, enable, or
disable Oracle Database Vault after the Oracle Database installation, either using
Oracle DBCA, or by running SQL statements as described in the "Disabling and
Enabling Oracle Database Vault" section in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide.
See "Registering Oracle Database Vault with an Oracle Database" in Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide
■
Unified Database Audit Configuration
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can create named audit policies. An audit
policy contains a set of audit options, which is stored in the database as an object.
The advantage of creating a named audit policy is that it reduces the number of
commands that are required to create a database audit policy, and it simplifies the
implementation of an audit configuration for security and compliance with
conditional auditing.
xviii
This new audit policy framework is included with the database installation.
See "Auditing Activities with Unified Audit Policies and the AUDIT Statement" in
Oracle Database Security Guide
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c
Oracle Database 12c introduces Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c,
a web-based management tool built into Oracle Database without any need for
special installation or management. Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express, you can perform basic administrative tasks such as user, performance,
memory, and space management. You can also view performance and status
information about your database.
See "Introduction to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express" in Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA and "Getting Started with Oracle Database" on page 9-1
Note that starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control is no longer available. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more
information.
■
Multiprocess and Multithreaded Oracle Database
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database may use operating system
threads to allow resource sharing and reduce resource consumption.
See "Introduction to Processes" in Oracle Database Concepts.
■
Support for Separation of Database Administration Duties
Oracle Database 12c provides support for separation of database administration
duties for Oracle Database by introducing task-specific and least-privileged
administrative privileges that do not require the SYSDBA administrative privilege.
These new privileges are: SYSBACKUP for backup and recovery, SYSDG for Oracle
Data Guard, and SYSKM for encryption key management.
See "Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users" on page 5-1 and
"Managing Administrative Privileges" in Oracle Database Security Guide.
■
Oracle DBCA Support for CDBs and PDBs
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
(Oracle DBCA) allows you to create a a multitenant container database (CDB) or a
non-CDB. You can create the CDB with zero, one, or more user-created pluggable
databases (PDBs).
You can also create a CDB with one PDB during the database installation.
See the "Specify Database Identifiers" screen in "Running Oracle Universal
Installer" on page 7-9, and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
See "About Common Users and Local Users", "Managing Common Roles and
Local Roles" and "Managing Commonly and Locally Granted Privileges" in Oracle
Database Security Guide for information on users, roles, and privileges in a CDB
and PDB.
■
Support for NFS Version in Direct NFS Client
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, you can specify the NFS protocol version to be
used by Direct NFS Client.
See "Enabling Direct NFS Client" on page 8-12.
xix
Deprecated Features
The following features are deprecated in this release, and may be desupported in a
future release. See Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for a complete list of deprecated
features in this release.
■
Deprecation Announcement for Oracle Restart
Oracle Restart is a feature provided as part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle
Restart monitors and can restart Oracle Database instances, Oracle Net Listeners,
and Oracle ASM instances. Oracle Restart is currently restricted to manage single
instance Oracle Databases and Oracle ASM instances only, and is subject to
desupport in future releases. Oracle continues to provide Oracle ASM as part of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for Standalone and Cluster
deployments.
See Also: My Oracle Support Note 1584742.1 for more information
about the Oracle Restart deprecation announcement and its
replacement:
https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/DocumentDisplay?id=1584742.1
&displayIndex=1
■
Change for Standalone Deinstallation Tool
The deinstallation tool is now integrated with the database installation media.
See "Deinstallation Tool Integrated with Installation Media"
■
Deprecation of -cleanupOBase
The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is deprecated in this release.
There is no replacement for this flag.
Desupported Features
The following features are no longer supported by Oracle. See Oracle Database Upgrade
Guide for a complete list of desupported features in this release.
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
■
CLEANUP_ORACLE_BASE Property Removed
Other Changes
The following are additional changes in the release:
■
Document Structure Changes
Some preinstallation tasks, and Oracle Preinstallation RPM information is
redesigned into category topics. For more details, continue to read this section in
its entirety, and refer to the chapters that subdivide preinstallation tasks into
category topics.
■
Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Information on configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPMs is now
available in a separate chapter:
Chapter 3, "Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation
RPM"
Similarly, for information about installing a supported Linux distribution, see
"Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation" on page 4-2.
xx
■
Preinstallation Task Changes
–
Fixup scripts do not replace system tuning, but they do reduce the amount of
manual system configuration required for an initial deployment. For this
reason, some manual tasks that fixup scripts perform are now moved to an
appendix. If you choose to, see Appendix D, "How to Complete Preinstallation
Tasks Manually" to continue to configure your servers manually.
–
Oracle Database, and Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
hardware and system requirements are now subdivided into category topics:
"Configuring Servers for Oracle Database" on page 4-7
"Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms" on page 4-11
"Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server"
on page 6-2
–
Configuring users, groups, and environments for Oracle Database are now
moved to a separate chapter:
Chapter 5, "Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle
Database"
–
Configuring networks for Oracle Database is now moved to a separate
appendix:
Appendix E, "Configuring Networks for Oracle Database"
xxi
xxii
1
Oracle Database Installation Checklist
1
The following checklists provide a list of required preinstallation steps:
■
Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
■
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
■
Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
■
Server Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
■
Storage and Recovery Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
■
OUI Checklist for Single Instance Oracle Database Installation
■
Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Use these checklists to coordinate tasks to help ensure that all system and storage
preparation, and configuration tasks are completed before starting an Oracle Database
or an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.
Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Review the following hardware checklist for all installations:
Table 1–1
Check
Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database
Task
Confirm Server Make and Architecture:
Confirm that server make, model, core architecture, and host bus adaptors (HBA) are supported to run with Oracle
Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server.
Check Runlevel, Display and Network Setup:
■
Server should be started in runlevel 3 or runlevel 5.
■
Server display cards provide at least 1024 x 768 display resolution.
■
Server is connected to the network, contains a display monitor and DVD drive.
Allocate Local Disk Space for Oracle Software:
■
■
Based on the Oracle Database edition you intend to install, server meets the disk space requirements listed in
Table 4–1.
At least 6.9 GB of disk space for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation.
Oracle Database Installation Checklist
1-1
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
Table 1–1 (Cont.) Server Hardware Checklist for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Random Access Memory (RAM):
At least 1 GB RAM for Oracle Database installations. See Table 4–3.
■
At least 4 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server including installations where you
plan to install Oracle Database. See Table 6–1.
■
Temporary Disk Space Allocation:
At least 1 GB allocated to /tmp.
Check Storage Hardware:
Either Storage Area Network (SAN) or Network-Attached Storage (NAS). See Appendix C, "Using NAS Devices".
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database Installation on Linux
Review the following software checklist for all installations:
Table 1–2
Check
Operating System Checklist for Oracle Database on Linux
Task
Operating System:
■
■
Supported in the list of supported distribution, releases, kernels, and packages listed in "Operating System
Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms" on page 4-11.
OpenSSH installed manually, if you do not have it installed already as part of a default Linux installation.
Oracle Preinstallation RPM for Oracle Linux:
On Oracle Linux systems, see Chapter 3, "Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation
RPM" to configure your operating system for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Kernel Parameters:
Check "Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux" on page D-1 to review the minimum kernel parameter
requirements for installation. If your parameter settings do not meet the minimum requirements for installation,
then Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) generates a fixup script that can change these settings to the minimum
required levels for installation.
Oracle User Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Review the following user environment checklist for all installations:
1-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Storage and Recovery Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1–3
Check
User Environment Configuration for Oracle Database
Task
Create Groups and Users.
Review "Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users" on page 5-1 for information about the groups and
users you need to create for the kind of deployment you want to do. Installation owners have resource limits
settings and other requirements described in "Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users" on
page 5-9.
Group and user names must use only ASCII characters.
Review Oracle Inventory (oraInventory) and OINSTALL Group Requirements.
The Oracle Inventory directory is the central inventory of Oracle software installed on your system. Users who have
the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group are granted the OINSTALL privilege to read and write to the
central inventory.
If you have an existing installation, then OUI detects the existing oraInventory directory from the
/etc/oraInst.loc file, and uses this location.
■
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time, and your system does not have an oraInventory
directory, then the installer creates an Oracle inventory that is one directory level up from the Oracle base for
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure install, and designates the installation owner's primary group as the Oracle
Inventory group. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all planned Oracle software
installation owners.
■
Unset Oracle Software Environment Variables.
If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the same user account to install this
installation, then unset the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_SID, TNS_ADMIN environment variables and any other
environment variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with Oracle software homes.
Configure the Oracle Software Owner Environment
Configure the environment of the oracle or grid user by performing the following tasks:
■
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.
■
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
See, "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on page 5-13.
Server Environment Configuration Checklist for Oracle Database
Installation
Review the following environment checklist for all installations:
Table 1–4
Check
Environment Configuration for Oracle Database
Task
Create Mount Point Paths for the Software Binaries.
Oracle recommends that you follow the guidelines for an Optimal Flexible Architecture configuration, as described
in Appendix F, "Optimal Flexible Architecture".
Check Shared Memory File System Mount:
Review "Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux" on page 4-24 to ensure that the /dev/shm mount
area is of type tmpfs and is mounted with the appropriate options.
Oracle Users and Home Paths Must Use ASCII Characters Only
Ensure Oracle home paths and other Oracle directory names use ASCII characters only. Also ensure Oracle
installation owner user names are ASCII characters only, because installation owner names are used for some
default Oracle softwarse paths.
Enable Remote Display Configuration
If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X terminal, then log in as root and
enable remote display. See, "Logging In to the System as root" on page 4-6.
Storage and Recovery Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Review the following storage configuration task checklist for all installations:
Oracle Database Installation Checklist
1-3
OUI Checklist for Single Instance Oracle Database Installation
Table 1–5
Check
Storage Configuration Checks for Oracle Database
Task
Decide the Database Storage Option
During the database installation, you must specify one of the following storage options for database files:
File System
■
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) creates the database files in a directory on a file
system mounted on the computer. Oracle recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems
used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system can be any of the following:
- A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
- A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
- A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage (NAS) device.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install
and create the database.
See "Database Storage Options" on page 2-9.
Decide If You Want to Enable Recovery
If you decide to enable recovery during the database installation, then select one of the following options:
File System: Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) provides you with an option to configure the fast recovery area
location.
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management: This option allows you only to use the same disk group for both
Oracle Database files and recovery files..
■
See "Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" and "Creating a Fast Recovery
Area Disk Group".
OUI Checklist for Single Instance Oracle Database Installation
Review the following task checklist before you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
for single instance Oracle Database installations:
Table 1–6
Check
Oracle Database Checks Before Starting OUI
Task
Verify if Oracle Grid Infrastructure Exists
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle
Restart.
Check Running Oracle Processes, and Shut Down if Necessary:
■
■
On a standalone database not using Oracle ASM: You do not need to shut down the database while you
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
On a standalone database using Oracle ASM: Stop the existing Oracle ASM instances. The Oracle ASM
instances are restarted during installation.
See "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" on page 5-11.
Ensure cron Jobs Do Not Run During Installation
If the installer is running when daily cron jobs start, then you may encounter unexplained installation problems if
your cron job is performing cleanup, and temporary files are deleted before the installation is finished. Oracle
recommends that you complete installation before daily cron jobs are run, or disable daily cron jobs that perform
cleanup until after the installation is completed.
Decide if You Want to Install Other Languages
During installation, you are asked if you want translation of user interface text into languages other than the
default, which is English. If the language set for the operating system is not supported by the installer, then by
default the installer runs in the English language.
See Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for detailed information about character sets and language
configuration.
1-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1–6 (Cont.) Oracle Database Checks Before Starting OUI
Check
Task
Decide Your Management Option
By default, Oracle Database 12c is managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express.
However, if you have an existing Oracle Management Agent, and decide to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control to centrally manage your database, then obtain the following information to enter during the database
installation:
■
OMS host
■
OMS port
■
EM admin username
■
EM admin password
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator's Guide for information about how to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to discover targets
Determine Root Script Execution Plan
See, "Determining Root Script Execution Plan" on page 5-16 to determine how you plan to run root scripts during
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory Management
You can enable automatic memory management either during, or after the database installation. Enabling
automatic memory management after installation involves a shutdown and restart of the database.
With automatic memory management, the Oracle Database instances automatically manage and tune memory for
you. With automatic memory management, you choose a memory target, and the instance automatically distributes
memory between the system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area (instance PGA). As memory
requirements change, the instance dynamically redistributes memory between the SGA and instance PGA.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Disable Transparent HugePages
Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages and use standard HugePages for enhanced
performance.
See, "Disabling Transparent HugePages" on page 4-25.
Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Review the following general tasks checklist for all installations:
Table 1–7
Check
Recommended Planning Checks for Oracle Database
Task
Read the Release Notes:
Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with
the platform-specific documentation.
Review the Licensing Information
Although the installation media in the media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only
those components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.
Read Oracle Database Licensing Information.
Obtain Your My Oracle Support Information
You will need your My Oracle Support username and password to perform various installation related tasks such
as configuring security updates, downloading software updates, and reviewing certification.
The My Oracle Support website is available at:
https://support.oracle.com/
Oracle Database Installation Checklist
1-5
Planning Checklist for Oracle Database Installation
Table 1–7 (Cont.) Recommended Planning Checks for Oracle Database
Check
Task
Review Oracle Support Certification Matrix
New platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the
certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms
and operating system versions:
https://support.oracle.com/
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the menu options, select the
Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the Certification Search options to search by Product, Release,
and Platform. You can also search using the Certification Quick Link options such as Product Delivery, and
Lifetime Support.
Run CVU and Download and Install the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Run CVU before installation to check your system for its compliance with minimum installation requirements, and
download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the Oracle software stack.
See, "Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool" on page 8-6.
Review the Oracle Universal Installer Installation Tutorial
Review the following step-by-step installation tutorial to understand OUI installation options:
https://apexapps.oracle.com/pls/apex/f?p=44785:24:0::NO:24:P24_CONTENT_ID,P24_PREV_PAGE:6281,1
Note: you can also run OUI up to the Summary screen, and either save a response file for review, or cancel the
installation and run it at another time.
1-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
2
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2
This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database and issues to
consider before you install Oracle Database:
■
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
■
Planning the Installation
■
Installation Considerations
■
Oracle Database Installation Methods
■
Oracle Database Editions
■
Database Security Notification Options
■
Database Configuration Options
■
Database Storage Options
■
Database Management Options
■
Database Backup and Recovery Options
■
Upgrade Considerations
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
Refer to Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Installation Guide for
information about the new features and products installed with this release.
Planning the Installation
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following steps:
1.
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you
begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific
documentation.
The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
2.
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media
pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those
components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which
licenses have not been purchased.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2-1
Planning the Installation
See Also:
3.
Oracle Database Licensing Information
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can
install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix J, which covers frequently asked questions about
installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if
the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database
connections.
4.
Configure Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPMs: Chapter 3 describes
how to use Oracle Preinstallation RPMs to configure your operating system for
Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
5.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 4 describes preinstallation tasks that you
must complete before installing the product. Additionally, see Chapter 5 for
information on configuring users, groups and environments, Chapter 6 for Oracle
Restart preinstallation tasks, and Appendix E for checking the network setup.
6.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Chapter 6 describes how to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server.
Chapter 7 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle
Database and how to clone an Oracle home.
Appendix A provides information about performing silent, or response file
installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple
installations of Oracle Database.
Appendix B provides information about cloning an Oracle home.
Appendix D provides information about completing installation related
configuration tasks manually.
Appendix H describes globalization support information.
Appendix I provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems
with the installation.
7.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 8 describes recommended and required
postinstallation tasks.
8.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with
Oracle Database:
■
■
■
■
9.
Chapter 9 describes how to verify the contents of the installed Oracle
Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network-attached storage (NAS) devices, which you
can use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix F describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of
guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that require little
maintenance.
Appendix G explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
Remove Oracle database software: Chapter 10 describes how to remove Oracle
Database software.
2-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installation Considerations
Installation Considerations
This section contains information that you must consider before deciding how to
install this product. It contains the following sections:
■
Hardware and Software Certification
■
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory Management
■
Restrictions for HugePages Configurations
Hardware and Software Certification
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support website for the most
up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My
Oracle Support website is available at:
https://support.oracle.com/
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, from the
menu options, select the Certifications tab. On the Certifications page, use the
Certification Search options to search by Product, Release, and Platform. You can also
search using the Certification Quick Link options such as Product Delivery, and
Lifetime Support.
Third-Party Database Certification for Oracle SQL Developer
You can use Oracle SQL Developer to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle
databases. Refer to "Database Certification for SQL Developer (Oracle and
Third-Party)" in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for more information.
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. So, you can install this release or earlier
releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home
directories.
Installing Oracle Database on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation
You must install Oracle Database into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install
products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a
different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 12c software into an
existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is
installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to
include your single-instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle
Database 12c combines these infrastructure products into one software installation
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2-3
Installation Considerations
called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single-instance database, the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) software.
To use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
See Also: Chapter 6, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for more information about installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
When you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, Oracle Universal
Installer configures the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
(CSS). Specifically, CSS is a daemon process that is configured by the root.sh script.
The CSS service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM
instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the
service must be running before an Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it
is configured to start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance
is started. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for database
file storage.
For single-instance installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.
On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS
daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If
the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then see Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for
information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
Note:
See Also:
"Oracle Automatic Storage Management" on page 2-10
Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory Management
During a Typical installation, you create your database with Database Configuration
Assistant (DBCA), and automatic memory management is enabled. If you choose
Advanced installation, then you can either specify memory allocation manually, or
enable automatic memory management.
With automatic memory management, the Oracle Database instances automatically
manage and tune memory for you. With automatic memory management, you choose
a memory target, and the instance automatically distributes memory between the
system global area (SGA) and the instance program global area (instance PGA). As
memory requirements change, the instance dynamically redistributes memory
between the SGA and instance PGA.
You can enable automatic memory management either during, or after the database
installation. Enabling automatic memory management after installation involves a
shutdown and restart of the database.
2-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database Installation Methods
See Also: "Managing Memory" in Oracle Database Administrator's
Guide
Restrictions for HugePages Configurations
HugePages is a feature integrated into the Linux kernel with release 2.6 and can
provide enhanced performance. You can choose to configure HugePages. However,
this feature is an advanced configuration option and is not a requirement. Refer to
your distribution documentation and to Oracle Technology Network and My Oracle
Support for more information.
The HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using
memory-mapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory
allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and
UNIX-Based Operating Systems for a complete list of HugePages
restrictions
Oracle Database Installation Methods
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
■
Interactive Installation Types
■
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
Interactive Installation Types
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database by selecting the
Create and configure a database option, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of
screens that enable you to specify all the required information to install the Oracle
Database software and create a database.
Oracle Universal Installer provides you the following options:
■
■
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class
system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration.
This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such
as what you would use when deploying Oracle Database in a production data
center. This option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced
configuration options available with this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM,
backup and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control, and more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.
Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation
types:
–
Typical: Select this installation method to quickly install Oracle Database. This
installation type requires minimal user input. Oracle Universal Installer
installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using
the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation
type.
–
Advanced: Select this installation type to complete any of the following tasks:
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2-5
Oracle Database Editions
–
Select a database character set or different product languages.
–
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation.
–
Create a database on a different file system from the software.
–
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas.
–
Configure recovery options.
–
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager.
–
In the Select Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition,
then Oracle Universal Installer automatically selects the components most
customers need for their Oracle Database installation.
See Also: "Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines"
on page 7-1 for additional information about Oracle database
installation
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal
Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These
automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations
on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software
does not have X Window System software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following
modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information:
■
■
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response
file that specifies all required information, and specify the-silent option when
starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens
are displayed.
Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you
do not specify all required information in the response file.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation
using response files, see Appendix A.
Oracle Database Editions
You can choose one of the following database editions when installing Oracle Database
12c:
■
■
■
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database
configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are
installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most
commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also
allows you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.
Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department-level or
workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and
options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution,
replication, web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department-level,
workgroup-level, or web applications. From single-instance environments for
small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database
2-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Security Notification Options
Standard Edition One includes all the features necessary to build business-critical
applications.
■
Standard Edition 2: This installation type is designed for department-level or
workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and
options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution,
replication, web features, and it helps build business-critical applications.
Note:
■
■
■
You must install Oracle Database Client separately. You cannot
install it during an Oracle Database installation. See Oracle
Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for installation
instructions.
The installation process is the same for all the database editions.
Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a
valid license.
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information
about the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for
information about licensing
See Also:
Database Security Notification Options
Oracle issues security alerts as needed for vulnerability fixes that are determined to be
too critical to wait for distribution in the next Critical Patch Update.
During the database installation, in the Configure Security Updates screen Oracle
Universal Installer prompts you to provide a security contact. Select one of the
following options:
■
■
Provide an email address to receive security information for your installation.
Provide a My Oracle Support email address or account name to receive security
information for your installation, and to enroll your system for Security Updates.
You can receive information about alerts through My Oracle Support.
You can choose not to provide this information, but Oracle strongly recommends that
you configure a security notification contact.
The information collected by Security Updates is limited to configuration information.
The data collected does not include personally identifiable information (except for a
local contact name in case of transmission problems). You may still use all licensed
Oracle functionality if you decline to enable Security Updates.
To choose not to receive security notifications, leave all fields in the Configure Security
Updates screen blank, and click Next to continue.
If you provide your My Oracle Support credentials, then Security Updates
automatically gathers configuration information regarding your installed Oracle
products and uploads it to Oracle's support systems. You can access the information it
collects through your My Oracle Support account, and review health check
recommendations, patch recommendations and other recommendations for your
system in addition to security alerts.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2-7
Database Configuration Options
See Also: The Oracle Security Policies page, which is available from
the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/us/support/assurance/fixing-policies/i
ndex.html
Database Configuration Options
During the Oracle Database installation, you can choose to create an Oracle database
as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can
create the database with one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed
for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types,
or create a customized database to meet your requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
■
Preconfigured Database Types
■
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
Preconfigured Database Types
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or
customize during the installation:
■
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
■
Data Warehouse
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two
modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
■
Noninteractive Mode
During an Oracle Database installation, if you choose to create a preconfigured
database type, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum
amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then
runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode to
create the database after it installs the software.
Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a
database if you have not previously created one.
Note:
■
Interactive mode
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database
types or customize the database.
2-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Storage Options
If you use this method to create a database, then click Help
on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a
description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
Note:
Database Storage Options
If you create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the following
storage options for database files:
■
File System
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during
installation. You must use a file system or Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM).
Note:
File System
If you use the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates
the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer. Oracle
recommends that the file system be separate from the file systems used by the
operating system or the Oracle software. The file system can be any of the following:
■
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID
devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over many
disks.
■
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle
recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology
to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not have
to specify multiple file system mount points for the database storage.
■
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network-attached storage
(NAS) device. You also have the option to use Direct NFS Client, which simplifies
the administration of NFS configurations and also improves performance.
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on
them.
See Also:
■
■
"General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices" on page C-1
for NAS certification information
"Configuring Direct NFS Client" on page 8-10
If you use the Advanced database creation option, then you can also use the Oracle
Managed Files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must
specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting
database files.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
2-9
Database Storage Options
See Also: "Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation"
in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is a high-performance storage
management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a
dynamic database environment, for example, creating and laying out databases and
managing disk space.
Oracle ASM can be used with single database installations, multiple database
installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created
in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 12c
databases must use Oracle ASM from Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c or later. Oracle
ASM is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If you plan to
use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install
and create the database. If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation,
then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
upgrade.
See Also: Chapter 6, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for more information about installing the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server
Oracle ASM manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files,
and data pump export files.
Oracle ASM can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files and any other
database files by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System. Although Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System is cluster-aware, it also works as a file system on a single-instance database.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management provides storage management for both cluster
environments and single instance database environments.
See Also: "Introducing Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM" in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information
about Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
At a high level, implementing Oracle ASM involves allocating partitioned disks for
Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle ASM manages the
disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools,
such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands
necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle ASM and the database
instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Oracle ASM installation:
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle ASM manages as a single unit. Each
disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID
storage array or logical volume, or a partition on a physical disk. In most cases, disk
groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Oracle ASM to
balance I/O operations and storage efficiently within the disk group, you must ensure
2-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Management Options
that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and
performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a
disk group by using Oracle ASM disk group templates. When you create a disk group,
Oracle ASM creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template
settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control
files for both normal and high redundancy disk groups is set to three-way mirroring.
All other files are configured with two-way mirroring for normal redundancy, or
three-way mirroring when configured for high redundancy. For a high redundancy
disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are
always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the
default templates to suit your site’s needs. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for more information.
Oracle ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize
performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group
without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle ASM
rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to do
specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular file
storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device.
Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for
example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all
devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its
own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle ASM can distribute
data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by
component failures.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
The Oracle ASM instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle ASM disk
groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the ASMSNMP account are created and started, if
necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager
uses this account to monitor Oracle ASM instances to retrieve data from Oracle
ASM-related data dictionary views. The ASMSNMP account status is set to OPEN upon
creation, and it is granted the SYSDBA privilege.
Oracle recommends that you have the Oracle ASM instance in its own Oracle home.
Oracle also recommends that you run this instance before you start a database instance
that uses Oracle ASM.
For an Oracle Database installation, you only need one Oracle ASM instance,
regardless of the number of database instances on the computer.
See Also: "Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise
Manager" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for information about the ASMSNMP user
Database Management Options
To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a web-based management tool
called Oracle Enterprise Manager. There are different ways to deploy Oracle Enterprise
Manager:
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in the environment
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 2-11
Database Management Options
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle
Management Repository and at least one Oracle Management Service within the
environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every
computer to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to manage and
monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include
Oracle databases, application servers, net listeners, and third-party software. This
single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
Note:
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control is available
separately on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
installation media, and on the Oracle Technology Network
website:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/oem/enterprise-manager/ove
rview/index.html
■
For the latest Oracle Enterprise Manager certification
information see the My Oracle Support certification page at:
https://support.oracle.com/
See Also:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation
Guide
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express locally on the database system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c is a web-based management tool
built into Oracle Database without any need for special installation or
management.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express can manage only a single database. If
you want to administer multiple databases on a system, then you must either
configure a separate Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for each
database, or you must install Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
■
Management Options for Custom Databases
■
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
When you create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the
Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to manage the database. The following options
are available:
■
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the
system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on
the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service
to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Express to manage the database. However, if Oracle
2-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Management Options
Management Agent is installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to manage this database.
■
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express for local database management
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is built into Oracle Database without
any need for special installation or management. Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express is available and configured by default during the database
installation, and is not displayed as an option in Oracle Universal Installer during
the database installation.
Management Options for Custom Databases
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from the Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant runs in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface to use to manage
the database. You can also choose not to configure the database with Oracle Enterprise
Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
during the database installation. However, if you do not do this, then see Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA for configuring EM Express, or see Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control Administrator's Guide for information about how to use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Cloud Control to discover targets.
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express provides a web-based user interface that
enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database.
You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to perform basic database
administration tasks, such as:
■
■
■
Configuration and Administration
–
Initialization Parameters
–
Memory Management
–
Database Feature Usage
–
Database Properties
Storage
–
Tablespaces Management
–
Undo Management
–
Redo Log Groups
–
Archive Logs
–
Control Files
Security
–
Users Management
–
Roles Management
–
Profiles Management
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 2-13
Database Backup and Recovery Options
You can also use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to complete
Performance Monitoring and Tuning tasks, such as:
■
■
Performance Hub
–
Real Time SQL Monitoring
–
ASH (Active Session History) Analytics
–
ADDM (Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor)
–
AWR (Automatic Workload Repository) Browser
–
Historical performance monitoring and tuning
SQL Tuning Advisor
Database Backup and Recovery Options
To simplify the management of backup and recovery files, you can create a fast
recovery area for your database. During the database installation, Oracle Universal
Installer provides you with options to configure the fast recovery area location.
However, to configure backups, and to implement a backup and recovery strategy, you
must use either Recovery Manager (RMAN) or Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information
about Oracle backup and recovery solutions using RMAN or
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about configuring
customized backups and recovering a backed up database
Configuring Recovery
You can provide the location of the fast recovery area during the database installation.
You can use either a file system directory or an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast
recovery area. To set the default values for fast recovery area and data file location, use
Oracle base as the starting point. See "Oracle Base Directory" for more information on
Oracle base.
■
Default fast recovery area: $ORACLE_BASE/recovery_area
■
Default data file location: $ORACLE_BASE/oradata
The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle ASM
disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk
group that you choose.
See Also:
■
■
"Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management"
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group"
Upgrade Considerations
For information about upgrading an earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle
Database 12c, see Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections provide
2-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Upgrade Considerations
additional platform-specific upgrade information that you must review before
upgrading an existing database:
■
Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade
■
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Upgrading Your Operating System Before a Database Upgrade
When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, the operating system
requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade your operating system before
upgrading Oracle Database. See Chapter 4, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks" for
a list of supported operating systems.
To upgrade the operating system and then perform a database upgrade, perform one
of the following procedures:
■
Upgrading the Operating System
■
Migrating to a New Computer
Upgrading the Operating System
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by
using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.
Migrating to a New Computer
Migrate to a new computer using one of the following methods:
■
To upgrade the database on the new computer:
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running the previous operating
system to the one running the supported operating system.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running the supported operating
system.
3.
Manually upgrade the database using the method described in Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide.
You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you use
this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the earlier
database.
Note:
■
You can also upgrade the database using the Export/Import utilities method
described in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
See Also: The table on "Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading
Oracle Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information
about upgrading your current database release
Upgrading Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM was installed as
part of the Oracle Database installation. In Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and
later releases, Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either
for a cluster or for a standalone server.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 2-15
Upgrade Considerations
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have
Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then
you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your
Oracle Database installation.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
2-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
3
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with
Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle Linux 6 or Oracle Linux 5 and use Oracle
RPMs to configure your operating systems for Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installations. For Oracle Linux 6, run the Oracle Preinstallation RPM.
For Oracle Linux 5, run the Oracle Validated RPM.
This chapter contains the following contents:
■
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs
■
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
■
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN support
■
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
■
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From DVDs or Images
■
Installing Oracle Linux with Public Yum Repository Support
■
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks
Overview of Oracle Linux Configuration with Oracle RPMs
The Oracle RPMs for your Oracle Linux distributions and Oracle RDBMS releases
automatically install any additional packages needed for installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and configure your server operating system
automatically, including setting kernel parameters and other basic operating system
requirements for installation. For more information about what the Oracle RPMs do,
refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
Configuring a server using Oracle Linux and the Oracle Preinstallation RPM consists
of the following steps:
1.
Install Oracle Linux
2.
Register your Linux distribution with Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
or download and configure the yum repository for your system using the Oracle
public yum repository for your Oracle Linux release
3.
Install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM or Oracle Validated RPM with the RPM for
your Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database releases, and update your
Linux release.
4.
Create role-allocated groups and users with identical names and ID numbers
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3-1
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
5.
Complete network interface configuration for each cluster node candidate
6.
Complete system configuration for shared storage access as required for each
standard or Core node cluster candidate.
After these steps are complete, you can proceed to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and Oracle RAC
Installing a New Oracle Linux Installation from DVDs or Images
Use the following procedure to install a new Oracle Linux installation and to perform
system configuration with the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux either by ordering the Oracle Linux media pack from Oracle
Store, or by downloading disk images from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
website for Oracle Linux and Oracle VM.
Oracle Shop:
https://shop.oracle.com
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Start the Oracle Linux installation, and respond to installation screens with values
appropriate for your environment.
3.
Review the first software selection screen, which lists task-specific software
options. At the bottom of the screen, there is an option to customize now or
customize later. Select Customize now, and click Next.
4.
On Oracle Linux 6.3, Select Servers on the left hand side of the screen, and System
administration tools on the right hand side of the screen (options may vary
between releases)
The Packages in System Tools window opens.
5.
Select the Oracle Preinstallation RPM or Oracle Validated RPM package box from
the package list.
If you do not have an Oracle Preinstallation RPM or Oracle Validated package
option that is current for your Oracle Database release, because you are using an
Oracle Linux installation that is previous to your Oracle Database and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure release, then install the RPM for your release manually after
completing the operating system install.
6.
Close the optional package window and click Next.
7.
Complete the other screens to finish installing Oracle Linux.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8.
Repeat steps 2 through 6 on all other cluster member nodes.
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM with ULN support
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
Oracle Linux channels, and to add the Oracle Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Preinstallation RPM:
3-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux Network
1.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
2.
Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
3.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
4.
Click Manage Subscriptions. The System Summary window opens.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the Linux installation media copy and
update patch channels corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For
example, if your distribution is Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 for x86_64, then select the
following:
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 installation media copy (x86_64)
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 Patch (x86_64)
6.
Click Subscribe.
7.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
Oracle Linux 6:
# yum install oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall
Oracle Linux 5:
# yum install oracle-validated
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed. For example:
el5_u6_i386_base
el5_u6_x86_64_patch
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
8.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration
changes. For example, on Oracle Linux 5:
Note:
/var/log/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From Unbreakable Linux
Network
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Oracle Linux channels, and to add the
Oracle Linux channel that distributes the Oracle Preinstallation RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation.
You can download Oracle Linux from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3-3
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From DVDs or Images
2.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
Click Manage Subscriptions. The System Summary window opens.
6.
From the Available Channels list, select the Enterprise Linux installation media
copy and update patch channels corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution.
For example, if your distribution is Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 for x86_64, then select
the following:
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 installation media copy (x86_64)
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 Patch (x86_64)
7.
Click Subscribe.
8.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform:
Oracle Linux 6:
yum install oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall
Oracle Linux 5:
# yum install oracle-validated
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel. For example:
el5_u5_i386_base
el5_u5_x86_64_patch
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
9.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
Check the RPM log file to review the system configuration
changes. For example, on Oracle Linux 5:
Note:
/var/log/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
Installing the Oracle Preinstallation RPM From DVDs or Images
Use the following procedure to install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM from the Oracle
Linux distribution:
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux disks either by ordering the Oracle Linux media pack from
Oracle Store, or by downloading disk images from the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud website for Oracle Linux and Oracle VM.
Oracle Store:
https://shop.oracle.com
3-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Linux with Public Yum Repository Support
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Start the Oracle Linux installation.
3.
Review the first software selection screen, which lists task-specific software
options. At the bottom of the screen, there is an option to customize now or
customize later. Select Customize now, and click Next.
4.
Select Base System on the Customization page, in the list on the left side of the
screen, and then select System Tools on the right side of the screen. Then click
Optional Packages.
The Packages in System Tools window opens.
5.
Select the Oracle Preinstallation RPM package box from the package list, and click
Next.
6.
Complete the other screens to finish installing Oracle Linux.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
7.
Repeat steps 2 through 6 on all other cluster member nodes.
Installing Oracle Linux with Public Yum Repository Support
Use the following procedure to install Oracle Linux and configure your Linux
installation for security errata or bug fix updates using the Oracle public yum
repository:
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux DVDs from Oracle Store, or download Oracle Linux from the
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:
Oracle Store:
https://shop.oracle.com
Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Install Oracle Linux from the ISO or DVD image.
3.
Log in as root
4.
Download the yum repository file for your Linux distribution from
http://public-yum.oracle.com, using the instructions you can find on the public
yum site. For example:
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# wget http://public-yum.oracle.com/public-yum-ol6.repo
Ensure that the olrelease_latest file (ol6_latest for Oracle Linux 6) is enabled, as
this is the repository that contains the Oracle Preinstallation RPM.
5.
(Optional) Edit the repo file to enable other repositories. For example, enable the
repository ol6_UEK_latest by setting enabled=1 in the file with a text editor.
6.
Run the command yum repolist to verify the registered channels.
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3-5
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks
7.
Start a terminal session and enter the following command as root, depending on
your platform. For example:
Oracle Linux 6:
yum install oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall
Oracle Linux 5:
# yum install oracle-validated
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel, and that packages are being installed. For example:
el5_u6_i386_base
el5_u6_x86_64_patch
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
After installation, run the command yum update as needed to obtain the most
current security errata and bug fixes for your Oracle Linux installation.
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks
Complete the following optional configuration tasks:
■
Configure Ksplice Repository for Oracle Linux
■
Configure Additional Operating System Features
Configure Ksplice Repository for Oracle Linux
You can use Ksplice if you have Premier support subscription and an access key, which
is available on ULN. For more information about Ksplice (including trial versions, see
http://www.ksplice.com/.
Complete the following task to register your system with Ksplice
1.
Check for your kernel distribution at the following URL:
http://www.ksplice.com/uptrack/supported-kernels#
2.
Log in as root.
3.
Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use
Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server and
port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:
# export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
# export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
4.
Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM package:
https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.r
pm
5.
Run the following commands:
rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
yum -y install uptrack
3-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks
Configure Additional Operating System Features
As needed, configure the operating system for additional features, such as IPMI or
additional programming environments, then review Chapter 4, "Oracle Database
Preinstallation Tasks"
Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with Oracle Preinstallation RPM
3-7
Additional Optional Operating System Configuration Tasks
3-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
4
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4
This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle
Universal Installer.
To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
or Oracle Restart, you must first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server before you install and create the database.
Otherwise, you must manually register the database with Oracle
Restart.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
■
"Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server" on page 6-2 before you proceed with the
database preinstallation tasks
Chapter 5, "Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for
Oracle Database"
Appendix E, "Configuring Networks for Oracle Database"
This chapter includes information about the following topics:
■
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
■
Logging In to the System as root
■
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database
■
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
■
Using Installation Fixup Scripts
■
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
■
About Operating System Requirements
■
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
■
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
■
Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4-1
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
■
Confirming Host Name Resolution
■
Disabling Transparent HugePages
■
Identifying Required Software Directories
■
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
■
Setting Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
■
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
See Also:
■
■
■
"Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server"
"Preinstallation Requirements" section in Oracle Configuration
Manager Installation and Administration Guide and Oracle
Configuration Manager Prerequisites
Appendix A, "Country Codes", in Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and Administration Guide for a list of valid country
codes that can be used while installing Oracle Configuration
Manager
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution.
Complete the minimum hardware configuration before you install the operating
system.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
■
Completing a Default Linux Installation
■
About Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
■
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
Review the following sections regarding minimal Linux installation requirements:
■
About Minimal Linux Installations
■
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
■
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
About Minimal Linux Installations
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select one of the minimal installation
options (either a custom installation where you select the Minimal option from
Package Group Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack).
This installation lacks many RPMs required for database installation, so you must use
an RPM package for your Oracle Linux release to install the required packages. The
package you use depends on your Linux release, and your support status with
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
4-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM installs the X11 client libraries,
but it does not install the X Window System server packages. To use
graphical user interfaces such as OUI, configuration assistants, and
Oracle Enterprise Manager, set the display to a system with X
Window System server packages.
Note:
Refer to the following URL for documentation regarding installation of a reduced set
of packages:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=728346.1
If you are not a member of Unbreakable Linux Network or
Red Hat Support network, and you are a My Oracle Support
customer, then you can download instructions to configure a script
that documents installation of a reduced set of packages:
Note:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&id=579101.1
You can also search for "Linux reduced set of packages" to locate the
instructions.
RPM Packages for Completing Operating System Configuration
Oracle Linux 6 Preinstallation RPM With ULN Support
Oracle Preinstallation RPM for your Oracle Linux 6 kernel
(oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall).
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM by using yum.
Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM With ULN Support
Oracle Validated RPM (oracle-validated) for your Oracle Linux 5 kernel.
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM
by using up2date, or using yum (5.5 and later releases).
See Also: Chapter 3, "Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with
Oracle Preinstallation RPM"
Oracle Linux 6 Preinstallation RPM Without ULN Support
http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL6/latest/x86_64/
Oracle Linux 5 Oracle Validated RPM Without ULN Support
http://public-yum.oracle.com/repo/OracleLinux/OL5/latest/x86_64/
Open SSH Requirement for Minimal Installation
SSH is required for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. OpenSSH should be
included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To confirm that SSH packages
are installed, enter the following command:
# rpm -qa | grep ssh
If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux
distribution.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4-3
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This
installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual
verification of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize
the RPMs during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "default rpms linux installation," and look for your Linux distribution. For
example:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=401167.1
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution and system configuration.
About Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Oracle's Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel delivers the latest innovations from upstream
development to customers who run Oracle Linux in the data center. The Unbreakable
Enterprise Kernel is included and enabled by default starting with Oracle Linux 5
Update 6.
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is based on a recent stable mainline development
Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed in collaboration with Oracle
Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware engineering teams to ensure
stability and optimal performance for the most demanding enterprise workloads.
Oracle highly recommends deploying the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in
your Linux environment, especially if you are running enterprise applications.
However, using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict
Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernel (RHEL) compatibility, then Oracle Linux also
includes a kernel compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the
RHEL source code.
You can obtain more information about the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for
Linux at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux/overview/index.html
The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is the standard kernel used with
Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle
products use the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux exclusively. The
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle
Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux
is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in the
Oracle Preinstallation RPM program for x86-64.
Ksplice, which is part of Oracle Linux, updates the Linux operating system (OS)
kernel, while it is running, without requiring restarts or any interruption. Ksplice is
available only with Oracle Linux.
4-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Guidelines for Linux Operating System Installation
About the Oracle Preinstallation RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are
an Oracle Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation configuration
tasks by using the Oracle Preinstallation RPM, available from the Oracle Linux
Network, or available on the Oracle Linux DVDs. Using the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM is not required, but Oracle recommends you use it to save time in setting up your
cluster servers.
When installed, the Oracle Preinstallation RPM does the following:
■
■
■
Automatically downloads and installs any additional RPM packages needed for
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database, and resolves any
dependencies
Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA (dba)
groups for that user
As needed, sets sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, and driver
parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle Preinstallation
RPM program
■
Sets hard and soft resource limits
■
Sets other recommended parameters, depending on your kernel version
To become an Oracle Linux Network customer, contact your sales representative, or
purchase a license from the Oracle Linux store:
https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, see the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
If you are using Oracle Linux 5.2 and higher, then the Oracle Preinstallation RPM is
included on the install media.
The Oracle Preinstallation RPM designated for each Oracle
Database release sets kernel parameters and resource limits only for
the user account oracle. To use multiple software account owners,
you must perform system configuration for other accounts manually.
Note:
See Also: Chapter 3, "Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with
Oracle Preinstallation RPM"
Using Ksplice to Perform a Zero Downtime Update
Ksplice Uptrack updates provide Linux security and bug fix updates, repackaged in a
form that allows these updates to be applied without restarting the kernel.
To use Ksplice Uptrack:
1.
Obtain or verify your Oracle Linux premium support subscription from
Unbreakable Linux Network:
https://linux.oracle.com
2.
Log in as root.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4-5
Logging In to the System as root
3.
Ensure that you have access to the Internet on the server where you want to use
Ksplice. For example, if you are using a proxy server, then set the proxy server and
port values in the shell with commands similar to the following:
# export http_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
# export https_proxy=http://proxy.example.com:port
4.
Download the Ksplice Uptrack repository RPM package:
https://www.ksplice.com/yum/uptrack/ol/ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.r
pm
5.
Run the following commands:
rpm -i ksplice-uptrack-release.noarch.rpm
yum -y install uptrack
6.
Open /etc/uptrack/uptrack.conf with a text editor, enter your premium support
access key, and save the file. You must use the same access key for all of your
systems.
7.
Run the following command to carry out a zero downtime update of your kernel:
uptrack-upgrade -y
See Also:
■
The Oracle Ksplice Uptrack website for more information:
http://www.ksplice.com
■
Oracle Ksplice for Oracle Linux
https://oss.oracle.com/ksplice/docs/ksplice-quickstart.pdf
Logging In to the System as root
During installation, you must perform tasks as root or as other users on remote
terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want to enable
for remote display.
If you log in as another user (for example, grid), then repeat
this procedure for that user as well.
Note:
To log in as the root user and enable remote display, complete one of the following
procedures:
■
If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X
terminal, then:
1.
Start a new X terminal session (xterm).
2.
If you are installing the software on another system and using the system as
an X11 display, then enter a command using the following syntax to enable
remote hosts to display X applications on the local X server:
$ xhost + RemoteHost
where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:
$ xhost + somehost.example.com
4-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database
somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to
install the software:
$ ssh -Y RemoteHost
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command to
switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
■
To install the software from a PC or other system with X server software:
If necessary, see the X server documentation, or contact
your X server vendor or system administrator for more information
about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server
software that you are using, you may have to complete the tasks in
a different order.
Note:
1.
Start the X Window System software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X Window System software to permit
remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software as the
oracle software installation owner (oracle) and start an X terminal session
(xterm) on that system.
4.
Open another terminal on the remote system, and log in as the root user on
the remote system, so you can run scripts as root when prompted.
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database
This section describes the following operating system tasks you must complete before
you install Oracle Database:
■
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
■
General Server Minimum Requirements
■
Server Storage Minimum Requirements
■
Server Memory Minimum Requirements
Checking Server Hardware and Memory Configuration
Run the following commands to check your current system information:
1.
To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required
size, then you must install more memory before continuing.
2.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4-7
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about how
to configure additional swap space.
3.
To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -h /tmp
4.
To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following
command:
# df -h
5.
To determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system, enter
the following command:
# free
6.
To determine if the system architecture can run the software, enter the following
command:
# uname -m
Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release to install.
For example, you should see the following for a x86-64 bit system:
x86_64
If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the software on this
system.
General Server Minimum Requirements
Ensure the following general minimum requirements on your system:
■
■
Ensure that the system is started with runlevel 3 or runlevel 5.
Ensure display cards provide at least 1024 x 768 display resolution, so that Oracle
Universal Installer displays correctly while performing a system console-based
installation
Server Storage Minimum Requirements
Ensure that your system meets the following minimum storage requirements,
depending on your system architecture:
■
Disk Space Requirements for Linux x86-64
■
Disk Space Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Disk Space Requirements for the Temporary Directory
Disk Space Requirements for Linux x86-64
Ensure that your Linux x86-64 system meets the disk space requirements for software
files as described in Table 4–1
4-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Servers for Oracle Database
Table 4–1
Disk Space Requirements on Linux x86-64
Installation Type
Disk Space for Software Files
Enterprise Edition
6.4 GB
Standard Edition
6.1 GB
Standard Edition One
6.1 GB
Standard Edition 2
6.1 GB
Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is
required for the fast recovery area.
Disk Space Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Ensure that your system meets the disk space requirements for software files as
described in Table 4–2
Table 4–2
Disk Space Requirements on IBM: Linux on System z:
Installation Type
Disk Space for Software Files
Enterprise Edition
5.5 GB
Standard Edition
5.4 GB
Standard Edition One
5.5 GB
Standard Edition 2
5.4 GB
Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is
required for the fast recovery area.
Disk Space Requirements for the Temporary Directory
1 GB of space in the /tmp directory on your Linux system.
If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then
complete one of the following steps:
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle user’s
environment.
See Also: "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 5-13 for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.
Server Memory Minimum Requirements
Ensure that your system meets the following memory requirements:
Minimum: 1 GB of RAM
Recommended: 2 GB of RAM or more
Table 4–3 describes the relationship between the installed RAM and the configured
swap space recommendation:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks
4-9
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
Table 4–3
Swap Space Requirement for Linux
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of the RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
See Also:
■
■
■
Restrictions for HugePages Configurations
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server
Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic Memory
Management
Reviewing Operating System Security Common Practices
Secure operating systems are an important basis for general system security. Ensure
that your operating system deployment is in compliance with common security
practices as described in your operating system vendor security guide.
Using Installation Fixup Scripts
Oracle Universal Installer detects when the minimum requirements for an installation
are not met, and creates shell scripts, called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system
configuration steps. If Oracle Universal Installer detects an incomplete task, then it
generates fixup scripts (runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup script and click Fix and
Check Again. The fixup script modifies both persistent parameter settings and
parameters in memory, so you do not have to restart the system.
See Also: "Cluster Verification Utility Reference" in Oracle
Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for information about
using the cluvfy command
The Fixup script does the following tasks:
■
■
■
■
If necessary sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation,
including:
–
Shared memory parameters.
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.
Creates and sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.
Creates or reconfigures primary and secondary group memberships for the
installation owner, if necessary, for the Oracle Inventory directory and the
operating system privileges groups.
Sets shell limits if necessary to required values.
Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.
4-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Using fixup scripts does not ensure that all the prerequisites
for installing Oracle Database are met. You must still verify that all the
preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful
installation.
Note:
See Also: Appendix D, "How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks
Manually"
Using Oracle RPM Checker on IBM: Linux on System z
Use the Oracle RPM Checker utility to verify that you have the required Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or SUSE packages installed on the operating system before you start
the Oracle Database or Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility from the link in the My Oracle Support
note 1574412.1 available at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/epmos/faces/DocumentDisplay?id=1574412.1&displayIndex=1
Download the Oracle RPM Checker utility for your IBM: Linux on System z
distribution, unzip the RPM, and install the RPM as root. Then, run the utility as root
to check your operating system packages. For example:
# rpm -ivh ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the utility checks and also installs all required RPMs.
For example:
yum install ora-val-rpm-EL6-DB-12.1.0.1-1.s390x.rpm
About Operating System Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that you have the required
operating system kernel and packages installed.
Requirements listed in this document are current as of the date listed on the title page.
To obtain the most current information about kernel requirements, see the online
version on the Oracle Technology Network at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks your system to verify that it meets the
listed operating system package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete
successfully, verify the requirements before you start OUI.
Oracle does not support running different operating system
versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being
upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries
on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is
supported.
Note:
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
The Linux distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this
release on x86-64. No other Linux distributions are supported.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-11
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify
additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC
installations.
■
Supported Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
■
Supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
■
Supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for x86-64
■
Supported SUSE Distributions for x86-64
Note:
■
■
■
The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel can be installed on
x86-64 servers running either Oracle Linux 5 Update 5, or Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5. As of Oracle Linux 5 Update 6, the
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is the default system
kernel. An x86 (32-bit) release of Oracle Linux including the
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is available with Oracle
Linux 5 update 7 and later.
The 32-bit packages listed in the following sections are required
only for 32-bit client installs.
Oracle Universal Installer requires an X Window System (for
example, libx). The libx packages are part of a default Linux
installation. If you install Linux using an Oracle Preinstallation
RPM, then the libx packages are installed as part of that RPM. If
you perform an install on a system with a reduced set of packages,
then you must ensure that libx is installed.
Supported Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 7 and Red Hat Linux 7
distributions:
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), Oracle
Linux 7 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 are supported on Linux
x86-64 systems.
4-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4–4
x86-64 Supported Linux 7 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
Oracle Linux 7
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 7 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or
configure a yum repository from the Oracle public yum site, and then install the
Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other
system configuration.
Supported distributions:
■
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
Oracle Linux 7 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel: 3.10.0-54.0.1.el7.x86_64
or later
Supported distribution:
■
Packages for Oracle Linux 7
and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7
Oracle Linux 7 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel: 3.8.13-33.el7uek.x86_
64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: 3.10.0-54.0.1.el7.x86_64 or later
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.23.52.0.1-12.el7.x86_64
compat-libcap1-1.10-3.el7.x86_64
gcc-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
gcc-c++-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
glibc-2.17-36.el7.i686
glibc-2.17-36.el7.x86_64
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7.i686
glibc-devel-2.17-36.el7.x86_64
ksh
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7.i686
libaio-0.3.109-9.el7.x86_64
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7.i686
libaio-devel-0.3.109-9.el7.x86_64
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libgcc-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libstdc++-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7.i686
libstdc++-devel-4.8.2-3.el7.x86_64
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7.i686
libXi-1.7.2-1.el7.x86_64
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7.i686
libXtst-1.2.2-1.el7.x86_64
make-3.82-19.el7.x86_64
sysstat-10.1.5-1.el7.x86_64
Supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 6 and Red Hat Linux 6
distributions:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-13
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Table 4–5
x86-64 Supported Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
Oracle Linux 6
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 6 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or
configure a yum repository from the Oracle public yum site, and then install the
Oracle Preinstallation RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel packages for
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and performs other
system configuration.
Supported distributions:
■
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Oracle Linux 6 with the Red Hat Compatible kernel: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or
later
Supported distributions:
■
Packages for Oracle Linux 6
and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6
Oracle Linux 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel:
2.6.39-200.24.1.el6uek.x86_64 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6: 2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.11.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (i686)
gcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
gcc-c++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
glibc-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.7.el6 (i686)
ksh
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libgcc-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (x86_64)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.4-13.el6 (i686)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (x86_64)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (i686)
libXext-1.1 (x86_64)
libXext-1.1 (i686)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (x86_64)
libXtst-1.0.99.2 (i686)
libX11-1.3 (x86_64)
libX11-1.3 (i686)
libXau-1.0.5 (x86_64)
libXau-1.0.5 (i686)
libxcb-1.5 (x86_64)
libxcb-1.5 (i686)
libXi-1.3 (x86_64)
libXi-1.3 (i686)
make-3.81-19.el6
sysstat-9.0.4-11.el6 (x86_64)
4-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for x86-64 Linux Platforms
Supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Linux 5
distributions:
Table 4–6
x86-64 Supported Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
Oracle Linux 5
Subscribe to the Oracle Linux 5 channel on the Unbreakable Linux Network, and
then install the Oracle Validated RPM. This RPM installs all required kernel
packages for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database installations, and
performs other system configuration.
Supported distributions:
■
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Red Hat compatible kernel:
2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later
Supported distributions:
■
Package requirements for
Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5
Oracle Linux 5 Update 6 with the Unbreakable Enterprise kernel:
2.6.32-100.0.19 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 6: 2.6.18-238.0.0.0.1.el5 or later
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
coreutils-5.97-23.el5_4.1
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-58
glibc-2.5-58 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.5-58
glibc-devel-2.5-58 (32 bit)
ksh
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
libXext-1.0.1
libXext-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXtst-1.0.1
libXtst-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libX11-1.0.3
libX11-1.0.3 (32 bit)
libXau-1.0.1
libXau-1.0.1 (32 bit)
libXi-1.0.1
libXi-1.0.1 (32 bit)
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-15
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Supported SUSE Distributions for x86-64
Use the following information to check supported SUSE distributions:
Table 4–7
x86-64 Supported SUSE Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server
Supported distributions:
SUSE 11
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2: 3.0.13-0.27 or later
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25
gcc-4.3-62.198
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1
ksh-93u-0.6.1
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46
libcap1-1.10-6.10
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libs-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
The distributions and packages listed in this section are supported for this release on
IBM: Linux on System z. No other IBM: Linux on System z distributions are
supported.
Identify operating system requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and identify
additional operating sytem requirements for Oracle Database and Oracle RAC
installations.
■
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
■
Supported SUSE Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
4-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Note: The 32-bit packages listed in the following sections are
required only for 32-bit client installs.
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check the supported Red Hat Linux 6 distributions:
Table 4–8
Linux 6 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3: 2.6.32-279.el6.s390x or later
Note: You can install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 3, but Oracle
recommends that you install on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Update 4 as RHEL
6.4 includes significant I/O performance gains on Open Storage.
See My Oracle Support Note 1574412.1 for more information:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=15744
12.1
Packages for Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 6
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.20.51.0.2-5.34.el6 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-69.el6 (s390x)
compat-libcap1-1.10-1 (s390x)
gcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
glibc-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390)
glibc-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.12-1.80.el6 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-16.el6 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390)
libaio-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.107-10.el6 (s390x)
libgcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390)
libgcc-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.4.6-4.el6 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.99.2-3.el6 (s390)
libXtst-1.0.99.2-3.el6 (s390x)
libXi-1.3-3.el6 (s390)
libXi-1.3-3.el6 (s390x)
libXmu-1.0.5-1.el6 (s390)
libXaw-1.0.6-4.1.el6 (s390)
libXft-2.1.13-4.1.el6 (s390)
libXp-1.0.0-15.1.el6 (s390)
make-3.81-20.el6 (s390x)
sysstat-9.0.4-20.el6 (s390x)
Supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported Red Hat Linux 5 distributions:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-17
Operating System Requirements for IBM: Linux on System z
Table 4–9
Linux 5 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8: 2.6.18-308.el5 s390x or later
Package requirements for Red The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Hat Enterprise Linux 5
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-20.el5 (s390x)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-2.5-81 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390)
glibc-devel-2.5-81 (s390x)
ksh-20100621-5.el5 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390)
libaio-devel-0.3.106-5 (s390x)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libgcc-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390)
libstdc++-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2-52.el5 (s390x)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390)
libstdc++44-devel-4.4.6-3.el5.1 (s390x)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1 (s390)
libXtst-1.0.1-3.1 (s390x)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4 (s390)
libXi-1.0.1-4.el5_4 (s390x)
make-3.81-3.el5 (s390x)
sysstat-7.0.2-11.el5 (s390x)
Supported SUSE Distributions for IBM: Linux on System z
Use the following information to check supported SUSE distributions:
4-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Table 4–10
SUSE 11 Minimum Operating System Requirements
Item
Requirements
SSH Requirement
Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on your servers. OpenSSH is the required SSH
software.
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2: 3.0.13-0.27-default s390x or later
SUSE 11
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.21.1-0.7.25 (s390x)
gcc-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
gcc-c++-4.3-62.198 (s390x)
glibc-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
glibc-devel-32bit-2.11.3-17.31.1 (s390x)
ksh-93u-0.6.1 (s390x)
make-3.81-128.20 (s390x)
libaio-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.109-0.1.46 (s390x)
libcap1-1.10-6.10 (s390x)
libgcc46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3-11.9 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-32bit-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.4_20091019-0.22.17 (s390x)
libstdc++46-32bit-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
libstdc++46-4.6.1_20110701-0.13.9 (s390x)
sysstat-8.1.5-7.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-32bit-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libs-7.4-8.26.32.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-32bit-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libX11-7.4-5.9.1 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-32bit-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXau-7.4-1.15 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libxcb-32bit-7.4-1.20.34 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXext-32bit-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)
xorg-x11-libXext-7.4-1.16.21 (s390x)
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
You are not required to install additional drivers and packages, but you may choose to
install or configure drivers and packages in the following list:
■
Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity
■
Installation Requirements for PAM on Linux
■
Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
■
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
■
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-19
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
Oracle Database Smart Flash Cache is an Enterprise Edition
only feature.
Note:
Installation Requirements for Open Database Connectivity
Review the following sections if you plan to install Open Database Connectivity
(ODBC):
■
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
■
Installing Oracle ODBC Driver for Linux
About ODBC Drivers and Oracle Database
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a set of database access APIs that connect to
the database, prepare, and then run SQL statements on the database. An application
that uses an ODBC driver can access non-uniform data sources, such as spreadsheets
and comma-delimited files.
Installing Oracle ODBC Driver for Linux
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux. Download and install the ODBC Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the
following website:
http://www.unixodbc.org
Review the minimum supported ODBC driver, and install the following ODBC driver,
or later releases, for all distributions of Linux
unixODBC-2.3.1 or later
Installation Requirements for PAM on Linux
Review the following sections to install PAM:
■
About PAM and Login Authentication
■
Installing PAM Library
About PAM and Login Authentication
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is a system of libraries that handle user
authentication tasks for applications. On Linux, external scheduler jobs require PAM.
Oracle strongly recommends that you install the latest Linux-PAM library for your
Linux distribution.
Installing PAM Library
Use a package management system (yum, up2date, YaST) for your distribution to install
the latest pam library.
Installation Requirements for Oracle Messaging Gateway
Review the following sections to install Oracle Messaging Gateway:
■
About Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
4-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
About Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway is a feature of the Oracle database that enables
communication between applications based on non-Oracle messaging systems and
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing.
Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced
Queuing (AQ) with applications based on WebSphere MQ and TIBCO Rendezvous.
For information on supported versions see Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's
Guide.
Oracle Messaging Gateway does not support the integration of
Advanced Queuing with TIBCO Rendezvous on IBM: Linux on
System z.
Note:
Installing Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway is installed with the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database.
If you require a CSD or Fix Pack for IBM WebSphere MQ, then see the following
website for more information:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21182310
Installation Requirements for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Review the following sections to install Lightweight Directory Access Protocol:
■
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
■
Installing the LDAP Package
About LDAP and Oracle Plug-ins
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an application protocol for accessing
and maintaining distributed directory information services over IP networks. You
require the LDAP package if you want to use features requiring LDAP, including the
Oracle Database scripts odisrvreg and oidca for Oracle Internet Directory, or
schemasync for third-party LDAP directories.
Installing the LDAP Package
LDAP is included in a default Linux operating system installation.
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, and you intend to use Oracle
scripts requiring LDAP, then use a package management system (up2date, YaST) for
your distribution to install a supported LDAP package for your distribution, and
install any other required packages for that LDAP package.
Installation Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux
Review the following sections to install programming environments:
■
About Programming Environments and Oracle Database
■
Configuring Support for Programming Environments
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-21
Additional Drivers and Software Packages for Linux
About Programming Environments and Oracle Database
Oracle Database supports multiple programming languages for application
development in different environments. Some languages require that you install
additional compiler packages for the operating system.
Programming environments are options. They are not required for Oracle Database.
See Also : Oracle Database Development Guide for an overview of
programming environments
Configuring Support for Programming Environments
Ensure that your system meets the requirements for the programming environment
you want to configure:
Table 4–11
Requirements for Programming Environments for Linux x86-64
Programming Environments
Support Requirements
Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface
(OCI)
JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit release 1.6.0_37 or later updates of 1.6) with
the JNDI extension with Oracle Java Database Connectivity. JDK 1.6 is
installed with this release.
Oracle C++
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Pro*C/C++
Oracle XML Developer's Kit
(XDK)
Intel C/C++ Compiler 12.0.5 or later, and the version of GNU C and C++
compilers listed in the software requirements section in this document for
your platform.
Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI) applications can be built only with Intel C++
Compiler 12.0.5 used with the standard template libraries of the gcc versions
listed in the software requirements section in this document for your platform.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as OCCI.
Pro*COBOL
Table 4–12
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
Requirements for Programming Environments for IBM: Linux on System z
Programming Environments
Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC) / Oracle Call Interface
(OCI)
Support Requirements
■
JDK 6 (1.6.0 SR12)
■
JDK 7 (1.7.0)
JDK 1.6 is installed with this release.
Pro*COBOL
Micro Focus Server Express 5.1
Installation Requirements for Web Browsers
Web browsers are required only if you intend to use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Web browsers must
support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. For a list of browsers
that meet these requirements see the Enterprise Manager certification matrix on My
Oracle Support:
https://support.oracle.com
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Basic Installation
Guide for steps on how to access the Enterprise Manager certification
matrix
See Also:
4-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
Checking the Software Requirements
To check the software requirements, perform the following steps:
1.
To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter one of the
following commands:
#
#
#
#
2.
cat /etc/oracle-release
cat /etc/redhat-release
cat /etc/SuSE-release
lsb_release -id
To determine whether the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following
command:
# uname -r
The following is sample output displayed by running this command on an Oracle
Linux 6 system:
2.6.39-100.7.1.el6uek.x86_64
Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is
previous to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest
kernel update from your Linux distributor.
3.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar
to the following:
# rpm -q package_name
Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter
the following command:
# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep
package_name
You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the
correct versions. For example:
# rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
make sysstat unixodbc
If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from your Linux distributor's website.
Installing the cvuqdisk RPM for Linux
If you do not use an Oracle Preinstallation RPM, then you must install the cvuqdisk
RPM. Without cvuqdisk, the Cluster Verification Utility cannot find shared disks, and
you receive a "Package cvuqdisk not installed" error when you run the Cluster
Verification Utility. Use the cvuqdisk RPM for your hardware (for example, x86_64, or
i386).
To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:
1.
Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the Oracle
Database installation media. If you installed Oracle Grid Infrastructure, then it is
in the directory oracle_home1/cv/rpm.
2.
Log in as root.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-23
Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux
3.
Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the
cvuqdisk package:
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to deinstall the
existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
4.
Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that owns
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall, for example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
5.
In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk RPM, use the following
command to install the cvuqdisk package:
rpm -iv package
For example:
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.rpm
Checking Shared Memory File System Mount on Linux
Ensure that the /dev/shm mount area is of type tmpfs and is mounted with the
following options:
■
With rw and execute permissions set on it
■
With noexec or nosuid not set on it
Use the following procedure to check the shared memory file system:
1.
Check the current mount settings. For example:
$ more /etc/fstab |grep "tmpfs"
tmpfs
/dev/shm
tmpfs
2.
defaults
0 0
If necessary, change the mount settings. For example, log in as root, open the
/etc/fstab file with a text editor, and modify the tmpfs line:
tmpfs
/dev/shm
tmpfs
rw,exec
0 0
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and
UNIX-Based Operating Systems for more information about shared
memory mounts
Confirming Host Name Resolution
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to a
network. Ensure that the computer host name is resolvable through a Domain Name
System (DNS), a network information service (NIS), or a centrally-maintained TCP/IP
host file, such as /etc/hosts. Use the ping command to ensure that your computer
host name is resolvable. For example:
ping myhostname
pinging myhostname.example.com [192.0.2.2] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.0.2.2: bytes=32 time=138ms TTL=56
4-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Disabling Transparent HugePages
If your computer host name does not resolve, then contact your system administrator.
See Also:
Appendix E, "Configuring Networks for Oracle Database"
Disabling Transparent HugePages
Transparent HugePages memory is enabled by default with Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6, SUSE 11, and Oracle Linux 6 with earlier releases of Oracle Linux Unbreakable
Enterprise Kernel 2 (UEK2) kernels. Transparent HugePages memory is disabled by
default in later releases of UEK2 kernels.
Transparent HugePages can cause memory allocation delays at runtime. To avoid
performance issues, Oracle recommends that you disable Transparent HugePages on
all Oracle Database servers. Oracle recommends that you instead use standard
HugePages for enhanced performance.
Transparent HugePages memory differs from standard HugePages memory because
the kernel khugepaged thread allocates memory dynamically during runtime. Standard
HugePages memory is pre-allocated at startup, and does not change during runtime.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and
UNIX-Based Operating Systems for information about HugePages
To check if Transparent HugePages is enabled run one of the following commands as
the root user:
Red Hat Enterprise Linux kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/redhat_transparent_hugepage/enabled
Other kernels:
# cat /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
The following is a sample output that shows Transparent HugePages is being used as
the [always] flag is enabled.
[always] never
If Transparent HugePages is removed from the kernel then the
/sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage or /sys/kernel/mm/redhat_
transparent_hugepage files do not exist.
Note:
To disable Transparent HugePages perform the following steps:
1.
Add the following entry to the kernel boot line in the /etc/grub.conf file:
transparent_hugepage=never
For example:
title Oracle Linux Server (2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64 ro root=LABEL=/
transparent_hugepage=never
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-300.25.1.el6uek.x86_64.img
2.
Restart the system to make the changes permanent.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-25
Identifying Required Software Directories
Identifying Required Software Directories
You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:
■
Oracle Base Directory
■
Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Oracle Home Directory
Note:
■
■
Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default
for some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user
names, file names, and directory names.
Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only
from the following set: "# % & ' () * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ _ A-Z a-z
0-9. This includes user names, file names, and directory names. At
the time of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not
supported. The set of characters provided is further restricted by
user and file naming rules of the operating system.
Oracle Base Directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path
similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:
/mount_point/app/software_owner
In this example:
■
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the
Oracle software.
The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.
■
software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner
installing the Oracle software, for example oracle or grid.
If you start a database instance using the server parameter file
(spfile) with the ORACLE_BASE environment variable set, then its
value is automatically stored in spfile. If you unset the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable and start the instance again, then the database
uses the value of the Oracle base directory stored in spfile.
Note:
You must specify the Oracle base directory that contains all Oracle products.
4-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying Required Software Directories
If you have an existing Oracle base directory, then you can
select it from the Oracle Base list during the database installation. If
you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the
text in the list box. By default, the list contains the existing value for
the Oracle base. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on
page 7-8 for more information.
Note:
You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple installations or you can create
separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system
users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate
Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can
exist on the same system:
/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
See "Creating an Oracle Base Directory" on page 4-30.
Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software
installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on
a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal
Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer
provides an Optimal Flexible Architecture-compliant path in the format
/u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app. The user running the installation has permissions to
write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle
Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle
Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory one level above the ORACLE_
BASE in the path ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to
/u01/app/oracle, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path
/u01/app/oraInventory.
If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct
owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not have to create it.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-27
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Note:
■
■
■
All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory
directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.
Do not delete this directory unless you have completely
removed all Oracle software from the system.
By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under
the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software
installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only
one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate
Oracle Base for each user.
Oracle Home Directory
The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a
particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different
releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you
run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and
a name that identifies it. In accordance with the OFA guidelines, Oracle strongly
recommends that the Oracle home directory you specify is a subdirectory of the Oracle
base directory for the user account performing the installation. Oracle recommends
that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory:
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/db_home_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
oracle_base/product/12.1.0/grid
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle
base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not
have to create this directory.
During the installation, you must not specify an existing
directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle
home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure
due to file and group ownership permission errors.
Note:
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base
directory or, if required, create one. This section contains information about the
following topics:
■
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
■
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle
base directories exist on the system.
Note:
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle Inventory
4-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify the Oracle
base directories, as follows:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. See "Creating the Oracle
Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist" on page 5-2 for more
information.
Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory
directory under the Oracle base directory for a new installation. If you
have an existing installation, then follow the steps in this section.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle home directory
Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:
# more /etc/oratab
If the oratab file exists, then it contains configuration information similar to the
following:
*:/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1:N
*:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
*:/oracle/9.2.0:N
The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories.
Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner to use
are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user
to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed
in the previous example:
/u03/app/oracle
/oracle
If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one
(/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle base directory
After you locate the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to confirm the
location of Oracle base:
cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure
that it meets the following conditions:
■
It is not on the same file system as the operating system.
■
It has sufficient free disk space, as follows:
Requirement
Free Disk Space
The Oracle base directory contains only software
files.
Up to 4 GB
The Oracle base directory contains both software
and database files (not recommended for
production databases).
Up to 6 GB
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-29
Setting Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory
is located, enter the following command:
# df -h oracle_base_path
See the following sections for more information:
■
If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then see "Choosing a
Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section on page 4-31.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.
■
If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or to create an Oracle base
directory, see "Creating an Oracle Base Directory" on page 4-30.
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file
system with sufficient free disk space.
To identify an appropriate file system, perform the following:
1.
Determine the free disk space on each mounted file system, using the following
command:
# df -h
2.
Identify a file system that has the appropriate amount of free space, from the
display:
The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or
an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.
3.
Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.
To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and
permissions for it, perform the following:
1.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
# mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
2.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you
created.
Setting Disk I/O Scheduler on Linux
Disk I/O schedulers reorder, delay, or merge requests for disk I/O to achieve better
throughput and lower latency. Linux has multiple disk I/O schedulers available,
including Deadline, Noop, Anticipatory, and Completely Fair Queuing (CFQ). For best
4-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
performance for Oracle ASM, Oracle recommends that you use the Deadline I/O
Scheduler.
Enter the following command to ensure that the Deadline disk I/O scheduler is
configured for use:
# echo deadline > /sys/block/${ASM_DISK}/queue/scheduler
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server
parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage
option to use for Oracle Database files. During the database installation, you must
choose the storage option to use for recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not
have to use the same storage option for each file type.
Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems
and Oracle ASM.
Note:
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options for each file type:
■
■
■
Choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file type.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both. See "Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle
Automatic Storage Management" on page 6-8 for more information.
See "Database Storage Options" on page 2-9 for more information about these
storage options
For information on how to configure disk storage before you start the installation, see
one of the following sections depending on your choice:
■
■
■
To use a file system for database or recovery file storage, see the "Creating
Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files" section on page 4-31.
To use Oracle ASM for database or recovery file storage, see the "Configuring
Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" section.
To identify existing disk groups and determine the free disk space that they
contain, see the "Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk
Group" section on page 7-3.
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
This section contains the following topics:
■
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
■
Creating Required Directories
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following
guidelines when deciding where to place them:
■
The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-31
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
■
You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the
database files:
–
If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical
device that is dedicated to the database.
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume
on more than one physical device and implement the
stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.
–
If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on
separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and
create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also
enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the
Advanced database creation option to implement this method.
■
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use of the database.
■
■
For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose must be on physical
devices that are used only by the database.
The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that
you specify.
Creating Required Directories
You must perform this procedure only to place the Oracle
Database or recovery files on a separate file system from the Oracle
base directory.
Note:
To create directories for the Oracle database or recovery files on separate file systems
from the Oracle base directory:
1.
Use the following command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system:
# df -h
2.
Identify the file systems to use, from the display:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in
total
Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space
If you are using the same file system for many file types, then add the disk space
requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
4-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
3.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
4.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate
owner, group, and permissions on them:
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for the database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.
■
Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):
# mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/fast_recovery_area. Oracle
recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate physical disk
than that of the database file directory. This method enables you to use the fast
recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is unusable for
any reason.
5.
See "Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server"
and "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" on page 5-11 for information about using
Oracle ASM for storage.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks 4-33
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
4-34 Oracle Database Installation Guide
5
5
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments
for Oracle Database
This chapter describes the users and groups user environment and management
environment settings to complete before you install Oracle Database and Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server. It contains the following topics:
■
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
■
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
■
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
■
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
■
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Depending on if this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on your system
and on the products that you are installing, you may have to create several operating
system groups and users.
However, if you use Oracle Preinstallation RPM to provision your Linux operating
system for an Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle Database installation, then it
configures an Oracle database installation owner (oracle), an Oracle Inventory group
(oinstall), and an Oracle administrative privileges group (dba).
See Also: Chapter 3, "Automatically Configuring Oracle Linux with
Oracle Preinstallation RPM"
If you prefer to allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one
administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all
administrative privileges, then you can use the oracle user as the installation owner,
and use one group as the primary group for any user requiring administrative
privileges for Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database administration. This group must also
be the Oracle Inventory group. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools the
group name should be oinstall.
You can also create custom configuration groups and users based on job role
separation that divide access privileges.
Log in as root, and use the instructions in the following sections to locate or create the
Oracle Inventory group and a Oracle software owner user:
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database 5-1
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
■
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
■
Descriptions of Job Role Separation Groups and Users
■
Creating Job Role Separation Database Operating System Groups and Users
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal
Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle
Inventory group (typically, oinstall) and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.
You can configure one group to be the access control group for Oracle Inventory, for
database administrators (OSDBA), and for all other access control groups used by
Oracle software for operating system authentication. However, if you use one group to
provide operating system authentication for all system privileges, then this group
must be the primary group for all users to whom you want to grant administrative
system privileges.
If you have an existing central Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same
Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle
software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this
directory.
To determine if the Oracle Inventory group exists, perform the following steps:
1.
An oraInst.loc file has content similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle
Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to
write to the central inventory.
To determine if the oraInst.loc file exists, enter the following command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
2.
Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group specified
as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:
# grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:1000:grid,oracle
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering the following command:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
5-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
About Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
A job role separation configuration of Oracle Database and Oracle ASM is a
configuration with groups and users to provide separate groups for operating system
authentication.
Review the following restrictions for users created to own Oracle software:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle
software installation. See "Oracle Software Owner For Each Oracle Software
Product" on page 5-3 for more information.
To create separate Oracle software owners and separate operating system
privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, note that each of these
users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory) as their
primary group. Members of this group have write privileges to the Oracle central
inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are also granted permissions for various
Oracle Restart resources and directories in the Oracle Restart home to which DBAs
need write access, and other necessary privileges. In Oracle documentation, this
group is represented as oinstall in code examples. See "Creating the Oracle
Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist" on page 5-2.
Oracle software installation owner users must also have the OSDBA group of the
database, the OSDBA group of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home (if you create
it), and (if you create them) the OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, and
OSKMDBA groups as secondary groups. Oracle software owners require
membership to the OSDBA group of the Oracle Grid infrastructure home so that
database instances can log on to Oracle ASM.
The Oracle Database, and the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation owner users (oracle and grid respectively) must belong to the Oracle
Inventory group (oinstall).
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory
group. Oracle recommends that you do not have more than one central inventory
for Oracle installations. If an Oracle software owner has a different central
inventory group, then you may corrupt the central inventory.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation owner user
(grid) must be in the OSDBA group of every database home.
Descriptions of Job Role Separation Groups and Users
The following sections provide an overview about users and groups to divide access
privileges by job roles:
■
Oracle Software Owner For Each Oracle Software Product
■
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
■
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
Oracle Software Owner For Each Oracle Software Product
You can create a single user (for example, oracle) to own both Oracle Database, and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installations. However, Oracle
recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle software
installation (typically, oracle, for the database software and grid for the Oracle
Restart owner user).
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database 5-3
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle software
on the system.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A
user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle
database installations, is called the oracle user.
Note:
Standard Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
Create the following operating system groups, if you are installing Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege).
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
for starting up and shutting down the database (the SYSOPER privilege). This group
cannot directly connect as SYSOPER, unless explicitly granted. However, they have
the privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege. By default, members of the
OSDBA group have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
Extended Oracle Database Groups for Job Role Separation
Starting with Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1), in addition to the OSOPER privilege
to start and shut down the database, you can create new administrative privileges that
are more task-specific and less privileged than the OSDBA/SYSDBA system privileges
to support specific administrative privileges tasks required for everyday database
operation. Users granted these system privileges are also authenticated through
operating system group membership.
You do not have to create these specific group names, but during installation you are
prompted to provide operating system groups whose members are granted access to
these system privileges. You can assign the same group to provide authentication for
these privileges, but Oracle recommends that you provide a unique group to designate
each privilege.
The OSDBA subset job role separation privileges and groups consist of the following:
■
The OSBACKUPDBA group for Oracle Database (typically, backupdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a
limited set of database backup and recovery related administrative privileges (the
SYSBACKUP privilege).
Add the Oracle software installation owner to the OSBACKUPDBA group.
■
The OSDGDBA group for Oracle Data Guard (typically, dgdba)
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating sytem users to have a
limited set of privileges to administer and monitor Oracle Data Guard (the SYSDG
privilege).
Add the Oracle software installation owner to the OSDGDBA group
■
The OSKMDBA group for encyption key management (typically, kmdba)
5-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Create this group if you want a separate group of operating sytem users to have a
limited set of privileges for encryption key management such as Oracle Wallet
Manager management (the SYSKM privilege).
If you want to have an OSKMDBA group for Oracle Database, then the Oracle
software installation owner must be a member of this group.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job Role Separation
Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure:
■
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmdba)
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM can be the same group used as the OSDBA
group for the database, or you can create a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM
to provide administrative access to Oracle ASM instances.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (typically, grid) must be a member
of the OSDBA group. Membership in the OSDBA group enables access to the files
managed by Oracle ASM. If you have a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM,
then the Oracle Restart software owner must be a member of the OSDBA group
for each database and the OSDBA group for Oracle ASM.
■
The OSASM group for Oracle ASM Administration (typically, asmadmin)
Create this group as a separate group if you want to have separate administration
privileges groups for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. Members
of this group are granted the SYSASM system privileges to administer Oracle
ASM. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members are
granted SYSASM privileges is called the OSASM group, and in command lines, is
referred to as asmadmin.
Oracle ASM can support multiple databases. If you have multiple databases on
your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups so that you can provide separate
SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you should create a group whose
members are granted the OSASM/SYSASM administrative privileges, and create a
grid infrastructure user (grid) that does not own a database installation, so that
you separate Oracle Grid Infrastructure SYSASM administrative privileges from a
database administrative privileges group.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance
as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit
mounting and dismounting of disk groups, and other storage administration
tasks. SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.
If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA
group you define is also, by default, the OSASM group.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative
privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping the
Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
If you want to have an OSOPER group for Oracle ASM, then the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner must be a member of this group.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database 5-5
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
the OSDBA, OSASM, OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA,
and OSKMDBA groups, and the SYSDBA, SYSASM, SYSOPER,
SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM privileges
The "Managing Administrative Privileges" section in Oracle
Database Security Guide
Creating Job Role Separation Database Operating System Groups and Users
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups:
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User
■
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
■
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
■
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
Note:
■
■
■
After you create the required operating system groups described
in this section, you must add the Oracle software owner user
(typically, oracle) to these groups, otherwise these groups will
not be available as an option in Oracle Universal Installer while
performing the database installation.
The UIDs and GIDs mentioned in this section are illustrative only.
Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID
defaults. Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs,
and confirm that they are unused before you create or modify
groups and users.
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user or group.
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
5-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
Create the OSDBA group using the group name dba, unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54322 dba
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
Create an OSOPER group only to identify a group of operating system users with a
limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For
most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you want to use
an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
Create the OSOPER group using the group name oper, unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54323 oper
Creating the OSBACKUPDBA Group for Database Installations
Create the OSBACKUPDBA group using the group name backupdba, unless a group
with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
Creating the OSDGDBA Group for Database Installations
Create the OSDGDBA group using the group name dgdba, unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
Creating the OSKMDBA Group for Database Installations
Create the OSKMDBA group using the groups name kmdba unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require, create a new OSDBA group for Oracle ASM using the group name
asmdba unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database 5-7
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require, create an OSOPER group for Oracle ASM with the group name asmoper
unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require, create an OSASM group using the group name asmadmin unless a group
with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User
Depending on whether you want to create a new user, or use an existing user, see the
following sections:
■
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system.
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation.
If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such
as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle
Database software, such as oracle.
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
To determine if an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter
commands similar to the following:
# id oracle
# id grid
If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54322(dba),54323(oper)
If the grid user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=54322(grid) gid=54321(oinstall)
groups=54321(oinstall),54329(asmadmin),54327(asmdba),54322(dba)
Determine whether you want to use an existing user, or create a new user. To use the
existing user, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and
that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Depending on
your choice, see one of the following sections for more information:
■
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
■
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Note:
5-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
If the Oracle software owner user (oracle or grid) does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it as described in this section (in this case
to create the oracle user).
In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name
exists:
1.
To create an oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba
oracle
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
2.
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional
because the system can provide you with an automatically generated user ID
number. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a number. You must
note the user ID number because you need it during preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group, for example oinstall.
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group, and, if required, the ASMDBA, OSOPER, OSBACKUPDBA,
OSDGDBA, and OSKMDBA groups, for example, dba, asmdba, oper,
backupdba, dgdba, and kmdba.
Set the password of the oracle user:
# passwd oracle
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of
the appropriate OSDBA, OSOPER, or OSDBA for ASM groups, then modify the user
group settings for the user oracle.
Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group
using the -G option:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,backupdba,dgdba,kmdba[,oper] oracle
Oracle does not support modifying an existing installation owner. See "About Oracle
Installations with Job Role Separation" on page 5-3 for a complete list of restrictions.
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
For each installation software owner, check the resource limits for installation, using
the following recommended ranges:
Table 5–1
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
Resource Shell Limit
Resource
Soft Limit
Hard Limit
Open file descriptors
nofile
at least 1024
at least 65536
Number of processes available to a
single user
nproc
at least 2047
at least 16384
Size of the stack segment of the
process
stack
at least 10240 KB
at least 10240 KB, and
at most 32768 KB
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database 5-9
Checking Resource Limits for Oracle Software Installation Users
Table 5–1 (Cont.) Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
Resource Shell Limit
Resource
Soft Limit
Hard Limit
Maximum Locked Memory Limit
memlock
at least 90
percent of the
current RAM
when HugePages
memory is
enabled and at
least 3145728 KB
(3 GB) when
HugePages
memory is
disabled
at least 90 percent of
the current RAM
when HugePages
memory is enabled
and at least 3145728
KB (3 GB) when
HugePages memory is
disabled
To check resource limits:
1.
Log in as an installation owner.
2.
Check the soft and hard limits for the file descriptor setting. Ensure that the result
is in the recommended range, for example:
$ ulimit -Sn
1024
$ ulimit -Hn
65536
3.
Check the soft and hard limits for the number of processes available to a user.
Ensure that the result is in the recommended range, for example:
$ ulimit -Su
2047
$ ulimit -Hu
16384
4.
Check the soft limit for the stack setting. Ensure that the result is in the
recommended range, for example:
$ ulimit -Ss
10240
$ ulimit -Hs
32768
5.
Repeat this procedure for each Oracle software installation owner.
If necessary, update the resource limits in the /etc/security/limits.conf
configuration file for the installation owner. However, note that the configuration file
is distribution specific. Contact your system administrator for distribution specific
configuration file information.
If the grid or oracle users are logged in, then changes in the
limits.conf file do not take effect until you log these users out and
log them back in. You must do this before you use these accounts for
installation.
Note:
See Also: "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 5-13
5-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
Setting Remote Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local system has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set your user account DISPLAY environment
variable:
Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells:
$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
C shell:
$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0
For example, if you are using the Bash shell and if your host name is local_host, then
enter the following command:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0
To ensure that X11 forwarding does not cause the installation to fail, create a user-level
SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as follows:
1.
Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's
~/.ssh/config file.
2.
Ensure that the ForwardX11 attribute in the ~/.ssh/config file is set to no. For
example:
Host * ForwardX11 no
3.
Ensure that the permissions on the ~/.ssh are secured to the oracle or grid user.
For example:
$ ls -al .ssh
total 28
drwx------ 2
drwx------ 19
-rw-r--r-- 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
-rwx------ 1
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
oinstall
4096
4096
1202
668
601
1610
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
Jun
21
21
21
21
21
21
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
2012
authorized_keys
id_dsa
id_dsa.pub
known_hosts
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
Note: If you are installing additional Oracle Database 12c
products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes,
including the listener and database, running in the Oracle home.
You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to
relink certain executables and libraries.
Consider the following before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server, or Oracle Database:
■
If you plan to use Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server before you install and create the database. When you
perform a database installation, the database must use the same listener created
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation,
thereafter you do not have to perform the steps listed in this section.
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database
5-11
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
The default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home. See "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 5-13 to continue.
■
If you have an existing Oracle Database 12c running on Oracle ASM, then stop any
existing Oracle ASM instances. After you finish installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server, start the Oracle ASM instance again.
If you create a database during the software installation, then most installation types
configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC
key value EXTPROC. If an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or
key value, Oracle Universal Installer looks for the next available port (for example,
1522) and configures and starts the new listener on this available port.
To determine if an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if
necessary:
1.
Switch user to oracle:
# su - oracle
2.
Enter the following command to determine if a listener process is running and to
identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:
$ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the
system:
... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is
installed and LISTENER is the listener name.
If no Oracle Net listeners are running, then see "Configuring
Oracle Software Owner Environment" on page 5-13 to continue.
Note:
3.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the appropriate Oracle home
directory for the listener:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C or tcsh shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
4.
Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key
value that the listener is using:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do
not have to specify the listener name in this command.
Note:
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
5-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
6.
Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
You must run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle or grid account. However,
before you start Oracle Universal Installer, you must configure the environment of the
oracle or grid user. To configure the environment, you must:
■
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.
■
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Caution: Use shell programs supported by your operating system
vendor. If you use a shell program that is not supported by your
operating system, then you can encounter errors during installation.
To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software
owner (oracle, grid). The following procedure lists the steps for the oracle user only:
1.
Start a new X terminal session (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost + RemoteHost
where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote host name. For example:
$ xhost + somehost.example.com
3.
If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are
configuring. For example, as the oracle user.
$ su - oracle
4.
To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
5.
Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
■
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
■
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
$ vi .profile
■
C shell (csh or tcsh):
% vi .login
6.
Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
7.
Save the file and exit from the text editor.
8.
To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database
5-13
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
9.
If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following
command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:
■
Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your
workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.
Run the following command on the remote system to check if the SHELL and the
DISPLAY environment variables are set correctly:
echo $SHELL
echo $DISPLAY
To change the display location from the default display to a remote system display,
run the following command on the local computer:
$ xhost + RemoteHost
To verify that the X applications display is set properly, run an X11-based program
that comes with the operating system such as xclock.
$ xclock
In this example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks.
If the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly, then you can see xclock on
your computer screen. If you get any display errors see "X Window Display
Errors" on page I-2. If xclock does not start, then contact your system
administrator.
10. If the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free disk space, then identify a file
system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and TMPDIR environment
variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:
a.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the
following command:
# df -h /tmp
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$ sudo - s
# mkdir /mount_point/tmp
# chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
5-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment
# exit
c.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
11. If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the
same user account to install this installation, then unset the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_
BASE, ORACLE_SID, TNS_ADMIN environment variables and any other environment
variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with Oracle software
homes.
Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME, ORACLE_BASE,
ORACLE_SID and TNS_ADMIN environment variables are not set:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
unset
unset
unset
unset
ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_SID
TNS_ADMIN
C shell:
%
%
%
%
unsetenv
unsetenv
unsetenv
unsetenv
ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_SID
TNS_ADMIN
Use the following command to check the PATH environment variable:
$ echo $PATH
Ensure that the $ORACLE_HOME/bin path is removed from your PATH environment
variable.
Note: If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the default path
for the Oracle home directory. If you set the ORACLE_BASE
environment variable, then Oracle recommends that you unset the
ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the default path
suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
12. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Configuring Users, Groups and Environments for Oracle Database
5-15
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
See Also: "Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure Software Owner" on page 6-3
Determining Root Script Execution Plan
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, Oracle Universal Installer prompts
you to run scripts with superuser (or root) privileges to complete several system
configuration tasks. You can either run these root scripts manually as root when
prompted, or during installation you can provide configuration information and
passwords using one of the following root privilege delegation options:
■
Use root user credentials
Provide the superuser (or root) password. This option runs the root scripts
automatically as the root user.
■
Use Sudo
Sudo is a UNIX and Linux utility that allows members of the sudoers group
privileges to run individual commands as root. To enable Sudo, have a system
administrator with the appropriate privileges configure a user that is a member of
the sudoers list, and provide the username and password when prompted during
installation.
See Also: Step 9, "Root Script Execution Configuration" screen in the
"Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a
New Database Installation" section.
5-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
6
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, also known as Oracle Restart,
provides system support for a single-instance Oracle Database. This support includes
volume management, file system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle
Restart before installing your database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management. Oracle
combined the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed
into an Oracle Restart home.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management is a volume manager and a file system for
Oracle database files that supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage
Management also supports a general purpose file system for your application needs,
including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle Automatic Storage Management is Oracle's
recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to
conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.
Note:
■
■
■
You can neither install Oracle Restart on an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure cluster member node, nor add an Oracle Restart
server to an Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster member node.
Oracle Restart supports single-instance databases on one server,
while Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster supports
single-instance or Oracle RAC databases on a cluster.
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before
you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart.
Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered)
environments only.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the
following:
■
When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts
all Oracle components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net
Listener, database services, and Oracle ASM.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-1
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
■
Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is
restarted.
Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If
a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and
restarted.
This chapter contains the following information:
■
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
■
■
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a
Software-Only Installation
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After
Installation
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
This section describes the following operating system tasks that you must complete
before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
■
Checking Hardware and Memory Configuration
■
Server Memory Minimum Requirements
■
Server Storage Minimum Requirements
■
Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner
Checking Hardware and Memory Configuration
Run the following commands to check your current system information:
1.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, see your operating system documentation for information about
configuring additional swap space.
2.
To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:
# free
3.
To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter one of the
following commands:
# df -h
4.
To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter one of the
following commands:
# df -h /tmp
5.
To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
6-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required
size, then install more memory before you continue.
Server Memory Minimum Requirements
Ensure that your system meets the following memory requirements for installing
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
At least 4 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server including
installations where you plan to install Oracle Database.
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space recommendation:
Table 6–1
Swap Space Requirement for Oracle Restart
RAM
Swap Space
Between 4 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of the RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
Server Storage Minimum Requirements
Ensure that your system meets the following minimum disk space requirements for
installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a standalone server:
■
For Linux x86-64: At least 6.9 GB of disk space
■
For IBM: Linux on System z: 3.8 GB of disk space
■
At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.
If there is less than 1 GB of free space in the /tmp directory, then complete one of
the following steps:
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory
when setting the oracle user’s environment.
See Also: "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 5-13 for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory.
Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner
Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Restart software owner user’s
environment:
■
Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root" on page 4-6 and
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on page 5-13.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-3
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
■
Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that
you create the Oracle Restart home and the Oracle Database home under the same
Oracle base directory. For example:
# ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle;
# export ORACLE_BASE
■
■
■
Set the Oracle Restart software owner user default file mode creation mask (umask)
to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user
performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Restart
installation software owner.
Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.
If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation
requirements. See Chapter 4, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
This section contains information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM). It contains the following topics:
■
About Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
■
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux
■
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
■
Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations
About Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Oracle ACFS extends Oracle ASM technology to support all of your application data in
both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle ADVM provides volume
management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System communicates with Oracle ASM
through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager
interface.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support on Linux
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and SUSE Linux. Table 6–2 lists the platforms and kernel versions that support
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM.
Table 6–2
Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Platform / Operating System Kernel
Oracle Linux 6
■
Oracle Linux 6 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel
■
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 1:
All Updates, 2.6.32-100 and later UEK 2.6.32 kernels
■
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 2:
All Updates, 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39 kernels
■
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 3:
All Updates, 3.8.13 and later UEK 3.8.13 kernels
6-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Table 6–2 (Cont.) Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Platform / Operating System Kernel
Oracle Linux 5
■
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 3 with Red Hat Compatible
Kernel: 2.6.18 or later
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 1:
Update 3 and later, 2.6.32-100 and later UEK 2.6.32
kernels
■
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 2:
Update 3 and later, 2.6.39-100 and later UEK 2.6.39
kernels
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 3: 2.6.18 or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
11
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 2 (SP2)
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 3 (SP3)
If you use Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) in enforcing
mode with Oracle ACFS, then ensure that you mount the Oracle ACFS
file systems with an SELinux default context. Refer to your Linux
vendor documentation for information about the context mount
option.
Note:
See Also:
■
My Oracle Support Note 1369107.1 for more information about
platforms and releases that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle
ADVM:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type
=NOT&id=1369107.1
■
Patch Set Updates for Oracle Products (My Oracle Support Note
854428.1 for current release and support information:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type
=NOT&id=854428.1
Restrictions and Guidelines for Oracle ACFS
Oracle Restart does not support root-based Oracle Clusterware resources. For this
reason, the following restrictions apply if you run Oracle ACFS on an Oracle Restart
configuration:
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Restart does not support Oracle ACFS resources on all platforms.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Restart configurations do not support
the Oracle ACFS registry.
You must manually load Oracle ACFS drivers after a system restart.
You must manually mount an Oracle ACFS file system, and unmount it after the
Oracle ASM instance has finished running.
Creating Oracle datafiles on an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported in Oracle
Restart configurations.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
To enable Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart see "Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart
Configurations" on page 6-6.
Note the following general restrictions and guidelines also about Oracle ACFS:
■
■
■
Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only when Oracle ASM is configured.
You can place Oracle database binaries, datafiles, and administrative files (for
example, trace files) on Oracle ACFS. Oracle Database homes can be stored on
Oracle ACFS only if the database version is Oracle Database 11g Release 2 or
higher. Earlier releases of Oracle Database cannot be installed on Oracle ACFS.
Oracle ACFS provides a general purpose file system for other files.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux for latest information about
supported platforms and releases
"Introducing Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM" in Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations
To use Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart configurations, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server, and then enable root access for Oracle ACFS using the
following command:
Log in as root
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -lockacfs
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the
roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
Note:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Review the following sections for information on Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) storage configuration:
■
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
■
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA
■
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
See Also: "Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Group" on page 7-3
6-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk
groups when you install earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installations.
Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting
with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed as part of an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to perform
administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for details about configuring disk group compatibility for databases
using Oracle Database 11g or earlier software with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. Starting with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either
for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing
Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to
use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server installation before you start your Oracle
Database installation.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is
installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You must run Oracle
ASMCA for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes,
and Oracle ACFS. In addition, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface.
See Also:
■
■
"Managing Oracle Flex ASM" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle
ASMCA
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section contains the following topics that describe how to configure storage for
use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management:
■
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
See Also: "Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation" in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about creating and managing disk groups
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-7
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database
object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may
be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE
DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using
other tools that manage the database object.
Note:
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the
number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this
task, follow these steps:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both. Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo
log files, the server parameter file, and the password file.
During the database installation, you have the option to select either a file system
or Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for Oracle Database files. Similarly, you
also have the option to select either a file system or Oracle ASM as the storage
mechanism for your recovery files.
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
both Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file
system for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.
Note:
If you select Oracle ASM as your storage option for Oracle Database files, then
depending on your choice in the Specify Recovery Options screen, you have the
following recovery options:
■
■
If you select the Oracle ASM option for your recovery files, then Oracle
Universal Installer provides you with only the option to use the same disk
group for both Oracle Database files and recovery files.
If you decide not to enable recovery during the database installation, then,
after the database installation, you can modify the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter to enable the fast recovery area.
See Also:
■
■
2.
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface"
section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 8-4
Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group
that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines
how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of
disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk
group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when
the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own
6-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
data protection or when the database does not require uninterrupted access to
data.
■
Normal redundancy
To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group,
Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring
for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring
characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You can use two-way
mirroring or no mirroring.
A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups
(or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk
space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space of
all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a
disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure
groups (a minimum of three devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data
protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices
before deciding to use this redundancy level.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files
and recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing
disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to
an existing disk group during the database installation.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for the installation:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Data Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.8 GB
3.6 GB
5.4 GB
Normal
2
3.6 GB
7.2 GB
10.8 GB
High
3
5.4 GB
10.8 GB
16.2 GB
4.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in
a custom failure group. By default, each device is included in its failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same small computer system interface (SCSI) controller, then the disk group
becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a
single point of failure.
For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller.
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-9
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Define custom failure groups after installation, using the
GUI tool ASMCA, the command line tool asmcmd, or SQL
commands. If you define custom failure groups, then you must
specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy
disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk
groups.
Note:
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also: "Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for
Oracle ASM" on page D-12 for information about creating or
modifying permissions
■
■
■
All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate
physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk
group, Oracle does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of
complexity that is unnecessary with Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if
you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use the logical volume
manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or
mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the
additional storage layer.
See Also:
■
■
"About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver" for
information about completing this task
"Preparing Storage for ASM" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about
configuring Oracle ASM disk groups
Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table.
Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk.
You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is
partitioned.
Note:
See Also: "Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle
Automatic Storage Management" on page C-4.
6-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASM Filter Driver
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), Oracle ASM Filter Driver
(Oracle ASMFD) is installed with an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) rejects write
I/O requests that are not issued by Oracle software. This filter helps to prevent users
with administrative privileges from inadvertently overwriting Oracle ASM disks, thus
preventing corruption in Oracle ASM disks and files within the disk group. For disk
partitions, the area protected is the area on the disk managed by Oracle ASMFD,
assuming the partition table is left untouched by the user.
Oracle ASMFD simplifies the configuration and management of disk devices by
eliminating the need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the
system is restarted.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about configuring and migrating disk devices to
use Oracle ASM Filter Driver
Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle ASMCA
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA)
utility creates a new Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no
Oracle ASM instance currently configured on the computer.
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, you can also use
Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ADVM and Oracle ACFS.
To create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, you can run
the Oracle ASMCA as follows:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca
Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, as described in this
chapter, to test the Oracle ASM installation, log in using the asmcmd command-line
utility, which lets you manage Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:
1.
Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is located
in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following
commands to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-11
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
2.
Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.
If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, start the instance with the following
command:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup
"Oracle ASM Command-Line Utility" in Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide
See Also:
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from an earlier release installed on your server,
or in an existing Oracle Restart installation, you can use Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the existing Oracle
ASM instance to 12c, and subsequently configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes
and Oracle ASM file systems.
You must first shut down all databases and applications using
an existing Oracle ASM instance before upgrading it.
Note:
During the installation, if you use Oracle ASM, and Oracle ASMCA detects that there
is a prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after
installing the Oracle ASM 12c binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to upgrade the
existing Oracle ASM instance.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Upgrade an Oracle ASM Instance" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM
Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
"Downgrading an Oracle ASM Instance in an Oracle Restart
Configuration" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a
Software-Only Installation
A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server binaries to the specified location. After the installation, manually
configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM.
When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software,
you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after
you install the software.
6-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Using a Software-Only Installation
Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the
software-only installation because this installation method provides
no validation of the installation, and this installation option requires
manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server software.
Note:
Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:
1.
Installing the Software Binaries
2.
Configuring the Software Binaries
Installing the Software Binaries
1.
Run the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle
Database 12c installation media or download directory.
2.
Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server.
3.
Run the orainstRoot.sh script if prompted.
4.
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to run the root.sh script.
5.
root.sh then prompts you to run roothas.pl. See "Configuring the Software
Binaries" on page 6-13 for information about running roothas.pl and configuring
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server after performing a
software-only installation.
6.
Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command
runcluvfy.sh stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you complete all storage and server
preinstallation requirements.
Configuring the Software Binaries
To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation for Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:
1.
Log in as the root user and run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home using the
following syntax:
Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install
Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
For example, if your Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home is
u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid, then run the following script:
# /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
/12.1.0/grid/crs/install
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
2.
Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home.
3.
Log in as the Oracle Restart software owner user and enter the following
command:
./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName CLUSTER_
NODES= CRS=TRUE
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-13
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_
HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
-defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
4.
Use the SRVCTL utility along with Oracle Network Configuration Assistant and
Oracle ASMCA to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM
disk groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide to configure a
listener using Oracle Network Configuration Assistant
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide to
create and add disk groups, and configure Oracle ASM using
Oracle ASMCA
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to create and add an ASM
instance using SRVCTL
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and then create your
database, the database is automatically added to the Oracle Restart configuration and
is automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server on a host computer on which a database exists,
you must manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other
components to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server can
accommodate multiple single-instance databases on a single host
computer.
Note:
This section includes the following topics:
■
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database
Installation
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing
Database
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New Database
Installation
Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server and then create a database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle
ASM, then configure Oracle ASM with at least one disk group, and then install Oracle
Database that stores database files in Oracle ASM disk groups. Click the help button
on the Oracle Universal Installer page for page level assistance.
6-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation. See "Stopping Existing
Oracle Processes" on page 5-11 for more information.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database
installation:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Restart software owner user.
Complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the installation
files:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server directory on the installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
Note:
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server (clusterware) directory
and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the Oracle Restart software owner user and set
the user’s environment.
Note:
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" on
page I-2 and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" on page I-2 for information
about troubleshooting.
2.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Install and Configure Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option to install and configure Oracle
Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.
3.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the
languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click
Next.
4.
The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks.
Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices to be used by Oracle ASM but
are not listed in the screen. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a
string to use to search for devices that Oracle ASM will use. If the disk string is set
to ORCL:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks. Click OK.
After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.
During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and
registered on Oracle ASMFD with the string ORCL:* are listed as
default database storage candidate disks.
Note:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-15
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:
■
■
The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk
group, or use the default name.
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also: "Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for
Oracle ASM" on page D-12 for information about creating or
modifying permissions
■
Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by
Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the
redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then select
Normal for the redundancy.
For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space
to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100
GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
Note:
■
5.
Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation
unit is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. You can select
the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the specific
disk group compatibility level. The default value is set to 1 MB.
In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to
the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged
role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle
recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA privileges
to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.
Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be
at least eight characters in length and include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and
1 of the following three punctuation mark characters: hyphens (-), underscores (_),
or number sign (#). No other special characters are allowed in the password field.
Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle
recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must
remember the passwords that you specify.
6.
The Specify Management Options screen gives you the option to manage Oracle
Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Automatic Storage Management using Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Select Register with Enterprise Manager
(EM) Cloud Control and specify the following configuration information:
■
■
7.
OMS Host: The system name where the Management repository is running.
OMS Port: The Oracle Enterprise Manager port number to receive requests
from the Management service.
■
EM Admin User Name: The user name to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager.
■
EM Admin Password: The password to log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager.
In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the
operating system group you created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and the
Oracle ASM operator group OSOPER. If you create only the dba group, then you can
use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a separate asmadmin
group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.
6-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
See Also: "Oracle Automatic Storage Management Groups for Job
Role Separation" on page 5-5
8.
In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following information, and
click Next:
■
■
Oracle Base: Enter the location for the Oracle base directory. Do not include
spaces in the path.
Software Location: Accept the default value or enter the directory path in
which you want to install the software.The directory path must not contain
spaces.
See Also:
■
■
9.
"Identifying Required Software Directories" on page 4-26 for
information about Oracle base directory and Oracle home
directory
"Naming Directories" on page F-2 for directory naming
conventions
The Root Script Execution Configuration screen allows you to select the
configuration method to either automatically or manually run the root scripts
during the grid infrastructure installation. To run root scripts automatically, select
Automatically run configuration scripts and select one of the following options:
■
■
Use "root" user credential: Provide the root user password.
Use Sudo: Provide the program path, username, and password for the sudo
program.
See Also:
"Determining Root Script Execution Plan" on page 5-16
10. The Create Inventory screen is displayed only if this is the first time you are
installing Oracle software on your system.
Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the
oraInventory Group Name, if required. Click Next.
11. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system
requirements are met to perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation. If all the system requirements are met, then you are directed to
the Summary screen. If an installation fails, you can review the error.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if
the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check
the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must
run as the root user. This generated script sets some system parameter
values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of
this script. See "Using Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 4-10 for more
information.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-17
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of
all the prerequisite checks run by Oracle Universal Installer, select Show All. To
get a list of the prerequisites checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the
Ignore All option. If you select this option, then Oracle Universal
Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database
successfully.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Configuring Servers for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server" on page 6-2
Chapter 4, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks"
12. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Install.
You can click Save Response File to save all the installation steps into a response
file. This file can be used for a silent installation.
13. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server installation.
If you selected an option to automatically run the root scripts in the Root Script
Execution Configuration screen, then Oracle Universal Installer automatically runs
the root scripts. Click Next.
Else, if you did not select the option to automatically run the configuration scripts,
then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the root.sh script and, if
required, the orainstRoot.sh script as the root user to complete the installation.
During this process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Do not
click OK until you run the scripts mentioned in this screen.
Note: The orainstRoot.sh script must be run if this is the first time
you are installing Oracle software on your system. However, if you
selected an option to automatically run the root scripts, then Oracle
Universal Installer automatically runs the oraInstRoot.sh script.
14. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the
installation and exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you encounter any errors, see the configuration log for information. The path to
the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.
15. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server installation. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle
ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another disk group named RECOVERY
to store the fast recovery area.
See Also:
■
■
"Configuring Oracle ASM Disk Groups Manually using Oracle
ASMCA" on page 6-11
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 8-4
6-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
To verify that the Oracle High Availability Service is installed
properly, run ./crsctl check has command from Grid_home/bin
directory.
Note:
Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server home. ohasd is a daemon installed with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.
16. Install Oracle Database. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on page 7-8.
Note:
■
■
If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure
installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server home. Because Oracle ASM
is installed as part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server, the default listener is created and runs from the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home. If you perform a
database installation, then the database must use the same listener
created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server installation.
If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any
additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server home.
See "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart" on page I-4 to
deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server for an Existing Database
Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart
can only manage existing release 12.1 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server only for an existing release 12.1 database.
However, Oracle database releases before 12.1 can coexist on the same server without
being managed by Oracle Restart.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server for an existing database:
■
On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, and select Install and
Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation
option.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server components are installed in
a separate Oracle home.
See "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server with a New
Database Installation" on page 14 for detailed instructions.
■
Go to the Grid home’s bin directory.
Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the
database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to
add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any
database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-19
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
After Installation
After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation, you must first
stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For
example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or
Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.
However, if you run the OPatch utility with the auto option, opatchauto, then do not
stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack manually as OPatch stops and starts the
software stack for you. If you run OPatch with the apply option, opatch apply, then
you must follow the steps in this section to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack
manually.
See Also: Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for
information about using opatchauto
Caution: Before relinking executables, you must shut down all
executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are
relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle
shared libraries.
Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home for modification
using the following procedure:
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server software owner
user and change the directory to the path Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is the
path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
2.
Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:
$ crsctl stop has -f
3.
Perform the updates to the software installed in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for
a standalone server home.
4.
Enter the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:
$ crsctl start has
Relink Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server using the following
procedure:
1.
Log in as root
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# roothas.sh -unlock
2.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server owner:
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
3.
Log in as root again:
6-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation
#
#
#
#
cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
./rootadd_rdbms.sh
cd Grid_home/crs/install
roothas.sh -patch
You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply
an operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the
roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
Note:
See Also:
■
"Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home" on page 10-5
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server 6-21
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries After Installation
6-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
7
7
Installing Oracle Database
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal. In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by
Oracle Universal Installer to install the software. However, you can also use Oracle
Universal Installer to complete silent mode installations, without using the GUI.
■
Preinstallation Considerations
■
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
■
Accessing the Installation Software
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Installing Oracle Database Examples
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent mode
installations
Preinstallation Considerations
Review the information in Chapter 2, "Overview of Oracle Database Installation" and
complete the tasks listed in Chapter 4, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks".
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode
If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use
silent mode or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle
Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a
text file that contains the settings you typically enter in the Oracle Universal Installer
GUI dialog boxes.
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent mode
installations
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
Review the following guidelines before starting Oracle Universal Installer:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
Using Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install
components from this release is no longer allowed.
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Installing Oracle Database 7-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. Starting with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
To upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, upgrade Oracle ASM by running
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM installed
and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation before you start
your Oracle Database installation.
See Also: Chapter 6, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server" for information about Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server
■
Installations on a cluster
If Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC is installed on the system, then Oracle
Universal Installer displays the Grid Installation Options screen. You must select
Single instance database installation, unless you want to install Oracle RAC. The
other options in this screen are Oracle Real Application Clusters database
installation and Oracle RAC One Node database installation.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX
This section covers the following topics:
■
Selecting the Database Character Set
■
Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
Selecting the Database Character Set
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
■
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
■
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
■
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this
code.
After a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in
terms of time and resources. Such operations may require converting all character data
by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that
you carefully select the database character set at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the
universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the
world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native
encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and
LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global
economy.
Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data
may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as
WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use
characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy
character sets supporting the language. The increase in storage space concerns only
7-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of
Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Consider legacy character sets when compatibility, storage requirements, or
performance of text processing is critical and the database supports only a single
group of languages. The database character set to be selected in this case is the
character set of most clients connecting to this database.
The database character set of a multitenant container database (CDB) determines
which databases can be plugged in later. Ensure that the character set you choose for
the CDB is compatible with the database character sets of the databases to be plugged
into this CDB.
"Choosing a Database Character Set for a CDB" in Oracle
Database Globalization Support Guide
See Also:
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database
Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the
operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows
character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed
on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the
database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Because the database
should be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows
character sets have a richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859
character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For
example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and
various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set
does not support them. Oracle Database converts the data between the database
character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG
settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle
Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle
Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are
binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a
deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of
WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the character sets
that was not recommended, select the Advanced database configuration option. Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in the interactive mode gives you
the opportunity to select any of the database character sets supported on Linux.
See Also: "Choosing a Character Set" in Oracle Database Globalization
Support Guide
Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
This section is optional and describes how to identify disk groups and determine the
free disk space that they contain. You can store either database or recovery files in an
existing Oracle ASM disk group that you created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server installation.
The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk
group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.
Note:
Installing Oracle Database 7-3
Accessing the Installation Software
To determine if an existing Oracle ASM disk group exists or to determine if there is
sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control or you can use the following Oracle ASM command line tool (asmcmd)
procedure:
1.
Connect to the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance and start the
instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd
ASMCMD> startup
2.
Enter one of the following commands to view the existing disk groups, their
redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
ASMCMD> lsdg;
or
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd -p lsdg
3.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level, and
note the free space that it contains.
4.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size
and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk
group.
Note:
See Also: "Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage
Configuration" on page 6-6
Accessing the Installation Software
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media, or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network website, or the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal. To install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it
and unpack it, or copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
■
■
To copy the software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Software to the Hard Disk"
on page 7-7
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, see "Downloading
Oracle Software" on page 7-4
Downloading Oracle Software
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) or the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal and extract them on
your hard disk. Ensure that you review and understand the terms of the license. Most
downloads include the development license. This section contains the following
topics:
■
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
7-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
■
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal
■
Extracting the Installation Files
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
1.
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology
Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/downloads/index.html
2.
Go to the download page for the product to install.
3.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for
each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
4.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the
archive files.
5.
On the file system that you selected in Step 4, create a parent directory for each
product, for example OraDB12c, to hold the installation directories.
6.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in
Step 5.
7.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files
on Oracle Technology Network. Also verify the checksums are the same as noted
on Oracle Technology Network using a command similar to the following:
cksum filename.zip
8.
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
9.
After you have extracted the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle
Database Software" on page 7-8.
Downloading the Software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud Portal
You can download the software from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud as Media Packs.
A Media Pack is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle
customers on CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:
1.
Use any browser to access the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud portal:
https://edelivery.oracle.com/
2.
Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company,
email address, and country) in the online form.
3.
In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify
the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the
Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.
4.
Optionally, select the relevant product to download from the Results list.
5.
In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file
for download instructions and product information.
6.
After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search
results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes
Installing Oracle Database 7-5
Accessing the Installation Software
instructions in this page. After you download and extract the contents of the
required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.
Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a
list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you
may refer during the installation process.
Note:
7.
After you download the files, click View Digest to verify that the MD5 or SHA-1
checksum matches with what is listed in the media download page.
See Also:
■
My Oracle Support note 549617.1 for information on how to verify
the integrity of a software download at:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type
=NOT&id=549617.1
■
Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud portal for more information about Media Packs
Extracting the Installation Files
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
1.
If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation
archive files.
2.
Oracle RDBMS software is available as two archive files. Ensure that you extract
both the archive files to the same directory.
If the downloaded file has the .zip extension, use the following command to
extract the content:
unzip file_name.zip
If the downloaded file has the cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
filename.cpio
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
See the download page for information about the correct
options to use with the cpio command.
Note:
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but
they leave the .gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named Diskn, where n is the
disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, see "Installing the Oracle
Database Software" on page 7-8.
7-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk
Before installing Oracle Database, Oracle recommends that you copy the software to
the hard disk to enable the installation process to run faster. Before copying the
installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following
sections describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
Mounting Disks
On most systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disk drive.
If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:
1.
If necessary, log in as the root user and enter a command similar to one of the
following to eject the currently mounted disk, then remove it from the drive:
■
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# eject /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# eject /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for
the installation media.
2.
Insert the appropriate installation media into the disk drive.
3.
To verify if the disk is mounted automatically, enter one of the following
commands depending on the platform:
■
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# ls /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# ls /media/dvd
4.
Before running the following command, ensure that the /mnt/dvd directory exists
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If not, create the /mnt/dvd as required, to mount the
installation media.
If this command fails to display the contents of the installation media, enter a
command similar to the following to mount it, depending on the platform:
■
Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories for
the installation media.
5.
If Oracle Universal Installer displays the Disk Location dialog box, enter the disk
mount point directory path, for example:
/mnt/dvd
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
Installing Oracle Database 7-7
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
■
To copy software to a hard disk, see "Copying the Oracle Database Software to a
Hard Disk" on page 7-8.
To install the software from the installation media, see "Installing the Oracle
Database Software" on page 7-8.
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk
If the system does not have an installation media, you can
copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system,
then either mount that file system using NFS or use FTP to copy the
files to the system where you want to install the software.
Note:
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
1.
Create a directory on the hard disk, outside of the Oracle base directory, to hold
the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb12c
2.
Change the directory to the directory you created in Step 1:
$ cd OraDb12c
3.
Mount the disk, if it is not mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If
the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section on
page 7-7 for platform-specific information.
4.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as
follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb12c
In this example, /directory_path is the disk mount point directory.
5.
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat Step 4.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal
Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in the following sections explain
how to run the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
7-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Note:
■
■
■
If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, then you must
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server before
you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must
manually register the database with Oracle Restart. For
information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server, see "Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server" on page 6-14.
You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you
start the database installation. See "Stopping Existing Oracle
Processes" on page 5-11.
To install Oracle Database by using the silent or response file
installation method, without the GUI, see Appendix A. This
method is useful to perform multiple installations of Oracle
Database. This appendix also describes other advanced
installation topics.
Running Oracle Universal Installer
For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the
software, as follows:
1.
Log on as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle) to the computer on
which you want to install Oracle components.
2.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not
mounted.
If the disk does not mount automatically, see the "Mounting Disks" section on
page 7-7 for platform-specific information.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation
media into the drive.
3.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending
on the location of the installation files:
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user’s
environment.
Note:
See Also: "Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on
page 5-13
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the
database directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
Installing Oracle Database 7-9
Installing the Oracle Database Software
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" on
page I-2 and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" on page I-2 for information
about troubleshooting.
4.
Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:
■
■
Do not install Oracle Database 12c software into an existing Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If
you need additional information, click Help.
See Also: "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 9-4 for
information about password guidelines
■
■
■
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch
provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically
installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run
Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, see Appendix I for
information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant (Oracle DBCA) in interactive mode, then you must provide detailed
information about configuring the database and network.
If you need help when using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode, click Help on any screen.
If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant does not run interactively.
Note:
See Also: "Creating and Managing a Database with DBCA" in Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA
5.
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then
click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
6.
During the database installation, when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to
run a script with root privileges, enter a command similar to the following in a
terminal where you are logged in as the root user, then click OK:
# /script_path/script_name
For more information see the description in the Install Product screen in the table
that follows.
7.
See Chapter 8 for information about tasks that you must complete after you install
Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition
installation for Oracle Database 12c:
7-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Configure Security Updates
Enter your email address, preferably your My Oracle Support
email address or user name in the Email field.
Select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle
Support check box to receive security updates.
Enter your My Oracle Support password in the My Oracle
Support Password field.
Click Next.
See Also: "Database Security Notification Options" on
page 2-7
Select Installation Option
Select one of the following installation options, and click
Next:
■
■
■
System Class
Create and configure a database: This option creates a
new database with sample schemas.
Install database software only: This option only installs
the database binaries. To configure the database, you
must run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after
the software installation.
Upgrade an existing database: This option installs the
software binaries in a new Oracle home. After the
installation, you can upgrade the existing database.
Select the type of system for installing the database, and click
Next.
■
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a
laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a
starter database and enables a minimal configuration.
This option is designed for those who want to get the
database running quickly.
See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME
Environment Variable" on page E-1
■
Grid Installation Options
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a
server class system, such as what you would use when
deploying Oracle Database in a production data center.
This option provides more advanced configuration
options. Advanced configuration options available using
this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup
and recovery configuration, integration with Oracle
Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, and more
fine-grained memory tuning, among many others.
Select the type of database installation you want to perform,
and click Next.
■
■
■
Single instance database installation: This option installs
the database and the listener.
Oracle Real Application Clusters database installation:
This option installs Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Oracle RAC One Node database installation: This option
installs the Oracle RAC One Node database.
Installing Oracle Database
7-11
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Select Install Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
Select Product Languages
Typical Install: This installation method is selected by
default. It lets you quickly install Oracle Database using
minimal input. It installs the software and optionally
creates a general-purpose database using the information
that you specify on this screen.
Advanced Install: This installation method enables you
to perform more complex installations, such as creating
individual passwords for different accounts, creating
specific types of starter databases (for example, for
transaction processing or data warehouse systems),
using different language groups, specifying email
notifications, and so on.
This option enables you to select the language in which you
want to run the product.
Select the product language from the Available Languages
list, and move it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
Select Database Edition
Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition
One, or Standard Edition 2. Click Next.
See Also: "Enabling and Disabling Database Options" on
page 8-5 for information about enabling and disabling
components that are installed with Oracle Database.
"Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks" on page 8-6 for
information about configuring components that are installed
with Oracle Database.
Specify Installation Location
The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change this
path based on your requirement. Specify Oracle Base,
Software Location, and click Next.
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle
software installations owned by an Oracle installation owner
account. The default Oracle base path is
mountpoint/app/user, where user is the user account running
the installation. You can change the path based on your
requirements.
In the Software Location field, accept the default value or
enter the Oracle home directory path in which you want to
install the Oracle software.
The directory path must not contain spaces. Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
Ensure that the Oracle home path for the database home and
the Oracle base path use only ASCII characters. At the time of
this release, the use of non-ASCII characters for an Oracle
database home or Oracle base is not supported.
See Also: "Naming Directories" on page F-2 and "Identifying
Required Software Directories" on page 4-26
7-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Create Inventory
This screen is displayed if this is the first time you are
installing Oracle software on your system.
You are prompted by Oracle Universal Installer to specify the
Inventory Directory path for the central inventory the first
time you install any Oracle software on your computer.
Select the oraInventory Group Name of the operating system
group that will own the Oracle Inventory directory (the
Oracle Inventory group).
Click Next.
Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not
installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all
Oracle software installations share a common Oracle
Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users,
whereas there is a separate Oracle Base directory for each
user.
Select Configuration Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
General Purpose / Transaction Processing: This is a
starter database designed for general usage or
transaction-heavy applications.
Data Warehousing: A starter database optimized to run
Data Warehousing applications.
See the online help provided by either Oracle Universal
Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a
description of these preconfigured database types.
Installing Oracle Database
7-13
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Database Identifiers
Provide the following information, and click Next:
Database Naming
Provide the Global Database Name using the following
syntax:
db_unique_name.db_domain
■
■
db_unique_name is the name of the database. It can
contain a maximum of 30 characters if the first 8
characters are unique and begin with an alphabetic
character. The characters can include alphanumeric,
underscore (_), dollar sign ($), and pound sign (#), no
other special characters are permitted in a database
name.
db_domain is the computer environment used for the
database. It can contain no more than 128 characters
(alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound sign (#)),
inclusive of all periods.
Note: Ensure that the combination of database name (first 8
unique characters of the unique name for the database),
delimiter, and the database domain name does not exceed 128
characters.
For example:
sales.example.com
■
db_unique_name is sales
■
db_domain is example.com
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal
Installer automatically populates the SID prefix with the
database name. You can change this name in Advanced
Installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12
alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an
underscore (_), dollar sign ( $), or pound sign (#).
See "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment
Variable" on page E-1 and "Identifying Databases" on
page 9-8
Select the Create as Container database option to create the
database as a multitenant container database (CDB) that can
support one pluggable database (PDB). If you want Oracle
Universal Installer to create a PDB when it creates the CDB,
specify the PDB name in the Pluggable Database Name field.
The PDB name must be unique and must follow the database
naming conventions. See "Identifying Databases" on page 9-8
To create additional PDBs and to manage PDBs, use Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
7-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Configuration Options
Provide the following configuration information, and click
Next:
Memory:
Select the Enable Automatic Memory Management option to
allow the database to automatically distribute memory
between SGA and PGA. If you do not select this option, then
the SGA and PGA must be sized manually.
See Also: "Consider Memory Allocation and Automatic
Memory Management" on page 2-4
Character Sets:
This option enables you to store the character data in the
database in one of the following methods:
■
■
■
Use the default: This option uses the operating system
language settings.
Use Unicode: This option enables you to store multiple
language groups
Choose from the following list of character sets: This
option enables the Select Database Character Set drop
down list.
See Also:
■
■
"Selecting the Database Character Set" on page 7-2
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for
information about choosing a character set
Sample Schemas:
The Create database with sample schemas option is not
selected by default. You can select this option, to create a
starter database with sample schemas. If you create the
database as a CDB with one PDB, then the sample schema is
created as a PDB.
Note: By default, Oracle database is configured to include
enhanced security settings.
Specify Database Storage
Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next.
■
File System: Specify the database file location.
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
See Also: "Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Disk Group" on page 7-3
Installing Oracle Database
7-15
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Management Options
This screen gives you the option to manage your database
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control. Select
Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control and
specify the following for Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control configuration, and click Next:
■
■
■
■
■
OMS Host: The system name where the Management
repository is running.
OMS Port: The Oracle Enterprise Manager port number
to receive requests from the Management service.
EM Admin Username: The user name to log in to Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
EM Admin Password: The password to log in to Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
Specify password of ASMSNMP user: The password for
the ASMSNMP user configured in Oracle ASM, required
only if you choose Oracle ASM as your database storage
option.
Note: Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express is always
installed and configured by default irrespective of whether
you register Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control.
Specify Recovery Options
Select Enable Recovery to enable recovery using one of the
following options:
■
■
Select File System to use a file system directory for the
fast recovery area, and then specify the fast recovery area
path in the Recovery Area location field.
Select Oracle Automatic Storage Management to use an
Automatic Storage Management disk group for the fast
recovery area.
Click Next.
See Also: "Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Installation Considerations" on page 6-7 and "Database
Backup and Recovery Options" on page 2-14.
Select ASM Disk Group
This screen is displayed only if you select Oracle Automatic
Storage Management as your storage option in the Specify
Storage Option screen.
Disk groups are created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. Disk groups are configured with the SYSASM
privilege using asmcmd or SQL create diskgroup commands.
An ASM disk group consists of multiple disk partitions.
The table in this screen displays existing disk groups created
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Select the
disk group to use for database file storage.
Specify Schema Passwords
Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database
accounts: SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP.
If you chose to create the database as a CDB, then Oracle
Universal Installer also asks for the PDBADMIN password.
Click Next.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all
accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a
different password for each account. You must remember the
passwords that you specify.
7-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Privileged Operating System
Groups
The operating system groups are selected by default. You can
also manually select the OSDBA and OSOPER groups.
Select the OSBACKUPDBA, OSDGDBA, and OSKMDBA groups.
Click Next.
See Also: "Creating Required Operating System Groups and
Users" on page 5-1
Perform Prerequisite Checks
This option verifies that the minimum system requirements
to perform the database installation are met.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite
check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to
carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the
problem and verify the system requirements again.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that
you must run as the root user. This generated script sets
some system parameters to Oracle-recommended values.
Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of
this script.
See Also: "Using Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 4-10 for
more information.
To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from
the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by
Oracle Universal Installer, select Show All. To get a list of the
prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show
Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution when
selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option, then
Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system
can install Oracle Database successfully.
See Also: Chapter 4, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Tasks"
Summary
Review the information displayed on this screen, and click
Install.
Note: You can save all the installation steps into a response
file by clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be
used for a silent installation.
Install Product
This screen displays the progress of a database installation.
During this process, the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you run the root.sh
and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts
mentioned in this screen as the root user. Click Next.
This screen then displays the status information for the
configuration assistants that configure the software and
create a database.
A message is displayed at the end of the Database
Configuration Assistant process. Review the database
information, specially the Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express URL, and click OK.
Note: If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software
on your system, then Oracle Universal Installer prompts you
to run the orainstRoot.sh script.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
Installing Oracle Database
7-17
Installing Oracle Database Examples
Screen
Action
Finish
This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration
tools are successful.
Click Close.
Caution: After installation is complete, do not manually remove or
run cron jobs that remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle
directories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you
remove these files, then the Oracle software can intermittently stop
responding. Oracle Restart installations fail with the following error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
Installing Oracle Database Examples
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the
products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
■
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
■
Oracle Database Examples
■
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
■
Various Oracle product demonstrations
For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations
from the Oracle Database Examples media, see Oracle Database Examples Installation
Guide.
7-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
8
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
8
This chapter describes tasks that you must perform after you install the database
software. It includes information about the following topics:
■
Creating a Database
■
Required Postinstallation Tasks
■
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
You must perform the tasks listed in "Required Postinstallation Tasks" on page 8-1.
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in "Recommended
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 8-2 after all installations.
If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in "Product-Specific
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 8-6, then you must perform the tasks listed in the
product-specific sections.
This chapter describes basic configuration only. See Oracle
Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based
Operating Systems, Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, and
product-specific administration and tuning guides for more
detailed configuration and tuning information.
Note:
See Also: "Post-installation Database Configuration" section in
Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
If you did not create a database during the database installation, then use Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) to create a database after the
database installation.
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about creating
a database using Oracle DBCA
See Also:
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Perform the following task after completing Oracle Database installation.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-1
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Downloading and Installing Patches
Check the My Oracle Support website for required patch updates for your installation.
To download required patches:
1.
Use a web browser to view the My Oracle Support website:
https://support.oracle.com/
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support.
Note: If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click
Register here and follow the registration instructions.
3.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click the Patches & Updates tab.
4.
In the Patch Search group, select Product or Family (Advanced).
5.
In the Product field, select Oracle Database.
6.
In the Release field select one or more release numbers. For example, Oracle
12.1.0.1.0.
7.
Click Search.
8.
Any available patch updates are displayed in the Patch Search page.
9.
Select the patch number and click ReadMe. The README page is displayed and
contains information about the patch set and how to apply the patches to your
installation.
10. Return to the Patch Search page, click Download, and save the file on your
system.
11. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 12c to uncompress the Oracle
patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle Support. The unzip utility is
located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after
completing an installation:
■
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
■
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
■
Setting Language Preferences for Client Connections
■
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters
■
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
■
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
■
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then
Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during
8-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script,
then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
If required, create additional operating system accounts. Users must be members of
the OSDBA or OSOPER groups to connect to the database with administrator
privileges.
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users
Update the startup files of the oracle user and the operating system accounts of
Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.
For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the profile file
for the Bash shell on Oracle Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For the C shell, add the environment variables to the .login file.
You can use the oraenv or coraenv script to ensure that
Oracle user accounts are updated.
Note:
Setting Language Preferences for Client Connections
Set the language preferences for clients connecting to the database by setting the NLS_
LANG environment variable.
The NLS_LANG environment variable declares the language and territory character sets
that client applications use to connect to the database. Oracle Database uses that
character set for data entered or displayed by Oracle client programs, such as
SQL*PLus.
See Also: Appendix H, "Configuring Oracle Database
Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG
environment variable
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters
Use the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are too
low to accommodate all Oracle processes:
Oracle recommends that you see the operating system
documentation for more information about setting semaphore
parameters.
Note:
1.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following
formula:
sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead for
oracle background processes + system and other application requirements
2.
Set semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
3.
Set semmsl (semaphores per set) to 250.
4.
Set semmni (total semaphores sets) to semmns/semmsl rounded up to the nearest
multiple of 1024.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-3
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
See Also: My Oracle Support note 226209.1, "Linux: How to Check
Current Shared Memory, Semaphore Values," at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&id=226209.1
Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an
Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area
for database files.
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related
to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on disk backups and rapid
recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system
administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, Oracle Database writes all RMAN
backups, archive logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies to the fast
recovery area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting
obsolete backups and archiving files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and
you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST parameter.
The size of the fast recovery area is set with DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a
general rule, the larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of
use, Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage
devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast
recovery area is large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and control files,
the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database
using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have
created a fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by 3
different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database
depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your least
important database, database2 is of greater importance and database3 is of greatest
importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE settings for each
database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for database1, 50 GB
for database2, and 70 GB for database3.
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
To create a fast recovery file disk group:
1.
Go to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA), for example:
$ cd /u01/grid/bin
8-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
$ ./asmca
2.
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.
3.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast
recovery area, and click OK.
4.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is
complete. Click OK.
5.
Click Exit.
See Also:
■
■
"Setting the Fast Recovery Area Location and Initial Size" section
in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled.
To enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, shut down the
database and use the chopt tool. See Example 8–1.
The chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin
directory. The syntax for chopt is:
chopt [ enable | disable] db_option
The possible values for db_option are described in the following table:
Value
Description
dm
Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
olap
Oracle OLAP
partitioning
Oracle Partitioning
rat
Oracle Real Application Testing
Example 8–1 Complete Example of Running the Chopt Tool
To enable the Oracle Data Mining option in your Oracle binary files, use the following
command:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
srvctl stop database -d myDb
chopt enable dm
srvctl start database -d myDb
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-5
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Downloading and Installing the ORAchk Health Check Tool
Download and install the ORAchk utility to perform proactive heath checks for the
Oracle software stack.
ORAchk replaces the RACCheck utility. ORAchk extends health check coverage to the
entire Oracle software stack, and identifies and addresses top issues reported by
Oracle users. ORAchk proactively scans for known problems with Oracle products
and deployments, including the following:
■
Standalone Oracle Database
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) Validation
■
Upgrade Readiness Validations
■
Oracle Golden Gate
Oracle is continuing to expand checks, based on customer requests.
Oracle recommends that you download and run the latest version of ORAchk from
My Oracle Support. For information about downloading, configuring and running
ORAchk utility, refer to My Oracle Support note 1268927.1:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1268927.1
Note:
ORAchk is not supported on IBM: Linux on System z.
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
The following sections describe product-specific postinstallation tasks that you must
perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:
■
Configuring Oracle Net Services
■
Configuring Oracle Label Security
■
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
■
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
■
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
■
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
■
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
■
Configuring Direct NFS Client
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the
first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, see the appropriate
guide in the product documentation library.
Perform postinstallation tasks only for products that you
intend to use.
Note:
8-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Configuring Oracle Net Services
If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, then you can
copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora configuration
files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new release.
The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:
■
Modifying the listener.ora File
■
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
The default location for the tnsnames.ora and
listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/ directory.
However you can relocate these files and set the TNS_ADMIN
environment variable to the directory containing them.
Note:
Modifying the listener.ora File
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends
that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the
previous release.
If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener
information, then these directory names must be modified before the listener.ora
file can be used in the 12.1 environment.
To use the listener from the current release, copy the static service information from
the listener.ora file from the previous release to the version of that file used by the
new release.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to
the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not require
static service information.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
information about static service registration
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net Services names and
connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of that file
used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances
to the new file.
See Also:
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
Configuring Oracle Label Security
You must configure Oracle Label Security in a database to use it. See "Oracle Label
Security Using Oracle Internet Directory" in Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
for more information.
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
Oracle Database includes Database Vault by default, but you must register it before
you can use it. Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, the
Database Vault Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use them.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-7
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers
the access control configuration information stored in Oracle Database Vault database
tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so
on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you
install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters
are initialized with default values.
For information on Oracle Database Vault policy audit events, see Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide.
To register Oracle Database Vault, see Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then see Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway, an Oracle Database Advanced Queuing feature, requires
additional configuration after you install Oracle Database if you plan to use Oracle
Database Advanced Queuing.
See Also: Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide to
configure Oracle Messaging Gateway and for additional instructions
about configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:
■
Configuring Pro*C/C++
■
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
All precompiler configuration files are located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.
Note:
Configuring Pro*C/C++
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the C compiler executable.
The following table shows the default directories and the appropriate command to
verify the path setting of the compiler.
Table 8–1
C/C++ Compiler Directory
Path
Command
/usr/bin
$ which gcc
/opt/intel_cce_80/bin/icc
$ which icc
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the FORTRAN compiler executable.
The following table shows the default directories and the appropriate command to
verify the path setting of the compiler.
8-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Table 8–2
FORTRAN Compiler Directory
Path
Command
/usr/bin
$ which xlf
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
Oracle recommends that you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to ensure
that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in HTTP
requests.
Oracle Database Security Guide for information about
Secure Socket Layer
See Also:
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme
indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to
use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge
bases (English and French).
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
Oracle Text Reference for information about creating and extending
knowledge bases, such as extending the supplied knowledge
bases to accommodate your requirements, or creating your own
knowledge bases in languages other than English and French
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
Oracle XML DB is a component of the Oracle Database installation. However, you
must manually configure the FTP and HTTP ports for Oracle XML DB.
See Also: The "Using FTP on the Standard Port Instead of the Oracle
XML DB Default Port" and "Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port
Instead of an Oracle XML DB Default Port" sections in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide for configuring the Oracle XML DB ports
Also, see Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following
tasks:
■
Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace
■
Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
You must run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a database. This script
recompiles all PL/SQL modules that are in an invalid state, including packages,
procedures, and types. You must run the utlrp.sql script immediately following the
installation and not at a later date.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-9
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
1.
Switch the user to oracle.
2.
Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where
you want to run the utlrp.sql script:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
When prompted, provide the SID for the database.
3.
Start SQL*Plus, as follows:
$ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
4.
Start the database in restricted mode and run the utlrp.sql script:
SQL> STARTUP RESTRICT
SQL> $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
Configuring Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS Client is an alternative to using kernel-managed NFS. Refer to the
following sections to configure Direct NFS Client:
■
About Direct NFS Client Configuration
■
About the oranfstab File and Direct NFS Client
■
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS Client
■
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
■
Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
■
Specifying Network Paths with the oranfstab File
■
Enabling Direct NFS Client
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client
■
Enabling HCC on Direct NFS Client
About Direct NFS Client Configuration
With Oracle Database, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you
can configure Oracle Database to access NFS servers directly using an Oracle internal
Direct NFS Client. The Direct NFS Client supports NFSv3, NFSv4 and NFSv4.1
protocols (excluding the Parallel NFS extension) to access the NFS server.
Direct NFS Client supports up to four network paths to the NFS server. The Direct NFS
Client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, then
Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS Client
to operate. To disable reserved port checking, see your NFS file server documentation.
For NFS servers that restrict port range, you can use the insecure option to enable
clients other than root to connect to the NFS server. Alternatively, you can disable
Direct NFS Client as described in "Disabling Direct NFS Client" on page 8-14.
8-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
See Also: Use NFS servers supported for Oracle Database. See the
My Oracle Support website for support information:
https://support.oracle.com
About the oranfstab File and Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS Client uses either the configuration file $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab or
the operating system mount tab file /etc/mtab to find out what mount points are
available. If oranfstab is not present, then by default Direct NFS Client servers mount
entries found in /etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab
to specify additional Oracle Database specific options to Direct NFS Client. For
example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.
You can add a new oranfstab file specifically for Oracle Database, either in the path
/etc or $ORACLE_HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries
are specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it is
global to all Oracle databases, and can contain mount points for all Oracle databases.
Caution: Direct NFS Client cannot serve an NFS server with write
size values (wtmax) less than 32768.
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS Client
Direct NFS Client determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on
the configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS Client searches for the mount entries in
the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
Direct NFS Client uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
Oracle Database requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system
even when served through Direct NFS Client.
If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct NFS Client, then Oracle
Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel
NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Buffer Size
Parameters" on page 8-11. Additionally, an informational message is logged in the
Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS Client could not be established.
The Oracle database files available on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS
Client are also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual
considerations for maintaining integrity of Oracle database files apply in this situation.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for guidelines to follow regarding managing Oracle database data files
created with Direct NFS Client or kernel NFS
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
If you use NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize
and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
Direct NFS Client issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-11
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, update the
/etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
See Also: My Oracle Support Note 359515.1 for updated NAS
mount option information:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&id=359515.1
Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS Client
By default, the network buffer size is set to 1 MB for TCP, and 2 MB for UDP. The TCP
buffer size can set a limit on file transfers, which can negatively affect performance for
Direct NFS Client users.
To check the current TCP buffer size, enter the following command:
# sysctl -a |grep -e net.ipv4.tcp_[rw]mem
The output of this command is similar to the following:
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
87380
16384
1048576
1048576
Oracle recommends that you set the value based on the link speed of your servers. For
example, perform the following steps:
1.
As root, use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the
following:
# net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096
# net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096
2.
87380
16384
4194304
4194304
Restart the network:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart
Specifying Network Paths with the oranfstab File
Direct NFS Client can use up to four network paths defined in the oranfstab file for
an NFS server. The Direct NFS Client performs load balancing across all specified
paths. If a specified path fails, then Direct NFS Client reissues I/O commands over any
remaining paths.
Use the following SQL*Plus views for managing Direct NFS Client in a single instance
environment:
■
v$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS Client.
■
v$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS Client.
■
■
v$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for
which Direct NFS Client is providing files.
v$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS Client.
Enabling Direct NFS Client
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS Client:
8-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
1.
Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be
accessed using Direct NFS Client:
■
■
■
Server: The NFS server name.
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.
Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or
by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
■
■
■
■
■
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the
operating system, but sent using the IP address to which they are bound. Note
that this POSIX option sometimes does not work on Linux systems with
multiple paths in the same subnet.
mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time the Direct NFS Client should
wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional and
the default timeout is 10 minutes (600).
nfs_version: Specifies the NFS protocol version that the Direct NFS Client
uses. Possible values are NFSv3, NFSv4 and NFSv4.1. The default version is
NFSv3. If you want to specify NFSv4.x, then you must set the nfs_version
parameter accordingly in the oranfstab file.
management: Enables Direct NFS Client to use the management interface for
SNMP queries. You can use this parameter if SNMP is running on separate
management interfaces on the NFS server. The default value is the server
parameter value.
community: Specifies the community string for use in SNMP queries. Default
value is public.
See Also: "Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server
Environments" in Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Example 8–2 oranfstab file with two NFS server entries
server: MyDataServer1
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.1
local: 192.0.100.0
path: 192.0.100.1
nfs_version: nfsv3
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
server: MyDataServer2
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
nfs_version: nfsv4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 8-13
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
export: /vol/oradata3 mount: /mnt/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4 mount: /mnt/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5 mount: /mnt/oradata5
management: MgmtPath1
community: private
2.
By default, Direct NFS Client is installed in a disabled state with single instance
Oracle Database installations. To enable Direct NFS Client, complete the following
steps:
a.
Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib.
b.
Enter the following command:
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Disabling Direct NFS Client
Complete the following steps to disable Direct NFS Client:
1.
Log in as the Oracle software installation owner, and disable Direct NFS Client
using the following commands:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
2.
Remove the oranfstab file.
If you remove an NFS path that an Oracle Database is using,
then you must restart the database for the change to take effect.
Note:
Enabling HCC on Direct NFS Client
To enable Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) on Direct NFS Client, perform the
following steps:
1.
Ensure that SNMP is enabled on the ZFS storage server. For example:
$ snmpget -v1 -c public server_name .1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.225.1.4.2.0
SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.42.2.225.1.4.2.0 = STRING: "Sun Storage 7410"
2.
If SNMP is enabled on an interface other than the NFS server, then configure
oranfstab using the management parameter.
3.
If SNMP is configured using a community string other than public, then configure
oranfstab file using the community parameter.
4.
Ensure that libnetsnmp.so is installed by checking if snmpget is available.
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
See the following sections in Oracle SQL Developer Installation Guide for recommended
postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer:
■
Migrating User Settings from a Previous Release
■
Migrating Information from Previous Releases
■
Location of User-Related Information
8-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
9
Getting Started with Oracle Database
9
This chapter provides information about the default preconfigured database, including
information about Oracle Database accounts, passwords, and file locations. It includes
information about the following topics:
■
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
■
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
■
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
■
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
■
Identifying Databases
■
Locating the Server Parameter File
■
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
You can use Oracle Universal Installer to check the contents and directory location of
an Oracle Database installation using the following steps:
1.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, run the following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller
2.
Click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box on the Welcome
screen.
3.
Select the Oracle Database product from the list to check the installed contents.
4.
Click Details to find additional information about an installed product.
5.
Click Close to close the Inventory dialog box.
6.
Click Cancel to close Oracle Universal Installer, and then click Yes to confirm.
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
To start Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express, use the EM Express URL
provided by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA) during the
database installation and creation. For information about logging in to Oracle
Getting Started with Oracle Database 9-1
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Enterprise Manager Database Express see "Starting EM Express" in Oracle Database 2
Day DBA and "Accessing the Database Home Page" in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
If Oracle DBCA did not provide the EM Express URL during the database installation
and creation, or if you need to change the EM Express port later on, then see
"Configuring the HTTP Port for EM Express" in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section provides information about managing an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) installation. It covers the following topics:
■
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To start Oracle ASM, and stop Oracle ASM, see "Starting Up an Oracle ASM Instance"
and "Shutting Down an Oracle ASM Instance" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
To manage Oracle ASM, you can use the following tools:
■
■
asmcmd: This command-line tool enables you to manage Oracle ASM disk group
files and directories.
ASMCA: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle
ASMCA) is an interactive utility that enables you to create an Oracle ASM instance
or upgrade existing Oracle ASM instances.
It also enables you to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
■
■
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control: If you have Oracle Enterprise
Manager installed, you can use Cloud Control to manage Oracle ASM functions,
such as migrating an existing database to Oracle ASM, checking the status of the
Oracle ASM instance, checking the performance of the Oracle ASM disk groups,
and creating or dropping Oracle ASM disk groups.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c: This utility enables you to
perform basic administrative tasks such as user, performance, memory, and space
management.
SQL*Plus: You can run commands that are specific to Oracle ASM from either of
these tools. To connect to an Oracle ASM instance, use the same methods that you
use to connect to an Oracle database instance.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about asmcmd
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information about managing your storage with Oracle ASM
9-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
To run the SQL and PL/SQL statements to access Oracle Database, you can use
SQL*Plus. This tool enables you to perform the same database management
operations, and also to query, insert, update, or delete data directly in the database.
Note:
■
■
Before you start SQL*Plus, ensure that all the environment
variables, specially ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID, are set. See,
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" on page 5-13
for more information about setting environment variables.
In addition, it is advisable to set the PATH environment variable to
include the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
Use the following statement to start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as
SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
For example, to log on as SYSTEM enter:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Enter password: password
If you are logging on as SYS, you must connect as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
accessing Oracle Database using SQL*Plus
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for more information on
connecting to the default database
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for more information on the
CONNECT command syntax
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
To run the SQL and PL/SQL statements to access Oracle Database, you can use SQL
Developer. All SQL and PL/SQL statements are supported because they are passed
directly from the SQL Worksheet to the Oracle Database.
Set Up the JDK Path for SQL Developer
Set the following environmental variables to ensure that the correct JDK is picked up:
■
$ORACLE_HOME
■
$JAVA_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME/jdk
Getting Started with Oracle Database 9-3
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
$PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin/:$PATH
To start SQL Developer on which the Java SDK release JDK 1.6.0_11 is installed, use
the following commands:
■
Change to $ORACLE_HOME/sqldeveloper.
■
Run $ ./sqldeveloper.sh.
■
Right-click Connections. In the dialog box, enter a connection name, username,
password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to
connect, and click Connect.
After you are connected, you can view, create, modify, and delete the database objects
using the Connection Navigator or issue any SQL or PL/SQL statement using a SQL
Worksheet. From the Tools menu, select SQL Worksheet.
SQL*Plus statements have to be interpreted by the SQL Worksheet before being passed
to the database. The SQL Worksheet currently supports many SQL*Plus statements.
SQL*Plus statements which are not supported by the SQL Worksheet are ignored and
are not sent to Oracle Database.
See Also: "SQL*Plus Statements Supported and Not Supported in
SQL Worksheet" in Oracle SQL Developer User's Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
All databases created by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) include the
SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle Database provides
several other administrative accounts. Before using these accounts, you must unlock
them and reset their passwords. Table 9–1 describes these accounts and lists their user
names.
See Also:
"Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords" on page 9-7
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to
view the complete list of database accounts.
Note:
Table 9–1
Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
ANONYMOUS
Enables HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
APEX_040200
The account that owns the Oracle
Application Express schema and
metadata.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
APEX_PUBLIC_USER
The minimally privileged account used
for Oracle Application Express
configuration with Oracle Application
Express Listener or Oracle HTTP Server
and mod_plsql.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
APPQOSSYS
Used for storing and managing all data
and metadata required by Oracle Quality
of Service Management.
None
9-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 9–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
AUDSYS
The account where the unified audit data
trail resides.
Oracle Database Security Guide
BI
The account that owns the Business
Intelligence schema included in the
Oracle Sample Schemas. It is available
only if you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
CTXSYS
The Oracle Text account.
Oracle Text Reference
DBSNMP
The account used by the Management
Agent component of Oracle Enterprise
Manager to monitor and manage the
database.
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control Administrator's
Guide
DIP
The account used by the Directory
None
Integration Platform (DIP) to synchronize
the changes in Oracle Internet Directory
with the applications in the database.
DVSYS
There are two roles associated with this
account. The Database Vault owner role
manages the Database Vault roles and
configurations. The Database Vault
Account Manager is used to manage
database user accounts.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user
interface text is stored in database tables
in the DVSYS schema. By default, only
the English language is loaded into these
tables. You can use the DVSYS.DBMS_
MACADM.ADD_NLS_DATA procedure to add
other languages to Oracle Database Vault.
See the "Adding Languages to Oracle
Database Vault" section in the Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide
DVF
The account owned by Database Vault
that contains public functions to retrieve
the Database Vault Factor values.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
EXFSYS
The account owns the Expression Filter
schema.
None
FLOWS_FILES
The account owns the Oracle Application Oracle Application Express
Express uploaded files.
Application Builder User's
Guide
GSMADMIN_INTERNAL
The internal account that owns the Global Oracle Database Global Data
Data Services schema. It should not be
Services Concepts and
unlocked or used for a database login.
Administration Guide
GSMCATUSER
The account used by Global Service
Manager to connect to the Global Data
Services catalog.
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
GSMUSER
The account used by Global Service
Manager to connect to the database.
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
HR
The account that owns the Human
Resources schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
Getting Started with Oracle Database 9-5
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 9–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
IX
The account that owns the Information
Transport schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the sample schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
LBACSYS
The Oracle Label Security administrator
account.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide
MDDATA
The schema used by Oracle Spatial and
Graph for storing geocoder and router
data.
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Developer's Guide
MDSYS
The Oracle Spatial and Graph, and Oracle Oracle Spatial and Graph
Multimedia Locator administrator
Developer's Guide
account.
OE
The account that owns the Order Entry
Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas.
ORDPLUGINS
The Oracle Multimedia user. Plug-ins
supplied by Oracle and third-party
plug-ins are installed in this schema.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDSYS
The Oracle Multimedia administrator
account.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDDATA
This account contains the Oracle
Multimedia DICOM data model.
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Developer's Guide
OUTLN
The account that supports plan stability.
Plan stability enables you to maintain the
same execution plans for the same SQL
statements. OUTLN acts as a role to
centrally manage metadata associated
with stored outlines.
Oracle Database Concepts
ORACLE_OCM
This account contains the instrumentation Oracle Configuration Manager
for configuration collection used by the
Installation and Administration
Oracle Configuration Manager.
Guide
PM
The account that owns the Product Media Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas.
SCOTT
An account used by Oracle sample
programs and examples.
SH
Oracle Database
The account that owns the Sales History
Administrator's Guide
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the sample schemas during an Enterprise
Edition installation.
SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA
The account that stores the information
views for the SQL/MM Still Image
Standard.
SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_
USR
Oracle Spatial and Graph
The Catalog Services for the Web (CSW)
Developer's Guide
account. It is used by the Oracle Spatial
and Graph CSW cache manager to load
all record type metadata, and record
instances from the database into the main
memory for the record types that are
cached.
9-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Oracle Multimedia Reference
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Table 9–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_
USR
The Web Feature Service (WFS) account. Oracle Spatial and Graph
It is used by the Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide
WFS cache manager to load all
feature-type metadata, and feature
instances from the database into main
memory for the feature types that are
cached.
SYS
The account used to perform database
administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
SYSTEM
Another account used to perform
database administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
SYSBACKUP
The account used to perform backup and
recovery tasks.
Oracle Database Installation
Guide
(this guide)
SYSKM
The account used to perform encryption
key management.
Oracle Database Installation
Guide
(this guide)
SYSDG
The account used to administer and
monitor Oracle Data Guard.
Oracle Database Installation
Guide
(this guide)
WMSYS
The account used to store the metadata
information for Oracle Workspace
Manager.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
XDB
The account used for storing Oracle XML
DB data and metadata.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM, and
DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account, you must unlock
it and reset its password. If you created a preconfigured database during the
installation, but you did not unlock a required account, you must unlock it, using one
of the following methods:
■
■
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to Unlock Accounts and Reset
Passwords
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
If you are creating a database using Database Configuration
Assistant, you can unlock accounts after the database is created by
clicking Password Management before you exit from Database
Configuration Assistant.
Note:
Oracle Database Security Guide for more information about
how to create a password that is secure
See Also:
Getting Started with Oracle Database 9-7
Identifying Databases
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express to Unlock Accounts and Reset
Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express 12c see Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Click Help in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express 12c window for more information
See Also:
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using SQL*Plus:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Enter a command similar to the following, where account is the user account to
unlock and password is the new password:
SQL> ALTER USER account IDENTIFIED BY password ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
If you unlock an account but do not reset the password,
then the password remains expired. The first time someone
connects as that user, they must change the user’s password.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Security Guide to learn how to add new users and
change passwords
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for the ALTER USER
statement syntax used for unlocking user accounts
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about the
users SYS and SYSTEM
Identifying Databases
The Oracle Database software identifies a database by its global database name. A
global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually, the
database domain equals the network domain, but it need not be. The global database
name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same network.
You specify the global database name when you create a database during the
installation, or using the Database Configuration Assistant.
The database name input field is used to set the DB_NAME, DB_UNIQUE_NAME, and DB_
DOMAIN Oracle initialization parameter values.
For example:
sales_world.example.com
In this example:
9-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
■
■
■
sales_world is the name of the database. The database name (DB_UNIQUE_NAME)
portion is a string of no more than 30 characters that can contain alphanumeric
characters, underscore (_), dollar sign ($), and pound sign (#) but must begin with
an alphabetic character. No other special characters are permitted in a database
name.
sales_wo is the DB_NAME. The DB_NAME initialization parameter specifies a database
identifier of up to eight characters.
example.com is the database domain in which the database is located. In this
example, the database domain equals the network domain. Together, the database
name and the database domain make the global database name unique. The
domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain
alphanumeric characters, underscore (_), and pound sign (#). The DB_DOMAIN
initialization parameter specifies the database domain name.
However, the DB_NAME parameter need not necessarily be the first eight characters of
DB_UNIQUE_NAME.
The DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to create
the global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
The system identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely
distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each
database instance requires a unique SID and database name. In most cases, the SID
equals the database name portion of the global database name.
See Also:
"DB_UNIQUE_NAME" and "DB_NAME" in Oracle Database
Reference
Locating the Server Parameter File
By default, the preconfigured database uses a server parameter file named
spfilesid.ora, which is stored in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. However, if you
choose Oracle ASM for the database, Database Configuration Assistant typically uses
the same storage mechanism for the server parameter file.
If the server parameter file is not located in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory, the
database uses the SPFILE parameter in an initialization parameter file to locate it. The
default initialization parameter file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora.
To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to to view the location of the
server parameter file and list the initialization parameters, see the "Viewing and
Modifying Initialization Parameters" section in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Click Help in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express 12c window for more information
See Also:
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
The following sections contain information about tablespaces and data files, redo log
files, and control files:
■
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
■
Locating Redo Log Files
■
Locating Control Files
Getting Started with Oracle Database 9-9
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
An Oracle database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces.
Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Data files contain the
contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. You can associate
each data file with only one tablespace and database.
The SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces must be present in all
Oracle Database 12c databases.
Note:
Table 9–2 describes the tablespaces provided by the default preconfigured database.
Table 9–2
Tablespaces and Data Files
Tablespace
Data File
Description
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE01.DBF
Stores the sample schemas, if you included them.
SYSAUX
SYSAUX01.DBF
Acts as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace.
Some products and options that previously used the
SYSTEM tablespace now use the SYSAUX tablespace to
reduce the load on the SYSTEM tablespace.
SYSTEM
SYSTEM01.DBF
Stores the data dictionary, including definitions of tables,
views, and stored procedures needed by Oracle Database.
Information in this area is maintained automatically.
TEMP
TEMP01.DBF
Stores temporary tables and indexes created during the
processing of your SQL statement. If you run a SQL
statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as the
constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT, then you may
have to expand this tablespace.
UNDOTBS
UNDOTBS01.DBF
Stores undo information. The undo tablespace contains
one or more undo segments that maintain transaction
history that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the
database.
All starter databases are configured to run in automatic
undo management mode.
USERS
USERS01.DBF
Stores database objects created by database users.
Oracle Database Concepts and the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information
See Also:
To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to view the list of data files
used by the database and their associated tablespaces see the "Viewing Tablespace and
Data File Information" section in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
Locating Redo Log Files
The preconfigured database uses three redo log files. Redo log files record all changes
made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance fails, then Oracle Database
uses the redo log files to recover the modified data in memory.
Oracle Database uses redo log files in a cyclical fashion. For example, if three files
constitute the online redo log, Oracle Database fills the first file, then the second file,
and then the third file. In the next cycle, it reuses and fills the first file, the second file,
and so on.
9-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for
more information about redo log files
To view or modify the redo log files for the preconfigured database using Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c see the "Viewing Online Redo Log File
Information" and "Viewing Archived Redo Log File Information" sections in Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA.
Locating Control Files
The preconfigured database uses two control files. Oracle recommends that you keep
at least two control files for each database and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter to specify the location of each file.
A control file is an administrative file. Oracle Database 12c requires a control file to
start and run the database. The control file defines the physical structure of the
database. For example, it defines the database name and the names and locations of
the database data files and redo log files.
To use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to view information about the
control files for the preconfigured database see the "Viewing Control File Information"
section in Oracle Database 2 Day DBA.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about setting the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter value
For more information about using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c to
perform various tasks related to tablespaces and data files, redo log files, and control
files, click Help in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express window.
Getting Started with Oracle Database
9-11
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
9-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
10
10
Removing Oracle Database Software
This chapter describes how to completely remove Oracle software and configuration
files related to the specified Oracle home. It includes information about removing
Oracle software using the deinstallation tool.
The deinstallation tool removes standalone Oracle Database installations, Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) from your
server, and also Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) and Oracle Database
client installations.
Oracle recommends that you use the deinstallation tool to remove the entire Oracle
home associated with the Oracle Database, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, Oracle
RAC, or Oracle Database client installation. Oracle does not support the removal of
individual products or components.
The following sections describe the deinstallation tools, and provide information about
additional options to use the tool:
■
About the Deinstallation Tool
■
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
■
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Database
■
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Caution: If you have a standalone database on a node in a cluster
and you have multiple databases with the same global database name
(GDN), then you cannot use the deinstall tool to remove one database
only.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for
information about removing an Oracle RAC installation
"Dropping Disk Groups" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for information about removing an Oracle
ASM disk group
About the Deinstallation Tool
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, the deinstallation tool is integrated with the
database installation media. You can run the deinstallation tool using the
runInstaller command with the -deinstall and -home options from the base
Removing Oracle Database Software 10-1
About the Deinstallation Tool
directory of the Oracle Database, Oracle Database Client or Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation media.
The deinstallation tool is also available as a separate command (deinstall) in Oracle
home directories after installation. It is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall
directory.
The deinstallation tool uses the information you provide, plus information gathered
from the software home to create a response file. You can alternatively supply a
response file generated previously by the deinstall command using the –checkonly
option, or by editing the response file template.
The deinstallation tool stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system for a specific Oracle home. If you run the
deinstallation tool to remove an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, then the
deinstaller prompts you to run the roothas.sh script, as the root user, to deconfigure
Oracle Restart.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the
roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
Note:
If the software in the Oracle home is not running (for example, after an unsuccessful
installation), then the deinstallation tool cannot determine the configuration, and you
must provide all the configuration details either interactively or in a response file.
10-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
About the Deinstallation Tool
Caution: When you run the deinstallation tool, if the central
inventory (oraInventory) contains no other registered homes besides
the home that you are deconfiguring and removing, then the deinstall
command removes the following files and directory contents in the
Oracle base directory of the Oracle Database installation owner:
■
admin
■
cfgtoollogs
■
checkpoints
■
diag
■
oradata
■
fast_recovery_area
Oracle strongly recommends that you configure your installations
using an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration, and that
you reserve Oracle base and Oracle home paths for exclusive use of
Oracle software. If you have any user data in these locations in the
Oracle base that is owned by the user account that owns the Oracle
software, then the deinstallation tool deletes this data.
In addition, for Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations:
■
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
(Oracle ACFS) must be dismounted and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) must be
disabled.
If Grid Naming Service (GNS) is in use, then the entry for the
subdomain must be deleted from DNS by your DNS
administrator.
Oracle recommends that you run the deinstallation tool as the Oracle software
installation owner. The default method for running the deinstallation tool is from the
deinstall directory in the Oracle home as the installation owner:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/deinstall
The deinstall command uses the following syntax, where variable content is
indicated in italics:
./deinstall [-silent] [-checkonly] [-paramfile complete path of input response
file] [-params name1=value
name2=value . . .] [-o complete path of directory for saving files]
[-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-help]
To run the deinstallation tool from the database installation media, use the
runInstaller command with the -deinstall option, followed by the -home option to
specify the path of the Oracle home you want to remove using the following syntax,
where variable content is indicated in italics:
./runInstaller -deinstall -home complete path of Oracle home [-silent]
[-checkonly] [-paramfile complete path of input response file] [-params
name1=value
name2=value . . .] [-o complete path of directory for saving files]
[-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory to use]
Removing Oracle Database Software 10-3
About the Deinstallation Tool
[-logdir complete path of log directory to use] [-help]
Provide information about your servers as prompted or accept the defaults.
The deinstallation tool stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system.
In addition, you can run the deinstallation tool with a response file, or select the
following options to run the tool:
■
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the Oracle home to check or deinstall.
To deinstall Oracle software using the deinstall command, located in the Oracle
home you plan to deinstall, provide a response file located outside the Oracle
home, and do not use the -home flag.
If you run the deinstallation tool from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path, then the
-home flag is not required because the tool identifies the location of the home
where it is run. If you use runInstaller -deinstall from the installation media,
then -home is mandatory.
■
-silent
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool in noninteractive mode. This option
requires one of the following:
–
A working system that it can access to determine the installation and
configuration information. The -silent flag does not work with failed
installations.
–
A response file that contains the configuration values for the Oracle home that
is being deinstalled or deconfigured.
You can generate a response file to use or modify by running the tool with the
-checkonly flag. The tool then discovers information from the Oracle home to
deinstall and deconfigure. It generates the response file that you can then use with
the -silent option.
You can also modify the template file deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/response directory.
■
-checkonly
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle software home configuration.
Running the deinstallation tool with the -checkonly flag does not remove the
Oracle configuration. The -checkonly flag generates a response file that you can
use with the deinstallation tool and -silent option.
■
-paramfile complete path of input response file
Use this flag to run the deinstallation tool with a response file in a location other
than the default. When you use this flag, provide the complete path where the
response file is located.
The default location of the response file depends on the location of the
deinstallation tool:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location: /response
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response
-params [name1=value name2=value name3=value . . .]
10-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Example of Running the Deinstallation Tool
Use this flag with a response file to override one or more values to change in a
response file you have created.
■
-o complete path of directory for saving response files
Use this flag to provide a path other than the default location where the response
file (deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
The default location of the response file depends on the location of the
deinstallation tool:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location: /response
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response
-tmpdir complete path of temporary directory
Use this flag to specify a non-default location where Oracle Deinstallation Tool
writes the temporary files for the deinstallation.
■
-logdir complete path of log directory
Use this flag to specify a non-default location where Oracle Deinstallation Tool
writes the log files for the deinstallation.
■
-help
Use the help option (-help) to get additional information about the command
option flags.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for information about the -local option
See Also:
Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home
For upgrades from previous releases, if you want to deinstall the previous release Grid
home, then as the root user, you must manually change the permissions of the
previous release Grid home, and then run the deinstall command.
For example:
# chown -R grid:oinstall /u01/app/grid/11.2.0
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/grid/11.2.0
In this example, /u01/app/grid/11.2.0 is the previous release Grid home.
Example of Running the Deinstallation Tool
If you run the deinstallation tool using the runInstaller command with the
-deinstall option from the installation media, then help is displayed unless you enter
a -home flag and provide a path to the home directory of the Oracle software to remove
from your system.
Use the optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to a response file.
In the following example, the runInstaller command is in the path /directory_path,
where directory_path is the path to the database directory on the installation media,
and /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/ is the path to the Oracle home
remove:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -home /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/
Removing Oracle Database Software 10-5
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
The following example uses a response file in the software owner location
/home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /directory_path/
$ ./runInstaller -deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
If you run the deinstallation tool using the deinstall command from the $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall directory, then the deinstallation starts without prompting you for the
Oracle home path.
Use the optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to a response file.
In the following example, the deinstall command is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/deinstall, and it uses a response file in
the software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
For the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, use the deinstallation script in the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server home, which in this example is
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_grid_paramfile.tmpl
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Database
You can run the deinstallation tool with the -paramfile option to use the values you
specify in the response file. The following is an example of a response file, in which the
Oracle Database binary owner is oracle, the Oracle Database home (Oracle home) is
in the path /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/, the Oracle base (where
other Oracle software is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory
home (oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the virtual IP address (VIP) is
192.0.2.1, the local node (the node where you run the deinstallation session from) is
myserver, and the OSDBA group is dba:
# Copyright (c) 2005, 2009 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
ORACLE_BASE.orcl=/u01/app/oracle
FAST_RECOVERY_LOC.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/ORCL
STORAGE_TYPE.orcl=FS
DB_TYPE.orcl=SI_DB
NETCA_LOCAL_LISTENERS=LISTENER
LOGDIR=/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/
NODE_LIST.orcl=myserver
ObaseCleanupPtrLoc=/tmp/deinstall2012-06-12_09-14-11AM/orabase_cleanup.lst
ARCHIVE_LOG_DESTINATION_LOC.orcl=
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
DUMP_DESTINATION_LOC.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl
LOCAL_SID.orcl=orcl
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
RAW_MAPPING_FILE.orcl=
SID_LIST.orcl=orcl
DB_UNIQUE_NAME_LIST=orcl
10-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
DATAFILE_LOC.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl,/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_
area/orcl
HOME_TYPE=SIDB
CRS_HOME=false
CREATION_MODE.orcl=y
CONFIGFILE_LOC.orcl=
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
DIAG_DEST.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
local=false
SPFILE_LOC.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/dbs/spfileorcl.ora
inst_group=dba
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
MinimumSupportedVersion=11.2.0.1.0
silent=false
DBCA_LOG.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/orcl
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
CCR_CONFIG_STATUS=CCR_DEL_HOME
EMCA_LOG.orcl=/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/emca/orcl
ORACLE_HOME_VERSION_VALID=true
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
You can run the deinstallation tool with the -paramfile option to use the values you
specify in the response file.
The following is an example of a response file, in which the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
binary owner is oracle, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid, the Oracle base (where other Oracle software
is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory home (oraInventory) is
/u01/app/oraInventory, the local node (the node where you run the deinstallation
session from) is myserver, and the OSDBA group is dba:
# Copyright (c) 2005, 2009 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
HOME_TYPE=SIHA
ASM_REDUNDANCY=EXTERNAL
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/
ObaseCleanupPtrLoc=/tmp/deinstall_bootstrap/orabase_cleanup.lst
SCAN_PORT=0
silent=false
ASM_UPGRADE=false
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
MinimumSupportedVersion=11.2.0.1.0
GPNPCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
LOGDIR=/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/
ORACLE_HOME_VERSION_VALID=true
ASM_DISCOVERY_STRING=/scratch/raw/raw*
GPNPGCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
ISROLLING=true
ASM_DISKSTRING=/scratch/raw/raw*
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=0
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
MGMT_DB=false
NETCA_LISTENERS_REGISTERED_WITH_HAS=LISTENER
inst_group=svrtech
ASM_AU_SIZE=1
HUB_SIZE=0
Removing Oracle Database Software 10-7
Deinstallation Response File Example for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
ASM_ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
ORA_DBA_GROUP=dba
JREDIR=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/jdk/jre/
USER_IGNORED_PREREQ=false
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
ASM_DISK_GROUPS="+DATA"
ORA_ASM_GROUP=dba
LANGUAGE_ID=AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
CSS_LEASEDURATION=400
ASM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
ASM_DIAGNOSTIC_DEST=/u01/app/oracle/product/OB
TZ=PST8PDT
REUSEDG=false
SILENT=false
local=false
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
GNS_CONF=false
BIG_CLUSTER=false
ASM_
DISKS=/scratch/raw/raw1,/scratch/raw/raw2,/scratch/raw/raw3,/scratch/raw/raw4,/scr
atch/raw/raw5,/scratch/raw/raw6,/scratch/raw/raw7,/scratch/raw/raw8
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
CRS_HOME=true
ASM_IN_HOME=true
CRFHOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid"
ASM_DROP_DISKGROUPS=true
ASM_LOCAL_SID=+ASM
JLIBDIR=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/jlib
VNDR_CLUSTER=false
ASM_DISK_GROUP=DATA
10-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
This appendix describes how to install and configure Oracle products using response
files. It includes information about the following topics:
■
How Response Files Work
■
Preparing a Response File
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
■
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
How Response Files Work
You can automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or
partially, by specifying a response file when you start Oracle Universal Installer. Oracle
Universal Installer uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to
some or all of Oracle Universal Installer prompts. It includes information about the
following topics:
■
■
■
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
General Procedure for Using Response Files
Typically, Oracle Universal Installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it
prompts you to provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When
you use response files to provide this information, you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command prompt using either of the following modes:
■
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal
Installer runs in silent mode. During a silent mode installation, Oracle Universal
Installer does not display any screens. Instead, it displays progress information in
the terminal that you used to start it.
■
Response file mode
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-1
How Response Files Work
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file
mode. During a response file mode installation, Oracle Universal Installer displays
all the screens, screens for which you specify information in the response file and
also screens for which you did not specify the required information in the
response file. The advantage is that you can validate the values in the screens for
which you have provided the information in the response file and continue with
the installation.
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For instance, to specify the Oracle home
location, you would supply the appropriate value for the ORACLE_HOME variable, as
follows:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
Another way of specifying the variable settings of the response file is to pass them as
command line arguments when you run Oracle Universal Installer. For example:
-silent directory_path
Where, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the installation media
or on the hard drive.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide for more information about
response file formats
My Oracle Support website for more information about response
files:
https://support.oracle.com/
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
The following table describes several reasons why you might want to run Oracle
Universal Installer in silent mode or response file mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode to:
■
■
■
Complete an unattended installation, which you might schedule using
operating system utilities such as cron
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it
Oracle Universal Installer displays progress information in the terminal that
you used to start it, but it does not display any of Oracle Universal Installer
screens.
Response File
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
multiple systems, providing default answers to some, but not all of Oracle
Universal Installer prompts.
In response file mode, all the installer screens are displayed, but defaults for
the fields in these screens are provided by the response file. You must
provide information for the fields in screens where you have not provided
values in the response file.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
Before you create a database that uses Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM), you must run the root.sh script. For this reason, you cannot create a database
using Oracle ASM as the storage option for database files during a silent-mode
installation. Instead, you can complete a software-only installation using silent mode,
and then run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant and Database Configuration
Assistant in silent mode after you complete the software-only installation and run the
root.sh script.
This limitation applies only to databases that use Oracle ASM
as the storage option for database files. You can create a database that
uses the file system option during a silent mode installation.
Note:
General Procedure for Using Response Files
The following are the general steps to install and configure Oracle products using
Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a
system before running Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response
file mode.
Note:
1.
Prepare a response file.
2.
Run Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode.
3.
Run the root scripts as prompted by Oracle Universal Installer.
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration
Assistant and Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode, if
required.
These steps are described in the following sections.
Preparing a Response File
This section describes the following methods to prepare a response file for use during
silent mode or response file mode installations:
■
Editing a Response File Template
■
Saving a Response File
Editing a Response File Template
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool. These files are located in the ORACLE_HOME/assistants/
directory, and the database/response directory on the installation media.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, the response files
are located in the stage_area/database/response directory.
Note:
Table A–1 lists the response files provided with Oracle Database.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-3
Preparing a Response File
Table A–1
Response Files
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database 12c
grid_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
dbca.rsp
Silent installation of Database Configuration Assistant
netca.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
To copy and modify a response file:
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/response_file.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media. If you copy the software to a hard drive, then edit the file in the
response directory.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide for information
about creating response files
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
The installer or configuration assistants fail if you do not
correctly configure the response file. See the "Silent-Mode Response
File Error Handling" section on page I-7 for more information about
troubleshooting a failed response file mode installation.
Note:
4.
Change the permissions on the file to 700:
$ chmod 700 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
A fully specified response file for an Oracle Database
installation contains the passwords for database administrative
accounts and for a user who is a member of the OSDBA group
(required for automated backups). Ensure that only the Oracle
software owner user can view or modify response files or consider
deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
Saving a Response File
You can use Oracle Universal Installer in interactive mode to save a response file,
which you can edit and then use to complete silent mode or response file mode
installations.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation
steps into a response file during installation. You can click the Save Response File
button on the Summary page to do this. Later, this file can be used for a silent
installation.
A-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
When you save the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from Oracle Universal Installer on the Summary page, before it starts to copy the
software to the system.
If you save a response file during a silent installation, then Oracle Universal Installer
saves the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Oracle Universal Installer does not save passwords in the
response file.
Note:
To save a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 4.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer to save a response file, it checks the
system to verify that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this
reason, Oracle recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation
tasks and save the response file while completing an installation.
2.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user has permissions to create or write to
the Oracle home path that you specify when you run Oracle Universal Installer.
3.
On each Oracle Universal Installer screen, provide the required information.
See Also: "Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 7-9 for
information about the installation process
4.
When Oracle Universal Installer displays the Summary screen, perform the
following:
a.
Click Save Response File and provide a file name and location for the
response file. Then, click Save to save the values to the file.
b.
Click Finish to continue with the installation.
Click Cancel if you do not want to continue with the installation. The
installation stops, but the saved response file is retained.
5.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes.
Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Now, you are ready to run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying
the response file you created, to perform the installation. The Oracle Universal
Installer executable, runInstaller, provides several options. For help information
about the full set of these options, run the runInstaller command with the -help
option, for example:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
To run Oracle Universal Installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 4.
2.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle).
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, set the DISPLAY
environment variable.
Note: You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if
you are completing a silent mode installation.
4.
To start Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command
similar to the following:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then Oracle Universal Installer fails.
Note:
In this example:
■
■
directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD or on the
hard drive.
-silent runs Oracle Universal Installer in silent mode.
"Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling" on page I-7
■
■
5.
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during installation,
and a software-only installation is performed instead.
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response
file that you configured.
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the root.sh script. Log in as the
root user and run the root.sh script:
$ sudo sh
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
6.
If this is the first time you are installing Oracle software on your system, then
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run the orainstRoot.sh script.
Log in as the root user and run the orainstRoot.sh script:
$ sudo sh
password:
# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
A-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
Note:
■
■
You do not have to manually create the oraInst.loc file. Running
the orainstRoot.sh script is sufficient as it specifies the location
of the Oracle Inventory directory.
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, Oracle
Universal Installer provides options to automatically run the root
scripts. You also have the option to manually run the root scripts.
See "Determining Root Script Execution Plan" on page 5-16 for
more information.
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names. To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy
and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
netca.resp in the in the ORACLE_HOME/assistants/netca directory, and the response
directory in the database/response directory on the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the stage_area/database/response
directory.
Note:
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD.
If you copy the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the response
directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly
configure the response file.
Note:
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca -silent -responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
■
The -silent option runs Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode to configure and
start an Oracle database on the system. To run Database Configuration Assistant in
response file mode, you must copy and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a
response file template named dbca.rsp in the ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca
directory, and also in the database/response directory on the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the stage_area/database/response
directory.
Note:
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must use the
-responseFile flag in combination with either the -silent or -progressOnly flag.
You must also use a graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
See Also:
■
■
"Creating a Database with Noninteractive/Silent DBCA" in Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface"
section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for information about running Oracle ASMCA in
noninteractive mode
This section contains the following topics:
■
Silent Mode of Database Configuration Assistant
■
Progress Only Mode of Database Configuration Assistant
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
Silent Mode of Database Configuration Assistant
Use the -silent flag in combination with the -responseFile flag to set the mode to
silent. In the silent mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you
specify, in the response file or as command-line options, to create a database. No
window or user interface is displayed in the silent mode.
Progress Only Mode of Database Configuration Assistant
Use the -progressOnly flag in combination with the -responseFile flag, to set the
mode to progress only. As it configures and starts the database, Database
Configuration Assistant displays a window that contains status messages and a
progress bar.
In this mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you specify, in the
response file or as command line options, to create a database.
A-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, that is, silent mode or
progress only mode:
Instead of editing the response file template, you can create a
database by specifying all required information as command-line
options when you run Database Configuration Assistant. For
information about the list of options supported, enter the following
command:
Note:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD.
If you copy the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the response
directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Edit the file, following the instructions in the file.
Database Configuration Assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
Note:
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
If you intend running Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, set
the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Database Configuration Assistant
in response file or silent mode with a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-progressOnly | -silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
■
■
■
The -silent option runs Database Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
The -progressOnly option runs Database Configuration Assistant in response
file mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Use the following sections to create and run a response file configuration after
installing the Oracle software.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you would otherwise provide manually during a
graphical user interface installation. However, the response file does not contain
passwords for user accounts that configuration assistants require after the software
installation is complete. The configuration assistants are started with a script called
configToolAllCommands. You can run this script in response file mode by using a
password response file. The script uses the passwords to run the configuration tools in
succession to complete the configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle recommends
that you store it in a secure location. In addition, if you must stop an installation to fix
an error, you can run the configuration assistants using configToolAllCommands and a
password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file consists of the following syntax
options:
■
internal_component_name is the name of the component that the configuration
assistant configures
■
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
■
value is the desired value to use for the configuration
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=welcome
Oracle recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
■
■
Set the permissions on the response file to 600.
The response file owner must be the installation owner user, with the group set to
the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
To run configuration assistants with the configToolAllCommands script:
1.
Create a response file using the syntax filename.properties. For example:
$ touch cfgrsp.properties
2.
Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the password template,
modifying it as needed.
Example A–1 Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server
Oracle Grid Infrastructure requires passwords for Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) and for Intelligent Platform Management
Interface Configuration Assistant (IPMICA) if you have a BMC card and you want to
enable this feature. Provide the following response file:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
A-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Example A–2 Password response file for Oracle Database
Oracle Database configuration requires the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP passwords for use
with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). The S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD password is
necessary only if the database is using Oracle ASM for storage. Similarly, the S_
PDBADMINPASSWORD password is necessary only if you create a multitenant container
database (CDB) with one or more pluggable databases (PDBs). Also, if you selected to
configure Oracle Enterprise Manager, then you must provide the password for the
Oracle software installation owner for the S_EMADMINPASSWORD password, similar to the
following example:
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_PDBADMINPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_EMADMINPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager or Oracle ASM, then leave
those password fields blank
3.
Change permissions to secure the file. For example:
$ ls -al cfgrsp.properties
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 cfgrsp.properties
4.
Change the directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs
Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
for example:
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/cfgrsp.properties
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-11
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
A-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
B
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home and then
configuring it for a new environment. If you are performing multiple Oracle Database
installations, then you may want to use this method to create each Oracle home,
because copying files from an existing Oracle Database installation takes less time than
creating a new version of them. This method is also useful if the Oracle home that you
are cloning has had patches applied to it. When you clone the Oracle home, the new
Oracle home has the patch updates.
This appendix includes information about the following topics:
■
Cloning an Oracle Home
■
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home
Perform the following to clone an Oracle home:
1.
Verify that the installation of Oracle Database to clone is successful.
You can do this by reviewing the installActionsdate_time.log file for the
installation session, which is typically located in the /orainventory_
location/logs directory.
If you install patches, then check their status using the following:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
Include $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch in $PATH
$ opatch lsinventory
2.
Stop all processes related to the Oracle home. See "Stopping Existing Oracle
Processes" on page 5-11 for more information about stopping the processes for an
Oracle home.
3.
Create a ZIP or TAR file with the Oracle home (but not the Oracle base) directory.
For example, if the source Oracle installation is in the
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1, then you zip the dbhome_1 directory
by using the following command:
# zip -r dbhome_1.zip /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
You can also use the TAR command, for example:
# tar -cvf dbhome_1.tar /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
Cloning an Oracle Home B-1
Cloning an Oracle Home
Do not include the admin, fast_recovery_area, and oradata directories that are
under the Oracle base directory. These directories are created in the target
installation later, when you create a new database there.
4.
Copy the ZIP or TAR file to the root directory of the target computer. If you use
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), then transfer the ZIP or TAR file in binary mode only.
5.
Extract the ZIP or TAR file content using the following command:
# unzip -d / dbhome_1.zip
# tar -xvf dbhome_1.tar
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each computer where you want to clone the Oracle home,
unless the Oracle home is on a shared storage device.
7.
On the target computer, change the directory to the unzipped Oracle home
directory, and remove all the .ora (*.ora) files present in the unzipped $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory.
8.
From the $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin directory, run the clone.pl file for the
unzipped Oracle home. Use the following syntax:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin/clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="target_
oracle_base" ORACLE_HOME="target_oracle_home"
OSDBA_GROUP=OSDBA_privileged_group OSOPER_GROUP=OSOPER_privileged_group
-defaultHomeName
For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin/clone.pl ORACLE_
BASE="/u01/app/oracle/" ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1"
OSDBA_GROUP=dba OSOPER_GROUP=oper -defaultHomeName
Oracle Universal Installer starts, and then records the cloning actions in the
cloneActionstimestamp.log file. This log file is typically located in
/orainventory_location/logs directory.
9.
To configure the connection information for the new database, run Net
Configuration Assistant:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./netca
10. To create a new database for the newly cloned Oracle home, run Database
Configuration Assistant:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./dbca
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide for detailed information
about using Oracle Universal Installer to clone an Oracle Database
home
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
cloning Oracle databases and cloning an Oracle Database home
B-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle home depends on its
configuration in the original Oracle home.
If you have already installed but not configured Oracle Configuration Manager in the
original Oracle home, then run the following commands from the cloned Oracle home:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin
$ setupCCR
If you have already configured Oracle Configuration Manager in the original Oracle
home, then run the following commands from the cloned Oracle home:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin
$ ./deriveCCR
If deriveCCR cannot find the original configuration, then the Oracle Configuration
Manager command-line interface prompts for your My Oracle Support (MOS)
credentials. Provide your MOS credentials to proceed.
Cloning an Oracle Home B-3
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
B-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
C
C
Using NAS Devices
This appendix provides guidelines for using a network attached storage (NAS) device
for Oracle software and database files. It includes information about the following:
■
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
■
Choosing Mount Points
■
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
See Also:
■
■
"Configuring Direct NFS Client" on page 8-10
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information about
using NAS devices on Oracle Real Application Clusters
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
See the documentation provided with the NAS device for specific information about
how to configure it. In addition, use the following guidelines to ensure the
performance of the Oracle software:
■
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the Oracle server
and the NAS device.
For this reason, Oracle recommends that you connect the server to the NAS device
using a private dedicated network connection, which should be Gigabit Ethernet
or better.
■
For single-instance database installations, Oracle recommends that you create a
separate Oracle home directory for each installation. Run the software in this
Oracle home directory only from the system that you used to install it.
Choosing Mount Points
This section provides guidelines on how to choose the mount points for the file
systems to use for the Oracle software and database files. The guidelines contained in
the following sections follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations:
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Using NAS Devices C-1
Choosing Mount Points
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
Oracle software files are stored in three different directories:
■
Oracle base directory
■
Oracle inventory directory
■
Oracle home directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations and
is identified by the ORACLE_BASE environment variable. For example, for a first
installation, the Oracle base, Oracle Inventory, and Oracle home directories might have
paths similar to the following:
Directory
Path
Oracle base ($ORACLE_BASE)
/u01/app/oracle
Oracle Inventory
ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory (or)
/u01/app/oraInventory
Oracle home
$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
For subsequent installations, you can use either the same Oracle base directory or a
different one, but every subsequent installation uses the original Oracle Inventory
directory. For example, if you use the /u02/app/oracle directory as the Oracle base
directory for a new installation, then the Oracle Inventory directory continues to be
/u01/app/oraInventory.
To enable you to effectively maintain the Oracle software on a particular system,
Oracle recommends that you keep the Oracle Inventory directory only on a local file
system, if possible. If you must place the Oracle Inventory directory on a NAS device,
create a specific directory for each system, to prevent multiple systems from writing to
the same inventory directory.
See Also:
"Identifying Required Software Directories" on page 4-26
Directory-Specific Guidelines
You can use any of the following directories as mount points for NFS used to store
Oracle software:
In the following examples, the paths shown are the defaults
if the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set before you start
Oracle Universal Installer.
Note:
■
Oracle base directory or its parents (/u01/app/oracle for example)
If you use the Oracle base directory or one of its parents as a mount point, then the
default location for all Oracle software and database files is on that file system.
During the installation, consider changing the default location of the following
directories:
–
The Oracle Inventory directory (oracle_base/../oraInventory)
Specify a local file system or a host-specific directory on the NFS, for example:
u01/app/oraInventory
–
The Oracle database file directory (oracle_base/oradata)
C-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Choosing Mount Points
You might want to use a different file system for database files, for example, to
enable you to specify different mount options or to distribute I/O.
–
The Oracle database recovery file directory (oracle_base/fast_recovery_
area)
Oracle recommends that you use different file systems for database and
recovery files.
If you use this mount point, then all Oracle installations that use this Oracle base
directory use the NFS.
■
The product directory (oracle_base/product)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS. You can also use this mount
point to install software from different releases, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0
/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
■
The release directory (oracle_base/product/12.1.0)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS. You can also use this mount
point to install different products from the same release, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/client_1
■
The Oracle home directory (oracle_base/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS file system. This is the most
restrictive mount point. You can use it only to install a single release of one
product:
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
See Also:
"Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping" on page F-7
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
To store Oracle database or recovery files on a NAS device, you can use different paths
depending on whether you want to store files from only one database or from multiple
databases:
■
Use the NFS for files from multiple databases
To store the database files or recovery files from multiple databases on the same
NFS, use paths or mount points similar to the following:
File Type
Path or Mount Point
Database files
/u02/oradata
Recovery files
/u03/fast_recovery_area
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the data file and the recovery file
directories, specify these paths. Database Configuration Assistant and Oracle
Enterprise Manager create subdirectories in these directories using the value you
specify for the database name (DB_NAME) as the directory name, for example:
/u02/oradata/db_name1
/u03/fast_recovery_area/db_name1
Using NAS Devices C-3
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Use the NFS for files from only one database
To store the database files or recovery files for only one database in the NFS, you
can create mount points similar to the following, where orcl is the name of the
database:
/u02/oradata/orcl
/u03/fast_recovery_area/orcl
Specify the directory /u02/oradata when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you
for the data file directory and specify the directory /u03/fast_recovery_area
when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the recovery file location. The
orcl directory is used automatically either by Database Configuration Assistant or
by Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS device, then you can create zero-padded files in an NFS
mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) disk group. To create these files, follow these steps:
To use files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk group,
the files must be on an NFS mounted file system. You cannot use
files on local file systems.
Note:
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
See the NAS device documentation for more information about completing this
step.
2.
Switch the user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4.
To ensure that NFS is mounted when the system restarts, add an entry for the file
system in the /etc/fstab mount file.
See Also: My Oracle Support Note 359515.1 for updated NAS
mount option information:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&id=359515.1
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS on the local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group to create, for example, sales1.
C-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
7.
Create a directory for the files on the NFS file system, using the disk group name
as the directory name:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/sales1
8.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of
zero-padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/disk1 bs=1024k count=1000
oflag=direct
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS. You must create one, two, or three files
respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk group.
Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS device
does not guard against NAS failure. Instead, create one file for each
NAS device and mirror them using the Oracle ASM technology.
Note:
9.
Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and
permissions on the directory and files that you created:
# chown -R grid:asmadmin /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
In this example, the installation owner is grid and the OSASM group is asmadmin.
10. During database installation and creation, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery
string to specify a regular expression that matches the file names you created. For
example:
/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/*
Note: During installation, disks labelled as ASMLIB disks or ASMFD
disks are listed as candidate disks when using the default discovery
string. However, if the disk has a header status of MEMBER, then it is not
a candidate disk.
Using NAS Devices C-5
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
C-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
D
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks
Manually
D
This appendix provides instructions for how to complete configuration tasks manually
that Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) and Oracle Universal Installer normally
complete during installation. Use this appendix as a guide if you cannot use the fixup
script.
This appendix contains the following information:
■
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
■
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
■
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
This section contains the following topics:
■
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
■
Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values
■
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
Unless otherwise specified, the kernel parameter and shell
limit values shown in the following table are minimum values only.
For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you
tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. See
the operating system documentation for more information about
tuning kernel parameters.
Note:
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
During the Oracle Database installation, you can generate and run the fixup script to
check and set the kernel parameter values required for successful installation of the
database. This script updates required kernel parameters, if necessary, to minimum
values.
If you cannot use the fixup script, then review the following table to set the values
manually:
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually D-1
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Parameter
Value
File
semmsl
250
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
semmns
32000
semopm
100
semmni
128
shmall
40 percent of the size of
physical memory in
pages
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
Note: If the server
supports multiple
databases, or uses a
large SGA, then set this
parameter to a value that
is equal to the total
amount of shared
memory, in 4K pages,
that the system can use
at one time.
Half the size of physical
memory in bytes
shmmax
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
See My Oracle Support
Note 567506.1 for
additional information
about configuring
shmmax.
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
panic_on_oops
1
/proc/sys/kernel/panic_on_oops
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/file-max
aio-max-nr
1048576
/proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr
Note: This value limits
concurrent outstanding
requests and should be
set to avoid I/O
subsystem failures.
ip_local_port_range Minimum: 9000
Maximum: 65500
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_
port_range
See Setting UDP and
TCP Kernel Parameters
Manually
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value
listed in this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of
that parameter.
Note:
D-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
See Also:
■
"Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters" on page 8-3
■
"Using Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 4-10
Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values
Enter the commands shown in the following table to display the current values of the
kernel parameters. Note these values and identify any values that you must change:
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns,
semopm, and semmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
shmall, shmmax, and
shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters
in the order listed.
This command displays the details of the shared memory
segment sizes.
This command displays the maximum number of file handles.
ip_local_port_range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
This command displays a range of port numbers.
rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
aio-max-nr
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep aio-max-nr
If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the minimum value, then
perform the following:
1.
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit
lines similar to the following. For example:
Note: Include lines only for the kernel parameter values to change.
For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you must specify all four
values. If any of the current values are larger than the minimum value,
then specify the larger value.
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually D-3
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you
restart the system. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, enter the following
command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it
restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2.
Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel
parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
Review the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If the
values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this command
again.
3.
Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set correctly.
4.
After updating the values of the kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf file,
either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the changes
in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel memory.
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems only, complete the following steps as
needed:
1.
Enter the following command to cause the system to read the /etc/sysctl.conf
file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2.
Enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter
/proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this grants members of oinstall a
group permission to create shared memory segments.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
After running this command, use vi to add the following text to
/etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
Note:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_group.
Setting UDP and TCP Kernel Parameters Manually
If you do not use a Fixup script or CVU to set ephemeral ports, then set TCP/IP
ephemeral port range parameters to provide enough ephemeral ports for the
anticipated server workload. Ensure that the lower range is set to at least 9000 or
higher, to avoid Well Known ports, and to avoid ports in the Registered Ports range
commonly used by Oracle and other server ports. Set the port range high enough to
avoid reserved ports for any applications you may intend to use. If the lower value of
the range you have is greater than 9000, and the range is large enough for your
anticipated workload, then you can ignore Oracle Universal Installer warnings
regarding the ephemeral port range.
D-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
For example, with IPv4, use the following command to check your current range for
ephemeral ports:
$ cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
32768 61000
In the preceding example, the lowest port (32768) and the highest port (61000) are set
to the default range.
If necessary, update the UDP and TCP ephemeral port range to a range high enough
for anticipated system workloads, and to ensure that the ephemeral port range starts
at 9000 and above. For example:
# echo 9000 65500 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Oracle recommends that you make these settings permanent. For example, as root,
use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and add or change to the following:
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500, and then restart the network (#
/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart). Refer to your Linux distribution system
administration documentation for detailed information about how to automate this
ephemeral port range alteration on system restarts.
"Setting TCP Network Protocol Buffer for Direct NFS
Client" on page 8-12 if you use Direct NFS Client
See Also:
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) to
maintain device persistence. However, you can choose to use Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver (Oracle ASMLIB) or set udev rules for device
persistence.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
■
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuring Storage Device Path Persistence Using Oracle ASMLIB
Review the following section to configure Oracle ASMLIB:
■
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
■
Configuring Oracle ASMLIB to Maintain Block Devices
■
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB
Note:
Oracle ASMLIB is not supported on IBM:Linux on System z.
About Oracle ASM with Oracle ASMLIB
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver simplifies the configuration
and management of block disk devices by eliminating the need to rebind block disk
devices used with Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) each time the
system is restarted.
With Oracle ASMLIB, you define the range of disks you want to have made available
as Oracle ASM disks. Oracle ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually D-5
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
persistent on the storage device, so that the label is available even after an operating
system upgrade.
If you configure disks using Oracle ASMLIB, then you must
change the disk discovery string to ORCL:*. If the diskstring is set to
ORCL:*, or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks.
Note:
See Also: "Using Oracle ASM Library Driver" in Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Configuring Oracle ASMLIB to Maintain Block Devices
To use Oracle ASMLIB to configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the following tasks:
■
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software
■
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB
■
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle
ASM library driver, you must choose an installation method that runs
ASMCA in interactive mode. You must also change the disk discovery
string to ORCL:*.
Note:
See Also: "Using an Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Group" on page 7-3
Installing and Configuring Oracle ASMLIB Software Oracle ASMLIB is included with the
Oracle Linux packages, and with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11. If you are a
member of the Unbreakable Linux Network, then you can install the Oracle ASMLIB
RPMs by subscribing to the Oracle Linux channel, and using yum to retrieve the most
current package for your system and kernel. For additional information, see the
following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html
To install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver
software manually, perform the following steps:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
If necessary, download the required Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver packages from the Oracle Technology Network website:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/server-storage/linux/downloads/index088143.html
You must install oracleasm-support package version 2.0.1 or
later to use Oracle ASMLIB on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Advanced
Server. Oracle ASMLIB is already included with SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server distributions.
Note:
D-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
See Also: My Oracle Support note 1089399.1 for information about
Oracle ASMLIB support with Red Hat distributions:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NO
T&id=1089399.1
3.
Switch to the root user:
$ su -
4.
Install the following packages in sequence, where version is the version of the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system
architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 AS kernel on an
AMD64 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# rpm -ivh oracleasm-support-2.1.3-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.18-194.26.1.el5xen-2.0.5-1.el5.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasmlib-2.0.4-1.el5.x86_64.rpm
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i
Note: The oracleasm command in /usr/sbin is the command you
should use. The /etc/init.d path is not deprecated, but the
oracleasm binary in that path is now used typically for internal
commands.
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default user to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the Oracle
software owner user (for example,
oracle)
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the Grid
Infrastructure software owner (for
example, grid)
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually D-7
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default group to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSDBA group
for the database (for example, dba).
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSASM group
for storage administration (for example,
asmadmin).
Start Oracle ASM Library driver on boot (y/n): Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n)
Enter y to scan for Oracle ASM disks
when the system starts.
The script completes the following tasks:
■
Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file
■
Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point
■
Mounts the ASMLIB driver file system
The Oracle ASMLIB file system is not a regular file system. It
is used only by the Oracle ASM library to communicate with the
Oracle ASMLIB.
Note:
7.
Enter the following command to load the oracleasm kernel module::
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm init
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASMLIB To configure the disk devices to use in an
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group, perform the following steps:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then perform the following steps:
a.
Install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group
and restart the system.
b.
Enter the following command to identify the device name for the disks to use:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
IDE disk, and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first
IDE bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
SCSI disk, and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first
SCSI bus.
D-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Description
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Device Name
Format
Disk Type
RAID disk
/dev/rd/cxdypz
/dev/ida/cxdypz
Description
Depending on the RAID controller, RAID
devices can have different device names. In the
examples shown, x is a number that identifies
the controller, y is a number that identifies the
disk, and z is a number that identifies the
partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the
second logical drive on the first controller.
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk
partition on each disk to use.
Note:
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the disk
devices.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name assigned to the disk.
Note:
■
■
■
The disk names you specify can contain uppercase letters,
numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with
an uppercase letter.
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must
change the disk discovery string to ORCL:*.
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Oracle ASM,
then make sure that you specify the correct logical device name
for the disk.
Administering Oracle ASMLIB and Disks To administer the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver and disks, use the /usr/sbin/oracleasm initialization
script with different options, as described in the following table:
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually D-9
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Table D–1
Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
Configure or reconfigure
ASMLIB
oracleasm configure -i
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver, if
necessary.
To see command options, enter oracleasm
configure without the -i flag.
Change system restart load
options for ASMLIB
oracleasm enable
Load or unload ASMLIB
without restarting the
system
oracleasm restart
Mark a disk for use with
ASMLIB
oracleasm createdisk VOL1
/dev/sda1
Options are disable and enable.
Use the disable and enable options to change the
actions of the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver when the system
starts. The enable option causes the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver to
load when the system starts.
Options are start, stop and restart.
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load
or unload the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver without restarting the
system.
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device
for use with the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver and give it a name,
where labelname is the name you want to use to
mark the device, and devicepath is the path to the
device:
oracleasm createdisk labelname devicepath
Unmark a named disk
device
oracleasm deletedisk VOL1
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named
disk device, where diskname is the name of the
disk:
oracleasm deletedisk diskname
Caution: Do not use this command to unmark
disks that are being used by an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk group. You must delete
the disk from the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group before you unmark it.
Determine if ASMLIB is
using a disk device
oracleasm querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk
device or disk name is being used by the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver,
where diskname_devicename is the name of the
disk or device that you want to query:
oracleasm querydisk diskname_devicename
D-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
Table D–1 (Cont.) Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM
Task
Command Example
Description
List Oracle ASMLIB disks
oracleasm listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of
marked Oracle ASM library driver disks.
Identify disks marked as
ASMLIB disks
oracleasm scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes
to identify which shared disks have been marked
as ASMLIB disks on another node.
Rename ASMLIB disks
oracleasm renamedisk VOL1
VOL2
Use the renamedisk option to change the label of
an Oracle ASM library driver disk or device by
using the following syntax, where manager
specifies the manager device, label_device
specifies the disk you intend to rename, as
specified either by OracleASM label name or by
the device path, and new_label specifies the new
label you want to use for the disk:
oracleasm renamedisk [-l manager] [-v]
label_device new_label
Use the -v flag to provide a verbose output for
debugging.
Caution: You must ensure that all Oracle Database
and Oracle ASM instances have ceased using the
disk before you relabel the disk. If you do not do
this, then you may lose data.
Deinstalling Oracle ASMLIB
If Oracle ASMLIB is installed but you do not use it for device path persistence, then
deinstall Oracle ASMLIB:
1.
Stop Oracle ASM and any running database instance:
$ srvctl stop asm
$ srvctl stop instance -d db_unique_name
2.
Log in as root.
3.
Stop the Oracle Restart stack:
# cd Grid_home/bin
# crsctl stop has
4.
Stop Oracle ASMLIB:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm disable
5.
Remove the oracleasm library and tools RPMs:
# rpm -e oracleasm-support
# rpm -e oracleasmlib
6.
Check if any oracleasm RPMs are remaining:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm
7.
If any oracleasm configuration files are remaining, remove them:
# rpm -qa| grep oracleasm | xargs rpm -e
Oracle ASMLIB and associated RPMs are now removed.
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually
D-11
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
8.
Start the Oracle Restart stack. Optionally, you can install and configure Oracle
ASM Filter Driver (Oracle ASMFD) before starting the Oracle Restart stack.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section contains the following information about preparing disk devices manually
for use by Oracle ASM:
■
About Device File Names and Ownership for Linux
■
Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for Oracle ASM
The operation of udev depends on the Linux version, vendor,
and storage configuration.
Note:
About Device File Names and Ownership for Linux
By default, the device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device file names
when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev applies
default settings, then it changes Oracle device file names and owners for the disks,
making the disks inaccessible when the server is restarted. For example, a voting disk
on a device named /dev/sdd owned by the user grid may be on a device named
/dev/sdf owned by root after restarting the server.
If you use Oracle ASMFD, then you do not have to ensure permissions and device
path persistency in udev.
If you do not use Oracle ASMFD, then you must create a custom rules file. Linux
vendors customize their udev configurations and use different orders for reading rules
files. For example, on some Linux distributions when udev is started, it sequentially
carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files. These files are in the
path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order. For example, rules in
the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before rules in the rules file
90-ib.rules.
When specifying the device information in the UDEV rules file, ensure that the
OWNER, GROUP and MODE are specified before all other characteristics in the order
shown. For example, to include the characteristic ACTION on the UDEV line, specify
ACTION after OWNER, GROUP, and MODE.
Where rules files describe the same devices, on the supported Linux kernel versions,
the last file read is the one that is applied.
Configuring a Permissions File for Disk Devices for Oracle ASM
To configure a permissions file for disk devices for use by Oracle ASM, complete the
following tasks:
1.
Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices, while listed, by editing the /etc/scsi_
id.config file and adding "options=-g" to the file. For example:
# cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
options=-g
D-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
2.
Using a text editor, create a udev rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting
permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the group whose members are
administrators of the grid infrastructure software.
For example, on Oracle Linux, to create a role-based configuration rules.d file,
where the installation owner is grid, and the OSASM group is asmadmin, enter
commands similar to the following:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sd?1", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?2", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?3", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
3.
Load updated block device partition tables on the server using: /sbin/partprobe
devicename. You must do this as the root user.
4.
Enter the command to restart the udev service.
On Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the commands are:
# /sbin/udevcontrol reload_rules
# /sbin/start_udev
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, the command is:
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
Verify that the device permissions and ownerships are set correctly.
How to Complete Preinstallation Tasks Manually
D-13
Configuring Storage Paths and Disk Devices
D-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
E
E
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
the network. The computer has local storage to store the Oracle Database installation.
It also contains a display monitor and DVD drive. This appendix describes how to
install Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It describes
the following cases:
■
Installing on Multihomed Computers
■
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
■
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
See Also: The Certify pages on My Oracle Support for the latest
information about supported network protocols and hardware for
Oracle Database:
https://support.oracle.com/
Installing on Multihomed Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer
is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple
network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In
addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal
Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name.
If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple
network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name from the
/etc/hosts file.
Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using
aliases for this host name. To verify, ping the host name from the client computers
using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain
name).
Note:
Both tests must be successful.
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For
example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.example.com, then enter one of
the following commands:
In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.example.com
Configuring Networks for Oracle Database E-1
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME
In C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.example.com
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single
IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the
same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the ORACLE_
HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you want to use.
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such
as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the
network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the
computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can
connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the
fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.
When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the
ping command should return the IP address of the computer.
Note:
If the ping command fails, then contact your network administrator.
Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation
If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database
instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer
can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.
E-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
F
F
Optimal Flexible Architecture
This appendix describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard. This
standard is a set of configuration guidelines created to ensure well organized Oracle
installations that are easier to maintain. It includes information about the following
topics:
■
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
■
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
The Optimal Flexible Architecture standard helps you to organize database software
and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different versions, owned by
different users to coexist. Optimal Flexible Architecture assists in identification of
ORACLE_BASE with its Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) diagnostic data to
properly collect incidents.
All Oracle components on the installation media are compliant with Optimal Flexible
Architecture. Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database components in
directory locations, assigning the default permissions that follow Optimal Flexible
Architecture guidelines.
Oracle recommends that you use Optimal Flexible Architecture, especially if the
database is huge, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA
When you install Oracle database, you are installing a large application that your
computer can support. Using multiple Oracle homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture provides many advantages when administering large databases. The
following advantages are important:
■
■
■
■
■
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for
database files simplify database administration.
Distribution of I/O across multiple disks prevents performance bottlenecks caused
by multiple read or write commands issued simultaneously to a single drive.
Distribution of applications across multiple disks safeguards against database
failures.
Login home directories are not at risk when database administrators add, move, or
delete Oracle home directories.
Multiple databases, of different versions, owned by different users can coexist
concurrently.
Optimal Flexible Architecture F-1
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
■
Software upgrades can be tested in an Oracle home in a separate directory from
the Oracle home where your production database is located.
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
This section describes the naming strategy recommended by the Optimal Flexible
Architecture standard. It contains the following sections:
■
File Systems
■
Naming Directories
■
Naming Database Files
■
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
■
Identifying the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
■
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
File Systems
The following sections describe the conventions for mount points:
■
Number of File Systems
■
Naming Conventions
Number of File Systems
To fully implement the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations for a database
stored on file systems that are not striped or mirrored, you require at least three file
systems located on separate physical devices.
Naming Conventions
Name all file system mount points using the syntax /pm, where p is a string constant
and m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number) used to distinguish
each mount point. For example: /u01 and /u02, or /disk01 and /disk02.
Naming Directories
The following sections describe the naming conventions for directories that are
compliant with the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard:
■
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
■
Referring to Path Names
■
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Subdirectories
Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as
the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for
some paths, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file
names, and directory names.
Note:
F-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
The Oracle Base directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the
various Oracle software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for
multiple installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the
same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/s/u. Table F–1 describes the
variables used in this syntax.
Table F–1
Syntax for Naming Oracle Base Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory (the user running Oracle Universal
Installer)
For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the oracle user
and /u01/app/applmgr is an Oracle base directory created by the applmgr user.
Placing Oracle base directories at the same level in the UNIX file system is
advantageous because it enables you to refer to the collection of Oracle base directories
on different mount points using a single pattern matching string, /*/app/*.
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
If each disk drive contains database files from one application and there are enough
drives for each database to prevent I/O bottlenecks, use the syntax /h/q/d for naming
mount points. Table F–2 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Table F–2
Syntax for Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string denoting that Oracle data is stored in this directory, for example,
oradata
d
The value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME (typically the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
For example, to allocate two drives exclusively for the test database, name the mount
points /u01/app/oracle/oradata/test and /u02/app/oracle/oradata/test.
Referring to Path Names
Refer to explicit path names only in files designed specifically to store them, such as
the password file, /etc/passwd, and the Oracle oratab file. Refer to group
memberships only in the /etc/group file.
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
To help fulfill the Optimal Flexible Architecture requirement of simultaneously
running multiple versions of Oracle software, install the software in a directory
matching the pattern /pm/s/u/product/v/type_[n].
Table F–3 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Optimal Flexible Architecture F-3
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table F–3
Syntax for Naming Oracle Home Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory
v
The version of the software
type
The type of installation, for example Database (dbhome_1), Client (client), or
Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more than
once in the same Oracle base directory
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1 indicates the Oracle home directory for
the first installation of Oracle Database on this system.
The ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set to the Oracle home directory.
Naming Subdirectories
To facilitate the organization of administrative data, Oracle recommends that you store
database-specific administration files in subdirectories matching the pattern
/h/admin/d/a/, where h is the Oracle base directory, d is the database name (DB_
NAME), and a is a subdirectory for specific types of database administration files.
Table F–4 describes the database administration file subdirectories.
Table F–4
Subdirectories for Database Administration Files
Subdirectory
Description
arch
Archived redo log files
adump
Audit files
(Set the AUDIT_FILE_DEST initialization parameter to specify the adump
directory)
See Also: Oracle Database Security Guide
create
Contains database creation log files and scripts used to create the database
dpdump
Default directory for data pump operations. Also contains the data pump file
dp.log
exp
Database export files
logbook
Files recording the status and history of the database
pfile
Instance parameter files
scripts
Ad hoc SQL scripts
For example, /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/scripts/ is the scripts subdirectory
associated with the database named orcl.
The ADR diagnostic data goes into the /h/diag/rdbms/d/i/ directory by default.
where
h is Oracle Base
d is the database name
i is the instance name.
F-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
The ADR home has the trace, alert, and incident sub-directories. Table F–5 describes
the ADR directories.
Table F–5
Locations for Diagnostic Traces
Diagnostic Data
10g Location
11g and 12c Location
Foreground Process traces
user_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Background Process traces
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Alert Log Data
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/alert/
Core Dump
core_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/cdumps/
Incident Dumps
user_dump_dest or background_
dump_dest depending on the
process
ADR_HOME/incident/
See Also: "Structure, Contents, and Location of the Automatic
Diagnostic Repository" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Naming Database Files
The following table lists the recommended file naming conventions for database files:
Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and files stored in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management disk groups use different naming
conventions. For more information about these naming
conventions, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
File Type
File Naming Convention
Control files
/h/q/d/control.ctl
Redo log files
/h/q/d/redon.log
Data files
/h/q/d/tn.dbf
The following table describes this syntax:
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string (typically oradata) distinguishing Oracle data from all other files
d
The value of the DB_NAME initialization parameter (typically, the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
t
An Oracle tablespace name
n
A two-digit string
Note: Do not store files other than control files, redo log files, or
data files associated with database d in the path /h/q/d.
Optimal Flexible Architecture F-5
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Using this convention, it is easy to determine the database to which the
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/sab/system01.dbf file belongs.
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
Separate groups of segments with different lifespans, I/O request demands, and
backup frequencies across different tablespaces.
Table F–6 describes the special tablespaces that the Database Configuration Assistant
creates for each Oracle database. If you manually create a database, you must create
the required tablespaces. These tablespaces are in addition to those required for
application segments.
See Also: "Creating and Configuring an Oracle Database" in
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about creating
databases manually
Table F–6
Special Tablespaces
Tablespace
Required
Description
EXAMPLE
No
The EXAMPLE tablespace used to store the Sample
Schemas
SYSAUX
Yes
Auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace
SYSTEM
Yes
Data dictionary segments
TEMP
Yes
Temporary segments
UNDOTBS1
Yes
Used by Oracle to store undo information
USERS
No
Miscellaneous user segments
Creating these special tablespaces is effective because data dictionary segments are
never dropped, and no other segments that can be dropped are allowed in the SYSTEM
tablespace.
See Also: "Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files,
and Control Files" on page 9-9 for information about redo log, and
control files
Identifying the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
Table F–7 describes the syntax used for identifying classes of files.
Table F–7
Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/u[0-9][0-9]
User data directories
/*/home/*
User home directories
/*/app/*
User application software directories
/*/app/applmgr
Oracle applications software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product
Oracle software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product/12.1.0
Oracle software subtree for release 12c products
/*/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/db*
Oracle home directories for Oracle Database 12c
/*/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid*
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 12c for a standalone server, for user
oracle
F-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table F–7 (Cont.) Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl
orcl database administrative subtrees
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
orcl database archived log files
/*/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directories
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*
orcl database files
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log
orcl database redo log files
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
Table F–8 shows a hierarchical file mapping of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation with two Oracle home directories and two
databases. The database files are distributed across three mount points, /u02, /u03,
and /u04.
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle ASM to provide
greater redundancy and throughput.
Note:
Table F–8
Hierarchical File Mapping for an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/
Root directory
/u01/
User data mount point 1
/u01/app/
Subtree for application software
/u01/app/oracle/
Oracle Base directory
/u01/app/oracle/admin/
Subtree for database administration files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name1/
admin subtree for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name2/
admin subtree for db_name2 database
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/
Subtree for recovery files
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/db_name1
Recovery files for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/db_name2
Recovery files for db_name2 database
/u02/app/oracle/oradata
/u03/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directory
/u04/app/oracle/oradata
/u01/app/oracle/product/
Distribution files
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database, for user
oracle
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server, for user oracle
/u01/app/kjf/
Oracle base directory for user kjf
/u01/app/edm/
Oracle base directory for user edm
Optimal Flexible Architecture F-7
Understanding Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table F–9 shows a hierarchical file mapping for log files of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation in the orcl database.
Table F–9
Hierarchical File Mapping for Log Files in an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
Archived log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/create/
Contains the database creation log files
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log
Redo log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/dpdump/
Contains the data pump file dp.log
/u01/app/oracle/diag
Contains all database, listener, sqlnet and other
diagnostic logs
/u01/app/oracle/audit
Contains all audit logs
/u01/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs
Contains logs for configuration assistants such as
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, Database
Upgrade Assistant, and Oracle Net Configuration
Assistant
F-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
G
G
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. This appendix lists the default port numbers and
describes how to change the assigned port after installation. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
About Managing Ports
■
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
■
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. Many Oracle Database components and services
use ports. As an administrator, it is important to know the port numbers used by these
services, and to ensure that the same port number is not used by two services on your
host. Enter the following command to identify the ports currently used on your
computer:
$/bin/netstat -a
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
■
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time; Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
■
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This could be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
■
Is the port listed in the /etc/services file?
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, Oracle Database moves to the
next highest port in the allotted port range and continues checking until it finds a free
port.
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
In most cases, the Oracle Database component’s port number is listed in the tool used
to configure the port. In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers G-1
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
listed in the portlist.ini file. This file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/install
directory.
If you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file, so you can
only rely on this file immediately after installation. To find or change a port number,
use the methods described in this appendix.
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
The following table lists the port numbers and protocols used by components that are
configured during the single instance database installation. By default, the first port in
the range is assigned to the component, if it is available.
Table G–1
Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Oracle Net Services Listener
1521
Port number TCP
changes to the
next available
port.
Enables Oracle client connections to the database over the
Oracle Net Services protocol. You can configure it during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Connection Manager
Protocol
Modifiable
manually to
any available
port.
1630
1630
TCP
0
Configured
Manually
HTTP
0
Configured
Manually
FTP
42424
Dynamic
UDP
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
Listening port for Oracle client connections to Oracle
Connection Manager. It is not configured during
installation, but can be configured manually by editing
the cman.ora parameter file. You can find the file under
/network/admin directory.
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB HTTP port is used if web-based
applications must access an Oracle database from an
HTTP listener. You must configure this port manually.
See Also: "Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port Instead of
an Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB FTP is used when applications must
access an Oracle database from an FTP listener. You must
configure this port manually.
See Also: "Using FTP on the Standard Port Instead of the
Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS)
CSS daemon internode connection for the GM layer. The
port number is assigned automatically. You cannot view
or modify it.
Oracle Cluster Registry
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
G-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Advanced Installation and
Configuration Guide for information on Oracle Management Agent
ports
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and
UNIX for a list of clusterware ports used in Oracle components
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers G-3
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
G-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
H
H
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization
Support
This appendix describes the following Globalization Support topics:
■
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for an overview
of globalization support for Oracle Database
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
This section describes the following procedures:
■
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
■
Installing Translation Resources
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
You can specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you want to use
Oracle components. The locale setting of a component determines the language of the
user interface of the component and the globalization behavior, such as date and
number formatting. Depending on the Oracle component, the locale of the component
is either inherited from the operating system session that started the component, or is
defined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.
The operating system locale usually influences Oracle components that are based on
Java technology. The NLS_LANG environment variable usually influences Oracle
components that use Oracle Client libraries such as OCI.
The user interface of an Oracle component is displayed in a
selected language only if the appropriate translation is available and
has been installed. Else, the user interface is displayed in English.
Note:
This section describes the following procedures:
■
■
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment
Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
H-1
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
The locale setting of your operating system session determines the language of the
user interface and the globalization behavior for components such as Oracle Universal
Installer, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant. It also determines the globalization behavior of Oracle Database sessions
created by a user application through Oracle JDBC driver, unless overridden by the
application.
The operating system locale is determined by the value of the LANG environment
variable. Depending on your desktop environment, you can select a default session
locale on a login screen, in a configuration panel, or in a configuration file.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to select
a locale for the operating system session in your desktop environment.
Note:
You can modify the LANG variable in the environment of your shell to start an Oracle
component in a selected language. For example, to start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant in German, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591 dbca
■
C shell (csh):
% (setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591; dbca)
Note: The LC_ALL environment variable overrides the value of the
LANG environment variable. For the commands listed in this section
to work, either ensure that the LC_ALL environment variable is not set
in the environment, or substitute LC_ALL for LANG.
To modify the operating system locale for all Oracle components started by the given
shell, modify the LANG variable using one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591; export LANG
$ ...
■
C shell (csh):
% setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591
$ ...
The value of the LANG environment variable must be a valid operating system locale.
To see the list of valid locales, enter the following command:
$ locale -a
Refer to the operating system documentation for a mapping
between values of the LANG environment variable and the languages
and territories that they represent.
Note:
H-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
The NLS_LANG environment variable determines the language of the user interface and
the globalization behavior for components such as SQL*Plus, exp, and imp. It sets the
language and territory used by the client application and the database user session. It
also declares the character set for entering and displaying data by the client
application.
The NLS_LANG environment variable uses the following format:
NLS_LANG=language_territory.characterset
In this format:
■
■
■
language specifies the language used for displaying Oracle messages, sorting, day
names, and month names
territory specifies the conventions for default date, monetary, and numeric
formats
characterset specifies the encoding used by the client application
In most cases, this is the Oracle character set that corresponds to the character set
of the user terminal or the operating system.
The NLS_LANG environment variable is set as a local environment variable for the shell
on all UNIX-based platforms. For example, if the operating system locale setting is en_
US.UTF-8, then the corresponding value of NLS_LANG environment variable is
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8.
See Also: "Setting Up a Globalization Support Environment" in
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information about the
NLS_LANG parameter and Globalization Support initialization
parameters
The following examples illustrate some valid values for the NLS_LANG environment
variable.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to
determine the operating system locale environment setting.
Note:
Operating System Locale
NLS_LANG Values
French (France)
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P15
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P1
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8MSWIN1252
FRENCH_FRANCE.AL32UTF8
Japanese (Japan)
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16EUC
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16SJIS
JAPANESE_JAPAN.AL32UTF8
Installing Translation Resources
To view the user interface of Oracle components in different languages, you must
install the appropriate language translations along with the component.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
H-3
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user interface text is stored in
database tables in the DVSYS schema. By default, only the English
language is loaded into these tables. You can use Oracle Database
Vault Configuration Assistant to add more languages to Oracle
Database Vault. For the necessary steps, refer to "Adding Languages
to Oracle Database Vault" in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide.
To install the translation resources:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2.
In the Configure Security Updates screen enter the relevant information and click
Next.
3.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the installation option and click
Next.
4.
In the System Class screen, select the type of system class for installing the
database, and click Next.
5.
In the Grid Installation Options screen, select the type of database installation you
want to perform, and click Next.
6.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select the language in which you want to
use Oracle components from the Available Languages field.
The Available Languages field lists all languages supported by
Oracle globalization libraries. The set of languages for which a
translation is actually available is usually smaller and depends on a
particular component. The scope of translation for a given component
may differ between languages. For example, some translations may
include all user interface text, while others may include only error
messages and no help files.
Note:
7.
Use the > arrow to move the selected language to the Selected Languages field,
and then click Next.
Oracle Universal Installer ignores languages in the Selected
Languages field for which no translation is available.
Note:
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Your operating system locale determines the language in which Oracle Universal
Installer runs. Oracle Universal Installer may run in one of the following languages:
■
Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR)
■
French (fr)
■
German (de)
■
Italian (it)
■
Japanese (ja)
■
Korean (ko)
H-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
■
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
■
Spanish (es)
■
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
To run Oracle Universal Installer in an available language, change the locale in which
your operating system session is running before you start Oracle Universal Installer
with the ./runInstaller command. If the selected language is not one of those that
were listed earlier, then Oracle Universal Installer runs in English.
You must ensure that the selected value for the LANG environment variable starts with
the appropriate language abbreviation. In the aforementioned list of languages, in
which Oracle Universal Installer can run, the required abbreviation appears in
parentheses beside the language name. For example, fr_FR and fr_CA are valid values
to run the Oracle Universal Installer in French.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
H-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
H-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
I
I
Troubleshooting
This appendix contains information about troubleshooting. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
Verify Requirements
■
X Window Display Errors
■
Remote Terminal Installation Error
■
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
■
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
■
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
■
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
■
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
■
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
■
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
■
Troubleshooting Memory Size Error
■
Troubleshooting File Descriptors Error
■
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
■
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
■
Continuing Installations or Upgrades After Server Restarts
See Also: Chapter 6, "Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration
Manager" in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and
Administration Guide for information about some errors that may occur
while using Oracle Configuration Manager and tips to troubleshoot
these errors
Verify Requirements
Before performing any of the troubleshooting steps in this appendix, ensure that the
system meets the requirements and that you have completed all of the preinstallation
tasks specified in Chapter 4.
Read the Release Notes
Read the release notes for the product before installing it. The latest version of the
release notes is available on the Oracle Technology Network website:
Troubleshooting I-1
X Window Display Errors
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
X Window Display Errors
If you run Oracle Universal Installer on a remote system and you want to display
Oracle Universal Installer’s user interface on your local system, you might see error
messages similar to the following:
"Failed to connect to server"
"Connection refused by server"
"Can’t open display"
If you see any of these error messages, follow these steps:
This procedure applies only to users of UNIX workstations.
If you are using a PC or other system with X server software
installed, contact your X server vendor, system administrator, or
refer to the X server documentation for information about how to
permit remote systems to display X applications on the local
system.
Note:
1.
In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window session.
2.
Enter the following command:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.example.com
3.
Enter the following commands, where workstation_name is the host name or IP
address of your workstation:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstation_name:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY workstation_name:0.0
4.
To determine if an X Window application displays correctly on the local system,
enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor.
5.
If the X clock appears, close the X clock and start Oracle Universal Installer again.
See Also: PC-X Server or operating system vendor documents for
further assistance
Remote Terminal Installation Error
If you run the installation from a remote terminal, or if you use an su command to
change users you might receive an error similar to the following:
I-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
Could not execute auto check for display colors using command
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo
This can occur if the DISPLAY variable is not set, or the user running the installation is
not authorized to open an X window. For instance, if you use an su command to
change from a user that is authorized to open an X window to a user account that is
not authorized to open an X window on the display, such as a lower-privileged user
opening windows on the root user's console display.
To troubleshoot this issue, run the command echo $DISPLAY to ensure that the display
variable is set to the correct visual or to the correct host. If the display variable is set
correctly then either ensure that you are logged in as the user authorized to open an X
window, or run the command xhost + to allow any user to open an X window.
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
If you encounter an error during installation:
■
■
■
Do not exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you click Next after you enter incorrect information on one of the installation
screens, click Back to return to the screen and correct the information.
If you encounter errors while Oracle Universal Installer is copying or linking files,
then review the installation logs for more information.
For copy file errors review:
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.log
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.err
/u01/app/oraInventory/logs/timestamp for date of install.out
For errors during linking review:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
If you encounter errors when you run the Oracle Universal Installer, then rerun the
Oracle Universal Installer with the -debug option:
$./runInstaller -debug
Check the log file for details. Refer to "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page I-3.
■
■
If you encounter an error while a configuration assistant is running, refer to
"Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants" section on page I-5.
If you cannot resolve the problem, remove the failed installation by following the
steps listed in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation" section on page I-7.
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
During an installation, Oracle Universal Installer records all of the actions that it
performs in a log file. If you encounter problems during the installation, review the log
file for information about possible causes of the problem.
To view the log file, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, enter the following command to determine the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cat /etc/oraInst.loc
Troubleshooting I-3
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
The inventory_loc parameter in this file specifies the location of the
oraInventory directory.
2.
Enter the following command to change directory to Oracle Universal Installer log
file directory, where orainventory_location is the location of the oraInventory
directory:
$ cd /orainventory_location/logs
3.
Enter the following command to determine the name of the log file:
$ ls -ltr
Run these commands to list the files in the order of creation, with the most recent
file shown last. Installer log files have names similar to the following, where date_
time indicates the date and the time when the installation started:
installActionsdate_time.log
oraInstalldate_time.err
oraInstalldate_time.out
4.
To view the most recent entries in the log file, where information about a problem
is most likely to appear, enter a command similar to the following:
$ tail -50 installActionsdate_time.log | more
This command displays the last 50 lines in the log file.
5.
If the error displayed by Oracle Universal Installer or listed in the log file indicates
a relinking problem, refer to the following file for more information:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart
Running the roothas.sh command flags -deconfig -force enables you to
deconfigure Oracle Restart without removing installed binaries. This feature is useful
if you encounter an error during an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installation, when running the root.sh command, such as a missing operating system
package. By running roothas.sh -deconfig -force you can deconfigure Oracle
Restart, correct the cause of the error, and then run root.sh again.
Stop any databases, services, and listeners that may be
installed and running before deconfiguring Oracle Restart.
Note:
To deconfigure Oracle Restart:
1.
Log in as the root user.
2.
Go to the Grid_home/crs/install directory. For example:
# cd /u01/app/12.1.0/grid/crs/install
3.
Run roothas.sh with the -deconfig -force flags. For example:
# roothas.sh -deconfig -force
I-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the
roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
Note:
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
If you change the host name for Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM),
then the Oracle CSS daemon does not start. To solve this issue, perform the following
steps:
1.
Log in as the root user
2.
Run roothas.sh to to deconfigure CSS:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid/crs/install
# perl roothas.sh -deconfig -force
This removes any configuration on the system that referenced the old host name.
3.
Run root.sh to reconfigure CSS using the new host name:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
# ./root.sh
4.
Go to the grid home’s bin directory. Use the srvctl add database command with
the -c SINGLE flag to add the database in an Oracle Restart configuration. Also use
the srvctl add command to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle
ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2), the
roothas.sh script replaces the roothas.pl script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
Note:
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
To troubleshoot an installation error that occurs when a configuration assistant is
running:
■
■
■
Review the installation log files listed in the "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page I-3.
Review the specific configuration assistant log file located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs directory. Try to fix the issue that caused the error.
If you see the "Fatal Error. Reinstall" message, look for the cause of the problem by
reviewing the log files. Refer to "Irrecoverable Errors" on page I-6 for further
instructions.
Configuration Assistant Failure
Oracle configuration assistant failures are noted at the bottom of the installation
screen. The configuration assistant interface displays additional information, if
available. The configuration assistant execution status is stored in the following file:
oraInventory_location/logs/installActionsdate_time.log
Troubleshooting I-5
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
The execution status codes are listed in the following table:
Status
Result Code
Configuration assistant succeeded
0
Configuration assistant failed
1
Configuration assistant canceled
-1
Irrecoverable Errors
If you receive an irrecoverable error while a configuration assistant is running, you
must remove the current installation and reinstall the Oracle software, as follows:
1.
Remove the failed installation as described in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed
Installation" section on page I-7.
2.
Correct the cause of the irrecoverable error.
3.
Reinstall the Oracle software.
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
If you face any of the following situations for Oracle home, then run the opatch
lsinventory -detail command to list the contents of the inventory and see section
"Recovering from inventory corruption" in the Oracle Universal Installer User's Guide for
information about fixing the issue.
■
Oracle home is cloned without completing the inventory steps.
■
There is bad inventory.
■
Inventory is not available but it is created when the Oracle Enterprise Manager
Agent is installed in a separate Oracle home.
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
If you connect to Oracle database with a screen resolution of 640X480 or 800X600, then
the Next button in the GUI is not visible as it hides behind the Taskbar. To fix this
problem, perform one of the following:
■
Hide the Taskbar.
■
Move the Oracle Universal Installer screen up.
■
Set the screen resolution to 1024X768 or higher.
Troubleshooting Memory Size Error
On Linux systems, if the operating system /dev/shm mount size is too small for the
Oracle system global area (SGA) and program global area (PGA), it results in the
following error:
ORA-00845: MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
Note that Memory Size (SGA and PGA), which sets the initialization parameter
MEMORY_TARGET or MEMORY_MAX_TARGET, cannot be greater than the shared memory file
system (/dev/shm) on your operating system.
I-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Continuing Installations or Upgrades After Server Restarts
The workaround, if you encounter the ORA-00845 error, is to increase the /dev/shm
mountpoint size.
For example:
# mount -t tmpfs shmfs -o size=7g /dev/shm
To make this change persistent across system restarts, add an entry in /etc/fstab
similar to the following:
shmfs /dev/shm tmpfs size=7g 0 0
Troubleshooting File Descriptors Error
If file descriptors are not sized correctly, you see an error from various Oracle
processes and potentially a Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open files) error in
non-Oracle processes:
ORA-27123: unable to attach to shared memory segment
The workaround is that the number of file descriptors for each Oracle instance must be
at least 512*PROCESSES. The number of descriptors for each process must be at least
512.
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
To determine if a silent-mode installation succeeds or fails, refer to the following log
file:
/oraInventory_location/logs/silentInstalldate_time.log
If necessary, refer to the previous section for information about determining the
location of the oraInventory directory.
A silent installation fails if:
■
You do not specify a response file
■
You specify an incorrect or incomplete response file
■
Oracle Universal Installer encounters an error, such as insufficient disk space
Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant validates the response file at
runtime. If the validation fails, the silent-mode installation or configuration process
ends.
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
If an installation fails, you must remove files that Oracle Universal Installer created
during the attempted installation using the Deinstallation Tool.
For more information about how to run the Deinstallation Tool see Chapter 10,
"Removing Oracle Database Software" and "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring
Oracle Restart" on page I-4
Continuing Installations or Upgrades After Server Restarts
During an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server installation or upgrade,
the server might require a restart and you may see errors similar to the following:
Troubleshooting I-7
Continuing Installations or Upgrades After Server Restarts
ACFS-9427 Failed to unload ADVM/ACFS drivers. A system reboot is recommended
ACFS-9428 Failed to load ADVM/ACFS drivers. A system reboot is recommended
The workaround is to perform the following steps:
1.
Restart the computer.
2.
Log in as root, and run the orainstRoot.sh script. For example:
$ sudo -s
# cd /u01/app/oraInventory
# ./orainstRoot.sh
3.
Change directory to the Grid home and run the root.sh script. For example:
# cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/grid
# ./root.sh
4.
Configure a response file, and provide passwords for the installation. See
"Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File" on page A-9 for
information about how to create the response file.
5.
To complete the upgrade or installation, log in as the software installation owner
and run the configToolAllCommands script, located in the path $ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs/configToolAllCommands, specifying the response file that you
created. For example, where the response file is gridinstall.rsp:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs/configToolAllCommands
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=gridinstall.rsp
I-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
J
J
Frequently Asked Questions About
Installation
Use the following guidelines to decide how to install Oracle Database components:
■
Installing Oracle Database
■
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
■
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Some Oracle Database components may not be available on all
platforms. Consult your platform-specific installation guide or release
notes.
Note:
Installing Oracle Database
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database:
■
■
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
■
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
■
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
■
■
■
■
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test
database to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for
these situations?
■
If you want a quick installation using the default installation settings, then refer to
the platform-specific Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
J-1
Installing Oracle Database
■
If your site has special requirements, then refer to this guide for more information.
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
If you want to create a starter database designed for transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications, then refer to this guide for more details. Select the
Advanced Installation method, and then select the database type you want on the
Select Database Configuration screen.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Alternatively, you can use Oracle OLAP. The OLAP option is provided with Oracle
Database Enterprise Edition. Oracle OLAP provides optimal support for database
environments that must meet OLAP requirements.
See Also:
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
Use this guide to install Oracle Database using either of the following methods:
■
■
Installing with response files: This method lets you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command line using a response file that contains settings specific to each
computer.
Cloning a Database: Install Oracle Database on one computer using interactive
mode. You can also clone databases. Instructions for cloning databases are
described in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
1. Install Oracle Database on a server by using this guide for more information.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, consider staging the software centrally, mapping
the drive, and running Oracle Universal Installer in the silent or response file
mode.
If the client nodes only require a default installation into a new Oracle home
directory, consider using this guide for more information.
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
1. Install Oracle Database onto a server by using this guide for more details.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, then consider running Oracle Universal Installer in
silent or response file mode.
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
J-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to use software
cloning to upgrade Oracle Database
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
Use any of the following installation scenarios:
■
■
■
If you want to run a single-instance Oracle Database in a clustered environment,
then install Oracle Grid Infrastructure either before or after you install Oracle
Database.
If you want a consolidated pool of storage for all databases in a cluster, then install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and use Oracle Automatic Storage Management
(Oracle ASM) to manage this storage. Afterward, install Oracle Database (which
can be either a single instance database or Real Application Clusters).
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, and then install Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Refer to Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and Oracle Real Application Clusters
Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for your platform to install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Real Application Clusters. Oracle Clusterware is installed in
an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You must install Oracle Real Application
Clusters on an Oracle Clusterware cluster.
Oracle Clusterware is a key component required by Oracle Real Application Clusters
installations. Oracle Clusterware is an integrated cluster management solution that can
bind multiple servers to act as a single system. This is referred to as a cluster. It
performs workload management and component restart. For example, when an
instance supporting a particular service fails, Oracle Clusterware restarts the service
on the next available instance that you have configured for that service. Oracle
Clusterware can monitor non-Oracle programs, if they are defined within the Oracle
Clusterware environment using the High Availability API.
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
Use Oracle SQL Developer to migrate your non-Oracle databases and applications to
Oracle. Oracle SQL Developer software and documentation is available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/overview/i
ndex.html
Installing Oracle Database Tools
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database tools:
■
How do I install Oracle WebLogic Server?
■
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
■
■
■
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
J-3
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
■
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database?
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
How do I install Oracle WebLogic Server?
Refer to Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.
For more information on Oracle WebLogic Server refer to the product documentation
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/weblogic/documentation/index.
html
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
To perform regular administrative functions such as creating, configuring, or deleting
databases, or managing database templates, use one of the following methods:
To manage only the single database and listener that you are installing:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
2.
From Oracle Database, use Database Configuration Assistant to manage your
databases.
You can also administer and monitor the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Cloud Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control includes the Oracle Management
Agent, Oracle Management Service, and Oracle Management Repository, and also
Cloud Control, a browser-based central console through which administrators can
perform all monitoring, administration, and configuration tasks for the enterprise.
See Also: Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Advanced
Installation and Configuration Guide and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control Basic Installation Guide available on the Oracle Technology
Network website at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/inde
x.html
To perform advanced administration tasks, such as monitoring Oracle Database and
managing multiple hosts, application servers, and databases including the one that
you are installing, install Oracle Enterprise Manager as follows:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, then install Oracle Database
by using the platform-specific Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX.
2.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Advanced Installation and Configuration
Guide to install and configure Oracle Enterprise Manager. For postconfiguration
tasks, use Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrator's Guide. Refer to
documentation available on the Oracle Technology Network website at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
J-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
Oracle provides a wide range of security solutions for your enterprise environment,
including centralized administration and security features integrated with Oracle
Internet Directory. The set of Oracle security services called Oracle Platform Security
Services (OPSS) integrates the security features built into Oracle Database, Oracle
WebLogic Server, and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure. Combined,
these features enable the development and deployment of secure e-business
applications.
Oracle Identity Management includes Oracle Internet Directory, a centralized
repository that simplifies administration of users and applications in the Oracle
environment with the following components:
■
■
Oracle Internet Directory client tools, including LDAP command-line tools, the
Oracle Internet Directory SDK, and Oracle Directory Manager.
Oracle Internet Directory server components, including the directory server, the
directory replication server, the directory integration server, and various tools for
starting and stopping them.
Oracle Database includes the Oracle Internet Directory client tools, but not the Oracle
Internet Directory server components. To install the Oracle Internet Directory server
components, see Oracle Fusion Middleware Installation Guide for Oracle Identity and Access
Management and the Oracle Identity Management documentation at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/id-mgmt/overview/index.html
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Security Guide
■
Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Technology Network topics on database security:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/security/whatsne
w/index.html
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
Use Oracle XML DB, which is installed as part of Oracle Database. Oracle XML DB
enables you to efficiently store, generate, retrieve, query, and manage XML data on
your site. Oracle XML DB provides all the advantages of a relational database, for
example, allowing you to control the referential integrity of XML data with constraints
and triggers. It works well with large amounts of XML data by storing it in a parsed,
relational form, which improves access performance.
Oracle XML DB supports XML Type, which is a native data type for XML data, for
which you can choose various storage options depending on your needs. In addition,
Oracle XML DB supports XML Schema processing, structured and unstructured
storage, a content repository that you can access by using common protocols (FTP,
HTTP(S), and WebDAV), and SQL/XML, which is a standard for SQL with XML. For
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), Oracle XML DB introduced support for the
XQuery language for querying, transforming, and constructing XML; the ability for
users to define their own metadata for schema-based XML; a set of new SQL functions
for DML operations on XML data; and more.
You can use Oracle XML DB with Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) to build
applications that run on either Oracle Database or Oracle WebLogic Server.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
J-5
Installing Oracle Database Tools
See Also:
■
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
■
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Yes, Oracle OLAP is available as part of an Oracle Database Enterprise Edition
installation. Oracle OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that
must meet OLAP requirements.
See Also:
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover
hidden meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
Yes, you must have an Enterprise Edition licence for the database installation. Install
Oracle Data Mining, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. With the
Oracle Data Mining option, you can create and execute predictive and descriptive data
mining models that use a variety of algorithms.
Use the following method in this guide to install Oracle Data Mining:
1.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, select the Enterprise Edition installation
type.
2.
In the Select Database Configuration screen, select the General
Purpose/Transaction Processing configuration.
See Also: The following manuals after you have installed Oracle
Data Mining:
■
Oracle Data Mining Concepts
■
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference (search for
Data Mining)
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN), which is a backup and recovery tool
integrated into Oracle Database. This tool satisfies the pressing demands of
high-performance, manageable backup, and recovery. Recovery Manager is native to
the database server, automatically tracks database structure changes, and optimizes
operations accordingly. In addition, Recovery Manager is integrated with leading tape
media management products, so that Oracle database backups can be integrated with
your existing networked data protection infrastructure.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference
J-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database?
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Workflow is no longer released with the
database. Oracle Workflow is available with the Oracle E-Business Suite releases.
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/overview/in
dex.html
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
Starting January 2006, customers are encouraged to re-create and implement
workflows using Oracle SOA Suite. Refer to the following technical migration guide
for detailed recommendations about migrating Oracle Workflow processes to Oracle
SOA Suite (formerly known as Oracle BPEL Process Manager):
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/owf2bpel-132189.pdf
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/workflow-so
d-089843.html
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database with
Oracle applications:
■
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
■
How can I create web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
■
Which web server can my Oracle applications use?
■
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
In most cases, install Oracle Database itself, then install the Oracle application. The
Oracle Universal Installer for that application prompts you for the connection
information. Check the application documentation requirements.
If you must implement your applications with Oracle Real Applications Clusters
databases, refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for more information.
How can I create web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
Install Oracle Application Express and a web server.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database. Oracle Application Express is automatically
installed, when you install Oracle database.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Which web server can my Oracle applications use?
Install Oracle HTTP Server, which ships on separate media, or use the XML DB HTTP
Protocol Server and the embedded PL/SQL Gateway that installs with Oracle
Database 12c.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
J-7
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
Use Oracle SQL Developer to migrate your non-Oracle applications to Oracle. Oracle
SQL Developer software and documentation is available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/sql-developer/overview/i
ndex.html
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
The following section discusses the Gateway products:
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
You can use Oracle Database Gateway as the connectivity tool to enable Oracle
applications to access data in non-Oracle databases. The following are the functions of
Oracle Database Gateway:
■
■
Integrates a non-Oracle database into your Oracle Database environment.
Enables Oracle PL/SQL applications to integrate with APPC-enabled transactions,
or access messages in IBM Websphere MQ.
You can install the Gateway product on a computer independent of the Oracle
application, Oracle database, and non-Oracle database.
For example, suppose you have the following scenario:
■
■
■
Oracle Database is installed on an UNIX computer.
The Oracle application is installed on a Microsoft Windows computer and accesses
data from the Oracle database on the UNIX computer.
The Oracle application must join data in a DB2 database on Oracle Solaris and an
Oracle Database on UNIX.
You have the option of installing the Database Gateway for DRDA on the Oracle
Solaris computer where DB2 is running, on UNIX where Oracle is running, or on a
third computer.
Table J–1 lists the non-Oracle database systems that you can access from Oracle
applications, and the Gateways products that are available for those systems.
J-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Table J–1
Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IBM DB2 Universal
Database (UDB)
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
IBM DB2 z/OS
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's
Guide.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's
Guide.
IBM DB2/400
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's
Guide.
WebSphere MQ
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ.
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ Installation and User's Guide.
CICS/TS
Oracle Database Gateway for APPC.
IMSTM
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX
on POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), and HP-UX
Itanium.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC User's Guide
SQL Server
Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server
User's Guide.
Sybase Adaptive Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's
Guide.
Teradata
Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata User's
Guide.
Informix Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Informix.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle Solaris
on x86-64 (64-Bit), and HP-UX Itanium and Oracle Database Gateway for Informix User's
Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
J-9
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
J-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Glossary
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group
A set of disk devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
manages as a unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk
device such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a
physical disk. You can create the Oracle ASM disk group when you create the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management instance, or with Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance
The Oracle instance that manages an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group. It is created automatically when you install and configure Oracle Automatic
Storage Management. See also Oracle system identifier (SID).
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Enables creation of a single disk group from a collection of individual disk devices. It
balances I/O to the disk group across all of the devices in the disk group. It also
implements striping and mirroring to improve I/O performance and data reliability.
automatic undo management mode
A mode of Oracle Database in which undo data is stored in a dedicated undo
tablespace. Unlike in manual undo management mode, the only undo management
that you must perform is the creation of the undo tablespace. All other undo
management is performed automatically.
connect descriptor
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A
connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for the Oracle Database
or its Oracle system identifier (SID) for Oracle databases. The network route provides,
at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a network address.
connect identifier
A name, net service name, or service name that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users
initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect
identifier in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect, for
example:
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_identifier
Enter password: password
Glossary-1
control files
control files
Files that record the physical structure of a database and contain the database name,
the names and locations of associated datafiles and online undo tablespace, the time
stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint
information.
default domain
The network domain within which most client requests take place. It can be the
domain where the client resides, or a domain from which the client often requests
network services. The default domain is also the client configuration parameter that
determines what domain to append to unqualified network name requests. A name
request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
directory naming
A naming method that specifies a directory server to resolve a net service name into a
connect descriptor. The net service name is stored centrally in a directory server.
directory server
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory server. A
directory can provide centralized storage and retrieval of database network
components, user and corporate policies preferences, user authentication, and security
information, replacing client-side and server-side localized files.
external procedures
Procedure or function written in the C programming language and stored in a shared
library. An Oracle server can call external procedures or functions using PL/SQL
routines. For Oracle Database to connect to external procedures, the server must be
configured with a net service name and the listener must be configured with protocol
address and service information.
global database name
The full database name that uniquely distinguishes it from any other database in your
network domain.
For example:
sales.example.com
where sales is the name you want to call your database and example.com is the
network domain in which the database is located.
initialization parameter file
An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and
instance.
instance
Process associated with a running Oracle Database instance. When a database is
started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle Database
allocates a memory area called the System Global Area and starts one or more Oracle
Database processes. This combination of the System Global Area and Oracle Database
processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the
associated database's data efficiently and serve the users of the database.
Glossary-2
net service name
installation type
A predefined component set that automatically selects which components to install.
See "Oracle Database Editions" on page 2-6 for a list of installation types available with
each top-level component.
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
A protocol that client applications use that resides on the same node as the listener to
communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than
TCP/IP.
listener
A process that resides on the server and whose responsibility is to listen for incoming
client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
When a client requests a network session with a database server, a listener receives the
actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the
listener grants a connection to the database server.
listener.ora file
A configuration file for the listener that identifies the:
■
Listener name
■
Protocol addresses on which it is accepting connection requests
■
Services for which it is listening
The listener.ora file resides in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
An Oracle Database 12c does not require identification of the database service because
of service registration. However, static service configuration is required for an Oracle
Database 12c if you plan to use Oracle Enterprise Manager.
local naming
A naming method that resolves a net service name into a connect descriptor. This
name is configured and stored in the tnsnames.ora file on each individual client.
manual undo management mode
A mode of the database in which undo blocks are stored in user-managed rollback
segments.
naming method
A resolution method used by a client application to resolve a connect identifier to a
network address when attempting to connect to a database service. Oracle Net
Services supports the following naming methods:
■
Local naming
■
Directory naming
■
Host naming
■
External naming
net service name
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
Glossary-3
OPS$
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_service_name
Enter password: password
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places,
including:
■
Local configuration file, tnsnames.ora, on each client
■
Directory server
■
External naming service, such as Network Information Service (NIS) or Cell
Directory Service (CDS)
OPS$
Acronym for operating system specific. The initialization file parameter OS_AUTHENT_
PREFIX enables users to specify a prefix that Oracle uses to authenticate users
attempting to connect to the database. Oracle concatenates the value of this parameter
to the beginning of the user's operating system account name. When a connection
request is attempted, Oracle compares the prefixed user name with Oracle user names
in the database.
The default value of this parameter is "" (a null string), thereby eliminating the
addition of any prefix to operating system account names. In earlier releases, OPS$ was
the default setting.
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle Database directory tree. The Oracle Base
directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the various Oracle
software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for multiple
installations. For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the
oracle user.
ORACLE_HOME
Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle Database products run. If you install
an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, Oracle home
(known as $ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath $ORACLE_BASE. The default
Oracle home is db_n where n is the Oracle home number. It contains subdirectories for
Oracle Database software executables and network files. See also Oracle home.
Oracle home
The directory path to install Oracle components (for example,
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/db_n). You are prompted to enter an Oracle home
in the Path field of the Specify File Locations window. See also ORACLE_HOME.
Oracle schema
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in an LDAP-compliant directory
server. Oracle has its own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries,
including Oracle Net Services entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services
entries includes the attributes the entries may contain.
Oracle Net foundation layer
A networking communication layer that establishes and maintains the connection
between the client application and server, and also exchanging messages between
them.
Glossary-4
SID
protocol address
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the
listener, or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol
addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular
network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is
important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, and
to configure the same addresses.
raw partitions
Portions of a physical disk that are accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.
redo log files
Files that contain a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If
an instance failure occurs, then Oracle Database uses the redo log files to recover the
modified data that was in memory.
repository
A set of tables located in any Oracle database accessible to the Oracle Management
Server. Oracle Management Server uses a repository to store all system data and
application data, information about the state of managed nodes distributed
throughout the environment, and information about the separately licensable
management packs.
service registration
A feature by which the LREG process (an instance background process) automatically
registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the
listener, the listener.ora file does not have to be configured with this static
information.
Service registration provides the listener with the following information:
■
Service names for each running instance of the database
■
Instance names of the database
■
■
Service handlers (dispatchers and dedicated servers) available for each instance to
enable the listener to direct a client's request appropriately.
Dispatcher, instance, and node load information
To enable the listener to determine which dispatcher can best handle a client
connection's request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can spawn a
dedicated server for the connection.
This information enables the listener to determine how best to service a client
connection request.
SID
The Oracle system identifier that distinguishes the database from all other databases
on your computer. The SID automatically defaults to the database name portion of the
global database name (sales in the example sales.example.com) until you reach eight
characters or enter a period. You can accept or change the default value.
The SID can also refer to an Oracle ASM instance SID, available when you install
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
Glossary-5
sqlnet.ora file
sqlnet.ora file
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies the:
■
Client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names
■
Order of naming methods for the client to use when resolving a name
■
Logging and tracing features to use
■
Route of connections
■
External naming parameters
■
Oracle Advanced Security parameters
The sqlnet.ora file resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation
for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
System Global Area
A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an
Oracle Database instance.
system identifier
See SID.
tablespace
A logical storage unit within a database. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of
storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.
tnsnames.ora file
A configuration file that contains net service names mapped to connect descriptors.
This file is used for the local naming method. The tnsnames.ora file resides in
$ORACLE_BASE/network/admin.
undo tablespace
A tablespace that contains one or more undo segments. The creation of any other types
of segment (for example, tables, indexes) in undo tablespaces is not allowed.
In the automatic mode, each Oracle instance is assigned one and only one undo
tablespace. Each undo tablespace is composed of a set of undo files. Undo blocks are
grouped in extents. At any point in time, an extent is either allocated to (and used by)
a transaction table, or is free.
Blocks in undo tablespaces are grouped into the following categories:
■
■
■
Glossary-6
File control blocks, bitmap blocks, and so forth used for space management
Undo segments containing transaction table blocks, undo blocks, and extent-map
blocks used for transaction management
Free blocks that are unallocated to file control or undo segments
unqualified name
unqualified name
A net service name that does not contain a network domain.
Glossary-7
unqualified name
Glossary-8
Index
A
accounts
reviewing, 9-4
unlocking
with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express, 9-8
accounts configured by, 4-5
ACFS, 2-10
requirements, 6-4
ADVM
requirements, 6-4
aio-max-nr file, D-2
aliases, multiple on computers, E-2
AMD 64
software requirements for, 4-11, 4-16
AMM, 2-4
APPC-enabled databases, J-9
applications, migrating non-Oracle applications to
Oracle, J-8
asm groups
creating, 5-8
ASM See Oracle Automatic Storage Management
asmcmd utility, 6-11
asmdba groups
creating, 5-7
Automatic Memory Management, 2-4
B
backupdba, 5-4
backupdba group
creating, 5-7
backups of database
Oracle Database Recovery Manager,
base directory
See Oracle base directory
block devices
creating permissions file, D-12
browsers, 4-22
C
CDBs, xix, 7-14
database character set, 7-3
installation, 7-14
J-6
PDBADMIN password, 7-16
S_PDBADMINPASSWORD, A-11
certification, hardware and software, 2-3
checking Linux distribution, 4-23
checking shared memory mount, 4-24
chmod command, 4-30, 4-33
chown command, 4-30, 4-33
cloning
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Oracle home, B-1
Cluster Ready Services (CRS). See Oracle Clusterware
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 2-10
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
clusters
installation guidelines, 7-2
See also Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Real
Application Clusters
commands
cat, 4-23
fdisk, D-12
partprobe, D-13
rpm, 4-23
runcluvfy.sh, 6-13
setup.exe, 6-13
uname, 4-23
useradd, 5-9
usermod, 5-9
computers with multiple aliases, E-2
computers, non-networked, E-2
configuration assistants
failure, I-5
troubleshooting, I-5
configuring
accounts of Oracle users, 8-3
configuring disks for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 7-4
configuring kernel parameters, D-1
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Connection Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
control files
locating, 9-11
naming, F-5
Index-1
reviewing, 9-9
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
with, 9-11
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 9-11
create inventory, 7-13
cron jobs, 1-4
custom database
failure groups for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-9
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 6-9
customize the database, 7-12
D
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 6-10
data files
creating separate directories for, 4-32
defined, 9-10
managing with Oracle ASM, 2-10
minimum disk space for, 4-32
naming, F-5
options for placing on file system, 4-31
recommendations for file system, 4-32
reviewing, 9-9
setting permissions on data file directories, 4-33
setting up, 9-10
data loss
minimizing with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-9
data mining tools
Oracle Data Mining, J-6
data warehousing tool
Oracle OLAP, J-6
Database Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
running in silent mode, A-8
troubleshooting, I-5
databases
files, 9-10
identifying, 9-8
initialization parameter file, 9-9
naming, 7-14
non-Oracle
APPC-enabled, J-9
non-Oracle, listed, J-9
OLAP support (Oracle OLAP), J-6
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, F-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 6-9
recovery with Oracle Backup and Recovery, J-6
redo log files, 9-10
security management, J-5
tablespaces, 9-10
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, 9-8
DB_NAME initialization parameter, 9-8
DB2 database, J-9
DB2 z/OS database, J-9
DB2/400 database, J-9
Index-2
dba group
creating, 5-6, 5-7
description, 5-4, 5-5
SYSDBA privilege, 5-4
dba groups
creating, 5-7, 5-8
dbca.rsp file, A-4
Deconfiguring
Oracle Restart, I-4
default data files, 9-10
default file mode creation mask
setting, 5-13
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 4-4
default tablespaces, 9-10
Deinstallation tool, 10-1
about, 10-1
example, 10-5, 10-6
previous grid home, 10-5
roothas.sh, 10-2
deinstalling previous grid home, 10-5
deprecated features, xix
description
database restart, 6-1
Oracle Restart, 6-1
desupported features, xix
device names
IDE disks, D-8
RAID, D-9
SCSI disks, D-8
device path persistence, D-5
dgdba, 5-4
dgdba group
creating, 5-7
Direct NFS Client
about, 8-10
about oranfstab, 8-11
attributes, 8-13
checking NFS buffer size, 8-11
configuring, 8-10
disabling, 8-14
enabling, 8-12
Enabling HCC, 8-14
mounting NFS, 8-11
SNMP support, 8-14
specifying network path, 8-12
TCP bufferl TCP buffer error, 8-12
directory
creating separate data file directories, 4-32
database file directory, 4-32
Oracle base directory, 4-26
Oracle home directory, 4-28
Oracle Inventory directory, 4-27
oraInventory, 4-27
permission for data file directories, 4-33
disabling Transparent HugePages, 4-25
disc
mounting, 7-7
disk devices
in Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 2-10
managing with Oracle ASM, 2-10
disk space
requirement for Oracle base directory, 4-29
requirements for preconfigured database in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management, 6-9
disks
checking availability for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, D-8
configuring for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 7-4
displaying attached disks, D-8
supported for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-10
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 5-13
DNFS, 8-10
DOMAIN_NAME initialization parameter, 9-8
E
enterprise.rsp file, A-4
environment
configuring for oracle or grid user, 5-13
Environment Requirements for grid user, 6-3
environment variables
DISPLAY, 5-13
NLS_LANG, H-3
ORACLE_BASE, 4-30, 5-13
ORACLE_HOME, 5-12, 5-13, 5-15
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, E-1
ORACLE_SID, 5-13
PATH, 5-13
SHELL, 5-13
TMP and TMPDIR, 4-9, 5-14, 6-3
TNS_ADMIN, 5-15
ephemeral ports, D-4
errors
configuration assistants, I-5
display errors, I-2
file descriptors error, I-7
installation, I-3, I-6
Memory Size error, I-6
ORA-00845 error, I-6
ORA-27123 error, I-7
remote terminal installation, I-2
response file installation, I-7
silent mode, I-7
su command, I-2
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, I-2
X Window, I-1
X Window display errors, I-2
X11 forwarding, 5-11
/etc/sysctl.conf file, D-3
EXAMPLE tablespace
description, 9-10
example01.DBF data file, 9-10
example01.DBF data file, 9-10
examples
Oracle Automatic Storage Management failure
groups, 6-9
Oracle base directories, 4-27
external redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 6-8
F
failure group
examples of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure groups, 6-9
failure groups
characteristics of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure group, 6-9
examples in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-9
in Oracle ASM, 2-11
Fast Recovery Area, 8-4
fatal errors, I-6
fdisk command, D-8
file mode creation mask
setting, 5-13
file system
appropriate for Oracle base directory, 4-30
data file and recovery file placement
options, 4-31
requirements for Oracle base directory, 4-30
using for data files, 4-32
file-max file, D-2
file-max parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
files, F-5
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora, 9-9
control, 9-11, F-5
data files, F-5
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
/etc/group, F-3
/etc/passwd, F-3
/etc/sysctl.conf, D-3
listener.ora, 8-7
oraInst.loc, 5-2
oratab, 4-29
/proc/sys/fs/file-max, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/sem, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni, D-2
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, D-2
redo log, 9-10
response files, A-3
tnsnames.ora, 8-7
Flash Recovery Area
See Fast Recovery Area
For, 4-31
free
UNIX command, 6-2
G
Gateways products FAQ, J-8
Index-3
Global Database Name
about, 7-14
global database name, 9-8
globalization
support for, 1-4
globalization support, H-1
Grid Control. See Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud
Control
grid user
configuring environment, 6-3
configuring environment for, 5-13
environment requirements, 6-3
group file, F-3
groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 5-2
creating the asm group, 5-8
creating the asmdba group, 5-7
creating the backupdba group, 5-7
creating the dba group, 5-6
creating the dgdba group, 5-7
creating the kmdba group, 5-7
creating the oinstall group, 5-2
creating the oper group, 5-7
UNIX OSDBA group (dba), 5-4
UNIX OSDBA group for Oracle Restart (dba), 5-5
UNIX OSOPER group (oper), 5-4
hardware certification, 2-3
hardware requirements, 4-7, 6-2
checking, 4-7
disk space, 4-8
general, 4-8
memory, 4-9
high redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 6-8
home directory
See Oracle home directory
host name resolution, 4-24
host name, setting before installation, E-1
HugePages, 2-5
restrictions, 2-5
DOMAIN_NAME, 9-8
SERVICE_NAMES, 9-8
initsid.ora file, 9-9
initsid.ora initialization parameter file, 9-9
installation
accessing installation software, 7-4
and cron jobs, 1-4
and globalization, 1-4
available products, 2-6
cleaning up after a failed installation, I-7
clusters, installation guidelines, 7-2
component-specific guidelines, 7-1
computer aliases, multiple, E-2
considerations, 2-3
database editions, 2-6
errors, I-3, I-6
silent mode, I-7
laptops, E-2
log files, I-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 6-9
overview, 2-1 to ??
response files, A-1, A-3
preparing, A-3, A-4
silent mode, I-7
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
upgrading, J-2
installation errors
steps to resolve, I-3
installation guidelines, 7-10
installation overview, 2-1
installation software
copying to a hard disk, 7-8
extracting, 7-6
installation software, accessing, 7-4
Installing
Oracle restart, 6-14
instance
instance identifier (SID), 5-13
IP addresses, multiple, E-1
ip_local_port_range file, D-2
ip_local_port_range parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
I
K
IBM DB2 database, J-9
IBM DB2 z/OS database, J-9
IBM DB2/400 database, J-9
IBM WebSphere MQ Series databases, J-9
IDE disks
device names, D-8
Informix Server database, J-9
initialization parameter file
description, 9-9
in databases, 9-9
initsid.ora, 9-9
initialization parameters
DB_NAME, 9-8
kernel parameters, 8-12
changing, D-3
configuring, D-1
ephemeral ports, D-4
setting manually, D-1, D-4
UDP and TCP, D-4
kernel requirements
Linux x86-64, 4-12, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17, 4-18
kmdba, 5-4
kmdba group
creating, 5-7
H
Index-4
L
languages
installing Oracle components in different
languages, H-4
using Oracle components in different
languages, H-3
laptops, installing Oracle Database on, E-2
LDAP, 4-21
Linux
checking version, 4-23
determining distribution of, 4-23
Linux x86-64
software requirements, 4-12, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17,
4-18
software requirements for, 4-11, 4-16
listener
identifying Oracle home for, 5-12
lsnrctl command, 5-12
stopping, 5-12
listener.ora file, 8-7
local device
using for data files, 4-32
log files, I-3
troubleshooting, I-3
log files locations in OFA, F-8
logical volume manager
See LVM
loopback adapters
non-networked computers, E-2
lsdev command, D-8
lsnrctl command, 5-12
LVM
recommendations for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-8
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 5-13
memory requirements, 4-7, 6-2
Microsoft SQL Server database, J-9
migrating
See upgrading
migrating applications to Oracle, J-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, J-3
minimal Linux installation
recommendation for, 4-2
mirroring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk groups, 6-8
mkdir command, 4-30, 4-33
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 5-13
mount point
for Oracle base directory, 4-26
mount point directories, 7-8
mount point directory
choosing, C-1
mount points
Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions for
creating, F-2
mounting NFS with DNFS, 8-11
multihomed computers, installing on, E-1
multiple aliases, computers with, E-2
multiple databases and Oracle ASM, 5-5
multiple Oracle homes, 2-3
multitenant container databases. See CDBs
N
naming subdirectories, F-4
NAS devices
creating files on for use with Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, C-4
guidelines for configuration, C-1
Net Configuration Assistant
troubleshooting, I-5
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, A-7
running at command prompt, A-7
netca.rsp file, A-4
network adapters
computers with multiple aliases, E-2
non-networked computers, E-2
primary, on computers with multiple aliases, E-2
See also loopback adapters, primary network
adapters
network cards, multiple, E-1
Network protocol buffer
setting, 8-12
network setup
computers with multiple aliases, E-2
host name resolution, 4-24
network topics
laptops, E-2
multiple network cards, E-1
non-networked computers, E-2
NFS buffer size parameter, 8-11
NLS_LANG environment variable, H-3
noninteractive mode
See also response files, response file mode, A-1
non-networked computers, E-2
non-Oracle databases, listed, J-9
normal redundancy, Oracle Automatic Storage
Management redundancy level, 6-8
O
ODBC requirements, 4-20
OEM
See Oracle Enterprise Manager
oinstall group
checking for existing, 5-2
oinstall groups
creating, 5-2
OLAP tools
about, J-6
Oracle OLAP, J-6
OMF
See Oracle Managed Files
oper group
Index-5
creating, 5-7
description, 5-4
oper groups
creating, 5-7
operating system
about requirements, 4-11
checking distribution and version of Linux, 4-23
reviewing common practices, 4-10
operating system accounts
creating and configuring, 8-3
operating system groups
creating the oinstall group, 5-2
operating system users
root user, 7-10
Optimal Flexible Architecture
advantages, F-1
conventions for creating mount points, F-2
file identification, F-6
file mapping, F-7
files systems, F-2
naming, F-2
database files, F-5
Oracle base directory, F-2
subdirectories, F-4
very large databases, F-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, F-5
Oracle Managed Files, F-5
overview, F-1
pathnames, F-3
recommendations for Oracle base directory, 4-26
recommended path for Oracle base
directory, 4-26
recommended path for Oracle home
directory, 4-28
recommended path for Oracle Inventory
directory, 4-27
special tablespaces, F-6
standard, F-1
using separate segments, F-6
ORAchk audit tool, 8-6
Oracle ACFS, 2-10, 6-4
enabling, 6-6
platforms, 6-4
requirements, 6-4
restrictions, 6-5
Oracle ADVM, 6-4
platforms, 6-4
requirements, 6-4
restrictions, 6-5
Oracle Application Server, J-4
Oracle applications
installing with Oracle Database, J-7
Oracle ASM, 2-10
Oracle ASM disk groups
about, 2-10
Oracle ASM failure groups
about, 2-11
Oracle ASM filter driver
about, 6-11
Oracle ASM instance
Index-6
about, 2-11
Oracle ASMCA, 9-2
Oracle ASMFD
about, xvii, 6-11
Oracle ASMLIB, D-5
about
configuring, D-6
deinstalling, D-11
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 2-10
asmcmd utility, 6-11
characteristics of failure groups, 6-9
checking disk availability, D-8
configuring disks, 7-4
DAS disks, 6-10
disk devices, 2-10
disk groups, 6-8
disks, supported, 6-10
displaying attached disks, D-8
failure groups
examples, 6-9
identifying, 6-9
identifying available disks, D-8
identifying disks, D-8
installation, testing, 6-11
managing, 9-2
mirroring, 6-8
multiple databases, 5-5
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, F-5
Oracle ASM disk group templates, 2-11
partition creation, 6-10
recommendations for disk groups, 6-8
redundancy levels, 6-8
response files, A-3
SAN disks, 6-10
space required for preconfigured database, 6-9
starting and stopping, 9-2
templates, 2-11
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System, 2-10, 6-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration
Assistant, 9-2
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups
managing, 9-2
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic
Volume Manager, 6-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library
driver, D-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver
See Oracle ASMLIB
Oracle base directory
creating, 4-30
creating new, 4-30
description, 4-26
determining disk space on, 4-30
disk space requirements, 4-29
examples, 4-27
identifying appropriate file system, 4-30
identifying existing, 4-28
mount point for, 4-26
naming conventions, F-2
recommended path, 4-26
relationship with Oracle software owner
user, 4-26
requirement for, 4-26
requirements for existing directory, 4-29
requirements on file system, 4-30
Oracle Cluster Registry port, G-2
Oracle Clusterware
about, J-3
used with Oracle Real Application Clusters, J-3
Oracle components
using in different languages, H-3
Oracle Data Mining
about, J-6
installing, J-6
Oracle Database
administering and monitoring, J-4
creating data file directories, 4-32
Enterprise Edition installation, 2-6
getting started using
accessing, 9-3
starting and stopping database, 9-3
installing with Oracle applications, J-7
minimum disk space requirements, 4-32
naming, 7-14
requirements with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-9
security management, J-5
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 5-13
Standard Edition 2 installation, 2-7
Standard Edition installation, 2-6
Standard Edition One installation, 2-6
upgrading, J-2
web servers, J-7
Oracle Database Client
configuring connections, J-2
Oracle Database components
administering and monitoring, J-4
connectivity FAQ, J-8
FAQ on installing, J-1 to ??
installing with Oracle applications, J-7
installing with Oracle Database tools, J-4
Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN)
about, J-6
Oracle Database Vault
postinstallation task, 8-7
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 2-11
Database Express
using to modify control files, 9-11
using to modify redo log files, 9-11
using to view control files, 9-11
using to view redo log files, 9-11
Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control, 2-11, 2-12
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
identifying tablespaces and data files, 9-10
initialization parameters, 9-9
locating the server parameter file, 9-9
logging into, 9-1
port number, 9-1
unlocking accounts and resetting passwords, 9-8
Oracle home
ASCII path restriction for, 1-3
cloning, B-1
Oracle home directory
description, 4-28
identifying for listener, 5-12
multiple homes, network considerations, E-1
recommended path, 4-28
requirement for, 4-28
requirements, 4-28
using to identify Oracle base directory, 4-29
Oracle host name, setting before installation, E-1
Oracle Internet Directory, J-5
Oracle Inventory
description, 4-27
pointer file, 5-2
Oracle Inventory directory
description, 4-27
recommended path, 4-27
Oracle Inventory group
creating, 5-2
Oracle Inventory groups
checking for existing, 5-2
creating, 5-2
Oracle Label Security
post-installation tasks, 8-7
Oracle Linux
and Oracle Preinstallation RPM, 4-5
Oracle Managed Files
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming
conventions, F-5
Oracle Messaging Gateway, 4-20
postinstallation tasks, 8-8
Oracle Net
configuration file directory, 8-7
identifying Oracle home for listener, 5-12
lsnrctl command, 5-12
stopping listener, 5-12
stopping the listener, 5-12
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
Oracle Net Services
post-installation tasks, 8-7
Oracle Net Services Listener
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
Oracle OLAP
about, J-6
Oracle Precompilers
postinstallation tasks, 8-8
Oracle Preinstallation RPM
about, 4-5
included with Oracle Linux, 4-5
installing, 3-2, 3-3
Oracle Procedural Gateway
listed products, J-8
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
installing with Oracle Enterprise Manager, J-4
Oracle Clusterware
about, J-3
Index-7
Oracle Restart
description, 6-1
Installing, 6-14
OSDBA group description, 5-5
relinking, 6-20
user, 5-5
Oracle RPM Checker on IBM
Linux on System z, 4-11
Oracle Schemas, xiv
Oracle Software Owner user
creating, 5-8
oracle user, 5-9
Oracle software owner user
configuring environment for, 5-13
determining default shell, 5-13
relationship with Oracle base directory, 4-26
Oracle SQL Developer
accessing, 9-3
migrating non-Oracle applications to Oracle, J-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, J-3
Oracle Technology Network (OTN)
downloading documentation from, xv
Oracle Text knowledge base, 8-9
Oracle Transparent Gateway
listed products, J-8
Oracle Universal Installer
guidelines for using, 7-1
installation guidelines, 7-1
response files, A-1
list of, A-4
running, 7-9
running in different languages, H-4
oracle user
and Oracle Preinstallation RPM, 4-5
configuring environment for, 5-13
creating, 5-8
determining default shell, 5-13
relationship with Oracle base directory, 4-26
Oracle user accounts
configuring, 8-3
Oracle Validated RPM. See Oracle Preinstallation
RPM
Oracle XML DB
about, J-5
configuring or reinstalling, 8-9
configuring the ports, 8-9
ports, ranges and protocol, G-2
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, 4-30
setting, 5-13
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
setting, 5-12
unsetting, 5-15
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, E-1
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable
computers with multiple aliases, E-2
multihomed computers, E-1
setting before installation, E-1
ORACLE_SID environment variable
setting, 5-13
oraInst.loc file
Index-8
location, 5-2
location of, 5-2
orainstRoot.sh script, 17
automation, 17
oraInventory directory
See Oracle Inventory directory
oratab file, 4-29
formats, 4-29
location of, 4-29
OSASM groups
creating, 5-8
multiple databases, 5-5
SYSASM, 5-5
OSBACKUPDBA, 7-17
OSBACKUPDBA group, 5-4
creating, 5-7
OSDBA groups
creating, 5-6
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 5-7
description for database, 5-4
SYSDBA privilege, 5-4
SYSDBA privilege for Oracle Restart, 5-5
OSDGDBA, 7-17
OSDGDBA group, 5-4
creating, 5-7
OSKMDBA, 7-17
OSKMDBA group, 5-4
creating, 5-7
OSOPER groups
creating, 5-7
description for database, 5-4
SYSOPER privilege, 5-4
OTN website
downloading installation software from, 7-4
P
package requirements
Linux x86-64, 4-12, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17, 4-18
packages
checking on IBM
Linux on System z, 4-11
checking on Linux, 4-23
panic_on_oops parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
partition
using with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 6-8
partitions
creation for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disks, 6-10
passwd file, F-3
passwords
resetting, 9-7
with Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Express, 9-8
with SQL*Plus, 9-8
reviewing, 9-4
unlocking, 9-7
with SQL*Plus, 9-8
PATH environment variable
setting, 5-13
pathnames
Optimal Flexible Architecture, F-3
PDBs, xix, 7-14
installation, 7-14
sample schema, 7-15
permissions
for data file directories, 4-33
for Oracle base directory, 4-30
pluggable databases. See PDBs
port numbers
managing, G-1
portlist.ini file, G-1
ports
access URLs, G-1
Cluster Synchronization Services, ranges and
protocol, G-2
configured for applications, G-1
Connection Manager, ranges and protocol, G-2
default ranges, G-1
Oracle Cluster Registry, G-2
Oracle Net, G-2
Oracle Net Services Listener, ranges and
protocol, G-2
Oracle XML DB, ranges and protocol, G-2
post-installation
required tasks, 8-1
Oracle Label Security, configuring, 8-7
Oracle Net Services, configuring, 8-7
patches, installing and downloading, 8-2
postinstallation
recommended tasks
creating operating system accounts, 8-3
root.sh script, backing up, 8-2
required tasks
configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway, 8-8
Oracle Precompilers, 8-8
postinstallation tasks
Oracle Text knowledge base, 8-9
preconfigured database
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 6-9
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 6-9
Pro*C/C++
configuring, 8-8
See also C compiler
process
stopping existing, 5-11
stopping listener process, 5-12
/proc/sys/fs/file-max file, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/sem file, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall file, D-2
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni file, D-2
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, D-2
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max file, D-2
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file, D-2
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max file, D-2
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range file, D-2
ps command,
5-12
R
RAID
device names, D-9
using for Oracle data files, 4-32
RAM requirements, 4-7, 6-2
readme.txt file, G-1
recommendations
on perfomring software-only installations, 6-13
recovery files
options for placing on file system, 4-31
recovery of databases
Oracle Backup and Recovery, J-6
Red Hat Package Manager
See RPM
redo log, F-5
redo log files
in starter database, 9-10
locating, 9-10
naming, F-5
reviewing, 9-9
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express
with, 9-11
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 6-9
for Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 6-8
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
Removing Oracle Database Software, 10-1
requirements
checking, 4-7
hardware, 4-7, 6-2
response file installation
response files
preparing, A-3, A-4
templates, A-3
silent mode, A-6
errors, I-7
response file mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
response files, A-1
about, A-1
creating with template, A-3
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
general procedure, A-3
Net Configuration Assistant, A-7
netca.rsp, A-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, A-3
passing values at command line, A-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, A-5
response files installation
about, A-1
rmem_default file, D-2
rmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
Index-9
rmem_max file, D-2
rmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
root script execution plan, 5-16
root scripts automation, 5-16
root user, 7-10
logging in as, 4-6
roothas.sh, 6-13, 10-2, I-4
root.sh script, 17
automation, 17
backing up, 8-2
RPMs
checking, 4-23
S
Sample Schemas
tablespaces and data files, 9-10
SAN (storage area network) disks, 6-10
schema passwords, 7-16
schemas
database schema passwords, 7-16
Oracle Schemas, about, xiv
Sample Schemas tablespaces and data files, 9-10
SCSI disks
device names, D-8
security
dividing ownership of Oracle software, 5-1
management tools, J-5
sem file, D-2
semmni parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
semmns parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
semmsl parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
semopm parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
separation of duty, 5-1
OSBACKUPDBA, 5-4, 7-17
OSDGDBA, 5-4, 7-17
OSKMDBA, 5-4, 7-17
SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter, 9-8
shell
determining default shell for oracle user, 5-13
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 5-13
shmall file, D-2
shmall parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
shmmax parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
shmmni file, D-2
shmmni parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
SID, 9-9
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 5-13
SID. See Oracle Database SID
silent mode
about, A-1
Index-10
reasons for using, A-2
See also response file mode, response files, A-1
silent mode installation, A-6
software certification, 2-3
software requirements, 4-11, 4-16
checking software requirements, 4-23
drivers, 4-19
for Linux x86-64, 4-12, 4-13, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17, 4-18
LDAP, 4-21
ODBC, 4-20
Oracle Messaging Gateway, 4-20
packages, 4-19
PAM, 4-20
programming environments, 4-21
web browsers, 4-22
SQL Developer
accessing, 9-3
SQL Server database, J-9
SQL*Plus
accessing, 9-3
ssh
and X11 Forwarding, 5-11
storage area network disks, 6-10
storage management See Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
suppressed mode. See response file mode
swap space
checking, 6-2
HugePages, 2-5
requirements, 4-7, 6-2
Sybase Adapter Server database, J-9
SYSASM
OSASM, 5-5
SYSBACKUP privilege, 5-4
sysctl command, D-3
sysctl.conf file, D-3
SYSDBA privilege
associated UNIX group, 5-4, 5-5
SYSDG privilege, 5-4
SYSKM privilege, 5-4
SYSOPER privilege
associated UNIX group, 5-4
SYSTEM
tablespace, description, 9-10
System Identifier, 9-9
See SID
system01.dbf data file, 9-10
T
tablespaces, 9-10
defined, 9-10
in databases, 9-10
reviewing, 9-9
expanding for large sorts, 9-10
Optimal Flexible Architecture
special tablespaces, F-6
setting up, 9-10
SYSTEM, 9-10
TEMP, 9-10
UNDOTBS, 9-10
USERS, 9-10
TEMP
tablespace (temp01.dbf), 9-10
temp01.dbf data file, 9-10
temporary disk space
requirements, 4-7, 6-2
Teradata database, J-9
TMP environment variable, 4-9, 6-3
setting, 5-14
TMPDIR environment variable, 4-9, 6-3
setting, 5-14
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
unsetting, 5-15
tnsnames.ora file, 8-7
Transparent HugePages, 4-25
troubleshooting, I-1
disk space errors, 1-3
DISPLAY errors, 5-11
display errors, I-2
environment path errors, 1-3
fatal errors, I-6
file descriptors error, I-7
Memory Size error, I-6
ORA-00845 error, I-6
ORA-27123 error, I-7
Oracle Restart, I-4
remote terminal installation, I-2
su command, I-2
unexplained installation errors, 1-4
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, I-2
X11 forwarding error, 5-11
U
UDP and TCP, 8-12, D-4
umask command, 5-13
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux
about, 4-4
Unbreakable Linux Kernel. See Unbreakable
Enterprise Kernel for Linux.
UNDOTBS
tablespace (undotbs01.dbf), 9-10
UNIX commands
chmod, 4-30, 4-33
chown, 4-30, 4-33
fdisk, D-8
free, 6-2
lsdev, D-8
mkdir, 4-30, 4-33
ps, 5-12
sysctl, D-3
umask, 5-13
unset, 5-15
unsetenv, 5-15
xhost, 4-6
xterm, 4-7
UNIX groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 5-2
OSDBA (dba), 5-4
OSDBA (dba) for Oracle Restart, 5-5
OSOPER (oper), 5-4
UNIX workstation
installing from, 4-6
unset command, 5-15
unsetenv command, 5-15
upgraded databases
configuring, 8-9
upgrading, 2-14
operating sytem, 2-15
Oracle ASM, 2-15
Oracle Database, 2-15
useradd command, 5-9
USERS
tablespace (users01.dbf), 9-10
users
creating the oracle user, 5-8
Oracle Restart, 5-5
users and groups, 5-1
UTLRP.SQL
recompiling invalid SQL modules, 8-9
V
very large databases
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming mount
points, F-3
W
web servers (Oracle HTTP Server), J-7
WebSphere MQ Series database, J-9
wmem_default file, D-2
wmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
wmem_max file, D-2
wmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, D-2
X
X Window
display errors, I-1
X Window System
enabling remote hosts, 4-6
X Window system
enabling remote hosts, 4-7
X11 forwarding errors, 5-11
xhost command, 4-6
XML data, J-5
xterm command, 4-7
Index-11
Index-12
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