complete reference guide
Kelly L. Murdock’s Autodesk
®
3ds
Max
2016
COMPLETE REFERENCE GUIDE
®
SDC
P U B L I C AT I O N S
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Contents
PART I ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 GETTING STARTED WITH AUTODESK 3DS MAX 2016 .............................................................................. 1 CHAPTER 1................................................................................................................................................. 3 EXPLORING THE INTERFACE .................................................................................................................... 3 Learning the Interface Elements ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Using the Menus ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Using the Toolbars ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Docking and floating toolbars .................................................................................................................................................... 8 Using tooltips and flyouts ........................................................................................................................................................... 8 Using the Quick Access toolbar .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Learning the main toolbar .......................................................................................................................................................... 9 Using the Modeling Ribbon ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 Using the Viewports ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Using the Command Panel .............................................................................................................................................................. 14 Working with rollouts ............................................................................................................................................................... 15 Increasing the Command Panel’s width .................................................................................................................................. 16 Tutorial: Rearranging the interface for lefties ......................................................................................................................... 16 Using the Lower Interface Bar Controls .......................................................................................................................................... 17 Interacting with the Interface .......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Gaining quick access with the right‐click quad menus ............................................................................................................ 19 Using Caddy controls ................................................................................................................................................................ 19 Understanding the button color cues ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Using drag‐and‐drop features .................................................................................................................................................. 20 Controlling spinners.................................................................................................................................................................. 21 Understanding modeless and persistent dialog boxes ........................................................................................................... 21 Using Workspaces ............................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Getting Help ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Using the Search Command feature ........................................................................................................................................ 24 Using the InfoCenter toolbar ................................................................................................................................................... 24 Viewing the Essential Skills Movies .......................................................................................................................................... 24 Using the online reference guides ........................................................................................................................................... 25 Using the rest of the Help menu .............................................................................................................................................. 26 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................................... 29 CONTROLLING AND CONFIGURING THE VIEWPORTS ........................................................................... 29 Understanding 3D Space ................................................................................................................................................................. 30 Learning Axonometric versus Perspective ............................................................................................................................... 30 Learning orthographic and isometric views ............................................................................................................................ 31 Discovering the viewports in 3ds Max ..................................................................................................................................... 31 Using the Navigation Gizmos ........................................................................................................................................................... 32 Working with the ViewCube .................................................................................................................................................... 33 Using the SteeringWheels ........................................................................................................................................................ 34 Tutorial: Navigating the active viewport ................................................................................................................................. 36 Controlling Viewports with a Scroll Wheel Mouse ......................................................................................................................... 37 Using the Viewport Navigation Controls ......................................................................................................................................... 37 Zooming a view ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Panning a view .......................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Walking through a view ............................................................................................................................................................ 38 Rotating a view ......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Maximizing the active viewport ............................................................................................................................................... 40 I
Controlling camera and spotlight views .................................................................................................................................. 42 Setting the navigation controls to match Maya ...................................................................................................................... 42 Changing the Viewport Display ....................................................................................................................................................... 43 Undoing and saving viewport changes .................................................................................................................................... 43 Disabling and refreshing viewports ......................................................................................................................................... 44 Setting the viewport visual style .............................................................................................................................................. 44 Viewing stylized scenes ............................................................................................................................................................ 45 Enhancing the Viewport .................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Changing the viewport layout .................................................................................................................................................. 46 Displaying Safe Frames ............................................................................................................................................................. 47 Using clipping planes ................................................................................................................................................................ 47 Tutorial: Viewing the interior of a tooth with clipping planes ................................................................................................ 48 Locating mesh problems with xView ....................................................................................................................................... 49 Displaying Materials, Lighting, and Shadows in the Viewport ....................................................................................................... 50 Viewing materials in the viewports.......................................................................................................................................... 50 Displaying lighting and shadows in the viewports................................................................................................................... 51 Working with Viewport Backgrounds ............................................................................................................................................. 53 Changing the viewport background ......................................................................................................................................... 54 Loading viewport background images ..................................................................................................................................... 54 Loading viewport background animations .............................................................................................................................. 56 Tutorial: Loading reference images for modeling ................................................................................................................... 56 Setting Viewport Visual Style and Appearance ............................................................................................................................... 57 Using the Rendering levels ....................................................................................................................................................... 58 Viewing transparency ............................................................................................................................................................... 59 Other rendering options ........................................................................................................................................................... 60 Setting the Field of View .......................................................................................................................................................... 61 Grabbing a viewport image ...................................................................................................................................................... 62 Configuring viewport lighting and shadows ............................................................................................................................ 62 Configuring the Viewport Background ............................................................................................................................................ 62 Altering the Viewport Layout .......................................................................................................................................................... 63 Using Safe Frames ............................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Setting Display Performance ........................................................................................................................................................... 66 Defining Regions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 67 Viewing Statistics ............................................................................................................................................................................. 69 Configuring the ViewCube and SteeringWheels ............................................................................................................................. 70 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 CHAPTER 3 ............................................................................................................................................... 71 WORKING WITH FILES, IMPORTING AND EXPORTING .......................................................................... 71 Working with 3ds Max Scene Files .................................................................................................................................................. 71 Using the Application Button ................................................................................................................................................... 71 Using the Welcome Screen ...................................................................................................................................................... 73 Starting new .............................................................................................................................................................................. 74 Saving files ................................................................................................................................................................................ 75 Archiving files ............................................................................................................................................................................ 76 Opening files ............................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Using a Start‐Up Template ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 Setting a Project Folder ............................................................................................................................................................ 79 Merging and replacing objects ................................................................................................................................................. 79 Getting out ................................................................................................................................................................................ 80 Importing and Exporting .................................................................................................................................................................. 80 Importing supported formats .................................................................................................................................................. 80 Import preference .................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Exporting supported formats ................................................................................................................................................... 81 Moving files to other Suite packages ....................................................................................................................................... 82 Manually moving files to and from Maya ................................................................................................................................ 82 II
Using the OBJ format ................................................................................................................................................................ 82 Using the FBX format ................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Exporting to the DWF format ................................................................................................................................................... 86 Exporting utilities ...................................................................................................................................................................... 87 Lighting Data Export Utility .............................................................................................................................................. 87 Material XML Exporter Utility .......................................................................................................................................... 87 Panorama Exporter Utility ............................................................................................................................................... 88 Tutorial: Importing vector drawings from Illustrator .............................................................................................................. 88 Using the File Utilities ...................................................................................................................................................................... 90 Using the Asset Browser utility ................................................................................................................................................ 90 Finding files with the Max File Finder utility ............................................................................................................................ 92 Collecting files with the Resource Collector utility .................................................................................................................. 92 Accessing File Information ............................................................................................................................................................... 93 Displaying scene information ................................................................................................................................................... 93 Viewing file properties ............................................................................................................................................................. 94 Viewing files .............................................................................................................................................................................. 95 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 96 CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................................... 97 SETTING PREFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 97 Setting General Preferences ............................................................................................................................................................ 97 Undo Levels and the Reference Coordinate System ............................................................................................................... 98 Loading Plug‐Ins and Sub‐Material settings ............................................................................................................................ 99 Scene Selection settings ........................................................................................................................................................... 99 Spinner, Rollout, and Vertex Normal settings ......................................................................................................................... 99 User Interface Display settings ............................................................................................................................................... 100 Layer settings .......................................................................................................................................................................... 100 Real‐World Texture Coordinates setting ............................................................................................................................... 100 Setting File Preferences ................................................................................................................................................................. 101 Handling files .......................................................................................................................................................................... 101 Backing up files ....................................................................................................................................................................... 103 Tutorial: Setting up Auto Backup ........................................................................................................................................... 104 Maintaining log files ............................................................................................................................................................... 104 Configuring Paths ........................................................................................................................................................................... 104 Configuring user paths ........................................................................................................................................................... 105 Configuring system paths ....................................................................................................................................................... 106 Setting viewport preferences ................................................................................................................................................. 107 Viewport parameter options.................................................................................................................................................. 108 Enabling ghosting ................................................................................................................................................................... 109 Highlighting Selections ........................................................................................................................................................... 109 Choosing and configuring display drivers .............................................................................................................................. 109 Setting Interaction Mode............................................................................................................................................................... 110 Setting Gamma and Look‐Up Table (LUT) Preferences ................................................................................................................ 112 Setting screen gamma ............................................................................................................................................................ 113 Propagating gamma settings .................................................................................................................................................. 113 Setting bitmap gamma ........................................................................................................................................................... 113 Setting Rendering and Radiosity Preferences ............................................................................................................................... 113 Changing rendering quality .................................................................................................................................................... 113 Using Local and Global Advanced Lighting Settings .............................................................................................................. 115 Setting Animation Preferences ...................................................................................................................................................... 118 Setting Inverse Kinematics Preferences ........................................................................................................................................ 119 Setting Gizmo Preferences ............................................................................................................................................................ 121 Setting Global Container Preferences ........................................................................................................................................... 122 Setting Help Preferences ............................................................................................................................................................... 123 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 124 III
CHAPTER 5 ............................................................................................................................................. 127 CREATING AND EDITING PRIMITIVE OBJECTS ..................................................................................... 127 Selecting System Units ................................................................................................................................................................... 127 Using Custom and Generic units ............................................................................................................................................ 128 Handling mismatched units .................................................................................................................................................... 129 Rescaling world units .............................................................................................................................................................. 129 Creating Primitive Objects ............................................................................................................................................................. 130 Using the Create menu ........................................................................................................................................................... 130 Using the Create panel ........................................................................................................................................................... 130 Naming and renaming objects ............................................................................................................................................... 132 Assigning colors ...................................................................................................................................................................... 133 Using the Color Clipboard ...................................................................................................................................................... 135 Using different creation methods .......................................................................................................................................... 136 Using the Keyboard Entry rollout for precise dimensions ..................................................................................................... 138 Altering object parameters .................................................................................................................................................... 138 Recovering from mistakes and deleting objects.................................................................................................................... 138 Tutorial: Exploring the Platonic solids .................................................................................................................................... 139 Using Modeling Helpers................................................................................................................................................................. 140 Using Dummy and Point objects ............................................................................................................................................ 140 Measuring coordinate distances ............................................................................................................................................ 141 Using the Measure Distance tool................................................................................................................................... 141 Using the Tape helper .................................................................................................................................................... 141 Using the Protractor helper ........................................................................................................................................... 141 Using the Compass helper ............................................................................................................................................. 141 Using the Measure utility ............................................................................................................................................... 141 Tutorial: Testing the Pythagorean Theorem .......................................................................................................................... 142 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 143 PART II .................................................................................................................................................... 125 MANIPULATING OBJECTS ................................................................................................................... 125 CHAPTER 6 ............................................................................................................................................. 145 SELECTING OBJECTS AND USING LAYERS ............................................................................................ 145 Selecting Objects ............................................................................................................................................................................ 145 Selection filters ....................................................................................................................................................................... 146 Select buttons ......................................................................................................................................................................... 147 Selecting with the Edit menu ................................................................................................................................................. 148 Select by Name ............................................................................................................................................................... 149 Select by Layer ................................................................................................................................................................ 149 Select by Color ................................................................................................................................................................ 150 Selection method ........................................................................................................................................................... 150 Selecting multiple objects ...................................................................................................................................................... 151 Using the Paint Selection Region tool .................................................................................................................................... 152 Tutorial: Selecting objects ...................................................................................................................................................... 153 Using named selection sets .................................................................................................................................................... 154 Editing named selection sets .................................................................................................................................................. 155 Locking selection sets ............................................................................................................................................................. 155 Isolating the current selection ............................................................................................................................................... 156 Selecting objects in other interfaces ...................................................................................................................................... 156 Setting Object Properties............................................................................................................................................................... 157 Hiding and Freezing Objects .......................................................................................................................................................... 158 Using the Display Floater dialog box ...................................................................................................................................... 158 Using the Display panel .......................................................................................................................................................... 159 Tutorial: Hidden toothbrushes ............................................................................................................................................... 161 Using the Scene Explorer ............................................................................................................................................................... 162 Selecting and filtering objects ................................................................................................................................................ 163 IV
Finding objects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 163 Editing in the Scene Explorer ................................................................................................................................................. 164 Using Layers in the Scene Explorer ................................................................................................................................................ 165 Using the layer list .................................................................................................................................................................. 168 Tutorial: Dividing a scene into layers ..................................................................................................................................... 168 Setting Object Properties............................................................................................................................................................... 169 Viewing object information .................................................................................................................................................... 170 Hiding and freezing objects .................................................................................................................................................... 171 Setting Display Properties .............................................................................................................................................................. 171 Setting rendering controls ...................................................................................................................................................... 173 Enabling Motion Blur .............................................................................................................................................................. 173 Using the Advanced Lighting and mental ray panels ............................................................................................................ 174 Using the User‐Defined panel ................................................................................................................................................ 174 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 174 CHAPTER 7 ............................................................................................................................................. 175 TRANSFORMING OBJECTS, PIVOTING, ALIGNING, AND SNAPPING .................................................... 175 Translating, Rotating, and Scaling Objects .................................................................................................................................... 175 Translating objects ................................................................................................................................................................. 175 Rotating objects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 176 Scaling objects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 176 Non‐uniform scaling ....................................................................................................................................................... 176 Squashing objects ........................................................................................................................................................... 176 Using the transform buttons .................................................................................................................................................. 177 Using the Select and Place tool .............................................................................................................................................. 177 Using the Select and Rotate tool ............................................................................................................................................ 177 Working with the Transformation Tools ....................................................................................................................................... 178 Working with the Transform Gizmos ..................................................................................................................................... 178 Using the interactive gizmos .................................................................................................................................................. 179 The Move Gizmo ............................................................................................................................................................ 179 The Rotate Gizmo ........................................................................................................................................................... 179 The Scale Gizmo ............................................................................................................................................................. 179 Using the Transform Toolbox ................................................................................................................................................. 180 Using the Transform Type‐In dialog box ................................................................................................................................ 181 Using the Status Bar Type‐In fields ........................................................................................................................................ 181 Understanding the Transform Managers .............................................................................................................................. 182 Understanding reference coordinate systems .............................................................................................................. 182 Using a transform center ............................................................................................................................................... 183 Selecting Axis Constraints .............................................................................................................................................. 185 Locking axes transformations ........................................................................................................................................ 185 Tutorial: Landing a spaceship in port ..................................................................................................................................... 186 Using Pivot Points .......................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Positioning pivot points .......................................................................................................................................................... 188 Aligning pivot points ............................................................................................................................................................... 188 Using the Working Pivot ......................................................................................................................................................... 189 Transform adjustments .......................................................................................................................................................... 189 Using the Reset XForm utility ................................................................................................................................................. 190 Tutorial: A bee buzzing about a flower .................................................................................................................................. 190 Using the Align Commands............................................................................................................................................................ 191 Aligning objects ...................................................................................................................................................................... 191 Using the Quick Align tool ...................................................................................................................................................... 192 Aligning normals ..................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Tutorial: Aligning a kissing couple .......................................................................................................................................... 193 Aligning to a view ................................................................................................................................................................... 194 Using Grids ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 194 The Home Grid........................................................................................................................................................................ 195 V
Creating and activating new grids .......................................................................................................................................... 195 Using AutoGrid ....................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Tutorial: Creating a spyglass ................................................................................................................................................... 196 Using Snap Options ........................................................................................................................................................................ 197 Tutorial: Creating a 2D outline of an object........................................................................................................................... 198 Setting snap points ................................................................................................................................................................. 199 Setting snap options ............................................................................................................................................................... 200 Using the Snaps toolbar ......................................................................................................................................................... 201 Tutorial: Creating a lattice for a methane molecule.............................................................................................................. 201 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 202 CHAPTER 8 ............................................................................................................................................. 203 CLONING OBJECTS AND CREATING OBJECT ARRAYS ........................................................................... 203 Cloning Objects .............................................................................................................................................................................. 203 Using the Clone command ..................................................................................................................................................... 203 Using the Shift‐clone method ................................................................................................................................................ 204 Tutorial: Cloning dinosaurs..................................................................................................................................................... 204 Using Quick Clone ................................................................................................................................................................... 205 Understanding Cloning Options .................................................................................................................................................... 206 Working with copies, instances, and references ................................................................................................................... 206 Tutorial: Creating instanced doughnuts ................................................................................................................................ 206 Tutorial: Working with referenced apples ............................................................................................................................. 207 Mirroring Objects ........................................................................................................................................................................... 209 Using the Mirror command .................................................................................................................................................... 209 Tutorial: Mirroring a robot’s leg ............................................................................................................................................. 210 Cloning over Time .......................................................................................................................................................................... 211 Using the Snapshot command ............................................................................................................................................... 211 Tutorial: Creating a path through a maze .............................................................................................................................. 212 Spacing Cloned Objects ................................................................................................................................................................. 213 Using the Spacing tool ............................................................................................................................................................ 213 Tutorial: Stacking a row of dominoes .................................................................................................................................... 215 Using the Clone and Align Tool ...................................................................................................................................................... 216 Aligning source objects to destination objects ...................................................................................................................... 216 Tutorial: Cloning and aligning trees on a beach .................................................................................................................... 217 Creating Arrays of Objects ............................................................................................................................................................. 218 Linear arrays ........................................................................................................................................................................... 218 Tutorial: Building a white picket fence .................................................................................................................................. 219 Circular arrays ......................................................................................................................................................................... 220 Tutorial: Building a Ferris wheel ............................................................................................................................................. 220 Working with a Ring Array ..................................................................................................................................................... 222 Tutorial: Using Ring Array to create a carousel ..................................................................................................................... 222 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 223 CHAPTER 9 ............................................................................................................................................. 225 GROUPING, LINKING, AND PARENTING OBJECTS ............................................................................... 225 Working with Groups ..................................................................................................................................................................... 225 Creating groups ...................................................................................................................................................................... 225 Ungrouping objects ................................................................................................................................................................ 225 Opening and closing groups ................................................................................................................................................... 226 Attaching and detaching objects ............................................................................................................................................ 226 Tutorial: Grouping a plane’s parts together .......................................................................................................................... 226 Alternatives to grouping ......................................................................................................................................................... 227 Understanding Parent, Child, and Root Relationships .................................................................................................................. 227 Building Links between Objects ..................................................................................................................................................... 228 Linking objects ........................................................................................................................................................................ 228 Unlinking objects .................................................................................................................................................................... 228 VI
Tutorial: Linking a family of ducks .......................................................................................................................................... 229 Displaying Links and Hierarchies ................................................................................................................................................... 230 Displaying links in the viewport ............................................................................................................................................. 230 Viewing hierarchies ................................................................................................................................................................ 230 Working with Linked Objects ......................................................................................................................................................... 231 Locking inheriting transformations ........................................................................................................................................ 231 Using the Link Inheritance utility ........................................................................................................................................... 231 Selecting hierarchies ............................................................................................................................................................... 231 Linking to dummies ................................................................................................................................................................ 232 Tutorial: Circling the globe ..................................................................................................................................................... 232 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 233 CHAPTER 10............................................................................................................................................ 235 ORGANIZING SCENES WITH CONTAINERS, XREFS AND THE SCHEMATIC VIEW ................................... 235 Working with Containers ............................................................................................................................................................... 235 Creating and filling containers ............................................................................................................................................... 235 Closing and saving containers ................................................................................................................................................ 238 Updating and reloading containers ....................................................................................................................................... 238 Setting container rules ........................................................................................................................................................... 238 Using container proxies .......................................................................................................................................................... 239 Using the Container Explorer ................................................................................................................................................. 239 Referencing External Objects ........................................................................................................................................................ 240 Using XRef scenes ................................................................................................................................................................... 240 XRef scene options ......................................................................................................................................................... 241 Working with XRef scenes ............................................................................................................................................. 242 Tutorial: Adding an XRef scene ...................................................................................................................................... 243 Using XRef objects .................................................................................................................................................................. 244 Using Material XRefs .............................................................................................................................................................. 247 Merging animation tracks and modifiers ............................................................................................................................... 247 Using proxies .......................................................................................................................................................................... 247 Configuring XRef paths ........................................................................................................................................................... 247 Tutorial: Using an XRef proxy ................................................................................................................................................. 248 Configuring XRef paths ........................................................................................................................................................... 250 Using the File Link Manager .......................................................................................................................................................... 251 Using i‐drop ............................................................................................................................................................................ 253 Using the Schematic View Window .............................................................................................................................................. 253 The Schematic View menu options ........................................................................................................................................ 253 The Schematic View interface ................................................................................................................................................ 254 Using the Schematic View menus .................................................................................................................................. 254 Learning the toolbar buttons ......................................................................................................................................... 255 Navigating the Schematic View window ....................................................................................................................... 256 Working with Schematic View nodes .................................................................................................................................... 257 Node colors .................................................................................................................................................................... 257 Selecting nodes .............................................................................................................................................................. 257 Rearranging nodes ......................................................................................................................................................... 258 Hiding, shrinking, and deleting nodes ........................................................................................................................... 259 Renaming objects ........................................................................................................................................................... 260 Tutorial: Rearranging the solar system .......................................................................................................................... 260 Working with Hierarchies .............................................................................................................................................................. 261 Using the Display floater ........................................................................................................................................................ 261 Connecting nodes ................................................................................................................................................................... 263 Copying modifiers and materials between nodes ................................................................................................................. 263 Assigning controllers and wiring parameters ........................................................................................................................ 264 Tutorial: Linking a character with the Schematic View ......................................................................................................... 264 Setting Schematic View Preferences ............................................................................................................................................. 265 Limiting nodes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 266 VII
Working with grids and backgrounds .................................................................................................................................... 267 Display preferences ................................................................................................................................................................ 267 Tutorial: Adding a background image to the Schematic View .............................................................................................. 268 Using List Views .............................................................................................................................................................................. 269 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 270 PART III ................................................................................................................................................... 271 MODELING 3D ASSETS ........................................................................................................................ 271 CHAPTER 11............................................................................................................................................ 273 ACCESSING SUBOBJECTS AND MODIFIERS AND USING THE MODIFIER STACK ................................... 273 Exploring the Model Types ............................................................................................................................................................ 274 Parametric objects versus editable objects ........................................................................................................................... 274 Converting to editable objects ............................................................................................................................................... 275 Understanding Normals ................................................................................................................................................................. 276 Viewing normals ..................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Tutorial: Cleaning up imported meshes ................................................................................................................................. 277 Working with Subobjects ............................................................................................................................................................... 278 Using Soft Selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 279 Tutorial: Soft selecting a heart shape from a plane .............................................................................................................. 280 Introducing Modifiers .................................................................................................................................................................... 282 Exploring the Modifier Stack ......................................................................................................................................................... 284 Understanding Base Objects .................................................................................................................................................. 284 Applying modifiers .................................................................................................................................................................. 284 Tutorial: Bending a tree .......................................................................................................................................................... 284 Other Modifier Stack entities ................................................................................................................................................. 285 Using the Modifier Stack ........................................................................................................................................................ 285 Copying and pasting modifiers ...................................................................................................................................... 287 Using instanced modifiers .............................................................................................................................................. 287 Identifying instances and references in the Modifier Stack ......................................................................................... 287 Disabling and removing modifiers ................................................................................................................................. 288 Reordering the Stack .............................................................................................................................................................. 288 Tutorial: Creating a molecular chain ...................................................................................................................................... 288 Holding and fetching a scene ................................................................................................................................................. 289 Collapsing the Stack ................................................................................................................................................................ 290 Using the Collapse utility ........................................................................................................................................................ 290 Using gizmo subobjects .......................................................................................................................................................... 291 Tutorial: Squeezing a plastic bottle ........................................................................................................................................ 291 Applying modifiers to subobject selections ........................................................................................................................... 292 Tutorial: Applying damage to a plane wing ........................................................................................................................... 292 Topology dependency ............................................................................................................................................................ 293 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 294 CHAPTER 12............................................................................................................................................ 295 DRAWING AND EDITING 2D SPLINES AND SHAPES ............................................................................. 295 Drawing in 2D ................................................................................................................................................................................. 295 Working with shape primitives .............................................................................................................................................. 296 Rendering rollout ........................................................................................................................................................... 297 Interpolation rollout ....................................................................................................................................................... 298 Creation Method and Keyboard Entry rollouts ............................................................................................................. 298 Line ................................................................................................................................................................................. 299 Rectangle ........................................................................................................................................................................ 300 Circle ............................................................................................................................................................................... 300 Ellipse .............................................................................................................................................................................. 300 Arc ................................................................................................................................................................................... 300 Donut .............................................................................................................................................................................. 301 VIII
NGon ............................................................................................................................................................................... 301 Star .................................................................................................................................................................................. 301 Text ................................................................................................................................................................................. 302 Helix ................................................................................................................................................................................ 304 Egg .................................................................................................................................................................................. 304 Section ............................................................................................................................................................................ 305 Tutorial: Drawing a company logo ......................................................................................................................................... 306 Tutorial: Viewing the interior of a tooth ................................................................................................................................ 307 Editing Splines ................................................................................................................................................................................ 308 Editable Splines versus the Edit Spline modifier .................................................................................................................... 308 Making splines renderable ..................................................................................................................................................... 308 Selecting spline subobjects .................................................................................................................................................... 309 Controlling spline geometry ................................................................................................................................................... 311 Create line ...................................................................................................................................................................... 312 Break ............................................................................................................................................................................... 312 Attach and Attach Multiple ............................................................................................................................................ 312 Cross Section .................................................................................................................................................................. 313 Auto Welding end points ............................................................................................................................................... 313 Insert ............................................................................................................................................................................... 313 Tutorial: Working with cross sections to create a doorknob ................................................................................................ 313 Editing vertices ....................................................................................................................................................................... 315 Refine .............................................................................................................................................................................. 316 Weld and Fuse ................................................................................................................................................................ 316 Connect .......................................................................................................................................................................... 317 Make First ....................................................................................................................................................................... 317 Cycle................................................................................................................................................................................ 317 CrossInsert ...................................................................................................................................................................... 318 Fillet ................................................................................................................................................................................ 318 Chamfer .......................................................................................................................................................................... 318 Tangent Copy and Tangent Paste .................................................................................................................................. 319 Hide/Unhide All .............................................................................................................................................................. 319 Bind/Unbind ................................................................................................................................................................... 319 Delete ............................................................................................................................................................................. 319 Show Selected Segments ............................................................................................................................................... 320 Tutorial: Making a ninja star .................................................................................................................................................. 320 Editing segments .................................................................................................................................................................... 321 Connect Copy ................................................................................................................................................................. 321 Divide .............................................................................................................................................................................. 322 Detach ............................................................................................................................................................................ 322 Tutorial: Using Connect Copy to create a simple flower ....................................................................................................... 322 Surface Properties .......................................................................................................................................................... 323 Editing Spline subobjects ........................................................................................................................................................ 323 Reverse ........................................................................................................................................................................... 324 Outline ............................................................................................................................................................................ 324 Boolean ........................................................................................................................................................................... 324 Mirror ............................................................................................................................................................................. 325 Trim and Extend ............................................................................................................................................................. 326 Close ............................................................................................................................................................................... 326 Explode ........................................................................................................................................................................... 326 Tutorial: Spinning a spider’s web ........................................................................................................................................... 326 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 328 CHAPTER 13............................................................................................................................................ 329 MODELING WITH POLYGONS ............................................................................................................. 329 Understanding Poly Objects .......................................................................................................................................................... 329 Creating Editable Poly Objects ...................................................................................................................................................... 330 IX
Converting objects .................................................................................................................................................................. 331 Collapsing to a mesh object ................................................................................................................................................... 331 Applying the Edit Poly modifier .............................................................................................................................................. 331 Editing Poly Objects ....................................................................................................................................................................... 331 Editable Poly Subobject modes .............................................................................................................................................. 331 Subobject selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 333 Tutorial: Modeling a clown head ........................................................................................................................................... 334 Editing geometry .................................................................................................................................................................... 335 Repeat Last ..................................................................................................................................................................... 336 Enabling constraints ....................................................................................................................................................... 336 Tutorial: Creating a quick flying saucer .................................................................................................................................. 337 Preserve UVs .................................................................................................................................................................. 338 Create ............................................................................................................................................................................. 338 Collapse .......................................................................................................................................................................... 339 Attach and Detach .......................................................................................................................................................... 339 Slicing and cutting options ............................................................................................................................................. 340 Tutorial: Detaching a plane model into separate objects ..................................................................................................... 340 MSmooth ........................................................................................................................................................................ 341 Tessellate ........................................................................................................................................................................ 342 Make Planar ................................................................................................................................................................... 343 View and Grid Align ........................................................................................................................................................ 343 Relax ............................................................................................................................................................................... 343 Hide, Copy, and Paste .................................................................................................................................................... 344 Editing Vertex subobjects ....................................................................................................................................................... 344 Remove ........................................................................................................................................................................... 344 Break ............................................................................................................................................................................... 345 Extrude ........................................................................................................................................................................... 345 Weld and Chamfer ......................................................................................................................................................... 346 Connect .......................................................................................................................................................................... 347 Remove Isolated and Unused Map Vertices ................................................................................................................. 347 Weight and Crease ......................................................................................................................................................... 348 Editing Edge subobjects.......................................................................................................................................................... 348 Split and Insert Vertex .................................................................................................................................................... 348 Bridge Edges ................................................................................................................................................................... 349 Create Shape from Selection ......................................................................................................................................... 350 Edit Triangulation ........................................................................................................................................................... 350 Turn................................................................................................................................................................................. 350 Editing Border subobjects ...................................................................................................................................................... 351 Cap .................................................................................................................................................................................. 351 Bridge .............................................................................................................................................................................. 351 Tutorial: Bridging a forearm ................................................................................................................................................... 352 Editing Polygon and Element subobjects ............................................................................................................................... 352 Insert Vertex ................................................................................................................................................................... 353 Outline and Inset ............................................................................................................................................................ 353 Bevel ............................................................................................................................................................................... 353 Flip .................................................................................................................................................................................. 354 Retriangulate .................................................................................................................................................................. 354 Hinge From Edge ............................................................................................................................................................ 354 Extrude Along Spline ...................................................................................................................................................... 356 Tutorial: Building an octopus ................................................................................................................................................. 356 Surface properties .................................................................................................................................................................. 357 Vertex Surface properties .............................................................................................................................................. 357 Polygon and Element Surface properties ...................................................................................................................... 358 Subdivision Surface ........................................................................................................................................................ 358 Tutorial: Modeling a tooth ..................................................................................................................................................... 359 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 361 X
CHAPTER 14............................................................................................................................................ 363 USING THE GRAPHITE MODELING TOOLS AND PAINTING WITH OBJECTS .......................................... 363 Working with the Graphite Modeling Tools ................................................................................................................................. 363 Using the Polygon Modeling panel ........................................................................................................................................ 364 Generate Topology ......................................................................................................................................................... 366 Using the Symmetry tools .............................................................................................................................................. 367 Tutorial: Building a Skateboard wheel ................................................................................................................................... 368 Using the Modify Selection panel .......................................................................................................................................... 369 Editing geometry .................................................................................................................................................................... 370 Preserve UVs .................................................................................................................................................................. 371 Cutting holes with Paint Connect (PConnect) ............................................................................................................... 371 NURMS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 372 Tutorial: Smoothing an Ice Cube ............................................................................................................................................ 372 Quadrify All ..................................................................................................................................................................... 373 Subdivision panel ........................................................................................................................................................... 374 Use Displacement .......................................................................................................................................................... 375 Editing Vertex subobjects ....................................................................................................................................................... 375 Editing Edge and Border subobjects ...................................................................................................................................... 376 Editing Polygon and Element subobjects ............................................................................................................................... 376 GeoPoly .......................................................................................................................................................................... 377 Hinge ............................................................................................................................................................................... 377 Tutorial: Adding a handle to a mug ........................................................................................................................................ 377 Mirroring elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 378 Surface properties .................................................................................................................................................................. 378 Using the Freeform Tools .............................................................................................................................................................. 379 Drag ................................................................................................................................................................................ 379 Conform .......................................................................................................................................................................... 380 Step Build ........................................................................................................................................................................ 380 Extend ............................................................................................................................................................................. 380 Optimize ......................................................................................................................................................................... 381 Draw On and Pick ........................................................................................................................................................... 381 Tutorial: Matching a road to a rolling terrain ........................................................................................................................ 381 Shapes and Solve Surface .............................................................................................................................................. 382 Splines ............................................................................................................................................................................. 383 Surface, Topology, Strips, and Branches ....................................................................................................................... 383 Tutorial: Carving a pumpkin ................................................................................................................................................... 383 Using the Paint Deform tools ................................................................................................................................................. 384 Shift/Shift Rotate/Shift Scale ......................................................................................................................................... 385 Push/Pull ......................................................................................................................................................................... 385 Relax/Soften ................................................................................................................................................................... 385 Flatten and Pinch/Spread .............................................................................................................................................. 385 Smudge, Noise, and Exaggerate .................................................................................................................................... 385 Constrain to Spline ......................................................................................................................................................... 385 Revert ............................................................................................................................................................................. 385 Using the Selection Tools ............................................................................................................................................................... 385 Selecting Tops, Open, and Non‐Quads .................................................................................................................................. 386 Copying and pasting selections .............................................................................................................................................. 386 Selecting by criteria ................................................................................................................................................................ 386 By Surface, Normal, and Perspective............................................................................................................................. 387 By Random, Half, and Pivot Distance ............................................................................................................................ 387 By View, Symmetry, and Numeric ................................................................................................................................. 388 By Color .......................................................................................................................................................................... 388 Using the Object Paint Tools ......................................................................................................................................................... 388 Selecting an object to paint with ........................................................................................................................................... 388 Painting with objects .............................................................................................................................................................. 390 Painting with multiple objects ............................................................................................................................................... 392 XI
Painting on objects ................................................................................................................................................................. 393 Using the Paint Fill mode ........................................................................................................................................................ 394 Painting with animated objects ............................................................................................................................................. 395 Tutorial: Painting a scar .......................................................................................................................................................... 395 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 396 CHAPTER 15............................................................................................................................................ 397 WORKING WITH COMPOUND OBJECTS .............................................................................................. 397 Understanding Compound Object Types ...................................................................................................................................... 397 Morphing Objects .......................................................................................................................................................................... 398 Creating Morph keys .............................................................................................................................................................. 399 Morph objects versus the Morpher modifier ........................................................................................................................ 399 Tutorial: Morphing an octopus .............................................................................................................................................. 399 Creating a Terrain Object ............................................................................................................................................................... 400 Coloring elevations ................................................................................................................................................................. 401 Tutorial: Creating an island with the Terrain compound object ........................................................................................... 401 Working with BlobMesh Objects ................................................................................................................................................... 403 Setting BlobMesh parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 403 Tutorial: Creating icy geometry with BlobMesh .................................................................................................................... 403 Working with ProBoolean and ProCutter Objects ........................................................................................................................ 404 Using ProBoolean ................................................................................................................................................................... 405 Tutorial: Creating a keyhole ................................................................................................................................................... 407 Using ProCutter ...................................................................................................................................................................... 408 Tutorial: Creating a jigsaw puzzle ........................................................................................................................................... 408 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 409 CHAPTER 16............................................................................................................................................ 411 DEFORMING SURFACES AND USING THE MESH MODIFIERS ............................................................... 411 Using Selection Modifiers .............................................................................................................................................................. 411 Object‐Space versus World‐Space modifiers ......................................................................................................................... 412 Volume Select modifier .......................................................................................................................................................... 412 Using Primitive Maintenance Modifiers........................................................................................................................................ 413 Edit Mesh modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 413 Edit Poly modifier ................................................................................................................................................................... 413 Using Spline Modifiers ................................................................................................................................................................... 414 Spline‐specific modifiers......................................................................................................................................................... 414 Edit Spline modifier ........................................................................................................................................................ 414 Spline Select modifier .................................................................................................................................................... 414 Delete Spline modifier ................................................................................................................................................... 414 Normalize Spline modifier ............................................................................................................................................. 414 Fillet/Chamfer modifier ................................................................................................................................................. 415 Renderable Spline modifier ........................................................................................................................................... 415 Sweep modifier .............................................................................................................................................................. 415 Tutorial: Plumbing with pipes ................................................................................................................................................ 415 Trim/Extend modifier ..................................................................................................................................................... 416 Using the Shape Check utility ........................................................................................................................................ 416 Moving splines to 3D .............................................................................................................................................................. 417 Extruding splines ............................................................................................................................................................ 417 Tutorial: Routing a custom shelf ............................................................................................................................................ 418 Lathing splines ................................................................................................................................................................ 419 Tutorial: Lathing a crucible ..................................................................................................................................................... 419 Bevel and Bevel Profile modifiers .................................................................................................................................. 420 Tutorial: Modeling unique rings ............................................................................................................................................. 421 CrossSection modifier .................................................................................................................................................... 422 Using Edit Geometry Modifiers ..................................................................................................................................................... 422 Cap Holes modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 422 XII
Delete Mesh modifier ............................................................................................................................................................. 422 Extrude modifier ..................................................................................................................................................................... 422 Face Extrude modifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 423 Tutorial: Extruding a bullet ..................................................................................................................................................... 423 ProOptimizer modifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 424 Tutorial: Creating a low‐res mug ............................................................................................................................................ 426 Using the Level of Detail utility ...................................................................................................................................... 427 Quadify Mesh modifier .......................................................................................................................................................... 428 Smooth modifier ..................................................................................................................................................................... 429 Symmetry modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 429 Tutorial: Creating symmetrical antlers .................................................................................................................................. 429 Tessellate modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 430 Vertex Weld modifier ............................................................................................................................................................. 431 Using Parametric Deformer Modifiers .......................................................................................................................................... 431 Affect Region modifier ........................................................................................................................................................... 431 Bend modifier ......................................................................................................................................................................... 432 Displace modifier .................................................................................................................................................................... 432 Lattice modifier ....................................................................................................................................................................... 433 Mirror modifier ....................................................................................................................................................................... 434 Noise modifier ........................................................................................................................................................................ 434 Push modifier .......................................................................................................................................................................... 435 Preserve modifier ................................................................................................................................................................... 435 Relax modifier ......................................................................................................................................................................... 436 Ripple modifier ....................................................................................................................................................................... 436 Shell modifier .......................................................................................................................................................................... 436 Tutorial: Making a character from a sphere .......................................................................................................................... 437 Slice modifier .......................................................................................................................................................................... 438 Skew modifier ......................................................................................................................................................................... 438 Stretch modifier ...................................................................................................................................................................... 439 Spherify modifier .................................................................................................................................................................... 439 Tutorial: Making a fat crocodile ............................................................................................................................................. 440 Squeeze modifier .................................................................................................................................................................... 441 Twist modifier ......................................................................................................................................................................... 442 Taper modifier ........................................................................................................................................................................ 442 Tutorial: Creating a yo‐yo ....................................................................................................................................................... 443 Substitute modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 444 XForm modifier ....................................................................................................................................................................... 444 Wave modifier ........................................................................................................................................................................ 445 Tutorial: Waving a flag ............................................................................................................................................................ 445 Using Free Form Deformer Modifiers ........................................................................................................................................... 446 FFD (Free Form Deformation) modifier ................................................................................................................................. 446 FFD (Box/Cyl) modifiers .......................................................................................................................................................... 447 Tutorial: Modeling a tire striking a curb................................................................................................................................. 447 Miscellaneous Modifiers................................................................................................................................................................ 448 Edit Normals ........................................................................................................................................................................... 448 Normal modifier ..................................................................................................................................................................... 450 STL Check modifier ................................................................................................................................................................. 450 Subdivision Surface Modifiers ....................................................................................................................................................... 450 Crease and Crease Set modifier ............................................................................................................................................. 450 MeshSmooth modifier ........................................................................................................................................................... 450 OpenSubDiv modifier ............................................................................................................................................................. 451 TurboSmooth modifier ........................................................................................................................................................... 451 Tutorial: Smoothing a birdbath .............................................................................................................................................. 451 HSDS modifier ......................................................................................................................................................................... 452 The Basics of Deformation Painting .............................................................................................................................................. 452 Painting deformations ............................................................................................................................................................ 453 XIII
Accessing brush presets ......................................................................................................................................................... 454 Using the Deformation Brushes .................................................................................................................................................... 455 Controlling the deformation direction ................................................................................................................................... 455 Limiting the deformation ....................................................................................................................................................... 455 Committing any changes ........................................................................................................................................................ 456 Using the Relax and Revert brushes ...................................................................................................................................... 456 Tutorial: Adding veins to a forearm ....................................................................................................................................... 456 Setting Painter Options .................................................................................................................................................................. 457 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 459 PART IV .................................................................................................................................................. 461 APPLYING MATERIALS AND TEXTURES ............................................................................................... 461 CHAPTER 17............................................................................................................................................ 463 CREATING AND APPLYING STANDARD MATERIALS WITH THE SLATE MATERIAL EDITOR ................... 463 Understanding Material Properties .............................................................................................................................................. 463 Colors ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 464 Opacity and transparency ...................................................................................................................................................... 464 Reflection and refraction........................................................................................................................................................ 465 Shininess and specular highlights .......................................................................................................................................... 465 Other properties ..................................................................................................................................................................... 465 Working with the Slate Material Editor ........................................................................................................................................ 466 Using the Slate Material Editor controls ................................................................................................................................ 466 Loading the Material Node View panel ................................................................................................................................. 468 Navigating the Material Node View panel ............................................................................................................................. 468 Selecting and applying materials ........................................................................................................................................... 470 Changing the material preview .............................................................................................................................................. 470 Selecting objects by material ................................................................................................................................................. 471 Setting Slate Material Editor preferences .............................................................................................................................. 471 Removing materials and maps ............................................................................................................................................... 472 Using utilities .......................................................................................................................................................................... 473 Using the Fix Ambient utility .................................................................................................................................................. 473 Tutorial: Coloring Easter eggs ................................................................................................................................................ 473 Using the Standard Material ......................................................................................................................................................... 474 Using Shading Types ...................................................................................................................................................................... 474 Blinn shader ............................................................................................................................................................................ 475 Phong shader .......................................................................................................................................................................... 478 Anisotropic shader .................................................................................................................................................................. 478 Multi‐Layer shader ................................................................................................................................................................. 479 Oren‐Nayar‐Blinn shader........................................................................................................................................................ 479 Metal shader ........................................................................................................................................................................... 479 Strauss shader ........................................................................................................................................................................ 480 Translucent shader ................................................................................................................................................................. 480 Tutorial: Making curtains translucent .................................................................................................................................... 480 Accessing Other Parameters ......................................................................................................................................................... 481 Extended Parameters rollout ................................................................................................................................................. 481 SuperSampling rollout ............................................................................................................................................................ 483 Maps rollout ........................................................................................................................................................................... 484 mental ray Connection rollout ............................................................................................................................................... 484 Tutorial: Coloring a dolphin .................................................................................................................................................... 484 Using the Material/Map Browser .................................................................................................................................................. 485 Working with libraries ............................................................................................................................................................ 486 Tutorial: Loading a custom material library ........................................................................................................................... 487 Using the Material Explorer ........................................................................................................................................................... 488 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 491 XIV
CHAPTER 18............................................................................................................................................ 493 ADDING MATERIAL DETAILS WITH MAPS ........................................................................................... 493 Understanding Maps ..................................................................................................................................................................... 493 Different map types ................................................................................................................................................................ 493 Enabling the global viewport rendering setting .................................................................................................................... 494 Using Real‐World maps .......................................................................................................................................................... 494 Working with Maps........................................................................................................................................................................ 494 Connecting maps to materials ............................................................................................................................................... 495 Using the Maps rollout ........................................................................................................................................................... 497 Tutorial: Aging objects for realism ......................................................................................................................................... 499 Understanding map types ...................................................................................................................................................... 500 Accessing Map parameters .................................................................................................................................................... 501 The Coordinates rollout ................................................................................................................................................. 502 The Noise rollout ............................................................................................................................................................ 504 The Time rollout ............................................................................................................................................................. 504 The Output rollout ......................................................................................................................................................... 504 Creating Textures with External Tools .......................................................................................................................................... 505 Creating material textures using Photoshop ......................................................................................................................... 506 Capturing digital images ......................................................................................................................................................... 507 Avoiding specular highlights .......................................................................................................................................... 507 Adjusting brightness ....................................................................................................................................................... 508 Scanning images ..................................................................................................................................................................... 508 Tutorial: Creating a fishing net ............................................................................................................................................... 508 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 509 CHAPTER 19............................................................................................................................................ 511 USING SPECIALIZED MATERIAL TYPES ................................................................................................. 511 Using the Ink 'n Paint Material ...................................................................................................................................................... 511 Controlling paint and ink ........................................................................................................................................................ 512 Tutorial: Cartooning a turtle ................................................................................................................................................... 513 Using Architectural Materials ........................................................................................................................................................ 514 Using the DirectX and MetaSL Shader Material............................................................................................................................ 516 DirectX Shader ........................................................................................................................................................................ 517 Accessing mental ray materials and shaders ......................................................................................................................... 517 Combining bump and displacement maps ............................................................................................................................ 518 Selecting and Applying Substance Textures .................................................................................................................................. 518 Loading Substance textures ................................................................................................................................................... 520 Linking Substance maps ......................................................................................................................................................... 520 Randomizing Substance Textures ................................................................................................................................................. 522 Tutorial: Applying Substance Textures to a Scene ................................................................................................................ 522 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 524 CHAPTER 20............................................................................................................................................ 525 CREATING COMPOUND MATERIALS AND USING MATERIAL MODIFIERS ........................................... 525 Using Compound Materials ........................................................................................................................................................... 525 Blend ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 526 Composite ............................................................................................................................................................................... 526 Double Sided ........................................................................................................................................................................... 527 Multi/Sub‐Object .................................................................................................................................................................... 527 Tutorial: Creating a patchwork quilt ...................................................................................................................................... 529 Morpher .................................................................................................................................................................................. 530 Shellac ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 531 Top/Bottom ............................................................................................................................................................................ 531 Tutorial: Surfing the waves .................................................................................................................................................... 531 Applying Multiple Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 532 Using material IDs ................................................................................................................................................................... 532 XV
Tutorial: Mapping die faces .................................................................................................................................................... 533 Using the Clean MultiMaterial utility ..................................................................................................................................... 534 Using the Matte/Shadow Material ............................................................................................................................................... 534 Matte/Shadow Basic Parameters rollout .............................................................................................................................. 535 Tutorial: Adding 3D objects to a scene .................................................................................................................................. 535 Material Modifiers ......................................................................................................................................................................... 536 Material modifier .................................................................................................................................................................... 536 MaterialByElement modifier .................................................................................................................................................. 537 Tutorial: Creating random marquee lights with the MaterialByElement modifier .............................................................. 537 Comparing Displacement maps and Displace modifiers ....................................................................................................... 538 Tutorial: Displacing geometry with a bitmap ........................................................................................................................ 539 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 540 CHAPTER 21............................................................................................................................................ 541 CREATING SHADERS IN THE SHADERFX EDITOR.................................................................................. 541 Accessing the ShaderFX Editor ...................................................................................................................................................... 541 Working with shader nodes ................................................................................................................................................... 542 Tutorial: Building a Shader Tree ............................................................................................................................................. 543 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 545 CHAPTER 22............................................................................................................................................ 547 UNWRAPPING UVS AND MAPPING TEXTURES ................................................................................... 547 Mapping Modifiers ........................................................................................................................................................................ 547 UVW Map modifier ................................................................................................................................................................ 547 Tutorial: Using the UVW Map modifier to apply decals ........................................................................................................ 549 UVW Mapping Add and Clear modifiers ................................................................................................................................ 550 UVW XForm modifier ............................................................................................................................................................. 550 Map Scaler modifier ............................................................................................................................................................... 550 Camera Map modifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 550 Using the Unwrap UVW Modifier ................................................................................................................................................. 551 Selecting UVW subobjects ..................................................................................................................................................... 551 Accessing the Edit UVWs interface ........................................................................................................................................ 552 Tweaking vertices in the viewport ......................................................................................................................................... 552 Using the Quick Planar Map ................................................................................................................................................... 552 Saving and loading mapping coordinates .............................................................................................................................. 552 Using the Edit UVWs Interface ...................................................................................................................................................... 553 Selecting subobjects within the dialog box ........................................................................................................................... 554 Navigating the main view ....................................................................................................................................................... 556 Using the Quick Transform buttons ....................................................................................................................................... 557 Straightening and Relaxing UV clusters ................................................................................................................................. 558 Stitching and welding ............................................................................................................................................................. 559 Separating into clusters using flattening methods ................................................................................................................ 560 Arranging and grouping clusters ............................................................................................................................................ 562 Accessing the Unwrap Options .............................................................................................................................................. 563 Tutorial: Controlling the mapping of a covered wagon ........................................................................................................ 564 Rendering UV templates ........................................................................................................................................................ 567 Mapping multiple objects ...................................................................................................................................................... 568 Tutorial: Creating a mapping for a fighter plane ................................................................................................................... 568 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 571 CHAPTER 23............................................................................................................................................ 573 PAINTING IN THE VIEWPORT CANVAS AND RENDERING SURFACE MAPS .......................................... 573 Using the Viewport Canvas ............................................................................................................................................................ 573 Setting up an object for painting............................................................................................................................................ 574 Using the Canvas brushes ...................................................................................................................................................... 575 Painting with images .............................................................................................................................................................. 577 XVI
Using paint layers ................................................................................................................................................................... 578 Painting in 2D .......................................................................................................................................................................... 580 Using the paint options .......................................................................................................................................................... 581 Tutorial: Face painting ............................................................................................................................................................ 582 Using Vertex Colors ........................................................................................................................................................................ 583 Assigning vertex colors ........................................................................................................................................................... 583 Painting vertices with the Vertex Paint modifier ................................................................................................................... 584 Tutorial: Marking an octopus ................................................................................................................................................. 586 The Assign Vertex Color utility ............................................................................................................................................... 587 Rendering Surface Maps ................................................................................................................................................................ 587 Using Surface Maps ....................................................................................................................................................................... 589 Tutorial: Generating and Applying Surface Maps .................................................................................................................. 589 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 590 CHAPTER 24............................................................................................................................................ 591 CREATING BAKED TEXTURES AND NORMAL MAPS ............................................................................ 591 Using Channels ............................................................................................................................................................................... 591 Using the Map Channel Info dialog box ................................................................................................................................. 592 Select by Channel modifier .................................................................................................................................................... 592 Rendering to a Texture .................................................................................................................................................................. 593 General Settings ..................................................................................................................................................................... 594 Selecting objects to bake ........................................................................................................................................................ 594 Output settings ....................................................................................................................................................................... 595 Baked Material and Automatic Mapping settings ................................................................................................................. 596 Tutorial: Baking the textures for a covered wagon model .................................................................................................... 597 Creating Normal Maps ................................................................................................................................................................... 598 Using the Projection modifier ................................................................................................................................................ 598 Setting Projection Mapping options ...................................................................................................................................... 599 Tutorial: Creating a normal map for a Spikey sphere ............................................................................................................ 600 Tutorial: Creating a normal map for an optimized gator ...................................................................................................... 601 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 602 CHAPTER 25............................................................................................................................................ 605 CONFIGURING AND AIMING CAMERAS .............................................................................................. 605 Learning to Work with Cameras .................................................................................................................................................... 605 Creating a camera object ....................................................................................................................................................... 606 Free camera .................................................................................................................................................................... 606 Target camera ................................................................................................................................................................ 606 Physical camera .............................................................................................................................................................. 606 Creating a camera view .......................................................................................................................................................... 606 Tutorial: Setting up an opponent’s view ................................................................................................................................ 607 Controlling a camera .............................................................................................................................................................. 608 Aiming a camera ..................................................................................................................................................................... 610 Tutorial: Watching a rocket .................................................................................................................................................... 610 Aligning cameras .................................................................................................................................................................... 611 Tutorial: Seeing the dinosaur’s good side .............................................................................................................................. 612 Setting Camera Parameters ........................................................................................................................................................... 613 Lens settings and field of view ............................................................................................................................................... 613 Camera type and display options ........................................................................................................................................... 613 Environment ranges and clipping planes ............................................................................................................................... 614 Camera Correction modifier .................................................................................................................................................. 614 Creating multi‐pass camera effects ....................................................................................................................................... 615 Using the Depth of Field effect .............................................................................................................................................. 615 Tutorial: Applying a Depth of Field effect to a row of windmills .......................................................................................... 617 Using the Motion Blur effect .................................................................................................................................................. 618 Tutorial: Using a Motion Blur multi‐pass camera effect ....................................................................................................... 619 XVII
Using the Camera Sequencer ........................................................................................................................................................ 620 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 622 PART V ................................................................................................................................................... 603 WORKING WITH BACKGROUNDS, CAMERAS AND LIGHTING ............................................................. 603 CHAPTER 26............................................................................................................................................ 623 MATCHING PERSPECTIVE TO BACKGROUND IMAGES ........................................................................ 623 Loading a Background Image and Camera .................................................................................................................................... 623 Perspective Matching the Background Image .............................................................................................................................. 624 Tutorial: Perspective Matching a Background ....................................................................................................................... 626 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 628 CHAPTER 27............................................................................................................................................ 629 USING LIGHTS AND BASIC LIGHTING TECHNIQUES ............................................................................. 629 Understanding the Basics of Lighting ............................................................................................................................................ 629 Natural and artificial light ....................................................................................................................................................... 629 A standard lighting method.................................................................................................................................................... 630 Shadows .................................................................................................................................................................................. 631 Getting to Know the Light Types ................................................................................................................................................... 632 Default lighting ....................................................................................................................................................................... 633 Ambient light .......................................................................................................................................................................... 633 Standard lights ........................................................................................................................................................................ 633 Omni light ....................................................................................................................................................................... 633 Spotlight ......................................................................................................................................................................... 633 Direct light ...................................................................................................................................................................... 634 Skylight ........................................................................................................................................................................... 634 mr Area Omni and mr Area Spot ................................................................................................................................... 634 Photometric lights .................................................................................................................................................................. 634 Creating and Positioning Light Objects ......................................................................................................................................... 635 Transforming lights ................................................................................................................................................................. 635 Viewing lights and shadows in the viewport ......................................................................................................................... 635 Listing lights ............................................................................................................................................................................ 636 Placing highlights .................................................................................................................................................................... 637 Tutorial: Lighting the snowman’s face ................................................................................................................................... 637 Viewing a Scene from a Light ........................................................................................................................................................ 638 Light viewport controls ........................................................................................................................................................... 638 Manipulating Hotspot/Beam and Falloff/Field cones ........................................................................................................... 639 Tutorial: Lighting a lamp ......................................................................................................................................................... 639 Altering Light Parameters .............................................................................................................................................................. 640 General parameters ............................................................................................................................................................... 641 The Intensity/Color/Attenuation rollout ............................................................................................................................... 642 Spotlight and directional light parameters ............................................................................................................................ 642 Advanced Effects .................................................................................................................................................................... 643 Shadow parameters ............................................................................................................................................................... 643 Optimizing lights ..................................................................................................................................................................... 644 Photometric light parameters ................................................................................................................................................ 644 Distribution options ....................................................................................................................................................... 644 Color options .................................................................................................................................................................. 645 Intensity and Attenuation options ................................................................................................................................. 645 Light shapes .................................................................................................................................................................... 646 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 646 CHAPTER 28............................................................................................................................................ 647 USING THE SUNLIGHT AND DAYLIGHT SYSTEMS ................................................................................ 647 Using the Sunlight and Daylight Systems ...................................................................................................................................... 647 XVIII
Using the Compass helper ...................................................................................................................................................... 649 Understanding Azimuth and Altitude .................................................................................................................................... 649 Specifying date and time ........................................................................................................................................................ 649 Specifying location .................................................................................................................................................................. 649 Loading Weather Data ........................................................................................................................................................... 650 Configuring Sunlight and Skylight .......................................................................................................................................... 651 Tutorial: Animating a day in 20 seconds ................................................................................................................................ 651 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 652 CHAPTER 29............................................................................................................................................ 653 WORKING WITH ADVANCED LIGHTING, LIGHT TRACING, AND RADIOSITY ........................................ 653 Selecting Advanced Lighting .......................................................................................................................................................... 653 How light tracing works .......................................................................................................................................................... 654 Enabling light tracing .............................................................................................................................................................. 655 Color bleeding ................................................................................................................................................................ 656 Quality versus speed ...................................................................................................................................................... 657 Adaptive undersampling ................................................................................................................................................ 657 Tutorial: Viewing color bleeding ............................................................................................................................................ 658 Using Local Advanced Lighting Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 659 Tutorial: Excluding Objects from Light Tracing ...................................................................................................................... 660 Understanding Radiosity ............................................................................................................................................................... 661 Lighting for radiosity ............................................................................................................................................................... 662 Subdividing a mesh for radiosity .................................................................................................................................... 663 Using the Subdivide modifier ......................................................................................................................................... 664 Tutorial: Preparing a mesh for radiosity ................................................................................................................................ 664 Painting with light .......................................................................................................................................................... 665 Rendering parameters and statistics ............................................................................................................................. 666 Tutorial: Lighting a house interior with radiosity .................................................................................................................. 666 Working with Advanced Lighting Materials .................................................................................................................................. 667 Advanced Lighting Override ................................................................................................................................................... 667 Using Lighting Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................... 668 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 671 PART VI .................................................................................................................................................. 673 RENDERING A SCENE .......................................................................................................................... 673 CHAPTER 30............................................................................................................................................ 675 RENDERING A SCENE AND ENABLING QUICKSILVER ........................................................................... 675 Working with Render Parameters ................................................................................................................................................. 675 Initiating a render job ............................................................................................................................................................. 676 Common parameters ............................................................................................................................................................. 678 Specifying range and size ............................................................................................................................................... 679 Render options ............................................................................................................................................................... 679 Bitmap Proxies ............................................................................................................................................................... 680 Choosing a Render Output option ................................................................................................................................. 681 E‐mail notifications ................................................................................................................................................................. 681 Adding pre‐render and post‐render scripts ........................................................................................................................... 682 Assigning renderers ................................................................................................................................................................ 682 Default Scanline Renderer ...................................................................................................................................................... 682 Anti‐alias filters ............................................................................................................................................................... 683 SuperSampling ............................................................................................................................................................... 684 Motion Blur .................................................................................................................................................................... 684 Other options ................................................................................................................................................................. 684 Quicksilver Hardware Renderer ............................................................................................................................................. 685 Rendering stylized scenes ...................................................................................................................................................... 686 Using the Rendered Frame Window ............................................................................................................................................. 687 XIX
Using the Render Types .......................................................................................................................................................... 688 Previewing with ActiveShade ................................................................................................................................................. 690 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 690 CHAPTER 31............................................................................................................................................ 691 MANAGING RENDER STATES .............................................................................................................. 691 Using State Sets.............................................................................................................................................................................. 691 Recording states ..................................................................................................................................................................... 692 Using templates and nesting states ....................................................................................................................................... 692 Rendering states ..................................................................................................................................................................... 692 Tutorial: Presenting several stylized rendered options ......................................................................................................... 692 Accessing Compositor View ................................................................................................................................................... 694 Changing node parameters .................................................................................................................................................... 695 Adding new nodes .................................................................................................................................................................. 695 Exporting to Photoshop .......................................................................................................................................................... 695 Linking data to After Effects ................................................................................................................................................... 696 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 697 CHAPTER 32............................................................................................................................................ 699 BATCH AND NETWORK RENDERING ................................................................................................... 699 Batch Rendering Scenes ................................................................................................................................................................ 699 Using the Batch Render tool .................................................................................................................................................. 699 Creating a stand‐alone executable ........................................................................................................................................ 700 Using the A360 Cloud Rendering System ...................................................................................................................................... 701 Understanding Network Rendering .............................................................................................................................................. 702 Setting Up a Network Rendering System ...................................................................................................................................... 702 Setting up the network ........................................................................................................................................................... 703 Tutorial: Locating TCP/IP and gathering IP addresses ........................................................................................................... 703 Tutorial: Installing and configuring TCP/IP ............................................................................................................................ 705 Tutorial: Setting up 3ds Max on the networked computers ................................................................................................. 707 Configuring shared directories ............................................................................................................................................... 707 Tutorial: Sharing directories ................................................................................................................................................... 707 Tutorial: Choosing shared directories .................................................................................................................................... 709 Starting the Network Rendering System ....................................................................................................................................... 709 Tutorial: Initializing the network rendering system .............................................................................................................. 710 Tutorial: Completing your first network rendering job ......................................................................................................... 711 Job assignment options .......................................................................................................................................................... 713 Configuring the Network Manager and Servers ........................................................................................................................... 714 The network manager settings .............................................................................................................................................. 714 The network servers settings ................................................................................................................................................. 716 Logging Errors ................................................................................................................................................................................ 716 Using the Monitor .......................................................................................................................................................................... 717 Jobs ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 718 Servers .................................................................................................................................................................................... 719 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 720 CHAPTER 33............................................................................................................................................ 721 RENDERING WITH MENTAL RAY AND IRAY ........................................................................................ 721 Enabling mental ray and iray ......................................................................................................................................................... 721 Working with iray ........................................................................................................................................................................... 722 Tutorial: Starting iray .............................................................................................................................................................. 724 Working with mental ray ............................................................................................................................................................... 725 Using mental ray Lights and Shadows ................................................................................................................................... 726 Enabling mental ray area lights ..................................................................................................................................... 726 Enabling mental ray Shadow Maps ............................................................................................................................... 726 Using mental ray Sky Portal ........................................................................................................................................... 726 XX
Using mental ray Sun & Sky ........................................................................................................................................... 728 Understanding Caustics and Photons .................................................................................................................................... 729 Enabling caustics and global illumination for objects ................................................................................................... 730 Tutorial: Using Caustic Photons to create a disco ball .......................................................................................................... 731 Controlling Indirect Illumination ............................................................................................................................................ 733 Rendering control ........................................................................................................................................................... 734 Advanced mental ray ..................................................................................................................................................... 735 Using mental ray proxies ............................................................................................................................................... 736 Using mental ray materials .................................................................................................................................................... 736 Using the Autodesk Material Library and the Arch & Design materials ....................................................................... 737 Using the Car Paint material .......................................................................................................................................... 739 Using the Subsurface Scattering materials .................................................................................................................... 740 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 741 CHAPTER 34............................................................................................................................................ 743 COMPOSITING WITH RENDER ELEMENTS AND THE VIDEO POST INTERFACE ..................................... 743 Using External Compositing Packages ........................................................................................................................................... 744 Compositing with Photoshop ................................................................................................................................................. 744 Video editing with Premiere Pro ............................................................................................................................................ 745 Video compositing with After Effects .................................................................................................................................... 746 Tutorial: Adding animation effects using After Effects .......................................................................................................... 747 Using Render Elements .................................................................................................................................................................. 748 Completing Post‐Production with the Video Post Interface ........................................................................................................ 750 The Video Post toolbar ........................................................................................................................................................... 751 The Video Post Queue and Range panes ............................................................................................................................... 751 The Video Post status bar ....................................................................................................................................................... 752 Working with Sequences ............................................................................................................................................................... 752 Adding and Editing Events ............................................................................................................................................................. 753 Adding an image input event ................................................................................................................................................. 754 Adding scene events ............................................................................................................................................................... 755 Adding image filter events ..................................................................................................................................................... 756 Contrast filter ................................................................................................................................................................. 756 Fade filter ....................................................................................................................................................................... 756 Image Alpha filter ........................................................................................................................................................... 757 Negative filter ................................................................................................................................................................. 757 Pseudo Alpha filter ......................................................................................................................................................... 757 Simple Wipe filter ........................................................................................................................................................... 757 Starfield filter .................................................................................................................................................................. 757 Tutorial: Creating space backdrops ........................................................................................................................................ 758 Adding image layer events ..................................................................................................................................................... 759 Simple Wipe compositor ................................................................................................................................................ 760 Other layer filters ........................................................................................................................................................... 760 Adding external events ........................................................................................................................................................... 760 Using loop events ................................................................................................................................................................... 760 Adding an image output event .............................................................................................................................................. 761 Working with Ranges ..................................................................................................................................................................... 761 Adding backgrounds and filters using Video Post ................................................................................................................. 762 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 764 PART VII ................................................................................................................................................. 765 ANIMATING OBJECTS AND SCENES ..................................................................................................... 765 CHAPTER 35............................................................................................................................................ 767 UNDERSTANDING ANIMATION AND KEYFRAMES .............................................................................. 767 Using the Time Controls ................................................................................................................................................................ 767 Setting frame rate ................................................................................................................................................................... 769 XXI
Setting speed and direction ................................................................................................................................................... 769 Using Time Tags ...................................................................................................................................................................... 770 Working with Keys ......................................................................................................................................................................... 770 Auto Key mode ....................................................................................................................................................................... 771 Set Key mode .......................................................................................................................................................................... 771 Tutorial: Rotating a windmill’s blades .................................................................................................................................... 771 Copying parameter animation keys ....................................................................................................................................... 773 Deleting all object animation keys ......................................................................................................................................... 773 Using the Track Bar ........................................................................................................................................................................ 773 Viewing and Editing Key Values ..................................................................................................................................................... 774 Using the Motion Panel ................................................................................................................................................................. 776 Setting parameters ................................................................................................................................................................. 776 Using trajectories .................................................................................................................................................................... 776 Tutorial: Making an airplane follow a looping path .............................................................................................................. 778 Using the Follow/Bank utility ................................................................................................................................................. 779 Using Ghosting ............................................................................................................................................................................... 779 Animating Objects ......................................................................................................................................................................... 780 Animating cameras ................................................................................................................................................................. 780 Tutorial: Animating darts hitting a dartboard ....................................................................................................................... 780 Animating lights ...................................................................................................................................................................... 782 Animating materials ............................................................................................................................................................... 782 Tutorial: Dimming lights ......................................................................................................................................................... 782 Working with Previews .................................................................................................................................................................. 783 Creating previews ................................................................................................................................................................... 783 Viewing previews .................................................................................................................................................................... 785 Renaming previews ................................................................................................................................................................ 785 Using the RAM Player .................................................................................................................................................................... 785 Tutorial: Using the RAM Player to Combine Rendered Images into a Video File ................................................................. 787 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 788 CHAPTER 36............................................................................................................................................ 789 ANIMATING WITH CONSTRAINTS AND SIMPLE CONTROLLERS .......................................................... 789 Restricting Movement with Constraints ....................................................................................................................................... 789 Using constraints .................................................................................................................................................................... 790 Working with the constraints ................................................................................................................................................. 790 Attachment constraint ................................................................................................................................................... 790 Tutorial: Attaching eyes to a melting snowman .................................................................................................................... 790 Surface constraint .......................................................................................................................................................... 792 Tutorial: Rolling a tire down a hill with the Surface constraint ............................................................................................. 792 Path constraint ............................................................................................................................................................... 793 Tutorial: Creating a spaceship flight path .............................................................................................................................. 794 Position constraint ......................................................................................................................................................... 795 Link constraint ................................................................................................................................................................ 795 Tutorial: Skating a figure eight ............................................................................................................................................... 796 LookAt constraint ........................................................................................................................................................... 797 Orientation constraint .................................................................................................................................................... 798 Using the Walkthrough Assistant .................................................................................................................................. 798 Understanding Controller Types ................................................................................................................................................... 799 Assigning Controllers ..................................................................................................................................................................... 799 Automatically assigned controllers ........................................................................................................................................ 799 Assigning controllers with the Animation menu ................................................................................................................... 800 Assigning controllers in the Motion panel ............................................................................................................................. 801 Assigning controllers in the Track View ................................................................................................................................. 801 Setting default controllers ...................................................................................................................................................... 802 Examining Some Simple Controllers ............................................................................................................................................. 802 Bézier controller ............................................................................................................................................................. 802 XXII
Linear controller ............................................................................................................................................................. 803 Noise controller ...................................................................................................................................................................... 804 Spring controller ..................................................................................................................................................................... 804 Tutorial: Wagging a tail with the Spring controller ............................................................................................................... 805 Position XYZ controller ................................................................................................................................................... 806 Scale XYZ controller ........................................................................................................................................................ 806 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 807 CHAPTER 37............................................................................................................................................ 809 EXPLORING THE COMPLEX CONTROLLERS .......................................................................................... 809 Examining Complex Controllers .................................................................................................................................................... 809 Transform controllers ............................................................................................................................................................. 809 Position/Rotation/Scale Transform controller .............................................................................................................. 809 Script controller .............................................................................................................................................................. 810 XRef controller ................................................................................................................................................................ 810 Position track controllers ....................................................................................................................................................... 811 Audio controller ............................................................................................................................................................. 811 Motion Clip Slave controller .......................................................................................................................................... 811 Motion Capture controller ............................................................................................................................................. 811 Tutorial: Drawing with a pencil with the Motion Capture controller ................................................................................... 813 TCB controller ................................................................................................................................................................. 814 Reaction controller ......................................................................................................................................................... 815 Rotation and Scale track controllers ...................................................................................................................................... 817 Euler XYZ Rotation controller ......................................................................................................................................... 817 Smooth Rotation controller ........................................................................................................................................... 817 Parameter controllers ............................................................................................................................................................ 817 Boolean controller .......................................................................................................................................................... 817 Limit controller ............................................................................................................................................................... 817 List controller .................................................................................................................................................................. 818 On/Off controller............................................................................................................................................................ 818 Tutorial: Animating a hazard light .......................................................................................................................................... 819 Waveform controller ...................................................................................................................................................... 821 Color RGB controller ...................................................................................................................................................... 822 Cubic Morph controller .................................................................................................................................................. 822 Barycentric Morph controller ........................................................................................................................................ 822 Block controller .............................................................................................................................................................. 823 IK controller .................................................................................................................................................................... 825 Master Point controller .................................................................................................................................................. 825 Tutorial: Animating a checkers move .................................................................................................................................... 826 Working with Expressions in Spinners .......................................................................................................................................... 829 Understanding the Expression Controller Interface ..................................................................................................................... 830 Defining variables ................................................................................................................................................................... 831 Building expressions ............................................................................................................................................................... 832 Debugging and evaluating expressions .................................................................................................................................. 833 Managing expressions ............................................................................................................................................................ 834 Tutorial: Creating following eyes ........................................................................................................................................... 834 Using Expression Controllers ......................................................................................................................................................... 836 Animating transforms with the Expression controller .......................................................................................................... 836 Animating parameters with the Float Expression controller ................................................................................................ 837 Tutorial: Inflating a balloon .................................................................................................................................................... 837 Animating materials with the Expression controller ............................................................................................................. 838 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 838 CHAPTER 38............................................................................................................................................ 839 USING ANIMATION LAYERS AND ANIMATION MODIFIERS ................................................................. 839 Using the Animation Layers Toolbar ............................................................................................................................................. 839 XXIII
Working with Animation Layers .................................................................................................................................................... 841 Enabling animation layers ...................................................................................................................................................... 841 Setting animation layers properties ....................................................................................................................................... 842 Collapsing animation layers ................................................................................................................................................... 842 Tutorial: Using animation layers for a plane takeoff ............................................................................................................. 842 Saving and Loading Animation Files .............................................................................................................................................. 843 Saving general animations ..................................................................................................................................................... 844 Mapping animated objects .................................................................................................................................................... 845 Using the Map Animation dialog box .................................................................................................................................... 845 Retargeting animations .......................................................................................................................................................... 846 Using the Animation Modifiers ..................................................................................................................................................... 847 Baking Animation Keys with the Point Cache Modifier ......................................................................................................... 847 Tutorial: Trees in a hurricane ................................................................................................................................................. 848 Morpher modifier ................................................................................................................................................................... 849 Tutorial: Morphing facial expressions .................................................................................................................................... 850 Using More Animation Modifiers .................................................................................................................................................. 852 Using the Flex modifier........................................................................................................................................................... 852 Flex subobjects ............................................................................................................................................................... 852 Setting flex strength ....................................................................................................................................................... 853 Creating simple soft bodies ........................................................................................................................................... 853 Painting weights ............................................................................................................................................................. 853 Adding Forces and Deflectors ........................................................................................................................................ 854 Manually creating springs .............................................................................................................................................. 854 Melt modifier .......................................................................................................................................................................... 855 PatchDeform and SurfDeform modifiers ............................................................................................................................... 855 Tutorial: Deforming a car going over a hill............................................................................................................................. 856 PathDeform modifier ............................................................................................................................................................. 856 LinkedXForm modifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 857 SplineIK Control modifier ....................................................................................................................................................... 857 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 858 CHAPTER 39............................................................................................................................................ 859 WIRING PARAMETERS ........................................................................................................................ 859 Wiring Parameters ......................................................................................................................................................................... 859 Using the Parameter Wiring dialog box ................................................................................................................................. 859 Manipulator helpers ............................................................................................................................................................... 861 Tutorial: Controlling a dragon’s bite ...................................................................................................................................... 861 Collecting Parameters .................................................................................................................................................................... 863 Adding Custom Parameters ........................................................................................................................................................... 865 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 866 CHAPTER 40............................................................................................................................................ 867 EDITING ANIMATION CURVES IN THE TRACK VIEW ............................................................................ 867 Learning the Track View Interface ................................................................................................................................................. 867 The Track View layouts ........................................................................................................................................................... 868 Track View menus and toolbars ............................................................................................................................................. 869 Key Controls toolbar ...................................................................................................................................................... 870 Navigation toolbar ......................................................................................................................................................... 870 Key Tangents toolbar ..................................................................................................................................................... 870 Tangent Actions toolbar ................................................................................................................................................. 871 Key Entry toolbar ............................................................................................................................................................ 871 Keys toolbar .................................................................................................................................................................... 871 Time toolbar ................................................................................................................................................................... 872 Display toolbar ............................................................................................................................................................... 872 Track Selection toolbar .................................................................................................................................................. 873 Other toolbars ................................................................................................................................................................ 874 XXIV
Controller and Key panes ....................................................................................................................................................... 874 Working with Keys ......................................................................................................................................................................... 875 Selecting keys ......................................................................................................................................................................... 876 Using soft selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 876 Adding and deleting keys ....................................................................................................................................................... 877 Moving, sliding, and scaling keys ........................................................................................................................................... 877 Using the Region tool ............................................................................................................................................................. 877 Using the Retime tool ............................................................................................................................................................. 878 Editing keys ............................................................................................................................................................................. 879 Using the Randomize Keys utility ........................................................................................................................................... 879 Using the Euler Filter utility .................................................................................................................................................... 880 Displaying keyable icons ......................................................................................................................................................... 880 Editing Time ................................................................................................................................................................................... 880 Selecting time and the Select Keys by Time utility ................................................................................................................ 881 Deleting, cutting, copying, and pasting time ......................................................................................................................... 881 Reversing, inserting, and scaling time .................................................................................................................................... 881 Setting ranges ......................................................................................................................................................................... 882 Editing Curves ................................................................................................................................................................................ 882 Inserting new keys and moving keys ..................................................................................................................................... 882 Tutorial: Animating a monorail .............................................................................................................................................. 882 Drawing curves ....................................................................................................................................................................... 883 Reducing keys ......................................................................................................................................................................... 884 Working with tangents ........................................................................................................................................................... 885 Tutorial: Animating a flowing river ........................................................................................................................................ 885 Applying out‐of‐range, ease, and multiplier curves .............................................................................................................. 887 Tutorial: Animating a wind‐up teapot .................................................................................................................................... 888 Filtering Tracks and Creating Track Sets ........................................................................................................................................ 890 Using the Filters dialog box .................................................................................................................................................... 891 Creating a track set ................................................................................................................................................................. 891 Working with Controllers .............................................................................................................................................................. 892 Using visibility tracks .............................................................................................................................................................. 893 Adding note tracks .................................................................................................................................................................. 893 Using the ProSound Plug‐in ........................................................................................................................................................... 893 Tutorial: Adding sound to an animation ................................................................................................................................ 894 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 896 PART VIII ................................................................................................................................................ 897 WORKING WITH CHARACTERS............................................................................................................ 897 CHAPTER 41............................................................................................................................................ 899 UNDERSTANDING RIGGING, KINEMATICS, AND WORKING WITH BONES........................................... 899 Understanding Rigging ................................................................................................................................................................... 899 A typical rigging workflow ...................................................................................................................................................... 900 Building a Bones System ................................................................................................................................................................ 901 Assigning an IK Solver ............................................................................................................................................................. 902 Setting bone parameters ........................................................................................................................................................ 902 Defining joint constraints ....................................................................................................................................................... 903 Naming bones ......................................................................................................................................................................... 903 Tutorial: Creating a bones system for an alligator ................................................................................................................. 903 Using the Bone Tools ..................................................................................................................................................................... 905 Reordering bones ................................................................................................................................................................... 905 Refining and mirroring bones ................................................................................................................................................. 906 Coloring bones ........................................................................................................................................................................ 906 Adjusting fins .......................................................................................................................................................................... 907 Making objects into bones ..................................................................................................................................................... 907 Forward Kinematics versus Inverse Kinematics ............................................................................................................................ 908 XXV
Creating an Inverse Kinematics System ........................................................................................................................................ 908 History Independent (HI) IK solver ......................................................................................................................................... 909 History Dependent (HD) IK solver .......................................................................................................................................... 911 Tutorial: Animating a spyglass with the HD IK solver ............................................................................................................ 911 IK Limb solver .......................................................................................................................................................................... 912 Tutorial: Animating a spider’s leg with the IK Limb solver .................................................................................................... 913 Spline IK solver ........................................................................................................................................................................ 914 Tutorial: Building an IK Spline alligator .................................................................................................................................. 914 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 916 CHAPTER 42............................................................................................................................................ 917 SKINNING CHARACTERS ...................................................................................................................... 917 Understanding Your Character ...................................................................................................................................................... 917 The curse and blessing of symmetry ...................................................................................................................................... 917 Dealing with details ................................................................................................................................................................ 918 Animated Skin Modifiers ............................................................................................................................................................... 918 Understanding the skinning process ...................................................................................................................................... 918 Binding to a skeleton .............................................................................................................................................................. 918 Tutorial: Attaching skin to a CAT rig ....................................................................................................................................... 919 Editing envelopes ........................................................................................................................................................... 921 Working with weights .................................................................................................................................................... 923 Tutorial: Applying skin weights .............................................................................................................................................. 926 Mirror settings ................................................................................................................................................................ 927 Tutorial: Mirroring skin weights ............................................................................................................................................. 928 Display and Advanced settings ...................................................................................................................................... 928 Using deformers ............................................................................................................................................................. 929 Using the Skin Wrap modifiers ............................................................................................................................................... 929 Tutorial: Making a simple squirt bottle walk ......................................................................................................................... 930 Using the Skin Morph modifier .............................................................................................................................................. 931 Tutorial: Bulging arm muscles ................................................................................................................................................ 931 Using Character Animation Techniques ........................................................................................................................................ 933 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 934 CHAPTER 43............................................................................................................................................ 935 ANIMATING CHARACTERS WITH CAT ................................................................................................. 935 Character Creation Workflow ........................................................................................................................................................ 935 Creating a CAT Rig .......................................................................................................................................................................... 936 Using prebuilt CAT rigs ........................................................................................................................................................... 936 Modifying prebuilt CAT rigs .................................................................................................................................................... 937 Using custom meshes ............................................................................................................................................................. 939 Tutorial: Editing the head bone ............................................................................................................................................. 940 Building a custom CAT rig ....................................................................................................................................................... 941 Naming CAT bones ................................................................................................................................................................. 943 Tutorial: Building a custom CAT rig to match a skin mesh .................................................................................................... 943 Animating a CAT Rig ....................................................................................................................................................................... 945 Blending absolute animation layers ....................................................................................................................................... 947 Using adjustment animation layers ....................................................................................................................................... 948 Creating a walk cycle with a CAT Motion layer...................................................................................................................... 948 Setting global parameters .............................................................................................................................................. 949 Walking along a path ...................................................................................................................................................... 950 Controlling footsteps and limbs ..................................................................................................................................... 951 Matching footsteps to the ground ................................................................................................................................ 951 Controlling secondary motions ...................................................................................................................................... 951 Tutorial: Animating a character walking along a path ........................................................................................................... 952 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 953 XXVI
CHAPTER 44............................................................................................................................................ 955 CREATING CROWDS AND USING POPULATE ....................................................................................... 955 Creating Crowds ............................................................................................................................................................................. 955 Using Crowd and Delegate helpers ........................................................................................................................................ 955 Scattering delegates ............................................................................................................................................................... 956 Setting delegate parameters .................................................................................................................................................. 957 Assigning behaviors ................................................................................................................................................................ 957 Solving the simulation ............................................................................................................................................................ 958 Tutorial: Rabbits in the forest ................................................................................................................................................ 958 Creating a Crowd of Bipeds ........................................................................................................................................................... 960 Associating delegates with objects ........................................................................................................................................ 960 Associating delegates with objects ........................................................................................................................................ 960 Using Populate ............................................................................................................................................................................... 961 Creating Flow and Idle Areas .................................................................................................................................................. 961 Adding People to the Flow areas ........................................................................................................................................... 963 Tutorial: Adding a Crowd with Populate ................................................................................................................................ 965 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 966 PART IX ................................................................................................................................................... 967 ADDING SPECIAL EFFECTS ................................................................................................................... 967 CHAPTER 45............................................................................................................................................ 969 CREATING PARTICLES AND PARTICLE FLOW ....................................................................................... 969 Understanding the Various Particle Systems ................................................................................................................................ 969 Creating a Particle System ............................................................................................................................................................. 970 Using the Spray and Snow Particle Systems ................................................................................................................................. 971 Tutorial: Creating rain showers .............................................................................................................................................. 972 Tutorial: Creating a snowstorm .............................................................................................................................................. 973 Using the Super Spray Particle System .......................................................................................................................................... 974 Super Spray Basic Parameters rollout .................................................................................................................................... 974 Particle Generation rollout ..................................................................................................................................................... 975 Particle Type rollout ............................................................................................................................................................... 976 Tutorial: Creating a fireworks fountain .................................................................................................................................. 976 Tutorial: Adding spray to a spray can ..................................................................................................................................... 978 Using the MetaParticles option ..................................................................................................................................... 979 Tutorial: Spilling soda from a can ........................................................................................................................................... 979 Instanced Geometry ....................................................................................................................................................... 980 Rotation and Collision rollout................................................................................................................................................. 980 Tutorial: Basketball shooting practice.................................................................................................................................... 981 Object Motion Inheritance rollout ......................................................................................................................................... 983 Bubble Motion rollout ............................................................................................................................................................ 984 Particle Spawn rollout ............................................................................................................................................................ 984 Load/Save Presets rollout ...................................................................................................................................................... 985 Using the Blizzard Particle System................................................................................................................................................. 986 Using the PArray Particle System .................................................................................................................................................. 986 Splitting an object into fragments .......................................................................................................................................... 987 Tutorial: Creating rising steam ............................................................................................................................................... 988 Using the PCloud Particle System .................................................................................................................................................. 989 Using Particle System Maps .......................................................................................................................................................... 989 Using the Particle Age map .................................................................................................................................................... 990 Using the Particle MBlur map ................................................................................................................................................ 990 Tutorial: Creating jet engine flames ....................................................................................................................................... 990 Controlling Particles with Particle Flow ......................................................................................................................................... 991 The Particle View window ...................................................................................................................................................... 991 The Standard Flow .................................................................................................................................................................. 992 Working with Actions .................................................................................................................................................................... 993 XXVII
Combining Particle Flow with MassFX ................................................................................................................................... 993 Tutorial: Creating an avalanche ............................................................................................................................................. 993 Using Particle Flow Helpers ........................................................................................................................................................... 995 Wiring events .......................................................................................................................................................................... 995 Tutorial: Moths chasing a light ............................................................................................................................................... 996 Debugging Test Actions ................................................................................................................................................................. 997 Tutorial: Firing at a fleeing spaceship .................................................................................................................................... 997 Tutorial: Creating a black hole using Particle Flow ................................................................................................................ 999 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1001 CHAPTER 46.......................................................................................................................................... 1003 USING SPACE WARPS ....................................................................................................................... 1003 Creating and Binding Space Warps ............................................................................................................................................. 1003 Creating a Space Warp ......................................................................................................................................................... 1003 Binding a Space Warp to an object ...................................................................................................................................... 1004 Understanding Space Warp Types .............................................................................................................................................. 1004 Force Space Warps ............................................................................................................................................................... 1004 Motor ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1004 Push .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1005 Vortex ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1006 Drag .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1007 PBomb .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1008 Path Follow ................................................................................................................................................................... 1009 Gravity .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1010 Wind ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1010 Displace ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1011 Deflector Space Warps ......................................................................................................................................................... 1012 POmniFlect, SOmniFlect, and UOmniFlect .................................................................................................................. 1012 Deflector, SDeflector, and UDeflector ......................................................................................................................... 1014 Geometric/Deformable Space Warps .................................................................................................................................. 1014 FFD (Box) and FFD (Cyl) ................................................................................................................................................ 1014 FFD Select modifier ...................................................................................................................................................... 1014 Wave and Ripple .......................................................................................................................................................... 1015 Tutorial: Creating pond ripples ............................................................................................................................................ 1016 Conform ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1017 Bomb ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1017 Tutorial: Blowing a dandelion puff ....................................................................................................................................... 1018 Modifier‐Based Space Warps ............................................................................................................................................... 1019 Combining Particle Systems with Space Warps .......................................................................................................................... 1020 Tutorial: Shattering glass ...................................................................................................................................................... 1020 Tutorial: Making water flow down a trough ........................................................................................................................ 1022 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1023 CHAPTER 47.......................................................................................................................................... 1025 USING ATMOSPHERIC AND RENDER EFFECTS ................................................................................... 1025 Adding an Environment Background .......................................................................................................................................... 1025 Defining the rendered environment .................................................................................................................................... 1026 Setting a background color .......................................................................................................................................... 1026 Using a background image ........................................................................................................................................... 1026 Setting global lighting ................................................................................................................................................... 1027 Using Exposure Controls .............................................................................................................................................................. 1028 Automatic, Linear, and Logarithmic Exposure Control ........................................................................................................ 1028 Pseudo Color Exposure Control ........................................................................................................................................... 1028 Photographic Exposure Control ........................................................................................................................................... 1029 Tutorial: Using the Logarithmic Exposure Control ............................................................................................................... 1030 Creating Atmospheric Effects ...................................................................................................................................................... 1031 XXVIII
Working with the Atmospheric Apparatus .......................................................................................................................... 1031 Adding effects to a scene ..................................................................................................................................................... 1031 Using the Fire Effect ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1032 Tutorial: Creating the sun ..................................................................................................................................................... 1035 Tutorial: Creating clouds ...................................................................................................................................................... 1035 Using the Fog Effect ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1037 Using the Volume Fog effect ................................................................................................................................................ 1038 Tutorial: Creating a swamp scene ........................................................................................................................................ 1039 Using the Volume Light effect .............................................................................................................................................. 1040 Adding Render Effects ................................................................................................................................................................. 1040 Using Render Effects .................................................................................................................................................................... 1042 Blur render effect ................................................................................................................................................................. 1042 Brightness and Contrast render effect ................................................................................................................................. 1044 Color Balance render effect ................................................................................................................................................. 1044 File Output render effect ...................................................................................................................................................... 1044 Film Grain render effect ....................................................................................................................................................... 1044 Motion Blur render effect .................................................................................................................................................... 1045 Depth of Field render effect ................................................................................................................................................. 1045 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1046 CHAPTER 48.......................................................................................................................................... 1047 CREATING VOLUME LIGHTS EFFECTS ................................................................................................ 1047 Using Volume Lights .................................................................................................................................................................... 1047 Volume light parameters ...................................................................................................................................................... 1047 Tutorial: Showing car headlights .......................................................................................................................................... 1049 Tutorial: Creating laser beams ............................................................................................................................................. 1050 Using projector maps and raytraced shadows .................................................................................................................... 1051 Tutorial: Creating a stained‐glass window ........................................................................................................................... 1051 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1052 CHAPTER 49.......................................................................................................................................... 1053 ADDING LENS EFFECTS ...................................................................................................................... 1053 Creating Lens Effects .................................................................................................................................................................... 1053 Global Lens Effects Parameters............................................................................................................................................ 1053 The Global Parameters tabbed panel .......................................................................................................................... 1054 The Global Scene tabbed panel ................................................................................................................................... 1055 Glow ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1055 The Glow Element Parameters tabbed panel ............................................................................................................. 1056 The Glow Element Options tabbed panel ................................................................................................................... 1057 Tutorial: Creating shocking electricity from a plug outlet ................................................................................................... 1058 Tutorial: Creating neon......................................................................................................................................................... 1059 Ring ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1060 Ray......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1061 Star ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1061 Streak .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1061 Auto Secondary .................................................................................................................................................................... 1061 Manual Secondary ................................................................................................................................................................ 1063 Tutorial: Making an apple sparkle ........................................................................................................................................ 1064 Working with Lens Effects Filters ................................................................................................................................................ 1065 Adding flares ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1066 Adding focus ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1067 Adding glow .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1068 Adding highlights .................................................................................................................................................................. 1068 Tutorial: Making a halo shine ............................................................................................................................................... 1069 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1070 XXIX
PART X .................................................................................................................................................. 1071 USING DYNAMIC ANIMATION SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 1071 CHAPTER 50.......................................................................................................................................... 1073 SIMULATING PHYSICS‐BASED MOTION WITH MASSFX ..................................................................... 1073 Understanding Dynamics ............................................................................................................................................................. 1073 Using MassFX ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1074 The MassFX process ............................................................................................................................................................. 1075 Establishing the simulation properties ................................................................................................................................ 1075 Starting and stopping the simulation ................................................................................................................................... 1077 Tutorial: Filling a glass bowl ................................................................................................................................................. 1077 Setting Object Properties............................................................................................................................................................. 1078 Setting the object type ......................................................................................................................................................... 1078 Density, mass, friction, and elasticity ................................................................................................................................... 1080 Creating presets .................................................................................................................................................................... 1080 Defining collision boundaries ............................................................................................................................................... 1080 Using convex meshes ................................................................................................................................................... 1080 Using concave meshes ................................................................................................................................................. 1081 Setting initial motion ............................................................................................................................................................ 1081 Displaying interactions ......................................................................................................................................................... 1082 Tutorial: Knocking over milk cans ........................................................................................................................................ 1082 Using Constraints and Baking Keys .............................................................................................................................................. 1083 Tutorial: Opening a door ...................................................................................................................................................... 1084 Capturing the Simulation Motion as Keys ........................................................................................................................... 1085 Tutorial: Dropping a plate of donuts .................................................................................................................................... 1086 Working with mCloth and Ragdolls ............................................................................................................................................. 1087 Using mCloth ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1087 Tutorial: Hanging a flag on a flagpole .................................................................................................................................. 1087 Creating a Ragdoll ................................................................................................................................................................. 1088 Tutorial: Playing dodge ball .................................................................................................................................................. 1088 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1090 CHAPTER 51.......................................................................................................................................... 1091 WORKING WITH HAIR AND CLOTH ................................................................................................... 1091 Understanding Hair ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1091 Working with Hair ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1092 Growing hair ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1092 Setting hair properties .......................................................................................................................................................... 1093 Tutorial: Adding a spline fringe to a quilt ............................................................................................................................. 1096 Styling Hair ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1097 Using the Style interface ...................................................................................................................................................... 1098 Tutorial: Creating a set of fuzzy dice .................................................................................................................................... 1099 Using hair presets ................................................................................................................................................................. 1100 Using hair instances .............................................................................................................................................................. 1101 Rendering Hair ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1102 Using Hair Dynamics .................................................................................................................................................................... 1103 Making hair live .................................................................................................................................................................... 1103 Setting properties ................................................................................................................................................................. 1103 Enabling collisions ................................................................................................................................................................. 1104 Enabling forces ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1104 Running a simulation ............................................................................................................................................................ 1104 Tutorial: Simulating hair dynamics ....................................................................................................................................... 1104 Understanding Cloth .................................................................................................................................................................... 1105 Creating Cloth .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1106 Using Garment Maker to define cloth ................................................................................................................................. 1106 Creating cloth from geometry objects ................................................................................................................................. 1108 XXX
Tutorial: Clothing a 3D model .............................................................................................................................................. 1109 Simulating Cloth Dynamics .......................................................................................................................................................... 1111 Defining cloth properties and forces ................................................................................................................................... 1111 Creating a cloth simulation .................................................................................................................................................. 1112 Viewing cloth tension ........................................................................................................................................................... 1113 Tutorial: Draping cloth over a jet ......................................................................................................................................... 1113 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1114 PART XI ................................................................................................................................................. 1115 EXTENDING 3DS MAX ....................................................................................................................... 1115 CHAPTER 52.......................................................................................................................................... 1117 CUSTOMIZING THE INTERFACE ......................................................................................................... 1117 Using the Customize User Interface Window ............................................................................................................................. 1117 Customizing keyboard shortcuts .......................................................................................................................................... 1117 Defining the mouse actions .................................................................................................................................................. 1118 Enabling Maya compatibility ....................................................................................................................................... 1119 Panning, rotating, and zooming with the middle mouse button ............................................................................... 1119 Using strokes ................................................................................................................................................................ 1120 Customizing toolbars ............................................................................................................................................................ 1121 Tutorial: Creating a custom toolbar ..................................................................................................................................... 1122 Changing a button’s appearance ................................................................................................................................. 1123 Tutorial: Adding custom icons .............................................................................................................................................. 1123 Customizing quad menus ..................................................................................................................................................... 1124 Customizing menus .............................................................................................................................................................. 1127 Tutorial: Adding a new menu ............................................................................................................................................... 1128 Customizing colors ................................................................................................................................................................ 1128 Customizing the Ribbon ............................................................................................................................................................... 1129 Making dynamic tools and panels ........................................................................................................................................ 1131 Saving Ribbon changes ......................................................................................................................................................... 1131 Tutorial: Building a Ribbon panel of primitives ................................................................................................................... 1132 Customizing Modify and Utilities Panel Buttons ......................................................................................................................... 1132 Working with Custom Interfaces ................................................................................................................................................. 1133 Saving and loading a custom interface ................................................................................................................................ 1133 Locking the interface ............................................................................................................................................................ 1135 Reverting to the startup interface ....................................................................................................................................... 1136 Switching between default and custom interfaces ............................................................................................................. 1136 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1137 CHAPTER 53.......................................................................................................................................... 1139 CREATING PROCEDURAL CONTENT WITH MAX CREATION GRAPHS ................................................. 1139 Installing a Max Creation Graph .................................................................................................................................................. 1139 Creating a Max Creation Graph ................................................................................................................................................... 1140 Adding Nodes ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1141 Connecting Nodes ................................................................................................................................................................ 1142 Saving the MCG File .............................................................................................................................................................. 1142 Testing the MCG ................................................................................................................................................................... 1143 Tutorial: Building a Simple MCG modifier ........................................................................................................................... 1143 Packaging MCG Files ............................................................................................................................................................. 1145 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1146 CHAPTER 54.......................................................................................................................................... 1147 AUTOMATING WITH MAXSCRIPT ..................................................................................................... 1147 What Is MAXScript? ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1147 MAXScript Tools ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1148 The MAXScript menu ............................................................................................................................................................ 1148 XXXI
The MAXScript Utility rollout ............................................................................................................................................... 1149 Tutorial: Using the SphereArray script ................................................................................................................................. 1150 The MAXScript Listener window .......................................................................................................................................... 1151 Tutorial: Talking to the MAXScript interpreter .................................................................................................................... 1152 MAXScript Editor windows ................................................................................................................................................... 1154 The Macro Recorder ............................................................................................................................................................. 1156 Tutorial: Recording a simple script....................................................................................................................................... 1157 The MAXScript Debugger ..................................................................................................................................................... 1158 Watching variables ....................................................................................................................................................... 1159 Using debugger commands ......................................................................................................................................... 1160 Configuring the debugger ............................................................................................................................................ 1160 Setting MAXScript Preferences ................................................................................................................................................... 1160 Types of Scripts ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1161 Macro scripts ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1161 Scripted utilities .................................................................................................................................................................... 1162 Scripted right‐click menus .................................................................................................................................................... 1162 Scripted mouse tools ............................................................................................................................................................ 1162 Scripted plug‐ins ................................................................................................................................................................... 1162 Writing Your Own MAXScripts .................................................................................................................................................... 1162 Variables and data types ...................................................................................................................................................... 1162 Tutorial: Using variables ....................................................................................................................................................... 1164 Program flow and comments ............................................................................................................................................... 1165 Expressions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1166 Simple expressions ....................................................................................................................................................... 1166 Complex expressions .................................................................................................................................................... 1167 Conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1167 Collections and arrays .......................................................................................................................................................... 1168 Loops ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1169 Functions............................................................................................................................................................................... 1170 Tutorial: Creating a school of fish ........................................................................................................................................ 1171 Part 1: Making the fish follow a path .......................................................................................................................... 1171 Part 2: Adding body rotation and tail animation ......................................................................................................... 1173 Part 3: Animating the second fish ................................................................................................................................ 1175 Learning the Visual MAXScript Editor Interface .......................................................................................................................... 1176 The Editor interface .............................................................................................................................................................. 1177 The menus and the main toolbar ......................................................................................................................................... 1177 Toolbar elements .................................................................................................................................................................. 1178 Laying Out a Rollout ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1179 Aligning and spacing elements ............................................................................................................................................. 1179 Tutorial: Building a custom rollout with the Visual MAXScript Editor ................................................................................ 1180 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1183 CHAPTER 55.......................................................................................................................................... 1185 EXPANDING 3DS MAX WITH THIRD‐PARTY PLUG‐INS ...................................................................... 1185 Working with Plug‐Ins .................................................................................................................................................................. 1185 Installing plug‐ins .................................................................................................................................................................. 1185 Viewing installed plug‐ins ..................................................................................................................................................... 1186 Displaying scene information ............................................................................................................................................... 1188 Tutorial: Installing and using the AfterBurn plug‐in demo .................................................................................................. 1189 Using the Autodesk Animation Store .......................................................................................................................................... 1191 Locating Plug‐Ins .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1193 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1194 APPENDIX A ......................................................................................................................................... 1195 WHAT’S NEW WITH AUTODESK 3DS MAX 2016 ............................................................................... 1195 Major Improvements ................................................................................................................................................................... 1195 XXXII
Procedural Content Creator with Max Creation Graphs ..................................................................................................... 1195 Camera Sequencer ............................................................................................................................................................... 1195 Select and Rotate Tool ......................................................................................................................................................... 1196 Physical Camera .................................................................................................................................................................... 1196 Scene Templates ................................................................................................................................................................... 1196 OpenSubDiv Modifier ........................................................................................................................................................... 1196 Improved ShaderFX Editor ................................................................................................................................................... 1196 XRef Improvements .............................................................................................................................................................. 1196 Minor Improvements ................................................................................................................................................................... 1196 APPENDIX B .......................................................................................................................................... 1199 INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING AUTODESK 3DS MAX 2016 ............................................................ 1199 Choosing an Operating System ................................................................................................................................................... 1199 Hardware Requirements ............................................................................................................................................................. 1200 Installing 3ds Max 2016 ............................................................................................................................................................... 1200 Registering and Activating the Software ..................................................................................................................................... 1201 Setting the Display Driver ............................................................................................................................................................ 1202 Nitrous .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1203 Direct3D ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1203 OpenGL ................................................................................................................................................................................. 1203 Software ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1203 Updating 3ds Max ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1203 Moving 3ds Max to Another Computer ...................................................................................................................................... 1203 APPENDIX C .......................................................................................................................................... 1205 KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS .................................................................................................................... 1205 Using Keyboard Shortcuts ........................................................................................................................................................... 1205 Using the Keyboard Shortcut Map .............................................................................................................................................. 1205 Using the Search Command Field ............................................................................................................................................... 1206 Main Interface Shortcuts ............................................................................................................................................................. 1206 Dialog Box Shortcuts .................................................................................................................................................................... 1215 Character Studio Shortcuts .......................................................................................................................................................... 1219 Miscellaneous Shortcuts .............................................................................................................................................................. 1220 XXXIII
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