Testing Electronic Components

Testing Electronic Components
Testing Electronic
1. Safety First ……………………………………………….. 6
2. Understanding Analogue and Digital Multimeter……....13
3. How To Test AC/DC Voltage……………………………..17
4. How To Perform Current Test……………………….......24
5. Continuity Test……………………………………………28
6. Resistance and Resistors………………………………….30
7. Resistor Colour Code Calculation……………………….32
8. Testing Resistor…………………………………………...37
9. Testing Variable Resistor………………………………...45
10. Testing Fuse………………………....................................50
11. Testing Coil/Inductor…………………………………….55
12. Testing Switches………………………………………….60
13. Testing Diode……………………………………………..63
14. Testing Bridge Rectifier………………………………….67
15. Testing Light Emitting Diode (LED)……………………71
16. Testing Zener Diode………………………………………73
17. Testing Linear Transformer……………………………...76
18. Testing Switch Mode Power Transformer………………83
19. Understanding Capacitors...………………………………89
20. How to Discharge Capacitor……………………………........94
21. Testing Capacitor……………………………………………..98
22. Testing Capacitors That Breakdown When Under Full
Operating Voltage……………………………………………..103
23. Testing Ceramic Capacitor…………………………………..106
24. Testing Voltage Regulator IC………………………………..109
25. Testing Optoisolator………………………………………….113
26. Testing Transistor…………………………………………….117
27. Testing Field Effect Transistor (Mosfet)…………………….130
28. Testing Darlington Transistor………………………………..134
29. Testing Horizontal Output Transistor………………………142
30. Testing Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)…………………146
31. Testing Triac………………………………………………….150
32. Testing Crystal………………………………………………..152
33. Testing Relay………………………………………………….159
34. Technical Books for Reference………………………………166
35. Conclusion…………………………………………………….167
Safety First
Whenever you’re working on any electronic equipment, your own safety
has to come first. Every electronic technician must always take safety
precautions before he or she starts work. Electricity must be handled
properly, or else it can injure or cause fatalities. Here are some basic steps
that show you how to avoid accidents from occurring.
Electrical Shock
Once you open up a set cover, you’re actually exposing yourself to the
threat of electric shock. Always keep in mind that safety has to come
A serious shock may stop your heart and if large electric current flows
through your body, you will receive serious burns. Here are some rules,
which should help you to avoid electricity hazards.
Always turn off the equipment and unplug it before you
begin to work.
If you have to run tests while the equipment is operating,
turn the equipment on, make your test carefully, and then
turn the equipment off again.
Wear rubber bottom shoes or sneakers.
Try to do the work with one hand, while keeping the other in
your pocket. That keeps the possible current paths away
from the heart.
Don’t attempt repair work when you are tired or rushed.
Always assume that all the parts in the power supply are
Use only plastic screwdriver for shock protection during
service operation.
Discharging Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) Capacitors
Most SMPS have a resistor to drain the charge in the main filter
capacitor. But some resistors may fail and the capacitor can hold this
charge even after you have turned off the equipment. This capacitor has a
range of about 150uf to 330uf at 400 working voltage.
Before you start to work on a power supply, always turn off the power
and discharge the capacitor. You can do this by placing a resistor across
the two legs of the capacitor. The resistor value can be around 2.2 to 4.7
kilo ohms 10watt. It takes only a few seconds to fully discharge a
capacitor. Double-check the capacitor with a voltmeter after every
discharge. I will cover more details in the capacitor topic on how to
discharge capacitors.
Do not discharge capacitor with screwdriver because: i.
It may melt the tip of the screwdriver.
It will damage the capacitor and its terminal.
If we are too near to the point of discharge, the heavy spark
generated may cause injury to our eyes.
Hot Ground Problem
Modern equipment consists of two grounds, one of which is a “hot”
ground while the other is a “cold” ground. Hot ground is in the primary
side of a switch mode power supply while the cold ground is the
equipment ground.
Be careful when taking voltage measurements around these grounds. For
example, if you want to check the primary circuit of a power supply with
power on, always ground your meter or scope to the hot ground, while
check the secondary side using the cold ground.
If the “Hot” ground is not used and you use only the cold ground, the
voltage measurement might not be correct and it may destroy your meter.
One way to prevent this is to use an “isolation transformer”.
Isolation Transformer
When servicing any electronic equipment, always use an isolation
transformer to protect yourself from an electrical shock. During servicing,
the isolation transformer is connected between the equipment and ac
power line. An isolation transformer is a transformer that has a 1:1 turn
ratio to provide the standard line voltage at the secondary outlet. This
means that it does not change the voltage. The transformer still produces
240V AC at its outputs, but both sides of this AC lines are independent of
ground. If you were to accidentally touch one of these outputs, you would
be protected. The isolation transformer must be rated to handle the power
of any equipment connected to it. Typical ratings are 250 to 500W.
Note: A variable transformer or variacs is not an isolation transformer.
Discharging the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Anode
The CRT of a Monitor and TV can hold a dangerous charge, even if the
Monitor and TV have not been used several days. All CRT have graphite
coating on the internal and external surfaces of the glass bell. This
conductive graphite coating are commonly known as aquadag coating and
it forms the two plates of a high voltage filter capacitor using the glass in
between as dielectric. The external coating is always connected to the
Monitor and TV chassis ground by a spring arrangement around the CRT.
This high voltage filter capacitor has very low leakage. Before removing
a CRT, ensure that you discharge this capacitor in order to prevent shocks
or serious injuries.
High Voltage
Monitors and TV have sections that use very high DC voltages. The high
voltage is needed to be applied to the CRT to attract the electron beam to
the phosphor. This high voltage could be as low as 12,000 volt in a
monochrome Monitor or as high as 30,000 volt in large colour monitor.
Flyback Transformer is the part that is used to generate the high voltage.
The high voltage circuit inside a Monitor or TV can give you a dangerous
electric shock and causes you to jerk violently. You could cut yourself by
accidentally knocking on sharp chassis edges. Be familiar with the high
voltage circuits before you work on any high voltage equipment.
An X-ray is a form of radiation produced when a beam of electrons
strikes some material at a relatively high speed. The only source of X-ray
in a modern Monitor or TV is from the CRT. Prolong exposure to X-ray
can be harmful. However, the CRT does not emit measurable X-ray if the
high voltage is at the high voltage adjustment value only. When high
voltage is excessive, then only X-ray is capable of penetrating the shell of
the CRT, including the lead in glass material.
Test the brightness and use a high voltage probe to monitor the high
voltage each time a Monitor or TV comes in for repair. When the
brightness is raised, usually the high voltage will go-down, and when
brightness is reduced the high voltage will go-up. When troubleshooting a
Monitor or TV with excessively high voltage, avoid being unnecessarily
close to the set. Do not operate the Monitor or TV for longer than it is
necessary to locate the cause of excessive voltage. To ensure continuous
X-ray protection, replace the CRT with one that is of same or equivalent
type as the original.
Wearing Goggles
The CRT has a complete vacuum inside. It must be handled carefully and
safely. Always wear goggles, to protect the eyes from flying glass, in the
event of an implosion when removing and old tube from the set and
installing a replacement. Do not lift the CRT by the neck, instead hold the
CRT with both hands on the heavy glass front of the tube. Also be sure to
place the CRT facing downwards on a soft surface.
Electrostatically Sensitive Devices (ESD)
Integrated circuits (IC) & some field-effect transistors are examples of
ESD devices. These components can be easily damaged by static
electricity. There are several techniques which can reduce the incidence
of component damage, caused by static electricity.
a) Immediately, before handling any ESD devices drain the
electrostatic charge from your body by touching a known earth
b) Store ESD devices in conductive foam pad until installation in
c) Wear a grounding strap, attached to your wrist.
d) Use only a grounded tip soldering iron to solder or desolder ESD
devices. (Some suggest using a battery powered soldering iron
when working on ESD circuits).
Before returning the equipment to the user, every reasonable precaution is
taken to avoid fire hazards. Be sure to use only direct replacements and
not one that defeats some safety measure. For example, the fuses in your
equipment are carefully designed. Fuses must be replaced only with the
same size, type and ratings. Should you install a fuse that is too large than
the original rating, chances are that the equipment will be flammable.
Some equipment like TV, Hi-fi or Monitor can easily weight around 15 to
30 kilogram. Many problems arise when lifting this equipment from the
floor. Wrong posture when lifting equipment may cause acute back pain.
The right way to lift is keep your back straight and upright, and use your
legs to supply the lifting power.
Be sure that your work place has good ventilation. Prolong exposure or
excessive inhalation of vapours from chemical spray and fumes from lead
may cause damage to your nervous system or body.
Laser Warning Labels
If you are troubleshooting DVD, VCD, laser printer and other laserrelated products, you will notice a laser warning label on or near the laser
head assembly. Do not stare at the laser beam at any time. Always avoid
directly exposing your eyes to the beam. Prolong exposure of laser beam
to the eyes may cause eye injury or loss of sight. Do not attempt to adjust
the laser gain controls by any methods, other than those described in the
service manual. Incorrect adjustment can increase the laser radiation
beyond acceptable limits. You have to use a laser power meter to confirm
the existence of a laser beam.
Understanding Analogue and Digital
Multimeters (analogue and digital) are one way in which you can “see”
what’s going on in an electrical circuit. Voltmeters, ohmmeters, and
ammeter are essential in all electric work. Multimeters can go by many
names. Some people call them as “multimeter” or just “meter”, while
others refer them as “VOMs” or “multitesters”or even “tester”. They are
among the simplest and least expensive pieces of test equipment available
that every electronic enthusiast should have.
A multimeter is as basic to an electronic technician as a brush is to a
painter. In this chapter, you will learn the features of analogue and digital
multimeter and in the following chapters you will learn how to measure
electrical voltage, current, and resistance. Learning how to connect a
meter and read these electrical circuit values is a fundamental skill that
every electronics repairers must know in order to successfully perform
basic tests, troubleshooting and repairing.
Meter’s Function and Range
Analogue and digital multimeters have either a rotary selector switch or
push buttons to select the appropriate function and range. Some Digital
Multimeter (DMMs) are auto ranging; they automatically select the
correct range of voltage, resistance, or current when doing a test.
However you still need to select the function.
First, just before you make any measurement you must know what you
are checking. If you are measuring voltage then select the AC (10V, 50V,
250V, or 1000V) or DC (0.5V, 2.5V, 10V, 50V, 250V, or 1000V) range.
If you are measuring the resistance, select the Ohms range (Rx1Ω,
Rx10Ω, Rx100 Ω, Rx1kΩ or Rx10kΩ). If you are measuring the current
then select the appropriate current range (DCmA) as shown in the photo
in the previous page.
Black test lead plugs into meter terminal marked Common, Com,oror + or V-Ω-mA.
Red test lead plugs into meter terminal marked
Now that you know the very basic of a multimeter, I’ll describe how you
can use the meters (analogue and digital) to take voltage, resistance, and
current readings in the next few chapters.
Precaution While Using Multimeter
Don’t give shock or vibration to the multimeter especially analogue
meters, which have a delicate meter movement. Sometimes even a slight
fall from the repair bench to the floor could cause the digital meter LCD
panel to cracked!
Even if after the zero ohm adjuster turned to maximum, the pointer still
does not reach zero, replace the batteries. Batteries out of life must be
immediately removed from the meter, otherwise components inside will
get corroded by leakage of the battery electrolyte.
When you are not certain of the voltage or current value, measurement is
always started on the highest range to know its approximate value.
Lower range may be selected accordingly.
Read and understand the manual book that comes with your multimeter.
Don’t replace any meter fuse with one having a higher current rating or
slower response time. In other word, do not replace the fast blow fuse
with a slow blow fuse. Go to fuse chapter to know more fuses.
Don’t take any resistance (Ohm) measurement in a circuit that has any
power applied otherwise it may cause the components inside the meter to
Don’t connect your ammeter (meter set to current range) directly across a
power source, such as a battery or power supply output. An ammeter
must always be connected in series with the load.
Always treat all electrical circuits with respect! Knowing what you’re
doing is important. If you don’t know what you’re doing in areas that
could prove dangerous, such as in 240 volt household circuits, then don’t
do it! Get more information or just ask a repair friend to show or guide
you the right way to test electrical circuits.
Lastly, there are many differences among various makes of digital and
analogue multimeters. Always study the instruction booklet that comes
with a particular meter to ensure you are using it properly and safely.
How To Test AC/DC Voltage
Analogue multimeters can measure both DC voltages (marked DCV or
Vdc) and AC voltages (marked ACV or Vac). It is important to remember
that all voltage (either AC or DC) must be measured in parallel with the
desired circuit or component. Never interrupt a circuit and attempt to
measure voltage in series with other components. Any such reading
would be meaningless, and your circuit may not even function. If you are
unsure of what range to use, start with the largest range to prevent
possible damage to the meter. To check the 9 Volt batteries, I’ve
selected the 10 DCV range as shown below.
In order to accurately test AC and DC voltage, I only use the digital meter
as it shows more precise reading than the analogue meter. Set your
multimeter to its appropriate function (DCV or ACV), then select the
proper range. Note, an auto ranging digital meter will select its own
range. Place your test leads across (in parallel with) the part under test as
shown in all the photos below and read voltage directly from the panel
How to take voltage measurement in electronic equipment
If you want to test voltage in electronic equipment, your meter black
probe must connect to the chassis as shown in the photo below. The red
probe then can be use to touch on the DC voltage points. Note: you must
have a good understanding about electronic circuit and safety before
you do any voltage testing on electronic equipment.
Warning: A switch mode power supply has primary and secondary
section. In order to check secondary voltage the meter’s black probe
have to connect to cold ground (chassis ground) and if you want to
test on the primary voltage, the black probe have to connect to
primary ground! If you are not familiar of what I am saying, please
ignore this test or get a repair friend to assist you.
How To Perform Current Testing
In most electronic troubleshooting and repair, you will rarely take current
measurements. Most general purpose digital multimeters allow you to
measure AC current (ACA or Iac) and DC current (DCA or Idc) in a
circuit, although there are often few ranges to choose from. Normally
analogue meter do not have the AC current range.
As with voltage measurements, current is measured in a working circuit
with power applied, but current must be measured in series with the
circuit or component under test.
Inserting a meter in series, however, is not always an easy task. In many
cases you must physically interrupt a circuit at the point you wish to
measure, and then connect test leads across the break. Although it may be
easy to interrupt a circuit, keep in mind that you must also put the circuit
back together.
Set your multimeter to the desired function (DCA or ACA) and select the
appropriate range. If you are unsure about proper range, set the meter to
its largest range. Make sure that the meter can handle the amount of
current you are expecting.
Turn off all power to a circuit before inserting a current meter as shown
in Fig below. Insert the meter and reapply power. Read Current directly
from the panel meter.
R (Load
b) Simplified circuit
a) Measuring power supply current
Measuring Currents
Never try to read current in parallel. Placing a current meter in parallel
can cause a short circuit across a component that can damage the part, the
circuit under test, or your multimeter.
Continuity Test
Continuity or short circuit test
Continuity checks ensure a reliable, low resistance connection between
two points. For example, check the continuity of a cable between two
connectors to ensure that both ends are connected properly. Set your
analogue multimeter to a low resistance scale (X1 Ohms), short (touch)
the red and the black probes together, the pointer will go to zero ohm. If it
is not zero, adjust the zero adjuster for bringing the pointer to exact zero
Now, connect the two probes to the points where the short or continuity is
to be checked as shown in the photo in previous page. If the meter shows
zero Ohm, it means the continuity is present or the connection internally
not broken. Ideally, a good continuity should be about 0 Ohm.
You can also use a digital meter that have the buzzer sound to test the
connection. If you heard the buzzer sound while measuring the wire or
connection, this means that the connection or internal wire is good.
Resistance and Resistors
The word resistance means opposition to some action. In electricity
resistance means the opposition to the flow of current. The resistance is
measured in ohm (Ω). Resistance is also expressed in kilo-ohms, milliohms etc. With 1000Ω = 1 kilo ohms, 1000000Ω = 1 mega ohms. The
symbol of resistance is show as:
Symbol of a resistor.
It is noted by a letter R.
The main two characteristic of resistor are its resistance R in ohms and its
power rating in watts, W. Resistors are available in a very wide range of
R values from a fraction of an ohm to many mega ohms. The power
rating may be as high as several hundred watts or as low as 1/8 watt.
Always use a replacement resistor with a power rating that is equal to or
greater than the original. The value of the resistance can be measure by a
Types of Resistor
i. Carbon-Composition Resistors
ii. Carbon-Film Resistors
iii. Metal-Film Resistors
iv. Wire Wounds
v. Fusible Resistor
vi. Variable Resistor
Resistor Colour Code Calculation
Fixed resistors are marked in several ways. These are:
Color coding
Straight numerical value
Certain numerical codes that can be easily translated.
Because carbon resistors are small physically, they are color coded to
mark their R value in ohms. In memorizing the colors, note that the
darkest colors, black and brown, are for the lowest numbers, zero and
one, through lighter colors to white for nine. Technicians must know this
Table 1 and 2 shows the colour code and their meanings.
No colour
First Band
(First Digit)
Second Band
(Second digit)
Third Band
Fourth Band
TABLE 1- Showing four colours band of resistor and their meanings.
Tolerance Code
First Band
(First Digit)
Second Band
(Second digit)
Third Band
(Third digit)
Fourth Band
Fifth Band
TABLE 2- Showing five colours band of resistor and their meanings.
Black= 0
Brown= 1
Red= 2
Orange= 3
Yellow= 4
Green= 5
Blue= 6
Violet= 7
Grey= 8
White= 9
Gold= 5%
Silver= 10%
Resistor Colour Code
Typical Example on How to Calculate The Resistor Color Codes
Reading from left to right, the first band close to the edge gives the first
digit in the numerical value of R. The next band marks the second digit.
The third band is the decimal multiplier, which gives the number of zeros
after the two digits.
Example 1:
The first band is red for 2 and the next band is violet for 7. The red
multiplier in the third band means add two zeroes to 27. The result can be
illustrated as follows:
red violet
x 100 = 2700
Therefore, this R value is 2700Ω with tolerance +5%
The resistor tolerance means the amount by which the actual R can be
different from the colour-coded value.
For instance, the alone resistor value 2700Ω resistor with +5 percent
tolerance can have resistance 5 percent above or below the coded value.
This R, therefore, is between 2565Ω and 2835Ω. The calculations are as
5 percent of 2700 is 0.05 x 2700 = 135
For +5 percent, the value is
2700 + 135 = 2835 Ω
For -5 percent, the value is
2700 - 135 = 2565 Ω
Example 2:
green blue orange silver
green blue
6 x 1000 = 56000Ω
Therefore, the R value is 56000Ω or 56kΩ with tolerance +10%. (Silver
is 10%-please refer back to table 1)
Example 3:
orange orange black gold
The example 3 illustrates that black for the third band just means “do not
add zeroes to the first two digits”. Since this resistor has orange, orange,
and black band, the R value is 33Ω with tolerance +5%.
Example 4:
grey black
18 x 1 = 18Ω
Therefore, the R value is 18Ω with tolerance +10%.
Example 5:
brown green gold
For these values, the third band is gold, indicating a fractional decimal
multiplier. When the third band is gold, multiply the first two digits by
0.1. (Refer back to table 1). The R value is
brown green
5 x 0.1 = 1.5Ω +5%
Example 6:
yellow violet
47 x 0.1 = 4.7Ω +10%
Example 7:
silver gold
For these values, the third band is silver. When the third band is silver,
multiply the first two digits by 0.01.( refer back to table 1). The R value is
2 x 0.01 = 0.22Ω +5%
Example 8:
grey silver silver
68 x 0.01 = 0.68Ω +10%
Example 9:
Green brown black
The first band is green for 5; the next band is brown for 1 and the black
for 0. The red multiplier in the fourth band means add two zeroes to 510.
The result can be illustrated as follows:
510 x 100 = 51000
Therefore, this R value is 51000Ω or 51kΩ with tolerance +1% (brown)
Example 10:
yellow orange blue orange
yellow orange blue
6 x 1000 = 436000
Therefore, this R value is 436000Ω or 436kΩ with tolerance +2%.
Testing Resistor
There are two ways of testing resistor; using an analogue or digital
multimeter. Normally if a resistor fails they will either increase in
value or open up at all (open circuit). You can check the resistor
resistance by selecting the ohmmeter range in the analogue and digital
multimeter. If the resistor is in circuit, you will generally have to remove
the resistor so you are testing only the resistor value and not the other
components in the circuit. Always be aware of possible back (parallel
circuit) circuits when checking in-circuit resistance measurements.
Using Analogue Meter to Test Resistor
First you must know the resistor value before you take any measurement.
With the resistor colour band calculation you have read from the previous
section, I’m sure you have no problem in identifying resistor value by
looking at the colour bands. Assuming you are measuring a resistor with
the colours of “yellow, purple, black and gold”, from calculation it is a 47
Ohms resistor with 5 % tolerance.
Now set your analogue meter to X1 Ohm, shorting the probes and
calibrate the pointer so that it will stay at zero Ohm. Place your meter
probes to the two points of the resistor as shown in the photo. It doesn’t
matter which probes to which two points because resistor does not have
polarity (positive and negative) like a battery. You should get somewhere
near 47 ohm by observing the pointer.
If you get more than 47 ohm say 150 ohm, this mean that the resistor has
gone up in resistance and need replacement. If it doesn’t show any
reaction after putting the probes across the two points of the resistor, then
we can conclude that the resistor has open circuit (bad). Remember to
press a little bit hard on the leads of the resistor while measuring it
otherwise you may not get a precise reading or intermittent reading could
Similarly if you want to check a 15 K ohm resistor, short the two probes
together and calibrate by adjusting the adjuster (knob). You have to set
your meter to X1 K ohm range so that the measurement is within the
range. Using the X1 Ohm range to test a 15 K Ohm resistor won’t cause
the pointer to move at all. Even if the pointer can move, it will only move
a little bit higher only.
Check the result to see if the pointer point to near or exact 15 K Ohm. If
the resistor has 5% tolerance the pointer should point between the values
of 14.25K to 15.75K Ohm. Any value you get that is not between the
tolerance ranges, you should replace the resistor.
In order to check a 100 K ohm resistor you have to select the X 10 K
Ohm range. Follow the procedure explained above and you should be
able to get the measurement.
Using Digital Meter to Test Resistor
Personally I do not use analogue meter to test resistor as the result shown
on the meter panel only makes you have to guess what the resistor value
is. You may ask yourself, is it 47 ohm or 47.5 ohm or even 47.7 ohm? By
using digital meter the LCD display in your meter will show you the
exact value of the resistance under test. It is more accurate than using
analogue meter.
First, select the Ohm range and place your test probes across the two
points of the resistor as shown in the photo. Digital meter does not need
any calibration compare to analogue meter where you have to adjust
the adjuster to make it zero Ohm before you begin to do measurement.
The result shown at the LCD display of the digital meter is the exact
resistance value of the resistor.
Digital meter really removed all the guess work! Not only that, many
digital meter is auto range that’s mean what ever value of resistor you
want to check it will automatically prompt you the result without having
you to adjust to a suitable range in order to test the resistor. This saves
time and accurate too!
If you are a beginner I strongly recommend that you remove all the
resistors leg (I mean only one leg) and test it with your digital meter.
Hope with this secrets, checking resistor should not be a problem to you
Testing Variable Resistor
Variable resistors also called potentiometers or rheostats, employ a
movable metal blade resting along a ring of resistive film. You can
change the resistance by turning the knob.
Internal view of Variable resistor
Failure among variable resistors usually takes form of intermittent
connections between the wiper blade and resistive film. Sometimes it also
can be burnt due to overload of currents and develop an open circuit.
Remember that film slowly wears away as the wiper moves back and
forth across it. After sometimes the overall film can wear away that
which the wiper cannot make a good contact at certain points. The poor
contact can cause all types of erratic or intermittent operation.
If the intermittent connections are due to dust and debris, using an
electronic oil-based contact cleaner may help to solve the problem. But,
if the problems are caused by the wearing away of the resistive film, the
only option is to replace the variable resistors.
You can check the variable resistor resistance with analogue multimeter
set to ohm’s range as shown in Fig 1 below.
Fig 1: Testing a variable resistor with a analogue multimeter
If you measure pin 1 and 3 you will get the variable resistor Ohms
reading. Now use either one probe to touch pin 1 and 2 (Fig a) of variable
resistor while the other probe touching pin 3. Turn the knob clockwise
and anti-clockwise to see the changing of resistance.
The meter should show a smooth reading. If the reading is erratic, the
pointer will moved intermittently. You can service or replace the variable
resistor. Say if the variable resistor is 10kΩ the ohms, the value should
vary from 0Ω to 10kΩ or 10kΩ to 0Ω as you turn the knob clockwise and
Now, using the probe that touches pin 3 short to pin 2 (Fig b) while the
other probe connects to pin 1, test for the result. The reading should be
the same except that the ohms range instead of starting at 0Ω should now
start at 10kΩ.
Here is some of the simple calculation to determine the meaning of the
code printed on the variable resistor:
12= 100 = 100 ohm
13=1000= 1000 ohm = 1 Kilo Ohm
54=50000=50000 ohm= 50 Kilo Ohm
102=10 00=1000 ohm= 1 Kilo Ohm
203=20 000=20000 ohm= 20 Kilo Ohm
523=52 000=52000 ohm= 52 Kilo Ohm
Testing Preset
These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are
designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and tuned only
when the circuit is built. For example to set the colours of Computer
Monitor by turning the preset in the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) board.
A small plastic screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets.
Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are
sometimes used in electronic projects where a standard variable resistor
would normally be used. Testing preset is exactly the same procedure
as when you are testing the variable resistor.
Preset symbol
Testing Fuse
Typical example of fuses
It’s very easy on how to test a fuse. Fuse is a very thin wire, which either
melts or vaporizes when current flow through it exceeded the fuse rating.
The thin wire of fuse may be made of aluminium, tin-coated copper or
nickel. The resulting open in the circuit stops current to flow. In
electronic equipment, most fuses are cylindrical glass or ceramic type
with a metal cap at each end! The current rating and voltage also can be
seen in one of the two metal end caps.
There are two popular physical sizes: 1 – ¼ X ¼ - inch and 5X20mm.
The 1 – ¼ X ¼ - inch size is used in many automobiles. You’ll find both
sizes in many electronic equipment, but the smaller 5 X 20mm has
become more common. Fuses are available with current ratings from
1/500 Ampere to hundreds of amperes. Fuse is label as “F” in circuit
Before showing you on how to test or check a fuse, first you need to
understand the purpose of a fuse. The function of fuses is to stop higher
than normal current to flow to an electronic circuit-it is designed to
protect equipment and save electronic components from being damaged
and also stop overheating, which could cause a fire. Sometimes though
there were lightning strike on an equipment, you will be surprised that
only fuse were damaged and not the power supply section or components.
There are two basic types of fuses which is the
fast acting and slow blow type. The fast acting
fuse will open very quickly when their particular
current rating is exceeded. This is very
important for analogue multimeter, which can
quickly be destroyed when too much current flows through them, for
even a very small amount of time.
Even if you are an experienced repairer, sometimes we do made mistake
by accidentally touching the probe to the testing points where it should
not be touch! The slow blow fuse has a coiled construction inside the
glass. Slow blow fuses are designed to open only on a continued
overload, such as a short circuit. The function of the coiled construction is
to stop the fuse from blowing on just a temporary current surge.
Don’t replace a slow blow fuse in place of a fast acting fuse because it
may not open fast enough to prevent components damage under a high
current condition. It’s not dangerous to substitute a slow blow fuse with a
fast-acting fuse, but it will probably open up unnecessarily every now and
then when the equipment is first switch on such as when you switch on a
Computer Monitor.
A blown fuse can indicate how severe the short circuit is.
There’s a secret for you, a blown fuse can indicate something about the
problem. If the glass case of the fuse appears clear or transparent, and if
you can still see the slight broken pieces of the fuse element, this means
that there’s no major short circuit in the circuit. Replacing the fuse with
one of the same type and rating usually will bring the equipment back to
life again. However, sometimes a replacement might blow the fuse right
away when you switch on the equipment. To save the fuse, you can use
the series light bulb trick which I’m going to share to you in other article.
Some fuses even die of old age because fuses have lifespan too. But if the
inside of the glass fuse is black colour or darkened, and there is no trace
of the fuse element (the centre connector), you know that there was a
major short circuit somewhere in the circuit and most probably is the
power supply unit.
Measuring a fuse on board with an analogue multimeter
The common type and current rating of a fuse in a Monitor and Power
Supply is slow blow 3.15A to 5 Ampere 250 Volts. Here is the part on
how to test a fuse. Switch off the power of the equipment, remove the
casing and you will see a fuse usually located in the Ac input area or
power supply section. Measure the fuse with a either an analogue or a
digital multimeter. If you use an analogue meter then select the lowest
ohms range which is the x1 ohms.
Touch the probes to both end of the fuse. You can check the fuse while it
still in circuit. A good fuse reading should showed continuity or read
ZERO ohms. A blown fuse is open which will not show any reading on
your meter.
You may also set to the buzzer range to test a fuse with digital meter. If
the fuse is ok, the buzzer will sound and if the fuse is broken (internally)
there will be no sound.
Setting buzzer range to test a fuse with digital meter
The red and black test probes can be either way when test on fuses
Testing fuse is one of the simplest tasks in electronic troubleshooting-it is
easy and fast. For fuse replacement, use only the same current and
voltage ratings as the original one.
Testing Coil/Inductor
Testing coil is very easy compares to checking three leads
components such as SCR, FET and etc. In general, a coil consists
of many turns or wire wrapped around a common core. The core
could be made of iron or even air. It is label as “L” on circuit
When an electric current passes through the coil, a magnetic field
is produced. A coil in some respects acts just opposite a capacitor.
A capacitor blocks DC while allowing AC to flow through it; a coil
allows DC to flow through it while restricting AC current flow.
Another name for a coil is an inductor.
Coil or inductor can be test using an analogue, inductance or a coil
meter such as the dick smith flyback tester. A coil that is small in
size, I would usually just test it with analogue meter and you
could check it on board too. Set your analogue meter to X1 ohm
and place the probes across the small coil.
The meter should show some reading (or continuity) and this
proved that the coil winding is okay. Small coils seldom spoilt
because it have less winding compares to big coils where it could
have many turns of winding and chances for it to go shorted
(between windings) is very high.
Testing bigger coil or inductor such as the computer monitor B+
coil, you need an inductance meter to find out the exact inductance
value which is in the unit of Henry (h). From experienced using an
inductance meter to check coils to see if it good or bad is not
recommended because a shorted coil (shorted between winding)
could have a good inductance value and you would miss out
checking a bad coil.
Unless you want to use the inductance meter to calculate the
reading and do rewinding, looping and etc on that coil. I would
only test a big coil with dick smith flyback meter. Any shorted
winding in it could be easily detected by this meter.
Now is the time to share my true
case example- a computer dealer
send me a monitor for repair with
power blink symptom. Usually I
do not straight away repair the
monitor but I would first use the
flyback tester to scan all the
major coils (switch mode
transformer, flyback transformer,
B+ coil and horizontal deflection
coil) before using my digital or
analogue meter to do testing.
When measuring the B+ coil, the
Led lights went off and it suppose
to show at least 5 LED bars and
above. Upon soldering out the
coil, I did not see any burn mark
at the winding or loop and in fact it looks shiny. Because I trust the
meter, I opened up the winding and to my surprised the internal
winding had burnt into crisp but the outer winding looks good
indeed! A new B+ coil restored the monitor to life.
By using a flyback tester or coil tester for testing coil, it has helped
me to locate many shorted coils in switch mode power transformer
primary winding, B+ coil, flyback transformer primary winding
and horizontal deflection coil. The flyback meter can even be used
to check the condition of ballast in fluorescent lamp too!
Using Flyback Tester To Test Flyback Transformer
As for the flyback tester, you can either buy or make one yourself.
Recently I found that the main supplier temporarily stopped
production on this dick smith flyback tester. However you can make one
yourself by visiting this website:
Testing Switches
There are many type of switches in the market, some are on/off
mechanical switch while some are micro switch. The function of the
switch is to act as a contact between two points either to let current flow
or to stop it. It is very easy to test switches, just set your meter to X 1
ohm and place your meter test probes to either leg (pin). Now press the
switch and you should see the meter’s pointer shows zero ohm.
If after pressing the switch and nothing happen, suspect a bad switch.
Similarly, you can use a digital meter set to buzzer sound to test a switch.
A good switch with a good contact should make the digital meter to
produce the buzzer sound. No sound means the switch is defective.
Some switches have dual on/off contact and is called double pole single
throw switch (DPST). A DPST switch is often used to switch mains
electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections.
Testing the DPST switch is relatively simple, test the contact at one time
before you test on the other contact. Testing method is the same just as
when you are testing the single on/off switch above. Look at the photos
and should understand what I meant.
Testing Diode
When comes to testing diode, you need a special method to test it. If you
do not know how to accurately check a diode, you will not be able to
repair or troubleshoot electronic equipment because a spoilt diode you
may think that it is good and you will definitely waste your precious time.
Diode is label as “D” in circuit board. Usually a rectifier diode can fail in
one of the four ways.
It can become open circuit, short circuit, leaky and breakdown when
under full load. An analogue multimeter or digital multimeter can be used
to test or check for all the first three conditions except the last one which
is the diode breakdown in full operating voltage. Diode breakdown when
under full load means the diode test okay with your meters but failed
when a high voltage flows through it.
From my experienced in the electronic troubleshooting field, I discovered
that testing diode using an analogue multimeter is more accurate or
precise than using a digital multimeter. I could explain to you in details
why I preferred analogue meter. I do not know about you because I really
came across quite a number of diodes where it tested ok with digital
multimeter but failed when check with analogue multimeter. The first
step on how to test a diode accurately is to remove one of the diode lead.
You can't always be certain if a diode is good or bad if you perform incircuit test, because of back circuits (parallel connection) through other
To be absolutely sure, you will need to lift, or disconnect, one diode lead
from the circuit to avoid back circuits. Unless you are very sure about the
board you are checking. Sometimes I do found bad diodes when checking
it on board. Your experienced will tell you when to test a diode on-board
or off-board. If you are a beginner, I highly suggest that you measure
a diode with a lead removed from the board to avoid any confusion
results from your meter.
If you reverse the probes the pointer will not move at all
Set your analogue meter to x1 ohms range to check for current diode
leakage reverse and forward testing. Connecting the red probe of your
meter to the cathode and black probe to the anode, the diode is forward
biased and the meter should read some value of resistance. Touch the
black probe of your meter to the cathode and red probe to the anode, the
diode is reverse biased and should look like an open reading-the meter
pointer not moving. If you get two readings then most probably the diode
is shorted or leaky and you should replace it.
If you don't get any reading either forward or reverse bias, the diode is
considered open circuit. The real problem when testing a diode using the
diode test function of a digital meter is that an open or leaky diode, the
meter sometimes reads okay. This is due to the digital meter diode test
output voltage (which you can measure the output test probe using
another meter) is around 500mv to 2v.
An analogue meter set to x1 ohms range have output about 3V (remember
the two 1.5V batteries you installed in the analogue meter!). The 3V
voltage is adequate to show you the accurate reading of a diode when
under test. Even if you have a good reading at x1 ohms range checking a
diode, this doesn't mean that the diode is good.
You now have to select your meter to x10Kohm range to test the diode
again. The output voltage of x10k ohms is about 12 Volt (remember the 9
volt battery in your meter-1.5 volt + 1.5 volt + 9 volt = 12 volt). Again
the diode under test should show only one reading. This is exception to
Schottky diode where it has two readings but not shorted reading. I will
explain how to test Schottky diode in the next section.
If the meter showed one reading then the diode under test is good. If it
has two readings then most probably the diode is either shorted or leaky.
The digital meter can't test it because the output from the meter is only
about 500mv to 2 volt.
If a diode breakdown when under full load, there is no way to test the
diode (unless you have a very expensive diode checker or tester which is
specially designed to track this type of fault). Substituting with a known
good diode is often the only way to prove that an intermittent diode is
causing a particular problem. Sometimes an intermittent diode could be
located using a coolant spray and hair blower. Diodes are rated in Voltage
and Ampere. Refer to semiconductor data book for the exact
specification. Always replace a diode with the same or higher rating
than the original specification.
Caution: Be certain that power is removed from any circuit before
performing any of the following diode checks, otherwise meter or circuit
damage could result. Conclusion-In order to correctly testing diode you
need to use analogue multimeter and set the range to x1 ohm and x10
kilo ohms range. With this tips I’m sure you will have the confident to
check any diodes that comes on your way.
Testing Bridge Rectifier
Using an arrangement of four diodes called a full-wave bridge rectifier in
a power supply is very common. The function of the bridge rectifier in
the power supply is to convert the AC supply voltage into DC voltage.
For full-wave rectification, it is not necessary to use four individual
diodes since all four diodes can be obtained in one package as shown in
Fig 1. Each package has two AC input terminals and two Dc output
terminal marked (+) and (-).
A schematic for the full wave bridge rectifier is drawn in Fig 2. Bridge
rectifiers are classified in the same way as single diodes, i.e. by their
maximum reverse voltage or Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) and Forward
Current, IF. It is label as “BR” in electronic circuit.
~ -
~ ~
- ~
Fig 1: Some examples of bridge rectifier
a) marked b) in-line c) dual-in-line(DIL)
Fig 2: Schematic for diodes wired as a
full-wave bridge rectifier
Testing Bridge Rectifier
Set your analogue meter to X 10 K Ohms and place your meter probes to
+ and ~ ac pin. It doesn’t matter which probes to which pin but as long as
it won’t show two similar low resistance reading registered by your meter
when you reverse the probes, it is okay. It should have only one reading.
Next, again place your probes to the + and to another ~ AC pin (there are
two “~” AC symbol in bridge rectifier) and should have only one reading
even though you had reversed the probes.
Similarly when you want to test the – (negative) with the first ~ AC and
then – (negative) with the other ~ AC. Look at the photos and you should
understand it. Assuming when you found one of the diode shorted in the
bridge rectifier, you have to replace the whole package. Replace it with
the same or higher voltage and ampere rating!
Testing Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Typical LED
Light emitting diode (LED) is a diode that produces light when current
flows through it, when it is forward bias. The LED does not emit light
when it is revered-biased. The LED is used as a low current indicator
lamp in many types of consumer and industrial equipments, such as
monitors, TV, printers, hi-fi systems and machinery control panels.
The plastic lens is very important in directing and modifying the small
amount of light emitted by the LED chip. Light can be visible, such as
red, green, yellow and white. It is label as “LED” in circuit board.
An LED only needs about 2v across its anode and cathode terminals to
make it emit light. If a higher voltage is used, the current which flows
through it may be high enough to damage it. In order to limit current
when an LED is used at higher voltages, a resistor must be connected in
series with it.
The cathode of the LED is identified on the package by the flat side on
the plastic. The life expectancy of LED is about 100,000 hours.
General appearance and Symbol for a light emitting diode.
Testing LED
Remember that the LED only emits light when it is forward bias and the
LED does not emit light when it is revered-biased. If LED does not emit
light when it is forward bias then it has developed an open circuit and
should be replaced. Power must be off when check the LED.
x 1 ohms +
a. LED emits light when it is forward bias.
x 1 ohms +
b. LED does not emit light when it is reversed bias.
Testing LED with analogue meter
Testing Zener Diode
Method of testing zener diode is totally different from testing diode. You
need an analogue meter to do the job. Before you start to test any zener
diode, you must first understand the marking or part number and then
look for the voltage ratings. Once you know the zener diode voltage from
your favourite data book such as the Philip ECG semiconductor master
replacement guide then it is easy to check with your meter to see if it
leak, open or shorted.
A wrong part number installed may cause your equipment to malfunction
and behave strangely. Precious time and money were loss due to that we
lack of knowledge in zener diode spec identification. If you can’t find out
what is the code or part number mean then it is very difficult to repair the
equipment. Do not worry as this book here is to guide you to successfully
on how to read the zener diode marking.
2.4=2.4 Volt zener diode
2V4=2.4 Volt
10= 10 Volt
10V= 10 Volt
BZX85C18=18 Volt 1 watt zener diode (you have to refer to Philips ECG
Semiconductors Transistor Cross Reference Guide)
BZY85C18=18 Volt 1/2 watt zener diode
Note: There is also part number such as BZVXXXXX where you have to
find it from Philips ECG SEMICONDUCTOR BOOK.
1N4746= 18 Volt 1 watt zener diode.
Sometimes a normal signal glass type diode you may think is a zener
diode thus you will not get the exact measurement. If you have confirmed
that the diode you want to measure is zener diode then you can proceed to
use my method to accurately test it. For your knowledge, a zener diode
with 2.4 volt to 12 volt should have two readings when test with an
analogue meter set to times 10K ohm range. But these readings are not
shorted reading!
A 1N4733A zener diode
Let me guide you, when you put your meter probes across the zener diode
of 2.4 volt using the times 10 k ohm range, one way will show a full scale
reading (red probe to cathode and black probe to anode) which mean the
pointer will point towards the 0 ohms scale, if you now connect the probe
the other way (black probe to cathode and red probe to anode) the pointer
will point to around 2- 4 ohms!
If both ways of testing caused the pointer to point to zero ohms then the
zener diode is considered shorted. When you measure a 5.1 volt zener
diode, as usual one way will point to zero ohms while the other way will
show a higher resistance which is in the 20 to 60 ohms. These are the
characteristic of a good working zener diode and don’t think that the
meter shows two reading means the zener diode is faulty.
If you get two reading when you measure a normal diode, then the
diode is shorted. As I mentioned above, testing zener diode is totally
different from checking a normal diode.
When you connect your probe and measure a 13 volt zener diode and
above voltage, it should show only one reading using the times 10 K
ohms range. That's mean when you are touching the red probe to the
cathode and black probe to the anode. Reversing the probe should not
show any reading.
If the result shows two readings then the zener diode is confirmed to be
shorted or have developed a leakage. Start measuring zener diode taken
out from your component's rack or from scraped electronic board,
compare a good zener diode and a shorted one and see for yourself.
Write it down in your book what are the results that you get when
comparing and checking a good and a bad zener diode. It would not take
you a long time to become familiar in testing a zener diode accurately.
One more tip, replace only a zener diode with the same or higher wattage.
If possible use the exact voltage and watt if you want the equipment that
you repair to last longer.
Use analogue multimeter to test zener diode
Testing Linear Transformer
Testing transformer is very easy if you follow the procedure explained in
this book. Generally there are two types of transformer in the market i.e.
the linear type and the switch mode power transformer. In this page I’m
only explain on how to test the linear transformer. I will explain about the
switch mode transformer in next chapter. Before that, I would like you to
know what the function of a transformer is. The function of a
transformer is to change AC voltage. A transformer cannot change
direct current (DC) voltage. Transformer is label as “T” in circuit board.
There are three types of linear transformer:1) Step up transformer-to increase the output voltage. Typical example is
240v ac input with a 480 volt ac output (high voltage).
2) Step down transformer-to decrease the output voltage. Typical
example is 240v ac input with a 12 volt ac output (low voltage).
3) Isolation transformer-produce the same amount of voltage as the input
voltage. Typical example is 240 v ac input with a 240 volt ac output.
A single transformer can have different independent outputs to serve as a
step up transformers as well as step down transformer. The output
voltages are then converted into DC voltages with the help of diodes. I
would not go too details into transformer theory as this page touch on the
topic of how to test a linear transformer. There are three ways or
techniques on how to test a transformer:
Switch “ON” the equipment and measure the input and output voltage of
the transformer with either an analogue or digital meter. If there are no
voltage or lower voltage then it suppose to be, the transformer need
replacement. I personally liked this method because you are testing
the transformer under full operating voltage which is very accurate.
The disadvantage is that you must be very careful when checking it
especially when the power is ‘on’. Make sure you have someone to guide
you or else you can try the second method.
With power off, remove the transformer from the board and perform a
resistance or continuity test on primary and secondary winding as shown
on the picture of transformer below. If there is no resistance or ohms
reading on the primary and secondary winding measured, suspect an open
winding and the transformer need to be replaced. The advantage of this
method is you are safe because no power is applied to the transformer.
The disadvantage is checking the resistance for ohms reading is not as
accurate as when you perform a ringing test mentioned on the third
method. A shorted primary or secondary winding is still checked well
under resistance tests. However the good news is when either the primary
or secondary winding developed a short circuit, it will usually produced a
bad smell and the transformer gets very hot on its core or casing.
Perform a ringing test with a ringer tester like using the dick smith coil
tester. Checking the ohms resistance or continuity on a linear transformer
is not accurate as compared when using a ringer tester. However there is
still one disadvantage which is the winding can go shorted when under
full operating voltage even though both windings checks okay with ringer
Conclusion- The first method (voltage testing) is the best choice to test
linear transformer accurately, but first you must know how
transformer work and get an experienced technician’s friend to help
you out before performing the test on your own. For some
transformers like the UPS (uninterruptible power supply) you need wiring
diagrams to assist you because there are so many secondary windings and
you may get confused. Lastly, checking switch mode power transformer
is different from testing linear transformer. I will cover on how to test a
switch mode transformer in next chapter.
A Switch Mode Power Transformer
Testing Switch Mode Power Transformer
Switch Mode Power Transformer (SMPT) are used in switch mode power
supplies in electronic equipment such as Computer Monitor, TV, DVD
and etc. The function of SMPT is to convert the AC wave to some other
value, lower or higher. The input is called primary winding while the
outputs are secondary windings.
Switch mode power transformer rarely breakdown and if it breakdown it
will usually cause power section components to blow or totally blow up
the main fuse and trip the ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker). If a
SMPT failed, normally it was the primary winding shorted. The
secondary windings are very robust and seldom have problem.
In order to accurately test the primary winding, one cannot use the
multimeter resistance (Ohm) test as it was not accurate and will give a
false reading. In other words, a shorted primary winding will test good
with ohmmeter but failed when test with coil tester. The famous coil
tester is the Dick smith flyback tester. You can build the flyback tester by
visiting this website http://www.flippers.com/pdfs/k7205.pdf. Study the
manual and you will definitely know more about coil measurement and
other useful information.
Testing SMPT
First you must find the primary winding of the SMPT. It is very easy by
simply referring to the photo given. Look at the positive sign of the big
filter capacitor. Note: make sure you discharge it first by referring to
the capacitor topic. Trace from the positive pin and eventually you will
reach one of the SMPT pin. Now trace from the centre pin of the power
FET. Again this FET pin will lead you to one of the pin of SMPT as
shown from the photo. Remove the SMPT and test the two pins with the
coil/flyback tester.
Placing the flyback tester probes to the primary winding of the switch
mode power transformers, a good measurement will usually between of
4-8 bars LED lights up. If it indicates only one or two LED bars or the
flyback tester LED goes off (no light), this proof that the primary winding
have problem. If the primary winding shorted, you can send the SMPT to
a rewinding shop for repair.
Understanding Capacitors
Capacitor, also known as condenser, is one of the most essential
components in designing an electronic circuit. Radio, television and
monitor circuits use a number of capacitors. Capacitor has a tendency to
store electrical charge and then release it as current in the circuit where it
is connected. So the use of capacitor is to store and then release electrical
charge. This concept may sound simple enough, but it has important
applications when the capacitor is combined with other components in
filter or timing circuits. Capacitor is symbolized as shown in below and it
is denoted by a letter C.
Symbol of a capacitor
Electrolytic Capacitor
Unit of capacitance.
Capacitance is measure in farads (F). Practically farad is a large unit. The
smaller units are microfarads, nanofarads and picofarads.
1 microfarad = 1/1,000,000 farad
1 nanofarad = 1/1,000,000,000 farad
1 picofarad = 1/1,000,000,000,000 farad
So, 0.01µF = 10nF = 10,000pF
Microfarad can be written as MFD, MF or µF or simply M. Nanofarad is
written as NF. Picofarad is written as P.F Capacitors rated in picofarads
are found in RF and high frequency circuits. Capacitors rated in
microfarads are incorporated in low-frequency and DC circuits, like
power supplies, audio amplifiers, and digital and timer circuits.
Types of capacitors
There are basically two types of capacitors i.e.
Non-Polarized Capacitor
Polarized Capacitor
a) Electrolytic capacitor
b) Tantalum capacitor
Non-polarized capacitors mean that they can be inserted into a circuit
in any orientation. While polarized capacitors must be inserted in the
proper orientation with respect to applied voltage. If the polarizes
capacitors is connected in opposite polarity, it may explode.
Voltage Rating of Capacitors
Capacitors also have a voltage rating, usually stated as WV for working
voltage, or WVDC. This rating specifies the maximum voltage that can
be applied across the capacitors without puncturing the dielectric. Voltage
ratings for general purpose paper, mica, and ceramic capacitors are
typically 200 to 500 VDC. Ceramic capacitors with ratings of 1 to 5kv are
also available. Electrolytic capacitors are commonly used in 25, 50, 100,
150, and 450v ratings. In addition, 6 and 10V electrolytic capacitors are
often used in transistor circuits.
CAUTIONS – Never use a capacitor into a circuit with higher
voltages than the capacitor is rated for otherwise it becomes hot and may
explode. It’s all right to replace a 0.22µF of 200WV capacitor with one
rated 0.22µF, 250WVDC.
Capacitor Safety
A capacitor can store a charge for some time after equipment is power
off. High voltage electrolytic caps, and even large value, low voltage
electrolytic, can pose a safety hazard. Usually these caps are in power
supplies, and almost have a resistor in parallel with the cap(s), called a
bleeder resistor, to discharge the cap after power is switched off. If a
bleeder resistor is open, or there is none, then the cap can retain a voltage
charge after the unit is unplugged.
A large 75V capacitor in a high power audio amplifier can easily melt the
tip of a screwdriver, accompanied by flying metal sparks if the tool shorts
across the capacitor terminals. This could cause eye injury, burns, or
secondary injury. When in doubt, take time to discharge power supply
capacitors before working on a piece of equipment.
Be sure to connect electrolytic capacitors in the right polarity i.e. negative
to negative and positive to positive. If the electrolytic is connected in
opposite polarity, the reversed electrolysis forms gas in the capacitor. It
becomes hot and may explode. This is a possibility only with electrolytic
How to read capacitor numeric code
The non-polarized capacitor of nominal value of less than 1000pF is
usually plain marked. For instant, for a 220pF capacitor, it will be
marked 220 only. For capacitance values of 1000pF or more, a three digit
code is used. The first two digits represent
the two significant digits and
the third digit represents the decimal multiplier. For instance, 102
represents a capacitance of 10x10² = 1000pF and 104 represents a
capacitance of 10x10 = 100000pF = 0.1µF. Basically it has the same
calculation method as resistor.
Ceramic disc capacitor
Example 1: What is the capacitance value of these capacitors that marked
a. 22 => 22 picofarad
b. 330 => 330 picofarad
c. 471 => 47x10 = 470 picofarad
d. 562 => 56x10² = 5600 picofarad or 5.6 nanofarad
e. 103 => 10x10³ = 10000 picofarad or 10 nanofarad
f. 224 => 22x10 = 220000 picofarad or 220 nanofarad or .22
g. 335 => 33x10 = 3300000 picofarad or 3300 nanofarad or 3.3
Electrolytic capacitors have their capacitance, voltage rating, and polarity
printed on the case as shown in Figure below
22µF 16V
1000µF 35V
NOTE: Arrow Points to Negative
A 100 microfarad 16 volt electrolytic capacitor
Capacitance Tolerance
Ceramic disk capacitors for general applications usually have a tolerance
of +20 percent. Paper capacitors usually have a tolerance of +10 percent.
For closer tolerances, mica capacitors are used. It has tolerance value of
+2 to 20 percent. The letter after the capacitance numerical code indicates
the tolerance i.e.: M=20%; K=10%; J=5%. So a 103K capacitor is a
10,000pF or 10nF or 0.010µF 10% capacitor with 10 % tolerance.
Electrolytic capacitors have a wide tolerance. For instant, a 100µF
electrolytic with tolerance of –10 percent, +20 percent may have a
capacitance of 90 to 120µF.
How To Discharge Capacitor
Capacitor discharge is the first thing you should do as an electronic
repairer before touching the power supply section. The large filter
capacitor in the power supply section can hold dangerous high voltage
even if the unit has been off for few days. It is advisable to discharge the
filter capacitor first before you start to troubleshoot in order protect
yourself from electrocuted.
Though the capacitor current stored in the capacitor can’t kill you but it is
enough to burn your hand, fingers and your skin when you accidentally
touch it and the worst case is while you’re carrying the Monitor or TV,
you might just throw off the equipment when you got a shocked from the
filter capacitor and the cathode ray tube monitor may break and cause the
flying glasses to hit your body or eyes.
Just be cautious when handling the power supply area. You can always
use a meter to confirm whether there is still charge in the capacitor. Place
your meter’s black probe to the capacitor negative pin (you can see the
negative marking at the sleeve of the capacitor) and the red probe to other
pin. If there is high voltage registered in your meter then you have to
discharge the capacitor otherwise you may proceed to repair the
equipment. Typical value for this type of filter capacitor is 220 to 330
microfarad with a 400 to 450 voltage rating.
The large filter capacitor in power supply section
There are three ways to discharge the large filter capacitor in a switch
mode power supplies.
Please don’t use this method to discharge filter capacitor
Discharging the capacitor with a screw driver (not recommended).
The reason for not using the screw driver to discharge a capacitor is
because the printed circuit board or circuitry can be damaged due to the
spark generated while discharging the high voltage in the capacitor. I
once have blown the power area using this method. However, if you
knew that the capacitor stored voltage is not too large after confirmed it
with a meter, you can easily discharge it with a small screw driver.
Just place the screw driver tip to touch the two pin of the capacitor,
within seconds the charge will be gone. If the capacitor holds a heavier
charge of electricity then discharging the capacitor with a screw driver
may melt the tip of the screw driver and the copper on the printed circuit
board. Sometimes a big spark may cause small disintegrated solder lead
or copper to fly out from the circuit board and might injured your eyes or
A 100 watt bulb use to discharge filter capacitor
Another method is that you can use a 100 watt electric light bulb and
touch the two wires coming out from the light bulb on the leads of the
capacitor. This method had been used by many electronic repairers
around the world for the light bulb will act as an indicator to see if the
capacitor still holds the charge. If there is a charge the light bulb will light
and after discharged the light bulb will goes off. I still preferred the third
method because you have to use both hands to touch on the capacitor
The right way to discharge capacitor with light bulb
Use a resistor to discharge the capacitor leads
Third method and also my favourite method are to place the leads of a
high wattage resistor on the leads of the capacitors you want to discharge.
You can use either a 1.8 k or a 2.2 kilo ohm 5 to 10 watt resistor to
discharge the high voltage capacitor in a switch mode power supplies. It
is very simple to use and very effective .It takes only a couple of seconds
to fully discharge the capacitor. Please do not hold the two ends of the
resistor with your finger, only hold the body of the resistor. Otherwise
your fingers may get discharge from the capacitor! Using only one hand,
you can do the job while the other hand you still can hold a solder gun or
secure the equipment casing.
I strongly recommend to those who are using the screw driver to
discharge a capacitor in power supply to consider the second and third
method as these is the safest methods. It not only protects the circuit, it
also protects you. If you had discharge the capacitor and you are still not
sure or no confidence whether the charge already gone, you can always
use a meter to confirm it.
Testing Capacitor
An Analog Multimeter
First method, before you test capacitor, make sure you use an analogue
multimeter set to time 1 ohm range and connect a capacitor to the test
probe. See the panel if the pointer flick up and comes down or not, this
represent charging and discharging. If it still cannot flick or no response
then set your meter to time 10 ohm and then to 1k ohm and lastly to 10
kilo ohm range.
If it still don’t flick then the capacitor under test have developed an open
circuit. This is a rather old method to test capacitors because even though
a capacitor can charge and discharge, this does not mean the capacitor
value is good. Due to this problem, digital capacitance meter was
A Digital Capacitance Meter
Testing electrolytic capacitor with digital capacitance meter
The second method to test capacitor is to use digital capacitance meter
and is a little more accurate compares to analogue multimeter. Connect
the test probe to the capacitor and read the result from the meter LCD
display. Example, a 100 microfarad should have the reading of
somewhere 90 microfarad to 120 microfarad. Remember, capacitors have
tolerance just like resistors.
Be sure to discharge capacitor first before testing. A reading of 60
microfarad means the capacitor has lost its capacitance and need to be
replaced. This meter is more expensive than analogue meter. Somehow
digital capacitance meter have its own disadvantage, which is, it can’t
check capacitor that is breaking down when under load and it can’t check
capacitors in circuit. It’s still worth to invest in this meter because it can
check almost 80-90 % of capacitors failure.
Eds Capanalyser 88A Esr Meter
The third and most accurate method is to use an ESR meter which stand
for equivalent series resistance. This is the latest technology in testing
capacitors. It can only check electrolytic capacitors and the advantage is
that you can perform capacitor testing while the capacitor is still in circuit
and have the accuracy of 99% compare to other meters. It is fast and can
discharge a capacitor before it begin to test the capacitor and save you a
lot of time. ESR meter is the most reliable and accurate meter that I’ve
ever invested.
A Sencore LC103 Capacitor & Inductor Analyzer
If you have the budget, you may consider to invest in the high end
capacitor tester such as the SENCORE meter LC102 OR LC103, these
meters have the capabilities of measuring any type of capacitors with four
-measure capacitor values
-checking for leakage
-equivalent series resistance (ESR) and
-Dielectric absorption
It can test aluminum electrolytic capacitor, film capacitor, ceramic,
high voltage capacitor and etc. It also has the function to check
inductors or coils too. A capacitor failure when under load is very rare.
Using ESR capacitor meter alone can solve most of the electrolytic
capacitor problem.
Testing Capacitors That Breakdown When
Under Full Operating Voltage
Testing capacitor breakdown when under full load or voltage only can be
done by using special meter. Normal digital capacitance meter and
analogue meter can’t test this type of failure. Have you encountered
power problem where when you switch on the power supply, the fuse
blow immediately? You have measured all the components in the power
(primary) and secondary area and all the components seem to be
working! Where is the culprit?
A fuse blown into dark colour were usually caused by lightning strike, a
shorted bridge rectifier, defective Posistor in computer monitor and TV
circuit, a shorted power transistor or FET field effect transistor, shorted
primary winding in switch mode power transformer, shorted secondary
output diode and etc.
A Filter Capacitor in Switch Mode Power Supply
I’m frustrated as to where be the cause of the power problem. Every time
when I switch on the monitor the fuse will blow immediately (the fuse
became dark colour and this indicates that there is a major short circuit in
the power supply section or surrounding area which I’ve already
mentioned above). I have tested all the components in the power supply
section and can't find the cause of the problem. Then, I began to
substitute all the suspected parts one by one and replaced with a good
working component.
I eventually found the caused of the power supply problem. Guess what?
It was the main power filter capacitor problems (220 microfarad 400
working voltage). After replacing the filter capacitor the fuse would not
blow when switch on and the power supply worked perfectly fine. I begin
my detective work to explore why this particular capacitor can caused the
fuse to blow even though the filter capacitor already confirmed working
with all my faithful meters.
The meters that I used to test the filter capacitor were analogue
multimeter, digital capacitance meter and the famous ESR meter. I
assumed that many of you who read this book already know how to
perform capacitor measurement with all the meters I’ve just explained in
previous section.
Using an analogue meter to measure this filter capacitor showed capacitor
is charging and discharging (meaning the pointer will flick up and then
gradually goes down), test with a digital capacitance meter showed
around 220 microfarad (still within the capacitor tolerance range) and
with the most powerful electrolytic capacitor tester which is the ESR
meter, it showed a low ESR reading which is also a good reading! Then,
how do I know if the filter capacitor is faulty since all the meters tested
ok on the filter capacitor?
What I’ve checked on the filter capacitor is just the value, ESR and the
charging and discharging test but another test you should not miss out
which is the capacitor dielectric or leakage test. Use this test only when
you want to check capacitors that have working voltage exceeding 250
volt. By using an analogue insulation meter you will be able to test the
capacitor leakage.
An Insulation Tester
When I connect the filter capacitor to the meter and press the ready
button-it showed a very low resistance and this proved that a short circuit
occurred between the plates when high voltage applied! A good filter
capacitor will just showed a charge and discharge in the insulation tester
just like when you are testing a capacitor using analogue meter. This
proved that the bad capacitor breakdown when under full operating
You can get an insulation tester from any electronic suppliers. It comes in
few ranges of 100v, 250v, 500v, 1000v and even 5000 volt! If you want
testing capacitor of 220 microfarad 400 volt then you have to select 250
volt. If you select 500 volt, it will blow your capacitor that is under test
because the voltage you have selected is higher than 400 volt! If possible,
you should get exact value and voltage for capacitor replacement.
Capacitor breakdown when under full voltage is quite rare and only
happen to those capacitor that have 250 volts and above. If you come
across some tough dog repair and could not locate the fault in the
electronic board, I’m sure you will know what meter to use now. Go find
the culprit.
Testing Ceramic Capacitor
The ceramic capacitor leakage quite often happened when there is a high
voltage applied into it. Under normal testing with a digital capacitance
meter or an analogue meter will not revealed any symptoms and you may
think that the ceramic capacitor that you checked is ok. If you skip that
capacitor, the chances for you to repair the equipment are very slim. In
computer monitor, the ceramic disc capacitor and high voltage resin
coated type is frequently found in the power supply, high voltage and
cathode ray tube monitor area. When it fails, it can cause erratic or
intermittent problem to the monitor such as blinking display, no display,
missing one of the colour bar and etc.
Resin coated ceramic disc capacitors
Using analogue and digital capacitance meter won’t accurately test the
ceramic capacitor failure even out of circuit. A ceramic capacitor leakage
in electronic board can pull down the voltage and cause a lot of
intermittent problem to the equipment. I will explain to you my true life
experienced about this type of capacitor. In computer monitor Cathode
ray tube (CRT) board, the screen line (G2) has about 200 to 600 volt. The
ceramic capacitor in the screen voltage line is usually rated at 102, 103,
and 472 and voltage rating of 1kilovolt to 2 kilovolt.
If this ceramic capacitor dielectric breakdown, it can pull down the screen
voltage to a very low level and causing no display or picture. There is no
way for an ohmmeter with 12v output and a digital capacitance with 3v
output to accurately check the ceramic disk capacitor that have the
voltage rating of 1-2 kilovolt or even 3 kilo volt in certain types of circuit
such as the inverter circuit in LCD monitor.
So the right way to check the ceramic capacitor leakage is to use an
insulation tester. If you have the analogue insulation tester or meter, the
meter panel will show a short circuit when certain voltage are applied to
check the ceramic capacitor dielectrics or materials. The voltages that you
can select is depends on the brand or model you had. Some have the
range of 50v to 1000v and some have the range from 100v to 5000v. It is
optional whether you should have one.
If you have one then it would be an added advantage to you. The other
option that you have is to direct replace the suspected failure ceramic
capacitor. In my country, you can get a new one in less than US150 or
you may bid a used unit from eBay. Sometimes you don’t need any meter
to test the ceramic disc capacitor because the burnt marked in its coating
already proven it has gone through some serious heat or high temperature
and need to be change.
A Kyoritsu Insulation Tester
You may also sometimes see cracking in its body. Ceramic capacitor does
not have polarity and when you need a replacement; get the exact or
higher voltage rating with the same capacitance value.
To test the small blue resin coated ceramic disc capacitor that have the
capacitor marking of 104 50v, besides using digital capacitance tester to
check for the capacitance value, I also use an analogue meter. Set to times
10Kohm range that has 12 volt output from the probes to check this type
of ceramic capacitor failure. Many times it will reveal the bad intermittent
capacitors. You will be shocked to see the digital capacitance meter tested
ok when checking the capacitor but show a shorted reading when check
with an analogue meter.
In the market there is certain brand of analogue meter that have the range
of 100kohm. If you remove the cover, you can't see the 9 volt battery in
it, what you see is only the 2 pieces of 1.5 volt batteries. This type of
meter can't accurately detect the ceramic capacitor leakage because the
output voltage from the probes was only 3 volt!
Ceramic capacitor manufacturer produced many construction and types of
capacitors, and if the ceramic disc capacitor always failed even though
you had replaced a new one then try another type which is the resin
coated ceramic disk capacitor. Replacing a higher voltage rating than
the original one may also help to prolong the life of the ceramic capacitor.
Testing Voltage Regulator IC
A voltage regulator IC
As the name suggest, this electronic component “regulates” an output
voltage. Pin 1 is the input dc voltage, pin 2 is the ground and pin 3 is the
output. As the circuitry adds more load to a power supply, the output
voltage tends to drop. A regulator circuit (voltage regulator) keeps the
output voltage steady, in spite of changes in the load.
Put it simple, any dc voltage from 7V to about 38 V enters the pin 1 of
7805 voltage regulator then expect a +5 V output at pin 3. Any voltage in
between 7V to 38V will cause the voltage regulator to produce a steady 5
V output. Do not exceed the 38 V rating otherwise the voltage regulator
may burn. You may check from the internet or any semiconductor data
book (preferably ECG master replacement guide) about the specification
of any voltage regulator. Some famous part number uses in electronic
circuits are 7805, 7812, 7905, and 7912. Part numbers that start with
78XX have positive output while the 79XX series have negative output.
For your information the input voltage must have at least two volts higher
than the input voltage. That’s mean if you want to get a 12 V output from
a 7812 voltage regulator, the input voltage have to be at least 14 V and
above. Don’t expect to use a 5 V dc input to produce 12 V output, this
way won’t work!
Take a look at the diagram below:
The ac transformer (linear transformer) converts the main line ac voltage
to another lower ac voltage and the lower ac voltage will flow to both the
diodes. The function of the diodes is to convert the ac voltage to DC
voltage and the 1000uf capacitor is use to filter off the ripple in the line.
The clean DC voltage (assuming 7 Volts) is now entering pin 1 of 7805
voltage regulator IC as input voltage. Pin 2 is connected to ground and
pin 3 will be the output which is +5 Volts. The 0.1uf capacitor at the
output line again acts as filter to remove high frequency interference.
Testing Voltage Regulator
Place the red probe to out and you can test the output voltage
You can’t test a voltage regulator IC the same way you test on other
components. You have to test the voltage regulator with power “ON”.
That’s right, you have to switch “ON” the equipment in order to
accurately test voltage regulator. Identify the voltage regulator IC in
circuit board first and normally it is label as IC. Look at the part number
and if it is 7808 then you automatic know that the input must more than 8
Volts and the output should be 8 Volts.
Place your digital meter black probe to the equipment ground and the red
probe to pin 3 of the voltage regulator IC. Power “On” the equipment and
see the result. If you get 8 Volts then the IC is working fine. If you get 0
volts or 3 to 5 Volts then you have to measure the input voltage. Make
sure it has more than 10 Volts input voltage. If the input voltage is lesser
than 10 Volts (say 6 Volts), then suspect a fault in the power supply line
or a leaky voltage regulator.
A leaky voltage regulator can pull down the input voltage. Sometimes
bad components in the output line can also pull down the output voltage
of regulator. The best is to direct replace with a new voltage regulator and
retest it. A new voltage regulator IC is very cheap and I encourage you to
keep some spare for yourself for future use in electronic troubleshooting.
You may also desolder (remove) the output pin (pin 3) so that it will not
touch the line but pin 1 and 2 is still connected. Power “ON” the
equipment and check the pin 3 voltage. If there is a good input but the pin
3 output still low (say 3 Volts), most probably the voltage regulator has
turned bad and need to be replaced.
Testing voltage regulator is not difficult and if you have no confident in
testing the IC with power “ON”, I suggest you get someone who have
experienced in the voltage testing to help you out. You may even e-mail
me for the support.
Testing Opto-Isolator
A Motorola 4N35 Optocoupler
A lot of electronic equipment nowadays is using optocoupler in the
circuit. An optocoupler or sometimes refer to as optoisolator allows two
circuits to exchange signals yet remain electrically isolated. This is
usually accomplished by using light to relay the signal. The standard
optocoupler circuits design uses a LED shining on a phototransistorusually it is a NPN transistor and not PNP. The signal is applied to the
LED, which then shines on the transistor in the IC.
The light is proportional to the signal, so the signal is thus transferred to
the phototransistor. Optocouplers may also comes in few module such as
the SCR, photodiodes, TRIAC of other semiconductor switch as an
output, and incandescent lamps, neon bulbs or other light source. I also
came across two led and two phototransistors in a package in the power
supply of a NEC printer. In this book I will explain only the most
commonly used optocoupler which is the combination of LED and
phototransistor. See the optocoupler IC schematic diagram below:
An Optocoupler Symbol or Schematic
The optocoupler usually found in switch mode power supply circuit in
many electronic equipment. It is connected in between the primary and
secondary section of power supplies. The optocoupler application or
function in the circuit is to:
Monitor high voltage
Output voltage sampling for regulation
System control micro for power on/off
Ground isolation
If the optocoupler IC breakdown, it will cause the equipment to have low
power, blink, no power, erratic power and even power shut down once
switch on the equipment.
Many technicians and engineers do not know that
they can actually test the optocoupler with their
analogue multimeter. Most of them thought that
there is no way of testing an IC with an analogue
meter. Since we already knew the optocoupler pin
out from the schematic diagram, testing this IC is
just the same as measuring a normal bipolar
transistor and LED.
In order to accurately check optoisolator ic, you
need to use an analogue multimeter. Test the LED using the times 10k
ohms range. It should have one reading when checking both ways. If you
have 2 readings then the LED have become shorted. The testing method
is exactly the same when you are checking a normal diode. The LED
mainly connected internally to pin 1 and 2 of the optocoupler IC.
To check the phototransistor, set your meter to times 1 ohm range and
place your black probe to the base of the transistor and the red probe to
collector and emitter. It should show 2 similar readings. Then move your
black probe to collector and red probe to base and emitter of the
transistor. It should not register any reading. The last step is to place your
black probe to emitter and the red probe to base and collector of the
transistor. Again it should not register any reading in the multimeter.
An Optoisolator in Electronic Board
Now turn your meter selector to times 10k ohm range to measure the
collector and emitter of the transistor. It should have no reading on one
way and the other way should have a slight reading. Which mean the
meter's pointer will moved a little bit up from the infinity scale of the
analogue meter. If you get two readings then the optocoupler is faulty.
One of the most famous part numbers of optoisolator is the 4N35.
If you want to know more about the internal diagram of any optocoupler
IC, I recommend that you check from the Philip ECG semiconductor
master replacement guide book for the correct datasheet. From the
schematic it is easier to describe whether it is a phototransistor,
photodiode, SCR or Triac type at the output of the optocoupler IC. Once
you know which type of components inside the IC then you can use the
necessary testing method to apply to the IC.
Philips ECG Master Replacement Guide
Optoisolator in Power Supply
Testing Transistor
Transistors are solid –state devices similar in some way to the diodes you
have studied. Transistors are more complex and can be used in many
more ways. They are very important and can be found in almost all
modern electronic equipment. The name transistor is derived from “trans
resistor”, meaning that it changes resistance. Unlike a diode, a transistor
has three leads. The three transistor leads are designated as Base (B),
Collector (C), and Emitter (E).
There are two configurations for a common transistor: NPN and PNP as
shown in Figure 1. Notice the difference symbols for NPN and PNP
transistor. The emitter arrow points away from the transistor body for an
NPN and toward the transistor body for PNP.
Fig 1 : The circuit symbols for the two transistor types a) NPN b) PNP
Transistor’s Function
The main operational characteristic of a transistor is that a small voltage
placed on one of the three leads can control a large amount of current
flow through the other two leads. This enables a transistor to perform two
basic functions:
A transistor can act as an electronic switch, turning current flow
ON and OFF.
A transistor can amplify a signal, making it larger in amplitude.
Since the transistor is capable of amplifying a signal, it is said to be an
active components. Devices such as resistors, capacitors, inductors
and diodes are not able to amplify and are therefore known as
passive components.
Either type transistor, NPN or PNP, can perform essentially the same
function in an electronic circuit. The main difference between an NPN
and a PNP transistor in a circuit is the direction in which electrons flow
between emitter and collector.
Transistor Heat sink
The heat generated by current flowing between the collector and emitter
junctions of a transistor causes its temperature to rise. This heat must be
conducted away from the transistor otherwise the temperature rise may be
high enough to irreparably damage the P-N junctions inside the transistor.
Power transistors produce a lot of heat, and are therefore usually mounted
to a piece of aluminium with fins, called a heat sink.
The heat sink draws heat away from the transistor, allowing the transistor
to handle more power than if there were no heat sink. Low power signal
transistor; do not normally require heat sinking.
Some transistors have a metal body thus a mica sheet has to be used to
prevent the body from touching the heat sink.
Transistor Failure
Transistor can fail in a number of different ways. Transistors have
forward and reverse current and voltage ratings like diodes do. Exceeding
either rating can destroy a transistor. A bad transistor may short-circuit
from the “base” to the “collector” or from the “base” to the “emitter”.
Sometimes a transistor is damaged so badly that short circuits develop
between all three of the leads. A short-circuit often allows a large current
to flow, and causes the faulty transistor to heat up. The transistors also
can developed open circuit between “base” to “collector” or “base” to
The first step in identifying a bad transistor is to check for signs of
overheating. A bad transistor may appear to be burnt or melted. When the
equipment is switched off, you can touch the transistor to see if it feels
unusually hot. The amount of heat you feel should be proportional to the
size of the transistor’s heat sink. If the part has a large heat sink, you can
expect it to be too hot but not until the extend of burning the hand or
fingers. If the transistor has no heat sink, yet is very hot, you can suspect
THE CIRCUITRY THAT CARRIES 240VAC”. Always switch off the
equipment before touching any components.
Transistor Replacement
If for some reason, you can’t get the exact replacement, refer to one of the
transistor substitution guides, and try to identify a “near replacement”.
Beware, however a substitution guide will sometimes list a replacement
for your part, even though the two parts are not very similar. The
important parameters are:
• Voltage
• Ampere
• Wattage
The replacement part should have a voltage, ampere and wattage rating
equal to or higher than the original. The best is to get an exact part
number for transistor- it’s worth the trouble.
Diodes are numbered 1N for example 1N4148, 1N4007, 1N5408 and etc.
Transistors are numbered 2N for example 2N3904, 2N3906 and etc. The
first digit is the number of junctions. However, Japanese transistors have
different type numbers. The following designations are generally used.
Japanese transistors
Typical example
PNP, High
PNP, Low
NPN, High
NPN, Low
P-Channel FET
N-Channel FET
Note that S is used to indicate a semiconductor. If you found a transistor
with the part number of C945, you will immediately know that it is a
NPN transistor.
Points to remember when replacing transistor with substitutes:
• Polarity of the transistor i.e. whether it is PNP or NPN.
• Substitute transistor should have almost same voltage, current and
wattage rating.
• Whether transistor which is being replaced is of low frequency or high
frequency type.
• Whenever replacing transistor see that base, collector and emitter are
soldered in their proper position.
• While replacing transistor desoldering pump must be used and
soldering iron should not be kept for longer time, it may damage the
transistor as well as printed circuit board.
• Transistor used for output circuit must have proper heat sink. If
supply is given without heat sink the transistor may get damaged.
• Whenever replacing horizontal output, switching output or power
output transistor it should be kept in mind that mica sheet being used
should not be broken, otherwise output transistor collector will short
with body and it will go off immediately or the supply voltage will
• Whenever replacing output transistor nut-bolt should not be too tight
or too loose.
• Horizontal output transistor, with integrated diode should be replaced
with the same type of transistor.
Transistor Testing and Identifying the Leads
A transistor can be checked out of circuit with any of the many different
transistor testers on the market. The suspected transistor can be check out
of the circuit with resistance measurement (Ohms range) from the
analogue multimeter. Use ohmmeter scale to detect a leaky, open or
shorted transistor. I do not encourage testing transistor with digital
meter as I’ve encountered many times that a transistor test good with
digital meter but failed using the analogue meter.
Checking transistor with an analogue multimeter
An analogue multimeter can be use to perform a basic test on a transistor;
the diagram in Figure below will help you to identify the base, collector
and emitter leads for commonly used transistor. You should refer to the
transistor data guidebook if you are in doubt about the connections of a
transistor. But if you are about to use a transistor of an unknown type, i.e.
NPN or PNP, the following simple test will give the answer. It will also
allow you to check a transistor if it is leaky, opens or shorted.
The diagram in Figure 2 assumes you are testing an unknown type of
transistor. Set your meter to the lowest ohm’s range i.e. Rx1Ω. From the
six combination of test result you will know the transistor is belonging to
which type.
x1 Ω +
Black probe
1 2
Red probe
Black probe
is connected
to pin no
Red probe
to pin no
in ohms
High (∞)
High (∞)
High (∞)
High (∞)
Figure 2 : Identifying transistor type and pin leads
1. Connect the black probe of the multimeter to one of the transistor
leads, and connect the red probe to any of the other leads.
2. If two low readings are found for one connection of the black probe
(test no 1 & 2), while each of the other two position gives two high
readings (test no 3, 4, 5 & 6), then the transistor is NPN type.
3. The pin where the black probe is connected to showed two low
reading when the red probes connected to the other two leads shows
high reading is the “Base”. In the above case pin 1 is the “base”.
Your test probe placement must be reversed in order to check for PNP
type of transistor as shown in Figure 3.
x1 Ω +
Black probe
1 2
Red probe
Red probe is
to pin no
Black probe
is connected
to pin no
Reading in
High (∞)
High (∞)
High (∞)
High (∞)
Figure 3 : Identifying a PNP Type of Transistor and pin leads
1. Connect the red probe of the multimeter to one of the transistor leads
and connect the black probe to any of the other leads.
2. If two low readings are found for one connection of the red probe
(Test no 1&2), while each of the other two position gives two high
readings (Test no 3, 4, 5 & 6), then the transistor is PNP type.
3. The pin where the red probe is connected to showed two low reading
when the black probes connected to other two leads shows high
reading is the “Base”. In the above case pin 1 is the “Base”.
Now you must determine which lead is the “emitter”, and which is the
“collector”. Assuming you are checking an NPN type of transistor and
you already know that lead number 1 is the base, and now you must
determine which lead (lead 2 or 3) is the collector. First, set your
multimeter ohm’s range to x10kΩ. Connect the test probe according to
the diagram shown in Figure 4.
Black probe
is connected
to pin no
Red probe is
connected to
pin no
Reading in
High (∞)
x1 Ω++
Black probe
NOTE: Certain Transistor might showed high (∞)
reading on both test (either way).
Red probe
1 2
Figure 4 : Identifying the collector lead of an NPN transistor
1. Look for the high ohm reading (Test no: 1) and see which lead the
black probe is connected to.
2. From Figure 4 the black probe is connected to lead 2 and this lead
is the “Collector” and lead 3 is the “Emitter”.
3. Some transistor will show two high ohms readings and if it is the
case you should use your finger to touch on the base (first pin) and
the middle pin while you are still holding the probes on the
transistor middle and the third pin. Assuming while your finger
touching the base and the middle pin, the pointer show some
resistance then looks at the probe. If it is the black probe on the
middle pin then the middle pin is the “Collector”. If middle pin is
the collector, the third pin must be the “Emitter”. If the red probe
is on the middle pin, touching your finger between the base and the
middle pin, the pointer will not move at all! In other words, if you
test a NPN transistor, look for the black probe and if you test PNP
transistor look for the red probe. If there is no response from the
meter (pointer won’t move) even after you have use your finger to
touch on the pins, then the transistor has developed an open circuit.
Note: For checking PNP transistor, perform the same test by reversing
the test probe.
These tests also give some indication of a transistor’s condition. If the
transistor does not check out as describe above, there may be something
has gone wrong with the part. For example, if the emitter collector
junction shows a low resistance in both directions at x 10 K Ohms, the
transistor is shorted.
For many of you, this probably seems like a lot of transistor information
to absorb. Checking transistor is not as easy as checking the two leads
devices like the resistor, capacitors, diodes and etc. In reality, this is only
the surface of a fairly deep subject. Experimenting with a few
transistors and a multimeter as you go back through the material is
an excellent way to gain greater understanding of how to accurately
check transistors.
You can purchase several types of general-purpose replacement
transistors for less than RM 1.00 each from many electronics suppliers.
Get a few NPNs and a couple of PNPs, grab your multimeter, and see for
yourself. With some actual hands-on activity, it won’t take you long
to become confident performing a basic transistor test.
If you have a budget you may buy specialized transistor tester where you
clip 3 of the tester wires to the three pins of any transistors. After
analyzing, it will prompt to you which leg is the base, collector and
emitter and also it will tell you if the transistor is good, leaky or
completely shorted.
Testing Field Effect Transistor (FET or
The right way of testing mosfet transistor is to use an analogue
multimeter. Mosfet stand for Metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor or we just called it FET. Switch mode power supply and many
other circuits use FET transistors as part of a circuit. Mosfet failure and
leakage are quite high in a circuit and you need to know how to
accurately test it. FET is label as “Q” in circuit board.
Measuring component's that have two leads such as the resistors,
capacitors and diodes are much easier than measuring transistor and FET
which have three legs. Many electronic repairers have difficulty
especially checking the three leads components. First, find out the gate,
drain and source pin out from semiconductor replacement book or search
its datasheet from search engine.
Once you have the cross reference or diagram for each pin of the mosfet,
then use your analogue multimeter set to times 10K ohm range to check
it. Assuming you are testing the n channel mosfet then put the black
probe to the drain pin.
Touch the gate pin with the red probe to discharge any internal
capacitance in the mosfet. Now move the red probe to source pin while
the black probe still touching the drain pin. Use your right finger and
touch the gate and drain pin together and you will notice the analogue
multimeter pointer will move forward to centre range of the meter's scale.
Use your finger to touch on the gate and drain pin.
Lifting the red probe from the source pin and putting it back again to the
source pin; the pointer will still remain at the middle of the meter's scale.
To discharge it you have to lift the red probe and touch just one time on
the gate pin. This will eventually discharge the internal capacitance again.
At this time, use the red probe to touch on the source pin again, the
pointer would not kick at all because you have already discharge it by
touching the gate pin. These are the good mosfet characteristic. You need
to practice more by taking some FET from your bench or from your
component’s compartment. Once you know the secrets, testing other
mosfet is as simple as testing diode.
If you notice that all the result that you measured kicked towards zero
ohms and will not discharge, then the FET is considered shorted and need
replacement. Testing the P channel FET field effect transistor is just the
same way as when you check N channel FET. What you do is to switch
the probe polarity when checking the P channel. Some analogue
multimeter have the times 100k Ohm range, this type of meter can’t
really test FET due to the absent of 9 Volt battery inside the multimeter.
This type of meter will not have enough power to trigger the mosfet.
Make sure you use a meter that have the times 10k ohm range selector.
Typical N channel mosfet part numbers are 2SK791, K1118, IRF634,
IRF 740 and P channel FET transistor part number are J307, J516, IRF
9620 and etc. You can also get a mosfet tester from the market and one of
the famous brands is the SENCORE tf46 portable super cricket transistor
and FET tester. You can bid one from EBay.
Sencore TF46 FET Tester
Testing Darlington Transistor
This is two transistors connected together of two emitter followers in
cascade so that the amplified current from the first is amplified further by
the second transistor. This package provides higher input resistance and a
very high current gain such as 10000. Darlington pairs are sold as
complete packages containing the two transistors. They have three leads
(Base, Collector and Emitter-PNP and NPN) which are equivalent to the
leads of a standard individual transistor. There are two types of
Darlington transistors-one that without a built in diode whiles the other
type has a diode in it. You have to refer to semiconductor data book to
check if the Darlington transistors have a built in diode or not.
Testing Darlington transistor without built in diode.
One example part number of a Darlington transistor that do not have a
build in diode is the C516 (or BC516). If you refer to semiconductor data
book, it is stated as PNP Darlington transistor.
Since you already know that it was a PNP type Darlington transistor, then
you have to start testing it by using the red probe. The procedure of
finding the Base, Collector and Emitter is exactly the same as when you
test on the normal transistor. Set your analogue multimeter to X1 Ohm
and place the red probe to pin 1 of BC516 and the black probe to pin 2
and 3. If the pointer shows no movement, shift the red probe to pin 2
(middle pin) and the black probe to pin 1 and 3. If there is movement in
the meter’s pointer when the black probe touches on pin 1 and 3 then pin
2 is the Base.
If you move the red probe to pin 3 and the black probe to pin 1 and 2, a
good Darlington transistor should not have any reading.
Since you have confirmed that pin 2 is the Base, we now move to the
other steps to find the Collector and the Emitter. Set to X 10 K Ohms and
place any of your test probes to pin 1 and 3. Assuming the black probe to
pin 3 and the red probe to pin 1 and you don’t get any reading then pin 1
is the Collector. If you reverse the test probes, you will definitely see the
pointer kick up. In other words we must look for the measurement that
don’t get any reading and see the red probe connects to which pin. If the
red probe connects to pin 2 then pin 2 is the Collector. If it connects to
pin 1 then pin 1 is the Collector.
In the above case, since pin 1 is the Collector then pin 3 must be Emitter.
Although semiconductor data book do show which pin is the base,
collector and emitter, we can’t fully depend on it as I found it not 100%
accurate. The best you test and find it on your own.
Testing Darlington transistor with built in Diode
Again we have to depend on semiconductor data book to help us to locate
if the particular transistor that you want to test is belong to Darlington
transistor with or without built in diode.
Because of the built in diode, the result that you get is completely
different from testing the Darlington transistor that have no diode built
into it. It is difficult to find the Base, Collector and the Emitter pins due
to the built in diode. I guess you have to refer to semiconductor data
books or even the internet to look for its pin outs.
Testing this type of transistor is easy-please refers to the photos below:
I suggest that you get few of the Darlington transistor from electronic
suppliers (with and without built in diode) to play around with it. Record
down all the steps you have taken to successfully test this type of
transistors before you test on the bad or faulty Darlington transistor.
If you have the budget you can always get a transistor tester that can
automatically test all kind of transistors but I can’t guarantee whether it
will give an accurate reading especially checking the Darlington
transistor that have the built in diode. More practice only makes you
perfect in testing electronic components.
Testing Horizontal Output Transistor
If you are repairing Television and Computer Monitor, I’m sure you had
seen a horizontal output transistor (HOT) before. This transistor is use to
switch the flyback transformer and prone to become defective due to the
stress of dealing with high voltage. A shorted HOT will usually caused no
power, low power, power cycling and power to shutdown. The HOT is
mainly a NPN transistor.
Testing HOT on board
It is very easy to check on board if the HOT is shorted or not. Using your
analogue meter set to X 1 Ohm and place the back probe to centre
(collector) pin and the red probe to both side of the HOT one at a time,
the pointer should not kick (means no reading). If you get a reading when
the read probe touches on either one of the pins at the right (base) or left
(emitter) chances are high the HOT had shorted. You need to remove the
HOT from the board and retest again.
The above method only applies when checking HOT on board. Checking
HOT off board is completely different from the above.
Testing HOT off board
There are two types of HOT i.e. one is without damper diode while the
other one is with damper diode. How do we know if a particular HOT
comes with damper diode or not? It’s easy, check from the semiconductor
data book or searches the internet. Checking a HOT that does not have
the built in damper diode is exactly the same when you are testing a
NPN bipolar transistor (please refer to the testing NPN bipolar
If the HOT have a built in damper diode, then you have to follow this
way to test it. Set your analogue meter to X10 K Ohm and place the black
probe to centre (collector) pin. Now, moving the red probe touching the
first (base) and the third (emitter) pin and it should not show any
readings. If you get even a single reading the HOT is considered shorted.
Conclusion- If you measure base (black probe) and collector (red probe)
it should have reading.
-If you measure base (black probe) and emitter (red probe) it should have
-If you measure collector (black probe) and base (red probe) it
should have no reading.
-If you measure collector (black probe) and emitter (red probe) it
should have no reading.
-If you measure emitter (black probe) and base (red probe) it should have
If you measure emitter (black probe) and collector (red probe) it should
have reading.
Overall a good HOT should have 4 readings and if you get 5 or 6
readings the HOT is considered shorted.
Testing Silicon Controlled Rectifier
Testing SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) can be done by using an
analogue multi meter or specialize tester (such as the Peak electronic atlas
component analyzer-http://www.peakelec.co.uk) designed to check
semiconductor devices easily. SCR can be found in many electronic
circuits. Part numbers such as the FOR3G and MCR 100-6 were very
common used in computer monitor.
Some called SCR as thyristor but in actual fact the word thyristor should
not be associated exclusively with the silicon controlled rectifier. It is in
fact a general name given to all four layer PNPN devices including the
commonly used SCR. The diac, the Triac, and the SCS are the other
popular devices belonging to the family of thyristors.
SCR consists of three pin of Gate (G), Anode (A) and Cathode (C). In
order to identify the pin out, one must find it from semiconductor data
book such the famous Philips ECG master semiconductor replacement
guide. The data book will list out the general specification of the SCR
such as the volt and ampere. You may go to google.com search engine
and key in the part number and get the SCR specification. Usually the
SCR manufacturers will provide the full datasheet for those who want it.
Once you know
the pin outs of
the G, A and C
legs you can
begin to test the
SCR. If you
have the Peak
electronic atlas
analyzer tester,
what you need
to do is to
connect the three
small clips to
each pin of the
SCR (any part
number will do).
The tester will begin to analyze the SCR and prompt you with the display
such as “Sensitive or low power thyristor” before it tells you the exact pin
outs of G, A and C. After the first test, the tester will eventually show you
the answer at the LCD display. Red is Gate, Green is Cathode and Blue is
It is a simple process and you will know the answer in less than 10
seconds. If there is a problem in the SCR, the tester would not be able to
show the results instead it shows a shorted reading.
Make sure set to X1 ohms to test SCR
Showing the right way to check SCR
If you don’t have this tester for checking SCR, I’m going to show you
another easy way on how to test SCR fast. You need an analogue meter
set to X1 ohm. Place the red probe to the Cathode and black probe to the
Anode pin. At this time the meter doesn’t show any reading. Now gently
move the black probe and touch the Gate pin (the black probe still
touching the Anode pin) and you will notice the meter’s pointer will kick
as shown at the picture (low resistance).
Removing the black probe from
the GATE pin (the black probe
still touching the Anode pin)
you would noticed that the
resistance continues to be there
(low resistance). This is due to
the conduction of SCR as the
meter battery is usually able to
supply current more than the
holding current.
If at this stage you removed the
black probe from the Anode
pin and connect it back, the
pointer will dropped back to
infinity (high resistance). If the
SCR could hold the resistance
then the SCR is considered
good. If it can’t hold then the
SCR is faulty.
Conclusion- Practice testing SCR more often to see how’s the result like.
Try some different part numbers and power SCR-and if the resistance
don’t hold using X1 ohm, you may try X10 ohm and etc.
Testing Triac
Typical example of Triac
The triac is an electronic switch or relay with three terminals. It comes in
many shapes, sizes and colors It is an open circuit with no gate signal
present, but conduct in both directions when gate voltage is applied. Triac
are used extensively in power control circuits.
They are particularly suite for AC power control applications such as
motor speed control, light dimmers, temperature control and inverters.
They are also employed for over-voltage protection in DC power
Testing Triac
1) First make sure you know the terminals of the triac. If you do not
know, you can always refer to a semiconductor data book or
browse through the internet. Once you have located the terminals,
it is the time to use your analogue meter set to X 1 Ohm or X10
2) Place the red probe to terminal 2 and the black probe to terminal 1.
You should get a high resistance reading.
3) Now, use a screw driver tip to create a momentarily short between
the gate and terminal 2 or you can just move the red probe touching
the gate while the red probe is still on the terminal 2. This short
will cause the triac to turn “ON” and you will see a low resistance
reading at the meter panel and remain low even the gate connection
is broken.
4) Reverse the probes and retest again and you should expect the
same result.
These reading are approximate and may vary with manufacturer or
different specification from the triac, from experienced; any result that
is significantly different would point to a faulty triac. If possible, get
some triac with different specification and measure it to take down their
measurement for future comparison.
Testing Crystal Oscillator
A Crystal and location marking
It’s simple on how to test a crystal with a tester or checker. Crystal
oscillators are used to generate precise, stable radio frequencies and are
found in a wide variety of electronic equipment such as Computers
(motherboard and monitor), Television, Telecommunications systems
(mobile phone), and etc. The function is to keep the frequency of the
clock from drifting. If the signal from this clock stops producing
frequency, or is weak, or the pulses begin to vary or change, the
electronic equipments might show intermittent problems or might stop
Crystals in Computer Motherboard
The microprocessor pins that hold the crystal oscillator are usually called
OSC IN and OSC OUT and the frequency is marked on the crystal. The
location of the crystals was labelled as XTAL or X. Some examples of
crystal oscillator frequency are 4 mega hertz, 8 MHz, 16 MHz and so on.
I’ve experienced quite a number of Computer Monitor crystal
breakdowns causing the On Screen Display (OSD) to disappear from the
screen. Some On Screen Display even missing half of the display and
also erratic. Replacing only the crystal solve the OSD problem in
Monitor. A loosen crystal connection in Computer Motherboard could
cause the system to ‘hang’ after running for sometime.
Crystals are quite fragile components because of their construction and
designed. Unlike a resistor or a capacitor, if you drop one on the ground
from a decent height, it’s a 50-50 chances whether it will function again.
Though crystal don’t become faulty easily like a resistor or capacitor, it is
important for an electronic repairer to know how to test a crystal.
A Crystal and its location marking in a Computer Monitor
Testing the crystal is not a breeze either. You cannot just take out your
trusty meter and test the crystal in it. In fact, there are three methods to
test a crystal: Using an Oscilloscope- A crystal oscillator produces a sine wave when
excited. It is appropriate then, to see a waveform representative of a sine
wave on the clock pins. If the clock is not working properly, replace the
crystal. Test the crystal with power on. Place the scope black probe to
cold ground and the main probe pin to the crystal pins. Normally
microprocessors are usually very reliable but not in this case of a Compaq
MV720 Monitor.
Monitor came in with no high voltage symptom. Using the scope to check
on the crystal revealed very unstable waveform and replacing the
microprocessor solved the no high voltage problem and the crystal
waveform shown a perfect sine wave.
A crystal oscillator sinewave
How to measure crystal frequency with oscilloscope
Second method is to use frequency counter to check the frequency of the
crystal oscillator. The measurement must be taken when the equipment
power is ‘On’. Put the probe of the meter or frequency counter to the
crystal pin and read the measurement. That’s mean place the black probe
to cold ground and the red probe to the crystal pins. Make sure your
frequency counter meter has the range that is higher than the crystal
frequency you are checking.
If the crystal is 8 MHz then your meter should have the range to be able
to check that frequency. Assuming the readout of the crystal is 2.5 MHz
then you know that the crystal is not functioning well and need to be
replaced. Normal digital multimeter usually has a small range for
checking frequency. However the digital meter (Greenlee brand) that I’m
using is able to measure up to 24 MHz. You can read the specification of
your meter manual and see how high is the range is.
Frequency counter in a digital multimeter
The right way to test crystal oscillator in electronic equipment
A Crystal oscillator and microprocessor (CPU) in a main board
Third method is to use a Crystal Checker- With this way; normally the
crystal is placed in the feedback network of a transistor oscillator. If it
oscillates and the LED is lightening up, this means that the crystal is
functioning. If the crystal doesn’t work, the LED will goes off. Instead of
using LED as indicator, some other expensive crystal checker uses a
panel meter to indicate if the crystal is functioning or not. If you search
crystal information on the internet, you will find some websites that
provides tips on how to test crystal as well as how to build one. You may
build simple crystal tester by going to this website:
Testing Relay
An electromagnetic relay is basically a switch operated by magnetic
force. This magnetic force is generated by flow of current through a coil
in the relay. The relay opens or closes a circuit when current through the
coil is started or stopped. The specification of relay normally are 5V,
12V, 18V, 24 V and etc and with amperes rating too. All these
specification you could see printed on the relay body as shown in the
photo below.
Figure 1 show a basic relay circuit. If there is an input signal going to the
base of transistor, the transistor will conduct and the 12V will flow
through the relay coil, the collector, out from emitter and to ground (0V).
This will energize the relay coil and cause the armature to switch from
the “normally close (NC)” to “normally open (NO)”. When the armature
in the “normally open (NO)” state, no current will flow to the lamp (load)
and the lamp will go off.
There are two steps to test relay, first use your analogue meter set to X 1
Ohm and place across the relay coil as shown from the photo in next
page. This is to make sure that the relay coil is not open circuit. If it opens
circuit there will be no reading registered at your analogue meter. A good
coil should show resistance.
The next step is to connect a power supply across the relay. Use a
variable regulated power supply to adjust to the same voltage as what the
relay can handle. That’s mean; if the relay specification is 5V then you
adjust the power supply to 5 V. Any voltage higher than 5 V will burn the
relay coil. Now connect either the positive and negative alligator clip to
the relay coil. When the relay coil have the 5 V run through it, the coil
will begin to energize and start pulling the internal armature. You actually
could hear a “tic” sound from the relay when it is energized!
If you place your analogue meter probes set to X 1 Ohm across the
“common (Com)” and the “normally close (NC)” pin and when you hear
the “tic” sound, you will see that the meter pointer will drop from the
zero Ohm to infinity (indicating open circuit).
Similarly when you place the probes across the “common (COM)” and
the “normally open (NC)” pin and when you hear the “tic” sound, you
will see that the meter pointer will move up from the infinity to zero
Ohms (indicating close circuit).
If you get such reading that’s mean the relay is working fine. If there is
no response from the meter (pointer won’t move) even though the relay
coil already been connected with the power supply, the relay need
Technical Books For Reference (Bibliography)
Basic Electronics –
By: Bernard Grob
McGrawhill Publication
Electronics-Principles and Applications -
By: Schuler
McGrawhill Publication
The Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics -
By: Stan Gibilisco
McGrawhill Publication
ECG-Semiconductor and Master Replacement
By: ECG Philips
Up-to-Date World’s Transistor-DiodesThyristors & IC’s Comparison Tables Volume I
& II
By: Tech Publication
With the information you have acquired, you should have a basic
understanding of how to test almost all of the electronic components
found in electronic circuits. I strongly suggest you started right away all
of the tips and tricks you have learned from this E-book.
If you have questions about testing electronic components or even in
electronic repair, please do not hesitate to email me at
[email protected]
I wish you all the best and look forward to hearing your success story.
To your success,
Jestine Yong
Bsc. Eng UK
Author of “Testing Electronic Components”
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF