System and method for displaying and editing digitally sampled

System and method for displaying and editing digitally sampled
US 20140304598A1
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2014/0304598 A1
Robinson
(54)
(43) Pub. Date:
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISPLAYING
AND EDITING DIGITALLY SAMPLED AUDIO
DATA
Publication Classi?cation
(51)
(71) Applicant: CHANNEL D CORPORATION,
Int. Cl.
G06F 3/16
CPC .................................... .. G06F 3/165 (2013.01)
USPC
........................................................ ..
715/716
Robert S. Robinson, Trenton, NJ (US)
(21) App1.No.: 14/309,257
(22) Filed:
(2006.01)
(52) us, C1,
Trenton, NJ (US)
(72) Inventor:
Oct. 9, 2014
(57)
ABSTRACT
Jun. 19, 2014
A method and system including segmenting digital samples
Related U.S.Application Data
(63) Continuation of application No. 11/759,068, ?led on
Jun 6 2007 HOW Pat NO' 8 793 580'
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related to input audio data into arc segments representing
outpln audlo M?" The are segments are arranged. to form
multiple arcs Which are arranged to form a record image. A
user-selected boundary of a track of the input audio data may
Provisional application No. 60/811,249, ?led on Jun.
be marked based on a command received from a user via an
6, 2006.
interaction With the record image.
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frequency noise, commonly known as “rumble”) is imposed
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISPLAYING
AND EDITING DIGITALLY SAMPLED AUDIO
DATA
analog transcriptions of vinyl records, so it’s impossible to
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED
APPLICATIONS
establish accurate track mark points (i.e., the start and end
points or boundaries of the track) based only on the appear
ance of the waveform. For instance, a gradual song fade-out
[0001] This application is a continuation of US. patent
application Ser. No. 11/759,068, ?led Jun. 6, 2007, which in
turn claims the bene?t of US. Provisional Application Ser.
No. 60/811,249, ?led on Jun. 6, 2006. The entire disclosures
ofU.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/759,068 and US. Pro
visional Application Ser. No. 60/81 1,249 are hereby incorpo
rated by reference herein.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0002] The present invention relates generally to a method
and system for transforming sampled data into a visual rep
resentation with which a user may interact. In particular, this
invention relates to the transformation of audio data into a
realistic visual depiction of a mechanical recording (e.g., a
conventional vinyl record). The present invention relates to a
method of emulating the traditional playback experience of
the pre-digital-audio era by simulating the tactile interaction
with vinyl records which were originally used as a recording
and playback medium. The emulation of the visual properties
of the vinyl record format facilitates the display and editing of
the content of, for example, audio recordings.
on the quiet parts of the audio. Digital silence doesn’t exist in
or fade in can be heard quite noticeably even in the presence
of vinyl background noise, which may obscure the music,
when viewed as the waveform.
[0006] Accordingly, there is a need in the art for a method
and system for generating an intuitive and user-friendly
visual representation of discretely sampled data, wherein a
user may interact with the visual representation in the form of
a conventional ‘vinyl’ record and record playback apparatus
(i.e., a record player) to perform a number of tasks, including
playback, editing, content management, and error/ defect
detection.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0007]
The current invention provides an alternative means
of display of information about the audio. Speci?cally, the
invention describes the generation of an image of an analog
format vinyl record disc, used as an interactive, virtual object.
This avoids many limitations of the current art, as well as
more closely and favorably linking the technical and enter
tainment (such as the rotation of the image on the computer
display during playback, or applying other visual effects)
In the playback of digitally recorded audio, if done
characteristics of the display. A side bene?t to the platter
image, when playing back music in a way that emulates the
“album” format, is that an estimate of the remaining duration
of the current track, and subsequent tracks can be made visu
in conjunction with a visual display, such as a computer
ally. This enhances anticipation and enjoyment of the music.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
[0003]
monitor, it is customary to provide some type of display that
shows information regarding the audio amplitude and time
offset (relative to the beginning or end of the recording) at the
playback position. Typically, this takes the form of a rectilin
ear amplitude versus time waveform display. The reasons for
providing the display can vary between the need for showing
technical information regarding the audio and to provide an
entertaining visual display (by viewing the audio waveform
or frequency spectrum information, for example).
[0004] On the technical side, provision is usually made for
manually altering the location of the playback position, such
[0008]
Instead of representing the audio as a traditional
type of rectilinear waveform display, a spiral radial paradigm,
or a plurality of arcs, is used that permits ?nding features of
interest in the recording with greater precision than conven
tional methods, while providing an easily manipulated over
view of the entire audio recording.
[0009] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the plurality of digital samples are segmented into
groups, or arc segments. The digital samples of each arc
segment are analyzed to determine a value of at least one
these regions as tentative locations for establishing track divi
sions. One drawback to this approach is that in the display of
the overall waveform of a recording, the track separation
locations cannot be resolved visually, because they are typi
audio parameter for the arc segment. Next, each arc segment
is displayed with a visual identi?er which represents the value
of the at least on audio parameter (e.g., modulation). The
visual identi?er, as used herein, may include, but is not lim
ited to, a color, hue, shade, other visual characteristic which
may be used to represent the parameter value. This provides a
user with a visual representation in the change of the param
eter in the different arc segments.Advantageously, changes in
the value of the parameter in one arc segment as compared to
another, as illustrated by the different visual identi?ers, may
cally obscured by nearby audio having higher amplitudes.
be used to communicate to the user relevant information
as using a cursor indicator on the display, controllable via
input from a mouse. This is usually required for editing of the
audio data, such as dividing a long recording into individual
tracks. The editing is facilitated by observing visual cues in
the display, such as regions of low signal amplitude, andusing
This is usually addressed by “zooming in” on a smaller por
tion of the waveform, permitting the visualization of the
lower amplitude audio at track boundaries. However, since
the zoomed waveform only comprises a subset of the entire
audio recording, a tedious scrolling operation may be
required to reliably ?nd all track boundaries.
[0005] An additional drawback arises when editing audio
not sourced from a quiet digital recording, such as when
about the audio content. By comparing the visual identi?ers
of the arc segments, the user can ‘see’ changes in the audio
parameter.
[0010]
The simulation goes beyond a cosmetic, stylized
transcribing an actual analog vinyl record. Here, the ampli
rendition of the appearance of a vinyl record, because the
appearance of the groove modulations re?ects the actual
audio content of the recording, or possibly other parameters
derived from the audio information, which also can be dis
played as an overlay or color shading of the vinyl image. Also,
tude at track boundaries doesn’t drop to zero (digital silence);
instead, a residual background noise (such as turntable low
recording are emphasized, and defects such as scratches (in
displayed in the circular format, periodic features in the
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 Al
tion of waveform data is used to assist in locating features of
the case of recordings transcribed from vinyl records) used to
facilitate the calibration of the true playback speed.
[0011] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the system and method convert discretely sampled data
into a display that emulates the vinyl record format. Then, the
familiar toneann/stylus/vinyl record metaphor can be used
for the ?rst time as a tool for editing and playing back digital
audio ?les.
physical, periodic defects present in the source material,
[0012] For example, inter-track silences are rendered as
plainly visible areas of low modulation, appearing as discrete
according to an embodiment of the present invention;
[0024] FIG. 8 illustrates a comparison of the performance
circular bands, rather than being compressed visually and
obscured by adjacent high amplitude areas of the audio sig
of exemplary approaches for locating physical defects during
nal. This provides a visually informative cue or track mark
present invention; and
starting location (i.e., a starting boundary of the track). The
vinyl record image waveform display format further expands
this metaphor, because by manipulation of the computer input
[0025] FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary process for generat
ing a platter image, according to an embodiment of the
present invention.
[0026] It is to be understood that the attached drawings are
for purposes of illustrating the concepts of the invention and
device, such as a mouse, the playback position can be manu
ally ?ne tuned by “grabbing” and “spinning” the vinyl disk,
while simultaneously listening to a looped playback of a
interest in the sampled data ?le;
[0022]
FIG. 5 illustrates an use of an embodiment of the
present invention to locate track boundaries in an analog
music recording;
[0023] FIGS. 6A, 6B, 7A and 7B illustrate an exemplary
process for calibration of the time base of a data sample using
a calibration process, according to an embodiment of the
may not be to scale.
fraction of a second’s worth of audio.
[0013] After navigating to a speci?c place of interest in the
audio recording with the aid of the vinyl image, which is a
primary advantage compared to an overview type rectilinear
waveform display, the process also may be enhanced at this
stage by viewing a highly magni?ed or zoomed version of the
waveform, as a visual overlay, in the familiar rectilinear for
mat. In this way, the two methods of displaying the recording
are complementary and reinforce each other’s utility, while
avoiding the tedious task of having to scroll slowly through
the recording using only a zoomed in rectilinear display.
[0014] Setting track marks (i.e., the boundaries of the track)
interactively using both the waveform and audible feedback
eliminates the possibility of inadvertently placing a track
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
[0027]
The present invention relates to a method and sys
tem for generating a visual representation of input audio data
received from a source, wherein in the visual representation
emulates a conventional vinyl record. The input audio data
may be in either analog or digital format. If the input data is in
analog format, the analog data is ?rst converted into a plural
ity of digital samples, according to any suitable method
known in the art. Alternatively, the input audio data may be in
digital format and comprise a plurality of digital samples,
and, thus, no conversion is required.
[0028] The plurality of digital samples (either as received
mark before the actual fade-out or after an actual fade-in. The
from the source or as converted) are then segmented into a
present invention allows a user to intuitive grab and spin the
plurality of arc segments. Next, for each arc segment, the
“platter” to re?ne and accelerate the editing process.
value of at least one audio parameter is determined. The arc
[0015]
segment is then rendered and displayed with a visual identi
?er which visually represents the value of the at least on audio
parameter. The visual identi?er may be a color, shade, hue or
The general familiarity of the public with such
records and their associated playback equipment is an advan
tage, as most persons already possess an intuitive grasp of the
concept of the vinyl LP disc. For users lacking familiarity
with analog turntables and vinyl records, these elements
present an attractive aspect of the design, given the current
resurgence of interest in this recording and playback medium.
other visual expression of the value. By presenting each arc
segment with a visual identi?er representation of the value of
the selected audio parameter, the changes in the parameter
may be seen when viewing the plurality of arc segments when
arranged into a series of arcs, the series of arcs emulating a
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
record image.
[0029]
[0016] The present invention will be more readily under
stood from the detailed description of exemplary embodi
ments presented below considered in conjunction with the
attached drawings, of which:
[0017] FIG. 1 is a diagram of an exemplary data display
including characteristics of a conventional record playback
apparatus, according to an embodiment of the present inven
tion;
[0018] FIG. 2A illustrates exemplary components of the
data display, according to an acoustic-model data rendering
embodiment of the present invention;
[0019]
A plurality of the arcs are combined to form a visual
representation of the input audio, herein referred to as the
“record image”. The record image comprises a plurality of
arcs, arranged to emulate a conventional “vinyl record.”
[0030] Embodiments of the present invention are described
below in detail with reference to FIGS. 1-9. FIG. 1 illustrates
an exemplary record image generated according to the
present invention. Advantageously, a user may interact with
the record image much in the way one interacts with a con
ventional vinyl record to perform a number of functions, as
described in detail below.
[0031]
The digital samples of the input data are processed
FIG. 2B illustrates an exemplary components of a
(as described below with reference to FIGS. 2A and 2B) and
data display, according to a physical-model rendering
embodiment of the present invention;
[0020] FIGS. 3A and 3B show modi?ed data renderings
using subsets of the data shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B;
ments making up the larger arcs of the record image. This may
[0021]
FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrate a process according to an
embodiment of the present invention wherein a radial depic
converted to the radial representation, or plurality of arc seg
be accompanied by visual feedback of the ongoing process,
denoted by progress animation arrow 4, as the image data is
progressively calculated and overlaid on the platter substrate
3.
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US 2014/0304598 A1
Portions of the digital samples with large amounts
optimum value would be in conformance with the physical
of modulation, as assessed by the analysis algorithm, are
[0032]
medium emulated, such as, for example, a 7 inch diameter 33
or 45 RPM, physical recording disc; a 10 inch 33, 45 or 78
RPM physical recording disc; or a 12 inch 33 or 45 RPM
physical recording disc. For purposes of illustration of an
embodiment of the present invention, a 12-inch 33 RPM LP
format with multiple individual music tracks is shown, with a
label radius approximately 20 percent of the substrate radius.
This is somewhat less than normally used with a physical
analog disc. The present invention also lends itself to con
struction of single-track 12, 10 or 7 inch physical format
displayed as image highlights 1, while low levels of signal
modulation 2 are represented as unchanged, or nearly so,
compared to the substrate data display area 3.
[0033]
The platter substrate 3 may be displayed as dark
gray or black color, or as a solid, bright color. The platter
substrate 3 may also be patterned for aesthetic, ornamental
purposes, such as with a design, photographic image, or other
illustration. The highlights may be drawn with a variable
opacity from 0 to 100 percent, with a 100 percent value
obscuring the image of the substrate. Low levels of opacity
may be used for aesthetic enhancement of the display, in
conjunction with different substrate colors or visual patterns.
The highlighting in areas with high waveform modulation,
and substrate prominence in areas of low modulation may be
inverted, providing a negative shaded image. The modulation
may be represented as gradations of gray tones or as false
color shading. A combination of the two may be used to
convey additional information in the data display. For
example, color shading might be used to indicate differences
in relative amplitude or phase between a plurality of channels.
[0034]
Other aspects of the data display, which is con?g
ured to emulate a familiar object, an audio recording playback
turntable, include a label area 7 for various information, a
radial spindle 6, tone arm 5, playback cartridge 9, playback
stylus 8, cueing emulation button 10 and lead-in area 11.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present inven
tion, a linear-style carriage-type tone arm is shown; but other
aesthetic variations may include pivoted straight or curved
tone arms. A linear design is illustrated in the ?gures because
of the simpler computation of data offsets during emulated
cueing operations, as described in detail below.
[0035] One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate
that features 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 are optional, and may or may
not be included in the data display. These features, used here
as a functional aesthetic construction, are intended to emulate
components, features and aspects of a traditional audio ana
log disc recording playback system (turntable). Embodi
ments of the present invention incorporate these elements to
leverage the user’s likely familiarity and comfort level with
this particular object (i.e., the turntable). For users lacking
familiarity with analog turntables, these elements present an
attractive aspect of the design, given the current resurgence of
interest in this recording and playback medium, even among
the demographic born after the onset of the mainstream appli
emulation, for a somewhat diminished image data display
capacity, and may be useful in certain other contexts.
[0039] A small band of the substrate adjacent to the outside
radius of the label area may be reserved for the lead-out area,
again for aesthetic compliance and conformity with the
physical playback medium being emulated.
[0040]
As shown schematically in FIG. 9, beginning at the
lead-in area 7, the image data information is applied to the
blank platter substrate 3. Each pixel in the image is treated as
a sub-segment of a larger arc, and has a variable, diminishing
(in the case of image data application begun at the lead-in
area) radius. The sub-segment is herein referred to as an arc
segment. As such, according to an embodiment of the present
invention, each pixel equates to one arc segment. As the
image data is applied, the arc radius is diminished. The effec
tive radius is calculated for each pixel of the image. The radius
need not have a whole-number value, because modern com
puter graphic imaging programs and routines are con?gured
to alias intermediate, ?oating-point representations, thus pro
viding increased realism of the spiral image drawing.
[0041] For example, as shown in FIG. 9, given a substrate 1
with radius 2 of 820 pixels, and a lead-in radius 3 of 800
pixels, the ?rst pixel applied is considered to be part of an arc
segment 4 having a radius of 800 pixels. The shading (bright
ness or color) of this pixel (or arc segment) is determined by
the analysis model, as explained below. In the case of emu
lating an analog playback disc, the next pixel, arc segment 5,
is applied counterclockwise from the ?rst pixel (because an
analog disc normally is spun in a clockwise fashion, so
increasing time coordinate is in the counterclockwise direc
tion; the image data could also be applied in a clockwise
direction in an alternative embodiment of the present inven
tion). The starting radius 6 of the next arc segment (or pixel)
5 depends on the circumference and radius of the spiral arc
cation of digital sound recording.
being considered at that point.
[0036] The brightness or color of the image is calculated at
a plurality of points. The practical limit of the number of
points or pixels in the image is determined by the speed of the
host computer and the resolution of the display device.
[0042] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the unit of length of the arc segment is expressed in
Regardless of the resolution chosen, the image construction
degrees. The arc length (in degrees) is determined by the
desired quality of the ?nal image, balanced against the com
putational time required. For example, if a ?xed arc length of
commences at a point lying somewhere on the substrate.
1 degree is selected, the radius of the arc also must be con
[0037]
tinuously decreased by ((2 pi)/360) pixels for each segment to
The image construction may commence at any loca
tion on the substrate, or even at the innermost radius of the
continue to maintain a spiral appearance.
substrate. However, in accordance with the aesthetics of the
emulation of the familiar analog disc playback paradigm, a
starting location is chosen a small distance inset from the
outer simulated edge of the substrate, commonly known as
the lead-in area 11. A portion of the image display area near
the inner radius also is reserved for a legend, printed descrip
[0043] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, each radius step employs a ?xed-radius, circular arc;
each revolution of the generated image consists of concentric,
discrete, non-interconnected circles. This design allows the
tion or decorative image or design, the label area 7.
[0038] The label area 7 may have a radius between 5 per
inclusion of many of the desirable characteristics of the
record image, according to an embodiment of the present
invention. A preferred embodiment of the present invention
employs variable-radius, noncircular, spiral arcs to construct
cent and 90 percent of the substrate radius, although the
the record image.
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US 2014/0304598 A1
[0044] The arc length also affects the way the input data is
analyzed. The input data is segmented into an integer number
of digital samples per arc segment. The optimum arc length
for emulation of an analog playback disc is determined by the
disc emulation model rotational rate, in conjunction with the
sample rate of the digital input data. This arc length is deter
mined by the following relation:
where s is the angular rotational rate of the disc; and
Fs the digital signal sample rate.
[0045] For example, given a sample rate of 44.1 kHZ and a
disc rotational rate of 33 1/3 revolutions per minute, each digi
tal sample occupies an arc angle of (360 degrees/revolution)
*((33+1/3 revolutions)/60 seconds)/ (44100.0 samples/sec
ond):0.004535 degrees per digital sample.
[0046]
Given the above parameters, the arc segment length
must therefore be constrained to multiples of 0.004535
degrees.At an arc spiral radius of 800 pixels, this corresponds
to an arc segment circumference (length) of 0.06332 pixels
per data sample.
[0047] One having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate
that the input data could be progressively resampled to any
practically attainable sample rate, generating the optimum
number of sampled points for a given arc segment length.
[0048] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, a minimum arc length of 1 pixel is considered. In the
above example, a minimum arc segment length of 1 pixel
correspond to 1/0.06332 or 15.79 data samples. Since an
integer number of samples is required, this ?gure is back
calculated using a minimum value of 16 samples per analysis
sample, giving a segment length of 16/15.79 or 1.013 pixels.
[0049] Therefore, the arc segment length is predetermined
by the sample rate of the input data. As the spiral radius
decreases, the arc segment length, in pixels, also decreases, in
proportion to the radius. Therefore, to maintain the minimum
design constraint of 1 pixel of arc length, the number of
samples per segment must be gradually increased (because
the arc angle must be increased). This causes discrete changes
to the arc segment lengths, that were found to be unnotice
able.
[0050] A computational shortcut may be taken at this junc
ture. Arc segments with lengths greater than one pixel may be
applied that have a ?xed radius within the segment. These
?xed radius segments are then joined to a previous segment
having a slightly larger and a following segment having
slightly smaller radii, respectively. The granularity caused by
this method is practically invisible. This technique was used
to generate the images included in the Figures.
[0051] One additional step was performed to reduce the
prominence of the locations where arcs are joined. The Root
Mean Square (RMS) values (explained below) obtained are
slightly low-pass ?ltered, so that the change in highlighting
from one segment to the next is less abrupt. The ?ltering is a
simple ?rst-order In?nite Impulse Response (IIR) ?lter func
tion,
[0052] According to a preferred embodiment of the present
invention, c1 has a value between 1.0 (no ?ltering) and 0.01
(signi?cant ?ltering), with a value of 0.9 determined to be
optimum. After calculating h1, its value is substituted for h0
which then becomes the previous segment’s highlighting
value for the next iteration of the arc rendering. Note that such
highlight smoothing is not a requirement for the present
invention, but may optionally be applied to improve the
appearance of the record image.
[0053] In practice, the tradeoff between drawing many
small arc segments and computational ef?ciency dictates that
arc segment lengths of greater than one pixel (including more
data samples per arc segment) and arc line widths greater than
one pixel be used. According to an embodiment of the present
invention, a typical arc line width of square root (2) pixels is
used, and a radius step of 1.0 pixel per revolution. Line
aliasing and transparency of the line segments, provided by
the host computer’s built-in graphics routines, may be
adjusted to cover gaps in between adjacent arcs at different
radii. According to a preferred embodiment of the present
invention, the arc segment length may correspond to the
drawn width of the arc segment. One having ordinary skill in
the art will appreciate that, in practice, the tradeoff between
drawing many small arc segments and computational ef?
ciency dictates that arc segment lengths of greater than one
pixel (including more data samples per arc segment) and arc
line widths greater than one pixel be used. As such, according
to an embodiment of the present invention, a typical arc line
width of square root (2) pixels is used.
[0054] For large data sets the number of samples per arc
segment can be increased and/ or the arc line width decreased.
These parameters are adjustable at the discretion of the user,
to provide the most aesthetically pleasing image, while main
taining a reasonable computational rate. For example, gener
ating a complete, high quality spiral image “platter” from 30
minutes of sampled digital audio on a currently shipping
consumer-level computer workstation takes approximately
30 seconds.
[0055] According to embodiments of the present invention,
two primary signal analysis models may be used to emulate
the appearance of the record image. One having ordinary skill
in the art will appreciate that alternative models similar to the
ones described in detail herein may be used to create a record
image where areas of differing signal characteristics can be
differentiated upon visual inspection of the image. The visual
representation may be based on one or more of the following
exemplary signal characteristics, including, but not limited to
the interchannel or single channel phase or amplitude (modu
lation level); frequency balance; signal amplitude at a par
ticular or range of frequencies; total harmonic or intermodu
lation distortion over a range of or at a single frequency; beats
per minute value; results of signal convolution showing
coherence with a comparison signal; and other known signal
characteristics. Although one having ordinary skill in the art
will appreciate that the present invention may be con?gured
to generate a visual representation of any suitable signal
parameter, for the purposes of illustration, the exemplary
h0:h1
Equation 2:
where h1 is the highlighting parameter applied to the current
segment;
h0 is the highlighting parameter applied to the previous seg
ment; and
c1 is the ?lter coe?icient.
embodiments described herein related to the present inven
tion are described with reference to signal characteristics/
parameters described herein as the level of amplitude of
modulation.
[0056]
FIG. 2A shows a record image producing according
to an exemplary model according to an embodiment of the
present invention, herein referred to as the “Acoustic” model.
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 A1
According to this embodiment, the Acoustic model calculates
the RMS amplitude of the sum of the synchronized (in time)
input signal channels, for the number of samples per arc
segment, as described in detail above. The input signal typi
cally comprises two channels (stereo), in the case of an audio
music recording. However, any number of channels, includ
ing additional channels, may be included in the analysis. The
highlighting amount (i.e., the pixel brightness) applied is
proportional to the computed RMS value for the data sample.
At lower amounts of highlighting, the opacity of the arc
drawing may be reduced proportionately, to allow the color of
the substrate to show, or a decorative design to show through,
cated by time display 27. To assist in locating a low-modula
tion area, a ribbon display 26 representing the integrated
highlighting at each discrete radius is provided. According to
an embodiment of the present invention, the ribbon display
represents the mean amplitude value of the signal over one
circular arc (one revolution) at the radius on the platter image
corresponding to the radial position on the ribbon. Its purpose
is to provide an additional visual aid to locating areas of low
or high modulation, for manually adjusting the playback or
editing location with the emulated stylus/cartridge. Although
the ribbon is con?gured here to show the signal amplitude/
modulation level, it alternatively may be con?gured to dis
if the substrate were so imprinted.
play other suitable signal parameters.
[0057] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the opacity of the arc drawing may be varied depending
on the calculated highlight level. For example, at high levels
[0061] The stylus radial offset from rest position at the
lead-in area (data offset time coordinate 0) and angular posi
tion of the platter are used to back-calculate using an inverse
of modulation, the opacity may be increased to approximately
90 percent, and reduced proportionate to the modulation level
offset into the digital source data ?le used to generate the
to a minimum of approximately 30 percent at locations of low
or zero modulation. Thus, if the substrate blank color is a dark
the offset into the data is simply the fraction of the total radial
blue, the highlights appear bluish white, and the areas of low
modulation bluish black (black being the arc color used for
areas of low modulation). The preferred variable opacity used
is between approximately 5 and 100 percent. Alternatively,
the opacity of the overlaid arc drawing may be maintained at
a ?xed value between 5 and 100 percent. At 100 percent
opacity, the appearance of the image would depend solely on
the arc drawing and would not be affected by any coloration
or patterning in the substrate.
[0058] FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate an exemplary embodi
ment of the present invention. As shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B,
portions of the data with low signal modulation appear as a
dark band 11 in the image. Areas with moderate or high
modulation become highlighted according to the level of
modulation, as 12. Iconic markers indicated by 13 and 36
highlight regions of interest, and are superimposed on the
image. Here, the markers are con?gured to indicate putative
transients in the data caused by defects (pops) in the source
(digitally sampled from an actual analog record platter). The
algorithmic method for pop detection in conjunction with the
of the image generation algorithm to generate an accurate
image. For example, given a manually chosen stylus position,
displacement from the lead-in area to the start of the lead-out
area, because each revolution of the platter represents the
same amount (time coordinate) of data (at constant rotational
velocity). When spinning the platter manually, such as when
editing the sampled data, as described below, any additional
data offset is calculated by the rotational rate represented by
the platter image times 1/360 times the manually changed angle
of the platter.
[0062] An alternate method of determining an accurate off
set into the source ?le may be accomplished by saving a
lookup table with an offset corresponding to each rendered
image point, or a lookup table for each image radius, and the
data offset calculated based on the sample offset for a given
offset angle from the lookup value. The precision in generat
ing the image is suf?cient to ensure pixel-accurate correspon
dence between the image and the corresponding original
sampled data. In the case of a more complicated “vari-pitch”
image generation method mentioned below, the arc radius
would not necessarily decrease in a simple linear fashion
during the generation of the image, and an alternate method,
data display is described in detail below. Markers also can be
such as a look-up table, may be used to correlate the stylus
displayed as a circular highlight, as 42.
position and data offset.
[0059] The lead-in area as explained above is indicated by
14. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, addi
tional parameters are adjustable; a proportional slide control
[0063] The angular position of the platter is controlled by
clicking and spinning the platter, in emulation of the familiar
for make-up gain 15. A Repeat parameter 16 used in conjunc
tion with an Editing feature and settings con?gured with
controls 18, 19, 20 is detailed below. “Stylus cueing” for the
emulated turntable is provided by control 17; playback signal
turntable paradigm. A “hand” cursor 33 is used to provide a
feedback cue for the user. One having ordinary skill in the art
tone arm 25. As known in the art and used herein, the term
will appreciate that any suitable pointer icon may be used in
the present invention. The platter-spinning paradigm and its
applications to examining and editing the data are explained
below, in conjunction with FIGS. 4 and 5.
[0064] Optionally, based on the type of input data, addi
tional features may be added to the record image. For
example, for a digital music recording, the record image may
include information display on the label area 34, including
artist name 37, title of recording 38, track names and times 41,
plus spaces for additional data 35 and 43. The additional
information 35 may include the calibrated platter rotational
“offset” refers to the position in number of digital samples
rate/pitch adjustment, the application of which is described in
from the beginning of the recording of digitally sampled input
data. For an audio recording, this could be represented either
greater detail below with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7. The
additional information 43 may include the date of the record
by the sample number or by a temporal value (time coordi
nate) in seconds. The exact sample position is indicated by
stylus 23; sighting aids are provided as marks 22 and 24. The
ing of the digitally sampled music or data ?le.
[0065] The rendering model used (i.e., the Acoustic or the
Physical model) is indicated by 46 and 47 on the label data
data offset time coordinate in minutes and seconds is indi
area, according to an embodiment of the present invention.
amplitude metering 28 and monitoring volume adjustment
29. Controls 30, 31, and 32 affect the operational mode of the
preferred embodiment of the present invention; namely, play
back, editing or archiving (recording) mode, respectively.
[0060] In accordance with the tumtable/platter paradigm,
the offset into the digitally sampled input data can be adjusted
by moving the emulated cartridge 21 attached to the emulated
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 A1
The Physical rendering model generates a somewhat different
image (shown in FIG. 2B), than theAcoustic model (shown in
on loud areas of the disc, particularly those with high ampli
tude low-frequency program content. This technique gener
FIG. 2A). The overall difference between the images gener
ally increases the duration of audio that can be placed on a
ated by the two models are not limited to contrast and/or
brightness differences in the generated highlighting. This is
disc, compared to using a ?xed inter-groove spacing dictated
by the maximum modulation level of the recording.
illustrated by the arc highlight indicated by 48 in the Acoustic
model and 49 in the Physical model. The prominent highlight
[0070] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the method and system employ a ?xed inter-groove
48, at the same radial offset indicated by 49, illustrates an
spacing. Consequently, visual comparison of platter images
example of the kind of differences in the image appearance
created by the systems and methods of the present invention
which result from the choice of the Acoustic or Physical
model. Other differences in the models may be found in
comparing the images of FIGS. 2A and 2B.
[0066] The Physical model is designed to more closely
emulate the physical appearance of an analog recorded disc.
The translation of an electronic signal to the physical undu
lations on the disc causes a greater physical undulation to
appear when the stereo channels have a reverse polarity rela
tionship. Therefore, to emulate the physical appearance of the
and corresponding physical media (if transcribed digitally
from an analog disc) illustrate the differences that exist ther
ebetween. However, there are a plurality of different results
possible when mastering the physical recorded disc, as dic
tated by the judgment of the mastering engineer. Because of
this uncontrollable variable, the platter image generated by
the method an system of the present invention resemble, but
not necessarily appear identical, to a physically manufactured
product made using the same audio data. While it would
disc, the Physical model subtracts the corresponding digital
increase the complexity of the platter image generation model
samples of the stereo channels before calculating the RMS
yields the most realistic representation when the Physical
used by the present invention, it would be feasible to apply
similar vari-pitch or adjustable inter-groove spacing tech
niques in the invention.
[0071] The models used to generate the platter image use
model is used.
[0067] Other models could be constructed, such as using
nearly un?ltered digitized input data, which, when obtained
from samples of analog music discs, has already been equal
Peak waveform values to generate highlighting information,
for example. However, in the preferred embodiment of the
present invention, the best results in generating interesting,
informative and aesthetically pleasing images were obtained
back of analog disc recordings. Here, nearly un?ltered indi
amplitude value. In practice, visual comparison of actual,
physical platter recordings to the emulated images usually
with the two models described herein.
[0068] An additional aspect of FIGS. 2A and 2B is that the
entire sampled data ?le was used to generate the platter
image. Here, the sampled ?le was a continuously recorded
digital transcription of two sides recorded from a vinyl analog
music disc, Creedence Clearwater Revival’s “Cosmo’s Fac
tory,” Mobile Fidelity catalog number MFSL-l -037. An
accurate emulation of the original physical platter would
consist of only one side of the music disc. In the Edit mode of
the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the full
?le platter image assists in selecting the individual track mark
locations. For example, using the track editing features of an
embodiment of the invention, described below, the locations
in the digitally sampled recording corresponding to Side 1
and Side 2 of the original, physical vinyl based recording are
established, as are the individual track or song locations/
offsets, by visually locating areas of low modulation on the
platter image, and manually positioning the stylus 23 at each
of these locations, in turn, and noting the corresponding sty
lus positions. In practice, the stylus position coordinates
would be noted and saved by the software application hosting
the invention, at the command of the user. This process is
ized to compensate for the emphasis scheme used for play
cates that the input data samples are ?ltered to less than the
usual extent dictated by the pre-emphasis signal ?ltering
that’s normally applied during the manufacture (during the
mastering stage) of vinyl records. For example, the RIAA
equalization emphasis curve, well-known to practitioners of
the art, accentuates high frequencies while attenuating low
frequencies; the corner frequency between the two regions
being approximately 1 kHz. The corresponding playback
equalization is the inverse of the curve used in the disc manu
facturing process. The de-emphasis applied at playback to
high frequencies minimizes the in?uence of high frequency
noise generated during the playback process. The low fre
quency emphasis compensates for the low frequency roll-off
applied to the sound recording during cutting of the disc, to
limit the mechanical excursion of the disc cutter, which is
greatest at low frequencies. A strict recreation of the physical
characteristics of the disc would apply the exact RIAA
emphasis/de-emphasis curve. Both platter generation models
used in the present invention use a hybrid approach that only
attenuates the low frequencies below 100 Hz, with a single
pole roll-off similar to the RIAA equalization scheme. The
high frequencies are left emphasized, which produces a sat
isfactory result. Changes in appearance of the platter image
naturally would result from different ?ltering schemes. How
further explained below in the description of FIGS. 4 and 5,
ever, the choice of a particular ?ltering scheme is not funda
and in greater detail below. After assignment has been com
mentally required by the present invention.
pleted, the individual emulated disc side platter images are
then generated from the corresponding subsets of the ?le.
[0069] The manufacture of analog music discs sometimes
[0072] In FIG. 2B, the segment indicated by the double
arrow 50 represents the digital samples from side 1 of the
sampled music disc; the double arrow of 51 represents digi
tized information from side 2. FIG. 3 indicates the Play mode
58 of a preferred embodiment of the present invention, after
employs a technique known to practitioners in the art as
“vari-pitch,” which adjusts the inter-groove spacing (pitch) of
the disc. This prevents areas of large modulation from causing
the cutter head, used to generate the master stamper disc, from
crossing into a previously cut groove, ruining the stamper.
The inter-groove spacing also may be controlled manually at
generating the individual disc side images. The Play mode
loads in the disc side images and adjusts the sensitivity of the
stylus positioning (time coordinate) accordingly. The image
the discretion of the mastering engineer. Normally, inter
segment 50 of FIG. 2B corresponds to the image segment 52
of FIG. 3B. The image segment 51 of FIG. 2B corresponds to
groove spacing is smaller on quiet areas of the disc and larger
the image segment 53 of FIG. 3A. The label information area
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US 2014/0304598 A1
of the platter image data, 54, 55, 56, 57 also is updated
accordingly for side 1 in FIG. 3B and side 2 as shown in FIG.
3A.
[0073] FIG. 4 illustrates the use of the platter cueing para
digm to adjust the offset of the waveform inspector. FIG. 4A
shows an offset into the original ?le, obtained by clicking and
sliding the cartridge and stylus 62 to the desired offset. The
mouse is positioned above the image of the platter, and pro
vides feedback to the user by clenching the hand cursor when
the mouse is clicked. At this stage, the preferred embodiment
of the present invention reveals a waveform display, indicat
ing the source waveform represented by the platter image at
the offset of the stylus position. Here, the offset has been
adjusted to place the stylus over an iconic overlay 62 that
indicated a waveform amplitude maximum; in this case,
caused by a physical defect (pop) on the analog source disc.
The corresponding time offset in the source data is indicated
by display 60. The waveform 63 is comprised of left channel
64, right channel 66 and 67, and their normalized sum 65.
[0074] In FIG. 4B, the mouse has been dragged, from
former position 70 to new position 71, in the direction illus
trated by arrow 72, rotating the platter image clockwise about
the center spindle, and incrementing the offset into the data
?le. This is indicated by an increase of approximately 10
milliseconds in the offset time indicator 69, the change in
position of waveform maxima icon 74, and translation of the
peak 68 from waveform 63 by distance 73 in the waveform
display.
[0075]
FIG. 5 illustrates using the platterparadigm to deter
from the edge of the frame 85 to the ?ducial 83, the portion of
the frame denoted by 76. The duration of the loop is set by the
Repeat interval control 16 in FIG. 2A, here 100 milliseconds.
[0080] The track mark-in, or start point of the track, may be
precisely determined by gently rotating the platter, which sets
the precise stylus offset, while listening to the playback. The
platter is rotated until any audible lead-in to the music wave
form 78 is absent. The auto-normalization of the lead-in
waveform also applies to the audible data as well as the
waveform inspector. This ampli?es the quiet prior to the
music introduction, ensuring that any musical information is
included within the track mark-in, even if masked by noise,
and the nonmusical portion of the recording is excluded.
When a satisfactory mark-in has been established, it may be
?nalized, in the preferred embodiment of the present inven
tion, and displayed accordingly in list 82.
[0081] A similar procedure is used to establish the end
point of the track, also referred to as the track mark-out
position, except that the mark-out mode 88 is selected, and the
looping mode of the inspector display is reversed. Instead of
looping the portion of the waveform prior to the cursor posi
tion, 76, the part of the waveform looped during playback is
that after the cursor position, between ?ducial 83 and edge of
the looping frame 86. In a similar fashion to that described
above, the platter is rotated until musical information at the
lead-out of the song is absent. This is ?nalized and used as the
Mark-Out as depicted 87.
[0082] FIGS. 6 and 7 depict using defects in the recorded
material to calibrate the proper playback speed. A primary
mine and set audio recording track boundaries. This may be
source of error in transcription of analog disc recordings is the
accomplished visually using only the waveform inspector 84,
quality of the speed accuracy of the turntable. Many mid
priced “audiophile” turntables rely on an AC synchronous
or visually and audibly with the inspector in conjunction with
listening to a de?ned, continuously looped portion of the
audio ?le of interest.
[0076]
In FIG. 5, the stylus is positioned in the platter
lead-in area, just prior to the start of the music information.
The waveform inspector display is split into two portions. The
left half, 76 is the waveform at a time offset prior to the stylus
position. The right half, 77, depicts the waveform at a time
offset following the stylus position. The ?ducial mark 83
indicates the waveform at exactly the stylus position.
[0077] Each half of the waveform display is independently
normalized for amplitude. The waveform halves depicted in
motor to determine the rotation rate. The line frequency of
utility power is subject to variation, which affect the rota
tional speed accuracy. Mechanical tolerances in the turntable
components can also affect the rotational speed. Finally, play
back speed inaccuracy can arise in the case of sampled digital
audio if the sample clock rates of the recording and playback
devices are different, again due to component tolerances.
According to an embodiment of the present invention, these
in?uences are lumped together and considered to be due to
turntable absolute speed inaccuracy.
[0083]
In the case of sound data sourced from an analog
76 and 77 are halves of a contiguous waveform; the apparent
recording platter, surface noise caused by physical damage to
discontinuity is caused by differences in scaling applied to the
display. The waveform immediately to the right of 83 appears
the disc surface, due to normal wear and tear, tend to accrue.
smaller because its scaling is in?uenced by the onset of the
music waveform at 78.
[0078]
As the mouse is clicked and dragged on the platter
image surface, the waveform in the display 84 scrolls hori
zontally and is rescaled in two halves about the ?ducial point
83. (The waveform depicted comes from the same source
Some of this noise may be caused by scratches or physical
contamination involving adjacent grooves on the analog disc.
The noise is easily identi?able by its sound as an audible
“pop” or as a prominent transient in the waveform display.
The periodicity of such pops in two adjacent grooves is
approximately equal to the reciprocal of the disc rotational
rate. For a 331/3 RPM disc, this would be 1.800 seconds. Any
used to generate all other Figures.)
deviation from this value would re?ect an error in the tum
[0079] The turntable platter paradigm becomes extremely
table playback rotation rate.
useful in setting a track mark point, especially when dealing
[0084]
with data sampled from an analog source. In contrast to data
the image generation to increase the realism of the platter
image simulation, and also for correcting the time base (abso
originating from a digital recording, analog data often is
accompanied by various forms of background noise. Unfor
tunately, because of the masking effects of the noise, it’s not
always possible to accurately determine the beginning or end
of an audio track based solely on the appearance of the wave
The measured deviation can be used to recalibrate
lute pitch) of the digitized recording via resampling. Tech
niques for resampling digital audio to arbitrary values for
pitch modi?cation are well-known to practitioners of the art.
The calibration procedure described below is valuable for
form. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention,
the Mark-In mode selected by pressing control 81 causes the
determining the degree of pitch correction required.
audible playback and continuous looping of the waveform
maxima in the digitally sampled ?le is presented. Two adja
[0085]
In FIG. 6 a sorted list 89 and 99 of the amplitude
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 A1
cent entries in the list at time offsets 26:10.90964 (90) and
FIG. 8 at offsets 3310988402 (123) and 3310809557 (124)
26:12.69802 (100) are separated by 1.78838 seconds. This is
close to the putative turntable rotation period (for a 33 1/3 RPM
12" LP record) of 1.8000 seconds per revolution, and the
pop defects were located. The time offset between these
maxima do indeed correspond to a “pop” or defect on the
surface of the source analog disc recording. (There is an
additional maxima at 26:09.12041 seconds that is indicated
on the platter image iconic overlay 92; but the calibration
example below focuses on the other two maxima. The time
delta between maxima 91 and 92 is 1.78923 seconds, there
fore the percent relative error between choosing among these
two measurements for calibration is 100*(1.78923—1.
78838)/1.78838 or less than 0.05 percent.)
[0086] In FIG. 6A the stylus is positioned at the ?rst
maxima at time offset 26: 10.90964 seconds. The maxima also
is indicated iconically on the platter image 91. By rotating the
defects is 1.78845 seconds. Comparing this to the defects
used for the above calibration example, 26: 10.90964 (90) and
26: 12.69802 (100) which are separated by 1.78838, the
resultant percentage difference in rotational error between
using these two measurements for calibration is 100*(1.
78845—1.78838)/1.78838) or less than 0.004 percent differ
ence. While it’s possible that the close agreement is fortu
itous, more likely it indicates that the variation in turntable
rotational velocity accuracy is probably small over the time
needed to digitally record and transcribe an analog audio disc.
[0091]
FIG. 7B is a more detailed view of the result of the
calibration 109, where the overlap of the iconic representa
tions of peak maxima demonstrate that the calibration suc
cessfully corrects the effective rotational rate.
platter, the offset may be ?ne-tuned to coincide with the peak
[0092]
maximum 95 (right channel) or 93 (left channel). Generally,
represented as 110 with time offset indicated 115. The next
the channel with the transient having the most consistently
prominent waveform shape among the two time offsets would
revolution (arrow 114 indicates the direction of rotation) of
the platter image brings maximum 111 into view, at time
be chosen. The sum of the waveforms of the two channels also
offset 116. Maximum 110 is offset because of rotational rate
error to 110' relative to 111. A subsequent clockwise rotation
is displayed 94. The selection of the peak maximum may be
done manually or automatically.
[0087] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention,
the selection of the ?rst calibration offset is con?rmed by
clicking button 96. The time offset is echoed in the text
display 97. The next maxima 99 is selected in the list and ?ne
tuning of waveform maxima position 104 performed manu
ally, if necessary. The iconic representation 91 of the ?rst
maxima at time offset 26: 10.90964 (89) has rotated clockwise
to 91', and the second maxima at time offset 26: 12.69802 now
is positioned (102) directly under the stylus. If the rotation
rate of the turntable were exactly 331/3 RPM, the iconic over
lays 92, 91/91' and 102 would be positioned on adjacent arcs
FIG. 7A shows the offset of the maximum iconically
of the platter image brings maximum 112 into view at time
offset 117. The previous maxima also are visible at 110' and
111'. Applying the calibration corrects the platter image for
rotational rate error bringing the maxima into adjacent regis
tration 109 at time offset 118. The latter time offset is the same
as time offset 117 because maximum 112 was used as the
point of reference for the rotational rate correction.
[0093] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, tools for transcribing audio disc recordings to a digital
format, includes tools for locating physical “pop” defects on
the discs by analyZing the digitally sampled audio. This facili
of the platter image, instead of being offset circumferentially
tates the calibration procedure described above.
[0094] Three separate algorithms were considered for
from each other. The offset occurs on the image because of the
turntable rotational velocity error. Con?rmation of the second
“pop” detection. In FIG. 8, analysis results using the three
con?rms the calibration and regenerates the platter image,
algorithms are sorted in tables according to the strength of the
measured parameter. Two obvious methods consider the
amplitude or slew rate of the signals as the pop detection
parameter. The ?rst algorithm uses the maximum amplitude
of the left or right signal channels. Of the 22 candidates
basing the platter revolution on a period of 1.78838 instead of
1.8000 seconds.
displayed in the list 119, three (126, 127, 128) were physical
pop events (con?rmed by examining the waveform and audi
[0088]
overlays indicating the peak maxima are now adjacent, as
shown in FIG. 7B (109), which focuses on the iconic overlay
bly by playback). (Event 125 was generated by lifting the
physical playback stylus from the disc, understandably gen
erating a large amplitude transient.) The second algorithm
calibration mark is con?rmed by pressing button 106, and the
corresponding time offset 107 and calculated actual rota
tional rate 108 are echoed on the display. Pressing button 101
The resultant platter image shows that the iconic
detail. FIGS. 7A and 7B are described more thoroughly
uses the maximum slew rate of the left or right signal chan
below; however, overlays 112. 111' and 110" directly corre
spond to 92, 91/91' and 102, respectively, in FIGS. 6A and 6B.
[0089] This calibration procedure could conceivably be
applied at different regions of the recording, in case the abso
lute rotational error varies throughout the recording process,
and presuming that other surface defects exist at advanta
geous locations on the recording. However, it’s unlikely that
properly cared-for analog discs will have a large number of
nels. Of the 22 candidates displayed in the list 121, only one
was inverted at the peak of the pop, another algorithm that
measured the difference between channels was used. In list
120, 13 of 22 candidates highlighted (130) were veri?ed as
physically suitable defects; therefore, this technique is prima
being caused by physical defects in the analog disc. The other
rily intended as a means of a single-point rotational rate
pop event, 129 was the stylus lift mentioned above. This event
also has characteristics in common with pop defects, namely
calibration that’s applied uniformly for the duration of the
recording. It is possible that over a time period of typically 30
minutes, representing the duration of a single side of an
analog disc, the short-term variation in absolute rotational
rate error can be neglected.
[0090] For example, another suitable pop defect was
located on this recording with the aid of automated tools. In
(122) was an actual pop event. The other candidates were
comprised of valid musical information.
[0095] Noticing that the transient waveforms in FIG. 6A
showed that the relative signal polarity during the pop event
the large amplitude inverted polarity difference between
channels.
[0096] While this invention has been described in terms of
several preferred embodiments, there are alterations, permu
tations, and equivalents, which fall within the scope of this
invention. Although the image display has been described in
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 A1
terms of generating emulated images of analog audio discs,
the tonearm “stylus” on the “vinyl” surface. The track begin
any data possessing an innate periodicity lends itself to this
ning/ end is then precisely located by “grabbing” and rotating
the platter image.
type of display. The effective rotational period of the display
could be adapted to suit the periodicity of the available data.
[0102]
A recording of an electrocardiogram of a human or animal is
a suitable example of this sort of data. Presuming an average
detail below. First, an audio ?le consisting of a single or
heart rate for a particular patient of 60 Hz, with a primary
periodicity of roughly 1 Hz, a long time record of events could
be displayed on the virtual platter surface. By setting the
An exemplary mode of operation is described in
multiple tracks is opened with the application software con
?gured according to the present invention. The source of the
audio ?le may be a transcription from a vinyl LP, a digital
virtual display rotational rate at 2 Hz, 120 heartbeat events
recording from another source (such as a cassette tape or live
concert recording), or a digital recording copied from a CD or
would be displayed per revolution. Each platter could show
other digital source.
the equivalent of 30 minutes or more of the electrocardiogram
[0103] Next, the present invention automatically analyzes
recording. A steady heart rate would be re?ected by events
aligned along well de?ned radii, similar to the example for the
the audio data and generates a realistic, accurate image of a
calibrated disc rotational rate above. Any variations in rate
of this step of the operation is shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The
user may specify the color of the ‘vinyl’ substrate, in the same
would be immediately apparent upon visual examination of
the platter image. In contrast, discerning ?uctuations in data
periodicity by the visual examination of a linear, orthogonal
single-track or multiple track vinyl record platter. An example
sense that commercially released records sometimes are
pressed on colored or clear vinyl for cosmetic or promotional
x-y plot would be much more dif?cult over the time frame
envisioned here.
purposes. The user may also choose from the Acoustic or
[0097]
or personal preference. The user also may specify the platter
rendering format, corresponding to those typically encoun
It should also be noted that there are many alterna
tive ways of implementing the methods and apparatuses of
Physical rendering options, depending on the rendering intent
the present invention. For example, the virtual tone arm could
be represented as a linear carriage as depicted, or a pivoted
linear or curved virtual tone arm. The platter metaphor also
tered, such as, for example, RPM (331/3, 16, 45, 78, etc.) and
image size (e.g., 7", 10", 12"). If digitally transcribing an
could be extended to other periodic implementations, such as
a cylinder with the data image applied to the inner or outer
surface, with the time dependent axis parallel to the axis of
format of the source medium.
analog music disc, the selected format may be the same as the
[0104] The user may also specify that an image be super
imposed on the substrate, and the music “grooves” drawn
symmetry of the cylinder.
over the image with varying degrees of transparency. The
[0098] The methods and apparatuses of the present inven
tion may be used to generate an emulated platter image from
image may be a digital photograph, drawing or an abstract
the contents of a digital recording that is intended to be
mastered to a Compact Disc or Digital Versatile (Video) Disc.
For ornamental or marketing purposes, the emulated platter
image may be impressed on the surface of the Disc, or used in
the packaging or marketing materials of the Disc, providing a
[0105] If the audio recording is sourced from an analog LP
consisting of multiple individual sides, or a CD transcription
of a recording originally released as a vinyl LP, the platter
image created according to the present invention may consist
of a single “side” comprised of all the tracks.
design, for example.
design that has added appeal because it would indicate the
[0106] Next, the tonearm/ stylus assembly is used to assign
actual characteristics of the information contained on the
Disc.
track mark points. The user may assign a track mark for each
individual track, or only marks to delineate the sides of the LP
record that is the source of the digital transcription. In the
second instance, a two-sided transcription of a vinyl LP may
[0099] According to an embodiment of the present inven
tion, the methods and systems may be used to convert dis
cretely sampled audio data, such as music into the circular
display format indicated by FIGS. 2 and 3. A display of data
obtains that emulates the appearance of a popular format for
music dissemination, the vinyl (or formerly shellac) record.
The general familiarity of the public with such records and
be assigned four mark points. These mark points would cor
respond to the music lead-in of side 1, the music lead-out of
side 1, the music lead-in of side 2, and the music lead-out of
side 2. As an alternative, the user could assign marks and titles
to all individual tracks.
[0107]
The procedure for setting the track marks is
their associated playback equipment is an advantage, as most
persons already possess an intuitive grasp of the concept of
the vinyl LP disc. Further, the simulation goes beyond a
purely cosmetic, stylized rendition of the appearance of a
vinyl record, because the appearance of the groove modula
tions re?ects the actual audio content of the recording.
described above, after moving the tonearm/ stylus to a blank
modulation groove, the record is “spun” and the audio wave
[0100]
quiet area of the groove is located, the cueing button 17 (FIG.
2A), is engaged. The portion of the waveform displayed on
Selecting a track marking or cueing point by moving
the “tonearm” and spinning the disc was the intuitive means
employed by professional disc jockeys during the vinyl LP
format era.
[0101] The method and system convert the discretely
sampled data into a display that emulates the vinyl record
format, or record image. The record image may optionally
comprise features of a conventional vinyl record and record
described in detail above with reference to FIG. 5. As
form displayed. The operation mode selected is indicated in
?eld 81 on FIG. 5, for mark-IN. When the central part of the
the screen to the left of the mark-in location is repeated in a
looping fashion, and played back audibly over the computer’ s
speakers. The mark-in location may then be ?ne-tuned by
gently rotating the platter until only lead-in noise is audible. If
the mark-in location were moved to past the beginning of the
audio, a small snippet of the audio may be heard. The rotation
of the platter while listening to the loop and watching the
waveform provides the user with interactive feedback. This
player, such as, for example, a tonearm/which may be used as
a way to edit and play back digital audio ?les. Areas of low
permits rapidly selecting the mark-in location. The mark-in
modulation between tracks are easily selected by dropping
location then is con?rmed.
Oct. 9, 2014
US 2014/0304598 A1
[0108] Next, the track (or album side) mark-out optionally
chosen mark points. Likewise, two new platter images are
is selected. The procedure is similar to selecting the mark-in.
Mark-OUT button 88 is engaged. The stylus is positioned at
the end of the previous track (or album side). When the
mark-out location is successfully located, only the noise of
the lead-out of the previous track is heard. If the mark-out
location is adjusted to a location before the end of the audio,
a snippet of the lead-out of the audio is heard.
[0109] This editing procedure is invaluable when used in
generated, using only the portions of the sound ?le delineated
by the mark points. In the case of marking multiple tracks, the
recording may optionally be split into multiple sound ?les
corresponding to the individually marked tracks. These ?les
conjunction with making high-quality, accurate transcrip
tions of music recordings from a vinyl to a digital format.
Compared to music recordings sourced from digital master
recordings, and distributed in a digital format, the modulation
in between tracks of a transcribed vinyl disk does not drop to
silence, because of record vinyl surface noise. When editing
purely digital recordings, locating track mark points is a
trivial matter, because one merely uses the waveform display
to cut or select the tracks at obvious, digitally “silent” loca
tions.
[0110]
However, digital silence doesn’t exist in analog
transcriptions of vinyl, so it’s impossible to establish accurate
track mark points based only on the appearance of the wave
may be used to generate CD-R based compilations or albums,
or the ?les could be incorporated into digital music libraries,
stored on a computer or other device, for playback with music
library management software, such as, for example, iTunes
by Apple Computer, Inc. The platter images include informa
tion on the central label area, which may include a decorative
design or image, in addition to track listing, track timings,
artist, album title, side number, RPM and other information.
[0115] In the case of only marking the album side bound
aries, the sound ?les generated would emulate the experience
of playing back the music in discrete, side long sections,
similar to playing LP records.According to an embodiment of
the present invention, the host software is used to record vinyl
transcriptions at sample rates (88.2, 96, 176.4, 192 kHz or
other) and quantization resolutions (24, 32, 48, 64 bits or
other) which signi?cantly exceed those commonly used for
waveform. However, setting track marks interactively using
music reproduction in the CD medium. In certain instances, it
is possible for vinyl playback systems to exceed the band
width of CD recordings. The bandwidth of LP cutter heads
and high quality playback styli/cartridges can extend to 50
both the waveform and audible feedback eliminates the pos
kHz or more. There is some evidence that the ultrasonic
sibility of inadvertently placing a track mark before the actual
information conveyed from vinyl playback helps to preserve
spatial and timing cues when listening to the recording. Fur
form. For instance, a gradual song fade-out or fade-in may be
heard quite noticeably even in the presence of vinyl back
ground noise, which may obscure the music, viewed as the
fade-out or after an actual fade-in. The ease of use of the
visual representation generated according to the present
invention allows the user to intuitively grab and spin the
“platter” to further re?ne and accelerate the editing process.
[0111] The procedure of setting track marks may be
ther, the audio transcribed from the vinyl can be recorded
without applying the RIAA inverse equalization that is
required for accurate playback, merely by amplifying the
signal from the playback cartridge with a linear preampli?er.
repeated for each track. In the case of a multisided transcrip
(Proper passive resistive/capacitive loading of the cartridge
tion of a vinyl record album, provision is made to specify the
number of sides that are present in the recording. When the
would need to be observed, of course). The high-sample-rate
lead-out mark of the last track on side one has been deter
mined, the label area is clicked. The software program con
back. This arrangement creates an archival copy of the infor
mation on the audio LP disc. Even further, the edits made as
?gured to implement the present invention interprets this as
described as above could serve as nondestructive markers that
moving to the next side of the album. Track marks and song
titles may continued to be added. This is repeated until all
album sides are completed.
advantage is that digitally applied inverse equalization is
audio ?le may be equalized later, in software, during play
are used to coordinate the playback process. An additional
immune to errors arising from component (resistor, capacitor,
[0112] Either before or after establishing track markers, the
user may optionally calibrate the accurate rotational velocity
inductor) tolerances present in analog equalization networks.
of the platter image (and putative playback speed) of the vinyl
a basis for precision resampling of the archived high-sample
transcription. This calibration procedure depends on locating
rate ?le to create a transcription to CD or DVD format that
[0116]
In this vein, the turntable calibration may be used as
physical defects in the audio recording caused by scratches or
eliminates pitch errors caused by incorrect turntable rotation
blemishes on the source disc. According to an embodiment of
the present invention, one or more tools may be provided to
rate, and more faithfully represents the source material
aid in selecting suitable defects. For example, for a 33 1/3 RPM
vinyl LP, at least one pair of defects must be located that are
tion).
spaced approximately 1.8 seconds apart. The spacing
depends on the putative rotational rate (16, 33 1/3, 45, 78 RPM,
etc.) of the analog source disc.
[0113] According the present invention, the system
includes a Calibration mode, as illustrated in FIG. 6. In this
example, the ?rst defect is selected and con?rmed by pressing
button 96. The second defect is selected and con?rmed by
pressing button 106. Both choices are then con?rmed by
pressing button 101.
[0114] The ?nal platter images are then automatically gen
erated. In the case of only setting four mark points (for a
two-sided album), two sound ?les are optionally created,
corresponding to the audio ?le segments bounded by the
(elimination of analog component errors in inverse equaliza
[0117] The tape bias information may be preserved by the
high sample rate used for archiving. This allows for the
removal of the analog “wow” and “?utter” frequency modu
lation distortion not only caused by the tape equipment used
to record and manufacture the LP, but also to correct problems
due to the short-term variations in speed of the vinyl playback
turntable, creating, in effect, a very high stability vinyl play
back system from a possibly marginal mechanical source.
[0118] After generating the ?nal platter images, provision
is made to display an album side image and play back the
original or rendered audio ?les. The tonearm may be used in
initiating playback. The stylus may be dropped at the begin
ning of the platter image lead-in groove, or at a speci?c track
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