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INSTRUCTION MANUAL
RF PEAK POWER METER
ANALYZER
RF PEAK POWER METER
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INSTRUCTION MANUAL
MODEL 4500A
RF PEAK POWER METER ANALYZER
MODEL 4400A
RF PEAK POWER METER
This manual covers instrument
serial #s: ALL
ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
REV DATE 9/97
MANUAL P/N 98404700A
25 EASTMANS ROAD, PARSIPPANY, NJ 07054
TELEPHONE: 973-386-9696
FAX: 973-386-9191
BOONTON ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
4400A/4500A MANUAL ADDENDUM
OPTION 05 - TTL EXTERNAL TRIGGER LEVEL
(BEC PRODUCT NUMBER 99102115A)
DESCRIPTION
This option replaces the standard 50 ohm external trigger input(s) and has a resistance of
approximately 5k ohms to ground with no pull-up resistor. Most TTL and CMOS sources can
easily drive this load. The input is also useful as a general purpose trigger input and is adaptable
to ECL logic operating at either +5 volts or –5.2 volts as well as newer low voltage saturated
logic families.
FUNCTIONAL CHANGES
With the TTL Trigger Level Option 05 installed, additional menu choices for trigger source will
appear in the Trig>Trig Source menu box. When selected the 1 EXT TTL and 2 EXT TTL
sources automatically set and fix the trigger level to +1.40 volts. The 1 EXT and 2 EXT sources
provide a variable trigger level range of -3.00 to +3.00 volts with a 5k ohm load resistance. A
minimum signal level of 400 mV peak-to-peak within the trigger level range is required for
triggering. To avoid damage DO NOT APPLY a signal level greater than !30 volts combined
DC plus peak AC.
Additional GPIB bus commands have been added to control the trigger source:
TR1EXTTL - selects the number 1 external trigger input BNC connector and forces the trigger
level to the TTL threshold +1.40 volts.
TR2EXTTL - selects the number 2 external trigger input BNC connector and forces the trigger
level to the TTL threshold +1.40 volts.
TESTING
After installation verify that the Trig>Trig Source menu box will select CH1 Int, 1 EXT, 1 EXT
TTL and the same for channel 2 if the instrument is a 2 channel configuration. If this test fails the
program version may be too old or the instrument is not licensed for this option or both.
Use an ohmmeter to measure the input resistance of the external trigger input(s). The input
impedance should be 5.00 kohms ( 4.90 – 5.10 kohms ) .
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Using a pulse generator apply a minimum TTL pulse signal (0.8 v to 2.0 v) at 10 kHz to the 1(2)
Trigger input BNC connector and to the EXT PULSE input BNC connector on the rear panel
simultaneously. Using the Spcl>Calibrator>Pulse>Source menu set the calibrator for External
pulse modulation and verify that the 1(2) EXT TTL trigger setting will automatically trigger with
this source. Change to 1(2) EXT and adjust the trigger level over its range. Using the
Chan1(2)>Extensions>Display>Pwr and Chan1(2)>Extensions>Display>Trig menu settings
verify that triggering occurs at approximately 1.4 volts trigger level.
Return the settings to Chan1(2)>Extensions>Display>Pwr.
1.
Revised 18 DEC 1999
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BOONTON ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
4400A/4500A MANUAL ADDENDUM
OPTION 04 – DELAY by EVENTS TRIGGER QUALIFIER
(BEC PRODUCT NUMBER 99102114A)
Description
Option 04 adds an additional qualifier to the 4400A/4500A trigger system to permit trigger delay
by events rather than by time only, and by a combination of time delay and events delay. This
capability is useful for selecting a particular pulse in a burst of pulses.
Dly by Events is turned On or Off from the TRIGger menu. This menu selection appears only in
instruments that have the necessary hardware installed. When Trig>Dly by Events is turned On,
the TRIGger menu selections will change to include Trig>EvTrig Delay (time) and Trig>Event
Counter.
The EvTrig Delay menu box replaces Trig Mode { Auto Norm }. The selected Auto or Normal
setting will remain effective when Dly by Events is active. The Auto mode supplies a trace when
the trigger condition is not met.
The EvTrig Delay time can be set from 1 microsecond to 65.534 milliseconds in 1 microsecond
steps and from 66 milliseconds to 65.534 seconds in 1 millisecond steps. To use this mode for
burst measurements the delay time is made longer than the burst time, but less than the burst
cycle time. This will result in stable triggering of the burst.
The Event Count menu box replaces Holdoff. When Dly by Events is active the sweep generator
holdoff is forced to its minimum value and all holdoff functions are performed via the EvTrig
Delay setting.
The Event Count is adjusted from 1 to 65,534 to select the desired trigger event within the burst.
The count is not reset at the end of the delay time. If a number larger than the number of events
in a single burst is chosen, counting will continue into the next burst.
The source, level and slope qualifications of the trigger are the same for the burst and the events.
Any internal or external trigger source may be used. The Model 4400A contains a single
sampling time base, but the Events Delay time base is independent of the Trig Delay setting in
the TIME menu. Time>Trig Delay along with the Time>Position { L M R } trigger position
setting can be used to align the trigger point of the expanded delayed trace with the display
graticule.
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In order to provide maximum flexibility, separate Delay by Events circuits and parameters are
maintained for each trigger source group. Trig>Trig Source { CH 1 INT, 1 EXT and 1 EXT TTL
} sources comprise group 1 and { CH 2 INT, 2 EXT and 2 EXT TTL } make up group 2. Only
group 1 sources are functional in single channel configurations.
New GPIB commands control the Delay by Events trigger qualifier. The following commands
are trigger source vectored and are directed to the trigger source group ( 1 or 2 ) currently
selected. This allows the delay by events conditions to be different for the two measurement
channels or the two external trigger sources.
TREVON - select delay by events operation.
TREVOF - select standard trigger system operation.
TREVDELY - set the Events Trigger Delay in seconds. For example, to set the delay to 501
microseconds, send TREVDELY 501E-6. The range is 1E-6 to 65534E-3.
TRECOUNT - set the Event Counter to the desired event number for trigger generation. The
range is 1 to 65534.
Software
Option 04 operates only with software revision 20000127 and later. This software will detect the
presence of the optional circuits and respond by enabling the option 04 features.
To test for this condition, press the TRIG function key. The bottom menu box should be labeled
Dly by Events and contain selections ON and Off. If the bottom menu box is blank, the optional
circuitry has not been detected.
Operational Check
With Option 04 successfully detected, set TRIG>Dly by Events to Off. Note that the top five
menu boxes of function TRIG are the same as for a standard instrument but arranged in a
different order. In this mode the trigger system operates in exactly the same manner as a standard
instrument without option 04.
Now set TRIG>Dly by Events to On. Note that the two middle menu boxes change to EvTrig
Delay and Event Counter. In this mode the TRIG>EvTrig Delay operates in a similar manner to
the Holdoff function in the standard configuration. It sets the minimum time between cycles of
the event counting system and is used to obtain synchronization with a pulse burst or equivalent
waveform. Once this is done, the TRIG>Event Counter is used to select by number the particular
event within the burst that triggers the horizontal sweep. The time base can then be expanded and
the Time>Trig Delay function operates on the expanded waveform as it would normally on a
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non-expanded waveform. The two delay functions are completely independent.
In this way you can synchronize and observe the nth pulse of a burst even if its time position is
highly variable.
Testing
Delay by events requires a pulse burst signal for testing. A TTL test signal consisting of a burst
of 50 or so 5 microsecond pulses repeated every 1 millisecond is recommended. Use this signal
to externally modulate the 1 GHz Calibrator. Connect a peak sensor to the Calibrator and
Channel 1. Use the following setup:
CALIBRATOR
Source
Polarity
Mode
Level
Output
Ext
+
Pulse
0.0 dBm
On
TRIGger
Dly by Events
Trig Slope
Event Counter
Ev Trig Delay
Trig Level
Trig Source
On
+
1
800 us
-3.00 dBm
CH1 Int
TIME
Timebase
Position
Trig Delay
200 us/div
M
0.0 us
Adjust the Channel 1 controls to view the pulse burst on the display. Change the timebase to 5
us/div and observe the first pulses of the burst beginning in the center of the display. Change the
event counter to 2 and observe the second pulse, etc. Slowly advance the Event Counter and
verify that you can scan all the way across the burst, pulse by pulse, to the last pulse. Advancing
the counter beyond the last pulse displays the first pulse of the next burst, etc.
Repeat the test for Channel 2 in a two channel configuration.
Revised 2 March 2000
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98404702A
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
A subsidiary of Noise/Com a Wireless Telecom Group Company
4400A/4500A MANUAL ADDENDUM
Applies to Instruction Manual Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter /Analyzer, Model 4400A RF Peak Power
Meter, Part Number 98404700A, revised 09/97.
Effective for Control Software Revision 20010119 and later.
1. NEW FEATURES
1.1 Power vs Time Data Output Capability
Data Buffer Configuration. Each trace display of the 4400A/4500A Peak Power Meter is
derived from a 501-element data buffer. Each element is a measurement value for one pixel in
the display. The elements are numbered from zero through 500. The element zero lies on the leftmost vertical gridline; the element 500 lies on the right-most gridline and element 250 lies on the
center gridline.
Data Buffer Output. Data can be output for Channel 1, Channel 2, Channel Math, Reference 1
or Reference 2. The data is adjusted for Vertical Offset, calibration factors and averaging. If the
display Units are set to “Linear”, power will be in watts with 5 decimal digits of resolution. The
real number format is: (-d.ddddE!dd , -dd.dddE!dd or –ddd.ddE!dd where the positive sign is
omitted and the exponent is mod 3) watts. Negative power values indicate underflow of the
system “zero”. If the display units are set to “Log”, power will be in dBm (decibels relative to 1
milliwatt) with a resolution of !0.01 dB. Negative linear power values will return –70.00 dBm
excluding offsets if not clipped.
In the Pulse mode with Log units a clip level is applied which establishes a minimum power
level based on the sensor calibration data. This level will vary depending upon the sensor type
and offsets.
For Channel 1 or 2 in the Trigger View mode the data will be returned in volts with a resolution
of !0.01 volts.
GPIB Data Buffer Output. Data buffer contents can be read over the GPIB using the
TKFPDISP talk mode command. This is a permanent talk mode that remains in effect until
replaced by a different permanent talk mode. TKFPDISP should be followed by an index
argument in the range 0 to 500 inclusive that specifies the number of the first element of the data
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buffer to be sent. The total number of elements requested is specified by the BUFCOUNT
command. BUFCOUNT is followed by an argument in the range 1 to 501 inclusive.
After the TKFPDISP command and argument are sent, the first time the 4400A/4500A is
addressed to talk (MTA is sent), a string of comma delimited elements will be returned
beginning with the index value followed by BUFCOUNT measurement values as described
above.
Each successive time the power meter is addressed to talk the index value will be automatically
advanced by BUFCOUNT number of elements and a new string returned. If the incremented
pointers reach beyond the last element in the buffer the string is truncated and fewer than
BUFCOUNT values are returned. At least one index and one element is always returned.
Example:
Example:
Example:
BUFCOUNT 10
TKFPDISP 0
[MTA]
[MTA]
Returns
Returns
0, p0, p1, p2, p3, p4 … p9
10, p10, p11, p12, p13 …p19
BUFCOUNT 501
TKFPDISP 0
[MTA]
Returns
[MTA]
Returns
0, p0, p1, p2 …….p500 (entire buffer)
500, p500
(truncated to one element)
BUFCOUNT 5
TKFPDISP 496
[MTA]
496, p496, p497, p498, p499, p500
Returns
The source buffer is selected using the CH1, CH2, CHM, REF1 and REF2 commands. The units
are selected using LIN or LOG. TKFPDISP does not interrupt sampling and data collection
while sending data. For this reason buffer data will not remain stable during a transfer. If this
behavior is undesirable, issue the STOP command to stop data capture when appropriate.
Front panel data buffer output is controlled by the
Front Panel Data Buffer Output.
Prgm>Trace Data> menu. An entire data buffer can be sent to a Floppy Disk file, the COM1
serial port or the LPT1 line printer. No index value is used. The delimiter separating data
elements can be selected to be a comma, LF (line-feed or NL), CR (carriage return) or ASCII
space. This is useful if the data file is to imported directly into a spreadsheet.
Prgm>Trace Data>Select
A number, nn, 0 to 99 which specifies the filename
B4500Ann.TXT. Applies only to Disk output.
Prgm>Trace Data>Source
Select the data buffer: CH1, CH2, CH Math, Ref1, Ref2
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Prgm>Trace Data>Destination Select the output device: LPT1, COM1 Disk
Prgm>Trace Data>Delimiter
Select the data element delimiter: comma, LF, CR, Space
Prgm>Trace Data>Send Data Press to START data transfer from buffer to device.
GPIB Control of Front Panel Output Controls. In addition to the direct GPIB output via the
TKFPDISP and BUFCOUNT commands, the alternate device outputs can also be controlled
over the bus. The specific commands are given below.
FILENO
Sets the filename B4500Ann.TXT for Disk output where nn is the argument of
FILENO. Valid range is 0 to 99.
BUFDELCO
Set buffer delimiter to comma.
BUFDELLF
Set buffer delimiter to linefeed (NL)
BUFDELCR
Set buffer delimiter to carriage return
BUFDELSP
Set buffer delimiter to space.
Note: The delimiters do not apply to data returned using TKFPDISP. They apply only to output
using DATASEND.
DATACOM1
DATADISK
DATALPT1
Select COM1 serial port output.
Select the floppy disk output with filename selected with FILENO
Select the printer port LPT1 for output. Delimiter will affect printed format.
DATASOCH1 Select the Channel 1 buffer.
DATASOCH2 Select the Channel 2 buffer.
DATASOCHM Select the Channel Math buffer.
DATASORF1 Select the Reference 1 buffer.
DATASORF2 Select the Reference 2 buffer.
Note: These source selections do not apply to data returned by TKFPDISP. They apply only to
output using DATASEND.
DATASEND
Action command which causes the data buffer to be sent to the selected output.
Unlike output to the GPIB data capture is interrupted during transfers to output ports and the
disk.
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1.2 Statistical Data Output Capability
The following data output capability is applicable only to the Model 4500A.
4500A Statistical Histogram GPIB Output.
The 4500A statistical histogram count array accumulated by running a CDF, 1-CDF or PDF
function is output in two arrays of 4096 values each.
1. The X-axis array consists of up to 4096 power values in watts or dBm as described
above. The bus commands LIN and LOG are used to set the units. The Channel 1
array is selected by the command SELDATTBL 6 and the Channel 2 array by
SELDATTBL 7. The array is returned by the talk mode command TK-TBLDAT n,
where n is the starting index number. The BUFCOUNT command followed by a
count argument of 1 to 4096 operates as described above for the TKFPDISP
command.
2. The Y-axis array consists of up to 4096 count values. The count value is the number
of times the power sample value has fallen within the bin located by the index
number. The power in watts or dBm for the center of each bin or index number is
given by the X-axis array above. The ratio of each bin count to the total sample count
is the probability of occurrence for that bin. The Channel 1 count array is selected by
the command SELDATTBL 8 and the Channel 2 count array by SELDATTBL 9. The
array is returned by the talk mode command TK-TBLDAT n, where n is the starting
index number. The BUFCOUNT command followed by a count argument of 1 to
4096 operates as described above for the TKFPDISP command.
4500A Front Panel Histogram Output. Front panel histogram output is controlled by the
Prgm>Trace Data> menu. An entire data buffer can be sent to a Floppy Disk file, the COM1
serial port or the LPT1 line printer. No index value is used. The delimiter separating data
elements can be selected to be a comma, LF (line-feed or NL), CR (carriage return) or ASCII
space. This is useful if the data file is to be imported directly into a spreadsheet.
For the Model 4500A, additional source choices will appear in the menu as follows:
Prgm>Trace Data>Source
Select the data buffer: CH1, CH2, CH Math, Ref1, Ref2,Cal
Tbl 1,Cal Tbl 2,Histogram 1,Histogram2
Cal Tbl 1 and 2 are the x-axis power value arrays and Histogram 1 and 2 are the count arrays for
Channel 1 and 2 respectively. All other front panel controls and associated GPIB commands
operate as described above except that the SELDATTBL n, command is used instead of the data
source commands.
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1.3 Screen Saver
A screen saver feature has been added to increase CRT phosphor life in system applications. The
display will be dimmed after a specified time during which there is no front panel control
activity. The delay time in minutes is set in the Disp>Scrn Saver Delay menu window. The delay
can be varied from 1 to 240 minutes via the front panel keyboard, knob or increment /decrement
buttons. To disable the feature select the increment above 240 which is “infinite” or enter 241
minutes. The CRT display will then remain bright at all times.
The display when dimmed will be restored to full brightness by any front panel key or knob
operation. The delay/infinite setting is non-volatile and will be restored after power off/on. There
are no related bus commands for this feature.
1.4 New Auto-Measure function, EdgeDly
A new auto-measure function, number 15, Edge Delay, has been added to the TEXT display.
Edge delay shows the time delay between the left edge of the display window and the first
waveform edge of either slope. This allows the display window to be used as a mask to select or
exclude portions of a waveform. Trigger delay adjusts the position of the display window with
respect to the trigger. Edge Delay should be added as item 15 in Table 4-19. It appears as a
selection in the Meas > Param Meas > Param Top {Middle and Bottom} menus. The GPIB
PARAM___ commands will accept the value 15 as an argument and allow Edge Delay to be
selected remotely.
1.5 New GPIB Commands
Additions to Table 5-3 Mode 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics.
Code
TKATEMP
Arg
--
Function
Returns a status flag and the sensor auto-cal temperature for both
channels. For the status flag 0 = valid, 1 = no sensor, 2 = no channel
card. The auto-cal temperatures are returned in tenths of a degree
Celsius (##.#). After returning data the instrument returns to the
previous Talk mode.
Format: status1, auto-cal temp1, status2, auto-cal temp2
Examples: send TKATEMP
read 0, 34.0, 0, 39.0
valid both channels
or read 0, 34.0, 1, -23.0 valid ch1; no sensor in ch2
or read 0, 34.0, 2, -23.0 valid ch1; no ch2 installed
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TKEJD
TKMMODE
--
--
For the currently selected measurement channel returns a status flag
and the time delay in seconds between the left edge of the display
window and the first waveform edge of either slope. Trigger delay can
be used to move the window with respect to the trigger to select or
exclude portions of a long string of pulses. This command works only
with TKAMEAS active. After returning data the instrument returns to
the previous Talk mode, normally TKAMEAS.
Examples: send TKAMEAS
send only once
send TKEJD
“send TKEJD read” may be repeated
read 1, 1.163e-7
valid edge delay in seconds
or read 0, 0
no valid result
Returns a measurement mode run/stop flag, mode identifier and units
flag. For the run/stop flag 0 = STOP, 1 = RUN. For the mode
identifier 0 = Pulse, 1 = CW, 2 = CDF, 3 = 1-CDF, 4 = PDF. For the
units flag 0 = log (dBm) and 1 = linear (watts). After returning data
the instrument returns to the previous Talk mode.
Examples: send TKMMODE
read 1, 0, 0
running in pulse mode with log units
or read 0, 3, 1
stopped in 1-CDF mode with linear
units
1.6 EOI Only Talk mode Terminator
In the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Talk Term menu a new choice, EOI only, has been added.
This allows return strings to be terminated only by the EOI signal of the GPIB, simplifying setup
with controllers which use this as their default.
1.7 Reference Lines in Linear Units mode
Reference Lines and Reference Line Tracking now work in the Linear as well as Logarithmic
units modes. Reference line level readout is always in dBm.
2. CORRECTIONS
2.1 Sensor Temperature Readings
All previous versions and revisions of Model 4400/4500/4400A and 4500A report sensor
temperature approximately 10 degrees Celsius lower than the actual internal sensor temperature.
This characteristic has been of little consequence since only delta temperature values are used.
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For future developments it is desirable to use the actual internal sensor temperature. Effective
with this revision (20010119) all sensor temperatures are the actual internal temperature.
Compatibility with previous software revisions. The effect of this change is expected to be
minimal because delta temperature values are not affected. Some GPIB programs may use
absolute sensor temperature values and expect the old style values for correct operation. To
accommodate this situation, a new GPIB command OLD_TEMP# has been included in the new
revision. To use the old style temperatures, issue the GPIB command OLD-TEMP# in the
initialization part of the program. This will cause all sensor temperature values to appear as in
earlier revisions. The effect of this command is volatile and it must be re-issued after a power
off/on cycle.
2.2 Failure to resume in Statistical mode on power up (4500A only).
Some previous software revisions contain a bug that causes statistical measurements not to
resume correctly on power up. This occurs only when the instrument was powered down in one
of the statistical modes. Normal operation will resume if the menu selection or a GPIB measure
mode command is sent. This revision (20010119) corrects the error and under the above
conditions statistical measurements will resume automatically at power up.
2.3 Inability to use request for service (SRQ) on settled measurement in CW
mode with averaging > 1.
In all previous revisions in CW measurement mode with the SRQ mask set to 2, no service
request would be issued unless the Averaging was set to 1. This bug has been fixed in this
revision (20010119). Since CW is a continuous mode it is necessary to stop and start the
measurement in order to obtain repeated service requests with settled readings. Stopping the
continuous measurement resets the averaging system. After a restart and after the averaging time
has expired, the service request will be issued if the mask for settled measurement (2) is enabled.
The serial poll issued by the GPIB controller reads and resets the service request, but not the
settled measurement flag. To restore synchronization between the controller and the
measurement process, it is necessary to issue the STOP command. When the desired signal is
present at the power sensor input, issue the RUN command. When the selected averaging is
completed, the service request will again be made. This sequence can be repeated indefinitely.
Revised 20010126
7
98404704A
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
a Wireless Telecom Group Company
4400A/4500A MANUAL ADDENDUM
Applies to Instruction Manual Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter /Analyzer, Model 4400A RF Peak Power
Meter, Part Number 98404700A, revised 09/97.
Effective for Control Software Revision 20020511 and later.
1.0 NEW FEATURES
1.1 Peak Sensor Temperature Compensation
When used with a peak sensor that contains a valid temperature compensation table, the
model 4400A and 4500A Peak Power Meters can provide temperature compensated
power measurements. The default mode for temperature compensation is active. The
Chan n > Calibration>Temp Comp menu box will be visible with “Sensor Tbl”
displayed. To turn off temperature compensation press the menu button and “Off” will be
displayed. The “Off” setting is volatile and not preserved through power cycles or major
mode changes. If the sensor in use does not have a temperature compensation table the
Temp Comp menu box will not appear at all.
The Spcl>Chan n Sensor report will include the message “Sensor has Temperature
Compensation Table” when appropriate. The Spcl>Servicing>Configuration report
shows TC system status if either channel has a sensor with a valid table. The format of
this message
if present is:
TC System Status 1:[err code] #### 2:[err code] ####
The error codes are:
0
No error.
145
TC # of Temps Err
146
TC # of Powers Err
147
TC Interp Err
148
TC Expand Err
149
TC Extend Err
150
TC Chksum Err
151
TC Table Length Error
152
TC Temp Value Err
Table parameter error
Table parameter error
Table interpolation error
Table expansion error
Table extension error
Table read checksum error
A temperature value is out of range
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153
154
155
156
TC Temp Non-mono
TC Power Value Err
TC Power Non-mono
TC Corr Value Err
A temperature array is non-monotonic
A power value is out of range
A power array is non-monotonic
A correction value is out of range
Use CH1 or CH2 to specify to which channel the following temperature compensation
related GPIB commands apply:
TCON
Turn on temperature compensation if available. If not, ignore.
TCOFF
Turn off temperature compensation. This is a volatile setting if
compensation is available.
1.2 Sensor Auto-calibration File Retention
Sensor auto-calibration files are now saved by channel as .AC1 and .AC2 files in nonvolatile (flash) memory. This avoids the need to perform auto-cal every time a sensor is
removed and replaced by a different one, provided the sensors are known to the
channel(s) involved. When a sensor is plugged-in a search is made to find an existing
auto-cal file. If one is found, it is installed. If not, the “Needs Auto-cal” message will
appear. When auto-cal is performed the existing file is overwritten with the new result. If
no previous file exists, one is created. Sensor filenames have the form SEN#####.AC n,
where ##### is the serial number and n is the channel number.
The file directory system is expanded to display auto-calibration files in flash memory as
well as the previous files on the floppy disk. The Utility>Disk>Flash Disk path lists
sensor auto-cal files by channel. The Select File <> menu contains a sequence number
which refers to the position of the file in the list. The selected file is shown in RED and
may be deleted by pressing the menu button next to the “Delete” box. Deletion of files
must be confirmed or cancelled.
There are no GPIB operations on the file directory.
1.3 Color *.bmp File of Display
The Hardcopy section now includes a color *.bmp file of the current display that can be
saved to the floppy disk, sent to the COM1 port or the GPIB. To select this feature set the
Util>Hardcopy>Device menu to “Plotter”. Then select Util>Hardcopy>Model “.BMP”.
Choose the Plot Label, Output Port and File Select number if the output is the floppy
disk. Graph & Text is not applicable. Note that the “IEEE-488” output selection applies
to the listen only (lon) GPIB addressing mode only. For controller directed GPIB output
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see below. Press the PLOT key to send the file to the selected output. The .bmp extension
is added to the floppy disk file directory to allow viewing the filenames saved on disk.
The GPIB commands for controller directed return of the .bmp file contents are:
Send the sequence PLOTTER PLOT.BMP to select the bit-map mode.
Send TKPLOT to set the talk mode that returns the file when addressed to talk.
The GPIB commands to send the plot file contents to an output other than the GPIB are:
Send the sequence PLOTTER PLOT.BMP to select the bit-map mode.
Send PLOTSER1, PLOTCOM1, PLOTLPT1 or PLOTDISK to select the output.
{Use PLOT488 only with the front panel PLOT key manually to send in the talk
only (ton) mode to a listen only (lon) device}.
For PLOTDISK send FILENO ## to select a filename.
Send PLOT to simulate pressing the PLOT key to send the file to the selected
output.
1.4 External Trigger Input Calibration
A provision to zero and calibrate the external trigger inputs has been added to provide
better accuracy for voltage measurements made with the trigger inputs. The following
procedure is used to calibrate each external trigger input:
Set Time>Timebase to “5 ms/Div”
Set Trig>Trig Mode to “Auto”
Select the external trigger input in the Trig>Trig Source menu corresponding to
the selected measurement channel (CH1 to 1EXT or CH2 to 2EXT).
Set the Chan#>Extensions>Display to “Trig” (Trigger View Mode)
Set the Chan#>Vert Scale to 1.00 V/Div
Set the Spcl>Servicing>Cal Mode “On”
With Cal Mode “On” two boxes labeled Ext Trig Zero and Ext Trig Cal will appear in the
Chan#>Extensions menu. Ext Trig Zero will have a bright “Start” label.
With no input to the selected external trigger input, press the menu button for Ext Trig
Zero “Start”. The input will be zeroed and the Ext Trig Cal “Start” label will be bright.
With +3.00 volts applied to the selected external trigger input, press the menu button for
Ext Trig Cal “Start”. The input will be calibrated for 3 divisions of deflection at 1 V/Div.
Set the Spcl>Servicing>Cal Mode “Off”
The results of the calibration are stored in non-volatile memory with file extension .TRV.
Absent a file, default data is supplied automatically and simulates the existing software.
External trigger level calibration is not available on the GPIB.
3
98404706A
1.5 UNDIM Command.
A GPIB command, UNDIM, is added to reset the screen saver without touching the panel
or re-loading the color table. This is helpful in remotely controlled applications.
2.0 Changes
2.1 Instrument Setup Save/Recall change.
The instruments setup save and recall system has been modified to save a binary file
instead of an ASCII file. The binary file is smaller and more comprehensive and is
identical to the internal save/recall format. The new file has the extension .ISU. For
customers with existing .INS files the ability to read an .INS file is still present, but new
features will not be available using this method. Existing files should be converted by
reading the .INS files and saving them as .ISU. The file directory is modified to display
.ISU files. The GPIB commands are not affected.
2.2 GPIB command *OPT? change.
An installed hardware options list has been appended to the *OPT? GPIB command
format previously used. For example, a single channel instrument with Option 04
hardware installed and a sensor plugged-in returns:
1,1,0,0,4
2.3 Configuration report change.
Installed options are now identified in the Configuration Report. For example:
The Spcl>Servicing>Configuration Report for Option 04 installed reports:
Opt 04 – Trigger Delay by Events installed
2.4 Sensor Temperature Reporting change.
Sensor auto-cal temperature and current temperature readings have been moved from the
Utility>Report to the Spcl>Ch 1 Sensor>Report and Spcl>Ch 2 Sensor>Report.
4
98404706A
3.0 Corrections
1. Remove glitches that occur when in Triggered mode (as opposed to Auto) and certain
commands are executed. Also, measurement traces can now be moved and re-scaled
when Waiting for Trigger on the slow time bases.
2. Calculate the auto-measure parameter “OFF TIME”. This function has always been
enabled but there was no calculation method included.
3. Correct an overflow error in the cal table expansion that overwrites the first position
of the channel 2 table when channel 1 is expanded. This may cause the channel 2
PDF to not appear.
4. GPIB command TKBMEAS now reports the sign of Pk/Avg ratio correctly.
5. Marker math mode changes now occur immediately even in wait for trigger.
6. When both markers are in trigger view mode the marker math functions MK1-MK2,
MK2-MK1, MAX-MIN and MIN-MAX are computed as voltage difference and
appear in the middle window with voltage difference units. The PK/AVG mode is not
recognized in trigger view mode but is not an error. This correction also appears in
the parameters of GPIB commands TKMEAS, TKBMEAS and TKUNITS when
appropriate.
7. The trigger pointer is now removed when the direct set of a statistical mode occurs.
8. Restore the legacy GPIB command MKDELTA to set the marker math to power
difference in the linear units mode only. This command was deleted by mistake in the
“A” series.
9. Update the RUN/STOP message in the recall stored setup function to avoid out of
sync messages.
10. Change the linear mode reference lines to track vertical offset in “divisions” rather
than watts, which is incorrect.
Revised 20020513
5
98404706A
SAFETY SUMMARY
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation and maintenance of this instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards
of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Boonton Electronics assumes no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
THE INSTRUMENT MUST BE GROUNDED
To minimize shock hazard the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical ground. The instrument is
equipped with a three conductor, three prong a.c. power cable. The power cable must either be plugged into an approved
three-contact electrical outlet or used with a three-contact to a two-contact adapter with the (green) grounding wire firmly
connected to an electrical ground in the power outlet.
DO NOT OPERATE THE INSTRUMENT IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be made
by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with the power cable connected. Under certain conditions
dangerous voltages may exist even though the power cable was removed, therefore; always disconnect power and discharge
circuits before touching them.
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable or rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT
Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modifications or the instrument. Return the instrument to Boonton Electronics for repair to ensure that the safety features are maintained.
SAFETY SYMBOLS
This safety requirement symbol (located on the rear panel) has been adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission, Document 66 (Central Office) 3, Paragraph 5.3, which directs that an instrument
be so labeled if, for the correct use of the instrument, it is necessary to refer to the instruction manual. In
this case it is recommended that reference be made to the instruction manual when connecting the instrument to the proper power source. Verify that the correct fuse is installed for the power available.
The CAUTION symbol denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operation procedure, practice, or the
like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of part or
all of the equipment. Do not proceed beyond a CAUTION symbol until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
The NOTE symbol is used to mark information which should be read. This information can be very useful to the operating in dealing with the subject covered in this section.
The HINT symbol is used to identify additional comments which are outside of the normal format of the
manual, however can give the user additional information about the subject.
Contents
Illustrations
Tables
v
vii
Paragraph
1 General
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2
Information
Organization
Description
Features
Accessories
Optional Configurations
Specifications
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-5
1-6
1-6
Installation
2.1 Unpacking & Repacking
2.2 Power Requirements
2.3 Connections
2.4 Preliminary Check
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
3 Getting
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
Contents
Page
Started
Organization
Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections
Monitor Display
Initialize
Calibration
Practice Exercises for Pulse Power Measurements
Practice Exercises for Statistical Power Measurements(4500A)
Operation
4.1 Calibration
CF in dB
4.2 Manual Operation
4.3 Menu Conventions
4.4 Data Entry Controls
4.5 Display Data
4.6 Top Level Menu
4.7 System Keys
4.8 Function Keys
4.9 CHAN Key and Chan # > Menu
Menu Configuration
Figures and Tables
Calibration
Channel Math
Reference Traces
4.10 TIME Key and Time > Menu
4.11 TRIG Key and Trig > Menu
4.12 MARK Key and Mark > Menu
Procedure
4.13 REF Key and Ref > Menu
4.14 MEAS Key and Meas > Menu
3-1
3-1
3-6
3-8
3-11
3-13
3-22
4-1
4-1
4-3
4-3
4-12
4-13
4-15
4-18
4-20
4-20
4-21
4-21
4-25
4-30
4-32
4-34
4-36
4-39
4-40
4-45
4-48
i
Paragraph
4.15 UTIL Key and Util > Menu
Inst Status
IEEE-488 Bus
Serial Menu
Serial Port 1
Serial Port 2
Disk Utilities
Hardcopy
Clock
4.16 SPCL Key and Spcl > Menu
Self-Test
Configuration
Cal Mode
Extensions
4.17 PRGM Key and Prgm > Menu
4.18 DISP Key and Disp > Menu
Set Colors
Color Conventions
4.19 Automatic Operation
4.20 Advanced Procedures
5 Remote Operation
5.1 Setup for Remote Operation
5.2 Listen Mode
Program Function
Number Formatting
Data String Format
Data String Errors
5.3 Talk Mode
5.4 SRQ Operation
Using “Service Request”
SRQ Operation
Bus Command Responses
6
ii
Application Notes
6.1 Introduction to Pulse Measurements
Power Measurements
Diode Detection
Model 4400A/4500A Features
6.2 Pulse Definitions
Standard IEEE Pulse Definitions
Automatic Measurement Terms
6.3 Automatic Measurements
Automatic Measurement Criteria
Automatic Measurement Sequence
Average Power Over an Interval
6.4 Statistical Mode Automatic Measurements (4500A)
6.5 Measurement Accuracy
Error Contributions
Typical Measurement Error Calculations
6.6 Model 4500A Statistical Measurements
Page
4-54
4-55
4-55
4-59
4-60
4-60
4-61
4-63
4-64
4-66
4-68
4-68
4-68
4-71
4-73
4-80
4-84
4-84
4-88
4-90
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-22
5-27
5-27
5-28
5-29
6-1
6-1
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-10
6-11
6-13
6-13
6-14
6-17
Contents
Paragraph
7
Maintenance
7.1 Safety
7.2 Cleaning
7.3 Inspection
7.4 Software Upgrade
7.5 Test Equipment
Performance Verification
Calibration
7.6 Performance Verification
Checklist
Fuse Type and Rating
Instrument Serial Number
Control Software Version
Time and Date
Sensor Serial Number
Calibrator Frequency Verification
Calibrator Linearity Verification
Calibrator 0 dBm Verification
Sensor Return Loss Verification
Sensor Linearity Performance Verification
Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Verification
Sensor Rise Time Verification
Calibrator External Pulse Verification
IEEE-488 Bus Verification
Serial Port 1 Verification
7.7 Calibration
Calibrator 0 dBm Setting
Page
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-14
7-18
7-20
7-20
7-21
7-21
7-22
Appendix
A.
B.
C.
Contents
Error Messages
Plotter Operation
B.1 Plotter Installation
B.2 Plotter Operation
Pre-Plot Checks
Operations
Post-Plot
Date/Time
B.3 Sample Plot
HP Model 7475A Plotter connections
Fujitsu FP6-310 Plotter connections
HP LaserJet II Printer connections
HP ThinkJet Printer IEEE-488 connections
HP ThinkJet Printer RS-232 connections
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
Repair and Warranty Policies
C.1 Repair Policy
Model 4400A/4500A Instrument
Boonton Peak Power Sensors
Contacting Boonton
C.2 Warranty
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-2
iii
Paragraph
Page
D. Sensor Performance Specifications
E. End User License Agreement
Appendix Warranty and Special Provisions
iv
E-2
Contents
Illustrations
Figure
1-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
Contents
Page
Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer
Packaging Diagram
Power-On Display
Util > Inst Status Display
Standard Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer
Front Panel
Model 4400A/4500A Rear Panel, Shown with
Optional Rear Panel Connectors
Monitor Display
Front Panel Controls Used in Calibration Procedures
Chan 1 > Menu
Chan 1 > Extensions Menu
Time > Menu
Trig > Menu
Mark > Menu
Split-Screen Display
Waveform Display with Time Marks
Using Mark > Set Vertical Center
CDF Display
1-CDF Display
PDF Display
Chan 1 > Menu and Associated Submenus
Control Menu Structure
Disp > Menu and Associated Submenu
Spcl > Menu and Associated Text Report
Mark > Menu
Data Entry Keypad
Top Level Menu
System Keys
Text Mode Display in Power Mode
Typical Help Screen
Function Keys
Chan # > Menu
Chan # > Calibration > Submenu
Chan # > Extensions > Submenu
Illustration of Measurement (L1) and Calibration (L2)
Paths
Chan Math > Menu
Generating a Difference Waveform Using Channel Math
Chan Ref # > Menu
Time > Menu
Trig > Menu
Mark > Menu
Mark > Extensions > Submenu
Ref > Menu
Ref > Extensions > Menu
1-3
2-1
2-3
2-4
3-2
3-4
3-6
3-12
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-24
3-25
3-25
4-2
4-4
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-12
4-15
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-20
4-25
4-27
4-29
4-30
4-32
4-32
4-34
4-36
4-40
4-42
4-45
4-45
v
Figure
4-25
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-36
4-37
4-38
4-39
4-40
4-41
4-42
4-43
4-44
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
B-1
vi
Page
Meas > Menu
Util > Menu Inst Status Report
Util > IEEE-488 > Submenu
Util > IEE-488 > Bus Setup > Submenu
Util > Serial > COM 2 Submenu
Util > Clock > Submenu
Spcl > Menu
Spcl > Servicing > Submenu
Spcl > CH # Sensor Report
Spcl > Calibrator > Menu
Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse Submenu
4400A/4500A Calibrator Report
Prgm > Menu
Disp > Menu
Disp > Format > Submenu
Disp > Format > Trace Type > Submenu
Disp > Format > Assign Trace > Submenu
Disp > Format > Set Colors > Submenu
Text Mode Display
Text Mode Display (Stat Mode)
Pulsed RF Signal
Distorted Pulse Signal
Ideal Diode Response
IEEE Standard Pulse
Step Waveforms
Time Interpolation
Sampling Intervals
Statistical Mode Text Display (Model 4500A only)
Sample Output Plot
4-48
4-55
4-56
4-58
4-61
4-64
4-67
4-67
4-69
4-69
4-70
4-72
4-73
4-80
4-81
4-83
4-83
4-85
4-88
4-89
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-5
6-8
6-9
6-11
6-11
B-3
Contents
Tables
Table
1-1
1-2
2-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-36
4-37
4-38
4-39
Contents
Page
Accessories for the Model 4400A/4500A
Model 4400A/4500A Performance Specifications
Model 4400A/4500A Packing List
Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections
Monitor Display Fields
Initialized Parameters
Top Level Menu
Chan # > Menu
Chan # Calibration > Submenu
Chan # > Extensions > Submenu
Chan Math > Menu
Chan Math > Expression > Submenu
Chan Ref # > Menu
Time > Menu
Trig > Menu
Autotrigger Delay Times
Mark > Menu
Mark > Extensions > Submenu
Ref > Menu
Ref > Extensions > Submenu
Meas > Menu
Ratio Conversion Chart
Meas > Define Pulse > Submenu
Meas > Parameter Meas > Submenu
Numerical Equivalency of Automatic Measurements
Util > Menu
Util > IEEE-488 > Submenu
Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Submenu
Util > Serial > Submenu
Util > Serial > COM 1 > Submenu
Util > Serial > COM 2 > Submeu
File Information
Util > Disk Utilities > Submenu
Util > Hardcopy Submenu
Util > Clock Submenu
Spec > Menu
Self-Test Parameters
Spcl > Calibrator > Menu
Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Submenu
Spcl > Calibrator > Extentions > Menu
Prog > Instr Store > Submenu
Prog > Instr Recall > Submenu
Prog > Ref Save > Submenu
Prog > WFM Store > Submenu
Prog > WFM Recall > Submenu
1-5
1-7
2-2
3-2
3-6
3-9
4-15
4-22
4-25
4-27
4-30
4-31
4-33
4-34
4-36
4-39
4-41
4-42
4-46
4-47
4-49
4-50
4-50
4-51
4-53
4-54
4-56
4-58
4-59
4-60
4-61
4-62
4-62
4-63
4-65
4-66
4-68
4-70
4-71
4-72
4-75
4-76
4-77
4-78
4-79
vii
Table
4-40
4-41
4-42
4-43
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
6-1
6-2
7-1
7-2
7-3a
7-3b
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
B-1
D-1
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-7
D-8
D-9
D-10
D-11
D-12
D-13
D-14
D-15
D-16
D-17
D-18
viii
Page
Disp > Menu
Disp > Format > Submenu
Disp > Format > Set Colors > Submenu
Numeric Equivalent of Display Items
Setup for Remote Operation
Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics
Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics
SRQ Mask, Bit Assignments
Bus Command Responses
IEEE Pulse Terms
Automatic Measurement Terms
Verification Checklist
Calibrator Output Frequency
Calibrator Linearity - High Power Range
Calibrator Linearity - Low Power Range
Sensor Return Loss
56018 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
56218, 56318, 56326, 56340 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
56418 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
56518, 56526 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
56018 Sensor Linearity (CW)
56218, 56318, 56326, 56340 Sensor Linearity (CW)
56418 Sensor Linearity (CW)
56518, 56526, 56540 Sensor Linearity (CW)
56018 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
56218, 318, 418, 518 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
56326, 56526 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
56340, 56540 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
Sensor Rise Time
Printer/Plotter Interfaces
Model 56218 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56218-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56218-S/3 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56218-S/4 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56218-S/5 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56318 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56318-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56326 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56340 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56340-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56340-S/3 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56418 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56518 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56518-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56518-S/2 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56526 Sensor Performance Specifications
Model 56540 Sensor Performance Specifications
Sensor Cable Length Effect on Risetime Specifications
4-81
4-82
4-85
4-86
5-1
5-3
5-22
5-29
5-29
6-5
6-6
7-5
7-6
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-12
7-13
7-13
7-15
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
B-1
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-7
D-8
D-9
D-10
D-11
D-12
D-13
D-14
D-15
D-16
D-17
D-18
D-19
Contents
1
General Information
This instruction manual provides you with the information you need to install,
operate and maintain the Boonton mODEL 4400A RF Peak Power Meter and
the Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer. Section 1 is an introduction
to the manual and the instrument.
1.1 Organization
The manual is organized into seven sections and three Appendices, as follows:
Section 1 - General Information presents summary descriptions of the
instrument and its principal features, accessories and options. Also included are
specifications for the instrument and the 56000 Series sensors.
Section 2 - Installation provides instructions for unpacking the instrument,
setting it up for operation, connecting power and signal cables, and initial
power-up.
Section 3 - Getting Started describes the controls and indicators and the
initialization of operating parameters. Several practice exercises are provided to
familiarize you with essential setup and control procedures.
Section 4 - Operation describes the display menus and procedures for operating
the instrument locally from the front panel.
Section 5 - Remote Operation explains the command set and procedures for
operating the instrument remotely over an IEEE-488 bus.
Section 6 - Application Notes describes automatic measurement procedures and
presents an analysis of measurment accuracy. Definitions are provided for key
terms used in this manual and on the screen displays.
Section 7 - Maintenance includes procedures for installing software and
verifying fault-free operation.
Appendix A - Error Messages defines the messages that are displayed when
errors occur.
Appendix B - Plotter Operation describes how to record the Model
4400A/4500A output on a plotter or printer.
Appendix C - Warranty and Repair Policy states the policies governing the
return and replacement of modules and instruments during and after the
warranty period.
Appendix D - Sensor Performance Specifications
Appendix E - End User License Agreement
General Information
1-1
1.2 Description
The Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer and the Model 4400A Peak
Power Meter are new generation RF power meters. These instruments, when
operated with 56000 series power sensors, comprise the most versatile power
measuring systems available, with capability to make over 25 different
measurements on captured signals. The instruments can measure the peak and
average power of signals in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 40 GHz with a
dynamic range of over 60 dB.
The two models provide performance which previously required multiple
instruments, and they provide that performance faster, with increased accuracy;
while adding functionality not previously available. The speed is visible during
the screen update process, waveform response rate and the IEEE-488
performance. The Model 4400A and Model 4500A are the fastest power meters
available with the ability to talk two marker measurements over eighty times a
second.
The Model 4400A has two measurement modes - pulse power and CW power.
The Model 4500A adds to these a third mode - statistical power. Each mode is
targeted towards a specific type of measurement.
In the pulse power mode the instrument functions as an enhanced peak power
meter. It can be configured as a single or dual channel instrument. This mode
provides the functionality of an random repetitive sampling oscilloscope for
viewing the RF envelope of signals in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 40
GHz. Its accuracy approaches that of average power meters, but with the ability
to capture power versus time data. With the requirement of an internal or
external trigger event it can automatically measure up to 14 characteristics of
the RF envelope. These are peak power, average power, pulse width, risetime,
falltime, overshoot, pulse period, pulse repetition rate, duty cycle, top
amplitude, bottom amplitude, offtime, and the delay between two RF pulses or
an RF pulse with an external trigger signal. In addition to the automatic
measurements, the instrument offers a powerful set of marker measurements
which includes the ability to make marker measurements at full accuracy,
independent of vertical scale or offset. This is possible because of the use of
logarithmic amplifiers, and a 12 bit analog to digital converter, which provide
rangeless operation. In addition, the markers can be used to define regions of
the waveform for analysis. This analysis includes average power of a portion of
the waveform, minimum power, and maximum power.
In the CW mode the instrument’s low end performance is improved by
approximately 10 dB, which provides a signal measurement range of up to 70
dB (-50 to +20 dBm). This is accomplished by automatically limiting the input
bandwidth of the instrument and using a second, low bandwidth internal
measurement channel.
In the statistical mode the Model 4500A offers many new features. This mode
does not require a trigger event to make measurements like the pulse power
mode. The instrument continuously samples the RF signal at approximately half
a million samples per second, without discarding or losing any data. All of this
data can be processed statistically to determine peak power, average power,
minimum power, peak to average power ratio, and dynamic range, while
reporting the sampling time, total samples captured and the statistical tolerance
of the data. In addition, this data can be displayed using three different
graphical representations. These are probability density function (PDF),
cumulative distribution function (CDF), and one minus cumulative distribution
function (1-CDF). This mode is very useful in applications where the signal is
random in nature; such as digital communication and multiple carrier systems.
1-2
General Information
Figure 1-1. Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer
1.3 Features
Software Programmable
A dedicated microprocessor performs random repetitive sampling, shaping,
filtering, calibration, offset compensation, and conversion of the RF signal. The
control software is stored in EEPROM and is updated, as necessary, by loading
upgrade software from a standard DOS 3.5" diskette. Software can be loaded in
the field by inserting the diskette in the front panel disk drive and turning the
instrument on. There is no need to remove the cover or change parts.
Auto-Setup
The instrument will automatically select a vertical scale, vertical offset,
timebase, holdoff and trigger level to display at least one pulse period at full
amplitude of the full waveform.
Menu-Driven Operation
Setup and control of the instrument is menu-driven to simplify operation.
User-selected parameters appear in a menu to the right of the waveform,
together with applicable variables. Selections are arranged opposite adjacent
“softkeys” that select parameters and activate data entry controls. Required
numerical values are entered through the keypad, arrow keys or spin knob.
Help Displays
Context-sensitive HELP screens are accessible at the touch of a key
for all function menus. The HELP information guides the user
step-by-step to assure accurate instrument setup.
General Information
1-3
1-4
High-Resolution Color
Display
Waveforms, control menus, measurement values and related text
are displayed on a 7-inch diagonal, 640 x 480 pixel, VGA color CRT.
Display element colors are user-selectable to maximize clarity.
Dual Independent
Channels
When equipped with the optional second measurement channel, the
instrument can display two pulsed signals or a pulsed signal on
one channel and a trigger waveform on the other. Each channel is
calibrated and all channel parameters are channel-independent.
Balanced Diode
Sensors
The balanced diode sensor configuration provides high sensitivity and
even-order harmonic suppression. Low VSWR minimizes mismatch
errors. Frequency Calibration factors traceable to NIST standards are stored
in on-board EEPROMs and downloaded to the instrument. A thermistor
in each sensor tracks temperature variations.
Waveform Persistence
The waveform display can be placed in the infinite persistence mode.
Built-In Precision
Calibrator
A 1 GHz calibrator, traceable to NIST, enhances measurement reliability. The user-selectable automatic calibration routine calibrates
the sensor and instrument in steps over the full dynamic range.
Adjustable Averaging
Random repetitive sampling and averaging with an exponential filter
(performed on each point of the waveform) reduce noise contribution
and provide accurate, stable measurements. The number of repetitions to be averaged can be adjusted to the smallest value that
achieves the desired noise suppression, thereby avoiding excessive
averaging delays.
Automatic Waveform
Analysis
The instrument can measure fourteen pulse parameters related to power,
time and/or frequency. All programmed measurements are made automatically
and displayed in text mode. Measurement information is available directly,
eliminating the need for interpretation by the user.
Single-Shot
Measurements
The 1 MHz sampling rate yields a 100 kHz single-shot bandwidth
(10 samples per pulse) for capturing and analyzing infrequent events.
Disk Drive
The disk drive uses a 1.44MB DOS compatible 3.5 inch diskette. The instrument
can store its setup configuration, reference waveforms, screen printouts, or
screen plots to the disk. The instrument setups are stored as ASCII files that use
the IEEE-488 bus commands. The waveform can be recalled into a reference
channel and used for channel math or marker measurements. The print or plot
files can be read by a PC and output to a device connected to the computer.
Hard Copy Output
A permanent copy of the instrument’s screen can be spooled to a plotter
or printer. The output can be sent to the serial, parallel or IEEE-488 ports or
to disk.
Self-Test and
Diagnostics
An automatic self-diagnostic routine can be initiated at any time to
isolate and identify a faulty module. Error reports direct the user
to the instrument module or sensor that requires replacement.
IEEE-488 Bus Control
All instrument functions except power on/off can be controlled
remotely via the parallel IEEE-488 bus interface. Setup of interface
parameters is menu driven; front panel indicators keep the user
informed of bus activity.
General Information
Stored Configurations
For applications in which the same instrument configurations are used repetitively,
up to ten complete setups can be stored and recalled at the touch of a key.
1.4 Accessories
The table lists optional accessories and sensors which may be ordered from
Boonton Electronics.
Table 1-1 Accessories for the Model 4500A/Model 4400A
Selection
Part Number
Description
Standard
568106000
96401201A
54554900A
98404700A
53304500A
95105501A
Line Cord
Fuse Kit, Metric
Fuse, USA (1.6A 250V SLO-BLO)
Instruction Manual
Operating Software (on 1.44M diskette)
Type N to SMA Adaptor (for 56X26 and 56X40 sensors)
95005591B
95600005A
95600010A
95600020A
95600025A
95600050A
95005592B
95600201A
95600501A
95600601A
Rack Mounting Bracket
Sensor Cable - 5 ft.
Sensor Cable - 10 ft.
Sensor Cable - 20 ft.
Sensor Cable - 25 ft.
Sensor Cable - 50 ft.
Rack Handle Kit
Trigger Delay Calibration Adapter
4500 Driver for VEE
4500 Driver for LABVIEW
56218
56318
56326
56340
56418
56518
56526
56540
Frequency (GHz)
0.03 to 18
0.5 to 18
0.5 to 26.5
0.5 to 40
0.5 to 18
0.5 to 18
0.5 to 26.5
0.5 to 40
Optional
Sensor Options
Pulse Power Range (dBm)
-24 to +20
-24 to +20
-24 to +20
-24 to +20
-34 to +5
-40 to +20
-40 to +20
-40 to +20
56018 Sensors are no longer available, but are compatible with the Model 4400A/4500A.
General Information
1-5
1.5 Optional Configurations
-01
Second measurement channel; the channel, trigger and calibrator
connectors are located on the front panel.
-02
One measurement channel; the channel, trigger and calibrator
connectors are located on the rear panel.
-03
Second measurement channel; the channel, trigger and calibrator
connectors are located on the rear panel.
1.6 Specifications
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Performance
Cable length
1-6
specifications for the Model 4400A/4500A are listed in Table 1-2.
specifications for the Model 56218 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56218-S/1 Sensor are listed inAppendix D.
specifications for the Model 56218-S/3 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56218-S/4 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56218-S/5 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56318 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56318-S/1 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56326 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56340 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56340-S/1 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56418 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56518 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56518-S/1 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56526 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
specifications for the Model 56540 Sensor are listed in Appendix D.
effects are listed in Appendix D.
General Information
Table 1-2 Model 4400A/4500A Performance Specifications*
Parameter
Sensor Inputs
Frequency Range
Pulse Measurement Range
CW Measurement Range
Risetime (10 - 90%)
Single-Shot Bandwidth
Pulse Repetition Rate
Minimum Pulse Width
Vertical Scale
Relative Offset Range
Log
Linear
Vertical Scale
Log
Linear
Time Base
Pulse Mode
Time Base Range
Time Base Accuracy
Time Base Resolution
Specification
30 MHz to 40 GHz, selectable1
-40 to +20 dB1
-50 to +20 dB1
See sensor specifications
100 kHz (based on 10 samples per pulse)
25 MHz
30 ns
Pulse and Statistical Mode
±99.99 dB
0 to 99 divisions
0.1 to 20 dB/div in 1-2-5 sequence2
1 nW to 50 MW in 1-2-5 sequence2
10 ns to 1 s/div
0.01%
200 ps
Statistical Mode (Model 4500A only)
X-Axis
.1, .2, .5, 1, 2, 5, 10% per division
Percent Offset Range
0 - 99% (x-axis dependent)
Percent Resolution
0.002%
Trigger
Pulse Mode Only
Trigger Source
Trigger Slope
Channel 1 internal or external; or
Channel 2 internal or external 5
+ or -
Pre-Trigger Delay:
Time Base Setting
10 ns to 50 µs
100 µs to 1 sec
Delay Range
-500 µs
-10 div
Post-Trigger Delay:
Time Base Setting
10 ns to 1 µs
2 µs to 50 µs
100 µs to 1 sec
Delay Range
10,000 div
2 ms
200 div
Trigger Delay Resolution
Trigger Holdoff Range
Trigger Holdoff Resolution
Trigger View
Vertical Scale
Relative Offset
Internal Trigger Range
External Trigger Range
External Trigger Input
General Information
0.02 divisions
65 ms
62.5 ns
0.1V to 1V in 1-2-5 sequence
±3 volts
-27 to +20 dBm1
±3 volts
50 ohms, dc coupled
1-7
Table 1-2 Model 4400A/4500A Performance Specifications (continued)
Parameter
Specification
Statistical Processing (Model 4500A only)
CDF, 1-CDF, PDF Modes
Sampling Rate
500,000 samples per second
Number of Sample Bins
4096
Size of Sample Bins
32 bits
Bin Power Resolution
<0.02 dB1
Percent Resolution
0.002%
Display Modes
CDF, 1-CDF in log or linear scales and plots normalized to average power
PDF log or linear scales and plots normalized to average power
Automatic Measurements
Peak max. power, average power, peak to average ratio, minimum power,
total samples, sampling time, confidence band of measurements,
dynamic range, and tolerance.
Calibration Source
Operating Modes
Frequency
Level Range
Resolution
Output SWR (Refl. Coeff.)
Accuracy (NIST traceable)4
(-30 to +20 dBm)
Absolute
Linearity
Internal Pulse Period
Internal Pulse Duty Cycle
Internal/External Pulse Polarity
Connector
CW, internal or external pulse
1.024 GHz ± .01%
-40.0 to +20.0 dBm
0.1 dB
1.20, (0.091)3
±0.065 (1.5%) at 0 dB and 25oC, ±0.001 dB per o C
+0.03 dB per 5 dB
100 µs, 1 ms or 10 ms
10% to 90% in 10% increments
+ or Type N
Power Measurement Accuracy
Measurement Uncertainty
Total measurement uncertainty (worst case) is the sum of
the calibrator uncertainty, source mismatch error, sensor
calibration factor uncertainty, sensor temperature coefficient,
sensor shaping, noise and drift.
Mismatch Uncertainty
±2 x sensor reflection coefficient x source reflection
coefficient x 100 %
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
Measurement Characteristics
Measurement Technique
Maximum Sample Rate
Memory Depth
Vertical Resolution
Waveform Averaging
Waveform Storage
Trigger Channel Bandwidth
1-8
Stat Mode (4500A only) : Continuous sampling 0.5 M Samples /sec
Power Mode: Random repetitive sampling system which provides
pre- and post-trigger data
1 MHz
4K
0.025%, 12 bit A/D converter
1 to 10,000 samples per data point
Two reference waveforms in internal non-volatile memory
> 30 MHz typical
General Information
Table 1-2 Model 4400A/4500A Performance Specifications (continued)
Parameter
Specification
Sensor Characteristics
Power Detection Technique
Dual diode with selectable detector bandwidth
Log Amplifier
The logarithmic amplifier in the sensor enables the
instrument to measure and analyze changes in power
exceeding 60 dB in a single display range.
Internal Data
Sensor calibration factors, frequency range, power range,
sensor type, serial number and other sensor dependent
information are stored in EEPROM within the peak power
sensor.
Sensor Cable
The sensor cable is detachable from both the sensor and
instrument. The standard cable length is 5 feet. Other
cable lengths are 10 ft., 20 ft., 25 ft., and 50 ft.
Rear Panel Connections
External Calibrator Pulse Input
IEEE-488 Interface
RS-232 Interface 1
RS-232 Interface 2
Parallel Port
Optional Connectors5
Physical and Environmental
General
Disk Drive
Display
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Humidity
Altitude
Power Requirements
Dimensions
Weight
Hard Copy Output
Provides a means of applying an external TTL level signal
to control the pulse rate and duty cycle of the calibrator
output. (50 ohm input impedance)
Complies with IEEE-488-1978. Implements AH1, SH1, T6,
LE0, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, DT1, C0, and E1
Serial Printer / Plotter interface
Diagnostic interface
Parallel Printer/plotter interface
Rear Panel
Channel 1 and 2, Trigger 1 and 2, calibrator output
Manufactured to the intent of MIL-T-28800E, Type III,
Class 5, Style E
3.5", 1.44MB (DOS compatible)
VGA compatible 7" diagonal color CRT with 640 x 480
pixel resolution. Waveform display area resolution is
501 x 281.
0 to 50oC
-40 to 75oC
95% + 5% maximum (non-condensing)
Operating: 10,000 Feet (3000 Meters)
Non-operating: 15,000 Feet (4600 Meters)
90 to 260 VAC, 47 to 440 Hz, 200 VA maximum
17.25 inches (43.8 cm) wide, 7 inches (17.8 cm) high,
22 inches (55.9 cm) deep
38 lbs. (17.2 kg.) with second channel installed
The screen can be output to a printer or plotter on the
RS-232, parallel, IEEE-488 devices, or to a file on disk.
HPGL Plotters:
HP7475
HP7470
ATT 435
Printers:
ThinkJet
LaserJet II
Sensors
See Appendix D or the Boonton Electronics Sensor Data Manual for detailed specifications for Boonton Peak Power
Sensors.
General Information
1-9
Table 1-2 Model 4400A/4500A Performance Specifications (continued)
Parameter
Specification
Notes
1Sensor dependent
2Sensitivities are decreased by a factor of two in the split-screen mode.
3CW mode
4CW mode, 0 to 40o C
5Available with optional second channel.
*Specifications subject to change without notice.
1-10
General Information
2
Installation
This section contains unpacking and repacking instructions, power requirements,
connection descriptions and preliminary checkout procedures.
2.1 Unpacking & Repacking
The Model 4400A/4500A is shipped complete and is ready to use upon receipt.
Figure 2-1 shows you the various pieces included in the packaging and the
order in which they are loaded into the container.
Note
Save the packing material and container to ship the instrument, if necessary. If
the original materials (or suitable substitute) are not available, contact Boonton
Electronics to purchase replacements. Store materials in a dry environment.
Refer to the Physical and Environmental Specifications in Table 1-2. for futher
information.
Figure 2-1. Packaging Diagram
Installation
2-1
Table 2-1 Model 4400A/4500A Packing List
INSTRUMENT
SENSORS (packaged separately)
Model 4400A RF Peak Power Meter
-orModel 4500A RF Peak Power Meter/Analyzer
Power Cord
Fuse Kit, metric
Fuse, USA (1.6A 250V SLO-BLO)
Operating Software (on 720k, 3.5" diskette)
Instruction Manual
Sensor
Sensor
Sensor Cable, 5-foot
Type N to SMA Adapter (for 56X26 and
56X40 Sensors)
For bench-top use, choose a clear, uncluttered area. Ensure that there is at least
6" of clearance at each air vent on the top and sides of the case. Pull-down feet
are located on the bottom of the instrument. Rack mounting instructions are
provided with the (optional) rack mount kit.
2.2 Power Requirements
The Model 4400A/4500A is equipped with a switching power supply that
permits operation from a 90 to 260 volt, 47 to 440 Hz, single-phase, AC power
source. Power consumption is 200 VA maximum. For metric fuse sizes, use the
metric fuse kit supplied.
Connect the power cord supplied with the instrument to the power receptacle on
the rear panel. See Figure 3-2.
Cautions
Before connecting the instrument to the power source, make certain that a 1.6
ampere slo-blow fuse is installed in the fuse holder on the rear panel.
Before removing the instrument cover or any of the circuit boards, position the
power switch to off (0 = OFF; 1 = ON) and disconnect the power cord.
2.3 Connections
Sensor(s)
Connect the sensor that covers the frequency range of the measurement to the
CHANNEL 1 sensor connector on the front (Standard) or rear (Optional) panel,
as follows. Connect the sensor to the sensor cable by aligning the red mark on
each part and pressing the connectors together firmly. Connect the sensor cable
to the CHANNEL 1 Input, holding the red mark on the cable connector up. For
two-channel measurements, use the same procedures to connect the second
sensor to the CHANNEL 2 Input.
Note
2-2
If the sensor connector is not a Type N, install the appropriate adapter (from the
accessories kit) on the calibrator output connector..
Installation
Trigger
For measurements requiring external triggering, connect the external trigger
signal to TRIGGER Input 1. For two-channel measurements requiring two
external triggers, connect the Channel 2 trigger signal to TRIGGER Input 2.
Printer / Plotter
If a printer or plotter is to be used to record measurement data, connect the
device to the RS-232 connector 1, parallel port, or IEEE-488 port on the rear
panel, with an appropriate cable.
Maintenance Terminal
If a (user furnished) remote terminal is to be used for maintenance purposes,
connect the terminal to RS-232 Connector 2 on the rear panel.
IEEE-488
If the instrument is to be operated remotely, using the IEEE-488 bus, connect
the instrument to the bus using the rear panel IEEE-488 connector and
appropriate cable.
2.4 Preliminary Check
The following preliminary check verifies that the instrument is operational and
has the correct software installed. It should be performed before the instrument
is placed into service. To perform the preliminary check, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect the AC power cord to a suitable AC power source.
2.
Press the upper half (marked "1") of the power switch mounted on the
rear panel immediately above the power receptacle.
3.
If the ON/SBY LED on the front panel is not lit, press the ON/SBY key.
4. After a self-check, the instrument will execute the application program. A
brief initialization screen should appear, which shows the instrument name,
model number, and software version. After several moments a screen similar to
Figure 2-2 should be displayed.
Figure 2-2. Power-On
Display
Installation
2-3
Note
5.
On the front panel, press the UTIL function key followed by the Util >
Inst Status > REPORT menu key. A display similar to Figure 2-3
should appear.
6.
Verify that the message "Channel 1 is installed with Sensor Connected"
appears. If the optional second channel is installed and a sensor is
connected to it, a similar message should appear for Channel 2.
If any of the steps above do not produce the expected action, try reinstalling the
instrument software as shown in Section 7.4 "Software Upgrade". If this does
not correct the problem, contact Boonton Electronics for technical support.
Figure 2-3. Util > Inst
Status Display
7.
Verify that the Instrument Serial Number matches the number on the rear
panel label adjacent to the power connector assembly. See Figure 3-2.
8.
Compare the Control Software Version numbers on the display to those
on the diskette; verify that they are identical.
If either an improper serial number or incorrect software version numbers
appear on the screen, contact Boonton Electronics for technical support.
2-4
Installation
9.
Note
Installation
Follow Steps in Sections 3.4 and 3.5 to initialize and calibrate
the instrument.
You will not be able to perform measurements with the Model 4400A/4500A
until an AutoCal procedure (see Subsection 3.5, Step 8) has been performed on
the measurement channel. However, AutoCal data is saved when power is
removed, so AutoCal need not be repeated with each power-on.
2-5
Getting Started
3
This chapter will introduce the user to the Model 4400A/4500A. The chapter
will identify objects on the front and rear panels, indentify display organization,
list the initial configuration of the instrument after reset, demonstrate how to
calibrate the sensors, and provide practice exercises for front panel operation.
For additional information you should see Chapter 4 "Operation."
3.1 Organization
Subsection 3.2 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections identifies the
control features and connections on the front and rear panels.
Subsection 3.3 Monitor Display describes the data fields in the standard
(graphic mode) monitor display.
Subsection 3.4 Initialization explains how to turn the instrument on for the
first time, connect a sensor, set the instrument up for operation, and initialize it
to a known state. See Table 3-3. for initialized parameters and their values.
Subsection 3.5 Calibration is critical to the proper operation of an instrument.
The Model 4400A/4500A comes with a 1 GHz level programmable calibrator.
Before making any measurement the sensor(s) must be calibrated.
Subsection 3.6 Practice Exercises for power measurements, in pulse mode.
Pulse mode operation requires an internal or external trigger event.
Subsection 3.7 Practice Exercises for statistical power measurement.
3.2 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections
Figures 3-1 and 3-2 illustrate the controls, indicators and connectors on the
front and rear panels, respectively, of the standard instrument. Refer to Table
3-1 for a description of each of the illustrated items. Connectors indicated by
an asterisk (*) may be front or rear-mounted, depending on the option selected.
The function and operation of all controls, indicators and connectors are the
same on the standard and optional models.
Getting Started
3-1
Figure 3-1. Standard Model 4500A RF Peak Power Meter Analyzer - Front Panel
Table 3-1 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections
Ref. No.
Front
Rear Nomenclature
Function
1
Display screen
VGA color display for the measurement and trigger
channels, screen menus, status messages, text reports
and help screens.
2
Menu keys
Six keys which enable the user to make a selection or
choose a submenu.
3
PREV key
Returns control to the next higher menu in the
hierarchy or to the previous menu displayed,
depending on whether the current and previous
menu are from the same or different branches of
the menu tree.
3-2
Getting Started
Table 3-1 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections (continued)
Ref. No.
Front
Rear Nomenclature
4
System keys
Function
ESC/LOCAL key. When the instrument is remoteenabled, pressing this key returns the instrument to the
Local mode. In Local mode, this key returns control to
the Top Level Menu, exits operations in process, and
clears reports.
TEXT/GRAPH key. Selects either the standard (graphics)
display of waveforms, menus and messages, or a
text report of automatic waveform measurement results.
HELP key. Presents a Help screen containing brief
operating instructions for all menu functions.
PLOT key. Outputs the current image on the display
screen to selected output device.
INIT key. Initializes the measurement/display selections
and parameters to a set of default values.
5
FUNCTION keys
CHAN key. Enables the display and adjustment of level
parameters on each channel; selects video bandwidth; initiates
automatic calibration and zeroing function.
TIME key. Selects timebase and horizontal position of
displayed waveforms.
TRIG key. Specifies source, threshold, mode and other
parameters for the trigger function.
MARK key. Positions the selected marker on the horizontal axis
and selects the top or bottom window.
REF key. Positions the selected reference lines on the vertical axis.
DISP key. Selects full or split-screen mode; controls
the appearance of the displays; and selects linear
or logarithmic level display, or persistence.
MEAS key. Enters frequency, defines the amplitudes of the
distal, mesial and proximal, and displays automatic measurements in parameter fields.
UTIL key. Sets up the IEEE-488 bus, RS-232C serial
ports, and HPGL plotter; sets the internal clock.
Includes disk utilities.
SPCL key. Initiates internal self-tests, calibrator controls and
reports sensor parameters.
PRGM key. Stores and recalls instrument setup data, saves reference
waveforms, and stores and recalls reference waveforms to disk.
Getting Started
3-3
Table 3-1 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections (continued)
Ref. No.
Front
Rear Nomenclature
6
IEEE-488 bus
annunciators
Function
REM annunciator. Indicates that the instrument is
addressed and remote on the IEEE-488 bus.
LSN annunciator. Indicates the instrument is addressed
to listen on the IEEE-488 bus.
TLK annunciator. Indicates the instrument is addressed
to talk on the IEEE-488 bus.
SRQ annunciator. Indicates that the instrument is
requesting service from the bus controller.
7
8
Inputs parameters and selections to the instrument;
duplicates the spin knob and data entry keypad;
increments/decrements in single steps or repeats
if held down.
Diskette drive
DOS compatible 3.5" (1.44MB) diskette drive for loading
the operating program and storing/recalling data.
Figure 3-2. Model 4400A/4500A - Rear Panel
Shown with Optional Rear Panel Connectors
3-4
Getting Started
Table 3-1 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections (continued)
Ref. No.
Front
Rear Nomenclature
9*
9*
10
11*
11*
12
13*
13*
14
15
Function
Calibrator output
Type-N output port for the calibrator signal.
Spin knob
Inputs control parameters and selections to the
instrument. Input values are automatically limited to
their allowable minimums and maximums. Duplicates
the
and data entry keypad.
Trigger input
BNC connector for Channel 1 and 2 trigger signals.
Data entry keypad
Inputs parameters and selections to the instrument.
Includes keys to specify units and to clear display errors.
Duplicates the spin knob and
.
Measurement channel
input connectors
Multipin connector for Channel 1 and (optional) Channel 2
sensors.
Power ON/SBY switch
Indicator LED
In SBY (Standby) mode, calibrator remains powered to
enhance accuracy and stability; other modules are off.
LED is off in the standby mode.
RS-232C Connectors
#1 Output Port
Interface to serial output device.
#2 Diagnostic Port
Reports operational and error status to an external
user-furnished maintenance terminal.
16
Parallel Printer Port
Connector for parallel printer.
17
Fuse holder
Holds two 250 Volt fuses (See Table 1-1).
18
Cooling fan
Circulates air inside the instrument.
19
Power cord connector
Supplies AC power to the instrument (see Subsection 2.2).
20
Power switch
Connects or disconnects all power to the instrument;
overrides ON/SBY switch.
21
External pulse
connector
For external control of calibrator pulse characteristics
and synchronization.
22
IEEE-488 bus
connector
Interconnects instrument to the bus controller or output
device.
*May be front or rear-mounted, depending on the option selected.
Getting Started
3-5
3.3 Monitor Display
This subsection includes a picture (Figure 3-3) and a table (Table 3-2) of
descriptions of the display layout of the Model 4400A/4500A. Figure 3-3.
shows the principal display mode of the instrument. The other display modes
are just text displays with a common menu structure.
See Section 4.5 for more information on the display format.
Figure 3-3. Monitor Display
Table 3-2 Monitor Display Fields
Ref. No.
Field Name
Description
1
Header
Displays the Boonton logo, date/time, sensor temperature,
or else remains blank.
2
Path name
Lists the higher menus in the path of the current menu.
3
Menu
The current menu.
4
Error field
Identifies errors as they occur.
5
Timebase
Indicates the timebase per division selected for the waveform display.
6
Message line
Describes ongoing operations.
3-6
Getting Started
Table 3-2 Monitor Display Fields (continued)
Ref. No.
Field Name
Description
7
Priority message
Displays status on a priority basis. Messages include
Measuring Stopped, No Sensor, AutoCal Needed, and
Temperature Drift, AutoTriggering, Waiting for Trigger, and
Capturing Data.
When multiple messages are active, the message
having the highest priority is displayed. For example,
if no sensor was connected, only the “No Sensor”
message would be displayed; the lower priority AutoCal
and temperature messages would be suppressed.
8
Marker measurements
The two outside fields display the absolute power levels
at Time Marks 1 and 2. (Marker 1 is on the left; Marker 2 is
on the right.) The field above the centerline may display
either the ratio of the two power levels (expressed in dB), or
the average power in the waveform segment located between
the Time Marks (in dBm).
9
Vertical Markers
There are two vertical markers per window which allows
level measurements at specific times relative to the trigger
event.
10
Parameters
Displays a table of measurement status parameters for
the currently selected channel or any selected automatic
measurement.
11
Active Marker Indicator
This indicator show the marker that is active in the marker
menu and is the measurement at the marker with the triangle
located on the vertical markers in the waveform display.
12
Time Base Limits
These fields show the timebase limits. In the pulse mode the time is
relative to the trigger event.
Getting Started
3-7
3.4 Initialize
The procedures presented in this section will initialize the Model 4400A/4500A
and prepare it for operation. Steps 1 through 3 should be performed every time
you turn on the instrument. Step 4 only needs to be performed when you wish
to return the instrument operation to a known state. This usually occurs after
turning the instrument on or at the beginning of a new test. If you have
completed Subsection 2.4 Preliminary Check, you may skip this section and
continue to Subsection 3.6 Practice Exercises.
STEP
1.
PROCEDURE
If the main power is off, press the power switch located on the rear panel.
See Figure 3-2. If the ON/SBY indicator LED on the front panel is off,
press the ON/SBY key. See Figure 3-1.
After a self-check, the instrument will execute the application program. A
brief initialization screen should appear, which shows the instrument
name, model number, and software version. After several moments the
main measurement screen will appear.
If it is necessary to change the sensor installed on the instrument, perform Steps
2, 3 and 4.
When selecting a sensor for an exercise or a measurement, be sure you know
the power range of the sensor. Extended operation beyond the sensor’s
specified upper power limit may result in permanent change of characteristics or
burnout.
Caution
2.
Connect the sensor to the sensor cable by aligning the red mark on each part
and pressing the connectors together firmly.
3.
Connect the sensor cable to the Channel 1 input (holding the red mark UP).
When the sensor is connected, the instrument will download the factory
installed calibration data from the sensor memory. While the download is in
process, the message “CH 1 Sensor Data Loading” will appear on the display.
If the sensor is disconnected during the download, either the “Sensor Data
Error” or “I 2 C Error” message will appear. When this occurs, (press CLR) to
clear the error; reconnect the sensor.
In general, when any sensor error message occurs, disconnect and reconnect the
sensor and press CLR. If the message persists, refer the problem to Boonton
Electronics for technical support.
The INIT key does not affect parameters selected for the IEEE Bus, Serial 1,
Serial 2, display colors, or the printer/plotter configurations.
Note
4.
3-8
Press the INIT function key to initialize the operating parameters listed in
Table 3-3. This table represents all the parameters that are affected by
initialization. This table lists the value or the option to which the
Getting Started
Table 3-3. Initialized Parameters
Parameter
Graph/Text/Help Mode Select
Top Level Menu
Measurement
Measurement Mode
Parameters Related to the Chan # > Menu
Select
Channel
Vertical Scale (active marker)
Log
Linear
Trig display
Vertical Center
Log
Linear
Trig display
Extensions (Menu)
Display
dB Offset
Cal-Factor in dB
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Video Bandwidth
Averaging
Expression
Argument A
Operator
Argument B
Parameters Related to the Disp > Menu
Screen
Units
Persistence
Format (Menu)
Grid Type
Trace Type
Assign Trace
Disp Header
Set Colors
Parameters Related to the Mark > Menu
Window
Marker 1 (active marker)
Marker 2
Marker 1 (active marker)
Marker 2
Extensions (Menu)
MK Group
Mk 1 CH
Mk 2 CH
Delta Marker
Mk Math
MK Group
Mk 1 CH
Mk 2 CH
Getting Started
Default
Graph
Run
Pulse
Applies to:
CH 1
On
CH1,
CH2, CH Math
REF 1, REF 2
Off
All Channels
All Channels
CH 1, CH 2
20 dB/Div
20 mW/Div
0.5 V/Div
All Channels
All Channels
CH 1, CH 2
0.00 dB
0 Divs
0 Volts
CH
CH
CH
CH
CH
Pwr
0.00 dB
0.00 dB
Pulse
CDF
High
5
1,
1,
1,
1,
1
CH 2
CH 2
CH2
CH2
CH 1, CH 2
CH Math
CH 1
CH 2
Applies to:
Full
Log
Off
All Channels
CH 1, CH Math, REF 1
CH 2, REF 2
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Crosshair
Line
Bottom
Top
Logo
not altered by init.
Bottom
5 ms
-10 ms
0.00 %
50.00 %
Both
CH 1
CH 1
Ratio
Ratio
MK2-MK1
MK1-MK2
Each
CH 1
CH 2
3-9
Table 3-3. Initialized Parameters (continued)
Parameter
Parameters Related to the Ref > Menu
Window
REF Line 1
REF Line 2
Extensions (Menu)
REF CH Sel
REF Track
Parameters Related to the Trig > Menu
Trig Mode
Trig Source
Trig Level
HoldOff
Trig Slope
Parameters Related to the Time > Menu
Timebase
Position
Τrig Delay
X-axis
% Offset
Paramters Related to the Meas > Menu
Freq Group
Freq CH 1
Freq CH 2
Define Pulse (Menu)
Distal
Mesial
Proximal
Meas Mode
Param Meas (Menu)
Select
Param Mode
Param Column
Param Top (active menu)
Param Middle
Param Bottom
Confidence
Parameters Related to the SPCL > Menu
Calibrator (Menu)
Cal Output
Set Level (active menu)
Max Power
Cal Mode
Pulse (Menu)
Source
Polarity
Duty Cycle
Pulse Period
Extensions (Menu)
Level Step (active menu)
Peaking Mode
Auto CENTER
3-10
Default
Applies to:
Bottom
0.00 dBm
0.00 dBm
Power Mode
Applies to:
Power Mode
Stat Mode
CH 1 Int
CH 2 Int
CH 1, CH 2 Int
Applies to:
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Off
Off
Auto
Continuous
CH 1 Int
-3.00 dBm
0.00 dBm
0.00 V
0 µs
+
50 µs/Div
M
0 µs
1.0 0%/Div
0.0 %
Applies to:
Freq Group Each & Both
Freq Group Each & Both
Power Mode
Each
1.00 GHz
1.00 GHz
90%
50%
10%
PWR
Power Mode
Stat Mode
Applies to:
CH 1
Status
L
Pulse Width
Risetime
Falltime
80%
Off
0.0 dBm
20.0 dBm
Pulse
Int
+
10%
100 µs
0.1 dBm
Off
Off
Getting Started
3.5 Calibration
Before any measurements can be aquired with the Model 400A/4500A, a sensor
must be connected from the instrument to the built-in calibrator, and calibrated.
The following steps will guide the operator through the calibration process. This
explanation covers a single channel configuration. If a second channel and
sensor is available, repeat the steps for channel 2.
If the sensor was just connected to the instrument or the instrument was just
turned on, please wait at least 15 minutes for the instrument to warm up before
autocalibration.
Note
STEP
1.
PROCEDURE
Connect a Boonton Model 56xxx Series sensor to the instrument’s
CHANNEL input using the supplied cable. The cable will have a silver
multipin connector on each end. To connect the cable, align the red dots
between the connector and sensor and insert. Once the connector clicks
into place, the cable will not pull out without sliding the barrel of the
connector away from the connection point. The other end of the cable
connects to the measurement channel (1) input connector as identified in
Figure 3-1 item 13.
2.
Connect the sensor to the "N" connector for the internal calibrator as
identified by Figure 3-1 item 9. If the sensor has a "K" style connector
use the "K" to "N" adapter (95105501A) provided. The 56326, 56525,
56340 and 56540 sensors will need the adapter.
3.
Press INIT key. This sets the instrument to pulse mode. However, a pulse
waveform will not appear unless the calibrator is turned on.
4.
Press MEAS key.
5.
Select Meas > Frequency CH1> by pressing the menu key associated with
it. The box around the menu will be highlighted. This indicates that the
frequency function is selected for number entry. Frequency is given in
hertz. To select a frequency value of 1 GHz, press the "1" key followed
by the "G" (for giga) key.
This causes the frequency correction factor for the sensor to be read from
the sensor’s internal memory and automatically be applied to the
measurement.
Although in this case the value should have already been set to 1 GHz by
the INIT key, it is good practice for learning the operation of the
instrument.
6.
Press the CHAN function key.
7.
Press the Chan 1 > Calibration menu key.
8.
Press the Chan 1 > Calibration > AutoCal menu key to initiate the
automatic zeroing and sensor calibration routine.
The AutoCal routine will calibrate the entire dynamic range of the sensor in
approximately 1.5 minutes while reporting status via screen messages.
AutoCal will not start if there are any pending errors. Press CLR to
clear errors before initiating AutoCal. A listing of error messages
appears in Appendix A Error Messages.
Getting Started
3-11
Figure 3-4. Front Panel Controls Used in Calibration Procedures
function will be assigned after initialization.
STEP
9.
PROCEDURE
If an error message appears after you have initiated AutoCal, verify the
following:
a.
Is the sensor that is connected to the calibrator also connected to the channel
indicated in the Chan 1 > Select menu?
b.
Are the sensor cable connections secure at both the sensor and instrument
input channels?
c.
Were any errors pending before you initiated AutoCal?
d.
Does the instrument pass its self-test (no errors reported when you pressed
ON/SBY)?
To repeat the self-test, press Spcl > Servicing > Self Test.
e.
Has an improper value been entered into the CF in dB window?
(Refer to the discussion of the Chan 1 > Extensions menu later in
this section.)
f.
Are any attenuators or other devices that are connected between the sensor and
the calibrator not accounted for in the CF in dB value? (Refer to the
discussion of the Chan 1 > Extensions menu later in this section.)
This completes the Calibration exercise. When you have accomplished these
steps, the instrument’s zero level will be properly adjusted, the sensor will be
calibrated, the calibrator must be manually turned on and a pulsed waveform
display will appear. The instrument will be ready for the practice exercises
presented in the next subsection.
3-12
Getting Started
3.6 Practice Exercise for Pulse Power Measurements
In the following exercises you will practice adjusting the display settings and
pulse train parameters to become familiar with the Model 4400A/4500A
controls. Complete instructions for each control function are presented in
Section 4 OPERATION.
It is suggested that you review the front panel control conventions presented in
Subsection 4.3 Menu Conventions before proceeding.
Before beginning the exercise connect a sensor to the calibrator from channel 1.
In the SPCL > CALIBRATOR > menu set the level to +5 dBm, set Cal Mode to
Pulse, and turn the calibrator output "On".
MENU ITEM
CHAN
Chan 1 > Select
EXERCISE
Press the CHAN function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar
with the items in the Chan 1 > menu.
Press the Chan 1 > Select key to select a channel. Each time the button is pressed, the
next available channel is selected. Pressing repeatedly will cycle through the following
channels:
CH 1, CH 2, CH Math, Ref 1, Ref 2
Observe how the menu changes as you step through the items offered in the Chan >
Select window.
When CH Math is current in the Chan > Select window, those instruments equipped with
the optional Channel 2 will display the difference between the signals applied to Channels
1 and 2. Use the Chan (CH Math) > Expression window to set the operation of the
(CH Math) display.
Use the Chan 1 > Select function to reselect CH 1 before proceeding.
Chan 1 > Channel
Press the Chan > Channel menu key to toggle the CH 1 display off and
on. The waveform should disappear and reappear. (Leave it on.)
Chan 1 > Vert Scale
If the Chan 1 > Vert Scale selection is not active, press the Chan # > Vert
Scale menu key. Use the spin knob or
to step the vertical sensitivity
of the display through the range from 0.1 dB/Div to 20 dB/Div. Observe
the resulting changes in the pulse height, and note that the VertScale parameter
changes at each step to match the selected sensitivity. Note also that the
display is rescaled without recapture of data, and that the markers continue
to make full-resolution measurements on waveforms that are off the screen.
Getting Started
3-13
Figure 3-5. Chan 1 > Menu
Chan 1 > Vert Center
Press the Chan 1 > Vert Center menu key. Use any of the data entry
controls to shift the vertical center of the display to correspond to power levels of -10, 0
and +10 dBm. Observe the position of the display at each setting and note that the
VertCenter parameter changes to match the selected level. Note also that the display is
rescaled without recapture of data.
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions menu key to access the Extensions submenu
(Figure 3-7).
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Display
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > Display menu key to toggle between the
Pwr and Trig functions. Selecting the Pwr function displays the waveform
that is connected to the sensor; selecting the Trig function displays the waveform
connected to the external trigger input. Because there is no external connection to the
trigger input for this exercise, the waveform display will be show a flat trace if Trig is
selected.
Chan 1 > Extensions >
dB Offset
This selection will be highlighted. Use any of the data entry controls to shift the waveform
vertically on the display. (Positive offsets move the waveform up; negative offsets move
it down.)
Note
Chan 1 > Extensions
CF in dB
3-14
In practice, dB Offset is used to compensate for attenuators or amplifiers inserted
between the sensor and the device under test. CF in dB is used to compensate for
losses in cables, adapters, switches and other line equipment inserted between the
sensor and the calibrator output, or between the sensor and the device under test, but
not both.
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > CF in dB menu key. Use any of the data
entry controls to shift the waveform vertically.
Getting Started
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Video BW
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > Video BW menu key to toggle between
the “Low” (narrowband) and “High” (wideband) sensor bandwidths. The
bandwidths and risetimes corresponding to the “Low” and “High” sensor selections are
presented in the sensor specifications, Tables 1-3, through 1-17. The “Low” position
reduces the RF noise level. The “High” position is useful for displaying pulses with fast
rise and falltimes.
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Averaging
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > Averaging menu key. Use any of the
data entry controls to select the number of samples to be averaged at
each point of the waveform to produce the waveform display.
TIME
Press the TIME function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar with
the items in the Time > menu (Figure 3-8):
Time > Timebase
This selection will be highlighted. Use the spin knob to step the timebase
through the range from 10 ns/Div to 1 s/Div. Observe the changes in the
display and note that for each selection, the Time > Tr Dly reading remains
consistent with the limits set by the resolution of the display.
Time > Position
Press the Time > Position menu key to shift the start of the waveform
to the left (L) edge, middle (M) or right (R) edge of the display area.
Note
In practice, this feature is used to observe a specific segment of the waveform. Select
“L” to observe the waveform immediately after the trigger occurs; “R” to observe the
waveform immediatetely before; and “M” to observe segments of the waveform just
before and after the trigger.
Figure 3-6. Chan 1 > Extensions > Menu
Getting Started
3-15
Figure 3-7. Time > Menu
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Time > Trig Delay
Press the Time > Trig Delay menu key. Use any of the data entry controls to adjust the
time delay between the trigger and the start of the data capture display. The instrument
adjusts the limits of the Trig Delay parameter based on the timebase selection to reflect an
appropriate resolution for that timebase.
TRIG
Press the TRIG function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar with
the items in the Trig > menu (Figure 3-9):
Trig > Trig Mode
Press the Trig > Trig Mode menu key to toggle between Auto and Norm(al).
In the Norm mode, the data capture and waveform display are triggered when the internal or
external trigger pulse reaches the trigger level. In Auto mode, if no trigger pulse is present at
or above the trigger level, the measurement is triggered automatically after a prespecified
timeout period. The Auto mode is preferred for measurement of unmodulated (CW) carriers.
Trig > Trig Source
Press the Trig > Trig Source menu key to toggle between Ch 1 Int(ernal) and Ch 1 Ext(ernal).
The latter choice is valid only if an external trigger source is connected. The Ch 2 selections
will be activated only if the optional Channel 2 is installed.
Trig > Trig Level
Use any of the data entry controls to adjust the trigger level, which may be set to any
positive or negative value, up to the peak power of the trigger signal. For these exercises,
the trigger waveform is the calibrator signal, which has been set to a peak power level of
+10 dBm. Accordingly, the Trig Level control may be set to any level in the range from
-5 to +9 dBm.
3-16
Getting Started
Figure 3-8. Trig > Menu
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Trig > HoldOff
This control cannot be used effectively when the calibrator is the source of the test signal.
Consequently, it is not used for these exercises. See Table 4-9 for a discussion of the
HoldOff parameter.
Trig > Trig Slope
Press the Trig > Trig Slope menu key to toggle between rising edge triggering and falling
edge triggering. Note that in the Status parameter field at the top of the graph mode
display the trigger slope is indicated by the sign of the trigger channel.
MARK
Mark > Window
Press the MARK function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar
with the items in the Mark > menu (Figure 3-10):
This key enables you to select the time marks in the top or bottom window of a split-screen
display available with two-channel instruments (Figure 3-11). (To establish a split-scree
display, press the DISP function key; then press the Disp > Screen menu key and select
Split.)
To switch between the top and bottom windows of the split screen display, press the
MARK function key followed by the Mark > Window menu key. The active marker is
indicated by the highlighted menu box in the Mark > menu and by small triangles at the
top and bottom of the markers. See Figure 3-12.
Getting Started
3-17
Figure 3-9. Mark > Menu
Figure 3-10. Split-Screen Display
3-18
Getting Started
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
To return to a full screen, press the DISP function key, followed by the Disp > Screen
menu key. Select Full.
Press the MARK function key to continue the exercise.
Mark > Time Mark 1
If Time Mark 1 is inactive, press the Mark > Time Mark 1 menu key to
activate it. Use the spin knob or
to move Time Mark 1 to the leading edge of any
pulse in the display. Move the time mark across the pulse and observe the power reading
(in dBm) located above the left-hand side of the waveform display window. This reading
refers to the peak power level at Time Mark 1 and will be displayed in the same color as
the measured waveform. Also observe that the Time Mark 1 display box shows the time
delay of the marker position relative to the trigger event. Use this feature to determine the
relative time of any point on the measured waveform.
Mark > Time Mark 2
If Time Mark 2 is inactive, press the Mark > Time Mark 2 menu key to
activate it. Use the spin knob to move Time Mark 2 a few divisions away from Time
Mark 1. Observe that the active marker is designated by triangles at top and bottom.
Note that the power reading above the right-hand side of the waveform display window
corresponds to Time Mark 2. Note also that the ratio of the waveform power levels at
Time Mark 1 and Time Mark 2 (which is equivalent to the difference of the two levels
expressed in “dBm”) is displayed above the centerline of the waveform.
Figure 3-11. Waveform Display With Time Marks
Getting Started
3-19
Mark > Delta Time
Move either time marker and observe that the Mark > Delta Time box
displays the difference in time between the two time marks.
Mark > Set Vrt Cntr
Press the Mark > Set Vrt Cntr menu key to move the display window so
that the signal level at the active marker crossing will be displayed at the center of the
screen.
For example, pressing the Set Vrt Cntr menu key when the active marker is on a pulse
measuring +10 dBm will shift the display up or down, so that the center of the vertical
scale corresponds to +10 dBm (see Figure 3-13a). If you move the active marker off the
pulse so that its power reading is -15 dBm, for example, pressing the Set Vrt Cntr key will
shift the display so the vertical center corresponds to -15 dBm (Figure 3-13b).
When you press the Mark > Set Vrt Cntr menu key, the Vertical Center parameter is
automatically adjusted in the applicable Chan # > menu.
Figure 3-12a
Figure 3-12b
Figure 3-12. Using Mark >Set Vertical Center
3-20
Getting Started
MENU ITEM
MEAS
EXERCISE
Press the MEAS function key, and perform the following exercises to become
familiar with frequency entry.
Use any of the data entry controls to select the measurement frequency
(in GHz). The instrument will automatically read the frequency correction
data from the sensor and apply the correction to the measurement.
Because the sensor is connected to the calibrator output for these exercises, the
measurement frequency must be set to 1.0 GHz (the frequency of the calibrator signal)
to obtain a valid reading.
Meas > Frequency Group This selection toggles between BOTH and EACH. The BOTH option links both
channels together with the same frequency. The EACH option allows each
channel to be set to different frequencies.
Meas > Frequency
Channel 1
Use any of the data entry controls to adjust the frequency for Channel 1
operation. This frequency selection is used to calculate the required
correction factor.
Meas > Frequency
Channel 2
This only applies to Channel 2 operation. The operation is the same as
discussed above.
Note
The Model 4400A/4500A readings are always full scale, so data is not lost when
vertical settings are changed. Thus, there is no danger of losing data related to
events that occur during adjustment of Vertical Scale, Vertical Center, dB Offset,
CF in dB, or Frequency.
This concludes the Practice Pulse Power Exercises. Press the INIT function key to
clear the practice parameter settings and the instrument will be ready to use.
Hint
Getting Started
For best results, read the rest of this Instruction Manual through Section 6
APPLICATION NOTES before using the Model 4400A/4500A to make
operational measurements.
3-21
3.7 Practice Exercise for Statistical Power Measurements (4500A only)
In the following exercises you will practice adjusting settings for the Model
4500A Digital Sampling Power Analyzer in the statistical power mode. In
statistical power measurements, the instrument does not require a trigger event
to make level measurements. The signal is continuously sampled at
approximately half a million samples per second
Before beginning the exercise, turn the instrument power on and connect a
sensor to channel 1. Press the INIT key to initialize the instrument to a known
state. Then connect the sensor to the built-in calibrator. If a sensor requires
calibration see Section 3.5 for instructions.
In the SPCL >CALIBRATOR menu set the calibrator level to +5 dBm, cal mode
to pulse and turn the output power level on.
For more information on the statistical power measure mode definitions, see
Chapter 6 - Applications.
MENU ITEM
Top Level
> Measure Mode
EXERCISE
Press > Measure Mode to cycle through the available measurement modes. On the
Model 4500A these are:
Pulse, CW, CDF, 1-CDF, PDF
The last three modes set the 4500A for continuous data acquisition and with statistical
display formats. Select the CDF measurement mode.
> Measurement
Toggle > Measurement from RUN to STOP. This will stop the instrument from measuring.
>Display
Press > Display: CLEAR to clear all data and display. All readings will go to dashes
(invalid). Use this function any time old data needs to be cleared and new data
captured.
Now toggle the > Measure menu to RUN to start acquiring data.
As the instrument captures data a cumulative distribution function plot will appear on the
display (Figure 3-14). This plot represents all data points captured by the instrument.
The plot shows the percentage of points that have been accumulated at or below a selected
power level.
Parameter and
Marker fields
There are 9 parameter fields above the waveform display in the graph mode. These are:
Peak Power - The maximum power level sampled
Average Power - The calculated average power based on all samples
Peak to Average Ratio - Peak power minus the average power in dB
Total Time - This is the total time over which readings are captured
Total Points - This is the actual number of samples captured in 0.1 mega sample resolution
Tolerance - This is a measure of the statistical relevance of the data and is related to the
selected confidence band.
Ref 1, 2 and Delta - These are the values returned as readings from the horizontal
reference lines. The reference lines are set in power and return a value in percent.
3-22
Getting Started
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Press the TEXT button and the screen changes to the text mode to show markers,
reference lines, and all the automatic measurements on one screen.
Press the TEXT button again to change the screen back to the graph display.
CHAN
Chan 1 > Select
Press the CHAN function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar
with the items in the Chan 1 > menu.
Press the Chan 1 > Select key to select a channel. Each time the button is pressed, the next
available channel is selected. Pressing repeatedly will cycle through the following
channels:
CH 1, CH Math, Ref 1, Ref 2
Observe how the menu changes as you step through the items offered in the Chan # >
Select window.
In the channel selection menu Channel 2 is not available in the Stat measurement mode.
Use the Chan # > Select function to reselect CH 1 before proceeding.
Chan 1 > Channel
Press the Chan > Channel menu key to toggle the CH 1 display off and
on. The waveform should disappear and reappear. (Leave it on.)
Chan 1 > Vert Scale
If the Chan 1 > Vert Scale selection is not active, press the Chan # > Vert
Scale menu key. Use the spin knob or
to step the vertical sensitivity
of the display through the range from 0.1 dB/Div to 20 dB/Div. Observe
the resulting changes in the CDF plot. Note also that the display is rescaled without
recapture of data.
Chan 1 > Vert Center
Press the Chan 1 > Vert Center menu key. Use any of the data entry
controls to shift the vertical center of the display to correspond to power levels of -10, 0
and +10 dBm. Observe the position of the display at each setting and note that the Center
parameter changes to match the selected level. Note also that the display is rescaled
without recapture of data.
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions menu key to access the Extensions submenu.
Getting Started
3-23
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Chan 1 > Extensions >
dB Offset
The selection will be highlighted as it is the default active function for the extensions
submenu. Use any of the data entry controls to shift the waveform vertically on the
display. (Positive offsets move the waveform up; negative offsets move it down.)
Note
In practice, dB Offset is used to compensate for attenuators or amplifiers inserted
between the sensor and the device under test. CF in dB is used to compensate for
losses in cables, adapters, switches and other line equipment inserted between the
sensor and the calibrator output, or between the sensor and the device under test, but
not both.
Chan 1 > Extensions
CF in dB
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > CF in dB menu key. Use any of the data
entry controls to shift the waveform vertically.
Chan 1 > Extensions >
Video BW
Press the Chan 1 > Extensions > Video BW menu key to toggle between the “Low”
(narrowband) and “High” (wideband) sensor bandwidths. The bandwidths and risetimes
corresponding to the “Low” and “High” sensor selections are presented in the sensor
specifications, Tables 1-3, through 1-17. The “Low” position reduces the RF noise level.
MEAS
Meas > Stat Mode
Press the MEAS function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar with
selecting statistical measurement modes.
This menu selection offers three choices on how the captured data is plotted. They are
cumulative distribution function (CDF) the default mode, 1- cumulative distribution
function (1-CDF), and probability density function (PDF).
The CDF plot presents the data in a running total by level which can be read by markers
or reference lines as the percent of total readings at or below a selected power level.
Figure 3-13.
CDF Display
3-24
Getting Started
The 1-CDF plot presents the data as the percent of total reading at or above a selected
power level.
Figure 3-14.
1-CDF Display
The PDF mode plots the quantity of samples. Only the reference lines are functional and
return the percent of total readings at a specific power level.
Figure 3-15.
PDF Display
Getting Started
3-25
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
As an extra exercise, stop the measurement acquisition and use the reference lines to
record a reading at +5dBm in CDF mode. Then use the total number of samples and
calculate the total number of points that these percentages represent.
Meas > # of Samples
This selection sets a limit for the number of samples to be acquired. This acquisition takes
place at about 500 kSa/sec for a single channel, and 250 kSa/sec for two channels
running. When the total number of points has been reached, the instrument will enter
STOP mode.
When finished, leave the Meas > Stat Mode in 1-CDF.
TIME
Press the TIME function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar with
the items in the Time > menu.
Time > X-Axis
This selection changes the horizontal scale to display all or only a portion of the waveform.
Expand the X-axis using the knob until it reads 0.1% per division. This will expand the
waveform data to its maximum resolution.
With the instrument in the Chan > Extensions > Stat Mode: 1-CDF display mode, the
maximum detail around the peak power will be shown at the left edge of the display.
Time > % Offset
Note
Select the % Offset and use the knob to move the expanded display along the waveform.
The instrument will not accept an invalid combination of X-Axis and % Offset. The
% Offset is automatically adjusted to a valid limit for the selected X-Axis. For
example, when the X-Axis is set to 10% per division, the horizontal axis covers the
range from 0% to 100%. On this setting the only valid % Offset is 0%. The % Offset
is automatically limited when the X-axis is changed.
TRIG
This menu has no active functions in the statistical mode. One menu displays the message
Trig > Trig Mode: Continuous as a reminder that the instrument is continuously sampling
the power envelope in the stat mode.
REF
Press the REF function key and perform the following exercises to become familiar with
the items in the Ref > menu.
The first step in using the reference lines is to enable them and assign them to a channel.
Ref > Extensions >
Ref CH Sel
In the REF menu select the extension submenu. In this menu press the Ref CH Sel menu
key until the selection reads Channel 1. The reference lines are now available and are
positioned on the screen based on the vertical scale and vertical center selections for the
selected channel; in this case channel 1.
Press the PREV key to return one level up (Ref >), where the next command is located.
3-26
Getting Started
MENU ITEM
EXERCISE
Ref > Ref Line 1
If Ref Line 1 is inactive, press the Ref > Ref Line 1 menu key to activate it. Use the spin
knob or
to move Ref Line 1 to the power level where the desired measurement is to
be made. Move the Ref Line around the waveform and observe the percentage of
occurence shown above the left-hand side of the waveform display in the parameter field.
In 1-CDF this reading refers to the percentage of the total readings that are at or above the
power level for the reference line and are displayed in the same color as the measured
waveform.
Ref > Ref Line 2
If Ref Line 2 is inactive, press the Ref > Ref Line 2 menu key to activate it. Use the spin
knob to move Ref Line 2 a few divisions away from Ref Line 1. Observe that the active
reference line is designated by triangles at left and right. Note that the reading above the
right-hand side of the waveform display window corresponds to Ref Line 2. Note also
that the absolute delta of the percent of Ref Line 1 and Ref Line 2 is displayed above the
centerline of the waveform.
This concludes the Practice Statistical Power Exercises. Press the INIT function
key to clear the practice parameter settings and the Model 4500A will be ready to
use.
Hint
Getting Started
For best results, read the rest of this Instruction Manual through Section 6
APPLICATION NOTES before using the Model 4400A/4500A to make
operational measurements.
3-27
4
Operation
This section presents the control menus and procedures for operating the Model
4400A/4500A in the manual mode. All the display menus that control the instrument
are illustrated and accompanied by instructions for using each menu item.
The operation section of the manual begins with instructions on how to calibrate the
sensors that will be used with the instrument. This calibration is required to begin
taking measures using the Digital Sampling Power Analyzer.
4.1 Calibration
The Model 4400A/4500A features a built-in automatic calibration (AutoCal) process,
which calibrates both the peak power and CW measurement channels. An internal
programmable calibrator outputs discrete incremental power levels covering the
dynamic range of the sensor. Zeroing is adjusted for the High and Low video
bandwidths and for the CW measurement mode.
Note
You must calibrate the instrument using the AutoCal routine whenever the Priority
Message field reads “CH # Needs AutoCal.”* At Power-On, the instrument checks its
data buffers and will not perform measurements if a valid set of calibration data is not
present.
Before beginning calibration a warm-up period may be required. If the instrument is
not connected to main power or the rear panel power switch is off, a 30 minute
warm-up period will be required before the sensors can be calibrated to full accuracy.
The front panel switch is a standby switch, and the calibrator is always powered. If
the sensors are not connected or the standby switch is off, the sensors will require 15
minutes to temperature stabilize.
Before initiating AutoCal, clear any pending errors by pressing CLR. To initiate
AutoCal, press the CHAN function key, followed by the Chan # > Calibration >
AutoCal menu keys. See Figure 4-1b. During AutoCal, progress is reported on the
display status line. If necessary, you can halt AutoCal by pressing the ESC key.
CF in dB
If cables, adapters or other devices are in the signal path between the calibrator output
and the sensor during the AutoCal procedure, but are not to be used in the
measurement path, you must set the Chan # > Extensions > CF in dB parameter to
assure proper instrument calibration. Do this by adding up the losses of the cables,
adapters or other devices and entering the sum into the Chan # > Extensions >
CF in dB window (Figure 4-1c) before initiating AutoCal. After AutoCal has run,
reset the CF in dB parameter to zero and remove the cables and adapters before
performing the measurement.
Calibration accuracy varies with signal power, as described in Subsection 1.6
Specifications. An analysis of calibration accuracy is presented in Section 6.0
Application Notes.
*The # symbol designates the numerals 1 or 2.
Operation
4-1
Inset. Menu Terminology
Figure 4-1a. Chan 1 > Menu
Figure 4-1. Chan 1 > Menu
and Associated Submenus
Figure 4-1b. Chan 1 > Calibration > Submenu
Figure 4-1c. Chan 1 > Extensions > Submenu
4-2
Operation
4.2 Manual Operation
In the manual mode, the instrument is controlled from the front panel by selecting
items from a system of screen menus. The menu structure is illustrated in Figure 4-2.
To properly input commands and data using these menus, you must be familiar with
the menu conventions described in the next subsection. Subsequent subsections
provide detailed instructions for the control keys and menus:
4.6
4.7
4.8 - 4.18
4.19
Top Level Menu
System Keys
Function Keys and Associated Menus
Automatic Operation
4.3 Menu Conventions
This section of the manual describes the menu conventions used throughout Chapter 4
"Operation" and the rest of the manual.
The control menu conventions are summarized as follows:
1.
Path description is a notation to indicate the entry location in the menu structure.
The greater than ">" symbol is used to indicate each indented level of the menu.
The first name should be one of the function keys. If the ">" symbol is the first
character then the top level menu is being referenced. The top level can be
accessed by pressing the "ESC" key. If a colon ":" symbol is part of the
description, the value that follows the colon ":" is the choice of value in that
menu.
In the top level menu of the Model 4500A, > Measure Mode offers CW, Pulse,
and three statistical measurement modes (CDF, 1-CDF and PDF). The Model
4400A does not support the statistical modes, so only CW and Pulse
measurement modes are available. The following sections of this manual will
use the symbol Pwr to indicate that a menu selection is only applicable when
the instrument is in Pulse or CW power measurement modes. The symbol Stat
will be used to indicate functions or menu selections that are only available in
one of the three statistical modes, and are not applicable on the Model 4400A.
Pwr & Stat ➮ indicates that the selection is available in any measurement mode.
In a 4500A, the CHAN, MEAS, TIME, TRIG, MARK, and REF menus all have
slight differences depending upon whether the instrument is set to a power or a
statistical mode. The UTIL, SPCL, PRGM and DISP menus operate the same in
any mode.
2.
Entries in the menu selection boxes (see Figure 4-1 Inset) can be any of the
following types:
Actions, Toggles or Parameter Values
3.
A single word or abbreviation in a selection box written in upper/lower case letters
indicates an entry or selection menu; when the word in the selection box is
written in all upper case, it indicates an Action or a secondary menu (submenu).
Examples are presented in Figures 4-1.
The Chan 1 > Calibration > Fixed Cal window in Figure 4-1b is
an example of an Action. To initiate the indicated action, simply
press the associated menu key.
Operation
4-3
%RRQWRQ0RGHO$$
Power Mode ➭
Top Level
Menu
Measurement
Single Sweep
Display
Measure Mode
Auto-Setup
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select CH2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
Display
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
Averaging
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select CHM
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Expression
Argument A
Operator
Argument B
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select REF1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Waveform
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select CH2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
Display
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
Averaging
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select CHM
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Expression
Argument A
Operator
Argument B
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select REF1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Waveform
CHAN
Button
Select CH1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
Display
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
Averaging
CHAN
Button
Select CH1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
Display
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
Averaging
LOG
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select REF2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Waveform
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select REF2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Waveform
TIME
Button
Timebase
Position
Trig Delay
TRIG
Button
Trig Mode
Trig Source
Trig Level
Holdoff
Trigger Slope
LIN
Figure 4-2. Control Menu Structure
4-4
Operation
%RRQWRQ0RGHO$$
Power Mode ➭
MARK
Button
Window
Time Mark 1
Delta Time
Time Mark 2
Set Vrt Cntr
Extensions
Window
Mk Group
Mk 1 CH
Mk 2 CH
Delta Marker
Mk Math
REF
Button
Window
Ref Line 1
Ref Delta
Ref Line 2
Refs to MKs
Extensions
Window
Ref CH Sel
Ref Tracking
MEAS
Button
Freq Group
Freq CH 1
Freq CH 2
Define Pulse
Distal
Mesial
Proximal
Power Mode
Param Meas
Chan Select
Param Mode
Param Col
Param Top
Param Mid
Param Bot
UTIL
Button
Inst Status
IEEE-488
Bus Setup
Address
Listen Term
Talk Term
EOI on Talk
SRQ Mask
Set SRQ
View Buffers
Mnemonics
Serial
Serial 1
Baud Rate
Stop Bits
Parity Bit
SPCL
Button
Servicing
Self Test
Configuration
Tdelay Cal
Tdelay Adj
Cal Mode
CALIBRATOR
Cal Output
Set Level
Max Power
Cal Mode
Pulse
Source
Polarity
Duty Cycle
Handshake
Pulse Period
Length
Xon Xoff
Serial 2
Baud Rate
Length
Stop Bits
Parity Bit
Extensions
Handshake
Disk
Select
Extension
Page
Delete
Bytes Free
Calibrator
Level Step
CH 1 Sensor
CH 2 Sensor
Peaking Mode
Auto Center
PRGM
Button
Instr Store
Select
Source
Destination
Instrument
Bytes Free
Instr Recall
Select
Source
Destination
Instrument
Bytes Free
Ref Save
Source
Destination
Waveform
WFM Store
Select
Source
Destination
Waveform
Bytes Free
WFM Recall
Select
Source
Destination
.WFM File
Waveform
Bytes Free
DISP
Button
Screen
Units
Persistence
Format
Grid Type
Trace Type
CH 1
CH 2
CH Math
Ref 1
Ref 2
Trace Assign
CH 1
CH 2
CH Math
Ref 1
Ref 2
Disp Header
Set Colors
Item Color
Red
Green
Blue
Init Colors
Hardcopy
Device
Model
Output Port
File Select
Plot Label
Graph & Text
Clock
Year
Month
Day of Month
Hour
Minutes
Day of Week
Figure 4-2. Control Menu Structure
Operation
4-5
%RRQWRQ0RGHO$
Stat Mode ➭
Top Level
Menu
Measurement
Display
Measure Mode
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select CH2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select CH2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
CHAN
Button
Select CH1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
CHAN
Button
Select CH1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Calibration
Autocal
Fixed Cal
CW Zeroing
Extensions
dB Offset
CF in dB
Video BW
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select CHM
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Expression
Argument A
Operator
Argument B
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select REF1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Waveform
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select CHM
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Expression
Argument A
Operator
Argument B
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select REF1
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Waveform
LOG
LOG
CHAN
Button
Select REF2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Center
Waveform
LIN
CHAN
Button
Select REF2
Channel
Vert Scale
Vert Offset
Waveform
TIME
Button
X-Axis
% Offset
TRIG
Button
Continuous
LIN
Figure 4-2. Control Menu Structure
4-6
Operation
%RRQWRQ0RGHO$
Stat Mode ➭
MARK
Button
Window
Marker 1
Delta Time
Marker 2
Set Vtr Cntr
Extensions
Window
Mk Group
Mk 1 CH
Mk 2 CH
REF
Button
Window
Ref Line 1
Ref Delta
Ref Line 2
Refs to MKs
Extensions
Window
Ref CH Sel
MEAS
Button
Freq Group
Freq CH 1
Freq CH 2
Stat Mode
# of Samples
Confidence
UTIL
Button
Inst Status
IEEE-488
Bus Setup
Address
Listen Term
Talk Term
EOI on Talk
SRQ Mask
Set SRQ
View Buffers
Mnemonics
Serial
Serial 1
Baud Rate
Stop Bits
Parity Bit
Handshake
Length
Xon Xoff
Serial 2
Baud Rate
Length
Stop Bits
Parity Bit
Handshake
Disk
Select
Extension
Page
Delete
Bytes Free
SPCL
Button
Servicing
Self Test
Tdelay Cal
Tdelay Adj
Cal Mode
CALIBRATOR
Cal Output
Set Level
Max Power
Cal Mode
Pulse
Source
Polarity
Duty Cycle
Pulse Period
Extensions
Calibrator
Level Step
CH 1 Sensor
CH 2 Sensor
Auto Center
PRGM
Button
Instr Store
Select
Source
Destination
Instrument
Bytees Free
Instr Recall
Select
Source
Destination
Instrument
Bytees Free
Ref Save
Source
Destination
Waveform
WFM Store
Select
Source
Destination
Waveform
Bytees Free
WFM Recall
Select
Source
Destination
.WFM File
Waveform
Bytes Free
DISP
Button
Screen
Units
Persistence
Format
Grid Type
Trace Type
CH 1
CH 2
CH Math
Ref 1
Ref 2
Trace Assign
CH 1
CH 2
CH Math
Ref 1
Ref 2
Disp Header
Set Colors
Item Color
Red
Green
Blue
Init Colors
Hardcopy
Device
Model
Output Port
File Select
Plot Label
Graph & Text
Clock
Year
Month
Day of Month
Hour
Minutes
Day of Week
Figure 4-2. Control Menu Structure
Operation
4-7
4.
Two entries (one of which is highlighted) appearing side-by-side within a menu
indicate a Toggle. See, for example, the Chan 1 > Channel selection box in
Figure 4-1a. Press the associated menu key to toggle the selection between
“Off” and “On.”
5.
A Parameter Value in a selection box represents the current value of that
parameter. See the Chan 1 > Vert Center selection box in Figure 4-1a. To
change a Parameter Value, highlight the selection by pressing the associated
menu key. Normally one of the selection boxes will be highlighted
automatically each time a menu is activated. Highlighting is indicated by a
color change of the selection box.
When a parameter entry window is highlighted, you may use any of the data
entry controls (spin knob,
, or keypad) to adjust the parameter value.
Pressing the menu key of a highlighted item deactivates the item and disables data
entry.
6.
Parameter Values can either be continuously variable throughout a range, or
restricted to a predefined set of discrete values. For discrete sets, the spin knob
and arrow keys are programmed to select only valid values in the set. For
discrete ranges, if you key in an incorrect value, the instrument will
automatically select the nearest correct value. If you input a value outside the
range of the parameter, the instrument will respond with the error message
“Number Entry Over (Under) Limit.”
7.
The word “MENU” appearing in a selection box indicates that there is a submenu
of additional selections at the next lower menu level. In the menu shown in
Figure 4-3a, for example, when you press the Disp > Trace Type menu key, you
will call up the Disp > Trace Type > submenu illustrated in Figure 4-3b.
8.
The word “REPORT” in a selection box indicates that a text display of data related
tothe associated item is available. In the example of Figure 4-4a, pressing the
Spcl > CH 1 Sensor menu key will display the text report illustrated in Figure
4-4b.
9.
Pressing the CLR data entry key (see Figure 3-1) clears errors, text reports and any
entry in process.
10. Pressing a menu key associated with the Action entry “CENTER”, causes the
instrument to center the waveform at the active Time Mark. See the Mark > Set
Vert Cntr window in Figure 4-5.
These ten rules apply generally to all the Model 4400A/4500A control menus. By
becoming familiar with them, you will expedite instrument operations and avoid
errors.
4-8
Operation
Figure 4-3a. Disp > Menu
Figure 4-3b. Disp > Trace Type > Submenu
Figure 4-3. Disp > Menu and Associated Submenu
Operation
4-9
Figure 4-4a. SPCL > Menu
Figure 4-4. Spcl > Menu
and Associated Text
Report
Figure 4-4b. Chan 1 Sensor Configuration Report
Figure 4-5. Mark > Menu
4-10
Operation
Note
Help screens for each menu describe the menu items. See Subsection 4-7 System
Keys. Press the HELP key to access the help screen for the current menu. Press
ESC or press the HELP key again to return to the previous display mode.
In following subsections you will be introduced to the Top Level Menu and operating
procedures for the three primary key groups: System, Function, and Data Entry.
Operation
4-11
4.4 Data Entry Controls
The numeric keypad illustrated in Figure 4-6 is one of the three data entry controls
that enable you to enter parameters for the various control functions. The keypad is
subdivided into three areas: numerals, units of measure and controls.
The ten numerals, the minus sign and the decimal point are used to enter numerical
data. Six “units of measure” keys are provided for you to use to complete numerical
entries. When entering time intervals, press the “m” after entering the numbers to
indicate milliseconds or milliseconds/division; press “µ” to indicate microseconds or
microseconds/division; and press “n” to indicate nanoseconds or
nanoseconds/division. Press ENT to indicate seconds or seconds/division. Pressing
any one of these “units” keys enters the numerical data.
When entering numbers that are not time intervals (dBm for example), press the ENT
key after keying the number. Pressing one of the units keys after entering a
non-time-related number has the same effect as pressing ENT.
The units keys labeled G, M, and k are used to enter frequencies in Gigahertz,
Megahertz, and kilohertz, respectively. They operate in a manner similar to the
time-related units keys.
You may cancel a value before it is entered by pressing the CLR key. The CLR key
is also used to clear status and error messages from the display.
Two alternative controls are provided for entering selections and numeric data. These
are spin knob and the right/left arrow keys [
]. Rotate the spin knob clockwise
to decrease the value in the active display window; clockwise to increase it. Detents
in the knob rotation mark discrete values in the selection range. The arrow keys also
select discrete values: the left arrow increases the value in the selected display
window; the right arrow decreases it. Holding down an arrow key causes it to repeat.
Figure 4-6. Data Entry
Keypad
4-12
Operation
4.5 Display Data
The 4400A/4500A has four display modes. These are the Graph mode, Text mode,
Report mode, and the Help mode. Whichever mode the display is in, the menu portion
of the display is always present and active.
The HELP mode is activated by pressing the HELP key. When in this mode the
instrument will display up to three lines of information related to the active menu. The
menus are active in the help mode. This allows the operator to move to any menu
level and make multiple instrument configuration changes without leaving the help
mode. To leave the help mode press the HELP key again or the ESC key.
The REPORT mode is active when a report is requested by a menu selection or an
IEEE-488 command. Each report is formatted to provide the specifically requested
information. The report mode is exited by pressing the ESC key or selecting another
menu option.
The TEXT mode presents a tabular display of measurement values for channels 1 and
2. In Pulse measurement mode, this table consists of all 14 automatic pulse
measurements. In all three Stat ➮ measurement modes (Model 4500A only), power
statistics, marker and reference line values and global measurement status parameters
are shown. TEXT mode does not display any values when the measurement mode is
set to CW.
The GRAPH mode is the primary display mode for the instrument. After initalization
the display is in the graph mode. The graph mode includes a 501 by 281 waveform
display area, header field, menu path field, priority message field, error message field
and general message field.
The header field is in the top left corner. Its options include model number, time and
date, sensor temperature and no message.
The menu path is located in the upper right of the display. It shows the current menu
location in the menu indentation structure. See Figure 4-2 for menu information.
The error message is below the waveform display on the right. The default color is
red. Errors are cleared by pressing the ESC or CLR key.
The general message field is at the bottom of the display. It shows temporary
information about the status of the instrument.
Operation
4-13
Priority Messages
The priority message is a field located below the waveform display in the
graph mode. This field displays a series of messages based on a pre-assigned
priority. If multiple conditions exist only the highest priority message is
displayed. This approach is used since for normal operation no messages
should be displayed. If a message is displayed, corrective action should be
taken to address the source of the problem, at which time the messages will
be cleared. In the case where only one channel is being used, the other
channel should be turned off which will disable any error conditions
associated with that channel.
The priory is:
Measuring Stopped!!
CH 1 & 2 No Sensor
CH 1 No Sensor
CH 2 No Sensor
CH 1 & 2 Need Autocal
CH 1 Needs Autocal
CH 2 Needs Autocal
CH 1 & 2 Temp Drift
CH 1 Temp Drift
CH 2 Temp Drift
Auto Triggering
Waiting for Trigger
Capturing New Data
(Blank Field)
Highest
Lowest
The "No Sensor" messages indicate that the instrument cannot detect a sensor
connected on the specified channel.
The "Autocal" message indicates the need to perform a new calibration before
measurements can be taken. This is required when a different sensor is connected to
the selected channel.
The "Temperature Drift" message indicates that the sensor has drifted more than
±4°C from the original autocalibration temperature. For maximum accuracy a new
autocal should be performed on the channel. If not, a small additional error can be
introduced into the measurements.
The "Auto Triggering" message indicates that the instrument is in the auto-triggering
mode. When in this mode the instrument expects that a valid trigger event will occur
at regular intervals or the instrument will time-out and generate it’s own trigger event.
The autotrigger table ( Table 4-10) shows the typical time-out period for each
timebase. This mode is useful when the signal being measured drops below the trigger
level, the signal is a CW level or is not known. The auto-trigger will give the operator
a snap shot of the signal that the instrument is capturing. If this is an undesired effect
then switch the instrument to the trigger-normal mode in the TRIG > TRIG MODE
menu.
The "Waiting for Trigger" message indicates that there is no valid measurement data,
the instrument is in the trigger-normal mode, and waiting for the first valid trigger
event. Once any valid trigger event occurs the message will be cleared.
The "Capturing New Data" message indicates that the instrument is triggering and
capturing new measurements, but there is not enough data captured for the instrument
to complete the assigned averaging. If two channels are active the channel with the
largest averaging value is used to determine when the message is cleared.
4-14
Operation
4.6 Top Level Menu
The commands in the To Level Menu (Figure 4-7) enable you to control the
measurement modes. These functions are detailed in Table 4-1. All commands affect
both measurement Channels 1 and 2.
Figure 4-7. Top Level
Menu
Table 4-1. Top Level Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Measurement
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Run, Stop
Controls the capture of new data
Press the Measurement menu key to stop the capture of data by the
measurement channel(s). Press it again to restart the data capture.
Marker and Ref Line measurements continue to be made whendata
capture is stopped.
Single Sweep
(Action)
Pwr ➮
START
Captures data for one trigger event
When data capture has been stopped (see previous discussion of the
Measurement menu key), you can press the Single Sweep menu key
to capture the data gathered from one trigger event. Pressing the key
repeatedly adds new data for each capture. The number of data
points captured varies with the timebase. To optimize the display,
use the Disp > Trace Type menu key to select “Points.”
Operation
4-15
Table 4-1. Top Level Menu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Display
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
CLEAR
Clears the waveform display and the internal data buffers
Press the Display > menu key to clear the waveform display and any
data in the measurement data buffers. If the instrument is in the Run
mode, capture of new data begins immediately. If the instrument is
in the Stop mode, the measurement data buffers are cleared and the
waveform display is blanked. Data capture will resume when
Measurement > Run is initiated.
SRQ support is inclulded when measurement is ready and priority
message indicates data being captured. SRQ support is covered in
detail in the Remote Operation Section (Section 5.4). The display
clear function is used to clear the existing measurement data. This
function will clear the 02h bit which is used for measurement ready
but not the active service request. To clear the service request use the
ESC key or the IFC bus command. If the service request occurs after
the display clear command is executed the bus controller will read a
64 (40h) which will clear the SRQ but does not instruct the computer
that measurement data is ready.
When in the Pwr ➮ mode, clearing accumulated data is recommended
when the Chan # > Extensions > Averaging parameter is large. This
causes much data to be accumulated and slows the computation of
the average signal. Pressing Display clears that data so that old
information does not influence the data display.
When in the Stat ➮ mode, the Clear key will discard old information
and begin capturing new data. This also includes resetting the total
time and the total points counters to zero.
4-16
Operation
Table 4-1. Top Level Menu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Measure Mode
(Toggle)
Selections
Pwr ➮
Pulse, CW
Function
Selects the measurement mode for the entire instrument.
Stat ➮
CDF, 1-CDF, PDF
Pressing the measurement mode menu key toggles the instrument
between the power mode and the stat mode. This change affects the
entire instrument. The measurement capture, processing , channel
selection, data displays and menu structure all change.
In the pulse mode (Pwr ➮) the instrument operates as a peak power
meter. The instrument requires a valid trigger event. Instantaneous
power measurements are taken at random intervals. Points are tracked
in time relative to the trigger event. The instrument reconstructs the
waveform from points that fall within the screen’s time window. This
window is defined by the timebase and trigger delay. All data that is
not on the screen is discarded. Markers return measurements of
power at specific time offsets from the trigger point. All automatic
measurements are limited to the instrument’s time window.
In CW mode (Pwr ➮) the instrument operates as a CW power meter,
measuring the average power of an unmodulated (CW) carrier. This
mode uses an internal high-gain, low-noise signal path to permit
accurate CW power measurements to be made with peak power
sensors, and typically offers about 10dB more dynamic range than
Pulse mode.
In the three stat modes (Stat ➮) the instrument operates differently.
There is no requirement for a trigger signal. The instrument
continuously samples the RF signal and processes all of the samples.
The data is used to determine the peak, average and minimum power
levels. In addition, the data can be organized into a cumulative
distribution function plot or a probability density function plot. See
Chapter 6, Applications for more information on the statistical
relationship of the captured data.
Auto-Setup
(Action)
Pwr ➮
START
Initiates the auto-setup process.
Auto-setup will adjust the vertical scale, vertical offset, trigger
level, timebase and trigger holdoff for channel 1 and 2. The
instrument uses the currently selected trigger source to search
for the trigger event.
The setup will display the full amplitude of the pulse with at
least one full cycle.
Note
Operation
You cannot obtain the average value of a pulse waveform by selecting the CW
measure mode. To obtain average power, use the average power in the automatic
measurement mode or average the power between markers (see Table 4-11).
4-17
4.7 System Keys
The system keys are located at the top of the front panel control area. See Figure 4-8.
They control functions related to the operating mode, display mode, hard copy output
and configuration.
PREV
Pressing PREV returns control to the next higher menu in the menu structure (Figure 4-2), unless
the last menu displayed was from a different branch. In that case, pressing PREV returns to the last
menu displayed.
LOCAL
ESC
In the Local mode:
Pressing ESC/LOCAL halts a process, clears reports and displays the Top Level Menu.
In Remote mode:
Pressing ESC/LOCAL returns the instrument to the Local mode.
The LOCAL key is effective only when the analyzer is remote-enabled over the IEEE-488 bus and
the REM annunciator is illuminated. In Remote mode, all other front panel controls are deactivated,
except the LOCAL and ON/SBY key.
GRAPH
TEXT
Pressing TEXT/GRAPH toggles the display between the graphic mode and a text screen
summarizing results of automatic signal measurements. The text display is shown in Figure 4-9.
HELP
Pressing the HELP key enables the Help mode and displays the Help screen associated with the
current menu. See Figure 4-10. In the Help mode the instrument continues to operate and all
controls remain active. The HELP key operates as a toggle; press it to deactivate the Help mode
and return to the graphic display. You may also press the ESC key to deactivate the Help mode.
PLOT
After the plotter parameters are set using the UTIL menu, pressing PLOT will direct the Model
4400A/4500A to output the current display image to a (user furnished) output device. See Appendix
B, for a description of printer/plotter features and operating instructions.
The output device is selected under UTIL > PLOTTER > MENU.
INIT
4-18
Press INIT to initialize the parameters in Table 3-3 to their default values. Use INIT to cancel an
undesired set of configuration parameters, or whenever you are uncertain of the instrument
configuration.
Operation
Figure 4-8. System Keys
Figure 4-9. Text Mode
Display in Power Mode
Figure 4-10. Typical Help
Screen
Operation
4-19
4.8 Function Keys
The ten function keys illustrated in Figure 4-11 access the principal control menus of
the Model 4400A/4500A. Together with associated submenus, they enable you to
establish the measurement display modes and analyzer configurations; query the
processor database; perform and record measurements; perform internal diagnostics;
and communicate with other devices over the IEEE-488 bus and serial communication
ports.
The next ten subsections (4.9 through 4.18) discuss the ten function keys and describe
the selections in their associated menus and submenus.
Figure 4-11. Function Keys
4.9 CHAN Key and Chan # > Menu
The CHAN key activates the Chan # > menu and associated submenus, which enable
you to calibrate the instrument, specify its display parameters, measurement offset,
and detector bandwidth. See Figure 4-12.
Figure 4-12. Chan # >
Menu
4-20
Operation
Menu Configuration
The configuration of the Chan # > menu depends on the item selected in the Chan #
> Select window.
Figure 4-12 presents the Chan # > menu, which is displayed when the
instrument is initialized. (Chan 1 > is the default menu.) The Chan # >
menu items enable you to control the display of the measurement
channel. Instructions for using the Chan # > menu are presented in
Table 4-2.
Figure 4-16 illustrates a second version of the Chan > menu that appears
when “CH Math” has been selected. A submenu of the Chan Math >
menu enables you to control the display of the calculated sum or
difference of the detected Channel 1 and/or Channel 2 signals.
Instructions for the Chan Math > menu are presented in Tables 4-5 and
4-6.
Figure 4-18 shows the Chan > Ref1 1 menu, which appears when “Ref 1”
has been selected. The Ref # waveform is a “snapshot” of either the
Channel 1 or Channel 2 waveforms, which is created and stored for
later reference. The menu items that enable you to control the display
of the reference waveform are explained in Table 4-7.
The default Chan # > menu (Figure 4-11) contains two submenus of additional
functions:
Figure 4-13 illustrates the Chan # > Calibration > submenu, which is used
to initiate the calibration and zeroing functions. Instructions for using
the Chan # > Calibration > submenu are presented in Table 4-3.
Figure 4-14 illustrates the Chan # > Extensions > submenu, which
provides access to a number of additional setup functions. Instructions
for using the Chan # > Extensions > submenu are presented in Table
4-4.
Figures and Tables
Operation
The figures and tables which describe the Chan # > family of menus are summarized
as follows.
Menu or
Submenu
Figure
Table
(Default) Chan # >
Chan > Calibration >
Chan > Extensions >
Chan Math
>
Chan > Ref # >
4-12
4-13
4-14,15
4-16,17
4-18
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5,6
4-7
4-21
Table 4-2. Chan # > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Select
(Toggle)
Channel
(Toggle)
Selections
Function and Operation
Pwr & Stat ➮
CH1, CH2
CH Math
Ref 1, Ref 2
Selects the channel or function that will be affected by the rest of the
menu selections.
Pwr & Stat ➮
Off, On
Turns the measurement channel off or on
You select “CH 1,” “CH 2,” “CH Math,” “Ref 1” or “Ref 2” by
pressing the Chan # > Select menu key to select the desired channel.
Any display parameters you set while “CH 1” is current will apply
to the signal connected to the Channel 1 input. Similarly, any
changes you make to the display parameters while “CH 2,” “Ref 1,”
“Ref 2,” or “CH Math” are current will affect the display of that
signal or function.
Disable the measurement by pressing the Chan > Channel menu
key. Press it again to restore the display.
Disabling the measurement channel inhibits temperature monitoring
and any priority messages related to sensor disconnection, sensor
replacement, AutoCal required, and frequency downloading status.
Disabling the channel will turn off the display of the power and
trigger waveforms, but will not affect the internal or external
triggering of the channel.
Vert Scale Log
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Discrete Range:
Full Screen
0.1 to 20 dB/Div
Split Screen
0.2 to 40 dB/Div
4-22
Sets the vertical sensitivity of the display in log mode
Use this control to size the vertical amplitude of the
waveform display to fit the display area, or to magnify a
waveform segment of particular interest.
Press the Chan # > Vert Scale menu key to activate this window.
Then use any number entry to step the vertical sensitivity of the
display to any 1-2-5 sequence value in the specified range. Larger
sensitivity values reduce the height of the display; smaller values
increase it.
Operation
Table 4-2. Chan # > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Vert Scale Linear
Selections
Pwr & Stat ➮
Discrete Range:
Full Screen
1 nW to 50 MW/Div
Split Screen
2 nW to 1 MW/Div
Function and Operation
Sets the vertical sensitivity of the display in linear mode
Press the Chan # > Vert Scale menu key to activate this window.
Then use any number entry to step the vertical sensitivity of the
display to any 1-2-5 sequence value in the specified range. Larger
sensitivity values reduce the height of the display; smaller values
increase it.
Linear values are always positive. The bottom of the screen is zero
power or the offset level.
Vert Scale
Trig View
Pwr ➮
Discrete Range:
Full Screen
100 mV to 1 v/Div
Split Screen
200 mV to 2 v/Div
Sets the vertical sensitivity of the display for trigger view
Press the Chan # > Vert Scale menu key when the channel is in the
trigger view mode to activate this window. Then use any number
entry scheme to adjust the value in a 1-2-5 sequence in the specified
range. Larger sensitivity values reduce the height of the display;
smaller values increase it.
Number entry is always truncated to the lower value. Entering
199 mV will set the vertical scale to the 100mV scale.
Vert. Center Log
(Numeric)
Vert Offset Linear
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
-99.99 to +99.99 dB
Sets the power level at the vertical center of the display
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range
0 to 99.99 Divs:
Sets the power level at the bottom of the display for the selected
channel.
Use this control to shift the waveform display vertically to the
desired position in the window. Press the Chan 1 > Vert Center
menu key to activate this window. Then use the keypad to shift the
vertical center of the display to the desired power level. Increasing
the power level moves the waveform down; decreasing the power
level moves it up.
When the offset is zero, the bottom of the screen is zero power.
Changing the offset allows the viewing of data at larger power levels.
Markers continue to make readings on the waveform when it is off
the screen.
The exact value of the offset is related to the selected vertical scale.
If the vertical scale is 1 mW/Div then a vertical offset of 1 division is
an offset of 1 mW and a vertical offset of 99 divisions is an offset of
99 mW.
Operation
4-23
Table 4-2. Chan # > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Vert Offset
Trig View
(continued)
Selections
Function and Operation
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range:
-3 to +3 V
Use this control to shift the waveform display vertically to the
desired position in the window.
Press the Chan 1 > Vert Center menu key to activate this window.
Then use the keypad to shift the vertical center of the display to the
desired voltage level. Increasing the voltage level moves the
waveform down; decreasing the voltage level moves it up.
Calibration
(Submenu)
Pwr & Stat ➮
MENU
Accesses the Chan 1 > Calibration > submenu. See Table 4-6.
Extensions
(Submenu)
Pwr & Stat ➮
MENU
Accesses the Chan 1 > Extensions > submenu. See Table 4-7.
4-24
Operation
Calibration
A discussion of the internal calibration capability is presented in Subsection 4.1
Calibration. Figure 4-15 illustrates the Chan # > Calibration > submenu and Table
4-3 provides instructions for its use.
Figure 4-13.
Chan # > Calibration >
Submenu
Table 4-3. Chan # > Calibration > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function and Operation
AutoCal
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
START
Initiates the automatic calibration routine
You should initiate AutoCal:
a.
Each time you change sensors. Allow 15 minutes for the sensor to
stabilize before initiating AutoCal.
b.
When the “CH # needs Autocal” message appears in the Priority
Message area of the display.
c.
When a temperature drift warning appears in the Priority Message area.
The Model 4400A/4500A records the ambient sensor temperature
when AutoCal is run. If the ambient sensor temperature changes
significantly, a temperature drift warning is displayed. The warning
message will clear automatically when the temperature returns to the
measured range.
The AutoCal routine takes approximately 1-1/2 minutes to zero and
calibrate both the High and Low video bandwidths. While these
activities are in progress, the display reports the AutoCal status on the
Message Line. When the process is finished, “Autocal Complete” is
displayed.
Operation
4-25
Table 4-3. Chan # > Calibration > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function and Operation
The Chan # > Calibration > Start selection will only be highlighted when an AutoCal
can be selected. AutoCal is not available if the channel is off or a sensor is not
connected.
Note
If the SRQ annunciator illuminates at the end of the AutoCal procedure, proceed as
instructed in Subsection 5.4 SRQ Operation. If an error message appears on the
display during the Autocal procedure, refer to Appendix A Error Messages.
Pressing the ESC key will halt the Autocal process.
Fixed Cal
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
START
Sets the sensor 0 dBm point precisely using an external standard.
The Model 4400A/4500A allows the operator to perform a 0 dBm fixed
calibration using a customer-provided source. The Chan # >
Calibration > Fixed Cal Start selection will only be highlighted when
Fixed Cal can be activated. To activate Fixed Cal the channel must be
turned on, have a sensor connected, and have completed a valid
AutoCal.
The correction range of the sensor 0 dBm point by the Fixed Cal
procedure is limited to + 1 dB.
Zeroing
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
START
Initiates the automatic internal zero adjustment routine for CW
measurements
The instrument will automatically adjust its indication of the zero input
power level.
Disable any signal source connected to the sensor before initiating the
Zeroing procedure. If the sensor is connected to the internal calibrator,
the calibrator output signal will be turned off automatcially when
Zeroing is initiated and will resume when zeroing is complete.
Initiate Zeroing by pressing the Chan # > Calibration > Zeroing menu
key. During the Zeroing process, the message line will read “Zeroing
CW Channel #.” When complete, the message line reads “Zeroing CW
Complete.” Reactivate any external signal applied to the sensor.
Note
If the SRQ annunciator illuminates at the end of the Zeroing procedure,
proceed as instructed in Subsection 5.4 SRQ Operation.
Pressing the ESC key will halt the Zeroing process.
4-26
Operation
Figure 4-14.
Chan # > Extensions >
Submenu
Table 4-4. Chan # > Extensions > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function and Operation
Display
(Toggle)
Pwr ➮
Pwr, Trig
Selects either a measurement channel or a trigger input for the
waveform display
Press Chan # > Extensions > Pwr to display the waveform on the
measurement channel. Press Chan # > Extensions > Trig to display the
trigger input waveform.
The trigger waveform display is useful for evaluating the trigger signal
characteristics and for making time measurements involving the trigger
and power channels. For instruments equipped with the optional second
channel, it is recommended that you connect the trigger signal to the
channel that is not measuring the RF signal. For single channel
instruments, store the trigger in a reference channel.
dB Offset
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
(-99.99 to +99.99 dB)
Inputs the value of the offset attenuator
This function is used to account for attenuator(s) or amplifier(s)
inserted at the instrument’s input to adjust high or low signal levels to
the input range of the instrument.
The value for offset correction factor is always entered in dB
but is still applied to the signal in the linear mode.
The offset entered in this function will be reflected in the trigger level
value.
Operation
4-27
Table 4-4. Chan # > Extensions > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function and Operation
To display the unattenuated signal power, press the “dB Offset” menu
key and use any of the data entry controls to input the
known value of the offset attenuator.
If necessary, determine the exact value of the attenuator by connecting
the sensor with the attenuator to the calibrator output and following
these steps:
1. Use Spec > Calibrator > Cal Mode to select “CW.” See
Subsection 4-16.
2. Set the calibrator output to +20 dBm using the Spec >
Calibrator > Set Level menu key and the keypad.
3. Select Chan > Extensions > dB Offset and use the spin knob to
adjust the dB Offset parameter to the value (approximately 20
dB) until the power readout at the active time marker reads
20.00 dBm.
The exact value of the attenuator is indicated by the dB Offset
parameter.
CF in dB
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
(-3 to +3 dB)
Compensates for any differences between the Autocal circuit
and the measurement circuit
To preserve measurement accuracy, it is necessary to account for
circuit losses in the AutoCal path that do not appear in the
measurement circuit path and vice versa.
The value for correction factor offset is always entered in dB
but is still applied to the signal in the linear mode.
The offset entered in this function will be reflected in the trigger
level value.
During the AutoCal process, the instrument creates a table in memory
that correlates the calibrator output power levels to the corresponding
sensor output voltage. When the sensor is connected directly to the
calibrator output during AutoCal, this table is precise. However, if the
sensor is connected to the calibrator indirectly through lossy circuit
elements (cables, adapters, switches, etc.), the loss in these elements is
a potential source of measurement inaccuracy.
However, if the same circuit losses occur in the measurement path
between the sensor and the device under test, the potential error is
cancelled. Thus, it is necessary to determine the difference in circuit
loss in the calibrator path and the measurement path. See Figure 4-15.
To compensate for path loss differences, press the “CF in dB” menu
key and use any of the data entry controls to input the circuit loss
difference in dB.
4-28
Operation
Table 4-4. Chan # > Extensions > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Video Bandwidth
(Toggle)
Selections
Function and Operation
Pwr & Stat ➮
Low, High
Selects either the narrowband or wideband detector response
Press Chan # > Extensions > Video BW > Low to select a narrowband
sensor detector response that is useful for displaying noisy, low
frequency signals or to reduce carrier feed through.
Press Chan # > Extensions > Video BW > High to select a
wideband response that is useful for measuring short pulses. The actual
detector bandwidths vary with the sensor selected. Note that High
Bandwidth is not available if CW Measurement mode is selected.
Averaging
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range
(1 to 10000)
Selects the number of samples that are averaged at each point
Press Chan # > Extensions > Averaging to activate this
function. Use any of the data entry controls to select the
number of samples to be averaged at each point of the
waveform to produce the waveform display.
Figure 4-15. Illustration of
Measurement (L1) and
Calibration (L2) Paths
Operation
4-29
Channel Math
The Channel Math function enables you to display a plot of the sum or difference of
two waveforms. See Figure 4-17. Plotting difference waveforms is useful for
comparing the change in a signal as it passes through a circuit element, such as an
amplifier or filter. For two-channel instruments, connect the Channel 1 sensor at the
input to the device (through a coupler) and connect the Channel 2 sensor at the output.
Figure 4-16. Chan Math >
Menu
Table 4-5. Chan Math> Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function and Operation
Select
Pwr & Stat ➮
See Table 4-2
Identical to Chan # > menu. See Table 4-2.
Channel
Pwr & Stat ➮
See Table 4-2
Identical to Chan # > menu. See Table 4-2
Vert Scale
Pwr & Stat ➮
See Table 4-2
Identical to Chan # > menu. See Table 4-2
Vert Center
Pwr & Stat ➮
See Table 4-2
Identical to Chan # > menu. See Table 4-2
Expression
Pwr & Stat ➮
MENU
Accesses the Chan Math > Expression > submenu.
Use the Chan Math > Expression > submenu to generate and display
the sum or difference of two waveforms. See Table 4-6.
4-30
Operation
Table 4-6. Chan Math > Expression > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type )
Argument A
(Toggle)
Operator
(Toggle)
Selections
Function
Pwr & Stat ➮
CH1, CH2
REF1, REF2
Selects the first item in the Channel Math expression
Pwr ➮
Log +, Linear *, /
Selects the operator for the mathematical expression
Press the Chan Math > Expression > Argument A menu key to select
either “CH 1”, “CH 2”, "Ref 1" or "Ref 2". Select an operator
(“+” or “-”) and a second argument (see below) to complete the
mathematical expression that represents the calculated waveform you
wish to display. Any combination of Channel 1 and Channel 2
waveforms can be selected as the arguments of the sum or difference
expression.
The "+" and "-" in the log mode is equivalent to "*" and "/"
in the linear mode.
Press the Chan Math > Expressions > Operator menu key to select
either the plus or minus sign to indicate whether the designated
waveforms are to be added, or whether one is to be subtracted from
the other. All addition and subtraction operations are logarithmic,
producing either the product or ratio of the signal waveforms.
Argument B
(Toggle)
Operation
Stat ➮
Log +, Linear *, /
Selects the operator for the mathematical expression
Pwr & Stat ➮
CH1, CH2
REF1, REF2
Selects the second item in the Channel Math expression
Press the Chan Math > Expressions > Operator menu key to select
either the plus or minus sign to indicate whether the designated
waveforms are to be added, or whether one is to be subtracted from
the other. All addition and subtraction operations are logarithmic,
producing either the product or ratio of the signal waveforms.
Press the Chan Math > Expressions > Argument B menu key to
select either “CH 1” or “CH 2.”
4-31
Figure 4-17.
Generating a Difference
Waveform Using Channel
Math
Reference Traces
Select Chan Ref # > Select Ref # to store a signal trace in non-volatile RAM for later
reference. This feature is useful for comparing signals at the input and output of an
RF device, such as an amplifier, filter, or equalizer. Either “Ref 1” or “Ref 2” may be
assigned arbitrarily to record the waveform on Channel 1, Channel 2, or Channel
Math.
Reference waveforms can be saved in different formats. These are pulse, CDF, 1-CDF
and PDF. Reference waveforms in a format which does not match the instrument’s
current mode cannot be displayed or used in math channel operations. CW waveforms
are stored using pulse format.
Before using the “Ref 1” or “Ref 2” functions, set up the display of the measurement
channel display, as discussed in Table 4-2. Afterward, it is recommended (although
not mandatory) that you select the split-screen display and assign the measurement
channel and reference trace(s) to the top and bottom windows, respectively.
Procedures for establishing a split-screen display and assigning the traces to windows
are listed in Subsection 4-18. The split-screen display enables you to view the
channel and reference traces independently. Alternatively, you may superimpose the
measurement channel and reference traces in a full-screen display for comparison.
Note
When in the Stat ➮ mode, PDF the split screen display is not available.
Figure 4-18.
Chan Ref # > Menu
4-32
Operation
Table 4-7. Chan Ref # > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
Select
Pwr & Stat ➮
Identical to Chan # > Menu. See Table 4-2.
Select either “Ref 1” or “Ref 2.”
Channel
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Off, On
Turns the display of the current reference waveform off or on.
Remove the reference waveform from the waveform display window by
pressing the Chan Ref # > Channel menu key. Press it again to restore
the display.
Vert Scale
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Log Mode:
0.1 to 20 dB/Div
Lin Mode:
1 nW to 50 MW/Div
The reference mode is saved in full vertical resolution in a floating
point array. This allows the vertical scale of reference channel
waveforms to be changed any time after being saved to memory or
recalled from disk. The reference channel will switch between the log
and linear modes with the "Units" command in the Display menu.
Vert Center
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Log Mode:
-99.99 to 99.99 dB
The reference mode is saved in full vertical resolution in a floating
point array. This allows the vertical center or offset of reference
channel waveforms to be changed any time after being saved to
memory or recalled from disk.
Vert Offset
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Lin Mode
0 to 99 Divs:
See above function description.
Waveform
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
REPORT
Displays a report that describes the instrument setup for the reference
channel stored in reference 1 memory.
This is a similar report to the one used in waveform recall from disk.
This report includes the instrument serial number, sensor serial number,
channel, dB Offset, dB Correction Factor, video bandwidth, averaging,
display, frequency, timebase, position, trigger delay, trigger mode,
trigger source, trigger level, trigger holdoff, and trigger slope.
Operation
4-33
4.10 TIME Key and Time > Menu
The TIME key activates the Time > menu (Figure 4-19). When in the Pwr ➮ mode
this enables you to specify the timebase and horizontal position of the waveform
display. When in the Stat ➮ mode the time menu enables you to specify the x-axis
scale in percent and the percent offset. Table 4-8 describes the functions that appear in
the Time > menu.
Figure 4-19. Time > Menu
Table 4-8. Time > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Timebase
(Numeric)
Selections
Function
Pwr ➮
Discrete Range:
10 ns/Div to
1 s/Div
Sets the horizontal resolution for data capture
Press the Time > Timebase menu key if it is not already activated.
Adjust the timebase using any of the data entry controls. When
selecting the timebase locally, using the keypad, or remotely, over the
IEEE 488 bus, any entry between valid timebase values will be rounded
up to the next valid timebase.
The horizontal (time) axis is subdivided into ten divisions of fifty data
points (pixels) each. The timebase you select determines the resolution
of the trigger delay function (see below) and the positioning of the time
markers (See Subsection 4-12). The timebase selection also determines
the accuracy of all time measurements.
In the timebase range from 10 ns to 50 µs, the signal sampling rate is 1
MHz; from 100 µs to 1 sec, the sampling rate is 500 kHz. For the data
collected on timebases 10 ns to 100 µs, every sample is processed and
displayed. In the range from 200 µs to 5 ms, redundant time samples
are discarded. For the range from 10 ms to 1 sec, redundant time
samples are averaged, or peak detected, depending upon the setting of
> SPCL > Peaking Mode.
4-34
Operation
Table 4-8. Time > Menu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Position
(Multiple Choice)
Selections
Pwr ➮
L, M, R
Function
Positions the trigger within the waveform display window.
Press the Time > Position menu key to shift the start of the waveform
display to the left edge (“L”), middle (“M”) or right edge (“R”) of the
display area.
Use this function when you wish to view a specific segment of the
waveform. Select “L” to observe the waveform immediately after the
trigger occurs; “R” to observe the waveform immediately before; and
“M” to observe segments of the waveform just before and after the
trigger.
Trig Delay
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range:
(See discussion)
Sets the amount of delay between the trigger and
the start of sweep.
The trigger delay is a time offset from the trigger event to the point at
which the waveform data is captured.
The Model 4400A/4500A automatically adjusts the limits of the Time >
Trig Delay parameter range not to exceed the limits established by the
Time > Timebase selection. These limits are listed in the the
instrument’s specifications, Table 1-2.
X-Axis
(Numeric)
% Offset
(Numeric)
Stat ➮
Discrete Range:
0.1% / Div to
10% / Div
Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
0 to 99%
Sets horizontal axis scale.
In the Stat ➮ mode the horizontal axis is always in percent. It is scalable
over the range of 0.1 to 10 percent per division. This allows the
operator to zoom in and out on the statistical waveforms. The Model
4500A does not allow the operator to enter a combination of X-axis and
% Offset which is invalid. The instrument will automatically adjust the
% Offset to a valid value when the X-axis is adjusted. An invalid
combination is one that would have the minimum (left) edge of the
graph at less than 0% or the maximum (right) edge of the graph greater
than 100%.
Allows the operator to offset the left edge of the statistical waveform
display away from 0%.
The upper limit for entry of this function is variable and depends on the
X-axis setting. The % Offset can not create an invalid display. An
invalid display is one where the right edge of the display exceeds
100%. For example, when the X-axis is at 10% per division, the percent
offset can only be zero.
Operation
4-35
4.11 TRIG Key and Trig > Menu
The TRIG key activates the Trig > menu (Figure 4-20), which enables you to specify
the trigger parameters. Table 4-9 describes the functions that appear in the Trig >
menu. This menu does not contain any active menu selections in the Stat ➮ mode. In
that mode one menu is labeled trigger mode continuous and provides no options. This
is simply a reminder that the instrument continuously samples in this mode.
When in the Pwr ➮ Auto Trigger mode, the instrument expects that a valid trigger
event will occur at regular intervals or the instrument will time-out and generate its
own trigger event. The autotrigger delay time table (Table 4-10) shows the typical
time-out period for each timebase.
Figure 4-20. Trig > Menu
Table 4-9. Trig > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
Trig Mode
(Toggle)
Pwr ➮
Auto, Norm
Selects normal or automatic triggering
Press the Trig > Trig Mode menu key to toggle between “Auto” and
“Norm(al).”
In the Normal mode, the data capture is triggered when the internal or
external trigger signal reaches the trigger level. If no valid trigger
level is reached, the waveform data will not change.
In Auto mode, if there is no valid trigger event, the measurement occurs
automatically after a prespecified timeout. The timeout period varies
depending on the timebase (see Table 4-10).
If the signal is turned off in the Auto trigger mode, the waveform will
decay slowly to the noise level.
The Auto mode is useful for measuring unmodulated (CW) carriers.
4-36
Operation
Table 4-9. Trig > Menu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Trig Source
(Mult. Choice)
Selections
Function
Pwr ➮
CH1 Int,
CH1 Ext,
CH2 Int,
CH2 Ext
Selects internal or external triggering for Channel 1 or 2.
Only one trigger source is needed to capture data on a single or
dual-channel instrument.
The trigger source can be Channel 1 internal or external. For
dual-channel instruments, Channel 2 internal or external can also
provide the trigger.
Specifications for the trigger source are provided in Section 1.6, Table
1-2. Internal triggering occurs when the signal in the measurement
channel crosses the specified trigger level in the direction
(positive-going or negative-going) indicated by the slope selection.
External triggering occurs when the signal applied at the Trigger 1 or 2
ports reaches the trigger level on the selected slope of the waveform.
The selected triggering source is always active and will generate
triggers even if the source channel is turned off.
The choice of internal or external triggering will depend generally on
the characteristics of the measured signal. External triggering can help
stabilize the display of noisy signals, and is preferred if an external sync
pulse is available.
Select internal triggering by pressing the Trig > Trig Source menu key
to produce “CH # Int” in the selection box. To use external triggering,
connect the external trigger signal to the appropriate Trigger # input.
Press the Trig > Trig Source key until “CH # Ext” appears in the
selection box.
For instruments not equipped with optional Channel 2, the choices in
the Trig > Trig Source window will be limited to “CH 1 Int” and “CH
1 Ext.”
Trig Level
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range:
Sets the threshold level for the trigger signal.
Press Trig > Trig Level to highlight this selection and use any of the
data entry controls to adjust the trigger level for the desired trigger
source. (Trigger level settings are set independently for each of the four
trigger sources.)
The specified range of the internal trigger covers the upper 25 dB of the
sensor power range. Typically, however, triggering depends on the
noise level in the measurement channel.
The trigger range is automatically adjusted to include the dB Offset and CF
in dB parameters selected in the Chan # > Extensions menu. For example,
if the trigger level = 10 dBm, the dB Offset = 20 dBm, and the CF in dB =
0.5 db, the trigger display will indicate a trigger level of 30.5 dBm. The
trigger range is shifted upward by 20.5 dB to cover -9.5 to + 40.5 dBm.
Operation
4-37
Table 4-9. Trig > Menu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Holdoff
(Numeric)
Selections
Function
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range:
(0 to 60,000 µs)
Prevents false triggering when measuring complex digital
waveforms.
The Trig > HoldOff function is used to stabilize the display of complex
signals when the triggering signal has multiple pulses within a
triggering period.
Measuring framed communication signals is a good example of an
application of the Trig > HoldOff function. These signals are
characterized by repetitive frames of random data bursts. Each frame is
marked by a framing pattern of several bits. To achieve a stable display
with the Model 4400A/4500A, it would be necessary to trigger the data
capture with the framing pattern. However, without an external trigger,
the instrument would trigger repeatedly on the data pulses, as well as on
the framing pattern, resulting in an unstable display.
To solve this problem, the Trig > HoldOff function allows you to
specify a time period during which triggering is inhibited. By
specifying the Trig > HoldOff period to be slightly less than the frame
interval, the instrument can be made to “lock on” to the framing pattern
and present a stable display.
The minimum HoldOff value is 0.7 µs, the minimum interval after a
trigger event before the next trigger can occur. Entering “0” as the
HoldOff parameter disables the HoldOff function.
Trig Slope
(Toggle)
Pwr ➮
+, -
Causes the trigger to occur on the rising or falling edge of the
trigger pulse.
Press the Trig > Trig Slope menu key to select the desired triggering
slope.
Trig Mode
4-38
Stat ➮
Continuous
This function has no options. It is a reminder that the instrument does
not need trigger configuration.
Operation
Table 4-10. Autotrigger Delay Times
Time/Division
Delay Time
Samp/Trig
Rdgs/Samp
1 sec
10.4 sec
500
10000
500 msec
5.2 sec
500
5000
200 msec
2.16 sec
.500
2000
100 msec
500 msec
500
1000
50 msec
616 msec
500
500
20 msec
308 msec
500
200
10 msec
204 msec
500
100
5 msec
76 msec
500
1 of 50
2 msec
62 msec
500
1 of 20
1 msec
61 msec
500
1 of 10
500 µsec
69 msec
500
1 of 5
200 µsec
149 msec
500
1 of 2
100 µsec
51 msec
500
1
50 µsec
83 msec
500
1
20 µsec
81 msec
200
1
10 µsec
80 msec
100
1
5 µsec
80 msec
50
1
2 µsec
79 msec
20
1
1 µsec
79 msec
10
1
500 nsec
79 msec
5
1
200 nsec
79 msec
2
1
100 nsec
79 msec
1
1
50 nsec
79 msec
0.5
1
20 nsec
79 msec
0.2
1
10 nsec
79 msec
0.1
1
4.12 MARK key and Mark > Menu
The MARK function key activates the Mark > menu (Figure 4-21) which enables you
to position the time marks, and make power and time interval measurements. Table
4-11 explains the operation of each item in the Mark > menu. Figure 4-22 and Table
4-12 describe the items in the Mark > Extensions > submenu.
In the Pwr ➮ mode two vertical markers (time marks) help you make precise power
and time interval measurements. In the split-screen mode, two independent markers
are available in the top and bottom waveform display windows. The signal level at
Time Mark 1 appears above the left-hand side of the display window; the level at
Time Mark 2 is to the right. The center position above the display window is
user-assigned to indicate either the ratio of the two marker power measurements or the
average power of the waveform between the markers (see Table 4-12).
Operation
4-39
In the Stat ➮ mode the markers are positioned in percent and return the power levels.
The markers do not function in the probability density function (PDF) mode.
Each marker field is color-coded to match the waveform the marker is assigned to
measure. When each marker is assigned to a different channel, the power ratio
readout is assigned the marker color.
The data field above the center of the waveform display is operatordesignated. You can choose to display either the ratio of the power levels at Time
Marks 1 and 2, expressed in dB (or %), or the average power in the waveform
segment between the markers. Instructions for making this selection are provided in
Table 4-12.
One marker is designated the active marker for control purposes, and is recognizable
by the small triangles at top and bottom. To change the active marker, press the
Mark > Marker # menu key corresponding to the marker you wish to activate. In
split-screen mode, only the active window has an active time mark.
The markers read the power at the instant specified by their location on the waveform.
Power readings are not affected by the setting of the vertical scale or vertical center
offset parameters (see Subsection 4.9), nor must waveform data points appear on
screen to be measured. When there are no valid data to be measured at a marker, the
corresponding display field will show a series of dashes (--.--). The symbol (^^^.^^)
indicates an overrange condition; the symbol (___.__) indicates an underrange
condition.
Procedure
To make time interval measurements, position Time Marks 1 and 2 at the beginning
and end of the interval you wish to measure. The time interval measurement appears
in the Mark > Delta Time window. The resolution of time interval measurements
depends on the timebase selection (see Subsection 4.10).
Figure 4-21.
Mark > Menu
4-40
Operation
Table 4-11. Mark > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Window
(Toggle)
Selections
Function
Pwr & Stat ➮
Top, Bottom
Designates which set of time marks (top or bottom) will be
controlled (applicable in split-screen mode).
When the instrument is in the split-screen mode, you may use two
time marks in each window to designate points on the waveform
display. Use the data entry controls to position the time marks,
after you select which set of marks (those in the top or bottom
window) you wish to position. Indicate your choice by pressing
the Mark > Window menu key to select either “Top” or “Bottom.”
In the full-screen mode, the Mark > Window menu key is inactive
and always displays “Bottom”.
Mark #
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range:
Left and Right
boundaries of the
display.)
Controls the position of Time Mark #.
Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
Left and Right
boundaries of the
display.)
Controls the position of Percent Mark #.
Press the Mark > Time Mark # menu key to activate this function.
Use any of the data entry controls to position the time marker
anywhere within the left and right boundaries of the waveform
display. The marker position is expressed as the time offset
relative to the trigger event.
Press the Mark > Percent Mark # menu key to activate this
function.
Use any of the data entry controls to position the percent marker
anywhere within the left and right boundaries of the waveform
display. The marker position is expressed as the percent of total
occurrence.
Delta Time
(None)
Pwr ➮
None
Displays the time difference between Time Marks 1 and 2
The value that appears in this window is automatically calculated
by the instrument, and represents the time interval between Time
Marker 1 and 2.
Stat ➮
None
Displays the percent difference between Percent Marks 1 and 2
The value that appears in this window is automatically calculated
by the Model 4500, and represents the percent difference between
Marker 1 and 2.
Set Vrt Cntr
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
CENTER
Shifts the waveform display vertically to position it according to the
location of the active time mark.
When the Mark > Set Vrt Cntr > CENTER menu key is pressed,
the Chan # > Vert Center parameter is modified to reposition the
waveform vertically. The waveform is shifted so that the
horizontal centerline (reference level) of the display coincides with
the level at which the currently active marker crosses the
waveform. If the markers are in the min/max mode, then the
waveform will be shifted so the minimum or maximum power
(depending upon which marker is active) appears at the center of
the screen.
Use the active marker to designate the point on the waveform that
you wish to place on the reference level and press the Mark > Set
Vrt Cntr menu key.
Operation
4-41
Figure 4-22. Mark >
Extensions > Menu
Table 4-12. Mark > Extensions >Submenu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
Window
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Top, Bottom
Designates which set of time marks (top or bottom) will be
controlled (applicable in split-screen mode).
When the Model 4400A/4500A is in the split-screen mode, you may
use two time marks in each window to designate points on the
waveform display. Use the data entry controls to position the time
marks, after you select which set of marks (those in the top or bottom
window) you wish to position. Indicate your choice by pressing the
Mark > Window menu key to select either “Top” or “Bottom.”
In the full-screen mode, the Mark > Window menu key is inactive and
always displays “Bottom”.
Mk Group
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Both, Each
Selects the marker channel assignment mode.
When “Both” has been selected, both markers are assigned to the same
channel. Changing either marker channel assignment changes both
assignments. Also, selecting “Both” activates two choices in the Mark
> Extensions > Delta Marker > menu, “Ratio” and “Average.”
When “Each” has been selected, the markers can be assigned individually;
that is, Mark > Extensions > Mk 1 CH and Mark > Extensions > Mk 2 CH
can be assigned to different channels. The marker channel assignments for
the “Both” and “Each” selections are independent and are saved separately.
4-42
Operation
Table 4-12. Mark > Extensions >Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Mk 1 CH,
Mk2, CH
(Multi Choice)
Selections
Pwr ➮
CH1, CH2,
CH Math,
Ref 1, Ref 2
Stat ➮
CH 1,
CH Math,
Ref 1, Ref 2
Delta Marker
(Multi Choice)
Pwr ➮
Ratio
Avg., Delta (Lin)
Stat ➮
Ratio
Function
Selects the measurement channel for the indicated marker.
The Time Mark # assignment for each of the two group assignments
(“Both” and “Each”) are independent of each other. When Mark >
Mk Group Both has been selected, both Marker 1 and Marker 2 are
assigned to the same channel. Changing either entry changes both.
When Mark > Mk Group Each has been selected, the marker
assignments are recalled from the last selections made in the Mark >
Mk Group Each mode. Each of the markers can be assigned to separate
measurement channels. Each marker can be assigned to the reference
channels also. All marker functions will function on the reference
channels including minimum and maximum power measurements
between markers and average power between markers.
Selects the functionality of the center marker window above the
waveform display; can either display ratio or average power between
markers. In Stat ➮ mode the ratio option is automatically selected.
Place the time marks in the active window at the points of interest on
the waveform. Press the Mark > Delta Marker menu key to select
either “Ratio”, “Avg.” , or "Delta". (Linear mode only).
The "Ratio" description applies to the Pwr & Stat ➮ modes of operation.
Selecting “Ratio” causes the center marker window to display the power
ratio (the difference in dB) of Marker 1 and 2. Assign the markers
using the MK Math function.
This ratio can be expressed in dB or %. If the individual power levels
at Marker 1 and 2 are expressed in dBm, their ratio will be expressed in
dB. If the individual levels are expressed in watts, the ratio will be
expressed as the percentage of power.
Select “Avg” to display the average power in the waveform segment
between the two markers. The average power will be expressed in the
same terms as the individual power levels (dBm or watts).
The “Avg” selection is available only when Mark > Extensions > Mk
Group Both is active. When Mark > Extensions > Mk Group Each is
selected, the Delta Marker selection is automatically switched to
“Ratio.” When Mark > Extensions > Mk Group Both is reselected, the
Delta Marker selection returns to “Avg.”
The "Delta" mode only applies when the instrument is in the linear
display mode and the displaying power in watts. When in the log mode
it functions the same as "Ratio." The delta mode displays the power
difference between the two markers in watts. The MK1-MK2,
MK2-MK1, MIN-MAX, MAX-MIN modes for marker math all apply.
Selects the expression that governs marker ratio measurement.
MK Math
(Multi Choice)
Operation
Pwr ➮
Mk2 - Mk1
Mk 1 - Mk 2
MIN - MAX
MAX - MIN
PK/AVG
Use Mark > Extensions > Mk Math to select the sense of the power
ratio measurement. This function enables the operator to make
gain/loss measurements conveniently and accurately, even in the
presence of circuit path delays.
4-43
Table 4-12. Mark > Extensions >Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
The MIN - MAX and the MAX - MIN functions allow the user to
make minimum and maximum power measurements between markers.
This can be used to measure carrier bleed through on the top of the
pulse or the limits of power across multiple pulses. This selection has
no effect on average power between marker mode, however , when in
ratio mode, the ratio of min and max is reported in the delta window.
The MIN - MAX operation is restricted to marker both mode. When
in marker each the operation automatically switches to Mk# - Mk#.
The PK/AVG mode allows the instrument to measure the long term
peak-to-average power ratio for the portion of a periodic waveform that
falls between the two markers. The left window displays the long term
average power for this portion of the waveform, the center window
shows the peak-to-average power ratio, and the right window displays
the maximum instantaneous power level that has occurred between the
two markers since the instrument was started in this mode. PK/AVG
mode functions for any timebase faster than 10ms; it is not available for
slower timebases. Also, Mark > Extensions > Mk Group is forced
BOTH.
When this mode is selected, the waveform pixel averaging value in the
channel menu is used to select the number of sweeps that are used to
compute the long term average power level. The pixel averaging
(which smooths the displayed waveform) is automatically set to 1 by
the instrument so it can accurately capture the correct instantaneous
peak power reading rather than averaging out the high points. This will
cause the waveform display and automatic pulse measurements to show
more noise and appear less stable than usual.
The MK Math menu is a multiple choice selection which rotates
between MK1-MK2, MK2-MK1, MIN-MAX, MAX- MIN, and
PK/AVG.
4-44
Operation
4.13 REF Key and Ref > Menu
The REF function key activates the Ref > menu, which controls the horizontal
reference line operation. Figures 4-23 and 4-24 and Tables 4-13 and 4-14 describe
the Ref > menu and its submenus, as follows:
Menu or Submenu
Ref >
Ref > Extensions >
Figure
4-23
4-24
Table
4-13
4-14
Figure 4-23. Ref > Menu
Figure 4-24. Ref >
Extensions > Submenu
Operation
4-45
Table 4-13. Ref > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
Window
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Top, Bottom
Designates which set of reference lines (top or bottom) will be
controlled (applicable in split-screen mode).
When the instrument is in the split-screen mode, you may use two
reference lines in each window to designate points on the waveform
display. Use the data entry controls to position the reference lines, after
you select which set of marks (those in the top or bottom window) you
wish to position. Indicate your choice by pressing the Ref > Window
menu key to select either "Top" or "Bottom".
Ref Line 1
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range
Controls position of reference line 1.
The reference line will indicate the power level that corresponds to its
display position based on the reference channel’s vertical scale and
vertical offset.
Ref Delta
(None)
Pwr & Stat ➮
NONE
Displays the difference between the power levels at reference lines
1 & 2.
Ref Line 2
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range
Controls position of reference line 2.
The reference line will indicate the power level that corresponds to its
display position based on the reference channel’s vertical scale and
vertical offset.
Ref to Mks
(Action)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Set
Sets the levels of both of the Ref lines to the levels displayed by the
measurement markers MK1 and MK2.
Ref 1 is set to MK1 level, Ref2 is set to MK2 level.
4-46
Operation
Table 4-14. Ref > Extensions > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type )
Selections
Function
Window
(Toggle)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Top, Bottom
Designates which set of reference lines (top or bottom) will be
controlled (applicable in split-screen mode)
When the instrument is in the split-screen mode, you may use two
reference lines in each window to designate points on the waveform
display. Use the data entry controls to position the reference lines, after
you select which set of marks (those in the top or bottom window) you
wish to position. Indicate your choice by pressing the Mark > Window
menu key to select either “Top” or “Bottom.”
In the full-screen mode, the Mark > Window menu key is inactive and
always displays “Bottom”.
REF CH Sel
(Mult. Choice)
Pwr ➮
Off, CH1, CH2
CH Math,
Ref 1, Ref 2
Stat ➮
Off, CH1, CH Math,
Ref 1, Ref 2
Ref Tracking
(Mult. Choice)
Operation
Pwr ➮
Off,
Markers
Top - Bottom
Distal - Mesial
Distal - Proximal
The reference lines can indicate the power level based on the position
on the screen. The relationship between the screen position and the
level is dependent on the vertical scale and offset of the assigned
channel. To make measurement on any specific channel, that channel
must be selected, or both channels must have the same vertical scale
and vertical center (vertical offset).
The reference line tracking mode allows the instrument to set
the level reference markers to the position indicated by the
selected source. When set to off the reference lines are set to
levels entered in the Ref 1 and Ref 2 menus. The marker selection
causes the reference lines to be set to the marker levels. Mk 1 is loaded
into Ref 1 and Mk 2 is loaded into Ref 2. The Top - Bottom selection
loads the automatic measurement of the Top line amplitude into Ref 1
and the Bottom line amplitude into Ref 2. The Distal - Mesial selection
loads the automatic measurement of the distal level into Ref 1 and the
Mesial level into Ref 2. The Distal - Proximal selection loads the
automatic measurement of the Distal into Ref 1 and the Proximal level
into Ref 2.
4-47
4.14 MEAS Key and Meas > Menu
The MEAS function key activates the Meas > menu (Figure 4-25). This menu
contains the frequency assignments for each channel, measurement mode selection,
pulse definitions for the automatic measurements, and the automatic measurement
assignments for the parameter fields.
In the Meas > menu three items are dedicated to the frequency assignment for the
channel 1 and channel 2 inputs. Frequency entries can be assigned to each channel
individually or to both channels at the same time. The entries in the two modes
are independent, which allows the instrument to hold three different frequency
assignments. The selection of the frequency is determined by the frequency of the
signal being applied to the measurement channel. These entries are used to recall
frequency related correction data from the sensors connected to that channel. This
data is automatically applied to the measurement. The range of allowable frequency
entries is determined by the sensor connected to channel. The limits can be viewed
under the Spcl > CH 1 Sensor > Report. The frequency correction data can be
disabled by entering a zero for frequency (see Table 4-15).
The measurement submode may also be changed from the MEAS > menu. On a
4500A this allows rotating through the three statistical presentation formats without
changing from Stat ➮ mode and resetting the data acquisition.
In the Pwr ➮ mode the instrument makes automatic measurements on pulses. These
measurements are based on the IEEE definition of a standard pulse.
The define pulse sub-menu provides a facility for changing the default pulse
percentages for the distal, mesial, and proximal points on a waveform. Table 4-17
shows the menu entry options for the Meas > Define Pulse submenu. The values
entered for these points are used to determine the automatic measurement data. For
additional information on automatic measurements and how they are made, read
Chapter 6 Applications.
The Model 4500 is a peak power analyzer, and the percentages are defined in terms
of power. When using the 10%, 50%, and 90% of power for measurements, the
answers will not be the same if compared with the same percentages in voltage.
Table 4-16 lists the relationships between the ratio in dB, percent power and percent
voltage. To measure the rise and fall times in terms of voltage, change the proximal
to 1%, the mesial to 25% and the distal to 81%.
Figure 4-25. Meas > Menu
4-48
Operation
Table 4-15. Meas > Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Frequency Group
(Toggle)
Selections
Pwr, Stat ➮
Both, Each
Function
Selects the channel frequency entry mode.
The frequency "Both" selection assigns the same frequency to both
channels. Changing either CH1 or CH2 frequencies changes both
of them. Both windows are updated.
In the "Each" selection, the frequency for each channel can be
individually assigned.
Frequency CH1
(Numeric)
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
(Sensor Dependent)
Selects the input signal frequency on CH1 for frequency correction.
To indicate the measurement frequency, press the Meas > menu
key and use any of the data entry controls to select the
measurement frequency in GHz.
The frequency response characteristic for each Model 4500 sensor
is recorded in an EEPROM in the sensor before shipment from
the factory. The Model 4500 downloads this data into its processor
memory and creates a look-up table of correction factors that are
applied to each power measurement. The measurement frequency
is examined to determine which factor is to be applied to the
measurement. If the frequency selected lies between two values
in the table, the Model 4500 automatically interpolates
between them.
Pwr & Stat ➮
Continuous Range:
(Sensor Dependent)
Selects the input signal frequency on CH2 for frequency correction.
Power Mode
Pwr ➮
Toggles between Pulse and CW measurement submodes.
Stat Mode
Stat ➮
Rotates through CDF, 1-CDF and PDF measurement submodes.
Define Pulse
Pwr ➮
Sets levels for the distal, mesial and proximal of measured pulses.
Frequency CH2
(Numeric)
For more details, see the explanation above.
See Table 4-17 for the Meas > Define Pulse > Submenu.
Param Meas
Pwr ➮
Assigns the automatic measurement to a parameter field.
See Table 4-18 for the Meas > Parameter Meas > Submenu.
# of Samples
Stat ➮
This selection sets a limit for the number of samples to be acquired.
This acquisition takes place at about 500 kSa/sec for a channel 1 only,
and 250 kSa/sec for if channel 2 is running. When the total number of
points has been reached, the instrument will enter STOP mode.
Confidence Band
(Toggle)
Stat ➮
80%, 85%, 90%
95%, 99%
Tolerance band around the CDF data.
Based on confidence desired and the number of samples taken.
See Applications, Section 6.
Operation
4-49
Table 4-16. Ratio Conversion Chart
Ratio in dB
Power Ratio in %
Voltage Ratio in %
0.00
100.00
100.00
-0.46
90.0
94.9
-0.92
81.0
90.0
-3.01
50.0
70.7
-6.02
25.0
50.0
10.00
10.0
31.6
-20.00
1.0
10.0
Table 4-17. Meas > Define Pulse > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Distal
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range
Changes the percentages of pulse peak power defining the distal.
The distal is normally defined as 90% of the pulse peak power.
The range is from the mesial to 100.00%.
Mesial
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range
Changes the percentages of pulse peak power defining the mesial.
The mesial is normally defined as 50 % of the pulse peak power.
The range is from the proximal value to the distal value.
Proximal
(Numeric)
Pwr ➮
Continuous Range
Changes the percentages of pulse peak power defining the proximal.
The proximal is normally defined as 10% of the pulse peak power.
The range is from 0.00 to the mesial value.
Meas Mode
(Toggle)
Pwr ➮
Pwr, Volts
Changes the definition of the Distal, Mesial and Proximal point
used to determine the automatic measurements.
These points are set in percentage of the waveform. The original
method always used the percentage of power. Now the percentage
of voltage can be specified. All references to automatic
measurements and specifications use the 90%, 50%, 10% of power
unless specified differently.
Note
4-50
For the automatic measurements to function properly, the distal must
be greater than the mesial, which must be greater than the proximal.
Operation
You may view the pulse measurement results by pressing the TEXT function key,
which puts the instrument in the Automatic Measurement mode.
The Meas > Param Meas > submenu (Table 4-18) is used to determine the
data displayed in the nine parameter fields at the top of the display when the
instrument is in the graph mode. The default parameter mode of operation is status
(Stat). When in this mode, the instrument will display the standard nine channel
related fields of the currently selected channel. Changing the selected
channel changes the color, and the data presented in the parameter fields.
The other mode available is the measure (Meas) selection. In this mode each
parameter field can display the default status value or any of the automatic
measurements from either channel 1 or 2. The entry in these fields can be made by
using the knob, arrow keys or number entry. When using the knob or arrow keys the
menu entry filed displays the name of the measurement assigned to that field. The
selection can also be made with the data keypad.
Table 4-18. Meas > Parameter Meas > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Channel Select
Selections
Pwr ➮
Function
This function changes the currently active channel and is equal to
CHAN # > SELECT.
Parameter assignments for automatic measurements use the selected
channel at the assignment time to determine the channel for the
measurement.
Param Mode
Pwr ➮
Stat, Meas
The status (Stat) selection will display the status fields for the
currently selected channel in all of the parameter fields.
The measurement (Meas) selection will enable the display of the
selected automatic measurements and status fields.
Param Column
Operation
Pwr ➮
L, M, R
Selects the parameter column to which Top, Middle
and Bottom entries will assign automatic measurements.
4-51
Table 4-18. Meas > Parameter Meas > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Param Top
Pwr ➮
Assigns the automatic measurement display location.
Status → Delay
0
14
Param Middle
Pwr ➮
The parameter display mode must be set to measure in order to
display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
Assigns the automatic measurement display location.
Status → Delay
0
14
Param Bottom
Function
Pwr ➮
The parameter display mode must be set to measure in order to
display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
Assigns the automatic measurement display location.
Status → Delay
0
14
The parameter display mode must be set to measure in order to
display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
Table 4-19 gives the numeric equivalents of the automatic measurements which are
displayed in the nine parameter fields when the Model 4400A/4500A is in the
GRAPH display mode. The numbers 1 through 14 denote the automatic
measurements. The TEXT display shows the order in which the numbers are
assigned. For example, the first automatic measurement in the list is Pulse Width
and is assigned the number 1. The second is Risetime and it is number 2. The
channel selection for the assigned automatic measurement is determined by the
currently selected channel when the assignment is made and will not change unless
reassigned. The exception to this rule is the status selection. This will always show
the status of the currently selected channel.
4-52
Operation
Table 4-19. Numerical Equivalency of Automatic Measurements
Number
Description
0
Displays the default status value assigned to this field for the currently selected channel.
1
Assigns the Pulse Width of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
2
Assigns the Risetime of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
3
Assigns the Falltime of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
4
Assigns the Period of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
5
Assigns the Pulse Rep. Freq. (PRF) of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter
window.
6
Assigns the Duty Cycle of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
7
Assigns the Offtime of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
8
Assigns the Peak Power of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
9
Assigns the Pulse Power of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
10
Assigns the Overshoot of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
11
Assigns the Average Power of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter
window.
12
Assigns the Top Amplitude of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter
window.
13
Assigns the Bottom Amplitude of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter
window.
14
Assigns the Delay of the currently selected channel to the assigned parameter window.
Operation
4-53
4.15 UTIL Key and Util > Menu
The UTIL key activates the Util > menu (See Table 4-20 and Figure 4-26), which
enables you to view the instrument status summary, set up the IEEE-488 bus and
serial input/output ports, and set the internal realtime clock.
Table 4-20.
Util > Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Inst Status
REPORT
Displays equipment serial numbers, configuration, and revision
status. (See Fig. 4-26)
IEEE-488
MENU
Accesses the Util > IEEE-488 submenu. (See Fig. 4-27)
Serial
MENU
Accesses the Util > Serial submenu. (Table 4-23)
Disk
UTILITIES
Accesses the Util > Disk directory screen. (Table 4-26)
Hardcopy
MENU
Accesses the Util > Hardcopy submenu. (Table 4-30)
Clock
MENU
Accesses the Util > Clock submenu. (See Fig. 4-31)
4-54
Function
Operation
Inst Status
Press the Util > Inst Status menu key at the top of the Util > menu to display the
equipment serial numbers, configuration, and revision status. See Figure 4-26. If the
report indicates that Channel 1 or 2 is not responding, it is likely that a channel card is
either not functional or not installed. If the Instrument Status Report indicates that the
sensor is not connected, check the cable and sensor connections. The Report will also
indicate the cable length for the input board. The cable length should match the
configuration for the input board.
Figure 4-26. Util > Menu
Inst Status Report
IEEE-488 Bus
Press the Util > IEEE-488 menu key to display the submenu shown in Figure 4-27.
The functions in this submenu enable you to configure and check the status of the
IEEE-488 bus interface. Table 4-21 explains each of the submenu items.
Bus Setup Submenu. Press the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > menu key to
activate the Bus Setup submenu. The functions on this submenu enable you to
configure the bus address, and terminating character strings for the Listen and Talk
modes. You can also enable the optional EOI signal at the end of instrument Talk
strings.
Operation
4-55
Figure 4-27.
Util > IEEE-488 > Submenu
Table 4-21. Util >IEEE-488 > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Bus Setup
(Action)
MENU
Accesses the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > submenu. See Figure
4-28 and Table 4-22.
SRQ Mask
(Numeric)
Continuous Range
(0 to 255)
Enters the SRQ mask as a decimal number
Press the Util > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask menu key to highlight this
function. Use any of the data entry controls to enter the decimal
equivalent of the SRQ mask.
The SRQ mask is a bit-level mask that is entered in a decimal number
base. For example, enter 2 Decimal to activate the second bit ; enter 16
Decimal to activate the fourth bit; or enter 128 Decimal to activate the
eighth bit.
Each bit in the mask enables the reporting of a service request for an
individual function. The functions assigned to each bit are listed in
Table 5-4 SRQ Mask Bit Assignments.
4-56
Operation
Table 4-21. Util >IEEE-488 > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Set SRQ
(Action)
Selections
Function
SRQ
Generates a request for service from the IEEE-488 bus controller.
To generate a request for service from the IEEE-488 bus controller:
Use the SRQ Mask function to set the SRQ mask to
a value of 128, or higher. This activates the SRQ function.
When the SRQ is active, the front panel SRQ annunciator
will be lit.
Press the UTIL > IEEE-488 > Set SRQ menu key.
The manual SRQ feature is useful in automatic routines that prompt
users to initiate manual measurements, calibration or other functions.
When the function is complete, the user can signal the controller by
generating a manual service request.
The number that is displayed in the “Set SRQ” selection window is the
current SRQ number, which is in effect after the mask is applied. If the
SRQ light on the front panel is on, the operator can view the SRQ
value that will be reported to the controller in the next polling cycle.
Pressing the ESC key when the instrument is in the local mode will
clear any pending SRQ conditions.
View Buffers
(Action)
REPORT
This function allows the inspection of expected bus messages in
Listen mode, and pending outgoing messages in Talk mode. It is
provided as a tool for troubleshooting bus communication problems.
Mnemonics
(Action)
REPORT
Reports acceptable bus mnemonics.
Press the Util > IEEE > Mnemonics menu key to display a report
listing all the bus mnemonics the instrument will accept. The report
is organized into pages based on mnemonic length. Pressing the
menu key repeatedly will display the next page in sequence.
Operation
4-57
Figure 4-28. Util >
IEEE-488 > Bus Setup >
Submenu
Table 4-22. Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Address
(Numeric)
Continuous Range
(0 to 30)
Sets the IEEE-488 address for the Model 4400A/4500A.
The instrument address can be set to any value in the range from 0 to
30. Each instrument on the bus must be assigned a unique address.
Listen Term
(Mult. Choice)
LF, CR
Selects the terminating characters for the Listen mode.
Press the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Listen Term menu key until
the desired terminating character appears in the selection window.
Each incoming message on the IEEE-488 bus ends with a terminating
character, which can either be a CR or an LF. In the Listen mode, the
instrument interprets only the final terminating character. For example,
CR/LF is interpreted as LF.
The instrument always monitors the EOI line for an end of message
indicator. The EOI function is optional; if it is not implemented at the
controller, the instrument responds to the end of message character, as
described above.
4-58
Operation
Table 4-22. Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Talk Term
(Mult. Choice)
Selections
Functions
CRLF, LF, CR
Selects the terminating character for the Talk mode.
Press the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Talk Term menu key until the
desired terminating character appears in the selection window.
The Talk mode terminating character must match the controller
configuration, or communications will hang up in an uncompleted
message condition.
EOI on TALK
(Toggle)
Off, On
Enables or disables activation of the EOI line at the end of talk
messages
Press the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > EOI on Talk menu key until
the desired terminating character appears in the selection window.
This selection informs the instrument whether to activate the EOI line
at the end of each message.
Serial Menu
Press the Util > Serial menu key to display the Serial Port submenus (Table 4-23).
The submenu items are explained in Table 4-24 and Table 4-25.
Table 4-23. Util > Serial > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Functions
COM 1
MENU
Accesses the Util > Serial > COM 1 submenu (Table 4-24).
COM 2
MENU
Accesses the Util > Serial > COM 2 submenu (Table 4-25).
Operation
4-59
Serial Port 1
Press the Util > Serial > COM 1 menu key to display the protocol options associated
with the EIA RS232C serial communication port on the rear panel. Table 4-24
describes the menu items. Port 1 connects to an optional (user furnished) output
device, such as a plotter. See Appendix B Plotter Operation for additional
information on making connections to Serial Port #1 and configuring the plotter.
Table 4-24. Util > Serial > COM 1 Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Baud Rate
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
300 to 38.4K Baud
Function
Controls the transmission speed on Serial Port 1.
Press the Util > COM 1 > Baud Rate menu key until the desired
data speed appears in the selection window.
Length
(Toggle)
7, 8
Selects the word length (in bits) for the words transmitted through
Serial Port 1.
Press the Util > COM 1 > Length menu key until the desired word
length appears in the selection box.
Stop Bits
(Toggle)
1,2
Selects the number of stop bits in each binary word.
Press the Util > COM 1 > Stop Bits menu key until the desired
number of Stop bits appears in the selection window.
Parity Bit
(Mult. Choice)
Odd, None, Even
Selects the type of parity check that will be applied to each block
of input/output data.
Press the Util > COM 1 > Parity Bit menu key until the desired
parity chcking technique appears in the selection window.
HandShake
(Mult. Choice)
None, RTS, CTS,
RTS & CTS
Selects the handshaking protocol to be supported on the selected
serial port.
Press the Util > COM 1 > HandShake menu key until the desired
RS232C line control function appears in the selection box.
Xon/Xoff
(Toggle)
Off, On
Enables or disables the use of the Xon/Xoff protocol.
The Xon/Xoff protocol uses in-line characters to control the data rate.
For this mode to operate correctly the output device connected must
support Xon/Xoff.
Serial Port 2
4-60
Serial Port 2 accommodates an external (user furnished) maintenance terminal. This
feature can help you troubleshoot and repair instrument failures; it is particularly
useful when the monitor is inoperative. Port 2 uses minimal hardware to establish
communications with a terminal or a PC operating in the terminal- emulation mode.
All COM 2 settings are fixed to the parameters shown in Figure 4-29. Table 4-25
describes the menu items. All data is in the form of ASCII characters to assure
compatibility with a wide variety of terminals.
Operation
Figure 4-29.
Util > Serial > COM 2 >
Submenu
Table 4-25. Util > Serial > COM 2 Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Baud Rate
9600
The baud rate is 9600.
Stop Bits
1
There is only 1 stop bit.
Parity Bit
None
Parity is disabled.
HandShake
RTS
The handshake support ready to send.
Length
8
The word length (in bits) is 8.
Function
Disk Utilities
Press the Util > Disk UTILITIES key to display a directory page for the floppy disk
currently in the front panel drive, along with menu options to view more files or
delete a selected file as shown in Table 4-27.
The 4400A/4500A supports standard DOS formatted 720K or 1.44MB 31⁄2 " floppy
disks. Since the instrument has no provision to support full DOS pathnames, all files
must be in the root directory. Any subdirectories and files in them are ignored.
Each file the instrument creates is named with a filename prefix followed by a
sequence number and file extension. The filename prefix identifies the instrument
model which created the file: "B4400A" for the Model 4400A and "B4500A" for the
Model 4500A. The sequence number is a two-digit number appended to the filename
prefix which identifies individual files of a particular type. The prefix may range
from "00" to "99", allowing up to 100 unique files of each type. The three character
extension indicates the file type from one of four possible types that can be created by
the Model 4400A/4500A: ".INS", ".WFM", ".HGL", or ".PRN". Table 4-26 shows
information about each type of supported file.
Operation
4-61
Table 4-26. File Information
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
B4500A##.INS
≈2.0 kBytes
(Instrument Setup) ASCII File
B4500A##.WFM
≈3.5 kBytes
(Single waveform storage) Binary File
B4500A##.HGL
≈16.5 kBytes
(Screen Plot) ASCII Plotter File
B4500A##.PRN
≈42.0 kBytes
(Screen Print) Binary Printer File
NOTE:
Function
The ## is the select number to uniquely identify the specific file. This number will always be a two
character ASCII number with a zero filler for numbers less than ten.
Table 4-27. Util > Disk Utilities Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Functions
Select
0 to 99
Selects an individual file for deletion.
Extension
.HGL, . PRN,
.INS, .WFM
Determines the file type for all displayed files.
The directory will only display one file type at a time. Changing the
extension will cause the directory display to be updated with the new
file type.
.HGL - plot files
.PRN - printer files
.INS - instrument setup files
.WFM - waveform files
Page
Next
When displaying the directory for a large number of files of one type,
the instrument will show the files in numerical order (by sequence
number) and pause after each screenful. Pressing Util > Disk > Page
Next will scroll to the next screen if there are more files left to
display; otherwise it will return to the first screen.
Delete
START
Deletes the selected file.
Depress the "Delete START" menu key. The user will be prompted
with "Are you sure? ENT-yes/ANY KEY-no" in the message field
for verification. Storing to the disk cannot overwrite an existing file.
The file must first be deleted.
Bytes Free
REPORT
Reports the number of bytes available on the diskette for storage.
The status number is updated during a disk access. If data is stored or
deleted from the disk, the bytes free report is updated. If there is no
disk in the drive the window will display "NO DISK".
4-62
Operation
Hardcopy
Press the Util > Plotter menu key to display the plotter information described in
Table 4-28.
Table 4-28. Util > Hardcopy Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Device
(Mult. Choice)
Selections
Plotter, Printer
Function
This function selects the class of output device.
All plotters are HPGL compatible devices.
The printers are PCL format raster output devices. Printers have the
advantage of recording persistence from the screen.
Model
Printer
ThinkJet
LaserJet
Plotter
HPGL, HP7470
HP7475, FPG310
Output Port
(Mult. Choice)
Selects a particular model printer/plotter for page formatting.
Select the a device model that matches or is similar to the printer/plotter
you wish to use. This selection controls page size,
resolution, position, and rotation.
LPT1, COM1, IEEE-4888, Selects the communication port or disk file used for the hardcopy
Disk
output.
The parallel port connects to a standard Centronics-type printer.
For the serial port all parameters under the Util > Serial > Serial 1
menu must match the output device settings.
For the IEEE-488 interface, the output device must be in the listen only
mode. See Appendix B for more details on generating output.
When the SYSTEM "PLOT" key is depressed the print/plot data is
sent to the selected output, or to a disk file.
File Select
0 to 99
Selects the sequence number (filename) for the file that will be created
when a PLOT operation is performed.
When the plot data is directed to a file, the data is stored to the file
indicated by the select number. The file name will always be
B4500A##.EXT. The EXT will be HGL for plotter output and PRN for
printer output. The instrument automatically checks for an existing file
and sufficient disk space and reports an error if there is not sufficient
space for the file to be stored or if a file by that name already exists
on the disk.
Plot Label
(Toggle)
Off, On
This function enables the display and output of 4 plot label lines.
These lines are located in the upper right of the graph display. The
content of the label can be altered by using the IEEE-488 interface or
by recalling an instrument setup file. An ASCII text file can be created
on a PC with the required mnemonics to change the plot label. For
example, if a file named "B4500A10.INS" contains the following:
PLABEL1 "This is a plot"
PLABEL2 "label message"
PLABELON
and an instrument recall of the file is executed, then that message
would appear in the plot label field. The label is nonvolatile and can
be disabled and reenabled at any time.
Operation
4-63
Table 4-28. Util > Hardcopy Submenu (Continued)
Menu Item
(Type)
Graph & Text
(Toggle)
Selections
Off, On
Function
This option only applies when the selected output device is a printer.
When enabled, this feature spools both the graphics and text screens
when the PLOT button is pressed, no matter which screen mode is
currently active. If Graph & Text is off or a plotter is the selected
output device, only the currently displayed screen will be printed.
In this case the screen mode must be changed manually by pressing
the TEXT/GRAPH button then plotting again.
Clock
Press the Util > Clock > menu key to display the internal real-time clock submenu
illustrated in Figure 4-30. The menu entries are explained in Table 4-29.
Figure 4-30.
Util >Clock > Submenu
The internal clock operates on battery power to maintain accuracy in the event power
is removed from the instrument. Note, however, that after the Util > Clock menu has
been activated, the information on the screen display is not updated until the submenu
is deactivated and reactivated.
4-64
Operation
Table 4-29. Util > Clock > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Year
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
(1990 - 2089)
Sets the year in the date code that appears in the display header.
Use the spin knob, right-left arrow keys, or numeric keypad to select
the year.
Month
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
(Jan. - Dec.)
Sets the month in the date code that appears in the display header.
Use the spin knob, right-left arrow keys, or numeric keypad to select
the month (January = 1, February = 2, etc.).
Day of Month
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
(1 - 31)
Sets the day of the month in the date code that appears in the display
header.
Use the spin knob, right-left arrow keys, or numeric keypad to select
the day of the month.
Hour
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
(0 - 23)
Sets the hour in the date code that appears in the display header.
Use the spin knob, right-left arrow keys, or numeric keypad to select
the hour.
Minute
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
(0 - 59)
Sets the minute in the date code that appears in the display header.
Use the spin knob, right-left arrow keys, or numeric keypad to select
the minute. Note that the seconds are automatically reset to zero
whenever the minutes value is changed.
Day of Week
Operation
Display Only
Displays the current day of the week – Automatically calculated.
4-65
4-16. SPCL Key and Spcl > Menu
The SPCL key activates the Spcl > menu (Figure 4-31), which enables you to initiate
the internal self-test and diagnostic routines, adjust the calibrator output and view
sensor specifications, and control special instrument functions.
Table 4-30. Spec >Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Servicing
MENU
Accesses the SPCL > Servicing submenu (See Fig. 4-32)
Calibrator
MENU
Accesses the SPCL > Calibrator submenu (See Fig. 4-34)
CH 1 Sensor
REPORT
Displays a sensor report for Channel 1. (See Fig. 4-33)
CH 2 Sensor
REPORT
Displays a sensor report for Channel 2. (See Fig. 4-33)
Function
The sensor report contains the sensor model, serial number, calibration
information, autocal and current temperatures, attenuation, impedance,
and power and frequency ranges for the sensor currently connected to
the specified channel. With the exception of the current and auto-cal
temperatures, this report information is read from the factoryprogrammed sensor EEPROM.
Peaking Mode
(Toggle)
Pwr ➭
Off, On
Turns Peaking Mode on or off.
Peaking mode is a special feature of the Model 4400A/4500A that
controls how the sampled waveform is processed and displayed at slow
timebases. When the timebase is set to 5ms/div or faster, each display
pixel corresponds to the power level of the waveform at a single point
in time relative to the trigger. When the timebase is 10ms/div or
slower, each display pixel is either an average of the continuously
sampled waveform during that pixel interval (peaking mode off) or the
maximum power level sampled during the pixel interval
(peaking mode on).
Each pixel is 1/50th of a screen division, and the sample rate is
1MSa/sec. For a 10ms/div timebase, each pixel is 200µs long, and
corresponds to 200 samples of the waveform. If peaking mode is off,
the power level for that pixel (as displayed and read by the markers)
will be the average of those 200 samples during that 1ms interval.
If peaking mode is on, the pixel’s value will be the peak power level
during the interval.
Note that this averaging/peaking operation on slow timebases is
independent of the trace averaging. Trace averaging will further
reduce the signal noise if peaking mode is off, but will tend to average
out the peak signal events when peaking mode is in use.
Auto CENTER
(Toggle)
Off, On
Turns the Auto Center feature on or off.
Auto CENTER
4-66
Operation
Press the Spcl > Servicing menu key to display the self-test and calibration control
submenu illustrated in Figure 4-32.
Figure 4-31. Spcl > Menu
Figure 4-32. Spcl >
Servicing > Submenu
Operation
4-67
Self-Test
Press the Spcl > Servicing > Self-Test menu key to initiate an internal test of all the
Model 4400A/4500A modules. Any errors are reported in the Message Line of the
display. The items tested during this procedure are listed in Table 4-33. These tests
are performed automatically when you power on the instrument.
Table 4-31. Self-Test Parameters
Item
Description
1
EEPROM Checksum
2
DSP Self-Test
3
Keyboard Self-Test
4
Calibrator Self-Test
5
Sensor Operation
6
Input Circuit Board Operation
Configuration
Pressing Spcl > Servicing > Configuration REPORT displays a report of the
instrument’s current hardware and software installation settings. This information can
be a useful troubleshooting aid when reporting operational difficulties to Boonton
Electronics Technical Support.
Cal Mode
When you turn on Spcl > Servicing > Cal Mode you activate the Spcl >
Calibrator > Extensions > Fixed Cal function (see discussion of the Spcl >
Calibrator > Extensions functions in Table 4-36). These enables you to adjust the
absolute 0 dBm point of the internal calibrator using an external standard. Procedures
for making this adjustment are provided in Section 7 Maintenance.
Warning
Adjusting the calibrator 0 dBm point invalidates the factory calibration and
certifications. See Section 7 Maintenance.
Caution
Be sure to disable Spcl > Servicing > Cal Mode after you have completed the
calibrator adjustment procedure.
4-68
Operation
Figure 4-33.
Spcl > CH # Sensor >
Report
With the Spcl > Calibrator > menu (Figure 4-34), you can turn on the calibrator
output and adjust the calibrator signal parameters. The items in the Spcl >
Calibrator> menu and its two submenus are presented in the following figures and
tables:
Menu or Submenu
Figure
Table
Spcl > Calibrator >
Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse
Spcl > Calibrator > Extensions
4-34
4-35
4-36
4-32
4-33
4-34
Figure 4-34.
Spcl > Calibrator > Menu
Operation
4-69
Table 4-32. Spcl > Calibrator > Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Cal Output
(Toggle)
Selections
Function
Off, On
Activates the calibrator output.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output menu key to activate the
calibrator output signal.
Set Level
(Numeric)
Continuous Range:
-40 to +20 dBm
Sets the calibrator output level.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Set Level menu key to activate this
function. Use the data entry controls to adjust the calibrator output
power to the desired level.
Max Power
(Numeric)
Continuous Range:
-40 to +20 dBm
Establishes the upper limit for the calibrator output power.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Max Power menu key to activate this
function. Use the data entry controls to adjust the upper limit of
calibrator output power.
An error message will be generated if you attempt to set the Spcl >
Calibrator > Max Power parameter below the Set Level parameter, or if
you attempt to set the Set Level value greater than the Spcl >
Calibrator > Max Power parameter.
Cal Mode
(Toggle)
CW, Pulse
Selects the calibrator output signal format.
Pulse
MENU
Accesses the Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse submenu. See Figure 4-35.
Extensions
MENU
Accesses the Spcl > Calibrator > Extensions submenu.
Figure 4-35. Spcl >
Calibrator > Pulse >
Submenu
4-70
Operation
Table 4-33. Spcl > Calibrator >Pulse > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Source
(Toggle)
Selections
Function
Int, Ext
Selects the source for the calibrator output pulse.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > menu key to specify whether the
calibrator output pulse is to be internally or externally generated.
Polarity
(Toggle)
+, -
Selects the polarity for the calibrator output signal.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Polarity menu key to select
positive-going or negative-going calibrator output pulses.
Duty Cycle
(Numeric)
Note
Pulse Period
(Numeric)
Discrete Range:
10, 20, 30, 40
and 50%
Selects the calibrator pulse train duty cycle.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Duty Cycle menu key to step
through the range of available duty cycles.
Additional duty cycles of 60, 70, 80 and 90% may be obtained by inverting the
pulse. (Select “-” polarity.)
Discrete Range
100 uS, 1 mS
and 10 mS)
Selects the period of the calibrator pulse train.
Press the Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Pulse Period menu key to step
through the range of available pulse periods.
Table 4-33 indicates that the duty cycle and pulse period parameters are discretely
variable in the specified ranges. If necessary, continuous ranges of duty cycle and
pulse period may be obtained by connecting an external pulse generator to the
rear-mounted BNC connector labeled “EXT PULSE” and selecting “Ext” in the
Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Source window. TTL-level signals connected at this
port will gate the 1 GHz calibration signal on and off.
Extensions
You can view a listing of calibrator information by pressing the Spcl >
Calibrator > Extensions > Calibrator menu key. The Calibrator Report lists the
calibrator information shown in Figure 4-36. A non-zero status reading indicates that
an error condition exits.
If the instrument is in the calibration mode (see discussion of Spcl >
Servicing > Cal Mode in Subsection 4.16), the Spcl > Calibrator > Extensions >
Fixed Cal window will appear at the bottom of the menu. This window enables you
to adjust the calibrator output precisely, as described in Section 7 Maintenance.
Warning
Operation
Adjusting the calibrator 0 dBm point invalidates the factory calibration and
certifications. See Section 7 Maintenance.
4-71
Table 4-34. Spcl > Calibrator > Extensions > Menu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Calibrator
REPORT
Includes information about the installed calibrator.
Includes STATUS, SERIAL NUMBER, SOFTWARE VERSION,
CALIBRATION DATE and INTERNAL TEMPERATURE.
Level Step
(Numeric)
0.1 to 60 dB
Selects the step level for the calibrator.
The step level value is incremented or decremented from the current
calibrator when the knob or arrow keys are activated.
Figure 4-36. 4400A/4500A
Calibrator Report
4-72
Operation
4.17 PRGM Key and Prgm > Menu
The PRGM key activates the Prgm > menu (Figure 4-37), which enables you to store
one or more instrument configurations for later recall and reuse.
Figure 4-37. Prgm > Menu
The Model 4400A/4500A is equipped with ten non-volatile memory locations, in
which you may store up to ten instrument setup (configuration) files. This is useful
for saving configurations you develop for specific measurements. To make similar
measurements later, you can save time by recalling the appropriate configuration from
memory, rather than accessing several control menus to reestablish the desired
conditions.
The items contained in each saved configuration file are listed in Table 3-3. Items not
included in the store and recall operations include parameters related to the IEEE-488
bus, Serial Ports 1 and 2, plotter, clock and display colors. Initially, each memory
location contains the factory default settings until a user-generated configuration is
saved in it. Memory Location 0 is used to recall the factory defaults without the
resetting, testing, and reloading overhead of the INIT function. Location 0 cannot be
used to store user-generated configuration data.
Operation
4-73
Caution
Saving configuration data in a memory location overwrites any data that resides there.
Be sure to keep an updated record of any saved configurations and their location to
avoid accidental loss.
To save the current configuration, press the Prgm > Instr STORE menu key (Table
4-35) and use the data entry controls to select the destination memory location (other
than Location 0 which is used by Instrument Recall as a read only location).
To recall a previously stored configuration, select the Prgm > Instr RECALL
submenu (Table 4-36) and select the memory location in which the configuration is
stored.
Instrument Store Submenu. This submenu (Table 4-35) allows the user to store
instrument setups to non-volatile memory or a disk file. There are 10 non-volatile
memory locations and up to 100 locations on each disk for setups. Instrument setups
do not include every instrument programmable function (see above). In general,
hardware specific configurations are not saved and must be set individually. Examples
are display colors, IEEE-488 configurations, the Serial port configuration, the plotter
selection and output port. These parameters are usually fixed for a specific installation
and are not transferrable to other instruments.
The disk based instrument store builds an ASCII DOS compatible file on the disk of
the current instrument configuration using IEEE-488 bus mnemonics. The storage to
the disk will be to file "B4500A##.INS" ("B4400A##.INS" for the Model 4400A)
where ## is the number in the select menu. These files can be edited to include any
valid bus commands and the instrument will respond to them. This allows the user to
add commands to configure hardware that is not normally included in the setup files.
An example of this is described in Table 4-30, Util > Plotter > Plot Label, where the
plot label is easily changed without the aid of an IEEE-Bus controller. When editing
an instrument setup remember that the commands are executed as they are read from
disk. The sequence of commands is very important. For example, channel related
commands affect the currently selected channel. This means that VSCALE 20 will set
the currently selected channel to 20 dB per division. The currently selected channel is
determined by the last occurrence of the CH1, CH2, CHM, REF1, REF2 commands.
(CH1 VSCALE 20 CH2 VSCALE 10) would set channel 1 to a vertical scale of 20
dB per division and channel 2 to 10 dB per division.
4-74
Operation
Table 4-35. Prgm > Instr Store > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Select
(Numeric)
Selections
1 to 10 (0 to 99)
Functions
Identifies the location to save the instrument setup.
The range is different based on the destination. There are 10 (1 to 10)
memory locations and 100 (0 to 99) file locations.
Source
(Fixed)
MEMORY
The source for all instrument store operations is from memory.
Destination
(Toggle)
NVRAM, Disk
The destination for instrument store operations can be either
non-volatile memory or disk locations. The specific location is
selected by the Prgm > Instr Store > Select menu. The range of the
select entry is different depending on the destination. Memory
options are 1 to 10 and disk options are 0 to 99 per disk.
Instrument
(Action)
STORE
Executes the store operation.
For disk operations a disk must be in the disk drive, and the selected
file name must be unique. Existing files will not be overwritten. The
user will be prompted if file already exists. The file must first be
removed using the delete function. When saving to disk, wait until
the disking operation is complete before removing the disk.
Bytes Free
REPORT
Reports the number of bytes available on the diskette for storage.
The status number is updated during a disk access. If data is stored or
deleted from the disk, the bytes free report is updated. If there is no
disk in the drive the window will display "NO DISK".
Instrument Recall Submenu. This menu (Table 4-36) allows the user to recall
instrument setups from non-volatile memory or a disk file. There are 11 non-volatile
memory locations and up to 100 locations on each disk for setups. Instrument setups
do not include every instrument programmable function (see above). In general,
hardware specific configurations are not saved and must be set individually. Examples
include display colors, IEEE-488 configurations, the Serial port configuration, the
plotter selection and output port. These parameters are usually fixed for a specific
installation and are not transferrable to other instruments.
Remember that the instrument has ten store locations (1 - 10), but the Instrument
Recall also uses location 0 as a read only location. This location will always restore
the instrument to its factory set defaults. This is different than the reset function which
also performs hardware resets and self-tests which require more time.
The file recall reads an ASCII, DOS compatible file on the disk of the current
instrument configuration using IEEE-488 bus mnemonics. The storage to the disk will
be to file "B4500A##.INS" ("B4400A##.INS" for the Model 4400A) where ## is the
number in the select menu. These files can be edited to include any valid bus
commands and the instrument will respond to them. This allows the user to add
commands to configure hardware that is not normally included in the setup files.
Operation
4-75
When editing an instrument setup remember that the commands are executed as they
are read from disk. The sequence of commands is very important. For example,
channel related commands affect the currently selected channel. This means that
VSCALE 20 will set the currently selected channel to 20 dB per division. The
currently selected channel is determined by the last occurrence of the CH1, CH2,
CHM, REF1, REF2 commands. (CH1 VSCALE 20 CH2 VSCALE 10) would set
channel 1 to a vertical scale of 20 dB per division and channel 2 to 10 dB per division.
For more information on directory, file deletion, and disk formatting see Tables 4-27.
Table 4-36. Prgm > Instr Recall > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Select
(Numeric)
Selections
0 to 10 (0 to 99)
Functions
Identifies the location where the instrument setup is saved.
The range is different based on the destination. There are 11 (0 to 10)
memory locations and 100 (0 to 99) file locations.
Source
(Toggle)
NVRAM, Disk
The source for instrument recall operations can be either non-volatile
memory or disk locations. The specific location is selected by the
Prgm > Instr Recall> Select menu. The range of the select entry is
different depending on the destination. Memory options are 0 to 10
and disk options are 0 to 99 per disk.
Destination
(Fixed)
MEMORY
The destination for all instrument recall operations is to memory.
Instrument
(Action)
RECALL
Executes the recall operation.
For disk operations, a disk must be in the disk drive, and the selected
file name must exist. When recalling from disk wait until the disking
operation is complete before removing the disk.
Bytes Free
REPORT
Reports the number of bytes available on the diskette for storage.
The status number is updated during a disk access. If data is stored or
deleted from the disk, the bytes free report is updated. If there is no
disk in the drive the window will display "NO DISK".
4-76
Operation
Reference Save Submenu. This menu (Table 4-37) allows the operator to save
channel 1, channel 2, or channel math waveforms to either of the reference waveform
storage memories.
When a waveform is stored to a reference channel, the instrument records the current
measurement mode. The stored reference waveform may only be displayed when the
instrument is set for that same measurement mode. If the measurement modes are not
the same, an error message will be displayed and no reference waveform will be
visible. The measurement mode of a stored reference channel may be displayed by
pressing Chan > Ref1 > Waveform Report.
When the channel is saved all channel, trigger, and timebase information is saved
along with the floating point data for the waveform. This information can be accessed
as a report from the Chan > Ref # menu (Table 4-7). There are some limitations in
saving math channels to reference channels. A math channel waveform which uses a
reference channel cannot store the math channel back into the source reference
channel. It can be saved into the other reference channel. Linear and log vertical scale
and vertical center can be changed on the reference waveforms. Marker and between
marker measurements can be made on reference waveforms. The exception is long
term average, peak hold, and peak-to-avg ratio. These measurements imply
multi-screen data capture. When in this mode on reference channels the value of long
term average and peak hold is remembered and displayed from the storage of the
reference waveform and never recalculated. Automatic measurements cannot be
performed on reference channels.
Table 4-37. Prgm > Ref Save > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Functions
Source
(Mult. Choice)
CH1, CH2,
CHM
The source for reference channels can only be channel 1, channel 2,
or the math channel. A math channel which uses a reference channel
in its equation cannot store the math channel into the used reference
channel, but must use the other reference channel.
Destination
(Mult. Choice)
REF 1, REF2
The destination must be one of the reference channels. The reference
channel can then be saved to disk.
Instrument
(Action)
STORE
Executes the store operation.
Operation
4-77
Waveform Store Submenu. This submenu (Table 4-38) allows the user to store
reference waveforms to a disk file. There are up to 100 locations on each disk for
waveforms. Only reference waveforms REF1 and REF2 can be saved to disk. To save
waveforms from channel 1, channel 2, or channel math, the waveform must be saved
as a reference waveform first.
The waveform file store command saves the waveform in floating point representation
to disk with the instrument configuration at the time the waveform was saved. The
reference waveform saved to disk will have a different format depending on the
operating mode selected at the time of storage. The file created on disk has a unique
name for each of the styles. The file report will incude the format type. The operator
will only be able to recall the reference waveform files that correspond to the current
operating mode of the instrument.
Once the reference waveform is recalled from disk the vertical scale and offset for
linear and log modes can be changed after saving the waveform to a reference
channel. The waveform is stored on the disk to a file "B4500A##.WFM"
("B4400A##.WFM" for the Model 4400A) where ## is the number in the select menu.
Table 4-38. Prgm > WFM Store > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Select
(Numeric)
Selections
0 to 99 disk Locations
Functions
Identifies the file to save the reference waveform.
There are 100 (0 to 99) file locations.
Source
(Mult. Choice)
REF1, REF2
The source is the reference waveform to be stored.
Destination
(Fixed)
DISK
The destination is always disk for waverform stores.
Waveform
(Action)
STORE
Executes the store operation.
A disk must be in the disk drive and the selected file name must
be unique. Existing files will not be overwritten. The user will be
prompted if a file already exists. The file must first be removed using
the delete function. When saving to disk wait until the disking
operation is complete before removing the disk.
Bytes Free
REPORT
Reports the number of bytes available on the diskette for storage.
The status number is updated during a disk access. If data is stored or
deleted from the disk, the bytes free report is updated. If there is no
disk in the drive the window will display "NO DISK".
4-78
Operation
Waveform Recall Submenu. This submenu (Table 4-39) allows the user to restore
reference waveforms from a disk file. There are up to 100 locations on each disk for
waveforms. Reference waveforms on disk can only be recalled into REF1 and REF2
locations.
The waveform file recall command reads the waveform in floating point format along
with the instrument configuration at the time the waveform was saved as a reference
waveform. The vertical scale and offset for linear and log modes can be changed after
the waveform is recalled to a reference channel. The waveform is stored on the disk to
a file "B4500A##.WFM" ("B4400A##.WFM" for the Model 4400A)
where ## is the number in the select menu. A waveform report can display the
instrument’s configuration for the reference waveform stored on disk.
Table 4-39. Prgm > WFM Recall > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Select
(Numeric)
Selections
0 to 99 disk Locations
Functions
Identifies the file to recall as the reference waveform.
There are 100 (0 to 99) file locations.
Source
(Fixed)
DISK
The source for all waveform recalls is disk.
Destination
(Mult. Choice)
REF1, REF2
The destination for waveform recall can only be reference 1 or
reference 2 channels.
.WFM File
(Action)
REPORT
Reports the instrument’s configuration of the selected file when the
waveform was stored to disk.
Waveform
(Action)
RECALL
Executes the recall operation.
A disk must be in the disk drive and the selected file name must
exist. When recalling from disk wait until the disking operation is
complete before removing the disk.
Bytes Free
REPORT
Reports the number of bytes available on the diskette for storage.
The status number is updated during a disk access. If data is stored or
deleted from the disk, the bytes free report is updated. If there is no
disk in the drive the window will display "NO DISK".
Operation
4-79
4.18 DISP Key and Disp > Menu
The DISP function key activates the Disp > menu, which enables you to control the
appearance of the monitor displays. Figures 4-38 through 4-42 and Tables 4-42
through 4-44 describe the Disp > menu and its submenus, as follows:
Menu or Submenu
Disp >
Disp > Format >
Disp > Format > Trace Type >
Disp > Format > Assign Trace >
Disp > Format > Set Colors >
Figure
4-38
4-39
4-40
4-41
4-42
Table
4-40
4-41
4-41
4-41
4-42
The waveform display area can be split into two windows, each capable of displaying
measured or stored waveforms, and a set of time marks. You can assign either
measurement channel (1 or 2) and reference trace (1 or 2) to appear in either the top
or bottom window. The time marks in the windows are controlled independently, as
discussed in Tables 4-11 and 4-12.
The functions in the Disp > Format > Set Colors menu enable you to designate the
color of each element in the waveform display window, including the background,
grid, markers and signal traces.
Figure 4-38. Disp > Menu
4-80
Operation
Table 4-40. Disp > Menu
Menu Item
(Type )
Screen
(Toggle)
Selections
Function
Full, Split
Sets the screen display mode.
The full or split screen selection displays 1 or 2 windows. The split
screen mode is at half vertical resolution.
Units
(Toggle)
Log - dBm/dB
Lin - Watts/%
Selects the unit of measure for the signal level readouts.
Persistence
(Toggle)
Off, On
Enables or disables trace persistence.
When persistence is on ("infinite"), the trace will automatically be
drawn with single points (pixels) which will remain visible on the
screen until cleared by pressing > Display CLEAR. The data points are
not connected by lines when persistence is enabled and changing any
measurement or display parameters that could affect the waveform will
cause the accumulated points to be erased. This prevents invalid data
from being drawn or remaining visible on the screen.
Note that the infinite persistence display has no function on reference
channels and only operates when the instrument is in pulse
measurement mode.
Format
(Action)
MENU
Allows operator to reconfigure the screen grid, trace type and
assignment, the header and the display colors.
Figure 4-39. Disp >
Format > Submenu
Operation
4-81
Table 4-41. Disp >Format > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type )
Grid Type
(Mult. Choice)
Trace Type
(Action)
Selections
Function
Crosshair,
Hash Marks,
Grid Hash,
Grid and Box
Selects the background markings of the window display.
MENU
The reference grid in the display area makes it easier to
make precise measurements. The grid type should be
chosen to be compatible with the trace characteristics and units of
measure. In selecting the grid type, it may be necessary also to
consider any requirements that apply to printouts you may wish to make
using hardcopy output. To select the desired grid, press the “Grid
Type” menu key until the desired background markings appear in the
display area.
Accesses the Disp > Format > Trace Type submenu. See Figure 4-40.
Use the Disp > Format > Trace Type submenu to specify the display
format for the "CH 1," "CH 2, " "CH Math," "Ref 1," or "Ref 2"
waveform traces. Each of these waveforms may be displayed as a solid
or dotted line, or turned off. Press the menu key opposite the function
you wish to specify until the desired line type appears. When the
waveform is turned off, data is still being captured, but it is not
displayed. This is useful, for example, when the Math Channel is being
displayed.
Assign Trace
(Action)
MENU
Accesses the Disp > Format > Assign Trace submenu. See Figure 4-41.
Each selection in the Disp > Format > Assign Trace menu enables you
to assign a function to a split-screen window. In the example of Figure
4-41, measurement Channel 1 is assigned to the top window of the
split-screen display and the Reference 1 trace is assigned to the bottom.
This would be a useful arrangement to observe the effects of signal
processing. In this example, the Ref 1 trace could be used to record the
signal before processing, for comparison to the postprocessed signal in
the measurement channel. Alternatively, measurement Channels 1 and 2
could be assigned to the top and bottom windows, respectively, for
comparison purposes. Many such combinations are available for
comparing "before and after" waveforms in split-screen windows.
To assign functions to windows, press the menu key opposite each
function name (CH 1, CH 2, CH Math, Ref 1 or Ref 2) until the desired
window location ("Top" or "Bottom") appears.
In the full-screen mode, the window assignments are ignored and all
traces are displayed in the full-screen window.
Disp Header
(Mult. Choice)
Logo, Time/Date,
Sens Temp, and
Blank (space)
Selects which item will appear in the header field of the display.
You can display any one of the items in the header
field: “Boonton” (Logo), the date and time, or the sensor temperature
(Celsius scale). You may also choose to leave the space blank.
Press the Disp > Format > Disp Header menu key until the desired
function appears on the header line.
4-82
Operation
Table 4-41. Disp >Format > Submenu (continued)
Menu Item
(Type )
Set Colors
(Action)
Selections
Function
MENU
Accesses the Disp > Format > Set Colors submenu. See
Figure 4-42 and Table 4-44.
Figure 4-40. Disp >
Format>Trace Type >
Submenu
Figure 4-41. Disp >
Format>Assign Trace >
Submenu
Operation
4-83
Set Colors
You may color the various elements of the display for photographic purposes, or for
any other reason. Color choices can be solid Red, Green, Blue, or mixtures of these.
Set the color for a display element by selecting it in the Disp > Format > Set
Colors > Item Color window and adjust the mix of Red, Green and Blue. See Table
4-42.
Color selections are stored in non-volatile RAM and are retained when the instrument
is turned off. They are not reset by operation of the INIT function key and are
not included in the Prgm > Instrument > “Store” and “Recall” parameters. (See
Subsection 4-17.) Reloading the Model4400A/4500A control software or selecting
Disp > Format > Set Color > Init Colors will reinitialize the color selections to the
factory default settings.
Color Conventions
For color assignment purposes, each element of the monitor display is assigned an
element number. The Priority Message, Status Line, Path Message, selection box
outline, etc., are all display elements and are assigned numerical equivalents. See
Table 4-44. The waveform display window is a special case, and all the elements in it
are assigned numbers that equal powers of 2 (1, 2, 4,... 128), to speed waveform
display processing. Display elements outside the waveform window are assigned
element numbers greater than 128.
The intersection of a waveform and a grid element or marker is considered a display
element and is assigned an element number equal to the sum of the overlapping items.
Thus the intersection of the Channel 1 waveform (element #4) and the grid (element
#1) is assigned element #5. The intersection of Channel 1 (#4) and Channel 2 (#8)
waveforms is assigned element #12).
Intersections of display element are color-set at the factory according to the following
convention:
Waveform-grid intersections are assigned the color of the waveform.
Waveform-waveform intersections are white.
4-84
Operation
Table 4-42. Disp >Format >Set Colors > Submenu
Menu Item
(Type)
Selections
Function
Item Color
(Mult. Choice)
253 Items
(See discussion)
Selects the background markings of the window display.
To select or adjust the color of any of the 253 items on the screen, press
the Disp > Format > Set Color > Item Color menu key to activate this
window. Next, use any of the data entry controls to select the item to
be color- adjusted. To locate the item you wish to color, consult Table
4-45 for its numeric equivalent.
Red, Green, Blue
(Numeric)
0 to 252
Selects the mixture of primary colors in each display element.
To indicate the color or mix of colors for the selected display element,
press one of the color keys and use the data entry controls to set its
intensity value (from 0 to 252). Repeat this process for the other two
colors. To indicate a solid (unmixed) color, assign an intensity of 252
to it and assign “0” to the other two colors. Note the color values must
be even multiples of 4.
Init Colors
INIT
Resets all colors to factory default settings
Press the Disp > Format > Set Color > INIT Colors menu key to reset
the colors for all display items to their original factory settings. The bus
command for Init Colors is NEWCOLOR (see Table 5-2).
Figure 4-42. Disp >Format >
Set Colors > Submenu
Operation
4-85
Table 4-43. Numeric Equivalent of Display Items
Number
Item
Pen *
Designation
Definition
0
Background
0
The basic color of the display onto which all other graphic
information is superimposed.
1
Grid
1
The grid upon which the measurement waveform is displayed .
2
Time Markers
6
The marker lines that are oriented vertically on the graph.
They are used to indicate the point along the graph’s horizontal
axis at which the measurement is made.
4
CH 1
2
The color of the waveform and the marker measurements
displayed as Channel 1.
8
CH 2
3
The color of the waveform and the marker measurements
displayed as Channel 2.
16
CH Math
4
The color of the waveform and the marker measurements
displayed as Channel Math.
32
Ref 1
5
The color of the waveform and the marker measurements
displayed as Reference Channel 1.
64
Ref 2
6
The color of the waveform and the marker measurements
displayed as Reference Channel 2.
128
Reference Lines
6
The marker lines that are oriented horizontally on the grid
and are used to indicate the minimum or maximum
amplitude of the waveform.
224
Status Message
1
The color of the message that appears in the Message field.
225
Error Message
4
The color of the message that appears in the Error field.
226
Path Message
1
The color of the Pathname.
227
Priority Message
2
The color of the message that appears in the Priority Message
field.
241
Box Low
1
The color of the outline of the menu boxes.
242
Box High
5
The highlight color of the menu box that is selected for data
entry.
243
Label Back
0
The background color of the label area of the menu boxes,
upon which the menu labels are displayed. This color is
superimposed upon the background color.
* Pen assignment applies only to plotting output.
4-86
Operation
Table 4-43. Numeric Equivalent of Display Items (continued)
Number
Item
Pen *
Designation
Definition
244
Menu Label
1
The color of the labels appearing at the top of each of the
menu boxes.
245
Data Back
0
The background color of the data entry area of the menu boxes,
upon which the data are displayed. This color is superimposed
upon the background color.
246
Menu Data
3
The color of the data appearing in the data entry area of the
menu boxes.
247
Data Low
0
The alternate color of the labels appearing in the menu boxes.
For example:
When the menu label for a toggled function such as Channel
"Off/On" is changed from "Off" to "On," the color of the "On
area of the label is set using Menu Label; the "Off" area is set
using Data Low.
248
Help Box
1
The box drawn around help messages.
249
Text
1
The color of the Parameter Field above the graph.
* Pen assignment applies only to plotting output.
Note
For item numbers not listed in Table 4-43, see the previous discussion of coloring
conventions.
This concludes the discussion of the function keys that control Model 4400A/4500A
operation. You will quickly become familiar with most of their characteristics
through continued use. For the less-frequently used keys, consult the appropriate
sections of this manual to avoid measurement errors or loss of valuable data.
Operation
4-87
4.19 Automatic Operation
The Model 4400A/4500A can make many automatic measurements for the operator.
The instrument makes different measurements depending on the operating mode.
Pressing the TEXT system key will display all of the available automatic
measurements.
When in the pulse power (Pwr ➮) mode the instrument can make the following list of
measurements on channels 1 and 2. Note that if an external trigger signal is being
displayed, only the time measurements are valid. A sample display is illustrated in
Figure 4-43.
Pulse width
Risetime
Falltime
Period
Pulse repetition frequency
Duty cycle
Offtime
Peak power
Pulse power
Overshoot
Average power
Top amplitude
Bottom amplitude
Delay between CH 1 and CH 2
The information displayed in the text report is based on the data captured in the graph
mode. Parameters such as pulse width, period, and repetition frequency, can only be
displayed if there are a sufficient number of pulse transitions on the display. For
pulse width, there must be at least two pulse transitions; for pulse period and
repetition frequency there must be three. If there are an insufficient number of
transitions to determine one of these parameters, the display will show “--.-” instead
of a numeric value. Rise and fall times are most accurately measured when the
instrument’s timebase is set so that each transition takes at least one full display
division.
Figure 4-43. Text Mode
Display
4-88
Operation
When in the statistical (Stat ➮) mode the Model 4500A will measure eleven
parameters for channels 1 and 2 and report four global configuration parameters.
A sample display is illustrated in Figure 4-44.
Peak Power
Average Power
Peak to Average Power
Dynamic Range
Minimum Power
Total Time
Total Points
Tolerance
Confidence Band
Marker 1 & 2 Position Reading and Delta
Reference 1 & 2 Position Reading and Delta
When the readings are invalid the numeric display will be filled with dashes “--.-”.
Over range will be indicated by up arrows "∧" and under range by underlines "_ _ _ ".
All of these values are available over the IEEE-488 bus.
Figure 4-44.
Text Mode Display
(when in Stat ➮ mode)
Operation
4-89
4.20 Advanced Procedures
This section presents fundamental operating procedures for the Model 4400A/4500A.
These procedures enable you to perform all the routine measurements available in the
Local mode. Section 5 Remote Operation covers the commands and procedures
used to operate the instrument remotely via the IEEE-488 bus. Section 6 Application
Notes provides general information on power measurements, automatic measurement
techniques, and error calculations. Section 7 Maintenance covers software upgrades,
calibration and performance verification. Appendix B Plotter Operation instructs
you on the connection, setup, and operation of hardcopy output devices.
4-90
Operation
5
Remote Operation
All of the Model 4400A/4500A front panel operations, except ON/SBY, can be
remotely controlled using an IEEE-488 interface controller. IEEE-488 is a
hardware standard for the communication and handshaking across an 8-bit
parallel bus connecting a controller and up to fifteen instruments.
This section presents procedures for setting up remote operations and describes
the Listen and Talk mode functions.
5.1 Setup for Remote Operation
Table 5-1 lists the procedures you follow to set up the instrument for remote
operation. Refer to Figure 4-28 and Table 4-22.
Table 5-1. Setup for Remote Operation
Function
Procedure
Setting the Bus Address
Press Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > to set the IEEE-488 bus address (MLTA).
The current bus address will be displayed in the Address window. Use the data
entry controls to enter the desired address, which may be any number from 0 to
30, inclusive. A secondary address is not implemented.
Setting the End-of- String
Character
To set the IEEE-488 end-of-string characters, press the Util > IEEE-488 > Bus
Setup > menu key. The current end-of-string characters for the Listen and Talk
modes will be displayed in the Listen Term and Talk Term entry windows,
respectively. Press the menu key corresponding to the mode(s) you wish to
change and use the data entry controls to specify the terminating character.
The terminating characters are independently settable for the Listen and Talk
strings. The instrument always responds to EOI when listening on the bus, and
will activate the EOI line when the EOI on Talk function is enabled, as explained
in Table 4-22.
Entering the Remote
Mode
The instrument is put in the remote mode by addressing it as a listener, with the
remote enable (REN) bus signal true. In the remote state, the front panel
controls are disabled, except for the ESC/LOCAL key; on the rear panel, the
Power ON/OFF switch remains active. When the instrument becomes remote
over bus it automatically returns to the top level menu. The REM status
annunciator is illuminated.
Returning to Local Mode
To return to the local mode press the ESC/LOCAL function key. The
instrument will also return to local if the Go-to-Local (GTL) bus command is
sent by the controller, or the remote enable (REN) line is set false.
Remote Operation
5-1
Note
The instrument should be placed in the remote mode before commands are sent
on the IEEE-488 bus.
5.2 Listen Mode
Program Function
Each front panel key is assigned a program mnemonic. For bus operation, functions
that appear as toggles on the local control menus are separated into individual
commands. Other program mnemonics are used for functions that apply only to
remote operation. Table 5-2 lists all the Listen mode (bus) mnemonics.
Note that some of these mnemonics are supported only by the Model 4500A. If a
mnemonic indicates Pwr ➮ or has no mode notation, it is supported by both the
Model 4400A and Model 4500A. If the mnemonic function pertains only to statistical
mode or has only the Stat ➮ notation, it is not supported by the Model 4400A.
Number Formatting
Data String Format
5-2
The number formatting rules are:
a.
Either fixed or floating formats are accepted.
b.
The optional “+” or “-” sign may precede the mantissa and/or the
exponent.
c.
The optional radix point may appear at any position within the
mantissa. A radix point in the exponent is ignored.
d.
The optional “E” for exponent may be upper or lower case.
e.
The ASCII character “;” (3Bh) is considered the command delimiter.
The ASCII characters “ ” (20h) and “,” (2Ch) are considered
numeric delimiters.
The data string formats conform to the following:
a.
The programming sequence is in natural order; that is, a function
mnemonic is sent first followed by the argument, if appropriate.
b.
A primary function mnemonic sent without a following argument will
make the specified function active.
c.
The data string may not exceed 2000 characters and may be terminated
with LF, CR, and/or EOI.
d.
Interpretation of the data string does not begin until the end-of-string
character is received.
e.
All commands transmitted over the bus must be separated by a
delimiter. Valid delimiters are a blank space, comma (,), semicolon
(;), or colon (:).
Remote Operation
Data String Errors
Errors are detected during interpretation. The occurrence of an error will display the error
code if the display is enabled, and will set SRQ true if SRQ is enabled. The error and SRQ
can be cleared by a serial poll, a status request (MTS), or a “clear” error instruction (*CLR).
No new input can be processed until an existing error is cleared.
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
A*B
---
[Pwr ➮ CH Math > Expression > Operator : A*B]
When in the linear mode, this command will cause the channel assigned to argument A
to be multiplied by the channel assigned to argument B.
A+B
---
[Pwr ➮ CH Math > Expression > Operator : + ]
When in the log mode, this command places the math channel into the sum mode,
adding the arguments A + B. The source of arguments A and B can be set to CH 1,
CH 2, Ref 1, or Ref 2, as required.
A-B
---
[CH Math > Expression > Operator : - ]
When in the log mode, this command places the math channel to the subtraction mode,
subtracting arguments A - B. The source of argument A and B can be set to CH 1,
CH 2, Ref 1, or Ref 2 as required.
A/B
---
[Pwr ➮ CH Math > Expression > Operator : A/B ]
When in the linear mode, this command will cause the channel assigned to argument A
to be divided by the channel assigned to argument B.
A=CH1
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument A : CH1 ]
Sets the source of the A argument to CH 1 for channel math.
A=CH2
---
[Pwr ➮ CH Math > Expression > Argument A : CH2 ]
Sets the source of the A argument to CH 2 for channel math.
A=REF1
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument A : Ref1 ]
Sets the source of the A argument to Ref 1 for channel math.
A=REF2
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument A : Ref2 ]
Sets the source of the A argument to Ref 2 for channel math.
AUTOCAL
---
[Chan # > Calibration > Autocal ]
The sensor of the current selected channel must be connected to the internal calibrator
or an error will occur. The AutoCal generates new calibration data for both the CW
and the pulse power measurements. Error status should always be checked after
AutoCal to verify successful calibration.
AUTOSET
---
[Pwr ➮ > Auto-setup: START]
Auto setup is perfromed by the instrument to select a vertical scale, vertical offset, timebase,
trigger level and trigger holdoff from channel 1 and 2.
AVG
###
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Averaging : ### ]
(1 to 10000) sample length
Averages the specified number of samples for each measurement of the currently
selected channel, either CH 1 or CH 2.
Remote Operation
5-3
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
5-4
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
AVERAGE
###
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Averaging : ### ]
(1 to 10000) sample length
Equivalent to the AVG command. Averaging is applied to each measurement
on the currently selected channel, either CH 1 or CH 2.
B=CH1
---
[Pwr ➮ CH Math > Expression > Argument B : CH1 ]
Sets the source of the B argument to CH 1 for channel math.
B=CH2
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument B : CH2 ]
Sets the source of the B argument to CH 2 for channel math.
B=REF1
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument B : Ref1 ]
Sets the source of the B argument to Ref 1 for channel math.
B=REF2
---
[CH Math > Expression > Argument B : Ref2 ]
Sets the source of the B argument to Ref 2 for channel math.
BLUE
###
[Disp > Format > Set Colors > Blue : ### ]
(0 to 255)
Sets the intensity of the blue component of the display; affects the color and
brightness of the selected color item. See COLOR.
BOTWIND
---
[Mark > Window : Bottom ]
Sets the markers to the bottom window in the split display.
BWLOW
---
[Chan # > Extensions > Video BW : Low ]
Places the sensor on the currently selected channel into the low bandwidth mode.
Affects the currently selected channel.
BWHIGH
---
[Chan # > Extensions > Video BW : High ]
Places the sensor into the high bandwidth mode. Affects the currently selected
channel.
CAL10%
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Duty Cycle : 10% ]
Sets the duty cycle of the calibrator to 10%.
CAL20%
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Duty Cycle : 20% ]
Sets the duty cycle of the calibrator to 20%.
CAL30%
--
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Duty Cycle : 30% ]
Sets the duty cycle of the calibrator to 30%.
CAL40%
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Duty Cycle : 40% ]
Sets the duty cycle of the calibrator to 40%.
CAL50%
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Duty Cycle : 50% ]
Sets the duty cycle of the calibrator to 50%.
CAL1MS
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Pulse Period : 1ms ]
Sets the pulse period of the calibrator to 1 ms.
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
CAL10MS
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Pulse Period : 10ms ]
Sets the pulse period of the calibrator to 10 ms.
CAL100US
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Pulse Period : 100 µs ]
Sets the pulse period of the calibrator to 100 µs.
CALCW
---
[Spcl > Cal > Cal Mode : CW ]
Sets the calibrator to CW output.
CALEDGE + ---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Polarity : + ]
When the calibrator edge is assigned to the positive edge, the calibrator is in the pulse
mode and the calibrator output will follow the internal or external trigger signal.
CALEDGE - ---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Polarity : - ]
When the calibrator edge is assigned to the negative edge, the calibrator is in the pulse
mode and the calibrator output will be inverted from the internal or external trigger
signal.
CALEXT
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Source : Ext ]
Sets the source for generating the calibrator output pulse to external.
CALINT
---
[Spcl > Cal > Pulse > Source : Int ]
Sets the source for generating the calibrator output pulse to internal.
CALLEVEL ###
[Spcl > Cal > Set Level : ### ]
(-40 to +20) dBm in .1 dBm steps
Sets the calibrator output level.
CALLIMIT
###
[Spcl > Cal > Max Power : ### ]
(-40 to +20) dBm in .1 dBm steps
Sets the maximum power level for the calibrator output.
CALON
---
[Spcl > Cal > Cal Output : ON ]
Sets the calibrator output ON.
CALOFF
---
[Spcl > Cal > Cal Output : OFF ]
Sets the calibrator output OFF.
CALPULSE ---
[Spcl > Cal > Cal Mode : Pulse ]
Sets the calibrator to the pulse output mode.
CALSTEP
###
[Spcl > Cal > Extensions > Level Step: ###] (0.1 to 60 dBm in .1 dBm steps)
This function sets the size of the power steps used for the knob and arrow keys when
setting the Cal Level.
CFDB
###
[Chan # > Extensions > CF in dB : ### ]
(-3.00 to +3.00) Cal factor in DB
Enter correction factor in dB. Affects currently selected channel.
CH1
---
[Chan # > Select : CH 1 ]
Selects channel 1 as the channel that all following commands affect.
Remote Operation
5-5
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
5-6
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
CH1 - CH2
---
[CH Math > Expression : CH 1 - CH 2 ]
Selects CH1 minus CH2.
CH2
---
[Chan # > Select : CH 2 ]
Selects channel 2 as the channel that all following commands affect.
CH2 - CH1
---
[CH Math > Expression : CH 2 - CH 1 ]
Selects CH 2 minus CH 1.
CHM
---
[Chan # > Select CH : Math ]
Select the Math Channel as the channel that all following commands affect.
CHON
---
[Chan # > Channel : ON ]
Enables the currently selected channel allowing measurements to be made.
CHOFF
---
[Chan # > Channel : OFF ]
Disables the currently selected channel. Related to CHON.
CLRSCR
---
[ > Display : Clear ]
Clears all measurement data out of internal buffers and the display on both
measurement channels. Used on stopped channels or to clear data out of long
averaging conditions; does not clear errors. See *CLS.
COLOR
###
[Disp > Format > Set Colors > Item Color : ### ]
(0 to 255)
Selects the item number that the color changes will affect. Each item is a trace, a
menu, a block, or text which are differentiated by color on the display. See Table
4-44 Numerical Equivalency of Display Items.
CON80%
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Confidence Band: 80%]
This command sets the confidence band to 80%. This confidence band is used to
calculate the statistical tolerance of the readings based on the number of samples
captured.
CON85%
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Confidence Band: 85%]
This command sets the confidence band to 85%. See CON80% function description.
CON90%
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Confidence Band: 90%]
This command sets the confidence band to 90%. See CON80% function description.
CON95%
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Confidence Band: 95%]
This command sets the confidence band to 95%. See CON80% function description.
CON99%
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Confidence Band: 99%]
This command sets the confidence band to 99%. See CON80% function description.
CWON
---
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Measure Mode : CW ]
Sets the instrument to CW measurement mode.
CWOFF
---
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Measure Mode : Pulse]
Sets the instruments to the pulse mode.
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
DAY
###
[Util > Clock > Day of Month : ### ]
(1 to 31)
Enters new day of the month for the real time clock.
DISTAL
###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Define Pulse > Distal : ### ]
(1 to 99) Percent, in 0.01% increments.
Sets the distal parameter for the risetime calculation.
DSPWR
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Display : Pwr ]
Changes the waveform display mode to display the power channel instead of the
external trigger channel.
DSTRIG
[Pwr ➮ Chan # > Extensions > Display : Trig ]
Changes the waveform display mode to display the external trigger channel instead of
the power channel.
ESC
---
[ESC Key ]
Returns the display to the top level menu.
When instrument becomes remote over bus, it automatically returns to the top level
menu.
FILENO
---
[Used in all file select menus]
FILE Number - Filename select - the suffix to the filename B4400A## (B4500A## for
Model 4500A). Range 0 to 99. Used for storing and recalled data to and from the disk.
FIXCAL
---
[Chan # > Calibration > Fixed Cal : Start ]
Performs a single point calibration to an external source at 0 dBm. This enables
traceability improvement by using a better specified source at frequencies as low as 30
MHz. It uses the currently selected frequency for correction data.
FREQ
###
[Meas > Freq CH# : ###]
(0 to 40 GHz)
Sets the operating frequency for the selected channel. Note the frequency entered
must be in Hertz, but will be rounded to the nearest .01 GHz for use in sensor
frequency correction. Use scientific notation to maintain an acceptable number of
digits. The acceptable range of frequencies is sensor dependent. Entering a frequency
of 0 will cancel sensor frequency correction factors. Ex: FREQ 18.3E9 sets the
channel’s frequency to 18.3 GHz.
FREQBOTH ---
[Meas > Freq Group : Both ]
Select the frequency entry mode where both channels are assigned to the same
frequency.
FREQEACH ---
[Meas > Freq Group : Each ]
Select the frequency entry mode where each channel can be assigned to an independent
frequency. The individual frequency assignments for the each assignments are
independent of the frequency assignment in the frequency both mode.
FREQCH1
###
[Meas > Freq CH1 : ### ]
Set the frequency of operation of channel 1 in the frequency each mode or both
channels in the frequency both mode. See FREQ function description.
FREQCH2
###
[ Meas > Freq CH2 : ### ]
Set the frequency of operation of channel 2 in the frequency each mode or both
channels in the frequency both mode. See FREQ function description.
Remote Operation
5-7
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
5-8
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
G&TOFF
---
[Util > Plotter > Graph & Text : Off ]
Select the printer output to record the current screen image.
G&TON
---
[Util > Plotter > Graph & Text : On ]
Select the printer output to record the graph screen and the text screen on one page.
GRAPH
---
[ TEXT/GRAPH Key ]
Places the display into the graphics mode if the display is in either the automatic
measurement (Text) or Help mode.
GREEN
###
[Disp > Format > Set Colors > Green : ### ]
(0 to 255)
Sets the intensity of the green component of the display; affects the color and
brightness of the selected color item. See COLOR.
GRID
---
[Disp > Format > Grid Type : Grid ]
Sets the display to box, with grid and no crosshairs.
GRIDCH
---
[Disp > Format > Grid Type : Crosshair ]
Sets the display to box, crosshairs and no grid.
GRIDBOX
---
[Disp > Format > Grid Type : Box ]
Sets the display grid for the box outline.
GRIDGH
---
[Disp > Format > Grid Type : Grid Hash ]
Sets the display to box, with grid and crosshairs.
GRIDHM
---
[Disp > Format > Grid Type : Hash Marks ]
Sets the display for the box with peripheral hash marks.
HDBLANK
---
[Disp > Format > Disp Header : Blank ]
Sets the display header off.
HDDATE
---
[Disp > Format > Disp Header : Time/Date ]
Sets the display header to show the date and time.
HDLOGO
---
[Disp > Format > Disp Header : Logo ]
Sets the display header to show BOONTON logo and current operating mode.
HDTEMP
---
[Disp > Format > Disp Header : Temp ]
Sets the display to show the temperature of the sensors.
HELPON
---
[HELP Key ]
Sets the display to the Help mode.
HELPOFF
---
[HELP Key ]
Disables the Help mode and returns to graphics or text mode.
HOLDOFF
###
[Pwr ➮ Trig > HoldOff : ### ]
(0 to 60000) µs
Set the trigger HoldOff time. This is the time interval after a valid trigger event
during which the instrument rearms the trigger.
HOUR
###
[Util > Clock > Hour : ### ]
(0 to 23)
Change the hour entry of the realtime clock.
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
INSNVRAM ---
[Prgm > Instr Store > Destination: NVRAM] or [Prgm > Instr Recall > Source: NVRAM]
Sets the Instrument setup store and recall destination and source for non-volatile
memory.
INSDISK
---
[Prgm > Instr Store > Destination: DISK] or [Prgm > Instr Recall > Source: DISK]
Sets the Instrument setup store and recall destination and source for disk access.
INSRCL
---
[Prgm > Instr Recall > Instrument Recall]
Instrument recall reads and configures the instrument from a setup file. Note that this
command recalls the setup from a floppy disk file only, even if the INSNVRAM has
been issued. The file sequence number (filename) for the recall operation must be set
with the FILENO command. Note that INSRCL must be the last command issued
before the listen string is terminated. The listen buffer is flushed when the instrument
setup is recalled, and any commands left in the buffer will not be executed.
INSSAV
---
[Prgm > Instr Store > Instrument Store]
Instrument store builds an instrument setup file and saves to disk. Note that this
command stores the setup to a floppy disk file only, even if the INSNVRAM has been
issued. The file sequence number (filename) for the save operation must first be set
with the FILENO command.
LABELOFF ---
[Util > Plotter > Plot Label : Off ---]
Turns the four plot labels on the graph display off.
LABELON
---
[Util > Plotter > Plot Label : On ---]
Turns the four plot labels on the graph display on.
LIN
---
[Disp > Units : Lin --- ]
Changes the display mode placing the measurement markers into linear representation
of the power measured at the marker.
LOCATION ###
[Prgm > Instr Store >Select: ### ] or [Prgm > Instr Recall > Select: ###]
Sets the location for storing and recalling the instrument setup to and from NVRAM. If saving
to or recalling from the floppy disk, see the FILENO command.
LOG
---
[Disp > Units : Log ]
Sets the measurement markers into logarithmic representation of the power measured at
the marker.
M% 1
---
[Stat ➮ Mark > % Mark 1 : ###]
When the instrument is in Stat Mode, this command sets marker 1 to a location on the
X-axis. The X-axis marker units are shown in percent. The range of values is 0 to
100% with two decimal places of resolution.
Markers are limited to screen extents. Marker values outside screen extents are limited
to screen extents. However, the TKMKT command can be used to read the actual
marker positions.
M% 2
---
[Stat ➮ Mark > % Mark 2 : ###]
When the instrument is in Stat Mode, this command sets marker 2 to a location on the
X-axis. The X-axis marker units are shown in percent. The range of values is 0 to
100% with two decimal places of resolution.
Markers are limited to screen extents. Marker values outside screen extents are limited
to screen extents. However, the TKMKT command can be used to read the actual
marker positions.
Remote Operation
5-9
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
MAX-MIN
Arg
---
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Mk Math : Max-Min ]
Function
Assign the marker mode to Max-Min for the center marker window in the marker ratio
mode. In addition, the left marker window is assigned to the minimum power when in
the both marker mode. The right marker window is assigned to the maximum power
when in the both marker mode.
MIN-MAX
---
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Mk Math : Min-Max ]
Assign the marker mode to Min-Max for the center marker window in the marker ratio
mode. In addition, the left marker window is assigned to the minimum power when in
the both marker mode. The right marker window is assigned to the maximum power
when in the both marker mode.
MESIAL
###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Mesial : ### ]
(1 to 99) percent in 0.01% increments
Sets the mesial parameter for the risetime calculation.
MINUTE
###
[Util > Clock > Minute : ### ]
(0 to 59)
Changes the minutes entry of the realtime clock and resets seconds to :00.
MK2 - MK1
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Mk Math : Mk 2 - Mk 1 ]
Selects the expression used in power ratio measurements.
MK1 - MK2
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Mk Math : Mk 1 - Mk 2 ]
Selects the expression used in power ratio measurements.
MK1CH1
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 1 CH : CH 1 ]
Sets marker 1 to read from channel 1.
MK1CH2
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 1 CH : CH 2 ]
Sets marker 1 to read from channel 2.
MK1CHM
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 1 CH : CH Math ]
Sets marker 1 to read from channel math.
MK1REF1
---
[Mark > Extensions > MK1 CH: Ref 1]
Sets marker 1 to read from reference channel 1.
MK1REF2
---
[Mark > Extensions > MK1 CH: Ref 2]
Sets marker 1 to read from reference channel 2.
MK2CH1
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 2 CH : CH 1 ]
Sets marker 2 to read from channel 1.
MK2CH2
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 2 CH : CH 2 ]
Sets marker 2 to read from channel 2.
MK2CHM
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk 2 CH : CH Math ]
Sets marker 2 to read from channel math.
MK2REF1
---
[Mark > Extensions > MK1 CH: Ref 1]
Sets marker 2 to read from reference channel 1.
MK2REF2
---
[Mark > Extensions > MK1 CH: Ref 2]
Sets marker 2 to read from reference channel 2.
5-10
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
MKAVG
---
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Delta Marker : Avg ]
Sets the delta marker mode to read the average power between markers in the center
window and talk it over the bus.
MKBOTH
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk Group : Both ]
Assigns a marker to a source.
MKCENTER ---
[Mark > Set Vrt Cntr : Center ]
Changes the vertical center (log mode) or the vertical offset (linear mode) to the value
where the active marker crosses the waveform. The command functions even if the
waveform is off the screen. Does not function in Stat Mode when PDF is selected.
MKEACH
---
[Mark > Extensions > Mk Group : Each ]
Assigns a marker to a source.
MKRATIO
---
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Delta Marker : Ratio ]
Sets the delta marker mode to display in the center marker window the ratio between
the powers at Markers 1 and 2. The ratio is talked over the bus in Talk Measure mode
(See TKMEAS mnemonic in Table 5-3).
MMPWR
---
Same as MMPOWER
MMPOWER ---
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Define Pulse > Meas Mode: Pwr]
The measurement mode power sets the pulse definitions to work in percent of power.
This affects the distal, mesial, and proximal points. These are used by the instrument
to determine the automatic measurements.
MMVOLTS
---
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Define Pulse > Meas Mode: Volts]
The measurement mode volts sets the pulse definitions to work in percent of voltage.
This affects the distal, mesial, and proximal points. These are used by the instrument
to determine the automatic measurements. The default mode is power and all
specifications and references to automatic measurements are in terms of power unless
specifically indicated to be in voltage.
MONTH
###
[Util > Clock > Month : ### ]
(1 to 12)
Change the month entry for the realtime clock.
MP1
###
[Mark > Time Mark 1 : ### ]
(0 to 500)
Marker 1 position in pixels for currently selected window.
MP2
###
[Mark > Time Mark 2 : ### ]
(0 to 500)
Marker 2 position in pixels for currently selected window.
MT1
###
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Time Mark 1 : ### ]
Display time range.
Time in seconds relative to trigger event. Markers are forced to be within the screen
limits. If time entered is out of screen limits, the marker will appear in the first or last
screen position.
Example:
10.1 µs would be sent as “MT1 10.1E-06.”
Remote Operation
5-11
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
MT2
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
###
[Pwr ➮ Mark > Time Mark 2 : ### ]
Display time range.
Time in seconds relative to trigger event. Markers are forced to be within the screen
limits. If time entered is out of screen limits, the marker will appear in the first or last
screen position.
NEWCOLOR ---
[Disp > Format > Set Color > Init Colors : INIT ]
Initializes the display colors to the factory defaults. This is equivalent to the front
panel command "Init Colors" under display menu.
OFFSET
###
[Chan # > Extensions > dB Offset : ### ]
(-99.99 to 99.99) dB in .01 dB steps
Enter a correction factor in dB. Used to compensate for attenuators or amplifiers.
Affects the currently selected channel.
PARAMBL
###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Bottom Left ###]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
bottom left parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set
to measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel. (See Table 4-19)
PARAMBM ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Bottom Middle ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
bottom middle parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be
set to measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
PARAMBR
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Bottom Right ###]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
bottom right parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be
set to measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
###
PARAMML ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Middle Left ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
middle left parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set
to measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
PARAMMM ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Middle ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
middle parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set to
measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the measurement
is selected from the currently active channel.
PARAMMR ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Middle Right ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the
middle right parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be
set to measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the
measurement is selected from the currently active channel.
5-12
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4500 Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Top Left ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the top
left parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set to
measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the measurement
is selected from the currently active channel.
PARAMTM ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Top Middle###- ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the top
middle parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set to
measure to display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the measurement
is selected from the currently active channel.
PARAMTR
###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas : Top Right ### ]
The number entered assigns the automatic measurement which is displayed in the top right
parameter field in the graph mode. The parameter display mode must be set to measure to
display the automatic measurements. The channel used for the measurement is selected from
the currently active channel.
PERSOFF
---
[Display > Persistence: Off]
This command turns the display persistence off.
PERSON
---
[Display > Persistence: On]
This command turns the display persistence on for Channel 1, Channel 2, and the Math
Channel, and forces the trace type for these channels to dots. The command is only
valid when the measurement mode is pulse power. In this mode the instrument will
only draw waveform data to the screen and never erase it. To erase data send the
CLRSCR command. There are commands which will clear the screen as part of their
operation, these include display, timebase and trigger related commands. Persistence is
a display only representation, this data can only be output to a printer. Plotters that use
HPGL will not record the persistence data.
PK/AVG
---
[ Pwr ➮ Mark > Extensions > Mk Math : Pk/Avg ]
Sets the marker mode to display peak to average power between markers. This
function only operates when the markers are set to BOTH and the timebase is 5ms/div
and faster. The three marker windows will display the peak, long-term average and
peak-to-average power ratios between the markers. These values may be reset by
using the CLRSCR command. Pixel averaging is automatically set to 1, and the
channel averaging parameter is used to determine the number of screens to process for
calculating long term average.
PKINGOFF
---
[Pwr ➮ Spcl > Peaking Mode : Off ]
Turn the measurement peaking mode off.
PKINGON
---
Pwr ➮ Spcl > Peaking Mode : On ]
Turn the measurement peaking mode on.
PLABEL1
---
"String" Bus Only
The PLABEL1 command enters a string of up to 19 characters into the first plot label
field. This field can be displayed in the graph mode by turning on the plotter label
mode. The string should start and end with the double quotation character (").
Example:
PLABEL1 "HELLO"
This will display the message HELLO in the first plot label field if enabled under the
Util > Plotter > Plot Label On.
PARAMTL
Remote Operation
5-13
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
PLABEL2
---
"String" Bus Only
The PLABEL2 command enters a string of up to 19 characters into the second plot
label field. This field can be displayed in the graph mode by turning on the plotter
label mode. The string should start and end with the double quotation character (").
PLABEL3
---
"String" Bus Only
The PLABEL3 command enters a string of up to 19 characters into the third plot label field.
This field can be displayed in the graph mode by turning on the plotter label mode. The
string should start and end with the double quotation character (").
PLABEL4
---
"String" Bus Only
The PLABEL4 command enters a string of up to 19 characters into the fourth plot label field.
This field can be displayed in the graph mode by turning on the plotter label mode. The
string should start and end with the double quotation character (").
PLOT
---
[ PLOT Key ]
Creates a plotter output from the display buffer and transmits the output via
the selected output port to the assigned device.
PLOTDISK
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Output Port: DISK]
Redirects the plotter or printer output data to a file on disk. The PLOT command is
required to start the process.
PLOT488
---
[Util >Hardcopy > Output Port : IEEE-488 ]
The output port for the output device is IEEE-488. Device must be only device on bus.
PLOTLPT1
---
[ Util > Hardcopy > Output Port : LPT1 ]
The output port for the printer or plotter is assigned to the parallel port (LPT1).
PLOTSER1
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Output Port : COM 1 ]
The output port for the printer or plotter is assigned to the serial port 1.
PLOTCOM1 ---
[ Util > Hardcopy > Output Port : COM1 ]
The output port for the printer or plotter is assigned to serial port 1 (COM1).
PLOTTER
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Device: Plotter ]
The output device of plotter is selected. This function selects an HPGL vector
compatible drawing device.
PLOT7470
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Model : 7470 ]
The 7470 plotter is assigned as the active plotter device. This command will only
affect the plotter type and will have no effect on printers.
PLOT7475
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Model : 7475 ]
The 7475 plotter is assigned as the active plotter device. This command will only
affect the plotter type and will have no effect on printers.
PLOTF310
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Model : F310 ]
The F310 plotter is assigned as the active plotter device. This command will only
affect the plotter type and will have no effect on printers.
PLOTHPGL ---
5-14
[Util > Hardcopy > Model : HPGL ]
The HPGL plotter is assigned as the active plotter device. This command will only
affect the plotter type and will have no effect on printers.
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
PLOTTJET
---
[Util >Hardcopy > Model : ThinkJet ]
The ThinkJet printer is assigned as the active printer device. This command will only
affect the printer type and will have no effect on plotters.
PLOTLJET
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Model : LaserJet ]
The LaserJet printer is assigned as the active printer device. This command will only
affect the printer type and will have no effect on plotters.
PMEAS
---
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas > Param Mode : Meas ]
The parameter fields in the graph mode will display the automatic measurements
assigned to each of the nine fields.
POWER
---
[> Measure Mode: Power ]
This command switches the instrument to the power measurement mode. This mode
affects the instrument’s fundamental measuring operation and the menu structure.
When in this mode, the instrument can make CW and triggered peak power
measurements.
PRINTER
---
[Util > Hardcopy > Device: Printer ]
The output device of printer is selected. This function selects a bit-mapped screen
dump printing device.
PROXIMAL ###
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Proximal : ### ]
(1 to 99) percent in 0.01% increments.
Sets the proximal parameter for the risetime calculation.
PSTAT
---
[Pwr ➮ Meas > Param Meas > Param Mode : Stat ]
The parameter fields in the graph mode will display the status of the selected channel.
RED
###
[Disp > Format > Set Colors > Red : ### ]
(0 to 255)
Sets the intensity of the red component of the display; affects the color and brightness
of the selected color item. See COLOR.
REFCH1
---
Combines the keyboard commands:
[Prgm > Ref Save > Source : CH 1 ] and
[Prgm > Ref Save > Waveform : Store ]
Makes CH 1 the source for the currently selected reference waveform channel; then
stores the waveform from CH 1 into the currently selected reference channel.
REFCH2
---
Combines the keyboard commands:
[Pwr ➮ Prgm > Ref Save > Source : CH 2 ] and
[Pwr ➮ Prgm > Ref Save > Waveform : Store ]
Makes CH 2 the source for the currently selected reference waveform channel; then
stores the waveform from CH 2 into the currently selected reference channel.
REFCHM
---
Combines the keyboard commands:
[Prgm > Ref Save > Source : CH Math ] and
[Prgm > Ref Save > Waveform : Store ]
Makes CHM the source for the currently selected reference waveform channel. The
command then stores the waveform from CHM into the currently selected reference
channel.
Remote Operation
5-15
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
REF1
---
[Chan > Select : Ref 1 ]
Selects the reference channel that all following commands affect. See REFCH1,
REFCH2, and REFCHM.
REF2
---
[Chan > Select : Ref 2 ]
Selects the reference channel that all following commands affect. See REFCH1,
REFCH2, and REFCHM.
REFSAV
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Waveform: Store]
Reference save moves a waveform from a measurement channel specified by the
reference save source to the reference channel save destination.
RL1
###
[REF > REF Line 1: ###]
This is the level at which the horizontal reference line 1 will be set.
RL2
###
[ REF > REF Line 2: ###]
This is the level at which the horizontal reference line 2 will be set.
RLOFF
---
[REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel : Off]
This turns the reference lines off.
RLCH1
---
[REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel : CH1]
This assigns the reference lines to channel 1. This is important because each channel
can have a different vertical scale and offset which affects the position of the reference
lines on the screen.
RLCH2
---
[Pwr ➮ REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel : CH2]
This assigns the reference lines to channel 2. This is important because each channel
can have a different vertical scale and offset which affects the position of the reference
lines on the screen.
RLCHM
---
[REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel : CHM]
This assigns the reference lines to channel Math. This is important because each
channel can have a different vertical scale and offset which affects the position of the
reference lines on the screen.
RLREF1
---
[REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel: Ref 1]
Sets both reference lines to reference 1 channel.
RLREF2
---
[REF > Extensions > REF CH Sel: Ref 2]
Sets both reference lines to reference 2 channel.
RLSTOMKS ---
[Ref > Refs to Mks : Set]
Set the reference line to current marker positions. This function will update the
reference lines with the value being displayed for marker 1 and marker 2. Marker 1 is
loaded into reference 1 and marker 2 is loaded into reference 2. If the markers are on
different channels or the markers are in the Min-Max mode the displayed values will
be used.
RLTD&M
[Pwr ➮ REF > Extensions > REF Track : Dist-Mesial]
This enables the reference line tracking of the distal and mesial levels of the assigned
channel. The levels are displayed in the REF CH Sel menu. The distal amplitude is
assigned to reference line 1 and the mesial amplitude is assigned to reference line 2.
5-16
---
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
RLTD&P
---
[Pwr ➮ REF > Extensions > REF Track : Dist-Proximal]
This enables the reference line tracking of the distal and proximal levels of the
assigned channel. The levels are displayed in the REF Line # menu. The distal
amplitude is assigned to reference line 1 and the proximal amplitude is assigned to
reference line 2.
RLTT&B
---
[Pwr ➮ REF > Extensions > REF Track : Top-Bottom]
This enables the reference line tracking of the top and bottom amplitudes of the
assigned channel. The levels are displayed in the REF Liine # menu and automatic
measurements. The top amplitude is assigned to reference line 1 and the bottom
amplitude is assigned to reference line 2.
RLTMKR
---
[Pwr ➮ REF > Extensions > REF Track : Markers]
This enables the reference line tracking of the markers of the assigned channel. The
levels are displayed in the REF Line # menu and automatic measurements. This forms
a cross-hair cursor at the intersection of the waveform and the markers. Marker 1 is
assigned to reference line 1 and marker 2 is assigned to reference line 2.
RLTOFF
---
[REF > Extensions > REF Track : Off]
This disables the reference line tracking.
RSDREF1
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Destination: Ref 1]
Reference save destination selects reference 1 as the channel where the next REFSAV
command will save the source measurement channel.
RSDREF2
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Destination: Ref 2]
Reference save destination selects reference 2 as the channel where the next REFSAV
command will save the source measurement channel.
RSSCH1
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Source: CH1]
Reference save source selects channel 1 as the source for the REFSAV command.
RSSCH2
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Source: CH2]
Reference save source selects channel 2 as the source for the REFSAV command.
RSSCHM
---
[Prgm > Ref Save > Source: CHM]
Reference save source selects channel math as the source for the REFSAV command.
RUN
---
[ > Measurement : Run ]
Puts the instrument into the measurement running mode to capture new data.
SCRFULL
---
[Disp > Screen : Full ]
In the graph mode only one waveform display is active at full vertical resolution of
281 pixels.
SCRSPLIT
---
[Disp > Screen : Split ]
In the graph mode two waveform displays are active, each at one-half the vertical
resolution of 141 pixels each.
SINGLE
---
[Pwr ➮ > Measurement : Single ]
Initiates the capture of new data related to one trigger event in Stop mode.
Remote Operation
5-17
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
STAT
---
[ > Measurement Mode : Stat ]
Stat is an abbreviation for statistical mode. This command changes the instrument’s
measurement mode to continuous sampling. When the instrument is in Stat mode, the
measurement talk modes format changes. See Talk Mode Table 5-3. This command is
only available on the Model 4500A; it is not supported by the Model 4400A.
STOP
---
[ > Measurement : Stop ]
Stops data capture and hold the last set of data. Measurements based on this data set
may be made in Stop mode.
TEXT
---
[Text/Graphics ]
Places the display into the automatic measurement mode.
TIMEBASE ###
[Pwr ➮ Time > Timebase : ### ]
(1 ns to 1s ) in secs.
Set time per division.
TOPWIND
---
[Mark > Window : Top ]
Sets the markers to the top window in the split display.
TRAUTO
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Mode : Auto ]
Selects the automatic trigger mode.
TRCH1INT
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Source : INT CH1 ]
Selects the CH 1 internal trigger source.
TRCH2INT
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Source : INT CH2 ]
Selects the CH2 internal trigger source.
TRCH1EXT ---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Source : EXT CH1 ]
Selects the CH1 external trigger source.
TRCH2EXT ---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Source : EXT CH2 ]
Selects the CH 2 external trigger source.
TRCENTER ---
[Pwr ➮ Time > Position : M ]
Set the trigger position to the center of the display.
TRDELAY
###
[Pwr ➮ Time > Trig Delay : ### ]
(Variable based on timebase units in seconds.)
Sets the time delay offset for the capture of data relative to the trigger event.
TREDGE+
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Slope : + ]
Sets the trigger slope to the positive-going edge of the pulse signal.
TREDGE-
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Slope : - ]
Sets the trigger slope to the negative-going edge of the pulse signal.
TRLEFT
---
[Pwr ➮ Time > Position : L ]
Sets the trigger position to the left side of the display.
5-18
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
TRLEVEL
###
TRLVL
###
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Level : ### ]
(-39.99 to +20) dBm in .01 dBm steps for Internal Trigger.
(-3 to +3) volts in .01 volt steps for External Trigger.
Sets the trigger level. The range depends on whether the trigger source is internal or
external. The range and entry value are affected by dB Offset and CF in dB for the
selected internal trigger channel.
TRNORM
---
[Pwr ➮ Trig > Trig Mode : Auto ]
Selects the normal trigger mode.
TRRIGHT
---
[Pwr ➮ Time > Position : R ]
Sets the trigger position to the right edge of the display.
TTDOT
---
[Disp > Format > Trace Type : Points ]
Sets trace type to point representation. Affects currently selected channel.
TTLINE
---
[Disp > Format > Trace Type : Line ]
Sets trace type to line representation. Affects currently selected channel.
TTOFF
---
[Disp > Format > Trace Type : Off ]
Sets trace type to off. Affects currently selected channel. The channel with an off
trace continues to measure, but does not display the resulting trace.
TWBOT
---
[Mark > Window : Bottom ]
Selects the bottom window as the active window in split screen display for the
currently selected channel.
TWTOP
---
[Mark > Window : Top ]
Selects the top window as the active window in split screen display for the currently
selected channel.
VCENTER
###
[Chan # > Vert Center : ### ]
(-99.99 to +99.99) dB in .01 dB steps in log mode.
(0 to 99.99) divisions in .01 division increments in linear mode.
Sets the level for the horizontal centerline of the graph for the currently selected
channel.
VSCALE
###
[Chan # > Vert Scale : ### ]
(0.1 to 20) dB/div for full screen log mode.
(0.2 to 40) dB/div for split screen log mode.
(1.0e-9 to 5.0e7) W/div in full screen linear mode.
(2.0e-9 to 1.0e8) W/div in split screen linear mode.
Sets the vertical sensitivity of the display.
WEEKDAY
###
[Util > Clock > Day of Week : ### ]
This command is maintained for compatibility purposes. It still allows the day of the
week to be read back over the GPIB using the active function talkmode (TKFUNC),
however it may no longer be set, since it is calculated automatically from the date.
Any argument passed to WEEKDAY will be ignored.
(1 = Sun; 7 = Sat)
Remote Operation
Same as TRLVL
5-19
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
WFMRCL
---
[Prgm > WFM Recall > Waveform: Recall]
Waveform recall reads a reference waveform from disk into a reference channel for
display.
WFMSAV
---
[Prgm > WFM Store > Waveform: Store]
Waveform store writes a reference waveform to the disk from a reference channel.
WFRDREF1 ---
[Prgm > WFM Recall > Destination: Ref 1]
Waveform recall destination is set to reference 1.
WFRDREF2 ---
[Prgm > WFM Recall > Destination: Ref 2]
Waveform recall destination is set to reference 2.
WFSSREF1
---
[Prgm > WFM Store > Source: Ref 1]
Waveform storage source is set to reference 1.
WFSSREF2
---
[Prgm > WFM Store > Source: Ref2]
Waveform storage source is set to reference 2.
XAXIS
###
[Stat ➮ Time > X Axis]
The X-Axis command sets the horizontal scale for the Stat Mode waveform display.
This command applies to the CDF, 1-CDF and PDF selections.
XON
---
[Util > Serial > Serial 1 > Handshake : XON ]
Enables character based handshaking for the serial output port.
XOFF
---
[Util > Serial > Serial 1 > Handshake : XOFF ]
Disables character based handshaking for the serial output port.
YEAR
###
[Util > Clock > Year ###]
(1990 to 2089)
Changes the year entry of the realtime clock.
ZERO
---
[Chan # > Calibration > Zeroing : START ---]
Performs CW zeroing on the currently selected channel. The signal applied to the
sensor must be turned off before issuing the zero command. Error status should always
be checked after zeroing to verify successful calibration.
%CDF
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Stat mode: CDF]
[ > Measure Mode : CDF ]
The CDF command will change the waveform display in the stat measurement mode to
CDF. CDF displays the cumulative distribution function plot. See Chapter 6,
Application Notes, for a discussion of Cumulative Distribution Function. This
command is only available on the Model 4500A; it is not supported by the Model
4400A.
%PDF
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Stat mode: PDF]
[ > Measure Mode : PDF ]
The PDF command will change the waveform display in the stat measurement mode to
PDF. PDF displays the probability density function plot. See Chapter 6, Application
Notes, for a discussion of Probability Density Function. This command is only
available on the Model 4500A; it is not supported by the Model 4400A.
5-20
Remote Operation
Table 5-2 Model 4400A/4500A Listen Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
%1-CDF
---
[Stat ➮ Meas > Stat mode: 1-CDF]
[ > Measure Mode : 1-CDF ]
The 1-CDF plots the inversion of the CDF waveform. CDF plot displays the data so
the markers read as the percent of samples that are less than or equal to a power level.
In 1-CDF the markers read as the percent of samples that are greater than a power
level. This command is only available on the Model 4500A; it is not supported by the
Model 4400A.
%OFFSET
###
[Stat ➮ Time > %OFFSET: ###]
Accepts values of 0 to 99% with 1 decimal place of resolution. The value is limited to
valid settings; invalid values are ignored. For example, with an X-axis of 10% per
division, the only valid %OFFSET is 0. This is because the display has 10 horizontal
divisions, and all data is displayed from 0 to 100%.
*CLS
---
[CLR Key ]
The bus clear command clears all errors.
*RCL
---
[ Prgm > Instr Recall > Instrument : RECALL ]
This command recalls a previously saved instrument configuration from NVRAM.
Note that the setup is retrieved from an NVRAM location only, even if the INSDISK
command has been issued. The NVRAM location for the recall operation must first be
set with the LOCATION command. If the NVRAM location is invalid, the recall
operation will not be performed.
*RST
---
Resets all operating selections to their default values (similar to INIT), except the hardware
configuration, operation of the IEEE-488 bus, serial ports, and colors.
*SAV
---
[ Prgm > Instr Store > Instrument : STORE ]
This command stores the current instrument configuration to NVRAM. Note that the
setup is saved to an NVRAM location only, even if the INSDISK command has been
issued. The NVRAM location for the store operation must first be set with the
LOCATION command. If the NVRAM location is invalid, the store operation will
not be performed.
*SRE
###
[Util > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask : ### ]
Enters the mask value for enabling SRQs on the bus. Each bit position represents a
specific event. See Table 5-4.
*TRG
---
[Single ]
Equivalent to the GET line on the bus. This function will generate a trigger condition
that is used by the instrument to capture new data. The instrument must be in the Stop
mode for the command to be effective.
Remote Operation
5-21
5.3 Talk Mode
The instrument may be addressed as a talker without regard for remote/local condition.
When the talker state is set by the bus controller, the instrument sends a character string
which is determined by the current Talk mode. The different Talk modes are selected by
sending the appropriate mnemonic with the instrument addressed as a listener. The selected
mode will remain in effect until changed. Table 5-3 lists the Talk mode (bus) mnemonics.
Note that some of these mnemonics are supported only by the Model 4500A. If a mnemonic
indicates Pwr ➮ or has no mode notation, it is supported by both the Model 4400A and
Model 4500A. If the mnemonic function pertains only to statistical mode or has only the
Stat ➮ notation, it is not supported by the Model 4400A.
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics
Code
Arg
TKAMEAS
--
Pwr ➮
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
Sets the Talk string to report the automatic measurements for the active channel in one string.
The number and format of automatic measurements changes when the instrument is in the
power mode versus the stat mode.
In power mode, the first value is a measurement error flag; any non-zero value is an error
number. Each measurement has a preceding number that is a validity flag. If the flag is “1”
the reading is valid; if “0” it is not. The automatic measurements depend on the data
captured in the waveform buffer to make measurements. For measurements such as duty
cycle, period, repetition frequency, and average power, at least three transitions must be on
screen. Putting the instrument in the Time > Pos L mode with a small negative trigger delay
is recommended to bring the waveform edge on the screen.
The order of the measurement is:
1) Peak Power 2) Pulse Power 3) Overshoot 4) Average/CW Power
5) Pulse Top
Amplitude 6) Pulse Bottom Amplitude 7) Pulse Width 8) Risetime 9) Falltime
10) Period 11) Pulse Repetition Frequency 12) Duty Cycle 13) Offtime 14) Delay
Log Mode Example:
0, 1, 9.82, 1, 9.79, 1, 0.04, 1, -0.32, 1, 9.79, 1, -21.24, 1, 10.04-E-06, 1, 0.00E-06, 1,
0.40E-06, 1, 100.00E-06, 1, 10000E00, 1, 10.04, 1, 89.92E-06
Stat ➮
In stat mode there is only one status flag for all the measurements. The first value is
the status flag.
Status = 1
The instrument is taking new readings and the current measurements are
valid.
Status = 0
The instrument is not reading and there is no valid measurement.
Status = -1 The instrument has stopped taking new readings, but all measurements
are valid.
The order of the measurement is:
1) CDF status flag 2) Peak Power 3) Minimum Power 4) Dynamic Range 5) Average
Power, 6) Pk/Avg Ratio 7) Total Time (seconds) 8) Total Points (mega-samples)
9) Tolerance
Log Mode Example
1, 16.25, -40.12, 56.37, 4.89, 11.36, .10, 50, 0.02
5-22
Remote Operation
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics
Code
TKBMEAS
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
---
Sets the Talk string to report the values of the marker windows for both measurement
channels. The string begins with a measurement error flag. If the following readings are
invalid, this will be set to a non-zero value corresponding to the error number. In this case,
the measurements should be ignored. The second value is always the value of Marker 1 that
is displayed in the left window in the graphic display mode. The third value is the value of
Marker 2 that matches the number in the right window in the graphic display mode. The
fourth number is either the average power level of the portion of the waveform between the
markers or the ratio of the two marker measurement windows as set by MKAVG,
MKRATIO, MK1-MK2, MK2-MK1, MIN-MAX, MAX-MIN, or PK/AVG. Note that the
error flag will not show an error if the delta marker is undefined, but a value of zero will be
returned for the delta measurement. In the Watts mode, the numbers are presented in floating
point notation with E-09 = nW, E-06 = uW, E-03 = mW, E00 = W, E03 = kW.
Example (dBm ratio): 0, -12.34, 19.88, 32.22, 12.01, 13.25, 1.24
Example (Watts ratio): 0, 57,.54E-06, 97.24E-03, 0.04, 15.88E-03, 21.13E-03, 133.0
TKBDISP
---
Bus Only
This command sends the same data as the TKDISP command, except in binary format,
and in one message.
When executed this command places the instrument in a mode that will talk the same
display normalized data as the TKDISP command, but in binary form. This command
sends all 501 points over the bus in one string. Each point of the display is represented
in the IEEE-488 string as a two byte signed 16 bit number. All waveform points that
are negative or zero are invalid points and should be ignored.
Format String Returned:
"#800000501" followed by 501 words or 1002 bytes followed
by selected terminator and the last byte has EOI set.
Binary HEX:233830303030303530310012001200140123........0D0A
EOI
This command must be used with care, because normal bus operation must be
suspended for the length of the string. The binary data can contain any 8 bit code from
00 to FF hex. This includes the normal terminators. Most bus controllers support a
block or buffer read operation that will only look for EOI or the absolute string length.
A block read or enter command must be used when the instrument is in this mode.
TKDISP
---
Sends fifty values that represent the display normalized data for the currently selected channel
over a specified region of the display. The number specifies the starting point. If repeated
Talk commands are received, the instrument sends the next group of fifty values
automatically. When the end of the display buffer is reached, the numbers automatically
wrap around to the beginning. The range of received numbers is -1 for “off” and 0 to 280 for
each of the 501 horizontal points on the graph.
Example:
Output
Enter
Enter
Enter
(...)
Enter
TKDISP 0
Display points 0 to 49
Display points 50 to 99
Display points 100 to 149
Display point 500, followed by 0 to 49
This will continue until a new Talk mode command is issued
Remote Operation
5-23
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
TKERR
---
Causes the instrument to send a string that describes the error state of the instrument and
measurement. After sending the error string, errors are cleared and the Talk mode returns to
the previous Talk mode.
Format : #1, #2
where #1 is the instrument error number and #2 is the measurement error number.
TKERRMSG ---
Causes the instrument to send a string that describes the error state of the instrument and
measurement, followed by an error description string. After sending the error string, the
errors are cleared and the Talk mode returns to the previous Talk mode.
Format : #1, #2, $1
where #1 is the instrument error, #2 is the measurement error number, and $1 is
an error message (maximum of 25 characters) that describes the problem.
TKFREE
---
Returns the number of bytes available on the diskette for data storage. This is a temporary
talk command. The instrument will return the TKFREE value, then return to the previous
talk mode. (-1 represents that no disk is present.)
TKFUNC
---
Causes the instrument to talk a value that represents the current setting of a selected function.
Functions are bus commands that allow number entry. After talking the value, the
instrument returns to the previous talk mode.
Example: send FREQ TKKEY
read 23
TKKEY
---
Talks the key code of the last key depressed. The instrument will return the TKKEY value
once then return to the previous talk mode.
Example: after depressing the front panel "ESC" key;
send - TKKEY
read - 8
TKMEAS
---
Sets the Talk string to report the current marker measurements. Returns the measurements
for the channel to which the marker is assigned. The string begins with a measurement error
flag. If the following readings are invalid, this will be set to a non-zero value corresponding
to the error number. In this case, the measurements should be ignored. The second value is
the measurement at Marker 1 that is displayed in the left window in the graphic display. The
third value is the measurement at Marker 2 and matches the number in the right window of
the graphic display. The fourth number is either the average power level of the portion of
the waveform between the markers or the ratio of the two marker measurement windows as
set by MKAVG, MKRATIO, MK1-MK2, MK2-MK1, MIN-MAX, MAX-MIN, or
PK/AVG. Note that the error flag will not show an error if the delta marker is undefined,
but a value of zero will be returned for the delta measurement. In the Watts mode, the
numbers are presented in floating point notation with E-09 = nW, E-06 = µW, E-03 = mW,
E00 = W, E03 = kW.
Example (dBm ratio): 0, -12.34, 19.88, 32.22
Example (Watts ratio): 0, 58.34E-06, 97.24E-03, 166700%
5-24
Remote Operation
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
TKMKT
---
This talk mode will return the position of marker 1 and marker 2 in absolute units, and in
pixel position from the left edge. The screen position is always a number between 0 and 500,
inclusive.
Pwr ➮
In power mode the absolute marker position is in time relative to the trigger event.
Stat ➮
In stat mode the absolute marker position is in percent. The X-axis and the %Offset must be
known to determine the left edge of the display, and thus know the marker position on the
screen.
Power ➮ Example:
The instrument is setup with a 50 µsec timebase. Trigger position is center,
Trigger Delay is 0 and Marker 1 set to -10 µsec. Marker 2 set to +60 µsec.
-10E-6, 60E-6, 248, 261
TKRLMEAS --Stat ➮
Sends reference line measurements over the bus in the following format:
error code, % of power at ref line 1, % of power at ref line 2, absolute
delta % between ref line 1 and ref line 2.
Error code
0
1
2
Description
valid measurements
invalid measurements
-.01% indicates under range
-.02% indicates over range
invalid measurements
instrument not in stat mode
TKSDATA
---
Sends the sensor data of the sensor connected to the currently selected channel.
Format: Format type, sensor type, month of manufacture, day of manufacture, year of
manufacture, serial number, month of calibration, day of calibration, year of
calibration, attenuation, impedance, pulse power bottom of range, pulse power top of
range, CW bottom of range, CW top of range.
TKSETUP
---
In the power mode this talk mode will report the current setup of the instrument. It is
intended to be executed after the AUTOSET command. The AUTOSET initiates an
auto-setup procedure to begin. The TKSETUP will return all values which are changed by
this procedure. This routine is not limited to this function and can be executed at any time.
Pwr ➮
Example: After AUTOSET execute a TKSETUP
CH1 Log Vertical Scale (dB), CH1 Log Vertical Center (dB), CH1 Linear
Vertical Scale (W), CH1 Lin Offset (Div), CH2 Log Vertical Scale (dB),
CH2 Log Vertical Center (dB), CH2 Linear Vertical Scale (W), CH2 Lin
Offset (Div), Timebase (sec), Trigger Holdoff (sec), Trigger Level (dB or
Volts; see trigger source), Trigger Source (1 or 2 for Channel), Trigger
Delay (sec), Trigger Position (0-Left 1-Center 2-Right)
20,0.00,20E-3,0.00,20,0.00,20E-3,0.00,50E-6,0.00E-6,0.00,1,0E-6,1
Remote Operation
5-25
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
Stat ➮
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
In the stat mode the X-AXIS and %OFFSET is returned instead of timebase data.
Example of stat mode TKSETUP ouput:
CH1 log vertical scale (db), CH1 log vertical
CH1 linear vertical scale (W), CH1 lin offset
CH2 log vertical scale (db), CH2 log vertical
CH2 linear vertical scale (W), CH2 lin offset
X-axis (%/Div), %Offset (%)
TKSFAST
---
center (db),
(Div),
center (db),
(Div),
Sends the sensor frequency correction data for the high bandwidth setting of the sensor
connected to the currently selected channel.
Format: Count, bottom of frequency range, top of frequency range, Freq0, CF0, Freq1,
CF1,.... “Count” refers to the count of numbers, including the bottom and top of the
frequency range and each Freqn and CFn separately. The maximum count is 124 numbers or
60 frequency points. Frequencies are valid if they lie within the specified frequency range
and conform to a format of ##.## (Implied unit: GHz). CF range is + 3.00 (Implied unit:
dB).
TKSMSG
---
Sends the sensor message (up to 255 characters, with CR and LF.)
TKSSLOW
---
Sends the sensor frequency correction data for the low bandwidth setting of the sensor
connected to the currently selected channel.
Format: Count, bottom of frequency range, top of frequency range, Freq0, CF0, Freq1,
CF1,.... “Count” refers to the count of numbers, including the bottom and top of the
frequency range and each Freqn and CFn separately. The maximum count is 124 numbers or
60 frequency points. Frequencies are valid if they lie within the specified frequency range
and conform to a format of ##.## (Implied unit: GHz). CF range is + 3.00 (Implied unit:
dB).
TKTEMP
---
Sends the sensor temperature (in degrees C) for both channels.
Format: CH1 flag, CH1 temp, CH2 flag, CH2 temp
Flag is 0 if sensor is connected, 1 if no sensor is connected, and 2 if no channel card is
present.
TKUNITS
---
Same as TKMEAS, except the measurement values are followed by the units strings.
If the delta marker is undefined, its units will be returned as "N/A".
Example (dBm avg): 0, -12.34 dBm, 19.88 dBm, 10.52 dB
Example (watts avg): 0, 58.34 µW, 97.24 mW, 11.29 mW
*CAL?
5-26
---
[Chan > Calibration > Zeroing ---]
(Only applies in the CW mode.) Same as zeroing the instrument, however, the Model
4500 will talk an error string for the next Talk message, then return to the previous
Talk mode.
Remote Operation
Table 5-3 Model 4400A/4500A Talk Mode Bus Mnemonics (continued)
Code
Arg
[Equivalent Keystrokes]
Function
*IDN?
---
Places the instrument in the Talk instrument ID mode. If this is the last Talk mode command
in a command string, the next response will be an ID string. After it has talked once, the
instrument will resume the previous Talk mode.
Format:
BEC, 4500A, [Serial Number], [Firmware Revision Code]
*OPT?
---
[Util > Inst Report ]
Places the instrument in the Talk Options mode. If this is the last Talk command in a
command string, the next response will be the installed options string. The instrument
will return to the previous Talk mode.
Format: 0 = not present; 1 = installed
[CH 1], [Sensor on CH 1], [CH 2], [Sensor on CH 2]
Example: 1, 1, 0, 0. Channel 1 is installed with sensor; Channel 2 is not installed. A
sensor cannot be detected if no channel is present.
*SRE?
---
[Util > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask ]
Places the instrument in the Talk SRQ Mask mode. If this is the last Talk command in
a command string the next response will be the SRQ Mask value. The instrument will
return to the previous Talk mode.
*TST?
---
[SPCL > Servicing > Selfcheck]
Runs the internal self-test. This is equivalent to the test done on power-up, and as part
of initialization. After the self-test has executed, the instrument will talk a single error
status string with the test result, then return to the previous talk mode. See TKERR
for the status string format.
5.4 SRQ Operation
Using "Service Request"
The Service Request allows the Model 4400A/4500A to inform the bus
controller that some special event has occurred. The instrument then expects the
controller to perform a serial poll to find out what event has occurred. The
events that can be selected to generate service requests are Instrument Error,
Measurement is Ready, Zeroing is Complete, Calibration is Complete, and Auto
Set-up is Complete.
Remote Operation
5-27
Each of these options can be individually enabled or disabled with the SRQ
mask. The default setting for the mask is with all SRQs disabled. They can
only be enabled over the bus by setting the appropriate bits high in the SRQ
mask using the *SRE mnemonic. See Table 5-4.
Frequently, in small systems only one instrument is capable of using SRQ. In
this situation there is no need to execute a serial poll, since the identity of the
requesting device is known. The error codes may be obtained directly from the
talk error (TKERR) mode. The SRQ line can then be cleared by sending the
clear (*CLR) command.
SRQ Operation
Each active bit of the IEEE-488 bus serial poll byte signals a specific function, as
listed in Table 5-4. Each function listed in the table is individually enabled and
disabled. The SRQ Enable function (*SRE) is used to enter the SRQ mask with each
bit AND-ed with the internal SRQ request. Only active functions will generate a
serial poll request.
Example: Enable SRQ after AutoCal.
*SRE 16
After AutoCal, an SRQ is generated, the front panel SRQ annunciator lights,
and the bus controller can perform a serial poll.
Value returned is 80 (50h). Bit 6 is set, indicating that the Model 4400A/4500A
has requested service. Bit 4 is set, indicating that an AutoCal or zero cycle has
been completed.
SRQ on measurement ready is bit position 1. By performing a logical "OR"
operation with a value of 2 and the SRQMask, the instrument will assert the
SRQ line on the IEEE-488 interface, and light the SRQ annunciator on the front
panel when the measurement is ready.
The instrument determines when the measurement is ready by the amount of
data that must be captured to generate an averaged reading. The length of time
required is related to the number of averages, timebase, and the trigger rate.
When two channels are active the larger of the two averaging values is used. A
special case is when the averaging is set to one. In this case the SRQ is active as
soon as all points on the waveform have a valid data point.
Note
5-28
When using this mode the CLRSCR bus command should always be used to
clear out old data. This command will clear the 1 bit in the SRQ register but
will not clear the SRQ request. This allows the 1 bit to always correctly indicate
that valid data is available. Any SRQ service routine must support the case
where the instument requests service, but when the controller polls the
instrument only bit 6 is active. Bit 6 indicates that this is the instrument that
requested service. This polling will clear the SRQ request and the controller can
return to normal program operation.
Remote Operation
Table 5-4. SRQ Mask, Bit Assignments
Bit Position
Bus Code
Hex
Decimal
Function
0
01h
01
An error has been generated.
1
02h
02
Measurement ready.
2
Inactive.
3
8h
08
Auto Set-up cycle is complete.
4
10h
16
AutoCal cycle or zeroing cycle is complete.
5
20h
32
Plotter transmission is complete.
6
40h
64
Addressed device is requesting service.
7
80h
128
Service request was generated from the keyboard.
Bus Command Responses
IEEE-488 bus commands are sent by the controller to all devices on the bus
(Universal Command Group) or to addressed devices, only (Addressed Command
Group). The response of the instrument is listed in Table 5-5. All unlisted commands
are ignored.
Table 5-5. Bus Command Responses
Command
Response
Universal Command Group
Device Clear (DCL)
Local Lockout (LLO)
Serial Poll Enable (SPE)
Serial Poll Disable (SPD)
Clear errors.
Disable LCL/init key.
Set Talk mode for poll response.
Disable serial poll response.
Addressed Command Group
Selected Device Clear (SDC)
Go to Local (GTL)
Same as device clear.
Returns front panel control.
Remote Operation
5-29
6
Application Notes
This section provides supplementary material to enhance your knowledge of
Model 4400A/4500A operation, advanced features and measurement accuracy.
Topics covered in this section include pulse measurement fundamentals,
automatic measurement principles, and an analysis of measurement accuracy.
6.1 Introduction to Pulse Measurements
Power Measurements
The following is a brief review of power measurement fundamentals.
Unmodulated Carrier Power. The average power of an unmodulated carrier
consisting of a continuous, constant amplitude sinewave signal is also termed
CW power. For a known value of load impedance R, and applied voltage Vrms,
the average power i
s:
P = Vrms
R
2
watts
Power meters designed to measure CW power can use thermoelectric detectors
which respond to the heating effect of the signal or diode detectors which
respond to the voltage of the signal. With careful calibration accurate
measurements can be obtained over a wide range of input power levels.
Modulated Carrier Power. The average power of a modulated carrier which
has varying amplitude can be measured accurately by a CW type power meter
with a thermoelectric detector, but the lack of sensitivity will limit the range.
Diode detectors can be used at low power, square-law response levels. At higher
power levels the diode responds in a more linear manner and significant error
results.
Pulse Power. Pulse power refers to power measured during the on time of
pulsed RF signals (Figure 6-1). Traditionally, these signals have been measured
in two steps: (1) thermoelectric sensors measure the average signal power,
(2) the reading is then divided by the duty cycle to obtain pulse power, Ppulse:
Ppulse = Average Power (measured)
Duty Cycle
where Duty Cycle = Pulse Width
Pulse Period
Pulse power provides useful results when applied to rectangular pulses, but is
inaccurate for pulse shapes that include distortions, such as overshoot or droop
(Figure 6-2).
Application Notes
6-1
Figure 6-1.
Pulsed RF Signal
Figure 6-2.
Distorted Pulse Signal
Peak Power. The Model 4400A/4500A makes power measurements in a
manner which overcomes the limitations of the pulse power method and
provides both peak power and average power readings for all types of
modulated carriers. The fast responding diode sensors detect the RF signal to
produce a wideband video signal which is sampled with a narrow sampling gate.
The video sample levels are accurately converted to power on an individual
basis at up to a 1 MSa/sec rate. Since this power conversion is correlated to the
sensor pre-calibration table, these samples can be averaged to yield average
power without restriction to the diode square-law region. In addition, if the
signal is repetitive, the signal envelope can be reconstructed using an internal or
external trigger. The envelope can be analyzed to obtain waveshape parameters
including, pulse width, duty cycle, overshoot, risetime, falltime and droop.
In addition to time domain measurements and simple averaging, the Model
4500A has additional capabilities which allow it to perform statistical,
histogram type analyses on a complete set of continuously sampled data points.
Data can be viewed and characterized using CDF, 1-CDF and PDF presentation
formats. These analysis tools provide invaluable information about peak power
levels and their frequency of occurrence, and are especially useful for
non-repetitive signals such as HDTV and CDMA.
6-2
Application Notes
Diode Detection
Wideband diode detectors are the dominant power sensing device used to
measure pulsed RF signals. However, several diode characteristics must be
compensated to make meaningful measurements. These include the detector’s
nonlinear amplitude response, temperature sensitivity, and frequency response
characteristic. Additional potential error sources include detector mismatch,
signal harmonics and noise.
Detector Response. The response of a single-diode detector to a sinusoidal
input is given by the diode equation:
i = Iseαv − 1
where:
i =
v =
Is =
α=
diode current
net voltage across the diode
saturation current
constant
An ideal diode response curve is plotted in Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-3.
Ideal Diode Response
The curve indicates that for low microwave input levels (Region A), the
single-diode detector output is proportional to the square of the input power.
For high input signal levels (Region C), the output is linearly proportional to
the input. In between these ranges (Region B), the detector response lies
between square-law and linear.
For accurate power measurements over all three regions illustrated in Figure
6-3, the detector response is pre-calibrated over the entire range. The
calibration data is stored in the instrument and recalled to adjust each sample of
the pulse power measurement.
Temperature Effects. The sensitivity of microwave diode detectors (normally
Low Barrier Schottky diodes) varies with temperature. However, ordinary
circuit design procedures that compensate for temperature-induced errors
adversely affect detector bandwidth. A more effective approach involves
sensing the ambient temperature during calibration and recalibrating the sensor
when the temperature drifts outside the calibrated range.
Application Notes
6-3
Frequency Response. The carrier frequency response of a diode detector is
determined mostly by the diode junction capacitance and the device lead
inductances. Accordingly, the frequency response will vary from detector to
detector and cannot be compensated readily. Power measurements must be
corrected by constructing a frequency response calibration table for each
detector.
Mismatch. Sensor impedance matching errors can contribute significantly to
measurement uncertainty, depending on the mismatch between the device under
test (DUT) and the sensor input. This error cannot be calibrated out, but can be
controlled by employing an optimum matching circuit at the sensor input.
Signal Harmonics. Measurement errors resulting from harmonics of the carrier
frequency are level-dependent and cannot be calibrated out. In the square-law
region of the detector response (Region A, Figure 6-3), the signal and second
harmonic combine on a root mean square basis. The effects of harmonics on
measurement accuracy in this region are relatively insignificant. However, in
the linear region (Region C, Figure 6-3), the detector responds to the vector sum
of the signal and harmonics. Depending on the relative amplitude and phase
relationships between the harmonics and the fundamental, measurement
accuracy may be significantly degraded.
Errors caused by even-order harmonics can be reduced by using balanced diode
detectors for the power sensor. This design responds to the peak-to-peak
amplitude of the signal, which remains constant for any phase relationship
between fundamental and even-order harmonics. Unfortunately, for odd-order
harmonics, the peak-to-peak signal amplitude is sensitive to phasing, and
balanced detectors provide no harmonic error improvement.
Noise. For low-level signals, detector noise contributes to measurement
uncertainty and cannot be calibrated out. Balanced detector sensors improve the
signal-to-noise ratio by 3 dB, because the signal is twice as large.
Model 4400A/4500A
Features
6-4
The Model 4400A/4500A design incorporates several significant features to
reduce measurement error, simplify operation, and speed internal processing.
These features include:
•
Balanced diode sensors enhance error performance by increasing
signal-to-noise and suppressing even-order signal harmonics.
•
Random sampling achieves wide measurement bandwidth at relatively
low sampling speeds. Waveforms can be displayed for repetitive
signals when the trigger event is stable.
•
Smart Sensors (sensor-mounted EEPROM) store sensor frequency
calibration data, eliminating operator entry.
•
A Floating Point Digital Signal Processor which provides high speed
processing for near real-time measurements.
•
A built-in programmable calibrator which creates a unique calibration
table for each sensor.
Application Notes
6.2 Pulse Definitions
IEEE Std 194-1977 Standard Pulse Terms and Definitions “provides
fundamental definitions for general use in time domain pulse technology.”
Several key terms defined in the standard are reproduced in this subsection,
which also defines the terms appearing in the Model 4400A/4500A text mode
display of automatic measurement results.
Standard IEEE Pulse
Definitions
The key terms defined by the IEEE standard are abstracted and summarized
below. These terms are referenced to the standard pulse illustrated in Figure 6-4.
Figure 6-4.
IEEE Standard Pulse
Table 6-1. IEEE Pulse Terms
TERM
DEFINITION
Base Line
The two portions of a pulse waveform which represent the first nominal state
from which a pulse departs and to which it ultimately returns.
Top Line
The portion of a pulse waveform which represents the second nominal state of a
pulse.
First Transition
The major transition of a pulse waveform between the base line and the top line
(commonly called the rising edge).
Last Transition
The major transition of a pulse waveform between the top of the pulse and the
base line. (Commonly called the falling edge.)
Proximal Line
A magnitude reference line located near the base of a pulse at a specified
percentage (normally 10%) of pulse magnitude.
Application Notes
6-5
Table 6-1. IEEE Pulse Terms (continued)
TERM
DEFINITION
Distal Line
A magnitude reference line located near the top of a pulse at a specified
percentage (normally 90%) of pulse magnitude.
Mesial Line
A magnitude reference line located in the middle of a pulse at a specified
percentage (normally 50%) of pulse magnitude.
Automatic Measurement Terms
The following terms appear in the Model 4500A text display in power mode.
Table 6-2. Automatic Measurement Terms
TERM
DEFINITION
Pulse Width
The interval between the first and second signal crossings of the mesial line.
Risetime
The interval between the first signal crossing of the proximal line to the first
signal crossing of the distal line.
Falltime
The interval between the last signal crossing of the distal line to the last signal
crossing of the proximal line.
Pulse Period
The interval between two successive pulses. (Reciprocal of the Pulse Repetition
Frequency)
Pulse Repetition
Frequency
The number of cycles of a repetitive signal that take place in one second.
Duty Cycle
The ratio of the pulse on-time to off-time.
Off-time
The time a repetitive pulse is off. (Equal to the pulse period minus the pulse
width)
Peak Power
The maximum power level of the captured waveform.
Pulse Power
The average power level across the pulse width, defined by the intersection of
the pulse rising and falling edges with the mesial line.
Overshoot
A distortion following a major transition. (The difference between the maximum
amplitude of the overshoot and the top line).
Average Power
The equivalent heating effect of a signal.
6-6
Application Notes
Table 6-2. Automatic Measurement Terms (continued)
TERM
DEFINITION
Top Amplitude
The amplitude of the top line. (See IEEE definitions)
Bottom Amplitude
The amplitude of the base line. (See IEEE definitions)
Delay
The time between a pulse on Channel 1 and Channel 2. The pulse can be the
power or trigger signal.
6.3 Automatic Measurements
The Model 4400A/4500A automatically analyzes the waveform data in the
buffers and calculates key waveform parameters. The calculated values are
displayed in text mode when you press the TEXT/GRAPH system key.
Automatic Measurement
Criteria
Automatic Measurement
Sequence
Application Notes
Automatic measurements are made on repetitive signals that meet the following
conditions:
•
Amplitude. The difference between the top and bottom signal
amplitudes must exceed 6 dB to calculate waveform timing parameters
(pulse width, period, duty cycle). The top-to-bottom amplitude
difference must exceed 13 dB to measure rise and falltime.
•
Timing. In order to measure pulse repetition frequency and duty cycle,
there must be at least three signal transitions. The interval between the
first and third transition must be at least 1⁄5 of a division ( 1⁄50 of the
screen width). For best accuracy on rise and falltime measurements,
the timebase should be set so the transition interval is at least one- half
division on the display.
The automatic measurement process analyzes the captured signal
data in the following sequence:
1.
Approximately 500 samples of the waveform (equivalent to one screen width)
are scanned to determine the maximum and minimum sample amplitudes.
2.
The difference between the maximum and minimum sample values is calculated
and stored as the Signal Amplitude.
3.
The Transition Threshold is computed as one-half the sum of the maximum and
minimum sample amplitudes.
4.
The processor locates each crossing of the Transition Threshold.
5.
Starting at the left edge of the screen, the processor classifies each Transition
threshold crossing according to whether it is positive-going (-+) or
negative-going (+-). Because the signal is repetitive, only three transitions are
needed to classify the waveform, as follows:
6-7
Type
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sequence
——+-+
+-+
-++-+-+-+
Description
No crossings detected
Not used
One falling edge
One rising edge
One falling, followed by one rising edge
One rising, followed by one falling edge
Two falling edges
Two rising edges
Figure 6-5.
Step Waveforms
6.
If the signal is Type 0, (No crossings detected) no measurements can be
performed and the routine is terminated, pending the next reload of the data
buffers.
7.
The process locates the bottom amplitude (baseline) using the IEEE histogram
method. A histogram is generated for all samples in the lowest 12.8 dB range
of sample values. The range is subdivided into 64 power levels of 0.2 dB each.
The histogram is scanned to locate the power level with the maximum number
of crossings. This level is designated the baseline amplitude. If two or more
power value have equal counts, the lowest is selected.
8.
The process follows a similar procedure to locate the top amplitude (top line).
The power range for the top histogram is 5 dB and the resolution is 0.02 dB,
resulting in 250 levels. The level-crossing histogram is computed for a single
pulse, using the samples which exceed the transition threshold. If only one
transition exists in the buffer (Types 2 and 3), the process uses the samples that
lie between the edge of the screen and the transition threshold (See Figure 6-6).
For a level to be designated the top amplitude, the number of crossings of that
level must be at least 1⁄16 the number of pixels in the pulse width; otherwise, the
peak value is designated the top amplitude.
9.
6-8
The process establishes the proximal, mesial, and distal levels as a percentage of
the difference between top amplitude and bottom amplitude power. The
percentage can be calculated on a power or voltage basis. The proximal, mesial,
and distal threshold values are user settable from 1% to 99%, with the
restriction that the proximal < mesial < distal. Normally, these values will be
set to 10%, 50% and 90%, respectively.
Application Notes
Figure 6-6.
Time Interpolation
10. The process determines horizontal position, in pixels, at which the signal crosses
the mesial value. This is done to a resolution of 0.1 pixel, or 1⁄5000 of the screen
width. Ordinarily, the sample values do not fall precisely on the mesial line, and
it is necessary to interpolate between the two nearest samples to determine where
the mesial crossing occurred. This process is demonstrated in the above example
(Figure 6-6):
Item
dBm
mW
Mesial value
Sample n
Sample n+1
10.0
8.0
11.0
10.0
6.3
12.6
The interpolated crossing time, tx , is calculated from:
tx
= tn +
Pmes − Pn
Pn+1 − Pn
where P is in watts and n is the number of the sampling interval, referenced to the
trigger event. For this example
tx
= tn +
10.0 − 6.3
12.6 − 6.3
= tn + 0.6
11. The processor computes the rise and/or falltimes of waveforms that meet the
following conditions:
a)
The waveform must have at least one usable edge (Types 2 through 7).
b)
The signal peak must be at least 13 dB greater than the minimum sample
value.
The risetime is defined as the time between the proximal and distal crossings (-+).
The falltime is defined as the time between the distal and proximal crossings (+-).
If no samples lie between the proximal and distal values for either edge (rise or
fall), the risetime for that edge is set to 0 seconds.
Application Notes
6-9
12. The processor calculates the output values according to the following definitions:
Average Power
Over an Interval
a.)
Pulse Width
Interval between mesial points
b.)
Risetime
See Step 11
c.)
Falltime
See Step 11
d.)
Period
Cycle time between mesial points
e.)
Pulse Repetition
Frequency
Reciprocal of Period
f.)
Duty Cycle
Pulse Width
Period
g.)
Off-time
(Period) - (Pulse Width)
h.)
Peak Power
Maximum sample value (See Step 1)
i.)
Pulse Power
Average power in the pulse
(between the mesial points)
j.)
Overshoot
(Peak Power) - (Top Amplitude)
k.)
Average Power
See Step 13
l.)
Top Amplitude
See Step 8
m.) Bottom Amplitude
See Step 7
n.)
See Step 14
Delay
13. The average power of the signal over a time interval is computed by:
a.)
summing the sample powers in the interval
b.)
dividing the sum by the number of samples
This process calculates Pulse Power, Average Power and the average power
between markers.
Since each sample represents the power in a finite time interval, the endpoints
are handled separately to avoid spreading the interval by one-half pixel at each
end of the interval (See Figure 6-7). For the interval in Figure 6-7, the average
power is given by:
n−1
Pave =
6-10
1⁄
2
(Po + Pn) +
1
(n − 1)
∑ Pn
n=1
Application Notes
Figure 6-7
Sampling Intervals
14. The processor calculates the delay between the two measurement channels. The
time reference for each channel is established by the first signal crossing
(starting from the left edge of the screen) which passes through the mesial level
(or 50% point in trigger view). The signal excursion must be at least 6 dB in
power mode, or 300 mV in trigger-view mode.
6.4 Statistical Mode Automatic Measurements (Model 4500A only)
When operating In statistical mode, the 4500A has a unique text format display
that is available when the TEXT/GRAPH system key is pressed. A sample of is
shown in Figure 6.8.
Figure 6-8
Statistical Mode
Text Display
(Model 4500A)
Application Notes
6-11
The following five automatic measurements are displayed for both input
channels:
1. Peak Power:
The highest power sample occuring since acquisition
was started.
2. Average Power:
The unweighed average of all power samples occuring
since acquisition was started.
3. Minimum Power:
The lowest power sample occuring since acquisition
was started.
4. Pk/Avg Ratio:
The ratio (in dB) of the Peak Power to the Average
Power.
5. Dynamic Range:
The ratio (in dB) of the Peak Power to the Minimum
Power.
The following six cursor measurements display the set position and measured
value where the movable cursor intersects the measurement trace. Note that the
markers are undefined in PDF presentation format, and Reference Lines are
undefined when Disp > Units is set for Linear. The position and value text for
each marker or reference line will be displayed with the color of the assigned
channel for that particular cursor.
1. Ref Line 1:
Measures the CDF (or 1-CDF) % at the power level
where reference line 1 intersect the assigned trace.
Note that if the intersection falls outside the horizontal
screen extents, the measured value will be clipped to %
values within the horizontal axis For this reason, avoid
zooming in horizontally with Time > X-Axis if you wish
to make Reference line measurments.
2. Ref Delta:
Displays the ratio (in dB) of the Ref Line 1 and Ref
Line 2 power levels and the difference (in %) between
their values.
3. Ref Line 2:
See Ref Line 1, above.
4. Marker 1:
Measures the power level at the selected %CDF (or 1-CDF).
Note that marker positions are rounded to the nearest
pixel positions (1/50th of a division), so for precise power
measurements at very high or low % positions, it may be
necessary to zoom in horizontally with Time > X-Axis.
5. Mark Delta:
Displays the difference (in %) between the marker positions
and the ratio (in dB for log mode, % of linear) of their
power levels.
6. Marker 2:See Marker 1, above.
6-12
Application Notes
The following four global status values are displayed:
1. Total Time:
The total time in Hours:Minutes:Seconds that the data
acquisition has been running.
2. Total Points:
The total number of data samples that has been acquired
for each channel in the current run. Sample rate is
approximately 500kSa/sec if Channel 1 is running alone,
and 250kSa/sec if Channel 2 is turned on.
3. Tolerance:
The statistical tolerance of the acquired data set based on
the number of samples taken and the desired confidence
factor.
4. Confidence:
A display of the confidence factor, set by Meas >
Confidence.
6.5 Measurement Accuracy
The Model 4400A/4500A includes an internal calibrator that is traceable to the
National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). When maintained
according to the recommendations in Chapter 7, the calibrator enables you to
make highly precise measurements of CW and pulsed signals. The following
error analysis assumes that the calibrator is being maintained according to these
recommendations.
Measurement uncertainties are attributable to the calibrator, sensor, and
impedance mismatch between the sensor and the device under test (DUT).
Individual independent contributions from each of these sources are combined
mathematically to quantify the upper error bound and the probable error. The
upper bound is calculated by adding all the contributions linearly. The probable
error is obtained by combining the sources on a root-sum-square (rss) basis.
Error Contributions
Calibrator Level Uncertainty. The specified level accuracy for calibrators that
are maintained in current calibration is:
Range
Error (εcl )
At 0 dBm
+ 0.065 dB
Per 10 dB above/below 0 dBm
(-30 to +20 dBm)
+ 0.06 dB
Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty. Mismatch between the calibrator and the
sensor introduces an error, εcm, given by:
εcm = ± 2 x ρs x ρc x 100%
where ρ s = Sensor reflection coefficient
ρc = Calibrator reflection coefficient
Application Notes
6-13
Source Mismatch Uncertainty. Mismatch between the sensor and the device
under test causes an error, εsm, in the device level reading. This error is given
by:
εsm = ± 2 ρs x ρd x 100%
where ρ d = DUT reflection coefficient
Sensor Shaping Error. This factor refers to the non-linearity of the sensor
after AutoCal is run. Calibration is performed at discrete levels and is extended
to all levels.
Sensor Temperature Coefficient. An error occurs when the sensor temperature
is significantly different from the calibrated sensor temperature. This condition
is detected by the Model 4500 and a message warns the operator to recalibrate
the sensor, eliminating this error.
Noise and Drift. The noise contribution to pulse measurements depends on the
number of samples averaged to produce the power reading. Drift affects CW
measurements and is controlled by zeroing the meter before measuring. The
specifications for each sensor list the noise contribution for 100-sample
averaging (applicable to pulse measurements) and the drift contribution, after
zeroing, for 10-sample averaging (applicable to CW measurements).
Sensor Calibration Factor Uncertainty. The sensor specifications tabulate the
uncertainties that apply to the frequency calibration data stored in the EEPROM.
Both worst case and rss uncertainties are provided for the frequency range
covered by each sensor.
Typical Measurement Error
Calculations
Case 1: High-Level Sample
This example error calculation assumes the following measurement conditions:
Source Frequency
2 GHz
Source Peak Power
+5 dBm
Source SWR 1.5 (ρd = 0.200)
Sensor Type
Model 56318
The measurement error is calculated as follows:
Calibrator Level Uncertainty
a. Worst-case. For sample levels between 0 and + 10 dBm, the worst-case
error contribution is the sum of the calibrator level uncertainties at 0
dBm and one signal level increment:
ε clw = ±(0.065 + 0.06) = 0.125 dB
6-14
Application Notes
To convert the 0.125dB uncertainty to percent uncertainty:
ε clr (%) = (±10 εclw/10 - 1) x 100%
= (±10 0.0125-1) x 100%
= ±2.9%
b. RSS. The probable error contribution due to calibration level
uncertainty is the rss combination of the uncertainties at 0 dBm and
one signal level increment:
(10 0.065/10 - 1) x 100 = 1.5%
(10 0.06/10 - 1) x 100 = 1.4%
ε cl (%) =
1.5 2 + 1.4 2
= ±2.0
Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty
ε cm
= ±2 x ρs x ρc x 100%
= ±2 (0.070) (0.09) x 100%
= ±1.3%
Source Mismatch Uncertainty
ε cm
= ±2 x ρs x ρd x 100%
= ±2 (0.070) (0.200) x 100%
= ±2.8%
Sensor Shaping Error. From the specifications for the Model 56318 sensor:
ε sh
= ±1.2%
Sensor Temperature Coefficient. It is assumed that the sensor has been
recently calibrated and the temperature drift is within the calibrated range. The
temperature error is negligible.
Application Notes
6-15
Noise and Drift. Assuming the Model 4500 averaging parameter is set to 100
or more, the noise contribution is 4 µW (from sensor specifications), which is
negligible compared to the +5 dBm (3162 µW) signal level.
Sensor Calibration Factor Uncertainty. From the Model 56318 sensor
specifications, at 2.0 GHz:
ε sf
= ±3.6% worst-case
= ±2.2% rss
Worst-Case Measurement Uncertainty.
ε wc
= ± ε clw ± ε cm ± ε sm ± ε sh ± ε sf
= ± 2.9 ± 1.3 ± 2.8 ± 1.2 ± 3.6
= ±11.8%
Probable Measurement Uncertainty
ε rss
ε 2clr + ε 2cm + ε 2 sm + ε 2 sh + ε 2 sf
= ±
= ±
2.0 2 + 1.3 2 + 2.8 2 + 2.3 2 + 2.2 2
= ±
19.81
= ± 4.45%
Case 2: Low-Level Sample
This example has the same measurement conditions as Case 1, except the sample
level is -10 dBm. All error contributions are equivalent to Case 1, except the
Noise and Drift component. At a noise level of 4µW, the apparent sample level
is the combination of the signal and noise.
Ppower = Pactual + Pnoise = 100 + 4 uW = 104 uW
The noise error contribution is:
εn
=±
(
Pnoise
Pactual
)
x 100% = ±
(
)
4µW
100µW
x 100%
= ± 4%
6-16
Application Notes
6.6 Model 4500A Statistical Measurements
Digital modulation methods in which amplitude and phase modulation are
combined in a multi-level arrangement to represent a group of bit values from
one or more data streams are coming into widespread use. These signals pose
new measurement problems, especially at the transmitter. The old concepts of
modulation depth and modulation index are not meaningful because the peak to
average power ratio of the modulated carrier is a complex function of the data
stream content, rather than the amplitude of the modulating signal. The
encoding and multiplexing methods used further enhance the noise-like
properties of the resulting modulation. All of this suggests the use of statistical
measurements to monitor and control the transmitter.
a. PDF. The continuous random sampling mechanism of the Model 4500A
treats the sensor output as a discrete random variable, Y, and directly forms the
PDF or probability distribution function (discrete point-probability). The PDF is
a plot of the percentage of time (x-axis) that the power is at a specific value
(y-axis). The percentage ranges from 0 to 100%, and the power extends over the
entire dynamic range of the 4500A and sensor combination. This directly
corresponds to 100 times the probability that the sensor power is equal to y,
100*P [Y=y].
Y is a discrete random variable with a range equal to all possible sampled
values of carrier peak power.
y is a specific power value contained in Y.
PDF is a plot of:
P(y) = 100 x P[Y=y] where y ranges over all values in Y
0 ≤ P(y) ≤ 100%
As samples are continuously taken, the sample space is rescaled to 100%. This
conforms to the requirement that all P(y) add up to 100%.
Σ P(y) = 100% where y ranges over all values in Y
The PDF is useful for analyzing the nature of modulating signals. Sustained
power levels such as the flat tops of pulses or steps show up as horizontal lines
on the graph. Random noise produces a gaussian shaped curve based along the
vertical axis.
b. CDF. A more useful measurement for transmitter control is the CDF or
cumulative distribution function. For the discrete random variable case which
applies to our sample data space, the CDF is the probability expressed as a
percentage (x-axis) that the power is less than or equal to a specific value
(y-axis).
CDF is a plot of:
Q(y) = 100 x P[Y≤y] where y ranges over all values in Y
0 ≤ Q(y) ≤ 100%
and also, just as above,
Σ P(y) = 100%
Application Notes
6-17
By definition the CDF is non-decreasing in y and the maximum power sample
must lie at 100%. The CDF is useful for monitoring and adjusting transmitter
power. Suppose there is a requirement that transmitter peak power stay at or
below a specific value, y1, 95% of the time. The horizontal reference line
representing y1 must intersect the CDF at or to the right of the vertical line at
95% to comply with this requirement. The 4500A also displays the peak,
average and peak-to-average ratio along with the CDF graph.
c. 1-CDF. It is often convenient to plot the "upper tail area" or 1-CDF instead
of the CDF. 1-CDF is the probability expressed as a percentage (x-axis) that the
power is greater than a specific power value (y-axis). By definition 1-CDF is
non-increasing in y and the maximum power sample must lie at 0%. In the
example given above, the horizontal reference line representing y1 must intersect
the 1-CDF plot to the left of the vertical line at 5% to comply with the
requirement.
d. Confidence factor and Tolerance. While the graphical display is continually
updated, samples continue to accumulate without decimation until the available
memory space is filled at 2.1 billion, 2.1e9, samples. The sampling process is
then halted. When a new measurement is started, a graph appears as soon as
samples begin to accumulate. A percentage tolerance for statistical error is
continually calculated and displayed as samples are accumulated. The tolerance
is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of samples taken and
increased in relation to the confidence factor chosen. The Model 4500A provides
selectable confidence factors from 80% to 99%.
e. Graphs. Note that the graphs of PDF, CDF, and 1-CDF are plotted with the
independent variable, power, on the vertical axis and the dependent variable, or
function value, on the horizontal axis. This differs from the presentation in most
texts but is consistent with other Model 4500A graphs.
6-18
Application Notes
7
Maintenance
This section presents procedures for maintaining and testing the Model 4400A/4500A.
Included are a list of the test equipment needed for equipment maintenance and the
procedures for cleaning, inspection, software upgrades, and performance verification.
7.1 Safety
Although the Model 4400A/4500A has been designed in accordance with international
safety standards, general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of
operation and maintenance. Failure to comply with the precautions listed in the
Safety Summary located in the front of this manual could result in serious injury or
death.
Service and adjustments should be performed only by qualified service personnel.
7.2 Cleaning
Painted surfaces can be cleaned with a commercial spray-type window cleaner or a
mild detergent and water solution (recommended 1% mild detergent and 99% water).
Caution
When cleaning the instrument, do not allow cleaning fluid to enter the air vents.
Avoid using chemical cleaning agents which can damage painted or plastic surfaces.
7.3 Inspection
If the Model 4400A/4500A malfunctions, perform a visual inspection of the
instrument. Inspect for signs of damage caused by excessive shock, vibration, or
overheating. Inspect for broken wires, loose hardware and parts, loose electrical
connections, or accumulations of dust or other foreign matter.
Correct any problems you discover and conduct a performance test to verify that the
instrument is operational (See Subsection 7.5 Performance Verification.) If the
malfunction persists or the instrument fails the performance verification, contact
Boonton Electronics for service.
Maintenance
7-1
7.4 Software Upgrade
Instrument operating software will be loaded into the Model 4400A/4500A from the
diskette drive every time you power up the instrument with a Model 4400A/4500A
operating software diskette in the drive. Software should be loaded from diskette only
as required to upgrade to a new software release or to perform troubleshooting or
repair procedures. You can avoid inadvertently loading software into the instrument
by removing the diskette from the drive before turning the instrument on.
Caution
When loading new software into the Model 4400A/4500A from the software diskette,
all stored instrument configurations and preset operating selections are lost (regardless
of software version).
When it is necessary to load software into the Model 4400A/4500A:
1.
Turn power off using the front panel ON/SBY switch.
2.
Verify that the software diskette is in the write-protected state (window open).
3.
Orient the diskette label to face the spin knob. Insert the software diskette
in the disk drive on the front panel.
4.
Turn the power on by pressing the front panel ON/SBY switch.
It takes approximately 5 minutes for the software to load from the diskette.
The instrument will restart when the loading process is complete. If
the software fails to load, an error will be indicated on the CRT. If this occurs,
call Boonton Electronics Customer Service for assistance. See Appendix C for
instructions on contacting Boonton Electronics.
7-2
6.
When the software has been loaded successfully, store the diskette in a safe
place for future use.
7.
After loading updated software, the instrument will report an AutoCal error.
To clear the error, for each channel, connect the sensor to the calibrator and
initiate AutoCal, as instructed in Subsection 4.1 Calibration.
8.
If an error other than AutoCal error exists, clear it by pressing the CLR key
and repeat the AutoCal menu selection.
Maintenance
7.5 Test Equipment
This subsection lists the equipment required to test and calibrate the Model
4400A/4500A. Any substitutions for the recommended test equipment may require
you to modify the procedures provided in this subsection.
Performance Verification
1.
RS-232C terminal or PC with terminal emulation software capable of supporting 9600
baud, no parity, 8-bit word length, 1 stop bit.
2.
Wandel & Goltermann EPM-1 Milliwatt Test Set
3.
Hewlett-Packard HP437B Power Meter
4.
Hewlett-Packard HP8481A NIST Certified Power Sensor with calibration
data (0.01 to 18 GHz)
5.
Hewlett-Packard HP8487 NIST Certified Power Sensor with 11904D
2.4 mm (f) to K (m) adapter and calibration data (0.05 to 40 GHz)
6.
Hewlett-Packard HP5386A Electronic Counter
7.
Hewlett-Packard HP8012B Pulse Generator
8.
Hewlett-Packard 1250-1750 APC 3.5 (m) to N (f) adapter
9.
Weinschel 44-6 6-dB Attenuator (0.01 to 18 GHz)
10. Wiltron 41KC-6 6-dB Attenuator (0.5 to 40 GHz)
11. Wiltron 6669A Programmable Sweep Generator
12. IEEE-488 Controller
13. 15 dB Type N Attenuator
14. Wiltron Model 560A Scalar Network Analyzer
15. Wiltron Model 560-97NF50-1 SWR Autotester (0.01 to 18 GHz)
16. Wiltron Model 560-97KF50 SWR Autotester (0.01 to 40 GHz)
17. Wiltron Model 22N50 Open/Short (0.01 to 18 GHz)
18. Wiltron Model 22K50 Open/Short (0.01 to 40 GHz)
Calibration
1.
Wandel & Goltermann EPM-1 Milliwatt Test Set
2.
Hewlett-Packard HP437B Power Meter
3.
Maintenance
Hewlett-Packard HP8481A NIST Certified Power Sensor with calibration
data (0.01 to 18 GHz)
7-3
7.6 Performance Verification
The verification procedure demonstrates that the Model 4400A/4500A is performing
according to the specifications published in Subsection 1.6 Specifications. This
procedure should be performed when the instrument is first put into service and after
making repairs or adjustments. Performance verification should be repeated at least
once every twelve months.
Checklist
The verification procedure is outlined in Table 7-1 Verification Checklist. Each time
you verify the instrument performance, photocopy the Checklist and record the
instrument’s performance on the copy to provide a record of instrument history.
Attach additional sheets as instructed in the verification procedures.
Fuse Type and Rating
The 2 fuses should be Type 3AG, 250 volt, 1.6 amp, slo-blow.
Instrument Serial Number
The instrument’s serial number is printed on the rear panel and is stored in the
instrument memory. View the stored serial number by selecting Util > Inst Status
REPORT. The stored serial number should match the number on the rear panel.
Record the instrument serial number on the Checklist.
Control Software Version
The control software version number appears on the screen at power-up and may be
displayed by selecting Util > Inst Status REPORT. Record the control software
version number on the Checklist.
Time and Date
The time and date are factory set and maintained internally by a battery-backed real
time clock. The time is set initially to Eastern time and may be viewed and adjusted
by selecting Util > Clock. The time and date are not updated while they are being
displayed. Record the time and date on the Checklist.
Sensor Serial Number
The sensor serial number is printed on the sensor and is stored in the sensor’s internal
memory. View the sensor serial number (as well as the sensor model number and
frequency range) by selecting Spcl > CH # Sensor REPORT.* The stored sensor
serial number should match the number printed on the sensor. Record the stored
serial number on the Checklist.
*The symbol # designates the numerals 1 or 2.
7-4
Maintenance
Table 7-1. Verification Checklist
Check fuse type and rating:
3AG,250 volt, 1.6 amp, Slow Blow
Instrument Serial Number
Control Software Version
Instrument Time and Date
Sensor Serial Number
CH1
CH2
Sensor Model Number
CH1
CH2
Cal Level
dBm
Calibrator Frequency Verification*
Calibrator Linearity Verification*
Calibrator 0 dBm Verification
Run AutoCal
CH1
CH2
Sensor Return Loss Verification*
CH1
CH2
Sensor Linearity*
CH1
CH2
Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor
Verification*
CH1
CH2
Sensor Risetime Verification*
CH1
CH2
Check External Trigger
CH1
CH2
No CH2
Check External Calibrator
Check IEEE-488 Bus
Check Serial Port 1
Check Serial Port 2
*Attach separate data sheet.
Calibrator Frequency
Verification
Before performing the calibrator linearity verification procedure,
photocopy Table 7-2 and use it to record the measurement data. Attach the completed
table to the Checklist.
To verify the calibrator frequency accuracy, proceed as follows:
Maintenance
1.
Press the INIT system key to initialize the Model 4400A/4500A.
2.
Set the calibrator output level to 0.0 dBm by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Set Level
0.0 dBm.
3.
Set the calibrator output mode to CW by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Mode CW.
7-5
4.
Connect the HP5386A frequency counter to the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output.
5.
Enable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
6.
Measure the calibrator frequency and record the value in Table 7-2.
Table 7-2. Calibrator Output Frequency
Calibrator Linearity
Verification
Calibrator Output
Minimum
1.024 GHz, 0.0 dBm
1.023900 GHz
Measured
Maximum
1.024100 GHz
Verify calibrator linearity by establishing a reference at 0.0 dBm and
measuring the error at various test levels in the range from -30 to +20 dBm. The
measurement tolerance shown in Tables 7-3a and 7-3b reflect both the specified
calibrator performance and the uncertainty of the measurement setup. To avoid the
nonlinearity term associated with using the HP8481A at levels above +9 dBm, use a
15 dB pad to attenuate higher calibrator levels to below +5.0 dBm.
Before performing the calibrator linearity verification procedure, photocopy Tables
7-3a and 7-3b and use the copies to record the measurement data. Attach the
completed tables to the Checklist.
To verify calibrator linearity:
1.
Mount the HP8481A sensor on the HP437B Power Meter. Connect the HP8481A
sensor to the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output through a 15 dB attenuator.
2.
Set the calibrator output level to 0.0 dBm by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Set Level
0.0 dBm.
3.
Enable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
4.
Zero the HP437B and set a reference of 0.0 dBm.
5.
Enter the calibrator levels listed in Table 7-3a and record the HP437B measurements in
the column labeled “Measured.”
6.
Disable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output Off.
Table 7-3a. Calibrator Linearity - High Power Range
Cal Level
(dBm)
7.
7-6
Minimum
(dBm)
Measured
(dBm)
Maximum
(dBm)
20.0
19.84
20.16
15.0
14.84
15.16
10.0
9.84
10.16
Remove the 15 dB attenuator and connect the HP8481A sensor directly to the
Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output.
Maintenance
8.
Zero the HP437B.
9.
Set the calibrator output level to 0.0 dBm.
10. Enable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output ON.
11. Set a reference on the HP437B at 0.0 dBm.
12. Enter the calibrator level listed in Table 7-3b and record the HP437B measurements in
the column labeled “Measured.”
Table 7-3b. Calibrator Linearity - Low Power Range
Calibrator 0 dBm
Verification
Cal Level
(dBm)
Minimum
(dBm)
Measured
(dBm)
Maximum
(dBm)
5.0
4.9
5.1
-5.0
-5.1
-4.9
-10.0
-10.16
-9.84
-15.0
-15.16
-14.84
-20.0
-20.25
-19.75
-25.0
-25.25
-24.75
-30.0
-30.25
-29.75
To verify the calibrator 0 dBm setting accuracy:
1.
Connect the EPM-1 sensor to its own calibrator output.
2.
Calibrate and zero the EPM-1.
3.
Connect the EPM-1 sensor to the 50 MHz calibrator output on the HP437B.
4.
Enable the calibrator output and record the measurement.
5.
Connect the HP8481A H39 sensor to the 50 MHz calibrator output.
6.
Calibrate and zero the HP437B using a 100.00% calibration factor.
7.
Set the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output level to 0.0 dBm by selecting Spcl >
Calibrator > Set Level 0.0 dBm.
8.
Set the calibrator output mode to CW by selecting Spcl > Calibrator >
Cal Mode CW.
9.
Connect the HP8481A H39 sensor to the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output
connector.
10. Enable the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator >
Cal Output On.
Maintenance
7-7
11. Enter the calibration factor for 1 GHz from the calibration data report.
12. Subtract the HP437B reading from the EPM-1 reading and record the value on the
Checklist.
Sensor Return Loss
Verification
Table 7-4 lists the Model 4400A/4500A sensors and return loss specifications for each
frequency range.
Table 7-4. Sensor Return Loss
Sensor Type
Frequency Range
(GHz)
Return Loss
(dB)
56018
0.5 to 18
-19
56218
0.03 to 2
-23
2 to 6
-21
6 to 18
-15
0.5 to 2
-23
2 to 6
-21
6 to 18
-15
0.5 to 2
-23
2 to 6
-21
6 to 16
-19
16 to 18
-17
0.5 to 2
-23
2 to 4
-21
4 to 18
-15
18 to 26.5
-14
0.5 to 4
-19
4 to 40
-12
56318,
56418
56518
56326
56340
{
Measured
(dB)
Referring to Subsection 7-5, select the test equipment appropriate for the frequency
range of your sensor(s) and measure sensor return loss. Photocopy Table 7-4 and use
it to record the minimum return loss for each range applicable to your sensor(s).
Attach the completed table to the Checklist.
7-8
Maintenance
Sensor Linearity
Performance Verification
Verify sensor linearity with the internal calibrator by measuring the
deviation from a linear response at various levels. The pulse and CW modes are
verified separately. Measurement error at low power levels is dominated by the noise
and drift of the power sensor. The tolerances listed in Table 7-5 through 7-12 reflect
the combination of linearity error, noise, and drift.
Before verifying sensor linearity, select and photocopy those Tables (7-5 through
7-12) that apply to your sensor and use them to record the measurement data. Attach
the completed tables to the Checklist.
Pulse Mode. To verify sensor linearity in the pulse measurement mode, proceed as
follows:
1.
Connect the peak power sensor cable to Channel 1 of the Model 4400A/4500A.
2.
Connect the peak power sensor to the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output.
3.
Press the INIT system key to reset the Model 4400A/4500A settings to their default
states.
4.
Autocalibrate the sensor by selecting Chan # > Calibration > AutoCal START.
5.
When the Autocal procedure is complete, set the calibrator output mode to CW by
selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Mode CW.
6.
Enable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
7.
Set the timebase to 100 µs by selecting Time > Timebase 100 µs/Div.
Table 7-5. 56018 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
Measured
Cal Level
(dBm)
Maintenance
Minimum
(dB)
CH 1
(dB)
CH 2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
20.0
19.91
20.09
15.0
14.91
15.09
10.0
9.91
10.09
5.0
4.90
5.10
0.0
-0.13
0.13
-5.0
-5.22
-4.78
-10.0
-10.49
-9.51
-15.0
-16.26
-13.74
-20.0
-23.05
-16.95
7-9
Table 7-6. 56218, 56318, 56326, 56340 Sensor Linearity
(Pulse)
Cal Level
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
Measured
CH 1
CH 2
(dB)
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
20.0
19.91
20.09
15.0
14.91
15.09
10.0
9.91
10.09
5.0
4.91
5.09
0.0
-0.11
0.11
-5.0
-5.41
-4.86
-10.0
-10.26
-9.74
-15.0
-15.59
-14.41
-20.0
-21.52
-18.48
-24.0
-27.05
-20.95
Table 7-7. 56418 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
Measured
Cal Level
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
CH1
(dB)
CH2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
5.0
4.91
5.09
0.0
-0.09
0.09
-5.0
-5.09
-4.91
-10.0
-10.11
-9.59
-15.0
-15.41
-14.86
-20.0
-20.26
-19.74
-25.0
-25.59
-24.41
-30.0
-31.52
-28.48
-34.0
-37.05
-30.95
8.
Set Markers to CH 1 by pressing Mark > Extensions > MK 1 CH 1.
9.
Set Marker 1 to -400 µs by selecting Mark > Marker 1 -400 µs.
10. Set Marker 2 to 400 µs by selecting Mark > Marker 2 400 µs.
11. Set the Delta Marker mode to Average by selecting Mark > Extensions > Delta
Marker Avg.
7-10
Maintenance
Table 7-8. 56518, 56526 Sensor Linearity (Pulse)
Cal Level
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
CH1
(dB)
Measured
CH2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
20.0
19.83
20.17
15.0
14.83
15.17
10.0
9.83
10.17
5.0
4.83
5.17
0.0
-0.17
0.17
-5.0
-5.17
-4.83
-10.0
-10.17
-9.83
-15.0
-15.18
-14.82
-20.0
-20.19
-19.81
-25.0
-25.24
-24.76
-30.0
-30.39
-29.62
-35.0
-35.92
-34.19
-40.0
-43.18
_____________ _____________
-38.07
12. Select one of the sensor data tables (Tables 7-5, 7-6, 7-7 or 7-8) according to the
sensor type being tested.
13. Set the calibrator to the levels listed in the selected table by pressing Spcl >
Calibrator > Set Level and record the AVG readout values in the table.
14. If CH 2 is installed, connect the peak power sensor cable to CH2 of the Model
4400A/4500A.
15. Turn on CH 2 by pressing Chan > Select CH > Channel On.
16. Repeat steps 4 - 13, substituting CH 2 for CH 1.
CW Mode. To verify sensor linearity for the CW measurement mode, proceed as
follows:
Maintenance
1.
Perform Steps 1 through 8 of the Pulse Mode verification procedure.
2.
Select CW measurement mode by pressing Chan > Extensions > Power Mode CW.
3.
Set Marker 1 to Channel 1 at 0 µs by selecting Mark > Extensions > MK 1 CH 1 and
Mark > Marker 1 0 µs.
4.
Select one of the following tables (Tables 7-98, 7-10, 7-11 or 7-12) according to the
sensor type being tested.
5.
Set the calibrator to the levels listed in the selected table and record the Marker 1
readout values in the table. Occasionally zero the sensor when testing levels below
-10 dBm by selecting Chan 1 > Calibration > Zeroing START.
6.
If CH 2 is installed, repeat Steps 1 through 5, substituting Channel 2 for Channel 1.
7-11
Table 7-9. 56018 Sensor Linearity (CW)
Measured
Cal Level
Minimum
CH 1
CH 2
Maximum
(dBm)
(dB)
(dB)
(dB)
(dB)
20.0
19.91
20.09
15.0
14.91
15.09
10.0
9.91
10.09
5.0
4.91
5.09
0.0
-0.09
0.09
-5.0
-5.10
-4.90
-10.0
-10.13
-9.87
-15.0
-15.22
-14.78
-20.0
-20.49
-19.51
-25.0
-26.26
-23.74
-30.0
-33.05
-26.95
Table 7-10. 56218, 56318, 56326, 56340 Sensor Linearity
(CW)
Cal Level
(dBm)
7-12
Minimum
(dB)
Measured
CH 1
CH 2
(dB)
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
20.0
19.91
20.09
15.0
14.91
15.09
10.0
9.91
10.09
5.0
4.91
5.09
0.0
-0.09
0.09
-5.0
-5.09
-4.91
-10.0
-10.11
-9.89
-15.0
-15.14
-14.86
-20.0
-20.26
-19.74
-25.0
-25.59
-24.41
-30.0
-31.52
-28.48
-34.0
-37.05
-30.95
Maintenance
Table 7-11. 56418 Sensor Linearity (CW)
Cal Level
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
CH1
(dB)
Measured
CH2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
5.0
4.91
5.09
0.0
-0.09
0.09
-5.0
-5.09
-4.91
-10.0
-10.09
-9.91
-15.0
-15.10
-14.90
-20.0
-20.13
-19.87
-25.0
-25.22
-24.78
-30.0
-30.49
-29.51
-35.0
-36.26
-33.74
-40.0
-43.05
-37.95
Table 7-12. 56518, 56526, 56546 Sensor Linearity (CW)
Cal Level
(dBm)
Maintenance
Minimum
(dB)
CH1
(dB)
Measured
CH2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
20.0
19.83
20.17
15.0
14.83
15.17
10.0
9.83
10.17
5.0
4.83
5.17
0.0
-0.17
0.17
-5.0
-5.17
-4.83
-10.0
-10.17
-9.83
-15.0
-15.17
-14.83
-20.0
-20.17
-19.83
-25.0
-25.18
-24.82
-30.0
-30.19
-29.81
-35.0
-35.24
-34.76
-40.0
-40.39
-39.62
-45.0
-45.92
-44.19
-50.0
-53.18
-48.07
7-13
Sensor Frequency
Calibration Factor
Verification
Verify the frequency calibration factors for the peak power sensors
by comparing the Model 4400A/4500A measurements to those of an NIST
traceable power sensor. The specifications for Boonton peak power sensors are listed
in Tables 7-13 through 7-16.
Before performing the sensor frequency calibration factor verification procedure,
photocopy the tables (7-13 through 7-16) that are applicable to your sensor(S) (as
explained in the procedures) and use them to record the measurement data. The
sensor types 56318, 56418 and 56518 use Table 7-14 starting with the 0.50 GHz
frequency. Ignore readings below 0.50 GHz for sensors of this type. Attach the
completed table(s) to the Checklist.
Verify the sensor frequency calibration factor for each sensor as follows:
1.
Connect the peak power sensor cable to Channel 1 of the Model 4400A/4500A.
2.
Connect the peak power sensor to the Model 4400A/4500A calibrator output.
3.
Press the INIT system key to reset the Model 4400A/4500A settings to their default
states.
4.
Autocalibrate the sensor by selecting Chan 1 > Calibration > AutoCal START.
5.
Set the Timebase to 100 µs by selecting Time > Timebase 100 µs/Div.
6.
Set Marker 1 to -400 µs by selecting Mark > Marker 1 400 µs.
7.
Set Marker 2 to 400 µs by selecting Mark > Marker 2 400 µs.
8.
Set the Delta Marker mode to Average by selecting Mark > Extensions > Delta
Marker Avg.
9.
Connect the appropriate reference sensor (NIST traceable) to the HP437B power meter.
10. Calibrate and zero the HP437B power meter using its internal 50 MHz calibrator.
11. Tune the Wiltron 6669A sweep generator to 1.0 GHz and adjust its output level to
0 dBm.
12. For Type N sensors, connect the K-to-N adapter and the 44-6 6-dB attenuator to the
6669A output.
13. For Type K sensors, connect the 41KC-6 6 dB attenuator to the 6669A output.
14. Connect the appropriate calibrated reference sensor to the 6669A output.
15. Set a reference on the HP437B at 0.00 dBm.
16. Select the table (Table 7-13 through 7-16) that corresponds to the peak power sensor
type to be tested and set the 6669A to the test frequencies listed in the table.
7-14
Maintenance
Table 7-13. 56018 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
Measured
Frequency
(GHz)
Reference
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
CH 1
(dB)
CH 2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
0.50
-0.14
0.14
2.00
-0.16
0.16
4.00
-0.17
0.17
6.00
-0.18
0.18
8.00
-0.19
0.19
10.00
-0.19
0.19
12.00
-0.19
0.19
14.00
-0.20
0.20
16.00
-0.20
0.20
18.00
-0.20
0.20
Table 7-14. 56218, 318*, 418*, 518* Sensor Frequency
Calibration Factor Accuracy
Measured
Frequency
(GHz)
Reference
(dBm)
Minimum
(db)
CH 1
(dB)
CH 2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
0.03
-0.13
0.13
0.10
-0.13
0.13
0.50
-0.13
0.13
2.00
-0.16
0.16
4.00
-0.17
0.17
6.00
-0.19
0.19
8.00
-0.20
0.20
10.00
-0.20
0.20
12.00
-0.20
0.20
14.00
-0.21
0.21
16.00
-0.21
0.21
18.00
-0.21
0.21
* Only perform measurements at 0.50 to 18 GHz.
Maintenance
7-15
Table 7-15. 56326, 56526 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
Measured
Frequency
(GHz)
Reference
(dBm)
Minimum
(db)
CH 1
(dB)
CH 2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
0.50
-0.14
0.14
2.00
-0.15
0.15
4.00
-0.19
0.19
6.00
-0.19
0.19
8.00
-0.20
0.20
10.00
-0.20
0.20
12.00
-0.20
0.20
14.00
-0.21
0.21
16.00
-0.21
0.21
18.00
-0.21
0.21
20.00
-0.26
0.26
22.00
-0.26
0.26
24.00
-0.26
0.26
26.50
-0.26
0.26
17. For each test frequency, calculate the corrected power measurements using the NIST
traceable test data. Record the results in the “Reference” column of the table.
18. Disconnect the calibrated reference sensor from the 6669A output.
19. Tune the 6669A to 1.0 GHz.
20. Connect the peak power sensor to the 6669A output.
21. Tune the Model 4500 to 1.00 GHz by selecting Meas > Freq CH 1 1.00 GHz.
22. Adjust the Model 4400A/4500A using Chan 1 > Extensions > dB Offset until the
Delta Marker reads 0.00 dB.
23. Tune the 6669A to the test frequencies listed in the selected table.
7-16
Maintenance
Table 7-16. 56340, 56540 Sensor Frequency Calibration Factor Accuracy
Measured
Frequency
(GHz)
Reference
(dBm)
Minimum
(dB)
CH 1
(dB)
CH 2
(dB)
Maximum
(dB)
0.50
-0.14
0.14
2.00
-0.15
0.15
4.00
-0.19
0.19
6.00
-0.19
0.19
8.00
-0.20
0.20
10.00
-0.20
0.20
12.00
-0.20
0.20
14.00
-0.21
0.21
16.00
-0.21
0.21
18.00
-0.21
0.21
20.00
-0.26
0.26
22.00
-0.26
0.26
24.00
-0.26
0.26
26.50
-0.26
0.26
28.00
-0.31
0.31
32.00
-0.31
0.31
36.00
-0.31
0.31
40.00
-0.31
0.31
24. For each test frequency of the 6669A, tune the Model 4400A/4500A to the
same frequency, using the Meas > Freq CH 1 ##.## GHz function.
25. For each test frequency, calculate the corrected power measurements by subtracting
the previously recorded calibrated power measurements in the “Reference” column
of the table from the Avg. Marker measurement. Record the result in the
“Measured” column.
26. Disconnect the peak power sensor from the 6669A output.
27. Repeat Steps 1 through 26, substituting Channel 2 for Channel 1.
Maintenance
7-17
Sensor Risetime
Verification
The risetime test uses the internal calibrator and the automatic
measuring (Text) mode of the Model 4400A/4500A to measure the risetime of the
sensor.
Before performing the sensor risetime verification procedure, photocopy Table 7-17
and use it to record the measurement data. Attach the completed table to the
Checklist.
If cable lengths other than 5 feet are used with the sensors, check the cable length
specification in Chapter 1.
Table 7-17. Sensor Risetime
Bandwidth
Level
(dBm)
Trigger Level
(dBm)
Sensor 56018, 56318, 56326, 56340
High
Low
Serial Number:
<200ns
+20
+15
<15.3ns*
+15
+10
<15.5ns*
+10
+5
<15.8ns*
+5
0
<16.1ns*
0
-5
<16.5ns*
Serial Number:
Sensor 56418
<30ns
+5
0
0
-5
-5
-10
-10
-15
-15
-20
<100ns
Serial Number:
Sensor 56218
<150ns
+20
+15
+15
+10
+10
+5
+5
0
0
-5
<500ns
* When using the internal calibrator for fast risetime measurements, the contribution of
the calibrator is added to the specified value for this test.
7-18
Maintenance
Table 7-17.
Sensor Risetime (continued)
Bandwidth
Level
(dBm)
Trigger
Level
(dBm)
CH1 High
Risetime
<100 (ns)
CH1 Low
Risetime
<300 (ns)
CH2 High
Risetime
<100 (ns)
CH2 Low
Risetime
<300 (ns)
Sensor 56518, 56526, 56540
20.0
-10.0
15.0
-10.0
10.0
-10.0
5.0
-10.0
0.0
-10.0
-5.0
-10.0
-10.0
-25.0
-15.0
-25.0
-20.0
-25.0
Serial #_______________
Serial #_______________
To measure sensor risetime:
1.
Connect the peak power sensor cable to Channel 1 of the Model 4400A/4500A.
2.
Connect the peak power sensor to the calibrator output.
3.
Perform AutoCal, if required.
4.
Press the INIT system key to reset the instrument’s settings to their default states
(High Video BW mode).
5.
Set the calibrator to pulse mode by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Mode Pulse.
6.
Turn the calibrator on by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
For each of the levels in Table 7-17:
7.
Set the timebase to the value of the specified risetime for the sensor under test by
selecting Time > Timebase #.
8.
Set the calibrator output level to the value listed in Table 7-17 by selecting
Spcl > Calibrator > Set Level #.
9.
Set the trigger level to the value listed in Table 7-17 by selecting Trig > Trig Level #.
10. Press the TEXT system key to change the operating mode to the text display.
11. Record the risetime reading in Table 7-17.
12. Repeat Steps 8 through 11 for each level listed in Table 7-17.
13. Select Low Video BW by pressing Chan > Extensions > Video BW Low.
14. Repeat Steps 7 through 11 while in the Low Video BW mode.
15. To measure CH 2 risetime, repeat steps 1-14, substituting CH 2 for CH 1, and setting
the trigger source to CH2 internal by pressing Trig > Trig Source CH 2 Int.
Maintenance
7-19
Calibrator
External Pulse
Verification
Verify the external pulse input for the calibrator after the sensor has
been calibrated (Subsection 7.7). The external pulse input is a TTL-compatible
input located on the rear panel of the Model 4400A/4500A.
To test the external pulse input, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect the Channel 1 sensor to the calibrator output.
2.
Press the INIT system key to reset the instrument’s settings to their default states.
3.
Set the calibrator output to 5 dBm by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Set Level 5 dBm.
4.
Set the calibrator trigger to External by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse >
Source Ext.
5.
Select positive trigger polarity by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Pulse > Polarity +.
6.
Set the calibrator to pulse mode by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Mode Pulse.
7.
Turn the calibrator on by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
8.
Connect a BNC cable between the external pulse generator output and the
EXT PULSE input on the Model 4400A/4500A.
9.
Set the external pulse generator output for 5 volts, 50 ohms, 100 µs pulse
period, 50 µs pulse width.
The Model 4400A/4500A should display a 5 dBm pulsed waveform with the
period and pulse width indicated in Step 9.
IEEE-488 Bus
Verification
Use the IEEE-488 controller and the Model 4400A/4500A to perform a READ,
WRITE, and SRQ.
1.
Set the IEEE-488 bus address by selecting Util > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Address #.
2.
Press the CLR key to clear any pending errors.
3.
Using the IEEE-488 controller, send the command TKMEAS to the Model
4400A/4500A.
The REM front panel annunciator should illuminate indicating that the Model
4400A/4500A is in the remote mode; the LSN annunciator should illuminate
indicating that the Model 4400A/4500A is “listen addressed.” No errors should
be indicated on the display.
4.
Enter or read a string from the IEEE-488 bus.
The TLK annunciator should illuminate indicating that the Model 4400A/4500A
is in the talk mode. (The REM annunciator may either be On or Off, depending
on the controller.)
5.
Enable the SRQ by selecting Util > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask 128.
The SRQ should illuminate.
6.
7.
7-20
Return the Model 4400A4500A to the default state by pressing the INIT system key.
Enter a “0” into the SRQ mask by selecting Util > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask 0.
Maintenance
Serial Port 1
Verification
Serial Port 1 is normally used to connect a serial plotter to the Model 4400A/4500A.
For this test, an EIA RS-232C terminal will be connected to the Model 4400A/4500A to
simulate the plotter and display the instrument’s output.
To verify Serial Port 1, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect a serial cable (See Appendix B) between the RS-232 1 connector (located
on the rear panel of the Model 4400A/4500A) and the RS-232C terminal.
2.
Configure Serial Port 1 by selecting the Util > Serial > COM 1 menu and selecting the
appropriate communication parameters.
3.
Press the PLOT system key.
After a short delay, data will be displayed on the terminal. These are the HPGL
commands in ASCII format that would normally be sent to the plotter. Typical
commands are PU, SR, PD, IN, RO,..., followed by commas and numbers.
7.7 Calibration
User calibration of the Model 4400A/4500A involves adjusting the fixed level of the
calibrator at 0 dBm. This procedure may be performed either as part of the annual
maintenance cycle of the instrument, or after the calibrator is repaired or removed from
the frame. During annual maintenance, conduct the performance verification procedures
presented earlier in this section to determine if recalibration is required.
If calibration is required, allow sufficient time* for the instrument and the test
equipment to warm up and stabilize. The calibrator assembly in the Model
4400A/4500A remains powered while the instrument is in the standby mode. When the
unit has been in standby, a 15-minute warmup period is required before you initiate
these calibration procedures. Otherwise, a two-hour warmup period is required.
*Refer to test equipment manufacturers’ specifications.
Maintenance
7-21
Calibrator 0 dBm Setting
Use the following procedure to calibrate the calibrator 0 dBm output setting:
1.
Connect the EPM-1 sensor to its own calibrator output.
2.
Calibrate and zero the EPM-1.
3.
Connect the EPM-1 sensor to the 50 MHz calibrator output on the HP437B.
4.
Enable the calibrator output and record the measurement.
5.
Connect the HP8481A H39 sensor to the 50 MHz calibrator output.
6.
Calibrate and zero the HP437B using a 100.00% calibration factor.
7.
Enable the calibrator service mode on the Model 4400A/4500A by selecting Spcl >
Servicing > Cal Mode On.
8.
Set the calibrator output level to 0.0 dBm by selecting Spcl > Calibrator >
Set Level 0.0 dBm.
9.
Set the calibrator output mode to CW by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Mode CW.
10. Enable the calibrator output by selecting Spcl > Calibrator > Cal Output On.
11. Connect the HP8481A H39 sensor to the Model4400A/ 4500A calibrator output
connector.
12. Enter the calibration factor for 1 GHz from the calibration data report.
13. Activate the 0 dBm calibration mode by selecting Spcl > Calibrator >
Extensions > Fixed Cal
14. Adjust the Fixed Cal value until the HP437B reading equals the negative of the value
recorded in Step 4.
15. Disable the calibrator service mode on the Model 4400A/4500A by selecting Spcl >
Servicing > Cal Mode Off.
This completes the calibration procedure.
7-22
Maintenance
Appendix A
Error Messages
NO.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
1
Err Range of #
A number sent over the bus is out of range of the selected parameter.
2
Err # of Digits
Too many digits entered into the current function.
3
Err Under Range
Measured power level is under the specified limit of the sensor.
4
Err Over Range
Measured power level is over the specified limit of the sensor.
5
No CH Responding
CH1 and CH2 do not respond to instrument control.
6
CH1 Not Responding
Channel 1 is not responding to instrument control. (Channel may not
be installed.)
7
CH2 Not Responding
Channel 2 is not responding to instrument control. (Channel may not
be installed.)
10
Not supported
The current software revision does not support the function selected.
11
Err 12C Ack missing
Missing Acknowledge signal while assessing the I2C bus.
12
Err 12C Timeout
The system software has timed-out while communicating over the I2C
bus.
13
Ref CH not Selected
Accessing a REF Channel parameter over the bus while the Ref CH has
not been enabled.
14
MK Delta Invalid
The marker delta value is not valid in the present instrument
configuration.
15
No Calibrator
The calibrator is not responding to instrument control. (Calibrator may
not be installed.)
16
Selected CH not Active
The channel that is selected is not active. This error is generated when
channel related functions are executed but the channel is not active and
no action can be taken.
17
DSP Not Responding
The DSP circuitry is not responding to instrument control. (The DSP
chip may not be installed.)
Error Messages
A-1
NO.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
18
DSP Interface Error
Communication fault between the system CPU and the DSP chip.
19
FPLA Interface
Communication fault between the system CPU and the Field
Programmable Logic Array.
20
CAL Level > Limit
Attempt to set the calibrator Set Level greater than the Max Power
level.
21
CAL Limit < Set LVL
Attempt to set the Max Power level less than the calibrator Set level.
22
Sensor Disconnected
Attempt to set the Max Power level less than the calibrator Set level.
23
Measurement Error
There are no valid measurements to read from the instrument in its
present configuration
24
Out of Freq Rng
Entering a frequency which is not within the range of the sensor.
25
Err CH1 Sensor Data
Checksum failure of the EEPROM located on the sensor connected to
Channel 1.
26
Err CH2 Sensor Data
Checksum failure of the EEPROM located on the sensor connected to
Channel 2.
28
Err Pulse Meas
The pulse power measurement is not valid.
29
Err Func Unavailable
In the present instrument configuration the selected function cannot be
executed. Check for power channel functions being executed when
reference or math channel is active, or instrument is in CW mode
during pulse measurement operations.
30
Err Bus Buffer
IEEE-488 Listen buffer overflow. The input string is greater than 1024
characters.
31
Err Bus Command
Received an illegal mnemonic.
32
Err Bus String
Incorrect input data format.
33
Sensor CH1 + Voltage
The positive power supply for the sensor on channel 1 is out of range.
34
Sensor CH1 - Voltage
The negative power supply for the sensor on channel 1 is out of range.
35
Sensor CH2 + Voltage
The positive power supply for the sensor on channel 2 is out of range.
36
Sensor CH2 - Voltage
The negative power supply for the sensor on channel 2 is out of range.
37
Autocal is Required
The current measurements may not be valid because the instrument
requires a new autocal.
38
Err Cal Exited
The AutoCal routine has been aborted by depressing the "ESC" key.
39
Fixed Cal Terminated
Unable to perform fixed cal because lower level is greater than + - 1
dB from 0 dBm.
A-2
Error Messages
NO.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
41
AutoCal A/D Overrng
The automatic calibration cycle cannot calibrate the sensor.
42
AutoCal Linearity
The measurement sub-system linearity is out of acceptable range. Try a
different sensor or the same sensor on a second channel to determine if
the problem is the sensor or input board.
43
AutoCal Low Level
A level lower than expected was detected during AutoCal.
44
AutoCal Process
Check the selected channedl to verifty that the sensor is connected to
the calibrator. The calibrator operation can be verified with an average
power meter.
45
Zeroing Out of Range
Cannot zero the sensor. Possibly a signal is being applied.
46
Fixed Cal Err > 1dB
Attempted a fixed point calibration with an input level greater than +/1 dBm.
47
Unable to Zero/Cal
This message indicates that a correct signal level is not available to
zero or calibrate the 4500. Zeroing requires no signal and fixed
calibration requires 0 dBm +- 1dB.
48
CH1 Disabled
The channel that the selected function is acting on is not active. The
solution is to activate the required channel.
49
CH2 Disabled
The channel that the selected function is acting on is not active. The
solution is to activate the required channel.
50
AutoCal Data Error
The non-volatile autocal data is not valid. A new autocal must be
executed before measurements can be made.
51
Autocal Temp Drift
This is a measurement error. It is reported over the IEEE-488 bus when
the instrument has drifted out of the specified temperature window. The
instrument continues to measure, but the accuracy is slightly degraded.
52
Ref Line CH Not Set
In the reference line tracking mode you must assign a channel to the
reference lines. The channel vertical scale and offset is used to
determine the screen position for the reference lines.
53
A-Setup CH1 UNCAL
CH1 must be autocaled before autosetup is initiated.
54
A-Setup CH2 UNCAL
CH2 must be autocaled before autosetup is initiated.
55
Loc 0 Recall Only
Program location 0 contains the factory default settings. This location
is recall only.
56
A-Setup No Trigger
The 4500 has not detected a trigger event that is usable for autosetup.
Check the trigger source selection.
57
A-Setup Slow Trig
The trigger events are occurring too slowly for the autosetup function
to determine a valid setup.
Error Messages
A-3
NO.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
58
A-Setup Too Complex
The signal being applied to the instrument is too complex. The signal is
not repeatable or is a pulse train which contains multiple valid trigger
events.
59
REF Tracking On
The reference line display level can not be changed from the front
panel or the bus when the tracking mode is enabled.
60
Calibrator EE-Write
(EE-Access)
Access is denied because the calibrator is not in the
standby mode.
61
Calibrator (Temp)
The internal temperature of the calibrator is outside the range of
compensation.
62
Calibrator 12C
Indicates an error communicating with the calibrator.
63
Calibrator EE-Ack
An Acknowledge is not being received from the EEPROM during read
or write operations.
64
Cal EEPROM-Chksum
The checksum routine performed on the EEPROM memory of the
calibrator yields a non-zero result.
65
Cal EEPROM-Chksum
The checksum routine performed on the program memory of the
microcontroller yields a non-zero result.
66
Calibrator Leveling
Occurs if the DAC # is a negative number while attempting to set a
level.
67
CH1 Trigger Display
When CH1 is assigned to the trigger display, power channel functions
are disabled.
68
CH2 Trigger Display
When CH2 is assigned to the trigger display, power channel functions
are disabled.
69
CH1 & CH2 Trig Disp
When CH1 & CH2 are assigned to the trigger display, power channel
functions are disabled.
71
Reserved
86
Reserved
87
DSP Table Expansion
DSP Operation Error
105
Math Error
The system software has produced a mathematical result which has no
relevance.
106
Stacking Error
The system stack has overflowed or is empty when an argument is
expected.
107
Table Range Error
An address vector points beyond the end of the table array of interest.
110
Unsupported Function
Disk drive software error. Used for host program control.
112
Disk Write Protected
Cannot store a file to disk because the write protect tab is set.
114
Diskette Full !
There are no free bytes available on the diskette.
A-4
Error Messages
NO.
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
119
File Not Found !
The file number selected does not exist when using a recall function.
120
File Already Exists
The file number selected has been previously used.
123
Insufficient Space
The file being created is greated than the available space on the diskette.
129
Drive Not Ready !
Either a diskette is missing from the drive or the drive is not operating.
131
File Creation Error
Could not create a new file. Check disk format and space.
132
NVRAM File Error
The NVRAM data is corrupted.
133
NVRAM File Not Found
An NVRAM file is not present - the data is corrupt.
134
Plotter Not Ready
Attempted to plot with the plotter offline - try reconnecting.
135
Printer Not Ready
Attempted to print with the printer offline - try reconnecting.
138
Path Not Found
An invalid path was used internally in a filename.
139
Disk Access Denied
Attempted to write to a read-only file.
140
Disk Fn Error
DOS returned a device error while accessing the disk.
141
Disk File Error
DOS was unable to completed the requested file operation.
142
Lic EEPROM-Chksum
The feature license password data is corrupted.
Error Messages
A-5
Appendix B
Plotter Operation
This appendix provides instructions for generating a hardcopy output of the
4400A/4500A display. The 4400A/4500A supports plotters that conform to the
HPGL graphics standard, ThinkJet and LaserJet printers. The printers add the
ability to record persistence information. A list of compatible devices that have
been tested successfully with the Model 4400A/4500A is presented in Table
B-1.
B.1 Plotter Installation
The Model 4400A/4500A outputs data to a plotter, printer, or an
IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) through the Serial 1 connector on the
rear panel. Table B-1 lists the appropriate interface cables for the available
plotters and IBM-compatibles. Figure B-1 illustrates the pin connections for the
DB9/DB25 cable used with the plotters listed in Table B-1. The DB9/DB9
cable used to connect the Model 4400A/4500A to a PC is wired on a “straight
through” (“pin-for-pin”) basis.
Table B-1 Printer/Plotter Interfaces
Device Type
Cable Connectors
Model 4500
Printer/Plotter
Remarks
Device
HP 7474 and
HP 7475A
DB9 Female
IEEE-488
DB25 Male
IEEE-488
Requires handshake:
RTS or XON-XOFF
Plotter
Fujitsu FPG-315-101
Color
DB9 Female
DB25 Male
IBM Comaptible PC
DB9 Female
DB9 Female
HP ThinkJet
DB9 Female
IEEE-488
DB25 Male
DB25 Male
IEEE-488
Centronics
Requires handshake:
RTS or XON-XOFF
Printer
HP LaserJet II
DB9 Female
IEEE-488
DB25 Male
DB25 Male
IEEE-488
Centronics
Requires handshake:
RTS or XON-XOFF
Printer
Plotter Operations
Plotter
B-1
B.2 Plotter Operation
Pre-Print, Pre-Plot
Checks
Operations
Before operating the printer/plotter:
a.
Verify that the printer/plotter is turned on and connected to the Serial 1
port, parallel print port, or IEEE-488 through the proper interface
cable.
b.
Verify that the plotter pens are installed properly and paper has been
loaded.
c.
Verify that the printer/plotter indicates “ON LINE.”
Before any plotting can be performed, the onstrument must be configured for
PLOT device, device type, output port and the specific settings for the selected
serial or IEEE-488 interface. These functions are located in the Util > Hardcopy
menu.
The Util > Hardcopy > Device should be "plotter" or "printer."
Select the correct Util > Harcdopy >Model; the list is different based on the
device selection of "plotter" or "printer."
Select the Util > Hardcopy output port for the printer/plotter. The choices are
COM 1, LPT 1, IEEE-488 or disk.
COM 1:
If the serial output port is selected, then under the Util >
Serial > COM 1 menu the baud rate, length, stop bits,handshake,
and Xon-Xoff must be assigned. They must be the same as the
printer/plotter.
Incorrect setting will cause the output device to generate incorrect
printouts, or the instrument may not communicate. If this happens,
press the ESC key to cancel the plot.
If you are using the handshake selection and the instrument does
not communicate properly, try setting the handshake to "none" and
turn the Xon-Xoff "On" and try plotting again.
LPT 1:
No additional configuration settings are required.
IEEE-488: If the IEEE-488 output port is selected, the only addition to the
configuration is the setting of the printer/plotter bus address in
the Util > Hardcopy > Extensions submenu.
DISK:
If the disk output port option is selected, the file select can be
made in Util > Hardcopy > File Select.
Press the PLOT system key to plot the current display.
B-2
Plotter Operations
Post-Plot
When the plot is complete:
a.
A message will appear on the display indicating that the output plot is
complete.
b.
If the output device is a plotter:
c. Operate the plotter ON-LINE control to take the plotter off line.
d. Remove the plot from the plotter.
e. Unless you expect the plotter to be used again soon, remove and cap
the plotter pens.
Date/Time
The current date and time can be selected to appear on the display and the
output plot in place of the Boonton “Logo” (See Table 4-41), by using Disp >
Format > Disp Header > Date/Time.
B.3 Sample Plot
Figure B-1 is a sample output plot from the Model 4500A.
Boonton 4500A Pulse
Freq
Mark >
1.00 GHz
Tr CH
1Int
VScale
10 dB
Vid BW
Low
Tr Lvl
-5.00 dBm
Center
0.00 dBm
Avging
30
Tr Dly
-37.2 us
Offset
0.00 dB
Window
Bottom
Marker 1
>MK1
-28.08 dBm
RATIO
-39.85 dB
MK2
11.77 dBm
-5.2 us
Delta Time
11.6 us
Marker 2
6.4 us
Set Vrt Cntr
CENTER
Extensions
-100.4 us
20 us/Div
99.6 us
MENU
Figure B-1. Sample Output Plot
Plotter Operations
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Appendix C
Repair and Warranty
This appendix states the repair and warranty policies that apply to the Models
4400A/4500A.
C.1 Repair Policy
Model 4400A/4500A Instrument
If the Boonton Model 4400A/4500A is not operating correctly and requires
service, contact the Boonton Electronics Service Department for return
authorization. You will be provided with an RMA number and shipping
instructions. Customers outside the USA should contact the authorized Boonton
distributor for your area. The entire instrument must be returned in its original
packing container. If the original container is not available, Boonton
Electronics will ship a replacement container and you will be billed for the
container cost and shipping charges.
Boonton Peak Power Sensors
Damaged or defective peak power sensors are repaired as separate accessories.
Note that sensors which have failed due to overloading are not considered
defective and will not be covered by the Boonton Warranty. If repair is needed,
contact the Boonton Electronics Service Department for return authorization.
You will be provided with an RMA number and shipping instructions.
Customers outside the USA should contact the authorized Boonton distributor
for your area. Only the defective sensor should be returned to Boonton, not the
entire instrument. The sensor must be returned in its original packing container.
If the original container is not available, Boonton Electronics will ship a
replacement container and you will be billed for the container cost and shipping
charges. If a new sensor is ordered, note that it does not include a sensor cable
- this item must be ordered separately.
Contacting Boonton
Repair and Warranty
Customers in the United States having questions or equipment problems may
contact Boonton Electronics directly during business hours (8 AM to 5 PM
Eastern) by phoning (973) 386-9696. FAX messages may be sent at any time to
(973) 386-9191. International customers should contact their authorized
Boonton Electronics representative for assistance. A list of authorized US and
international representatives is provided in Appendix C.
C-1
C.2 Warranty
Boonton Electronics Corporation warrants its products to the original Purchaser
to be free from defects in material and workmanship and to operate within
applicable specifications for a period of one year from date of shipment for
instruments, probes, power sensors and accessories. Boonton Electronics further
warrants that its instruments will perform within all current specifications under
normal use and service for one year from date of shipment. These warranties do
not cover active devices that have given normal service, sealed assemblies
which have been opened, or any item which has been repaired or altered without
Boonton’s authorization.
Boonton’s warranties are limited to either the repair or replacement, at
Boonton’s option, of any product found to be defective under the terms of these
warranties.
There will be no charge for parts and labor during the warranty period. The
Purchaser shall prepay shipping charges to Boonton or its designated service
facility and shall return the product in its original or an equivalent shipping
container. Boonton or its designated service facility shall pay shipping charges
to return the product to the Purchaser. The Purchaser shall pay all shipping
charges, duties and taxes if a product is returned to Boonton from outside of the
United States.
THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Boonton will not be liable for any
incidental damages or for any consequential damages, as defined in Section
2-715 of the Uniform Commercial Code, in connection with products covered
by the foregoing warranties.
C-2
Repair and Warranty
Appendix D
Sensor Performance Specifications
This appendix details the sensor performance specifications that apply to the
Models 4400A/4500A.
Tables D-1 through D-17 give the sensor specifications by sensor number.
Table D-18 outlines the sensor cable length effect on risetime specifications.
Sensor Specifications
D-1
Table D-1
Model 56218 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
0.03 to 18 GHz
<150 ns*
<500 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<300 ns
<1 µs
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.03 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Connector
Type N
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.25 (0.111)
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Peak Power (dBm)
D-2
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Level (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
Table D-2
Model 56218-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
0.04 to 18 GHz
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
<60 ns
<250 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<120 ns
<500 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.03 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Connector
Type N
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.25 (0.111)
Specifications subject to change without notice.
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
50 nS
Level (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-3
Table D-3
Model 56218-S/3 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
0.03 to 18 GHz
<150 ns*
<500 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-40 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<300 ns
<1 µs
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.03 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
4 µW (100 samples)
0.05 µW (10 samples)
Connector
Type N
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.25 (0.111)
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Peak Power (dBm)
D-4
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Level (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
Table D-4
Model 56218-S/4 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
1 MHz to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
1 MHz to 18 GHz
<1.5 us (240 kHz min)
<2.0 us (180 kHz min)
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
3 us
4 us
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±.2.3%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.25 (0.111)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
dB
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
Level (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-5
Table D- 5 Model 56218-S/5 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
1 MHz to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
1 MHz to 18 GHz
<3.0 us (120 kHz min)
<3.9 us ( 90 kHz min)
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
6 us
8 us
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±.2.3%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.25 (0.111)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
dB
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
Level (dBm)
D-6
Sensor Specifications
Table D-6
Model 56318 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.5 to 18 GHz
0.5 to 18 GHz
<15 ns*
<200 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<30 ns
<400 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.28 (0.123)
1.34 (0.145)
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Connector
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-7
Table D-7
Model 56318-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.2 to 0.5 GHz
0.5 to 18 GHz
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
0.2 to 18 GHz
<15 ns*
<200 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<30 ns
<400 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±3.9%
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.2 to 0.5 GHz
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.25 (0.111)
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.28 (0.123)
1.34 (0.145)
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
D-8
Sensor Specifications
Table D-8
Model 56326 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
0.5 to 26.5 GHz
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
to 26.5 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 4 GHz
4 to 18 GHz
18 to 26.5 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
<15 ns*
<200 ns
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
<30 ns
<400 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
+3.0
+1.6
+3.6
+2.2
+3.8
+2.3
+4.4
+2.6
+4.8
+2.9
+4.9
+3.1
+6.1
+4.0
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.45 (0.184)
1.50 (0.200)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High Bandwidth Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-9
Table D-9
Model 56340 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Specification
0.5 to 40 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
Shaping Error
±1.2%
<15 ns*
<200 ns
<30ns
<400ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
4.0 GHz
6.0 GHz
12.0 GHz
19.0 GHz
26.5 GHz
30.0 GHz
40.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
+ 2.8
+ 2.0
+ 4.9
+ 3.5
+ 5.5
+ 3.8
+ 6.8
+ 4.5
+ 8.2
+ 5.5
+ 8.9
+ 6.2
+ 11.5
+ 7.7
1.25 (0.111)
1.65 (0.245)
2.00 (0.333)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High Bandwidth Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
D-10
Sensor Specifications
Table D-10
Model 56340-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Specification
0.2 to 40 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm
-34 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
Shaping Error
±1.2%
<15 ns*
<200 ns
<30ns
<400ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
4.0 GHz
6.0 GHz
12.0 GHz
19.0 GHz
26.5 GHz
30.0 GHz
40.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
+ 2.8
+ 2.0
+ 4.9
+ 3.5
+ 5.5
+ 3.8
+ 6.8
+ 4.5
+ 8.2
+ 5.5
+ 8.9
+ 6.2
+ 11.5
+ 7.7
1.25 (0.111)
1.65 (0.245)
2.00 (0.333)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.4 µW (10 samples)
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High Bandwidth Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-11
Table D-11
Model 56340-S/3 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Specification
0.5 to 40 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm
-40 to +20 dBm
-10 to +20 dBm
Shaping Error
±1.2%
<100 ns*
<300 ns
<200ns
<600ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
4.0 GHz
6.0 GHz
12.0 GHz
19.0 GHz
26.5 GHz
30.0 GHz
40.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.2 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
+ 2.8
+ 2.0
+ 4.9
+ 3.5
+ 5.5
+ 3.8
+ 6.8
+ 4.5
+ 8.2
+ 5.5
+ 8.9
+ 6.2
+ 11.5
+ 7.7
1.25 (0.111)
1.65 (0.245)
2.00 (0.333)
4 µW (100 samples)
0.05 µW (10 samples)
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High Bandwidth Mode
Level (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
D-12
Sensor Specifications
Table D-12
Model 56418 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
0.5 to 18 GHz
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
<30 ns*
<100 ns
-34 to +5 dBm
-40 to +5 dBm
-18 to +5 dBm
<60ns
<200ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±1.2%
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.)
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15 (0.070)
1.20 (0.091)
1.28 (0.123)
1.34 (0.145)
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
400 nW (100 samples)
100 nW (10 samples)
Connector
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
dB
Nanoseconds
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
Level (dBm)
D-13
Table D-13
Model 56518 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.5 to 18 GHz
<100 ns*
<300 ns
-40 to +20 dBm
-50 to +20 dBm
-27 to +20 dBm
<200 ns
<600 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1 W (+30 dBm) for 1 µs
±2% Pulse Mode
±2% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±4% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
(0.070)
(0.091)
(0.123)
(0.145)
50 nW (100 samples)
5 nW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
Peak Power (dBm)
D-14
Pulse Mode
and
dB
Nanoseconds
CW mode
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
Table D-14
Model 56518-S/1 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.2 to 0.5 GHz
0.5 to 18 GHz
Specification
0.2 to 18 GHz
<100 ns*
<300 ns
-40 to +20 dBm
-50 to +20 dBm
-27 to +20 dBm
<200 ns
<600 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1 W (+30 dBm) for 1 µs
±5% Pulse Mode
±5% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±7% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
±2% Pulse Mode
±2% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±4% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.2 to 0.5 GHz
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
1.25
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
(0.111)
(0.070)
(0.091)
(0.123)
(0.145)
50 nW (100 samples)
5 nW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
Pulse Mode
and
dB
Nanoseconds
CW mode
Peak Power (dBm)
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
D-15
Table D-15
Model 56518-S/2 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.5 to 18 GHz
Specification
0.5 to 18 GHz
<50 ns*
<150 ns
-40 to +20 dBm
-50 to +20 dBm
-27 to +20 dBm
<100 ns
<300 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1 W (+30 dBm) for 1 µs
±2% Pulse Mode
±2% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±4% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
Worst Case (%)RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
(0.070)
(0.091)
(0.123)
(0.145)
50 nW (100 samples)
5 nW (10 samples)
Type N
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
CW mode
Pulse Mode
and
dB
35 nS
Peak Power (dBm)
D-16
Sensor Specifications
Table D-16
Model 56526 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.5 to 26.5 GHz
<100 ns*
<300 ns
-40 to +20 dBm
-50 to +20 dBm
-27 to +20 dBm
<200 ns
<600 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1 W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±2% Pulse Mode
±2% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±4% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
Worst Case (%) RSS (%)
±3.0
±1.6
±3.6
±2.2
±3.8
±2.3
±4.3
±2.6
±4.7
±2.9
±4.9
±3.0
±6.1
±4.0
to 1.0 GHz
to 2.0 GHz
to 4.0 GHz
to 7.0 GHz
to 12.0 GHz
to 18.0 GHz
to 26.5 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 2 GHz
2 to 4 GHz
4 to 18 GHz
18 to 26.5 GHz
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
Connector
1.15
1.20
1.45
1.50
(0.070)
(0.091)
(0.184)
(0.200)
50 nW (100 samples)
5 nW (10 samples)
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
Pulse Mode
and
dB
Nanoseconds
CW mode
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
5
10
15
20
Peak Power (dBm)
D-17
Table D-17
Model 56540 Sensor Performance Specifications†
Parameter
Specification
Frequency Range
Risetime (10% - 90%):
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Power Range:
Pulse
CW
Internal Trigger Range
Minimum Internal Trigger Pulse Width:
High Bandwidth
Low Bandwidth
Maximum Power Input:
Continuous Power
Peak Power
Shaping Error
0.5 to 40 GHz
<100 ns*
<300 ns
-40 to +20 dBm
-50 to +20 dBm
-27 to +20 dBm
<200 ns
<600 ns
200 mW (+23 dBm)
1 W (+30 dBm) for 1µs
±2.4% Pulse Mode
±2.4% CW Mode, -30 to +20 dBm
±4% CW Mode, -50 to -30 dBm
Calibration Factor Uncertainty:
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
Worst Case (%) RSS (%)
±2.8
±2.0
±4.9
±3.5
±5.5
±3.8
±6.8
±4.5
±8.2
±5.5
±8.9
±6.2
±11.5
±7.7
4.0 GHz
6.0 GHz
12.0 GHz
19.0 GHz
26.5 GHz
30.0 GHz
40.0 GHz
Input SWR (Refl. Coeff.):
0.5 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
1.25 (0.111)
1.65 (0.245)
2.00 (0.333)
Noise and Drift:
Pulse mode
CW mode after CW Zero
50 nW (100 samples)
5 nW (10 samples)
Connector
Type K
†Specifications subject to change without notice.
Temperature Influence (±4o from calibration)
*Typical Risetime in High BW Mode
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Peak Power (dBm)
D-18
Pulse Mode
and
dB
Nanoseconds
CW mode
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
5
10
15
20
Peak Power (dBm)
Sensor Specifications
Table D-18
Sensor Cable Length Effect on Risetime Specifications
Risetime specification for cable and input board combination which is sensor independent.
97102405A
97102410A
97102420A
97102425A
97102450A
Input Board with
Input Board with
Input Board with
Input Board with
Input Board with
Risetime
No Effect
15ns
40ns
50ns
75ns
5 Ft. Cable
10 Ft. Cable
20 Ft. Cable
25 Ft. Cable
50 Ft. Cable
To calculate the new risetime specification for a sensor, input board and cable combination; the square root of the
sum of the squares is used.
Risetime =
Example:
√ (Cable Risetime2 + Sensor Risetime2)
56318 and 20 Ft. cables
Hi BW Risetime = √ (402 + 152) = 43ns
Low BW Risetime = √(402 +200 2) = 506ns
5Ft
10Ft
20Ft
25 Ft
50 FT
56218
High Video BW
Low Video BW
150ns
500ns
151ns
500ns
156ns
502ns
158ns
502ns
168ns
506ns
56318, 56326, 56340
High Video BW
Low Video BW
15ns
200ns
21ns
200ns
43ns
204ns
52ns
206ns
77ns
214ns
56418
High Video BW
Low Video BW
30ns
100ns
34ns
101ns
50ns
108ns
58ns
112ns
81ns
125ns
56518, 56526, 56540
High Video BW
Low Video BW
100ns
300ns
101ns
300ns
108ns
303ns
112ns
304ns
125ns
309ns
Sensor Specifications
D-19
Appendix E
End User License Agreement
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE EMBEDDED
SYSTEM WHICH CONTAINS MICROSOFT SOFTWARE. By using the
embedded system containing software, you indicate your acceptance of the
following Software License Agreement.
This software license agreement, including the Warranty and Special Provisions
set forth in this appendix, is a legal agreement between you (either an individual
or an entity hereinafter "End User") and Boonton Electronics. By using the
Boonton Electronics Model 4400A/4500A on which software program(s) have
been preinstalled ("SOFTWARE"), you are agreeing to be bound by the terms of
this agreement.
1.
GRANT OF LICENSE. This License Agreement permits you to use the
Microsoft SOFTWARE as preinstalled on the Boonton Electronics
Model 4400A/4500A.
2.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. The Boonton Electronics Model
4400A/4500A contains intellectual property, i.e., software programs,
that is licensed for the end user customer’s use (hereinafter "End User").
This is not a sale of such intellectual property. The End User shall not
copy, disassemble, reverse engineer, or decompile the software program.
3.
COPYRIGHT The SOFTWARE is owned by Microsoft Corporation
or its suppliers and is protected by United States copyright laws and
international treaty provisions and all other applicable national laws.
Therefore, you must treat the SOFTWARE like any other copyrighted
material (e.g., a book or musical recording).
4.
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. The SOFTWARE and
documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use,
duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to
restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of The Rights in
Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013
or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19, as applicable. Manufacturer is
Microsoft Corporation/One Microsoft Way/Redmond, WA 98052-6399.
Please see the Warranty and Special Provisions for information concerning
governing law.
Product support for the SOFTWARE is not provided by Microsoft
Corporation or its subsidiaries. For product support, or any questions
concerning this agreement, please contact Boonton Electronics at the
support number shown in the Boonton Electronics Model 4400A/4500A
User’s Manual.
End User License Agreement
E-1
FOR THE LIMITED WARRANTY AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
PERTAINING TO YOUR COUNTRY, PLEASE REFER TO THE
WARRANTY SECTION OF THE BOONTON ELECTRONICS MODEL
4400A/4500A USER’S MANUAL.
APPENDIX
WARRANTY AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
LIMITED WARRANTY
LIMITED WARRANTY. Boonton Electronics warrants that (a) the
SOFTWARE will perform substantially in accordance with the accompanying
written materials for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of receipt. Any
implied warranties on the SOFTWARE are limited to ninety (90) days. Some
states/jurisdictions do not allow limitations on duration of an implied warranty,
so the above limitation may not apply to you.
CUSTOMER REMEDIES. Boonton Electronics’ and its suppliers’ entire
liability and your exclusive remedy shall be, at Boonton Electronics’ option,
either (a) return of the price paid, or (b) repair or replacement of the
SOFTWARE that does not meet the above Limited Warranty and which is
returned to Boonton Electronics with a copy of your receipt. This Limited
Warranty is void of failure of the SOFTWARE has resulted from accident,
abuse, or misapplication. Any replacement SOFTWARE will be warranted for
the remainder of the original warranty period or thirty (30) days, whichever is
longer.
NO OTHER WARRANTIES. THE MICROSOFT SOFTWARE
PROGRAMS ARE PROVIDED TO THE END USER "AS IS" WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTIES OF
NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK OF THE QUALITY AND
PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
NO LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. BOONTON
ELECTRONICS’ SUPPLIERS SHALL NOT BE HELD TO ANY LIABILITY
FOR ANY DAMAGES SUFFERED OR INCURRED BY THE END USER
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, GENERAL, SPECIAL,
CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES INCLUDING DAMAGES
FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF
BUSINESS INFORMATION AND THE LIKE), ARISING FROM OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE DELIVERY, USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE
SOFTWARE PROGRAM.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS
This Software License Agreement and Warranty are governed by the laws of the
State of Washington, U.S.A.
E-2
End User License Agreement
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