High Performance Cooled CCD Camera Systems

High Performance Cooled CCD Camera Systems
High Performance Cooled
CCD Camera Systems
2011
151 N. SunriseAve., Ste 902
Roseville CA 95661 USA
tel 916 218 7450
fax 916 218 7451
www.ccd.com
Fluorescence image courtesy Dr. David Rapaport, UCSD; echelle spectra, courtesy
Catalina Scientific; astro image courtesy Adam Block.
HIGH PERFORMANCE
COOLED CCD CAMERAS
QUALITY
O
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
A
pogee Alta® and Ascent® cameras are
designed for a wide range of demanding
scientific applications.
In Ascent, we reduced the size and cost
of our electronics and housings, while at the
same time maintaining the key features of
our popular Alta Series cameras. We added
high-speed 16-bit electronics and some new
sensors with resolutions up to 16 megapixels.
The larger Alta cameras offer lower
noise and deeper cooling than the Ascent
cameras. They also support a broad selection
of CCDs, from interlines to full frame
front-illuminated to back-illuminated, from
large pixels with exceptionally high dynamic
range, to very high resolution. You can also
choose from a broad selection of housings,
from our standard housing, to one with deep
cooling, or a short back focal distance (low
profile), or a wide entrance aperture (wide
angle). Most models are available with
either fan or liquid circulation methods for
removing heat from the back of the camera.
For both camera series, the direct USB
2.0 link between camera and computer allows
easy installation, portability and fast data
transfer rate. Ascent maintains compatibility
with our Alta ActiveX drivers, as well as
Linux and Mac OS X drivers.
ur goal is steady refinement in every
aspect of our cameras, including
product consistency, product lifetimes, ease
of adaptation and use, and added hardware
and software features. We also continue to
refine our procedures, documentation, and
customer recordkeeping. We’re proud of the
thousands of cameras that we’ve delivered,
but even more proud that so little effort is
needed to keep them all working. An Apogee
camera may become obsolete, but it is
extremely unlikely that it will stop working.
Your biggest worry: you may wear out an
electromechanical shutter every few years.
In our effort to improve our process, we’ve
achieved the following benchmarks:
· FCC compliance
· CE compliance
· ROHS compliance
· ISO-9000 compliance (in process)
VALUE
We supply the best price/performance in the
industry. Researchers rely on Apogee to
provide excellent value for their investment.
OEMs rely on Apogee Imaging Systems
to deliver ultra-reliable products on time
and with consistently high quality. Please
contact our sales team for a quotation for any
quantity, large or small.
EASE OF INTEGRATION
All of our systems run on a single universal
software driver. If you integrate control of
one Apogee system into a custom software
environment, you automatically have
support for any of our systems. Based on
the feedback we get from our customers,
integration is simple and straightforward.
We offer an ActiveX driver for Windows
environments. Our Linux driver and source
are posted on sourceforge. We also offer a
Mac OSX driver.
CUSTOMIZATION
Perhaps you need to incorporate custom
optical elements into your camera. Apogee
Imaging Systems has a long history of
working with customers to modify our
product line to fit their requirements. Let us
know how we can optimize our cameras to
best suit your application.
DIVERSITY ADDS STRENGTH
S
ince 1993, Apogee Imaging Systems
(formerly Apogee Instruments) has
been manufacturing cooled CCD cameras
for scientific applications. Our cameras are
now used in more than 50 countries, from
government and private research laboratories
to the best of world-class professional
observatories. Apogee cameras have been
used for a wide variety of applications,
including spectroscopic analysis of water, soil,
and gems; detection of anthrax; development
of methods and technologies for detection
of land mines and improvised explosive
devices (IEDs); analysis and detection of
contaminants at nuclear reactors; imaging
of fingerprints without chemicals; x-ray
inspection of car parts; fluorescent imaging of
cell tissues and microtitre plates; munitions
testing; laser beam profiling; poacher
surveillance; radiotherapy dosimetry; retinal
imaging; mammography; optics testing;
discovery of thousands of astronomical
objects; and radiometry of a wide variety of
light sources.
By expanding into broad markets with
diverse demands, Apogee has had to develop
a wide variety of technologies to solve
our customers’ problems. Our astronomy
and spectroscopy customers demand low
noise, high sensitivity, and high quantitative
accuracy. Our life science customers demand
speed and ease of use. All customers groups
are constantly pushing for higher performance
at lower prices.
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Alta and Ascent are
registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
ASCENT® versus ALTA® SERIES CAMERAS
LOWER COSTS
There are many factors to consider when
choosing a CCD camera: cost, resolution,
speed, noise, cooling, sensitivity, housing
size. Other features may contribute to a
system’s overall suitability, but most of
these features are shared by the Alta® and
Ascent®. In general, consider the following
key requirements to determine the optimal
platform:
Alta:
Low readout noise
Maximum cooling
Back-illuminated CCDs
Very large format CCDs
Optional ethernet interface
Many applications require clean, quantitative
images, but do not require the ultimate in
cooling or low readout noise. The Ascent
is an ideal solution for many applications
where several thousand dollars may be more
important than a few electrons.
LOW READOUT NOISE
HIGHER THROUGHPUT
Ascent was designed to operate at speeds
up to the maximum allowed by USB2.
Digitization speed is programmable so you
can choose your ideal trade-off between
speed and noise. All speeds digitize at a full
16 bits.
Ascent:
Low cost
High speed readout
Compact housing
Alta’s readout electronics were designed to
minimize readout noise. The higher speed
software-selectable 12-bit mode is intended
for focussing, and not optimized for low
noise.
ADVANCED COOLING
To maximize heat dissipation, Alta’s large
inner chamber, back plate, and heatsinks are
machined from a single block of aluminum.
The four fans have four programmable
speeds.
BACK-ILLUMINATED CCDs
Back-illuminated CCDs are much more
expensive than front illuminated CCDs,
so they are chosen when necessary for
maximum signal-to-noise under low light
conditions. Their higher dark current per
square millimeter requires the higher cooling
of larger Alta housing.
INTEGRATION CD
VERY LARGE FORMAT CCDS
The Alta platform is available in several
housing sizes, accomodating CCDs up to
50mm on a side.
Apogee has collected all of our brochures
and mechanical drawings onto an Integration
Starter Kit CD, together with software
drivers and documentation. Free on request.
Pictured below: covers of our astronomy, life
sciences, spectroscopy, and OEM brochures,
all of which are available for download at
www.ccd.com
COMPACT HOUSING
The Ascent’s smaller, more lightweight
housing fits in many places that the larger
Alta cannot.
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Alta and Ascent are
registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
ASCENT® versus ALTA® SERIES CAMERAS
The primary differences between the Ascent and Alta Series cameras: Ascent is very compact with much lower costs, much faster
digitization, and programmable gain. Alta is larger, with better cooling, and lower noise electronics. See the chart below for an
overview of the differences. See camera data sheets to get details of a specific model.
Feature
Ascent®
Alta®
16 bit, programmable speed
Fast 12 and slower 16 bit
Maximum throughput
Up to 16 Mpixels/sec (Note 1)
Up to 7 Mpixels/sec (Note 2)
Dual channel interline readout
Standard (on applicable CCDs)
N/A
Digitization
Progressive scan for interlines
Standard
Video focus mode
Standard
N/A
Maximum cooling
40C below ambient (Note 2)
70C below ambient (Note 2)
Temperature regulation
Programmable gain & offset
± 0.1°C
Standard
N/A
USB2 interface
Standard
Electromechanical shutter
N/A
Programmable fan speed
N/A
Standard, internal (Note 3)
Standard
Field upgradeable firmware
Standard
Chamber window
Fused silica
Peripheral communications
8 pin mini-DIN connector
General purpose I/O port
Standard
Programmable LEDs
Power input
Standard
6V
12V
Internal memory
Types of CCDs supported
32 Mbytes
Interline CCDs only
Back- & Front-Illuminated; Interline
External triggering
Standard
Image sequences
up to 65535 images
Hardware binning
Up to 8 x height of CCD
Subarray readout
Standard
TDI readout & Kinetics mode (Note 6)
Back focal distance
C-mount interface (Note 7)
N/A
0.32” (0.81 cm)
0.69” (17.5mm) and up (Note 2)
Optional, external (Note 5)
Software universality
Housing size
Standard (See note 4)
Standard for D01 & D03 housings
Standard
4.8” x 3.25” x 2.25”
6” x 6” x 2.5” (Note 6)
Warranty (Parts & labor)
2 years
Warranty against condensation
Lifetime
Note 1
Maximum single channel throughput 12.5 MHz; dual channels at 8 megapixels/sec each
Note 2
Varies from model to model.
Note 3
Electromechanical shutters are standard for full frame CCDs, and optional for interline CCDs.
Note 4
Does not apply to interline CCDs.
Note 5
CCDs >1” video format are generally too large for C-mount optics.
Note 6
Some housings are larger.
ASCENT® SERIES CAMERAS: 0VERVIEW
PROGRAMMABLE DIGITIZATION
Unlike previous generations of Apogee
cameras with fixed digitization rates for
each bit depth, the Ascent® cameras feature
programmable readout rates using 16-bit
digitization. You can choose the best tradeoff between noise and readout speed imageby-image. Some CCDs, like the Kodak
interline transfers, can read two channels at
up to 8 MHz each, for a total throughput of
16 megapixels per second. Other CCDs, like
the Sonys, typically have a single channel
maximum throughput rate of 12.5 MHz. See
individual camera data sheets for specifics
regarding each camera system.
PROGRAMMABLE GAIN AND
OFFSET
COMPACT DESIGN
All Ascent models feature programmable
gain and bias offset programmable in the
analog-to-digital converter.
ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATED
FUSED SILICA OPTICS
The standard chamber window for the Ascent
system is fused silica.
The Ascent systems are extremely
lightweight (0.65 kg) and compact. At 4.7” x
3.2” (11.9 x 8.1 cm) and only 1.3” (3.3 cm)
thick with no external electronics, the Ascent
is a marvel of compact electronics. The
standard back focal distance for all models is
about 0.32” (0.8 cm).
SINGLE 6V POWER SUPPLY
Ascent camera systems include a 6V
international power supply (100V-240V
input), but can be operated from a clean 6V
source.
ASCENT FILTER WHEEL
Ascent filter wheels are available for
6-positions for 1” (25mm) filters or 8-position
for 1.25” (31mm) filters (shown with optional
Nikon F-mount lens adapter).
ASCENT MODELS (ALL CCDs ARE INTERLINE TRANSFER)
Model
CCD*
A340
A1050
A2050
A2150
A2000
A4050
A4000
A8050
A16000
A29050
A205
A285
KAI-0340
KAI-1050
KAI-2050
KAI-2150
KAI-2020
KAI-4050
KAI-4022
KAI-8050
KAI-16000
KAI-29050
ICX205
ICX285
Array
684 x 484
1024 x 1024
1600 x 1200
1920 x 1080
1600 x 1200
2336 x 1752
2048 x 2048
3296 x 2472
4872 x 3248
6576 x 4384
1360 x 1024
1360 x 1024
Pixels
313K
1.1M
1.9M
2.1M
1.9M
4.2M
4.2M
8.1M
15.8M
28.8M
1.4M
1.4M
Pixel size
(microns)
7.4
5.5
5.5
5.5
7.4
5.5
7.4
5.5
7.4
5.5
4.65
6.45
CCD Size
(mm)
4.8 x 3.6
5.6 x 5.6
8.8 x 6.6
10.6 x 5.9
11.8 x 8.9
11.3 x 11.3
15.2 x 15.2
18.1 x 13.6
36 x 24
36 x 24
6.3 x 4.8
8.8 x 6.6
Area
(mm2)
17.2
34.8
58.1
62.7
105.1
126.9
229.7
246.5
866.5
872
30.1
57.9
Diagonal
(mm)
Video
size (“)
6.0
8.3
11.0
12.1
14.8
15.9
21.4
22.7
43.3
43.5
7.9
11.0
* KAI = Kodak and ICX = Sony. For complete CCD specifications, including cosmetic grading, see data sheet from manufacturer.
0.37
0.52
0.69
0.76
0.93
1.0
1.34
1.42
2.7
2.7
0.49
0.69
Ascent® Mechanical Drawings
2X .375
2X 2.500
1.75
#6-32 TPI
.425 TPI
.425
.67
2X .500
2.3
1.25
2X 1.500
2.31
3.97
4.84
Accessory
Interface
84
1/4-20 TP 1/4-20 TPI
.375
.375
.875
3.25
1.32
1.77
2.25
2.24
2.890
www.ccd.com
CFW25-6R with Nikon F-mount lens adapter mounted on Ascent® camera
Ascent® Part Numbering System /
CFW Compact Filter Wheels for Ascent
A1D-00285MS-FS
Window
A = Standard fused
silica, AR coated
C = Custom
Housing
A1
Channels
S = Single
D = Dual
CCD
00205 = Sony ICX205 (A205)
00285 = Sony ICX285 (A285)
0S340 = Kodak KAI-0340S
0D340 = Kodak KAI-0340D
01050 = Kodak KAI-1050 (A1050)
02050 = Kodak KAI-2050 (A2050)
02150 = Kodak KAI-2150 (A2150)
02020 = Kodak KAI-2020 (A2000)
04050 = Kodak KAI-4050 (A4050)
04022 = Kodak KAI-4022 (A4000)
08050 = Kodak KAI-8050 (A8050)
16000 = Kodak KAI-16000 (A16000)
29050 = Kodak KAI-29050 (A29050)
Cooling
F = Fan assist
N = No assist
CCD Grade
(as defined by manufacturer)
S = Standard
1 = Grade 1
2 = Grade 2
CCD Type
M = Monochrome
C = Color
Back focal distances for Ascent range from
0.275” to 0.296” (optically corrected).
CFW Compact Filter Wheels for Ascent
The CFW25-6R and CFW31-8R filter wheels provide fast, compact
filtering solutions for the Ascent® series of imaging systems. The
wheels plug directly into the front of the Ascent camera, using
the integrated Ascent Peripheral Interface for power and control.
A 2-inch slip fit adapter is available for mounting on telescopes.
Coupled with the optional Nikon F-mount lens adapter, the camera
and filter wheel can be easily mounted to any F-mount lens, or to
any microscope with an Nikon F-mount camera adapter.
Model
CFW25-6R filter wheel
Filter Size
Filter Type
Positions
Filter Thickness
Weight
Thickness
Power Input / Interface
CFW25-6R
CFW31-8R
25mm or 1” round
31mm or 1.25” round
Drop-in
Threaded or Drop-In
6
8
2 to 5mm
2 to 6.5 mm
0.85 lb. (0.4 kg)
1.85 lb. (0.85 kg)
0.775” (1.97 cm)
0.925” (2.35 cm)
Ascent Peripheral Interface
CFW31-8R showing threaded 1.25”
filters from Astrodon, Baader, Orion, and
Astronomics, as well as single and dual
31mm drop-in filters from Astronomics
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Alta and Ascent are registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
ALTA® & ASCENT®: SHARED FEATURES
TWO-YEAR WARRANTY
SEALED INNER CHAMBERS
All Apogee cameras have a standard two-year
warranty and a lifetime guarantee against
condensation in the camera.
The sensors for Alta cameras are sealed into
an inner chamber filled with argon. The
chamber has a lifetime guarantee against
condensation.
INTERNAL MEMORY
PROGRAMMABLE LEDs
32 Mbytes of SDRAM image memory is
included in the Alta® U Series and Ascent®
camera heads. Local memory serves some
important functions:
First, with any USB2.0 connection,
consistency in download rates cannot be
guaranteed. Some manufacturers go to great
lengths to attempt to lock Windows® up
during downloads to ensure that no pattern
noise results from breaks in the digitization
process. The Alta and Ascent systems buffer
the image transfer to protect from noiseproducing interruptions.
Second, on heavily loaded USB2 ports,
slower USB1.1 applications, the maximum
digitization rate could be limited without a
local buffer. Local image memory allows
very fast digitization of image sequences up
to the limit of the internal camera.
HARDWARE BINNING
Every Alta camera supports hardware
binning. Horizontal binning may be up to
8, and vertical binning may be up to the
height of the CCD, with a maximum of 4095.
Binning can be used to increase frame rate,
dynamic range, or apparent sensitivity by
collecting more light into a superpixel. See
additional detail under CCD University on
our website.
Two LEDs on the side of the cameras can
be programmed to show status of a variety
of the camera functions, such as the camera
has reached the set temperature, the shutter is
open, or the camera is waiting for an external
trigger. Alternatively, the LEDs can be
turned off if you are concerned about stray
light.
EXTERNAL TRIGGERING
Alta camera systems accept external hardware
trigger signals through their camera I/O port
for a number of purposes. Software and
hardware triggers can be used together. For
example, a software or hardware trigger may
be used to initiate a single exposure or a
sequence of exposures of a specific duration
and specific delay between exposures.
Alternatively, a software trigger may be used
to start a sequence, and the external trigger
can be used to trigger each subsequent image
in the sequence. In addition, the external
trigger can be used to trigger row shifts for
time-delayed integration, or can be used to
trigger block shifts for kinetic imaging.
SOFTWARE
An ActiveX driver is included with every
Alta system. The driver is universal to all
Apogee cameras, including legacy AP and
KX cameras. If you write custom code
for an Apogee camera, you won’t have to
change it later if you change models. Our
cameras are also supported by other programs
like Image Pro Plus, MaxIm DL/CCD, and
CCDSoft. Linux and Mac OS X drivers are
also available.
UPGRADEABLE FIRMWARE
The Alta systems load all camera operating
code on camera start. These configuration
files can be updated via the web as we add
features and make improvements.
Each camera head has coded information
identifying the type of system, its
configuration, and type of CCD used, as well
as the firmware revision in use. This allows
automatic configuration of the camera in the
field and better customer support from our
offices.
PROGRESSIVE SCAN
(CONTINUOUS IMAGING)
Interline transfer CCDs first shift charge
from the photodiode in each pixel to the
masked storage diode, and then march the
charge through the storage diodes to the
serial register. Acquisition of a new image
in the photodiodes during readout of the
previous image is called “progressive scan.”
Alta cameras support progressive scan with
interline CCDs.
SUBARRAY READOUT
Alta cameras support readout of an arbitrary
sub-section of the array in order to speed up
frame rate. (Please note that reading half
the array, for example, does not increase the
frame rate by two because parallel clocking
is normally about 10X faster than serial
clocking.
D09L Housing
with optional FW50 filter wheel
www.ccd.com
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Image courtesy of Prof. Dale Hunter, Tufts
University, MA
SPECIAL MODES OF OPERATION
ALTA® & ASCENT®
ALTA
ALTA
IMAGE SEQUENCES
KINETICS MODE
TIME-DELAYED INTEGRATION
Image sequences of up to 65535 images
can be acquired and transferred to camera /
computer memory automatically. A delay
may be programmed between images from
327 microseconds to 21.43 seconds. (This
does not mean you can acquire images every
327 microseconds; it means you can program
a delay of 327 microseconds between the
end of a readout and the start of the next
exposure.)
Kinetics Mode assumes that the user has
optically masked off all but the top most
section of the CCD. This exposed section is
illuminated, shifted by x rows, then exposed
again until the user has exposed the entire
surface of the CCD with y image slices.
More formally known in astronomy as
time-delay integration (TDI), this technique
is a powerful tool for applications requring
the scan of an area larger than the CCD’s
field of view. The image is clocked down
the CCD in syncronization with the object’s
movement. The CCD must be precisely
aligned with the movement of the scene.
The simplest way to illustrate TDI is an
astronomical application. The telescope is
kept stationary, and the CCD is precisely
aligned with the sky. As the Earth rotates
and the sky drifts, the image on the CCD is
precisely clocked to continue building the
image. When the image reaches the last row,
it is read to the host computer and added to a
continuous strip of sky.
The TDI capability utilizes a 25 MHz
time base (Ascents use a 48 MHz time base)
and local memory to achieve consistent
high resolution performance. TDI mode
allows the user to adjust the row shift rate.
Timing may be adjusted in 5.12 microsecond
increments to a maximum of 336
milliseconds per row shift. The minimum
TDI shift time is the digitization time for
one row. TDI cannot be done with cameras
using interline CCDs, such as the U2000 and
U4000.
Altas support three types of image
sequencing:
Application-Driven Sequencing:
This is the most common form of image
sequencing. The application merely takes a
specified number of successive images. This
type of sequencing is suitable when the time
between image acquisitions is not short and
where slight differences in timing from image
to image are not important.
Precision back to back sequencing
Altas incorporate a firmware controlled back
to back image sequencing mode suitable
for image-image intervals from 327uS to
a maximum of 21.43 seconds in 327uS
intervals. This provides for precision spacing
of images in a sequence where windows
applications cannot respond.
Fast back to back sequencing (Ratio
Imaging - Interlines only)
This is a special form of precision back to
back sequencing designed for a fixed <1
microsecond spacing between a pair of
interline CCD exposures. The caveat with
this mode is that the exposure times for each
image must be greater than the readout time
for the image. See separate brochure on
interline transfer CCDs for details.
The image in the exposed area is shifted to
the masked area per software command, preset shift frequency, or external trigger. The
number of rows per section is predetermined
and constant.
When the number of desired exposures has
been reached, or the CCD has been filled
(whichever comes first), the entire array is
read out and digitized. If you want to use the
entire CCD including the exposed area, then
the light source needs to be shuttered after
the final exposure (externally, electronically,
or electromechanically). or using an
electromechanical shutter).
www.ccd.com
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Raman image and spectrum acquired using
KestrelSpecTM software from Catalina
Scientific (www.catalinasci.com)
ALTA® SERIES CAMERAS: FEATURES
ADVANCED COOLING
The Apogee cooling system has long been
one of the most advanced in the industry.
The Alta control system has been expanded
to 12 bits, allowing a temperature control
range of 213K to 313K (-60 to +40 C)
with 0.024 degree resolution. Sensors
have been added to monitor the heat sink
temperature. A power indicator has been
added to give the user an idea of how much
drive is being given to the CCD cooler. The
automatic back-off function is now handled
by the firmware and driver. If the system
cannot reach the desired temperature, the
system automatically backs off to a point
where regulation can be maintained, 2
degrees above the maximum temperature
reached. The new set point is given to the
user. Cooling deltas of 40-70C (depending
on sensor area) are typical with simple air
cooling.
For customers desiring heat dissipation
away from the camera housing, Apogee
offers liquid recirculation backs for most Alta
cameras.
DUAL DIGITIZATION
With our fast USB2 systems, we offer dual
digitization: high precision, low noise 16 bit
performance as well as high speed 12 bit for
focussing and other high frame rate needs.
Digitization depth is selectable image by
image in software
FUSED SILICA OPTICS
The fans for the Alta® systems were chosen
for the absolute minimum vibration. In
most environments, the movement of
the fans will not be detectable when the
cameras are attached to a microscope or
telescope. However, for those customers
with exceptionally demanding applications,
Alta fans may be turned off, or run at reduced
speeds while still maintaining adequate
cooling. The optional liquid circulation
headsinks may also be used to minimize
vibration.
HOUSING OPTIONS
Alta cameras with small format CCDs have
a 0.69” (17.5 mm) C-mount back focal
distance for direct interface to microscopes
and C-mount lenses. Medium format sensors
use the D02 housing with 2” thread. Large
format sensors use the D07 housing with a
2.5” thread. Back focal distance for the D02
and D07 housing is approximately 1.04”
(26.4 mm). All cameras have a bolt circle
with metric threads for adaptation to a wide
variety of flanges.
OPTIONAL WIDE ENTRANCE
ANGLE HOUSINGS
Apogee takes pride in professional grade
details like fused silica windows with BBAR
or magnesium-flouride coatings. We also
offer custom windows, including wedge
windows and customer supplied optics.
PROGRAMMABLE FANS
D02 and D01 housings
Housings with wide entrance angles are
available for most medium and large format
CCDs. See the section on Housings for
additional details.
OPTIONAL LOW PROFILE
HOUSINGS
Lower profile housings are available for all
Alta models to achieve <0.5” (<12.7mm)
back focal distances without internal shutters.
OPTIONAL LIQUID
CIRCULATION
Apogee offers optional Alta liquid
recirculation backplates as well as
temperature-regulated liquid recirculators for
customers wanting to remove heat dissipation
from the area of the camera; wanting to house
the camera inside an enclosure; or wanting
supplemental cooling. The limitation: the
temperature of the recirculating liquid must
not go below the dew point.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
www.ccd.com
DEEP COOLING
The Alta’s optional, deeper cooling housing,
the D09, that provides cooling to as much
as 70°C below ambient without liquid
circulation. A wide variety of sensors
are supported, including large format and
spectroscopic format CCDs.
ALTA® SERIES CAMERAS: FEATURES
SHUTTERS
GENERAL I/O PORT FOR ALTA & ASCENT
Apogee Imaging Systems uses the finest
shutters available for our cameras from
Vincent and Melles Griot. These shutters
have been carefully integrated into our
camera heads with minimum impact on
back focal distance and camera size. These
shutters have a huge advantage over simple
rotating blade shutters in terms of light
blockage and minimum exposure time.
Alta® cameras use three shutter types,
depending on the aperture. Apogee shutters
use lower voltage coils then those listed
as standard by the shutter manufacturers,
roughly 1/2 of the standard voltage
requirement. The lower voltages extend the
lifetimes of the shutters.
D01 housing, small format sensors:
Vincent Uniblitz 25mm Shutter
D02 housing, medium format sensors:
Melles Griot 43mm Shutter
D07 and D09 housings, large format sensors:
Melles Griot 63.5mm Shutter
Full frame CCDs typically require an
electromechanical shutter unless the light
source is gated in some other way. Otherwise
light falling on the sensor during the readout
process corrupts the image. Interline
CCDs shift the charge from the photodiode
section of each pixel to the masked storage
diode. For low light applications, the mask
is sufficiently opaque to prevent smearing.
However, in high light applications, interline
CCDs require electromechanical shutters to
prevent smearing during readout.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
www.ccd.com
Our general purpose I/O port can tell you
when the shutter is open, or can be used for
a wide variety of external trigger inputs,
including line-by-line control of TDI shifts.
RESIDUAL BULK IMAGES
CABLE LENGTH
Sometimes CCD images show very faint
ghost images from previous bright images.
These residual bulk images (“RBIs”) are
caused by trapped electrons, predominantly
created at deeper depths by longer
wavelengths. RBIs are created in proportion
to incoming flux, and therefore are more
obvious in those pixels that were very bright
in previous images. RBIs are not created by
blooming or excess charge in the pixels. RBIs
cannot be “fixed” by adjustments to clocks or
voltages. However, the “ghost image” effect
can be minimized by uniformly filling these
deep traps prior to acquiring an image. Some
Alta systems, such as the U16M and U9000,
include a programmable near-IR pre-flash
system.
The USB2 specification limits cable length
to 5 meters, with up to 5 hubs, for a total of
30m. However, there are USB1 and USB2
extenders available for operation up to 10
km. The USB1 extenders slow the transfer
to a maximum of 500 kpixels per seoond.
USB2 extenders are available using Cat5
cable or fiber optic cable.
SINGLE 12V POWER SUPPLY
Alta camera systems include a 12V
international power supply (100V-240V
input), but can be operated from a clean 12V
source.
M51 courtesy Greg Morgan, U16M camera. The
full image is at the image gallery at www.ccd.com.
CCD SELECTION
C
CDs come in many shapes and sizes, as
well as several different architectures.
Some architectures were developed
specifically to address the needs of extremely
low light applications like astronomy (backilluminated CCDs). Other technologies can
be adapted to low light applications with
excellent results, but a bit more patience and
diligence may be necessary (interline transfer
CCDs). Here are some ideas to keep in mind:
QUANTUM EFFICIENCY
Higher sensitivity = higher quantum
efficiency = shorter exposures to get the
same results. Shorter exposures = more time
for other exposures. The peak value of a
quantum effiiciency curve does not tell the
full story of a CCD’s sensitivity. The area
under the curve gives the true comparison of
a CCD’s relative sensitivity. Twice the area
under the curve = half the time making the
exposure. Or, use the same exposure time,
but get twice the signal. Apogee supports
front-illuminated, back-illuminated, and
interline transfer devices. Back-illuminated
CCDs have the highest overall sensitivity.
However, they are subject to etaloning (see
below) in the near-infrared, especially at
longer wavelengths. Front-illuminated
CCDs are much less expensive than backilluminated CCDs and are not subject to
etaloning. Interline transfer CCDs can take
extremely short exposures, but have the lower
sensivity and dynamic range than full frame
CCDs.
UV & NIR WAVELENGTHS:
RECOMMENDATIONS
Between 200-400 nm, the highest quantum
efficiency is found in back-illuminated UV
enhanced CCDs such as from e2v and Hamamatsu. Most Kodak CCDs have zero QE at
300 nm, increasing linearly to >40% at 400
nm.
Back-illuminated CCDs have the highest
QE in the near infrared (NIR), but they
are also subject to etaloning (also known
as “fringing”). Simply put, the long
wavelengths bounce around inside the CCD
itself. Some companies have developed
proprietary versions of CCDs that minimize,
though not eliminate, the effect.
www.ccd.com
PIXEL SIZE
COLOR CCDS
Normally larger pixels have higher full
well capacities than smaller ones. Higher
full well capacities increase the potential
maximum signal. If readout noise is kept
low, higher signal means a higher signal-tonoise ratio (SNR), which is what allows us to
see faint detail without flat-lining the bright
spots. High SNR pulls those faint, wispy
arms out of a spiral galaxy without making
the center into a burned white blob. High
SNR can also detect very small changes on
top of a deep background, i.e. the stuff that
makes discoveries. Get the largest pixel that
matches your optics. Need help making the
match? Give us a call.
Color CCDs are convenient for one-shot
color, but they compromise in several ways.
First, the typical red-green-blue (RGB) Bayer
pattern over the pixels of the CCD (see
below) cannot be changed--you cannot do
monochromatic imaging one day, RGB the
next, and cyan-magenta-yellow (CMY) on
the third. Second, color CCDs cannot deliver
the full resolution of the imager. They can,
however, deliver all three color channels at
exactly the same instant in time.
INTERLINE TRANSFER CCDs
Interline transfer CCDs, up to the scale of
35mm film, have inherent anti-blooming,
but less dynamic range and lower quantum
efficiency than Kodak’s other frontilluminated offerings. Interlines also have
high dark current in the storage diodes, as
well as some leakage through the storage
diode masks. Mass markets for interline
CCDs mean much lower prices per pixel,
and a great entry point into professional level
imaging.
Because interline CCDs shutter the
exposure by shifting the charge from the
photodiode section of the pixel to the storage
diode of the pixel, exposure times can be as
short as a few microseconds. Time between
exposures is determined by the time required
to read out the entire CCD, which varies from
camera to camera.
Interline transfer CCDs cannot do timedelayed integration (also known as “drift
scan” mode) because charge is not transferred
from photodiode to photodiode, but rather
into the masked storage diode.
DARK CURRENT
Thermally generated signal, or dark current,
is not noise. The shot noise component of the
dark current is one element of noise, which
is the square root of the dark current. You
can correct for the dark current itself if you
can measure it, which requires the camera’s
cooling to be programmable and stable. The
deeper the cooling, the less correction you’re
going to have to do.
Typical RGB Bayer filter pattern designed to
mimic the responsivity of the human eye.
Quantum efficiency of the Kodak KAI-16000
CCD: black line is monomchrome version;
RGB lines are the color version.
DYNAMIC RANGE
Interline transfer CCDs have, at most, a
full well capacity of about 50K electrons.
If the electronics limits the read noise to
8-10 electrons, this is a dynamic range of
50K/10 = 5000:1, or about 12.3 bits. Most
argue for oversampling by an extra bit, or
some argue even two. However, a 16-bit
analog-to-digital (AtoD) converter does
not upgrade a 12 bit imager into a 16 bit
imager. A Kodak KAF-0261E CCD in an
Alta U260 camera, using the high dynamic
range output amplifier, can be operated at 16
electrons noise RMS with a full well of 500K
electrons, or a dynamic range of more than
30K:1, about 15 bits (90 dB).
Specifications subject to change without notice.
CCD SELECTION
CCD GRADES
ANTI-BLOOMING
KODAK BLUE PLUS CCDs
Each manufacturer’s specification sheet for
an imager defines the cosmetic grades for
that specific imager. Different manufacturers
use different procedures; a grade 1 of Imager
A may allow column defects, but a grade 2
(lower grade) of Imager B may not. Kodak
usually grades their CCDs at about 25°C,
and most of their defects disappear in cooled
cameras when the images are flat-fielded. In
most cases, you cannot see the difference
between the grades. Other companies, such
as e2v, grade their CCDs at low temperatures,
so their defects are less likely to disappear
when the CCD is cooled.
Defects on CCDs do not grow or move
over time. They are mappable. Lower grade
CCDs do not wear out faster. Most lower
grade Kodak CCDs no longer allow column
defects. These lower priced CCDs are
excellent bargains.
Please check the manufacturers’ data
sheets for each CCD carefully before
purchasing a system. Some large format
CCDs allow several column defects in the
“standard grade” CCD, If you have trouble
finding or understanding their cosmetic
gradings, please ask us for help.
Anti-blooming (AB) bleeds off excess charge
from individual pixels so that it does not spill
over into neighboring pixels, causing a white
stripe down the column. For applications like
astrophotography, AB preserves the aesthetics
of the image. For photometric applications,
AB can be used if exposure times are
carefully controlled to avoid excess charge.
In the past, AB drastically lowered full well
capacity and quantum efficiency. Newer
Kodak CCDs have anti-blooming with higher
quantum efficiency and full well capacities.
CCDs create charge due to the photoelectric
effect. In order to create an image rather
than random electricity, the charge must be
held where it was created. “Traditional”
CCDs use from one to four polysilicon
gates to carry a voltage that traps the charge
until transferred. Polysilicon has limited
transmissivity. Indium tin oxide (ITO) gates
have higher transmissivity, but lower charge
transfer efficiency. Kodak’s combination
of one polysilicon gate and one ITO gate
is marketed as Blue Plus (because of the
increase in blue sensitivity). The overall
sensitivity of Blue Plus CCDs is much higher
than multi-phase front-illuminated CCDs
using only polysilicon gates. However,
when researching point sources of light, it is
good to keep in mind that there is a marked
increase in quantum effiiency on the ITO side
of each pixel. (See MICROLENSES below).
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
CCD manufacturers specify their sensors
in terms of typical performance and worst
performance. For example, a specification
sheet may say “15 electrons noise typical,
maximum 20 electrons noise.” Such a
CCD with 18 electrons noise may be
noisier than “normal”, but it does meet the
manufacturer’s specification and cannot be
returned to the manufacturer. Asking the
CCD manufacturer to guarantee a “typical”
value can increase the price of the CCD by
a factor of 3-4X. Apogee’s published prices
are based on unsorted CCDs that meet the
manufacturer’s specifications for the grade
ordered.
Please note that CCD manufacturer’s test
conditions may not be representative of
performance in an Apogee camera. e2v, for
example, normally tests readout noise at 20
kHz, much slower than the 700 kHz readout
of an Alta camera in 16 bit mode.
Close-up of legacy Kodak KAF-1602 CCD
E2V CCDs: AIMO & NIMO
E2V’s AIMO (Advanced I Metal Oxide, aka
MPP) CCDs have hundreds of times less
dark current than non-IMO (NIMO) CCDs.
Some variations of their CCDs, such as the
enhanced UV response CCD42-40 found in
the U42-UV camera, are only available as
NIMO devices.
www.ccd.com
Alta U16M camera with fiber optically
bonded CCD
Specifications subject to change without notice.
MICROLENSED CCDs
Many CCDs now use microlenses over each
pixel. In the case of interline transfer CCDs,
the microlenses focus the light onto the
photodiode. In the case of Kodak’s Blue Plus
CCDs (see above), the microlenses focus
the light onto the ITO gate side of the pixel.
Microlenses greatly improve overall quantum
efficiency, but introduce some angular
dependency. Fill factor is normally less than
100%. See data sheets for individual CCDs
for details.
FIBER OPTIC BONDING
Apogee now offers fiber optically bonded
versions of the Alta cameras. Pictured to the
left is a U16M camera with a fiber attached to
the CCD. Applications for bonding including
radiology, transmission electron microscopy,
x-ray crystallography, and gated image
intensifiers. Please contact us with your
requirements.
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Supported CCDs
Alta® Series cameras with a USB2 interface use a U prefix, for example, U42. This page lists the U Series systems available with
front-illuminated CCDs. For listings of back-illuminated CCDs, interline transfer CCDs, and spectroscopic format CCDs, see the
following pages.
CCD ARRAY SIZES
Array size
(mm)
Total
Pixels
39052992
16777216
16777216
Pixel
Size
(µ)
6.8
9
9
X
49.1
36.9
36.9
Y
36.8
36.9
36.9
Imaging
Area
Diagonal
(mm2)
(mm)
1805
61.3
1359.0
52.1
1359.0
52.1
Video
Imager
Size
3.83”
3.3”
3.3”
Mono=M
Color=C
M,C
M
M
51.9
3.2”
M
259
23.2
1.4”
M,C
18.4
509.6
33.2
2.1”
M
49.1
49.1
2415
69.5
4.3”
M
15
30.7
30.7
943.7
43.3
2.7”
M
4194304
14
28.7
28.7
822.1
40.6
2.5”
M
1472
3214848
6.8
14.9
10.0
148.7
17.9
1.1”
M
1536
1024
1024
1024
1572864
1048576
9
24
13.8
24.6
9.2
24.6
127.4
604.0
16.6
34.8
1.0”
2.2”
M
M
KAF-0402ME
768
512
393216
9
6.9
4.6
31.9
8.3
0.5”
M
e2v CCD30-11
1024
256
262144
26
26.6
6.7
177.2
27.4
1.7”
M
512
512
262144
20
10.2
10.2
104.9
14.5
0.9”
M
Camera
Model
U39000
U16
U16M
Kodak CCD*
KAF-39000
KAF-16801E
KAF-16803
Array Size
7216 5412
4096 4096
4096 4096
U9000
KAF-09000
3058
3058
9351364
12
36.7
36.7
1346.6
U8300
KAF-8300E or CE
3448
2574
8875152
5.4
18.6
13.9
U9
KAF-6303E
3072
2048
6291456
9
27.6
U43
KAF-4320E
2048
2048
4194304
24
Fairchild CCD3041
2048
2048
4194304
U10
e2v TH7899*
2048
2048
U32
KAF-3200
2184
U2
U6
KAF-1603ME
KAF-1001E
U1
U30-OE
U3041F
U260
KAF-0261E
*The U10 uses an e2v (formerly Atmel, formerly Thomson) TH7899 CCD.
FRONT ILLUMINATED CCDs
Horsehead Nebula (NGC 2023) by
Ken Crawford, U9000 camera (full
image in the gallery at www.ccd.com)
Imaging Area of CCD
U16M & U16
4096 x 4096
9 micron pixels
U43
2048 x 2048
24 micron pixels
U3041F
2048 x 2048
15 micron pixels
U9000 & U9000X
3056 x 3056
12 micron pixels
U6
U10
U8300
U9
U32
U39000
7216 x 5412
6.8 micron poixels
U2
U1
U260
U30-OE
For complete CCD specifications, including cosmetic grading, see data sheet from manufacturer.
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Specifications
Most of the CCDs are offered in several different housings: standard, low profile, wide angle, and high cooling.
For details, see the following section regarding housings.
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
Camera
Model
U39000
U16
U16M
Linear
Full Well
(typical)
60K
100K e85K e-
Dyn.
Range [email protected]
(dB) 400nm
71
18%
81
31%
79
41%
Peak
QE
32%
69%
60%
AntiBlooming
NA
NA
>100X
Read
Noise
(typ.)1
16 e9 e9 e-
Cooling2
(∆C)
50
40
40
Dark Current2
(Typical)
0.03 e/p/s
0.3 e/p/s
0.2 e/p/s
Cooling3
(∆C)
NA
60
60
Deep Cooling
Dark Current3
(Typical)
NA
0.04 e/p/s
0.03 e/p/s
U9000
110K e-
82
37%
64%
>100X
9 e-4
40
0.3 e/p/s
60
0.04 e/p/s
U8300
25.5K e-
70
38%5
56%5
1000X
9 e-
50
0.02 e/p/s
70
0.002 e/p/s
U9
100K e-
79
30%
67%
NA
11 e-
45
0.3 e/p/s
65
0.04 e/p/s
U43
500K e-
88
39%
72%
NA
12 e-
50
2 e/p/s
NA
NA
U3041F
100K e-
82
3%
43%
NA
10 e-
40
1 e/p/s
NA
NA
U10
150K e-
78
0.5%
38%
NA
19 e-
40
0.8 e/p/s
NA
NA
U32
55K e-
77
53%
86%
NA
8 e-
50
0.08 e/p/s
NA
NA
U2
U6
100K eHG:200K e-6
78
87
44%
39%
82%
72%
NA
NA
12 e9 e-6
50
45
0.2 e/p/s
0.4 e/p/s
NA
65
NA
.05 e/p/s
U1
U30-OE
100K e300K e-
79
84
53%
24%
85%
59%
NA
NA
11 e20 e-
50
50
0.1 e/p/s
0.2 e/p/s
NA
70
NA
0.02 e/p/s
U260
HG: 200K e-6
866
29%
65%
NA
10 e-6
50
0.2 e/p/s
NA
NA
Notes:
1. Read noise in 16 bit mode. Noise in 12 bit mode is typically 2 counts.
2. Cooling with standard, low profile, or wide angle housing.
3. Cooling with high cooling housing (D09).
4. Read noise for U9000X in 16 bit mode is typically 12 e-.
5. Quantum efficiency (QE) for monochrome version of CCD. See QE curves regarding color version of CCD.
6. The CCDs in the U6 and U260 have two output amplifiers: high gain (for low noise) and low gain (for high
dynamic range). One amplifier must be chosen at the time the camera is manufactured. Full well capacity for the
U6 and U260 using the high gain amplifier is about 200K e-; in low gain, about 500K e-. Read noise for low gain is
typically 22 e- for the U6 or 16 e- for the U260. Dynamic range for the U260 in LG mode is about 90 dB.
Image courtesy Dr. David Rapaport, UCSD
D07F Housing
for U16, U16M,
U9000, and U16000
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Alta and Ascent are registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.
ALTA® Back-Illuminated & Interline Transfer CCDs:
Supported CCDs
Alta® Series cameras with a USB2 interface use a U prefix, for example, U42. See previous pages for full frame front illuminated CCDs.
CCD ARRAY SIZES
e2v CCD42-40
e2v CCD42-40
e2v CCD230-42
2048
2048
2048
2048
2048
2048
Array size
Pixel
(mm)
Size
Total
Pixels
(µ)
X
Y
Back-illuminated CCDs
4194304
13.5
27.6
27.6
4194304
13.5
27.6
27.6
4194304
15
30.7
30.7
U3041
Fairchild 3041
2048
2048
4194304
15
30.7
U47
e2v CCD47-10
1024
1024
1048576
13
U77
e2v CCD77-00
512
512
262144
U30
e2v CCD30-11
1024
256
U1109
Hama. S10140-1109
2048
U1107
Hama. S10140-1107
U1009
Hama. S10140-1009
Camera
Model
U42
U42-UV
U230
CCD
Array Size
Imaging
Area
(mm2)
Diagonal
(mm)
Video
Imager
Size
Mono=M
Color=C
764
764
944
39.1
39.1
43.4
2.4
2.4
2.7
M
M
M
30.7
944
43.4
2.7
M
13.3
13.3
177
18.8
1.2
M
24
12.3
12.3
151
17.4
1.1
M
262144
26
26.6
6.6
177
27.4
1.7
M
506
1036288
12
24.6
6.1
149
25.3
1.6
M
2048
122
249856
12
24.6
1.5
36
24.6
1.5
M
1024
506
518144
12
12.3
6.1
75
13.7
0.9
M
Interline Transfer CCDs
U16000
Kodak KAI-16000
4096
4096
16777216
7.4
36
24
866
43.3
3.3
M, C
U4000
Kodak KAI-04022
2048
2048
4194304
7.4
15.2
15.2
230
21.4
1.3
M, C
U2000
Kodak KAI-2020
1600
1200
1920000
7.4
11.8
8.9
105
14.8
0.9
M, C
For complete CCD specifications, including cosmetic
grading, see data sheet from manufacturer.
BACK ILLUMINATED CCDs
U230
U3041
2048 x 2048
15 micron pixels
U47
(available with monochrome or color CCDs)
Imaging Area of CCD
U42
2048 x 2048
13.5 micron pixels
U77
INTERLINE TRANSFER CCDs
U30
U16000
4872 x 3248
7.4 micron pixels
U1109
U1107
U1009
D01 Housing
D09L Housing
with optional
LR001 Liquid
Recirculation Unit
U4000
U2000
ALTA® Back-Illuminated & Interline Transfer CCDs:
Specifications
Most of the CCDs are offered in several different housings: standard, low profile, wide angle, and high cooling.
For details, see the following section regarding housings.
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
Camera
Model
Linear
Full Well
(typical)
U42
U42-UV
U230
100K e150K e150K e-
80
84
85
55%
57%
55%
AntiRead Cooling2
Peak Bloom- Noise
QE
ing
(typ.)1 (∆C)
Back-illuminated CCDs
96%
NA
10 e40
65%
NA
10 e40
96%
NA
12 e40
U3041
100K e-
82
74%
96%
NA
10 e-
U47
100K e-
81
55%
96%
NA
U77
350K e-
89
55%
96%
U30
500K e-
88
55%
U1109
75K e-
71
U1107
75K e-
U1009
U16000
Dyn.
Range [email protected]
(dB) 400nm
Dark Current2
(Typical)
Cooling3
(∆C)
Deep Cooling
Dark Current3
(eps)
0.9 e/p/s
400 e/p/s
0.4 e/p/s
60
60
60
0.1 e/p/s
35 e/p/s
0.04 e/p/s
40
2 e/p/s
60
0.3 e/p/s
9 e-
50
0.4 e/p/s
70
0.04 e/p/s
NA
12 e-
50
0.6 e/p/s
70
0.06 e/p/s
96%
NA
21 e-
50
0.5 e/p/s
70
0.05 e/p/s
58%
89%
NA
20 e-
50
2.2 e/p/s
70
0.2 e/p/s
71
58%
89%
NA
20 e-
50
2.2 e/p/s
70
0.2 e/p/s
75K e-
71
58%
89%
NA
20 e50
Interline Transfer CCDs
2.2 e/p/s
70
0.2 e/p/s
30K e-
73
39%
48%
0.2 e/p/s
60
0.02 e/p/s
300X
7 e-
40
U4000
40K e-
75
44%
55%
300X
7 e-
54
0.3 e/p/s
75
0.03 e/p/s
U2000
40K e-
75
47%
56%
300X
7 e-
54
0.4 e/p/s
75
0.04 e/p/s
Notes:
1. Read noise in 16 bit mode. Noise in 12 bit mode is typically 2 counts.
2. Cooling with standard, low profile, or wide angle housing (Fan / Liquid
Circulation).
3. Cooling with high cooling housing (Fan / Liquid Circulation).
4. Quantum efficiency (QE) for monochrome version of CCD. See QE curves
regarding color version of CCD.
Above: Echelle spectrograph image from
deuterium-tungsten source (UV at top).
Below: linearized spectrum created from
the image, generated by linking the multiple
orders together. Echelle spectrographs offer
much higher sampling resolution by taking
advantage of the area of imaging CCDs.
www.ccd.com
Interline transfer CCDs are the
most popular choice for imaging of
microtitre plates.
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Quantum Efficiency
80
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Wavelength (nm)
U16M
U9000 & U9000X
U16
U4320
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
U32
980
U10 (similar to U3041F)
940
U6
900
U260
860
820
780
740
700
660
620
580
540
500
460
420
380
340
300
Wavelength (nm)
1100
1080
1060
1040
1020
1000
980
960
940
920
900
880
860
840
820
800
780
760
740
720
700
680
660
640
620
600
580
560
540
520
500
480
460
440
420
400
380
360
0
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Quantum Efficiency
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1100
1070
1040
1010
980
950
920
890
860
830
800
770
740
710
680
650
620
590
560
530
500
470
440
410
380
350
320
290
260
230
200
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
90
Wavelength (nm)
U9
U8300
e2v OE
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1080
U39000
1020
U8300C
960
Wavelength (nm)
900
840
780
720
660
600
540
480
420
360
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
U1 & U2
ALTA® Back-Illuminated CCDs:
Quantum Efficiency
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1080
1040
1000
960
920
880
840
800
760
720
680
640
600
560
520
480
440
400
360
320
280
240
200
Wavelength (nm)
Hamamatsu
e2v enhanced UV
Fairchild UV
100
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
e2v Broadband
e2v Midband
Fairchild Broadband
1000
920
840
760
680
600
520
440
360
280
200
Wavelength (nm)
ALTA® / Ascent® Interline Transfer CCDs:
Quantum Efficiency
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
980
950
920
890
860
830
800
770
740
710
680
650
620
590
560
530
500
470
440
410
380
350
Wavelength (nm)
Absolute Quantum Efficiency (%)
A285
U16000
U4000
Monochrome Version of the CCD
U2000
A205
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1000
960
920
880
U16000, U4000, & U2000 Color
840
800
760
720
680
640
600
560
520
480
440
400
Wavelength (nm)
ALTA® Housings: D01 / D05 Low Profile
D01L / D05L
The D01 housing has a C-mount thread and C-mount back focal distance. D05 is the
low profile variant with no internal shutter. F versions use fans; L versions use liquid
circulation.
D01: 1-32 THREAD
↓ 0.25 (C-Mount)
D05:1.00 THRU
(25.4 mm)
D01F / D05F
D01: 1-32 THREAD
↓ 0.25 (C-Mount)
D05:1.00 THRU
(25.4 mm)
D01F
D01F
D01L
D05F (Low Profile)
D01F
D01L / D05L
Drawings intended for illustration purposes only. For current mechanical
details, please see www.ccd.com/alta_mechanical.html
ALTA® Housings: D02 / D06 Low Profile
D02L / D06L
The D02 housing has a 2” thread. D06 is the low profile variant with
no internal shutter.
D02: 2-24 THREAD
↓ 0.25
D06:1.77 THRU
(44.96 mm)
D02F / D06F
D02: 2-24 THREAD
↓ 0.25
D06:1.77 THRU
(44.96 mm)
D02F
D02F
D02L
D02F
D06F (Low Profile)
D02L
ALTA® Housings: D07 / D11 Low Profile
D07F
D11F (Low Profile)
For additional dimensional details, see complete mechanical drawings at www.ccd.com/alta_mechanical.html
ALTA® Housings: D10
D10F
No liquid circulation version of D10 is available.
NGC 6188, courtesy Don Goldman. U16M camera.
ALTA® Housings: High Cooling D09
D09L
D09F
For additional dimensional details, see complete mechanical
drawings at www.ccd.com/alta_mechanical.html
ALTA® Housings: Wide Angle D12 / D13
D12F
Wide Angle variant of D10
D13F / (D13L)*
Wide Angle variant of D02
No liquid circulation version
of D12 is available.
*A liquid circulation version of D13 is
also available.
For additional dimensional details, see complete mechanical
drawings at www.ccd.com/alta_mechanical.html
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Part Numbers
D10F-VS90D-U04320-MNSA
Housing
D01
D02
D05
D06
D07
D09
D10
D11
D12
D13
16-bit digitization
A = 1 MHz
X = 1.8 MHz
CCD Grade
(as defined by manufacturer)
S = Standard
0 = Grade 0 (e2v only)
1 = Grade 1
2 = Grade 2
H = Grade H (TH7899 only)
E = Grade E (TH7899 only)
X = Engineering Grade
Heat Transfer
F = Fan
L = Liquid
CCD Type
MN = Monochrome, non-microlensed
MM = Monochrome, microlensed
CM = Color, microlensed
OE = Open electrode (e2v)
Shutter
VS25 = Vincent 25mm
MG45 = Melles Griot 45mm
MG63 = Melles Griot 63mm
VS90 = Vincent 90mm
NOSH = No shutter
Inner Chamber Window
S = Single
D = Double
W = Wedge
Interface
U = USB 2.0
CCD
00402 = Kodak KAF-0402ME (U1)
A0261 = Kodak KAF-0261E, High Gain (U260)
B0261 = Kodak KAF-0261E, High Dynamic Range
01603 = Kodak KAF-1603 (U2)
03011 = e2v CCD30-11 open electrode (U30-OE)
03200 = Kodak KAF-3200ME (U32)
A1001 = Kodak KAF-1001E, High Gain (U6)
B1001 = Kodak KAF-1001E, High Dynamic Range
06303 = Kodak KAF-6303E (U9)
07899 = e2v TH7899 (U10)
08300 = Kodak KAF-8300 (U8300)
04320 = Kodak KAF-4320 (U43)
09000 = Kodak KAF-09000 (U9000, U9000X)
16803 = Kodak KAF-16803 (U16M)
16801 = Kodak KAF-16801E (U16)
39000 = Kodak KAF-39000 (U39000)
03041 = Fairchild CCD3041 (U3041F)
Image courtesy
Scientific Instrument Company.
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc.
Alta and Ascent are registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
ALTA® Full-Frame Front-Illuminated CCDs:
Available Configurations
Camera
U39000
U16M
U16
U9000
U8300
U9
U43
U3041F
U10
Std Housing*
D10F-VS90S
D07F-MG63D
D07F-MG63D
D07F-MG63D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D10*-VS90S
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
High Cooling
NA
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
NA
NA
NA
Low Profile
D12F-NOSHS
D11F-NOSHD
D11F-NOSHD
D11F-NOSHD
D06*-NOSHD
D06*-NOSHD
NA
D06*-NOSHD
D06*-NOSHD
Wide Angle
NA
NA
NA
NA
D13*-MG63D
D13*-MG63D
D12*-NOSHS
D13*-MG63D
D13*-MG63D
Interface
U
U
U
U
U, E
U, E
U
U, E
U, E
Grades
1
S
1, 2
S
S
1, 2
1, 2
1
H, E
Digit.
A
A
A
A, X
A
A
A
A
A
U32
U2
U6
U1
U260
U30-OE
D01*-VS25D
D01*-VS25D
D02*-MG43D
D01*-VS25D
D01*-VS25D
D02*-MG43D
NA
NA
D09*-MG63D
NA
NA
D09*-MG63D
D05*-NOSHD
D05*-NOSHD
D06*-NOSHD
D05*-NOSHD
D05*-NOSHD
D06*-NOSHD
NA
NA
D13*-MG63D
NA
NA
D13*-MG63D
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
1, 2
2
1, 2
1, 2
1
0, 1
A
A
A
A
A
A
Items with * are available with fans or with liquid circulation. Liquid circulation is not intended to add cooling, but rather to dissipate heat
away from the camera. The fan cooled version is D09F, for example, and the liquid cooled version is D09L.
D01
D02
D05
D06
D07
D09
D10
D11
D12
D13
Weight (lb.)
3.1
3.1
3.0
2.8
4.2
7.2
7.5
6.3
7.2
3.6
Weight (kg.)
BFD (inches)*
BFD (mm)*
1.4
0.69
17.5
1.4
1.02
25.9
1.4
0.46
11.7
1.3
0.46
11.7
1.9
1.0
25.4
3.3
1.4
35.6
3.4
1.22
31.0
2.9
0.58
14.7
3.3
0.70
17.8
1.6
1.05
26.7
*BFD = Back focal distance, optical (compensating for the optical elements within the camera). Distances are approximate; see mechanical
drawings at www.ccd.com/alta_mechanical.html for precise information.
USB2 EXTENDERS
ALTA FILTER WHEEL
Apogee offers an optional filter wheel for
nine 2” round filters or seven 2” square
filters. The filter wheel can be controlled directly from one of the Alta’s COM ports. The
filter wheel is pictured here on the optional
D09 housing.
The new Icron USB 2.0 Ranger® extenders
support USB cameras at distances from 50
meters (Cat 5 cable) to 10 km (fiber cable).
FACE PLATE ADAPTERS
Flange adapters allow you to attach
anything from an SLR camera lens to a large
instrument pack to your Apogee camera. We
have sizes to fit all Alta and Ascent cameras.
These units are machined precisely for
accurate concentricity.
ALTA® Back-Illuminated & Interline Transfer CCDs:
Part Numbers & Available Configurations
Housing
D01
D02
D05
D06
D07
D09
D10
D11
D12
D13
D02F-MG43D-U04240-MB1A
Heat Transfer
F = Fan
L = Liquid
Shutter
VS25 = Vincent 25mm
MG45 = Melles Griot 45mm
MG63 = Melles Griot 63mm
VS90 = Vincent 90mm
NOSH = No shutter
Inner Chamber Window
S = Single
D = Double
W = Wedge
Interface
U = USB 2.0
Camera
Std Housing*
High Cooling
U230
U3041
U42
U47
U77
U30
U1109
U1108
U1107
U1009
U1008
U1007
U98
D07F-MG63D
D07F-MG63D
D02F-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D02*-MG43D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
U16000
U4000
U2000
D07F-MG63D
D02*-NOSHD
D01*-NOSHD
D09*-MG63D
D09*-MG63D
NA
CCD
23042 = e2v CCD230-42 (U230)
03041 = Fairchild 3041 (U3041)
04240 = e2v CCD42-40 (U42)
04710 = e2v CCD47-10 (U47)
07700 = e2v CCD77-00 (U77)
03011 = e2v CCD30-11 (U30)
01109 = Hamamatsu S10140-1109 (U1109)
01108 = Hamamatsu S10140-1108 (U1108)
01107 = Hamamatsu S10140-1107 (U1107)
01009 = Hamamatsu S10140-1009 (U1009)
01008 = Hamamatsu S10140-1008 (U1008)
01007 = Hamamatsu S10140-1007 (U1007)
09840 = Hamamatsu S9840 (U98)
16000 = Kodak KAI-16000 (U16000)
04022 = Kodak KAI-4022 (U4000)
02020 = Kodak KAI-2020 (U2000)
Low Profile
Wide Angle
Back-illuminated CCDs
D11F-NOSHD
NA
D11F-NOSHD
NA
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
Interline Transfer CCDs
D11F-NOSHD
NA
D06*-NOSHD
D13*-MG63D
D05*-NOSHD
NA
16-bit digitization
A = 1 MHz (Interlines);
= 700 kHz (Back-illums)
CCD Grade
(as defined by manufacturer)
S = Standard
0 = Grade 0 (e2v only)
1 = Grade 1
2 = Grade 2
X = Engineering Grade
CCD Type
MM = Monochrome, microlensed
CM = Color, microlensed
MB = Midband
BB = Broadband
UV = UV enhanced
Interface
Grades
Types
U
U
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
U, E
0, 1, 2
1, 2, 3
0, 1
0, 1
0, 1
0, 1
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
MB
BB,UV
MB,UV
MB,BB,UV
MB
MB, UV
UV
UV
UV
UV
UV
UV
UV
U
U, E
U, E
1, 2
S
S
MM,CM
MM,CM
MM,CM
1. Items with * are available with fans or with liquid circulation. Liquid circulation is not intended to add cooling, but rather to dissipate away
from the camera. The fan cooled version is D09F, for example, and the liquid cooled version is D09L.
2. The U4000 and U2000 are optionally available with internal shutters, D01*-VS25D and D02*-MG43D, respectively.
3. The U47 is also available in a C-mount configuration, D01*-VS25D. However, the CCD is a 1.2” format by video standards (19mm
diagonal) so is too large for most C-mount lenses.
AFW Filter Wheels
The AI-FW50 series of filter wheels provide filtering solutions for Alta and Ascent cameras with large
format CCDs, such as the A16000. The AFW50-9R filter wheel provides 9 positions for 50mm / 2”
round filters. The AFW50-7S and AFW50-10S provide 7 and 10 positions for 50mm / 2” square filters,
respectively. The filter wheels are controlled via USB 2.0. The filter wheels easily adapt to Alta and
Ascent bodies.
AFW-50-9R Carousel
9 positions for 50mm
round filters
Max. filter thickness
Weight
Thickness
Camera mount method
Mechanical mount
Power input
Interface
AFW-50-7S Carousel
7 positions for 50mm
square filters
7 mm
AFW-50-10S Carousel
10 positions for 50mm
square filters
AFW50-7S Filter wheel with Alta
adapter plate
3.5 lbs. (1.6 kg) with filters
1.15” (2.92 cm) with mounting plate
Adapter plate attached to Alta, Ascent or AP
camera
3” 24 threads/inch
12V DC (int’l power supply included)
USB 2.0
(All dimensions in inches)
Filter wheel mounted on Alta D09 camera body
©2011 Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Alta and Ascent are registered trademarks of Apogee Imaging Systems Inc. Specifications subject to change without notice.
151 N. Sunrise Ste 902
Roseville CA 95661 USA
tel 916 218 7450
fax 916 218 7451
www.ccd.com
THANKS (A PARTIAL LIST OF APOGEE IMAGING SYSTEMS CUSTOMERS)
Apogee Imaging Systems would like to express our gratitude to the thousands of customers from around the world
that have brought so much to our lives since 1994.
Aerospace Corporation • Air Force Research Laboratory • Aloe Ridge Observatory (South Africa) • American Red Cross • Anglo-Australian
Observatory • Ankara University Observatory (Turkey) • Apache Point Observatory • Appalachian State University • Argonne National Laboratory
• Astronomical Institute of the Czech Republic • Astronomical Observatory Belgrade (Yugoslavia) • Astrophysical Observatory, College of
Staten Island • Auckland Observatory (New Zealand) • Bacs-Kiskun Observatory (Hungary) • Baja Astronomical Observatory (Hungary) • Ball
Aerospace • Bang & Olufsen (Denmark) • Baton Rouge Observatory • Baylor University • Bechtel • Beijing Observatory (China) • Big Bear Solar
Observatory • Boeing • Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (Korea) • Boston University • Brigham Young University • California Institute
of Technology • Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) • Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (México) • Chiang Mai University
(Thailand) • Chiba University (Japan) • Chinese University of Hong Kong • Clemson University • Colorado School of Mines • Columbia University
• Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Argentina) • Copenhagen University (Denmark) • Cork Institute of Technology (Ireland) • Corning • Crimean
Astrophysical Observatory (Ukraine) • Czech Technical University (Czech Republic) • Daimler Benz Aerospace (Germany) • Department of National
Defence, Canada • DLR e.V. (Germany) • Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dunsink Observatory (Ireland) • Dworp Observatory (Belgium)
• Eastman Kodak • Ege University (Turkey) • Florida Institute of Technology / SARA • Ford Motor • Fox Chase Cancer Center • Fudan University
(China) • Fuji • Fujitsu • Gemini Telescope Project • Gøteburg University (Sweden) • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics • Harvard
College Observatory • Heron Cove Observatory • Hida Observatory (Japan) • High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan) • High
Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) • Hiroshima University (Japan) • Hitachi • Hong Kong University of Science & Technology
• Imation • Indian Institute of Astrophysics • Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) (Taiwan) • Institute for Astronomy, Hawaii • Institute of
Astronomy (Switzerland) • Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Taiwan) • Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (Taiwan) • Institute for
Quantum Physics (Switzerland) • Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Spain) • Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (Spain) • Inst. Estudis Espacials
de Catalunya (Spain) • International Science & Technology Centre (Russia) • IVIC-CBB (Venezuela) • J.Paul Getty Museum • Jagellonian University
(Poland) • Japan Atomic Energy Agency • Jet Propulsion Laboratory • Johns Hopkins University • Kimberly-Clark • Kim-Hae Observatory (Korea)
• Kitt Peak National Observatory • Konkoly Observatory (Hungary) • Korea Astronomical Observatory • Korea Research Institute of Standards
and Science • Kwasan Observatory (Japan) • Kyoto University (Japan) • Lancaster University (UK) • Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl
(Germany) • Las Cumbres Observatory • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory • Lick Observatory
• Liverpool John Moores University (UK) • Lockheed Martin • London Health Sciences Centre (Canada) • Los Alamos National Laboratory •
Lucent Technologies • Lund Observatory (Sweden) • Mauna Loa Observatory • Max Planck Institute (Germany) • McGill University (Canada) •
MIT • MIT Lincoln Laboratory • Mt. Cuba Astronomical Observatory • Mt. Diablo Observatory • Mt. Stromlo Observatory (Australia) • Mt. Wilson
Observatory • Multiple Mirror Telescope • Nagoya University (Japan) • NASA Goddard SFC • NASA Marshall SFC • NASA Langley Research
Center • National Astronomical Observatory (Japan) • National Central University (Taiwan) • National Cheng Kung University (Taiwan) • National
Health Research (Taiwan) • National Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (Japan) • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
and Technology (Japan) • National Institute for Materials Science (Japan) • National Institute of Standards & Technology • National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration • National Solar Observatory • National Sun Yat-Sen University (Taiwan) • National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan)
• National University of Ireland • Naval Post Graduate School • Naval Research Laboratory • Northwestern University • NTT (Japan) • Oak Ridge
National Laboratory • Observatoire Côte d’Azur (France) • Observatoire de Geneve (Switzerland) • Observatorio “Carl Sagan” (Mexico) • Occidental
College • Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (Japan) • Oxford University (UK) • Osaka University (Japan) • Oulu University (Finland) • Panasonic
• Physical Research Laboratory (India) • Police Scientific Development Branch, Scotland Yard (UK) • Pomona College • Portland State University
• Princeton University • Purdue University • Purple Mountain Observatory (China) • Queens University (Canada) • Rice University • Riken (Japan)
• Rockefeller University • Royal Military College of Canada • Royal Observatory (Edinburgh, Scotland) • Russian Academy of Sciences • Sandia
National Laboratory • Science and Technology Centre of Ukraine • Shamakhy Astrophysical Observatory (Azerbaijan) • Smithsonian Observatory •
South African Astronomical Observatory • Stanford University • State Universities of Arizona, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, New
York (SUNY), North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas • Stanford University • Starkenburg Observatory (Germany) • Sternberg
Astronomical Observatory (Russia) • Steward Observatory • Stockholm Observatory (Sweden) • Subaru Telescope • Swarthmore College • Tel
Aviv University • Temple End Observatory (UK) • Tenagra Observatories • Texas A&M University • Texas Tech University • Tokyo Institute of
Technology • Tokyo University • Toshiba • Tuorla Observatory (Finland) • Turku Centre for Biotechnology (Finland) • Universidad de Buenos Aires
(Argentina) • Universidad de Sonora (Mexico) • Universidade Federal da Paraiba (Brazil) • Universität Hamburg (Germany) • Universität Innsbrück
(Austria) • University College Dublin (Ireland) • University of Amsterdam (Netherlands) • University of the Andes (Venezuela) • University of
Auckland (New Zealand) • University of Bern (Switzerland) • University of Birmingham (UK) • University of Bologna (Italy) • Universidad de
Entre Rios (Argentina) • University of Chicago • Universities of Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming •
University of the Free State (South Africa) • University of Hong Kong • University of Latvia • University of Leicester (UK) • University of Ljubljana
(Slovenia) • University of London Observatory (UK) • University of Manchester Jodrell Bank Observatory (UK) • University of Manitoba (Canada) •
University of Melbourne (Australia) • University of Miami • University of Munich (Germany) • University of Notre Dame • University of Sao Paulo
(Brazil) • University of St. Andrews (Scotland) • University of Toronto (Canada) • University of the West Indies • University of Zurich (Switzerland)
• US Naval Observatory • Valencia University Observatory (Spain) • Vanderbilt University • Vatican Observatory • Virginia Military Institute •
Visnjan Observatory (Croatia) • Warsaw University Observatory (Poland) • Waseda University (Japan) • Wayne State University • Weizmann Institute
(Israel) • Westinghouse • Wise Observatory (Israel) • Yale University • Yerkes Observatory (University of Chicago) • Yonsei University (Korea)
©2011 Apogee Imaging System Inc.
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