FRONT COVER

FRONT COVER
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
© 2016 Matrix Games. All Rights Reserved. Matrix Games and Matrix Games logo are trademarks of
Matrix Games and Campaign SeriesTM is a trademark of Matrix Games. All other trademarks and trade
names are the properties of their respective owners and Matrix Games make no claim thereto.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
PLEASE READ THIS NOTICE BEFORE PLAYING THIS GAME OR BEFORE
ALLOWING YOUR CHILDREN TO PLAY.
Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of consciousness when subjected to strong,
flashing lights for long periods of time. Such individuals may therefore experience a seizure while operating
computer or video games. This can also affect individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have
never previously experienced a seizure.
If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms (seizures or loss of consciousness) after
exposure to flashing lights, please consult your doctor before playing this game.
Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a computer and video games. Should you or
your child experience dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or muscle twitching, loss of consciousness, feelings of
disorientation or any type of involuntary movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately
and consult your doctor before playing again.
PRECAUTIONS DURING USE:

Do not sit too close to the monitor.

Sit as far as comfortably possible.

Use as small a monitor as possible.

Do not play when tired or short on sleep.

Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room.

Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................ 4
1.0 Campaign Series: Middle East: 1948-1985TM ................................................................................... 10
1.1 System Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.1 Minimum System Requirements .................................................................................................. 10
1.1.2 Recommended System Requirements .......................................................................................... 10
1.2 Installation Procedures ....................................................................................................................... 10
1.3 Updates .............................................................................................................................................. 11
1.3.1 Middle East Updates .................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Matrix Games Member Account .................................................................................................. 11
1.4 Uninstalling the game ........................................................................................................................ 12
1.5 Technical Support .............................................................................................................................. 12
2.0 Playing the Game ................................................................................................................................ 13
2.1 Learning to Play ................................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.2 Getting Started ............................................................................................................................. 13
2.1.3 Starting a Scenario ....................................................................................................................... 15
2.1.3.1 Complexity Rating Chart .......................................................................................................... 16
2.1.4 Inside the Scenario ....................................................................................................................... 17
2.1.5 Scenario Descriptions................................................................................................................... 18
2.2 User Interface ..................................................................................................................................... 20
2.2.1 Game Interface ............................................................................................................................. 20
2.2.2 Map Views ................................................................................................................................... 22
2.2.3 Map Labels ................................................................................................................................... 27
2.2.4 Main Menu Bar ............................................................................................................................ 27
2.2.4.1 File Menu .................................................................................................................................. 27
2.2.4.2 Turn Menu................................................................................................................................. 28
2.2.4.3 Units Menu ................................................................................................................................ 28
2.2.4.4 Assault Menu ............................................................................................................................ 29
2.2.4.5 Reinforcement Menu ................................................................................................................. 30
2.2.4.6 Status Menu............................................................................................................................... 30
2.2.4.7 Display Menu ............................................................................................................................ 31
2.2.4.8 A/I Menu ................................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.4.9 Special Menu............................................................................................................................. 34
2.2.4.10 Options Menu .......................................................................................................................... 35
2.2.4.11 Help Menu............................................................................................................................... 37
2.2.5 Unit Info Box ............................................................................................................................... 38
2.2.6 Unit List Display .......................................................................................................................... 40
2.2.7 On-Map Thermometers ................................................................................................................ 41
2.2.8 Unit Handbook ............................................................................................................................. 41
2.2.9 The Hot Spot ................................................................................................................................ 44
2.2.10 The Command Report ................................................................................................................ 45
2.3 Battle Generator ................................................................................................................................. 46
3.0 Game Mechanics ................................................................................................................................. 48
3.1 Movement .......................................................................................................................................... 48
3.1.1 What is Movement? ..................................................................................................................... 48
3.1.2 How do I Move?........................................................................................................................... 48
3.1.3 How do I Move Helicopters? ....................................................................................................... 50
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3.1.4 How do I Transport Units? ........................................................................................................... 51
3.1.5 How do I use Organizational Movement?.................................................................................... 52
3.1.6 What are Fixed Units? .................................................................................................................. 52
3.1.7 How does Combat affect Movement? .......................................................................................... 53
3.1.8 What are the highlights?............................................................................................................... 53
3.1.9 Frequently Asked Questions - Movement .................................................................................... 54
3.2 Combat ............................................................................................................................................... 55
3.2.1 What is Combat? .......................................................................................................................... 55
3.2.2 How do I Attack? ......................................................................................................................... 55
3.2.3 What is Indirect Fire? ................................................................................................................... 57
3.2.4 What is an Assault and Extreme Assault? .................................................................................... 58
3.2.5 What is Opportunity Fire? ............................................................................................................ 59
3.2.6 How does Night Combat Function? ............................................................................................. 61
3.2.7 How do Leaders affect Combat? .................................................................................................. 62
3.2.8 Combat Formula........................................................................................................................... 63
3.2.9 Combat Results Table and Damage Results................................................................................. 65
3.2.10 What is Morale and Combat Experience? .................................................................................. 66
3.2.11 How do I Defend? ...................................................................................................................... 67
3.2.12 What are the highlights?............................................................................................................. 68
3.2.13 Frequently Asked Questions - Combat ...................................................................................... 68
3.3 Combat Efficiency ............................................................................................................................. 68
3.3.1 What is Combat Efficiency? ........................................................................................................ 68
3.3.2 Combat Efficiency System ........................................................................................................... 68
3.3.3 What are the effects of Conserving Ammo? ................................................................................ 69
3.3.4 How do I Regain or Maintain Combat Efficiency? ...................................................................... 69
3.3.5 How do Leaders affect Combat Efficiency? ................................................................................ 71
3.3.6 What is Enhanced Combat Efficiency? ........................................................................................ 71
3.3.7 What are the highlights?............................................................................................................... 71
3.3.8 Frequently Asked Questions - Combat Efficiency ....................................................................... 71
3.4 Artillery .............................................................................................................................................. 71
3.4.1 What is Artillery? ......................................................................................................................... 71
3.4.2 How do I Attack with Artillery .................................................................................................... 72
3.4.3 What is Off-map Artillery? .......................................................................................................... 72
3.4.4 How do I fire Smoke with Artillery? ........................................................................................... 72
3.4.5 How do I fire Flares with Artillery? ............................................................................................. 72
3.4.6 What are some Artillery tactics to use? ........................................................................................ 73
3.4.7 Does Artillery affect armoured vehicles?..................................................................................... 74
3.4.8 Does Artillery effect on-map aircraft & helicopters? ................................................................... 74
3.5 Air Strikes, Helicopters and Air Support ........................................................................................... 74
3.5.1 How do I Attack with an Air Strike?............................................................................................ 74
3.5.2 How do I use Helicopters? ........................................................................................................... 74
3.5.3 How do I use Air Support? ........................................................................................................... 75
3.6 Engineering Tasks and Special Abilities............................................................................................ 76
3.6.1 What are Unit Special Abilities? .................................................................................................. 76
3.6.2 How do I clear a minefield? ......................................................................................................... 76
3.6.3 How do I lay a minefield? ............................................................................................................ 76
3.6.4 How do I build a hex-side bridge? ............................................................................................... 77
3.6.5 How do I demolish a high wall or bridge? ................................................................................... 77
3.6.6 How do I build a barrier? ............................................................................................................. 77
3.6.7 How do I build a trench? .............................................................................................................. 77
3.6.8 How do I remove a wreck? .......................................................................................................... 78
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3.6.9 How do I set an IED? ................................................................................................................... 78
3.7 Optional Rules.................................................................................................................................... 78
3.7.1 What are the Optional Rules?....................................................................................................... 78
3.8 Design Decisions................................................................................................................................ 80
3.8.1 What do the various letters mean after the platoon name? For example, Rifle 48 A(F)? ............ 80
3.8.2 Why are trucks hard targets? ........................................................................................................ 80
3.8.3 Why do my Combat Armed Helicopters go on Conserving Ammo status and do not regain
ammo? ................................................................................................................................................... 80
3.8.4 Why can’t helicopters attack enemy units? .................................................................................. 81
3.8.5 Why all do we have Adaptive A/I? .............................................................................................. 81
3.8.6 Why doesn’t my transported Headquarters show subordinate organizations? ............................ 82
4.0 Bootcamp Tutorials ............................................................................................................................ 83
4.1 Bootcamp One.................................................................................................................................... 83
4.1.1 Bootcamp One: Turn 1 ................................................................................................................. 83
4.1.2 Bootcamp One: Turn 2 ................................................................................................................. 85
4.1.3 Bootcamp One: Turn 3 ................................................................................................................. 86
4.1.4 Bootcamp One: Turn 4 ................................................................................................................. 87
4.1.5 Bootcamp One: Turns 5 through 8 ............................................................................................... 88
4.2 Bootcamp Two ................................................................................................................................... 89
4.2.1 Bootcamp Two: Turn 1 ................................................................................................................ 89
4.2.2 Bootcamp Two: Turn 2 ................................................................................................................ 91
4.2.3 Bootcamp Two: Turn 3 ................................................................................................................ 92
4.2.4 Bootcamp Two: Turn 4 ................................................................................................................ 93
4.2.5 Bootcamp Two: Turn 5 ................................................................................................................ 93
4.2.6 Bootcamp Two: Turns 6 through 10 ............................................................................................ 94
4.3 Bootcamp Three ................................................................................................................................. 94
4.3.1 Bootcamp Three: Turn 1 .............................................................................................................. 94
4.3.2 Bootcamp Three: Turn 2 .............................................................................................................. 95
4.3.3 Bootcamp Three: Turn 3 .............................................................................................................. 95
4.3.4 Bootcamp Three: Turn 4 .............................................................................................................. 95
4.3.5 Bootcamp Three: Turns 5 through 10 .......................................................................................... 96
4.4 Bootcamp Four................................................................................................................................... 97
4.4.1 Bootcamp Four: Turn 1 ................................................................................................................ 97
4.4.2 Bootcamp Four: Turn 2 ................................................................................................................ 98
4.4.3 Bootcamp Four: Turn 3 ................................................................................................................ 99
4.4.4 Bootcamp Four: Turn 4 ................................................................................................................ 99
4.4.5 Bootcamp Four: Turns 5 through 17 ............................................................................................ 99
5.0 Hints and Tips ................................................................................................................................... 100
5.1 How to Win ...................................................................................................................................... 100
5.2 Hints and Tips .................................................................................................................................. 100
6.0 Veterans Guide .................................................................................................................................. 102
6.1 What is The Campaign Series: Middle East? ................................................................................... 102
6.2 What’s New or Different? ................................................................................................................ 102
7.0 Linked Campaign Games ................................................................................................................. 104
7.1 What are Linked Campaign Games?................................................................................................ 104
7.2 The Campaign Commanders Screen ................................................................................................ 104
7.3 The New Campaign Screen.............................................................................................................. 105
7.4 The Character Screen ....................................................................................................................... 105
7.5 The Mission Screen.......................................................................................................................... 106
7.6 Replacements ................................................................................................................................... 106
7.7 Winning............................................................................................................................................ 107
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8.0 Scenario Design ................................................................................................................................. 108
8.1 The Map Editor ................................................................................................................................ 108
8.1.1 How to Create a Map ................................................................................................................. 109
8.1.2 Design Tips ................................................................................................................................ 111
8.1.3 Map Standards............................................................................................................................ 112
8.2 The Organization Editor................................................................................................................... 112
8.2.1 How to Create an Organization .................................................................................................. 112
8.2.2 Design Tips ................................................................................................................................ 115
8.2.3 Order of Battle Standards ........................................................................................................... 115
8.3 The Scenario Editor ......................................................................................................................... 116
8.3.1 How to Create a Scenario ........................................................................................................... 116
8.3.2 Design Tips ................................................................................................................................ 119
8.3.3 Scenario Standards ..................................................................................................................... 120
8.4 Creating Linked Campaign Games .................................................................................................. 120
8.4.1 Designing a Linked Campaign Game ........................................................................................ 120
8.4.2 The Essentials............................................................................................................................. 120
8.4.3 Step by Step................................................................................................................................ 123
8.4.4 Nationality ID# Codes................................................................................................................ 126
8.4.5 Linked Campaign Game Command Levels ............................................................................... 126
8.4.6 Map Regions .............................................................................................................................. 126
8.4.7 Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................................... 126
9.0 Scenario List ...................................................................................................................................... 127
9.1 Sources ............................................................................................................................................. 140
9.1.1 Books ......................................................................................................................................... 140
9.1.2 Articles ....................................................................................................................................... 142
10.0 Unit List ........................................................................................................................................... 144
10.1 Unit Information ............................................................................................................................ 144
10.2 Using the Unit Viewer ................................................................................................................... 144
11.0 Middle East Terrain ....................................................................................................................... 147
11.1 Middle East Terrain and their effects ............................................................................................. 147
11.1.1 Middle East Terrain.................................................................................................................. 147
11.2.1 Terrain Hex Types.................................................................................................................... 147
11.2.2 Terrain Combat Modifier (TEM) ............................................................................................. 147
11.2.3 Terrain Concealment (TC) ....................................................................................................... 147
11.2.4 Morale Modifier ....................................................................................................................... 147
11.2.5 Height ....................................................................................................................................... 148
11.2.6 Hexes ........................................................................................................................................ 148
12.0 Modes of Play .................................................................................................................................. 157
12.1 Against the Computer .................................................................................................................... 157
12.1.1 Playing Against the Computer ................................................................................................. 157
12.1.2 How to… .................................................................................................................................. 157
12.2 Play-By-Email ................................................................................................................................ 158
12.2.1 Playing By Email ..................................................................................................................... 158
12.2.2 How to… .................................................................................................................................. 158
12.2.3 Finding Opponents! .................................................................................................................. 159
12.3 Playing Hot-Seat ............................................................................................................................ 159
12.3.1 Playing Hot-Seat ...................................................................................................................... 159
12.4 Playing Over a Local Area Network .............................................................................................. 160
12.4.1 Playing Over a LAN................................................................................................................. 160
12.4.2 Step by Step.............................................................................................................................. 160
13.0 Frequently Asked Questions .......................................................................................................... 161
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13.1 Frequently Asked Questions .......................................................................................................... 161
13.1.1 Hardware & Operating System ................................................................................................ 161
13.1.2 General Game Parameter ......................................................................................................... 162
13.1.3 General Mechanics ................................................................................................................... 162
13.1.4 Combat ..................................................................................................................................... 162
13.1.5 Headquarters, Supply and Leaders ........................................................................................... 163
13.1.6 Helicopters ............................................................................................................................... 163
13.1.7 General Tactics......................................................................................................................... 163
13.1.8 Building a Scenario .................................................................................................................. 164
13.1.9 Miscellaneous ........................................................................................................................... 164
14.0 Trouble Shooting............................................................................................................................. 165
14.1 Technical Support .......................................................................................................................... 165
14.2 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................................. 165
15.0 Hot Keys........................................................................................................................................... 166
16.0 How to Mod ..................................................................................................................................... 168
16.1 Graphics ......................................................................................................................................... 168
16.1.1 Modifying Unit Graphics ......................................................................................................... 168
16.1.2 Anatomy of a Unit Graphic ...................................................................................................... 168
16.1.3 Altering the Appearance of a Unit Graphic.............................................................................. 169
16.1.4 Replacing an existing Unit Graphic ......................................................................................... 169
16.1.5 Creating and Adding a new Unit Graphic ................................................................................ 170
16.2 Order of Battles .............................................................................................................................. 171
16.2.1 Modifying Order of Battles ...................................................................................................... 171
16.2.2 Anatomy of the Order of Battles .............................................................................................. 171
Example Organizations: ...................................................................................................................... 174
16.2.3 Adding new Order of Battles ................................................................................................... 175
16.2.4 Things to Consider ................................................................................................................... 181
16.2.5 Nationality ID# Codes.............................................................................................................. 182
16.3 JSGME Modification Enabler Software ........................................................................................ 182
16.4 Using the no encryption features (-X) for your own games ........................................................... 182
17.0 Update Log ...................................................................................................................................... 184
17.1 Middle East Update Log for 1.01 ................................................................................................... 184
17.1.1 FIXES....................................................................................................................................... 184
17.1.2 ENHANCEMENTS ................................................................................................................. 184
17.1.3 GRAPHICS .............................................................................................................................. 185
17.1.4 DATA....................................................................................................................................... 185
17.1.5 SCENARIOS............................................................................................................................ 185
17.2 Middle East Update Log for 1.02 ................................................................................................... 186
17.2.1 FIXES....................................................................................................................................... 186
17.2.2 ENHANCEMENTS ................................................................................................................. 186
17.2.3 GRAPHICS .............................................................................................................................. 187
17.2.4 DATA....................................................................................................................................... 187
17.2.5 SCENARIOS............................................................................................................................ 187
17.2.6 MODS ...................................................................................................................................... 188
17.2.7 MANUAL ................................................................................................................................ 190
18.0 Game Glossary ................................................................................................................................ 191
18.1 Game Term Glossary ..................................................................................................................... 191
18.2 Middle East Glossary ..................................................................................................................... 193
19.0 Index ................................................................................................................................................. 195
20.0 Appendices ....................................................................................................................................... 197
20.1 Appendix A .................................................................................................................................... 197
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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21.0 Credits .............................................................................................................................................. 198
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
1.0 Campaign Series: Middle East: 1948-1985TM
Thank you for purchasing this installment of the Campaign Series! Please take the time to read through the manual
as it contains a lot of information covering the basic play of the game, tips for mastering game play and
explanations of the various new features that are included with the various updates.
1.1 System Requirements
1.1.1 Minimum System Requirements
To play Middle East, your computer system must meet these requirements:
1.0 GHz
256 MB Free RAM
16 MB Video RAM
Soundcard
1024x768 resolution
Windows VISTA/7/8
1.1.2 Recommended System Requirements
For preferred performance, your computer system should meet these requirements:
2.00 GHz
500 MB Free RAM
64 MB Video RAM
Soundcard
Windows 7/8/10
As a rule; the faster the processor and more RAM you have, the faster the game will play and one can
play the excessively large scenarios with no problem. The screen resolution is dynamic; meaning the
viewable area will be relative to your monitor. The larger the monitor or higher the screen resolution you
choose to use, the more play area that will be exposed.
1.2 Installation Procedures
Write down the serial number for the game, as you will need it during the installation process.
Installation from the DVD-ROM:
Insert the DVD -ROM into the DVD -ROM drive. The Middle East Setup window will appear. Read
through the introduction and click Next when you are complete. Continue following the instructions until
the Middle East is installed. If the Setup does not automatically run, you can access it by double clicking
on the ModernWarsVolumeI-SetupRelease-V1DR.exe file on the root of the DVD -ROM.
Installation from the Digital Download:
Download the primary EXE file from the Matrix Games website and double click on the EXE. The
Middle East Setup window will appear. Read through the introduction and click Next when you are
complete. Continue following the instructions until the Middle East is installed.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Do not forget to UPDATE the install by clicking on the UPDATE button on the main menu!
1.3 Updates
1.3.1 Middle East Updates
Middle East can be considered a living game. This means that this is not the final version of the game,
but the beginning of a continually growing entity! As time progresses, there will be updates made
available that will expand and enhance the game. These are intended to include new features, new units,
new countries, new scenarios and new campaigns.
You can access an UPDATE a number of ways:
1. Click on the UPDATE button on the main game menu
2. Download the latest UPDATE from the Matrix Games product page.
3. Notification will be sent via your Matrix Games Member Account (see below)
The UPDATEs will be cumulative, so you will only require the latest version to install.
1.3.2 Matrix Games Member Account
In order to maintain our product excellence, Matrix Games releases updates containing new features,
enhancements, and corrections to any known issues. Keeping up with these updates is made easy and is
free by signing up for a Matrix Games Member account. When you are signed up, you can then register
your Matrix Games products in order to receive access to these important game-related materials. Doing
so is a simple two-step process:
Sign Up for a Matrix Games Member account – THIS IS A ONE TIME PROCEDURE; once you have
signed up for a Matrix account, you are in the system and will not need to sign up again. Go to
http://www.matrixgames.com and click the Members hyperlink at the top. In the new window, select
Register NOW and follow the on-screen instructions. When you are finished, click the Please Create
My New Account button, and a confirmation e-mail will be sent to your specified e-mail account.
Register a New Game Purchase – Once you have signed up for a Matrix Games Member account, you
can then register any Matrix Games title you own in your new account. To do so, please log in to your
account on the Matrix Games website (http://www.matrixgames.com), click Register Game near the top
to register your new Matrix Games purchase.
Once you have registered your game, when you log into the Members section you can view your list of
registered titles by clicking My Games. Each game title is a hyperlink that will take you to an
information page on the game (including all the latest news on that title). Also on this list is a Downloads
hyperlink that takes you to a page that has all the latest downloads, including patches, for that particular
title.
Remember, once you have signed up for a Matrix Games Member account, you do not have to sign up
again – at that point you are free to register for any Matrix Games product you purchase. Thank you and
enjoy your game!
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
1.4 Uninstalling the game
It is recommended to use the Add/Remove Programs option from the Windows Control Panel to uninstall
the game.
1.5 Technical Support
Should you have a technical problem with the game, and the Frequently Asked Questions found in
Section 13.0 do not provide an answer, the best way to get help is to post a note in the Technical Support
sub-forum within the Middle East forum at http://www.matrixgames.com
You will then hear back from Matrix Games Staff, the Campaign Series Legion, the Beta Brigade or
from one of the many helpful players of the game.
Alternatively, you can email your problem to [email protected]
Lastly, you may also try emailing [email protected] Ensure you add “Middle East” to the
subject line when emailing as most mail is filtered.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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2.0 Playing the Game
2.1 Learning to Play
2.1.1 Introduction
Welcome to The Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985!
Middle East is a tactical-level game portraying some of the significant battles between 1948 and 1985 in
the Middle East and North Africa. Choose to battle in over 60 historical scenarios. Pit your skills against
the computer in any of the many historical scenarios or go head-to-head against fellow games at home or
through email!
Each scenario is played on a unique map with seven “view modes”. Most scenario maps are based on
historically accurate Cold War-era 1:50,000 or 1:100,000 topographic maps. Movement and combat is
performed on a “hex-grid” map that has defined wargaming for over four decades. Each hex represents
250 metres; with 4 hexes to a kilometre or 6 hexes to a mile.
The scenarios vary in complexity and have a variable number of Game Turns, in which you and your
opponent attempt to secure objectives and defeat each other’s forces in battle. Every conceivable type of
battle is represented in the numerous scenario selection; meeting engagements, armoured breakthroughs,
fixed defences, exploitation, reconnaissance, mobile defences, battles of attrition, forced landings and
much more!
Middle East can be considered a living game. This means that this is not the final version of the game; it
will be continued to be expanded and updated in the future and be available to you as UPDATES that
you will be able to download from the Matrix Games website or by clicking the UPDATE button on the
main game menu. Follow along on the Matrix Games forum or the Campaign Series Facebook page for
the latest and greatest regarding Middle East.
2.1.2 Getting Started
There are a variety of ways to play Middle East. The game provides numerous pre-made scenarios based
on historical battles. Additionally, the game comes equipped with the necessary editors to create your
own scenarios.
After installing the game, double-clicking on the desktop shortcut will display the Master Menu, offers
you a number of options. From this Master Menu, you can select the game you would like to play or
access the direct link to a PDF version of the manual or access to the UPDATE button to update the
game when required.
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June 2016
Click on either of the Game links and it will take you to that game Main Selection Screen. The Main
Selection Screen will allow you to decide what you would like to do in the game; Play Scenario, Play
Campaign, Edit Scenario, Edit Map or Edit Order of Battle.
Play Scenario: Selecting this option will take you to the Scenario Selection Screen providing
you with over 60 pre-designed scenarios to choose from.
Play Campaign: Selecting this option will take you to the Campaign Selection Screen where
you can begin one of the Linked Campaign Games. See Section 7.0 for more information on
Linked Campaign Games.
Generate Battle: Selecting this option will take you to the Battle Generator Screen where you
can create a Randomly Generated Battle. See Section 2.3 for more information on Generating
Battles.
Edit Scenario: Selecting this option will take you to the Scenario Editor where you can create
your own scenarios. For details on creating your own scenarios, see Section 8.0
Edit Map: Selecting this option will take you to the Map Editor to create your unique map for
your scenario. For details on creating your own maps, see Section 8.0
Edit Order of Battle: Selecting this option will take you to the Organization Editor to create
your unique Organization for your scenario. For details on creating your own scenarios, see
Section 8.0
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2.1.3 Starting a Scenario
You can start to play a new scenario by selecting the Play Scenario button. The next screen is the
Scenario Type screen which lets you choose how you wish to play the scenario. You can select from the
following options; Standard, Modem Host, Modem Caller, Play-by-Email or Hot Seat.
Standard: Select to play against the computer.
Modern Host: Select this if you wish to Host a live game. For more information on hosting a
live game, see Section 12.4.
Modem Caller: Select this if you wish to attend a hosted live game. For more information on
participating in a live game, see Section 12.4.
Play-by-Email: Select this if you wish to play by email. For more information on playing a Play
by Email (PBEM) game, see Section 12.2.
Hot Seat: Select this if you wish to play against a Human opponent while sharing the same
computer. For more information on playing a Hot Seat game, see Section 12.3.
Focusing on the default setting (Standard is checked), you can begin to play a new scenario by pressing
the button beside “Start a New Game”. This will take you to a large window that displays all the
available scenarios within the game. The scenario titles are listed in the large window in the upper left
corner with the scenario descriptions below. On the right is a graphic that shows up tells you wish
countries are playing, which side they are and the geographic location of the battle. You can use the
arrows beside either window to move up and down the scenario list and utilize the Page Up and Page
Down keys for the scenario descriptions. The double arrows beside the scenario list allow you to scroll
up or down by “Page”. For a detailed description of the codes found in the scenario description, see
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Section 2.1.5.
Other information available is the scenario complexity, number of turns in the scenario, scenario date,
first side that starts the scenario, scenario file name and the scenario designer. Each has a button beside
them allowing you to sort the scenario list by that item. The default sorting is by complexity.
The scenario complexity is a rating system that is determined by the total number of units on both sides
that could potentially appear during that scenario, including reinforcements. Refer to the chart below.
2.1.3.1 Complexity Rating Chart
Complexity is the # of Units in the Scenario
1
1-20
2
21-50
3
51-90
4
91-140
5
141-200
6
201-280
7
281-380
8
381-500
9
501-750
10
>750
Select a scenario from the list and press to the OK button to proceed.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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2.1.4 Inside the Scenario
After entering a scenario, you will be shown an A/I Selection dialogue. Here you decide which side will
be played by whom and how much Fog of War (FOW) there will be. You will also add any optional rules
by selecting the Rules button at the bottom of the dialogue.
Each side is divided into the SIDE A A/I and SIDE B A/I. Under the sides are three options: Manual,
Computer and Computer with FOW.
Manual means that you will operate all the units for that side in a scenario.
Computer means that the computer will operate all the
units for that side in a scenario
Computer with FOW means that the computer will
operate all the units for that side in a scenario, but Fog of
War will be in effect. When Fog of War is in effect, you
can only see opposing units that are in the Line of Sight
(LOS) of one or more of your units. This mode is ideal for
playing against the computer.
Underneath these setting is the Set Advantage bar. The Advantage bar can be set to either side, ranging
from 0 to 100. Depending on the value, the side with the advantage will inflict higher than normal
combat losses on the opposing side and suffer lower than normal combat casualties. The Advantage must
be set prior to beginning an E-mail or Modem games, but can be otherwise adjusted at any time.
Selecting the Rules button at the bottom of the dialogue will open the Optional Rules dialogue.
There are seven optional rules available to enhance or alter game play; Indirect Fire By The Map,
Extreme Fog-of- War, Extreme Assault, Armour Facing Effects, Command Control, Variable Visibility
and Customizable A/I.
Indirect Fire By The Map: This option allows you to plot Indirect Fire on the hexes that are not
in the Line of Sight of friendly units. Such fire is likely to drift into another hex, up to two hexes
from the originally plotted hex.
Extreme Fog-of-War: This option will add additional effects for the Fog-of-War. Names,
Strength and Morale of the opposing units be hidden and assault odds will be unavailable.
Extreme Assault: This option prevents the nearly automatic overrun during the assault phase.
See Section 3.2.4 for a detailed explanation on Combat and Assaulting.
Armour Facing Effects: This option applies to Direct Fire vs. hard targets. When this is in
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effect, the individual front, side and rear defence values are used when defending against an
attack, as opposed to the standard defensive value. The standard defensive value is an overall
rating based on the vehicles size, armour thickness, close-defence weaponry and the assumption
that not all vehicles will be facing in the same direction – especially in a defensive stance. See
Section 3.0 for a detailed explanation on how Armour Facing Effects affect combat.
Command Control: This option engages an enhanced supply system. See Section 3.0 for a
detailed explanation on the Supply system and how Command Control can influence it.
Variable Visibility: When the scenario visibility is set between 5 and 15 hexes and this option is
selected, there is a change that the visibility will increase or decrease by 1 hex. This adds an
additional element to the Fog-of-War and adds the ability to replay scenarios!
Adaptive A/I: This option triggers an A/I associated with each scenario that alters dozens of
parameters that will affect how the A/I plays and its capabilities. This is also intended to be used
for head-to-head games, as all scenarios are designed with this optional rule turned on. See
Section 3.7.1 and Section 3.8.5 for detailed explanations of the Adaptive A/I.
After deciding on the A/I Selections and Optional Rules, selecting OK will take you to the scenario in
game.
2.1.5 Scenario Descriptions
The scenario descriptions have been designed to give you as much information as possible to let you
decide if it is the type of scenario you wish to play. The typical scenario description will look like this:
[Harib, 150km E of San'aa, Yemen]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Crucial to the second phase of the
Ramada offensive, Egyptian columns moved out from San'aa to begin opening and securing
roads from San'aa to Sadah in the north and San'aa to Marib in the east. The eastern task force
advanced and captured Marib from the Royalist forces by February 25th. The Task Force
continued the advance east to Harib, a small hamlet on the outskirts of the frontier and staging
area for Royalist forces. [ALL:N VV][NONE][1.01]
Simplified:
[LOCATION]: [PLAY MODE][SCEN TYPE][DESIGNER]:
Scenario
Description
[OPTIONAL
RULES][SPECIAL
DESIGNER NOTES][GAME VERSION]
As you can see, the description is full of information. The
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following breaks down each topic and explains the codes you may find within.
[LOCATION]
Describes where the battle takes place and can be in the following formats:
[Harib, 150km E of San’aa, Yemen] OR
[San’aa, Yemen] OR
[Harib, NE Yemen]
[PLAY MODE]
Describes how the scenario is intended to be played:
[H2H]
Best Played versus Human Opponent
[SIDE A]
Best Played from the Side A side
[SIDE B]
Best Played from the Side B side
[H2H/SIDE A] Best Played versus Human Opponent or from the Side A Side
[H2H/SIDE B] Best Played versus Human Opponent or from the Side B Side
[SCN TYPE]
Describes the intended design of the scenario:
[HIS]
Historical – Extra effort in the map/oob and scenario to be as historical as possible
[HISB]
Historically Based – Loosely based on actual battle based on minimal resources.
[TRNY]
Tournament designed Fictional or Hypothetical Situation
[FIC]
Fictional or Hypothetical Situation
[WIF]
What-If Situation
[DESIGNER]
Describes who designed the scenario:
[CSL]
Campaign Series Legion Designer
[BB]
Beta Brigade Member Designer
[GD]
Guest Designer
[BZ]
Blitz H2H Designer
[OPTIONAL RULES]
Describes which optional rules should be used for the scenario.
[ALL]
All Options ON
[IFM]
Indirect Fire by the Map
[EFOW]
Extreme Fog of War
[EA]
Extreme Assault
[AF]
Armour Facing Effects
[CC]
Command Control
[VV]
Variable Visibility
[A/I]
Adaptable A/I
[N IFM]
NO Indirect Fire by the Map
[N EFOW]
NO Extreme Fog of War
[N EA]
NO Extreme Assault
[N AF]
NO Armour Facing Effects
[N CC]
NO Command Control
[N VV]
NO Variable Visibility
[N A/I]
NO Adaptable A/I
Example Usage:
[EFOW:CC:VV]
USE Extreme FOW, Command Control and Variable Visibility
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[ALL:N EA:N VV]
[ALL:N VV]
June 2016
ALL OPTIONS but NO Extreme Assault and NO Variable Visibility
ALL OPTIONS but NO Variable Visibility.
[SPECIAL DESIGNER NOTES]
Describes special notes for the scenario that the designer has; house rules, hints or tips, special thanks,
etc.
[NONE] indicates there are no current special designer notes.
[GAME VERSION]
Describes what version the scenario was designed under and/or updated to.
[1.00] is the initial release version.
[1.01] is the 1.01 UPDATE release version.
2.2 User Interface
2.2.1 Game Interface
You are in the game, looking at a 3D map and a Tool Bar at the bottom of the screen with a number of
buttons. This is the Standard Tool Bar.
From left to right:
Move/Fire Toggle: This allows you to toggle between Move Mode and Fire Mode. You can also
do this by holding the Ctrl key.
Mass Attack Toggle: This allows you to perform a mass attack. Only certain countries will have
this capability.
Smoke Toggle: This allows you to fire smoke with eligible units when available.
Flare Toggle: This allows you to fire flares during night scenarios.
Unit Handbook Toggle: This allows you to access the Unit Handbook.
OP FIRE: This allows you to toggle the Opportunity Fire Dialog.
Artillery Dialog: This displays the artillery available in the current scenario. Note that Indirect
Fire attacks are carried out at the beginning of the next turn.
Air Strike: This allows you to call in an airstrike on the current Hot-Spotted Hex. A target
marker is placed to denote the impending air strike, but the attack can be delayed for several
turns. Once plotted, the Air Attack cannot be cancelled and you are limited to one Air Attack per
hex. If the Air Attack arrives when the targeted hex is out of Line of Sight to any friendly unit,
the Air Attack will be recalled and be no longer available. There is also a small chance the Air
Attack will strike a friendly unit!
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Resolve Assault: This will resolve the current assault.
Ascend: This will move an eligible unit to ascend to the next Flight Zone.
Descend: This will move an eligible unit to descend to the next Flight Zone.
Load/Unload Toggle: This allows you to load and unload eligible units. To load, you must
select both the unit you want to load and the unit you want to load into. Both units must have
enough action points to fulfill the task.
Dig In: This allows a selected unit attempt to build an improved position. Units that are able to
dig in will have a small shovel icon located in the lower left of the Unit Display.
Double Time: This allows an eligible unit use Double Time movement. Most infantry unit types
are capable of Double Time movement. A unit will automatically become fatigued when in
Double Time mode.
Save Action Point for Firing: Saves enough Action Points for the selected unit to fire once.
Save Action Points for Unloading: Saves enough Action Points to unload.
Command Range: Displays the command range of the selected HQ or CP.
Visible Hexes: Highlights the Visible Hexes from the current Hot-Spotted Hex.
Hard/Soft Attack Ranges: Displays the Hard and Soft Attack ranges/values of the selected unit.
Reachable Hexes: Displays the reachable hexes the unit may travel to.
Thermometers Toggle: Toggles the unit thermometers on or off.
Unit Base Toggle: Turns the Unit Bases on or off for the 3D view only.
Units Toggle: Toggles the Units on or off of the map.
Objective Locations Toggle: Toggles the Objective Locations on or off of the map.
Contours Toggle: Toggles the contours on or off of the map.
Hex Outlines Toggle: Toggles the hex outlines on or off of the map.
Rotate Map: Rotates the map 180 degrees.
Jump Map: Displays the Jump Map. Right-clicking on the active Jump Map will take you to
that location.
Highlight Anti-aircraft Units: Highlights all friendly anti-aircraft units on the map.
Highlight Indirect Fire Units: Highlights all friendly indirect fire units on the map.
Highlight Mine Clearing Units: Highlights all friendly mine clearing units on the map.
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Highlight Disrupted Units: Highlights all friendly disrupted units on the map.
Highlight Fixed Units: Highlights all friendly fixed units on the map.
Highlight Moved Units: Highlights all friendly units that have moved on the map.
Highlight Fired Units: Highlights all friendly units that have fired on the map.
Highlight Low Ammo Units: Highlights all friendly units that are low on ammos on the map.
Highlight Spotted Units: Highlights all friendly units that in Line of Sight of the enemy on the
map.
Highlight Leaders: Highlights friendly Leaders on the map.
Highlight Headquarters: Highlights friendly Headquarters on the map.
Current Organization: Highlights the Current Organization Structure of the selected unit. To
highlight the next higher organization, hold down the Ctrl key while pressing this button.
Show Arrive: Opens the Reinforcement Dialogue to add reinforcements to the map.
Remove Units: Removes the selected units from the map. The unit must be along a map edge.
Rotate Clockwise: Rotates the unit clockwise.
Rotate Counterclockwise: Rotates the unit counterclockwise.
Top of Stack: Moves the selected unit to the top of the unit stack.
Bottom of Stack: Moves the selected unit to the bottom of the unit stack.
Previous Unit Cycle: Cycles to the previous unit.
Next Unit Cycle: Cycles to the next unit.
Next Turn: Advance to the next turn. To prevent accidental turn advancements, you can be
asked before proceeding to the next turn. From the Main Menu: Options  Ask Before
Advancing Turn
2.2.2 Map Views
There are seven different map views available in Middle East and they can be accessed by pressing 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 on the keyboard. The default view is 1, the 3D Normal View. 2 is the 3D Zoom-Out View
and 3 is the 3D Extreme Zoom-Out View. There are four 2D views; 4 - 2D Zoom-in View, 5 – 2D
Normal View, 6 – 2D Zoom-out View and 7 – 2D Extreme Zoom-out View. You can change the default
view from the Main Menu bar under Options  Select Initial View.
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The 3D Zoom-Out View (2) displays the map at half its 3D Normal View (1) size, allowing twice as
much visible area. The 3D Extreme Zoom-Out View (3) displays at a fourth of the 3D Normal View (1)
size, allowing even more visible area to be seen.
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The 2D Zoom-in View (4) is a top down view that presents terrain and units in more detail than the other
2D Views (5, 6 & 7). The area shown is typically larger than the 3D maps, making the map an effective
map for planning or longer moves. When playing on the 2D Normal View, you can use either graphical
icons or military symbols to display your units. This is accessed through the Main Menu under the
Options  Select Graphical Unit Icons. In 2D Extreme Zoom Out View (7), counters are blank and
display nation colors only.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
The 2D Zoom-in View (4)
The 2D Zoom-in View (5)
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Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
The 2D Zoom-in View (6)
The 2D Zoom-in View (7)
June 2016
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You can use the mouse to scroll around the map by moving
the cursor to the edge of the screen. Alternatively, you can
press J on the keyboard to bring up the Jump Map and click
to where on the map you wish to go to.
With Options > Auto Scroll toggled ON, you can use the
mouse to scroll around the map by moving the cursor to the
edge of the screen. With Option > Auto Scroll toggled OFF,
you can use the window controls to move around the map.
Alternative, you can press J.
2.2.3 Map Labels
On many of the maps, there are various labels which will help become
familiar with the local geography and allow you to keep track of where
your units are. You can access them by holding down the SHIFT key.
Releasing the SHIFT key will hide the labels. Holding the SHIFT + ALT
keys will keep the labels on the map while you play. They can be hidden
again by holding down the SHIFT + ALT keys.
There are two different label types, Options > Transparent, and Options >
Transparent Enhanced.
2.2.4 Main Menu Bar
The Main Menu bar is displayed at the top and has a number of pull down menus from the following
headings: File, Turn, Units, Assault, Reinforce, Status, Display, A/I, Special, Options and Help
2.2.4.1 File Menu
New: Select to start a new game.
Open: Select to open an existing game.
Save: Saves the scenario you are playing.
Save As: Saves the scenario you are playing under a new file name.
Replay: To view a recorded Battle. To halt the replay, press ESC.
Exit: Quits the scenario you are playing.
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2.2.4.2 Turn Menu
Next: Advances the scenario to the next turn.
2.2.4.3 Units Menu
To Top of Stack (CTRL + Y): Moves the selected unit to the top of its stack.
To Bottom of Stack (CTRL + Z): Moves the selected unit to the bottom of its stack
Turn Clockwise (NUMPAD 6): This allows a selected unit to change its facing by one hexside
in a clockwise direction
Turn Counterclockwise (NUMPAD 4): This allows a selected unit to change its facing by one
hexside in a counterclockwise direction
Double-Time (CTRL + Q): This allows an eligible unit use Double Time movement. Most
infantry unit types are capable of Double Time movement. A unit will automatically become
fatigued when in Double Time mode.
Load/Unload (CTRL + L): This allows you to load and unload eligible units. To load, you must
select both the unit you want to load and the unit you want to load into. Both units must have
enough action points to fulfill the task
Toggle Digging-In (CTRL + D): This allows a selected unit attempt to build an improved
position. Units that are able to dig in will have a small shovel icon located in the lower left of the
Unit Display
Build Lt Hexside Bridge (CTRL + H): This allows you to build a light
hexside bridge. This feature requires a special unit type.
Lay Vehicle Bridge (CTRL + V): This allows you to build a light hexside
bridge. This feature requires a special unit type.
Lay Minefield/IED (CTRL + M): This allows you to lay a 1 Strength
Minefield or IED. This feature requires a special unit type.
Build Barrier (CTRL + J): This allows you to build a barrier. This feature
requires a special unit type.
Damage Wall or Bridge (CTRL + G): This allows the selected engineer
unit to attempt to destroy a bridge or high wall hex-side.
Clear LZ (CTRL + C): This allows the selected engineer unit to attempt to
clear a forested hex so a helicopter unit may land within.
Save AP’s for Firing (CTRL + F): Saves enough Action Points for the
selected unit to fire once after it has expended Action Points for other
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purposes.
Save AP’s for Unloading (CTRL + U): Saves enough Action Points to unload after it has
expended Action Points for other purposes.
Climb (PgUp): This will move an eligible unit to climb to the next Flight Zone.
Descend (PgDn): This will move an eligible unit to descend to the next Flight Zone.
Launch Human Wave Attack (CTRL + B): This allows you to initiate an attack the target hex
from multiple directions from multiple units from the same command organization. Only certain
countries have this capability.
Fire Smoke (ALT + CTRL): This allows you to fire smoke from the selected unit.
Fire Flare (SHIFT + ALT + CTRL): This allows you to attempt to fire a flare from the selected
unit. This only works in Night Scenarios.
Air Attack(CTRL + K): This allows you to call in an airstrike on the current Hot-Spotted Hex.
A target marker is placed to denote the impending air strike, but the attack can be delayed for
several turns. Once plotted, the Air Attack cannot be cancelled and you are limited to one Air
Attack per hex. If the Air Attack arrives when the targeted hex is out of Line of Sight to any
friendly unit, the Air Attack will be recalled and be no longer available. There is also a small
chance the Air Attack will strike a friendly unit!
Artillery Dialog (CTRL + W): This displays the artillery available in the current scenario. Note
that Indirect Fire attacks are carried out at the beginning of the next turn.
Assign Opportunity Fire (CTRL + P): This displays the Opportunity Fire Dialog which allows
you to set the desired maximum ranges that your units will be allowed to conduct Opportunity
Fire on various target types.
Remove From Map (CTRL + E): This allows you to remove a selected unit from the map.
Removal can occur only during your turn and the unit must be in the map-edge hex. Removing
units from an Exit Objective will provide you addition Victory Points.
Undo Last Movement: This allows you to cancel the movement of the most recently moved,
still selected, friendly unit. This command is disabled during Modem play, Play By Email and
whenever Fog of War is in effect.
2.2.4.4 Assault Menu
Add to Assault (ALT + A): This allows you to add the
selected unit to participate in the current assault.
Show Odds (ALT + O): This allows you to see the current
assault odds. This is not available when Fog of War is in
effect.
Cancel Assault (ALT + C): This allows you to cancel an
assault without resolving it.
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Resolve Assault (ALT + R): This resolves the current assault.
2.2.4.5 Reinforcement Menu
Scheduled (CTRL + S): Displays the reinforcements that are
scheduled to arrive during the current scenario, as well as the per-turn
probability for each group. Double-clicking on the group will display a
Dialog box listing the individual units of the reinforcement group. If
Fog of War (FOW) is in effect, only the reinforcements for the side
having its turn will be displayed.
Arrived (CTRL + A): Displays the reinforcement groups that are currently available to place on
the map.
Releases (CTRL + R): Displays a schedule listing the release times of Fixed units. Clicking
once on an entry in the Release Dialog causes that organization to become highlighted on the
map.
2.2.4.6 Status Menu
Scenario Information: This displays the scenario information,
including title, historical background, ground conditions,
visibility and the scenario designer. Some of this information is
not displayed in Play By Email games or the Caller of a modem
game.
Find Org: Allows you to see which units belong to which
organizations. When you select an organization name in the
Organization Dialog, the units of that organization become
highlighted on the map. If Fog of War is in effect, only the
organizations for the side currently having its turn will be
highlighted. An organization name printed in light gray indicates
that none of its units are currently on the map.
Strength: This displays the number of types of units in the scenario currently available to each
side. The units listed on the left side of the Strength Dialog are the total number of full of partial
strength platoons of that unit type. The right side of the dialog lists the number of Strength Points
of that unit type eliminated thus far. The Strength of the opposing side is not available if Fog of
War is enabled.
Locations: This helps you find a named location on the map. When you select one of those
listed, the map will scroll to that hex.
Objectives: This displays the number, value and hex location of each Objective. Click on an
entry in the dialog will put the Hot Spot to the Objective hex.
Available Air Support: This displays a dialog listing the available Air Attacks, if any. If Fog of
War is enabled, you can only view the Air Attacks from your side.
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Victory: This displays the current
victory level and related items.
2.2.4.7 Display Menu
Specials on Top: Allows you to
control the on-map display of
fortifications (improved positions,
mines, and blocks) and wrecks on
the 2D maps. When this
command has a check mark next
to it, all these markers appear
above all other units in the hex.
Units Off (K): Allows you to
toggle on or off the on-map
display of all units and markers.
This option is provided to
temporarily hide the unit and
marker icons so that you can see
the underlying map terrain better.
Unit Bases (B): Allows you to
toggle on or off distinctive bases
for all 3D unit icons on any 3D
map view. Note that each
nationality has different-styled 3D bases displaying a derivation of that country’s nationality
symbol.
Visible Hexes (V): Allows you to toggle on or off a shade over all hexes which are not in the
Line of Sight (LOS) of the current Hot Spotted hex.
Reachable Hexes (H): This graphically illustrates all the hexes that the currently-selected unit
can reach in the current turn. This takes into account the number of Action Points it has to spend
(and considers whether or not the unit is Saving AP’s for Firing or Unloading). All hexes it
cannot reach are shaded. See Section 5.6 for more information.
Attack Range (G): Allows you to toggle on or off a display feature that illustrates the currentlyselected unit hard (shown in red) or soft (shown in blue) attack limits. Note: If the hard and soft
limits of the unit are same, only a red line is shown.
Command Range (W): Displays the Command Range of a HQ unit that is selected; see Section
8.0 for more information on HQ.
Hex Contours (C): Allows you to toggle on or off a brown “contour line” along all hexsides
where an elevation change occurs.
Map Elevations (.): Allows you to toggle on or off the elevation of the current hex in levels.
Map Coordinates (,): Allows you to toggle on or off the map hex coordinates.
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On-Map Thermometers (T): Allows you to toggle on or off small “thermometers” on a 3D map
display that graphically illustrate each unit’s current state of Morale, remaining Action Points or
current Strength Points.
Objectives (O): Allows you to toggle on or off the display of Objective Locations on the map.
When this is enabled, each Objective hex is denoted by an objective marker displaying the
primary color of the side that currently controls it (Exception: Exit Objective hex).
Highlight: to get a sub-menu of the following options:
Moved Units (M): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all units that have
expended AP to enter a new hex during the current turn (exception: unless assaulting).
Fired/Fought Units (F): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all units that
have either fired at an enemy unit or fought in an assault during the current turn.
Fixed Units (X): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all Fixed units.
Disrupted Units (D): toggles (off or on) a highlight around all units that are Disrupted.
Spotted Units (S): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all units that have a
LOS to (and thus are in the LOS of) at least one known enemy unit.
Units/HQs Out of Supply (Y): toggles (off or on) a highlight around all units low on
ammunition due to failing their supply check. Note that each HQ that moved during the
previous turn is automatically considered “Out of Supply” during the next turn.
Indirect Fire Units (I): toggles (off or on) a highlight around all units capable of firing
indirectly.
Anti-Aircraft Units (A): toggles (off or on) a highlight around all units capable of conducting fire vs. aircraft, i.e., Anti-Aircraft.
Mine-Clearing Units (E): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around any unit
capable of clearing mined hexes. Note that Mine-Clearing Units are also referred to as
engineers in this manual.
Leaders (L): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all leaders.
Headquarters (Q): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all HQ (and
Command Post; see Optional Rule for Command Control) units.
Organization (Z): Allows you to toggle on or off a highlight around all units that are
part of the same organization as the selected unit, or are subordinate to the selected
Leader or HQ.
The menu options beginning with Spotted Units and ending with Fixed Units are mutually
exclusive; i.e., selecting any one of them will toggle-off any of the others that had been
previously selected.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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Jump Map (J): This displays a mini-map overview of the map. When you select any spot on the
miniature version, the game map will automatically scroll to that Hot Spot location.
3D Normal View (1): To change the map to its full-size 3D BattleviewTM mode.
3D Zoom-Out View (2): To change the map to BattleviewTM mode but with the hexes at half
their normal size.
3D Extreme Zoom-Out View (3): To change the map to BattleviewTM mode but with the hexes
at one-fourth their normal size.
2D Zoom-In View (4): To change the map to a zoomed in 2D version.
2D Normal View (5): To change the map to its 2D version.
2D Zoom-Out View (6): To change the map to a smaller, low resolution 2D version that enables
more of it to be seen.
2D Extreme Zoom-Out View (7): To change the map to a smaller, low resolution 2D version
that enables more of it to be seen.
Rotate Map: Allows you to rotate the map, and all units and markers on it, 180º.
Redraw Map: Allows you to refresh the map graphics.

2.2.4.8 A/I Menu
Side A (Manual): You make all the decisions for that side,
conducting all attacks and movements. This is the default
mode for both sides.
Side A (Computer): You allow the computer to make all
the decisions for the current side, conducting all attacks
and movements. This will show you the position of all
enemy units, even those out of “line of sight”.
Side A (Computer with Fog-of-War): You allow the
computer to make all the decisions for the current side,
conducting all attacks and movements and have Fog of
War in effect. This is the recommended, and most popular,
method of play.
Side B (Manual): You make all the decisions for that side,
conducting all attacks and movements. This is the default
mode for both sides.
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Side B (Computer): You allow the computer to make all the decisions for the current side,
conducting all attacks and movements. This will show you the position of all enemy units, even
those out of “line of sight”.
Side B (Computer with Fog-of-War): You allow the computer to make all the decisions for the
current side, conducting all attacks and movements and have Fog of War in effect. This is the
recommended, and most popular, method of play.
Set Advantage: Use this to balance play between two players of unequal skill or to balance
Programmed Opponent play. Advantage values can range from 0 to 100 for either side.
Depending on the value, the side with the advantage will inflict higher than normal combat losses
on the other side, and suffer lower than normal combat losses themselves. Advantage must be set
before play begins in Play By E-Mail or Modem Play games. Otherwise, the Advantage can be
adjusted at any time during the game.
Side A A/I Aggressiveness: Use this to adjust the aggressiveness of the Programmed Opponent
by inputting a value between 0 and 100.
Side B A/I Aggressiveness: Use this to adjust the aggressiveness of the Programmed Opponent
by inputting a value between 0 and 100.
Side A A/I Audacious: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play in a more risky
behavior.
Side A A/I Cautious: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play in a more cautiously.
Side B A/I Audacious: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play in a more risky
behavior.
Side B A/I Cautious: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play in a more cautiously.
Side A A/I Shifting: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play style alternate randomly
between Audacious, Cautious and Neutral play, also with more or less aggressiveness.
Side B A/I Shifting: Use this to have the Programmed Opponent play style alternate randomly
between Audacious, Cautious and Neutral play, also with more or less aggressiveness.
Prohibit A/I Backtracking: Use this to limit the Programmed Opponents ability to move units
back and forth.
Activate A/I: Use this to restart the Programmed Opponent after you have canceled it.
2.2.4.9 Special Menu
Record Battle: Allows you to toggle on or off the option that
allows you to save a record of the non “Special-mode” game you
are currently playing. Note: You must turn “off” (uncheck) a
current recording in order to be able to view it (by selecting
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“Replay” from the File pop-down menu). The extension .btr is used to denote a recorded battle
file.
Restart Replay: Restarts the replay of a previously halted recorded battle file.
Communication Dialog: in a modem game to display the “chat window” if you had closed it
previously. See also the details on multi-player Comm Dialog options.
Set Network Play Timer: During a live multi-player game. Using this, the Host (only) can input
a time, in minutes, that will be used by the program to automatically end each turn. This time can
be reset at any time, but only by the Host. If the time is reset, a message is displayed to all other
players of the new time that has been set.
Multi-Player Dialog: during a multi-player game in order for the team captain to assign his
side’s organizations to players on his side. This can also be used by the other players to view
what units have been allotted to whom.
Scroll to View Enemy Action: during a multi-player game for the computer to scroll the map to
display visible enemy actions. This is “off” by default to prevent unwanted scrolling. This option
has no effect except during multi-player games.
2.2.4.10 Options Menu
Prompt For Scenario: If you want to be prompted for a new
scenario whenever you enter the game directly via a desktop
shortcut for the EF.EXE executable (instead of the “normal”
method of launching a new scenario from the “Scenarios”
screen).
Auto Save: Has the program save the game automatically at
the end of each turn [Exception: it will not save a phase that
was conducted under computer-controlled A/I (with or
without Fog of War)].
Back-up Save: Has the program save backups of your games
the game automatically at the end of each turn [Exception: it
will not save a phase that was conducted under computercontrolled A/I (with or without Fog of War)].
Ask Before Advancing Turn: to have the program confirm
that you really want to end a turn after you have indicated
that you have finished your turn. With this enabled, you
cannot end your turn by mistakenly clicking on the “Next
Turn” Tool Bar button.
Auto Save AP’s for Firing: Allows you to have all of your
sides combat units automatically save enough AP to always
be able to conduct at least one fire-attack after Action Points
are expended for other purposes.
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Beep on Error: Allows you to toggle on or off the option that causes a beep when you make an
error.
Hide 3D Hot Spot: Allows you to toggle on or off the option that causes the hexagonal Hot Spot
marker to be hidden on the 3D maps
Blink Hot Spot: Allows you to toggle on or off the option that causes the Hot Spot to blink.
Note that the Hot Spot only blinks on the 2D maps.
Auto Scroll: Allows you to scroll across the map by sending the mouse pointer to one of the
map edges. Turning it off will add traditional window navigation bars along the bottom and right
side of the map edge.
Smooth Scroll: Allows you to toggle on or off the option that causes the map to scroll
incrementally to a new Hot Spot. When this command has no check mark next to it, the map
redraws directly at the new Hot Spot hex without scrolling through the intervening hexes.
Toolbar: Allows you to choose from four different options of how the buttons are displayed
along the bottom of your game screen; None, Small, Standard and Large.
Cursor: Allows you to choose from three different cursor sizes; Small, Standard and Large.
Hex Outlines (CTRL + X): When checked on, this displays the hex outlines.
Hex Highlights: Allows you to choose from three different options of how highlights are
displayed on the map; Hex Shading, Hex Outlines and Hex Outlines (Alternate).
Hex Contours Colors: Allows you to choose from three different darkness options for how
contours are displayed on the map; Light, Medium and Dark.
Elevation Delta: Allows you to choose from three different elevation deltas for the 3D
BattleviewTM, reducing graphic anomalies, if present; 1, 2 and 3.
Unit List: Toggles the Unit List information display on or off.
Infobox Counters: Toggles the Unit List graphic display between the 3D icon and the 2D
counter.
Counter Style: Allows you to choose from two different options of how 2D counters are display
on the map; Standard and Alternate.
Counter Stats: Toggles values onto the 2D counters (for Views 4 and 5) including; strength,
morale, attack and defence. Values will display as “?” for opposing forces with Fog of War
engaged.
Graphical Unit Icons: Allows you to toggle the 2D display of unit icons between graphical and
military-type schematic versions.
Use Special Icons: Ensures the program will use special 3D icons such as winter or late-war
camouflage. In order for the special icons to appear (if this option is not already in effect), you
must select this option and restart the game.
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Labels: Allows you to choose from two different label styles for the map: Transparent and
Transparent Enhanced.
System Colours: When toggled ON, uses the default Windows colors for displaying game
menus, navigation bars, etc. When toggled OFF, uses the game-themed colors. (But note: When
toggled OFF, in the case of abnormal game or editor termination, your Windows colors will be
the game-themed colors unless and until you reboot your system.)
Highlight Colours: Allows you to choose from a large variety of colour options for highlighting
units on the map.
Side A Animation Speed: Allows you to adjust the animation speed of Side A units as they
move on the map in 3D mode.
Side B Animation Speed: Allows you to adjust the animation speed of Side B units as they
move on the map in 3D mode.
Details: Displays a sub-menu that allows you to specify the level of details you wish to see in the
combat reports. See also Details in Section 3.2.9.
Initial View: Defines the initial view of the map when the main program is started. The views
may be set to any of the standard views, or to default to the last one used while playing the game.
Sound Effects: Allows you to toggle on or off the playing of firing/moving sound effects.
Background Music: Allows you to toggle on or off background music.
Background Sound: Allows you to toggle on or off the playing of “ambient” background battle
sounds.
Optional Rules: Displays a dialog of game options that are in effect for the current scenario.
These rules must be set at the start of a scenario and cannot be changed during game play. See
Optional Rules for more information.
2.2.4.11 Help Menu
General Help (F1): Opens the PDF version of the manual which
provides instant, in-game access for playing the game.
Unit Handbook (F2): Displays additional information about the
currently-selected unit. Such information cannot be accessed about
enemy units if playing with Fog of War. (See Section 2.2.8)
Unit Viewer (F3): Opens the Unit Viewer where you can see additional
details about the currently-selected unit. (See Section 2.2.8)
About: Displays a dialog containing version number and copyright information about the game.
The most recent update should display: Campaign Series: Middle East 1.01
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2.2.5 Unit Info Box
The Unit Info Box is an information box that displays in the top right of the screen when a unit is
selected. The Unit Info Box can be repositioned anywhere on the map
by dragging and dropping the Unit Info Box where you prefer. The Unit
Info Box displays information about the selected unit, unless operating
in 3D mode where the Unit Info Box will temporarily display
information on any unit that your on-map cursor roams over. The
amount of information displayed will vary depending on the Fog of
War option chosen.
If more than one unit is in the same hex (and the Unit List is not on; see
Unit List), you can cycle through and view the Info Box of each unit in
that hex by right-clicking on the Info Box. Note that a left-click on the
displayed Info Box will select that unit (note how the nameplate of the unit highlights), or unselect the
unit if already selected (the nameplate will become un-highlighted). If a unit is carrying a passenger
(indicated by a large, full-color helmet icon in the lower-right corner of the Info Box) a right click will
display the unit being carried by that transport unit.
The Unit Info Box displays the most important data about any selected platoon at a glance. With the
center section of the Unit Info Box displaying the unit’s 3D icon and orientation and the other important
data arranged in a circular fashion around the 3D icon. Starting at the “12 o’clock” position and
preceding clockwise, the data lists:
Strength (Command): This is the unit’s current Strength Point (SP) value. Each Strength Point
of an infantry type platoon represents one “half squad”. Each Strength Point of a heavy weapons
type platoon represents one team or gun. Heavy weapons include; machine guns, anti-tank
rockets, anti-tank missiles, anti-aircraft artillery, mortars or artillery. Each Strength Point of a
vehicle platoon represents one vehicle. A Strength Point value shown in yellow indicates that the
selected unit is not at full strength. If the unit is a leader, this is the “Command” rating, which is
added to the Attack Strength of a unit under his command, with which he is stacked, if that leader
possesses at least as many Action Points (AP) as the Fire Cost of the attacking unit.
Action: This is the number of Action Points the unit has remaining. All units start each friendly
turn with 100 Action Points; each action executed during a turn and each terrain entered will cost
a given amount of Action Points. Note that due to the differing movement rates, different unit
types will expend different amounts of Action Points for entering similar terrain. To see how
many Action Points it costs to enter each terrain type, select that unit and press the F2 key to
access the Unit Data dialog. The Action Points expended to enter a hex are doubled if the unit is
Disrupted (to a maximum of 65 Action Points; see Section 3.1.2.
Assault: This is the unit’s basic attack value when it assaults.
Defence: This is the unit’s basic defensive value when it is being fired on or assaulted. A unit’s
Defence Value shown in red indicates that it is a “hard” (i.e., armoured) target.
Fire Cost: This lists how many Action Points that the unit must expend to conduct Direct or
Indirect Fire.
Morale (Leadership): This is the unit’s current morale. A Morale level displayed in yellow
indicates the unit is not currently at full morale. When performing a morale check, this is the
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number it must roll equal to or less than on a 10-sided die. If successful, the unit either regains a
morale point or become undisrupted. If the unit is a leader, this number is the “Leadership
Rating”, which modifies the morale of the unit(s) under his command that the leader is currently
stacked with. If the morale of the leader is greater than the unit(s), the leader’s morale is used for
it. If the leader’s morale is equal to or less than the unit(s), the unit(s) morale is raised by one. A
unit’s morale appears in red if it is being modified by a leader.
A unit’s morale can also be affected by the terrain it occupies. Beneficial terrain will raise a
unit’s morale so that it will be less likely to fail a morale check and thus less likely to retreat,
whereas terrain that provides no cover (Clear and Water) have a detrimental morale modification.
A list of these effects can be found in the Terrain Types in Section 11.0
Info Box Thermometer: Along the bottom of the Unit Info Box is a thermometer that displays
the Morale, Strength or Action Points as a ratio of its current amount versus its full amount. A
single left-click on the Morale, Strength or Action Points box in the Unit Info Box will change
the Info Box Thermometer to display that variable. Action Points are displayed in red, Morale in
blue and Strength Points in green. When the Action Points are displayed, the white vertical line
marks the lowest point the thermometer must stay above for the unit to have enough Action
Points to fire.
Icons may appear along the left-hand side of the Unit Info Box. Those at the top reflect the unit
status and those at the bottom show the units capabilities.
Company Command Post
Fixed Status
Disrupted Status
Fatigued Status
Unit is in Line of Sight of an opposing combat unit
The only opposing unit with Line of Sight to the unit is a leader/unarmed transport
unit
Unit is currently marked to “Save AP’s for Firing”
Unit is currently marked to “Save AP’s for Unloading”
Unit has spent Action Points to fire this turn
Unit has spent Action Points to move this turn
Unit is currently Conserving Ammo (or unavailable if a Headquarters or Artillery)
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Unit is currently Out of Ammo
Combat Armed Helicopter is Conserving Ammo
Combat Armed Helicopter has run out of ordnance and needs to rearm.
2.2.6 Unit List Display
The Unit List Display is presented when you press the U on the keyboard. Here you can easily see all of
the units that are within a hex. You can select and unselect multiple units easily by left-clicking on the
desired Unit Info Box(es) within the Unit List Display. If there are multiple units in the Unit List
Display, you can drag the list up or down using the mouse.
Additionally, the Unit List Display also provides a number of details about
the hex.
Terrain: This lists the predominant type of terrain in the hex and its base
elevation in metres.
Objective: This lists the value of the hex if a Victory Location is present.
Wrecks: This lists the current number of wrecks in the selected hex. Wrecks
are created when an armoured vehicle is destroyed.
TEM*: This lists the TEM modifier total for the selected hex.
Concealment*: This is the Concealment Modifier of the terrain in the
selected hex. The lower the Concealment Modifier, the less likely the platoon
will be spotted during a Line of Sight check. For example; Shrub has a
Concealment of -1 while a Village has a Concealment of -3; the infantry
would be less likely to be spotted in the Village.
Morale*: This lists the Morale modifier for the selected hex.
Visibility: This lists the maximum distance in hexes a unit can see during the
current turn.
Air Power: This lists the total number of Air Attacks remaining per side.
When playing in Fog of War, the numbers of the opposing side are shown as
a “?”.
Smoke: This lists the number of Smoke missions available to eligible artillery. When playing in Fog of
War, the numbers of the opposing side are shown as a “?”.
Flares: This lists the number of Flares available to eligible artillery. When playing in Fog of War, the
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numbers of the opposing side are shown as a “?”.
Ammo: This lists the base supply (ammo) level per side. When playing in Fog of War, the numbers of
the opposing side are shown as a “?”.
Arty Ammo: This lists the artillery supply (ammo) level per side. When playing in Fog of War, the
numbers of the opposing side are shown as a “?”.
2.2.7 On-Map Thermometers
While in any of the 3D map displays, you can use the On-Map
Thermometers by pressing T on the keyboard. This will display a
colour coded thermometer under the 3D unit which graphically
displays the remaining Action Points, the current Strength Points
or its current Morale. You can change which information is being
displayed by left-clicking on the Action Point, Strength or Morale
box within the Unit Info Box.
2.2.8 Unit Handbook
The Unit Handbook can be accessed by selecting a unit and pressing F2 on the keyboard. This will
display useful information about the unit, such as its Action Point terrain costs, its per-SP Victory Point
value, special abilities, unit capabilities, some historical text on the unit and a sample illustration.
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Click the “R” (Range Display) button will bring up a graph
illustrating the range of the applicable weapons of the unit.
This Range Dialog illustrates the Hard Target Attack
Strengths (shown by the red line) and the “Soft Target”
Attack Strengths (shown by the blue line) of the unit
currently being investigated in the Unit Handbook. The
number in the upper left corner of this Dialog (along the “Y”
axis) is the unit’s maximum Attack Factor for whichever
Attack Strength (Hard or Soft) has the greater value; the
number in the lower right corner (along the “X” axis) is the unit’s maximum range for whichever Attack
Strength has the greater range.
The Unit Handbook also lists the Unit Capabilities of the selected unit.
NoLtBridge: This vehicle is too heavy to cross over hexside light bridges.
NoMedBridge: This vehicle is too heavy to cross over hexside medium bridges.
NoHvyBridge: This vehicle is too heavy to cross over hexside heavy bridges.
Assault: This unit is capable of assaulting
OffAT: Will offensive defensive fire against hard targets
DefAT: Will conduct defensive fire against hard targets
InfSup: Infantry Support unit
FireHardAI: Will typically only fire at Hard Targets
FireSoftAI: Will typically only fire at Soft Targets
ReconAI: The A/I will use this in advance of other units
ReconUnit: Fire is drastically reduced against unit.
FastUnit: Fire is drastically reduced against unit.
FireHelo: This unit is capable of firing at helicopters
IndirectFire: This unit is capable of Indirect Fire
NormalAA: This unit is a lighter AAA gun, shooting at lower levels w/ high rate of fire
ReducedAA: This unit is a heavy AAA gun, shooting at high levels w/ low rate of fire
AAA: Unit utilizes the AAA opportunity fire dialog
SAM: This unit fires missiles at aircraft
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SAMControl: This unit is the command unit for attached SAM units.
MANPAD: This is a handheld unit that fires missiles at aircraft
ATG: This unit is a smaller antitank gun that has hidden fire.
ATGM: This unit fires missiles at armoured vehicles.
FFATG: This unit fires fire and forget missiles at armoured vehicles.
Sneaker: This unit is capable of hidden fire.
SmokeFiring: This unit is capable of firing smoke.
WhiteP: This unit is capable of firing white phosphorus ammo.
Hard Target: This unit is armoured.
CarryAll: This unit can carry or tow anything.
CarryRiders: This unit can carry riders on top of the vehicle.
CarryTow: This unit can carry infantry and tow light guns.
CarryVehicle: This unit can carry certain vehicles/guns.
TowOnly: This unit can tow guns.
Ridable: This unit is capable of being carried as a rider.
Loadable: This unit is capable of being loaded.
Towable: This unit is capable of being towed.
Portage: This unit is capable of portaging.
Foot: This unit is classified as infantry.
Ski: This unit is capable of skiing.
Motorcycle: This unit is motorcycle class unit.
CanBicycle: This unit is capable of riding bicycles.
CanMotorcycle: This unit is capable of riding motorcycles
CanHorse: This unit is capable of riding horses.
CanDigIn: This unit is capable of creating an improved position.
Amphibious: This unit is capable of crossing major rivers and deep water hexes.
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MineClearing: This unit is capable of clearing 1SP of a minefield per turn.
LayFootBridge: This unit is capable of laying a hexside light bridge.
LayMines: This unit is capable of laying a minefield.
LayManyMines: This unit is capable of laying many minefields.
Shovels: This unit has an improved chance of digging in.
SetIED: This unit is capable of laying an IED.
Commando: Unit can scale cliff sides.
SpecOps: This unit is capable of laying an IED.
NightVision: This unit is capable of night vision (it can see 5 hexes at night).
Truck: This unit is classified as a truck.
ArmoredCar: This unit is classified as an armoured car.
Halftrack: This unit is classified as a halftrack.
Tracked: This unit is classified as a fully tracked vehicle.
HeavyGun: This unit is classified as a heavy gun for towing restrictions.
Helicopter: This unit is classified as a helicopter.
GunshipAmmo: This indicates a low ammo status to simulate shortage of munitions.
ArtyAmmo: This unit utilizes the artillery ammo settings for shortages.
Air: This unit is capable of air movement.
Ship: This is a ship unit, but not capable of moving in shallow water
HighFlying: This conducts airstrikes in the High Flight Zone.
.
LowFlying: This conducts airstrikes in the Low Flight Zone.
You can exit the Unit Handbook by pressing the X in the lower right corner of the display or by pressing
“Esc” on the keyboard.
2.2.9 The Hot Spot
To “Hot Spot” a hex, simply left click one time inside that hex.
Note: To display a green outline around the Hot Spotted hex when
playing on a 3D map, uncheck “Hide 3D Hot” in the Options popdown menu; if playing on a 2D map view, the Hot Spotted hex is
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always highlighted by a red square. Pressing the Spacebar at any time will return the screen to the current
“Hot Spot” hex.

2.2.10 The Command Report
At the beginning of each turn, the program generates a “Command” if any of the following situations
apply:
Arrival of Reinforcements – An announcement is made if any reinforcements have arrived (See
Section 5.6).
Release of Fixed Units – An announcement of the release of any organization (or even a single
unit) that had previously been “fixed” (See Section 5.10).
Improved Position Construction – An announcement is made of the construction (and hex
location) of a just-completed Improved Position. Engineer infantry have an improved chance of
creating Improved Positions (See Section 5.23).
Clearing of Minefield or Blocked Hex – An announcement is made if Engineer units have
successfully cleared any Mined or Blocked hexes (See Section 5.19).
Number of Air Attacks – Lists the total number of Air Attacks available for that side during the
scenario (See Section 5.16).
Number of HQ’s Unable to Provide Supply – Lists the number of HQs unable to provide
supply during the current turn (See Section 8.0).
Number of Units Low on Ammo – A list of the number of units currently suffering from being
Low on Supply (See Section 8.0).
Undisrupted or Recovered Morale – Lists the number of units that became Undisrupted and/or
recovered Morale (compared to the total that were Disrupted or had lost one or more Morale
levels) and the units’ location (See Section 5.22).
Isolated – Lists the hexes where isolated units are located (See Section 5.26).
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2.3 Battle Generator
Included in the game is the Battle Generator. The Battle Generator will create a randomly generated
scenarios based on few parameters that you set at the Battle Generator screen.
The parameters that you can adjust are the year, month, area, weather, size of engagement, which
nationalities are involved, the engagement type and the type of map the battle will be fought on.
Year: You can choose any year between 1948 and 1985.
Month: You can choose any of the twelve months.
Area: You can choose between Desert and Mediterranean style terrain.
Weather: The weather you set will determine the visibility.
Size: You can choose between Battalion, Regiment, Brigade, Division or Corps.
Nationalities: There are twelve nations included in Middle East that you can create a battle
between.
Engagement Type: There are eleven different engagement types available to play.
Map Type: Depending on which Area is chosen, there are a variety of preset map styles that will
be available to play on.
Once the randomly generated battle scenario is created, it will ask you to choose a side and battle mode
and you will be able to play the scenario.
The files that are created are called Random#.org, Random#.map and Random#.scn. Each randomly
generated battle will have a unique number. I would recommend utilizing the included Organization, Map
and Scenario editors to tweak the randomly generated battles to be even more playable.
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You can find detailed explanations on how to use the editors in the following sections: Section 8.1 Map
Editor, Section 8.2 Organization Editor and Section 8.3 Scenario Editor.
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3.0 Game Mechanics
3.1 Movement
3.1.1 What is Movement?
Movement in Middle East is moving a unit from one hex to another hex.
3.1.2 How do I Move?
There are two modes in the game, Move and Fire. By default, a turn begins in Move mode and is
represented by the button on the bottom left of the screen displaying three green arrows and part of a tank
silhouette. When depressed, the button changes to Fire mode and displays a bright red crosshairs over a
vehicle icon. Alternatively, you can press and hold the CTRL key on the keyboard to toggle between the
two modes. Your on-map cursor will change at the same time. When in Fire mode, the cursor will look
like a circled plus sign, similar to the crosshairs of a gun sight.
You must be in Move mode in order to move.
To move, select the unit you want to move, then right-click on any hex to move towards that hex. For
long distance moves, the unit will generally try to take the path of least resistance. While this is
acceptable when operating behind your lines, it is not a wise practice when opposing units are around. It
is better to advance a few hexes at a time to ensure you are following the path you wish to travel.
At the start of each turn, most units have 100 Action Points to spend on either movement or attacking or
both. The amount of Action Points required to attack is determined by the Fire Cost, which is displayed
in the Unit Info Box. The amount of Action Points required to move varies on the unit type, the ground
conditions and the hex type. Movement costs for various terrain for each unit can be determined by
pressing F2. Regardless of the Action Point cost of a hex, a unit can always move one hex during its turn.
The most Action Point cost of any one hex entered is 65 Action Points, regardless of the combination of
hex-side or in-hex terrain. As long as a unit has 65 Action Points remaining, it can enter an adjacent hex.
The exception is it is trying to enter a hex that the unit cannot enter. For example, a vehicular unit
attempting to enter a non-frozen swamp or marsh will not be able to.
The maps in Middle East feature several different types of roads, each of which has a different
movement cost to enter a hex along that road. The road types are:
Paved: These are hard-surfaced, improved roads and
provide a good surface in all weather conditions.
Unpaved: These are a packed-dirt surface. In muddy
terrain, these roads prove to be slow going.
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Paths: These are narrow foot or cart paths, too
narrow for most wheeled vehicles to benefit from.
Railroad: These represent railroad tracks,
sometimes found elevated above the surrounding
terrain. It is a very bumpy ride for vehicles but
does provide a faster route to travel when passing
through forests or rough terrain.
All units capable of moving can benefit from using roads, but there is a limit to how many units can
travel along a road in any given hex. Two or more (non-leader) units of >12 Strength Points stacked in a
hex negate any road in that hex and will use the non-road cost to enter the hex.
For example, two 6-Strength Point Truck platoons can travel along a road from one to another, gaining
the road movement cost. Two 6-Strength Point Truck platoons and one 2-Strength Point jeep section
traveling together exceeds 12 Strength Points and cannot use the road movement cost. Leaders or
passengers are not included in the Strength Point total, but wrecks do.
Along the roads, you will find three different types of hexside bridges in the game: Light, Medium and
Heavy. In addition to these, a water hex can be spanned by a full-hex bridge, which is always considered
Heavy for movement purposes. Most vehicles cannot cross a light hexside bridge as they are designed to
represent foot bridges. You can see the bridge crossing limitations of any unit by pressing F2 and looking
under the Unit Capabilities in the Unit Handbook (See Section 2.2.8)
By selecting a unit and pressing H on
the keyboard, you will highlight all
the hexes the unit can reach during
the current movement phase based on
the number of Action Points the unit
has remaining. The display also takes
into account the effects of using
Double Time and if the unit is marked
as Save AP’s for Firing and/or Save
AP’s for Unloading. The Reachable
Hexes display updates automatically
as the unit moves.
All Infantry or Cavalry platoons and
manhandled heavy weapons, denoted
with a “charging soldier” icon
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displayed in the icon bar, have the ability to use Double Time movement. Double Time movement allows
the unit to only expend three-fourths of the normal Action Points to enter a hex. To conduct Double Time
movement, select the unit and press the “Double Time” tool button at the bottom of the screen. Once a
unit has been flagged, it cannot be undone. A unit that conducts Double Time movement will be
considered fatigued and an “F” icon will appear in the Unit Info Box icon bar.
You cannot move opposing units.
3.1.3 How do I Move Helicopters?
There are four different Flight Zones that helicopters may operate in, each Flight Zone having advantages
and disadvantages for helicopters.
The four Flight Zones are:
Ground (G): The helicopter has landed and is on the same plane as
every other ground unit. When in this Flight Zone, the helicopter
cannot move and is susceptible to weapon fire from all units. It is
necessary to be in this Flight Zone to Load and Unload units from
helicopters.
Nap of the Earth (N): The helicopter is flying close to the ground,
less than 25 metres. As the helicopters are flying so close to objects
on the landscape, they fly at a third of their normal flight speed.
Helicopters flying in this Flight Zone are susceptible to a wide
variety of anti-aircraft and small arms fire.
Low Altitude (L): The helicopter is flying at Low Altitude. As the
helicopters are flying low, they are aware of their surroundings and
fly at half of their normal flight speed. Helicopters flying in this
Flight Zone are susceptible to a wide variety of anti-aircraft, surfaceto-air missiles and small arms fire.
High Altitude (H): The helicopter is flying at High Altitude. The
helicopter can fly at full flight speed at this altitude, but is susceptible
to anti-aircraft and surface-to-air missiles, although will fly above
most other threats.
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To move between the Flight Zones, one can press the Page Up (PgUp) button the keyboard, or the Up or
Down Arrows on the game screen Tool Bar. One can only move between one Flight Zone, either up or
down, per hex. To move between a series of Flight Zones requires you to move to an adjacent hex to
move to the next Flight Zone. Alternatively, you can use the menu option Units  Ascend/Descend.
For detailed instructions on how to move helicopters, please refer to Bootcamp Two (Section 4.2.1)
3.1.4 How do I Transport Units?
There are several different types of transport units available in Middle East; including wagons, horses,
trucks, artillery tractors, halftracks, armoured personnel carriers, helicopters, motorcycles, bicycles,
landing craft, boats, rafts and even some type of tanks and assault guns.
You can determine the carrying capabilities of any unit by pressing F2 and looking under the Unit
Capabilities in the Unit Handbook (See Section 2.2.8)
Any unit capable of carrying a passenger has the outline of a large helmet in yellow located in the
lower right portion of the Unit Info Box. If a unit is currently carrying a passenger the large, fullcolour helmet is filled in. To display what is being carried by any unit displaying the full-colour
helmet, right-click on the Unit Info Box.
To load a unit onto any type of empty transport, the transport unit must be in the
same hex as the unit you want to load and the unit must have the requisite number
of Strength Points to carry its potential passenger. Both must have the requisite
number of Action Points to load. Select both units, by either double-clicking on the
hex or selecting the units from Unit List Display, then click on the load/unload
button on the bottom of the screen. Alternatively, you can press CTRL + L after
both units are selected.
To unload a unit simply select the desired unit and click on the load/unload button
or press CTRL + L. Boats, ships and junks can only unload in shallow water,
swamp or marsh hexes. Helicopters may not unload in dense trees or jungle or in
opposing force occupied hexes. It generally costs 25 Action Points for infantry
units to unload from most transport types and between 50 or 100 Action Points for
heavy weapons and artillery to unload from their transport.
Certain vehicles can tow guns but cannot carry infantry. Most armies in Middle
East have three general truck types; light, medium and heavy trucks. Light trucks
require 1-Strength Point to carry 1-Strength Point of infantry but medium and
heavy trucks can carry 2-Strength Points of infantry per Strength Point of trucks.
For example, a 3-Strength Point GAZ-66 trucks can carry a 6-Strength Point Rifle Platoon, representing
one truck per squad.
Most medium and heavy tanks and assault guns have the ability to carry infantry riders, but cannot tow
guns. Tanks and other armoured vehicles that are allowed to carry riders can transport double their
amount of Strength Points, like the medium and heavy trucks mentioned above. When carrying infantry,
these vehicles cannot fire.
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3.1.5 How do I use Organizational Movement?
Middle East features two types of Organizational Movement, whereby you can quickly move all the asyet-unmoved units of an organization. Both types of Organizational Movement require that the Highlight
Organization button is on, thus highlighting all the units that belong to the same organization as the
currently selected unit which is achieved by pressing H.
Column Movement can be conducting by
selecting a unit and while depressing the ALT
key, right-click in a hex you wish the unit to
move towards. All of the units of that unit’s
organization will move towards the selected
hex. This type of movement is especially
helpful when you have a number of units of the
same organization travelling along a road. If so,
pick the lead unit of the column to move, hold
the ALT key and right-click on a hex further up
the road. The column will move along the road
accordingly.
Echelon Movement can be conducting by selecting a unit and while depressing the SHIFT key, rightclick in a hex you wish the unit to move towards. All of the units of that unit’s organization will move in
the same general direction and distance as the selected hex. This is a type of movement that is especially
helpful when advancing across a broad front; for example, in a desert battle where there is ample open
terrain.
3.1.6 What are Fixed Units?
A unit that is fixed shows a red circular icon displaying a white F in the
top of the Unit Info Box icon bar. These units are fixed in place,
typically for historical or scenario balance purposes, leaving the unit
unable to move until it is either attacked or released. An attack includes
either Direct or Indirect Fire.
You can check the Release Dialog by selecting Reinforce  Releases
from the top menu or by pressing the F key on your keyboard. The
Release Dialog lists each organization or unit that is scheduled to be
released during the scenario. Not all fixed units will be released during
the course of a scenario, depending on the scenario designer’s intent.
The Release Dialog line might display: “5 (50%) Egyptian 2nd Infantry Battalion”. This indicates that the
Egyptian 2nd Infantry Battalion has a 50% chance of being released, starting on turn 5. To highlight the
units of the 2nd Infantry Battalion on the map, you can left click on its listing in the Release Dialog.
Unless the release chance is 100%, the program will perform a percentile (1-100) die roll, beginning on
the turn listed and at the beginning of each subsequent friendly turn until the unit is released. A die roll
equal to or less than that unit’s release chance results in that organization being released. If the Optional
Rule for Extreme Fog of War is on, the percent chance of release is hidden.
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3.1.7 How does Combat affect Movement?
Movement can be affected by Combat in primarily three ways; Fatigue, Disruption and Wrecks.
Fatigue: A unit that starts a turn fatigued (an “F” icon is displayed at the top
of the icon bar) may not use Double Time during the current turn.
Disruption: A Disrupted unit (a “D” icon is displayed at the top of the icon
bar) suffers a movement penalty of requiring double the Action Points
required to move, to a maximum of 65 Action Points. The Disrupted unit
may not use Double Time nor may the Disrupted unit advance towards the
closest opposing unit. In the case of the Disrupted unit being surrounded,
even at a distance, the unit may not be able to move at all.
Wrecks: Wrecks are created on the map by the destruction of hard
target vehicles. One wreck is created for each Strength
Point destroyed. Each wreck along a road will count
towards the total 12-Strength Point maximum that allows
road movement. A road hex containing 12 wrecks will
automatically remove any road movement benefits. A hex containing
18 wrecks is considered impassable to all other units.
3.1.8 What are the highlights?
Highlights to consider about Movement:
1. Not all units can move. Most artillery pieces cannot move, but can be transported. Units such as
special buildings may not be moved or transported.
2. All units move at a different cost along different terrain. Select the unit and press F2 to determine
the Action Points required to move through any terrain type.
3. Ground conditions will affect movement. Wet ground will slow down off-road movement
significantly
4. When covering long distances, it is best to advance a few hexes at a time to remain on the desired
path.
5. Only amphibious units may cross deeper water, canals or hex side rivers.
6. Helicopters can cross all terrain.
7. You cannot move opposing units.
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3.1.9 Frequently Asked Questions - Movement
Question – Why can’t my vehicular unit move up a hill?
Answer – Vehicular units may not cross an elevation change greater than 50 metres. You can determine
the elevation between two hexes by, in the Unit List (toggle the U key if necessary), looking at the
elevation information provided when selecting each hex. Better, use the Display > Map Elevations (.)
toggle to show elevations directly on the map.
Question – Why can’t I cross a bridge?
Answer One – The bridge may be destroyed. Changing the map view to 2D (the 4 key on the keyboard),
if the bridge has a red, starred ring around it, the bridge has been destroyed and you are unable to cross.
Answer Two – You can only cross a bridge with no more than 12-Strength Points at a time. When trying
to cross a full-hex bridge with wrecks on it, you must cross a bridge with less than 12 Strength Points,
depending on how many wrecks are on the bridge. Otherwise, an error will display saying you are unable
to cross. If a bridge has three wrecks on it, then you can only cross 9-Strength Points at a time.
Answer Three – Your unit may be too heavy for the bridge type you are trying to cross. You can verify
the maximum bridge type that the unit can cross by selecting it and pressing F2.
Question – Why can’t my helicopter move across a minefield?
Answer – Helicopters can move across minefields, but require you to right-click on the minefield to
travel over it.
Question – Why can’t I cross a ditch?
Answer – Ditches are designed in the game to be anti-tank ditches. Vehicles cannot cross anti-tank
ditches, troops that can move by foot can. You can build a bridge across a ditch so your vehicles can
cross.
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3.2 Combat
3.2.1 What is Combat?
Combat in Middle East is when a unit attacks an opposing
unit using direct or indirect fire or when a unit assaults an
opposing unit.
3.2.2 How do I Attack?
There are two modes in the game, Move and Fire. By default, a turn begins in Move Mode and is
represented by the button on the bottom left of the screen displaying three green arrows and part of a tank
silhouette. When depressed, the button changes to Fire Mode and displays a bright red crosshairs over a
vehicle icon. Alternatively, you can press and hold the CTRL key on the keyboard to toggle between the
two modes. The on-map cursor will change at the same time. When in Fire Mode, the cursor will look
like a circled plus sign, similar to the crosshairs of a gun sight.
You must be in Fire Mode in order to conduct an attack.
At the start of each turn, most units have 100 Action Points to spend on either movement or attacking or
both. The amount of Action Points required to attack is determined by the Fire Cost, which is displayed
in the Unit Info Box. Depending on the unit type, it may be able to fire multiple times at opposing forces.
The basic way to attack an opposing unit is to:
1. Select your attacking unit by clicking on its 3D icon (if playing on a 3D map) or its Unit Info
Box once.
2. Ensure Fire Mode is active
3. Move your cursor over the target you wish to attack (the attack strength versus hard/soft targets
is displayed)
4. Right click on the opposing unit in your Line of Sight you wish to attack
The resulting attack will be calculated using the Combat Results Table found below in Section 3.2.9.
Line of Sight is required to attack a unit directly, using Direct Fire. Line of Sight can be affected by
many elements; Visible Distance, elevation changes, smoke, other units, wrecks and the terrain inside a
hex.
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Visible Distance: Each scenario has a Visible Distance associated with it that limits the visibility
from a minimum of 1 hex to a maximum of 20 hexes. Each hex is 250 metres across, which
would allow up to 5,000 metres of visibility. A scenario’s visibility limits can be found by
displaying the Scenario Information screen. The visibility may change during the course of a
scenario, as it is set by the scenario designer.
Elevation Changes: Elevation changes on the maps may block Line of Sight
Smoke: If Smoke is present between the attacker and the target, Smoke will block Line of Sight.
A unit in a Smoke hex can still attack or be attacked but at half Attack Strength. Smoke can be
fired by indirect fire and engineer units.
Other Units: If a hex contains 13 or more Strength Points (not including Leaders and
transported units) of non-wreck units, it is considered to have enough units therein to sufficiently
block Line of Sight through it.
Wrecks: If a hex contains 6 or more Strength Points of wrecks it has enough wrecks to block
Line of Sight through it. Fewer wrecks are required due to the smoke produced from wrecks.
Terrain: Depending on the height of the terrain type, Line of Sight may be blocked
When playing with Fog of War on, a calculation is performed at the beginning of each turn to determine
which opposing units are in your Line of Sight. Every unit in Middle East has a concealment value
depending on its overall size and every terrain type has a concealment value depending on how well one
can hide in it.
The formula for determining Line of Sight for vehicle units is:
Unit Concealment + Unit Strength Points + Terrain Concealment – Modified Range/2 [FRD]
The formula for determining Line of Sight for infantry units is:
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Unit Concealment + Unit Strength Points/2[FRD] + Terrain Concealment – Modified Range/2 [FRD]
FRD means Fractions are Rounded Down.
Modified Range is the range to the target unit with any hex-side concealment features added to a
maximum of 8.
When you move your cursor over the target you wish to attack and the hard/soft target attack strengths do
not display, the target is not in range of your attacking unit. You can quickly determine if a target is
within range by pressing the Hard/Soft Attack button at the bottom of the screen while having the
selected. Pressing the button will display two rings, a red for Hard Targets and blue for Soft Targets,
which indicate the maximum distance the unit can shoot. If the ranges for Hard and Soft Targets are the
same, the Hard Target ring will be displayed.
As a general rule, the further a target is away from your attacking unit, the more difficult it will be to hit
and cause significant damage. This is reflected in the attack strength dropping off as the distance is
increased.
3.2.3 What is Indirect Fire?
While most units can conduct Direct Fire at opposing forces,
some units are also capable of Indirect Fire. Indirect Fire units
are capable of firing at opposing units that are out of Line of
Sight. Typically these units are artillery, mortars and rocket
firing.
Pressing the Artillery button to the bottom left of the screen will
open the Artillery Dialog which will allow you to set Indirect
Artillery Fire. The artillery units listed in black are available to
be fired during the current turn, while artillery units listed in
grey are unavailable. Artillery units with an asterisk preceding
their name is artillery located off-map. These units cannot be
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attacked or moved, being only available in the Artillery Dialog.
To plot an Indirect Fire mission, highlight the artillery unit in the
Artillery Dialog, roam the cursor over the map to the desired target hex
and right click upon it. Note that targets that are within range of the
artillery unit are highlighted in red. The hex will be marked with a
crosshair icon to identify which location has been targeted.
Once plotted, an artillery mission cannot be recalled.
The primary difference between Indirect Fire and Direct Fire is that Direct Fire impacts
individual targets while Indirect Fire will attack all units in the targeted hex. Indirect Fire
will conduct attacks against the defending units using the following formula:
(Artillery Attack Strength * Defender Strength Points) /6 = Indirect Fire Attack Strength
This calculation will apply the Indirect Fire Attack Strength against the defending units proportional to
their Strength Points.
For a detailed explanation of artillery and tactics using artillery, see Section 3.4 Artillery.
3.2.4 What is an Assault and Extreme Assault?
An Assault is defined in Middle East as attempting to occupy a hex by force from a hex that is occupied
by the enemy. In order to attempt an assault, the assaulting unit(s) must be adjacent to the target hex,
have 20 Action Points plus the Action Points required to enter the target hex, an Assault value greater
than 0, be undisrupted and in Move Mode. The assaulting unit may assault as often as it can as long as
enough Action Points remain.
In addition, there are a number of general rules pertaining to assaults:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
The assaulting unit must be normally allowed to enter the target hex.
Each Assault will also trigger a Counter-Assault by all defending units (including Disrupted)
A Disrupted unit in the target hex has its Defence Value halved (Fractions Rounded Down)
A Disrupted unit in the target hex has its Assault Value halved when Counter-Assaulting
A Fatigued assaulting unit will have its Assault Value halved (Fractions Rounded Down)
A Fatigued defending unit will have its Defence Value halved (Fractions Rounded Down)
An assaulting unit that is Low-on-Supply will have its Assault Value reduced by 25%
(Fractions Rounded Down)
All vehicles cannot assault Pillboxes, but can assault Bunkers
Each vehicle participating in the assault has its Assault Value modified by the Terrain
Modifier of the target hex.
Armoured vehicles have their Assault Value halved when assaulting into a village, town or
city hex.
Passengers of an armoured carrier have their Assault Value halved and added to the Assault
Value of the armoured carrier.
The assaulting units’ Assault Value is increased in the presence of the units’ Leader.
Mounted Cavalry can assault at 3 x the Assault Value of the rider, but cannot assault Hard
Targets or targets in building type terrain (villages, towns, cities, special buildings, bunkers,
pillboxes or factories)
There are no Facing Effects in an Assault.
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15. Smoke has no effect on an Assault.
To conduct an Assault, select the assaulting unit and
right-click into the adjacent target hex when in
Move Mode. The Assault Icon will appear over the
target hex and a dialog will appear revealing the
Assault Odds. The numbers displayed in the Assault
Odds are after all modifications from the list
provided above are calculated and show the units’
attack and defence when being counter-assaulted.
You can cancel an Assault by choosing Assault 
Cancel Assault from the top menu or by choosing a
new Assault location.
Extreme Assault is an Optional Rule and works under the same rules, but
has a significant additional element factored into the equation, primarily
the Morale of the unit. All of the Morales are summed, with a -3 penalty
for Disrupted defenders, and averaged based on the number of units
defending the target hex. After the Combat elements of the Assault have
been calculated, a second die roll is performed and compared to an
internal Assault Combat Results Table. If the Attacker wins the die roll,
the defender’s Morale suffer a -5 Penalty. If the defender’s win, the
defender’s Morale is increased by 3. A Morale Check is performed
based on the defender’s modified Morale and the assault is successful if
the defender fails the Morale Check and at least one of the assaulting
unit(s) remains undisrupted. Otherwise, the defending wins and remains
in the target hex.
The internal Assault Combat Results Table also allows any assault scenario a 15% chance of success and
the defender a 10% chance of remaining in position. Of course, this is negated if the defender does not
pass the final Morale Check.
All of the Middle East scenarios were designed with the intended use of Extreme Assault.
For additional information on how and when to Assault, see Section 5.1
3.2.5 What is Opportunity Fire?
Units that have enough Action Points to fire remaining at the end of a turn have a chance to conduct
Opportunity Fire during the opponents turn. Opportunity Fire can be triggered by an opposing unit as it
either moves or fires. During your turn, you can automatically have a unit save enough Action Points to
conduct Opportunity Fire by pressing the ‘Save AP’s for Firing’ button at the bottom of the screen. When
‘Save AP’s for Firing’ is activated for a unit, a small filled bullet will appear at the top left of the Unit
Info Box.
You can limit what type of opposing unit it fires at and how far away a unit conducts Opportunity Fire
either Globally or Individually. Global Opportunity Fire will affect all units while Individual Opportunity
Fire will only affect the selected unit. Individual Opportunity Fire settings will always override Global
Opportunity Fire settings.
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Without having a unit selected, pressing CTRL+P will open the Global Opportunity Fire Dialog. You
will see the Firing Unit types available on the left and the Target Unit Types available along the top. The
rest of the dialog displays firing ranges broken down into the following classes: N (Never), S (Short –
33% of the units’ maximum range), M (Medium – 66% of the units’ maximum range) and L (Long –
100% of the units’ maximum range).
Firing Units: “Hard Vehicles” includes any vehicle that has a red defence number; tanks, halftracks, selfpropelled artillery, etc. “AT and Heavy AA” includes all anti-tank and anti-aircraft units over 40mm.
“AAA Guns” includes all light anti-aircraft weapons. “Other Firing Units” comprises of everything else;
trucks, infantry, headquarters, etc. “Hard Targets” include any vehicle that has a red defence number, as
described previously. “Soft Vehicles” include all soft skin vehicles. “Helicopters” include all helicopters
and certain On-map Aircraft. “Other Targets” comprises of everything else, as described previously.
By default, most Global Opportunity Fire settings are typically set to Long, unless the scenario designer
has set up the Opportunity Fire settings for their scenario. By choosing any of the radio buttons beside
the Firing Unit type will set the range for it. You can only choose one range per Firing Type when
selecting Globally.
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To set the Opportunity Fire for any unit on the map, select the unit and then press CTRL+P. This will
open up the Opportunity Fire Dialog but it will only allow you to choose the range depending on the
Firing Unit type of the selected unit. You can set the Opportunity Fire for every friendly unit and change
the setting for each unit on a per turn basis. It is recommended to take the time to set Individual
Opportunity Fire for every unit in the scenario and to mix up the results for different types to leave your
opponent wondering and perform cautiously.
3.2.6 How does Night Combat Function?
Night attacks were used with increased frequency as the years progressed, from the fighting in Palestine
for Israeli independence to the struggle in Lebanon in 1982. Fighting at night offers masking for
infiltration, ambush and mass assaults.
During Night scenarios the following effects are present:
Map: The map is displayed with a darkened landscape. Hexes out of Line of Sight or not reachable are
displayed with a dark bluish tint overlay. Alternatively, you can utilize the Options  Hex Highlight
variants.
Movement: Non-foot movement costs are doubled during a Night scenario, even in illuminated areas.
There is no effect for foot-type units.
Combat: An attack into a hex within night visibility range (normally one or two hexes, but also includes
illuminated hexes) is performed at full firepower. An attack into a Gun Flash hex is performed at halved
firepower (Fractions Rounded Up) as the attacker is considered to be firing at the Gun Flash, not a
specific target in the hex.
Gun Flashes: A unit that would be in opposing Line of Sight in a
daytime scenario fires from a non-illuminated hex, the hex is
marked with a Gun Flash. The Gun Flash is
automatically removed at the end of the Player Turn
after the turn in which it appeared. The presence of
a Gun Flash allows the opponent to fire at the hex,
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which is resolved at half firepower (Fractions Rounded Up) if the hex is non-illuminated and is two or
more hexes from the attacker. Units can target Gun Flash marked hexes up to 6 hexes away, although
they cannot target individual targets in the hex.
Illuminated Hex: An Illuminated Hex is one affected by Flare’s or that has six or more wrecks. Attacks
into an Illuminated Hex are not affected by Night Combat Rules.
Night Vision: Certain vehicles are equipped with Night Vision equipment. This allows those units to
target units up to five hexes away, regardless of the night visibility set in the scenario.
Flares: In some night scenarios, Flares may be available to one or both
sides. If available, they will be listed blow in the Unit Display below
Smoke or in the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. The Flare will
illuminate its hex and the adjacent six hexes. Any unit with an assault
value greater than 0 and at least 20 Action Points remaining can attempt
to fire a Flare. You can fire a Flare by selecting a unit, depress ALT +
SHIFT and right click on the target hex while in Fire Mode. Each attempt has a 40% chance of success,
unless the unit is accompanied by the units Leader. If a Leader is present, the based chance is increased
by a number 5 times the Leaders Command Rating. If the Flare attack is successful,
there is a 40% chance it will land in the target hex; otherwise it will land in one of the
bounding six hexes. The range a unit can fire a Flare is two hexes, unless being fired
from an indirect fire unit, in which case it equals half of the units maximum range
(Fractions Rounded Up).
Keeping these effects in mind, Night Combat requires different tactics to play. The most important
elements to consider are; combat suffers penalties unless firing into Illuminated Hexes, the use of
Opportunity Fire should be reconsidered due to the combat penalties, non-foot movement is penalized
and Flares are limited and should be used sparingly.
3.2.7 How do Leaders affect Combat?
Due to their limited presence, consider any Leader on the map a “special” personality. To locate the units
that are subordinate to a Leader, select the Leader and press the “Highlight Organization” Tool button; all
subordinate units will be highlighted.
The higher the Command and Leadership ratings are of a Leader, the more valuable that Leader is. These
values are displayed in the Leaders Unit Info Box when he is selected.
Leaders can provide subordinate units two different benefits that relate to combat; a Morale increase and
an increase in Attack Strength.
A Leader will modify the morale of each subordinate unit that
occupies the same hex. This will be noted by the unit’s morale
being red in the Unit Info Box. The morale of the unit will be
equal to the morale of the Leader if the Leader’s morale is
higher than the unit’s. If the Leader’s morale value is less than
or equal to the unit’s, the unit’s morale is increased by 1. Since a Leader
modifies the morale of each unit under his command in the hex, the chance
the unit regaining morale or losing Disruption is increased, as these are based on passing Morale Checks.
A Leader in the same hex as a subordinate unit will automatically modify the Attack Strength of the
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attacking unit equal to his Command Rating, provided the Leader has enough Action Points greater than
or equal to the Fire Cost of the subordinate unit. If more than one Leader is present, only the Leader with
the highest command rating will participate in the attack.
A Leader cannot be singled out as the target of an attack unless he is alone in a hex. Therefore, it is
advisable to keep your Leader’s stacked with friendly units. Each time a hex containing a Leader is
attacked, there is a 2% chance he will become a casualty. Each time a hex containing only a Leader, there
is a 5% chance he will become a casualty.
3.2.8 Combat Formula
The basic method in which a Direct Fire or Indirect Fire attack is calculated is as follows:
(Modified Attack Strength) versus (Modified Defensive Strength)
The Attack versus Defence comparison determines the row of the Combat Results Table where the attack
will be resolved.
The Modified Attack Strength is calculated by:
(Attack Strengthª* + C) x (Terrain/Fortification Modifier° of the defender’s hex)
ª: The Attack Strength is the Hard or Soft Attack Strength listed when the fire-mode cursor
moves over the target hex or the 3D icon. This number will vary depending on the range to the
target.
*: halved if the attacking unit is Fatigued, Disrupted or firing out of or into Smoke (for each
occurrence, Fractions Rounded Down to a minimum of 1).
C: Command Rating of the Commanding Leader in the same hex that has greater than or equal to
the Action Point Fire Cost of the firing unit.
°: Certain terrain and fortification types will modify (increase or decrease) the Attack Strength of
units that fire at targets in that terrain type. The modifiers are:
Full Hex
Water: 1.0
Marsh: 0.95
Flooded Paddy: 0.9
Soft Sand: 0.9
Wadi: 0.8
Orchard: 0.9
Light Jungle: 0.7
Village: 0.7
Industrial: 0.5
Uphill/Downhill: 0.9
Shallow Water: 1.0
Swamp: 0.8
Open: 1.0
Scrub: 1.0
Cactus Patch: 1.0
Forest: 0.8
Dense Jungle: 0.6
Suburb: 0.7
Special Building: 0.6
Super Canal: 1.0
Rice Paddy (Dry) 0.9
Field: 1.0
Hamada: 1.0
Vineyard: 1.0
Palms: 0.95
Canal: 1.0
City: 0.6
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Hexside
Hedge: 0.9
Bocage: 0.65
Crest: 0.8
Embankment: 0.8
Dunes: 0.8
Low Stone Wall: 0.8
Ditch: 0.8
Special
Improved Position: 0.75
Trench: 0.56
Bunker/Pillbox: 0.75*
* Adds 10 or 20 to the Defence strength of each occupant
The Modified Defence Strength is calculated by:
(Defence Value of Defender) + (Fortification Bonus°)
°: Bunkers add a bonus of 10, Pillboxes add a bonus of 20
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3.2.9 Combat Results Table and Damage Results
The Combat Results Table is used to determine the outcome of an attack. When a unit attacks, the
program actually conducts a number of attacks equal to the attacking unit’s Strength Points. The number
of Strength Points is halved (fractions rounded down, to a minimum of 1) if the attacking unit is low on
supply. The program takes each individual result and determines the net result versus the defender.
A
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
3
4
5
10
15
20
25
30
B
6
5
4
3
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
20
30
50
75
D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
5
10
25
25
45
45
20
E
0
0
0
0
5
5
10
10
10
15
20
30
25
40
25
5
5
F
0
0
5
5
10
10
15
20
25
25
30
35
25
10
0
0
0
G
0
5
5
10
10
25
25
25
25
25
30
25
15
5
0
0
0
Column A: net attack strength
Column B: net defence strength
Column C: % chance of inflicting a loss of 3 Strength Points
Column D: % chance of inflicting a loss of 2 Strength Points
Column E: % chance of inflicting a loss of 1 Strength Point
Column F: % chance of causing a Disruption
Column G: % chance of causing a Morale Check
The Attack-vs-Defence strengths between those listed above are calculated individually by the program
on a pro-rated basis, based on the result probabilities of the two Combat Results Table lines the attack
falls between.
By default, the Damage Report details are not displayed as attacks are resolved. You can change the level
of detail displayed by choosing Options  Details  Medium Details. When Medium Details is chosen,
the results of the attack are displayed.
They are:
No Effect: There is no effect on the intended target from the attack.
Retreat: If the unit fails a Morale Check, the unit Retreats out of the hex. Unless the unit is in a
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Pillbox or Bunker, then the unit will become disrupted instead. A unit cannot retreat takes an
additional Strength Point loss.
Disrupted: The unit becomes Disrupted from the
attack and its Attack Strength and Assault
capabilities are halved and the unit cannot move
closer to the nearest opposing unit. While unable to
conduct an assault when disrupted, it can CounterAssault. All Action Points for movement are doubled
when a unit is Disrupted.
Reduced by #: The target unit has lost one or more
Strength Points from the attack. If the unit is reduced to 0, it is eliminated. When a unit loses a
Strength Point, it is subject to a Morale Loss.
Eliminated: The unit has been eliminated if unit has lost all of its Strength Points in the attack.
The unit will be removed from the map when eliminated.
Morale Loss: Each time a unit loses Strength Points; there is a 35% chance that its current
morale will be reduced by one.
If you would like further details, you can click on the toggle switch in the upper left hand corner of the
Damage Report. These are considered High Details and will provide you information about the firing
target, the total attack and defence strength, the odds of success and the damage results. With High
Details active you must manually close the Damage Report.
3.2.10 What is Morale and Combat Experience?
Morale is the willingness of the unit to perform the duties required of them, particularly in combat. In
Middle East, Morale is a numerical value based on a number of factors; such as, unit cohesion,
determination, willingness to fight, sense of purpose, weapons, leadership, training, abilities, etc.
Morale can range from 1 to 10. A unit with a Morale of 10 is considered
to have a very high Morale, on the verge of fanatical, while a unit with a
Morale of 1 is considered to have very low Morale, who will not stand
and fight for very long, especially if the unit comes under sustained fire.
If Morale is reduced to 0 during Combat, the unit is eliminated from
play, regardless of how many Strength Points are left in the unit. One
can assume the unit has broken under fire and scattered.
Morale is an essential component for determining how well a unit will
stand up against an Assault when playing with the optional Extreme
Assault rule. The higher the Morale, the more likely the unit will hold its current position. If the unit
experiences a number of Direct Fire hits which causes the unit to suffer Morale losses, the unit may be
ejected from its hex or eliminated from Combat.
In Middle East, Morale differs from Combat Experience. Combat Experience is presently designed for
infantry units, which is handled through the use of different platoon abilities and is classified as Class A,
Class B or Class C. In game, Class C units are denoted with a (C) after the platoon name and Class A
units are denoted with a (A).
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Class A (A) units have the following improved abilities over Class B units:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Increased Assault Value
Increased Defence Value
Increased Soft Target Attack Values
Increased Hard Target Attack Values
Reduced Action Points required to conduct Direct Fire (typically 3 times per turn)
Reduced Action Points required to Load and/or Unload
Increased Victory Point Values per Strength Point (typically +1)
The rationale behind these changes is that a Class A unit is considered to have; combat experience
allowing the unit to have the ability to remain calm under fire, the ability to put more shots on target and
more accurately, experience in destroying or disabling armoured vehicles, effectively use terrain to aid in
defence and can deal better with combat stress.
Class C (C) units have the following reduced abilities over Class B units:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Decreased Assault Value
Decreased Defence Value
Decreased Soft Target Attack Values
Decreased Hard Target Attack Values
Increased Action Points required to conduct Direct Fire
Increased Action Points required to Load and/or Unload
The rationale behind these changes is that a Class C unit is considered to have; no combat experience
with little to no training, will have difficulty focusing their attention under extreme stress, have not yet
learned to identify and respond to true threats, unfamiliar with how to use terrain effectively, will
typically fire at the opposing units uncontrollably while many be under duress and not fire at all and will
typically suffer more combat exhaustion casualties.
Class B units are considered to have little-to-no combat experience but have adequate training to be able
to perform satisfactorily in combat conditions.
3.2.11 How do I Defend?
Reading through the Sections above provides a number of excellent hints on how to defend against an
aggressive attacker. A few of the important lessons are:
1. Location, Location, Location: It is important to choose the terrain that will provide the most
beneficial to your defence. The proper terrain will offer your troops greater chances of reducing
casualties and passing Morale Checks when engaged in Combat.
2. Build Improved Positions if you have time.
3. Know your units and their capabilities. Choose units that will provide you the maximum
defensive benefits and will hold out the longest.
4. Keep your leaders close to help recover Morale and improve hit chances when attacking and
Counter-Assaulting.
5. Coordinate your defensive position with other positions;
allowing the various positions to support each other if one is
attacked.
6. Counter-attack where possible; this may throw off your
attacker’s ability to recover and focus on their goals.
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For additional information on how and when to Assault, see Section 5.2.
3.2.12 What are the highlights?
Highlights to consider about Combat:
1. Not all units can attack but all units can defend against an attack.
2. Most units can attack soft and hard units. To determine the strength and range of attacks, press
F2 and left click on the R.
3. Range is important to consider when deciding to attack; the closer an opposing unit is, the more
likely you will cause a desired effect.
4. Terrain has a direct impact on attack and defensive values.
5. When available, use better classed units for attacking and defending key positions, leaving the
lower classed units for secondary tasks.
3.2.13 Frequently Asked Questions - Combat
Question – Why can’t my unit assault?
Answer – Make sure the unit has an assault value. Without an assault value, the unit cannot assault.
Question – Why can’t my unit fire at hard or soft targets?
Answer – Make sure the unit has a fire cost. Without a fire cost, the unit cannot fire at soft or hard
targets.
3.3 Combat Efficiency
3.3.1 What is Combat Efficiency?
Combat Efficiency in Middle East is a check at the beginning of each turn to determine if each unit that
fired the previous turn has maintained supply or has regained supply if the unit was Conserving Ammo.
There are two Ammo Levels; Base Ammo and Artillery Ammo. Artillery
pieces (guns with tubes larger than 76mm in diameter) will use the
Artillery Ammo level for their calculations while everything else will
use the Base Ammo level for their calculations.
3.3.2 Combat Efficiency System
At the beginning of each friendly turn, a check is made for each non-Isolated unit that fired the previous
turn to see if it maintains its Combat Efficiency. A unit attempting to maintain efficiency does so through
its “parent” Headquarters. If the units “parent” Headquarters is not on the map, the program will search
for the next Headquarters that commands the unit; for example, the unit’s regimental or divisional
Headquarters. The program measures the range from the “parent” Headquarters to determine a base
probability and then makes a percentile die roll. Combat Efficiency is maintained if that die roll is less
than or equal to that base probability.
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If the die roll fails, a second percentile die roll (0-99) is made against the Base Ammo level for the
friendly side. If the second die roll fails, the unit will not have its Combat Efficiency maintained and will
be considered Conserving Ammo.
Additionally, each friendly non-Isolated Headquarters will conduct a check to see if it maintains Combat
Efficiency. Like with combat units, the check is made against the distance to the Headquarters “parent
Headquarters”. If that fails, a second percentile die roll (0-99) will be made against the Base Ammo level.
If the Headquarters does not maintain efficiency, it will be considered Conserving Ammo.
Artillery utilizes the same system above, but performs the checks against the Artillery Ammo level set
for friendly side of the scenario.
3.3.3 What are the effects of Conserving Ammo?
A unit that is Conserving Ammo is indicated by a “hollow” bullet icon near the top of the Icon Bar along
the left side of the Unit Info Display. The highlight all friendly units that are Conserving Ammo, press
the button in the Tool Bar presenting an empty shell highlighted in red or press Y on the keyboard.
If a combat unit is Conserving Ammo, Direct Fire attacks will only attack a number of times equal to its
Strength Points divided by two, fractions rounded up. Normally, a combat unit while in full Combat
Efficiency is allowed the number of attacks equal to the number of Strength Points it has. A combat unit
that assaults when Conserving Ammo will do so at 75% effectiveness.
An Indirect Fire unit that is Conserving Ammo will not be able to attack until it regains supply. This
represents a number of situations; including, a breakdown in communication, ammunition is being
conserved, the battery is supporting an action off map, etc.
A Headquarters unit that is Conserving Ammo will not be able to perform Combat Efficiency checks for
units under its command umbrella for that turn. Headquarters that are Conserving Ammo will not be able
to attack until the unit regains Combat Efficiency.
3.3.4 How do I Regain or Maintain Combat Efficiency?
When a unit is Conserving Ammo, it will attempt to Regain Combat Efficiency. At the start of each
friendly turn, every non-Isolated unit that is Conserving Ammo will perform a check similar to the
calculation described above. The program measures the range from the “parent” Headquarters to
determine a base probability and then makes a percentile die roll. Combat Efficiency is regained if that
die roll is less than or equal to that base probability. Unlike Maintaining Combat Efficiency, if the
Regain Combat Efficiency attempt fails, the program will not conduct a second attempt against the Base
Ammo Level. If the “parent” Headquarters is no longer on the map, the Conserving Ammo unit will not
be able to Regain Combat Efficiency.
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Maintaining Supply is primarily based on the Combat Efficiency range of headquarter units. Each
Headquarters type has a Combat Efficiency range appropriate for the its level; for example, a division
headquarters will have a larger Combat Efficiency range than a battalion headquarters. The various
Headquarters Combat Efficiency Ranges are as follows:
Headquarters Type
Army HQ
Corps HQ
Division HQ
Brigade HQ
Regiment HQ
Battalion HQ
Range in Hexes
Unlimited
90
30
15
15
8
The Combat Efficiency Ranges listed above depict the 50% chance of maintaining Combat Efficiency
during calculations.
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3.3.5 How do Leaders affect Combat Efficiency?
Leaders will increase the Combat Efficiency range of the “parent” headquarters by the Command Rating
of the Leader. The Leader must be stacked with the headquarters and not have moved the previous turn.
3.3.6 What is Enhanced Combat Efficiency?
When using the Command Control optional rule, the supply ranges for the various Headquarters will
have their 50% range modified depending on the year and the nationality. For example; in 1973, Israeli
headquarters have a 120% modifier to the 50% modified range. An Israeli battalion headquarters has a
standard range of 8 hexes, which is then modified by 120% (8 x 1.2) resulting in 10 hexes. Israeli
battalion headquarters will then have a 50% range of 10 hexes, thereby increasing their effectiveness in
providing Combat Efficiency for its subordinate units.
For a full list of the Combat Efficiency Adjustment Values, see Section 20.1.
3.3.7 What are the highlights?
Highlights to consider about Combat Efficiency:
1. The program conducts two Combat Efficiency checks for each unit that had previously fired at
the beginning of every turn; one against the parent Headquarters and the other against the Base
Ammo Level.
2. Combat units that are Conserving Ammo will assault at 75% effectiveness and have their attack
strength (per Strength Point in the combat calculations) reduced in half.
3. Protect your Headquarters, if it is eliminated, it may result if your Conserving Ammo units no
longer being able to Regain Combat Efficiency.
3.3.8 Frequently Asked Questions - Combat Efficiency
Question – Why is my Conserving Ammo unit unable to regain Combat Efficiency?
Answer 1 – Make sure the unit has a Headquarters on the map and that the affected unit is close enough
to increase the odds of regaining Combat Efficiency.
Answer 2 – If the “parent” Headquarters is no longer on the map, the Conserving Ammo unit will no
longer be able to Regain Combat Efficiency.
3.4 Artillery
3.4.1 What is Artillery?
Artillery in the Middle East can be defined as any
weapon capable of indirect fire to support their
respective armies. In game terms, artillery includes;
mortars, rockets and the various artillery batteries.
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3.4.2 How do I Attack with Artillery
Pressing the Artillery button to the bottom left of the screen will open
the Artillery Dialog which will allow you to play Indirect Artillery Fire.
The artillery units listed in black are available to be fired during the
current turn, while artillery units listed in grey are unavailable.
To plot an Indirect Fire mission, highlight the artillery unit in the
Artillery Dialog, roam the cursor over the map to the desired target hex
and right click upon it. Note that targets that are within range of the
artillery unit are highlighted in red. The hex will be marked with a
crosshair icon to identify which location has been targeted.
Once plotted, an artillery mission cannot be recalled.
You can plot as much artillery on any given hex to the maximum number of guns
within range to the hex.
In the event that your artillery may be overrun, you can also use Direct Fire if the
opposing units are in your Line of Sight. From the game map, select artillery unit and
right-click on the target unit. If you do not target a unit, the hex will be targeted instead
and the attack will be resolved as Indirect Fire at the start of the next turn.
3.4.3 What is Off-map Artillery?
Artillery units with an asterisk preceding their name is artillery located off-map. These units cannot be
attacked or moved, being only available in the Artillery Dialog.
3.4.4 How do I fire Smoke with Artillery?
In many scenarios, Smoke is available to block Line of Sight through a smoked hex and to reduce the
attacking strength of units conducting Direct Fire into or out of a smoked hex. The number of Smoke
available is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Artillery units capable of firing Smoke have a small
smoke icon on the left side of the Unit Info Box. If Smoke is available for the turn, you can plot smoke to
arrive next turn by selecting the artillery unit from the Artillery Dialog. Press ALT and right-click on the
hex you wish the Smoke to arrive on at the beginning of the next turn. Alternatively, you can use the
buttons on the toolbar (Fire Mode plus Smoke) and right-click on the appropriate hex or use the Units
menu.
Only one Smoke round in necessary per hex and it will
remain for the entire turn it is laid.
Additionally, the number of Smoke rounds is available at
the bottom of the Unit List which is accessed by pressing U
and at the bottom left of the game screen beside the number of turns.
3.4.5 How do I fire Flares with Artillery?
In night scenarios, there may be the opportunity to fire Flares to assist your ground units in attacking
opposing forces. The number of Flare’s available is displayed at the bottom of the screen. If Flares are
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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available for the turn, select the artillery unit, with at least 20 Action Points, you wish to fire the Flare,
depress ALT + SHIFT and right-click on the target hex while in Fire Mode.
There is a 40% chance of success and a 40% chance of the Flare firing into the hex you targeted;
otherwise it will fire into one of the surrounding six hexes.
Additionally, the number of Flare’s rounds is available
at the bottom of the Unit List which is accessed by
pressing U and at the bottom left of the game screen beside the number of turns.
3.4.6 What are some Artillery tactics to use?
Depending on the number of batteries available, there are a number of different missions that you can
conduct to help you win a scenario. Some of the most common ones are:
Close Support: In most cases you will be plotting artillery in close support of your units that are
in contact and Line of Sight with the opposing forces.
Counter Battery: When viewing your
opponents turn in one of the 3D modes,
you may see traces of the artillery fire as it
heads towards your forces. Seeing these,
you can estimate where his artillery is
firing from and plot Indirect Fire upon
those hexes in hopes of either destroying
them or having your opponent move them.
This Indirect Fire will typically be out of
Line of Sight and may drift around the
intended target.
Interdiction: This is plotting Indirect Fire
along suspected enemy avenues of
approach, especially at chokepoints such as
intersections, towns and bridges. While these shots will be typically out of Line of Sight and drift
around the target, destroying the enemy before they get to the frontline is always helpful.
Harassing Fire: This is plotting Indirect Fire near suspected enemy bivouac areas, especially
where you suspect your opponent to park his Headquarters or empty transports.
Area Denial: In order for this to work effectively in Middle East, you will require a lot of
available batteries. The following is most effective against infantry units. Understanding the
suspected avenue of approach, the distance opposing units can travel in a turn, the area you wish
to deny the enemy from using should be within your Line of Sight and keep in mind that
opposing units will retreat from the closest friendly unit. After selecting the area you wish to
deny movement through, use your heaviest artillery or rockets and target the hexes closest to
your friendly forces were you suspect the opposing infantry will be next turn. The heaviest
artillery and rockets will hopefully cause the targeted units to become disrupted, take losses and
hopefully retreat. Since they will retreat away from the closest unit, the rest of your artillery
should be plotted in the hexes behind the initial targeted hexes. With the barrage properly set up,
any opposing units will be either destroyed or will retreat back to their starting positions.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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3.4.7 Does Artillery affect armoured vehicles?
An Indirect Fire attack versus an armoured target has a 4% chance of disabling a Strength Point (-1
Strength Point elimination) from the armoured target.
3.4.8 Does Artillery effect on-map aircraft & helicopters?
If an on-map aircraft or helicopters happens to end its turn in an Indirect Fire targeted hex, the Indirect
Fire will conduct attacks against the aircraft or helicopters as it would any other unit. The aircraft or
helicopters can be considered to be flying through a hostile fire zone as aircraft are not typically
employed simultaneously with artillery fire.
It is recommended to fly your on-map aircraft and helicopters to the targets or landing zones, complete
the mission assigned to them for the turn and withdraw to a position out of Line of Sight. This will
significantly reduce the risk of your aircraft becoming the victims of artillery fire.
3.5 Air Strikes, Helicopters and Air Support
3.5.1 How do I Attack with an Air Strike?
Middle East provides the player with the opportunity to call in Air
Strikes. At the beginning of each turn, you will be informed how many
Air Strikes you have available, although not every scenario will have
aircraft available. You can determine what type of aircraft that is
available to perform Air Strikes by selecting Available Air Support
under the Status menu.
Each aircraft that may be available to conduct Air Strikes are
individually modelled with unique hard and soft Attack Values and
individual Defence Values. The number of Strength Points that are
given to the aircraft varies depending on the plane type.
To call for an Air Strike, select the desired hexagon to attack by left clicking on it once and press the Air
Strike button on the Tool Bar or by pressing CTRL + K on the keyboard. A crosshairs icon will be placed
on the selected hexagon. Air Strikes have a 60% chance of arriving the following turn and will target any
unit within five hexagons of the target hexagon, assuming Line of Sight is maintained.
Air Strikes will conduct their attack in either the Low or High Flight Zone, depending on the type of
aircraft making the attack run. If available, anti-aircraft in the vicinity will conduct their attacks
appropriately. If the Air Strike is eliminated during the attack run, it will be counted against your Victory
Point total.
3.5.2 How do I use Helicopters?
Middle East offers a number of scenarios that include helicopters. Helicopters have the unique ability to
cross over all terrain types and are classified as three general types; scout/reconnaissance, transport and
gunships.
Scout and reconnaissance helicopters are best suited for flying around the map, revealing where the
opposing forces are. They can be shot down, although their chances are reduced.
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Transport helicopters are the work horses of the helicopter arm. They
are best suited for lifting friendly platoons behind the opposing lines to
assault the rear. Transports tend to have high Victory Point costs, so
should not be used for assaulting strong positions as they can be easily
shot down. Transport helicopters can carry most infantry types and the
larger transport helicopters can carry small vehicles and artillery pieces.
Gunships come in a variety of different flavours; armed with machine
guns, autocannons, rockets, anti-tank guided missiles or a combination
of them.
Certain types of Gunships will lose their ability to fire. This means
that the helicopter has ran out of ordnance and is required to return
to its Headquarters to reload. Fly the helicopter back to the parent
Battalion Headquarters and land in the same hex. It will consume
all remaining Action Points to reload ordnance, but will be ready to
take off again next turn. If the Battalion Headquarters is destroyed,
the helicopter will have to fly to the Battalion Headquarters parent
Headquarters, if it exists.
Helicopters are the only units that utilize the four different Flight Zones as described in Section 3.1.3.
While they can fly over all opposing units, they cannot capture Victory Objectives locations or be used in
assaults.
Recommended Helicopter Tactics:
1. Study the map. Understand where you are going, avenue of approaches to get there, how to
avoid anti-aircraft, where good landing zones are.
2. Know your Units. Understand the capabilities and purposes of the helicopters available for you
for the mission at hand.
3. Use the Flight Zones. Utilize the Flight Zones for their intended purpose. If advancing across
the map and need to do so quickly, use the High Flight Zone. Lower your altitude as you get
closer to your target.
4. Be Aware. Helicopters that are landed can be attacked and assaulted by
nearly any opposing unit. Helicopters flying in Nap of the Earth and Low
Flight Zones can be shot at by many opposing units while helicopters flying
in the High Flight Zone can only be targeted by anti-aircraft artillery and
surface-to-air missiles. Keep these in mind as you are flying across the
map, pick the best Flight Zones for the mission and longevity of your
helicopter force.
5. Clear Landing Zones: Attempt to clear landing zones with artillery and gunships prior to
sending in your transport helicopters. If that is not possible, keep your gunships close by to tend
to any opposing forces that may reveal themselves during your landing operation.
6. Keep them moving. Stationary helicopters make excellent targets for Indirect Fire if left
unattended. As helicopters have high Victory Point values, losing them will negatively affect
your Victory Point total.
3.5.3 How do I use Air Support?
Air Support in Middle East is defined as on-map aircraft, excluding helicopters. Apart from
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
reconnaissance aircraft, propeller driven ground attack aircraft and jet aircraft have been relegated to the
Air Strike system for Middle East. Reconnaissance Air Support is best used similar to reconnaissance
helicopters. Expect to see more on-map Air Support assets in future games.
3.6 Engineering Tasks and Special Abilities
3.6.1 What are Unit Special Abilities?
Middle East has a number of units that have unique abilities. The Unit Handbook lists the Unit
Capabilities of a selected unit, some of the Unit Special Abilities are; Set IED, Lay Minefields, Lay
Footbridge, Lay Vehicle Bridge, Destroy High Walls, Clear Minefields, Night Vision, Commando,
Sneaker.
3.6.2 How do I clear a minefield?
A convenient way of slowing down or diverting an enemy attack is with
minefields. Minefields are usually set at the beginning of a scenario by
the scenario designer, but you may also lay minefields during the course
of the game. Minefields can be three different levels; 1, 2 or 3. A level 1
minefield will attack on the 1:1 row of the Combat Results Table, a level
2 minefield will attack on the 2:1 row while the level 3 minefield will
attack on the 3:1 row.
Most armies in have two types of units that are capable of laying a
minefields; the Engineer or an armoured vehicle equipped with a mine-roller.
An undisrupted, unfatigued, fully-supplied Engineer, or mine-roller equipped armoured vehicle, may
move into a hex containing any level minefield and will automatically lower the minefield by one at the
start of the next turn.
3.6.3 How do I lay a minefield?
Most armies in have two types of units that are capable of laying a minefields; the Mine Engineer and the
Mine Truck.
An Undisrupted, unfatigued, fully-supplied Mine Engineer or Mine Truck unit
may attempt to lay a 1 Strength Minefield in a hex. Once the Mine unit has
successfully laid a minefield, the unit will assume an out-of-ammo status, but
once the ammo has been supplied, the Mine Engineer will be capable of laying
another Mine.
To lay a minefield, place the Mine Engineer in the desired hex and select Lay a
Minefield from the Unit Menu or by pressing the Ctrl+N Hot Key.. There is a
60% chance it will lay a minefield. Mine Engineer units are incapable of clearing
minefields.
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3.6.4 How do I build a hex-side bridge?
Middle East has units that are able to lay a hex-side bridge across a hex-side river. Regular Engineers are
able to lay a light bridge that allows infantry to cross while Bridge Engineers and AVLB vehicles can
each lay a single medium bridge per scenario.
In both cases, the platoon must be beside the target hexside, be undisrupted, unfatigued and have 100 Action
Points to perform the task. To build a bridge, choose Build
Lt Hexside Bridge (CTRL + H) or Lay Vehicle Bridge
(CTRL + V) from the Units menu. A dialog will appear
asking you to choose the direction where you will selected
the target hex-side. If successful, a light or medium bridge
will be visible across the target hex-side.
3.6.5 How do I demolish a high wall or bridge?
An undisrupted, unfatigued, fully-supplied Engineer, with 100 Action Points available, may attempt to
demolish a hexside bridge. To demolish a bridge, select the Engineer unit, choose Destroy Wall or
Bridge (CTRL+G) from the Units menu. A dialog will appear asking you to choose the direction where
you will selected the target hex-side. . If successful, the wall or bridge will be demolished across the
target hex-side.
3.6.6 How do I build a barrier?
An undisrupted, unfatigued, fully-supplied Construction Engineer,
with 100 Action Points available, may attempt to build a barrier.
Once the barrier has been laid, the Construction Engineer will
assume an out-of-ammo status, but once ammo has been supplied,
the Construction Engineer will be capable of laying another barrier.
To build a barrier, place the Construction Engineer in the desired
hex and select Build Barrier from the Unit Menu or by pressing the
Ctrl+J Hot Key. There is a 20% chance you will build a barrier.
3.6.7 How do I build a trench?
Construction Engineer units can be used to build improved hexes.
The procedure is the same used by any unit that “digs in.” Once the
digging starts, there is a 20-30% chance each turn for completing
the attempt. In addition, if a Construction Engineer or Bulldozer unit
begins its turn in an Improved Position hex, it can be ordered to dig
a trench line. The procedure is the same as before; order the unit to
Dig In but start on an improved hex. There is a 10% chance of
success each turn.
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3.6.8 How do I remove a wreck?
Middle East has units that are able to remove wrecks from a hex.
These are typically identified as Armoured Recovery Vehicles
(ARV’s) and are tend to be available as battalion level attachments.
To remove a wreck, leave the undisrupted ARV in the hex that
contain wrecks. During the next turn, a number of wrecks will be
removed from the hex. There are no limits to the number of
wrecks that an ARV can remove during the course of a scenario.
3.6.9 How do I set an IED?
Middle East has units that are able to lay Improvised Explosive
Devices, IED’s. These units are identifiable when selecting the unit
and pressing F2, SetIED will be listed in the Unit Capabilities.
The platoon must be in the target hex, be undisrupted, unfatigued and
have 100 Action Points to perform the task. To set the IED, choose
Lay Minefield/IED from the Units menu, or press CTRL + M. If
successful, an IED icon will display in the target hex.
3.7 Optional Rules
3.7.1 What are the Optional Rules?
Middle East has seven Optional Rules to add variety to game play. These are chosen at the beginning of
a game via a button at the bottom of the A/I Selection Screen. Once the scenario has begun with Optional
Rules in effect, it cannot be changed.
Indirect Fire by the Map: This allows you to
target Indirect Fire on hexes that are out of Line of
Sight of friendly units. When plotting Indirect Fire
out of Line of Sight, there is a risk of the artillery
fire drifting from the intended target hex. Artillery
can drift up to two hexes in any direction from the
Target Hex.
Extreme Fog of War: These are additional elements to the Fog of War setting on the A/I
Selection Screen; the effects are primarily that the opposing units name and strength will remain
hidden (except in open terrain), the assault odds will be unavailable and the Combat Results will
be known to the player in less detail.
Extreme Assault: This takes the quick overrun option of disrupted units and replaces the assault
equation with one that is heavily based on morale. For a detailed description, see Section 3.2.4.
Command Control: When using the Command Control optional rule, the Combat Efficiency
ranges for the various Headquarters will have their 50% Combat Efficiency range modified
depending on the year and the nationality. When a Leader is stacked with the Headquarters of its
command, the 50% Combat Efficiency range will be increased by the Command value of the
Leader. Additionally, the first platoon of a company will act as a “Command Post”. Subordinate
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units out of range of the Command Post will suffer penalties when trying to recover from
Disruption or Morale loss. For more information see Section 3.3.4, Section 3.3.5 and Section
3.2.11.
Armour Facing: This introduces individual front, side and rear defence values for armoured
units that all direct fire attacks are resolved against. The appropriate defence value will be chosen
depending on the direction of the direct attack against the armoured unit. The diagram below
explains the various shot angles.
Variable Visibility: This optional rule is only in affect if the scenario starting Visible Distance is
between 5 and 15 hexes. The Visible Distance has a 15% chance of increasing or decreasing by
1 hex at the beginning of Player One’s turn. The Visible Distance can vary due to cloud cover,
weather effects (temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind), haze, battlefield induced
contaminants (smoke, dust from vehicles/artillery, vehicle exhaust) and terrain nuances. It should
be noted that most scenarios do have fluctuating visibility set by the designer, use Variable
Visibility when replaying a scenario for some added mystery!
Adaptive A/I: This optional rule is a new system modifying dozens of different parameters
affecting game play against the A/I, but also H2H & PBEM play. The intent is to assist the A/I;
to achieve better game play balance; to achieve greater "realism"; to add randomness; to increase
replayability. There is an overall init.ai file in the top-level game folder, then at the scenario
designer's discretion individual <scenario>.ai files that override any of the init.ai parameter
settings. The .ai files are encrypted to .aix files to thwart cheating. The game engine references
the .aix files, unless the -X NoEncryption command line is used. Within each .ai file, there are
s[ide] parameters (for Side A and Side B), also n[ation] parameters (for every nation in the
scenario). Many parameters were previously fixed in the program code; now they are variable.
In many cases, A/I take the form of probabilities affecting whether one thing or another happens,
or doesn't happen. Especially if you like more uncertainty in your game play, toggle ON the
Adaptive A/I. See Section 3.8.5, also the CSME_Adaptive_AI_100.pdf in the manual folder,
for more details.
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3.8 Design Decisions
3.8.1 What do the various letters mean after the platoon name? For example, Rifle 48 A(F)?
Middle East introduces a number of letter codes to help the player identify how best to understand their
infantry platoons capabilities at a glance.
The letter codes are:
A – Good Quality
B – Average Quality
C – Poor Quality
F – Armed with French Weapons
J – Armed with Japanese Weapons
S – Armed with Soviet Weapons
US – Armed with American Weapons
I – Type I – Unique Organization
II – Type II – Unique Organization
III – Type III – Unique Organization
Rifle 48 A(F) would translate to: A Rifle Platoon (Rifle) organized under a 1948 TO&E (48) that is
Good Quality (A) and armed with French Weapons (F)
See Section 3.2.10 for a detailed explanation of the A, B and C ratings.
3.8.2 Why are trucks hard targets?
Middle East introduces three classes of trucks; light, medium and large.
Medium and large trucks become hard targets while light trucks and
jeeps remain as soft targets. Medium and large trucks typically have a
hard target defence of ‘1’ and most other platoons have been had their
weapons values modified to compensate for the change. These trucks
will now leave a wreck when destroyed which impedes movement,
especially along the narrow roads in Algeria, Yemen and the Aden
Protectorate. Wrecks are capable of being removed during game play.
See Section 3.6.5 for a detailed explanation of removing wrecks.
3.8.3 Why do my Combat Armed Helicopters go on Conserving Ammo status and do not regain
ammo?
The missile armed helicopters in Middle East have limited ammunition
and will eventually move into low-ammo status after conducting
combat. Once in Conserving Ammo status, they are assumed to be out
of missiles. They will not regain ammo on their own but will be
required to fly back to their parent Headquarters and land in the same
hex. At the beginning of the next turn, the helicopters will be fully
armed and ready to conduct additional missions.
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3.8.4 Why can’t helicopters attack enemy units?
Ensure that your helicopter is not in the High Flight Zone. If it is, it cannot fire at ground targets. It must
do so from Nap of the Earth or Low Flight Zones.
3.8.5 Why all do we have Adaptive A/I?
The Campaign Series A/I -- One size does not fit all!
Arabs did not fight the same way as Israelis. Jordanians outclassed the Egyptians, who outclassed the
Syrians. Israel's combat doctrines changed from 1948 to 1956 to 1967 to 1973 and beyond. The cocky
Israelis at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War learned to give their revitalized Egyptian foes newfound
respect, and learned to change their ways. Adapt or die.
From nation to nation, from war to war, from year to year, even from one battle to the next -- they all
differed, so much evolved.
But in traditional JTCS, as in most (all?) war games, there is one and only one A/I. Locked down tight.
Mostly inaccessible to the scenario designer, much less to the player.
Until now...
We have devised a new customizable A/I System. Customizable by side, by nation, by scenario. Open to
the scenario designer's tweaking. Also the modder's.
We call this new system: "Adaptive A/I." As in: An A/I that adapts to the side, the nation, the era, the
individual scenario. (Not as in: Adapts real-time to changing game play circumstances. But that too
will be implemented in future updates.)
The purposes of the Adaptive A/I are:

To coach the A/I in ways and things it is too dumb to figure out by itself.

To achieve game play "balance".

Not so much to improve the A/I play as to better simulate actual combatant and scenario
conditions. To achieve greater "realism" and "historical fidelity".

To add randomness. Real combat is full of surprises, chance occurrences. It's messy and
unpredictable. Real combat is chaotic!

Thereby increasing replayability.
These cross purposes are often at odds with one another. Some Adaptive A/I parameters will make the
A/I opponent "better"; others will make it "worse". It all depends. Some players will like the increased
uncertainty; others will not. It all depends. That's why the Adaptive A/I is optional. Select it or not as
you wish.
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3.8.6 Why doesn’t my transported Headquarters show subordinate organizations?
Many of the armies included in Middle East had limitations when it came to command and control. One
of the ways of representing this is to have many of the headquarters, especially for the lower echelons, as
foot units. There is typically some form of transportation included so you can move them about the
battlefield at your leisure.
While loaded and moving, your headquarters will incapable of providing combat efficiency to your
subordinate units. It is recommended to load and unload your headquarters whenever you have finished
their move. This means that you will have to mentally keep track of what you are doing and how you are
positioning your headquarters. Leapfrogging your headquarters is very wise, moving lower echelon
headquarters, putting them in place and then moving the higher echelon headquarters closer to ensure
everyone has maintained combat efficiency.
This methodology promotes the historical use of headquarters and their limitations for the armies with
lower logistical capabilities and training.
More capable armies will have more motorized headquarters. This represents the higher level of logistical
support and training given to these armies. You will see this more in future games.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
4.0 Bootcamp Tutorials
4.1 Bootcamp One
4.1.1 Bootcamp One: Turn 1
The following presumes that you have read through the manual and are ready to give the game a try.
While I will keep the following very basic, having some understanding of what is in the manual will
make playing the Bootcamp scenario less painful. I will explain the principles of some of the elements as
we play through the scenario, but for the formulas and explicit details, I recommend reading through the
manual.
As this is the first Middle East Bootcamp scenario, you should have accessed this through the Middle
East main menu. By selecting Play Scenario, ensuring that Standard is checked and pressing the button
beside Start a New Game you’ll be taken to the Scenario Selection screen where you will choose the top
scenario, “Bootcamp One”. Pressing OK will take you to the A/I Selection screen, where you will leave
the setting as Manual for the SIDE A A/I and change the setting to Computer with FOW for the SIDE B
A/I. Clicking on the Rules button, you will check on all the options available, except Variable Visibility,
and this will be your default the next time you load a new scenario. Press OK on the Optional Rules
dialog and OK on the A/I Selection dialog and the game should load.
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When loaded, you’ll see that a notification that it is the UK Player, Turn 1 of 8. Pressing Enter will
remove the notification. At the bottom left of the screen is a United Kingdom flag, indicating it is the
United Kingdom’s turn and a turn counter, with 8 turns available for this scenario. As the turns progress,
the white bar will turn red.
Pressing U will open the Unit Dialogue on the right side of the screen. These will be default settings now
they have been set. Additionally, I recommend pressing T to turn on the on-map thermometers and
turning on the unit bases by pressing the button to the right of the magnifying glass along the bottom of
the screen.
When you load up a new game, the default view is 3D Normal (or #1 on the keyboard). You can change
the views by pressing the numbers 1 thru 5. You can also change the default view by accessing Options
 Initial View  Your Choice from the main menu. The following tutorial will assume you have left the
game in the 3D Normal view. As we proceed, I will be instructing you to move units based on hex
location. These can easily be identified by turning on the Map Coordinates from the Display menu or by
pressing the “,” button on the keyboard, pressing it again will turn the coordinates off.
When combat happens, a Combat Dialog will appear to the lower left of the screen by selecting Options
 Details  Medium Details from the top menu.
Let us begin…
You are in command of A Squadron/22nd Special Air Service Regiment in the central Yemen (Aden
Protectorate at this time). You are tasked with taking your four troops and recapturing an abandoned
airfield at Habilayn in order for follow on forces to conduct operations in the Radfan. There are three
objective locations that you will have to secure in order to gain a Major Victory in this scenario, they are
located at hexes; 3,20 – 4,19 and 5,19. The location at 11,10 is worth 25 Victory Points and the other two
locations are worth 5 Victory Points each.
Your four SAS Troops are located at hexes; 5,19 –
4,19 and 3,20. Select the SAS Troop at 5,19 by right
clicking on it. The unit will display in the Unit
Display area on the right side of your screen. This
tells you a lot of information, from the terrain type of
the hex, its elevation, if there is an objective and its
value, how many wrecks there are and the
concealment value of the hex. It also informs you of
some general scenario information; the visibility
range in hexes during the turn, how many airstrikes
and smoke rounds you have available and the base
ammo level. As you are playing with Fog of War (FOW) turned on, you cannot see the other side’s
information.
You can find additional information about the unit by pressing F2, this displays the Unit Info Display,
providing you with a vast amount of information about the selected platoon. The full name, short name
and nicknames are displayed, as well as the units’ full organization. Additionally, it provides the cost in
action points for the platoon to move through various terrain types during the current scenario. More
importantly, the Unit Capabilities of the platoon are listed which help you identify how best to use the
unit.
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If you press the R button near the bottom left of the dialog, a
new dialog will appear revealing the Range Display. The
blue line indicating how many and the strength of firing
against Soft Targets, while the red line indicates how many
hexes and the strength of firing against Hard Targets. In most
cases, the attack strength will reduce the further away you are
shooting at something. You will notice that the SAS Troop
63 has powerful weapon attack values at close range, but
peters off quite drastically at more than one or two hexes.
Let’s get started.
Double click hex 5,19. This selected both Capt. Edwards and the SAS Troop that occupies that hex.
Right click on the directly north of the hex and you will watch the leader and troop walk into that hex
along the road. Continue to right click along the road and track until you have no more Action Points left,
which should be at hex 6,16.
Double click hex 4,19 follow the same procedure for the two SAS Troops, advancing along the road to
hex 6,17. Lastly, double click hex 3,20 and move that SAS Troop along the road to hex 5,18.
There we go, that is all to do for this turn. Before pressing End Turn, I recommend setting the “Ask
before advancing Turn” under the Options Menu. This will offer you a warning before ending the turn.
Press End Turn, the red button at the bottom right of the screen.
4.1.2 Bootcamp One: Turn 2
You may have noticed that the opponents turn was very quick without much to see. The more complex a
scenario is, the longer it will take to play through for the A/I. For complexity 9 or 10 scenarios, this can
be 10 or more minutes, depending on how much movement and combat is involved in a turn.
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Since nothing happened that you need to be concerned about this turn, you can continue advancing your
units. Double click hex 6,16, selecting the Leader and SAS Troop, and press H on the keyboard. This
highlight the hexes that are within reach of your selected units during the turn. Right clicking on hex 9,16
will move the platoons along the road to that village hex. Double click on the hex containing the two
SAS troops and right click on hex 8,15 to move them.
The last SAS Troop seems to be lagging behind, so we will Double
Time the platoon. This reduces the amount of Action Points required to
move through various terrain types during the course of the turn.
Double clicking on hex 5,18 reveals that the SAS troop can move three
hexes, but if you press CTRL + Q, the unit will be in Double Time
mode and can now move four hexes to be in the same hex as the Leader
and first SAS Troop. Right click on that hex and move the Troop there.
You will notice that using Double Time causes the Troop to become
fatigued, as indicated by the yellow F in the Unit Display. A fatigued
unit is now suffering a penalty and will Attack and Assault at half strength. The unit will remain Fatigued
for another turn.
That is all for this turn. Press End Turn, the red button at the bottom right of the screen.
4.1.3 Bootcamp One: Turn 3
Double click on hex 9,16 and move the Leader and two SAS Troops to hex 11,15. Move the other two
SAS Troops to hex 10,15. The group at 11,15 will gain Line of Sight to the runway at the beginning of
next turn and hopefully reveal any hidden opposing forces. Notice that these two Troops still have
enough action points to conduct Opportunity Fire. Opportunity Fire is attacking an opposing unit during
the course of their turn.
There are two levels of Opportunity Fire; global and individual. As global suggests, it is the overall
settings for all of your units and how they will conduct Opportunity Fire should an opposing platoon be
encountered. By selecting a single unit, you can set Individual Opportunity Fire for just that unit.
Individual settings will always override Global settings.
To set the Global Opportunity Fire, press CTRL+P on the keyboard when no unit is selected. The
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June 2016
Opportunity Fire Dialog will appear. The dialog is set up as a table, with the Firing Units on the right and
the Target Types, with firing ranges, along the top. Under each of the Target Types is a set of four
buttons that allow you to define the range that a particular Firing Unit class will attack a certain Target
Type (N= None, S=Short, M=Medium, L=Long). The default is everything will fire at long range.
Depending on the scenario, leaving the global setting as this is fine, but I recommend setting Individual
Opportunity Fire.
As a quick reminder, under the Options menu, select the Optional Rules option from the bottom of the
menu list. This will open the Optional Rules dialog. Note that the Adaptive A/I has been checked on,
which means that the platoons will have Individual Opportunity Fire set for them. You can see what the
settings are by selecting each unit and pressing CTRL+P. After selecting an SAS Troop, you will notice
they are all set for the same type of Opportunity Fire, varying between Short and Medium distances
depending on target type. For this scenario, these settings are fine, although when playing other scenarios
or against a human opponent, it is wise to mix it up.
So far, the first few turns have been a walk in the park.
End the turn here…
4.1.4 Bootcamp One: Turn 4
You should see an opposing unit in hex 10,14. Assuming you are still in the view 1 3D mode, the
clothing and lack of weapons make it safe to assume these are Civilians. Make your best effort not to
shoot Civilians, they will negatively affect your Victory Point total, as each Strength Point loss a Civilian
has is –9 Victory Points towards your total. For most scenarios that include Civilians, they start as Fixed,
meaning they will stay in the hex where they start unless they are fired upon.
Since it is best to leave the Civilians alone,
double click on hex 11,15 and right click on
hex 11,13 to advance them north along the
paved road. There is a good chance you
drew fire from hex 10,13. As you are
playing with Fog of War enabled, you will
not be able to tell what type of platoon fired
at you. Since they fired at you, it is safe to
assume they are unfriendly.
One of your SAS Troops may be Disrupted
from the Direct Fire attacks the unfriendly platoon. If Disrupted, the affected SAS Troop may not move
closer to the nearest opposing unit, cannot assault and will attack at half strength. At the beginning of
next turn, the Disrupted SAS Troop will attempt to recover to normal status.
Keeping the Leader with the SAS Troop will improve the chances of it
becoming undisrupted.
You can return fire against the unfriendly platoon by holding down the CTRL
button and right clicking on the unfriendly unit or the hex the unfriendly
occupies. Holding down the CTRL button will turn the mode into Fire Mode,
easily identified by the cursor turning into a crosshairs, allowing you to
conduct Direct Fire attacks. Alternatively, you can press the mode button at the bottom left of the screen,
this will keep the mode in either Move Mode or Fire Mode.
While in Fire Mode, hovering the cursor over the unfriendly platoon will display a popup that says “? –
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Unknown @ 37” (or more, depending if one of your SAS Troops are Disrupted). This means that there is
an unknown number of Strength Points of an Unknown platoon that your SAS Troops are firing at with a
combined Soft Attack strength of 37.
Right click on the unfriendly platoon to conduct the Direct Fire attack. As you are playing with Fog of
War on, you will not be able to see what the results were from the attack because it will display
“Unknown Results against an Unknown Target”. There are two ways you can potentially gain some
intelligence on the results though; by selecting the unfriendly platoon and see if there are any visual clues
(is the unit Disrupted?) and by checking the Strength Dialog option under the Status menu. If SIDE B
suffered any losses, they will show up on the bottom left panel of the dialog: Side B SP Losses.
The two SAS Troops in hex 11,13 are out of Action Points for this turn, so will have to remain in the hex.
You can move the other two SAS Troops from hex 10,15 to hex 11,14 in preparation for next turn. They
will have enough Action Points remaining to conduct Opportunity Fire during SIDE B’s turn, should the
need arise.
End the turn here…
4.1.5 Bootcamp One: Turns 5 through 8
Additional opposing units may have revealed
themselves during the previous turn, which will
require further tactical thought. For the remaining
turns, you can use a combination of the basic
gameplay principles I outlined above to succeed in
securing the Victory Point locations. I would
recommend a combination of Direct Fire,
movement and Double Time movement as you
advance through the turns. Don’t forget to secure
the Objectives or else the opposing units will
recapture them.
As you advance along the road towards the 25
Victory Point Objective, you may receive fire from
a unit that does not reveal itself. These are units that
have the special capability of remaining hidden
after firing, for example; a sniper team. While the
unit is hidden, you cannot target it. One easy way
of having it reveal is by attempting to enter the
same hex that the unit is hidden in, the hidden unit
should reveal itself providing you the opportunity
to conduct Direct Fire attacks against it.
Good luck!
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
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4.2 Bootcamp Two
4.2.1 Bootcamp Two: Turn 1
The following presumes that you have read through the manual and having played and read through
Bootcamp One. While I will keep the following very basic, having some understanding of what is in the
manual will make playing the Bootcamp scenario less painful. I will explain the principles of some of the
elements as we play through the scenario, but for the formulas and explicit details, I recommend reading
through the manual.
By selecting Play Scenario, ensuring that Standard is checked and pressing the button beside Start a New
Game you’ll be taken to the Scenario Selection screen where you will choose scenario, “Bootcamp Two”
from Page 2 of the scenario listing. Pressing OK will take you to the A/I Selection screen, where you will
leave the setting as Manual for the Side A A/I and change the setting to Computer with FOW for Side B.
Clicking on the Rules button, you will check on all the options available and this will be your default the
next time you load a new scenario. Press OK on the Optional Rules dialog and OK on the A/I Selection
dialog and the game should load.
When loaded, you’ll see that a notification that it is the SIDE A Player, Turn 1 of 10. Pressing Enter will
remove the notification. At the bottom left of the screen is a United Kingdom flag, indicating it is the
United Kingdom’s turn and a turn counter, with 10 turns available for this scenario. As the turns
progress, the white bar will turn red.
The Unit Dialogue on the right side of the screen should still be present from your setting in Bootcamp
One. Additionally, I recommend pressing T to turn on the on-map thermometers and turning on the unit
bases by pressing the button to the right of the magnifying glass along the bottom of the screen.
When you load up a new game, the default view is 3D Normal (or #1 on the keyboard). You can change
the views by pressing the numbers 1 thru 7. You can also change the default view by accessing Options
 Initial View  Your Choice from the main menu. The following tutorial will assume you have left the
game in the 3D Normal view.
When combat happens, a Combat Dialog will appear to the lower left of the screen by selecting Options
 Details  Medium Details from the top menu.
Let us begin…
You are in command of A Squadron/22nd Special Air Service Regiment in the central Yemen. While on
patrol in the Radfan area, your force becomes alerted to an armoured column that is aiming to attack the
Habilayn Airfield that you are using as a base for operations. There are three objective locations that you
will have to keep secure located at hexes; 1,38 – 1,40 and 1,41. All three locations are worth 10 Victory
Points.
Your SAS Troops are located at hexes; 31,7 – 31,8 and 46,16. At Habilayn Airfield are two Rifle
Platoons defending the airfield at hexes 3,38 and 3,41. On the runway at hex 2,40 is an H-34 Wessex
helicopter platoon.
When selecting one of the platoons at the airfield, the Unit Information box displays a white letter F,
surrounded by red. These denote the troops as Fixed. This means the units cannot be moved unless they
are released or fired upon. You can highlight all fixed units on the map by pressing X or pressing the
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June 2016
Highlight Fixed Units toolbar button.
You can see if a unit is going to be released by viewing the
Releases dialog under the Reinforce menu (Reinforce 
Releases), or by pressing CTRL + R. After opening the
Release Dialog, you will see one entry; 2 (??) Side A 815
Squadron RN. Clicking on the entry will scroll the map to
the unit that will be released. In this case, it scrolls to the
H-34 Wessex helicopter platoon and informs you that the
helicopter platoon will be released on turn 2 with an
unknown percentage chance of release. The percentage
chance is set by the scenario designer and can be a value
between 0 and 100 percent.
The other infantry units around the airfield will remain fixed and will only be released if they are
attacked. Once released they will be available to use as the other units. You may find fixed units in
scenarios without a release because the units may be present in the area during the time of the scenario,
but did not actively take part in the scenario.
“What do you need to do win the scenario?” You can see what the victory conditions of the scenario by
accessing Status  Victory from the main menu. From the open Victory Dialog, you’ll notice that you
start the game with 30 points, a Major Defeat, and need to acquire 170 Victory Points in order to gain a
Major Victory. Based on the description above, you know there is a column of armoured vehicles
approaching the airfield somewhere and in order to gain the Major Victory you will need to destroy most
of them to achieve victory.
Pressing 6 on the keyboard will change the map view, giving you a large view of the map. Pressing
SHIFT and ALT will reveal and leave on the map labels while pressing C will turn the contours on which
will help reveal the rough topography of the region. Habilayn Airfield lies in the southwest corner of the
map, with a road heading to the northeast corner through the Rabwa Pass. It’s fair to assume that the
opposing armoured column will have to drive through this pass in order to assault the airfield. Therefore;
it would be wise to position your SAS Troops in positions along the valley to gain Line of Sight along
the road to see where the advancing forces are during the turns ahead.
Hex 43,16 would make a good observation location for the SAS Troop at 46,16. Select the SAS Troop at
hex 46,16 and move it to hex 43,16.
Doing so will reveal that from that
hex can see a couple kilometre
stretch of road including the village
of El Naqil. From this hex, any
opposing forces traveling along road
will be spotted.
Hexes 28,15 and 29,15 can be
occupied by the SAS Troops
currently at hexes 31,8 and 31,7.
Select the SAS Troop at hex 31,8 and
move to hex 30,9. It will still have
Action Points remaining, but not
enough to continue along the road up
the hill to hex 30,10. Move the SAS
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June 2016
Troop and Leader from hex 31,7, press CTRL + Q to double time it and move it to hex 30,9 to join the
other Troop.
That is all for this turn. Press 1 on the keyboard, to change the view, and then press End Turn, the red
button at the bottom right of the screen.
4.2.2 Bootcamp Two: Turn 2
During the course of the A/I’s turn, you saw some infantry movement and most importantly you noticed
the advance platoon of the armoured column coming into view.
The start screen mentions a couple of important items at the
beginning of Turn 2. *Reinforcements have arrived* and
*Units that have been released* 815 Squadron RN.
Scrolling the map towards the airfield and clicking on hex
2,40. You will notice that the Westland Wessex platoon has
been released and is available to be used. Let us see what
has arrived as reinforcements. You can do so by pressing
CTRL + A to see the Arrived Dialog, which displays “(2,41)
Side A Vickers Vigilant AT Missile,…”. This means that at hex 2,41 group of Vickers Vigilant AT
Missile platoons are available this turn as reinforcements. Double clicking on the item will bring them
onto the map. Close the Arrived Dialog.
Three Vigilant units show up on the map in hex 2,40. They have full
Action Points so can be moved and use this turn. The Vigilant
platoons are going to be your most effective units against the
opposing armoured units. Select one of the Vigilant platoons and
move it one hex north to occupy the same hex as the Westland
Wessex helicopters. You will expended 32 Action Points to move
there, leaving you ample to load into the helicopters. Double click the
hex, which selects both of the units, and press CTRL + L. You will see the Vigilant platoon disappear
and the Westland Wessex platoon is still visible, but will have expended 40 Action Points and now has a
full helmet icon in the lower right of the Unit Info Display. You have successfully loaded the Vigilant
platoon into the helicopters!
In the Unit Info Display of the helicopters, you will notice a green letter G. This means the helicopter is
currently on the ground and cannot move. In order for the helicopter to move, it must take off and go into
one of the flight zones. There are three different flight zones; N, L and H. N is Nap of the Earth, meaning
the helicopters are flying at treetop level, L is Low, meaning the helicopters are flying low, and H is
High, meaning the helicopters are flying well above the battlefield. Each flight zone has advantages and
disadvantages of which are explained in the helicopter section of the
manual.
To take off, you can either press the PgUp button, or press
the up arrow button on the task bar. You can only move up
or down one level per hex. One you press the PgUp button, you will see
the green letter G turn into a yellow letter N, this indicates you have
moved into the Nap of the Earth flight zone. Also not that it cost 10
Action Points to move between the levels. Move the Westland Wessex
helicopters from hex 2,40 to hex 3,40 and press PgUp button. This
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changes the yellow letter N into a blue letter L, meaning the helicopter has entered the Low Flight Zone.
There are 34 Action Points left for movement. Advance to hex 4,39 and continue along that avenue of
advance to expend as many Action Points as you can, which should take you to hex 13,35 with only 2
Action Points remaining.
Returning to the airfield, select another of the Vigilant platoons from hex 2,41 and advance it along the
runway to hex 2,38. We will keep this Vigilant team at the airfield to destroy any opposing armoured
vehicles that manage to get this far.
Selecting the last Vigilant platoon from hex 2,41 and pressing H on the keyboard will reveal the
reachable hexes that it can move during the turn. Right click on hex 4,41 and the Vigilant platoon will
move there. While we wait for the Westland Wessex to return, we’ll advance along the road to make the
return flight a bit shorter.
Scrolling the map over to your SAS Troops, double click on hex 30,9 and advance the two SAS Troops
to hex 29,11. Your remaining SAS Troop at hex 43,16 is in a good location for Line of Sight and can
remain there for this turn. Utilizing the Line of Sight of this SAS Troop, it would be a good idea to plot
an airstrike along the road ahead of the armoured column to hopefully catch a platoon before it gets to the
pass.
You can view the type of airstrikes available by accessing the Air Support Dialog which displays the Air
Support available during the current scenario. This can be accessed through the Status menu. In this case
it shows “FGA. G Hunter (Bombs)” meaning a pair of FGA. 6 Hunter armed with bombs are available to
conduct an airstrike. Select hex 38,12 and either press CTRL + K, or press the Bomb button the task bar,
which will initiate an airstrike that will arrive at the beginning of next turn.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.2.3 Bootcamp Two: Turn 3
During the course of the A/I’s turn, you most likely noticed additional armoured platoons advancing
along the road. That being the case, it is essential to get our first Vigilant platoon set up in an ambush
position.
There is a percentage chance of your airstrike arriving this turn. If it didn’t, it will most likely arrive next
turn. If it did, the airstrike will attack an opposing unit within a five hex radius. Unless the chosen target
is completely isolated, you do not have control over what the airstrike attacks. If there are no opposing
units within the five hex radius, or you lose Line of Sight to the target hex, the airstrike will be recalled
and you will lose that air support for the remainder of the scenario.
Select the Westland Wessex platoon from hex 13,35 and move it to hex 26,24, press PgDn to lower it one
Flight Zone the proceed to hex 26,23, lowering it again to land. Unfortunately, there are not enough
Action Points this turn to unload, but you will be in a position to do so next turn. By pressing V on the
keyboard, you will see that this position provides an excellent ambush position that covers the road as the
opposing armoured forces advance to the Rabwa Pass.
Scroll back to the airfield and move the Vigilant platoon from hex 2,40 to 2,38. You can leave this
Vigilant platoon here for the remainder of the scenario as it covers the northern flank of the airfield.
Select the Vigilant platoon from hex 4,41, press CTRL + Q to double time it, and advance it to hex 5,39.
Scroll up to hex 29,11 and move the two SAS Troops to hex 29,13. The remaining SAS Troop at hex
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43,16 can still remain in the current hex as it is providing good intelligence for your planning.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.2.4 Bootcamp Two: Turn 4
You may have received fire from the armoured column against the SAS Troop at hex 43,16 where you
may or may not have taken losses or suffered a disruption. The start screen will inform you if your
Disruptions and if they have recovered. Since the SAS Troop has a high Morale, odds are in your favour
that it did.
Scroll to the Westland Wessex platoon at hex 26,23 that you landed last turn and press CTRL + L on the
keyboard to unload the Vigilant platoon into the
hex. The Vigilant platoon will only have 50 Action
Points remaining for this turn, making it incapable
of firing during the A/I’s turn, but it will be ready
for Turn 5.
Selecting the Westland Wessex platoon and
pressing PgUp will lift the helicopter platoon into
first Flight Zone (N), allowing you to move to hex
25,24 where you will press PgUp again to gain
more altitude into the next Flight Zone (L). Once
this is complete, advance the helicopter platoon towards the Vigilant that is advancing along the road
near hex 5,39. You can continue to move that Vigilant platoon along the road to hex 6,37.
One of the SAS Troops at hex 29,13 can be double timed and moved to hex 29,15. This position will give
them Line of Sight to the road below. The other SAS Troop and leader can be double timed and moved to
hex 28,14. The leader doesn’t move as far as the SAS Troops and you want to keep your leader together
with the SAS Troop so the Troop continues to gain the benefits of having a leader in the same hex. The
SAS Troop at hex 43,16 can remain there, or you can move it closer to the road.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.2.5 Bootcamp Two: Turn 5
You may have received fire from the armoured column against the SAS Troop at hex 29,15 where you
may or may sustained losses, been disrupted and or retreated. If you were forced to retreat, you lost Line
of Sight to the road and at the beginning of your turn the opposing forces will have disappeared. Your
Vigilant platoon at hex 26,23 has full Action Points and is ready to engage any armour that follows the
road the pass.
You can fly the Westland Wessex to hex 7,37 and press PgDn to being the decent to load the other
Vigilant platoon to prepare the next ambush position. After descending, move the Westland Wessex into
hex 6,37 and press PgDn again to land the helicopters. Selecting both units and pressing CTRL + L will
load the Vigilant platoon. The Westland Wessex will not have enough Action Points to take off again,
but it will be ready to move next turn.
Moving the SAS Troop and leader from hex 28,14 to hex 28,15 will provide you with Line of Sight to
the valley road below during the course of the A/I’s turn. While not necessary now that you have a
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Vigilant platoon at hex 26,23, it may provide you intelligence on how to proceed in the coming turns.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.2.6 Bootcamp Two: Turns 6 through 10
During the replay, you may have noticed some armoured platoons entering into the pass. If so, your
Vigilant platoon would have fired on them with Opportunity Fire. You should be able to conduct Direct
Fire against the platoon.
It is up to you now to decide on a second ambush position, flying your Vigilant team there to prepare for
the advancing armoured column. May I recommend hexes 15,31, 17,28 or 16,28. Any of these will
provide you good visibility to the targets as they travel towards the airfield.
Good luck!
4.3 Bootcamp Three
4.3.1 Bootcamp Three: Turn 1
The following presumes that you have read through the
manual and having played and read through the
Bootcamp’s One and Two. I will explain the principles in
regards to helicopter movement and anti-aircraft as we
play through the scenario, but for the formulas and
explicit details, I recommend reading through the manual.
If you scroll to the airfield around hex 2,40 you will
notice the forces available for this scenario. Three SAS
Troops, three Westland Wessex platoons and one Scout
Gunship. As experienced in Bootcamp 2, the Westland
Wessex helicopters will be the transport for your SAS
Troops to secure the Victory Point locations at hexes
29,4, 42,9 and 47,17. Since there are only 10 turns to
complete the mission, the use of the helicopters to secure
the Victory Point locations will be vital to your strategy.
Time to load up! Load all three of the SAS Troops into
their respective helicopters and ascend to Flight Zone N.
After ascending to Flight Zone N, each of the Westland
Wessex helicopters will have 65 Action Points remaining
and the Scout Gunship has 90 Action Points remaining.
You can move each of the helicopter units’ one hex and
ascend one more level to Flight Zone L.
Advance the helicopters towards Rabwa Pass. The Scout Gunship should be able to reach hex 16,23 with
the Westland Wessex helicopters not too far behind.
Your artillery battery is fixed on the road beside the airfield, but appears to be out of range of the Victory
Point locations as described above. You can identify their range by selecting the battery and pressing the
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G key, or the Display Range button the Tool Bar. Looking at the Reinforce  Releases menu option, you
will see that the battery is to be released on turn 3. On turn 3, you are able to load them and move them
towards the Rabwa Pass so they are closer to the points to provide artillery support.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.3.2 Bootcamp Three: Turn 2
With the start of turn 2, you can select the Scout Gunship and advance into the Danaba Basin, hex 17,10
and have the Westland Wessex helicopters follow closely. We could fly along the Danaba Valley floor,
but we don’t know what the disposition of the opposing forces are, so
we will descend to Flight Zone N and circle around from the north.
Lower the helicopters to Flight Zone N and advance to hex 18,2.
Advancing in Flight Zone N means we are hugging the terrain as we
advance towards our first objective at hex 29,4. Hopefully this will
allow us to remain out of Line of Sight of any anti-aircraft guns that are
in the area.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.3.3 Bootcamp Three: Turn 3
At the start of the turn, the Command Report reminds you that the artillery battery and headquarters have
been released. They can be loaded and start their advance towards the Rabwa Pass. After loading and
advancing along the road, the loaded Morris C8 platoon should have arrived at hex 6,37.
Returning to the helicopter group at hex 18,2, continue their advance to hex 31,2. The Westland Wessex
can be landed in hex 31,3 and 32,2 with enough Action Points to unload the SAS Troops within. Move
the Scout Gunship one hex back to 31,1 or 30,0 so it can gain Line of Sight to the Victory Point Location
at hex 29,4.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.3.4 Bootcamp Three: Turn 4
The Command Report informs you that you still have two airstrikes left, as there is nothing pressing to
use them, it is best to hang on to them for a few more turns.
At the start you can continue the advance of the Morris C8 platoon and Headquarters towards the Rabwa
Pass. The Morris C8 platoon should have arrived at hex 7,30 after expending its Action Points.
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At Danaba, the Scout Gunship may have revealed some defenders inside hex 29,4. If so, fly the Scout
Gunship one hex to 30,2 and conduct Direct Fire against the revealed defenders. You should have
enough Action Points to fire twice. Since the optional rule Extreme Fog of War is checked on, you will
be unaware of the losses. You can advance the SAS Troops from hex 31,3 to hex 30,3 and conduct Direct
Fire against the revealed defenders. Hopefully this Direct Fire will make them retreat or be eliminated,
allowing you to successfully capture the Objective Location next turn.
The Westland Wessex that landed at hex 32,2 can reload the SAS Troop and ascend to Flight Zone N.
That is all for this turn, press End Turn.
4.3.5 Bootcamp Three: Turns 5 through 10
An anti-aircraft battery from hex 30,5 conducted fire against your SAS Troops at hex 30,3 and you have
suffered losses and/or disruptions. One of the SAS Troops can advance and capture the Objective
Location at 29,4. The other you have the option to return to the Westland Wessex helicopters to load for
the next mission, or you can advance towards the anti-aircraft battery to eliminate it. Anti-aircraft
batteries are lethal against helicopters and it is best to avoid them at all costs.
The loaded Westland Wessex from hex 32,2 and the Scout Gunship can fly around the north side of “Cap
Badge” and unload their SAS Troop at hex 44,7 in behind the next target, El Naqil, at hex 42,9. Leaving
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the Scout Gunship at hex 44,6 should provide Line of Sight to the Objective Location.
Unloading the M101A1 105mm gun from the Morris C8 in its
current position should allow the artillery battery to be in range of
the remaining two Objective Locations. After unloading the
artillery battery, there should be 50 Action Points remaining,
enough to plot artillery onto a target this turn.
To plot artillery, press CTRL + W, or the Artillery button on the
Tool Bar, and the Artillery Dialog will open. You can scroll across
the map and right click on any location that is within range of the battery. If the artillery battery is within
range, attack value numbers will displays revealing what kind of attack values should be expected at this
hex. The first number is the hard attack value, the second is the soft attack value.
Right click on hex 42,9 in hopes of causing damage to any defenders in the hex. Since the Scout Gunship
has Line of Sight to the hex, the artillery will not drift into an adjacent hex. If Line of Sight is lost, the
artillery fire can drift up to two hexes away, depending on the nation ordering the artillery strike.
After the artillery battery has fired, its firing status change next turn to Conserving Ammo. If it is in this
state, an empty bullet symbol will be displayed before the artillery battery in the Artillery Dialog and in
the left side panel of the Unit List. In the Unit List, there are two Ammo displays; Ammo and Arty
Ammo. Artillery will check against the Arty Ammo level instead of the Base Ammo level when checking
to see if it no longer Conserving Ammo.
This gives you enough information to proceed to finish the scenario. You’re well on your way to a
victory. Watch out for anti-aircraft, use your airstrikes wisely and advance to the last Objective Location
and secure it before the end of turn 10.
Good luck!
4.4 Bootcamp Four
4.4.1 Bootcamp Four: Turn 1
The following presumes that you have read through the manual and having played and read through the
previous Bootcamp scenarios. I will explain the principles of clearing wrecks and building bridges as we
play through the scenario, but for the formulas and explicit details, I recommend reading through the
manual.
Let us begin…
For this scenario, you are in command of a column that is to advance through the valley road and exit off
the top of the map. There are a number of Victory Point locations along the route and there is an Exit
Objective at the top of the map. The Exit Objective presently says “0”, it will increase in value for every
friendly unit that is removed from the map at that hex.
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Your force consists of a number of Centurion’s, Land Rovers carrying Parachute infantry, reconnaissance
and special vehicles. One of the special vehicles is located at hex 14,32. This is the Centurion ARVE, an
armoured recovery vehicle, which specializes in clearing wrecks from the game map. A couple hexes to
the right in hex 16,33 is an AVLB, a bridge laying vehicle which will lay one medium size bridge across
a hexside watercourse.
Moving to hex 12,29, you will see that the hex has a number of wrecks in it, which will impede the
movement of the Land Rover platoons, because they are 6 Strength Points. The other vehicles can still
pass through the hex since they are less than 5 Strength Points; the maximum allowed Strength Points to
move along, and utilize the benefits of, a road surface.
Move the Ferret FV701 platoon through the wrecks and to hex 14,26, followed by the Centurion to hex
13,29. You can attempt to move the Land Rovers from hex 12,32 to 11,30 and try to move into the hex
containing the wrecks, but an error message will show up at the bottom of the game screen: “Units
cannot move through existing terrain”.
Move the rest of the vehicles along the road until they expend all of their Action Points and end the turn.
4.4.2 Bootcamp Four: Turn 2
To start clearing the wrecks, move the
Centurion ARVE platoon into the hex
containing the hex. The ARVE will clear
two wrecks per turn. For hex 12,29, the
ARVE will remain in the hex until next
turn, where it will clear two wrecks
allowing the Land Rovers to use the road and pass through
the hex. The other vehicles can continue along the road
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heading towards the Exit Objective.
The Ferret FV701 platoon is unable to proceed along the road due to a hexside river crossing the road.
The AVLB platoon will be able to lay a medium bridge. The medium bridge will allow all the vehicles in
your group to continue their advance towards the Exit Objective.
Move the rest of the vehicles that can pass through hex 12,29, ensuring the AVLB is as close to hex
14,26 as possible.
End the turn.
4.4.3 Bootcamp Four: Turn 3
You will receive a notification at the start of the turn that makes note that wrecks have been cleared and
the location they have been cleared. Since the ARVE can clear two wrecks per turn, enough wrecks have
been cleared to allow the Land Rovers to pass through the Rough terrain.
The next task will be lay a medium bridge across the hexside river on the northwest side of hex 14,26.
Move the AVLB to that hex and it will be ready to lay its bridge on turn 4.
Move the rest of the vehicles towards 14,26 in preparation for advancing once the bridge has been laid.
End the turn.
4.4.4 Bootcamp Four: Turn 4
Now you are ready to lay the medium vehicle bridge so your
force can advance to the Exit Objective. To lay a vehicle
bridge, select the AVLB and press CTRL + V. The Engineer
Task Dialog will display allowing you to choose the
direction you would like to lay the bridge. In this case,
choose Up Left. Since this is a bridge laying vehicle, it will
have a 100% chance of success in laying the bridge.
Now the bridge is laid, you can continue with the scenario
and advance your force towards the next location that needs
to be cleared of wrecks.
End the turn.
4.4.5 Bootcamp Four: Turns 5 through 17
The remaining turns I will leave in your capable hands, now that you have some fundamentals of how
these special units work. If you wish to pursue a major victory, you will have to advance your units
towards the remaining Exit Objective location at 8,0. Each platoon that you remove off the map
(CTRL+E) at this location will gain you the Victory Point total for the platoon.
There may be opposing units along the route, so advance with relative caution.
Good luck!
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5.0 Hints and Tips
5.1 How to Win
The surefire way of winning a scenario is to secure all of the objective locations and cause as many
casualties against your opponent while minimizing your own. It is important to spend the time reviewing
your forces, reviewing the map and objective locations and studying the terrain.
Reviewing your forces will allow you to see what the capabilities of each platoon is and give you ideas
how best to use them for the current scenario. Remember that Middle East spans over four decades; a
type of unit that worked well in the 1950’s may be hard pressed to achieve the same results in the 1970’s
or 1980’s.
Reviewing the map and noting where objective locations are will help you decide on the best avenue of
approaches or the best locations for defensive positions to protect your objective locations. It is important
to utilize natural cover and protection during your advances and withdrawals.
Take the time to come up with a couple of plans for completing the tasks that are assigned. In most cases,
you will be expected to think and play “outside the box” to achieve a major victory.
5.2 Hints and Tips
The following is some tactical advice to help you be successful:
1. Opportunity Fire: Take the time to set up Opportunity Fire for all of your units. There are
defaults set at the start of each scenario, but if you are playing against a knowledgeable
opponent, they will know what these default settings are and will exploit them. Mixing up
your Opportunity Fire will surprise your opponent.
2. Digging In: If you have static units, take the time to Dig In. This offers you defensive
benefits in Combat.
3. Reconnaissance: Send out troops to act as a visual screen. Knowing where the enemy is will
help you decide on the best course of action for your attack or defence.
4. Smoke: If you have it, use it when you need it. It is good for blocking Line of Sight and
reducing the effects of Direct Fire.
5. Flares: If you have it, use it when you need it. When firing Flares, make sure you are doing
so over the enemy positions, so you don’t highlight your own troops!
6. Artillery: Use your artillery as often as possible. If your opponent isn’t in your Line of
Sight, take the chance to target his assembly areas. A lucky hit is still a hit!
7. Leaders: Keep them close to where the action is. They help recover Morale and will provide
an added bonus to attack values.
8. Organization: It is important to keep units close to their parent Headquarters. The further
they are from their Headquarters, the less likely the will maintain their Combat Efficiency.
Units that have a reduced Combat Efficiency conduct attacks at half their rate.
9. Recognize Range: Take the time to learn the ranges of various units and their attack
strengths at range. There are hundreds of different units with varying ranges and attack
strengths.
10. Line of Sight: Visible distance may change as the scenario progresses, be aware of this and
plan your moves accordingly. Try to keep your forces out of Line of Sight of your opponent.
11. Terrain: With Line of Sight in mind, use terrain to your advantage. Most terrain features
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have some effect on combat, learn what the advantages and disadvantages are.
12. Fluidity: Try not to get bogged down trying to capture heavily defended hexes. If a bunker
does not need to be captured, it might be best to isolate it and refocus your attention.
13. Infantry: Infantry will become deadlier as the decades pass, be wary of taking an armoured
force into an urban area without proper support.
14. Priority Targets: Try to identify Headquarters, artillery and engineering units. Destroying
these will make your opponent have a much more difficult fight.
15. Assaulting: If you need to take a defended position and your only option is to assault, spend
some time and soften up the target. Attack it with ample Artillery and Direct Fire. Your aim
is to try to reduce the Morale of the defending units. When you think their Morale has been
reduced a couple of points, then attempt an assault. It may take a few attempts to capture the
intended hex, so be patient.
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6.0 Veterans Guide
6.1 What is The Campaign Series: Middle East?
If you are familiar with The Campaign Series, you will feel right at home as you maneuver through the
menus, choosing and starting up a new scenario. In many ways, Middle East is quite similar to The
Campaign Series, but you’ll soon find that there are significant differences.
6.2 What’s New or Different?
User Interface: While familiar, the User Interface has been modified and enhanced. It provides each
user the opportunity to set up their game how they wish with only a few clicks.
New Zoom levels: There are now seven zoom levels, three 3D and four 2D. The 2D portion of the game
has been increased by two additional zoomed in levels.
Improved 2D Graphics and functionality: With the new Zoom levels, improved 2D graphics was a
natural progression.
Thermometers: Thermometers that are useful in 3D modes are now also available in 2D.
Extensive OOB’s: Similar to The Campaign Series, there are extensive Order of Battles &
Organizations included with the game. These are ideal for creating your own scenarios and for playing
Randomly Generated Battles. The Order of Battles span four decades for each of the countries that are
included in Middle East and the various organizational and equipment changes are represented. It is not
complete, but an excellent starting point to continue growing as future UPDATES are released.
Hundreds of Platoons: As the Order of Battles and Organizations continually changed over the decades,
so too did the platoons. Each country has hundreds of unique platoons depicting these variations. Some
are subtle, some are major, but we decided that a one-size-fits-all was not the approach we wanted to
pursue.
Lethality: As the decades progress, so did the efficiency at killing. A number of new weapon systems
were introduced to assist in fighting; Anti-tank weapons, Recoilless Rifles, Anti-tank missiles, artillery,
tanks and other armoured combat vehicles and helicopters.
Night Combat/Day & Night Transitions: Many battles in the Middle East game are fought during the
transition of day to night, night to day or take place at night. Certainly platoons are Night Vision capable,
giving them a distinct advantage during Night Combat.
Helicopters: Helicopters make an appearance progressively as the decades pass. There are three primary
types of helicopters included; reconnaissance, transport and gunships.
Helicopter Resupply: In order to prevent the abuse of helicopter gunships, a new resupply model has
been created that requires the combat helicopters, once they have run out of ammo, to fly back to their
headquarters and land to rearm.
Air Flight Zones: With the implementation of helicopters and their use, four different Air Flight Zones
have been created; Ground, Nap of the Earth, Low and High. Each Zone has advantages and
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disadvantages of being in them. While ground combat and movement is still conducted in the Ground
Flight Zone, the three additional zones give the game a 3-dimensional aspect.
Air Strikes: Air Strikes perform similarly to The Campaign Series, but they are now attacking in either
the Low or High Flight Zone. That depends on the aircraft and the ordnance package. The Air Zone is
attacks in will determine the level of Anti-aircraft the aircraft receives during its attack run. Air Strikes
that are shot down are counted against your Victory Point total.
AAA Model: Anti-aircraft artillery has been remodeled to accommodate the new Flight Zones.
SAM Model: Not only has Surface to Air Missiles been added, the way the larger batteries operate has
been modified. Batteries are controlled by a guidance radar; if the radar is destroyed, the SAM batteries
will no longer function. Handheld SAM’s are not affected by this system.
SAM Fire Model: SAM Batteries are able to fire at targets in the High Level outside of normal Line of
Sight, as they are radar controlled. If SAM batteries are present, it is recommended to fly in the N or L
Flight Zones.
Adaptive A/I: A new system and encrypted file that modifies dozens of different parameters of the A/I
that will affect game play against the A/I. The parameters are tuned for each nation or side in a scenario
and the values are stored in a new file type. Default values that you may be familiar with in the original
Campaign Series are no longer the case when playing with the Adaptive A/I.
Extreme Fog of War: Extreme Fog of War has been enhanced and modified to be more extreme than
before. It requires your units to be in the hex to establish sight lines to see where you can shoot. It also
prevents you from seeing where the enemy can see and limits the intelligence gathered during combat.
Civilians: A necessary unit in the game that changes the flow of combat. While they do not appear in
every scenario, the scenarios they do can be game changers if inappropriately handled. Always take time
to positively identify what you should and should not shoot at. Civilian casualties can rapidly change the
victory conditions in your opponent’s favor if too many are killed over the course of the battle.
Folder Structure: The game folder structure has been heavily reorganized. It is much simpler to find
game files and save game files for PBEM and modifying.
More Elevations: Elevations have been increased from 20 up to 50. By means of the '.' hot key,
elevations will display on-map.
Anti-Tank Ditches: New terrain type that limits vehicle movement across hexsides, but still allows
infantry to cross.
Infantry Model: A new system for determining defence, assault and soft and hard attack values has been
created. The calculation considers a number of items: number of men, weapon level, technology level,
doctrine level, cohesion level, number of squads and support weapon types.
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7.0 Linked Campaign Games
7.1 What are Linked Campaign Games?
Middle East has three different Linked Campaign Games. In a Linked Campaign Game, you command a
predetermined organization through a series of historically linked, pre-designed scenarios. Your level of
victory in each scenario determines the scenario that you will play next, or if you will be removed from
command. The losses you experienced during a scenario will carry over to the next scenario, where you
may, or may not, receive replacements to replenish your losses.
There are three Linked Campaign Games that are accessible by pressing the Play Campaign radio button
on the Main Menu. Upon clicking the button, you are taken to the Campaign Commanders screen.
7.2 The Campaign Commanders Screen
At the Campaign Commanders Screen, you can
choose to start a new Linked Campaign, resume a
current campaign or delete and old campaign game
that you no longer wish to use.
If you wish to start a new Linked Campaign, press
the Begin New button and you will be taken to the
New Campaign Screen.
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7.3 The New Campaign Screen
At the New Campaign Screen you will have the option to play three different Linked Campaign Games;
45 Commando, On to the Jordan and 121st Battalion. Each has unique play features and scenario types
that allow one to practice some of the new features that are found in Middle East.
The Historical window provides you an explanation of what the Linked Campaign is about, you can
scroll through the text by using the arrows on the right side of the window. Otherwise, the screen
provides you information on which countries are involved, which region and the date the Linked
Campaign Starts.
After selecting a Linked Campaign and pressing OK, you are advanced to the Character Screen.
7.4 The Character Screen
The Character Screen provides information about
the currently selected saved Linked Campaign.
The graphic displayed is a military patch
appropriate for the chosen campaign. The
campaign saved file is found in the Name field
and the current organization is list in the Org.
field.
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From the Character screen you can:
Begin Next Mission – This button launches the next campaign mission (unless the campaign is over or if
you are currently involved in an ongoing campaign mission, in which case you must first complete the
unfinished mission; see “Resume Mission,” below).
Resume Mission – This button is only available if you are currently involved in an ongoing (i.e., saved)
campaign mission.
Restore Character – This button is not currently used and is a placeholder for future UPDATES.
Review Command – Press this button to display your current Order of Battle (OOB), including the
current strength of each unit, as well as its accumulated Experience Points.
Campaign History – Once you have at least one campaign mission under your belt, this display lists a
brief summary of each completed mission, including the mission date, location and your victory level.
Choosing the Begin New button will take you to the Mission screen.
7.5 The Mission Screen
The Mission Screen provides you a location map of where your battle is going to take place, as indicated
by a red and yellow dot, and a description of the coming battle explaining what you need to accomplish
in order to be successful. It may also provide you some intelligence on what you can expect, although
this could be flawed, so be wary.
7.6 Replacements
Your command will occasionally receive replacements in the form of Strength Points. These Strength
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Points can be added to any unit in your “core” Order of Battle which is current not at full strength. The
number of replacement points you receive will depend on the course of the campaign you are playing.
7.7 Winning
Victory is determined in the same manner as a victory in a regular scenario, although the consequence of
your win or loss will dictate the longevity of your Linked Campaign experience. Most Linked Campaign
games will allow you to suffer a defeat twice before you are removed from the command. Either way, a
dialog will appear informing you of the successful completion or defeat of the campaign.
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8.0 Scenario Design
Middle East comes with three editors that allow you to create your own scenarios. It is recommended to
watch the video tutorials on scenario creation and design in addition to reviewing the following
instructions.
8.1 The Map Editor
The Map Editor allows you to create the map for your proposed scenario. There are two key regions that
you can make maps for; Desert and Mediterranean. Each region has different terrain types available.
There are no known limits to map size, apart from your computer’s hardware. The larger the map, the
more resources it will take to operate.
Start creating your map by clicking on the Edit Map radio icon from the Main Menu. You will be
prompted to choose the Region for your map.
After choosing your region, you will be required to enter your map size. You can enter any values into
the X and Y spots since you can edit the size at a later time.
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8.1.1 How to Create a Map
In order to create a scenario, you will require a map.
This map is where your battle will take place. It is a
good idea for you to have some familiarity with the
area that you wish to map for your scenario
From the Main Menu, press the Edit Map button to
launch the Map Editor. A dialog will pop up allowing
you to Open an existing map. Press Cancel and a
Region Dialog will appear allowing you to select
which region you would like to build your map in. Use the guidelines above to help you decide which
region will best suit your needs.
One you selection a region, a Resize Dialog will
appear allowing you to enter the Width and Height of
your map. You can choose any values and if you find
you made the map too big or too small, you can resize
it at a later time. Enter your values are press OK.
Your map will be presented to you without features to
the extents you entered in the Resize Dialog. You can change the Map View by pressing 1 through 7 on
the keyboard, or by selecting which view you would prefer to work in under the Display menu.
Below the Menu Bar along the top are the Terrain types that you can use for your map. Terrain types are
explained in detail in Section 11.2.6, please refer to that for deciding on which Terrain types to use for
filling your map. To the left are the hexagon fills, in the middle are the roads, watercourses and hexside
and on the right are the labeling options and Jump Map. The Jump Map is useful for panning around
large maps quickly.
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You can add or remove Terrain types from your map by selecting the feature and left click to place, right
click to remove. To speed the process, you can use the Cluster Fill and Rectangular Fill options for hex
Terrain types.
Cluster Fill – Hold down the SHIFT key when left clicking a “full hex” terrain type on the map to fill-in
the clicked-on hex, as well as the six adjacent hexes. This does a 7-hex “cluster” fill.
Rectangular Fill – Hold down the Ctrl key after selecting the upper left corner, then, while continuing to
depress the Ctrl key, click on the lower right hex to have the selected terrain type filled in.
The Fill features do not work for hexside features. After using either Fill feature, you may want to add or
remove some of the features so they do not look like they are placed on the map in a pattern, doing so
will make the terrain fill look more natural.
You can also change the base elevation and
adjust the elevation change delta. To change
these values, select Elevations from the
“Values” pop-down menu. To define the height
(in meters) of the lowest elevation on the map,
input a number for the “Base” value. To set the
difference (in meters) between elevation levels,
input a number for the “Delta” value. The amount of elevations has been increased from 12 to 19.
You can raise (or lower) the entire map’s “base” terrain by selecting Extent in the Menu Bar, then
selecting Raise (or Lower).
Next you may wish to adjust your map’s elevations (hills, gullies, etc.). To change a hex’s elevation,
select the appropriate number from the Elevation pop-down menu. You can then left click in a hex to
change the base level of that terrain to the selected level. See also “Cluster Fill” and “Rectangular Fill” in
section 13.6.
You can also use the Text Tool to name or label certain areas or features of your map. Press the Tool Bar
button displaying T±. Then left click on the hex in which you wish to add a label. A Dialog box will
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appear allowing you to input a name. You can also adjust the size of the copy and the color (“Plain” for a
black label, “Water” for a blue label, and “Forest” for a green label). The “Justification” allows you to
center the map title, or have it “flush” left or right.
To toggle map labels on or off, press the T button.
Continue editing your map until you are happy with the
results. From the “File” pop-down menu, select Save.
When the Save As window appears, type in a name for
your map. Your map file will be saved in the directory
with the “.map” extension.
8.1.2 Design Tips
1. If you intend on creating numerous maps with the Map Editor, it is recommended to create a
shortcut to your desktop from the memap.exe file. This will speed up the load time instead of
accessing it through the Main Menu.
2. SCALE: Keep in mind that each hex in the game represents an area approximately 250m from
side to side or top to bottom (thus, one kilometre would be 4 hexes in length).
3. Save the file name in the following format: Location_Date.map eg: Jerusalem_1948.map
4. For large maps, it may be easier to start with the linear features on the map: transportation and
hydrology, especially when generalizing and interpreting from historical maps. Towns and cities
follow the linear features, followed by forests and swamps. Detailing and labeling are typically
the last steps
5. Included in the game are three very large maps of the north Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal area
(1956, 1967 and 1973). These can be resized and refocused for use with smaller scenarios with a
few clicks.
6. To create a full-hex bridge that can be damaged in the game, you can add deep hexside rivers to
the end of the full-hex bridge and add hexside bridges to the ends. This will provide a full-hex
bridge that can be “damaged” if one of the hexside bridges is destroyed.
7. A vehicle (only) is not allowed to cross a hexside if the elevation “delta” of that hexside is >50m
(regardless of the number of elevation level changes along that hexside). This applies regardless
of the presence of roads.
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8.1.3 Map Standards
Here are some recommended guidelines for maps created with the Map Editor:
1. Always include a North Arrow/Compass
2. Middle East maps have North at the top edge
3. Include labels
4. Water labels are Blue.
5. Hilltop labels are Green
6. Town labels are Black
7. Land Feature labels are Black
8. Military related features are Green
9. Labels are centre aligned, unless along a map edge.
8.2 The Organization Editor
8.2.1 How to Create an Organization
Besides needing a map, each scenario also requires an “org” (short for “organization”) file. This file will
contain the various and sundry company, battalion, division, and corps organizations that move around
and fight on the map. The Middle East Order of
Battle (OOB) Editor allows you to pick from a very
wide variety of historically accurate military
organizations.
From the Main Menu, press the Edit Order of Battle
button to launch the OOB Editor. A dialog will pop
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up informing you that due to the amount of information contained in the OOB Editor, it may take some
time to load; press OK. It is a good idea for you to have some familiarity with the organizations that you
wish to include in your scenario. Once you locate them in the OOB Editor (, you can create an OOB
using those organization types.
The first step in setting up your OOB is to set the date. Usually, this
date should be the same as your scenario’s date. Set the date (month and
year) with the pop-down boxes on the OOB Editor’s Tool Bar.
For accuracy in your scenarios, the date is very important, especially as the OOB Editor spans nearly four
decades of organizational changes. Setting the proper date ensures that only units that were available at
that period of the war are available in your scenario.
The OOB Editor’s Tool Bar is located near the top of the OOB Editor’s Interface and provides tools
useful in moving selected organizations and units from one place to another. If you position the cursor
over a Tool Bar button, a brief description of that button’s function will be displayed after a moment. For
more information on these buttons consult the OOB Editor’s on-line Help file.
The list displayed in the left-hand “Available Units and Organizations” column lists the different
organizations available, from Platoons to Armies. You will most likely want to be selecting battalions,
regiments, brigades, and/or divisions, depending on your scenario’s size. Each nationality’s organizations
are grouped together by organization type.
To see all the units in each organization type for a
nationality, click on the box with the “+” to the left of the
organization. The structure for that organization type will
open, displaying all the available different types of
organizations for the selected nationality of that command
level. Allow a few moments for the program to organize all
the organizations and units in a nationality’s folder after
clicking on that folder to open it.
It is very important that each platoon added to your OOB is
within some type of organizational structure (usually
within a company or battalion structure) in order for the
game’s A/I to know how to “use” the unit progeny. That is,
you should not simply bring over “loose” (i.e.,
“independent”) platoon units; they need to be “grouped” under a battalion (or higher-level organizations
command structure Therefore, it is highly recommended that you build an organization with a battalion
as the minimum organization. If you still wish to customize it by adding a special platoon to it, be sure to
put that platoon “inside” that organization using the “Lower Unit/Org” Tool button
Once you have located the organization you wish to add to your OOB, highlight (select) the
organizations name by a single left click on it.
Left click once on the Add Unit/Org (Auto) Tool Bar button to place the organization highlighted
in the “Created Units and Organizations” column (where all units of your scenarios organization
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will be listed).
Left click once on the Add Unit/Org (User) Tool Bar button to place the organization highlighted in the
“Created Units and Organizations” column, which will allow you to assign a specific organizational
number to that organization (as well as to many of its sub-organizations, if applicable); i.e., use this
method of adding an organization if you know that you want the Israeli 6th Infantry Brigade added to
your organization, not just any infantry brigade.
To add the Leader to the unit you desire, highlight the leader in the “Available Units and Organizations”
column.
Then, left click once on the Add Unit/Org (Auto) Tool Bar button to add the Leader to the “Created Units
and Organizations” (right-hand) column. Then, left click on the Move Unit/Org Up Tool Bar button as
necessary to move the highlighted leader until he is displayed directly beneath the organization you wish
to incorporate the leader into.
Then, with the leader still highlighted, left click once on the Lower
Unit/Org Tool Bar button. This will “lower” the leader into the
organization directly above him. The leader should be placed under
the Headquarters unit if having the leader support a battalion or
larger organization.
If you wish to make your own custom organizations by adding in a
certain battalion type into a brigade, you can do this similar to
adding a Leader. To add the unit or organization to the organization
you desire, highlight the unit/organization in the “Available Units
and Organizations.”
Then, left click once on the Add Unit/Org (Auto) Tool Bar button
to add the unit/organization to the “Created Units and Organizations” (right-hand) column.
Then, left click on the Move Unit/Org Up Tool Bar button as necessary to move the highlighted
unit/organization up until it is displayed directly beneath the organization you wish to incorporate it into.
Afterwards, with the unit/organization still highlighted, left click once on the Lower Unit/Org Tool Bar
button. This will lower the highlighted unit/organization into the organization directly above him.
To quickly move the selected unit all the way to the top of the organization it is in, highlight the
unit/organization and left click once on the Unit/Org to Top Tool Bar button.
To delete the selected unit from the “Created Units and Organizations” side, highlight the
unit/organization and left click once on the Delete Tool Bar button.
To quickly adjust the Morale level of Al units in an organization, highlight that organization’s name on
the “Created Units and Organizations” side, and left click once on the Adjust Morale Tool button. A
Dialog box will appear. Left click on the desired number to set the Morale of Al units in the highlighted
(selected) organization to that level. If you prefer, you can set this for each individual unit.
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8.2.2 Design Tips
1. If you intend on creating numerous maps with the OOB Editor, it is recommended to create a
shortcut to your desktop from the meorg.exe file. This will speed up the load time instead of
accessing it through the Main Menu.
2. Save the file name in the following format, preferably using the same name as your map file:
Location_Date.org eg: Jerusalem_1948.org
3. MINIMUM ORG SIZE: It cannot be emphasized enough that the minimum organization in your
scenario’s Order of Battle should be a battalion (as this is the lowest-level unit that contains an
“inherent” HQ). If you “import” lone platoons or companies into a side’s OOB, be sure you then
put them “inside” a battalion or higher-level organization that has an HQ. In other words, don’t
simply import a lot of platoons or companies without adding them into an organization with an
HQ.
4. DON'T FORGET LEADERS: It is your responsibility to add Leaders to your OOB; the org
editor will not do this for you. Adding more (and better) leaders to one side or the other is a good
way to help balance a scenario, and also to help simulate a side’s resourcefulness.
8.2.3 Order of Battle Standards
Here are some recommended guidelines for maps created with the Organization Editor:
1. We have decided against using historical figure names. Many are still alive and so we have
decided to identify key leaders by organization. For example; 11th Infantry/2nd Brigade would
be the leader of the 11th Infantry Battalion of the 2nd Brigade.
2. Most combat units will have a higher morale than logistical or second rate units (trucks, etc).
3. All units must be part of an organization in order to work with the Combat Efficiency
system.
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8.3 The Scenario Editor
8.3.1 How to Create a Scenario
Upon starting the Campaign Series Scenario Editor, you will be prompted to open one of the preset
scenarios already in the game, from the Open Dialog. Unless you have a scenario already in progress that
you wish to continue editing, cancel this command immediately.
Once the Open Dialog is closed, select New from the File pop-down menu to start a new scenario. You
will then be prompted to insert the names of the map file and the org file that you wish to use with the
scenario you are creating. In the dialogs that appear, locate the file and click on the OK button.
Once the .map and .org files for the new scenario have been selected the following Header Dialog will
appear.
In the scenario’s Header Dialog, you define the following:
The Title of the scenario is what will be displayed in the Scenarios screen where the scenario to be
played is selected.
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The Mission Type Dialog can be used to select a
“type” of scenario. This will affect how the A/I will
perform if one side or the other is A/I-controlled
The First Side (generally, the attacker) determines
which side moves first in each turn.
The Turn value is the number of turns you want the
scenario to run. The default turn length is 10.
The Visibility value determines the maximum
distance in hexes that can be seen during the
scenario. The default value is 20.
Additional Functionality:
Dynamic Visibility:
Scenario designers can now set the preferred visibility on a per-turn or by a series of turns. This is
achieved by noting the turn sequence followed by the visibility. In the following example scenarios that
are 50 turns long, turns 1-30 will have a visibility of 8, while turns 31-50 will have a visibility of 2.
1-30[8] 31-50[2]
There is no limit to the number of visibility changes the designer can set for the scenario.
Dynamic Day/Night:
Scenario designers can now set the preferred day or night on a per-turn or by a series of turns. This is
achieved by noting the turn sequence followed by the visibility. In the following example scenario that
are 30 turns long, turns 1-30 will have a day setting, while turns 31-50 will have a night setting.
1-30[d] 31-50[n]
There is no limit to the number of days or nights the designer can set for the scenario.
The Ammo value is used to determine the percent chance that a unit will be resupplied if not otherwise
resupplied by its HQ. The default value for ammo is 80.
The Smoke value determines the number of times smoke can be fired by a side.
The Flares value determines the number of times flares can be fired by a side in Night Scenarios.
The values for a Major Defeat, Minor Defeat, Minor Victory, and Major Victory determine the victory
levels of the scenario. The main program calculates Victory Points (VPs) for a battle based on Objectives
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controlled and losses incurred by both sides. If the VPs for the First Side fall below the Major Defeat
value, then the First Side receives a Major Defeat for that battle. If the VPs fall between Major Defeat
and Minor Defeat, then the First Side receives a Minor Defeat. If the VPs fall between Minor Defeat and
Minor Victory, then that battle results in a draw. If the VPs fall between Minor Victory and Major
Victory, then the First Side receives a Minor Victory. If the VPs are greater than Major Victory, then the
First Side receives a Major Victory for that battle.
The A/I values determine the aggressiveness of a side when it is played under the control of the
computer. These values range from 0 to 100; 0 representing an army that will attack and defend less
forcefully while a 100 value represents the army will be very aggressive in the attack and more likely to
die where they stand in defence. To find the best A/I level for your scenario; you will probably have to
experiment with different settings.
The Air value displays the number of Air Strikes available to a side during the scenario. This section is
“grayed out” as Air Attacks are now set by selecting “Airplanes...” from the “Scenario” pop-down menu.
The Dialog that appears lists all Air Attacks available, grouped according to nationality.
The Conditions Dialog: The Conditions Dialog
will then appear so you can establish the
environmental conditions for the current
scenario.
The Ground selections are Normal, Soft, Mud,
and Snow. Ground conditions affect movement
during the battle. When Snow ground conditions
are in effect, Marsh is treated as Open terrain and Swamp becomes Forest.
The Water selections are Normal and Frozen. When the water is Frozen, all Water hexes are treated as
Open hexes, and Streams and Minor Rivers become Gullies.
The Trees selections are Normal, Brown,
Barren, and Snow. These selections are
purely graphical and have no effect on
play.
The Fields selections are Normal,
Plowed, and None. Normal fields affect
Line of Sight and movement, while
Plowed fields present no Line of Sight
obstacle and only affect movement.
The last screen is the Scenario
Information Dialog. This is where the
name of the scenario designer, the date of
the scenario and a description of what the
battle is about is stored. Date formatting
is: Day Month, Year. An error will pop up
if you set the date incorrectly or used an
incorrect format. For a detailed
description of what your scenario
description should include, see Section
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2.1.5.
If you want your scenario to have a unique picture (one that will be displayed whenever your scenario’s
title is selected in the Scenarios screen), you can insert a graphic file with the exact same name as your
scenario and a .bmp extension into the Campaign Series directory.
Example: If your scenario’s file name is Jerusalem_1948.scn, the title of the graphic should be
Jerusalem_1948.bmp. The dimensions of the picture you select should be 256 pixels wide by 125 pixels
high, and the graphic should be saved as a Black and White or 256-color bmp-type file, in order for it to
display properly.
8.3.2 Design Tips
1. If you intend on creating numerous maps with the Scenario Editor, it is recommended to create a
shortcut to your desktop from the meedit.exe file. This will speed up the load time instead of
accessing it through the Main Menu.
2. Save the file name in the following format, preferably using the same name as your map and org
filse: Location_Date.scn eg: Jerusalem_1948.scn
3. The length of a scenario should be based on a few factors; size of forces involved, weather
conditions, terrain, mission, and the overall situation you are trying to represent
4. On a clear day in most theatres, maximum visibility is best around 10 to 12 hexes. It is more
difficult to spot a few vehicles at 3000 metres (3 kilometres or 1.86 miles) than you’d think.
5. From experience, it is best to use one type of aircraft per side when adding air support.
6. Don’t forget to consider the base and artillery ammo levels. In general, you will probably want a
value between 60 and 85 (anything less than 60 should be used for a side if it is disorganized, cut
off, and/or short on supplies; anything higher than 85 should be used only to represent a side that
is especially well-supplied).
7. Ammo levels are definitely an important consideration as they can have a huge effect on
gameplay and balance. We tend to use mission type to dictate the ammo levels that will be in any
particular scenario. A standing, frontline attack will typically have more ammo available in a
short period (the ammo dumps are typically close to the frontline and stocked up for the
offensive) than a meeting engagement (the supply units are typically at the tail end of the
advance).
8. VICTORY LEVELS: Don’t forget to put in four different values in each the victory levels boxes
of the “Header Dialog” (the default values of “0” just won't do!). Obviously, you will have to
weigh the amount and value of the Objectives that your
scenario has and which Objectives you expect the First
Side (usually the “attacker”) to capture in order to
achieve a Minor and Major Victory. You also need to
consider acceptable casualty levels for the attacker, as
well as if you intend for your scenario to always be
played as the human controlling a certain side vs. the
computer (as opposed to balancing it solely for two
player play). Getting good victory levels will be
important for your scenario to be properly balanced,
and is easily one of the hardest things to get just right.
9. A nice added touch is to ensure units are facing in the
proper direction. For example; all units opposing
forces are facing each other.
10. Another added touch, when adding forces along a road,
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take the time to orientate the units along the road, facing the proper direction. Also ensure that a
maximum of 12 Strength Points per hex to ensure proper movement of the column.
11. Try to place the units relatively close together, based on their organization. The platoons of a
company should be within a few hexes of each other. This will assist the players if they choose to
play with the Company Command optional rule.
12. Platoons that have their Morale reduced in the scenario editor will roll Morale Checks at the
beginning of each turn until the Morale has been recovered. This is a useful Tool to display
certain situations in scenario designs.
13. When designing a scenario to be played against the A/I, it is better to cluster a few smaller value
Victory Point Locations than to have one large high value Victory Point Location.
8.3.3 Scenario Standards
Here are some recommended guidelines for maps created with the Scenario Editor:
1. Scenarios are designed with all Optional Rules except for Variable Visibility, as the
Visibility is set by the designer and fluctuates accordingly.
2. Major Victories are intended to be reached when a true major victory is accomplished.
That means that you defeated your opponent, captured all the objectives and suffered
very few losses.
3. Scenario description is filled in its entirety based on the requirements of Section 2.1.5.
4. An AI file does not need to be created; it will use the default AI file settings.
8.4 Creating Linked Campaign Games
8.4.1 Designing a Linked Campaign Game
The following document will assume you are familiar with creating individual scenarios, as explained in
the previous sections.
The Linked Campaign is the “story” of a core unit through a series of linked scenarios. The Linked
Campaign may be as short as two scenarios or as long as you can imagine. The beauty of the Linked
Campaign, from a designer’s perspective, is that it is limited only by their imagination.
For simplicity, I will use test as my campaign name. Whatever you decide to call your Linked Campaign,
it is essential that you use the described naming convention throughout.
8.4.2 The Essentials
Apart from the necessary Linked Campaign related scenario files (*.scl, *.map, *.org), there are four
essential files that need to be created to ensure your Linked Campaign will function correctly.
1. test.LCG – The LCG file is the main data file for the Linked Campaign.
2. testLCG.bmp – This is the graphical map depicting the battle locations of your Linked
Campaign.
3. test_patch.bmp – This is the unit insignia of the core organization for the Linked Campaign.
4. test_endgame.bmp – This is the graphic that appears after successfully completing the Linked
Campaign.
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The LCG file in detail:
This is the most important file for Linked Campaign construction. Without it, the campaign will not
function.
You can open the LCG file using Notepad. (Right click on the *.lcg file  Open  Open with… Notepad)
When you open it, it will look like this:
9999
08
1
French in Algeria
08 28
2
560830
Linked Campaign Game: In this campaign, you will command a French Foreign Legion Battalion of the French Army and its
adventures throughout the Algerian War of Independence. DESIGN NOTE: This Campaign is rated as DIFFICULT.
1 testLCG_1.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 2 2 2 0 Algiers
2 testLCG_2.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 3 3 3 0 Algiers
-1 You have set a new standard for being truly incompetent. You are relieved of your command!
-2 etc…
Explaining the LCG file:
9999 – This is the unique ID for the Linked Campaign’s CORE UNIT. (See CORE UNIT below)
08 – This is the nationality that the player will command in the Linked Campaign. See 8.4.4
1 – This is the Command Level the player will command in the Linked Campaign. See 8.4.5
French in Algeria – This is the title of the Linked Campaign that shows up in the Campaign Menu
08 28 – These are the nationalities that will be involved in the Linked Campaign. The player’s nationality
must be listed first.
2 – This is the map region code. See 8.4.6
560830 – This is the date the Linked Campaign starts (YYMMDD; the example is August 30, 1956)
Linked Campaign Game: Blah, blah, blah. – This is the description of the Linked Campaign as found
in the Campaign Menu. It is essential you do not add any “returns” to your text and you leave the next
line after the historical text blank.
1 testLCG_1.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 2 2 2 0 Algiers
2 testLCG_2.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 3 3 3 2 Algiers
1 – This is the Linked Campaign scenario number. Each unique scenario within the campaign must have
its own number.
testLCG_1.scl/ – This is the scenario file name with the .SCL extension. The scenario file name must
end with a backslash followed by a space.
228 65 – This is the pixel location on the testLCG.bmp map, so players can track their progress.
-1 -1 2 2 2 – This is the portion that will determine what happens to the player after completing a
scenario. They are in the following order: major loss – minor loss – draw – minor victory – major
victory. A negative number refers to a comment and a positive number refers to continuing to the
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
scenario number mentioned. In the example, a major or minor loss would have the player see a comment
while a draw, minor or major victory would have the player continue to scenario 2.
0 – This is the amount of reinforcements that will be available at the beginning of that scenario. It is
recommended that there are no reinforcements for the first scenario.
-1 You have set… – This is the comment that the player would see after completing a scenario. In the
example above, they would read this comment if they received a minor or major loss in the scenario.
CORE UNIT
The CORE UNIT will remain consistent throughout the campaign as it is the star of your campaign. It is
based on a unique ID within the testLCG.org file. How do I determine what the CORE unit is for my
campaign?
If you open the org file in using Notepad, you can search for the name of your organization. (Ctrl+F)
B0812231 9999 7 French Foreign Legion Battalion
The highlighted number in red (9999) would be the unique ID for that battalion and is the number that
would be found at the top of your LCG file.
The Linked Campaign Graphical Map
testLCG.bmp – This is a graphical file of the area where your campaign takes place. It must be 624
pixels wide by 362 pixels high and saved as a BMP in 256-colour format. (8-bit, 256 colours) Note the
naming convention.
The Unit Insignia Patch
test_patch.bmp – This is a graphical file of the unit insignia of your CORE UNIT.
A divisional patch might be a good idea to use for this. It must be 122 pixels wide
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
by 99 pixels high and saved as a BMP in 256-colour format. (8-bit, 256 colours) Note the naming
convention.
The End Game Graphic
test_endgame.bmp – This is a graphical file of the victory screen. A
photograph from the battle in question or time frame would be
ideal. It must be 271 pixels wide by 240 pixels high and saved as a
BMP in 256-colour format. (8-bit, 256 colours) Note the naming
convention.
8.4.3 Step by Step
Step 1: Formulate a plan.
I cannot emphasize this step enough. I will usually hand draw out a draft of the campaign with pen and
paper, then tweak it accordingly depending on how I would like the campaign to flow. This is especially
useful if you are building a large campaign with a lot of scenarios.
Step 2: Build a draft of the LCG file
For simplicity, I would recommend copying and pasting an existing LCG file and then edit it as you need
to. By doing so you can see which items you need to change to suit your Linked Campaign. Elements of
the LCG file you can change now are: the army of your core unit, the title, the armies involved in your
Linked Campaign, the map code, the date and the introduction text. I might suggest deleting all of the
scenarios listed in the LCG file with the exception of the first one, to use as a template.
Step 3: Build your ORG file
Creating a map follows the same procedure as outline is Section 8.2. The primary difference is that I
would recommend adding all the units that you envision being in combat throughout your Linked
Campaign Game into the .org file.
Step 4: Update the LCG file with your CORE UNIT.
Once you have created your .org file for your Linked Campaign Game, you will be required to open up
the .org game file and determine which the CORE UNIT ID number. As explained above, this is
identified by the following highlighted number:
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
B0812231 9999 7 French Foreign Legion Battalion
This is the number that will go at the top of your LCG file.
Step 5: Build your MAP files
If your campaign is fought over an area that changes little, I would suggest creating a large master map
of the area (testLCG.map). After it is complete, you can cut out smaller maps from it to use in your
Linked Campaign. Creating a map follows the same procedure as outline is Section 8.1.
Once your base map is complete, cutting out smaller maps is as simple as noting the top left coordinates
of the area you wish to use (for example; 15, 35). Save your master map as the scenario map you wish to
use (testLCG_1.map). You can then shift the map so that hex
15, 35 is in the top left corner: Extent  Shift  X -15 Y 35. Then resize the map to your battle area: Extent  Resize
 Width 40 Height 40 (or however big your wish to make
your map). Save your map and adjust the Compass so it fits
on the new map.
Step 6: Build your CAMPAIGN SCENARIO files (*.scl)
Building a Linked Campaign scenario follows the same procedure as creating a regular scenario, as
described in detail in Section 8.1.3, but there are two differences:
1. Each Linked Campaign scenario should have your CORE UNIT included.
2. The file is saved as a .scl file
When saving your Linked Campaign scenario file, it is recommended to save it in the following format:
testLCG_03.scl. test is the name of your campaign, LCG is so you can easily identify it as a Linked
Campaign scenario and the number will help you know where it is referenced in your LCG file.
Step 7: Update the LCG file with your SCENARIO files
Now that you have your Linked Campaign scenario created, it needs to be added to the LCG file of your
campaign. Open the LCG file in a text editor and note the following lines:
1 testLCG_1.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 2 2 2 0 Algiers
2 testLCG_2.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 3 3 3 2 Algiers
You can copy and paste line number two and change the 2’s to a 3; like so:
1 testLCG_1.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 2 2 2 0 Algiers
2 testLCG_2.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 3 3 3 2 Algiers
3 testLCG_3.scl/ 228 65 -1 -1 3 3 3 2 Algiers
Depending on where the battle takes place, you may want to adjust the pixel location and the city name
location. You will also want to change the results of what happens if you win, lose or draw in your
scenario. Whether you proceed to scenario 4, or the campaign ends is up to you.
Step 8: Create your GRAPHIC MAP file
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
This is the file that the players will see when they are reading about what their task is for the next battle.
It is the map that provides the location of where that particular battle is fought on a map. The quickest
way to create the file is to use either GOOGLE Earth or GOOGLE Maps, zoom to the area your
campaign takes place, change it to satellite view without labels, CTRL+PrtScn  CTRL+V into your
favourite image editing software. I use Corel PHOTOPAINT where I would resize and/or crop to the
dimensions I need and add any labels for towns or regions. Remember; 624 pixels wide by 362 pixels
high and saved as a BMP in 256-colour format and it must be saved using the naming convention
described above: testLCG.bmp
Step 9: Create your UNIT INSIGNIA file
This is the file that the players will see in their Campaign Screen when they are
reviewing their core unit. It is a nice graphical “extra” that should portray the
fighting units patch or symbol. Using your favourite search engine and searching
for a unit patch for the division of the core unit would be the simplest.
I use Corel PHOTOPAINT for creating the file. Resizing, cropping and any editing can quickly be done
within the graphic editing software. You can use Adobe, GIMP or even PAINT to complete the task.
Remember; 122 pixels wide by 99 pixels high and saved as a BMP in 256-colour format and it must be
saved using the naming convention described above: test_patch.bmp
Step 10: Create your END GAME file
This is the file that the players will see when they
successfully finish the Campaign. It is a nice graphic
that should portray something related to your campaign.
Using your favourite search engine and searching for an
image that displays something from the timeframe of
your particular campaign would be best suited.
I use Corel PHOTOPAINT for creating the file.
Resizing, cropping and any editing can quickly be done
within the graphic editing software. You can use Adobe,
GIMP or even PAINT to complete the task. Remember;
271 pixels wide by 240 pixels high and saved as a BMP
in 256-colour format and it must be saved using the
naming convention described above: test_endgame.bmp
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
8.4.4 Nationality ID# Codes
The Campaign Series: Middle East
08
09
14
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
France
England
Generic Pro-West
Israel
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Syria
Lebanon
Generic Pro-East
Libya
Algeria
8.4.5 Linked Campaign Game Command Levels
The Campaign Series: Middle East
1
2
3
4
5
Battalion
Regiment
Brigade
Division
Corps
8.4.6 Map Regions
The Campaign Series: Middle East
1
2
Mediterranean
Desert
8.4.7 Troubleshooting
Should you have a technical problem creating a Linked Campaign Game with the game, the best way to
get help is to post a note in the Technical Support sub-forum within the Middle East forum at
http://www.matrixgames.com
Lastly, you may also try emailing [email protected] Ensure you add “Middle East” to the subject
line when emailing, as most mail is filtered.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
9.0 Scenario List
Scenario
First Attack on
the Bloc
Type
Scenario Description
Jan 14/48
SIDE
B OR
H2H
[Gush Etzion, Israel]: [SIDE B/H2H][HIS][CSL]: The Etzion Bloc was a collection of four
villages southwest of Jerusalem. Skirting along one of the primary logistics routes for the
Arab militias, Abdel Kader el-Husseini, with approximately six hundred Arab irregulars
attempted to capture the group of villages. The primary force aimed at capture the primary
village of Kfar Etzion while sending secondary forces on diversionary attacks on the other
villages. The settlers and civilians of the Etzion Bloc, supported by a reserve Palmach
company, were prepared for the attack. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
For the Bull
Mar
27/48
H2H
[Gush Etzion, Israel]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The Etzion Bloc was a collection of four villages
southwest of Jerusalem. The primary way to supply the kibbutz was via the JerusalemHebron road. The convoy, with much needed supplies and reinforcements, left Jerusalem in
the early morning hours of March 27 and was expected to return shortly after the 90 minute
journey was complete. The convoy was delayed at Kfar Etzion when it was decided to try
and load up a prized bull and the fuselage of a damaged Piper Cub providing the
opportunity for the Arabs to ambush the road. A British officer drove through the
roadblocks and warned the convoy of what lay ahead, but the Haganah command insisted
the convoy return as it constituted the bulk of the armoured vehicles in their inventory. The
51 vehicles, consisting of armoured cars, armour-plated trucks and buses, started the return
journey to Jerusalem. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
End of the Bloc
May
12/48
H2H
[Gush Etzion, Israel]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The Etzion Bloc was a collection of four villages
southwest of Jerusalem. After the Arab invasion, once the British pulled out of Palestine in
April 1948, the Trans-Jordan Arab Legion was holding positions throughout eastern
Palestine, including Bersheeba, Bethlehem and Hebron. The primary supply route to
Bersheeba and Hebron skirted the Etzion Bloc and was a site of continuous ambushes.
With Amman expecting a large arms convoy along the route, the Sixth Regiment of the
Trans-Jordanian Arab Legion was tasked with assaulting and capturing the Bloc. At dawn
on May 12th, two Arab Legion companies, supported by armoured cars, an ALA company
and hundreds of irregulars began the assault on Kfar Etzion. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
The Last Battle
May
23/48
SIDE
A
[Yad Mordechai Kibbutz, Israel]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: On May 19th, the Egyptians
resumed their advance northward along the coast. Upon reaching the roadside Kibbutz Yad
Mordechai, with its dominating positions along the coastal highway to Tel Aviv, the
Egyptians could not afford to leave behind the potential thorn in their side. The Egyptians
started their attack in the late morning after an air assault and artillery barrage that ruined the
kibbutz, setting most of the buildings on fire and setting the kibbutz animals free. Failing the
initial attack, the Egyptians regrouped for a couple of days and attempted once more on the
23rd to capture Yad Mordechai. With additional support, the Egyptians started their attack
with elements of three battalions, supported by armour and artillery at the kibbutz. The 110
settlers and couple of Palmach squads were ready to defend to the last. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
May 24,
1948
SIDE
A
[Latrun, Israel]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: Latrun, named after the monastery, is a small village
situated on the north side of the Jerusalem highway at entrance to the rough terrain by the
junction of two highways. The highway served as the supply corridor between Jerusalem
and Tel Aviv and was constantly harassed by the Arab Liberation Army. At Latrun was a
British Police Fort, which was abandoned at the beginning of the Mandate. The Israeli
troops captured the key position of Latrun in early May, but due to the Egyptian invasion,
Latrun was abandoned. The Jordanian Arab Legion troops secured the abandoned fort and
manned the positions with the 4th Regiment. Operation Bin Nun was the first attempt at
retaking the position to ensure safe passage to Jerusalem. After a 26 hour delay, the troops
started their attack before dawn. With limited heavy weapons, the men from three
battalions attempted the assault on Latrun and its bastion. As day break broke, they found
themselves under heavy attack by Arab Legion fire. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
Operation
Nun Alef
Bin
Date
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Against
All
Odds
Operation
Nun Bet
Bin
Upset at Jenin
Last Stop in the
Negev
Date
Type
Scenario Description
May 24,
1948
H2H
May 29,
1948
SIDE
A
Jun 3,
1948
SIDE
A
Dec 26,
1948
H2H
Oct
29/56
H2H
[Ramat Rachel, 10 km south of Jerusalem, Palestine]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Straddled along the
Jerusalem - Bethlehem road, the hilltop kibbutz of Ramat Rachel was a strategic target for
the Arab armies during the War of Independence. The kibbutz had exchanged hands a
number of times during the previous days fighting and during the morning of May 24th, the
kibbutz was in Israeli hands defended by 65 Irgun and 20 Haganah members. The final
assault started at 9 a.m., with an Egyptian armoured column advancing from the west,
supported by armoured cars and a tank, and a Jordanian company, with Moslem
Brotherhood irregulars, attacking from the east. This was the only coordinated action
involving Egyptian and Jordanian troops. The small defending force fought well, defending
the various assaults until the arrival of a Haganah company to reinforce the position. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Latrun, Israel]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: Latrun, named after the monastery, is a small village
situated on the north side of the Jerusalem highway at entrance to the rough terrain by the
junction of two highways. The highway served as the supply corridor between Jerusalem
and Tel Aviv and was constantly harassed by the Arab Liberation Army. At Latrun was a
British Police Fort, which was abandoned at the beginning of the Mandate. The Israeli
troops captured the key position of Latrun in early May, but due to the Egyptian invasion,
Latrun was abandoned. The Jordanian Arab Legion troops secured the abandoned fort and
manned the positions with the 4th Regiment and reinforced by the 2nd Regiment.
Operation Bin Nun Bet was the second attempt at retaking the position to ensure safe
passage to Jerusalem. Taking into account the mistakes of the previous attacks, the
renewed assault was organized with precision, and the area from where the units had to
launch their attack had been cleared on 28 May. In particular the two hamlets of Bayt Jiz
and Bayt Susin, where a counter-attacks had been launched by the Arab militants during
the first battle, and Hill 369. The attack was once more foreseen on two axes: 1. The 72 nd
and 52nd Infantry Battalions were to counter-attack on foot from the south up to Bayt Susin
and then take Bab al-Wad and attack respectively Dayr Ayyub and Yalu, then head for
Latrun and attack this from the east. 2. The 71st Infantry Battalion and 73rd Mechanized
Battalion were to assault the police fort, the monastery and the town of Latrun by southwest. [ALL:NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Jenin, West Bank, Jordan]:[SIDE A OR H2H][HIS][CSL]: After a successful advance from
Afula, capturing numerous villages on the way, the battalions of the Carmeli Brigade had
secured the strategic town of Jenin and the hills to the west after sweeping aside the local
defenders. A battalion of the Iraqi 4th Brigade attacked the captured positions, but were
repulsed. With fresh reinforcements and an artillery bombardment, the Iraqi's assaulted the
Carmeli Brigade with vigor.[ALL][NONE][1.00]
[El Auja, Negev Desert, Israel]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The last stop before entering the Sinai
was the small oasis of El Auja. Surrounding the oasis were a series of small hills, defended
by the Egyptian 1st Infantry Battalion, reinforced by some Border Guard units, artillery and
mortars. The Israeli's assaulted the position on the morning of December 26th, the battle
lasting hours, while sustaining heavy losses, before the Egyptians finally surrendered
paving the way to an advance into the Sinai. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Umm Qatef Ridge, Sinai, Egypt]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: After the successful assault on El
Ajua, defeating the Egyptian 1st Battalion, elements of the Negev Brigade were poised to
advance into the Sinai and capture Abu Ageila which was intended to be used as a
springboard to capture El Arish, the Egyptian primary base of operations. Forward
elements ran into Egyptian positions around Umm Qatef, a ridge crossing the avenue of
approach, losing a few vehicles to the anti-tank guns on the position. Negev's 7 th Battalion
was hastily organized to assault the position as the morning sun rose. Once this last bastion
was cleared, the Sinai would be open for the taking. [ALL: NOVV]][NONE] [1.00]
[Mitla Pass, Sinai Peninsula]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: Operation Kadesh, the Israeli plan to seize
the Sinai is underway. As part of their plan, Israel sought to control the mountain passes
deeper into the Sinai for their plunge towards the Suez. To get to the Suez quickly, they
need to control the choke points in the mountains. Mitla Pass is a long and narrow gap in
the mountains 50 kilometers east of Suez which afforded such a path. Operation
Steamroller is the Israeli plan to seize the Mitla Pass. As part of Operation Steamroller, the
890th Paratroop Battalion landed to the east of the pass and moved west to secure the
objective. To support the airborne drop on Mitla Pass, the remaining elements of the 202nd
Parachute Brigade are in a column of halftracks and recently acquired French 6x6 trucks
racing past the remnants of the Egyptian border battalion to reinforce the attack. In
Last Bastion Umm
Qatef
1948
Securing Mitla
Pass
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
June 2016
Scenario Description
response to reports of an Israeli invasion, the Egyptian 2nd Infantry Brigade sends its 5th
Infantry Battalion to secure the pass. It’s a race to control the pass. For the Israelis it’s a
path to the west. For the Egyptians, it’s a roadblock to Israeli invasion.
[ALL][NONE][1.00]
Battle of Abu
Ageila (1956)
Oct
30/56
H2H
Battle
Thamad
Oct
31/56
H2H
Into the Camps
Nov 1/56
H2H
Battle for the
Straits
of
Tiran
Nov 5/56
H2H
Operation
Musketeer
Revised
Nov 5/56
H2H
of
[Abu Ageila, Sinai, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Abu Ageila was a strategic location for the
Egyptians as they maintained defensive positions to prevent the loss of land in case of war.
The Egyptians secured the Abu Ageila - Qusaymah area with the 6th Infantry Brigade,
supported by self-propelled anti-tank guns and artillery. The crossroads were of equal
importance as it is located along a main artery across the Sinai Peninsula, vital to the Israeli
strategy of maneuver and deep penetration for conducting a short war. The Israeli's utilized
elements from three brigades for their attack on the position; 4th, 10th and 7th. Their
orchestrated assault started early on October 30th at Qusaymah by elements of the 4th
Infantry Brigade after it became disoriented in the desert. The 7th Armoured Brigade,
intended to be sent in after, was released prematurely in order to ensure the securing of
Qusaymah to assist in the advance to the Paratroopers at Mitla Pass, which was assaulted
the night before. [ALL: NOVV][NOTE: Many of the Egyptian and Israeli formations start
the scenario fixed and will be released during the course of the scenario. This is in an
attempt to recreate the flow of the actual battle. Only the units that became involved in the
battle are included in the scenario.][1.00]
[Thamad, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: As the 202nd Parachute Brigade advanced
across the central Sinai to link up with the 890th Parachute Battalion at Mitla Pass, three
small villages were to be captured to secure the supply route. One of these hamlets was
Thamad, a small village that houses elements of a National Guard and Border Guard
Battalion. The small Egyptian force defending Kuntilla withdrew and took positions around
Thamad. Since timing was the essence, only a portion of the advance Israeli force was
dispatched to secure the village, the rest heading west to Mitla Pass.
[ALL:NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Rafah, Gaza Strip]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: Rafah, and the Palestinian refugee camps south of
Rafah, is strategically located at the crossroads of the El Arish - Gaza Highway. This
highway was one of the few improved road networks that crossed the Sinai, making the
crossroads at Rafah an essential piece of ground to defend. To do so, the Egyptians
assigned the 5th Infantry Brigade, consisting of four infantry battalions, reinforcements
from two Palestinian National Guard battalions, artillery, anti-tank weapons and antiaircraft. The battalions were scattered among a number of mutually supporting fortified
emplacements. The Israeli's assigned two brigades, the 1st Infantry and 27th Armoured, to
assault the position. The assault began in the pre-dawn hours of November 1st, 1956, after
a disastrous air attack and ineffective naval bombardment. [ALL: NOVV][NOTE: Many of
the Egyptian and Israeli formations start the scenario fixed and will be released during the
course of the scenario. This is in an attempt to recreate the flow of the actual battle.][1.01]
[Sharm el Sheikh, Sinai, Egypt]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: In July 1956 Nasser closed the Strait of
Tiran to Israeli shipping, placing an artillery battery at Ras Al-Nasrani and a supporting
infantry brigade in Sharm el Sheik, a small fishing town at the southern tip of the Sinai
Peninsula. The Israeli 9th Infantry Brigade was tasked with securing the entrance to the
strait, embarking on a long journey through some of the roughest terrain. The two infantry
battalions, equipped with halftracks and newly acquired 6x6 trucks from France, fought the
terrain as it drove south down the coast, not running into sporadic resistance until Wadi
Kîd. [ALL] [NOTE: This scenario represents the entire two day battle from the Israeli
entrance into Wadi Kîd to its final assault on Sharm el Sheikh.][1.00]
[Port Said, Suez Canal, Egypt]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: In an effort to continue with the
nationalization policy, Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in July 1956.
This eventually triggered the Suez Crisis that involved the United Kingdom, France and
Israel in an effort to overthrow Nasser. A number of plans were crafted to how to deal with
the invasion of Egypt. The final plan, Operation Musketeer Revised, involved three phases.
Phase I allowed the United Kingdom and France to gain air superiority, Phase II was
designed to be a "shock and awe" air campaign against various Egyptian economic,
transportation and communication facilities, Phase III being a combined Anglo-French
airborne and amphibious landing at Port Said to capture the Canal Zone. Phase I was
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
June 2016
Scenario Description
launched on October 31st and Phase II commenced the following morning. Under
international pressure, the timetable for Phase III was moved up. The Anglo-French
airborne forces touched down on El Gamil airfield and Raswa on the morning of November
5th. The British 3rd Parachute Battalion landing at El Gamil and the French 2 RPC with a
small British contingent landing south of the water works at Raswa. The 3rd Parachute
Battalion tasked with securing the airfield and the landing zone for the amphibious assault
and the 2RPC tasked with securing the bridges of the canal and the water works south of
the city. While the French succeeded, the 3rd Parachute Battalion was held up as it tried to
enter the city from the west. With a failed effort to have the garrison surrender, the
amphibious assault group moved eight kilometers offshore the following morning,
disgorged the assault troops, which hit the beaches at approximately 0700 on November
6th. [ALL][This scenario covers the entire two day battle for Port Said][1.00]
Nov 5/56
H2H
[Sharm el Sheikh, Sinai, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: In July 1956 Nasser closed the Strait of
Tiran to Israeli shipping, placing an artillery battery at Ras Al-Nasrani and a supporting
infantry brigade in Sharm el Sheik, a small fishing town at the southern tip of the Sinai
Peninsula. The Israeli 9th Infantry Brigade was tasked with securing the entrance to the
strait, embarking on a long journey through some of the roughest terrain. The two infantry
battalions, equipped with halftracks and newly acquired 6x6 trucks from France, fought the
terrain as it drove south down the coast, not running into sporadic resistance until Wadi
Kîd. Advancing to Ras Al-Nasrani and finding it empty, with the naval guns spiked, the 9th
Infantry Brigade continued south to Sharm el Sheikh, attempting to assault the "city"
during the early morning hours. [ALL: NOVV] [NOTE: This scenario represents the final
battle for Sharm el Sheikh.][1.00]
Road
Mar
16/58
H2H
[Oued Fodda, Algeria]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: A routine duty of the French in Algeria was
patrolling the major roadways during the day. While typically uneventful, ambushes of
varying degrees were common as the war progressed. One such ambush occurred as a
company from the 4th Motorized Infantry Division was patrolling in the El Attaf region.
While the patrol itself resulted in little, the return trip back to Chlef airbase found the
company under attack by a well-organized ambush by FLN units in the Oued Fodda area.
[ALL][NONE][1.00]
The End in the
Sahara
Nov
11/58
SIDE
A
[Timimoun, southern Algeria]: [SIDE A/H2H][HISB][CSL]: Unable to launch in 1957 the
anticipated military campaigns on Algerian territory, the FLN tried to operate from the
Sahara. The French spent the fall of 1957 and spring of 1958 assaulting the FLN strongholds
in the Sahara. One of the last was in the outlying villages the mid-Saharan town of
Timimoun. On November 7th, seven members of a French oil exploration team and nine
Legionnaires are massacred by the FLN. Two days later an airborne operation was launched
against the town of Timimoun and outlying villages. The battle lasted until November 21st
resulting in the FLN being effectively eliminated from the area. On a side note, the most
lasting innovation to come out of French experience in Algeria was the heavy reliance placed
on the helicopter. France made aggressive use of helicopters in Algeria, both as troop
transports and gunships. The basic helicopter unit, the Détachment d'Intervention Héliportée
(DIH) became, in effect, the organic air force of airborne infantry task force. Bell 47s or
Alouette IIs performed reconnaissance and command-and-control duties, while H-21s or H34s transported the troops and H-34 Pirates provided the some or all of the routine fire
support for the operation. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Assault
Sharm
Sheikh
Long
Home
on
el
Adventures
Yemen
in
Mar 7/63
H2H
[Harib, 150km E of San'aa, Yemen: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Crucial to the second phase of the
Ramada offensive, Egyptian columns moved out from San'aa to begin opening and
securing roads from San'aa to Sadah in the north and San'aa to Marib in the east. The
eastern task force advanced and captured Marib from the Royalist forces by February 25th.
The Task Force continued the advance east to Harib, a small hamlet on the outskirts of the
frontier and staging area for Royalist forces. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Battle of
Argoup
El
Mar
10/63
SIDE
B
[Al Hasf, 25km SE of San'aa, Yemen: [SIDE B][HIS][CSL]: Five Hundred Royalists, under
Prince Abdullah's command, attacked an Egyptian position on top of a sheer-sided hill that
was fortified with six Soviet T-54 tanks, a dozen armored cars and entrenched machine
guns. The Royalists advanced in a thin skirmish line and were plastered by artillery,
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
June 2016
Scenario Description
mortars and strafing planes. They replied with rifles, one mortar with 20 rounds, and a
bazooka with four rounds. The assault lasted a week and cost the Egyptians three tanks,
seven armoured cars and 160 dead.[ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Bootcamp 1 Movement and
Combat
Aug 15,
1963
SIDE
A
Bootcamp 4 Mine Clearing
and Bridges
Oct 19,
1963
SIDE
A
Bootcamp 2 Helicopters,
ATGM
and
Airstrikes
Bootcamp 3 Helicopters
and AAA
Oct 24,
1963
SIDE
A
Oct 27,
1963
SIDE
A
the
the
Apr
30/64
H2H
The Crossroads
Jun 5,
1967
H2H
Third Time's a
Charm
Jun 5/67
H2H
Hunting
Adoo in
Radfan
[Habilayn, Radfan, Yemen]: [SIDE A][FIC][CSL]: Welcome to Bootcamp One. This
scenario is intended to be played as the United Kingdom. It is recommended to open the
Bootcamp One document found in the manuals folder. It will take you through a step by
step process of how to play the game and things to think about when you are playing a turn.
Good luck! [ALL][1.00][NONE]
[Habilayn, Radfan, Yemen]: [SIDE A][FIC][CSL]: Welcome to Bootcamp Four. This
scenario is intended to be played as the United Kingdom (SIDE A). It is recommended to
follow along with the Bootcamp Four section of the manual. It will take you through a step
by step process of how to play the scenario and talk about some of the new units and
features included in Middle East. [ALL][1.00][NONE]
[Habilayn, Radfan, Yemen]: [SIDE A][FIC][CSL]: Welcome to Bootcamp Two. This
scenario is intended to be played as the United Kingdom (SIDE A). It is recommended to
follow along with the Bootcamp Two section of the manual. It will take you through a step
by step process of how to play the scenario and talk about the some of the new units and
features included in Middle East. [ALL][1.00][NONE]
[Habilayn, Radfan, Yemen]: [SIDE A][FIC][CSL]: Welcome to Bootcamp Three. This
scenario is intended to be played as the United Kingdom (SIDE A). It is recommended to
follow along with the Bootcamp Three section of the manual. It will take you through a
step by step process of how to play the scenario and talk about the some of the new units
and features included in Middle East. [ALL][1.00][NONE]
[Radfan Mountains, 65km N of Aden, Aden State]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The British
involvement in Radfan began during the Aden Crisis, with rebels using the Dhala road to
bring down supplies for the terrorists in Aden. The British Army took the decision to
deploy a garrison into the Radfan to limit the rebels supplies and thus the Radfan
tribesmen's ability to blackmail the traders. The Radfan tribesmen were aided and supplied
by the Yemenis, who themselves had received aid and supplies from the Egyptians, and
soon had Dhala under daily attack. The tribesmen of the Radfan, known as the Adoo by the
boys up-country, were "a xenophobic lot, equipped from boyhood with rifles, who regarded
the British arrival in their mountains as an opportunity for target practice." Brigadier
Blacker formulated a plan involving 45 Marine Commando to secure known dissident held
areas to the east of the Dhala road, securing the high ground to sever communications from
the Yemeni supported tribes, with the hopes of putting to an end the constant ambushes.
3rd Troop/A Squadron/22nd SAS Regiment was the first into battle, trying to secure a
landing zone for B Company/3rd Parachute Regiment but were spotted by a local shepherd.
The battle begins... [ALL] [NOTE: Historically, the initial battle lasted week, therefore this
is a representation. Leader names are historically accurate when I could find them.][1.00]
[Jenin, West Bank, Jordan]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The Israeli assault into the northern West
Bank began at 5 pm and was spearheaded by the battalions of the 45th Armoured and 9th
Infantry Brigades. The mission was to advance into the West Bank, seize Jenin and
advance towards the Damia bridge that spans the Jordan River. Defending the Jenin sector
was the Jordanian 25th Infantry Brigade, supported by heavy artillery and elements of the
12th Independent Tank Battalion The first obstacle facing the Israeli's was the dug in
positions that held the city of Jenin, with years to prepare, the positions were well
entrenched. While the assault went into the evening of June 5th, the Jordanian 40th
Armoured Brigade had travelled through the night to reinforce the beleaguered 25th
Infantry Brigade. The ensuing fighting at the Qabitiya Crossroads south of Jenin between
the Israeli Shermans and Jordanian Pattons would result in the largest tank battle of the
1967 War. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Abu Ageila, Sinai, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Abu Ageila and Umm Katef were the center
of attention for a third time in as many decades. Unlike the previous two engagements in
1948 and 1956, the Israeli's had two weeks to prepare for their assault on the heavily
defended and fortified area. The plan involved a division sized unit, including; an armoured
brigade, an infantry brigade, six battalions of artillery, a parachute battalion, an
independent tank battalion and additional assets. The Israeli 14th Armour Brigade was
tasked with capturing the road to Umm Katef, clearing the road, and allowing the 99th
Infantry Brigade and artillery assets to move into position for the night assault Umm Katef,
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
The Battle of
Jerusalem
(1967)
Jun 5/67
H2H
Blunder at Tel
Fakhar
Jun 5/
1967
SIDE
A
Jun 5/67
H2H
June 5/67
H2H
June 5/67
SIDE
A
Advantage
Jiradi
Blunting
Sword
Position 181
the
June 2016
Scenario Description
which was defended by the Egyptian 12th Infantry Brigade, supported by artillery and
armour. In support of the main assault, an armoured task force was to push its way through
the desert along the Batur Track to set a roadblock the Abu Ageila - El Arish highway to
prevent Egyptian reinforcement. In addition, a parachute battalion was to be landed via
helicopter behind Umm Katef to neutralize the Egyptian artillery. To the south, an infantry
force was to tie down the Egyptian 10th Infantry Brigade at Kusseima. It was a good plan,
but plans rarely survive first contact. [ALL: NOVV][NOTE: Many of the Egyptian
formations start the scenario fixed and will be released during the course of the scenario.
This is in an attempt to recreate the flow of the actual battle.][1.00]
[Jerusalem]: [H2H][HISB][CSL]: On the afternoon of June 5th, the Jordanian forces became
to bombard the border region around Jerusalem. After advancing and capturing the
Government House in no man's land to secure a travel route for the 60th Armoured
Brigade, the Jordanians remained well dug-in in their defensive positions. The Israeli
Jerusalem Brigade began their effort of seizing the city by attacking in the south. The 55th
Parachute Brigade was brought up by bus and started their attack north of the Old City at
02:00. After capturing Ammunition Hill, the battalions of the Parachute Brigade circled
around the Old City forcing the Jordanians to retreat, leaving only a militia battalion within
the city walls.[ALL][This scenario covers a couple of days and utilizes the day/night
capabilities. Formations are released and arrive on the map in an effort to recreate the flow
of the historical battle.][1.00]
[Tel Fakhar, Golan Heights, Syria]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: After advancing behind the 8th
Brigade, the two combat groups of the 1st Golani Brigade set out on their assigned tasks; to
capture the Syrian strongholds of Tel Fakhar and Tel Aziziat defended by elements of the
11th Infantry Brigade. The knoll mounted position of Tel Aziziat was assigned to an
infantry company of the 51st Battalion supported by M50 Shermans from the 8th Brigade.
The 12th Barak Battalion, with M51 Shermans attached, was assigned to take Tel Fakhar.
Tel Fahkar was a horseshoe shaped fortified position, supported by anti-tank guns. Despite
hours of bombardment, when the 12th Barak Battalion started their assault, the fortified
position remained unscathed. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Jiradi Pass, east of al-Arish, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL] Following the capture of
Rafah and the important road west of the town, the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade continued
to push west toward al-Arish. But, to capture the city they had to cross the Jiradi Pass. This
was a narrow valley about 13 kilometers long leading the town of El-Arish. El-Arish was
an important administrative centre for the Egyptian Army in the northern Sinai. Defending
the area was the Egyptian 121st Brigade, 7th Infantry Division reinforced by two T-55 tank
battalions. The 121st Brigade had constructed strong defensive fortifications across the
valley. General Tal's sent the 60th Tank Brigade out to flank the valley but the brigade
became mired in the sand dunes and the Israelis had to attempt a frontal assault. This was
the sort of battle the Egyptians had hoped for; no room for the Israelis to maneuver and
they had to attack straight into the teeth of dug in infantry and tanks. Initial recon elements
of the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade penetrated the valley due to other Egyptian army units
failing to report they had been bypassed.[ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Bir Lahfan, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Bir Lahfan is located at the crossroads of
the El Arish - Abu Ageilia and El Arish - Bir Hasana Highways. Egyptian defensive tactics
for the Sinai were based around Sword and Shield tactics, with the idea that two infantry
divisions would bear the brunt of an Israeli assault acting as the shield, while highly mobile
forces would strike as the Sword. The Sword forces were positioned at strategically
located areas in the rear and would utilize the upgraded road network that Egyptians had
been working on after the 1956 war. The Egyptian 3rd Infantry Division was a highly
mobile force, reinforced with the 14th Independent Armour Brigade that was to act as a
Sword for the 7th and 2nd Infantry divisions located along the border in the event of an
Israeli invasion. With the battle raging around Rafah, elements of the 14th Independent
Brigade headed north from Bir Hasana on the way to El Arish to reinforce the 7th Infantry
Division. Unbeknownst to the Egyptians, elements of the Israeli 200th Armour Brigade had
advanced along Wadi el Hareidin in an effort to secure the strategic crossroads. The two
forces came in contact at dusk and continued to duel during the night. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Batur Track, Sinai, Egypt]: [SIDE A/H2H][HIS][CSL]: Based on lessons learned during the
1956 Sinai Campaign, the Israeli's were adamant on sending an armoured force into the
rear of Ruafa Dam at the Abu Ageila position. Due to the presence of the Egyptian 10th
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Endgame
Jenin
Date
June 2016
Type
Scenario Description
Infantry Brigade at Qusaymah, the alternate option along Batur Track was chosen. A
reinforced armoured battalion, consisting of Centurion's, mechanized infantry,
reconnaissance and engineers, was assigned the task to advance along Batur Track and
attack the Ruafa Dam position from the rear. While overrunning the first outpost, the
Israeli's stumbled into the Egyptian Position 181. Defended by an entrenched infantry
battalion, supported by artillery, SU-100's and minefields, the position turned offered more
opposition than initially expected. With great pressure to succeed, the Israeli commander
reorganized his forces and assaulted the position. [ALL][NONE][1.01]
[Jenin, West Bank, Jordan]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: The Israeli 45th Armoured had flanked the
city of Jenin, leaving the 9th Infantry Brigade to assault the city. Enveloping the city, the
9th Infantry Brigade was on the verge of capturing Jenin during the morning of June 6th. A
reconnaissance force from the 45th Armoured Brigade had secured the vital Qabitiya
Crossroads while the rest of the brigade was moving into the Dotan Valley. After travelling
through the night, the battalions of the Jordanian 40th Armoured Brigade arrived at the
crossroads, flanking the Israeli reconnaissance company. The arrival of the 40th Armoured
Brigade was noticed by the remnants of defenders of Jenin, improving their morale. The
Israeli Shermans and Jordanian Pattons fought a bitter battle throughout the morning on the
valley floor. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
at
Jun 6,
1967
H2H
Picnic at Tel al
Ful
Jun 6,
1967
SIDE
A
[Tel al Ful, Jerusalem, Jordan]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: A battlegroup of the 10th Mechanized
Brigade had advanced over the treacherous roads and tracks to arrive at their objective
along the Jerusalem - Ramallah highway at the abandoned town of Beit Hanina al-Jadid, a
small community nestled beside the dominant terrain feature north of Jerusalem, Tel al Ful.
Down to six Shermans and a handful of mechanized infantry, the battlegroup consolidated
their positions while they waited for reinforcements. Elements of the Jordanian 6th Tank
Regiment had other plans. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Textbook Night
Assault
Jun 6,
1967
SIDE
A
Rearguard at
Gebel Libni
Jun 6,
1967
H2H
[Umm Katef, Sinai, Egypt]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: Abu Ageila and Umm Katef were the
center of attention for a third time in as many decades. Unlike the previous two
engagements in 1948 and 1956, the Israeli's had two weeks to prepare for their assault on
the heavily defended and fortified area. The plan involved a division sized unit, including;
an armoured brigade, an infantry brigade, six battalions of artillery, a parachute battalion,
an independent tank battalion and additional assets. The Israeli 14th Armour Brigade was
tasked with capturing the road to Umm Katef, clearing the road, and allowing the 99th
Infantry Brigade and artillery assets to move into position for the night assault Umm Katef,
which was defended by the Egyptian 12th Infantry Brigade, supported by artillery and
armour. In the middle of the night, the 99th Infantry Brigade maneuvered through the
dunes to their starting positions. Two battalions started their assault into the trenches,
catching the Egyptians by surprise. Supported by artillery and direct tank fire, the 99th
Infantry Brigade advanced quickly through the night. Shortly after the assault started, the
previously landed parachute battalion, began its attack against the Egyptian artillery
positions to the west of Umm Katef. While there were a number of battalions, including a
T34 tank battalion, in the vicinity, the Egyptians were slow to react.
[ALL:
NOVV][NOTE: Many of the Egyptian formations, and some of the Israeli, start the
scenario fixed and will be released during the course of the scenario. This is in an attempt
to recreate the flow of the actual battle.][1.01]
[Gebel Libni, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: After the affair at Bir Lahfan, two Israeli
brigades continued their advance towards the Egyptian defensive position at the dominant
terrain feature along the route, Gebel Libni. The lead elements of the brigade came under
tank fire as it approached the mined defences and prepared to frontally assault the position.
One of the Israeli brigades advancing along the Agu Ageila highway from the east engaged
the defences south of Gebel Libni. Elements of the Egyptian 3rd Infantry Division were
entrenched behind minefields around the crossroads at Gebel Libni, supported by tanks and
artillery. The battle began at dusk and continued throughout the night, the Egyptians losing
a number of tanks in the rearguard action that allowed the rest of the division to escape
after receiving orders to return to the canal. [ALL: NOVV][Note that most of the Egyptian
force starts fixed and is released over the course of the scenario. The majority being
released later in the scenario to depict the order to withdraw to the canal][1.00]
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Ambush
at
Khatimiya
Pass
Type
Scenario Description
Jun 7/67
H2H
[Khatimiya Pass, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: After the capture of Bir Gifgafa, the
7th Armoured Brigade was ordered to lead the advance to the Suez Canal, passing through
the Khatimiya Pass. Beyond the western entrance, the brigade ran into an ambush set up by
the Egyptian 3rd Armoured Brigade advancing from Ismaliya intending on
counterattacking the advancing Israeli's. After a seven hour engagement, the Israelis were
back on track towards the canal. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Trouble at Bir
Gifgafa
Jun 7/67
H2H
[Bir Gifgafa, Sinai Peninsula]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: Bir Gifgafa was one of the various
Egyptian army camps in the central Sinai, location of elements of the 4th Armoured
Division to provide a counterattack force for the 2nd Infantry Division situated in Umm
Qatef. Israel’s 60th Armoured Brigade led the advance through the central Sinai. AMX-13
light tanks in the lead as it approached the Egyptian camp. A battle of maneuver
commenced as the Israeli's soon realized the armament of the AMX-13's was not enough to
penetrate the frontal armour of the Egyptian T-55's scattered around the camp.
[ALL][NONE][1.00]
No Match for
the 100
Jun 8/67
H2H/
SIDE
A
Road
Qantara
Jun 8/67
H2H
Bir Gifgafa Airfield, Sinai, Egypt: [SIDE A/H2H][HIS][CSL]: Although the Egyptian 4th
Armored Division was already returning to the Suez Canal by 8 June, an armored brigade
at the Canal was ordered to return to Bir Gifgafa to support the withdrawal from the Sinai.
Shortly before midnight the brigade unexpectedly ran into the AINX-13 tank battalion of
Israeli Colonel Menachem, Aviram's brigade, blocking the road northwest of Bir Gifgafa.
The Israelis had positioned their tanks in a semicircle facing west, with their fuel,
ammunition, and supplies on vehicles in the center rear. They had the advantage of a
readied defensive position, but they had only 30 light tanks. The Egyptian force had
between 50 and 60 T-54 and T-55 tanks with l00mm high velocity guns. The 75mm guns
of the AMX-13s could only penetrate them at very short range. After a desperate two hour
defense, the Israeli battalion began to withdraw. But at this moment a battalion of Colonel
Simuel Gonen's Centurions arrived to support the hard-pressed AMCs. [ALL, No
VV][NONE][1.02]
[Rumani, Sinai Peninsula]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: Granite Force was an Israeli task force
assigned to travel along the north coast road and make its way to Qantara on the Suez
Canal. The advance was proceeding according to schedule until the tables turned at
Rumani. The Egyptians had started to put up a stiff defence with tanks, Sa'qa commandos,
infantry and parachute infantry. The Egyptian Air Force made an unexpected appearance
providing some air support to the forces on the ground. [ALL][NONE][1.00].
Jun 8/67
H2H
[Nakhl, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: With the successful battles of Abu Ageila and
Qusaymah behind, the Zippori (8th) Armoured Brigade moved in the direction of Nakhl.
Enrout, the brigade was accidently attacked by another Israeli armoured brigade which
caused a few casualties. Since the Egyptian Task Force had vacated the travel area, the 8th
Armoured was able to reach Nakhl by midnight. Reassembling during the early morning
hours, it moved to the Nakhl crossroads while withdrawing elements of the Egyptian 6th
Mechanized Division were close by. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
to
Date
June 2016
Surprise
Nakhl
at
Surprise
Mitla Pass
at
Jun 8/67
H2H
[Mitla Pass, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: As the Egyptians withdrew back to the
Suez Canal, Israeli units were able to advance unimpeded into the heart of the Sinai.
Advance detachments made their way to the key passes in the Sinai. One pass, Mitla, was
found undefended by the Egyptians. The advance party set up a small blocking position
and engaged the retreating Egyptians throughout the night of June 7th. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
Battle of
Karameh
al-
Mar
21/68
H2H
[Karameh, Jordan]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: After participating with the United Arab Command in
the Six Day War, the Palestinian Liberation Organization command and military units
withdrew east to the refugee camp at al-Karameh, a small town on the east side of the River
Jordan. Here, the Palestinian political leaders set about reorganized and rebuilding. The
Israelis seized this opportunity and prepared to cross the River Jordan with the sole purpose
of eliminating the Palestinian leadership. Elements of the Israeli 7th Armoured and 35th
Parachute Brigade were part of the primary assault. Centurions and halftracks loaded with
paratroopers prepared to cross the river and drive to al-Karameh to link up with a parachute
company that was to be air assaulted into the low hills east of the town. The Israeli's had
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Operation
Rhodes
Assault
Shadwan
Island
Date
Type
Jan 22,
1970
SIDE
A
Black
September
Intruders
Sep 21,
1970
SIDE
A
Off to Giddi
Oct 6/73
H2H
Oct 6/73
H2H
Oct 6/73
H2H
Oct 7/73
H2H
Humbling
the Tank
on
of
Assaulting
Budapest
A
Taste
Sa'iqa
of
June 2016
Scenario Description
expected the Jordanians to stay out of the fight as the IAF dropped leaflets telling the
Jordanian army that there was no intention of harming them. As dawn broke on the
morning on March 21, the assault began. [ALL][This scenario only deals with the assault
and crossing at the Allenby Bridge][1.00]
[Shadwan Island, Red Sea]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: Operation Rhodes was the Israeli assault
on Shadwan Island on January 22, 1970, one of the many actions during the War of
Attrition between Egypt and Israel. The War of Attrition was an attempt by Egypt to
weaken Israel's hold on the Sinai that Israel had captured during the 1967 Six Day War.
The assault on Shadwan Island had the aim of capturing Egyptian POW's and to sabotage a
radar post that was deemed a threat to Israeli shipping traffic in the Red Sea. Elements of
the 202 Parachute Brigade and Shayetet 13 were tasked with the mission and landed by
helicopter a mile behind the Egyptian position after an air attack by A-4 Skyhawks.
[ALL][NONE][1.00]
[ar-Ramtha, Jordan]: [SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: After the battle of Karameh in March 1968,
where the Israeli's targeted the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) base camp outside
of Karameh, the Jordanians started a campaign to regain authority in areas occupied by the
PLO. The military offensive started on September 15th, with the Jordanian 60th Armoured
Brigade attacking positions in Amman, Irbid, Salt, Sweileh, Baq'aa, Wehdat and Zarga. Syria
intervened on September 18th by sending a brigade sized force to Irbid to assist PLO forces
there. The Syrian 5th Division followed suit a couple of days later, with elements of two tank
and one mechanized brigade. The Syrian 5th Division had secured the border city of Ramtha
and began their attack towards the Ramtha-Irbid crossroads on September 21st. The
Jordanian 40th Armoured and 25th Infantry Brigades advanced north to meet the threat, the
25th Infantry Brigade digging in the hills south of the crossroads while the elements of the
40th Armoured Brigade advanced towards Ramtha, securing the ridge and waiting for the
attack. The Syrian assault came in mixed waves throughout the day, the Jordanian Centurions
taking their toll on the Syrian T-55's. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
['Abd el Al Baiyûmi, 10km N of Suez, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: To give the Suez crossing
the best possible chance of success, the Egyptian High Command developed a plan to
strike into the operational depth of the Sinai Front. Their intent was to conduct an
amphibious operation to delay the Israeli response and cause confusion in their enemy’s
rear areas as the Second and Third Armies crossed the Suez. Assigned this task was the
130th Amphibious Mechanized Brigade. They would cross the Great Bitter Lake and
advance towards the Giddi Pass. In a half hour, the Egyptians were across. With no
casualties, the brigade advanced rapidly towards Giddi Pass. All was going well, causing
chaos along the Lateral Road and even nearly coming in contact with the Israeli Southern
Command headquarters, until the reality of PT-76 Light Tanks engaging M-60 Main Battle
Tanks rushing to the front set in. It was going to be a long day for the Egyptian
Amphibious Corps.[ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[El Firdan, Suez Canal, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: At 1405 on 6 October, the Egyptian
armies opened with a devastating artillery barrage. Nearly 2,000 artillery and mortar
pieces, 1,000 tanks, and 1,000 anti-tank guns pounded the Bar-Lev line. Within 15 minutes,
the first wave of Egyptian infantry crossed the canal, by-passed the forts, and moved inland
to establish defensive positions. With the forts of the Bar-Lev line surrounded and under
assault, the Israeli's readied their local tank forces to immediately counterattack and relieve
the garrisons. Caught unprepared, the tactical successes of the 1967 War made the Israelis
overconfident. In the battle that followed, they paid in blood to learn new lessons about
well-trained Egyptian Soldiers equipped with Soviet Anti-Tank Guided Missiles. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Budapest Outpost, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Fort Budapest was the northern
most fortification on the Bar Lev line. Unlike the other fortifications, Budapest was
situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast, 16.5 km from Port Fouad. The Egyptian 135th
Infantry Brigade tasked one battalion with capturing the fort. The assault consisted of
armour and commando (Sa'iqa) support on the first day of hostilities. Dug in and prepared
for the assault, the Israeli garrison awaited reinforcements. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Rumani, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Operation Badr was feat of planning and
execution. One element of the plan was insert airborne commando's (Sa’iqa) deep into the
Sinai to establish ambush positions along major entry points into the canal area to delay the
arrival of Israeli reinforcements. Elements of the 183rd Sa'iqa Battalion was in position
around Rumani on the morning of October 7th ready to engage the lead elements of an
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
Into the Valley
of Tears
Oct 7/73
H2H
Retake Mount
Hermon
Oct 8/
1973
H2H
Nir's Dilemma
Oct 8/73
H2H
Act Two
Hizayon
Oct 8/73
H2H
Into the Valley
Oct 12/
1973
H2H
Tel Maschara
Oct
13/73
H2H
at
June 2016
Scenario Description
Israeli Reserve Brigade heading to the front. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Tel Hermonit, Golan]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: With the first day of battle over, Syrian troops
were on the brink of returning the Golan Heights to Syrian control. In the northern Golan,
the 7th Infantry Division commander rotated the 78th Tank Brigade into the fight to replace
the Syrian units battered in the first days fighting. With fresh Syrian forces on the march,
expectations were high that they would crack the Israeli defenses this day. In front of the
onrushing Syrian tanks was a lone Israeli tank battalion. On this day, the 77th OZ Tank
Battalion's mission was clear, no enemy troops would pass through the valley between Tel
Hermonit and Booster. At approximately 0800 in the morning, this valley would became
the scene of some of the fiercest tank combat since the Battle of Kursk. This three
kilometre wide valley in the northern Golan would earn a new name this day and in
subsequent day's fighting. It would become known as the Valley of Tears.[ALL: NOVV]
[NOTE: This scenario represents the first battle for the Valley of Tears.][1.00]
[Mount Hermon, border Lebanon, Israel, Syria]: [H2H]:[HIS] On October 6 1973, the first
day of the Yom Kippur War, the Syrian army assaulted and captured the IDF radar outpost
on Mount Hermon. The Hermon outpost was considered strategically important for several
reasons, such as: gathering early warning information, real-time Intelligence collection,
conducting electronic warfare against ground or air attack, artillery spotting on the
Damascus Plain, using the Hermon ridge and its western slopes for a strategic flanking
move toward Syria, conducting operations in Syria and Lebanon and commanding Israel's
main water sources. Israeli Northern Command considered it imperative to recapture the
Hermon, for both moral and strategic reasons. A counter attack was planned for October
8th with parts of Golani Brigade's 51st Infantry Battalion and the 17th Infantry Battalion
attached to the headquarters of the 317th Reserve Parachute Brigade, responsible for
planning the operation. Lead by two tanks the force set out from Majdal al-Shams in the
morning of October 8th. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Qantara, Suez Canal, Egypt]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: Screening east of Qantara, the 600th
Armoured Brigade was contacted by Israeli High Command to begin to move south to
assist in the counterattack on El Firdan later that morning. Leaving a battalion o continue
screening the city, the bulk of the brigade began heading south. At approximately the same
time, the Egyptians began expanding their bridgehead in the Qantara sector with the goal of
capturing Artillery Road. Leading the assault was the 15th Armoured Brigade, lavishly
equipped with new T-62's. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[El Firdan, Suez Canal, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: On October 8th, Israeli High Command
insisted on destroying the Egyptian bridgeheads on the east bank of the Suez Canal and
capture a crossing to bring the fighting to Egyptian soil. Leading the assault was Lt. Col.
Yaguri's tank battalion. By this time, the Egyptians were well dug in and preparing to
expand their bridgehead out to the Artillery Road. Assembling over the bridges, the
Egyptian 23rd Mechanized Division was preparing to assault. A desperate action ensued in
the dunes north of Spontani Road. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Tel Masharah, Syria]:[SIDE A][HIS][CSL]: The Israeli counter-offensive began October 11,
1973 with two Ugda's advancing into Syria from the Golan Heights. On the right wing was
240th Ugda with four brigades. The Ugda had made significant gains on the 11th and was
paused to rearm after determined fighting by the Syrians. Scouts spotted movement to the
south advancing towards their position. After determining it wasn't another Israeli unit, the
240th repositioned an under-strength battalion of Shot Meteor tanks in the hills along the
advance route. Newly arrived the front, the Iraqi 3rd Armoured Division sent its 12th
Armour Brigade to seize the Tel al-Mal and Tel al-Shar hills. As the Iraqis advanced
without conducting any reconnaissance, they ran headlong into the guns of the Israeli
tanks. [ALL][NOTE: Only units active in the scenario are represented. There were a
number of other Israeli and Arab Brigades in the close proximity.][1.00]
[Tel Maschara, 12.5 km East of Kuneitra, Syria]: [H2H][HIS][BB]: With the outbreak of war
the Iraqi Government dispatched its 3rd Armoured Division to Syria. These two brigades
arrived in the first week ending October 11. An armoured brigade with 130 tanks and a
mechanized brigade with 50 tanks, they unloaded off their transports at the Great Leja on
Friday, 12 October. Before dawn the Iraqi tanks were advancing towards the southern flank
of the Israeli forces, which were moving towards Knaker in pursuit of the Syrian forces.
Observing the Iraqi approach, the Israeli's pulled back to set a trap near Tel Maschara,. On
the morning of Saturday, 13 October, the Iraqi 3rd Division moved right into the jaws of
the trap.[EFOW:AF:CC:VV]
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Into the Jaws of
Shlomo
Into
the
Hornet's Nest
Thorn
Budapest
of
Day
of
the
Centurion
Date
June 2016
Type
Scenario Description
Oct
14/73
H2H
Oct
15/73
H2H
[Ash Shatt, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Under political pressure as a result of the reverses on
the Golan Heights, the Egyptian high command started an offensive to tie down Israeli
troops. The offensive was conducted along a broad front by both the Second and Third
Armies. The Third Army was to attack and secure the passes, Mitla and Giddi, while 2nd
Army was to capture the Lateral Road. On the east bank of the southern end of the Suez
Canal was small town of Ash Shatt. Used by the 113th Mechanized Brigade, 6th
Mechanized Division as a staging area for the coming offensive. Passing through the 19th
Infantry Division frontline, the 113th Mechanized Brigade was tasked to move south to
secure the right flank of the main attack towards Mitla Pass. Although the initial assault
was successful, catching the Israeli's by surprise, the Israelis quickly recovered. [ALL:
NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Chinese Farm, Suez Canal, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: After crossing south of the Akavish
Road to avoid fire from the Egyptians defending the abandoned Japanese experimental
agricultural station, the "Chinese Farm", at the Titur and Lexicon crossroads, the Israeli
14th Armoured Brigade organized an assault to secure the crossroads. Skirting along the
canal, the 7th Tank Battalion was tasked with seizing the Egyptian bridges south of
Ismaylia. The 7th advanced unmolested past the Shick-Lexicon crossroads, as the
Egyptians were not expecting to have Israeli tanks behind their lines, until they ran into
elements of the Egyptian 21st Tank Division. After a brief battle, the remainder of the
battalion pulled back to the crossroads. Realizing the battalion had stumbled into the
logistical hub of the Egyptian 16th Infantry Division, the Israelis took advantage of the
situation. Further south, the Israeli 18th Tank Battalion following the 7th was attacked
from Egyptian positions along the Lexicon road. Once the Egyptians realize the Israelis
were in their midst counterattacking Egyptians secured the Titur-Lexicon crossroads,
cutting off the two Israeli battalions. During the night, the Israeli tank battalions under
continuous attack were going to be fighting for their lives. [ALL NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Budapest Outpost, Sinai Peninsula]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Fort Budapest was the northern
most fortification on the Bar Lev line. Unlike the other fortifications, Budapest was
situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast, 16.5 km from Port Fouad. The Egyptian 135th
Infantry Brigade tasked one battalion with capturing the fort. With the failure of the first
assault, a second attempt to take Budapest was ordered. In the new plan, Egyptian forces
would surround Budapest before conducting the attack. Additional forces were brought up,
including the 103rd Sa'iqa (Commando) Battalion. After crossing barefoot through the
marshes, the Egyptians commenced the battle just before dawn to seize the last Israeli held
fort on the Suez. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Golan Heights Syria, Israel, Syria, Jordan, Saudi]: [H2H][HIS][GD] On October 9th, King
Hussein of Jordan decided his army would enter the war. By that time it was clear that the
Syrian offensive had failed, but for political reasons would have to commit itself to the
battle. On 16 October, the Jordanians attacked towards Masharah with support from Saudi
and Syrian forces. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Missile Base 6214, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Israeli paratroopers from the 55th Airborne
Brigade crossed the Suez Canal during the early morning hours October 16th to establish a
small bridgehead near Deservoir. Meeting little resistance, they began expanding to the
north and west as the rest of the 55th Airborne Brigade crossed in the following waves.
After the paratroopers crossed, tanks were ferried across and assembled near Deservoir.
With 20 tanks, the paratroopers were tasked with breaking out of the green belt along the
canal to search for and destroy the Surface-to-Air Missile batteries providing the Egyptians
air cover since the early stages of the war. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Chinese Farm, Suez Canal, Egypt]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: With the 7th and 18th Tank
Battalions trapped north of the Tirtur-Lexicon crossroads, a task force was organized to
secure the crossroads. Consisting of two paratrooper companies and a tank company, the
Task Force began the assault under the cover of darkness to open a path to the trapped
Israelis. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[E.Shore of Great Bitter Lake, Sinai Peninsula]: [SIDE B/H2H][HIS][CSL]: With the
Israeli's creating a bridgehead across the canal across from Deservoir, the Egyptian high
command ordered counterattacks to seal off the crossing. From the north, the 16th Infantry
and 21st Armoured Divisions attacked the Israeli positions around the abandoned
agricultural station (Chinese Farm) while from the south the 25th Independent Armour
Brigade was advancing along the shores of Great Bitter Lake to partake in the engagement
in a pincer move. Alerted to the massive dust cloud formed by the long column of vehicles,
Oct
15/73
H2H
Oct 16,
1973
H2H
SAM Hunting
Oct
16/73
H2H
Shuneri at the
Crossroads
Oct
16/73
H2H
The Shores of
Great
Bitter
Lake
Oct
17/73
SIDE
B OR
H2H
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
Into Africa!
Oct
17/73
H2H
Sharon's
Quagmire
Oct
22/73
H2H
From
Russia
with Love
Oct
22/73
SIDE
A
Formalities
Suez
in
Oct
24/73
H2H
Battlefields
Old
of
Jul 21/77
H2H
Raid into Libya
Jul 24/77
H2H
June 2016
Scenario Description
the Israeli Air Force confirmed the Egyptian presence. A number of Israeli tank battalions
engaged the Egyptian column. [ALL: NOVV][NOTE: Only the Israeli tank battalions that
were engaged are represented in the scenario.][1.00]
[Deservoir, Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Israeli paratroopers, from the 243rd Airbourne
Brigade crossed the Suez Canal during the early morning hours October 16th and established
a small bridgehead near Deservoir. Meeting little resistance, they began expanding to the
north the following day while the Battle of Chinese Farm was in full swing. As the brigade
advanced north, resistance increased from a hodgepodge of units; mechanized infantry,
artillery, and commandos. The advance was slow even though it was supported by tanks
firing from the east bank. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Isma'liyah, Egypt]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: After securing and maintaining the bridgehead across
the Suez Canal, the 143rd Ugda was tasked with two objectives; capture the Missouri
position on the east bank and push north from the bridgehead to either cut-off the CairoIsma'liyah road or capture Isma'liyah proper. Advancing along the agricultural zone with
the paratroopers on the right and his tanks on the left, the Israeli brigades engaged in close
combat which stiffened the further north they went. [ALL][This scenario depicts the
advance of the 143rd Ugda over the course of several days][1.00]
[El Agrud, Suez Canal, Egypt]: [SIDE A][HISB][CSL]: As a small nation with limited
means, between 1967 and 1973 the Israelis initiated a program to upgrade the tanks of their
Armored Corps. As part of this program, Egyptian tanks captured during the Six Day War
in 1967 were upgraded to increase their capabilities on the modern battlefield. In contrast,
the Egyptians drawing upon Soviet stockpiles rapidly replaced their losses with no
requirement to upgrade their existing T54/55s. Early on 22 October 1973, as the fighting
raged on both sides of the Suez Canal, Israeli reserves appeared on the battlefield using the
refurbished and upgraded tanks captured from the Egyptians in 1967. Known as the Tiran,
the upgraded T54/55s of the Israeli Army sported the more powerful 105mm M68 Gun, a
new Diesel engine, and improved communications gear. Facing them on the western banks
of the Suez were T54/55s of the Egyptian Army which remained in the standard Soviet
configuration armed with the 100mm gun. It was a clash of Soviet armor in the Middle
East not envisioned by the military experts when the tanks were originally shipped to
Egypt.[ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Suez City (As Suez), Egypt]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Behind the Egyptian Third Army, the city
of Suez was thought to contain the supplies for the army. The Israeli's, having encircled the
city from the west, after crossing the canal and penetrating south from Deservoir, created a
task group based on tanks from the 217th Brigade and paratroopers from the Parachute
Battalion to capture the city before the 7:00 AM ceasefire deadline. As Egyptian forces had
been exiting the city and surrendering, the Israelis thought the mission would be a
formality. It wasn’t the push-over they were expecting. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Jaghbub, Eastern Libya]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: Relations between Egypt and Libya became
strained after the October War in 1973, with Egypt slowly trying to find peace with Israel.
Libya was one of the transitions most vocal critics and started a campaign of harassment
along the border during the mid-70's. Almost going to war in 1976 over the numerous
border clashes, Egypt reinforced the border area with two mechanized infantry divisions as
a show of force. Libya continued to train Egyptian dissidents as terrorists at several camps
throughout Libya and regularly dispatched them across the border to disrupt the Egyptian
regime. Border skirmishes grew in frequency and intensity finally escalating to the intense
skirmishes in July, 1977. On July 21, Libya conducted another battalion sized raid in the
vicinity of as-Sallum, this time, the Egyptians were prepared and counterattacked with a
large mechanized force. This scenario depicts the initial raid by the Libyan 9th Tank
Battalion and the subsequent Egyptian counterattack into Libya. Tank skirmishes broke out
over the familiar battlefields of the North African Campaign of World War Two.
[ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Jaghbub, Eastern Libya]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: Relations between Egypt and Libya became
strained after the October War in 1973, with Egypt slowly trying to find peace with Israel.
Libya was one of the transitions most vocal critics and started a campaign of harassment
along the border during the mid-70's. Almost going to war in 1976 over the numerous
border clashes, Egypt reinforced the border area with two mechanized infantry divisions as
a show of force. Libya continued to train Egyptian dissidents as terrorists at several camps
throughout Libya and regularly dispatched them across the border to disrupt the Egyptian
regime. Border skirmishes grew in frequency and intensity finally escalating to the intense
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Scenario
Date
Type
Hot
Knife
through Butter
Jun 10/82
H2H
Into the Ring
Jun 11/82
H2H
June 2016
Scenario Description
skirmishes in July, 1977. On July 21, Libya conducted another battalion sized raid in the
vicinity of as-Sallum, this time the Egyptians were prepared and counterattacked with a
large mechanized force. At the same time, numerous commando battalions were air-lifted
into Libya to assault radar sites, terrorist camps and forward logistics bases along the
border area. This scenario depicts one of those raids against the Al Jaghbub camps and
supply bases just prior to the ceasefire. [ALL: NOVV][NONE][1.00]
[Rachaiya, Lebanon]: [H2H][HIS][CSL]: A few days into Operation Peace for Galilee, the
Israeli operation to rid the Palestinian Liberation Organization from the northern border,
the right flank of the Israeli drive had advanced into the southern Beka'a Valley. The 252nd
Ugda advanced along the western side of the valley while the Special Maneuver Force
continued north towards the Damascus-Beirut highway. In the process the Special
Maneuver Force cut off communications of the Syrian 10th Armoured Division, now
surrounded in the hills south of Lake Karoun. The Syrian High Command decided to send
the 1st Armoured Division into the fray to help open a corridor to save the beleaguered
Division from destruction. Leading the way were T-72 tanks of the Syrian 1st Armoured
Brigade. [ALL][NONE][1.00]
[Khaldah, Lebanon]:[H2H][HIS][CSL]: The entire advance up the Lebanese Coast was
marked by a series of stubborn fanatical defenses as the PLO militias met the armour-heavy
IDF Task Forces head-on in the narrow streets of the refugee camps and Lebanese cities.
Again and again, attempts to clear routes along the coastal highway were met by barrages
of RPG fire, satchel charges dropped from roof tops and unseen flanking fires from heavily
fortified bunker positions. Israel’s 122nd Armoured Brigade, made repeated flank marches
around most of these strongholds, leaving the job of clearing them to the follow on forces
behind him. But this was no longer an option when they linked up with the 96th Division,
which had landed on the coast north of Sidon. The job now was to advance to the southern
suburbs of Beirut and capture the airport. But while this might have seemed an easy task,
especially considering the IDF's past performance versus other Arab irregulars, the fact was
that the PLO militias had shown remarkable resilience all through the campaign, and the
heavily urbanized, hilly terrain of Lebanon heavily favored the defender. Two major urban
centers still lay ahead. One was the coastal city of Damour, used as an urban training
center by the PLO and defended by elements of the PFLP, and the other was the southern
Beirut suburb of Khaldah. Damour fell on June 10, after heavy artillery and air
bombardment of its fortifications. But the stubborn resistance encountered there made as
the Israelis paused before advancing further. They sent the 35th Parachute Brigade,
reinforced by tanks, on a sweeping maneuver to the east hoping to find an alternate route
around enemy's positions, while the two remaining formations, the 122nd Armour, and the
famous Golani Infantry Brigade, deployed to attack Khaldah. It was decided the 122nd
would attack directly northwards up the coast road, while the Golani would conduct an
envelopment from the east through the wealthy Lebanese villages of Ainab, Yinnar and the
village of Kfar Sil. The Golani, already bloodied by several failed assaults on other
defended PLO positions, would be assisted by attached units of the equally famous Barak
Brigade most of which would remain in reserve. Meanwhile, the Syrian 85th Mechanized
Brigade, on a show of strength deployment in Beirut, began transferring elements to the
hilly country to the south and east of the city. These forces consisted largely of armor units
backed by well-trained commandos whose goal was to conduct an active anti-armor
defense designed to attrite and harass the IDF as much as possible while avoiding an all-out
war. The remainder of the Brigade was held in Beirut itself, preparing to defend the city in
the event of an Israeli breakthrough. The PLO leadership, previously panicked by the scale
of the Israeli advance, finally took heart from the Syrian example and made ready to defend
alongside their Arab compatriots. Like the PLO militias, the Syrians had shown a great
deal of resourcefulness throughout the war, and while still suffering defeats, had repeatedly
bloodied the overconfident Israelis whenever they were given a chance. On the morning
of June 11, 1982, the Israeli assault began, and for the next nineteen hours the two sides
would fight what would later be called the "most brutal battle of the war." [ALL][Based on
a scenario by Wyatt Kappley][1.00]
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
9.1 Sources
Many books and articles that I have acquired over the years were used to compile the information
necessary for producing relatively accurate scenarios. Relatively is a good term because in all the listed
sources, it is difficult to pinpoint an actual Order of Battle or even a consistent description of events.
9.1.1 Books
The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East, Chaim Herzog, Random House Inc., New
York, 1982, ISBN 0-394-50379-1
Challenge in the Middle East: Communist Influence and American Policy, Harry B. Ellis, The Ronald
Press Company, New York, 1960, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-15030
Israeli Tank Battles: Yom Kippur to Lebanon, Samuel M. Katz, Arms and Artillery Press, London, 1988,
ISBN 0-85368-868-0
The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7, 1967, Abraham Rabinovich, The Jewish Publication Society, USA,
1987, ISBN 0-8276-0285-5
Road to Suez: The Battle of The Canal Zone, Michael T. Thornhill, Sutton Publishing Limited, 2006,
ISBN 0-7509-4447-1
Israel’s Army, Samuel Katz, Presidio Press, Novato CA 1990, ISBN 0-89141-327-8
Duel for the Golan: The 100-Hour Battle that Saved Israel, Jerry Asher with Eric Hammel, Pacifica
Military History, USA, ISBN 0-935553-52-5
The Road to Ramadan: The Inside Story of How The Arabs Prepared for and Almost Won the October
War of 1973, Mohamed Heikal, Publisher Unknown, 1975 ISBN 0-00-211653-7
The Story of The Arab Legion, Brigadier John Bagot Glubb, London Hodder & Stoughton Limited, 1948
(No ISBN)
One Hundred Hours to Suez: An Account of Israel’s Campaign in the Sinai Peninsula, Robert Henriques,
Collins St Jame’s Place, London, 1957
The Six Days of Yad-Mordechai, Margaret Larkin, Keterpress Enterprises, Jerusalem, 1981
Diary of the Sinai Campaign 1956, General Dayan, Sphere Books Limited London, 1967
Suez, Hugh Thomas, Harper & Row, Publishers New York and Evanston, 1967
Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon, Richard A. Gabriel, Collins Publishers,
Toronto 1984
Diary of the Sinai Campaign, Major-General Moshe Dayan, Harper & Row, New York, 1966, ISBN 0306-80451-4
The Crossing of the Suez, Lt. General Saad El Shazly, American Mideast Research, USA, 2003, ISBN 09604562-2-8
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
The Great War for Civilization: The Conquest of the Middle East, Robert Fisk, Harper Collins Publisher,
2006, ISBN-13-978-1-84115-008-6
The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter that Transformed the Middle East, Abraham Rabinovich,
Schocken Books, New York, 2004, ISBN 0-8052-1124-1
The Liberation of Jerusalem, General Uzi Narkiss, Valentine Mitchell and Company Limitied, 1983,
ISBN 0-85303-209-2
The Suez Crisis 1956: Essential Histories, Derek Varble, Osprey Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1-84176-418-3
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: The Palestine War 1948, Essential Histories, Efrain Karsh, Osprey
Publishing, 2002, ISBN-13:978-1-84176-372-9
Israel’s fight for Survival: Six Days in June, Robert J. Donovan and the staff of the Los Angeles Times,
The New American Library Inc., New York, 1967
Strike Zion!, William Stevenson with a special section by Leon Uris, Bantam Books Inc., USA, 1967
The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Jonathan Schneer, Random House of
Canada Limited, 2010, ISBN 978-0-385-66258-1
The Routledge Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 7th Edition, Martin Gilbert, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0415-28117-2
No Victor, No Vanquished: The Yom Kippur War, Edgar O’balance, Presidio Press, Novato CA, 1991,
ISBN 0-89141-017-1
The Yom Kippur War: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973, Simon Dunstan, Osprey Publishing, 2007, ISBN
978-1-84603-288-2
Suez, Keith Kyle, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1992, ISBN 0-297-81274-2
Follow Me!: A History of Israel’s Military Elite, Samuel M. Katz, Arms and Armour Press Ltd., 1989,
ISBN 0-85368-784-6
The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Wars, Ritchie Ovendale, Longman, London and New York, 1984, ISBN
0-582-49257-2
Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 1948 – 73, John Laffin, Osprey Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-85045451-4
Jordan in the 1967 War, Samir A. Mutawi, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-52858-5
The War of Atonement: The Inside Story of the Yom Kippur War, 1973, Chaim Herzog, Greenhill Books,
1998, ISBN 1-85367-307-2
Genesis 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War, Dan Kurzman, The New American Library Inc., 1970,
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 77-96925
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East, Michael B. Oren, Oxford
University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-515174-7
French Foreign Legion: Infantry and Cavalry since 1945, Martin Windrow, Osprey Publishing, 2005,
ISBN 1-85532-621-3
Armour of the Middle East Was 1948-78, Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0-85045388-7
Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars 1947-1974, Trevor N Dupuy, Harper and Row Publishers, New
York, 1978, ISBN 0-06-0111127
The Six Day War 1967: Jordan and Syria, Simon Dunstan, Osprey Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84603364-3
Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991, Kenneth M. Pollack, University of Nebraska Press,
2004, ISBN 0-8-32-8783-6
The Albatross of Decisive Victory: War and Policy Between Egypt and Israel in the 1967 and 1973 ArabIsraeli Wars, George W. Gawrych, Greenwood Press, Westport CT, 2000, ISBN 0-313-31302-4
1948: The First Arab-Israeli War, Benny Morris, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008, ISBN 978-0300-12696-9
The Israeli Army 1948-1973, Edward N. Luttwak/Daniel Horowitz, Abt Books, Cambridge MA, 1983,
ISBN 0-89011-585-0
9.1.2 Articles
Archie, Flak, AAA and SAM: A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense, Kenneth P.
Werrell, Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 2002, ISBN 1-58566-026-4
Turning the Vertical Flank Airpower as a Maneuver Force in the Theater Campaign, Lt.Col. Robert P.
Givens, Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 2002, 36112-6615
Key to the Sinai: The Battles of Abu Ageila in the 1956 and 1967 Arab-Israeli Wars, George W.
Gawrych, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1990, KS-660276900
The Israeli Experience in Lebanon, 1982-1985, Maj. George C. Solley, Marine Corps Command and
Staff College, Quantico, Virginia, 1987
The Ramadan War, 1973, Col. Tarek A. Awad, Air University, USAF, Maxwell Air Force Base,
Alabama, 1986, AU-AWC-86-208
The Crossing of the Suez Canal, October 6, 1973, The Ramadan War, BG Hamdy Sobhy Abouseada,
U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 2000, 20000526-054
The Decisiveness of Israeli Small-Unit Leadership on the Golan Heights in the 1974 Yom Kippur War,
Maj. Oakland McCulloch, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, 1987, 20030929-084
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Arab-Israeli War October 1973: Lessons Learned, Lessons Forgotten, LCDR Steven Baxter, Naval War
College, New Port, R.I, 1994, 94-15397
Tracking the ‘Red Wolves of Radfan’, Editor, VFW Magazine, 2002
The French Campaign Against the FLN, Constantin Melnik, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica
California, 1968, AD 824975
Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, Constantin Melnik, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica
California, 1964, 10671-1-TSA
Pacification in Algeria, David Galula, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica California, (1963) 2006,
2006004404
COIN: East of Suez: Airpower and British neo-colonialism after 1960, Robert Craig Johnson, Journal of
Aviation History, 2005
The Israeli Defense Force's: Operational Synchronization During the Six Day War of 1967 (U), Maj.
Jimmy D. Smithers, Naval War College, New Port, R.I, 1997, 19970520-146
Operation Peace for Galilee: Operational Brilliance-Strategic Failure, LCDR Bradley M. Jacobs, Naval
War College, New Port, R.I, 1995, 19950417-036
Operational Art in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War (An Egyptian Perspective), CDR Gregory H. Cooper,
Naval War College, New Port, R.I, 1997, 19970814-149
Analysis of the Six Day War, June 1967, Maj. Charles B. Long, Air Command and Staff College, 1984,
84-10-02-035
The Limits of Air Control: The RAF Experience in Aden, 1926-1967, Maj. Tony R. Mullis, Air Command
and Staff College, 1997, AU/ACSC/0604/97-03
Crossing the Line of Departure: Battle Command on the Move: A Historical Perspective, John J.
McGrath, Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2006, 2006004990
“Egypt’s Vietnam” A Case Study of Egypt’s War in Yemen 1962-1967, Craig Thorn, 2009
The 1973 Arab-Israeli War, David T. Buckwalter, 2009
Order of Battle Summary, Foreign Ground Forces (U), 1 January 1967, United Arab Republic (Egypt),
Defence Intelligence Agency, USA, 2002, AP-220-1-4-67-INT
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
10.0 Unit List
10.1 Unit Information
For a comprehensive listing of the units and their attributes available in Middle East, please use the Unit
Viewer that came with your installation which can be accessed by pressing F3.
You may have to change the folder path, which you can do by pressing the Change Path button or by
editing the settings.txt file in the …middle_east/tools/JTCS_UnitViewer folder.
Beside the Middle East entry, modify the path to your game folder. An entry would look something like
this:
Middle East=i:\games\matrix\middle_east\middle_east
10.2 Using the Unit Viewer
The Unit Viewer allows you to cycle through all of the platoons available for each country in the Middle
East game.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
From the drop down menu on the left, choose the country you wish to cycle through. You can scroll
through the listing on the left and selecting a unit you wish to view the statistics about. The Unit View
provides you with all the important information about the selected unit. It allows you to listen to how it
sounds when it moves and fires, how it will look in the various modes on the map and it provided you
and Weapons Range Chart.
An additional feature is the ability to select a number of units and compare them. You can do so by
choosing a unit and pressing the Compare button. After you have decided on which units you wish to
compare, selecting the Compare Units tab will reveal information about those units. This is useful for
understanding your unit capabilities and assigning tasks for them while you play.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
The above shows a comparison between the Israeli M50 and M51 Sherman’s.
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
11.0 Middle East Terrain
11.1 Middle East Terrain and their effects
11.1.1 Middle East Terrain
The maps of Middle East cover numerous locations in the Middle East and North Africa, the geography
varying from the deserts of the Sinai to the forested regions of Lebanon. The Map Editor provides a suite
of different terrain types based on Northern Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa. Even though the hex
sizes are 250 metres across, there are a large number of different hex terrain types to assist in providing
you the most accurate map possible.
11.2.1 Terrain Hex Types
The following descriptions provide you with a description of the terrain, the Terrain Combat Modifier,
the Concealment Value, the Morale Modifier and the overall Height of the terrain.
11.2.2 Terrain Combat Modifier (TEM)
The Terrain Combat Modifier (TEM) is the amount of attack strength that is allowed to hit a target
occupying that terrain type.
For example; a unit attacking a target in clear terrain will allow 100% (TEM = 1.0) of the attack
strength to hit the target in the hex.
Additionally, if two or more modifiers apply, they all have an effect.
For example; a unit attacking a target in a forest hex behind a hedge would use 72% (TEM = .72
= .8 x .9) of its normal attack strength.
See Section 3.2 for a detailed explanation of how terrain influences Combat.
11.2.3 Terrain Concealment (TC)
The Terrain Concealment (TC) value is part of the concealment equation that determines if a unit can be
spotted is the hex it occupies. The larger the negative value, the better the concealment the terrain type
provides.
For example; a forest hex offers a Terrain Concealment of -3, while a beach offers no cover and
is assigned a +1.
See Section 3.2 for a detailed explanation of how terrain influences Concealment.
11.2.4 Morale Modifier
The Morale Modifier value influences the morale recovery calculation for a unit trying to recover
morale. The higher the Morale Modifier is, the more likely the unit is to pass a morale check.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
11.2.5 Height
The Height value is the overall height of the terrain and how it influences Line of Sight (LOS). Reading
the descriptions below will allow you to determine if the height of the terrain type will influence Line of
Sight. While most terrain will directly block Line of Sight, the taller terrain will also block Line of Sight
if looking across a low valley.
11.2.6 Hexes
Clear
Clear is open ground that provides little or no
cover. Non-armored units (only) in clear terrain
have their morale reduced by one when fired upon.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: 0
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Beach
Beach terrain represents a large expanse of flat, open,
sandy terrain along a coast line suitable for
conducting amphibious operations.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: +1
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 0m
Field
Fields come in three varieties: “in season”, “plowed” or
“out of season”. If in season, a field’s tall crops serve to
block some lines of sight. A “plowed” field provides no
cover (and is thus like open ground) but is a slight
impediment to some units’ movement “Out of Season”
fields are identical to “clear” terrain for all purposes.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: -1
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 2m
Shallow Water
This terrain represents water (most commonly found
along a shore line) that is shallow enough to allow
entry of vehicles and foot traffic. A unit in shallow
will not retreat (but will instead take an additional
casualty) unless it can retreat into a land hex.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: +3
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Water
Water represents an expanse of water, such as a
lake, river, canal or sea, deep enough to prohibit
entry by normal ground units without some form of
conveyance (such as rafts, boats or some type of
bridge).
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: +3
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Canal
Canal represents channel of water used for shipping. It
is deep enough to prohibit entry by normal ground units
without some form of conveyance (such as rafts, boats
or some type of bridge).
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: +3
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Orchard
This is a cluster of cultivated fruit trees. Orchard
terrain can also be used to represent an area of light
woods.
TEM: 0.9
Concealment: -1
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 8m
Forest
This represents a large expanse of virgin timber,
providing good cover and concealment benefits. Most
units require 65 Action Points to enter a forest hex,
except along a path, road or rail.
TEM: 0.8
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +1
Height: 25m
Swamp
This represents an inundated, swampy forest area.
Vehicular entry of an unfrozen swamp is prohibited
unless via some type of road. Unless in double-time
mode, infantry units require 65 Action Points to enter a
marsh hex, except along a path, road or rail.
TEM: 0.9
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 25m
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Marsh
This represents an area of low-lying wet land with a small
amount of cover. Vehicular entry into an unfrozen marsh
is prohibited unless via some type of road. Unless in
double-time mode, infantry units require 65 Action Points
to enter a swamp hex, except along a path, road or rail.
TEM: 0.95
Concealment: -2
Morale Mod: + 1
Height: 3m
Rough
Rough terrain is an area with large, craggy boulders and
small undergrowth, such that most wheeled vehicles
cannot enter the terrain unless via some type of road.
Tracked vehicle units require 65 Action Points to enter a
Rough Terrain hex, except along a path, road or rail.
TEM: 0.8
Concealment: -2
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 2m
Hamada
This is an open type of desert terrain that is strewn
with vast quantities of small rocks. While not a severe
hindrance to foot or fully tracked vehicles, this terrain
can be quite treacherous to wheeled vehicles.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: 0
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Cactus Patch
This represents an area, frequently cultivated, where
cactus thrive. A cactus patch provides a small
concealment benefit but no real cover. Infantry pick
their way slowly through cactus but it has only a
small effect on vehicles.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: -2
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 2m
Scrub
This desert terrain has a liberal amount of small
“scrub” bushes. While scrub does not provide any
cover benefit it does provide a small concealment
value.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: -1
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 0m
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Wadi
This desert terrain represents a dried river bed or
wash that provides a slight depression such that units
can gain some cover from it.
TEM: 0.8
Concealment: -2
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 0m
Soft Sand
This otherwise open stretch of desert represents an
area of unpacked soft sand. Moving through soft
sand is of course slower than moving through clear
desert.
TEM: 0.9
Concealment: 0
Morale Mod: -1
Height: 0m
Vineyard
Vineyard represents an area devoted to the
cultivation of grape arbors, found commonly in the
Mediterranean regions.
TEM: 1.0
Concealment: -1
Morale Mod: 0
Height: 2m
Village
This is a rural settlement. In Campaign Series village
structures are considered to be of wooden
construction.
TEM:0.7
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +2
Height: 10m
Suburb
This type of terrain represents a residential community of
tightly spaced dwellings such as workers settlements for
factories, usually on the outskirts of a large city. A road
is considered to enter a suburb from all hexsides,
otherwise a suburb is identical to a village.
TEM:0.7
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +2
Height: 10m
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
City
City terrain represents an urban area of large, brick
and concrete buildings providing very good
defensive benefits. A road is considered to enter a
city from all hexsides.
TEM:0.6
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +3
Height: 25m
Ruins
City, suburb, village and factory terrain (only) can be
rubbled. The terrain, concealment and morale modifiers
remain the same as the original terrain.
TEM: *
Concealment: *
Morale Mod: *
Height: 50%**
* Depends on the previous terrain type; ** Rubble height is 50% less than original terrain type.
Industrial
This is a large industrial complex providing excellent
defensive benefits.
TEM:0.5
Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +4
Height: 20m
Special Building
This represents a specific large building and
provides very good cover for non-vehicular units.
While vehicles can enter a SpecialBuilding hex, they
are considered to be outside the structure and thus
gain no defensive benefits from it.
TEM:0.6 Concealment: -3
Morale Mod: +3
Height: 15m
Hexside Terrain features in Campaign Series include...
Gully
This is a small, dry ravine that acts as an impediment to
movement.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Minor River
Minor river hexsides represent bodies of water that are
deep, or have steep enough embankments, to prohibit
movement over them unless via a bridge. Note that the
map art for minor rivers is a darker blue than the map
art for stream.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Stream
A stream represents a small body of running water that
hinders movement of most units, but is not deep or wide
enough to prohibit movement over it without a bridge.
Note that the map art for streams is a lighter blue than the
corresponding art for minor rivers.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Paved Road
This represents a road with an improved (paved)
surface—the best way for most units to travel fast.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Unpaved Road
This represents a “secondary” road with an unimproved
(usually dirt) surface. In the muddy season these are
usually best avoided.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Path
This represents a cart path or wide foot path. This is an
ideal way for infantry to move through wooded terrain.
The muddy season can also play havoc with these
features.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Railroad
While traveling along a railroad can be quicker than
blazing a new trail through woods, it can still be a slow
and bumpy ride for vehicles.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
High (fortified) Wall
This represents a very thick wall (usually poured
concrete). High Wall hexsides cannot be crossed by
any unit unless that high wall hexside has been
breached by Engineers
TEM:–
Concealment: +4
Special: Units cannot cross
Low Stone Wall
This represents a low stone wall sufficient to give
cover but not high enough to have an effect on line of
sight. Wheeled units cannot cross low walls
(Exception: motorized leaders).
TEM:0.8
Concealment: +2
Hedge
This represents a low hedge sufficient to give cover
but not sufficiently high or thick enough to have any
effect on line of sight.
TEM:0.9
Concealment: +2
Embankment
This is an abrupt rise in the ground, sufficient to
provide good cover. While all units can cross an
embankment, there is an additional cost due to the
steep slope.
TEM:0.8
Concealment: +2
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Escarpment
Similar to a cliff, but with less-steep and very eroded
slopes. Vehicles, except helicopters,4 may not cross
an escarpment hexside unless moving along a road.
TEM : –
Concealment: 0
Special: Vehicles cannot cross
Cliff
A high, steep face of rock, impassable to all units
except helicopters.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Special: No units may cross
Heavy Bridge
This full hex or hexside feature represents a bridge
that is sturdy enough to carry all types of traffic,
including heavy tanks. A full-hex bridge has a
stacking limit of 12 SP.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Medium Bridge
This hexside-only bridge is strong enough for trucks
and light tanks, but not sturdy enough for medium or
heavy tanks to safely cross
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Light Bridge
This hexside-only bridge represents a small bridge
that only the lightest vehicles can cross.
TEM:–
Concealment:0
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Pontoon Bridge
A pontoon bridge can be light, medium or heavy,
depending on the strength set for it in the scenario
editor. The capacity of a “heavy pontoon bridge” is the
same as the capacity of a “heavy (non-pontoon) bridge”,
etc. A pontoon bridge has a stacking limit of 12 SP.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Ford
This is a shallow place in a minor river or stream.
TEM:–
Concealment: 0
Dunes
This represents a ridge of wind-blown sand
sufficiently high enough to block line-of- and
provide cover
TEM: 0.8
Concealment: +2
Special: Blocks line of sight
Ditch
This represents a ridge of wind-blown sand
sufficiently high enough to block line-of- and
provide cover
TEM: 0.8
Concealment: 0
Crest
This represents a ridge of wind-blown sand
sufficiently high enough to block line-of- and
provide cover
TEM: 0.65
Concealment: +3
Special: Blocks line of sight
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
12.0 Modes of Play
12.1 Against the Computer
12.1.1 Playing Against the Computer
Playing against the computer is a fulfilling way to play the game, whether you are playing for the first
time, trying out new strategies, testing one of your newly created scenarios or battling your way through
a Linked Campaign.
12.1.2 How to…
Starting a game against the computer is straight forward.
1. Launch Middle East from the menu.
2. From the main menu, select Play Scenario
3. Check Standard and select the Start a New Game radio button.
That will take you the scenario selection screen. It is recommended to look for scenarios that are
classified as SIDE A or SIDE B in the description, which will be noted right after the location. Scroll
through the list and choose a scenario, once chosen, press OK.
After the game loads, you will be required to decide which Side to play. Choose the recommended Side
as described in the scenario description. It is recommend you check Fog-of-War and ensure that the
appropriate rules are chosen. In most scenarios, All Optional Rules, except Variable Visibility, are
intended to be used. Once your choices are decided and confirmed, press OK. Your choice will be the
default for future games; if you wish to change them, you will have to do so manually.
Depending on which Side you chose, you may play first or it may be that the A/I plays first. If it is your
Side that plays first, play through the turn and press End Turn. It will require you to save the file in the
…/middle_east/saves folder.
The default file is called: battle.btl. It is recommended that you use the following format for saving your
game file (your initials followed a description of the scenario name):
jp_bootcamp1.btl
After you’ve saved the file, you can continue to play the scenario until you are finished. If you wish to
finish it at a later date, you can save and reopen it later by choosing “Resume Saved Game” instead of
“Start a New Game” at the Scenario Type screen.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
12.2 Play-By-Email
12.2.1 Playing By Email
This game truly shines when you play against a Human Opponent. There are a few ways to do so, but the
most common is to Play-by-Email (PBEM).
12.2.2 How to…
Starting a PBEM game is similar to starting a regular game.
1. Launch Middle East from the menu.
2. From the main menu, select Play Scenario
3. Check Play-by-Email and select the Start a New Game radio button.
That will take you the scenario selection screen. It is recommended to look for scenarios that are
classified as H2H in the description, which will be noted right after the location. Scroll through the list
and choose a scenario, once chosen, press OK.
After the game loads, you will be required to decide which Side to play. Choose the recommended Side
as described in the scenario description. It is recommend you check Fog-of-War and ensure that the
appropriate rules are chosen. In most scenarios, All Optional Rules, except Variable Visibility, are
intended to be used. Once your choices are decided and confirmed, press OK. Your choice will be the
default for future games; if you wish to change them, you will have to do so manually.
Depending on which Side you chose, you may play first or it may be that the A/I plays first. If it is your
Side that plays first, play through the turn and press End Turn. It will require you to save the file in the
…/middle_east/saves folder.
The default file is called: battle.bte. It is recommended that you use the following format for saving your
game file (your initials, your opponent initials, followed a description of the scenario name):
jp_jm_jerusalem1967.bte
This format quickly allows you to see whom you are playing and which scenario you are playing, which
is handy if you are playing multiple people, or multiple scenarios with the same person.
After you’ve saved the file, it will ask you to enter a password. Passwords are recommended and should
be something you can easily remember.
Exit the program and use Windows Explorer to locate the saves folder where your file is now located.
You can place this file directly in an email to your opponent, or you can zip the file (right clicking on the
file and choose to compress or zip using your favourite compression tool). While zipping isn’t required,
it is recommended for larger scenarios as the files can get large.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
When you receive the turn back, you will place the file back into your …middle_east/saves folder and
overwrite the existing file.
To Continue a PBEM game:
1. Launch Middle East from the menu.
2. From the main menu, select Play Scenario
3. Check Play-by-Email and select the Resume an Existing Game radio button.
4. Choose the scenario you are playing
5. Enter your password and watch the replay
12.2.3 Finding Opponents!
There are three main methods for finding Human Opponents:
1. Join and post in the forum at Matrix Games. [ http://www.matrixgames.com ]
2. Join and post in the forum at The Blitz [ http://www.theblitz.org ]
3. Join and post in the Google group: The Wargamers Club for Gentlemen.
12.3 Playing Hot-Seat
12.3.1 Playing Hot-Seat
If you have a local opponent who doesn’t have a computer or you want to play on the same computer,
you can use the Two-Player Hot-Seat option. Note that Fog of War is automatically in effect for both
sides.
To begin a Hot-Seat game, follow the same procedure as beginning a regular scenario, except when you
are in the Scenario Type screen choose Two-Player Hot-Seat.
Once the scenario begins, the person playing the First Side will be prompted to begin his turn. When that
player has completed his turn, click the Next Turn button. The map will clear and the other player will be
prompted to begin his turn. Continue in this manner until the game is completed, or you need to break
and save the game.
The default file is called: battle.btt. It is recommended that you use the following format for saving your
game file (your initials, your opponent initials, followed a description of the scenario name):
jp_jm_jerusalem1967.btt
This format quickly allows you to see whom you are playing and which scenario you are playing, which
is handy if you are playing multiple people, or multiple scenarios with the same person.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
12.4 Playing Over a Local Area Network
12.4.1 Playing Over a LAN
If you have an opponent that is not local you can play online using the Play over LAN option. Note that
Fog of War is automatically in effect for both sides.
12.4.2 Step by Step
It is important for the Host to identify what their IP address is, as the Caller(s) will need to input this
address. You can identify your network IP address using the following steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open the Control Panel
Choose Network and Sharing Center
Click on “Local Area Connection”
Write down the IPv4 Address; for example, 192.168.1.103
On the Host system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Launch Middle East from the menu.
From the main menu, select Play Scenario
Check Modem Host and select the Start a New Game radio button.
Choose the scenario you wish to play. It is recommended to choose one that is designated as
H2H in the scenario description.
In the Player Dialog, enter your Player name and Press OK
In the Connection Dialog, select Internet TCP/IP Connection for Direct Play.
Depending on your Operating System, you may receive a Windows Network notification that
the me.exe wants to be unblocked. Allow this. Once done, it will not ask you again.
Choose your Local Side, check the box for Fog-of-War and the recommended Optional
Rules.
Wait for your other players to join.
On the Caller system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Launch Middle East from the menu.
From the main menu, select Play Scenario
Check Modem Caller and select the Start a New Game radio button.
Choose the scenario that the Host has chosen.
In the Player Dialog, enter your Player name and Press OK
In the Connection Dialog, select Internet TCP/IP Connection for Direct Play.
Enter the IP address provided by the Host in the Locate Session screen.
Select Middle East in the Session Dialog
A dialog will appear saying “You are the Commander for your side”. Select OK.
Play the game!
It is possible to have multiple Callers on the same game; they will be assigned units by their respective
commanders.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
13.0 Frequently Asked Questions
13.1 Frequently Asked Questions
The document is organized in the following question and answer categories;
Hardware & Operating System
General Game Parameter
Game Mechanics
Combat
HQ, Supply & Leaders
Helicopters
General Tactics
Building a Scenario
Miscellaneous
13.1.1 Hardware & Operating System
Question: What Operating System is the Middle East compatible with?
Answer: The game was thoroughly tested on Windows 7, 8 and 10
Question: What is a move data error -113?
Answer: The problem seems to be occurring on systems that are running drives on an MS-DOS
compatibility mode. From the START menu, select Settings, then Control Panel and open the System
Icon and click on the Performance tab. In the Performance Status area, look for the line listing “File
System”. If your file system is not currently 32-bit, that is the problem.
Question: What is an error code 486?
Answer: It is a password/registration issue. Right click on the game EXE  Properties  Compatibility
Tab  Check on the “Run this program as an administrator”
Answer: If the above does not work, a fresh install will be required.
Question: Vista: I have recently installed Middle East on my Vista machine but now I cannot get the
games to launch. When the game is launched, no matter the EXE used, the screen turns black and
then nothing happens. How can I get the game to launch?
Answer: It is a compatibility mode issue and can be corrected by right clicking on the game EXE files 
Properties  Compatibility Tab  Uncheck the Compatibility mode.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Question: Vista: When I scroll around the map, the map flashes white. How can I fix this?
Answer: By right clicking on each of the game EXE files  Properties  check the “Disable desktop
composition” should correct the problem.
Answer: Control Panel  Appearance and Personalization  Adjust Screen Resolution  Colours. Set
to Medium (16-bit) instead of High (32-bit)
13.1.2 General Game Parameter
Question: How do I know what game version I am running?
Answer: When in the game Press M (on the keyboard) to access the top menu  Help  About. A popup will appear displaying which version you are running.
Question: How do I update the game?
Answer: From the main menu, click the UPDATE button.
Answer: Go to http://www.matrixgames.com/ and to the Middle East page to see if there is an update
available for download. You will download a compressed zip file, which will need to be extracted.
Double click the extracted EXE file and follow the directions. Keep your GAME KEY handy as you will
need it during the update installation.
13.1.3 General Mechanics
Question: I have an error and not sure what to do?
Answer: The best way to get help is to post a note in the Technical Support sub-forum within the Middle
East forum at http://www.matrixgames.com
You will then hear back from Matrix Games Staff, the Campaign Series Legion, the Beta Brigade or
from one of the many helpful players of the game.
Alternatively, you can email your problem to [email protected]
It is best to provide a zip file containing all your log files found in your log folder and any save games
you have that would contain your issue. It is recommended to delete the logs in your logs folder and then
try to recreate the problem, zipping the new logs and emailing them above.
13.1.4 Combat
Question: When I combine units for Direct Fire, do the units combine their attack strengths for
improved odds?
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Answer: No. All units fire individually, with a number of attack dice rolls equal to the SP of the units.
Question: When I combine units for Indirect Fire, do the units combine their attack strengths for
improved odds?
Answer: No. All units fire individually
13.1.5 Headquarters, Supply and Leaders
Question: My units cannot maintain their Combat Efficiency, what am I doing wrong?
Answer: Keep your forces closer, companies within a few hexes of the company headquarters platoon
and those companies within eight to ten hexes of their parent battalion headquarters.
13.1.6 Helicopters
Question: Why can’t my helicopters move?
Answer: If the helicopter has Action Points and is not fixed, it most likely needs to be put in a flight
mode. This can be achieved by pressing the Up button on the Tool Bar.
Question: What are the flight levels?
Answer: G = Ground where the helicopter can load and unload units, N = Nap of the Earth, L = Low and
H = High.
Question: Why do my helicopters keep being shot down by Surface to Air Missiles?
Answer: It is recommended to fly in the N (Nap of the Earth) zone to minimize the effect of Surface to
Air Missile batteries.
Question: Can my helicopters hover and unload troops?
Answer: No, helicopters must be on the ground to load and unload troops.
13.1.7 General Tactics
Question: My tanks are being destroyed by anti-tank guided missiles. What do I do?
Answer: It is recommended to use a mixed task force to deal with anti-tank guided missiles. Sending in
infantry to help subdue the attacks will help minimize the attacks on your armour.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Question: How can I ambush armoured vehicles with anti-tank teams?
Answer: Use the terrain as much as possible. Find places where you can hide and get rear or flank shots,
this is where the armour is weakest. Make sure you identify places that have good line of site and are
within the minimum and maximum ranges of your anti-tank weapons.
13.1.8 Building a Scenario
Question: Where can I post my completed scenarios?
Answer: Creating an account on the Blitzkrieg Wargame club (http://www.theblitz.org) and uploading
your completed scenarios there will made available to other gamers.
Answer: Post on the Middle East forum at Matrix Games. Posting an After Action Report of your
scenario would be an added bonus!
13.1.9 Miscellaneous
Question: What are the best Port settings for hosting games?
Answer: You can use the following settings:
Protocol // Port (range) // Host Port
TCP // 2300-2400 // 2300
UDP // 2300-2400// 2300
TCP // 47624 // 47624
TCP // 6073 // 6073
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
14.0 Trouble Shooting
14.1 Technical Support
Should you have a technical problem with the game, the best way to get help is to post a note in the
Technical Support sub-forum within the The Campaign Series: Middle East forum at
http://www.matrixgames.com. You will then hear back from Matrix Staff, Campaign Series Legion, Beta
Brigade or from one of the many helpful players of the game. This is usually the fastest way to get help.
Alternatively, you can email your problem to [email protected]
14.2 Troubleshooting
In the following folder: …middle_east/logs/ there are a number of log files. If you wish to try and tackle
the issue yourself, this is a good starting point. You can look through the log files and see if there is
something simple that is missing or needs to be revised in order to solve your issue.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
15.0 Hot Keys
These Hot Keys can be used in Middle East:
F1
F2
F3
Keyboard 1
Keyboard 2
Keyboard 3
Keyboard 4
Keyboard 5
Number Pad 0
Number Pad 1
Number Pad 2
Number Pad 3
Number Pad 4
Number Pad 6
Number Pad 7
Number Pad 8
Number Pad 9
Delete
Page Up
Page Down
Home
End
A
Alt+A
Ctrl+A
B
Ctrl+B
C
Alt+C
D
Alt+D
Ctrl+D
E
Ctrl+E
F
Ctrl+F
G
Ctrl+G
H
Ctrl+H
I
Alt+I
Ctrl+I
J
Ctrl+J
Open Main program help file
Opens Unit Handbook for selected unit
Opens the Unit Viewer
Display in 3D Normal mode
Display in 3D Zoom-Out mode
Display in 3D Extreme Zoom-Out mode
Display in 2D Normal mode
Display in 2D Zoom-Out mode
Load/unload units
Move selected unit down and left
Move selected unit down
Move selected unit down and right
Turn selected unit counter-clockwise
Turn selected units clockwise
Move selected unit up and left
Move selected unit up
Move selected unit up and right
Turn selected unit counter-clockwise
Move helicopter into higher Flight Zone
Move helicopter into lower Flight Zone
Move selected unit forward in hex
Move selected unit backward in hex
.Highlight Anti-aircraft units
Add unit to existing Assault
Display reinforcements' Arrived Dialog
Toggle unit bases
Launch Human Wave (Banzai)
Toggle display of map contour lines
Clear existing Assault
Highlight Disrupted Units
Redraw display
Build Improved Position
Highlight Mine units
Remove from map
Highlight units that have fired
Save AP’s for Firing
Display Range
Engineer Task Dialog
Toggle display of hexes reachable by selected unit
Build Hexside Light Bridge
Highlight Indirect Fire Units
Activate A/I
Graphical Unit Icons
Display Jump Map
Build Barrier
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
K
Ctrl+K
L
Ctrl+L
M
N
Ctrl+N
O
Alt+O
Ctrl+O
P
Ctrl+P
Q
Ctrl+Q
R
Alt+R
Ctrl+R
S
Ctrl+S
T
Ctrl+T
U
Ctrl+U
V
Ctrl+V
W
Ctrl+W
X
Ctrl+X
Y
Ctrl+Y
Z
Ctrl+Z
Up Arrow
Down Arrow
Right Arrow
Left Arrow
Space Bar
Shift + Ctrl + Fire
Shift + Alt + Fire
TAB (Map Editor)
Display Units
Initiate air attack on current Hot Spot hex
Highlight Leaders
Load/Unload
Highlight moved units
Advance to next unit to move or fire
Lay minefield
Toggle display of Objectives
Show Odds
Display Opaque Individual Info Box
Return to previous unit to move or fire
Opportunity Fire Control Dialog
Highlight Headquarters
Doubletime
Rotate map 180 degrees
Resolve existing Assault
Display Release Scheduled Dialog
Highlight Spotted
Display reinforcements' Scheduled Dialog
Toggle display of on-map thermometers
Next Turn
Toggle display of Unit List
Save AP’s for Moving
Toggle display of Visible Hexes
Build Hexside Medium Bridge
Show Command Range of selected HQ
Display Artillery Dialog
Highlight Fixed
Show Hex Outlines
Highlight units low on ammo
Move unit to top of stack
Highlight Organization
Move unit to bottom of stack
Scroll map up
Scroll map down
Scroll map right
Scroll map left
Re-center map on selected hex/unit
Allows Engineers and artillery to plot smoke
Allows capable units to fire star shells
Cycles through selected terrain
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
16.0 How to Mod
16.1 Graphics
16.1.1 Modifying Unit Graphics
Most graphical elements of the Middle East are editable; from the terrain to the unit graphics.
Would you like to see T-55’s with a particular camouflage scheme? Are you having difficulty seeing the
infantry units against the background and would like to brighten them up? Do you have a more detailed
graphic for a particular unit that you would like to replace? It is all possible.
16.1.2 Anatomy of a Unit Graphic
At minimum, each unit graphic consists of two files: a graphic file and an outline file. The graphic file is
a BMP of the unit that you will see on the map and the outline is a 1-bit black and white BIT that is the
outline of the unit.
The Unit Graphic file is identified as: Up220024.bmp
 Up designates the Unit Graphic
 220024 designates which unit in the platoon oob file that the unit graphic is for
 .bmp is the file type
 It is an 8-bit, 256 colour BMP. (NOTE: if your computer supports it, you can convert the
graphics to 24-bit, 16 million colour BMP’s. They come standard as 8-bit, 256 colour because in
some cases, depending on the machine, the graphics do not appear when the graphics are 24bit.)
The outline file is identified as: Op220024.bit
 Op designates it as the outline file
 220024 designates which unit graphic the outline is for
 .bit is the file type
 It is a 1-bit, black and white file.
You can determine which unit graphic any particular unit uses by looking in the platoon##.oob file. If
you open the file with a text editor (Notepad, WordPad, UltraEdit, etc) the platoons will be laid out in a
format as follows:
P220024
62 1 75
P220025
62 1 75
4 8 9 40
12 9 5 4
3 8 9 40
12 9 5 4
0 0 45 22 40
Sherman M51 ,
0 0 45 22 40
Sherman M51 ,
3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220024 7 33 16 1 0 15
Sherman M51 , Isherman
3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220024 7 33 16 1 0 15
Sherman M51 , Isherman
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
The yellow highlighted number shows you that the Sherman M51 (Isherman) listed above will use the
Up220024.bmp for the on map graphic. Ensure you do not use the green highlighted number, as that is
only the unique platoon ID number and may be different than the graphic ID number.
Additional Unit Graphic Types:







Mp220024.bmp – This is the unique graphic that displays when the original Up220024.bmp is
“loaded”.
Mp220024.bit – This is required outline file for the Mp220024.bmp file.
Sp222004.bmp – This is the snow covered graphic that displays when the original
Up220024.bmp is used in winter scenarios. These are also the graphic name that the off-map
aircraft use.
Xp220024.bmp – This is typically the version of the original Up220024.bmp graphic as it
travels through water.
Xp220024.bit – This is the required outline file for the Xp220024.bmp file.
E-Up220024.bmp – Found in the Special folder, this is the early camouflaged version of original
Up220024.bmp graphic. The dates for the timeframe for their use are dependent on the nation.
These must use the original Op220024.bit outline file of the original graphic; therefore, any edits
must be within the original graphic extents.
L-Up220024.bmp – Found in the Special folder, this is the late camouflaged version of original
Up220024.bmp graphic. The dates for the timeframe for their use are dependent on the nation.
These must use the original Op220024.bit outline file of the original graphic; therefore, any edits
must be within the original graphic extents.
16.1.3 Altering the Appearance of a Unit Graphic
Each unit is represented by an image file (8-bit, 256 colour BMP) consisting of the unit portrayed
clockwise from six oblique view points; rear, right-rear, right-front, front, left-front and left-rear. The
importance of this is that if you decide to modify one of the views of a unit, you will typically have to
modify the five other views as well.
Zooming into one of the views using your favourite photo editing software (PHOTOPAINT, Photoshop,
etc) you will notice that each unit consists of a series of different coloured pixels. You will also notice
that there are only so many pixels available for each unit, due to their small size. The attention to detail
and shading of the unit graphic gives the illusion of a “3D” appearance when playing on the map.
Depending on how artistically inclined and how proficient you are with your software, it may take some
trial and error to adjust the unit graphic to how you want it. Always make a back-up copy before you start
in case something goes astray. Remember to stay within the outside edges of each view, otherwise you
will have to make a new outline file, which can be a very tedious affair.
16.1.4 Replacing an existing Unit Graphic
What if you don’t like a particular graphic and wish to replace it altogether?
No problem, you can create your own unit graphics to your heart’s content, but you will have to create a
new outline file for your unit graphic. There are two methods for doing so, one is time consuming and the
other consists of a number of steps. I tend to use the latter as I am creating a large number of outlines at a
time.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Method One: Drawing Outlines:
While there are fewer steps, this generally takes a lot longer to complete.
Step 1 – Create a copy of your original Up######.bmp file
Step 2 – Erase any shadows you have created on the original Up######.bmp file
Step 3 – Draw the outlines around the six views of your units in black
Step 4 – Erase everything from within the black outlines
Step 5 – Convert the drawing to a 1-bit, black and white graphic (Conversion Method: Line Art:
Threshold = 255)
Step 6 – Save as Op######.bit
Method Two: Software Outlines:
The method below requires that you have Corel PHOTOPAINT X7 installed. While it looks longer, it is
only a series of mouse clicks in order to obtain the desired result, which you can almost automate if you
are doing a number at a time.
Step 1 – Create a copy of your original Up######.bmp file
Step 2 – Erase any shadows you have created on the original Up######.bmp file
Step 3 – Convert the drawing to a 1-bit, black and white graphic, the unit graphics should be black and
the background should be white. (Conversion Method: Line Art: Threshold = 255)
Step 4 – Convert the drawing to a 24-bit, RGB graphic
Step 5 – Replace the Black colour with R:255 G:102 B:0 (Ignore Grayscale; Single Destination color;
Range: 0)
Step 6 – Replace the White background with R:255 G:204 B:0 (as above)
Step 7 – Effects  Sharpen  Unsharpen Mask  Percentage: 500; Radius: 1; Threshold: 0
Step 8 – Zoom in and replace the newly formed light yellow outline with Black
Step 9 – Replace colour with white (Ignore Grayscale; Single Destination color; Range: 100)
Step 10 – Convert the drawing to a 1-bit, black and white graphic
Step 11 – Save as Op#####.bit (Conversion Method: Line Art: Threshold = 255)
Once you have the Unit Graphic (Up######.bmp) and Outline (Op######.bit) files complete, you can
copy and paste them into your game folder. As these are new graphics, you will also have to check to see
if there are the other unit graphic types listed above. If so, you will also have to either delete and/or
replace them.
16.1.5 Creating and Adding a new Unit Graphic
What if you notice that a platoon is using an existing graphic and would like to make it have its own
unique graphic?
P220024
Sherman
P220025
Sherman
4 8
M51
3 8
M51
9
,
9
,
40 0 0 45 22 40 3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220024 7 33 16 1 0 15 62 1 75 12 9 5 4
Sherman M51 , Isherman
40 0 0 45 22 40 3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220024 7 33 16 1 0 15 62 1 75 12 9 5 4
Sherman M51 , Isherman
Notice the two green highlighted numbers, they are two unique platoon ID’s, while the two yellow
highlighted numbers are the unit graphics. If you wanted the 3 Strength Point Sherman M51 (P22025) to
have a unit graphic different than the Up22024.bmp graphic that is referencing, you must edit the platoon
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
file.
P220024
Sherman
P220025
Sherman
4 8
M51
3 8
M51
9
,
9
,
40 0 0 45 22 40 3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220024 7 33 16 1 0 15 62 1 75 12 9 5 4
Sherman M51 , Isherman
40 0 0 45 22 40 3 5 1 12 0 1 6 4 P220025 7 33 16 1 0 15 62 1 75 12 9 5 4
Sherman M51 , Isherman
Editing the platoon file is a straight forward process; you can do so in a text editor; such as, Notepad.
After you have edited the file and saved it, you will need to have the file encrypted in order for your
changes to register. You can do so by zipping up your edited file and sending the zip file to:
[email protected] with an “Encryption Required” in the subject. The file will be returned to you
with the necessary encrypted file.
16.2 Order of Battles
16.2.1 Modifying Order of Battles
The following will provide a guideline on how the order of battle files are build, the logic behind the
number system and how you can add to them. With practice, creating Order of Battles that can be used
within the organization editor is pretty straight forward and an easy method for adding and using
organizations repeatedly.
For testing purposes, I highly recommend creating a shortcut to your desktop to the Organization Editor.
You can find the correct EXE file in your installation; for example, you would right-click on the
meorg.exe file that you find in: …\middle_east\meorg.exe and choose: Send To  Desktop (create
shortcut)
16.2.2 Anatomy of the Order of Battles
Based on issues that I noticed with the East Front and West Front games having different organizations
for the Germans in each game lead to me to create a system where it would be easy to move a country
from one game to another.
All of the Order of Battle files have the file extension *.oob. With the exception of the platoon##.oob
files, all of the Order of Battle files (*.oob) are readily available to edit. While you can edit the
platoon##.oob file, it does require encryption. The following will assume that no edits to the
platoon##.oob files are done, but you still need to know key elements of the file in order to build the
other Order of Battle files.
You can open any of the oob files in your favourite text editor; Notepad, WordPad, UltraEdit, etc.
The Platoon##.oob file: (## is the two digit number that references the nationality code. See 16.2.4)
Opening one of the platoon files with a text editor, you will get a series of lines that look like this, with
the most important elements highlights and described below:
P080001 3 3 2 40 0 0 88 27 9 2 2 3 10 0 1 53 21 P080001 4 40 0 1 16 8 48 1 70 12 2 1 1
M8 Armored Car Section , M8 Arm'd Car Sec ,
P080001 refers to the unique platoon ID
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
3 is the number of Strength Points the platoon has
4 is the Victory Point values of each Strength Point.
48 1 70 12 is the start and end date of the platoon: 48 1 = Start YY MM; 70 12 End YY MM
Apart from the unique platoon ID, one should pay particular attention to the start and end dates of the
platoons they are going to use in their organizations because most errors in the oob files stem from using
a platoon that is not available at a particular time.
Design Note #1:
You will notice in the platoon##.oob files that there is a pattern to the numbers. That pattern is as
follows:
PXX0001 – PXX0999
PXX1001 – PXX1999
PXX2001 – PXX2999
PXX3001 – PXX3999
PXX4001 – PXX4999
PXX5001 – PXX5999
PXX6001 – PXX6499
PXX6501 – PXX6799
PXX6801 – PXX6999
PXX7001 – PXX7999
PXX8001 – PXX8499
PXX8501 – PXX8799
PXX8800 – PXX8999
PXX9001 – PXX9499
PXX9501 – PXX9999
Tanks, Light Tanks, Self-propelled Gun (as SU-100)
Artillery (Self-propelled and towed)
Infantry (All types)
Headquarters (All types)
Leaders (All types)
Off-map Airplanes (All types)
Reconnaissance Vehicles (Armoured Cars, Recce Jeeps, etc)
Helicopters and ON MAP aircraft (All types)
Naval Units (Boats, Landing Craft, etc)
Transport units (All types of Trucks, APC’s, IFV’s, etc)
Antiaircraft (Self-propelled, towed, man portable)
Spare
Misc Buildings, special units (Factories, News Crews, etc)
Antitank (Self-propelled, towed, man portable)
Spare
The Company##.oob file: (## is the two digit nationality code. Example; Company22.oob)
Using your text editor to open one of the Company oob files, you will see a number of different
companies organized by year. Example:
48
48
48
48
48
01
01
01
01
01
51
51
51
51
51
12
12
12
12
12
C2200203 5 Tank Company 48 - R35 - 30VP
P220005 1st Platoon
P220004 2nd Platoon
P220004 3rd Platoon
P220004 4th Platoon
48 01 51 12 is the start and end date of the platoon: 48 01 = Start YY MM; 51 12 End YY MM
NOTE: While similar to the platoon dates, the primary difference is that months from January to
September require a 0 in front of them. January = 01, July = 07
C2200203 refers to the unique company ID
5 is the morale of the company
Tank Company 48 – R35 refers to the company name, starting year of the organization and
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
prominent vehicle type in the company
30VP is the total Victory Points for the company
Excluding the platoon##.oob file, all of the oob files are laid out in a similar manner.
The unique Company ID can further be broken down: C2200203
C refers to the organization numerical code (See Design Note #2)
22 refers to the nationality code; this is an Israeli Company (See Section 16.2.4)
0 refers to the organization numerical code (See Design Note #3)
0 identifies this company as a TANK unit. (See Design Note #4)
203 is the unique ID for this tank company. (These are structured, see Design Note #5)
Design Note #2: What are the alphabetical organization codes?
Each organization type has a specific alphabetical code:
P – Platoon
C – Company
B – Battalion
R – Regiment
G – Brigade
D – Division
K – Corps
A – Army
These codes are essential for distinguishing the organization structure within the order of battles and for
setting up Dynamic Campaign organizations.
Design Note #3: What are the numerical organization codes?
Each organization type has a specific numerical code:
0 – Company
1 – Battalion
2 – Regiment
3 – Brigade
4 – Division
5 – Corps
6 – Army
These codes are essential for distinguishing the organization structure within the order of battles and for
setting up Dynamic Campaign organizations.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Design Note #4: How are the organizations classified?
From the above example (C2200203) we determined that the unit above was a tank company.
Here is a breakdown of the additional classifications for organizations.
0 – Armour
1 – Artillery (Towed and Self-propelled; Rockets, Mortars, Artillery)
2 – Infantry (Infantry, Commando, Militia, etc)
3 – Anti-tank (Towed, Self-propelled and Infantry)
4 – Assault Gun
5 – Engineer
6 – Reconnaissance/Cavalry
7 – Helicopter
8 – Anti-Aircraft
9 – Transport
Design Note #5: How are the unique ID’s additionally structured?
Notice in the OOB files that there are units that are named and units that are generic. The generic units
start their numbering at 201 while named (historic) units start their numbering at 701.
For example:
Generic: (201 – 699)
48 01 51 12 G2230201 7 Armoured Brigade 48
48 01 51 12 P223005 Brigade HQ
48 01 51 12 B2210201 Tank Battalion 48
…
Historic: (701 – 999)
48 06 48 12 G2230701 5 7th Armoured Brigade
48 06 48 12 P223005 Brigade HQ
48 06 48 12 B2212206 71st Infantry Battalion
…
Additionally, there is a set of numbers available for Dynamic Campaigns (001 – 199). While Dynamic
Campaigns are not available with the initial release of Modern Wars: Volume I, they are planned for
future UPDATES.
Dynamic Campaigns: (001 – 199)
48 01 49 12 G2230001 5 Tank Brigade
48 01 49 12 P223005 Brigade HQ
48 01 49 12 B2210002 Tank Battalion
Example Organizations:
Based on the discussion above here are some examples of how the coding works. Pay attention to how all
the codes vary depending on the organization structure.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
This is an Israeli tank battalion:
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
B2210257 7 Tank Battalion 79 - Merkava I - 426VP
P223008 Group HQ
C2200269 Headquarters Group 79 - Merkava I
C2200270 Tank Company 79 - Merkava I
C2200270 Tank Company 79 - Merkava I
C2200270 Tank Company 79 - Merkava I
C2200268 Armoured Support Company 77
P22718 Nagmash
This is a British Armoured Brigade:
72
72
72
72
70
70
01
01
01
01
01
01
77
77
77
77
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
G0930230 6 Armoured
P093004 Brigade HQ
B0910205 Royal Tank
B0910205 Royal Tank
B0912289 Mechanized
B0912292 Mechanized
Brigade 72 - Centurion Mk 5/1/FV432
Regiment
Regiment
Infantry
Infantry
72 - Centurion
72 - Centurion
Battalion 70 Battalion 70 -
Mk 5/1
Mk 5/1
FV432/MOBAT
FV432/MOBAT/MILAN
This is a French Foreign Legion Infantry Company:
66
66
66
66
66
66
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
C0802308 8 Foreign Legion Infantry Company 67
P082088 1st Platoon
P082088 2nd Platoon
P082088 3rd Platoon
P081004 Mortar Platoon
P082012 HMG Squad
16.2.3 Adding new Order of Battles
The following will be a Step-by-Step guide on how to add a new, hypothetical division-sized
organization to the Israeli’s. You can use some or all of the following to create your own organizations.
Step 1: The Plan
Before you begin putting the files together, you should have an idea of what your ultimate organization
will look like. Whether that be an Order of Battle schematic you found in a book or online or a sketch
you created outlining your new organization, it is important to have a reference to assist your
organization building.
For this example, I will create a large division sized unit (Ugda) for the Israeli army that consists of tank
heavy units to conduct an imaginary Blitzkrieg campaign across the Sinai in a hypothetical war against
Egypt in 1985. I have sketched out what the hypothetical organization would be on some paper and am
ready to begin!
Step 2: Where to start?
I will typically start with the largest organization I need to create and then fill in the lower organizations
as I need them. In this case, since my ultimate goal is a division sized unit, I will start with the division
file. Based on the Nationality ID Codes (See 16.2.4), we can determine that Israeli’s nationality code is
22, so I will open Division22.oob to start.
Scrolling to the bottom of the file, I will see the following:
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[---------------------------------- USER Formations ---------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 D2244023 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! **********
A convenient place to put your new organization! Brilliant!
The next step would be to start your division organization. Copying the first line from the division
organization above the User Formations area:
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[---------------------------------- USER Formations ---------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 D2244023 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! **********
85 01 85 12 D2240214 7 Armoured Ugda 85 - Merkava I/Sho't Kal/Magach 6A
The dates are good for what I want to use, so I will change the name of the organization:
85 01 85 12 D2240214 7 Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda
When you open the organization editor, when we are complete, you will see the Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda
listed in the Israeli Division portion for 1985.
The organization number will be simplified, so I know to change it later to something proper:
85 01 85 12 D224XXXX 7 Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda
The Ugda needs a headquarters platoon; I will copy and paste a division HQ platoon from an existing
division and paste it directly under the Sinai Ugda reference. It will look like this:
85 01 85 12 D224XXXX 7 Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda
85 01 85 12 P223003 Ugda HQ
There we go; the first element of the new organization is nearly complete.
Step 3: Building Organizations
The organization I have drawn out shows the Sinai Ugda will consist of three tank-heavy brigades with
some miscellaneous support units. With that, I will open up the Brigade22.oob file and scroll to the
bottom to add a new organization.
Following the same procedure as the division file, I will copy and paste a portion of an existing Brigade,
rename and renumber as follows:
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[-----------------------------------User Formations ---------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 G2234028 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! ******
85 01 85 12 G223XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Brigade
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
As above, I will copy and paste an existing brigade HQ into my organization:
85 01 85 12 G223XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Brigade
85 01 85 12 P223005 Brigade HQ
Now we need to add some battalions to the new tank brigade. For now, I will copy and paste some
existing battalions from one of the organizations above: changing the dates, names and codes:
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
G223XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Brigade
P223005 Brigade HQ
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
According to my drawing, the Brigade also has some support companies attached to it; reconnaissance,
self-propelled mortars and self-propelled anti-aircraft battery. Adding them to under the battalions, the
organization should look like this:
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
G223XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Brigade
P223005 Brigade HQ
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
B221XXXX Sinai Tank Battalion
C220XXXX Reconnaissance Company
C220XXXX Heavy Mortar Battery
C220XXXX Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Battery
With the Brigade22.oob file started and ready, time to open the Battalion22.oob file, scrolling to the
bottom and proceeding with the above steps to produce the following:
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[------------------------------------User Formations --------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 B2214030 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! **********
85 01 85 12 B221XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Battalion
85 01 85 12 P223008 Group HQ
The hypothetical tank battalions are to consist of three tank companies, one mechanized infantry
company and one Headquarters Company.
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
B221XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Battalion
P223008 Group HQ
C220XXXX Headquarters Company
C220XXXX Tank Company
C220XXXX Tank Company
C220XXXX Tank Company
C220XXXX Mechanized Infantry Company
Now moving to the Company22.oob file, scrolling to the bottom and adding the companies listed above
so it looks like this:
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[---------------------------- Israeli Company Formations ----------------------------------]
[--------------------------------Added by Jason Petho--------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 C2204034 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! **********
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX 7 Headquarters Company
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX 7 Tank Company
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX 7 Mechanized Infantry Company
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX Reconnaissance Company
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX Heavy Mortar Battery
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Battery
With the company headings laid out, we have to add platoons to each of the companies. Starting with the
Headquarters Company, I will open the Platoon22.oob file and determine which platoons I want to add to
the company. A typical Headquarters Company for the Israeli tank battalion included a couple of tanks (2
Strength Point, Merkava II), an infantry reconnaissance squad (2 Strength Point, Reconnaissance Platoon
71) with mechanized transport (1 Strength Point, Yayzata) and a self-propelled mortar platoon (4
Strength Point, M3 Mk. D). I add the necessary platoons to look like this:
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C220XXXX 7 Headquarters Company
P220062 HQ
P222076 Reconnaissance Squad
P227079 Yayzata
P221011 M3 Mk. D
Using the same procedure, I add a headquarters tank section (2 Strength Point, Merkava II) and three
tank platoons (3 Strength Point, Merkava II)
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C220XXXX 7 Tank Company
P220062 HQ
P220061 1st Platoon
P220061 2nd Platoon
P220061 3rd Platoon
The Mechanized Infantry company gets three mechanized infantry platoons (6 Strength Point, Armoured
Infantry 75(GAL)) and heavy mechanized transport (3 Strength Point, Achzarit)
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
C220XXXX 7 Mechanized Infantry Company
P222077 1st Platoon
P222077 2nd Platoon
P222077 3rd Platoon
P227019 Achzarit
P227019 Achzarit
P227019 Achzarit
The Reconnaissance company will consist of two tank platoons (3 Strength Point, Merkava II), two
reconnaissance platoons (6 Strength Point, Armoured Infantry 75(GAL)) and heavy mechanized
transport (3 Strength Point, Yayzata)
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
C220XXXX Reconnaissance Company
P220061 Merkava II
P220061 Merkava II
P222076 Reconnaissance Platoon
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
85 01 85 12 P222076 Reconnaissance Platoon
85 01 85 12 P227078 Yayzata
85 01 85 12 P227078 Yayzata
The Heavy Mortar Battery will consist of two Self-propelled heavy mortar sections (2 Strength Point, M3
Mk. D)
85 01 85 12 C220XXXX Heavy Mortar Battery
85 01 85 12 P221012 M3 Mk. D
85 01 85 12 P221012 M3 Mk. D
The Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft battery consists of four Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft sections (2 Strength
Point, Hovet)
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C220XXXX Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Battery
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
Now the basic organizations for the Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda have been completed, we can start numbering
the organizations so they will work in the Organization Editor. I described the intended organization
numbering system at the beginning of the document. As the numbering system is designed to be using
the lowest numbers first, I recommend using the highest numbers of the classifications. Since the
organization I am building is a hypothetical organization, I will add it to the “General” numbering set;
which spans from 201 – 699. Which means I will start my numbers at 699 and work backwards in the
hopes of avoiding have the organizations being replaced in future updates.
I start with the companies and begin numbering:
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C220X699 7 Headquarters Company
P22062 HQ
P222076 Reconnaissance Squad
P227079 Yayzata
P221011 M3 Mk. D
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C220X698 7 Tank Company
P220062 HQ
P220061 1st Platoon
P220061 2nd Platoon
P220061 3rd Platoon
Since these are both armour related companies, I will code them with 0:
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C2200699 7 Headquarters Company
P220062 HQ
P222076 Reconnaissance Squad
P227079 Yayzata
P221011 M3 Mk. D
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C2200698 7 Tank Company
P220062 HQ
P220061 1st Platoon
P220061 2nd Platoon
P220061 3rd Platoon
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
There we go, the first two completed companies! Using the steps above and following the numeric
system described in the beginning, I will proceed to number and reorganize the remaining companies
which will ultimately resemble this:
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
[---------------------------- Israeli Company Formations ----------------------------------]
[--------------------------------Added by Jason Petho--------------------------------------]
[------Armour, Artillery, Infantry, AT, Assault Gun, Eng, Recce, Moto, AA, Cav/Air---------]
[------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]
48 01 85 12 C2204034 6 ********** !! USER FORMATIONS !! **********
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C2200699 7 Headquarters Company
P22062 HQ
P222076 Reconnaissance Squad
P227079 Yayzata
P221011 M3 Mk. D
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C2200698 7 Tank Company
P220062 HQ
P220061 1st Platoon
P220061 2nd Platoon
P220061 3rd Platoon
85 01 85 12 C2201699 Heavy Mortar Battery
85 01 85 12 P221012 M3 Mk. D
85 01 85 12 P221012 M3 Mk. D
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
C2202699 7 Mechanized Infantry Company
P222077 1st Platoon
P222077 2nd Platoon
P222077 3rd Platoon
P227019 Achzarit
P227019 Achzarit
P227019 Achzarit
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
C2206699 Reconnaissance Company
P220061 Merkava II
P220061 Merkava II
P222076 Reconnaissance Platoon
P222076 Reconnaissance Platoon
P227078 Yayzata
P227078 Yayzata
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
C2208699 Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Battery
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
P228020 Hovet
With the Company22.oob file complete and numbered, we can use those new numbers and populate the
Battalion22.oob file; as such:
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
B221XXXX 7 Sinai Tank Battalion
P22308 Group HQ
C2200699 Headquarters Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2202699 Mechanized Infantry Company
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Followed by number the Sinai Tank Battalion with its own unique ID, against starting from 699:
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
B2210699 7 Sinai Tank Battalion
P223008 Group HQ
C2200699 Headquarters Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2200698 Tank Company
C2202699 Mechanized Infantry Company
…and then similarly proceed to fill out the unique ID’s in the Brigade22.oob and Division22.oob files:
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
G2230699 7 Sinai Tank Brigade
P223005 Brigade HQ
B2210699 Sinai Tank Battalion
B2210699 Sinai Tank Battalion
B2210699 Sinai Tank Battalion
C2206699 Reconnaissance Company
C2201699 Heavy Mortar Battery
C2208699 Self-propelled Anti-Aircraft Battery
85
85
85
85
85
01
01
01
01
01
85
85
85
85
85
12
12
12
12
12
D2240699 7 Sinai Blitzkrieg Ugda
P223003 Ugda HQ
G2230699 Sinai Tank Brigade
G2230699 Sinai Tank Brigade
G2230699 Sinai Tank Brigade
Now all of the *.oob files are completed, I will open up the Organization Editor and change the primary
date to sometime in 1985 to see if my organization creates any errors. If you find errors, double check
your unique ID’s to see if there are duplicates and double check your start and end dates of all units and
organizations – these are the two most common problems.
16.2.4 Things to Consider

Always start with a plan to assist your building. Whether that comes from an organization you
find in a book, PDF or game, it is always simpler to reproduce an organization if you have the
framework laid out in front of you.

Most importantly, create a txt file that you can copy and paste each of your new organizations
into. During any future update, the files may be replaced which will overwrite any new
organizations you added. Having them in a separate file will allow you to easily copy and paste
them into the master files with little issue. Organizing your backup file with heading for each
*.oob file would be wise (Company22.oob, Battalion22.oob, etc), then you know where each
organization is to be copied and pasted back into.

You can add leaders to the organizations, if you wish, but they will need to be placed below the
Headquarters platoon of your organization.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
16.2.5 Nationality ID# Codes
Middle East
Code
08
09
14
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Country
France
England
Generic Pro-West
Israel
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Syria
Lebanon
Generic Pro-East
Libya
Algeria
16.3 JSGME Modification Enabler Software
Included in your install is the JSGME Modification Enabler Software. This Mod Enabler provides a
simple and intuitive interface that takes all the hassle out of enabling and disabling mods. To use JSGME,
Step One: Locate the JSGME.exe in the …\middle_east\ folder.
Step Two: Launch JSGME.exe by double clicking on it and accept the MODS folder name. Now the
tool will point to the main folder for user made modifications: …\middle_east\mods\
Step Three: Enable and disable any USER MOD by moving them between the two windows available in
the tool. First, select the MOD you want to enable, the click on the Right arrow.
Step Four: The chosen MOD will show in the right window letting you know that it has been enabled.
Pressing the left arrow button will disable the MOD again.
16.4 Using the no encryption features (-W/-X) for your own games
Do you wish the Israeli Centurion to move
faster or farther in a turn? Or shoot further?
Disagree with the weapon values of any of the
units we provide? Or want to use a different
Combat Results Table?
No problem! You can modify the data to your
hearts content.
As a safety measure, you will be required to
play the game without the encryption. You can
do this by creating a shortcut of the me.exe
file to your desktop. I recommend renaming
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
the shortcut to “Middle East No
Encryption”, so it is easier to keep track
of.
You will want to add the following
command line flags, –W and –X, at the
end of the target path for the no
encryption to function as intended as
shown in the screenshot.
This will be the shortcut you use when
you want to play with your edited files.
This will not work for Play-By-Email
games, Local Area Network or Hot Seat
games. It is only intended for use when
you play against the AI.
The datasets that you can modify that
will require you to use this no-encryption
playing method are:
Weapon.pdt
Movement.pdt
Main.pdt
Platoon##.oob
June 2016
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
17.0 Update Log
17.1 Middle East Update Log for 1.01
17.1.1 FIXES

























Under any FOW setting, in any context, enemy Morale does not display (is shown as "?"). Enemy
Morale only displays if FOW is unselected.
In the game engine (only), implemented Options > Auto Scroll. (Was there previously in the
scenario & map editors, but not in the game engine.)
With a unit selected, hitting the F3 hot key (etc.) opens the Unit Viewer directly on the info page
for that unit. (Before, it would just open on a blank page, and you would have to hunt for the
unit.)
Fixed a bug where, in the Unit Viewer, for nation IDs < 10, the selected unit would not display.
For on-counter unit stats, fixed an issue where the Morale stat was not displaying properly.
Under ExtFOW, the Damage Report now displays much, but not quite all, of the info that a non
FOW Damage Report would.
Fixed a questionable design decision where, under ExtFOW, the Display Disrupted highlight was
not highlighting friendlies. Under ExtFOW, enemy disrupts still remain unhighlighted.
Removed the multi-saves warning. (A useless, and otherwise offensive, anti-cheat measure.)
Fixed a number of bugs involving helos and movement, assaults, overflies, etc.
Fixed the OBA crash bug.
Fixed a possible crash bug in PBEM play.
Fixed a bug where helos overflying unknown enemy units would vanish.
Fixed a 3D crash bug involving assaults and overflying helos.
Fixed a bug where air strikes were without limit.
Fixed a bug where the edorg Append feature was broken.
Fixed a bug where in 2D, WR, IP etc. markers would display over any Unknown Unit icon.
Fixed a bug where the game engine was failing to remember and restore the preferred Options >
Graphical Icons setting from session to session.
Fixed a bug where the Infobox Counters setting was not being saved.
Fixed a bug where phantom IF crosshairs (in the case of drifting) were not being cleared.
Did some code optimizations to mitigate the effects, with Counter Stats toggled ON, of slow
scrolling (on some systems only).
Prevented possible scenario title text overrun in the Status > Scenario Information dialog. Also,
fixed text overruns and other issues in the F2 Unit Handbook display.
AutoSave AP’s for Firing OFF by default.
Added missing background music files
Revised the NATO Symbols sheet with White Background modification
In various dialogs, clicking Help no longer summons the now non-existent Windows Help, rather
the game Manual.
17.1.2 ENHANCEMENTS
 Implemented on-counter unit stats. For 2D views #4 and #5.
 Implemented some new LoseConcealment() rules
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)











June 2016
Implemented new reveal rules for the display of counter and Info Box unit stats.
The Unit Viewer is newly available from within edorg.
Hex Outlines and Contours can now display concurrently.
In the 2D modes, counter stacks now display up to a maximum of 6, whereas before the max
display was 4 counters.
Added a Black 2D Unit Profiles modification
Added a NATO Symbols sheet with Transparent Background modification
Added Alternate 3D Base modification
Cosmetic tweaks to several frontend displays.
Added many more diagnostic logreturn() calls.
Implemented a new, multi-tiered logging scheme, where the depth and verbosity of logging are
specified at the EXE command line.
UnitViewer (F3) displays to selected unit
17.1.3 GRAPHICS
 Revised a few 3D terrain and vegetation tiles
 Revised 2D View terrain, terrain marker and vegetation art
 Revised 2D Counter and Graphical Unit Icons art for all nations
 Revised the F2 Unit Handbook dialogs, also a new InfoBox tile
 Added new Main Menu graphics matching the CS: Middle East box Art
 Revised the Blankbox graphics matching the CS: Middle East box art
 Revised Egyptian 3D graphics
 Revised Syrian 3D graphics
 Revised Jordanian 3D graphics
17.1.4 DATA
 Added post 1973 Egyptian Organizations (Company and Battalion levels) that incorporate
Western weapons that were received as part of the peace negotiations after the 1973 War.
 Added post 1982 self-propelled artillery organizations for Syria
 Revised road/off-road speed of certain Israeli tanks for consistency
 Revised fire cost for reconnaissance helicopters to 85 Action Points and added limited fire
capabilities
 Revised all combat helicopters (gunships and ATGM armed) so they now will require to rearm
after sustained combat
 Updated Weapon.pdt file, revising existing information and adding new information for new units
 Updated Unittext file, revising existing information and adding new information for new units
17.1.5 SCENARIOS
 New Scenarios by Al Sandrik:
o Duel For The Golan 85-Banias
o Duel For The Golan 85-Bridges
o Duel For The Golan 85-Nafakh
o Duel For The Golan 85-Night
o Duel For The Golan 85-Rafid
o Duel For The Golan 85-Valley A
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)



June 2016
o Duel For The Golan 85-Valley B
New Scenario by Jim Mays:
o Tourney - Set B01 - Into the Breach
New Scenarios by Jason Petho:
o Position 181 (Batur Track 1967)
o Textbook Night Assault (Umm Katef 1967)
o Into the Camps (Rafah 1956)
o Teaching Set A01 – 1948
o Teaching Set A02 – 1956
o Teaching Set A03 – 1967
o Teaching Set A04 – 1973
o Teaching Set A05 – 1982
Scenario Modifications to:
o Endgame at Jenin
o Into Africa!
o Into the Ring
o Hot Knife through Butter
o The Shores of Great Bitter Lake
o Battle of Abu Ageila (1956)
o Third Time's a Charm
17.2 Middle East Update Log for 1.02
17.2.1 FIXES






Revised Linked Campaign Game Strength Point carry-over issue
Revisions to the Unit Viewer (F3)
Fixed several issues involving airstrikes
Fixed another off board artillery bug
Fixed occasional edmap launch crash bug
Adjusted vertical positioning of 2D bridges and ford for engine, edit and edmap
17.2.2 ENHANCEMENTS











Implemented Options  Cursor  Small/Standard/Large for varying cursor sizes
Implemented Options  Cursor  Enhanced for a frosted cursor
Implemented Options  Details  Persistent, a toggle that indicates whether the Damage Report
persists until click (or the Esc key is pressed), or vanishes after a delay automatically
Added terrain feature: Ditches (hexside anti-tank ditches)
Added terrain feature: Crests (hexside)
Added terrain feature: Water Block (hexside)
Added terrain feature: Industrial (hex, for desert terrain)
Substituted a new engine toolbar, with new OP FIRE button, revised Ascend/Descend buttons
Revised Top of Stack/Bottom of Stack buttons
Substituted BoxArt style command and results dialogs
Substituted square nation flags for roundels in the Organization Editor
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)





June 2016
Improved diagnostic logging
For terrain and counter draws, set compiler option to optimize for speed
Implemented ON_CYCLE as hot key (TAB) for faying hex’s terrain about available alternatives
Elevation Delta now saved between sessions for engine, edit and edmap)
All airborne helicopters flying in the Low or High flight zones now have a spotting capability,
even if unarmed reconnaissance or transport
17.2.3 GRAPHICS






Revised a few 3D terrain and vegetation tiles
Revised 2D terrain and vegetation tiles
Revised Iraqi 3D graphics
Revised United Kingdom 3D graphics
Special graphics and units that are amphibious have been given appropriate graphics
Revised all 3D graphics with a muted look, allowing 3D units to stand out clearly against the
terrain
17.2.4 DATA


Updated Weapon.pdt file, revising existing information and adding new information for new units
Updated 09,14,22,23,24,30 platoon.oob files with additions and corrections
17.2.5 SCENARIOS



New Scenarios by Jason Petho:
o No Match for the 100 (Bir Gifgafa 1967)
o Tourney - Set A01 - High Noon
o Tourney - Set C01 - Hack and Slash
o Tourney - Set C02 - The Villages
o Tourney - Set D01 - Dancing in the Desert
New Scenario by Jim Mays:
o Tourney - Set B02 - A Furious Charge
New Scenarios by Alan R. Arvold (available in the mods folder):
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #1
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #2
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #3
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #4
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #5
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #6
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #7
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #8
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #9
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #10
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #11
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #12
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #13
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)



June 2016
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #14
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #15
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #16
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #17
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #18
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #19
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #20
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #21
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #22
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #23
o Arab-Israeli Wars Scenario #24
Revised Suez Linked Campaign
Revised all affected scenario/campaign maps with new Industrial terrain hex
Scenario Modifications to:
o The Crossroads
o Off to Giddi
o Bootcamp 3
o Battlefields of Old
o Raid Into Libya
o Into the Ring
o A Taste of Sa’iqa
o Into Africa!
o The End in the Sahara
o Hot Knife Through Butter
17.2.6 MODS
We have included a number of user made modifications that may enhance your gaming experience. It is
recommended to use the JSGME Modification Enabler Software that is included as part of the
installation. See Section 16.3 for instructions.

Alan R. Arvold Ode To Arab-Israeli Wars – This is a scenario set based on the Arab-Israeli
Wars created by Alan R. Arvold.

Ode to Arab-Israeli Wars – This is a 2D graphics modification by Petri Nieminen (aka
Crossroads) to provide the players of the Ode to Arab-Israeli Wars scenarios an authentic look
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)


June 2016
and feel when playing the scenarios.
Alternate 3D Bases – This is a 3D graphics modification that simplifies the roundels in the 3D
view, making them easier to distinguish against the terrain.
Black 2D Unit Profiles – This is a 2D graphics modification that converts the coloured unit
graphics to black silhouettes.

Black Unit Info Box – This is a UI graphics modification that
removes the background information when using the Unit List,
making the unit information easier to read.

MausMan 3D Graphics – This is a massive 3D graphics
modification that converts all 3D terrain graphics to a smaller scale.

NATO Icons w. Transp. Background – This is a 2D graphics modification for NATO symbols
that removes all colour coding and just displays the black outlines.
NATO Icons w. White Background – This is a 2D graphics modification for NATO symbols
that replaces all colour coding with a white background.

Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
17.2.7 MANUAL
The manual has been revised to 1.02 UPDATE standards. It has also been combed through; revising
graphics and grammatical errors, in addition to incorporating comments from users (inclusion of 2D and
3D screenshots, for example).
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
18.0 Game Glossary
18.1 Game Term Glossary
Action Points: For every action in the game, a unit will consume points up to the maximum of 100
Action Points per turn.
Artillery Dialog: The Artillery Dialog is the dialog that displays the units capable of Indirect Fire for the
turn. Artillery units that are available are black; artillery units not available are grey.
Assault: An assault is attempting to occupy a hex by force from a hex that is occupied by the enemy.
Attack: An attack is either performing Direct Fire or Indirect Fire on an opposing unit.
Column Movement: Refers to an Organizational Movement that will move all units of the same
organization towards the direction of the targeted hex.
Combat: When a unit attacks an opposing unit using direct or indirect fire or when a unit assaults an
opposing unit.
Concealment: A calculation to determine if a unit will remain hidden or be observed at the beginning of
the turn.
Damage Results: When Medium Details are chosen, the Damage Results of the current attacks are
displayed.
Defend: The art of protecting the Victory Locations to preserve Victory Conditions in your favour.
Direct Fire: Is one unit attacking an opposing unit that is within Line of Sight.
Double Time Movement: This allows infantry type units the ability to increase how far they move
during a turn. Units that use Double Time Movement will become fatigued for the remainder of the turn
and the following turn.
Echelon Movement: Refers to an Organizational Movement that will move all units of the same
organization in the same direction as the target hex.
Extreme Assault: This is an Optional Rule that removes most of the intelligence that you gather during a
turn. This includes, but not limited to; unknown enemy combat unit identification, unknown strength
identification, unknown general information about opposing force (ammo levels, air strike amounts, etc),
unknown combat results, unable to view LOS from anywhere but a friendly occupied hex.
Fatigue: A fatigued unit is one that has used the Double-Time Movement and is now suffering a penalty.
Fatigued units will Attack and Assault at half strength.
Fire Mode: Pressing the CTRL button, or pressing the Move Mode button in the bottom left corner will
change the game to Fire Mode, meaning that units will fire instead of move.
Fixed Unit: Fixed Units are units that are fixed in position. They are denoted by a red F in the Unit Info
Box and are released if they are fired upon, or released from the Release Schedule based on the scenario
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
designers plan.
Flare: Flares are floating flares that illuminate a hex, and adjacent hexes, during the course of a turn.
They can be fire by most units in Middle East. Flares can be fired by holding ALT+SHIFT while rightclicking on the target hex.
FRD: Fractions Rounded Down
FRU: Fractions Rounded Up
Hard Target: Hard Targets are armoured units, including armoured cars, armoured personnel carriers,
tanks, self-propelled artillery, etc. Hard Targets are typically differentiated by a Red Defence value in the
Unit Info Box.
Hex: More commonly known has a hexagon. It is the basic building block for the maps and they are
assumed to be 250 metres across. Four hexes is equal to 1 kilometre, six hexes is equal to 1 mile.
Indirect Fire: This refers to units that are capable of firing at opposing units that are not within their
Line of Sight; typically artillery.
Line of Sight: Units that are visible from one hex to another are considered to be in Line of Sight of each
other.
Morale: Morale is the willingness of the unit to perform the duties required of them, particularly in
combat.
Move Mode: The default mode for the start of a turn is Move Mode, meaning that units will move
instead of fire.
Opportunity Fire: Are the attacks automatically performed by friendly forces during the opponents turn.
Smoke: Smoke is marker on the map that will block Line of Sight and have an effect on Direct Fire
Attacks.
Soft Target: Soft Targets are unarmoured units, including infantry, artillery, trucks, jeeps, helicopters,
etc.
Unit: Unit is the generalized term used throughout the manual to represent the various platoons, sections
and batteries of the Modern Wars.
Unit Concealment: Unit Concealment is the value assigned to determine the overall size of a unit within
Middle East and is used to determine if it is spotted or not during the Line of Sight Check.
Unit Info Box: When a unit is selected, it is the information box that displays about the unit. The Unit
Info Box offers a quick view of Morale, Strength, Attack and Defence values, Action Points and
capabilities of the unit.
Unit List Display: Pressing U on the keyboard will open the Unit List Display, which displays all the
units in a hex and defines certainly elements of the hex including how much Smoke or Flares are in a
scenario and the base ammo level.
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Variable Visibility: Variable Visibility is an Optional Rule that will alter the Visible Distance from one
turn to another if the Visible Distance is between 5 and 15 hexes.
Visible Distance: This is the range in hexes that units can see each other, up to a maximum of 20 hexes.
This will vary from scenario to scenario, depending on the scenario designer’s intentions.
18.2 Middle East Glossary
French:
General:
Escadrons de Char – Tank Squadron
Batterie d’Obusiers – Howitzer Battery
Escadrons Amphibie d’Appui Groupement – Amphibious Support Squadron
Batterie de Mortiers – Mortar Battery
Compagnie de Combat – Rifle Company
Compagnie de Combat Coloniale – Rifle Company (Colonial)
Compagnie de Combat Métropolitaine – Rifle Company (Metropolitan)
Compagnie de Combat Nord-Africaine – Rifle Company (North African)
Compagnie de Supplétifs Nord-Africaine – Auxiliary Rifle Company (North
Africa)
Compagnie Étrangère de Combat – Foreign Legion Rifle Company
Compagnie de Combat Sénégalais – Rifle Company (Senegalese)
Compagnie de Milice Catholique – Rifle Company (Catholic Militia)
Compagnie de Parachutistes SAS – Parachute Company (SAS)
Compagnie de Parachutistes Coloniaux – Parachute Company (Colonial)
Compagnie Étrangère de Parachutistes – Foreign Legion Parachute Company
Compagnie de Combat Légère Loatiens – Light Rifle Company (Laotians)
Compagnie de Combat Légère Thaï – Light Rifle Company (Thai)
Compagnie de Combat Légère Cambodgien – Light Rifle Company (Cambodian)
Compagnie de Combat Indigènes – Rifle Company (Indigenous)
Compagnie d'Appui – Support Company
Compagnie d'Infanterie Blindée – Armoured Rifle Company
Compagnie de Fusiliers-Marins– Marine Company
Compagnie du Génie – Engineer Company
Compagnie du Génie des Ponts – Bridging Engineer Company
Escadrons de Reconnaissance – Reconnaissance Squadron
Escadrons de Reconnaissance d'Infanterie – Infantry Reconnaissance Squadron
Batterie Anti-Aérienne – Anti-aircraft Battery
Détachement de Transport – Transportation Detachment
Escadron Étrangère de Char – Foreign Legion Tank Squadron
Compagnie d'Anti-Char – Anti-tank Company
Escadrille d'Helicopteres Légers – Light Helicopter Flight
Escadrille d'Helicopteres – Helicopter Flight
Escadrille Mixte d'Helicopteres – Mixed Helicopter Flight
Régiment de Dragons – Dragoon Regiment
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
Régiment d'Artillerie – Artillery Regiment
Régiment d'Infanterie – Infantry Regiment
Groupement de Chasseurs – Armoured Group
Régiment de Hussards – Cavalry Regiment
Régiment d'Infanterie Alpine – Mountain Infantry Regiment
Régiment Étrangere d'Infanterie – Foreign Legion Infantry Regiment
Régiment Étrangere de Parachutistes – Foreign Legion Parachute Regiment
Régiment d'Helicopteres de Manoeuvre – Transport Helicopter Regiment
Régiment d'Helicopteres d'Attaque – Attack Helicopter Regiment
Israeli:
General:
Haganah – Jewish Paramilitary Defence Force (pre-IDF)
Igrun – Zionist Paramilitary
Palmach –Strike Force of Jewish Paramilitary Defence Force
Magash – Merkevet Giborei Hayil – Chariot of War Heroes
Nahal – Militia
Nagmash – Noseh Guysot Meshoryan – Armoured Personnel Carrier
Sayeret – Commando
Achzarit – “Cruel Woman” (Heavy APC)
Tzanhanim – Parachute Infantry
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
19.0 Index
A/I
Artificial Intelligence, 113
Action Points, 21, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 38, 39, 41,
48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 58, 59, 62, 63, 66, 67,
73, 77, 78, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95,
96, 97, 98, 149, 150, 163, 191, 192
Adaptable A/I, 18, 19
Air Strike, 20, 74, 76
Air Support, 30, 74, 75, 92
Area Denial, 73
Armour Facing Effects, 17, 19
Artillery, 20, 29, 39, 57, 58, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73,
74, 78, 97, 136, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, 191
Artillery Dialog, 20, 29, 57, 58, 72, 97, 191
Assault, 21, 27, 29, 30, 38, 42, 58, 59, 66, 67,
68, 86, 130, 135, 174, 176, 177, 180, 191
Attack Strength, 38, 42, 56, 58, 62, 63, 66
Block, 77
Blocked, 45
Campaign, 2, 10, 106
Class, 66, 67
Close Support, 73
Combat, 17, 53, 55, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67,
68, 69, 70, 71, 78, 84, 89, 147, 161, 162, 191
Combat Efficiency, 68, 69, 70, 71, 78
Combat Experience, 66
Combat Formula, 63
Command Control, 17, 18, 19, 32, 71, 78
Concealment, 40, 56, 57, 147, 148, 149, 150,
151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 191, 192
Conserving Ammo, 69, 71, 97
Construction Engineer, 77
Counter Battery, 73
Damage Report, 65, 66
Damage Results, 65, 191
Disrupted, 22, 32, 38, 39, 45, 53, 58, 59, 63, 66,
87, 88
Disruption, 53, 62, 65, 79
Double Time, 21, 28, 49, 50, 53, 86, 88, 191
Elevations, 110
Engineers, 77
Experience Points, 106
Extreme Assault, 17, 19, 20, 58, 59, 66, 78
Extreme Fog-of-War, 17
Fatigue, 53, 191
Fill, 110
Fire, 17, 19, 20, 21, 29, 32, 38, 42, 48, 52, 55,
57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 69, 72, 73,
74, 78, 86, 87, 88, 94, 96, 162, 163, 191, 192
Fixed, 22, 30, 32, 39, 45, 52, 87, 89, 191
Flare’s, 62, 72, 192
Forest, 111
Frequently Asked Questions, 12, 54, 68, 71,
144, 161
Ground, 50, 53, 163
Gun Flash, 61
Gun Flashes. See Gun Flash
Hard
Attack Values/Factor, 42
Hard Target, 43, 57, 67, 192
Headquarters, 32, 39, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 78, 95,
163, 172, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181
Helicopters, 50, 51, 53, 54, 74, 161, 163, 172
High Altitude, 50
IED, 28, 44, 78
Illuminated Hex, 62
Improved Position, 45, 77
Indirect Fire By The Map, 17
Installation, 10
Interdiction, 73
Leader, 114
Line of Sight, 17, 20, 22, 29, 31, 39, 40, 55, 56,
57, 61, 72, 73, 74, 78, 86, 90, 92, 93, 95, 97,
148, 191, 192
Linked Campaign Games, 14, 104
Low Altitude, 50
Low on Ammo, 45
Minefield, 28, 45, 78
Mission, 106
Morale, 17, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 59, 62, 65,
66, 67, 79, 93, 114, 120, 147, 148, 149, 150,
151, 152, 192
Move, 20, 48, 55, 58, 59, 86, 87, 90, 91, 95, 98,
99, 191, 192
Movement, 13, 29, 48, 52, 53, 54, 61, 191
Nap of the Earth, 50, 81, 91, 163
Night Combat, 61, 62
Optional Rule, 32, 52, 59
Organization, 113
Organizations, 114
Reinforcements, 45
Scenario Descriptions, 18
Scenario List, 127
Smoke, 20, 29, 40, 56, 59, 62, 63, 72, 192
Soft Target, 42, 67, 192
Spotted, 44
Strength Point, 38, 49, 51, 53, 65, 66, 67, 71,
74, 87, 170, 172, 178, 179
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
Supply, 45
System Requirements, 10
Technical Support, 12, 126, 162, 165
Terrain, 39, 40, 56, 57, 58, 63, 68, 147, 150,
152
Tool Bar, 110, 113, 114
Unit Capabilities, 42, 49, 51, 76, 78, 84
Unit Concealment, 56, 57, 192
Unit Handbook, 20, 37, 41, 42, 44, 49, 51, 76
Unit Info Box, 38, 39, 40, 41, 48, 50, 51, 52, 55,
June 2016
59, 62, 72, 191, 192
Unit List, 36, 38, 40, 51, 72, 73, 97, 144, 192
Unit List Display, 40, 51, 192
Unit Viewer, 37, 144
Updates, 11, 184, 186
Variable Visibility, 17, 18, 19, 20, 79, 83, 193
Visible Distance, 55, 56, 79, 193
Water, 111
Wrecks, 40, 53, 56, 80
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
20.0 Appendices
20.1 Appendix A
Combat Efficiency Values for each country, by year.
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
France
U.K.
Generic
ProWest
Israel
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Syria
Lebanon
Generic
ProEast
Libya
Algeria
80
80
80
90
90
100
100
110
110
120
130
130
120
110
100
100
90
80
80
80
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
110
110
120
120
100
100
100
90
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
90
90
90
80
80
80
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
110
110
120
120
30
30
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
40
40
40
40
50
40
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
40
40
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
100
110
100
100
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
100
110
100
100
90
90
100
120
110
100
100
100
100
100
100
110
120
110
110
110
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
60
70
80
80
80
100
90
70
70
70
70
70
80
80
80
80
80
80
50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
60
60
60
80
60
60
50
50
60
80
60
60
60
70
70
80
90
80
80
70
70
70
90
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
90
90
90
80
70
70
60
60
70
80
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
70
60
60
70
80
70
60
60
60
60
70
70
80
80
70
60
60
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
40
40
40
40
50
60
50
50
50
50
50
60
70
70
70
60
50
50
30
30
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
40
40
40
40
50
40
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
70
70
70
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
70
70
70
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
21.0 Credits
Production
Jason Petho, Robert ‘Berto’ Osterlund, Mike Amos, Petri Nieminen
Manual
Jason Petho, Floyd ‘Jim’ Mays
Scenario Design
Jason Petho, Huib Versloot, Mike Amos, Floyd ‘Jim’ Mays
Linked Campaign Design
Jason Petho, Huib Versloot
Guest Scenario Design
Al Sandrik
Playtesters
Jason Petho, Robert ‘Berto’ Osterlund, Floyd ‘Jim’ Mays, Petri Nieminen, Mike Amos, Jack Briscoe,
Dean Swanda
Advisors
Mike Amos, Floyd ‘Jim’ Mays, Rod Coles
Tool Development
Arkady (Unit Viewer Creator), Andrew Befus (Victory Point Calculator)
Campaign Series Legion Special Thanks
The Blitzkrieg Wargame Club, Junior General inspired 2D graphics (juniorgeneral.org)
Campaign Series: Middle East 1948-1985 (1.02)
June 2016
MATRIX PUBLISHING, LLC MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH
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DESCRIBED IN THIS RULE BOOK, THEIR QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY
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BUYER. IN NO EVENT WILL MATRIX PUBLISHING, LLC BE LIABLE FOR DIRECT,
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