Trademark Acknowledgments: Legal Notice - K

Trademark Acknowledgments: Legal Notice - K
Documentation Author
F.Lambercy and P.Bureau for K-Team S.A.
Rue Galilee 9
1400 Yverdon-les-bains
Switzerland
email: [email protected]
Url: www.k-team.com
Trademark Acknowledgments:
IBM PC: International Business Machine Corp.
Khepera: K-Team and LAMI
Legal Notice:
• The content of this manual is subject to change without notice.
• All effort have been made to ensure the accuracy of the content of
this manual. However, should any error be detected, please inform
K-Team S.A.
• The above notwithstanding K-Team can assume no responsibility for
any error in this manual.
K-Team S.A.
1
Table Of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 How to Use this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Safety Precaution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
4
4
5
2 Unpacking and Inspection
6
3 The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1 The Khepera III Robot . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 ON-OFF Battery Switch . . .
3.1.3 Indication LEDs . . . . . . .
3.1.4 Serial connector . . . . . . .
3.1.5 Cable unroller connector . . .
3.1.6 USB connector . . . . . . . .
3.1.7 How to plug a KoreBotLE . .
3.2 Motors and motor control . . . . . .
3.2.1 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Infra-red Proximity sensors . . . . .
3.3.1 Ambient light measurements
3.3.2 Reflected light measurements
3.4 Ultra-sonic sensors . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4 Connections
4.1 Configuration for batteries charge . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Configuration for Robot-Computer Communication
4.3 Configuration for Robot-Computer Communication
4.3.1 Serial link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 USBlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
. . . . . . 20
in standalone 21
with KoreBotLE 22
. . . . . . 22
. . . . . . 23
5 Serial Communication Mode
5.1 Testing the primary serial link . .
5.2 Testing the secondary serial link .
5.3 Serial communication protocol . .
5.3.1 Testing a simple interaction
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6 KoreBotLE programming
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
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2
A Communication protocol
K-Team S.A.
31
3
1 Introduction
1.1
How to Use this Manual
This manual is introducing the Khepera III robot. For a quick start and
overview of the robot’s functions, please read chapter 1 to 4.
Refer to the following summary if a particular information is needed.
If the manual does not cover a particular problem, many more technical
documentation is available online from K-Team website (www.k-team.com)
and especially a Frequently Asked Question document to solve most common
problems and questions.
Unpacking and Inspection: Khepera’s package description.
The robot and its accessories: Khepera Hardware overview and main
functions and accessories description.
Connections: detailed cables connections for various usage.
Serial Communication mode: detailed description for the Serial communication mode between a computer and the robot.
1.2
Safety Precaution
Check the unit’s operating voltage before operation.
It must be identical with that of your local power supply. The operating
voltage is indicated on the nameplate at the rear of the power supply.
All connnections (including extension addition or disconnection) must
be made when the robot and the interface are switched OFF. Otherwise
damages can occur.
Switch OFF the robot if you will not use it for more than a day.
Disconnect the power supply removing it from the wall socket.
Do not manually force any mechanical movement.
Avoid to force, by any mechanical way, the movement of the wheels or
any other part.
If you have any question or problem concerning the robot, please contact
your local Khepera dealer.
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
4
1.3
Recycling
Think about the end of life of your robot! Parts of the robot can be recycled
and it is important to do so. It is for instance important to keep batteries
out of the solid waste stream. When you throw away a battery, it eventually
ends up in a landfill or municipal incinerator. These batteries, which contain
heavy metals, can contribute to the toxicity levels of landfills or incinerator
ash. By recycling the batteries through recycling programs, you can help to
create a cleaner and safer environment for generations to come. For those
reasons please take care to the recycling of your robot at the end of its life
cycle, for instance sending back the robot to the manufacturer or to your
local dealer.
Thanks for your contribution to a cleaner environment!
K-Team S.A.
5
2 Unpacking and Inspection
Open the bag and check each item in the box. You should having the
following material.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Khepera III robot
KoreBotLE ( not included in the Khepera III base package )
Power Supply with a primary plug
Battery Pack
Optional KoreConnect
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
6
3 The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1
3.1.1
The Khepera III Robot
Overview
Figure 3.1: Overview of the Khepera III robot.
Make an external inspection of the robot. Note the location of the following parts:
1. Infrared sensors.
2. Ultrasonic sensors.
3. Main serial connector.
4. USB miniAB connector.
5. Power jack connector.
6. Reset.
7. On / Off.
8. Cable unroller connector.
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
7
3.1.2
ON-OFF Battery Switch
It allows the user to switch the robot ON or OFF. When ON, the robot is
powered. The robot may even be powered without the battery pack using
the external power supply connector. See figure 3.1 number 7.
3.1.3
Indication LEDs
The Khepera III has six indication LEDs, two for the battery charger, one
for the Power ON, one for the state of the motors controller and two programmables by the end-user (see figure 3.2).
When the Motor controller state LED is on, one of the two motor controller is in error mode. This could append when a motor is blocked or
a current limit is detected. In this case the controller must be reset by
the dsPIC (’M’ command in serial interface mode or call ’initKH3()’ in a
KoreBotLE program).
For the battery charger, the red one indicates that charge is in progress
and the green one signals when the charge is complete. If there’s no battery
pack when you plug an external power supply, the green one will turn on.
The led 5 and 6 can be set by the user with ’L’ command. See annexe
A Serial communication protocol.
Figure 3.2: LEDs of the Khepera III.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Motor Controllers state LED (redD).
Power ON LED (green).
Charge completed LED (green).
Charge in progress LED (red).
Programmable LED (green).
Programmable LED (red).
K-Team S.A.
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3.1.4
Serial connector
The serial connector contains various serial lines. One serial line which is at
TTL level (0V/+5V) is used to connect a personal computer to the Khepera
III dsPIC (with a KoreConnect). Used only when there is no KoreBotLE
connected. Please see section 4.2.
There is another RS232 (-10V/+10V) used to communicate with the
KoreBotLE, ie to see the KoreBotLE’s boot message. Please see section
4.3.
It is also possible to use the USB link of the KoreConnect to communicate
with the KoreBotLE.
The length of the serial cable should be limited to two meters
for proper operation.
1. Korebot RXD
2. Korebot TXD
3. dsPIC RXD
4. dsPIC TXD
6. VCC ( +5V )
2
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
7. USB D−
8. USB D+
11. GND
12. GND
10 12
9
11
Figure 3.3: Details of the Khepera III serial connector. Pin 5, 9 & 10 are
not connected.
K-Team S.A.
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3.1.5
Cable unroller connector
The cable unroller connector is a serial and a power connector (see figure 3.4). You can supply your robot and communicate with the robot
through it. This connector is usefull if you want to supply your robot with
an external power supply (+9V) and keep its mobility with an cable unroller. However, if you want to recharge your battery at the same time, it
is mandatory to use the power jack connector.
1. VCC (+9V)
2. dsPIC RXD
3. dsPIC TXD
4. GND
5. GND
6. GND
1 3 5
2 4 6
Figure 3.4: Details of the cable unroller connector.
3.1.6
USB connector
The mini-USB connector is usefull only when a KoreBotLE is plugged in the
Khepera III. You can connect directly your PC to the Khepera III with an
ordinary mini-USB cable. To communicate with the KoreBotLE through
the USB connector, please refer to the documentation of the KoreBotLE
(found on the web site www.k-team.com).
K-Team S.A.
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3.1.7
How to plug a KoreBotLE
The Khepera III has been designed to work together with a KoreBotLE,
but as it isn’t mandatory, in the default pack there is no KoreBotLE with
the robot. You can buy it at the same time, in this case, the KoreBotLE
will be mounted into the robot. But if you buy it afterward, you must first
unmount the upper body of the Khepera III, then plug the KoreBotLE on
the extansion connectors (see figure 3.5). If you have any other extansion
(KoreIO, KoreSound, KoreVision, etc...), you must only remove the black
metal plate, and plug your extension on the KoreBotLE.
Figure 3.5: Details of the KoreBotLE assembly.
K-Team S.A.
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3.2
Motors and motor control
Each wheel is moved by a DC motor coupled with the wheel through a 43.2:1
reduction. The motor itself having a 27:1 reduction and the gear box having
a 1.6:1 reduction. The motor has its own embedded incremental encoder,
placed on the motor axis, gives 16 pulses per revolution of the motor. This
allows a resolution of 691.2 per revolution of the wheel that corresponds to
54 pulses per ten millimeter of path of the robot (diameter of the wheel =
41mm, thus each revolution the robot make 128.8mm). By default, the robot
is set in mode encoder resolution x4, in this case for each wheel revolution
the controller motor make 2764 measures. The other encoder configuration
mode is 2x (1382 measures/turn).
Reminder: 1 revolution = 128.8mm = 2764 measures.
Each motor is driven by its own motor controller implemented in a
PIC18F4431. The PIC has direct control on the motor power through a
double H bridge and can read the pulses of the incremental encoder.
The motor control block acts as slave devices on the I2C bus. When the
KoreBotLE is not connected to the Khepera III robot, the main robot CPU
will turns itself into an i2c master. When the KoreBotLE is connectedm, it
becomes the i2c master.
Each motor controller switches its motor ON and OFF at a given frequency and during a given time. By this way, the motor react to the time
average of the power supply, which can be modified by changing the period
the motor is switched ON. This means that only the ratio between ON and
OFF periods is modified, as illustrated in figure 3.6. This power control
method is called ”pulse width modulation” (PWM). The PWM value is
defined as the time the motor is switched ON.
K-Team S.A.
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basic period
50µs
power
ON period
ON
OFF
time
power
power
basic period
basic period
ON
ON
95%
ON period
5%
ON period
OFF
OFF
time
time
Figure 3.6: The “Pulse Width Modulation”(PWM) motor supply mode is
based on a ratio between the ON time and the total time. The basic switching frequency is constant.
Each motor controller can perform the control of the speed or the position
of the motor, setting the correct PWM value according to the real speed or
position read on the incremental encoders.
Both DC motors can be controlled by a PID controller. Every term of
this controller(Proportional, Integral, Derivative) is associated to a constant,
setting the weight of the corresponding term: Kp for the proportional, Ki
for the integral, Kd for the derivative.
The motor controller can be used in two control modes: the speed or
position mode. The active control mode is set according to the kind of
command received. If the controller receives a speed control command, it
switches to the speed mode. If the controller receives a position control
command, the control mode is automatically switched to the position mode.
Different control parameters (Kp, Ki and Kd) can be set for each of the two
control modes.
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3.2.1
Speed
Used in speed mode, the controller has as input a speed value of the wheels,
and controls the motor to keep this wheel speed.
The speed value is a division of a constant value by the time between
encoder pulsations. In default mode (encoder resolution x4 and postscaler
1:4), a measure is made four times every pulse. Then each revolution of the
wheel, 2764 measures are made. The constant value is defined by the maximum time multiplied by 256 (0xFFFF * 256 = 16’776’960). This operation
allows a better PID calculation for the lower speed.
16′ 776′ 960
T imer5value
To convert into a real time, use the following calculation (this time is
the delay between two measures):
M otorSpeed =
T ime =
T imer5value
P ostscaler
fosc /4
T mr5P rescaler
Where fosc = 20MHz and Tmr5Prescaler = 8 (default).
To get the real speed in mm/s:
RealSpeed =
W heelCircumf erence
T ime ∗ 2764
Where WheelCircumference is 128.8mm and 2764 correspond to the number
of measures per revolution of the wheel.
Here’s an example with MotorSpeed = 20’000, Tmr5Prescaler = 8, Postscaler
= 4 and encoder resolution = x4
T imer5value =
T ime =
16′ 776′ 960
= 839
20′ 000
839
4
20′ 000′ 000/4
= 0.336[ms]
8
128.8
= 138.9[mm/s]
0.000336 ∗ 2764
M otorSpeed
RealSpeed =
[mm/s]
Kspeed
RealSpeed =
Where Kspeed is 144.01 when default configuration is used.
The maximum reachable speed is 48’000 (= 333 mm/s) in open loop,
and 43’000 (= 298 mm/s) in regulation mode. And the minimum is 2’000
(= 13.9 mm/s) with regulation control.
K-Team S.A.
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speed
Used in position profile mode (’F’ command), the controller has as input a target position of the wheel, an acceleration and a maximal speed.
Using this values, the controller accelerates the wheel until the maximal
speed is reached, and decelerates in order to reach the target position. This
movement follows a trapezoidal speed profile, as described in figure 3.7.
max_speed
position
acc
-acc
time
target position
start position
time
Figure 3.7: Speed profile to reach a target position with a fixed acceleration
(acc) and maximal speed (max speed).
The input values and the control mode of this controller can be changed
at every moment. The controller will update and execute the new profile
in the position mode, or control the wheel speed following the new value in
the speed mode.
First configure the speed profile (’J’ command) with the needed parameters. Then you can perform a move with the position profile mode (’F’
command). See annexe A for more details about communication protocole.
K-Team S.A.
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3.3
Infra-red Proximity sensors
Khepera III hase nine sensors placed around the robot and two placed on
the bottom. The latters allow experiments like line following. They are
positioned and numbered as shown in figure 3.9.
Figure 3.8: Bottom view of the IR sensors
These sensors embed an infra-red light emitter and a receiver. For detailed description, please refer to the manufacturer’s datasheet. The eight
sensors are TCRT5000, reflective optical sensors from Vishay Telefunken.
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This sensor device allows two measures:
- The normal ambient light. This measure is made using only the receiver part of the device, without emitting light with the emitter. A
new measurement is made every 33 ms. During the 33 ms, the eleven
sensors are read in a sequential way every 3 ms. The value returned
at a given time is the result of the last measurement made.
- The light reflected by obstacles (= proximity). This measure is made
emitting light using the emitter part of the device. The returned
value is the difference between the measurement made emitting light
and the light measured without light emission (ambient light). A new
measurement is made every 33 ms. During the 33 ms, the eleven
sensors are read in a sequential way every 3 ms. The value returned
at a given time is the result of the last measurement made.
The output of each measurement is an analog value converted to a 12
bit digital value . The following two sections illustrate the meaning of this
12 bit values.
3.3.1
Ambient light measurements
Ambient light measurement is strongly influenced by the robot’s environment. Depending on the light source type, color, and distance, ambient
light measurement profile might vary. It is not recommended to use
light source with large emission in the infrared range, as this could
confuse the IR sensors.
3.3.2
Reflected light measurements (proximity)
Sensors are mainly meant to detect obstacles around the Khepera. Measurements for reflected light depends on objects reflectivity and on ambient
light conditions. Objects color, materials and surfaces do have an influence
on the sensors response. Moreover, as any sensor, IR sensors are subject
to environmental noise. For all these reasons, graphics below are given for
information only and should not be considered as references.
K-Team S.A.
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Figure 3.9: Relative collector current vs distance
3.4
Ultrasonic sensors
In its base set, 5 sensors are placed around the robot and are positioned and
numbered as shown in figure 3.10.
5 sensors are in fact 5 pairs of ultrasonic devices where each pair is
composed of one transmitter and one receiver.
The ultrasonic sensor are powered by a 20 Vdc source. The nominal
frequency of these transducers is 40kHz +/- 1kHz.
Parameters such as max number of echo, timeout and active sensors are
parametrizable through a configuration api (See ’C’ command in chapter A).
By default, you have maximum 3 echos, sensor 3 (front) is active, timeout
is set to see from 20cm to 4 meters.
The last parameter is if the upper body is mounted or not (default
mounted). When the upper body is mounted, there’s some noise because
of inside rebound echo, which are deleted in software. In fact, you could
improve the detection of the nearest obstacles (20cm to 40cm) removing the
upper body.
Each measure return the number of founded echos, the distance in cm
of each echo, the amplitude of each, and the time (time stamp) when the
echo was seen.
The value returned by the command, is the white noise measured before
than a Ultrasonic pulse was sent. Then the real amplitude of each echo will
be its amplitude minus the white noise. See command ’G’ in chapter A for
more details about the ultrasonic command.
For more details about the ultrasonic sensor, please check at Midas component, the transceiver is 400ST100 and the receiver is a 400SR100.
K-Team S.A.
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Figure 3.10: Position of the 5 UltraSonic sensors.
3.5
Battery
The Khepera III is equipped with a battery pack composed of two Li-Ion
Polymer element. This provides a 7.4V volt battery with a 1400 mAH
capacity. Using its embedded power, the robot is able to run completely
autonomously during more than four hours, running with a basic configuration. When additional equipment are used, the autonomy is reduced as
Khepera’s extensions as the KoreBotLE rely on Khepera’s batteries as a
power source.
There is no specific power management system on the Khepera. When
the batteries voltage falls under 6V, the battery cut himself the power supply
to avoid a too important discharge of the cell. Users can implement their
own software power management system to handle KoreBotLE to shutdown
properly before this case happend. See command ’V’ in chapter A for more
details about battery management.
3.6
Power Supply
If an external power source is required or during batteries charge, power
can be supplied through the power jack connector or through the microMatch cable unroller connector. See section 4 for detailed description of
connections.
Use only the power supply deliver by K-Team. If you want to
supply the Khepera III with another device, make sure that the
Voltage is +9V and that the power supply can deliver 2A.
SAFETY PRECAUTION: The power supply must be connected to the wall socket after all other connections are already
made.
K-Team S.A.
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4 Connections
4.1
Configuration for batteries charge
To charge robot’s batteries, make sure the following are correct:
- The power supply shall be connected to the robot.
- Warning: the robot battery may be charged with the robot ON or
OFF. Be attentive that when the robot is ON, the charging time will
be a bit longer.
- The power supply have to be connected on a wall plug.
There are three leds. A green led tells if the robot is powered or not.
And two other leds are here if the robot is charging ( red led ON ) or if the
charge is complete ( green led ON ).
During the charge, the red led is switched ON and the green led is
switched OFF. The process is reversed at the end of the charging process.
The charging time for an empty battery is about 180 minutes. At this
moment the power supply can be unplugged. When charging, the battery
can be as hot as 40 degrees.
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
20
4.2
Configuration for Robot-Computer Communication in standalone
This configuration allows communicating between the robot and a host computer through a serial link. The host computer is linked to the interface
module using a standard RS232 line, while the interface module converts
RS232 signal into a TTL level signal to communicate with the robot.
To use the standalone serial communication mode, please make sure the
following are correct:
- No KoreBotLE is connected on the Khepera III.
- The robot battery is charged that means the power led is switched on.
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module using the
serial cable
- The KoreConnect should be connected to the host computer using a
standard RS232 cable. in this mode, the cable has to be connected on
the DB9 connector number 2 (see fig 4.1). You can easily purchase
such a cable from your host computer dealer.
- Serial port configured as followed : 115200bps, 8 Data bits, 1 stop bit
, no parity, no hardware control.
RS232 cables
2
1
KoreConnect
Figure 4.1: Connection when the robot is used without a KoreBotLE.
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4.3
4.3.1
Configuration for Robot-Computer Communication with KoreBotLE
Serial link
This configuration allows communicating between the KoreBotLE plugged
on the robot and a host computer through a serial link. In this configuration
it is not possible to communicate with the robot base itself as explained in
the previous chapter. The host computer is linked to the interface module
using a standard RS232 line. The adaptation RS232/TTL is made on the
KoreBotLE.
To use the serial communication mode, please make sure the following
are correct:
- A KoreBotLE is connected on the Khepera III.
- The charged Battery or a power supply is plugged, and the robot is
turned ON .
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module using the
serial cable
- The KoreConnect should be connected to the host computer using a
standard RS232 cable. in this mode, the cable has to be connected
on the DB9 connector number 1 (see fig 4.2) You can easily purchase
such a cable from your host computer dealer.
- Serial port configured as followed : 115200bps, 8 Data bits, 1 stop bit,
no parity, no hardware control.
RS232 cables
2
1
KoreConnect
Figure 4.2: Connection when the robot is used with a KoreBotLE.
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4.3.2
USB link
This configuration allows communicating between the KoreBotLE plugged
on the robot and a host computer through a USB link. There are two ways
to connect the USB to the KoreBotLE. With a KoreConnect and standard
USB cable or with only a mini-USB cable.
For more information about the USB communication protocole with a
KoreBotLE, please refer to the KoreBotLE documentation (found on web
site www.k-team.com).
To use the USB communication mode, please make sure the following
are correct:
- A KoreBotLE is plugged on the Khepera III.
- The charged battery or a power supply is plugged, and the robot is
turned ON .
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module and then a
USB cable or a mini-USB cable is plugged directly on the USB miniAB
connector of the robot (see figure 3.1).
- The USB cable (standard or mini) should be connected to the host
computer. These two type of cable can be easily purchased from any
computer dealer.
K-Team S.A.
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5 Serial Communication Mode
5.1
Testing the primary serial link
Before any further operations, the serial link between the host computer and
the robot should be tested. Please read the following instructions to test
the serial communication mode:
- Make sure all connections are correct (see chapter 4 for details).
- The robot should be placed on a flat and safe surface. The battery
switch must be OFF.
- A terminal emulator should be running on the host computer. Make
sure the terminal is connected to the correct serial port. The terminal configuration must be set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit, 1 start
bit, 1 stop bit, no parity and no hardware control.
When powered on, the robot should send a message (see fig 5.1) to the
terminal emulator.
To test that the KheperaIII is able to receive command, try to send the B
command to ask the Khepera for the operating system version and revision.
Figure 5.1: Boot message of the Kherpera III.
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24
5.2
Testing the secondary serial link
As the robot is suited to be used with a KoreBotLE it is important to test
the serial link between the host computer and the KoreBotLE itself.
- Make sure all connections are correct (see chapter 4 for details).
- The robot should be placed on a flat and safe surface. The battery
switch must be OFF.
- A KoreBotLE needs to be plugged on the appropriate socket.
- A terminal emulator should be running on the host computer. Make
sure the terminal is connected to the correct serial port. The terminal configuration must be set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit, 1 start
bit, 1 stop bit, no parity and no hardware control.
When powered on, the KoreBotLE will send the normal linux boot message to the terminal emulator (see fig 5.2).
If any of the serial link is not working properly it is then important to
ensure that the serial communication settings has been configured correctly.
Figure 5.2: Boot message of the KoreBotLE.
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25
5.3
Serial communication protocol
When the robot is used as standalone ( without a KoreBotLE ), the serial
communication protocol is designed to control all Khepera’s functions using
a RS232 serial line. The serial line configuration (baudrate as well as data,
start, stop and parity bits) for the host computer must match the robot’s
configuration.
The host computer and the Khepera robot are communicating with
ASCII messages. Each single interaction is composed by:
- A command, beginning with one ASCII capital letters and followed,
if necessary, by numerical or literal parameters separated by a comma
and terminated by a carriage return or a line feed, sent by the host
computer to the Khepera robot.
- A response, beginning with the same one ASCII letters of the command but in lower-case and followed, if necessary, by numerical or literal parameters separated by a comma and terminated by a carriage
return and a line feed, sent by the Khepera to the host computer.
During the entire communication, the host computer is acting as a master
and the Khepera as slave. All communications are initiated by the master.
Two different types of interactions are possible. The first set of interactions is used to set up the robot configuration from the host computer
(set up serial line, changing controllers configuration,...), the second set of
interactions is used to control the robot (controlling motors, reading sensors
value,...).
A set of commands is available as detailed in appendix.
5.3.1
Testing a simple interaction
Testing some basic commands is the best method to understand the serial
protocol and tools available on the Khepera. Using a properly configured
serial link between the robot and a computer, please follow the instructions
bellow:
- Type the capital letter B followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with b followed by an indication of the version
of software running on the robot and terminated by a line feed.
- Type the capital letter N followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with n followed by 11 numbers separated by
a comma and terminated by a line feed. These numbers are the values
of the robot proximity sensors presented in section 3.1.6.
- Retry the same command (N) putting some obstacles in front of the
robot. The response must change.
- Type the protocol command D,l10000,l-10000 followed by a carriage
return or a line feed.
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- The robot must start turning on place and respond with d and a line
feed.
- To stop the robot type the protocol command D,l0,l0 followed by a
carriage return or a line feed.
- Try other commands following the description given in Appendix A.
K-Team S.A.
27
6 KoreBotLE programming
This section explain how to write a simple program for the KoreBotLE to
control the Khepera III base. The Khepera III will act as peripheral of the
KoreBotLE.
Please refer to the KoreBotLE user manual (found on www.k-team.com)
for further details on KoreBotLE programming. This document only provides a basic example of program compilation and execution.
The first simple executable for KoreBotLE/Khepera III will be built
assuming:
- A working arm-linux toolchain is installed on your host computer.
- The NFS link is active and a shared directory (mySharedDirectory) is
mounted on /mnt/nfs.
A source file should be first created and edited with a very simple C
program such as the following. People familiar with the KoreMotor will
notice that the code is quite similar. The controlers have been embedded in
the robot but act as two I2C slaves.
/* kh3test.c */
#include <korebot/korebot.h>
static knet_dev_t * mot1;
static knet_dev_t * mot2;
int main()
{
kh3_init();
/* open various socket and store the
dsPic = knet_open( "Khepera3:dsPic"
mot1 = knet_open( "Khepera3:mot1" ,
mot2 = knet_open( "Khepera3:mot2" ,
handle in their respective pointers */
, KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
/* initialize the motor controler 1 */
kmot_SetMode( mot1 , kMotModeIdle );
kmot_SetSampleTime( mot1 , 1550 );
kmot_SetMargin( mot1 , 6 );
kmot_SetOptions( mot1 , 0x0 , kMotSWOptWindup | kMotSWOptStopMotorBlk
| kMotSWOptDirectionInv );
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
28
kmot_ResetError( mot1 );
kmot_SetBlockedTime( mot1 , 10);
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , 400 , 0 , 10 );
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot1 ,kMotRegPos,620,3,10);
kmot_SetSpeedProfile(mot1 ,30,3);
/* initialize the motor controler 2 */
kmot_SetMode( mot2 , kMotModeIdle );
kmot_SetSampleTime( mot2 , 1550 );
kmot_SetMargin( mot2 , 6 );
kmot_SetOptions( mot2 , 0x0 , kMotSWOptWindup | kMotSWOptStopMotorBlk );
kmot_ResetError( mot2 );
kmot_SetBlockedTime( mot2 , 10);
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , 400 , 0 , 10 );
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot2 ,kMotRegPos,620,3,10);
kmot_SetSpeedProfile(mot2 ,30,3);
/* For ever loop */
while(1)
{
/* Wait 5 seconds */
sleep(5);
/* Tell to the motor controller to move the Khepera III forward */
kmot_SetPoint( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , -motspeed );
kmot_SetPoint( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , motspeed );
/* Wait 5 seconds */
sleep(5);
/* Tell to the motor controller to stop the Khepera III
kmot_SetPoint( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , 0 );
kmot_SetPoint( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , 0 );
}
}
*/
This source code can be cross-compiled using arm-linux-gcc which supports most standard gcc options:
arm-linux-gcc kh3test.c -o k3test
An kh3test executable file should be created, that can be executed on
the KoreBotLE, or eventually another arm-linux machine.
K-Team S.A.
29
To execute the program, simply copy kh3test to the nfs shared directory, then execute it from a KoreBotLE terminal. If the shared directory is
mounted on the default /mnt/nfs, first change working directory:
cd /mnt/nfs
Then check that kh3test is present:
ls -l
And execute it:
./k3test
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30
A Communication protocol
This communication protocol allows complete control of the robot functions
through a RS232 serial line. The required configuration is presented in
section 4.3. The serial line set-up on your host computer must match the
one set on the robot according to the chosen running mode.
The protocol is made of commands and responses, all in standard ASCII
codes. A command is sent from the host computer to the robot: it is starting
with an upper case character and followed, if necessary, with numerical or
literal parameters separated with comma and terminated by a line feed. The
response is sent by the robot to the host computer: it is starting with the
same character that was initiating the command but using lower case, and
followed, if necessary, with numerical or literal parameters separated with
comma and terminated by a line feed.
When a command ask for a value bigger than 8 bits (bigger than 256)
the following prefixes must be added:
- d : for a 16 bits value
- l : for a 32 bits value
- f : for a floating value
Example to set the Speed: D,l20000,l20000
To better understand this protocol, please refer to the following simple
test:
- Set the connection configuration presented in section 4.3.
- Start a terminal emulator on your host computer with the serial line
set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit data, 1 start bit, 1 stop bits, no parity.
- Type the capital letter B followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with b followed by an indication of the version
of software running on the robot and terminated by a line feed.
- Type the capital letter N followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with n followed by 11 numbers separated by
a comma and terminated by a line feed. These numbers are the values
of the proximity sensors presents on the robots.
- Retry the same command (N) putting some obstacles on the front of
the robot. The response must change.
- Try other commands...
KhepereaIII UserManual ver1.3
31
A
Start Braitenberg mode
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
B
A, mode (8 bits)
a
Start the Braitenberg mode with the Infrared sensor (mode
= 0) or with the ultrasonic sensor (mode = 1).
A,0
Read software version
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
C
B
b, version of BIOS, revision of BIOS
Give the software version stored in the robot’s EEPROM.
Configure the current firmware operation
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Index
0
C, array index(8bits), array value(16bits)
c
Configure the actual firmware state. The configuration array
is to be seen as a table. Each line in the table means a
parameter and a value may be associated with.
C,0,d3
Default Value
0b00000100
1
2
3
4
3
0
0
0xFFFF
5
6
12
1
K-Team S.A.
Description:
Decide how many US sensor will be active. See
the table bellow for supported configurations.
Decide the maximum echo numbers.
Not Used.
Not used.
IR sensor mask, manage the active IR sensor
(bit0 = IR0, bit1 = IR1, etc...).
IR gain for Braintenberg.
Upper body mounted. If the upper body isn’t
mounted, change this value to 0 to get better
US measure.
32
The supported US sensors configuration are listed in the following table.
Mask
NONE
US1ONLY
US2ONLY
US3ONLY
US4ONLY
US5ONLY
US1TO2
US2TO3
US3TO4
US4TO5
US1TO3
US2TO4
US3TO5
US1TO4
US2TO5
USALL
D
Decimal
0
1
2
4
8
16
3
6
12
24
7
14
28
15
30
31
Description:
None of the US sensor.
Only the US sensor 1.
Only the US sensor 2.
Only the US sensor 3.
Only the US sensor 4.
Only the US sensor 5.
US sensor 1 to 2.
US sensor 2 to 3.
US sensor 3 to 4.
US sensor 4 to 5.
US sensor 1 to 3.
US sensor 2 to 4.
US sensor 3 to 5.
US sensor 1 to 4.
US sensor 2 to 5.
All US sensors.
Set speed
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
E
Binary
0b00000000
0b00000001
0b00000010
0b00000100
0b00001000
0b00010000
0b00000011
0b00000110
0b00001100
0b00011000
0b00000111
0b00001110
0b00011100
0b00001111
0b00011110
0b00011111
D, speed motor left (32bits), speed motor right (32bits)
d
Set the speed of the two motors. See in section 3.2.1 to
calculate the equivalent Speed.
D,l20000,l20000
Read speed
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Example:
K-Team S.A.
E
e, speed motor left, speed motor right
Read the instantaneous speed of the two motors. See in
section 3.2.1 to calculate the equivalent Speed.
e,20000,20000
33
F
Set Target Profile
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
G
Get a measure from the US peripheral
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Example:
H
G, US number (8bits)
g, EchoNbr, Dist1, Ampl1,Time1,Dist2,Ampl2, Time2,
Dist3, Ampl3, Time3, Dist4, Ampl4, Time4, Dist5, Ampl5,
Time5, Noise
Retrieve US measures from a given sensor number. The
sensor number is supposed to be 1 to 5.
G,3
g,1,27,2900,100000,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1800
Configure the PID controler
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
I
F,
target position motor left
(32bits),
target position motor right (32bits)
f
Set a position to be reached. The move will be performed
with three phase, a acceleration to reach the maximum
speed, a constant speed and a deceleration phase before the
finish position. The unit is the pulse, each one corresponds
to 0,047 mm (with encoder resolution x4 (default)).
F,l1000,l1000
H, T (16bits), Kp (16bits), Ki (16bits), Kd (16bits)
h
Set the proportional (Kp), the integral (Ki) and the derivative (Kd) parameters of the T regulator where T can be 0
(speed controler) or 1 (position controler).
H,d1,d200,d5,d10
Set position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
K-Team S.A.
I, position motor left (32bits), position motor right (32bits)
i
Set the 32 bit position counter of the two motors. The unit is
the pulse, each one corresponds to 0,047 mm (with encoder
resolution x4 (default)).
I,l1000,l1000
34
J
Configure the speed profile controller
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
K
Set Programmable Led
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
L
K, LED (8bits), State (8bits)
k
Set the state of the two Programmable Leds ( see section
3.1.3, Led 5 & 6). LED select which one must be set (0 =
led 5, 1 = Led 6).
State select the operation (0 = OFF, 1 = ON, 2 = Change
state).
K,0,1
Set speed open loop
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
M
J, max speed (16bits), acceleration (8bits)
j
Set the speed and the acceleration for the trapezoidal speed
shape of the position controller. The max speed parameter
indicates the maximal speed reached during the displacement. See section 3.2.1 for more details. At the reset, these
parameters are set to standard values: max speed to 20000,
acc to 64.
J,d15000,10
L, speed motor left (32bits), speed motor right (32bits)
l
Set the speed of the two motors without a PID controller.
Where a value of 1023 correspond to PWM of 100%.
L,l500,l500
Init Motors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
K-Team S.A.
M
m
Initialise or reset the motor controllers. Must be used if an
error like motor blocked or current limit occured
35
N
Read proximity sensors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
O
Read ambient light sensors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
P
O
val sens left 90,
val sens left 45,
n,val sens back left,
val sens front left, val sens front right, val sens right 45,
val sens right 90,
val sens back right,
val sens back,
val sens ground right, val sens ground left, time stamp
Read the 10 bit values of the 11 light sensors (section3.1.6),
from the front left sensor turning clockwise to the back-left
sensor. The last argument is the relative time stamp of the
measure.
Set Target Position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Q
N
n,val sens back left,
val sens left 90,
val sens left 45,
val sens front left, val sens front right, val sens right 45,
val sens right 90,
val sens back right,
val sens back,
val sens ground right, val sens ground left, time stamp
Read the 10 bit values of the 11 proximity sensors. The
last argument is the relative time stamp of the measure.
(section 3.3), from the front sensor situated at the left of
the robot, turning clockwise to the back-left sensor.
P,
target position motor left
(32bits),
target position motor right (32bits)
p
Set a position to be reached. The move will be performed
without acceleration and decceleration. The unit is the
pulse, each one corresponds to 0,047 mm (with encoder resolution x4 (default)).
P,l1000,l1000
Unused
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36
R
Read position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
R
r, position motor left, position motor right
Read the 32 bit position counter of the two motors. The
unit is the pulse, each one corresponds to 0,047 mm (with
encoder resolution x4 (default)).
S
Unused
T
Unused
U
Enter the serial boot loader mode
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
V
Get Battery State
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
W
X
U
u
Switch to the firmware upgrade mode. Be careful, not to
upload a bad hex file into the dsPic memory space. If the
dsPic memory is corrupted, an external programmer will be
required to reflash the memory.
V, index (8bits)
v, battery measure unit, battery measure decimal
0: Read the voltage of the battery (Units: 1V , 0.1mV) .
1: Read the current of the battery (Units: 1A, 0.1mA).
2: Read the battery Average Current (Units: 1A, 0.1mA).
3: Read the battery Absolute Remaining Capacity (Units:
1Ah).
4: Read the Temperature of the battery (Units: 1 C, 0.1´).
5: Read the battery Relative Remaining Capacity (Units:
%).
Unused
Unused
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Y
Unused
Z
Zero the relative time stamp
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
K-Team S.A.
Z
z
Reset the relative time counter.
38
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