ELT Guide-1: Communication Games

ELT Guide-1: Communication Games
ELT-51
ELT Guide-1: Communication Games
Milestones in ELT
Milestones in ELT
The British Council was established in 1934 and one of our main aims
has always been to promote a wider knowledge of the English language.
Over the years we have issued many important publications that have
set the agenda for ELT professionals, often in partnership with other
organisations and institutions.
As part of our 75th anniversary celebrations, we re-launched a selection
of these publications online, and more have now been added in connection
with our 80th anniversary. Many of the messages and ideas are just as
relevant today as they were when first published. We believe they are
also useful historical sources through which colleagues can see how
our profession has developed over the years.
ELT Guide-1: Communication Games
Devised by the British Council’s English Language Teaching Institute
(ELTI), specifically Donn Byrne and Shelagh Rixon, this 1979 publication
is a teacher-friendly handbook which presents a range of games
designed to promote the communicative use of language in the
classroom. Games were devised which facilitate student talk and
collaboration (and which do not simply practise isolated elements
of grammar or pronunciation, for example), and each one has clearly
identifiable objectives. Most of the games feature information gaps,
which motivate students to find out from and share with each other
the pieces of information needed to make up a whole ‘picture’.
Section 2 additionally lists over 60 games originally designed for
native speakers, discussing how, in general, these can be adapted
for the English as a foreign or second language classroom.
Section 3 addresses issues in the ‘Presentation, classification and
retrieval of games’ so that they are kept in good, complete order,
ready for use at any time. Finally, there is a select bibliography;
transcripts of ELTI recordings of students playing games; and
publishers’ and manufacturers’ addresses.
NFER Publishing Company
ELT GUIDE-1
COMMUNICATION GAMES
A Teaching Aid devised by the English Language Teaching Institute
The British Council
ELT GUIDE 1
COMMUNICATION GAMES
Bonn Byrne and Shelagh Rixon
THE DAKiN COLLECTION
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS
14 BUCCLEUCH PLACE
EDINBURGH EH8_9LN
File No.
Shelf No.
Presented by
A teaching aid devised by the
English Language Teaching Institute
The British Council
This handbook is one of a series
produced by the English Language
Teaching Institute. The materials
have been written or adapted by
different members of staff both
past and present for use in classes
at the Institute. The handbooks
are not intended primarily as teaching
materials but as examples of techniques
for materials design and use, which
could be adapted to local teaching
situations.
The titles in the series are:
1
Communication Games
2
Simulations
3
Oral Practice in the
Language Laboratory
Published by NFER Publishing Company Limited
Darville House 2 Oxford Road East
Windsor Berks SL4 IDS
Registered office: The Mere Upton Park Slough Berks SL1 2DQ
First Published 1979
© The British Council 1979
ISBN 0 85633 189 9
Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Limited Dorchester
CONTENTS
Introduction
7
11
Acknowledgements
Section 1
ELTI Games
Information Exchange games for pairs and
small groups 12
Describe and Draw
13
Describe and Arrange 16
Construct It 18
Describe and Construct
Find the Difference
21
22
Complete It 24
Ask the Right Question 26
Compare and Check (Flag Games)
Rescue 31
Linking and Matching Games
Use It 37
Picture Dominoes 40
41
Picture Rummy
Categories 42
Happy Families Games
Board Games
51
The Gift Game 53
Travel Games
If 59
Say It 61
Get it Done 64
57
45
36
28
CONTENTS
Whole Class Games 66
Left Hand, Right Hand 67
May I Introduce Myself? 69
Find Your Partner 70
Where are they? 72
The Detective Game 73
Collage 75
Section 2
Published Games
Their Adaptation and Use 76
Annotated selection of published
games useful in the language classroom 78
Section 3
Presentation, Classification
and Retrieval of Games 83
Select Bibliography
Appendix
86
Transcripts of ELTI recordings
of students playing games 88
Publishers' and Manufacturers' Addresses
96
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
fig 1
Original photograph and student's drawing for
Describe and Draw. 14
fig 2
Simple sketch of laboratory equipment for
use as a Describe and Draw subject. 15
fig 3
A set of master pictures for Describe and Arrange. 17
fig 4
Instruction diagram for LEGO model for use with
Construct It and Describe and Construct. 19
fig 5
Two similar photographs for use with Find the
Difference. 23
fig 6
A set of pictures suitable for Complete It.
fig 7
The basic map used for Rescue.
fig 8
Picture cards for Use It. 38
fig 9
Matrix board and cards for Categories. 43
fig 10
Board for Happy Families
fig 11
Board for The Gift Game.
fig 12
Board for If.
fig 13
Board for Say It. 62
Fig 14
Board for Get It Done. 65
fig 15
Examples of different cards from a set for
Find Your Partner. 71
fig 16
Method of presenting Describe and Draw. 84
fig 17
Method of presenting Find the Difference. 85
25
33
Kirn's Game.
49
54
60
INTRODUCTION
Purpose
This handbook presents a selection of games designed to promote the communicative
use of language in the classroom. It can be used
1
by teacher trainers, to illustrate this area of language teaching and, where
appropriate, to stimulate trainees to develop similar materials in workshop
sessions;
2
by teachers, who can adapt and expand the materials to meet the needs of their
own students.
A significant feature of the games found in section 1 of this guide is that they are based
on 'homemade' materials (such as drawings made on card or pictures cut from
magazines) or on other materials that are easily and cheaply acquired.
Although the games were originally devised for use with adult students, they can
easily be adapted for use with students of different ages. Some games can also be made
suitable for students of English for Specific Purposes, by adjusting the pictorial or
other content. We have also found that, because students are using their own
linguistic strategies to succeed in the games and because the emphasis is upon success
in communication rather than structure practice, they can be used by students at all
levels of language attainment, once the complete beginner stage is over.
Games in language teaching
The term 'games' has been used in language teaching to cover a wide range of
classroom activities. Such activities are generally intended to provide an interesting
and entertaining way of practising specific language items or of stimulating learning
in such areas as reading or spelling. While they often employ mechanisms such as
guessing, which give these activities a communicative dimension and allow students
some choice in the language they use, games of this kind are usually supervised or at
least closely monitored by the teacher. Many traditional games for language teaching
are either drills in disguise or else focus attention on isolated words. The language they
practise has little transfer value to real-life language needs.
Communication games
Most of the games illustrated in this handbook differ from those described above in a
number of ways. In the first place they are intended to develop communication skills,
particularly those of speaking and listening, rather than to practise particular points
of pronunciation or grammatical structure. For this reason no attempt is made to
control the language that could or should be used in any one game. Prediction of
language likely to be elicited by an activity is of course valuable in the choice of
materials to suit particular students, but this need not result in the rigid prescription
of structures to be 'practised'in any game. For example it might seem that a game like
Describe and Draw would elicit mainly the language needed for giving instructions or
for describing spatial relationships. Language of this kind will no doubt occur, and it
is possible through the choice of picture content to ensure that certain semantic areas
of language are brought into play naturally in the course of the game. However, such
games also generate an unpredictably wide range of language and language functions
as the players interact
as they are obliged to make the fullest use of their own
INTRODUCTION
linguistic resources both in speaking and listening. It is this potential that makes
the activities communicative. They lead to language being used rather than being
practised.
Secondly, the emphasis in this collection of games is often on cooperation rather than
competition. The students work together on the completion of a specified task, and
this again fosters purposeful communication. It is the challenge of reaching a goal or
performing some intrinsically interesting task successfully that provides the motivation,
rather than competition between players. Many language games rely too much on
competition as a motive force and take too little account of the need for the activity to
be attractive and interesting in itself.
Finally, the games are played in pairs or in groups rather than in rigidly divided
'teams'. This increases the opportunities for talk and the need for students to listen to
each other. Direct interaction among students is the aim, rather than between teacher
and students with the teacher mediating the students' attempts at communication.
Most games are so designed that they can be used on a self-access basis, with clear
instructions attached to each activity.
These features combine to make the teacher's role managerial and consultative rather
than directive and supervisory. Although he may from time to time be asked for
advice, he is not there to supervise the games or to interfere with what the students
say when playing them. His main responsibility is to see that the games are accessible,
to indicate what is available, to ensure that students all take part in some activity,
and, having provided the opportunities for communication, to withdraw from the
centre of attention.
What makes a good game?
It is hoped that the features that make most of the games described in this handbook
effective will become self-evident, but it may be helpful to extract a few general
principles to bear in mind when designing or adapting a game for use in the language
class.
One of the best definitions of a game that we have come across is that by G I Gibbs
who calls it 'an activity carried out by cooperating or competing decision-makers,
seeking to achieve, within the rules, their objectives'. Rules and instructions are
relatively easy to frame, but the really important feature that we feel has received too
little attention in designing ELT games is that there must be an objective if the game
is to have any motive power. That is, the activity must have some end point. This
means more than that it must be intrinsically attractive or interesting, although this
too is important. It means that there must be a definite closure; the players must know
when they have 'won' or completed the game. The successful completion of a task such
as matching up all one's cards or finding a partner are examples of very clear closure
points. Most of the objectives or tasks in this collection of games are similarly nonlinguistic. Since the intention is to promote language use for a communicative purpose
rather than language for the sake of language, this seems logical. In these games
language is the means by which an extralinguistic objective is achieved. Language is
being used, not just practised. This feature leads to a side benefit in that students
often become so fascinated by the task that they lose some of the self-consciousness
and fear of experimenting with the language that often holds them back at what Wilga
Rivers calls the stage of 'pseudo-communication' in the class. If there is no clearly
8
INTRODUCTION
defined end or 'winning' point, an activity can too easily become rambling and
unfocused, losing the characteristics of a game and becoming more like an ill-directed
language practice session.
Another essential feature of most of the games described is a built-in disparity of
information or opinion amongst the players. If a situation is created in which one
player knows something that another does not and the information needs to be shared
in order that they should complete some task, there is an automatic need to
communicate, and communication will usually take place. This principle is easily seen
at work in Describe and Draw where Player A can see a picture that Player B cannot. B
has to produce a drawing as close as possible to A's picture, so A and B must talk in a
cooperative way in order that the information B needs should be communicated to
him. We have called this principle that of the Information Gap. The difference of
opinion or Built-in Disagreement operates in much the same way in games where a less
factually based, more affective, style of interaction is aimed at. If there is a rule
whereby a player may only make the move he wishes to after successfully justifying
the move to the rest of the group, the other players will soon realise that it is in their
interest to argue against him and try to block advantageous moves. Few turns will
pass without comment or discussion by all players. A game such as The Gift Game,
which involves judgements about the suitability of various gifts for possible recipients,
stimulates lively opposition by most players to any choice made by a rival, and strong
attempts at justifying a choice by the player who stands to win an advantage by it.
Commonsense must prevail however, and a game in which everyone could always
successfully block anyone else's progress would be boring and pointless. It is important
therefore, to strike a balance in the content of such a game by making sure that some of
the moves are incontravertibly acceptable so that the activity can progress. For
example, although there are several unlikely or unusual presents shown on the board
of The Gift Game to stimulate amusement and argument, there are also gifts that are
obviously perfectly matched to some of the recipients, so that players will sometimes
be able to gain an advantage after the minimum of discussion. These two types of
disparity among players, used either alone or together in a game, are very important in
ensuring that an activity is communicative. Although in general the teacher should
not interfere, he must be ready to provoke discussions if all the solutions are too
readily accepted by the students.
The foregoing discussion does not imply that there is absolutely no place in the
language class for the more familiar types of parlour games, which are most often
competitive; players race to complete a task first; or compete to score the greatest
number of points; or to accumulate the most cards or other tokens. To do these things,
however, they employ skills such as matching and discriminating, recognising
sequences, making inferences; and the language generated by such activities can be
extremely valuable. Word games such as Scrabble and Jabberwocky have obvious
applications at the level of spelling, and word-building. Although students will not
necessarily interact very much while playing them, they have a definite value and
should not be overlooked. For these reasons we have included a section (No 2) of
commercially available games that we have found useful or which seem to have
potential for use with foreign students. Because most of these games were designed
with native speakers of English in mind they may need to be adapted slightly to make
sure that our students derive the most benefit from them. A short note on general
principles of adaptation precedes the annotated list of published games. Notes on the
use of each published game appear under the individual headings in this list.
INTRODUCTION
The origin of the materials
The materials in section 1 of this handbook have been developed by staff of the British
Council's English Teaching Institute in London. The students who attend classes in
the Institute are well-motivated adults of mixed nationalities, most of whom have
come to Britain for a year or more of academic study. The games are normally made
available on a self-access basis during periods of their course when students are
allowed to choose their activities from a range of options, games being one of the
options. For further information about their use in this context, readers are referred to
ELTI Film No 3: 'Activity Days in Language Learning'. These games are of course
equally useful during normal class periods. ELTI Film no 4: 'Communication Games
in a Language Programme', and its accompanying booklet, deals with techniques for
design and use of games to reinforce language that has already been taught in more
controlled classroom sessions.
A note on contents
The remainder of this handbook is organised as follows:
Section One consists of descriptions of a total of 32 games developed in ELTI. Each
description contains notes on the procedure for the game with detailed instructions on
how to play it. Alternative rules are often possible, and some suggestions are included
for variations. There are notes on the materials required for making each game, and
figures illustrating appropriate visual material are included where possible.
Acknowledgement of the source of copyright visual material is made in every case
next to the illustration itself and a full list of acknowledgements appears at the end of
this introduction. We are very grateful to those companies who have given us
permission to reproduce their material in this handbook.
Section Two concerns games available on the commercial market. Some general
comments on their adaptation are followed by an annotated list of published games.
Suppliers' and publishers' addresses are given at the end of the handbook.
Section Three contains suggestions for the presentation and storage of games with a
view to making them more hardwearing, attractive, and easy to retrieve from the
storage system.
The Select Bibliography contains books and articles on the subject of games and
gaming. The emphasis is on recent work on the practical application of such activities
to education in general as well as to EFL, since there are many ideas for games in other
disciplines waiting to be developed or exploited for use with foreign students.
In addition there is an Appendix consisting of transcripts of recordings made in ELTI
of students playing a number of the games. These extracts should give a clear idea of
the range of language and of the real interaction among students that a successful
game can bring about.
10
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The compilers of this guide wish to express their thanks to the following firms and
publishers for permission to re-print copyright material as illustrations. The source of
each illustration is also acknowledged separately on the page on which it appears.
Direct Education Services Ltd, 1 Alfred Street
Blandford Forum, Dorset TD11 7JJ
Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Group
68 King William Street, London EC4
British LEGO Ltd, Wrexham, N Wales LL13 9UH
Longman English Teaching Services, Longman House
Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE
Particular thanks are due to Mr Donn Byrne, and to Professor T S Rodgers of the
Hawaii English Project, for sharing their ideas so generously, particularly in the
section entitled Whole Class Games.
Considerable pioneering work on the design of game formats and the wording of
instructions was done by Ms Janet McAlpin and Ms Marion Geddes.
For the game called Collage on page 75 we are indebted to Mr Eric Griffiths of Christ's
College, Cambridge.
We should also like to acknowledge the work of Mr Dick Allwright of the University of
Lancaster in developing those games which make use of LEGO blocks.
The game called Rescue on page 31 was created by Mr John Hilton.
11
Section 1
ELTI Games
INFORMATION EXCHANGE GAMES
The games in this section are grouped together because their main objective is that
one student should communicate information to another in order to complete some
task. This is most often done by giving instructions, as in Describe and Construct or
Describe and Draw, but players could simply describe what they see, as in Find the
Difference or could use a number of strategies to elicit a particular word or phrase from
a partner, as in Ask the Right Question. A surprising variety of language functions
but it is in these
beyond the obvious ones do in fact occur during these games
activities that the principle of the information-gap (see Introduction) is applied in its
purest form; hence the title 'Information Exchange Games'.
These are good games to start students off with for a number of reasons:
Firstly, students will very quickly understand the point of what they are doing. The
results of their communication can be immediately evaluated since there is usually a
picture, or an arrangement of cards or objects created by one student that can be
compared with an original. The degree to which the two are similar is a rough guide to
the success of the communication. The need for the teacher to evaluate success
immediately disappears because the students can now do it for themselves by a visual
comparison. It is important to allow students to discuss their successes or failures at
the end of a game, since it is at this point that they can analyse for themselves the
features of their language that led to any breakdown in communication. The teacher
should be on hand to be consulted if necessary, but should certainly not interpose or,
worse still, start 'teaching' during such an activity.
Secondly, most of these games are for pairs or small groups, which is a more
controllable arrangement for students and teachers who are not yet accustomed to
non-teacher-centred work. Once this idea has become accepted, the games involving
larger groups and more movement can gradually be introduced.
Thirdly, these games are amongst the simplest to set up in terms of time and
equipment, although giving the materials a really finished appearance will require
greater time and trouble. Once all the possibilities of a format are understood, fresh
materials to add to the collection will readily be recognised. The type of advertisement
using 'before' and 'after' pictures for example, provides a rich source of materials for
Find the Difference. One comes to note the possibilities automatically during the
normal course of reading magazines and newspapers, and a library of similar activities
can quickly be built up.
12
DESCRIBE AND DRAW
Procedure
In this game Player A has to describe to player B a picture which the latter has not
seen. Player B has to draw the picture from Player A's description.
The activity requires player A to be as precise as possible in order to help Player B
visualise the picture. Player B is allowed to ask questions. The activity leads to further
talk when the two versions are compared.
More than one student may serve as Player B. One advantage of having more than one
student in this role is that they must listen carefully to one another's questions.
The game is a good example of a cooperative activity.
Materials required
Magazines are a good source of suitable pictures for this game.
The pictures must be carefully selected; ones that are too complex will frustrate the
players. Unusual pictures, however, which combine familiar objects in an unfamiliar
way, add to the interest of the activity and encourage the players to be resourceful and
imaginative in their use of language (see fig 1).
Each picture should be mounted inside a folder, which then serves as a screen between
Player A and Player B. The instructions for Player A are positioned on the front cover
of the folder. Player B takes his cue from Player A.
Instructions (for Player A)
DO NOT OPEN THIS FOLDER UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THE INSTRUCTIONS
BELOW
1
In the folder you will find a picture. DO NOT SHOW THE PICTURE TO
PLAYER B.
2
Tell Player B that he will need a pencil, a rubber and some paper.
3
Describe the picture to Player B. You may give him a general description of the
picture first. Tell Player B to draw what you describe. DO NOT WATCH PLAYER
B. Tell him that he may ask you questions.
4 When Player B has finished drawing, show him your picture. Compare the two
pictures and discuss any language difficulties.
13
DESCRIBE AND DRAW
Fig 1
14
Original photograph and student's drawing for Describe and Draw
(photograph by British Council Media Department)
DESCRIBE AND DRAW
Variations
When Player B has finished drawing, he may describe his version to Player A and
discuss differences before the two pictures are set side by side.
Alternatively, if Player B's finished drawing is wrong in some important respects,
Player A can be asked to keep the incorrect version and to describe the picture again,
modifying his description in the light of the mistakes in the drawing in front of him,
while Player B makes a second attempt at the drawing task.
Simple line drawings or simple shapes in different colours which can of course
incorporate unusual and amusing features, may be used for elementary students.
Pictures or diagrams to elicit selected technical vocabulary may also be used (see fig
2).
Fig 2
Simple sketch of laboratory equipment for use as a
Describe and Draw subject
15
DESCRIBE AND ARRANGE
Procedure
This game is similar to Describe and Draw. Player A holds the 'master set' of pictures.
The master set consists of a number of small pictures, differing from one another only
in detail, which have already been mounted in a particular order. Player B has a loose
set of the small pictures. He has to arrange these to match the master set, following
Player A's description.
Materials required
Duplicate copies of 6-12 related pictures. A sample of a master card is illustrated in fig
3.
The master set should be mounted inside a folder. The folder also contains an envelope
with the set of loose pictures, mounted on card, for Player B. The instructions for
Player A are positioned on the outside of the folder.
Instructions(for Player A)
DO NOT OPEN THIS FOLDER UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THE INSTRUCTIONS
BELOW
1
In this folder you will find a picture. DO NOT SHOW YOUR PICTURE TO
PLAYER B.
2 You will also find an envelope with a set of (6) small pictures in it. Give these to
Player B.
3 Your picture consists of Player B's small pictures arranged in order. Tell Player B
how to arrange his pictures in the same way. Telll him he may ask you questions.
4 When Player B has finished arranging his pictures, show him your picture.
Compare the two arrangements and discuss any language difficulties.
Variations
This game lends itself to adaptation for use at different levels of language learning. At
an elementary level, for example, Player A's master card might consist of a simple line
drawing of a cupboard, with 1-2 objects on each shelf. Player B has a copy of the
drawing of the cupboard without any objects in it. He also has a set of cutouts of the
objects, which he must locate according to Player A's instructions. At a more
advanced level, language needed to express complex spatial relationships as well as
technical vocabulary might be required. .
The game may also be played using two identical sets of 9-12 cards (for example, from
packs of picture cards like those used for playing Happy Families. Player A arranges
his set of cards (on the table or on a simple board) without letting Player B see. He then
gets Player B to arrange his cards in the same way.
16
DESCRIBE AND ARRANGE
Fig 3
A set of Master Pictures for Describe and Arrange
(reproduced by kind permission of the Guardian
Royal Exchange Assurance Group)
17
CONSTRUCT IT
Procedure
For this game there should be two or more pairs of students or two or more small
groups of 3-4 students, each of which is engaged on a parallel task.
Each pair or group has to construct a model, using material such as LEGO or plastic
Meccano, from the diagram provided. They then write instructions from which the
model can be constructed without reference to the diagram. Each pair or group then
exchanges pieces and instructions and constructs the new model.
This is a challenging game, involving all four skills. It also calls for a high degree of
cooperation. The writing of clear instructions and the interpretation of these are of
course important. Equally significant, however, is the purposeful talk which this
generates.
Materials required
Sufficient material for the construction of several different models.
The pieces required for each model should be made up into sets and stored in suitable
containers (eg plastic envelopes, boxes). On each container is written the number of
pieces it contains. The diagram for the construction of the model is also kept in the
container.
Each pair or group will need a copy of the instructions.
Instructions
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE YOU BEGIN.
1
Open the packet and count the pieces in it. Check that the number is the same as
the one on the packet.
2
Look at the diagram of the model and make the model.
3 When you have finished, take the model to pieces. Then write the instructions for
building the model. Rebuild the model if necessary.
Make sure that your instructions are clear enough for anyone to make the model
without the help of the diagram. You may use a dictionary to help you.
4
If you have rebuilt your model, take it to pieces.
5.
Exchange your pieces and instructions with another pair or group. DO NOT
GIVE THEM THE DIAGRAM.
6
Use the instructions you have been given to construct the new model.
7
When you have built your model, show it to the students who gave you the
instructions. You may then look at the diagram. Discuss any difficulties you had
with the instructions.
8
Rewrite the instructions to make them as clear as possible.
18
CONSTRUCT IT
© LEGO System A/S
Fig 4
Instruction diagram for LEGO model for use with
Construct It and Describe and Construct.
(reproduced by kind permission of British LEGO)
19
CONSTRUCT IT
Variations
1
The game may be adapted for use with any locally available material for constructing
models. Certain materials used in primary education may also be found useful (eg
building blocks of different sizes, shapes and colours). It may be necessary to
prepare a step-by-step diagram similar to the one for the LEGO model in fig 4.
2
Another variation, using LEGO, is for the student to select a given number of
pieces of different sizes, colours and shapes, without letting his partner see them.
He then describes the pieces one by one and his partner attempts to find similar
pieces from a central pile.
20
DESCRIBE AND CONSTRUCT
Procedure
This game combines features of Describe and draw (p. 13) and Construct it (p. 18).
Player A has the diagram of the model, while Player B has the pieces.
Player B has to construct the model from Player A's description.
Materials required
These are the same as for Construct it.
Instructions (for Player A)
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE YOU BEGIN
1
Open the packet and take out the diagram. DO NOT SHOW THE DIAGRAM TO
PLAYER B.
2
Give the packet to Player B. Tell him to count the pieces in it and to check that the
number is the same as the one on the packet.
3
Look at the diagram and tell Player B how to construct the model. If Player B
makes a mistake, tell him but do not touch any of the pieces. Tell Player B he
may ask you questions.
4
When Player B has constructed the model, show him the diagram and discuss any
difficulties.
21
FIND THE DIFFERENCE
Procedure
This game is played in pairs or in groups of four with two players per picture.
Each player or pair of players has a picture. The pictures are identical except for a few
differences. The players talk about their own picture or ask questions about the other's
picture until they have identified an assigned number of differences. The number of
differences they are asked to identify is limited in order to give the activity a goal, but
the players may go on talking when the two pictures are set side by side.
This game is an excellent example of a cooperative activity: the players are on an equal
footing in terms of roles and collaborate to find the differences.
Materials required
Pairs of pictures which differ only in a small number of details. See fig 5 for example.
The details which distinguish the two pictures may relate to one or two objects (eg the
head and shoulders of a person, two pieces of furniture) or to a wider context (a room
scene or a view of a building).
Each picture should be stored in a separate envelope. These two envelopes are then
kept in a folder. The instructions for playing the game are positioned on the front cover
of the folder.
Instructions
DO NOT OPEN THIS FOLDER UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THESE
INSTRUCTIONS
1
In this folder you will find two envelopes. Take one each.
2
There is a picture in each envelope. Take your picture out of the envelope. DO NOT
SHOW IT TO THE OTHER PLAYER.
3
Your picture is similar to that of the other player but there are some differences.
Talk to one another until you find (3) differences.
4
When you have found (3) differences, show your pictures to one another and
compare them. Try to find more differences.
Variations
The game may be adapted for use at various levels of language learning. Line
drawings, with some colour, are suitable for use at an elementary level.
22
FIND THE DIFFERENCE
Fig 5
Two similar photographs for use with Find the Difference
(Photographs by Shelagh Rixon)
23
COMPLETE IT
Procedure
This game is played in pairs or in small groups of 3-4 students.
Each player has a picture. Each picture either shows the same scene from different
angles (so that the player who holds it has some information which the other players
do not have) or forms part of a sequence of events. The players talk to one another until
they have built up the complete story.
Materials required
Sets of 2-4 pictures (photographs or line drawings), each of which gives additional
information about the same event or situation.
For example, a set of three pictures might show the following:
Picture 1:
someone (viewed from the rear) in front of a TV set. Details of the programme shown
on the TV set. Clock on the TV set.
Picture 2:
front view of man asleep in an archair, with a glass on the arm of the chair and a
newspaper fallen on the floor.
Picture 3:
a woman standing just inside the door of the room, looking sleepy and rather annoyed.
A picture of an accident lends itself readily to this pictorial division of information.
The visual material in fig 6 shows the sequence of events leading up to an accident.
Each picture should be mounted and placed in a separate envelope. These envelopes
are then kept in a larger envelope or folder. The instructions are positioned on the front
of the large envelope or folder.
Instructions
DO NOT OPEN THIS ENVELOPE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THESE
INSTRUCTIONS.
1
In this envelope you will find (4) smaller envelopes. Take one envelope each.
2
Open your envelope and take out your picture. DO NOT SHOW YOUR PICTURE
TO THE OTHER PLAYERS.
3
Your picture shows part of a sequence of events. Talk to one another until you have
worked out what happened.
4 When you have worked out what happened, show your pictures to one another.
24
COMPLETE IT
Fig 6
Set of pictures suitable for Complete It.
(reproduced from Donn Byrne's Progressive Picture
Composition published by Longman)
Variations
This game may also be played with maps and plans. Each individual map shows some
details which are not marked on the other maps. The players may be given outline
maps on which they enter the information they have got from one another. For a
development of this variation see Rescue (page31)
25
ASK THE RIGHT QUESTION
Procedure
This game is played in pairs.
A pack of cards is placed face downwards on the table between the two players. On
each card is written a word or phrase (see the sample list below). Each player in turn
picks up a card and asks the other player a question which will elicit the word or phrase
on his card. He may rephrase his question once if necessary. If his question produces
the answer on the card, he is allowed to keep the card. If he fails to ask the right
question, he has to return his card to the pack on the table.
At the end of the game the players may discuss possible questions for any of the cards
which they were unable to use.
Materials required
Several sets of answer cards. 20 cards in each set is a convenient number. Each set
should be stored in an envelope.
Here is a list of items for one set.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
S.O.S.
TO SKATE
THE RED INDIANS
A WELL
GREEK
THE LION
JUMP
RABIES
A BUNGALOW
SHAKESPEARE
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
A SUBMARINE
RUBBER
51 STATES
BRAILLE
IT SWIMS
RED
THE TIMES
HONEY
COOK
CONCORDE
Instructions
DO NOT OPEN THIS ENVELOPE UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THESE
INSTRUCTIONS
1
In this envelope you will find 20 cards. On each card a word or phrase has been
written. Take the cards out of the envelope and place them face downwards on the
table. DO NOT LOOK AT THE WORDS ON THE CARDS.
2
One of you must now pick up a card. Do not show it to the other player.
3
Read what is written on the card. Then ask the other player a question to which the
word or phrase on your card is the answer.
26
ASK THE RIGHT QUESTION
4
If he does not give you the right answer, ask your question again, using different
words.
5
If he gives you the right answer, keep the card. If you do not get the right answer,
put the card back at the bottom of the pack on the table.
6
The other player must now pick up a card and continue the game in the same way.
Variations
Sets relating to specific areas of grammar (eg tenses) may be built up. Also sets for
teaching special purpose English (eg with items such as H~0, volume, pressure, it
expands, it melts etc).
Sets of picture cards may also be used, although they are likely only to produce
answers in the form of nouns. Their attractiveness and the additional task that is
provided for the player with the card may, however, make up for this limitation. If the
card-holding player genuinely does not know the English word for what is on his card,
his attempts to elicit the answer from his partner will be that much more valuable in
terms of communication.
27
COMPARE AND CHECK (FLAG GAMES)
This set of games illustrates a range of activities in which players exchange information,
but in which the material is more cornplex and there are several sources of information
to which they may refer. In addition to the flag cards and number plates in the
examples given here, there are lists giving number plate codes and countries which can
be referred to by students during the activity to check on data needed to solve the
problem.
This idea may easily be adapted for ESP use, eg lists of metals and their melting
points and other properties might provide a similar range of activities for students
with a general science background. In a more specialised field a list of common
minerals with brief descriptions of their physical appearance and their position on
Mohs' hardness scale might make an excellent communication game for geologists.
Materials required
Set of about 40 small cards each with a picture of a national flag on it.
Information sheet showing all the flags with their country of origin given.
Set of cards each with an international number plate code upon it.
Index showing codes and the countries to which they refer.
IDENTITY FLA GS/NUMBER PLA TES
Procedure
Players take it in turns to ask factual questions of each other about the picture cards,
using the information sheets to verify answers, eg
Which country
)
)
does this flag represent?
do these letters belong to?
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 players.
2
Place the cards face down in a central pool.
3
Player A takes a card from the central pool and asks Player B a question about it. B
answers from his own knowledge. The answer is then checked from the information
sheets.
4
Players take it in turns to challenge each other like this until all the cards are
finished. Players get one point for each correct answer.
5
The player with the most points at the end of the game is the winner.
28
COMPARE AND CHECK
(FLAG GAMES)
MATCH PLATES TO FLAGS TO MAKE PAIRS
Procedure
20 cards from the pack are divided between 2 players, one having 10 flags, the other 10
number plates. The players try to collect as many pairs as they can by asking their
partner for a card which matches one of theirs. When no more pairs can be made the
game is over, and the player with the most pairs is the winner.
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 players.
2
Player A takes any 10 flag cards, and Player B takes 10 number plate cards. Do not
let your partner see your cards.
3 Your aim is to collect pairs of cards representing the same nationality. Take it in
turns to ask your partner if he has a card which matches one of yours. If you are
asked for a card which you have, you must give it to your partner.
4 When you can make no more pairs the game is finished. The player who has the
most pairs is the winner.
GUESS MY FLAG
Procedure
2 players take it in turns to try to guess the identity of the flag card their partner has
selected from the pack, by asking questions about it. Reference is made to the
information sheet as necessary. If wished, questions could be restricted to the flag's
design ie colours and shapes, to avoid overlap with the game which follows ( Guess My
Nationality).
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 players.
2
Player A takes a card from the pack, but does not let Player B see it.
3
Player B asks questions about it until he thinks he can identify which flag it is. You
may both refer to the information sheet if necessary.
4 When Player B has successfully guessed the flag, he takes a card and Player A has
to ask questions.
5
Continue in this way until all the cards have been used.
29
COMPARE AND CHECK
G UESS MYNA TIONALITY
Procedure
Two or more people may play this game. One player selects a card which provides him
with a country. The other players have to ask questions about the country until they
identify it. Players then exchange roles and repeat the process with a different
country.
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 or more players.
2
One player takes a card from the pack, but does not show it to the other players.
3
The others try to guess what country this card represents by asking questions
about it.
4
When they have successfully guessed, another player takes a card and the others
try to guess the country.
5
Continue until every player has had two turns of taking a card.
30
RESCUE
This game is included as an example of a whole range which combine information
exchanges with problem-solving. Maps are a very good starting point for such
activities. Full information abut the terrain must be shared in the first stage of the
game, and then in the problem-solving stage a route must be planned to take account
of this information. Obviously, activities like these could be extended to form fullscale simulations, but since we have included limited data which allows of only one or
two simple solutions and have excluded any role-play, we feel that 'Rescue' is tight and
self-contained enough to be classified as a game. The language in this example makes
it suitable for more advanced students only, but similar games, involving for example
planning a route for a motor-rally, could be developed along these lines.
Procedure
Two players are trying to work out the best route for a team of soldiers to take in order
to rescue an important prisoner held in hostile country. Each player has a map, but
information supplementary to the map is also available. This is different for each
player. This extra information will affect their planning, and its implications will form
the basis for much of their discussion.
Materials required
1
Two identical copies of a simple map, one for each player (see fig 7). Multiple copies
will have to be made since maps will be written upon and cannot therefore be used
twice.
2
Two supplementary information sheets, different for each player (see below).
3
A copy of the map with all the new information from both sources entered and a
suggested route marked upon it, for use by the teacher, or as a postgame checksheet
for the players themselves.
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 players.
2
Each player takes a copy of the map.
3
Your aim is to work out the best route for a team of soldiers to take in order to
rescue a prisoner who is held in hostile territory in a building in square A3 of your
map. Your soldiers must enter the country by sea in the south of your map.
4
In addition to the map, each player has more information on sheets 1 and 2. This is
fortunate, because the map is more than 20 years old and may not be accurate. So
you will need to check it carefully against your information sheets. One player has
information coming from a recent air-reconnaissance of the district, and the other
has information coming from secret resistance workers within the district itself.
5
You should start the game by comparing the information you have, telling your
partner about the new information on your sheet, asking him to give you his extra
information, altering your maps as necessary.
31
RESCUE
When you are satisfied that all the new information is complete, discuss with your
partner the best route for your soldiers to take to the place where the prisoner is
held and back with him to the shore where your boats will be waiting.
When you think you have worked out a possible route, compare it with the
suggested route on sheet 3 and discuss the reasons for any differences.
32
RESCUE
KEY
Cliff
Road
Marsh
Path
Sand beach and dunes
Buildings
-Mr
Bridge
Built-up area
Woods
Ford
HH
Tunnel
Sea
Fig 7
The basic map used for Rescue.
33
'RESCUE' INFORMATION SHEET 1
Information transmitted from Resistance HQ in town
A2
There is a minefield to the east of the ford
A3
The prisoner is held there
A4
Tank was burnt out by resistance attack two weeks previously. New cattle shed
abandoned
Bl
Farmhouse abandoned
B3)
B4)
There is an electrified steel fence inside the edge of the woods.
Dog patrols to the north extending west of the ford
B5
Recent noises in wood turn out to have been trees falling in recent storm. Two of
these have fallen across the river
B6
There are guns in the farm building, controlling movement on the road
C4
Much enemy activity at house; purpose unknown
Dl
Bridge permanently guarded
D2
D3)
Soldiers guarding town. More troops have recently arrived
D4
Frequent traffic up the track to the house at C4
E2
The warship is ready for action but awaiting fuel. The guns on the harbour wall
control the west shore of the marsh
E5
The beach has mines buried near to the cliffs
E6
House north of road is occupied by a resistance sympathiser
Fl
Machine gun concealed in woods
34
'RESCUE' INFORMA TION SHEET 2
Aerial reconnaissance HQ: Information available
Information
A4
New concrete building and tank
B2
Tents
B5
Unidentified structure spanning the river just north of the fork
C6
The bridge has been broken by the previous day's air-raid
D3
The town has been extended since this map was drawn, and now covers the whole
of this square
D5
Tents and military vehicles have been seen in this area
E2
Warship in harbour
E3
As map but the built-up area now extends south of road for a little way
E4
Sunken ship blocks the approach to that part of beach
F6
As map
cliffs are too steep to climb
35
LINKING AND MATCHING GAMES
This section includes only a few out of the large number of games that can be built
around the idea of matching identical features or making a link between similar items
which are pictorially or verbally presented. Many familiar games eg Dominoes or
Happy Families work on the principle of making chains of associations or groups of
similar items. When applied to language learning, games of this type can be very
productive. Some of the language that will come out of such an activity is predictable
in terms of structures; ways of expressing similarity or difference, and there will be the
need for the 'too', 'so does...', 'neither does...' group of structures; but a much wider
range of language will also be used, according to students' ability. This is almost
guaranteed by the principle of 'built-in disagreement' whereby it is not in players'
interests simply to agree to every move made by the others. Every move should
involve some discussion or argument within the group.
Sets of picture cards form the basis for the games in this section, specialised in the case
of the Happy Families games, but otherwise showing a variety of different objects
and living creatures. Cards of this type may be homemade, using small cutouts pasted
on to visiting cards or postcards and, if possible, covered with plastic film to help them
withstand constant handling. Alternatively, published sets of cards, such as Edward
de Bono's Think Links, are suitable for many of the activities (see fig 8).
The advantage of building up one's own collection of picture cards is their versatility.
For a more extensive treatment of the potential of small picture cards, readers are
referred to the article on picture cue-cards by J Y K Kerr mentioned in the
Bibliography.
36
USE IT____________________________________________
Procedure
This game is played in pairs or in small groups of 3-5 students.
Two sets of picture cards are used. The cards in the first set (one for each player)
symbolise occupations. The cards in the second set show objects which the players
have to make use of in their occupations. Both sets are placed face downwards on the
table in front of the players.
The players begin by each taking an occupation card and deciding on their occupation.
Each player in turn then takes one of the 'object' cards and says how he would use it in
connection with his occuaption. If the other players are satisfied with his proposal, he
is allowed to keep the card. If they are not satisfied, he must return the card to the set
on the table.
Materials required
A set of picture cards showing a range of objects. Some typical cards are shown in fig
8. Cutouts from magazines and catalogues, stuck on card, may be used, or simple line
drawings, appropriately coloured.
The objects depicted on the 'occupation' cards should be selected for their symbolic
value. A bottle of milk, for example, may symbolise a milkman, a farmer or an owner of
a cafe. The cards in the second set need not be selected. If plenty of cards are available,
the students may be allowed to deal these from a large number.
Each set of cards should be stored in a separate envelope, which should be labelled (eg
OCCUPATIONS). These two small envelopes should be kept in a folder. The
instructions for playing the game are positioned on the outside of the folder.
Instructions
DO NOT OPEN THIS FOLDER UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THESE
INSTRUCTIONS
1
In this folder you will find two small envelopes. Take these out of the folder.
2 One of the small envelopes is marked OCCUPATIONS. It contains 5 picture cards.
Take these out of their envelope and place them FACE DOWNWARDS on the
table. DO NOT LOOK AT THEM.
3 Take one occupation card each. Look at the picture on it and decide what your
occupation is. Tell the other players what you have decided.
4 The other envelope is marked OBJECTS. It contains 20 picture cards. Take these
out of their envelope and place them FACE DOWNWARDS on the table. DO NOT
LOOK AT THEM.
5 Decide who will begin. Play in a clockwise direction.
37
USE IT
Fig 8
38
Picture Cards for Use It
(reproduced from the Think Links Materials, by
kind permission of Direct Education Services Ltd)
USE IT
When it is your turn, pick up one of the object cards on the table. Place this FACE
UPWARDS on the table in front of you.
Decide how you will use this card in your work. Tell the other players. If they agree
with your idea, you may keep the card. If they do not agree with you, put it at the
bottom of the cards on the table.
39
PICTURE DOMINOES
Procedure
In this game players try to get rid of the cards in their hand by placing them next to
one another on the table in a line as in dominoes. Cards can only be placed next to one
another if a player can find a similarity or make some other connection between them
which the other players accept. As the game progresses and it becomes harder to
connect up cards the justifications have to become more imaginative, and discussion
and argument are encouraged.
Materials required
A set of 40 small coloured picture cards showing commonly-SQen objects, animals and
people. It is possible to use the same cards, showing single pictures, as are used in
other games in this handbook (eg Get it Done and Categories). Using the same set
saves preparation time and is still effective. On the other hand students might prefer
to play with cards that have the same 'double-ended' format as in normal dominoes.
These cards will have to be specially made and will not be so useful in other games as
the single-picture cards. To make them, take pieces of card about 7 cm X 3.5 cm and
rule a thick line down the middle so as to divide the card into 2 equal squares. In each
square glue or draw a different picture. If the 2 pictures on each card are as different as
possible the game will go faster and be more amusing.
Instructions 1 (For single-picture card version)
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Each player starts with six picture cards. The rest of the cards are placed face down
in a central pile.
3
Players take it in turns to lay down as many cards as they can.
4
Cards are placed down on the table in a line. New cards may be added at either end
of the line, but only at one end during any player's turn.
5
To add a card to the line, you must find a connection or similarity between it and its
neighbour, and you must tell the group what this is. You may only put your card( s)
down if the other players accept what you say.
6
If you cannot find any connections you may exchange one of your cards with a card
from the central pile. If you do this, you cannot then put down a card during that
turn.
7
The first player to use up all his cards is the winner.
Instructions 2 (For version using double-ended picture cards)
As for single-picture version except for 5, which should read:
5
40
If you can match one of the pictures on your 'domino' with a picture at the end of
the line, you may put down your 'domino' so that the 2 pictures touch. You must
tell the other players what connection or similarity there is between the 2 pictures,
and you may only get rid of your domino if the other players accept what you say.
PICTURE RUMMY
Procedure
)
In this game players try to get rid of the cards in their hand by making groupings of at
least three cards which have some similarity or connection between them. When a
player has done this he may place the cards face upwards on the table and declare what
the connection is. If the other players accept this the cards remain on the table. New
cards can be added to this basic group but only if they fit in with the grouping as
defined by the original player. For example, three animal cards could be put down
together because they all show mammals. A permissible addition to this would be
another card showing a mammal. However a card with a crocodile on it would not be a
permissible addition, even though it shows an animal, because a crocodile is not a
mammal but a reptile.
Players who cannot put down cards may exchange them with cards from the central
pile. As with Picture Dominoes, the idea is to stimulate imaginative justifications, and
arguments about the connections and differences between things.
Materials required
A set of at least 40 picture cards showing common objects. The same cards as in
Picture Dominoes and Get it Done may be used. It is a good idea to select the pictures
so that a number of obvious connections may be made, as well as less obvious ones.
For example, at least 6 animal cards and at least 6 cards showing mechanical devices
provide a good basis for easy groupings. Some objects could be grouped across
categories eg objects which happen to be of the same colour or which have other
superficial features in common.
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Deal out 6 cards to each player. Place the rest face down in a pile in the centre of the
table.
3 Your aim is to get rid of your cards as quickly as possible, by finding groups which
have some similarity or connection.
4 You may get rid of cards in two ways: you may either put down at least 3 cards to
form a new group, or you may add cards to a group that is already on the table. In
order to get rid of cards you must tell the other players what the connection is, and
they must decide whether to accept what you say.
5
When a group of cards is already on the table you may only add extra cards if they
fit into that group as defined by the player who first puts it down.
6
If you cannot put down any cards, you may exchange one of your cards with one
from the central pile. Put your old card underneath the pile and take your new one
from the top.
7
The first player to use up all his cards is the winner.
41
CATEGORIES
Games such as Picture Dominoes depend upon finding conceptual links between
picture cards and placing them down on the table in a linear arrangement. An extra
dimension to this type of activity can be added by the use of a 'Matrix board' on to
which the cards must be fitted. This board consists of a simple grid pattern with 3 or 4
squares horizontally and a similar number on the vertical axis depending on the
complexity required (see fig 9). The task is for the students to place a number of cards
on this board so that all the cards in line with each other horizontally and vertically
have something in common or belong to the same category.
The completing of the pattern is satisfying in itself, but it also structures the students'
activity and provides the game with a neat closure. When the board is filled to
everyone's satisfaction the task is done.
Because the task is more complex than Picture Dominoes and involves organizing
ideas into some pattern, it seems most suitable as a cooperative activity for a small
group.
Cards can either be given out in sets for which there is one 'correct' type of arrangement
on the grid or, in a more imaginative and speculative version, they may be taken at
random from a large pack. A simple example of cards suitable for the first type of game
would be a set of 12 picture cards showing 4 animals, their typical habitats, and their
usual food. The most likely arrangement would be to have the 4 animal cards along one
horizontal axis with the food and habitat cards for each animal placed in a vertical line
with it. Because of this categorization and pattern-finding element, this type of game
lends itself readily to ESP content.
Materials required
A simple board marked out on card (as in fig 9) forming a grid composed of 3 rows of 4
squares. A set of 12 picture cards to fit the squares on the grid.
Procedure
Three or 4 players can play. The 12 cards are dealt out equally. Each player looks at the
cards in his hand and describes what he has, Players then start speculating about
what the main categories on the grid will be and start trying to arrange cards on it. The
group must discuss and accept each placing of a card before it can remain on the board.
Later decisions may mean that cards have to be moved several times until the final
pattern is achieved.
Instructions
1
This game is for 3 or 4 players.
2
Take a set of cards and deal them equally among yourselves. Do not show them to
each other at this stage.
3
Each person should describe the cards he holds, and the group should start to
discuss how they could make links with other people's cards.
42
CATEGORIES
Fig 9
Matrix board and cards for Categories
(The cards illustrated are part of a set showing
3 parallel stages in the life cycle of 4 different
organisms)
43
CATEGORIES
4
When you have got a general idea of the cards you may start putting them down,
one by one, on to the board. All the cards in a horizontal line must have something
in common, and all the cards in a vertical line must have something in common.
Discuss your reasons for the positioning of cards as you put them down.
5 When all the cards are on the board and everyone is agreed that the vertical and
horizontal lines have common features, the game is finished.
Variations
1
The 12 cards have four 'odd' cards added to them, which do not fit into the set.
Players have the additional task of discussing which cards should be ignored.
2
Players use 12 or more cards, taken at random from a larger pack, and have to
invent connections between them in order to fit them on to the board.
44
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
This section contains games that could be played using a pack of commercially
produced Happy Families cards. ELTI uses the Oxfam pack which has 'families' more
appropriate to an international classroom than the traditional design, since each
Oxfam family comes from a different part of the world. The first set of rules is based on
those for the normal Happy Families game, but the activities following it were
developed in ELTI. Notice that in the first game we have included a rule about saying
'please' and 'thank you' which is a useful reminder for those students who do not use
these conventions in their mother-tongue.
HAPPY FAMILIES
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
One player (the dealer) gives out the cards equally around the group.
3 The dealer decides which of his cards he is going to use to make up his families. He
begins asking any other player for a suitable card.
4
If the other player has that card, he must hand it over. The dealer may continue to
ask players for cards until he gets the answer 'no'.
5
If a player who has been asked for a card does not have it, it becomes his turn to ask
for cards until he gets the answer 'no'.
6 As family-groups of cards (4 in each) are collected they are placed face down in
front of the player who has collected the family. The player with the most families
is the winner.
7
When a player has no cards left he must drop out of the game.
8
Remember to say 'please' when asking for a card and 'thank you' when you receive
it. If you forget, you will lose your turn!
KIM'S GAME
Materials required
1
Twenty cards from the Happy Families pack. These should include 2 complete
families, 2 families with one member missing, 2 or 3 pairs (eg husband and wife,
brother and sister only) and one or 2 single cards.
2
A simple board suggesting bus seats (see fig 10).
3
A passenger list.
45
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Arrange the cards on the board in such a way that some families are close together
while others are divided.
3
Players have 2 to 3 minutes to study the cards. They have to try to memorize where
the family members were sitting.
4
Turn all the cards except one face downwards. The card left face upwards becomes
the 'start' card.
5
Players (either individually in turns or as 2 teams) have to try to identify the other
cards starting with any card next to the 'start' card. After this they can continue
from any card already exposed, provided they do not move diagonally. Before
turning over a card the player should say something like "The person sitting next
to/behind/in front of X was Y".
6 A score is kept of the number of right guesses and the person with the most is the
winner.
INVENTING REASONS
Materials required
1
Board as for Kirn's Game (see fig 10).
2
A selection of 20 cards as for Kim's Game, but additional cards may be included, so
that each player has an equal number which will mean that not all passengers will
get a seat.
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Divide the cards equally among the students in the group.
3
Each player takes it in turn to find a seat for one of his passengers, giving reasons,
eg the first player might say "Mrs da Silva wants to sit here, by the window".
Another student might ask "Why?" to which the first student may reply: "She
wants to see the view". The next student locates one of his cards and gives reasons
for the placing.
4 The game continues until all the seats are taken. At each stage the location of the
passengers is discussed and passengers already seated may be moved by general
agreement. For example, if Master da Silva wants to sit at the back of the bus, his
father
or one of the other passengers
may object.
46
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
Variation
Before the game begins a card showing an object is placed face down on each 'seat'.
After all the passengers have been seated, the object cards are turned over one by one
by each player who must explain why their passenger should be travelling with such
an object, eg Why does Mr da Silva have a revolver with him?, Why has Mrs Aziz got a
nylon nightie on the bus? etc.
IDENTIFY
Materials required
Twenty cards selected from the pack so that there is some overlap (eg more than one
person carrying or holding something, similarities in dress etc).
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Lay out all the cards face upwards on the table.
3
Each player secretly 'identifies' with one of the characters on display. He should be
prepared to answer questions about his age/sex/appearance etc.
4
Each player is questioned in turn by the others to find out who he is. Only yes/no
type questions may be asked.
5
The player who guesses right most often is the winner.
ARRANGE IT (A variant of Describe and Arrange described earlier)
Materials required
1
Two sets of 9 or 12 matching cards.
2
A simple board marked out in squares to place one set of cards on. The back inside
surface of a cardboard folder is suitable for this purpose. The front cover of the
folder can then act as a shield so that Player B cannot see the arrangement of cards.
Instructions
1
This game is for 2 people.
2
Each player takes one set of cards. Both sets are identical.
47
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
3
Player A arranges his cards in any way he likes upon the board. He must not let
Player B see how he has done this.
4
Player B has to arrange his cards in the same way as Player A, by following
instructions and asking questions.
DESCRIBE AND COLLECT
Materials required
1
A selection of 20 cards from one Happy Families pack.
2
One other complete pack of Happy Families cards.
Instructions
1
The 20 selected cards are displayed on the table. The complete pack is placed face
downwards on the table.
2
The first person to play takes a card from the complete pack, without showing it to
the others. If the card he has taken is on display he attempts to acquire the pair by
giving a description which includes not more than 2 'clues' eg "I'd like a woman
with a hat. She is holding a basket". If his description is sufficient to identify the
person, he is allowed to take the card. If his description is not recognised, the card
he took is put back under the pack.
3
If a student takes a card which is not on display he misses a turn.
4
The game continues until all the cards on display have been taken. The winner is
the person with the most pairs.
48
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
16
17
15
14
18
19
20
13
12
10
11
ENTRANCE
BUS
DRIVER
Fig 10
Board for Happy Families — Kirn's Game
49
HAPPY FAMILIES GAMES
COLLECTING FRIENDS
Materials required
1 complete pack of Happy Families cards.
Instructions
1
About 20 cards from the pack are displayed on the table. The remaining cards are
distributed among the players so that each has an equal number.
2
Each player takes it in turn to acquire a friend for each of the people shown on the
cards in his hand by giving a description of the card he wants (following the same
procedure as for game 6). He is not allowed to ask for a member of the same family
as a 'friend'.
FIND YOUR PARTNER (class interaction game; see also FIND YOUR PARTNER
in the section on WHOLE CLASS GAMES)
Materials required
2 packs of Happy Families cards
Instructions
1
Select enough identical pairs from the 2 packs to provide one card for each student
in the class.
2
Give each student one card.
3
Students then have to find the person who holds the identical card to theirs by
asking questions abut the pictures on the cards. They are not allowed to mention
the name of the person on the card.
4
Students who have found their partners go to one side of the classroom and wait
until the others have paired up. When all pairs have been found the game is at an
end.
50
BOARD GAMES
A board around which players move pieces or tokens is a format which students often
find very attractive, perhaps because of the visual impact a well-designed board can
have and because such games are familiar to many students. This section includes 3
games of this type, and 2 games (Say it and Get it Done) in which a matrix-type board
is used to determine players' moves.
Board games can be recommended to teachers for other reasons. Firstly, one of the
most usual ways of determining the next move to be made by a player is by throwing
dice. This device not only introduces a pleasing element of chance and surprise into the
game but also ensures that even the least able students can make some move without
delay. It is essential however, that this chance element should be followed by a stage in
which the players must react in some way to the move. This provides a good balance of
chance and skill; the skills involved for our purposes will be linguistic. The criterion of
success in a move which depends on a player's linguistic performance should be the
opinion of the other players, rather than that of an external 'judge'. This not only
removes the temptation for the teacher to interfere too much, but also sets up
situations which lead to argument, controversy, and self-criticism within the group.
One very productive aspect of board games is the way in which the design on the board
itself can be made to reflect or symbolise some system found in the real world. Board
games can be made out of maps, or they can even be made to represent the stages in
some process. More abstract designs, also, can suggest the real world. In The Gift
Game the players often regard the small pictures as items actually on display in a shop
or a catalogue. An element of role-play can come into such games spontaneously if the
board is convincing enough in the information it carries or attractive enough in
appearance. This format is, therefore, one which offers many opportunities to teachers
concerned both with English for general, social purposes and with English for more
specialised needs.
The 'information-gap' principle mentioned in the Introduction is one which can be
exploited very well, using a combination of information given on the board and
information available initially to only one player through the device of instruction
cards which must be taken under certain conditions. The familiar Chance cards of
games such as Monopoly are an example of this.
Players who land on specially marked squares must take a Chance card from the pack
and either communicate its contents to the others or act in accordance with the
instructions written on it. This may involve a whole chain of interactions. In a game
such as If this is exploited to the full, with every move being affected by the
combination of the 'open' information on the board square and the instructions that
are drawn from the separate pack. These instructions are communicated by one player
to another who must act upon them or argue against them if it is to his advantage. The
'Opinion-gap' or built-in disagreement is thus also brought into play.
Because a board game can display many of the features of other types of game plus the
extra element provided by the use of the board itself, there can be a danger of
becoming too elaborate in terms of rules and variations. Rules which prove only to
complicate matters and in fact cause breakdowns in communication should be ruthlessly
excluded. Snags like this will probably only emerge during actual play, so it is doubly
important to try out pilot versions of board games before settling on a final form, eg
51
BOARD GAMES
The Gift Game in its first version seemed to need 4 different packs of cards as well as a
board but experience of trying to play this over-elaborate version revealed how it
could be cut down to the present much more manageable and linguistically productive
version. The aim should be to get the maximum language from the simplest design.
52
THE GIFT GAME
Procedure
This game is concerned with choosing presents from a selection of items shown on a
gaming board, rather as in a mail-order catalogue. Useful vocabulary items may be
introduced here and a few structures will occur again and again eg "I'm going to give
this to ....." but in fact this game generates a much wider range of language forms and
functions than might be expected, since one of a player's aims is to convince the others
of the suitability of the presents he has chosen for his family and friends, and this
tends to produce argument or comment from other players. At the beginning of the
game players are given 5 cards each, upon which are brief descriptions of the type of
person for whom they must find presents. These cards and the way they relate to gifts
shown on the board determine the acceptability of any choice made by a player and
provide the grounds for argument and discussion. The aim of the game is to get rid of
these Family and Friends cards by matching them with suitable presents from the
board. There are also Chance cards which are taken when players land upon special
squares on the board. These cards can help or hinder the players' chances of finding a
present for every person on their list, and are included to provide further reasons for
negotiation and interplay.
Materials required
A large piece of stout cardboard to form the game board. It should be scored down the
middle so that it folds easily in half. This board should be marked into squares
measuring at least 5 cm X 5 cm as shown in fig 11. Small cutout pictures of possible
gifts are glued on to just over half the squares. A very good source of such pictures is
provided by mail order or trading stamp catalogues. Some of these pictures may be
ambiguous in their appearance to stimulate discussion about their interpretation
during the game. Some of the remaining squares may be coloured or marked with the
word 'Chance'. A player who lands upon one of these must take a Chance card from a
separate pack and obey the instructions on it.
A few more squares (at least two on each horizontal line) may be marked with two
arrows pointing in opposite directions. Players who land on such squares may choose
to move forwards or backwards on their next move. The remaining squares are left
blank.
The board should then be marked with a 'START' square and with arrows at the end of
each row of squares indicating the usual direction of play. In the ELTI game, moves
are made to the end of one horizontal row, down to the next row and along to the end of
that row in zig-zag fashion as shown in fig 11.
Since the game board will be subjected to a lot of handling it is advisable to cover the
finished article with adhesive plastic film.
Two separate packs of small cards are also needed. These may be cut from spare
cardboard, or for a more finished result blank visiting cards may be used. It is a good
idea to use different coloured card for each pack so that they can be easily sorted at the
end of the game.
53
THE GIFT GAME
<-
c
c
Fig 1 1
CF
Possible lay-out of a board for The Gift Game.
Shaded squares indicate where pictures of possible gifts
appear. Slightly over 50% of the squares should have
gift-pictures in them, the rest of the board being used
for 'chance', 'change-of-direction' or blank squares.
The arrows at the side of the board indicate the normal
direction of play.
54
-*
THE GIFT GAME
The cards in one pack should carry brief descriptions of people for whom presents
must be bought. These are the Family and Friends. These cards vary in difficulty and
specificity. There should be at least 30 of these to provide for a game with up to 6
players. A sample list of Family and Friends possibilities appears below.
The other pack of cards is used for Chance; about one half of these cards have small
pictures of additional presents glued or drawn upon them, with instructions to say
that the player may use the present himself or else use it to trade for a present that
another player may have acquired during the game. The other cards describe situations
which necessitate finding an extra present an unexpected visit by a distant relation
for example.
The other equipment needed is a die to decide how many squares a player should move
at each turn and a set of tokens for players to move around the board to indicate their
position.
Sample list of 'Family' and 'Friends'
1
an elderly uncle who enjoys gardening
2
a little boy, aged 3
3
the person on your left
4
a young lady with artistic tastes
5
a teenage boy
6
someone you wish to re-establish contact with
7
your newly married sister
8
a girl student, aged 20
9
an old school-friend
10
your current flame
11
an elderly lady who lives alone in the country
12
your rather glamorous bachelor uncle.
*"
Examples of instructions given on Chance cards
1
You may use the present shown on this card, or exchange it with something
another player has [a different picture appears on each card].
2
Your athletic uncle will be coming to stay.
You need to find an extra present for him.
55
THE GIFT GAME
3
You forgot to include one of your cousins on your list. Find a suitable present for
him or her.
Instructions
1
Three to 6 players may take part.
2
Each player has a coloured token to move around the board according to the throw
of a die.
3
A.t the start of the game each player takes 5 Family and Friends cards from the
pack. Your task is to find a gift suitable for each one of these people.
4
If you land on a square containing a gift which you think is suitable for one of your
family and friends, you may get rid of the card bearing the name of that person, but
to do this you MUST say why the gift is suitable and justify your choice to the rest
of the group. If they do not accept your reasons, you may not get rid of your card
yet. When you have successfully chosen a gift, place the Family and Friends card
on top of the gift square. This gift may no longer be chosen by the other players.
The first person to get rid of all his cards is the winner of the game.
5
If you land on one of the squares with the 2 green arrows marked upon them, you
may change the direction of your next move, if you wish. By doing this you may be
able to land on gift squares that you want.
6
If you land upon one of the squares labelled 'Chance', you must take one of the
Chance cards. This will either provide you with an extra gift, or give you an extra
person for whom to find a present. You may negotiate with the other players in any
way you like. If you do not want the gift you have drawn on a Chance card you can
try swapping it with something another player has. If you can match a gift to one
of your family and friends you may get rid of both cards. Place them together, face
down on the table.
7
If you are not sure what an item is, ask the opinion of the other players, and if it is a
suitable gift, you may choose it for one of your family and friends.
56
TRAVEL GAMES; (The London Underground Game)
Local maps, particularly of train, bus, or metro routes can form the basis of very
satisfactory board games for 2-6 people. The object is for players to 'travel' to and from
'home' along a route represented by a train or bus map according to the throw of a dice,
and to visit a number of places, represented by picture cards drawn at random from a
pack. The 'home' or starting-point for each player is represented by a card drawn from
a pack of cards marked 'Start'. Chance cards are drawn during the progress of the
game. These carry instructions which slow down or accelerate the players' progress.
Such games are very useful for orienting students to a new town of residence, and for
reinforcing some of the vocabulary connected with travel by public transport, but
they are also characterised by the interaction stimulated among the students on the
subject of the game itself. The Chance cards provide one of the motive forces of this
sort of interaction, since players will discuss the implications of the instructions on
these cards and will often need to resolve disagreements and ask for clarification of
each other's intentions.
Materials required
The ELTI version of the game consists of a die, a token for each player, a set of
postcards of tourist attractions in London; a coloured poster-sized map of the London
Underground system, which forms the board; and home-made Chance and Start cards
appropriate to the map. Obviously bus or train maps appropriate to other places than
London may be substituted, and suitable accompanying cards devised. Chance cards
which require players to think out the implications for their next move are the most
successful in promoting talk amongst the students. For example a student may decide
to change his route or the order of his visits as a result of a Chance card and he will have
to justify this to the other players. A selection of instructions from Chance cards for
the ELTI London Underground game is given below:
London Underground Game Chance cards
1
Bomb scare at Oxford Circus. If you are travelling on the Central Line, Victoria
Line or Bakerloo Line, miss one turn.
2
London Transport wishes to inform travellers that extra trains are being provided
on this line. Move forward four stations.
3
Power failure at Embankment Station. There will be delays on all lines through
Embankment. Miss one turn.
Instructions
1
Take a START CARD. You must begin and end your journey at this station.
2
Take 3 TOURIST CARDS. The purpose of your journey is to visit the places
shown on these cards.
3
Plan the Underground route from the station shown on the START card to the
three Tourist places and then back to your starting point.
57
TRAVEL GAMES
4
Choose a coloured counter and place it on your starting point on the map.
5
Throw the die once. The number on the die will tell you how many stations you can
travel. Move your coloured counter to your new station.
6
If you throw 1 on your die, do not move your counter. Instead, take a CHANCE
CARD and follow the instructions on it. If the instructions do not affect you, you
can move to the next station.
7
If you throw more on the die than the number you require to reach a tourist place or
to reach a station where you have to change, you may stop at the station you
require.
8
Pass the die to the next player, who follows instructions 1-7.
9
When you change to another Underground Line, miss one turn.
10
58
The first player to visit the three Tourist places and return to his/her starting
point is the winner.
IF
Procedure
The aim of this game is for the players to race each other around a board, each square
of which has a different picture on it. The game is designed around instruction cards
bearing conditions under which players may move along the board track. The words
'if, 'unless', 'in that case' and 'otherwise' are prominent among the instructions on the
cards.
However, as with The Gift Game, the idea is to stimulate a much wider range of
language than this, by causing students to argue and to justify making moves
advantageous to themselves or to try to block other players' moves. Interaction
among players occurs, because the way in which any instruction cards can be
interpreted depends upon the postion on the game board held by the player. The
player will want to argue that 'his' square on the game board satisfies the conditions
on the instruction card for him to make a move forward. The other players will want to
prevent him moving forward if they can.
Materials required
1
A large sheet of card, scored down the middle so that it will fold in half easily. This
should be marked with a 'track' consisting of squares measuring about 5 cm X 5
cm. The track can be of any overall shape but it should be at least 60 squares in
length. A large Start square should be drawn at one end, and a large Finish square
at the other: see fig 12 for one possible layout. Each of the squares on the track
should have a small picture in it. The pictures should be of well-known and easily
identified objects but there should be a wide variety. Symbols, pictures of animals
and plants, human beings and inanimate objects should be included so that there
will be many different conditions to which the players must react when following
the instructions on the IF cards. The pictures may be hand-drawn or cut out from
magazines or other published material. The board should, if possible, be covered
with adhesive plastic film to protect its surface.
2
A pack of instruction cards, called IF cards in the game. On these cards are written
the conditions for the players' next move. Blank visiting cards measuring about 10
cm X 5 cm are suitable for this purpose. Some examples of the type of instruction
that may be used are given at the end of this section. Some of the instructions
should be deliberately open to several interpretations so that discussion amongst
players is encouraged.
3
Each player will need a token to move round the board to mark his position.
4
Dice are not needed for the whole game since a player's move depends entirely upon
the use he can make of the instruction card he draws. However, it may be more
interesting if players start on different squares, and in this case it will be necessary
to decide by some means on which of the first six squares each player should start
the game. A die might be useful for this purpose, although players might like to
use other means, such as negotiation amongst themselves. (There is no certain
advantage in starting ahead of the other players since any player may have to
move backwards in response to a particular instruction card).
59
IF
Examples of instructions to be written on cards
1
If you are on something dangerous go back four squares.
2
Go back four squares unless you can find a similarity between your picture and the
one before it.
3
If your picture shows something containing metal, go forward three squares.
4
Go forward two squares unless you are on something you could wear.
5
If your picture is of something essential to you, go forward two. Otherwise go back
five.
6
If your square has no living creatures on it go back two. Otherwise go forward two.
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play.
2
Your aim is to reach the FINISH square before the other players.
3
To start, each player places his token on one of the first 6 squares on the board. You
may either decide this by throwing a die or by deciding among yourselves.
Remember, it need not help you to be ahead of the others at this stage!
4
Each player in turn takes a card from the top of the IF pack, and reads the
instructions on it to the player on his left. That player must move his token
according to the instructions that are read out to him. If he wishes to interpret the
instructions to give himself an advantage, he must explain his interpretation to
the other players. If they accept his explanation, the player may make the move he
wishes to.
5
Players continue to draw cards from the IF pack and to follow the instructions on
them, until one player reaches the FINISH square. That player is the winner.
Fig 1 2
60
Possible lay-out of a board for If. Every square has a different picture in it.
SAY IT
a function game
Procedure
This game is designed to give students light-hearted practice in using all the langauge
they have at their disposal to express certain language functions. It has been found
that in playing it students come to a fuller realisation of just how many different
language forms they can use to perform a particular function. Discussion and evaluation
of the effectiveness of the utterances produced by each player come naturally into the
game, since it is the group who must decide whether a player wins any 'reward' after
his turn. A simple restriction is provided by vetoing the use of certain words during
each turn, rather as in the familiar parlour game where players must not say 'Yes' or
'No', and this serves a double purpose. In the first place it provides amusement and
suspense as players try to catch each other out, and secondly it emphasises the point
that one can perform a language function, making an apology, for example, without
necessarily using any of the more obvious words associated with that activity. Two
further points should be borne in mind; firstly, it is a good idea to word the instructions
on the game board in such a way that students must address their remarks to another
player. This provides a more realistic, and potentially amusing, context for the
language. An apology addressed to thin air is rather dead compared with an apology
addressed by one player to another! Secondly, it is a good idea to have a time-limit
within which the required utterance must be produced. This speeds up the game, and
provides another condition which players must meet to win their 'rewards'.
Materials required
1
A large piece of paper on card with enough space on it to draw a grid of 36 squares
or oblongs, with 6 horizontal and 6 vertical rows. There must be 6 boxes in each
direction to correspond with the 6 numbers on the dice used in this game. Each box
should be large enough for one or two sentences of instructions. The board for the
ELTI game is an ordinary cardboard folder opened out flat. The boxes measure
about 5 cm X 4 cm. The numbers 1-6 should be written down the side and across
the top to correspond with the drawn boxes. These numbers enable the players to
find the box they need quickly. In each box is a different set of instructions. The
completed board is reproduced in fig 13. The keyword in each set of instructions is
written in capital letters or in red. (The rules of the game state that neither this
word nor any derivative of it may be used by a player when he is responding to this
set of instructions).
2
A pool of tokens or a pack of blank cards should be provided, so that a player who
has completed a successful 'turn' may take one. The player with the most tokens at
the end of the game is the winner.
3
Two dice are needed in different colours. If the colour of one die corresponds to the
colour of the numbers along the top of the grid and that of the other die to the
colour of the numbers down the side, it is easy for players to throw both dice
together and read off the grid reference. For example, if the horizontal boxes have
red numbers by them and the vertical boxes blue ones, a red and a blue die should
be used to determine from which box a player takes his instructions; the red die
giving the number of the horizontal row and the blue one that of the vertical row in
which the player's box appears.
61
o>
ro
Fig 13
Board for Say It.
ASK another
player to lend you
something
THANK another
player for something he has done
Make a WISH
Give another
player PERMISSION
to do something
ASK another
player the way
to a certain place
SPECULATE
about another
player
CRITICISE
another player's
behaviour
Ask any other
player for
PERMISSION to
do something
ORDER another
player to do
something
ASK another
player a
QUESTION about
the weather
OFFER to
buy something
owned by another
player
TELL another
player an interesting
fact about your
country
Make a PROMISE
to any other player
TELL another
player about
your family
ADMIRE something
another player is
wearing
CONGRATULATE
any other player
on something
Give any other
player a WARNING
Ask any other
player's ADVICE
about something
BEG another
player to do
something for you
THREATEN to
take something
owned by another
player
Make a
SUGGESTION
to another player
SYMPATHISE
with any other
player about an
illness
PERSUADE
another player
to do what you want
PREDICT something to any other
player
REQUEST
another player
politely to do
something
INTRODUCE
another player to a
third player
REMIND any other
player about a rule
or a regulation
COMPLIMENT any
other player on his/
her appearance
Make a
COMPLAINT about
any other player's
behaviour
TELL a LIE
to any other player
Make a
CONFESSION to
any other player
DESCRIBE your
travel plans to
other player
Make an APOLOGY
and an EXCUSE to
any other player
DESCRIBE any
other player to a
third player
INVITE any other
player to do something enjoyable
ASK any other
player about his
name, nationality
or birthday
H
>
SAY IT
4
A stop-watch, an egg-timer or similar device may be used to limit the duration of
each turn.
Instructions
1
Four to 6 people may play this game.
2
Take it in turns to throw the 2 dice. They will tell you which of the instructions on
the board you must obey. The red die tells you the number of the horizontal row in
which your instructions appear, and the blue one the number of the vertical row.
3
Read the instructions in the box and do what they tell you. You will see that some
words in the box are written in red or in capital letters. You may not use these
words or any related words during this turn. You must say something within 10
seconds.
4
The player who is spoken to in each move must make a suitable reply or comment.
5
The other players will decide if you have done all these things correctly. They will
also judge if you have made a successful communication according to the
instructions. If you are successful you may pick up a card from the central pack.
6
When all the cards from this pack are taken the game is finished, and the person
who has collected the most cards is the winner.
63
GET IT DONE
a transaction game
Procedure
This game has the same format as Say It, in that there is a 6 X 6 matrix, with a
different instruction in each of its squares. Players use 2 dice to decide from which
square of the matrix they should take their instructions. The instructions in this case
are to cause something to happen amongst the other players, usually involving the
exchange or acquisition of cards or other tokens. These transactions may alter the
fortunes of other players, as well as that of the player whose turn it is.
The game finishes when all the cards from the central pool are used up. The winner is
the player with the most points.
Materials required
1
A large piece of card upon which a 6 X 6 matrix is marked. As with Say It the boxes
in the matrix should measure at least 15X10 cm so that there is enough space for
the instructions to be written or typed in. The horizontal and vertical rows of boxes
should be numbered 1-6 along the sides of the board, in different colours.
2
Two dice, of colours corresponding to the numbering at the sides of the board.
3
About 50 cards with pictures on. Each card has a numerical value according to the
kind of picture used. The ELTI pack is made up as follows:
4 cards, worth 5 points each,
5 cards, worth 4 points each,
6 cards, worth 3 points each,
5 cards, worth 2 points each,
10 cards, worth 1 point each,
10 cards, worth 1 point each,
10 cards, worth 1 point each,
showing transport
showing sports
showing liquid
showing buildings
showing food
showing people
showing animals
These cards are used in the transactions between players.
Instructions
1
Four to six people may play.
2
Each player starts with 5 cards taken from the central pack. These are not secret,
and should be placed face upwards on the table.
3
Each player in turn throws the 2 dice and selects an Instruction Square on the
game board by reading off the number on the red die to find the vertical row and the
number on the blue die to find the horizontal row in which the instruction square
appears.
4
The player must then see that all the instructions on the square are carried out, by
talking to the other players and supervising the exchanging and giving up of
cards.
5
When all the cards have been picked up from the central pile, the game is at an end.
Players count up the points in their hands. The player with the most points is the
winner.
64
0)
01
If you hold one or
more liquid cards
tell all players to
give you one card
If you have a
transport card, give
it to any player and
claim one food card
in exchange
Tell all players with
animal cards to take
one card from the
centre
Claim one buildings
card from any player
Tell the player with
the most cards to
give two to the
player with the
fewest
Allow any player to
choose two of your
cards
Allow the person on
your left to take
one of your cards
If any player has a
sports card, you
may claim it
Claim one card from
the person with the
most cards
Tell the player with
the fewest cards to
take two from the
centre
Claim all machinery
cards held by the
other players
Ask for one
buildings card from
any player
Ask any player for
one sports card and
give him one
animal card
Tell all players with
transport cards to
take 2 cards from
the centre
If you have 2 people
cards, tell all players
to take one card
from the centre
Tell any player to
give one people card
to another player
Allow the person on
your right to choose
any one of your
cards
Board for Get It Done
Tell the player on
your right to take
one card from the
centre
Ask each player for
one food card
If you have a
buildings card, ask
any player for one
If you have a people
card, exchange it
for a transport card
Tell all players
who have sports
cards to take one
card from the centre
Claim transport
cards from all who
have them
Fig 14
Claim one card from
any player and take
one from the centre
Tell any players that
do not have food
cards to take one
card from the centre
If the player on your
left has no transport
cards, tell him to take
3 cards from the
centre
Ask all players to
give you animal
cards
Request any 2 cards
from the player on
your left
Tell all players to
take one card from
the centre
Ask any player for
one liquid card
Ask all who have
sports cards to give
them to you
Claim any card you
wish from one other
player
Tell the player on
your left to take 2
cards from the
centre
Ask any player for
a liquid card and
give him a food card
Tell each player to
give you one card
Claim one card
showing transport
from any player
H
D
O
2
W
M
o
WHOLE CLASS GAMES
The usual way to involve the whole class in a game is to play it in teams. This device is
used in some of the games that follow but we have deliberately excluded games in
which only one team-member at a time answers for the team as a whole. Games are
designed so that each team member is communicating with his team-mates or his
opponents throughout the activity.
Other games in this section do not use teams at all, but are intended for the whole class
to play cooperatively, the object being for each individual to play his part in solving a
simple problem or achieving a simple goal. Again, there is a need for all players to
communicate with one another.
This type of organization implies that the class will be moving about during the
games, so these activities may need careful planning so that furniture can be moved
around and the necessary space created. The teacher will have to act as master of
ceremonies rather more than he does in the other activities in this handbook. Instructions
have to be made very clear before the games can begin, and a certain amount of
organization from outside the group by the teacher will be necessary. As with other
games, the most satisfying ones are those whose solution or end-point is immediately
obvious. One good way of making the end of the game clear when large numbers of
people are playing is to design it so that players end up in particular groupings or
arrangements. For example, a game like Find your Partner is obviously successfully
concluded when everyone in the room is standing in a pair. Other games like Left Hand
Right Hand demand that players should end up standing in a ring.
66
LEFT HAND/RIGHT HAND
Procedure
In this game the players try to form themselves into a large circle, having sought and
found the people who should stand on their left and right. Each player has two cards,
one in his right hand, one in his left. Players try to match up cards in order to find the
people they should stand next to. They should not look at each other's cards but
should ask questions of other people until they find their two partners. In fact, it is
seldom possible to form a complete circle unless players change cards around quite
extensively. The game-controller (or teacher) does not make this overt until problems
start arising. He then tells the students that they may do anything they like to make it
possible to form a ring. This will stimulate a new sort of language as they try to
organise each other to solve the problem.
Materials required
2 packs of cards, each pack a different basic colour so that they can be easily sorted.
The two packs correspond in that one pack has pictures only, and the other pack
carries words that correspond to those pictures. In an easy version the words will
simply name the pictures, but more intriguing results may come from using cards
which merely describe a picture or suggest an attribute it might have. Several
amusing false starts in the initial pairing may come about because of this, and will
have to be resolved by discussion between players. Suggestions for a set of cards for a
class of 8 are given below with an 'easy' and a 'difficult' version for the word-cards.
Picture card
'Easy' word card
'Difficult' word card
1.
Lion
Lion
Dangerous carnivore
2.
House
House
You can live in this
3.
Dog
Dog
Man's best friend
4.
Woman
Woman
Some think her place
is in the home
5.
Teddy bear
Toy
Children love these
6.
Cow
Cow
Useful domestic
animal
7.
Alarm clock
Alarm clock
Very useful in the
morning
8.
Candle
Candle
This gives a little
light
67
LEFT HAND/RIGHT HAND
Instructions (to be given orally by the Game Leader
during the game)
who may clarify as necessary
1
Each person has one picture card and one word card. Hold the picture card in your
right hand and the word care in your left.
2
Your aim is to find the 2 people who have words to match your picture and the
picture to match your words.
3 When you have found these 2 people, link hands with them. Try to form a large
circle including everyone in the class.
4
If you have a question at any point, you may ask the teacher to give further
information.
5
(This rule is not given at the start, but only when the class is unable to complete the
circle.) You may exchange cards with other players if this makes your task easier.
68
MAY I INTRODUCE MYSELF?
Procedure
This is a role-playing activity which is best carried out with a large group of people.
The aim is for students to practise social greetings and introductions in order to
discover the name and occupation given to each person in the group. Players may
either introduce themselves to others or ask for introductions from a third person.
Materials required
1
A set of picture-cards representing easily identifiable occupations, one for each
player.
2
An equal number of cards bearing English names (eg Mr Peter Richardson).
3
A list of all these names to be given to each player. Each name on the list has a
blank space opposite it, in which players write the occupation of each person, as
they discover it.
Instructions
1
Each player takes an occupation card and a name-card. These give him his identity
during the game.
2
Players also take a name-list each. Their aim is to meet everyone on the list and to
discover his or her occupation. They write the occupation against every name on
the list.
3
The player who is first to complete the list correctly is the winner.
69
FIND YOUR PARTNER
Procedure
A version of this game has already been included under Happy Families games in an
earlier section but more complex and demanding versions can easily be designed. The
basic idea is to have simple, similar, cards with 3 or 4 variables that determine whether
or not they form pairs. Having the subject matter of the cards the same puts a greater
burden of descriptive language upon the students who are seeking to find the pairs.
Photocopying a set of basic outline drawings, and then colouring them in a different
way, is a quick way to produce neat-looking duplicate sets which can then be pasted on
to card.
Materials required
A set of similar picture cards with identical pairs within the pack. There should be
enough for each student to have one card each.
Suggestions for picture card sets
1
Outline faces: variables; man/woman, black hair/blond hair, long hair/short hair,
blue eyes/brown eyes, curly hair/straight hair etc.
2
Houses and trees: variables; number of windows, colour of doors, number of trees,
position of trees etc.
3
3 fruit together: variables; variety of fruit, relative position of fruit, proportion of
one fruit to another eg 2 apples, 1 pear, or 2 pears, one apple, or 3 apples etc.
4
Family group of matchstick-men; variables; number of children relative positions
of father, mother and children, sexes of children etc (see fig 15).
Instructions
1
Each player takes one card. He does not let the others see it.
2
For every card there is an identical 'partner'. Players must ask each other questions
about their cards to try to find their partner.
3 When you have found your partner, stand beside him until the other players have
all formed pairs. The game is complete when everyone has found his partner.
70
FIND YOUR PARTNER
0
Fig 1 5
0
Examples of 4 different cards from a set for
Find Your Partner.
71
WHERE ARE THEY?
Procedure
This is a game suitable even for very large groups. Before it begins the teacher should
place a number of picture cards in various parts of the room. Players each have one
card to locate, and they cooperate in helping each other find the card they need, by
asking and answering questions about which cards they have seen so far.
Materials required
1
A set of picture cards showing objects or people eg kitchen equipment, occupations,
clothing; one for each student.
2
A slip of paper corresponding to each picture card, with the name of the object or
person upon it.
Instructions
1
The teacher should place the picture cards in various parts of the room.
2
Each student has a slip of paper indicating one card which he must locate.
3
Students should now move around the room looking, and asking each other if they
have seen the card they want.
4
When a player finds his card, he should take it and sit down.
5
The last player to find his card is the loser.
Variations
1
Players may be given more than one card to locate.
2
Players may be allowed to give one another misleading information, or else
bargain one piece of information against another.
72
THE DETECTIVE GAME
Procedure
This game is most suitable for playing in groups of 10-15, since it depends upon
players eliminating suspects from a long list of possibilities. If the group were smaller,
the challenge would be lessened, and if it were larger, players' opportunity for talk
would be restricted. The teacher is necessary as scene-setter and master of ceremonies,
but the players should be left to work out the solution to the crime by themselves as
much as possible.
Materials required
A set of picture cards showing people with clearly distinguishable occupations (eg an
air hostess, a lorry driver) or striking physical features (eg a beard, a striking hat).
There should be enough for two or three cards per player plus one extra.
Instructions
1
All the picture cards are laid face upwards on the floor or a table. The players are
allowed to study and memorize as many of them as possible. The teacher meanwhile
explains that a crime has been committed and that it is certain that one of these
people is guilty, although all are suspected at the moment.
2
The teacher then collects up all the cards and distributes 2 or 3 each. He keeps one
back and lays it face downward in the centre of the group.
3
Players should not see one another's cards.
4 The single card that is face downward represents the criminal. Players have to say
in turn, using their memory of the cards they saw, who they think committed the
crime. Each player is responsible for providing an alibi for the people on the 2 or 3
cards he holds, and if one of his people is mentioned as a suspect, he must speak in
his defence. Once an alibi is given, the relevant card is placed face upwards on the
table.
5
The game continues until a person for whom no one has an alibi is mentioned. The
teacher checks if in fact this is the correct person by looking privately at the
downturned card. If the guess is correct the player who made it is the winner.
6
If, however, a name is mentioned and the central card inspected and it turns out
that a player who in fact holds the card has failed to give his alibi, that player, then
discovered, is considered to have allowed his innocent friend to be arrested on
suspicion, and is open to loud criticism from the group.
Variation
The instructions for this version are as above, except that each player is also given one
'place' card after the 'suspect' cards have been given out. This card provides the alibi
for all the people in his hand. Each player must now also justify the presence of each of
73
THE DETECTIVE GAME
his suspects in that place when their names are mentioned. Cards showing unusual or
unlikely places, as well as places where some of the suspects might work, could add to
the amusement of the game. A player may find himself required to explain, for
example, why the air-hostess and the cook spent the day at the fire-station. All these
unlikely alibis are considered true for the purpose of the game.
74
COLLAGE
Procedure
This game is for two teams of equal numbers. Each team has a supply of pictures from
which to choose some which illustrate a theme unknown to the other team. Each team
member takes one picture and describes it to a partner from the other team. The teams
then re-form and from the information each member has gathered from his opposite
number, they try to decide what the other team's subject is.
Materials
A large supply of magazine pictures, postcards and other visual material of a manageable
size, mounted on card. There should be enough variety of pictures for it to be possible
to find a number of themes amongst them, both predictable and unusual.
Instructions
1 Take all the pictures out of the envelope. DON'T SHOW THEM TO THE OTHER
TEAM.
2 Look at all the pictures and decide if there is a theme that you can pick out from at
least six of the pictures. An example of a theme might be 'Winter' or 'Sport'.
3 Select six to ten pictures for your theme.
4 Each member of the group then chooses a picture from this collection and goes to
meet his 'partner' or opposite number from the other group.
5 Your job is to describe your picture to your opposite number. You have only a
limited time to do this. Answer any questions he asks.
6 Then you ask your opposite number about his picture.
7 Return to your group and report on the picture your 'partner' has described.
8 Now, as a group, try to decide what the other group's theme might be.
9 When you think perhaps you know, you can ask the other group questions to check
whether you are correct.
75
Section 2
Published Games
THEIR ADAPTATION AND USE
There is a limited number of games on the market aimed specifically at language
training, and most of these are intended for native speakers of English. There is a vast
number of other games of general interest and amusement value which as they stand
generate little particular language.
However with a few adaptations to the rules many games of both categories can be
made both linguistically useful and entertaining for learners of English as a foreign
language. A few suggestions appear below:
Verbalising
Where possible build in a rule that players must verbalise their intentions before or
while making their next move. This applies particularly to board games such as the
London Game and to cardmatching games like Chemsyn or Happy Families when
players must justify each move, and have that justification accepted by the others.
Even in games such as Scrabble where players could simply build up words silently,
perhaps some formulae like 'Do you all accept this word?' or 'Is that the right spelling?'
could be built in and put on to cue cards; or else students could be open to challenge
about the meaning of any word they put down before they can claim their score.
Building in reasons to communicate
Chance cards which appear in games like Monopoly should always be read out to the
group when taken, and extra cards can be made by the teacher which require players to
perform some transaction eg 'You may claim £100 from the player on your left'.
Students should be encouraged to query the way in which the others are playing the
game if they think a rule is being broken. Much valuable argument can arise naturally
from talk about the game as well as from talk directly necessary to the game itself.
Simplifying the rules
If the rules of a game are too subtle or complex for a particular group of students, it is
sometimes possible to cut them down without distorting its overall purpose or
destroying its impetus. Complex scoring rules often cause difficulty and have no great
linguistic value, so simpler conditions for scoring may be made, if necessary. A game
intended for native speakers such as Jabberwocky may have several different stages
which may distract non-native players from the actual playing. These can often be
telescoped without prejudice to the value of the game. Games in which roles change
rapidly such as Tell Me may be easier to play at first with one student taking the role of
the dealer or caller for a substantial time rather than changing the roles at each stage.
When students are used to the game, the full version may be played. Printed
instructions which come with the games are often not easy to follow. In all cases a
special instruction sheet should be made, as with the home-made games, incorporating
any new rules, and simplifying the language of the original rules where necessary.
76
PUBLISHED GAMES
Each stage in the game should be made clear and several copies of the instructionsheet should be made so that each player can refer to one. It should not be necessary
for the teacher to supervise the playing of a new game overmuch. Part of its value lies
in the group's efforts to interpret the instructions. The teacher may be called in as a
last resort, but only if that is what the group wants.
Substituting game-equipment
things like dice or the tokens that are moved
Some of the trappings of a game
it a childish air to which some students may
give
to
seem
may
board
a
around
object. This varies and it is up to the teachers to substitute alternative items where
necessary. A hexagonal spinner with the numbers 1-6 written around its sides may be
used instead of a die, and simple coloured counters could be substituted for the
traditional Monopoly tokens in the form of boots and ships. However this is not a
problem we have come across with our students and probably will not occur very often
if the idea, and purpose, of games is tactfully and clearly presented.
77
ANNOTATED SELECTION OF PUBLISHED GAMES
USEFUL IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
This list is limited in its scope to those games which we have tried in ELTI and know to
be effective. It is therefore by no means exhaustive.
Black Box (Waddington's)
A game of deduction for 2 players in which one attempts to reproduce a pattern of
'particles' secretly recorded on a squared grid by the other player. The 2 players are
simulating experimentation on atoms and molecules by pretending to send in 'rays' to
a container and observing the way in which they are deflected, according to complex
rules, by the 'particles' on the grid. This is an extremely sophisticated game that
would be suitable for stimulating talk between advanced students, especially those
with a science background. It seems to provide a most appropriate context for
students to use Unreal Conditional structures in a communicative way.
Chemsyn Organic Chemistry revision cards by G Eglinton and J R Maxwell (Heyden
&Son)
A pack of cards with very full data on compounds in organic chemistry, to be used for
games involving matching and sequence-finding.
Suitable only for students with a high level knowledge of the subject matter.
Concept 7 9 (The Schools Council & E J Arnold and Sons)
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Listening with Understanding
Concept Building
Communication
These boxed kits, together with their Teacher's Handbooks, provide a rich mine of
ideas for games. The materials are intended for language development of primary age
children, particularly immigrants, but if the content is adjusted, the principles on
which the games are designed make them suitable for all ages. Unit 3 is particularly
useful, containing numerous games for pairs and small groups involving the giving
and following of instructions.
The Great Game of Britain (Hi Toys)
A board game in which players simulate rail-travel around Great Britain, with the
object of visiting a number of places of interest.
Guts The Digestive System Game by J E Lowe (National Health Service Learning
Resources Unit, Sheffield)
A game in which players try to collect sequences of cards referring to stages in the
digestive process. There is a reference chart from which players can take information
about correct groups of cards during play.
78
PUBLISHED GAMES
Happy Families (Oxfam)
This set of cards is a variant on the traditional Happy Families pack, showing families
from all parts of the world. See pages 45 to 48 for some suggested uses.
Jabberwocky (Longman)
A game using word-cards in which players compete in creating and modifying
sentences.
The London Game (Hi Toys)
A board game in which players simulate travel on the London Underground to visit
places of interest. It is similar to, but more complex than the independently-developed
ELTI London Underground Game.
Longman Resources Unit Games
These games come in sets, in booklet form, ready to be cut out and mounted, complete
with teaching notes and background material. They are intended for secondary school
native speakers of English, but have great potential for use in the ESP classroom.
Geography Games
Caribbean Fisherman
Beat The Bell
Tea Clipper Race
Noigeren
Developort
Weather Forecasting
Motorway
Honshu
Beef Cattle in Northern Australia
Bread Line
Plant Succession
The Power Game
Bobtree Moves into Western Europe
Urbanisation
Super-Port
Teacher's Unit
Roles Unit
79
PUBLISHED GAMES
Science Games
Part 1 Biology and General Science
The Great Blood Race
Nutrition
The Digestive System
Transport
Microbes
Classification
The Water Cycle
The Air about Us
Science Sense
Part 2 Physics and Chemistry
Chemical Families
Atomic Structure and Bonding
Chemistry's Alphabet
Competition amongst the Metals
Keeping Warm
The Solar System 1 and 2
The Electric Circuit
Teacher's Unit
History Games
The Norman Conquest
The Development of the Medieval Town
Trade and Discovery
Frontier
Ironmaster
Canals
Congress of Vienna
Harvest Politics
Railway Mania
Village Enclosure
The Scramble for Africa
General Strike
Teacher's Unit
Materials for Language Teaching 1: Interaction Package A by Donn Bryne.
Materials for Language Teaching 2: Interaction Package B by Donn Bryne
(Modern English Publications).
Each package provides multicopies of small visuals in colour sufficient for group or
pair work with a class of about 30 students. For each package there is a handbook
explaining how to prepare the materials for student use and suggesting ways in which
they can be exploited.
80
PUBLISHED GAMES
Monopoly (Waddingtons)
A very well-known board-game, probably familiar to many students. Players simulate
buying and selling of property, and the transactions that are built into the game make
it very productive of talk among players. The Chance cards and Community Chest
cards that are drawn when a player lands on certain squares are another good stimulus
to interaction. These could easily be supplemented, or altered if the instructions prove
too complicated for a particular group of students.
The Poverty Game (Oxfam)
A team game in which players play the part of agricultural communities in developing
countries, trying to plan crop growing and trading resources so as to keep the
community's food-intake above the danger level. This game includes an element of
role-play and may almost be classed as a simulation. It has proved very successful
with sophisticated adult learners because of the problem-solving and group discussion
involved.
Science Maps by G I Gibbs (Sheffield Polytechnic Learning Resources Unit)
A set of cards providing material for five games. Cards bearing the names of scientific
concepts and another set of cards indicating possible logical and temporal relationships
are arranged as a cooperative activity. Players try to find arrangements that satisfy
their insights into the way in which the universe is organised. This is a sophisticated
activity requiring considerable scientific background, but it is most productive of
discussion among players.
Scrabble (Spears Ltd)
A game in which players compete to form interlocking words in crossword fashion
using separate letter-tiles and a board marked off into squares which carry various
scores. It is very good for students who are able to use a dictionary with some
confidence, and who are interested in building their vocabulary, but is not a game that
stimulates very much talk as it is played.
Shake Words (Peter Pan Playthings, Peterborough)
A set of die-cubes with letters instead of numbers on the faces. Players compete to
form words from the letters that are uppermost on each throw. More limited in scope
than Scrabble but with the advantage of being a much faster game and more likely to
produce talk among the players.
81
PUBLISHED GAMES
Tell Me (Spears Ltd)
A roulette-type wheel with letters instead of numbers around its edge is spun to
determine an initial letter, and players compete to find words or phrases beginning
with that letter. A pack of question-cards determines what type of word should be
called out, eg the name of a river, or of a famous actor. It is a simple matter to
supplement these question cards with ones that will be suitable for a group of students
with special interests.
Think Links by Edward de Bono (Direct Education Services)
Sets of picture- and word cards with a handbook giving instructions for many
different ways in which they may be used. The materials are intended for use in
concept and language development with young children and this is reflected in the
content of the cards, but the principles in the handbook can be applied to all levels and
ages of students.
82
Section 3
Presentation, Classification and Retrieval of Games
It is worthwhile making the materials used for games as durable as possible, otherwise
the amount of time spent in replacement and upkeep may be high. All pictorial and
printed material should be mounted on stout card, and items that will be handled
frequently should if possible be covered with transparent plastic film or be laminated.
If the games are to be used on a self-access basis, this has implications for the way in
which material is stored and mounted:
Pair games such as Describe and Draw should ideally be mounted in cardboard folders
as in fig 16. If the folders containing one type of activity are all of the same colour, this
makes sorting out the materials at the end of the session much easier, and makes it
possible for students and staff to find the activity they want much more quickly.
Instructions for the game should be pasted on the front of each folder. The folders may
then be stored upright in an open box-file which is labelled with the name of the game,
and, if possible colour-coded to match the folders. A shelf of these box-files looks neat
and the games are easy to find.
To avoid students taking out folders that they have used before, each folder may be
numbered on the front. It is possible to 'grade' the folders for difficulty and to add
some indication of this on the cover. If a large stock of any one kind is built up, it may
be a good idea to store each level separately in its own box. A small coloured sticker on
the cover of the folder will serve as an indication of each level: eg it may be decided that
all Describe and Draw folders should be green. Three levels of difficulty: Easy,
Intermediate and Difficult might emerge. Easy could be indicated by a small blue spot
on the cover, Intermediate by an orange spot and Difficult by a dark red spot. The
colour coding for level of difficulty should be applied consistently throughout the
other games where appropriate.
Some of the games involve a number of different sets of cards or easily-lost pieces.
These should be kept in clearly-labelled envelopes in pouches made inside the folder.
These pouches may be made by gluing strips of cardboard to the folder in the way
shown in fig 17. Where there is a strain on the pouches the glue should be reinforced by
staples placed neatly parallel to the edges of the folder.
Some games involve two sets of identical cards. It is a good idea to mount each set on a
different colour so that by looking at the coloured backs, the two 'packs' may be
quickly separated and put back in their correct envelopes.
Larger games should be stacked in uniformly-sized flat boxes with the game title
displayed prominently on the front. Published commercial games should go in their
own boxes inside the larger standard container. This avoids a disorganised-looking
array of different-sized boxes and also serves to keep additional materials, such as
instruction sheets, together with the game. Several instruction sheets should be typed
out and kept in transparent plastic folders inside the box. A note of box contents
should be glued on the inside of the lid to make checking easier.
Some sets of activities eg Describe and Construct may need to be kept in individual
containers within the larger box. Self-sealing polythene bags such as may be bought
83
PRESENTATION CLASSIFICATION AND RETRIEVAL
for freezer use are a convenient method of storing small pieces and instruction cards
with maximum visibility. Bulldog clips are a convenient way of ensuring that cards
that are too big to go inside a bag are kept firmly attached to it.
It is a useful procedure to include directions about replacing materials correctly and
checking the contents of boxes or bags as part of the instructions for playing games.
This may not guarantee perfect order but it will go some way towards reducing the
frustration caused by missing pieces and the time spent by teachers in checking and
general upkeep.
In a small teaching institution it may not be necessary to go beyond these simple
storage methods but where the quantity of games is large or a large number of staff are
using them it would be sensible to start a simple card index catalogue with a note of the
number of the shelf upon which each game is kept. This number should also appear on
the front of each box. A signingout book for use by staff may help missing games to be
traced. It is probably quickest to have a page per game upon which staff members
simply put their initials and the date. It may also be convenient to start a loose leaf
catalogue with a description of each game and a copy of its instruction sheet, so that
games can be studied by outside visitors or newcomers to the teaching staff.
(b)
Fig 16
84
Method of presenting Describe and Draw.
(a)
Picture glued inside a large cardboard folder;
The front cover acts as a screen so that the player
listening to the description cannot see the picture.
(b)
Instructions label glued on to the front of the folder.
PRESENTATION CLASSIFICATION AND RETRIEVAL
(b)
Staple
card glued along
bottom and side
edges
(c)
Fig 17
Method of presenting Find the Difference.
(a)
2 similar pictures glued into folders made of
cardboard
(b)
Large cardboard folder with 2 strips of card stapled
and glued to the inside to hold the picture-folders.
(c)
Cover of the large folder showing Instructions
label glued on to the front.
85
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
DIENES, Z P and GOLDING, W E
First Years in Mathematics
Part 1 Learning Logic, Logical Games
Part 2 Sets, Numbers and Powers
Part 3 Exploration of Space and Practical Measurement
The Educational Supply Association and Burns and Gates, 1969.
GEDDES, M
ELTI Film No 3 Booklet. Activity Days in Language Learning. Printing and
Publishing Dept., The British Council, London 1978.
GIBBS, G I
Handbook of Games and Simulation Exercises. E and F N Spon Ltd, 1974.
GLAZIER, R
How to Design Educational Games. Cambridge Mass Abt Associates Inc, 1969.
RIXON, S
ELTI Film No 4 Booklet. Communication Games in a Language Programme.
Printing and Publishing Dept., The British Council, London 1979.
ROGERS, J D (compiler)
Group Activities for Language Learning. Occasional Papers No 4, Seameo
Regional Language Centre, Singapore, 1978.
WATFORD, R and TAYLOR J L
Simulation in the Classroom. Harmondsworth Penguin, 1972.
WIGHT, J and NORRIS, R A
Teaching English to West Indian Children. Schools Council Working Paper No
29, Evans, Methuen Educational, 1970.
WIGHT, J., NORRIS R A and WORSLEY, F J
Concept 7-9, Unit 3, Communication, Teacher's Manual. E J Arnold & Son Ltd for
the Schools Council, 1972.
Articles
BYRNE, Donn
'Three Interaction Activities', in 'Visual Aids for Classroom Interaction',
(Susan Holden Ed). Modern English Publications, 1978. pp 10-14.
CRIPWELL, Ken
'Communication Games, 1', in 'Visual Aids for Classroom Interaction',
(Susan Holden Ed). Modern English Publications, 1978. pp 51-53.
86
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
ELT DOCUMENTS 73/5
'Concept 7-9, a Course in Language and Reasoning', pp 10-13.
GEDDES, Marion and McALPIN, Janet
Communication Games, 2' in 'Visual Aids for Classroom Interaction',
(Susan Holden Ed). Modern English Publications, 1978. pp 54-57.
KERR, J Y K
'Games and Simulations in English Language Teaching'. ELT Documents 77/1.
pp 5-10.
KERR, J Y K
'Picture Cue Cards for Pair or Group Work', in 'Visual Aids for Classroom
Interaction',
(Susan Holden Ed). Modern English Publications, 1978. pp 42-47.
NATION, I S P
The Combining Arrangement: Some techniques. Modern Language Journal
Vol LXI No 3 March 1977. pp 89-94.
RIXON, S
The Information Gap and the Opinion Gap. English Language Teaching Journal
Vol XXXIII No 2 January 1979. pp 104-6.
87
APPENDIX
The purpose of this Appendix is to give some examples of the interaction that is
stimulated by the use of materials described in this Handbook. The exchanges are
often grammatically imperfect, but we feel that other equally important language
skills are being developed, such as the ability to respond quickly and flexibly to a
number of different interlocuters, whose next utterances may not be easily predictable.
To make this point clearer the identity of each player is indicated in the transcript and,
where it seemed appropriate, 'stage directions' indicating what is happening during
the game are included. The transcript is taken from a video recording of groups of
students playing the games.
EXTRACT ONE
ASK THE RIGHT QUESTION
The pair playing this game are adult French students. They have a tendency to use
statements as clues rather than obeying the letter of the game-rule which requires the
use of questions. The ingenuity they display, however, with relatively little command
of English, makes this a good example of how students can respond to a challenge
using their own linguistic resources to the maximum. The key word for each sequence
is given as a heading.
A LIFT (Michel has the card)
Michel
We don't need to pick it up because we are only on the 3rd floor. But if the
training course will be on the llth or 13th floor, I think we need to catch it.
What is it?
Jean
Catch it. What?
Michel
Do...do...do you know? You don't understand. Here when we are going for
the course, we are going to... to have a course. Yes. The course is on the 3rd or
the 2nd floor.
Jean
Yes. So?
Michel
So, it's not necessary, it's not necessary to take it... to catch it. What it is?
Jean
It's a lift.
Michel
It's a lift, a lift. O.K. That is quite good. First class.
LOVE (It is Jean's turn to have the card)
Michel
O.K. You can begin.
Jean
Some people say that (er) it's perhaps the first things we think about when
we have (er) when we have (er) when we have eaten, because it is the first (er)
is the first (er) is a more... is a most important things in the life of the... of all
the animals and all the ... the man, man and woman, all humans ... of all the
humans beings.
Michel
Ah yes, (er) I've no idea. The meal.
88
APPENDIX
Jean
No, after the meal. Well, animals or man or woman can have be able to eat.
The first thing they have to do when they have well eat ... eaten and (er)
before sleeping, (laughter).
Michel
Yes. Isn't it Love?
Jean
Yes. Of course, (laughter).
TRAFALGAR SQUARE (Michel has the card)
Michel
O.K. (er) It's a ... a famous place ... famous place in London.
Jean
In London?
Michel
In London, yes. Very well known by everybody and (er) especially because
there are a lot of people. [ Yes] a lot of animals and so on.
Jean
Yes animals, flying animals?
Michel
Flying animals, yes.
Jean
Well, the name of a defeat?
Michel
Yes but (er) but yes .. a defeat for who? (laughter)
So I think you ... you know the name.
Jean
Yes. Trafalgar.
Michel
Yes, Trafalgar Square.
EXTRACT TWO
THE GIFT GAME
In this extract we follow two turns in the game, which is being played by four
students. Roger and Jose are Spanish-speaking Latin American students and Mahin
and Patty are Iranian. Notice that everyone has a contribution to make to the
discussion, and how varied the interaction is.
TURN ONE
(Roger throws the die and lands on a picture of A BRIGHTLY-COLOURED RUG)
Roger
I think that this present is suitable to my cousin.
Patty
What is that, is it car ...?
Roger
Yes, it's a ... (er)
Patty
Oh, it's butterfly no?
Jose
I think it is a carpet, a carpet?
89
APPENDIX
Roger
Yes. I think it's suitable for my cousin.
Patty
Your cousin?
Roger
My cousin. Are you agree?
Jose
She is married?
Roger
No she isn't. She is (er) single.
Patty
Your cousin. He's not... she's not... he's ...
Roger
She lives with her parents.
Jose
So you are (er) giving a gift for her parents because this is for the (er) you
know, the ...
Roger
But I think ...
Patty
But she ... but she can use in her private room, you know.
Roger
I think she will be very happy.
Jose
Ah no, it's too expensive for a private room.
Patty
It is but...
Jose
You need in the house?
Patty
This gift. This gift (er) is expensive, is very nice, you know, expensive gift. I
like this, do you?
(inaudible OVERTALKING)
Patty
Yeah, I think so. I agree with you. What about you?
Jose
Personal gift... more personal gift for ...
Roger
I think this is personal really.
Mahin
I think it's good for her, and then after marriage she can take it.
Roger
Yes of course, of course she can keep it.
Patty
Yes.
Jose
You can look for a shop, look ...
Patty
His cousin a good and expensive gift for her. Why she shouldn't accept?
Roger
Very good, very nice. Lovely.
Jose
Well, you come back to this shop and get the carpet if you want.
90
APPENDIX
Roger
Yes.
Jose
But (er) why you don't wait and walk around (er) ... around other shops?
Roger
Well, it could be, but I think, at the first sight, I think it's a very good present
really for her.
Patty
I think so.
Jose
You can change. You can take out and ...
Mahin
I think if Roger has enough money it doesn't matter.
Roger
I have enough.
Mahin
To buy this?
Group
(Fine
(Why not?
(Up to you.
Roger
I think this is very nice for her.
Patty
O.K. So you can put it, your card.
Roger
Alright.
Patty
No, I think here. (Puts the Family and Friend card over the picture on the
board).
Roger
Yes.
Patty
Yeah. I think you are... because you bought the present so you have to keep
it.
TURN TWO
Roger
(to Jose) Now it's your turn, isn't it?
Patty
Isn't it your turn?
Jose
Yeah, it's my turn.
Patty
O.K.
Jose
I'm the green one.
Patty
Oh (Jose lands on picture of NECKLACE AND EARRINGS)
Jose
That's a collar. A collar?
Patty
No it's not a collar, it's (er)...
91
APPENDIX
Jose
Necklace.
Patty
Necklace.
Jose
Necklace.
Mahin
(inaudible question to Patty)
Patty
(to Mahin) Alright I tell you.
Jose
(er) Well I... I... I have in this Christmas (er) to give (er) a gift to a lady with
artist... with artistic taste.
Roger
Artistic?
Jose
Yes, (er) do you think (er) this is a good gift for a lady with (er) artistic (er)
taste?
Patty
Oh, yes, I think ... I think so.
Jose
Yes. It's a ...
Patty
It's a necklace and earring.
Jose
Yes. That is (er) ...
Mahin
For whom do you want to ...?
Jose
A lady with artistic taste.
Mahin
I see.
Patty
Artistic.
Jose
Right.
Patty
I mean
Jose
No. Taste.
Patty
Taste. What do you mean?
Jose
She
Mahin
Kinds of things.
Jose
Artistic, artistic things.
Mahin
O.K.
Roger
Well do you know very well? Do you know her very well?
Jose
(er) Yes.
92
artistic situationl
she enjoy, she like (er) these (er) ...
APPENDIX
Mahin
Of course. If he want bought a present for somebody he must know him very
well.
Roger
No, no.
Jose
No, sometimes, no.
Mahin
Sometimes no?
Jose
Sometimes you have to get a polite (er) gift.
Mahin
What, for Christmas, for example?
Jose
Anyway, we have to move!
Patty
But anyway I think you have to think about (er) her, you know, situation,
because if you buy a very bad gift, you know it will be bad thing for you.
Jose
But I think I ... I can buy for this lady, is a very good thing.
Group
O.K. fine.
Jose
Yes.
EXTRACT THREE
SA Y IT
In this extract with 5 players (the same group as before with the addition of Shaban,
an Egyptian student) it is noticeable how much discussion goes on about the quality
of the responses given. Jose tries to suggest that Shaban's 'offer* to buy a watch was
too abrupt to be called an 'offer* and extensive discussion of possible meanings of
'criticise* goes on before Mahin actually performs her task. This sort of discussion is
very valuable as a way of getting students to realise the variety of language forms
available to them as exponents of different functions and also to increase their
sensitivity to such things as register and attitudinal tone. The teacher may be called in
occasionally as final arbiter and informant but should try to avoid becoming integral
to the group's interaction.
TURN ONE
PLAYER'.
'OFFER TO BUY SOMETHING OWNED BY ANOTHER
Shaban (reading) "Offer to buy something owned by another player". That's
... Let's try this.
Mahin
Offer?
Shaban "Offer to buy something owned by another player".
Jose
Just play on the right hand.
Shaban On the right hand. (Er) I'd like to buy a watch, O.K.? You agree?
Jose
I think (er) you mus.t be most polite, perhaps. You can offer to buy.
93
APPENDIX
Group
Offer to buy.
Shaban Yes, something owned by another player.
Jose
So ... so you must try to (er) ...
Mahin
Buy something off ...
Patty
It means offer.
Jose
... to change my mind. If I don't want to... to buy... to sell. So you must...
Shaban I ... I ... I just offering, but they ask you if you accept or not.
Jose
You mean you want to ...
Shaban I... I just offer an idea and I tell you that I... I desire ... I wish to buy your
watch. Do you agree to sell it to me?
Jose
I don't.
Shaban Do you agree with me to take a card?
Group
Yes.
TURN TWO
'CRITICISE ANOTHER PLA YER 'S BEHA VIOUR'.
Shaban (reading to Mahin) "Criticise another player's behaviour!',
(laughter)
Mahin
It's very difficult.
Patty
Is it yours?
Mahin
Yes it is.
Shaban It must be your friend, otherwise another will be angry with you.
Patty
No, I don't think anybody's going to be angry.
Shaban) It could be.
It's just a game.
Jose)
Patty
You can (er) criticise me. I would like to know what is wrong in my
behaviour.
Shaban It could be a good critic. I would because ...
Mahin
No, no. Criticise is not good.
Patty
It... it's not good, it... it... you know, there is something wrong with you and
(er)...
Jose
I can't.
94
APPENDIX
Shaban By the critical study of literature it means that you should show the good
points and the bad points and ...
Mahin
Ah, so ... so I can say the (er) good points, yes?
Shaban Of course.
Patty
No, no you can't say good points. You can't say. You must criticise like this.
Let me say something! I usually do something in bad (er) way, bad (er), you
know, (er) bad discipline, bad (er) you know, behaviour.
Mahin
Patty, I could do you. O.K. Yes. Most of time you are late.
Patty
Me?
Mahin
Yes.
Patty
I am not.
95
PUBLISHERS' AND MANUFACTURERS' ADDRESSES
The companies marked with an asterisk sell direct to the public. Other firms however,
deal mainly through retailers and their addresses are included only in case of special
difficulties over supply, or need for 'spare parts' for games.
Hamley's of Regent Street will send games through the post within the UK and will
also handle orders from overseas. The address to write to is:
Hamley's Postal Department
200 Regent Street
LONDON Wl
The telephone number is 01-734-3161
E J Arnold and Sons
Butterley Street
Hunslet
LEEDS LS10 1A
*Direct Education Services Ltd
1 Alfred Street
Blandford Forum
DORSET DT11 7SS
Heyden & Son
Spectrum House
Hillview Gardens
HENDON NW4 2JQ
Hi-Toys
Tresham Works
Tresham Street
Kettering
NORTHANTS
LEGO
Building Blocks (GB) Ltd
Wrexham
NORTH WALES LL13 9UD
Longman
Longman House
Burnt Mill
Harlow
ESSEX CM20 2JE
* Longman Group Ltd Resources Unit
9/11 The Shambles
YORK
96
*National Health Service
Learning Resources Unit
Sheffield City Polytechnic
65 Broomgrove Road
SHE FIELD S102BP
*Oxfam
274 Banbury Road
Oxford
OX2 7DZ
Peter Pan Playthings
Bretton Way
Bretton
PETERBOROUGH
*Sheffield City Polytechnic
Instructional Technology Unit
36 Collegiate Crescent
SHEFFIELD S10 2BP
Spears Ltd
Sales Office
PO Box 49
Enfield
MIDDLESEX
Waddingtons
Waddington's House of Games
14 Curzon Street
LONDON Wl
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© British Council 2015 / F044
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for cultural relations and educational opportunities.
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