Infrastructure Sector (Baseline)
Environment Master Plan
Infrastructure Sector
(Baseline)
lR;eso t;rs
Government of Himachal Pradesh
1|Page
Department of Environment, Science & Technology
Table of Contents
ABBREVIATIONS
19
INTRODUCTION
23
CHAPTER 1 TOURISM
25
1.1
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
46
1.2
Patterns of Planning and Development in the Sector
48
1.3
Technology/Schemes Adopted in the Sector along with any Changes in Technology
51
1.4
Stakeholder nvolvement adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
64
1.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
52
1.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
55
1.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector to address critical environment issues.
56
1.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
57
1.9
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
57
1.10
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issue s in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of population and changing lifestyle; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumant; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environmental co nditions.
57
1.11
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc .
61
1.12
Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
61
CHAPTER
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY & SEWAGE
64
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
64
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
79
Technology/Schemes adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
81
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
82
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
82
2.5.1. Environmental issues associated with water supply
85
2.5.2 Environmental Issues associated with Sewerage System
88
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
91
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
91
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector.
91
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
96
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
96
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
108
Regulatory Analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive)
and compliance with the same.
109
CHAPTER 3 H EALTH
3.1
Resource Inventory of existing assets of the sector
3.2
Patterns of Planning and Development in the Sector
3.3
Technology adopted in the Sector along with any changes in technology
3.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment pres ervation and restoration
3.5
Critical Environment Issues / Hotspots associated with the Sector
3.6
Environment Initiati ves taken by the sector to address Critical Environment Issues
3.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
3.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) should be carried out for
activities related to the sector
110
110
125
129
124
131
135
136
137
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3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
Institutional Mechanisms within the Sector to address identified Environment Issues
142
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions
142
Information on Human Resource Management Issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, and awareness levels, etc.
151
Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
152
CHAPTER 4 ROAD & TRANSPORT
153
4.1
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
153
4.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
170
4.3
Technology/schemes adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
179
4.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and res toration
183
4.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
184
4.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
186
4.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
189
4.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
193
4.9
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environ ment issues
196
4.10
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
198
4.11
Information on human r esource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
209
4.12
Regulatory Analysis to iden tify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive)
and compliance with the same
213
CHAPTER 5 MINING & GEOLOGY
215
5.1
Resource Inventory of existing assets of sector
215
5.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
227
5.3
Technology adopted in the sector alongwith any changes in the technology
230
5.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
231
5.5
Critical Environment Issues / Hot spots associated with the sector
231
5.6
Environment initiatives taken by sector to address critical environment issues
235
5.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
236
5.8
Environment monitoring/ impacts for the activities rel ated to the sector
236
5.9
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
236
5.10
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pres sures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
238
5.11
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
273
5.12
Regulatory Analysis to identify regulations that have environment implications and compliance with the
same.
274
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY
276
6.1
Resource inventory of the existing assets of the sector
276
6.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
291
6.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
306
6.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
307
6.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
307
6.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
315
6.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
316
6.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
317
4 | Page
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
327
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
329
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
334
Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same.
335
CHAPTER 7 ENERGY
336
7.1
Resource inventory of the existing assets of the sector
336
7.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
339
7.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
348
7.4
Stakeholder involv ement in environment preservation and restoration
349
7.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
349
7.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
353
7.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
356
7.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
358
7.9
Institutional mechanisms within t he sector to address identified environment issues
360
7.10
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; require ments of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
362
7.11
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
368
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
7.12
Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
370
CHAPTER 8 MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE
372
8.1
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
372
8.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
374
8.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
378
8.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and rest oration
379
8.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
380
8.6
Environment initiatives taken by the s ector to address critical environment issues
383
8.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
384
8.8
Environment m onitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
385
8.9
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
385
8.10
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyle s; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
386
8.11
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
405
8.12. Regulatory analysis to identif y any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same.
407
CHAPTER 9 RURAL PLANNING
9.1
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
9.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
9.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
9.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
9.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
9.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
9.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
408
408
416
426
427
429
432
433
5 | Page
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
Environment monitoring (key param eters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
434
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
434
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populati ons including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
438
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
442
Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
444
CHAPTER 10 URBAN PLANNING
446
10.1
Resourc e inventory of existing assets of the sector
446
10.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
453
10.3
Technology ado pted in the sector along with any changes in technology
461
10.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
463
10.5
Critical environment issues / hotspots associated with the sector
464
10.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
468
10.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
469
10.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
469
10.9
Institutional mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
470
10.10 Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
473
10.11 Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
483
10.12 Regulatory analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negati ve or positive),
and compliance with the same.
486
CHAPTER 11 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
488
11.1
Resource Inventory of existing asse ts of the sector
488
11.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
492
11.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
495
11.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
496
11.5
Critical Envi ronment Issues / Hotspots associated with the sector
497
11.6
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
498
11.7
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
499
11.8
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
500
11.9
Institutional Mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
500
11.10 Data / Documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; p ressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
501
11.11 Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the secto r such as: manpower, vocational training, awareness levels etc.
503
11.12 Regulatory Analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
504
CHAPTER 12 HAZARDOUS WASTE (HW)
12.1
Resource Inventory of existing assets of the sector
12.2
Patterns of planning and development in the sector
12.3
Technology adopted in the sector along with any changes in technology
12.4
Stakeholder involvement in environment preservation and restoration
12.5
Critical Environment Issues / Hotspots ass ociated with the sector
505
505
511
515
515
515
6 | Page
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
Environment initiatives taken by the sector to address critical environment issues
520
Environment related studies carried out in the sector
520
Environment monitoring (key parameters such as air and water pollution) carried out for activities related
to the sector
520
Institutional Mechanisms within the sector to address identified environment issues
520
Data / Documentation pertaining t o addressing demographic issues in the context of the sectors, such as
population changes; requirements of populations and changing lifestyles; migratory populations including
tourists; transhumants; transit labour population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
520
Information on human resource management issues (which may have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such as: manpower, vocatio nal training, awareness levels etc.
524
Regulatory Analysis to identify any regulations that have environment implications (negative or positive),
and compliance with the same
525
7 | Page
List of Tables
CHAPTER 1 TOURISM
25
Table 1:
Tourist Arrivals (Indian & Foreigner)
27
Table 2:
No. of Registered Hotels/Guest House
27
Table 3:
Statistics Relating to No. of Hotels, Guest Houses, Restaurants, Travel Agencies, Tourist Guides and
Photographers and Bed Capacity/ No. of Rooms as on 31.12.2010.
28
Table 4:
Main Tourist Points in Chamba District
28
Table 5:
Accommodation facilities in Chamba District
28
Table 6:
Tourist Stay Pattern in Chamba District
30
Table 7:
Popularity of Main Tourist Destination in Mandi District
30
Table 8:
Accommodation facilities in Mandi District
30
Table 9:
Tourist Stay Pattern in Mandi District
31
Table 10:
Popularity of Main Tourist Destinations in Shimla District
31
Table 11:
Tourist Flow and % change in Shimla
31
Table 12:
Accommodation in Shimla District
31
Table 13:
Tourist Stay Pattern in Shimla District
31
Table 14:
Popularity of main tourist destination in Kangra District
34
Table 15:
Accommodat ion facilities in Kangra District
34
Table 16:
Tourist stay pattern in Kangra District
35
Table 17:
Popularity of main tourist destinations in Bilaspur district
36
Table 18:
Accommodation facilities in Bilaspur
36
Table 19:
Tourist stay pattern in Bila spur district
36
Table 20:
Popularity of main tourist destinations in Kinnaur district
37
Table 21:
Accommodation facilities i n Kinnaur district
38
Table 22:
Tourist stay pattern in Kinnaur district
38
Table 23:
Popularity among Tourist destinations in Solan District
39
Table 24:
Accommodation in Solan District
39
Table 25:
Tourist stay patterns in Solan District
39
Table 26:
Popularity of Main Tourist Destination in Sirmaur District
41
Table 27:
Popularity of main tourist destinations in Kullu dist rict
42
Table 28:
Tourist stay pattern in Kullu district
42
Table 29:
Popularity of Main Tourist Destinations in Hamirpur District
43
Table 30:
Accommodation in Hamirpur District
44
Table 31:
Tourist Stay Pattern in Hamirpur District
44
Table 32:
Accommodation facilities in Una District
44
Table 33:
Tourist Stay pattern in Una District
44
Table 34:
Popularity of Main Tourist Destinations in Lahaul & Spiti
45
Table 35:
Accommodation facilities in Lahaul & Spiti
45
Table 36:
Tourist stay pattern in Lahaul & Spiti
45
Table 37:
Proposed Plan and target achieved in the State
46
Table 38:
Issues/Causes and Impacts
54
Table 39:
Yearwise Details of foreigners visiting Himachal Pradesh
58
Table 40 (a): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
58
Table 40 (b): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
58
Table 40 (c): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
59
Table 41 (a): Total Tourist Arrivals
59
Table 41 (b): Total Tourist Arrivals
59
Table 42 (a): Foreign Tourist Arrivals
60
Table 42 (b): Foreign Tourist Arrivals
60
Table 43:
Deemand Supply Gap - Short Term
60
Table 44:
Deemand Supply Gap - Mid Term
61
Table 45:
Demand Supply Gap - Long Term
61
8 | Page
CHAPTER 2 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY & SEWAGE
Table 1:
Rural Water Supply Scheme
Table 2:
Major River systems and their tributaries
Table 3:
Different sou rces of water at District level
Table 4:
Different sources of drinking water (Urban and Rural)
Table 5:
Water Supply Status
Table 6:
Villages with drinking water facilities in HP
Table 7:
Villages with avail ability of different sources of drinking water facilities
Table 8:
Status of drinking water facility (Census 2001)
Table 9:
Ground Water Availability
Table 10:
Year wise details of hand pumps installed in the drought prone area in Himachal Pradesh
Table 11:
Completed Water Supply Schemes
Table 12:
Status of commissioned / completed sewerage schemes
Table 13:
Status of sewerage and sewage treatment
Table 14:
Sewage Treatment System
Table 15:
Irrigated Area
Table 16:
Details of Irrigation facilities
Table 17:
Details of schemes sanctioned under RIDF
Table 18:
Completed Irrigation Schemes
Table 19:
Problem & alternate safe source based drinking water supply scheme
Table 20:
Water Purification Methods used at Household Level
Table 21:
Summary of identification and analysis of issues
Table 22:
Summary of identification of issues, causes and analysis of impacts/risks
Table 23:
Status of STPs in Shimla
Table 24:
River Quality Data (Annual Avg.) Year 2003
Table 25:
Lakes Water Quality Data Year 2003
Table 26:
Number of Samples Analyzed in State Pollution Control Board’s Laboratories
Table 27:
Water quality of maj or rivers in Himachal Pradesh (January 2008)
Table 28:
Sewage Water Quality of different STPs
Table 29:
Water Demand/requirement
Table 30:
Water Req uired
Table 31:
Sewage Generation in Himachal Pradesh
Table 32:
Details of Sources of Water for Shimla City
Table 33:
Type of sewerage treatment and place of disposal
Table 34:
Sewerage Connection
Table 35:
Type of sewerage treatment and place of disposal in Mandi
Table 36:
Sewerage system in Solan district
Table 37:
Status of ongoing sewerage schemes (STP)
Table 38:
District wise Status of Habitation Covered and is Yet to be Covered by IPH
Table 39:
Reported Ca ses of waterborne diseases in Mandi district
Table 40(a): Habitations covered by IPH
Table 40(b): District wise habitations covered by IPH
Table 41:
District/Circle wise status of installed and non functional Hand -pump upto 01.02.2010
Table 42:
Net Irrigated Area (in ha)
Table 43:
Percentage of irrigated area to cultivable area
Table 44:
Irrigated area (source -wise) in 1999-2000
Table 45:
Source wise Irrigated Area (In Hectares)
Table 46:
Irrigated Area Source -wise from 1995-96 to 1998-99
Table 47:
Irrigation sources in Lahaul & Spiti district during 1999 -2000
Table 48:
Area irrigated by various sources
Table 49:
Net irrigated area by various sources (in ha) in Solan district
Table 50:
Status of other employees in IPH Department
64
64
65
65
65
66
70
72
74
74
74
74
75
76
78
79
79
79
79
81
82
84
87
89
92
92
92
93
95
96
97
97
97
98
99
99
99
100
101
102
102
103
103
104
105
105
105
106
106
107
107
108
CHAPTER 3 HEALTH
Table 1:
Vital Health Rates for Himachal Pradesh
109
109
9 | Page
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table 4:
Table 5:
Table 6:
Table 7:
Table 8:
Table 9:
Table 10:
Table 11:
Table 12:
Table 13:
Table 14:
Table 15:
Table 16:
Table 17:
Table 18:
Table 19:
Table 20:
Table 21:
Table 22:
Table 23:
Table 24:
Table 25:
Table 26:
Table 27:
Table 28:
Table 29:
Table 30:
Table 31:
Table 32:
Table 33:
Table 34:
Table 35:
Table 36:
Table 37:
Table 3 8:
Table 39:
Table 40:
Table 41:
Table 42:
Table 43:
Table 44:
Table 45:
Table 46:
Table 47:
Table 48:
Table 49:
Table 50:
Table 51:
Table 52:
Table 53:
Table 54:
Table 55:
Table 56:
Table 57:
Table 58:
District Wise Position of Buildings in respect of various Government Health Institutions
(as on 31/03/2008)
109
District Wise Number of hospitals in Himachal Pradesh as on 31 -03-2008
111
Dental hospital at Himachal Pradesh
112
District wise number of medical Institutions, beds and Community Development Block in Himachal
Pradesh As On 31 -03-2008
112
Bilaspur
112
Hamirpur
112
Chamba
112
Kangra
113
Kinnaur
113
Kullu
113
Lahaul & Spiti
113
Mandi
113
Shimla
114
Sirmaur
114
Solan
114
Una
114
List of Medical Institutions in Kangra district
115
List of medical institutions in Kinnaur District
116
List of medical Institutions in Bilaspur district
117
List of Medical Institutions in Chamba district
117
List of Medical Institutions in Kullu district
118
List of Medical Institutions in Lahaul & Spiti district
118
List of medical Institutions in Mandi district
118
List of Medical Institutions in Shimla District
119
List of Medical In stitutions in Sirmaur
121
List of Medical Institutions in Solan
121
List of Medical Institutions at Una
121
Health Infrastructure of Himachal Pradesh
122
Other Health Institutions in Himachal Pradesh
122
Average rural population covered by health institutions (as on 31 March 2005)
123
Distance from the nearest health f acility
123
District wise allopathic public health institutions
123
District-wise Public Health Institutio ns
123
Utilization of Health Care Services by various systems of Medicine
124
Availability of Biomedical W aste Treatment Facilities (CBWTF) in Himachal Pradesh
124
Common incarnation facility of Himachal Pradesh
124
Institutional Deliveries – 24 hour Service in Selected Institutions
127
Status of Bio-medical waste treatment technology -2009
128
Issues, Causes and Impacts
132
Waste Generation in Major Hospitals of Shimla Town
136
River Quality Data (Annual Avg.)Year 2003
137
Lakes Water Quality Data Year 2003
138
Number of Samples Analyzed in State Pollution Control Board’s Laboratories
138
Water quality of maj or rivers in Himachal Pradesh (January 2008)
138
Top ten causes of Burden of Diseases (DALYs) among females in Himachal Pradesh
142
Top ten causes of Burden of Diseases (DALY) among Males in Himachal Pradesh
143
Leading causes of disability (YLD) in males and females in Himachal Pradesh
143
Number of patients tre ated by ISMH
144
Patients treated during 1999 to 2004 in HFW institutions
144
District-wise number of cases reported in Hospitals as indoor Admission
145
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (Malaria) in Himachal Pradesh
146
Trend of AIDS Control Programme as on 31-03-2008
147
District wise HIV/AIDS cases
148
Temporal details of HIV/AIDS in Himachal Pradesh
148
Cases of Leprosy in Himachal Pradesh during 2007-08 (upto 31-03-2008)
149
District wise prevalence rate per 10000 population during 1998 – 2008 under NLEP
149
Cases of Leprosy in Himachal Pradesh during 2006-07
150
10 | Page
CHAPTER 4 ROAD & TRANSPORT
Table 1:
Category of roads in Himachal Pradesh
Table 2:
National Highways in Himachal Pradesh
Table 3:
Road Density in Himachal Pradesh
Table 4:
State Highways in Himachal Pradesh
Table 5:
Roads including National Highway (Kms)
Table 6:
There Major District Roads (MDR) in the State
Table 7:
Village connectivity in the State
Table 8:
Detail of Bridges Completed in Himachal Pradesh (as on 31/03/2009)
Table 9:
District wise types of road with length
Table 10:
Metalled and un
- metalled road during 1998 - 2009
Table 11:
Metalled and un
- metalled Road density
Table 12:
Village Connectivity with Motorable road (as on 31.3.2009)
Table 13:
Villages connected by pucca road for year 1981, 1991 & 2001
Table 14:
Motor Vehicles Registered
Table 15:
Routes & Total mileage of HRTC buses in Chamba
Table 16:
Roads including National Highways (in kms.) in Chamba
Table 17:
Registered Vehicles in Hamirpur during Year 1999
Table 18:
Metalled and un
- metalled roads in kms. During 1955 - 1999
Table 19:
Registered vehicles in 1999
Table 20:
Metalled and unmetalled roads (in kms.)
Table 21:
Registered vehicles in 1999
Table 22:
Metalled and un -metalled roads (in kms.) in Kullu
Table 23:
Motor Vehicles registered in 1999
Table 24:
Transportation facilities in Lahaul & Spiti District
Table 25:
Roads and transp ort status in Mandi district during 1998 -99
Table 26:
Road length in Shimla during 1998 -99
Table 27:
Registration of ve hicles, no. of buses and distance covered during the year 1999 -2000
Table 28:
No. of vehicles, motorable roads and distance covered in Kms. in Solan district
Table 29:
Roads and distance in Kms. (including National Highway) in Solan district
Table 30:
No. of registered vehicles in Una during 2000 -2001
Table 31:
Capacity Values
Table 32:
Recommended design service volumes for Roads
Table 33:
Recommended Design Service Volumes for Hill Roads
Table 34:
Design Speeds (km/h)
Table 35: Road Infrastructure in Himachal Pradesh
Table 36:
Category of roads in Himachal Pradesh
Table 37:
Population wi se villages connected with road
Table 38:
Target and achievements in transport sector
Table 39:
Motor Vehicle Populatio ns in Himachal Pradesh
Table 40:
Phase -wise length of roads constructed, expenditure incurred and habitations
Table 41(a): Status of Sanctioned Projects under CRF
Table 41(b): Progress of Roads and Bridges in the State of Himachal Pradesh
Tabl e 42: Comparison of the main engineering functions performed by civil and bio - engineering structures
Table 43:
Description of the main systems of Bio -engineering
Table 44:
Area of computerization
Table 45:
Stakeholder & their involvement
Table 46:
Issues, Causes and Impacts
Table 47:
Physical location of project
Table 48:
Economic Return Details of the Project Road
Table 49:
Section wise breakup of Service LoS
Table 50:
Air Quality Status in Himachal Pradesh
Table 51:
Air Quality of SO2
Table 52:
Air Quality of NO x
Table 53: Air Quality of RSPM
Table 54:
Village Connectivity with Motorable road as on 31.3.2009
152
152
153
153
154
155
155
156
156
158
158
159
159
160
163
164
164
164
165
165
166
166
166
166
167
167
168
168
168
169
169
171
171
171
172
172
172
173
173
174
176
177
177
178
179
181
183
184
190
190
191
192
193
194
195
198
11 | Page
Table 55:
Table 56:
Table 57:
Table 58:
Table 59:
Table 60:
Table 61:
Table 62:
Table 63:
Table 64:
Table 65:
Village Con nected by pucca road
Status of Road in Bilaspur District
Availability of Parking Facilities
Non -Availability of Parking Facilities
Parking Status in Chamba Planning Area
Location of parking spaces
Transport Facility in Himachal Pradesh
District Level Connectivity of Roads
District wise Number of Registered Motor Vehicles (2008)
State Level (Registered Vehicles)
Number of Registered Motor Vehicles
CHAPTER 5 MINING & GEOLOGY
Table 1:
District wise details of Limestone Reserve (In Million tonnes)
Table 2:
Showing general stratigraphy of t he area
Table 3:
Chemical composition of limestone
Table 4:
Litho-stratigraphy of the Shali Group
Table 5:
Succession of Rocks
Table 6:
Average chemical analysis of the Sundernagar area limestone
Table 7:
Mineral Resources of Himachal Pradesh
Commercially exploitable minerals in Himachal Pradesh
Table 8:
Mineral Production / Value
Table: 9:
Table 10:
Mineral based Industries in Himachal Pradesh
Table 11:
Detail of leases granted in Himachal Pradesh
Table 12:
Summary of Identification and Analysis of Issues
Table 13:
Chemical analysis Arki limest one deposit
Table 14:
Kaslog & Mangu limestone deposit
Table 15:
Chemical analysis of the Bhalag & Bagga limestone dep osit
Table 16:
Chemical analysis of silica boulders of the Una District
Reserves of the slate
Table 17:
State wide Distribution of Mineral
Table 18:
Table 19:
Detail of reserve of iron ore in Lana Cheta area
Table 20:
Uranium occurrences in Kullu district (Narayan Das et al. 1979)
Table 21:
Description of stibnite and associated sulphide ore veins in Bara Sigri area
Table 22:
Staff position in respect of Industries Department
198
201
203
203
204
205
205
207
207
208
208
214
217
220
221
222
223
223
224
225
226
226
227
232
238
238
238
240
241
243
257
265
269
273
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY
275
Table 1:
Growth of Industry in Himachal Pradesh
276
Table 2:
District wise number of Industrial Units, Investment and Employment (as on 31 March 2002) 276
Table 3:
Industrial Group wise, number of Units and Employment in Small -Scale Industries in the State (as on
31 March, 2001)
277
Table 4:
Types of Indus tries in Himachal Pradesh
277
Table 5:
District wise details of industrial units registered in the Small, Medium & Large scale Sector (status: as
on 31-03-2011)
278
Table 6:
Year wise details of units registered in the Small Scale Sector (status: as on 31 -03-2011)
279
Table 7:
Year wise details of units registered i n Medium & Large Scale Sector (Status: upto 31-03-2011)
279
Table 8:
Type of Industry in Chamba District
281
Table 9:
Types of Industries in Kinnaur District
283
Table 10:
Plan wise outlay approved and actual expenditure
291
Table 11:
District wise R ecommended Clusters and Activity in HP
292
Table 12:
Status of Cement Plants in Himachal Pradesh
295
Classification of Industrial Enterprises
Table 13:
300
Table 14:
District Wise Details of Industrial Areas/Estates
301
Table 15:
Summary of identification and analysis of issues
311
Table 16
Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in Himachal Pradesh
316
Table 17:
Air Quality Status in Himachal Pradesh in Terms of Air Qualit y Category by CPCB
317
12 | Page
Table 18:
Table 19:
Table 20:
Table 21:
Table 22:
Table 23:
Table 24:
Table 25:
Table 26:
Table 27:
Table 28:
Table 29:
Table 30:
Table 31:
Table 32:
Table 33:
Table 34:
Table 35:
Table 36:
Ambient Air Qua lity at Parwanoo
318
Ambient Air Quality at Paonta Sahib
319
Ambient Air Quality at Kala Amb
319
Ambient Air Quality at Baddi
320
Ambient Air Qua lity of Himachal Pradesh
321
Primary Water Quality Criteria and Designated Best use of fresh water
325
Month wise variation in River Water Quality (June 2004 to January 2008)
325
River Quality Data (Annual Avg.) Year 2006
325
District wise details of approval/ registration of New Medium & Large Industrial Projects: (From 07 01-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
328
Details of registered/ approved industrial units by the Industries Department after the special package
of incentives. (From 07 -01-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
328
Year wise details of t he approved/registered New Medium & Large Scale Industrial Projects after
special package (from 07 -01-2003 to 31-03-2011)
329
Year wise details of the approved/registered Expansion in Medium & Large Scale Industrial Projects
after special package (from 07 -01-2003 to 31-03-2011)
329
District wise details of approval/ registration of New Small Scale Industrial P rojects after special
package (from 7 -1-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
329
Details of registered/ approved industrial units by the Industries Department after the special package
of incentives. (from 07 -01-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
329
Year wise details of the approved/registered New Small Scale Industrial Projects after special package
(from 07 -01-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
330
Year wise details of the approved/registered expansion in Small Scale Industrial Projects after special
package (from 07 -01-2003 to 31 -03-2011)
330
Year wise details of the meetings (Status: upto 31 -03-2011)
330
District wise rates of developed and un -developed industrial area/ estates
330
Major Hazardous Waste generating Industries in the State
332
CHAPTER 7 ENERGY
335
Table 1:
Primary Source of Energy
335
336
Table 2:
Basin wise availability of hydel potential
Ta ble 3:
Hydel power harnessed by various agencies
336
Table 4:
District wise Bio - mass dependency
337
Table 5:
Number of Consumers and Consumption of Coal/Coke
337
Table 6:
Biome wise per capita consumption of Fuel wood
338
Table 7:
Basin wise number o f Projects
339
Table 8:
Hydro -electric projects under operation
339
Table 9:
H.E.P. planned for commissioning during 10 th Plan (2002 -07)
340
Table 10:
Projects planned for commissioning during 11 th Five Year Plan (2007 -12)
341
Table 11:
Projects which have been identified and proposed for commissioning during 12 th and 13 th Plans (up
to Year 2020)
342
Table 12 : Status of Private Sector Hydro Electric Projects in Himachal Pradesh
343
Table 13:
Abstract of Status of SHPs
344
Table 14:
Issues, Cause and Impacts
351
Table 15:
List of buildings using renewable energy and energy conservation measures
353
Table 16:
Physical progress of implementation of Remote Village Electrification Programme
354
Table 17:
River -Wise Water Quality Status (January 2007)
357
Table 18:
Results of Water Quality Index of Various Rivers Flowing through H.P region
356
Table 19:
Projects under operation
361
Table 20:
Projects under execution/allotted and planned for 11 th plan period
362
Table 21:
Projects which have been allotted/under process of allotment and expected to yield benefit during the
12th Plan period
363
Table 22:
Projects which have to be readvertised
364
Table 23:
Projects which have been abandoned due to environmental considerations
364
Table 24:
Projects under investigation for preparation of DPR
364
Table 25:
District-wise Requirement of Different Sources of Energy in Year 2001
365
Table 26:
Energy Generated & Consumed (Million Unit)
365
13 | Page
Table 27:
H.E.P. Planned for Commissioning During 10th Plan (2002 -07)
CHAPTER 8 MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE
Table 1:
Annual arrivals of fruits & vegetables in APMC Hamirpur
Table 2:
Annual arrivals of fruits & vegetables in APMC Solan
Table 3:
Procurement Prices of the Fruits (Rate: Rs./Kg.)
Table 4:
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory Details in the State
Table 5:
Description of Olive Stations in the State
Table 6:
District wise Plant Protection Centres
Table 7:
Stakeholder’s Role / Involvement in the Sector
Table 8:
Description of available Plant Tissue Laboratories
Table 9:
Description of Plant Health Clinics
Table 10:
Description of Bio Control Agents
Table 11:
Market Infrastructure of Himachal Pradesh
Table 12: Procurement Prices (Rate: Rs./Kg.)
Table 13:
District wise Progeny -cum Demonstration Orchards (PCDOs)/Nurseries
Table 14:
District wise private registered nurseries
Table 15:
Present capacity of fruit and vegetable processing units
Table 16:
Year wise Physical and Financial Performance
CHAPTER 9 RURAL PLAN NING
Table 1:
Area and population (2011 Census)
Table 2:
Literacy Rate, 1951 -2011
Table 3:
Literacy Rates by Residence and Sex, 2011
Table 4:
District-wise literacy rates
Table 5:
Educational Institutions
Tab le 6:
Number of Recognized Institutions (Other than schools)
Table 7:
List of Public and Private Hospitals empanelled under RSBY in Himachal Pradesh
Table 8:
District-wise Public Health Institutions
Table 9:
Status of drinking water facility (Census 2001)
Table 10:
Different Sources of Drinking Water (Rural)
Table 11:
Livestock and Poultry
Table 12:
District wise Land Resources (ha)
Table 13:
Transport & Communication Roads Including National Highways
Table 14:
District wise roads Length (2009 -10)
Table 15:
District Level Connectivity of Roads
Table 16:
Road Density in HP
Table 17:
The district wise financial progress during the year 2008 -09
Table 18:
District Wise detail of Swarozgaries Assisted in SHGs and Individuals benefited for the year 2008
Table 19:
Table 20:
Table 21:
Table 22:
Table 23:
Table 24:
Table 25:
Table 26:
Table 27:
Table 28:
Table 29:
Table 30:
Table 31:
Table 32:
Project wise Financial Status
Status of Ropewa ys (Rs. in Lakhs)
Project wise Financial Status under DPAP
Project wise Financial Status under DDP
Component wise Expenditure during Financial Year 2008 - 2009
Growth in general population
Road Construction in Himachal Pradesh
Position of Road Length
Status of Water Supply
Habitation Coverage as per 2009 data
Category wise Cattle as per Livestock Census
Veterinary Institutions
Health Facilities
Detail of Sanctioned/Filled Vacant Post
366
371
372
372
375
377
377
378
378
382
383
383
398
400
401
401
402
404
407
407
408
408
408
409
409
409
409
410
410
412
413
414
414
414
415
416
-09
416
422
423
423
424
425
438
438
438
439
439
440
440
441
441
14 | Page
CHAPTER 10 URBAN P LANNING
Table 1:
Area and population – 2011 Census
Table 2:
Literacy Rate, 1951 -2011
Table 3:
District wise Lite racy Rates -2011
Table 4:
District-wise literacy rates
Table 5:
District wise Land Resources (ha)
Table 6:
Transport & Communication Roads Including National Highways
Table 7:
District Wise Roads Length – 2009-10
Table 8:
District Level Connectivity of Roads
Table 9:
Road Density in HP
Table 10:
Different Sources of Drinking Water (urban and rural)
Table 11:
District / Circle Wise Status of Installed and Non Functional Hand -Pump Upto 01.02.2010
Table 12:
Areas of Planning
Table 13:
Budget Provision (Year 2011 -12)
Tab le 14: Status of Funding under SJSRY
Table 15:
Financial Progress (year 2010 -11)
Table 16:
Status of Fund under IDSMT (Rs. in Lakhs)
Table 17:
Status of Fund under UIDSSMT
Table 18:
Status of funds under JNNURM (Rs. In lakh)
Table 19:
Basic services to Urban Poor (Rs. In lakh)
Table 20:
Status of funds under IHSDP (Rs. In lakh)
Table 21:
Status of fund under RGURF (2008 -2009)
Table 22:
Status of Fund (Rs. In lakh)
Table 23:
District-wise Actual Expenditure 2006 -07, 2007-08 and Approved Outlay 2008 -09
Table 24:
Issues, Causes and Impacts
Table 25:
Location of Divisional & Sub -divisional officers
Table 26:
Growth in general population
Table 27:
Trends in Urbanisation in Himachal Pradesh
Table 28:
District wise Educational Facilities (High School & above) in Himachal Pradesh
Table 29:
District wise Educational Facilities (Primary & above) in Himachal Pradesh
Table 30:
Educational institutions in Himachal Pradesh (1997 -98 to 2005-06)
Table 31:
Educational Institution till 31 st March 2009
Table 32:
Technical Institutions
Table 33:
Health Facilities
Table 34:
Road Construction in Himachal Pradesh
Tab le 35: Position of Road Length
Table 36:
List of National Highways
Table 37:
List of National Highways
Table 38:
Completed Water Supply Schemes
Table 39:
Status of ongoing sewerage schemes (STP)
Table 40:
Towns to be covered under funding from HPPCB
Table 41:
Towns covered under 12 th Finance Commission Award
Table 42:
Status of Rain Water Harvesting upto 30/06/11
Table 43:
Sanctioned / filled and vacant post in T&CP Department
445
445
446
446
446
447
447
448
448
449
449
451
452
453
453
454
454
455
455
456
456
457
458
460
466
471
472
473
473
473
473
474
474
474
475
475
476
476
478
480
481
481
482
484
CHAPTER 11 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Table 1:
Area and population – 2011 Census
Table 2:
Growth in general population
Table 3:
Trends in Urbanisation in Himachal Pradesh
Table 4:
Quantities & waste generation ra te in Shimla
Table 5:
Existing MSW Management System
Table 6:
MSW Composition
Table 7:
Number of units manufacturing plastic bags
Table 8:
Roles & Responsibilities of Agencies
Table 9:
Landfill site at Himachal Pradesh
Table 10:
Status of Composting Facilities
487
487
487
488
488
488
490
490
491
494
495
15 | Page
Table 11:
Table 12:
Table 13:
Table 14:
Table 15:
Table 16:
500
500
500
500
501
501
Setting up of Landfill facilities for Waste Disposal
Implementation Status of Schedule -II
Summary of demonstratio n project on implementation of MSW Rules
Demonstration Projects
Implementation Status of Schedule IV
Status of Authorisations granted by SCPBs/ PCCs to Himachal Pradesh
CHAPTER 12 HAZARDOUS WASTE (HW)
Table 1:
Hazardous Waste Generation
Table 2:
District wise details of industrial units registered in the Small, Medium & La rge scale
Table 3:
Year wise details of units registered in the Small Scale Sector: Table 4:
Year wise details of uni ts registered in Medium & Large Scale - ( upto 31-03-2011)
Table 5:
District wise details of approval/ registration of New Medium & Large Industrial Projects
Table 6:
Details of Registration of Industries
Table 7:
Year wise details of new industries
Table 8:
Year wise Investment
Table 9:
District wise details of new industries
Table 10:
Year wise detai ls of approved small scale industries
Table 11:
Details of meetings for unit’s approval
Table 12:
District Wise Details of Industrial Areas/Estates
Table 13:
Rates for the allotment of plots in the industrial Areas/Estate
Table 14:
Invent ory of Hazardous Waste Operational Units in HP (as on 31.03.2010)
Table 15:
Annual Plan 2008 -09
Table 16:
Showing main Authorities
Table 17:
Summary of Issues and their impacts
Table 18:
Industrial Growth
Table 19:
Industrial units registered in the Small, Medium & Large scale Sector
Table 20:
Year wise details of units registered in the Small Scale Sec tor:
Table 21:
Year wise details of units registered in Medium & Large Scale Sector: Table 22:
Details of registration/ approval of industrial units by the Industries Department after the special
package of incentives. (from 07/01/2003 to 31/03/2008)
Table 23:
District wise details of approval/ registra tion of New Medium & Large Industrial Projects after
special package (from 07/01/2003 to 31/03/2008)
Table 24:
Year wise details of the approved/registered New Medium & Large Scale Indust rial Projects after
special package (from 07/01/2003 to 31/03/2008)
504
504
505
505
505
505
506
506
506
506
506
507
508
509
510
511
513
517
521
521
521
521
522
522
522
16 | Page
List of Figures
CHAPTER 1 TOURISM
CHAPTER 2 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY & SEWAGE
CHAPTER 3 HEALTH
CHAPTER 4 ROAD & TRANSPORT
Figure 1: Organizational -cum-function chart of the Public Works Department, Himachal Pradesh
Figure 2: The Organizational Structure of the Transport Department
CHAPTER 5 MINING & GEOLOGY
Figure 1: Reserves of limestone district wise
Figure 2: Geological map of the Gagal Limestone
Figure 3: Google earth 3 D image of B roh Sind Pallan limestone belts showing general
Figure 4: Location of minerals in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 5: Location Limestone bearing belts of the Sirmaur District
Figure 6: Occurrence of rock salt in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 7: Location of occurrence of Asbestos in Himachal Pradesh
Figure .8: Location of occurrence of Bau xite in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 9: Locations of occurrence of Beryl in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 10: Locations of the clay deposit in Sirmaur district
Figure 11: Locationg of clay deposits of Himachal Pradesh
Figure 12: Showing occurrence of coal in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 13: Showing location of Copper ore in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 14: Location of Galena occurrence in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 15: Location of Gold deposit in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 16: Location of Gypsum deposits in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 17: Location of Iron ore deposits of Himachal Pradesh
Figure 18: Location of Kyanite in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 19: Location of magnesite deposit in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 20: Locations of mineral water in Himac hal Pradesh
Figure 21: Locations of Uranium in Himachal Pradesh
Figure 22: Rock phosphate bearing horizon of H.P.
Figure 23: Location of Pyrite occurrences of Himachal Pradesh
Figure 24: Showing location of Stibnite Ore
Figure 25: Location of Sulphur deposit in Himachal Pradesh
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY
CHAPTER 7 ENERGY
CHAPTER 8 MARKET INF RASTRUCTURE
CHAPTER 9 RURAL PLAN NING
Figure 1: Organizational Chart of Pla nning Department
Figure 2: District Planning Cell
Figure 3: Organization Structure of Rural Development Department
CHAPTER 10 URBAN PLA NNING
Figure 1: Organizational Chart of Planning Department
Figure 2: District Planning Cell
CHAPTER 11 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
CHAPTER 12 HAZARDOUS WASTE (HW)
31
70
115
152
196
197
214
217
218
219
236
237
239
243
244
246
247
248
249
251
253
255
256
258
259
261
262
266
268
269
270
271
275
335
371
407
435
435
436
445
470
471
487
504
17 | Page
18 | Page
Abbreviations
ABVIMAS
AC
ACSR
AEZ
AGMARKNET
AHC
APMC
ARWSP
AUWSP
BA
BMO
BMW
BR
CAD
CADP
CBET
CBWTF
CD
C-DAP
CEPI
CETP
CHCs
COPD
CPCB
CPSUs
CRF
CRSP
CSC
CST
CTF
CVEI
CWPRS
DALY
DAP
DDG
DIC
DOTS
EIRR
EIUS
ERA
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports
Amchi Clinic
Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced
Agri Export Zones
Agricultural Marketing Information Network
Ayurvedic Health Centre
Agricultural Produce Market Committee
Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme
Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme
Beds Available
Block Medical Officers
Bio Medical Waste
Beds Required
Command Area Development
Command Area Development Programme
Community Based Eco-tourism
Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility
Civil Dispensaries
Comprehensive District Agriculture Plan
Comprehensive Environment Pollution Index
Common Effluent Treatment Plant
Community Health Centres
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Central Pollution Control Board
Central Public Sector Undertakings
Central Roads Fund
Central Rural Sanitation Programme
Common Service Centers
Central Sales Tax
Centralized Treatment Facility
Creation of Village Electrification Infrastructure
Central Water & Power Research Station
Disability Adjusted Life Years
District Agriculture Plan
Decentralised Distributed Generation
District Industries Centre
Directly Observed Treatment Short course
Economic Internal Rate Return
Environmental Improvement of Urban Slums
Environmental and Rural Awakening
19 | Page
FAB
FC
FYPs
HDPE
HHC
HIFCOM
HIMCON
HIMUDA
HIS
HMS
HPC
HPMC
HPPWD
HPRIDC
HPSEB
HPTDC
HRTC
HSD
HT
HW
IABSE
ICD
ICT
IDA
IEC
IHHS
IHSDP
IIDC
IMR
IPH
IPHS
IRQP
ISMH
IWDP
JNNURM
JSY
KVIB
KVIBs
L&M
LOS
LT
MFI
Fluidized Aerobic Bioreactors
Fully Covered
Five Year Plans
High Density Polyethylene
Homeopathy Health Centre
Hospital Infection Control Committee
Himachal Pradesh Consultancy Organization
Himachal Pradesh Housing & Urban Development Authority
Hydrological Information System
Hospital Management Society
High Powered Committee
Horticulture Produce Marketing & Processing
Himachal Pradesh Public Works Department
Himachal Pradesh Road and Other Infrastructure Development Corporation
Limited
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation
Himachal Road Transport Corporation
High Speed Diesel
High Tension
Hazardous Waste
International Association for Bride & Structural Engineers
Inland Container Depot
Information and Communication Technology
Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Information, Education and Communication
Individual House Hold Sanitation
Integrated Housing & Slum Development Program
Integrated Infrastructure Development Centre
Infant Mortality Rate
Irrigation and Public Health
Indian Public Health Standards
Improvement of Riding Quality
Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy
Integrated Wastelands Development Programme
Jawahar Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission
Janani Surksha Yojna
Khadi & Village Industries Board
Khadi and Village Industries Boards
Large & Medium
Level of Service
Low Tension
Micro Finance Institution
20 | Page
MGPSS
MINARS
MIS
MMR
MMSME
MORTH
MOU
MSW
MVSSP
NC
NCC
NCMP
NGP
NH
NITHE
NPAG
NREGS
NRHM
NRRDA
NSDP
NVDCP
OUI
PAPN
PARIKAS
PC
PCDOs
PHCs
PMEGP
PMGSY
PMRY
PMS
PVC
R&D
RAP
RCH
REC
REDB
REGP
RF
RGGVY
RGNDWM
RGURF
Mahila Gram Panchayat Swasthya Sahayieka Schem
Monitoring of National Aquatic Resources
Market Intervention Scheme
Maternal Mortality Ratio
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
Memorandum of Understanding
Municipal Solid Waste
Maharishi Valmiki Sampoorna Swachata Puraskar
Not Covered
Nature Cure Centre
National Common Minimum Programme
Nirmal Gram Puraskar
National Highway
National Institute for Training of Highway Engineers
Nutritional Program for Adolescent Girls
National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme
National Rural Health Mission
National Rural Road Development Agency
National Slum Development Programme
National Vector Borne Disease Control Program
Other Unintentional Injuries
People’s Action for People in Need
Parivar Kalyan Salahkar Samiti
Partially Covered
Progeny-cum Demonstration Orchards
Primary Health Centres
Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana
Pavement Management System
Poly Vinyl Chloride
Research & Development
Resettlement Action Plan
Reproductive and Child Health
Rural Electrification Corporation
Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone
Rural Employment Generation Programme
Reserved Forest
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission
Rajiv Gandhi Urban Renewal Facility
21 | Page
RH
RIDF
RKS
RNFS
RNTCP
RRB
RWSS
SAP
SC
SEIAA
SEZ
SGSY
SH
SHE
SIDBI
SJSRY
SOER
SPCB
SSI
SUTMS
SUTRA
SWM
TPA
TPD
TSC
UHC
UIDSSMT
UK
US
VKVNY
WHO
YLL
Relative Humidity
Rural Infrastructure Development Fund
Rogi Kalyan Samiti
Rural Non Farm Sector
Revised National TB Control Program
Regional Rural Banks
Rural Water Supply Schemes
State Agriculture Plan
Sub Centres
State Level Environmental Impact Assessment Authority
Special Economic Zones
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
State Highways
Sanitation and Hygiene Education
Small Industries Development Bank of India
Swaran Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana
State of Environment Report
State Pollution Control Board
Small Scale Industries
Shimla Urban Transport Management Society
Social Uplift Through Rural Action
Solid Waste Management
Tonnes per Annum
Tonnes Per Day
Total Sanitation Campaign
Unani Health Centre
Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns
United Kingdom
United States
Vidhayak Keshetra Vikas Nidhi Yojna
World Health Organisation
Years Life Lost
22 | Page
Introduction
The key objectives of the Environment Master
Plan are to enable the State of Himachal Pradesh
to:
1. Simultaneously address issues of ecological
and environment restoration and bring
convergence along with the development
activities taking place in the state;
2. Engage and ensure close coordination with all
the concerned development departments,
both at the state and Government of India
level;
3. Decide future financing of investments for
development in a sustainable manner, and
4. Develop suitable institutional arrangements in
order to implement the Government of
Himachal Pradesh’s policies and strategies.
Seven tasks have been undertaken for preparation
of EMP. The major tasks to achieve these
objectives are as follows:
Task 1:
Task 2:
Task 3:
Task 4:
Task 5:
Task 6:
Task-7:
Establish Baseline conditions
Conduct a Spatial Vulnerability
Assessment
and
Formulate
Planning Principles
Develop Public Consultation and
Communication Strategy for the
Department of Environment
Develop Sectoral Guidelines
Develop
an
institutional
mechanism for implementation of
the EMP.
Establish need for training and
capacity enhancement.
Develop
monitoring
and
Evaluation Protocols.
Task 1: Establish Baseline conditions.
Sectoral baseline reports have been prepared
covering 18 subsectors of 3 sectors namely
Infrastructure
(9),
Natural
Resources
Management (5) and Services (4). These
baseline reports have helped in identification
of issues relating to ecological and
environment and social aspects of each sector.
Sectors covered under Environment Master Plan for Himachal Pradesh
Infrastructure
Roads, highways, rural roads and
Transport
Hydropower (generation
transmission, and distribution)
Tourism,
Ecotourism
+
Art,
Architecture and cultural heritage
Industry
Mining and Geology
Irrigation and Public Health
Health
Market Infrastructure (including
horticulture and agriculture)
Rural and Urban Planning
Natural Resource Management
(NRM)
Services
Agriculture
Education, and Vocational training
Horticulture
IT and Telecom
Animal Husbandry Livestock
Livelihoods
Forests, Wildlife and Wetlands
Fisheries
Waste disposal.
The objective of this task is to establish the
“scenario, identify critical thrust areas, issues and
corrective measures for all the sectors/activities.
As per the Scope of Services, Methodology and
Tasks given in the agreement, baseline reports of
NRM sector have been prepared as described
below.
Methodology for carrying out baseline
data collection involves the following:
1. Deployment and utility of a combination
of primary and secondary data was done.
2. Combination of in-house and outsourced
inputs were derived and appropriately
identified, expertise was drawn from the
23 | Page
Department of Environment, Science and
Technology and other sectoral departments/
agencies. Secondary data and information
were sourced from sectoral and development
agencies.
3. Appropriate questionnaires for data collection
were developed, administered and data
collected and collated.
The data on baseline report for three sectors and
subsectors have been collected from concerned
line departments of Government of Himachal
Pradesh, research and development agencies,
academic institutions in Himachal Pradesh,
Census of India 2001 and 2011 (as available and
applicable for the sectors considered for
preparation of Environment Master Plan),
concerned sectoral development plans including
I
i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
vii
viii
ix
x
II
III
Five Year Plans (including 2007- 2012), State
of Environment Reports, Statistical Abstracts,
Economic Surveys and reviews of concerned
sector, etc. Baseline data on social and
environment
policies,
Acts,
Rules,
notifications of Central Government and
State Government have been drawn from
authoritative texts as given in concerned
Gazette notifications. Primary data have been
collected through structured questionnaires
for eliciting updated data from line
departments and collated.
The common parameters for scoping
baseline for Infrastructure sector is given
below:
Common Parameter for Scoping Baseline
Resource inventory of existing assets of the sector
Pattern of Planning and Development in Sector
Technology/Schemes Adopted in Sector along with any Change in Technology
Stakeholder Involvement In Environment Preservation and Restoration
Critical Environment Issues/Hotspots Associated With Sector
Environmental Initiatives Taken By Sector to Address Critical Environmental Issues
Environment Related Studies Carried Out In The Sector
Environment Monitoring (Key Parameters Such As Air And Water Pollution) Carried
Out For Activities Related To The Sector
Institutional Mechanisms Within the Sector to Address Identified Environment Issues
Data / documentation pertaining to addressing demographic issues in the context of
the sectors, such as population changes; requirements of populations and changing
lifestyles, migratory populations including tourists, transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by communities due to degraded environment conditions.
Information on Human Resource Management Issues (Which May Have Relevance to
Environment Management) in the Sector Such As: Manpower, Vocational Training,
Awareness Levels Etc
Regulatory Analysis to Identify Any Regulations That Have Environment Implications
(Negative Or Positive), and Compliance with the same
Baseline reports of subsectors of Infrastructure
have been prepared namely Roads, highways,
rural roads and Transport, Hydropower
(generation transmission, and distribution),
Tourism, Ecotourism + Art, Architecture and
cultural heritage, Industry, Mining and Geology,
Irrigation and Public Health, Market
Infrastructure (including horticulture and
agriculture), Rural and Urban Planning as per
common parameters for scoping baseline for
Infrastructure sector.
24 | Page
CHAPTER 1 TOURISM
1.1
Resource inventory of existing
assets of the sector
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries
in the world. The number of tourists worldwide
has been registering phenomenal growth and it is
expected that this number would touch 1.5
billion. Tourism contributes about 11% of the
world, workforce and 10.2% of the global Gross
Domestic Product.
Sagar (Kangra) Manali (Kullu), Kanawar
(Kullu), Kalatop Khajjiar (Chamba),
Daranghati (Shimla). The National Parks are
Pin Valley National Park, Spiti and the Great
Himalayan National Park, Kullu. The Nature
parks are located at Kufri (Shimla), Manali
(Kullu) and Gopalpur (Kangra).
•
The major rivers of the State are Yamuna,
Satluj, Beas, Ravi and Chenab. There are
several lakes all over the State covering 1%
of the State’s land area. Many of these lakes
are home to a variety of aquatic and avian
life, for example, the Maharana Pratap Sagar
lake, formerly known as the Pong Dam
Reservoir, a bird sanctuary has over 220
species belonging to 54 families. These
include black-headed gulls, plovers, terns,
ducks, waterfowl and egrets. The first
sighting red-necked grebe in the region was
made at the Sagar. The lake’s location at the
head of the Indian plains has made it a
suitable habitat and stopover for migratory
birds that enter India from Central Asia.
Twenty-seven species and sub-species of fish
belonging to six families have been recorded
in these waters. Some of the important
commercial varieties are - Labeo dero (Gid),
Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Tor putitora
(Mahsir), and Mystus seenghala (Singhara).
•
The State has several ancient Hindu temples
and places of pilgrimage. Himachal is home
to many of the ‘Shaktipeeths’ revered by
Hindus. These are at Kangra (Vajreshwari
Devi), Chintpurni (Chinmastika Devi),
Jwalaji (Jawalamukhi), Naina Devi and
Sarahan (Bhimakali). There are other shrines
that draw thousands of pilgrims like
Chamunda Devi, Deot Sidh, Baba Balak
Nath and Trilokpur. Centres of Sikh
pilgrimage are at Manikaran, Poanta Sahib,
Baba Barbhag Singh and Rewalsar. Many of
the towns have charming churches and these
are at Shimla, Dagshai, Kotgarh, Kasauli,
Palampur, Dharamshala, Dalhousie and
Tourism contributes nearly 8% of Himachal
Pradesh State Domestic Product. The State
Government’s tourism policy was farmed in
2005. The business and activity-oriented tourism
has entered the scene alongside the more
traditional leisure tourism. There is also a
tremendous opportunity for the state to act the
role of a facilitator, providing an attractive and
appropriate environment for new investment in
the tourism industry, without being over
dependent on incentives.
The State’s tourism potential depends upon of
the following features:
•
Natural and manmade heritage are the main
stay of tourism but more intangible tourism
segment comprises pilgrims who visit many
religious places in the State.
•
Himachal has been generously endowed by
nature and is one of the few places in the
world that experiences five distinct seasons
in the year – spring, summer, monsoon,
autumn and winter.
•
Himachal’s forests are distinguished in
having temperate, alpine & tropical forest.
Wildlife sanctuaries and National Parks are
spread over 7,000 sq.kms there are 33
Wildlife Sanctuaries, 2 National Parks and 3
Game Reserves Nature Park. The
Sanctuaries include Simbalwara (Sirmaur),
Churdhar, Chail (Solan), Maharana Pratap
25 | Page
Chamba. Several villages have their own
deities housed in temples that reflect local
building skills and refined aesthetics.
•
There are several Buddhist pilgrimage sites in
Himachal Pradesh. With dozens of old and
new, large and small monasteries, Buddhism
has a powerful presence in the State which is
also home to His Holiness the Dalai Lama
attracts several visitors. Tabo monastery in
Spiti dates back to 996 AD and in terms of
sanctity for Trans-Himalayan Buddhism, this
is considered only second to the Tholing
monastery in Tibet.
•
Himachal Pradesh’s attractions include the
unique ‘hill stations’ that were inhabited &
developed by the British. These include the
State Capital, Shimla, which was the ‘summer
capital’ of British India. These towns hold
excellent examples of colonial architecture.
Other smaller towns that were developed by
the British are Kasauli, Dalhousie, Palampur
and Dharamshala are part of tourist circuits
in Himachal Pradesh.
•
•
•
Landscape and unique culture of the TransHimalayan districts of Kinnaur, Lahaul and
Spiti attract tourists. A portion of the district
Kinnaur lies south of the Greater Himalaya.
However the district of Lahaul-Spiti lies
wholly in the Trans-Himalaya. This is a
unique part of the world where thick forests
steadily give way to the almost lunar-like
landscape of the cold desert.
Himachal has two of the country’s five
mountain railway of India namely old Kalka
Shimla Railway line which is designated as
“UNESCO World Heritage Site” and in the
Kangra Valley railway which is in the two
tentative list of “UNESCO’s World Heritage
Site”.
Towns like Dharamshala, Palampur, Kullu
and Manali have also developed as tourist
circuits and now draw a substantial number
of tourists.
•
Also in the last few decades, nature and
outdoor activities have grown in Himachal
Pradesh and the State is rapidly becoming a
focus for adventure sport. This is the only
state in the country that hosts heli-skiing.
The adventure sports are already thronging
and are likely to grow in the coming years.
Activities like trekking and camping, skiing,
para-sailing and para-gliding, water-sports
and white-water rafting, ballooning, iceskating, mountain cycling, vehicle safaris,
mountaineering and rock climbing, golf and
angling. The State has successfully hosted
international and national level events in
para-sailing and white-water rafting. Many of
these come under the broad head of ‘ecotourism’.
•
The architectural heritage of Himachal
Pradesh include age old forts and palaces, its
remarkable wood and stone ‘towers’, the
colonial towns and practically every village is
a picture of pastoral perfection. There are
remarkable wall and miniature paintings of
the Kangra region, Buddhist thangkas and
wealth of carving in wood. Culturally, the
State is rich in its folk lore, costumes, shawls,
jewellery, dance forms and the ‘karali’ dancedramas.
•
Health tourism is likely to grow rapidly in
the coming years. The clean and invigorating
environment, the substantial forest cover
and the number of herbs that grow in the
State, provide a natural setting to capitalize
the potential of health tourism.
•
In Himachal Pradesh, continue to visit the
four main destinations like Shimla, KulluManali, Dalhousie-Chamba and PalampurDharamshala. These places have the
maximum
number
of
hotels
and
accommodation facility in terms of bedstrength. In addition, despite limited
accommodation facility available in the tribal
areas of Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti. Number
of tourists especially foreigners visiting far or
remote areas have grown in the years though
26 | Page
road links to Kinnaur & Lahaul Spiti remains
cut-off during substantial part of the year.
Tourist inflow: There are certain areas of
Himachal Pradesh that attract far greater
numbers of tourists than others - and there are
certain areas that attract foreigners also, like
Lahaul-Spiti where, in comparison to other
Table 1:
districts, there is almost a parity of numbers
between foreigners and domestic visitors. As
regard the profile of visitors from within the
country, this continues to follow a traditional
pattern with visitors from certain areas and
states continuing to dominate the market as
shown in Table 1.
Tourist Arrivals (Indian & Foreigner)
2010
District
Indian
695702
1035789
1201482
1617416
1424654
1636022
887061
815169
972312
1172670
671982
681727
12811986
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & S piti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
HP
Foreign
18157
18092
33557
42339
41420
47735
62492
51152
55141
39840
23609
20082
453616
Source: Tourism Deptt. Himachal Pradesh, 2010
Accommodation & Other Tourism Related
Infrastructure: Districwise number of registered
Table 2:
hotels / guest house & bed capacity is given in
Table 2 below.
No. of Registered Hotels/Guest House
Year/District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Source: Directorate of Tourism, Himachal Pradesh,010
2
No. of Hotels/Guest House
Year 2010
60
150
30
357
71
580
84
142
388
59
185
44
Number of Hotels, Guest Houses, Restaurants,
Travel
Agencies,
Tourist
Guides
and
Bed Capacity
1288
2710
456
8568
787
18682
1307
2697
9981
1580
7157
810
Photographers and Bed Capacity / Number of
Rooms as on 31.12.2010 is given in Table 3.
27 | Page
Table 3:
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Statistics Relating to No. of Hotels, Guest H ouses, Restaurants, Travel Agencies,
Tourist Guides and Photographers and Bed Capacity/ No. of Rooms as on
31.12.2010.
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
TOTAL
No. of Hotels/
Guest Houses
No. Of
Restaurants
SBR
60
150
30
357
71
580
84
142
388
59
185
44
2150
16
20
8
112
7
54
7
25
90
29
59
10
437
27
57
62
286
93
258
112
120
303
57
77
19
1471
No. of Rooms
DBR
DOR
436
1170
179
3725
287
7606
497
1113
3615
870
2411
335
22244
District wise Information on major tourist
destinations, popularity, accommodation
facilities, pattern of tourist stay, art & culture,
fairs & festival & people life are described
below:
1. District Chamba: The key destinations with
the popularity of destination and duration of stay
in district are given in the following Tables. The
main tourist spots in Chamba district are
Dalhousie, Khajjiar and Bharmour.
Popularity of Tourist Destination:
Popularity
among tourists as indicated by arrival of tourists
pattern of stay in various destinations of Chamba
is linked to the available accommodation and
various infrastructure facilities as given in Table
4.
Table 4:
Main Tourist Points in Chamba
District
Destination
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Popularity
amongst Tourists
Indian
Low
n
Moder
ate
Moder
ate
Low
Moder
ate
Low
Low
Low
Dalhousie
Leisure
High
Bharmour
Religion
Heritage
Lake
Trekking
base
Wildlife
sanctuary
Wildlife
sanctuary
Moderate
Khajjiar
Chamba
Sachutaun Wildlife
Sanctuary.
Gamgul Siya
Wildlife Sanctuary
Foreig
Low
Low
30
41
1
57
12
18
14
28
99
17
17
3
337
Total
FS
59
68
6
131
9
764
40
45
220
25
112
21
1500
11
0
2
2
0
0
0
17
211
18
45
5
311
639
1336
250
4201
401
8646
663
1323
4448
987
2662
383
25863
Bed
Travel Photographers Tourist
Capacity Agencies
Guides
1288
2710
456
8568
787
18682
1307
2697
9981
1580
7157
810
56023
11
24
0
119
19
510
11
39
367
2
23
4
1129
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Destination
Kalatop Khajjiar
Wildlife sanctuary
Tundah Wildlife
sanctuary
Wildlife
sanctuary
Wildlife
sanctuary
3
53
0
27
0
326
0
3
253
0
0
0
665
5
4
0
89
8
116
4
5
281
4
6
0
522
Popularity
amongst Tourists
Foreig
Indian
n
Low
Low
Low
Low
Block wise accommodation facilities are given in
Table 5.
Table 5:
Accommodation
Chamba District
facilities
in
No.
Rest Number
Travel
of
Restaurants
houses of beds
agencies
hotels
Banikhet
6
1
70
0
3
Bhanjraru
2
0
23
0
0
Bharmaur
4
21
110
0
3
Chamba
27
31
573
6
8
Churah
0
21
78
4
3
Khajjiar
0
0
271
0
1
Dalhousie
62
0
1798
4
0
Pangi
6
28
Sanghni
1
4
Killar
9
52
Total
101
74
2955
14
18
Chamba
Pattern of tourist stay is given in Table 6.
Table 6:
Tourist Stay Pattern in Chamba
District
Destination
Dalhousie
Bharmour
Khajjiar
Chamba
Average Length of Stay
Domestic Tourist Foreign Tourist
Two
Two
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
28 | Page
Art & Culture
Art and culture is described under the following
sub heads:
Fair and festivals (at district level) People
and their lifestyle Food and dresses
Marital status
Bharmaur tehsil. Bhattiyali is the dialect of
Bhattiyat tehsil and Sihunta sub-tehsil and
Chaurahi is spoken in Churah tehsil and Saluni
sub-tehsil and some villages of Chamba tehsil.
Pangwali is spoken in the Pangi tehsil except a
few villages where the inhabitants are Bhots, who
speak a language which is akin to Tibetans.
Fairs and Festivals
Fairs and festivals of Chamba district are:
1. Minjar Fair
2. Sui Fair of Chamba
3. Mani Mahesh Fair
4. Nag Fair
5. Khajjiar Jatar
6. Saluni Jatar
7. Phool Jatar
8. Bhanjraru Chhinj
9. Baar
10. Sheel
11. Chamba Dussehra
12. Summer Festival Dalhousie
13. Swami Hari Giri Fair
14. Urs
People and Life
This section describes the number of people who
migrated to Chamba district and their food,
dressing style.
a. Migrants: In Chamba district there are
117,467 migrants excluding unclassified migrants
comprising 32,901 males and 84,566 females. The
migrants of this district constitute 29.87 % of
total population. Male and female migrants
constitute 16.31 % and 44.15 % respectively of
the total population.
b. Language: The language commonly spoken
in the district is western Pahari in 5 distinct
dialects. Of these, Chambeali is spoken in
Chamba town and its neighbourhood over a
considerable area extending to the whole of
Chamba tehsil. Gaddi or Bharmauri is being
spoken in the upper Ravi valley comprising of
c. Food: Maize and wheat are the staple food
however rice is also consumed occasionally. They
are also being commonly used in Chamba and
Bhattiyat tehsils, where it is grown in abundance.
d. Dress: Mostly woollen garments are worn.
Cotton turban, home spun and locally woven patti
pyjama and coat is the typical dress of the Chamba
people. A change in the traditional dress has been
noticed both in the rural and urban areas ‘Patti
pyjamas’ and coats are being replaced by trousers
and shirts. Women wear ‘kurta’ or Panjabi
‘kameez’ and ‘salwar’. They put on nylon or other
synthetic cloth ‘dupatta’ called ‘chadru’. In the areas
of Bharmaur & Churah tehsils and Saluni subtehsil, people mostly wear woollen coats. Men use
the chola and the ‘dora’. The common head dress
of the Churah and Pangi women is ‘joji’. Cotton
or synthetic colourful shirts and woollen ‘ pattu’
tied with a cotton piece around the waist are the
important items of dress for Churah women. In
Pangi tehsil, women put on black woollen
‘churidar pyjama cholan’, kameri a full size shirt,
‘joji’ or ‘chadru’. On festive occasions, people put
on new clothes and are adorned loaded with
ornaments.
2. District Mandi: Mandi district has domestic
as well as foreign tourists visiting places like eth
Rewalsar Lake, which is of religious significance
to the Sikhs, Hindus, and Buddhists alike. Other
attractions in the district include boating facilities
at the Rewalsar Lake, Joginder nagar and
Sundernagar.
Main Tourist Spots are:
•
Mandi Town: This town is mainly a place
for transit passengers.
29 | Page
•
Rewalsar: The Rewalsar Lake is a place of
pilgrimage for the Buddhists, Sikhs and
Hindus. The lake has boating facilities.
Table 7:
Popularity of Main Tourist
Destination in Mandi District
Destination
Nature of
Tourism Activity
Mandi
Table 8:
Religious
Accommodation
Mandi District
Popularity
among Tourist
Indian
foreign
Medium
Low
facilities
in
No. of
hotels
Rest
houses
Aut
Chakukha
Chindi
Gohar
Janjehli
Jarol
Jhiri
Jogindernagar
Karsog
Mandi
Neri
Pandoh
Rewalsar
Sarkaghat
Sundernagar
Tattapani
Thunag
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
5
3
48
0
0
1
0
7
4
0
1
0
1
1
2
6
6
28
1
1
1
5
2
1
1
12
6
6
12
6
7
88
51
1024
2
39
36
200
34
6
1
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
20
1
0
0
Total
72
57
1529
6
21
Mandi
Table 9:
Number of
Travel
Restaurants
Beds
Agencies
Tourist Stay Pattern in Mandi
District
Destination
Mandi
Average Length of Stay
Foreign
Domestic tourist
tourist
1 day
1 day
Art & culture: This section describes fair and
festivals of the district and about the people
lifestyle, food and dresses.
Fairs and festivals: The people of the district
celebrate various festivals almost round the year.
As Hindus constitute the major population of the
district, all the Hindu festivals like Dussehra,
Diwali, Holi, Baisakhi and Shivratri etc. are
celebrated with great pomp and show. Some of
the important fairs and festivals being celebrated
in the district are briefly described hereunder:-
Shivratri fair of Mandi: Shivratri fair of Mandi
is one of the most colourful fairs of Himachal
Pradesh. This fair is held in the month of
Phalguna (February/March) on the Krishna
Chaturdashi or the 14th day of waning moon and
continues for eight to ten days.
Mamail Fair: The temple of Mamleshwar at
Mamail is at a distance of 2 Kms. from Karsog.
Vijay Dashmi fair is held there every year on the
11th day of the bright half of the lunar month in
Asavina (October).
Mahunag Fair: Bakhari is a small hamlet in
Mahu Panchayat circle about 13 kms. from Chura
on Shimla-Karsog road where the temple of
Mahunag is situated at a height of about 2,000
metres. A fair is held on a rectangular piece of
land surrounded by tall pine trees, about 2 kms.
away from the temple, known as Bagra Dhar on
the 2nd and 3rd Jyeshth (May) every year.
Rewalsar Fair: Rewalsar fair is of great religious
importance and is celebrated on the 10th day of
every new year according to the Tibetan calendar.
Tibetan
year
starts
sometimes
in
February/March. Rewalsar fair is also known as
Tsechu fair which literally means 10th of Dawa
Thangpo (1st month).
Besides the above stated main fairs, a number of
other fairs are also held in the district. Parashar
fair is held near the lake of same name located at
a distance of about 40 kms. from Mandi town in
the month of June. Kau fair is held in the honour
of Kamaksha devi at Kau village located at a
distance of 6 kms. from Karsog in the month of
June. Kuthah fair is held in honour of Tangwasi
deity at Kuthah village located at a distance of 12
kms. from Thunag in the month of May. Again in
the month of May, a fair is held at Bali Chowki in
the honour of Markandya Rishi. In the month of
July/August, a fair is held in Hurang village in
Chuhar valley in the honour of deity Hurang
Narain. This fair is known as Narkhan fair and
30 | Page
held for three days after every five years. In the
month of April, a fair is held in the honour of the
deities of Chuhar valley at Jogindarnagar.
Migrants: In Mandi district there are 232,761
migrants comprising 47,519 males and 185,242
females. The migrants of this district constitute
29.98 % of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 12.32 and 47.42 %
respectively of the total population.
3. District Shimla: The major tourist locations
in the district include Shimla town, Kufri, and
Mashobra. Shimla town is the main tourist
destination for domestic tourists, whereas
foreigners prefer to stay away from Shimla town
since they find it too crowded. Places like Kufri,
Narkanda and Naldhera have showing signs of
increased tourist arrivals. Majority of the tourisst
visiting this district prefer to stay in Shimla tow
n
since accommodation facilities in other places are
limited.
Main Tourist Spot in Shima district are:
Shimla, Kufri, Sarahan, Fagu, Narkanda,
Naldhera, Mashobra and Rampur.
Table 10: Popularity of Main Tourist
Destinations in Shimla District
Destination
Shimla
Kufri
Fagu
Mashobra
Narkanda
Tattapani
Naldhera
Sarahan
Rampur
Nature of
Tourism Activity
Heritage
&
Shopping
Scenic beauty &
adventure (Skiing in
winters)
Scenic beauty,
Scenic beauty, Ecotourism
Scenic beauty,
religious &
adventure (skiing)
Health, Religious
Scenic beauty
Religious
History
Popularity
amongst Tourists
Indian Foreign
High
Medium
High
Low
Medium
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
High
Medium
High
Low
Low
High
Low
Tourist inflow and % change in the State
capital: Shimla itself attract a good number of
tourists. The places of tourist attraction in Shimal
include The Ridge, The Mall, Jakhoo Temple,
Sankat Mochan Temple and Kufri Ski slopes.
About 2613301 tourists travelled to Shimla in
Year 2010.
Table 11: Tourist Flow and % change in
Shimla
No. of Tourists
% Growth
Domestic
Foreign
Domestic Foreign
2004
6345069
204344
2005
6927742
207790
8.4
1.7
2006
7671902
281569
9.7
26.2
2007
8481988
339409
9.6
17.0
2008
9372697
376736
9.5
9.9
2009
11036572
400583
15.1
6.0
2010
12811986
453616
13.9
11.7
Source: HP Tourism Department, 2010
Year
Table 12: Accommodation in Shimla District
Shimla
No. of
Hotels
Chail
Chhrabra
Chaupa
Fagu
Gallu
Hat Koti
Jeori
Jhakhri
Jubbal
Kotgarh
Kotkhai
Kufri
Kumarsain
Mashobra
Matiana
Mundaghat
Naldhera
Narkanda
Nogli
Rampur
Rohru
Sarahan
Shillaru
Shillon Bag
Shimla
Town
Shoghi
Theog
Total
Rest Number of
Travel
Restaurants
houses
Beds
Agencies
0
1
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
0
2
5
0
3
0
1
1
2
1
11
6
4
1
1
1
1
0
10
10
7
0
0
0
2
0
21
20
4
0
0
4
7
23
64
30
42
12
19
90
28
18
161
74
156
92
26
68
13
337
170
24
10
88
0
0
1
0
-
0
3
0
3
0
-
0
-
197
1
3
252
11
0
12
99
5858
8
71
7493
15
22
134
139
1
2
2
-
Table 13: Tourist Stay Pattern in Shimla
District
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Shimla Town
4 days
Foreign tourist
1 day
31 | Page
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Kufri
Fagu
Narkanda
Tattapani
Naldhera
Sarahan
Rampur
1 day
1 day
1–2 day
1 day
1 day
1 day
-
Foreign tourist
1 day
3–4 days
-
Art & culture: This section describes fair and
festivals of the district and the about the people,
their lifestyle, food and dresses.
A brief description of some of the important fairs
and festivals held in the district is given below:
Lavi Fai:r Lavi fair of Rampur is the most
important fair of the district and State. It is a
commercial fair held on the 25th of Kartika
(November). Natti dance and cultural shows are
the main attractions.
Winter Sports Festivals: It is a recreational
festival usually held during winter months for
two days at Kufri which is about 13 kms. from
Shimla. Skiing on the snow clad slopes is done. It
is a recreational festival for young people. Local,s
participants from other States and foreigners take
part in the events.
Summer Festival at Shimla: With the onset of
summer in May and June there is large influx of
visitors and tourists in Shimla. For recreation and
attract tourists, a festival is held on the Ridge
ground in Shimla town for fine days. Selected
programmes of entertainment like dramas,
cultural programmes, games, etc. are organized at
night.
Sarahan Fair: This fair is held in village Sarahan
of tehsil Chaupa for three days in the month of
Baisakha (April). The venue of the fair is the
court-yard of Devta’s temple. Attendance of
visitors is 3 to 4000. People from the adjoining
areas and even from far off areas of tehsil
Pachhad and Pargana Tiyari and Balsan area of
tehsil Theog come to witness and participate in
the fair. Archery is the main attraction of the fair.
Parties of Archers come from the various places.
During the night ‘Natti’ dances are enjoyed with
folk songs and to the beat of drums and tuning
of musical instruments.
Shawani Fair, Jali: This fair is held in village Jali
in honour of Nag Devta whose Ashtdhatu was
established by the Pandavas. The fair is held on
the day of Sharvana Purnima (July-August) when
the deity gives appearance (darshan) to the
people who offer their “Sukhna”. Some years
back there was a custom to dance on the
occasion with special typical dresses. The fair
lasts for two days and on the 3rd day, people
perform ‘Dev Dance’ around the temple building.
Charyoli Fair Bodna: The fair is held in village
Bodna of Tehsil Choupal on the 2nd and 3rd of
Bhadra (August) in honour of Devta Shirgul also
known as Vijit Raj. The deity is worshipped by
the Brahmins of Majhoti.
Rampari-Ki-Jatar: This fair is held in village
Rampari of Tehsil Jubbal on the first day of
Ashada (June). The place is about 2 kms. from
Jubbal on Theog-Hatkoti road. The fair is being
celebrated since ancient times lasts for a day.
Men, women and children attired in their best
participate in the fair. ‘Natti’ dances are
performed and sweetmeats and articles of general
merchandise are generally sold. Young men,
women and children enjoy ‘hindola’ ride.
Janga Shari: This fair is held in village Shari of
Tehsil Jubbal and it is believed that in ancient
times it was a big village inhabited by Kanaits,
Kolis and Lohars. The Jagra is celebrated on the
5th day of Bhadra (September) every 5th year. It is
a common festival of villages of Chamaru, Daker,
Kiari Jubbal and Shari.
Sipi Fair: It is a very old fair held every year in
Sihpur below Mashobra on the 1st of Jyeshtha
(May) in honour of Sip Devta. Rana of Koti used
to be the chief visitor. Performance of the
jugglers, magicians, acrobats and cultural shows
such as Karyala take place provide additional
entertainment to the spectators.
32 | Page
Pathar-Ka-Khel-Halog: This fair is held in
village Halog of Tehsil Shimla. Halog was the
capital of erstwhile Dhami state. The fair is held
on the second day of Diwali in the month of
Kartik (November). The fair used to be held on a
big scale during the princely days.
Vishu Fair-Purag: This fair is held in village
Purag of Tehsil Kotkhai on the 9th day of
Baisakha (April) for three days. The fair is held ni
honour of Mahadev Devta and devotees from
places visit to pay their homage to Devta. Folk
songs ‘Natti’ dances along with beating of drums
and tune of musical instruments are performed.
Mahasu Jatar: This fair at Mahasu village is
celebrated on the 3rd Tuesday in the month of
Baisakha (May) for two days. The fair is a very
old one and is held in front of the Durga Devi
temple by a large gathering from the
neighbouring areas. Archery is the main
attraction of entertainment. At the end of the
fair, a goat is sacrificed.
Barara Fair: This fair is held in village Barara
near Kumharsain where people of all castes and
creed participate. The fair is held on the 1st of
Jyeshtha (May). It is celebrated from ancient
times. Devta Koteshwar is brought in the fair and
goats are scarified in its honour as a mark of
respect. The fair is cultural and recreational and
‘Natti’ dances are performed. People also enjoy
‘Hindola’ ride.
Shancha Fair: This fair is held in village
Baragaon of tehsil Kumharsain for two days on
the 15th and 16th day of Sravan maas (July-August)
every year.
Dudhbahali Fair: It is held near village Jaodin in
tehsil Rampur on the 12th and 13th of Asadha
maas (June) every year in honour of three deities
i.e. Devta Jishar, Devta Dethu of Kharan and
Devta Chaturmukh of Melon in Kumarsain
tehsil. The fair is organised by the Gram
Panchayat of Khuni-Peanoli. ‘Natti’ dances are
performed and dramas are staged.
Rohru Fair: This fair is held in Rohru on the 9th
and 10th of Baisakha maas (April) on the bank of
river Pabber in honour of Devta Shikru. People
of villages Thanthali, Jakhar, Dashlni, Gangtoli
and Rohru are the devotees of the devta. It is a
very old fair and is held to commemorate the
supremacy of deity. This fair is also a commercial
one and apart from the performance of ‘Natti’
dances and cultural activities, trading is also done.
Men and women dressed in their best attire
participate in the fair.
Bhoj Fair: This fair is held in village Guman in
Rohru Tehsil in the month of Agrahayana maas
(November) for three days in honour of Devta
Bensor, Parshu Ram and Kilbaru. Devta Bansar
is the presiding deity. Besides paying homage to
the deities, ‘Natti’ dances are performed by the
people. Healing prophecies made by the oracles
in trance and their soothing advices and blessing
of prosperity to the sufferers are the main
attractions.
Rihali Fair: This fair is held in village Mandhor
in Tehsil Seoni on the 1st Saravana (July) every
year since ancient times. The fair is organised to
pay homage to Devta Kurgan.
Chunehar Fair: This fair is held at Chunehar
near Jot in Tehsil Theog every third year for two
days in the month of Ashada (June-July) in
honour of Devta Chitra.
Deothidhar Fair: This fair is held from 26th of
Shravan maas (August) for five days till Bhadra
Sakranti in village Deothidhar in Theog Tehsil.
The fair is held in the honour of Devta Chikher.
Initially the fair used to be celebrated for
recreation after every 4 or 5 years but it has now
acquired a regular feature and it is held every
year. Natti dances with the beating of musical
instruments and singing of folk songs are
performed.
People and life: This section describes the
number of people migrated, community of
people, their culture, food and dressing style.
33 | Page
Migrants: In Shimla district there were 236,162
migrants comprising 90,499 males and 145,663
females. The migrants of this district constitute
38.25 % of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 27.77 % and 49.97 %
respectively of the total population.
tourist spots by foreigners. Kangra district has
been witnessing a steady growth in foreign tourist
arrivals over the past years while domestic
arrivals are on the decline.
People: The population of the district mainly
consists of Hindus followed by Sikhs, Muslims
while other religions like Christians, Jains and
Buddhists constitute minority. The Hindu
population chiefly comprises Brahmins, Rajputs
and Kanets. The other section of the people
consists of Kolis, Lohars, Chamars, Badhis,
Chanals, Julaha, Dumne and Rehars which are
Scheduled Castes. Apart from these Gujjar
community is also found in this district and they
reside in high ridges/hills along with their
animals like buffaloes, cows etc.
Dharamshala, Dharamkot, McLeod
Maharana Pratap Dam, Jawalamukhi
Language: Hindi and Pahari are the languages
spoken here. With the spread of communication,
education and increase in the literacy rate among
the masses, a major portion of the people in rural
and urban areas are turning to Hindi instead of
Pahari. However, people of district can speak in
Hindi or Pahari.
Table 15: Accommodation
Kangra District
Food: The staple food of the villagers generally
comprises of maize, rice and wheat. In addition,
pulses like Urd, Lobia, Moong, Gram and Kolth
are used. Maize which is the main cereal crop
grown is favourite and is taken round the year.
Dharamshala
Dress: Cotton as well as woollen clothes are
worn by the people. In winter season mostly
woollen clothes are worn by the people to keep
the body warm as most of the area of the district
falls in cold zone. Ordinary clothes for men
consist of cotton Khadi or mill made shirt.
‘pyjama’, cap and jacket. The costume of the
women is salwar, kameej and coloured head gear
called Dhattu is commonly used.
4. District Kangra: Dharamshala & McLeod
Ganj are the major tourist locations in the
district. It is one of the districts most visited
Main Tourist Spot
Ganj,
Table 14: Popularity
of
main
tourist
destination in Kangra District
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Religious
Religious
Picnic spot
Religious
Water sports
Destination
Dharamshala
McLeod Ganj
Dharamkot
Jwalamukhi
Maharana
Pratap Dam
Shimla
Baijnath
Bir
No. of
Hotels
Popularity among
Tourist
Indian
Foreign
Low
High
Low
High
Medium
Low
Medium
Low
Medium
Low
6
0
0
1
0
14
0
16
2
0
96
4
213
10
56
988
12
10
Mcleodganj
0
0
0
1
1
14
21
0
72
0
0
0
1
3
2
2
0
0
33
23
340
333
4
-
Nagrota
Bagwan
Nurpur
Palampur
Pathankot
Ranital
Rehan
Sansarpur
Shahpur
Sthana
Trilokpur
Tukari
Total
0
2
26
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
206
0
10
10
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
71
1587
4
125
531
19
4
10
10
4
4416
Chamunda
Fatehpur
Gaggal
Ghurkari
Chark
Gopalpur
Indora
Jassur
Jawali
Jawalamukhi
Kangra
Kehrain
in
Rest Number
Travel
Restaurants
houses of Beds
Agencies
3
1
11
0
0
0
0
52
0
1
Dadh
Damtal
Dehra
Dhaliara
facilities
4
0
1
0
1
1
12
0
0
1
0
2
0
2
0
14
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
20
2
0
0
1
2
32
1
1
5
3
2
1
2
1
60
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
58
34 | Page
Table 16: Tourist stay pattern in Kangra
District
built Shiva temple here and gave up his mortal
frame while in meditation.
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign
tourist
Dharamshala
Two
Ten
McLeod Ganj
Two
Ten
Dharamkot
Day visit
Day visit
Jwalamukhi
One
Maharana Pratap Dam
Day visit
Day visit
Mela Pir Mahu: The religious fair is held at
village Barta in tehsil Dehra Gopipur for five
days in the month of June. It is held in the
memory of Pir Mahu whose shrine is located
here.
Art & culture: This section describes the fair and
festivals of the district and about the people, their
lifestyle, food and dresses.
Dhamu Shah Fair: This fair is held in village
Bari in tehsil Kangra on 27th of Chaitra maas
(March-April) for two days. The fair is held in
memory of Dhamu Shah.
Fairs and Festivals: Kangra district is a land of
gods and goddesses. Some of the important fairs
and festivals held in the district are briefly
described below.
Jawalaji Fair: This fair is held at Jwalamukhi
during Chaitra Navratras (March–April) and
Asauj–Navratras – (September–October) for ten
days. The fair is attributed to the worship of the
eternal flame coming out of the earth. Offerings
of karahi, lambs and other pledged things are
made.
Mela Sujan Bharti: This religious fair is held at
village Panapari on Jyeshtha maas 12 (May-June)
in memory of Baba Sujan Bharti at the site of his
Samadhi (Tomb). Offerings of wheat grains are
made at thseamadhi . Apart from recreational
activities sweetmeats and articles of general
merchandise are sold.
Chamba Fair: Chamba fair is held at village
Dagoh in tehsil Palampur for three days in the
month of June.
Mela Shah Abdul Rehman: This fair is held on
10th and 11th of Chaitra maas (March-April) in
which people of all castes and creed participate.
Wrestling bouts are the main attraction.
Baba Dayalgir Fair: This fair is held at village
Daulatpur in Kangra tehsil on 22nd of Jyeshtha
maas (May-June) for two days. It is a religious fair
and is held in the memory of Saint Dayalgir who
Naoni Fair: This fair is held in the month of
Shravan (July-August) for one day at village
Balkhor Kular of tehsil Nurpur. The fair is
religious and the devotees make offerings to
goddess Nagni.
Apart from the above-mentioned fairs, a number
of fairs and festivals such as Shivaratri, Holi,
Baisakhi, Ramnaumi, Janamashtami, Dussehra,
Diwali etc. are also celebrated in the district Una
grand scale.
People and life: This section describes the no.
of people migrated, community of people, their
culture, food and dressing style.
Migrants: In Kangra district there are 427,477
migrants comprising 104,838 males and 322,639
females. The migrants of this district constitute
36.41 % of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 18.07 and 54.31 %
respectively of the total population.
The People: Predominant population of the
district comprises Hindus followed by Muslims,
Buddhists, Sikhs, Christians and Jains. Jains
constitute the negligible proportion of the district
population. The Hindus mostly constitute
Rajputs, Brahmins and Scheduled Castes. The
main Rajput communities in the district are viz.,
Katoch, Pathania, Dogra, Jasrotia, Jaswal,
Jamwal, Kanthwal, Guleria, Mian, Thakur, Rana,
Rathi etc.
35 | Page
Dress: Mostly cotton cloth garments are worn.
The dress of the men folk consists of loose shirt
and pyjama with cap or safa (turban). In winter,
men also wear cotton khadi/woollen coat and
sweaters. The dress of the women comprises of
salwar and kameej made of cotton cloth with a
dupatta or chadru. Married women and widows
use the dupatta/chadru as a veil whenever they
have to face or talk to the elders of the house or
of the village.
Food Habits: Maize and wheat are the staple
food of the majority of the rural people.
Table 18: Accommodation
Bilaspur
Bilaspur
Bairi
Berthin
Bilaspur
Ghagas
Ghumarwin
Naina
Deviji
Shantalai
Swarghat
Total
No. of
hotels
1
0
16
2
4
5. District Bilaspur: The major tourist locations
in the State include Naina Devi and Gobind Sagar
Lake. This district is visited more by domestic
tourists as a place of pilgrimage. The Gobind
Sagar Lake is an upcoming site for water sports.
Main Tourist Spot are Naina Devi & Gobind
Sagar
• Naina Devi
• Gobind Sagar
Table 17: Popularity
of
main
tourist
destinations in Bilaspur district
Destination
Naina Devi
Gobind
Sagar Lake
Govind
Sagar
Naina Devi
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Religious
Water sports /
Bhakra Nangal
Dam
Bird sanctuary
Popularity
amongst Tourists
Indian
Foreign
High
Low
High
Medium
Low
Low
Wildlife
Sanctuary
Low
Low
Rest Number of
Restaurants
houses
Beds
0
12
1
4
15
324
4
0
37
2
48
-
in
Travel
agencies
4
-
0
4
0
1
1
1
50
18
-
-
27
21
493
4
4
Table 19: Tourist stay pattern in Bilaspur
district
Destination
Language : Majority of the people in the district
speak Kangri or Pahari Kangri. According to the
classification of languages, made by the Linguistic
Survey of India, Kangari have been shown as one
of the several dialect grouped under Western
Pahari. Western Pahari has been classified as subgroup under Pahari Group, Inner sub-Branch of
Indo Aryan Branch and Aryan sub-Family under
the broader Indo-European Family of Languages.
facilities
Naina Devi
Gobind Sagar
Lake
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
Day visit
Art & culture; This section describes fair and
festivals of the district and about the people, their
lifestyle, food and dresses. Various fairs and
festivals are traditional means of amusement and
recreation for the people. It is rather a cultural
heritage of the people. Various types of fairs and
festivals celebrated almost around the year are
briefly described below.
Lohri (Makar Sakranti): It falls on 13th and 14th
of January. Lohri is celebrated by igniting fires,
distributing “reories, gazak and ground nuts” etc.
On this day people mostly take “Khichri” with
pure ghee. Hindus take holy dip in the sacred
rivers.
Basant Panchami: It is festival of colours.
People usually put on yellow clothes, cook yellow
rice and other sweet preparations. This festival
bids fare well to winter and welcomes the spring.
Shivratri: The festival is generally observed by
Hindus in every household. Lord Shiva is
worshipped in various temples by offering water
mixed with milk on the Shivlings.
Holi: Holi is festival of colours. It usually falls in
March. Men, women and childern form small
36 | Page
groups and throw abir, gulal and coloured water
on one another. They sing and dance. This
festival is celebrated by lighting fires, singing nad
dancing.
Baisakhi: Baisakhi falls on the 13th of April. It is
celebrated all over the district by all classes of
people. They put on new cloths and prepare
halwa and lassi. A fair is held at many places.
Women buy bangles and children prefer to buy
toys, etc.
Janamashtmi: Janamashtmi the birth day of
Lord Krishna is celebrated in the month of
August/September every year. People worship in
the temples and religious prayers are performed.
mostly weavers have now switched over to other
occupations. Since then tremendous change have
taken place and lot of change is discernible in the
caste structure particularly in the observance of
inter-caste relationship.
Language: The spoken dialect of the people is
Kahluri which is an off shoot of Punjabi.
Girerson calls it “Rude Punjabi” similar to that
spoken in Hoshiarpur district of Punjab.
Food and Dress: The staple foods of the
inhabitants of the district are maize, rice and
occasionally wheat. Maize is their favourite food
and constantly eaten from September to May.
6. District Kinnaur: This district is not visited
by many tourists, especially domestic tourists.
This is mainly since there are no tourist activitise
here and the infrastructure like roads,
accommodation, wayside facilities are poorly
Diwali: This festival is held in the month of developed. However, this district does get a few
October/November. Diwali is celebrated with
foreigners & adventure tourists during the
great pomp and show. People whitewash their
season. The places to visit in the district include
houses and shops.
Kalpa, Sangla Valley and Reckong Peo. Medical
or communication facilities are not easily
People and life: This section describes no. of
accessible to a common tourist.
people migrated, community of people, culture,
food and dressing style.
There is no garage or puncture repair outlet on
the way. Food overall is inexpensive and tasty but
Migrants: In Bilaspur district there are 100,376
one would not get real Himachali cuisine.
migrants comprising 19,218 males and 81,158
females. The migrants of this district constitute
Main tourist Spot are Reckong peo, Kalpa &
33.98% of total population. Male and female
Sangla valley
migrants constitute 13.02% and 54.90%
respectively of the total population.
Table 20: Popularity
of
main
tourist
destinations in Kinnaur district
Nature of
Popularity amongst
People: The early inhabitants of this area were
Destination
Tourism
Tourists
Rajputs, Brahmans and Kanets. The other
Activity
Indian
Foreign
sections of the people are mostly Rathis, Gujjars,
Kalpa
Religious,
Medium High
Jats, Chamars and Kolis. Chamars and Kolis are
Adventure
&
the Scheduled Castes. The other castes are
Nature
Sangla
Adventure
& Medium High
Badhis, Kabir Panthies, Lohars, Julaha, Doomnas
Nature
/
Ecoand Bhanjre. Rajputs claim their origin from
tourism
Chandel clan and off shoots of the ruling family.
They are usually classified as Kahluriya, Mians
and Chandels. The Chamars who previously
carried trade in leather and the Kolis who were
Dussehra: Dussehra is one of the great festivals
of Hindus. They celebrate it with gaiety in
honour of Lord Shri Ram’s victory over Ravan.
37 | Page
Table 21: Accommodation
Kinnaur district
Kinnaur
Chango
Chholing
Kalpa
Karchham
Kaza
Moorang
Nako
Nichar
Ponda
Pooh
Rakchham
Reckong
Peo
Sangla
Sarahan
Seraj
Tapri
Urni
Total
No. of
hotels
1
7
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
5
0
0
0
0
20
facilities
Rest Number of
Restaurants
houses
beds
18
6
112
1
10
1
1
8
0
1
4
0
8
5
20
1
4
2
6
0
8
0
1
2
1
2
1
1
25
85
88
4
12
8
4
399
0
1
in
Travel
agencies
1
1
0
3
1
6
Table 22: Tourist stay pattern in Kinnaur
district
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Kalpa
1 day
1 day
Sangla
2 – 3 days
-
Art & culture: This section describes fair and
festivals of the district and about the people, their
lifestyle, food and dresses.
Fairs and Festivals: In Kinnaur district various
fairs, festivals and community dances are the
traditional means of amusement and recreation
for the villagers. Brief accounts of the festivals
celebrated all over the district are briefly
described below.
Szoa: This festival is observed in the month of
January. On this day the people take their bath in
the natural springs and a few even go to Satluj
river for bathing if they happen to live near the
river. P‘oltus’, rice, pulses, vegetables, meat,
‘halwa’, ‘chilta’ and ‘Pug’ are the principal dishes
prepared on this occasion.
Phagul or Sukar: It is celebrated in the month
of February –March. In this festival the spirit of
‘Kanda’ (Peaks) called Kali is mainly worshipped
which lasts for 15 days and is celebrated all over
Kinnaur.
Baisakhi or Beesh: It is celebrated in the month
of April- May. The villagers prepare food like
’.
‘Poltu’, ‘Halwa’ and ‘Koyashid
Dakhraini: This festival is celebrated in the
month of July-August. On this day a feast is
organized.
Flaich or Do-khayang: This is a festival of
flower celebrated on different dates in the month
of September. This festival is celebrated
throughout the Kinnaur district. Generally,
people celebrate it on the hill near their villages.
Losar: Losar is celebrated in the month of
December to welcome the new year.
Kinnaur lavi /Tribal festival: Kinnaur lavi is
being celebrated since 1994 from 30th October to
2nd of November every year at district
headquarter, Reckong Peo. This festival has been
declared as State level festival and is being
celebrated since 1987. This festival not only
depicts the panorama of rich culture heritage of
district but also provides an opportunity to the
local
people
to
sell/exhibit
their
horticulture/agriculture produce, handicrafts and
artifacts.
People and life: This section describes number
of people migrated, community of people, their
culture, food and costume style.
Migrants: In Kinnaur district, there are 23,394
migrants, out of which 11,705 are males and
11,689 are females. 19,825 persons have their
place of last residence within the state of
enumeration and 2,048 persons have migrated to
Kinnaur district from the other States of India.
12,822 persons have moved from one place to
another but within the district of enumeration.
7,003 persons have moved from the other
districts of the state to the place of enumeration.
Both the categories account for 54.81% and
29.93% of the migration which have taken place
within the state of enumeration.
38 | Page
The people: Kinnaur does not comprise a
homogenous group and display significant
territorial and ethnic diversity. For a better
understanding of ethnic and cultural distribution
the Kinnaur district according to Nag, may be
classified into three territorial units. These are,
namely, lower, middle and upper Kinnaur. Lower
Kinnaur comprises the area between Chaura at
the boundary of Kinnaur district with Rampur
Bushahr and Kalpa including Nichar and Sangla
valleys. The people of the lower Kinnaur are
primarily of the Mediterranean physical type. It is
difficult to distinguish them from the people
residing in the adjoining Shimla district with
whom they have some affinity. The people of the
lower Kinnaur are mostly Hindus, though the
ethno-historic factors have resulted in some
Buddhist influence. The middle Kinnaur is the
area between Kalpa and beyond Kanam,
including Morang tehsil. The people of the
middle Kinnaur are of mixed racial strain. Some
have marked Mongoloid and others have marked
Mediterranean features.
Nesang, Kunu and Charang adjoining Tibet.
Jangiam dialect is spoken in Jangi, Lippa and
Asrang villages of Morang tehsil. The Shumceho
dialects is spoken in the villages of Kanam,
Labrang, Spilo, Shyaso, Tailing and Rushkalang
of Poo tehsil. A Kinnauri-Jangiam mixture is the
language used in Rakchham and Chitkul villages
of Sangla tehsil. The Scheduled Castes or
Harijans speak a language which is closer to that
of certain part of the adjoining districts of
Kinnaur. Besides these dialects, the people of
Kinnaur also speak Hindi. Both men and women,
especially in Sangla and Kalpa valley, speak
English in addition to their mother tongue and
Hindi.
7. District Solan
Main Tourist Spots are Kasauli,
Parwanoo, Chail, Arki and Nalagarh.
Table 23: Popularity among tourist
destinations in Solan District
Destination
Dress: The people of the district dress mostly in
woollen clothes. Their clothing is well suited to
the climate and is artistic too in its own
distinctive way. The head dress for men and
women in a round woolen cap called thepang in
the local dialect. It is generally of light gray or off
white colour with a coloured velvet band on the
outer fold. Band of green colour is most popular.
However, cap with band of other colours like
crimson, blue, yellow etc. are also worn.
Food habits; The staple food is wheat, ogla,
phafra and barley which are local produce.
Besides these kankani, cheena maize, koda,
chollair and bathu are also taken. The principal
pulses consumed are peas, black peas, mash and
rajmash. The vegetables usually consumed are
cabbage, turnips, peas, beans, pumpkin and
potato.
Language: A number of dialects are spoken by
the inhabitants of district Kinnaur which come
under ‘Kinnauri’ or ‘Kanauri’. The extent of
spoken Tibetan is limited to the village of
Barog,
Kasauli
Barog
Parwanoo
Chail
Arki
Nalagarh
Nature of
Tourism Activity
Site seeing
Orchards
Orchards
Heritage
Heritage
Heritage
Popularity
amongst Tourist
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Table 24: Accommodation in Solan District
Solan
Arki
Barog
Chail
Dharampur
Jabli
Kandaghat
Kasauli
Kuonihar
Nalagarh
Parwanoo
Sabathu
Shimla
Solan
Total
No. of
hotels
0
6
12
12
0
0
14
0
9
8
2
0
30
93
Rest
houses
1
0
1
0
0
1
3
4
6
2
2
8
28
Number
of beds
10
215
446
183
10
262
13
261
337
37
7
603
2384
Restaurants
1
1
1
2
2
4
11
Travel
agencies
0
1
7
8
Table 25: Tourist stay patterns in Solan
District
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Kasauli
One
Barog
One
-
39 | Page
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Parwanoo
One
Chail
Day visit
Day visit
Arki
Day visit
Nalagarh
Day visit
-
Art & culture: This section describes the fair and
festivals of the district and about the people, their
lifestyle, food and dresses.
Fair and festivals: In the district a number of
fairs are held throughout the year. A few of these
are briefly described below.
Sharad Purnima Fair: This fair is held at
Unchagaon (Kunihar) in a ground surrounding a
tank for two days in the month of JanuaryFebruary. It starts from 'Puranmashi' and lasts
uptil the next day. It is held in the honour of
'Sharad Purnima' and 'Devta Dano dev' whose
temple is on the bank of the tank. Brahmin
worship is done on 'Puranmashi' and 'Sankrant'
by a Brahmin.
Dev Bara Fair: It is held at Mangal Kandar for
three days from 21st March to 23rd March. This
place is about 81 kms. from Shimla & the fair is
held in the honour of 'Devta Baru'.
Bani Fair: Bani fair is held on the 8th May at
Hardev Pura Shankli which is 3 kms. from
Kunihar. Wrestling bouts is the main feature of
this fair.
Sayari Fair: Sayari fair is held for a day at Baili
adjoining Kunihar on 'Sankrant' in September. A
cattle show is arranged and the owners of best
animals are given prizes. This fair is also held at
Arki for two days. Wrestling bouts are also held
during the fair.
Koti Fair: Koti fair is held at Koti village in
Solan tehsil in the month of May/June for a day
and a night. The fair is held in the honour of
'Mira Devi' whose temple is situated here.
Solan Fair: Solan fair is held in the honour of
Shoolini Devi whose temple is situated in the
southern end of Solan. The fair is celebrated
every year on the 2nd Sunday of June for four
days. Wrestling is the prominent feature of the
Solan fair.
People and life: This section describes no. of
migrant people, community of people, their
culture, food and dressing style.
Migrants: In Solan district there are 159,332
migrants comprising 55,080 males and 104,252
females. The migrants of this district constitute
41.68% of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 27.51% and 57.27%
respectively of the total population.
The People: The people of Solan district are
predominantly Hindus followed by Sikhs and
Muslims. Among the Hindus are Kanets with a
mixture of Rajputs and Brahmins are in majority.
Scheduled Castes also share a proportion of
28.1% of the district population.
Food and Dress: Maize, wheat and rice is the
staple food of the district. In rural areas, the
people take generally maize chapatis and urad dal
where as in the urban areas of the district wheat,
pulses, vegetables are consumed as staple food.
Language: People of Solan district speak
different dialects of Pahari. These dialects change
slightly after some distance, a common
phenomena in the hills. As a result, the Pahari
dialects of the people of Nalagarh and some parts
of Kasauli tehsil have an influence of Punjabi
whereas the part of the district close to Shimla
district speak Pahari.
8. District Sirmaur: This district attracts a lot of
domestic religious tourists. There has been a
steady rise in foreign tourist arrivals in the district
in the past few years.
Main Tourist Destination are Paonta Sahib,
Nahan, Renuka, Rajgarh.
40 | Page
Table 26: Popularity of Main Tourist
Destination in Sirmaur District
Destination
Paonta Sahib
Renuka
Nahan
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Religious
Religious &
Water Sports
Religious
Popularity amongst
Tourists
Indian
Foreign
High
Low
High
Low
accompanied by musical instruments with great
pomp and show. Considering the importance of
Renuka fair, it was given the status of state level
fair five year ago. Renuka fair apart from its
essential religious character provides a wonderful
insight into cultural heritage of Sirmaur.
High
People & Life
Low
Art & Culture: This section describes the fair
and festivals of the district, the people, their
lifestyle, food and dresses.
Fairs and festivals: The people of the Sirmaur
district celebrate various types of festivals with
considerable gusto almost around the year. Bishu
fair is celebrated every year in the month of
March-April and Haryali in June-July. Magh
festival is the greatest of all the festivals, which is
celebrated by all sections of people with
tremendous enthusiasm. Janamashtmi, the
birthday of Lord Krishna, is also celebrated in the
month of August/September every year. Diwali
is celebrated in October / November month.
Two fairs namely Bawandwadshi fair and Guga
Naumi fair are celebrated at Nahan which is the
main attractions for the local folks. The Hola
Mohalla and Baisakhi fairs in Paonta Sahib attract
a large number of Sikhs from the far off villages
besides local people. Since 1982, festival named
‘Sharad Mahotsava’ is being celebrated every year
at Paonta Sahib in the memory of Yamunaji on
Sharad Purnima since 1982. Baisakhi fair is also
celebrated at Rajgarh where people from far and
near places come in large number to witness the
local folk dances. A fair is held at Trilokpur twice
a year in the months of Chaitra and Ashvin. A
large number of pilgrims visit this fair. Trilokpur
fair is one of the famous fairs of the district.
The Renuka Lake is visited by thousands of
pilgrims every year on Kartika-Ekadashi. On this
occasion, the famous historic Renuka fair is
celebrated, which is one of the main attraction
for the people of this place. To this fair, the brass
idol of Parshuram is brought from village Jamu,
his permanent abode, in a silver palki
Migrants: In Sirmaur district there are 126,077
migrants comprising 35,670 males and 90,407
females. The migrants of this district constitute
33.20% of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 17.82% and 50.37%
respectively of the total population.
People: People in Sirmaur district are
predominantly Hindus followed by Muslim, Sikh,
Jain & Christian. Most of the people in the
Trans-Giri region have come from the
neighbouring areas of Jubbal and Chaupa. In case
of the plains of Kiar-da-dun valley, some of them
have migrated from plains of Punjab particularly
from Ludhiana, Hoshiarpur and Patiala districts.
There is considerable population of Hindus,
Muslims, Gujjars in the district who are tribals.
Dress: In Cis-Giri Tract and Nahan tehsil,
people have the same dressing style as is in the
plains. In Trans Giri area, the traditional dress fo
men consisted of a white woollen unbuttoned
coat called ‘Lohiya’, black woollen tight ‘pyjama’
and a woollen cap The women have now
switched to ‘salwar’ and ‘kameez’ instead of
‘lehenga’ and ‘kurti’ which they used to wear in
the past. Similarly, they are gradually changing
over to ‘dupatta’ as the head gear instead of the
traditional colourful triangular piece of cloth
called ‘dhattus’. The ‘dhattu’ is, however still
being largely used and hold its own against
‘dupatta’ because of its economical and aesthetic
colourful value.
Food and Drinks: Maize and wheat are the
staple food of the people of Sirmaur District.
They also take rice occasionally. In hot weather,
they use maize sattus – maize grains parched
before grinding.
41 | Page
Language: According to the classification of
languages made by the Linguistic Survey of India,
Sirmauri has been shown as one of the several
dialects under Western Pahari. The Western
Pahari has been classified as sub group under
Pahari Group.
9. District Kullu: Majority of tourist the tourists
coming Kullu district visit Kullu and Manali.
These are the most popular locations in this
district. The foreign tourists arrive throughout
the year in major tourist locations like unlike the
domestic tourist who prefer to come here in
summer and during vacations. The average
domestic tourist stays in Kullu or Manali for 1-2
days. Foreigners prefer to stay in Guesthouses
rather than in hotels, as it is more economical.
Their duration of stay is usually 5-7 days.
Main Tourist Locations areKullu, Manali, Marhi,
Naggar, Rahala Falls, Solang Valley
Table 27: Popularity
of
main
tourist
destinations in Kullu district
Destination
Kullu
Manali
Rohtang
Pass
Solang
Valley
Nature of Tourism
Activity
Culture, Temple &
Adventure
Nature, Culture,
Shopping, Adventure
& Religion
Adventure, Sight
seeing
Adventure & Sight
seeing
Popularity
amongst tourists
Indian Foreign
High
Low
High
High
High
High
Medium
Low
Table 28: Tourist stay pattern in Kullu
district
Destination
Kullu3
Manali
Rohtang Pass
Solang Valley
Average Length of Stay
Foreign
Domestic touristS
tourist
1 day
1 day
5 – 6 days
1 – 2 months
-
Art & culture: This section describes fair and
festivals of the district and people, their lifestyle,
food and dresses.
Fairs and Festivals: The people of Kullu district
celebrate a good number of fairs and festivals
round the year which have, by and large, religious
sanctity. Some of the important fairs and festivals
held in the district are briefly described below.
Kullu Dussehra: Kullu Dussehra is different in
certain ways from Dussehra celebrations in the
other parts of the country. It presents cultural
ethos of the people and their deep rooted
religious beliefs which manifest during this
festival with traditional songs, dances and
colorful dress. It begins on Vijay Dashmi and
lasts for a week.
Pipal Jatra/ Vasantotsava: The traditional
name of Vasantotasava is Pipal Jatra or it is also
called Rai-ri-Jach. It takes place at Dhalpur, Kulul
on 16th of Baisakh every year.
Shamshi Virshu: This fair is held on 1st Baisakh
(April 13) for one day in village Khokhan. The
fair is religious and seasonal. The legend
connected with the fair is that he was moved by
the alluring beauties of the hill springs & used to
dance at this place with his girl friends who were
daughters of Rishis and Munis. The local
inhabitants also regard themselves as the progeny
of the daughters of those Rishis and Munis.
Mela Bhuntar: The fair is held from 1st Ashad
maas (June-July) for 3 days in village Bhunter.
The fair is seasonal and religious. From this day,
the use of food grains from the newly harvested
crops starts after cooked food offerings are made
to the gods and then the meal is shared by other
relatives and friends. This is known as
'Tahoolikhana'.
Sainj Fair: This fair is held in Raila on 21st of
Baisakh (April-May) for one day. The significance
and legend of the fair is religious and recreational.
Idol of Devta Laxminarayana is brought from
Raila to Sainj. Thereafter, the fair starts with folk
dances and songs rhythmical with the beat of
drums and trumpets.
42 | Page
Luhri Lavi: This fair is held on 21st and 22nd of
Karthik maas (October-November) for two days
and one night in village Dingidhar at Luhri. The
significance of the fair is religious and
commercial. The fair is held in honour of Devta
Jogeshwar and Khegro Maya. The Devtas are
worshipped. Nalti dances, mimicking, fold dance
at night are performed.
Ani Fair: This fair is held from the 27th of
Baisakh (April-May) for two days in village
Franali at Anni. In the fair, deities of the
adjoining villages participate. The main
attractions of the fair are folk dances and other
cultural programmes.
Dalash Fair: This fair is held in the month of
Bhadon for three days and nights in village
Soidhar at Dalash. The fair is altogether religious
and is held in the honour of Devta Jogeshwar
Mahadev of Dalash and Bungli Nag. The devtas
are worshipped and natti dances, cultural
programmes and sport tournaments are
performed.
Ganter Fair: This fair is held on 3rd of Paush
maas (Dec.-Jan) for one day. The fair is mainly
religious and it is said that Rana and Thakurs
then rulers of Kullu valley were at logger heads
and used to be constantly at war with each other.
To commemorate the battle, a ram used to be
scarified. The practice of ram sacrifice is stilnl i
vogue.
Ghatasani Fair: This fair is held on 4th of
Chaitra maas (March - April) for two days in
village Dawra. The legend connected with the fair
is that once mother Parvati asked Lord Shiva to
forget Rama, saying that even Rama could
change.
Dhoongri Fair: This fair is held on Jaishth 2nd
(May-June) for three days at Dhoongri (Manali)
in the memory of Devi Hadimba who meditated
at Dhoogri and was married to Bhima, one of the
five Pandavas.
Bhadoli Fair: This fair held once in three years,
dates whereof is decided by the Brahmins. The
fair is held for four days. The fair is
commemorated in the memory of Lord
Parshuram who is stated to have meditated here.
Buddhi Diwali: This fair is held from Maghar
Amawas for three days in village Nirmand. The
fair associated with the battle of Mahabharata
which is said to have started on that day.
Phagli Fair: The fair is held in the month of
Phalgun and hence the name Phagli. The fair is
held to show the struggle of supremacy between
the god and demon, in which ultimately the god
emerge victorious. This fair is also held to
commemorate the event of killing of demon by
the god.
Birshu Fair: This fair is held in the month of
Chaitra or Baisakh, throughout the district. One
day before the first day of the month, delicacies
are cooked in the houses and sent to all the
relatives.
Sharhi Jatra: This fair is held near the temple of
the Tripura Sundri, at the ground named Sharhi.
This fair is held for three days. The gathering
here is always large. It takes place in the month of
'Jyeshtha' (May-June).
10. District Hamirpur: The domestic tourists
visiting this district mostly visit the Deothsidh
temple. This district is not popular among foreign
tourists.
Main Tourist Attraction are Deothsidh Temple
and Sujanpur Thira.
Table 29: Popularity of Main Tourist
Destinations in Hamirpur District
Destination
Hamirpur
Nadaum
Deothsidh
Temple
Nature of
Tourism
Activity
Scenic town
Pilgrimage
Popularity amongst
Tourists
Indian
Foreign
Low
Low
Low
Low
Medium
Low
43 | Page
Table 30: Accommodation
District
Hamirpur
No of hotels
Hamirpur
Jahu
Jwalamukhi
Nadaun
Sujanpur
TOTAL
10
1
0
0
1
12
Rest
houses
12
0
1
1
1
15
in
Hamirpur
Number
Restaurants
of beds
273
1
4
0
8
0
6
0
26
0
317
1
Travel
agencies
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 31: Tourist Stay Pattern in Hamirpur
District
Destination
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Hamirpur
One
Nadaun
Day visit
Deothsidh temple
One
-
Art & culture: This section describes fair and
festivals of the district, people, their lifestyle,
food and dresses.
Fairs and Festivals: The people of Hamirpur
district celebrate a good number of fairs and
festivals round the year which have, by and large,
religious sanctity. Some of the important fairs
and festivals held in the district are briefly
described below.
Gasota Mahadev Fair: This fair is organized at
a place which is about 10 kms. away from
Hamirpur on Jahu road. It is held here every year
for eight days beginning from first Monday of
Jyeshtha.
Baba Deothsidh Fair: Baba Deothsidh is a
religious fair held on every Sunday of Jyeshtha
maas. Thousands of people from far and long
distances come to join the celebration. In order
to propitiate Baba Balak Nath, people offer goats
to the Baba Balak Nath which are sacrificed in his
honour.
Gashian Fair: This fair is held on first Tuesday
of Ashar month. The fair is dedicated to Goddess
Gashian. Since the time immemorial people
believe that on this day fairies come to take bath
in the water. Therefore, the festival has a
considerable religious sanctity behind it.
Awah Devi Fair: This fair is organized at the
temple of Goddess Awah Devis.
Chaniari Devi Fair: Chaniari Devitemple is
situated 7 kms from Hamirpur on Hamirpur –
Nadaun Road. This fair is held in Jyeshtha maas
of every year in honour of Goddess Chaniari
Devi. Like the other religious festivals of the
district, it has also presently assumed commercial
dimension where the business of considerable
sum gets transacted during the festival.
11. District Una: The Chintpurni temple is a
popular pilgrim destination. In Una district is
visited a lot of domestic tourists however
proportion of foreign tourists visit this districtis
low.
Table 32: Accommodation facilities in Una
District
Una
No. of
hotels
Aloh
Amb
Bangana
Bharwain
Chintpurni
Gagret
Mehatpur
Sidhchaler
Una
Total
1
2
4
1
3
2
5
19
Rest
houses
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
7
11
Number
Travel
Restaurants
of beds
agencies
30
16
8
62
0
1
100
0
0
24
48
0
0
30
0
0
166
4
0
484
4
1
Table 33: Tourist Stay
District
Destination
Chintpurni
pattern
in
Una
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
One
-
Art & Culture
Fairs and Festivals: There are quite a few fairs
and festivals celebrated in various parts of the
district. Some of the important fairs are briefly
described below.
Chintpurni: At Chintpurni, three fairs are held
every year, first in the month of February, second
in July/August and the third in September.
Pir Nigaha: This shrine is situated in Basoli,
about 8 kms. from Una.
44 | Page
Panjgatra: Panjgatra at Babhaur on the Satuj is
held on first Baisakhi day.
Baisakhi and Holi: The fair is held at Mairi near
Amb where large number of people assemble.
Besides, some other fairs held in the district are
namely Sidh Badhmana fair which is held on
every sunday in the months of June-July. JatoliHaroli fair is held for the worship of Gugga Pir
and Bhadar Kali fair is held in February and
September.
People and lifestyle
Migrants: In Una district there are 142,652
migrants comprising 34,350 males and 108,302
females. The migrants of this district constitute
37.71% of total population. Male and female
migrants constitute 18.85% and 56.80%
respectively of the total population.
The People: The district is predominantly
inhabited by Brahmins, Rajputs, Jats, Sainis,
Bahtis and Gujjars. The Brahmins and Rajputs
mainly dwell on landed property. The Brahmins
who own land are mostly concentrated around
Amb. The main communities among the
Brahmins are Saraswat, Kangra Raina, Gaur and
Bhatt.
Food: The staple food of the district is maize and
wheat and gram. Sarsoan is the most common
vegetable in the entire district. Meat is generally
consumed by Rajputs and the Muslims.
Dress: The male dress generally comprises of the
'pyjama' or 'dhoti' covered over it with a shirt in
summer. The women costume consists of a pair
of 'pyjama' (Salwar) or 'ghagra' (Petticoat) and a
short coat (Kurta) 'Chadar' or the Dupatta covers
the body over the shoulders. This traditional
dress, however, is fast vanishing with the younger
generation taking to salwar, kameez and sarees.
12. District Lahaul & Spiti the main tourist
destinations are Keylong, Kaza & Spiti.
Table 34: Popularity of Main Tourist
Destinations in Lahaul & Spiti
Destination
Nature of
Tourism Activity
Kaza
Keylong
Spiti valley
Religious
Trekking
Trekking
Table 35: Accommodation
Lahaul & Spiti
Lahaul &
Spiti
Godhla
Jahalwan
Jispa
Kaza
Keylong
Lossar
Sagnam,
Spiti
Samdo,
Spiti
Tabo
Udaipur
Total
No. of
hotels
1
0
0
5
6
0
Rest
houses
0
1
1
7
0
1
Number
of beds
4
4
64
89
99
6
0
1
0
0
0
11
1
2
1
15
Popularity amongst
Tourists
Indian
Foreign
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
facilities
in
0
0
Travel
agencies
1
0
4
-
-
6
8
4
288
1
1
Restaurants
Table 36: Tourist stay pattern in Lahaul &
Spiti
Destination
Kaza
Keylong
Spiti valley
Average Length of Stay
Domestic tourist
Foreign tourist
Ten
Ten
Twelve
Art and Culture
Fair and festival: People of Lahaul & Spiti
celebrate several fair and festivals on different
occasions. There used to be annual fairs at
various places like Ladarcha fair at Kibber and
Kaza, Paurifair at Udaipur and tribal fair at
Keylong. These fairs basically had trade
significance in them and traders from Tibet,
Ladakh, Chamba, Kullu and various parts of
India used to come over with the articles from
the respective regions and barter used to take
place. Much of their historical significance has
been lost with the closure of border with Tibet.
However, the Government have been trying to
encourage such fairs by introducing exhibition on
45 | Page
important occasions like Independence Day,
Republic Day and other days of national
importance as well as organising tribal fair from
14th to 16th August, at Keylong every year.
shoes are very suitable for walking on the snow.
The traditional shoes are indicative of the social
status and the people belonging to high class do
wear shoes which are lined with fur.
Besides these fairs, the Tsheshu religious fair is
celebrated in Shashur, Gemur, Kyee, Kardang,
Triloknath, Tabo, Gurughantal and Mane
monasteries in the months of June or July every
year.
Language: Swanglas, Thakurs, Kanets and
Bhots along with several Scheduled Castes
communities of Chahans, Dombas, Hessis, Garas
and Balras etc inhabit in the district. The people
of Spiti valley speak only Tibetan language
whereas there are three dialects which are spoken
in Lahaul valley. Bunan is spoken in the Chandra
Bhaga valley. Tinan is spoken in Chandra valley
and Manchat is spoken in Chandra Bhaga valley
upto Thirot. All these three dialects are said to
have strong affinities with the languages of
Munda speaking tribes of the Pre-Aryan times of
India. It is connected with the Tibetan only in
relation to vocabulary. Moreover, the researchers
have found many similarities between Chanali
dialect of Lahaul and Sanskrit.
People & Life
Migrants: In Lahaul & Spiti district there are
10,878 migrants comprising 5,100 males and
5,778 females. The migrants of this district
constitute 34.76% of total population. Male and
female migrants constitute 29.61% and 41.07%
respectively of the total population.
People: The Lahaulis at present are
amalgamation of different races. Unlike the
Lahaul valley, the Spitians are purely of Tibetan
stock. On the other hand even the features of
Lahaulis give a combination of Mongolian and
Aryan traits with their short and stout physique
slightly high cheek bones and oblique almond like
eyes combined with straight nose which reflects
both Mongolian and Aryan blood.
Dress: Men wear coat and pyjama and women
wear tight pyjama, choga like shirts tied at the
waist with the waist coat. Most of the times,
cloths on women are of maroon and dark brown
colour. The Lahaulis have traditional straw shoes,
the soles of which are made of barley straw and
the upper from strong Chamba fibre. These
1.2
Patterns of Planning
Development in the Sector
and
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries
in the world. The number of tourists worldwide
has been registering phenomenal growth and it is
expected that this number would touch 1.5
billion. Tourism contributes about 11% of the
world workforce and 10.2% of the global gross
domestic product. This pattern and dynamic
character of the sector necessitates the policy to
adapt to the changing environment. Policies are
products of time and circumstances, available
resources and technologies and most importantly,
the needs of the stakeholders.
Table 37: Proposed Plan and target achieved in the State
Tenth Five Plan (2002-07)
Head of Development/Item
Tourism :
(i) International Tourist Arrivals
(ii) Domestic Tourist Arrivals
(iii) Accommodations Available
Beds
11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012)
Annual Plan (2007-08)
11th Five Year
Plan (2007-12)
Anticipated
Target
Target
Achievement
Annual
Plan 200809 Target
Unit
Tenth Plan
Target
Actual
Achievement
Nos.
Nos.
721500
25028600
1015490
7875687
901875
32537180
120000
6500000
320000
8592000
350000
9500000
Nos.
2250
41526
15000
3000
2200
3500
Source: Five year plan document, 2007 – 2012, Himachal Pradesh
46 | Page
Tourism Strategy for Himachal
The strategy seeks to:
Pradesh:
•
To promote economically, culturally and
ecologically
sustainable
tourism
in
Himachal Pradesh.
•
To promote responsible tourism, that will
be welcomed as both preferred employer
and community industry.
•
To use tourism as a means of providing
new employment opportunities in rural,
tribal and remote areas.
•
To increase private sector participation in
tourism, both as a means of generating
employment
and
providing
new
infrastructure.
•
To develop activity-based tourism to
increase the duration of tourists visits etc.
Year
Domestic
Foreign
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
58.5
77.5
95.5
113.0
121.5
128.0
135.0
1.5
2.5
4.5
7.0
9.5
12.0
15.0
Total (in
lakh)
60
80
100
120
130
140
150
The Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation
has announced a vision for tourism by the year
2020 as described below.
1. Every major tourism destination to be well
linked by roads of international standards and
these highways to be well serviced by both air
and rail connections.
2. A substantial number of luxury and deluxe
resorts to be based in Himachal Pradesh.
3. Lakes – especially the Maharana Pratap Sagar
to become important destinations.
4. Apart from leisure, conference tourism,
family and corporate bonding and the
segment of ‘wellness’ tourism - with health
and rejuvenation, yoga and other therapies is expected to grow significantly.
5. Himachal Pradesh to emerge as the core of
the world’s ‘Buddhist circuit’.
6. Himachal Pradesh by the year 2020 should be
the adventure sports capital of Southeast
Asia.
7. Centres of Hindu and Sikh pilgrimage that
already draw a substantial number of
devotees are to be provided better facilities.
Marketing of these places amongst the Hindu
and Sikh communities within the country as
well as overseas.
8. At least 25% of the State’s GDP to come
from tourism and its allied industries. To
raise the contribution of Tourism and allied
Industries to 25% of State’s GDP.
Eco-tourism: Himachal Pradesh offers a new
era of nature enjoyment and learning. It also
provides visitors an excellent exposure to the
temperate forests. This makes it an ideal area for
developing eco-tourism activities like jungle
safaris, trekking, rock climbing, forest trails,
nature walks, angling (esp. golden mahaseer and
brown trout), camping, etc. All these activities are
to be conducted in a manner that promotes
awareness of the environment and helps maintain
the ecological balance.
47 | Page
The eco tourism projects being predominantly
situated in forest lands are under the Forest
Deptt., which has already formulated an Ecotourism policy in consultation with the Tourism
Deptt. Under this Eco-tourism societies have
been established on Community Based Ecotourism basis to cover the Great Himalayan
National Park (Kullu), Himalayan Nature Park
(Shimla), Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary (Sirmaur)
and Potter’s Hill Van Vihar (Shimla).
Wildlife Tourism is an integral part of Ecotourism. Himachal Pradesh has a varied
topography, climate and forest cover and is
endowed with a vast variety of flora and fauna.
The Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation
proposes to work actively with the Wildlife Wing
of the Forest Deptt to further develop and
improve wildlife parks/zoos, birds watching
towers and other public utility services for the
facility of the tourists. A reasonable fee shall be
determined by the Government for use of such
parks/zoos.
Development of Lakes and wetlands: It is also
part of eco-tourism. The State Government will
make special efforts to make natural and man
made lakes as important tourist destinations.
Steps will be taken to maintain and enhance their
beauty by undertaking development in an
integrated manner. Facilities for water sports in
Maharana Pratap Sagar, Chamera reservoir and
Gobind Sagar will be developed to International
standard and national and international level
events will also be organised to popularize these
destinations. Maharana Pratap Sagar will be
developed as a world class water sports
destination with the financial assistance of the
Central Government in order to develop
activities like water sports, angling, bird watching,
setting up of house boats, development of
artificial beaches etc. The Government will also
encourage the private sector to set up houseboats
and operate shikaras in the Maharana Pratap
Sagar. Improvement of the forest rest houses will
also be carried out in the area and will also be
made available to the tourists.
Home Stay Scheme, 2008: The scheme aims to
broaden the stakeholders base for tourism and
take Tourism to the rural and interior areas of the
State. The incentives/exemptions under the
scheme shall be available in the countryside
locations of such houses.
• The Home stay scheme shall have the
following objectives:
• Broaden the stakeholder’s base for
tourism in the State;
• Take tourism to the rural and interior
areas of the State;
• Decongest the Urban areas, which cannot
support any further tourism load;
• Provide employment and economic
values in the interior areas;
• The activity shall be ecologically
sustainable.
Tourism sub plan: There is no denying the fact
that the total budget with the Department of
Tourism is less in comparison to the other
tourism-oriented States in the country. Tourism
is one industry, which is linked with all
development departments. Under their normal
programmes, they are required to meet the
infrastructure demands for promotion of
tourism.
1.3
Technology/Schemes Adopted
in the Sector along with any
Changes in Technology
Guidelines for Eco-tourists have
developed which is described below.
been
As an eco-tourist, travel, respecting local culture
and traditions and encouraging local pride---local
cuisine, folk songs and dance, traditional dresses,
local etiquette, local architecture. There is a
science and art in everything. Be friendly,
inquisitive and patient. Respect holy places.
48 | Page
Understand that leakage of economic benefits
outside the community due to non-local
ownership of tourism business is bad. Give a fair
price to rural produce by buying local.
Indigenously crafted or value added products
provide the right livelihood to the locals and use
up less natural resources.
Think eco-systems-Be conservation conscious.
Support friendly resource usage-water through
rain water harvesting, use of non-conventional
energy; if electricity is unavailable, use energyefficient kerosene stoves.
Be environmental sensitive & respect
biodiversity. Respect carrying capacity of the
physical environment and the resources, knowing
that overcrowding leads to a lessening of the
tranquility and simplicity of life that attracts yuo
in the first place.
Make positive contributions to the conservation
of natural and cultural heritage, maintain local
harmony. Help the guides and porters to observe
eco-conservation measures. Remember that
erosion of cultural integrity and values due to the
introduction of ‘outside’ influences is ruinous to
indigenous cultures. Avoid over-use of
community infrastructure. Keep local water
sources clean and avoid using chemical
detergents in streams or springs. If no toilet
facilities are available, make sure you defecate
atleast 30 metres away from any water source,
ensuring to bury any waste. Conservation of
water is vital, especially drinking water. Water
from kitchen waste or rain-water through regular
harvesting be used for sanitation and use, where
quality of water required is not very high. Water
source should not be contaminated in any way.
Keep travel-generated garbage at the minimum.
Composting recycles and minimum waste
generation must be practiced. Proper disposal
must be at appropriate points along the route.
Leave no eye-sores. ‘Leave no trace’ principle be
followed. Camping areas should be left cleaner
than what you saw when you came. Remember
that another party would be using the camp site
after your departure. Differentiate between nonbiodegradable & biodegradable garbage. Burn or
bury paper, natural refuse and litter. Keep for
recycling and don’t throw away any nondegradable garbage like plastic bags, foil, packet,s
glass bottles and metal cans.
See that no damage is done to vegetation. Taking
away cuttings, seeds and roots without
permission of the authorized persons is illegal,
especially in nature reserves. Stop people from
plucking flowers or leaves. They should be left as
they are for all to enjoy. As much as possible
keep to the treks/trails/hikes and avoid stepping
on to vegetation—you destroy vital biodiversity.
Avoid collecting souvenirs. Reduce impact,
keeping to marked routes and paths.
Damage to trees/vegetation must not be done.
Do not carve initials on trees or spray graffiti on
monuments defacing rocks is pollution and the
Apex Court too took badly to it.
Firewood is scarce and should be used sparingly,
whether for heating water for bath or for bonfire
or for fire-places provided. Avoid making open
fires and discourage others from doing so. There
should be no carelessness with reference to fire.
One small careless fire can destroy an entire
forest. Extinguish any fire—bonfire, fire in grill
etc before leaving the place. Do not throw away
cigarettes, bidis or matches.
Read up literature, brochure, be aware of the
environs and surrounding. Be clear about the
trek—some have a gentle slope, some have a
moderate slope and others are precipitous. Match
your physical fitness with the hike being taken
up. Keep required medicines, water and inform
the guide / networking coordinator complete
details about yourself. You cannot half way ask to
terminate the tour.
Take all precautions not to get lost and in the
eventuality, specified instructions be followed.
Avoid confusion and panic.
49 | Page
Check vehicle travel to reduce for polluting
gases/smoke. Pooling for travel is cheaper and
lesser polluting. Use bicycles/horses/ponies and
wherever
possible
walk---healthy,
nonpolluting—stand and stare—there is so much to
absorb—the mountain terrain is awesome, serene
and educative. Avoid noise pollution—blaring
horns, music systems (radios/tape-recorders),
loud mobile talking. Silence in the majestic
mountains has meaning and character. Take in
the peace and tranquility.
Avoid offering food to animals and birds as
thereby you are threatening their foraging and
spoiling their hunting skills. Otherwise too, the
food you give will probably make them
unhealthy. Feeding monkeys too is common and
should be discouraged as it spreads nuisance. A
monkey bite can mean spread of rabies. If you
see anyone hunting or hurting/teasing animals,
report them to the authorities; if you cannot stop
them yourselves. Wildlife viewing must be done,
observing all security and conditions prescribed.
Shouting, teasing or chasing animals is strictly
prohibited.
It is illegal to carry fire-arms/nets or any
explosives. Do not also carry polythenes or other
prohibited plastics.
While taking photographs or shooting with your
video-camera (for which there is a prescribed fee)
you are encouraged not to disturb the subject you
want to capture in any way. Do not use flashes,
particularly close up, as this can disturb and
annoy wild animals and nesting birds.
Strictly follow the guidelines for personal safety
and security taking required precautions.
Wear comfortable clothes with inconspicuous
colours like khaki, olive green or grey so as not to
disturb environs with bright and gaudy colours.
Use good quality trekking shoes—some are rainproof too. Use hats/caps during hot days and
rain gear during rains and jackets/wind-cheaters
during cold. Travel light in terms of baggage.
Back packers only carry essentials—food,
medicines and camera.
2. Rainwater Harvesting on the top of
Commercial Building:
The Government of
Himachal Pradesh has made, the collection of
rainwater compulsory from the roof top of
following buildings in the State:
•
•
For all buildings which come up in the
Urban areas of the State in future
For all the commercial/institutional
buildings, existing or proposed for
construction in future and having plinth
area of more than 1000 sq.m. and located
anywhere in the State.
List of Hotel complexes having provision for
Rain Water Harvesting Structures are
enumerated below.
Chamba District
Ÿ Sagrita Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Basera Guest House, Dalhousie
Ÿ Inderprastha Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Snow view, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Kumar, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Grand View, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Grace Mount, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Green, Dalhousie
Ÿ Dalhousie Height, Dalhousie
Ÿ Himalayan Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Ravi View
Ÿ Hotel Sangril-La, Dalhousie
Ÿ Snow View G.H., Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Spring, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Ark, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel City Heart, Dalhousie
Shimla District
Ÿ Sukh Sagar Regency
Ÿ Radisson Jass
Ÿ Silverine
Ÿ Hotel Sukh Sagar
Ÿ Aachman Regency
Ÿ Apple rose, Kachi Ghati
Ÿ Hotel Aryan, Kachi Ghati
Ÿ Pineview
Ÿ Hotel Blossom, near RTO
Ÿ Brightland
Ÿ Woodville Palace
Ÿ Hotel Wingait Inn
Ÿ Hotel Gemini, Dhalli
50 | Page
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Kalra Regency, C/Shimla
Le-Royale, Jakhoo
Hotel Landmark near AG Office
Quality Inn Himdev, Kachi Ghati
Shimla View near TSM workshop,
G/Chowki
Ÿ Willow Bank, The Mall 20 Wild Flower Hall,
Chhabra
Ÿ Golf Link Resort
Ÿ Marrie Gold
Ÿ Sylvan Heights
Ÿ Ice Touch Resort
Ÿ The firhill
Kangra District
Ÿ Hotel Laj, Kangra
Ÿ The Nagri Resort
Ÿ The Height, Jachh
Ÿ Hotel Shiv Shakti, Dharamkot
Ÿ Blossom Vills Resort, Sidhpur
Ÿ Amandeep GH, D/Sala
Ÿ Rajpoot GH, Bir
Ÿ Great Himalayan Resort, Bhagsu Nag
Ÿ Saryam, GH Bhagsunag
Ÿ Aakash GH, Bhagsunag
Ÿ Sun Shine GH, Pragpur
Ÿ Yashita GH, Chamunda
Hamirpur District
Ÿ B.B.N. GH, Deothsidh
Ÿ Amar Hotel, Sujanpur
Ÿ Beas View GH, Sujanpur
Una District
Ÿ Alfa Hotel
Ÿ Maya Ji Hotel, Chintpurni
Ÿ Sun Shine Hotel, Una
Ÿ New York Plaza, Una
Ÿ Kuber Hotel Gagret
Mandi District
Ÿ Hotel Pohlo Regency, Sundernagar
Ÿ Hotel Hot Spring Internationa, Tattapani
Ÿ New Spring View Guest House, Tattapani
Ÿ Hotel Hamsafar, Sundernagar
Ÿ Hotel River Bank, Saulikhad
Bilaspur District
Ÿ Hotel Panchwati, Sunga
1.4
Stakeholder nvolvement adopted in the
sector along with any changes in
technology
The Government of Himachal Pradesh has
undertaken the responsibility as a catalyst to give
impetus to village tourism. The District
Administration understand the importance of the
concept in promoting rural tourism. Private sector
investment ably supported by government
investment in a core infrastructure would be the two
key sources of funding for tourism projects in the
state.
Major stakeholders within the sector are:
1. Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation
2. Department of Forest
3. Irrigation and Public Health (I&PH)
4. H.P. State Pollution Control Board (HPPCB)
5. Department of Environment, Science &
Technology
6. H.P. Tourism Development Corporation
(HPTDC)
7. Rural Development Department
8. Urban Development Department
9. Non Government Organization (NGOs)
10. Civil Society Organization
11. Private Sector
12. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports, Manali (ABVIMAS)
Ecotourism Society of Himachal Pradesh:
The society is an autonomous and independent
body. Its main aim is to preserve and protect the
natural, historical and cultural heritage of
Himachal Pradesh in order as a preferred
destination for visitors and provides
opportunities to promote Community Based
Ecotourism (CBET). Particularly using latest
approaches of par ticipator y Forester y
Management for sustainable development of the
forests, thereby generating revenue for the State.
A harmony is to be fostered between the people,
environment, conservation and development.
This Society would work in partnership between
the civil society organization (local communities,
NGOs, academic institutions and private
enterprises/businesses) and the State (Forest
Chamba District
Ÿ Sagrita Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Basera Guest House, Dalhousie
Ÿ Inderprastha Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Snow view, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Kumar, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Grand View, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Grace Mount, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Green, Dalhousie
Ÿ Dalhousie Height, Dalhousie
Ÿ Himalayan Resorts, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Ravi View
Ÿ Hotel Sangril-La, Dalhousie
Ÿ Snow View G.H., Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Spring, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel Ark, Dalhousie
Ÿ Hotel City Heart, Dalhousie
Shimla District
Ÿ Sukh Sagar Regency
Ÿ Radisson Jass
Ÿ Silverine
Ÿ Hotel Sukh Sagar
Ÿ Aachman Regency
Ÿ Apple rose, Kachi Ghati
Ÿ Hotel Aryan, Kachi Ghati
Ÿ Pineview
Ÿ Hotel Blossom, near RTO
Ÿ Brightland
Ÿ Woodville Palace
Ÿ Hotel Wingait Inn
Ÿ Hotel Gemini, Dhalli
Ÿ Kalra Regency, C/Shimla
Ÿ Le-Royale, Jakhoo
Ÿ Hotel Landmark near AG Office
Ÿ Quality Inn Himdev, Kachi Ghati
Ÿ Shimla View near TSM workshop, G/Chowki
Ÿ Willow Bank, The Mall 20 Wild Flower Hall,
Chhabra
Ÿ Golf Link Resort
Ÿ Marrie Gold
Ÿ Sylvan Heights
Ÿ Ice Touch Resort
Ÿ The firhill
Kangra District
Ÿ Hotel Laj, Kangra
Ÿ The Nagri Resort
Ÿ The Height, Jachh
Ÿ Hotel Shiv Shakti, Dharamkot
Ÿ Blossom Vills Resort, Sidhpur
Ÿ Amandeep GH, D/Sala
Ÿ Rajpoot GH, Bir
Ÿ Great Himalayan Resort, Bhagsu Nag
Ÿ Saryam, GH Bhagsunag
Ÿ Aakash GH, Bhagsunag
Ÿ Sun Shine GH, Pragpur
Ÿ Yashita GH, Chamunda
Hamirpur District
Ÿ B.B.N. GH, Deothsidh
Ÿ Amar Hotel, Sujanpur
Ÿ Beas View GH, Sujanpur
Una District
Ÿ Alfa Hotel
Ÿ Maya Ji Hotel, Chintpurni
Ÿ Sun Shine Hotel, Una
Ÿ New York Plaza, Una
Ÿ Kuber Hotel Gagret
Mandi District
Ÿ Hotel Pohlo Regency, Sundernagar
Ÿ Hotel Hot Spring Internationa, Tattapani
Ÿ New Spring View Guest House, Tattapani
Ÿ Hotel Hamsafar, Sundernagar
Ÿ Hotel River Bank, Saulikhad
Bilaspur District
Ÿ Hotel Panchwati, Sunga
1.4
Stakeholder nvolvement adopted in the sector
along with any changes in technology
The Government of Himachal Pradesh has undertaken the
responsibility as a catalyst to give impetus to village tourism. The
District Administration understand the importance of the
concept in promoting rural tourism. Private sector investment
ably supported by government investment in a core infrastructure
would be the two key sources of funding for tourism projects in
the state.
Major stakeholders within the sector are:
1. Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation
2. Department of Forest
3. Irrigation and Public Health (I&PH)
4. H.P. State Pollution Control Board (HPPCB)
5. Department of Environment, Science & Technology
6. H.P. Tourism Development Corporation (HPTDC)
7. Rural Development Department
8. Urban Development Department
9. Non Government Organization (NGOs)
10. Civil Society Organization
11. Private Sector
12. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountain-eering and
Allied Sports, Manali (ABVIMAS)
Ecotourism Society of Himachal Pradesh: The society
is an autonomous and independent body. Its main aim is to
preserve and protect the natural, historical and cultural
heritage of Himachal Pradesh in order as a preferred
destination for visitors and provides opportunities to
promote Community Based Ecotourism (CBET).
Particularly using latest approaches of participatory
Forestery Management for sustainable development of the
forests, thereby generating revenue for the State. A
harmony is to be fostered between the people,
environment, conservation and development. This Society
would work in partnership between the civil society
organization (local communities, NGOs, academic
institutions and private enterprises/businesses) and the
(Forest Department, the Tourism Department and other
related departments).
51 | Page
Atal
Bihari
Vajpayee
Institute
of
Mountaineering and Allied Sports, Manali
(ABVIMAS): The ABVIMAS is the largest
Adventure Sports training centre in the country.
Spread over 20 acres of forest land on the banks
of the river Beas, the Directorate has a hostel
facility that can accommodate 260 people at a
time, a dining hall that can cater to more than 200
people at once and an auditorium that has a
seating capacity of 680 people.
1.5
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
As per Ministry of Tourism, Government of India
estimates Shimla, Kullu, Kangra and Bilaspur are
expected to be top five tourist destinations
accounting for more than 70% of tourist arrivals
till 2021. It is expected that Kullu and Kangra
districts, Bilaspur and Chamba districts will
compete with each other to attract tourist arrivals.
Lahaul and Spiti district is expected to remain the
lowest in attracting tourist arrivals.
1. Change in land use / Change in Aesthetics
and Inadequate tourist infrastructure: The
expected demand and supply gap in terms of bed
requirement and bed available at top five tourist
destinations will exceed 50,000 in 2011 and 1,
00,000 by 2021. This translates into an additional
62 ha and 127 ha of built up area and 106 ha and
201 ha of total area requirements by 2011 and
2021 in these districts. The additional
requirement of built up area will lead to land use
change as well as infrastructure development.
1059 MLD in 2021 and 1630 MLD by respecting
2021 in the top five tourist destination.
Vulnerability analysis shows that water supply
infrastructure in Shimla, Kangra and Chamba
district, Kullu, Ghumarwin and Bilaspur sadar
tehsil is already under stress. Additional tourist
load will increase pressure on existing water
supply system.
3.
Inadequate
sanitation
at
tourist
units/tourist destination / religious places /
heritage sites /trekking routes / tourist
circuits / transportation routes: The expected
additional sewage generation due to tourist
arrivals will exceed 847 MLD in 2011 and 1338
MLD by 2021 in the top five tourist destinations.
Vulnerability analysis shows that sewage
infrastructure in Shimla, Kangra & Chamba
districts, Kullu, Ghumarwin & Bilaspur sadar
tehsils is already under stress. Additional tourist
load will increase pressure on existing sewerage
infrastructure.
4. Solid waste littering and improper disposal
along trekking routes, tourist circuits and
tourist destination, e.g. plastic waste, PET
bottles, tetra-packs, packets of snack food,
food items and batteries from cameras /
audio /video equipment: The expected
additional MSW generation due to tourist arrivals
will exceed 3479 tonnes per day in 2011 and 5354
tonnes per day by 2021 in the top five tourist
destination. Vulnerability analysis shows that
MSW infrastructure in Shimla, Kangra, Chamba
districts, Kullu, Ghumarwin and Bilaspur sadar
tehsil is already under stress. Additional tourist
load will add pressure on existing MSW
management infrastructure.
2. Non-availability of safe drinking water at
tourist destinations, tourist circuit and
trekking routes: The expected additional water
supply demand due to tourist arrivals will exceed
52 | Page
5. Increased emissions due to increased
traffic at tourist destination / tourist circuits
/ tourist-routes / heritage sites / religious
places: The expected additional transportation
requirement due to tourist arrivals will exceed
10952 PCUs per day in 2011 & 15945 PCUs per
day by 2021 during peak season in top five tourist
destinations. Considering Bharat Stage-II norms,
the expected additional average daily CO load
will exceed 116 kg/day in 2011 and 146 kg/day
by 2021 in these destinations. Similarly, the
expected additional average daily Hydro Carbon
load will exceed 27 kg/day in 2011 and 34 kg/day
by 2021 in these destinations.
6. Disruption of electricity supply at tourist
destination during tourist season: The
expected additional electricity demand will range
from 23,279 MWH to 11,03966 MWH in 2011
and 2,86,176 MWH to 15,16,565 MWH in 2021in
the top five destinations.
7. Disturbance to ecology and critical
habitats due to development of new tourist
circuits, tourist units and tourist destination:
Uncontrolled and unregulated tourism in new
areas / circuits / tourism units / tourism
destination / ecologically sensitive areas, fores,ts
villages, hills, mountain offer potential of
disturbance to ecology / critical habitats.
8. Unregulated activities / encroachments at
tourist / heritage / pilgrimage sites:
Land
encroachments by dhabas, vehicles at transit
points are major constraints in existing congested
space.
Buffer zone activities like camping rekindling of
bon fire at campsites, washing of clothes and
vehicles near water bodies / water sources / lakes
are a major source of air and water pollution.
9. Lack of awareness, training and capacity
building about environmental issues related
to tourism: The State lacks capacity in terms of
skills of human resources in the area of
hospitality / tourism as well as environmental
issues related to tourism. This is based on the fact
that there is a huge gap in existing tourism
infrastructure and the human resources needed to
manage it. Further, the existing skill set of human
resources of coordinating and collaborating
agencies needs to be upgraded to plan and
implement the selected response to address
environmental issues.
10. Lack of carrying capacity studies /
assessments: The growth in tourism in the State
has not been matched by adequate planning to
create infrastructure and facilities in tourist
circuits and destinations. This has resulted in
congestion of few tourist circuits / destinations.
Recently, Department of Tourism and Civil
Aviation has undertaken preparation of the
Tourism Master Plan to address this issue.
11. Inadequate attention on preservation of
local art, architecture and culture: Town and
Country Planning Department has not adequately
regulated the land use in the vicinity of the
protected monuments. Approval of design of the
new buildings infrastructure are planned,
designed and constructed with out adequately
considering the heritage, culture and are also not
in conformity to the local hill architecture.
Pressure on account of increasing gaps and slow
implementation of policy, programmes, plans and
projects is leading to emergence of sector specific
issues and risks/impacts. An analysis of the
issues, causes and impacts has been carried out
and summarized in Table 38.
Illegal collection of medicinal herbs and other
species of flora and fauna from in forest areas
leads to biodiversity loss.
53 | Page
Table 38: Issues/Causes and Impacts
Issues
Change in land use / Change in
Aesthetics / Inadequate tourist
infrastructure
−
−
Non-availability of safe drinking
water at tourist destination, tourist
circuits and trekking route.
Inadequate sanitation at tourist
units/tourist
destination
/
religious places / heritage sites
/trekking routes / tourist circuits
/ transportation routes.
−
−
−
−
Solid waste littering and improper
disposal along trekking routes,
tourist circuits and tourist
destination, e.g. plastic waste, pet
bottles, tetra-packs, wrapper of
snack food, food items and
batteries from cameras / audio
/video equipment.
Increased emissions due to
increased traffic at tourist
destination / tourist circuits /
tourist-routes / heritage sites /
religious places.
Disruption of electricity supply at
tourist destination during tourist
season due to shortage of power.
Disturbance to ecology and
critical
habitats
due
to
development of new tourist
circuits, tourist units and tourist
destinations.
Unregulated
activities
/
encroachments at tourist /
heritage / pilgrimage sites
Causes
This land may be created by hill
cutting or diversion of forest land.
Lack of hotels / accommodation
facility.
Unregulated construction at valley
side slope
Due to increasing tourist traffic,
there is an increase in the gap in
availability of safe drinking water and
its demand.
Unregulated sewage discharge and
open defecation.
Lack of infrastructure facilities like
latrines at transit points (Dhabas) &
soak pits.
Lack of adequate capacity of existing
sanitation infrastructure.
Non existence of sanitation
infrastructure at tourist destination /
tourist units.
Inadequate collection, treatment and
disposal facility of solid waste at
tourist units/destinations/ circuits,
leads to build up of solid waste at
these locations.
−
−
−
−
−
−
Impacts/ Risks
Biodiversity loss
Soil Erosion
Increased health risks / Unhygienic
and unsanitary conditions due to
overcrowding waste generation
beyond disposal capacity
Water borne disease / Health Risks
Spread of diseases
Ground water pollution
Contamination of the water source
/ Health Risks
−
−
Air/Water/Land pollution and
associated health risks due to
biodegradable, non-biodegradable
and hazardous waste disposal.
Aesthetics Pollution
Location specific traffic
congestion
Lack of parking space
Outdoor air quality deterioration
and associated health risks
Increased electricity demand from
the grid leading to power shortage
and power outages. Increased
demand requires accelerated hydro
power development
Uncontrolled and unregulated tourism
Impacts on account of new hydro
power development to meet
demand
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
Land encroachment e.g. space
occupied for parking of buses /
vehicles
Buffer zone activities / camping near
water sources / Water bodies / Lake
kindling of fire at campsites, washing
of vehicles near water source
Illegal collection of species of flora &
fauna in forest areas
Pilferage
−
−
−
Loss of vegetation due to new
trekking routes and diversion of
land
Change in habitat
Air & Water pollution
Biodiversity loss / Loss of items of
heritage, poor aesthetics
Congestion due to encroachment of
open space
54 | Page
Issues
Lack of awareness, training and
capacity
building
about
environmental issues related to
tourism
Inadequate
attention
preservation
of
local
architecture and culture
1.6
on
art,
Causes
Bathing in water body / lakes / rivers
Limited reach and extent of
awareness campaign due to
topography / hilly terrain
Lack of NGOs/CSOs participation
Inappropriate stress on awareness
generation
New buildings/infrastructure are
planned, designed and constructed
without adequately considering the
local architecture, heritage and
culture
Environment is an important aspect. With the
benefits of tourism reaching the people at the
grassroot level these tend to create their own
pressure groups. Some of the initiatives related to
the sector and analysis made as an impact on
environment are as follows:
•
Payment for ecosystem services: The
Conclave agreed to pursue the common
agenda to protect, conserve and enhance
forests and other natural resources of the
state. It was proposed to ensure that financial
incentives are provided for natural resources,
Unchanged consumer / tourists
behavior leading to continuation of
unfriendly environment practices
Faster degradation of
environmental and aesthetic value
of Tourist destinations
Loss of revenue generations
Increase in new buildings/
infrastructure which do not
conform to the laid down norms
Rise in obtrusive buildings/
infrastructure which do not blend
with local surroundings.
Risk of such places loosing value of
the destination as a tourist
circuits/destination)
which capture the cost of ecosystem services,
carbon sequestration as well as land and
livelihood opportunities. The need for the
13th Finance Commission to enunciate the
principle of payment to Himalayan states for
the
protection,
preservation
and
enhancement of forests and other natural
resources was prioritized and desired that the
Commission should provide adequate and
ample resources for sustainable development.
Environment initiatives taken by
the sector to address critical
environment issues
The Chief Ministers of Himachal Pradesh and
Uttarakhand, the Union Minister of State
(Independent Charge) of Environment and
Forests, Minister for Environment and Forests,
Jammu & Kashmir and senior officials
representing the states of Sikkim, Arunachal
Pradesh and representatives of civil society,
industry, media and academics met for the
Himalayan Chief Ministers’ Conclave in Shimla
on October 30, 2009. The Conclave agreed on
the following actions:-
Impacts/ Risks
•
•
Green transportation: The Conclave noted
that construction of roads in the fragile
region could have devastating impacts, if not
planned and built with care. It was agreed to
support technologies, which would provide
methods of building green roads and to
discuss these with central and states agencies
for urgent implementation. It was also agreed
to explore alternative forms of mass transit,
which is eco-friendly like railways and
ropeways.
Managing growth of eco-friendly tourism
and pilgrimage: The Conclave noted that
tourism and pilgrimage is an important
economic and social activity for the region.
However, the growth of unregulated tourism
or unmanaged pilgrimage could destroy the
very spiritual character and pristine ecology,
which attracts visitors in the first place. It is
55 | Page
therefore, imperative that the region explores
alternative models for this sector, which are
both eco-friendly and provide economic
livelihoods for local communities. It was
noted that different states have been
endeavouring to find such options and these
examples need to be learnt from and
emulated. For instance, there have been
successful efforts to introduce green taxes,
which have provided financial resources to
manage and neutralise the impacts of tourist
activity. Similarly, homestead tourism has
been promoted in many states, which has led
to local community interest in conservation
of the environment.
Revision of Eco-tourism policy: The EcoTourism Policy has been revised aiming to bring
the wilderness of Himachal Pradesh closer to the
tourist visiting the State and at the same time
attempts to put in place adequate safeguards and
systems leading to the preservation of these
natural resources. By involving the local
communities, the policy would help improve
their prosperity through increased livelihood
opportunities.
far as it amounts to removal of produce from
these areas. The society’s main purpose includes
appreciation, education and awareness of the
historical and cultural heritage of Himachal
Pradesh. The Society would endeavour to make
the State a resource centre and a learning
destination with reference to eco-tourism.
1.7
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector to
address critical environment
issues.
ADB Safeguards: The India Infrastructure
Development Investment Program for Tourism
(IDSIPT) envisages an environmentally and
culturally sustainable and socially inclusive
tourism development, in the project states of
Himachal Pradesh , Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Uttarakhand.
The Infrastructure Development Investment
Program for Tourism Financing Facility will
develop and improve basic urban infrastructure
and services in the four participating states of
Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand and
Tamil Nadu—to support the tourism sector as a
Promotion and development of Eco-tourism
key
driver for economic growth. It will focus on:
Society: The society is an autonomous and
(i)
strengthening
connectivity to and among key
independent body. Its main aim is to preserve
tourist destinations;(ii) improving basic urban
and protect the natural, historical and cultural
infrastructure and services, such as water supply,
heritage of Himachal Pradesh; in order that it acts
road and public transport, solid waste
as a preferred destination for visitors and
management, and environmental improvement at
provides opportunities to promote Community
existing and emerging tourist destinations to
Based Ecotourism (CBET) in Himachal Pradesh,
ensure urban amenities and safety for the visitors,
particularly using latest approaches of
and protect nature and culture-based attractions;
Participatory
Forestry
Management,
for
and (iii) capacity building programs for
sustainable development of the forests, thereby
concerned sector agencies and local communities
generating revenue for the State. The
for better management of the tourist destinations
involvement of local communities in the tourism
and more active participation in tourism-related
(called ‘eco-tourism’ herein after) would support
economic activities.
their livelihood needs and consequently create
their direct stake in conservation of local culture,
Tourism Master Plan: Department of Tourism
ecology and environment. This concept of
&
Civil Aviation has prepared Tourism Master
‘community based eco-tourism’ would go a long
Plan
for the State.
way in providing better income generation
options to the rural people. It would also mean
less dependence upon the natural resources, in so
56 | Page
1.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and water
pollution) carried out for
activities related to the sector
At present environment monitoring is not carried
out by Tourism department. But Environment
monitoring is being carried out by HPPCB within
the State at selected locations.
1.9
Institutional mechanisms within
the sector to address identified
environment issues
Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation: The
Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation is the
nodal department for the formulation of policies
and programmes and for the co-ordination of
activities of various Government Department
and the Private Sector for the development and
promotion of tourism in the State. The office of
the Commissioner /Director, Tourism & civil
aviation provides executive directions for the
implementation of various policies and
programmes.
Organisational Chart of Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation
1.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of population and
changing lifestyle; migratory
populations including tourists;
transhumant;
transit
labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environmental conditions.
In the year 2010, 1,32,65,602 tourists arrived in
the State of which 4,53,616 were foreigners.
Visitors from the U.K. dominate the list of
foreign arrivals. The details are given below in
Table 39.
57 | Page
Table 39: Yearwise Details of foreigners visiting Himachal Pradesh
Year 2002
Year 2003
Bed
Country
No. of
Bed nights
No. of
nights
visitors
spent.
visitors
spent.
U.K.
17524
37877
23881
43986
France
13435
28889
15155
26910
Italy
5325
11303
5857
10574
Canada
3909
8357
4377
7660
UAE
31
63
155
283
Pakistan
0
0
241
541
USA
8159
17617
10584
19935
Germany
8069
17245
12311
21809
Malaysia
1173
2491
1884
3542
Australia
5809
12541
6463
11558
Switzerland
4050
8592
4956
7700
Bangladesh
1696
3919
1599
3012
Sri Lanka
206
477
73
126
Japan
5009
10414
5015
9122
Saudi Arabia
5
16
119
187
Singapore
674
1407
954
1834
Iran
67
142
258
499
Others
69242
146534
74020
159583
Total
144383
307884
167902
328861
Source: Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Himachal Pradesh.
Year 2004
Bed
No. of
nights
visitors
spent.
28496
40966
16182
23716
11500
16260
5734
8645
180
280
155
241
12001
17231
12955
18158
2031
3171
7831
11857
4239
6345
890
1348
346
542
4457
6426
315
492
1136
1776
322
525
95574
144088
204344
302067
Year 2010
Bed
No. of
nights
visitors
spent.
65496
75489
29208
33723
13190
15667
13150
16023
592
760
202
289
32831
38959
21836
26116
5811
6930
18452
21762
5548
7354
6917
8433
1637
2206
8411
10483
577
762
3648
4686
472
635
225860
300455
453616
570443
However, domestic tourists continue to dominate
the market as is apparent from district wise data
given below in Table 40.
Table 40 (a): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
District
2002
Indians
Foreigners
477201
166
357060
1211
21786
54
828653
29060
9629
3439
1072695
48352
28175
20130
2244554
2240
1227710
37860
346321
676
236715
1164
128418
31
4958917
144383
2003
Indians
Foreigners
518299
220
404609
1177
36190
75
891516
32146
12109
3751
1290438
57833
35411
23585
220202
3052
1373635
44400
354128
544
263499
1102
144378
17
5544414
167902
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
Figures include religious tourists.
Source - Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Himachal Pradesh.
2004
Indians
Foreigners
584706
87
450803
1466
41532
92
1012567
38713
14219
4609
1477324
69649
40897
28615
269479
3581
1597246
55382
393596
726
288546
1424
174154
0
6345069
204344
Table 40 (b): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
2005
Indians
Foreigner
634781
128
448473
1617
42670
0
1080520
40923
2006
Indians
Foreigner
682353
126
493567
1952
47454
28
1133314
47412
2007
Indians
Foreigner
728666
325
559831
2504
124244
41
1245088
60377
58 | Page
District
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
2005
Foreigner
10098
2059
1641007
67933
44148
22997
337105
5122
1757307
64752
428859
779
314595
1480
188179
0
6927742
207790
Indians
2006
Foreigner
23128
12212
1867984
89751
52107
31525
375438
5417
1971417
90407
470926
750
346856
1947
207358
42
7671902
281569
Indians
2007
Indians
55158
1962424
85749
465137
2095946
514752
373447
271546
8481988
Foreigner
24258
102654
40080
6815
98839
1048
2419
49
339409
Table 40 (c): District breakup of domestic and foreign tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh
District
2008
Indians
Foreigner
683761
190
644309
3953
279745
53
1275155
70819
147754
20733
2001674
112910
172931
41398
603086
9154
2061539
112917
575798
1785
480125
2693
446820
91
9372697
376736
2009
Foreigner
886495
170
686136
3353
432433
34
1403963
75549
271287
13811
2224649
119514
251415
65101
869904
8070
2175314
108981
653668
2090
586388
3811
594920
99
11036572
400583
Indians
2010
Indians
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
Figures pilgrims.
Source - Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Himachal Pradesh.
Foreigner
962061
786163
554970
1631232
384936
2395990
362660
1006418
2485564
748599
673932
819461
12811986
86
3253
12
91709
18742
133707
59125
10485
127737
2712
5780
268
453616
Table 41 (a): Total Tourist Arrivals
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H.P
1996
145586
23175
18106
146728
3806
396203
16869
84750
631282
20166
148903
17286
1652860
1997
295055
435722
20372
603567
5510
732811
24832
150929
828992
258818
166907
369432
3892947
1998
323905
459503
21638
664409
6632
812895
27617
164792
912508
285103
181657
394913
4255572
1999
336212
474407
22863
691889
4181
866537
24060
174358
962691
292780
189034
405275
4444287
2000
360713
465381
27012
717266
4411
928050
31633
191890
1063200
317895
209608
364261
4681320
2001
401809
500109
33498
828198
9200
1043187
41672
240014
1167085
345520
242199
392229
5244720
2004
452269
584793
41624
1051280
18828
1546973
69512
273060
1652628
394322
289970
174154
6549413
Table 41 (b): Total Tourist Arrivals
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
2005
450090
634909
42670
1121443
12157
2006
495519
682479
47482
1180726
35340
2007
562335
728991
124285
1305465
79416
2008
648262
683951
279798
1345974
168527
2009
314252
483539
289309
827160
169388
2010
962147
789416
554982
1722941
403678
59 | Page
District
Kullu
Lahaul and Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H. P
2005
1708940
67145
342227
1822059
429638
316075
188179
7135532
2006
1957735
83632
380855
2061824
471676
348803
207400
7953471
2007
2065078
125829
471952
2194785
515800
375866
271595
8821397
2008
2114584
234329
612240
2174456
577583
482818
446911
9769433
2009
2010
1388025
2529697
161905
421785
636774
1016903
1408015
2613301
378577
751311
323664
679712
307022
819729
6687630 13265602
Table 42 (a): Foreign Tourist Arrivals
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and Spiti
Mandi.
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
1996
968
208
17
11425
1746
12390
11751
2979
7899
8
1903
66
51360
1997
1202
321
16
13310
2373
15793
13171
3360
10482
195
2145
159
62527
1998
1472
337
18
17689
2758
17613
15054
4088
13515
214
2346
102
75206
1999
1562
584
26
22019
983
27597
10185
5654
19188
507
3001
138
91444
2000
1862
834
70
26344
648
33244
12994
6454
24225
821
3491
204
111191
2001
1616
815
170
28441
1830
41891
17709
6845
31022
1097
1580
12
133028
2004
1466
87
92
38713
4609
69649
28615
3581
55382
726
1424
0
204344
Table 42 (b): Foreign Tourist Arrivals
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and Spiti
Mandi.
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
2005
1617
128
0
40923
2059
67933
22997
5122
64752
779
1480
0
207790
2006
126
1952
28
47412
12212
89751
31525
5417
90407
750
1947
42
281569
As per 20 year perspective plan for sustainable
tourism by Government of India, Ministry of
Tourism and Culture, Department of Tourism
and market research division,projection for bed
requirement and according bed gaps for year
2011 and 2021 is summarized below.
Demand Supply Gap – Beds: Dynamic
Projection: The expected bed gaps for the short
term, mid term and long term on the basis of
dynamic projections is given below in Table 43.
2007
2504
325
41
60377
24258
102654
40080
6815
98839
1048
2419
49
339409
2008
3953
190
53
70819
20773
112910
41398
9154
112917
1785
2693
91
376736
2009
2356
135
34
43843
4322
52676
5436
4059
53690
1265
2246
33
170095
2010
86
3253
12
91709
18742
133707
59125
10485
127737
2712
5780
268
453616
Table 43: Demand Supply Gap - Short Term
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and Spiti
Mandi.
Shimla
2005
Beds
Beds
Required
Available
(BR)
(BA)
(2002E)
6550
4914
6778
5834
466
391
12631
9911
239
125
17483
12609
748
530
3286
2817
19743
14325
GAPS BR
– BA
(2002E)
1636
944
75
2720
113
4874
218
469
5419
60 | Page
District
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal
Pradesh
2005
Beds
Beds
Required
Available
(BR)
(BA)
(2002E)
4708
4034
3953
2970
4905
4489
81491
62950
GAPS BR
– BA
(2002E)
675
983
416
18541
2002E: Indicates the estimate on beds available in the year 2002
Table 44: Demand Supply Gap - Mid Term
2011
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and
Spiti
Mandi.
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal
Pradesh
Beds
Beds
Required
Available
(BR)
(BA)
(2002E)
11651
4914
12054
5834
752
391
22909
9911
852
125
24072
12609
GAPS
BR – BA
(2002E)
6737
6220
361
12998
727
11463
1002
4463
27003
8514
6986
6574
530
2817
14325
4034
2970
4489
472
1646
12678
4481
4016
2085
126833
62950
63883
Table 45: Demand Supply Gap - Long Term
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul and
Spiti
Mandi.
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal
Pradesh
2021
Beds
Required
(BR)
11651
12054
752
22909
852
24072
Beds
Available
(BA)
4914
5834
391
9911
125
12609
GAPS
BR – BA
(2002E)
15495
13909
716
28610
2406
21894
1002
4463
27003
8514
6986
6574
530
2817
14325
4034
2970
4489
2070
3484
23787
7751
8410
6233
126833
62950
134765
1.11
Information on human resource
management issues (which may
have relevance to environment
management) in the sector such
as
manpower,
vocational
training, awareness levels etc.
Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation
1. Commissioner/Director, Tourism & Civil
Aviation: Commissioner/Director, Tourism &
Civil Aviation, being Administrative and
professional head of the Tourism & Civil
Aviation Department in the State is responsible
for working of his/her Department, shall
exercise all administrative & financial powers as
adjoined upon the Director/Head of the
Department in the Himachal Pradesh Govt.
He/She will control all Tourism & Civil Aviation
Department’s affairs in the State and allied
activities, for which any special instructions
considered necessary for administrative and
professional reason, shall be issued by him/her
from time to time to his/her subordinate staff.
2.
Additional Director, Tourism & Civil
Aviation: The Additional Director shall assist
the Commissioner/Director, Tourism in the
performance
of
his/her
duties
and
responsibilities. He/She will be responsible for
getting finalized all the establishment matters.
He/She will also responsible for the matters of
land references, audit, PAC/CAG, Vidhan
Sabha, Civil Aviation, budget, regulation of
Tourist Trade Act, Tourism Master Plan, stores
and purchases and ropeways projects etc.
3. Joint Director: He/She will assist the
Commissioner/Director, Tourism in the
performance
of
his/her
duties
and
responsibilities. He/She will be responsible in the
matters of publicity, fairs & festivals, hospitalyit,
works (Centrally Sponsored Schemes and State),
adventure sports activities, approval of hotels
projects/joint venture projects, Tourism
Development Board and Vidhan Sabha matters
relating to above subjects.
61 | Page
Ÿ Himachal Pradesh Non-Biodegradable
Other Staff are:
Ÿ Publicity Officer
Garbage (Control) Act, 1995.
Ÿ District Tourism Development Officer
Ÿ The Home Stay Scheme 2008
Ÿ Assistant Tourism Development Officer
Ÿ Eco-tourism policies promote capacity
building and inter department cooperation.
Ÿ Superintendent, fossil park, Suketi
Ÿ Citizen's Charter, Ministry of Culture,
Ÿ Private secretary
Government of India
Ÿ Superitendent, Grade-II
Ÿ The Himachal Pradesh Ancient and
Ÿ Inspector (hotels)
Ÿ Tourist Information Officer
Ÿ Tourist information-cum-liaison Officer
Ÿ Senior Assistant
Ÿ The Ancient Monuments and Archae-
ological Sites and Remains Act of 1958
Ÿ Statistical Assistant
Ÿ The Himachal Pradesh Hindu Public
Ÿ Junior Assistant/Clerk
Religious Institutions and Charitable
Endowments Rules 1984
Ÿ Junior Scale Stenographer
Ÿ Steno Typist
Ÿ The Himachal Pradesh Town and Country
Ÿ Driver
Planning Act, 1977.
Ÿ Peon
Ÿ The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment
Ÿ Chowkidar
Act, 2002 and 2006.
Ÿ Safai Karamchari/Sweeper
1.12
Ÿ The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972,
Regulatory analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment implications (negative or positive), and
compliance with the same
Tourism, Art & Culture and cross sector policy and
regulatory framework at State level shows the
intent of the State government to address
environmental issues related to the sector. A list of
policy, plan and programmes is given below.
Ÿ State's Tourism Policy 2005 promotes
environmentally sustainable tourism.
Ÿ Schemes for development of
Historical Monuments and Archaeological
Sites and Remains Act, 1976 (Act no. 32
1976
tourist
infrastructure and civic amenities.
Ÿ Banning use of plastic, carry bag and plastic
items in the state since October, 2009.
amended 1993.
Ÿ The Wildlife (Protection) Rules, 1995.
Ÿ The Indian Forest Act, 1927.
Ÿ Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, amended
1988.
Ÿ Forest (Conservation) Rules, 1981 amended
1992 and 2003.
Ÿ The Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974, amended 1988.
Ÿ The Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act 1981, amended 1987.
Ÿ The Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Rules, 1982.
Ÿ The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
amended 1991 and including the following
Rules/Notification issued under this Act.
62 | Page
Ÿ The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986,
as amended from live to live.
Ÿ The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management
and Handling) Rules, 2000.
Ÿ Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control)
Rules, 2000.
Ÿ Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act,
2002.
Ÿ Environmental Impact Assessment
Notification, 2006.
Reference
Ÿ Department of Tourism & Civil Aviation,
Himachal Pradesh
Ÿ HP Tourism Development Corporation
Ÿ Atal Bihari Bajpayee Institute of
Mountaineering and Allied Sports, Manali
Ÿ Department of Forest , Himachal Pradesh
Ÿ State Environment Report
Ÿ Department of Language, Art & Culture,
Himachal Pradesh
Ÿ Department of
Planning, Himachal
Pradesh
th
Ÿ 11 Five year plan of Himachal Pradesh
Ÿ Eco-tourism Society
Ÿ Ministry of Tourism, GoI
Ÿ Districts Statistical Abstract
Ltd.
63 | Page
CHAPTER 2 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY & SEWAGE
Status as on
Total
01.04.2005
01.04.2008
01.04.2009
01.12.2009
9389
5055
3632
2842
22347
16527
12421
10043
31736
21582
16053
12885
20112
30266
35795
38983
51848
51848
51848
51868
Water supply
Rural Water Supply (RWS) in H.P:H.P. has a
total of 16997 inhabited villages and 45367
habitations. All villages in HP have been covered
under water supply schemes. Most of the Rural
Water Supply Schemes (RWSS) were
commissioned in 1980, under Drinking Water
Decade related programmes. All villages were
covered by the year 1994. Out of the total 45367
habitations reported in April 1996, 4590
habitations were classified as not covered, 14047
habitations were partially covered and rest fully
covered. Nearly two-third of the partially
covered habitations are situated in the districts
of Kangra, Shimla and Hamirpur with a
considerable proportion of area lying in the
Shivaliks. General features of these dry areas are
very thin soil cover, steep slope and high runoff
with little water retention at catchment level.
Most of the partially covered habitations are
located in Kangra followed by Hamirpur.
There are 7989 water supply schemes in
Himachal Pradesh. Out of these 1496 are lift
water supply schemes, 91 are tube well schemes
and 6402 are gravity schemes. In addition, 14230
hand pumps are installed in the state up to May
2006.
Rural Water Supply Scheme
(Fully covered)
(FC)
Table 1:
Total NC/PC
Irrigation and Public Health (IPH) Department
is responsible for planning, design, construction,
operation and maintenance of surface water
resources (water supply and irrigation) projects
in the State. IPH is responsible for development
of water related infrastructure such as drinking
water supply schemes, sewerage systems,
irrigation systems through source development,
lifting water, digging of tube wells & providing
water distribution systems, flood protection
works to protect life and property in the State.
As per census 1981, there were 16807 villages.
All of them have been provided with drinking
water facilities. As per a survey conducted in
2003, the slipped back habitations have also
been identified and it is further bifurcated to
three main categories 0-10 LPCD. Not Covered
(NC), 11-40 LPCD Partially Covered (PC) and
Fully Covered (FC). Status of rural water supply
scheme in terms of villages covered is given in
Table 1.
(Partially
Covered) (PC)
Resource inventory of existing
assets of the sector
(Not Covered)
(NC)
2.1
45,367 habitations have been covered as per
guidelines of Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking
Water Mission (RGNDWM) up to March 2008.
The Government of India, Government of
Himachal Pradesh under Accelerated Rural
Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) has
accorded top priority to provide water supply to
NC/PC (0-10 LPCD) habitations.
Urban Water Supply SchemeW
: ater Supply
system of towns in H.P. is quite old. There are
56 towns in the State of which water supply to 6
towns namely Yol, Kasauli, Subathu, Dagshai,
Dalhausie and Bakloh is being provided by
Cantonment Board, Parwanoo by H.P. Housing
Board, Palampur by Municipal Committee,
Palampur. In Shimla and Solan, the distribution
system is being maintained by the respective
Urban Local Bodies.
Augmentations of water supply schemes of 43
towns have been completed. These towns are
Shree Naina Devi Jee, Nadaun, Rampur, Una,
64 | Page
Chowari, Kangra, Jawalamukhi, Nahan, Rohru,
Santokhgarh, Mehatpur, Dehra, Chamba,
Rewalsar, Arki, Daulatpur, Jogindernagar,
Manali, Kullu, Kotkhai, Sujanpur, Ghumarwin,
Chaupa, Sunni, Palampur, Gagret, Nagrota,
Hamirpur, Mandi, Nalagarh, Narkanda, Nurpur,
Paonta, Theog, Dalhousie, Shah Talai, Rajgarh,
Sarkaghat, Bhota, Solan, Bhunter, Jubbal and
Dharamshala.
Sources of Water Supply: The State’s water
resources owe their existence to the good
precipitation during winter and during monsoon
season. These resources include glaciers,
perennial streams draining into rivers, water
bodies including natural lakes and manmade
reservoirs, innumerable water springs and large
stocks of sub-soil water. In the State, there are
five river systems for water resource availability.
The details of these five major rivers and its
tributaries are given in Table 2.
Table 2:
Major River systems and their
tributaries
River
System
S.No
Catchment
Area (Km2)
1
Sutlej
20,398
2
Beas
13,663
3
Chenab
7,850
Table 4:
Major Tributaries
(join in the State
territory)
Spiti, Ropa, Kasang,
Mulgaon, Yul, Wanger
and the Throng. Tirung,
Gayanthing,
Duling,
Baspa, Solding, Manglad
and Nogli streams
Parbati, Hurla, Sainj,
Tirthan, Uhl, Sakeri,
Luni, Awa, Banganga,
Manuni, Guj and Chaki
Chandra
from
the
south-east and
the
S.No
4
5
River
System
Yamuna
Ravi
Catchment
Area (Km2)
5,872
5,528
An inventory of district wise source of drinking
water in the State is given in Table 3 and for
urban and rural area of districts of state is given
in Table 4. As the Table shows, taps, hand
pumps, tube wells and wells supply drinking
water.
Table 3:
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal
Pradesh
Different sources of water at
District level
Ground Surface Rain
water
water water
827
1717
1057
1602
0
1
786
2433
485
1317
3392
290
0
3
0
11
0
0
833
233
644
344
832
8186
3924
3917
2249
1090
123
20,223
0
5
0
0
1
20
Chamba
Kangra
Lahaul &
Traditional
source
461
2598
231
1369
Other
conventional
sources
57
0
836
1
466
0
0
1483
2518
535
1215
21
10,512
840
9
9
316
116
2595
0
Different sources of drinking water (Urban and Rural)
Source of drinking water
District
Major Tributaries
(join in the State
territory)
Bhaga from the northwest join at Tandi (2286
m) to form the Chenab.
Tons, Pabbar and Giri
Chirchind nala on the
left-bank and Budhill,
Tundah, Burjeri, Saho
and Siul on the rightbank join it.
Type
of
Area
Population
Total no.
of
Household
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
460,887
426,345
34,542
1,339,030
1,266,745
72,285
33,224
87,699
80,574
7,125
272,697
257,467
15,230
9,155
Tap
76,952
70,159
6,793
220,154
205,599
14,555
7,803
Hand
Pump
1,120
1,017
103
16,571
16,372
199
533
Tube Well Well
60
52
8
1,206
1,190
16
3
512
510
2
19,843
19,727
116
25
No. of
Households being
served by safe
drinking water
source
78,644
71,738
6,906
257,774
242,888
14,886
8,364
65 | Page
Source of drinking water
District
Spiti
Kullu
Mandi
Hamirpur
Una
Bilaspur
Solan
Sirmaur
Shimla
Kinnaur
State
Total
Type
of
Area
Population
Total no.
of
Household
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
33,224
0
381,571
351,478
30,093
901,344
840,362
60,982
412,700
382,494
30,206
448,273
408,849
39,424
340,885
318,934
21,951
500,557
409,362
91,195
458,593
410,923
47,670
722,502
555,269
167,233
78,334
78,334
0
6,077,900
5,482,319
595,581
9,155
0
78,362
70,565
7,797
186,571
171,299
15,272
87,596
81,097
6,499
88,869
80,790
8,079
67,195
61,648
5,547
98,519
77,414
21,105
82,543
72,664
9,879
160,646
114,066
46,580
20,781
20,781
0
1,240,633
1,097,520
143,113
7,803
0
68,731
61,355
7,376
170,740
155,962
14,778
74,037
68,445
5,592
70,464
63,890
6,574
56,357
50,993
5,364
78,034
58,205
19,829
60,450
51,217
9,233
142,661
98,406
44,255
17,347
17,347
0
1,043,730
909,381
134,349
Well is the major source of drinking water
accounting for 52% of source followed by 43%
by tap and 5% by hand pumps. Data on taps also
indicate the coverage of population by piped
water supply.
Table 5:
Hand
Pump
Tap
Tube Well Well
533
0
1,047
843
204
2,603
2,437
166
4,962
4,283
679
8,515
7,779
736
3,030
2,924
106
3,219
2,857
362
5,967
5,702
265
1,539
928
611
166
166
0
49,272
45,841
3,431
3
0
44
41
3
274
269
5
151
135
16
1,660
1,197
463
173
170
3
1,951
1,431
520
435
390
45
192
160
32
9
9
0
6,158
5,047
1,111
25
0
1,242
1,218
24
5,638
5,525
113
6,168
6,043
125
7,312
7,056
256
2,947
2,908
39
5,227
5,161
66
4,243
4,163
80
5,624
5,275
349
240
240
0
59,021
57,851
1,170
No. of
Households being
served by safe
drinking water
source
8,364
0
71,064
63,457
7,607
179,255
164,193
15,062
85,318
78,906
6,412
87,951
79,922
8,029
62,507
56,995
5,512
88,431
67,654
20,777
71,095
61,472
9,623
150,016
104,769
45,247
17,762
17,762
0
1,158,181
1,018,120
140,061
Water demand and supply specifications in terms
of per capita norms, total hours of water supply,
water losses due to system leakages is given in
Table 5.
Water Supply Status
Shimla circle 9
Per Capita
Per capacity norm for
town/city
Total hours of supply
Water losses due to system
loses leakages
Nurpur
Circle
Nurpur
(Kangra)
Sunni
Town
NAC
Narkanda
Arki
(Solan)
Theog(Shimla)
70 LPCD
70 LPCD
120 LPCD
120 LPCD
120 LPCD
70 LPCD
70 LPCD
120 LPCD
120LPCD
120 LPCD
per day
12 hrs
12 hrs
12 hrs
1-2 hrs
2
%
2%
2%
-
0.50 MLD
5%
100%
domestic
66 | Page
2
Theog
(Shimla)
1
Nurpur
Circle
Nurpur
(Kangra)
1
-
0.59 MLD
3.50 MLD
1.894
2007-08
2007-08
2008-09
2008-09
0.653
0.45
-
-
2.07
0.444
0.305
0.832
0.35
2.07
0.444
0.305
0.59
0.25
1.894
0.444
0.305
0.864
0.396
0.59
Khud & spring
source
Domestic-0.3 MLD
Commercial 0.16
MLD
Institutional -0.05
MLD,
Public stand Post0.08 MLD
3
0.35
1.894
Girikhad
(1374.25lps)
Domestic-0.35
MLD
Commercial 0.35 MLD
Public stand
Post-0.25
MLD
3
19
360 KL, 66
2138000
KL & 140
Kl
KL
Shimla circle 9
No. of times supplied
Sunni
Town
1
0.444
MLD
Daily
Present demand of water
Installed
capacity of
system(MLD)
Quantity of
water
produced
(MLD)
Quantity of
water
supplied
(MLD)
Raw water
Treated
(with flow
data)
Quantity of water
produced
Potential water supply
sources for city
NAC
Narkanda
1
Arki (Solan)
Present per capita quantity
of piped water supplied to
users
Domestic
(Total)
0.444
MLD
0.305
No. of reservoir
Nos.
1
1
Storage capacity of
reservoir
L
318 KL
204 KL
811000,50000 &
800000 KLD
Treatment plants
Sedimentation
F/Bed/(ISB)
1 (Nos.)
2+1 (SB)
1 (Nos.)
2 (Nos.)
1
1
Shimla circle 9
Total installed
capacity (MLD)
Sedimentation
F/Bed(ISB)
Chlorination
using
Type of treatment
Bleaching
powder
Periodicity of monitoring water
quality
Source
Source of water
Types of
source
Present
Quantity
obtained
(MLD)
Distance to
source (Km)
Nil
Nurpur Circle
Nurpur
(Kangra)
Sunni
Town
NAC Narkanda
Arki (Solan)
Theog(Shimla)
0.08
0.4
0.05
0.255
0.10 MLD
5.29
-
Alum &
Chlorine
Alum & chlorine
Chlorination
Twice in a yr.
-
-
-
Nallah source I
& II
Arki Khud
Spring Sakni
Girikhad
Surface
Surface
Surface
Twice in a
yr.
Gharat
Nallah
surface
0.444
0.45
1.3 km
2.25
Arki khud - 0.5
MLD Spring
Sakni- 0.32
MLD
Arki Khud-0.5
km Spring
Sakni 0.1 km
3.50 MLD
-
8 km
67 | Page
Per Capita
Per Capacity norm for
town/city
Total hours of supply
Water losses due to system loses
& leakages
No. of times supplied
Present demand of water
Quantity of water produced
Potential water supply sources
for city
Chamba
125 lpcd
Chamba Circle
Dalhousie
Chowari
120 lpcd
120lpcd
Bilaspur
70 lpcd
4 hrs
0.30
MLD
2
3.31
MLD
2 hrs
4 hrs
15%
2
12%
2
135 lpcd
2 hrs
0.10 MLd
(%)
1
4.16
0.529
5.72 MLD
3.31
3.31
3.31
3.31
25.92
4.16
3.328
0.588
0.529
0.529
0.529
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.08
Kosserian
Nallah = 0.25
Changer
Nallah = 0.13
Nallah Ka
Noun =0.40
& Tube wells
= 2.30 ;
Total= 2.08
3.328
-
-
Present per capita Quantity of
piped water supplied to users
135 lpcd
141.6 MLD
0.529
70lpcd
No. of reservoir
Storage capacity of reservoir
6
1450000
11
454000
3
109000,2600,1
900 Kld (Total
= 154 000
Kld)
10
2327 kl
Treatment plants
Total installed capacity (Mld)
1
3.31
MLD
1
Nil
2.17 MLD
Nil
Alum &
chlorine
Type of treatment
Chamba
Periodicity of monitoring
water quality
Chaminoo
Nallah
Source of water
surface
Chamba Circle
Dalhousie
Jandrighat
Punjpulla Bathri
Nallah Dain Kund
Ahla Source
Jandrighat Ground PunjpullaGround Bathri
Nallah - surface
Dain Kund Ground Ahla
Source- Ground
Alum &
Chlorine
Bilaspur Circle
Nainadevi
14 L per pilgrim
Ghumarwin
120lpcd
120 lpcd
135 lpcd
2 hrs
3-4 hrs
0.05 (%)
1
10%
2
-
1 MLD
1 MLD
1 MLD
1 MLd
-
Govind sagar
Seer
Khad
7 (Storage
Tank)
1000 Kld
2
170
1
1.20 Mld
Chlorine
-
Bilaspur Circle
Nainadevi
Alum &
Chlorine
Chowari
Bilaspur
Ghumarwin
Banolog
spring
Jamwali
Spring
Kosserian Nallah ,
Changer Nallah,
Nallah Ka Noun ,
Tube wells
Govind
Sagar
Seer Khad
Ground
Spring
Surface
Surface
68 | Page
Chamba
3.31
Chamba Circle
Dalhousie
Chowari
Jandrighat - 0.131
MLd Punjpulla Banolog Spring0.138 Mld Bathri
0.231 Jamwali
Nallah - 2.450 Mld
Spring- 0.36 (in
Dain Kund - 0.035
Mld)
Mld Ahla Source 0.827 Mld
12 km
0 km
-
No.of reservoir
Rampur (Shimla)
120 lpcd
120 lpcd
12 hrs
0.013 MLD
2
1.08 MLD
1.295
1.295
1.282
1.282
Domestic Total -0.989
MLD Commercial - 0.145
MLD Institutional - 0.130
MLD Public Stand Post 0.018 MLd
9
Storage capacity of reservoir
1.288 MLd
Treatment plants
2
Per Capita
Per capacity norm for town/city
Total hours of supply
Water losses due to system leakages
No. of times supplied
Present demand of water
Quantity of water produced
Potential water supply sources for city
Present per capita Quantity of piped water
supplied to users
Total installed capacity (MLD)
Type of treatment
Periodicity of monitoring water quality
Source of water
Bilaspur
Ghumarwin
Kosserian Nallah
= 0.25 Changer
Nallah = 0.13
Nallah Ka Noun
=0.40 Tube wells
=1.30
0.7 Mld
-
Kosserian Nallah
= 5 km Changer
Nallah = 2 km
Nallah Ka Noun
=1 km & Tube
wells =3 km
3.5 km
1 Km
Peo(Kinnaur)
135 lpcd
2-3 hrs
2
1.51 MLD
1.51 MLD
1.51 MLD
8
1800+10000+18000+86000+86000+10000+20
00000+29000 =2240800
Sedimentation - 2 units
F.Bed - 3 unit
1.035+0.259= 1.295
Chlorine
Raw water - weekly
Treated water - daily;
At distribution network daily
Nogli Khad, Browni
Nallah
Surface
Nogli Khad - 1.036 MLd
Browni Nallah - 0.259
Mld
Nogli Khad - 11 km
Browni Nallah -8 km
Bilaspur Circle
Nainadevi
1.51 MLd (Total)
Chlorine
Mabar Nallah
Surface
1.51 MLD
-
69 | Page
Table 6:
Villages with drinking water facilities in HP
1981
Chamba
Pangi
Chaurah
Saluni
Bhattiyat
Sihunta
Bharmaur
1098
242
60
179
202
231
80
104
942
Billaspur sadar
278
278
Ghumarwin
543
543
District
Tehsil
Chamba
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Ghum
arwin
Gehrw
in
Chamba
Pangi
Tisa
Saluni
Mehla
Bhattiyat
Bharmaur
1118
111
59
170
225
129
323
101
965
417
417
Bilaspur
sardar
428
426
265
265
Ghumarwin
262
262
268
268
Gehrwin
275
275
1635
343
339
310
447
1632
343
339
308
446
196
196
Kangra
Nurpur
Indora
Fatehpur
3619
290
284
193
292
3611
290
283
193
288
99.1
99.8
1617
342
337
308
434
1617
342
337
308
434
Sujanpur Tira
196
196
Sujanpur Tira
196
196
Kangra
Nurpur
Indora
Fatehpur
3753
832
511
107
250
3753
832
511
107
250
Kangra
Nurpur
Indora
3620
288
504
347
3619
288
164
347
Lambagraon
284
284
114
114
Nagrota
190
189
Dehra Gopipur
Palampur
765
761
765
761
268
270
268
269
Pragpur
Rait
266
273
266
272
Khundian
243
243
282
282
Nagrota Bagwan282
282
291
507
260
95
507
260
293
507
262
292
507
262
Lambagraon
272
272
274
274
Baijnath
217
217
Bhawarna
Dehra
Panchrukhi
Lambagrao
n
Baijnath
213
234
213
123
Poo
80
30
Kalpa
66
55
Nichar
88
40
172
50
37
42
17
26
172
50
37
42
17
26
100
Kullu
Naggar
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
287
266
92.7
192
95
190
76
2833
2833
320
320
268
268
77
77
Hangrang
8
8
Poo
12
12
Morang
12
12
Kalpa
Nichar
Sangla
12
22
11
169
85
41
16
27
12
22
11
169
85
41
16
27
239
239
127
47
65
127
47
65
Kullu
Naggar
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
Lahaul
Spiti
Udaipur
Mandi
Mandi
Billaspur
1144
110
61
188
230
130
326
99
950
%
(drinking
water
facility)
Hamirpur
Bijhri
Bhoranj
Nadaun
Lahaul &
Spiti
Lahaul &
Spiti
Chamba
Pangi
Tisa
Saluni
Mehla
Bhattiyat
Bharmaur
CD block
1621
351
341
308
425
Kullu
Kullu
CD block
Villages
with
drinking
water
facility
1108
111
59
164
223
129
322
100
963
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
1621
351
341
308
425
Kinnaur
Kinnaur
Tehsil
2001
Villages
with
drinking
water
facility
1144
110
61
188
230
130
326
99
950
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
Hamirpur
Barsar
Bhoranj
Nadaun
Kangra
Kangra
1991
Villages
with
drinkin
g water
facility
1098
242
60
179
202
231
80
104
942
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
Nagrota
Surian
Pragpur
Rait
Nagrota
Bagwan
Bhawarna
Dehra
Panchrukhi
Hangra
ng
Poo
Moran
g
Kalpa
Nichar
Sangla
Kullu
Naggar
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
172
50
37
42
17
26
172
50
37
42
17
26
272
270
Lahaul
Spiti
191
81
190
80
2806
2806
Mandi
490
490
Mandi Sadar
320
320
JogindarNaggar
398
398
Chauntra
269
269
Hamirpur
Bijhri
Bhoranj
Nadaun
Sujanpur
Tira
Lahaul
Spiti
Mandi
Sadar
Chauntra
99.8
99.8
52.56
100
70 | Page
1981
District
Lad Bharol
Sandhol
Sarkaghat
142
93
471
SundarNaggar
243
243
Bali chokri
Chachyot sub
Tehsil
Chachyot tehsil
Karsog
89
272
302
258
243
243
89
Drang
Gopalpur
Dharampur
SundarNagga
r
Rawalsar
172
196
196
Chachyot
165
519
2225
566
119
60
156
202
392
Seraj
Karsog
Shimla
Rampur
Nankhari
Kumharsain
Seoni
Theog
165
519
2225
566
119
60
156
202
392
Chaupal
123
123
Tehsil
Rampur
Narkanda
Mashobra
Chauhra
Theog
Chaupal
Jubbal
Kotkhai
244
244
172
172
225
225
Chachyot
232
232
236
521
2311
212
154
754
79
394
295
521
521
2311
212
154
754
79
394
295
Seraj
Karsog
Rampur
Narkanda
Mashobra
Basantpur
Chauhra
Theog
248
518
2520
239
166
490
276
127
400
248
518
2491
239
165
485
276
126
394
257
257
Chaupal
353
340
303
301
166
165
966
140
121
262
209
951
140
119
249
209
184
184
Solan
Kunihar
Kandaghat
Dharampur
Nalagarh
50
2388
478
477
269
545
619
50
2321
469
472
268
518
594
Una
Amb
Gagret
Dhundla
758
104
240
108
306
751
104
237
106
304
177
Rajgarh
Pachhad
Renuka
Nahan
89
172
169
967
140
261
166
149
89
172
169
967
140
261
166
149
Sangarh
Pachhad
Nahan
121
400
209
121
400
209
Paonta Sahib
186
186
Paonta Sahib
185
185
Shillai
65
2358
471
475
240
258
541
373
552
74
175
270
33
65
2358
471
475
240
258
541
373
549
74
173
269
33
Shillai
Solan
Kunihar
Kandaghat
Dharampur
Nalagarh
50
2348
467
470
263
540
608
50
2348
467
470
263
540
608
Una
Amb
Gagret
Dhundla
552
71
163
47
271
552
71
163
47
271
Arki
Solan
Ramshahr
Kandaghat
Kasauli
Nalagarh
Una
Amb
Bangana
Haroli
Rohru
271
301
259
172
Drang
Gopalpur
Dharampur
SundarNag
gar
Rawalsar
177
Una
Una
CD block
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Rohru
Solan
Solan
Tehsil
Villages
%
with
(drinking
drinking
water
water
facility)
facility
271
301
259
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
Neerua
Sirmaur
Sirmaur
2001
Villages
with
drinking
water
facility
272
302
258
Shimla
Shimla
1991
Villages
with
drinkin
g water
facility
142
93
471
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
166
965
166
CD block
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Rohru
965
Rajgarh
Sangrah
Pachhad
Nahan
Paonta
Sahib
Shillai
No. of
inhabit
ed
villages
98.8
98.4
97.2
99.1
71 | Page
Table 7:
Villages with availability of different sources of drinking water facilities
Number of villages with availability of different sources of drinking water available
District
CD block
Chamba
Chamba
Chamba
Pangi
Tissa
Salooni
Mehla
Bhattiyat
Bharmaur
Bilaspur
Bilaspur
Bilaspur
Sadar
Ghumarwin
Gehrwin
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Bijhri
Bhoranj
Nadaun
Sujanpur Tira
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Nurpur
Indora
Fatehpur
Nagrota
Pragpur
Rait
Nagrota
Bagwan
Bhawarna
Dehra
Panchrukhi
Lambagran
Baijnath
Kinnaur
Kinnaur
Poo
Kalpa
Nichar
Kullu
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Kullu
Naggar
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
Lahaul
Spiti
Tank
Only
tube
well
River
Fountain
Canal
Other
More than one
source (only
from tap, well,
tube well,
handpump)
8
0
0
3
2
0
3
0
278
3
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
123
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43
30
0
3
1
0
0
22
4
15
664
79
54
60
166
76
193
36
409
6
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
-
169
16
0
18
18
9
98
10
389
760
84
56
73
177
85
243
42
755
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
426
109
62
12
6
182
-
156
331
-
262
275
1,632
343
339
308
446
196
3,605
289
283
193
283
189
266
272
76
93
1,010
197
260
298
215
40
1,421
98
192
159
215
124
174
71
29
32
48
26
1
15
2
4
611
15
87
12
159
85
6
4
22
9
27
9
5
11
2
175
4
33
22
58
30
5
1
4
5
19
5
1
3
10
257
27
11
2
30
13
33
8
114
113
83
60
9
9
1
4
621
76
25
16
35
15
52
7
7
49
5
2
2
7
9
4
102
131
550
166
108
127
109
40
1,523
150
109
78
102
104
100
133
205
219
1,196
279
284
304
250
79
2,610
238
241
163
257
155
224
168
-
282
44
4
2
5
27
1
103
131
-
292
507
262
274
213
186
65
57
64
172
50
37
42
17
26
43
180
3
91
27
17
1
15
1
-
5
193
39
2
2
2
2
1
1
-
2
6
12
-
54
50
10
13
1
10
7
3
45
2
6
24
4
9
78
90
83
99
25
156
36
62
58
109
34
17
29
12
17
7
5
3
4
4
1
3
9
1
1
7
123
226
108
126
61
25
9
10
6
64
17
7
15
17
8
206
383
156
203
85
125
30
55
40
137
39
19
42
17
20
-
266
181
85
2,833
-
108
-
28
21
7
89
82
58
24
583
3
2
1
19
32
22
10
727
89
65
24
1,298
-
Only
tap
Only
well
1,108
111
59
164
223
129
322
100
963
314
36
No
drinking
water
facilities
-
72 | Page
Number of villages with availability of different sources of drinking water available
District
CD block
Mandi
Mandi Sadar
Chauntra
Drang
Gopalpur
Dharampur
SundarNaggar
Rawalsar
Chachyot
Seraj
Karsog
Shimla
Shimla
Rampur
Narkanda
Mashobra
Basantpur
Chauhra
Theog
Chaupal
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Rohru
Sirmaur
Sirmaur
Rajgarh
Sangrah
Pachhad
Nahan
Paonta Sahib
Shillai
Solan
Solan
Solan
Kunihar
Kandaghat
Dharampur
Nalagarh
Una
Una
Una
Amb
Gagret
Dhundla
Only
tap
Only
well
Tank
320
268
271
259
301
244
172
232
248
518
2,487
239
164
484
276
126
394
338
38
2
1
131
75
38
7
2
3
17
164
1
14
14
3
7
94
10
1
4
1
20
10
6
10
1
30
25
52
1
11
9
22
5
301
165
951
140
119
249
209
184
50
2,310
468
472
513
513
589
750
104
236
106
304
20
1
197
24
39
5
23
76
30
256
35
11
10
10
199
661
94
223
104
240
3
1
61
9
21
16
9
4
2
241
37
3
28
28
154
147
20
52
43
32
River
Fountain
Canal
Other
More than one
source (only
from tap, well,
tube well,
handpump)
1
-
9
2
6
26
5
6
6
15
14
80
4
6
8
18
11
12
10
55
32
12
76
144
47
63
25
43
86
1,050
120
80
254
137
101
117
46
7
1
5
2
2
1
1
23
2
1
9
7
1
2
63
40
89
145
155
27
57
51
51
49
148
23
25
32
21
3
16
5
123
68
99
225
270
92
106
64
115
136
1,239
138
97
268
161
108
196
49
1
1
-
77
23
54
136
1
1
7
7
126
228
70
86
68
4
7
4
118
19
8
8
38
41
4
159
30
14
21
21
90
8
1
6
1
-
117
78
597
136
100
220
77
37
27
1,417
350
313
354
354
195
31
3
17
2
9
1
19
2
17
21
3
4
4
13
2
2
-
13
10
246
29
22
53
29
105
08
616
129
94
83
83
212
402
69
158
84
91
137
85
792
138
102
223
132
155
42
-
Only
tube
well
21
3
5
5
1
1
1
1,793
402
351
378
378
432
698
100
230
106
262
No
drinking
water
facilities
73 | Page
As per Census of India (2001) all the (100 %)
villages/tehsils of Kullu district had water supply
facility. Status for all the districts of Himachal
Pradesh is given in the Table 8.
Table 8: Status of drinking water facility
(Census 2001)
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
% of water available
99.1
99.8
99.8
99.8
52.6
100
92.7
100
98.8
98.4
97.2
99.1
Groundwater: The State has a total replenishable
groundwater reserve of 0.0366 hectare metres (ha
m) per year and a net draft of 0.0053 ha m per year.
Table 9:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ground Water Availability
Total replenishable ground water
sources
Provision for domestic, industrial
and other areas:
Available groundwater resources
for irrigation in net terms
Balance groundwater resources for
future use in net terms
Level of groundwater development
0.03660 ha m
yr.
0.00731 ha m
yr.
0.02929 ha m
yr.
0.02399 ha m
yr.
18.1%
Hand pump programme was started during 199192 and a total of 17651 Hand pumps have been
installed in Himachal Pradesh upto March-2009.
A total of 20658 hand pumps have been installed in
the State.
Table 10: Year wise details of hand pumps
installed in the drought prone area
in Himachal Pradesh
Year
Nos. of Hand pumps
installed
323
789
1496
1000
1001
809
1027
792
1019
1148
1077
1570
1057
639
269
595
852
2188
3007
20658
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Total:
District wise details of completed water supply
schemes is given in Table 11.
Table 11: Completed Water Supply Schemes
District
Chamba
Chamba
Circle
Kangra
Dharamshala
Nurpur
Una
Una
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Division
Chamba
Dalhousie
Salooni
Total
Dharamshala
Palampur
Thural
Shahpur
Nurpur
Indora
Dehra
Jawali
Total
Una Div. No.I
Una Div. No.II
Total
Hamirpur
Barsar
Total
Gravity
Lift
217
150
256
623
25
74
25
23
5
0
11
0
163
0
65
65
10
2
12
0
2
1
3
11
14
16
29
31
41
76
19
237
0
3
3
84
63
147
Tubewell
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
13
8
0
15
37
61
31
92
0
0
0
Total
217
152
257
626
36
88
41
53
49
49
87
34
437
61
99
160
94
65
159
74 | Page
District
Circle
Mandi
Sundernagar
Kullu
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Kullu
Reckong Peo
Shimla
Shimla-9
Rohroo
Reckong Peo
WS&S Shimla-3
Solan
Shimla-9
Nahan
Sirmaur
Nahan
Kinnaur
Reckong Peo
Division
Ghumarwin
Total
Mandi
Sarkaghat
Sundernagar
Karsog
Paddar
Baggi
Total
Anni
Kullu Div. No I
Kullu Div No.II
Total
Keylong
Kaza
Total
Sunni
Shimla Div. No. I
Rohroo
Jubbal
Nerwa
Rampur
Shimla Div. No. II
Total
Arki
Nalagarh
Solan
Total
Nahan
Paonta
Total
Pooh
Reckong Peo
Total
State Total
Towns with a population less than 20000 (1991
census) and less rate of supply were eligible for
inclusion under Accelerated Urban Water Supply
Programme (AUWSP).
Sewerage: Sewerage system is as important as
the water supply system and forms an integral
part of environmental planning of city / town.
I&PH and Municipal bodies are responsible for
provision of sewerage system and related services
Gravity
38
109
235
124
281
304
256
86
1286
140
199
191
530
192
121
313
112
426
202
421
252
250
0
1663
187
74
200
461
518
179
697
50
121
171
6093
Lift
74
138
18
65
19
6
30
47
185
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
6
54
7
17
1
4
4
93
78
55
103
236
130
57
187
0
0
0
1232
Tubewell
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
8
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
0
27
0
13
13
0
0
0
181
Total
112
247
253
189
304
310
286
141
1483
140
199
194
533
192
121
313
118
480
209
438
253
254
4
1756
265
156
303
724
648
249
897
50
121
171
7506
in Planning Area. I&PH is involved in planning,
construction, operation & maintenance of
sewerage collection, treatment and disposal
system. Municipal bodies maintains domestic and
commercial connections from the door step to
the main sewer lines, billing and collection and
attending to citizen’s grievances. District wise
status of commissiond / completed sewerage
schemes is given below in Table 12.
Table 12: Status of commissioned / completed sewerage schemes
Sr. No.
District
Name of Scheme
Chamba
Sewerage Scheme Chamba
1
Total
Mandi
2
3
Kullu
Bilaspur
4
Kangra
5
Mandi
Jogindernagar
Total
Manali
Bilaspur
Ghumarwin
Shri Nalna Devi Ji
Jawalamukhi
Palampur
Dharamshala
Nos.
1
2
3
4 (Septic Tank)
3
1
2
1
3
1
1 (Septic Tank)
1
1
1
1
1
Complete Sewerage Treatment Plants
Capacity (Mld)
Type of STP
1.5
Aeration Oxidation
0.898
0.2
2.55
3.83
0.47
1.735
6.035
1.82
1.2
1.35
2.83
0.351
5.15
Extended Aeration
Extended Aeration
Extended Aeration
Septic Tank
Extended Aeration
Mech.Aeration System
Sludge drying beds.
Extended Aeration
75 | Page
Sr. No.
District
Name of Scheme
Shimla
Shimla
6
Rampur
Rohru (Rural)
Sarahan (Rural)
Total
Solan
7
8
9
Kinnaur
Sirmaur
Arki
Total
Reckong Peo (Tribal)
Sarahan (Rural)
Nos.
1. Dhalli
2. North Disposal Shimla
3. Sanjauli-Malayana
4. Summer hill
5. Lal Pani
6. Snowdown
1
2
3. (Septic Tank)
1
2
1 (Septic Tank)
12
1
2. Septic Tank
2
1
1. Septic Tank
Complete Sewerage Treatment Plants
Capacity (Mld)
Type of STP
0.75
Extended Aeration
5.8
Extended Aeration
4.44
Extended Aeration
3.93
Extended Aeration
19.35
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)
1.35
Extended Aeration
1
Extended Aeration
0.5
Extended Aeration
0.05
1.015
Extended Aeration
0.32
0.12
38.625
0.7
43200 Ltr
0.7
1
Extended Aeration
0.12
Septic Tank
Source: IPH, SE.P& I-II-EE (MP)-ENVIRONMENT /2008-1299
Circle wise status of sewerage & sewage treatment is
given in Table 13.
Yes
6.1
32.792
-
8.5
11.95
7400
Persons
5
30.79
-
-
-
1.2
0.96
0.5
-
3.16
3.16
3.16
-
-
-
-
0.5
-
-
1
2.83
0.9
No
-
-
0.4
1
1.2
0.5
No
3.16
2
3.16
3.16
No
No
Yes
No
1340
-
-
3
51
S.P.
-
6166+1
4500 F.
P.
4
24.5
-
-
5.16
0.13
0.13
-
2.83
0.9
0.9
-
0.13
-
-
0.13
3
5.16
0.13
No
-
Hamirpur
Circle
Yes
Una (Una)
Circle
Ghumarwin
(Bilaspur)
Circle
Yes
Dehra
(Kangra)
Circle
Area covered with sewer system (Sq. Km.)
Total length of sewer lines (km.)
Population covered with onsite systems
(Septic tank, Septic Pits (S.P.) & Low Cost
Sanitation (LCS)
Total installed capacity (MLD)
Total quantity of sewage generated (MLD)
Total quantity of sewage collected (MLD)
Quantity of sewage (mld) treated through
Primary Secondary Primary & Secondary
Tertiary Total
Sewage treatment process adopted
Extended aeration (oxidation ditch,
aerated lagoon etc.)
Treated sewage
No. of treatment plants
Total installed capacity (MLD)
Total sewage treated (MLD)
Gas produce from sewage (Yes/No?)
Ongoin
g
-
Bhota
(Kangra)
Circle
Sewage
Treatment
Plants
Sewage
gas &
manure
Presence of sewerage system in city /
town
Population covered by sewer system
("000)
Bhola
(Hamirpur)
Circle
Sewage
Sewerage3
ParametersS
Sarkaghat
(Mandi)
Circle
Table 13: Status of sewerage and sewage treatment
3
76 | Page
N.A.C Narkanda
(Shimla) Circle
Does the city/town have
a sewerage system
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
-
Under
Estimati
on
Under
Construction
16.878
18.014
13450
14280
14422 PER+18172
F.P
3798
3674
3.5
3.5
5
2
1
-
-
15.87
13.635
23
6.54
23.6
10.035
4.905
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.76
1.65
-
1.35
2.608
0.65
0.45
1.76
1.65
-
1.35
2.25
-
-
1.76
1.65
-
1.35
2.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.76
3
1.65
1
-
1.35
1
2.25
3
-
1
1.76
1.65
-
1.35
2.6
0.65
1.76
1.65
-
1.35
2.25
-
-
No
No
No
No
-
-
-
Population covered by
sewer system ("000)
Area covered with sewer
system (sq. km.)
Total length of sewer
lines (km.)
Population covered with
onsite systems (Septic
tank, S.P. & LCS)
Total installed capacity
(MLD)
Total quantity of sewage
generated (MLD)
Total quantity of sewage
collected (MLD)
Quantity of sewage
(MLD) treated through
Primary Secondary
Primary & Secondary
Tertiary Total
Sewage treatment
process adopted
Extended aeration
(oxidation ditch, aerated
lagoon etc.)
Treated sewage
No. of treatment plants
Total installed capacity
(MLD)
Total sewage treated
(MLD)
Gas produced from
sewage (Yes/No?)
Parameters
Sewerage
Nalagarh
and Baddi
(Solan)
Circle
Theog
(Shimla)
Circle
Paonta
Sahib
(Shimla)
Circle
Arki (Solan) Circle
N.A.C Sunni
(Shimla) Circle
Sewage gas
& manure
Chamba (Chamba)
Circle
Sewage
Treatment
Plants
Naina Devi Ji
(Bilaspur) Circle
Sewage
Bilaspur (Bilaspur)
Circle
Sewerage
Mehatpur (Una) Circle
Santokhgarh (Una)
Circle
Parameters
0.45
Nahan
(Sirmaur)
Circle
Solan
(Solan)
Circle
Does the city/town have a sewerage
system
Under
construction
No
-
No
-
Population covered by sewer system
("000)
-
-
32963
-
13420
Area covered with sewer system (sq. km.)
Total length of sewer lines (km.)
1.5
12
-
2.5
16.16
-
2
19.19
Population covered with onsite systems
(Septic tank, S.P. & LCS)
-
-
-
-
2.9
77 | Page
Total installed capacity (mld)
-
-
Total quantity of sewage generated (mld)
Total quantity of sewage collected (mld)
1.6
-
-
Paonta
Sahib
(Shimla)
Circle
1.24, 2.80,
4.82 of
Zone-I, II &
III
-
-
-
-
-
Parameters
Sewage
Quantity of sewage (mld) treated
through
Sewage
Treatment
Plants
Sewage gas
& manure
Nalagarh
and Baddi
(Solan)
Circle
Theog
(Shimla)
Circle
BilaspurS
HamirpurS
KangraS
Kullu
MandiS
ShimlaS
-
-
-
-
1.6
E.A
-
-
-
-
Treated sewage
No. of treatment plants
Total installed capacity (mld)
Total sewage treated (mld)
1.6
2
1.6
-
3
-
-
1
2.9
-
Is gas produced from sewage Yes/No?
No
- -
Districts
Table 14: Sewage Treatment System
ChambaS
Solan
(Solan)
Circle
Primary Secondary Primary & Secondary
Tertiary Total
Sewage treatment process adopted
Extended aeration (oxidation ditch,
aerated lagoon etc.)
District wise details of sewage treatment system is
given in Table 14.
Districts
Nahan
(Sirmaur)
Circle
Towns
1. Chamba
2. Dalhousie
3. Chowari
1. Bilaspur
2. NainaDevi ji
3. Ghumarwin
4. Talai
1. Hamirpur
2 .Nadaun
3. Sujanpur
4. Bhota
1. Kangra
2. Dharamshala
3. Palampur
4. Nurpur
5. Dehra
6.Nagrota
7.Jawalamukhi
1.Kullu
2.Manali
3.Bhunter
4.Banjar
1. Mandi
2. Sundernagar
3. Sarkaghat
4. Joginder
Naggar
5. Rewalsar
1. Shimla
Sewage
Treatment
Plants
Under
Operation
√
Sewage
Treatment
Under
Construction
Sirmaur
√
√
√
Solan
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
Una
No
-
Towns
2. Rampur
3. Theog.
4. Narkanda
5. Sunni
6. Chaupa
7. Kotkhai
8. Jubbal
9. Rohru
1. Nahan
2. Poanta.
3. Rajgarh
1. Solan
2. Nalagarh
3. Parwanoo
4. Arki
5. Baddi
1. Una
2. Gagret
3. Daulatpur
4. Mehatpur
5. Santokgarh
Sewage
Treatment
Plants
Under
Operation
Sewage
Treatment
Under
Construction
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
Irrigation: The Department of I& PH is also
responsible for the operation and maintenance of
irrigation systems through source development,
lifting water, boring of tube wells & providing
distribution systems. Details of total area,
irrigated area and schemes is given in Table 15.
√
√
78 | Page
2.85 lakh ha.
3.35 lakh ha.
There are 2217 completed irrigation schemes in
the State out of which Med. Are Irrg 4, are FIS
1085, are LIS 558 and Tubewell are 570. Upto
the end of March, 2011, an area of 2.43 lakh ha.
of land has been provided with irrigation
facilities, the details of which are given in Table
17.
Una
Hamirpur
Bilaspur
Mandi
Kullu
Lahual &
Spiti
Shimla
Solan
Table 16: Details of Irrigation facilities
Sector
Minor
Irrigation
Major
Irrigation
Medium
Irrigation
Total
Area covered upto
31.3.2011 (ha.)
Other
IPH
Department
115749
100657
Sirmaur
Kinnaur
Total area
0
12085
14067
0
14067
141901
100657
242558
Table 17: Details of schemes sanctioned
under RIDF
No.
of
schemes
approved
No.
of
completed
schemes
Total cost i/c
State
share
(Rs. in lakh).
Irrigation
potential
created (in ha.)
623
Flood
Protection
40
183
373
28
584
37345
50519
13156
101020
0
33533
3815
37348
Irrigation
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
199
26
2
0
75
17
152
45
14
54
34
54
120
61
55
18
0
2
119
333
5
0
33
0
213
82
155
389
200
78
241
63
Kullu
0
63
1
0
64
0
0
0
0
93
58
82
22
2
30
15
0
0
0
0
0
95
88
97
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
41
33
97
80
1085
12
48
40
0
558
0
71
7
0
570
53
152
145
80
2217
Reckong Peo
Shimla-9
Rohroo
Reckong Peo
WS & S
Shimla-3
Shimla-9
Nahan
Nahan
Reckong Peo
Total
216406
12085
WSS
Scheme
442
Chamba
Dharamshala
Nurpur
Una
Hamirpur
Bilaspur
Sundernagar
Kullu
Circle
Source: Department of I & PH
Brief description of schemes sanctioned under
RIDF-I
to
XIV
upto
31/03/2011
is given in Table 17.
Item
Total
Chamba
Kangra
T well
District
5.83 lakh ha.
0.50 lakh ha.
LIS
State
Total cultivable area of the State
Area
identified
under
Major/Medium
Irrigation
projects
Area identified under Minor
irrigation schemes
Total identified area
55.67 lakh ha.
FIS
Total geographical area of the
Medium
Table 18: Completed Irrigation Schemes
Table 15: Irrigated Area
Total
1105
District wise details of completed Irrigation
schemes is given in Table 18.
2.2
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
and
In Himachal Pradesh availability of water is
highly uneven in both space and time.
Precipitation is confined to only about three or
four months in a year and varies from about 600
mm in Lahaul & Spiti district to around 3200 mm
in Dharamshala District Kangra. However, in
spite of heavy rain and snow during the rainy
season and winter the summer months are
periods of water scarcity in many areas as the
flow in the rivers and nallahs is quite low and
traditional sources also dry up. This results in
forced migration of humans and animals to the
banks of rivers with perennial flows. On the
other hand, heavy rains regularly cause havoc due
to floods. Flash floods also cause damage in the
higher reaches of the State.
Expansion of economic activity inevitably leads
to increasing demands for water for diverse
purposes namely domestic, commercial and
industrial, irrigation, hydro- power generation,
79 | Page
recreation, etc. So far, the major consumptive use
of water in the State has been for irrigation. The
gross irrigation potential of the State is estimated
to be 3.35 lakh ha, while the irrigation potential
created has reached 2.05 lakh ha. by April, 2005.
Production of food grains in H.P. has increased
from around 0.7 million tonnes in the year 196667 to about 1.4 million tonnes in the year 200304. This will have to be raised to around 2.4
million tonnes by the year 2025 AD to meet the
needs of the projected population of 92.25 lakh.
The production of fruits and vegetables has
increased from 0.05 million tonnes (1966-67)
each to 0.7 and 0.9 million tonnes (2003-04)
respectively. The balance area of 1.25 lakh ha by
irrigation schemes need to be covered, so that the
productivity of the cultivable land area of the
State improves, food grain output increases and
through diversion of the land to cultivation of
vegetable, horticulture and cash crops the
economic prosperity of the agriculturists is
ensured and enhanced.
Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)
Water: For augmentation of water supply, 15
towns have been proposed for the plan period. A
target to cover 3000 habitations (as per 2003
survey and comprehensive Action Plan-1999)
under State sector has been undertaken. Besides,
there is a target of the installation of 1500 hand
pumps during 11th Five Year Plan.
the water supply schemes of 15 towns. Against
this target 17 towns have been covered up to 31st
March 2007 namely Chaupa, Sunni, Palampur,
Gagret, Nagrota, Nalagarh, Hamirpur, Mandi,
Sarkaghat, Theog, Nurpur, Rajgarh, Narkanda,
Bilaspur, Dalhousie, Poanta Sahib & Shah Talai.
Sewage: During the 10 th plan period, it was
proposed to complete sewerage schemes of 12
towns out of which 7 towns namely Shimla,
Manali, Ghumarwin, Jwalamukhi, Rampur,
Jogindernagar and Arki have been completed. An
outlay of Rs. 7936.17 lakh was approved for the
Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-07, against which an
expenditure of Rs. 8699.59 lakh had been
incurred up to 31-03-2007.
Annual Plan (2007-08)
Water: A target of augmentation work of 4
towns namely Shimla, Solan, Jubbal and Bilaspur
was kept during the Annual Plan. Physical target
to cover 1600 NC/PC habitations under State
sector and 2910 in Central Sector was kept which
is likely to be achieved.
Sewage: The approved outlay for sewerage
sector in Annual Plan 2007-08 was Rs. 2400.00
lakh which has been utilized in full. Physical
target to cover 3 towns namely Poanta, Jubbal
and Nagrota was fixed & completed for the year.
Annual Plan (2008-09)
Sewage: Proposed outlay for Eleventh Five Year
Plan is Rs. 17060.00 lakh and physical target to
complete sewerage schemes of 12 towns during
the Eleventh Five Year Plan has been envisaged
for the five year plan period.
Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07)
Water: There was physical target to cover 3000
habitations under State sector out of which 2421
habitations have been covered up to 31st March
2007. Under central sector, a target of covering
5000 villages /habitations was kept out of which
4825 villages /habitations were covered. During
the 10th plan period, it was proposed to augment
Water: A physical target of covering 2000
habitations under State sector was proposed to
be achieved for completion of 3 schemes of
Chamba, Sundernagar and Palampur.
Sewage: An outlay of Rs. 3450.00 lakh for
sewerage schemes in the Annual Plan 2008-09
was proposed & budgeted for major works in
Narkanda, Bhunter and Kotkhai has been
proposed.
80 | Page
2.3
Technology/Schemes adopted
in the sector along with any
changes in technology
Untreated or inadequately treated industrial
effluents and sewage flowing into nallahs and
rivers are affecting the surface and ground water
quality. Since this can adversely affect the health
of the populace. Including improvements in
existing strategies, innovation of new techniques
based on a strong science and technologies are
needed to eliminate the pollution of surface and
ground water resources. Technology and training
play important roles in the development of water
resources and their management.
Dual Water Technology: Dual Water Supply
Policy may be adopted for rural habitations
facing acute water quality problems. In these
habitations even if safe water is provided upto 10
lpcd, which would be sufficient for drinking and
cooking purposes. It may be considered as
habitation(s) with a safe source of drinking water.
For other activities like washing, etc. water
available from unsafe sources could be utilized
without problem. The State Government is
required to formulate an Action Plan for tackling
all the water quality problems. The Action Plan
will comprise list of the water quality habitations
with concentration of the contaminants found in
excess in drinking water, apart from other details
like type of scheme vis-à-vis technology adopted,
tentative cost of coverage, time frame for
implementation, modalities of Operation &
Maintenance by PRIs/State Implementing
Agency. The Action Plan should indicate the left
over and total number of habitations affected
with specific quality problems at the
commencement of the year and the target for the
year (with the names) of the habitations to be
covered.
in-situ water conservation, etc., for treatment of
water contamination, the ratio of affected
habitations to be provided with alternate safe
source based drinking water supply scheme and
in-situ treatment technology based drinking water
supply scheme should be, as far as possible, is
given in Table 19.
Table 19: Problem & alternate safe source
based drinking water supply
scheme
Sr.
No.
Type of Problem
Alternate Safe Source
Vs In-situ Treatment
90:10
Arsenic, fluoride and
salinity
Iron affected
30:70
habitations
Nitrate affected
100:00
habitations
Source: Revised Guideline on Sub- Mission on Water Quality
Treatment Technologies:Water is treated at
the source itself using rapid sand filters and
chlorination before transmission by IPH. The
treated water sample test indicates that the
physicochemical quality of water is safe for
drinking purposes. The treated water is conveyed
to storage reservoirs by pumping at various stages
through rising and gravity. Data from National
Family Health Survey 1998-99 on households
using water purification methods is given in
Table 20. Noticeably 86 % of the households do
not purify drinking water.
Sewage: The Sewage Treatment Plant of
Extended Aeration process technology has been
constructed in Shimla Town at various places
which are working satisfactorily. STP based on
Fluidized Aerobic Bioreactors (FAB) Technology
is suitable what lead availability is constraint.
However, Sewage Treatment Plant based on
Extended Aeration Process Technology is
suitable and can be continued.
The State Government shall devise an integrated
approach for technology options covering single
village schemes, comprehensive piped water
supply schemes, low cost treatment plants,
domestic filters, roof-top rain water harvesting,
81 | Page
Table 20: Water Purification Methods used
at Household Level
Method of drinking
water purification
Strain water by cloth
Use of alum
Use of water filter
Boil water
Use of electronic purifier
Other method
Do not purify water
2.4
Urban
Rural
Total
1.8
0.5
30.5
21.7
1.6
1.1
53.9
2.5
0.5
3.0
3.6
0.2
2.1
89.2
2.4
0.5
6.0
6.0
0.4
2.0
85.5
Stakeholder
involvement
in
environment preservation and
restoration
The State Water Policy must be implemented in a
manner that promotes a participatory approach
and involves local communities and stakeholders,
including women, in the management of water
resources, in an effective and decisive manner in
various aspects of planning, design, development
and management of the water related schemes.
Necessary legal and institutional changes shall be
made at various levels for the purpose, duly
ensuring more meaningful decision making roles
for women. Water Users' Associations and the
local bodies such as municipalities and gram
panchayats shall particularly be involved in the
operation, maintenance and the management of
water
related
infrastructure/facilities
at
appropriate levels, progressively, with a view to
eventually transfer the management of such
facilities to the user groups/local bodies. Private
sector participation may also be encouraged
wherever feasible in planning, development and
management of the water resources for the usage
of the general public and the community.
The main stakeholders who are directly or
indirectly involved with matters related to
irrigation & public health are as given below:
• PRIs
• Mahila Mandals
• Bhakra Beas Management Board
• Tourism Department
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.5
Fisheries Department
Watershed
Water Sports Complex
State Pollution Control Board
Department of Energy
Himachal Pradesh Public Work Department
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
2.5.1. Environmental issues associated with
water supply
a. Reduced water availability due to
increasing demand (population / resident,
tourists): The demands for water, especially for
drinking purposes have a significant impact and
this is likely to strain available water resources.
The demand for urban areas of the state up to
2021 AD is projected at 150.49 Million litres
/Day. The demand for water in the rural areas is
much higher, i.e. 575.97 million litres /day by
2021 AD which is 3.8 times the demand in the
urban areas.
A large section of population in the State lacks
access to potable water supply. The gap in
demand and supply for rural potable water in the
state exceeds 2,00,000 kilolitres per day (KLD)
considering a benchmark of 70 litres per capita
per day (LPCD). Similarly the gap in urban
potable water supply in the state exceeds 50,000
kld considering a benchmark of 135 lpcd.
At district level, the gap in supply and demand of
urban potable water ranges from 1383 kld in
districts Bilaspur and Kullu to 27,365 KLD in
Solan. Further the gap in rural potable water
supply ranges from 822 klpcd in Lahaul & Spiti
to 31,000 KLPCD in Kangra. These gaps indicate
that population in rural areas is more affected by
low access as well as shortage of potable water in
the State. It also indicates that urban areas have
better infrastructure to meet water supply
demand in comparison to rural areas.
82 | Page
b. Reduced water availability due to source
over exploitation, source unsustainability and
neglect of traditional source: Perennial springs
are not found in the Shivalik due to the low
water-holding capacity of rock formations.
Considerable numbers of Shivalik villages are
provided water (up to 100 villages) by pumping
system. Many schemes were commissioned
without sufficient investigation regarding source
sustainability. Available sources were used with
little planning regarding the possible growth of
upstream water demand. Many irrigation schemes
(diversion channel) have been commissioned in
H.P. which reduce the down stream flows,
especially during the lean season. Many sources
have not been able to supply sufficient water due
to competing upstream use for agriculture and
hydropower; drying up of source catchment
degradation (especially in the Shivalik region).
c. Reduced water availability due to
infrastructure constraints e.g. non-availability
of electricity supply and increased leakage in
the public distribution system: Dedicated
electricity lines for distributed pumping stations
does not exist. At places with high head, 2-3
stages pumping required. Failure of any of them
cripples the system. There has been a general
consensus that there are huge leak in the installed
systems. Further, pipe leakage is common
phenomena. The water supply systems in most of
the towns are quite old and have outlived their
utility, their sources need augmentation and the
distribution systems in almost all the supply
schemes need replacement and rehabilitation.
d. Reduced water availability due to lack of
integrated
water
management
strategies/plan, monitoring and funds for
implementation: Lack of funds for source
augmentation is a major constraint. Demand side
management has not been attempted so far.
There is inadequate monitoring system for the
monitoring of the water intake and use in
industrial,
construction
activity,
sanitary
applications, irrigation and other purposes
without assessing carrying capacity/potential.
e. Reduced downstream flow due to change
in
natural
flow/hydrology
of
the
reservoir/dam/hydroproject: Construction of
a large number of reservoirs and dams; diversion
of streams and rivers and hydroelectric projects
lead to reduced flow into wetlands/ water
bodies/ reservoir. Further, release of impounded
water by dam/reservoir depends on the
management authority, small hydropower
projects and other infrastructure development
projects requiring water diversion also change the
hydrology of the wetland/ water body/ river. The
reduced down stream ecological flow leads to
ecological imbalance in aquatic flora and fauna
including fisheries.
f. Deterioration of surface and ground water
quality due to contamination : Both surface
and groundwater quality is deteriorating due to
extensive and severe pollution from industrial,
domestic and agricultural sources. The point
sources of untreated effluents and sewerage, and
diffused sources of pollutants from the use of
agrochemicals, deteriorate the quality of surface
and groundwater. Nearly all traditional sources
are contaminated in the State due to unhygienic
methods of handling water. Slaked lime is used to
settle water in Khatris, but its efficiency in
dealing with pathogens is limited due to
continuous infiltration of contaminated water.
Excess iron is reported in about 10-15% hand
pumps of the State (Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur
and Sarkaghat area).
g. Inadequate sewage infrastructure and
sanitation services in the state: At the State
level, cases of admission in hospitals due to
diarrhea increased from 16,263 in 1995 to 16,602
in 2002. Similarly, cases of admission in hospitals
due to hepatitis increased from 379 in 1995 to
421 in 2002. At district level, Chamba, Hamirpur,
Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Sirmaur
and Una reported increase in admission in
hospitals due to diarrhea during 1995 to 2002.
Similarly, Bilaspur, Chamba, Kangra, Kinnaur
and Una reported increase in admission in
hospitals due to hepatitis during 1995 to 2002.
83 | Page
The gap in rural and urban sewage generation
and collection in the State exceeds 1,50,000 kld
and 49,000 kld respectively. At district level, the
gap in rural sewage generation & collection
ranges from 822 kld in Lahaul & Spiti to 31,060
kld in Kangra. Similarly, the gap in urban sewage
generation, ranges from 1264 klpcd in Bilaspur &
Kullu to 27,365 kld in Solan. These gaps indicates
discharge of sewage both in rural and urban areas
without collection and treatment.
h. Inadequate community participation in
rural water supply and sanitation lead to poor
water management: Since the government has
the responsibility for providing water supply,
community initiatives are inadequate, even in the
areas of severe scarcity. People mostly try to
provide for their household needs rather than
rejuvenating their traditional sources. Under
difficult terrain and dispersed habitation,
managing a water supply can become very
expensive if sufficient social development input is
not provided. This is one of the main problems
now facing the rural water supply scheme in the
state.
i. Gaps in coordination of institutions
managing water resources sector leads to
gaps in operational efficiency and financial
realization: Lack of private and PRIs
participation water supply distribution is
indicative of gaps in policy implementation.
Besides PRIs, water committees are an alternative
institutional mechanism being suggested though
relationship between them and PRIs is not yet
clearly articulated. Participation of NGOs might
be limited on account of their technical
limitations while large-scale private participation
is unlikely until new policies are firmly in place.
With current level of reliability in water supply,it
may be difficult to realize the full tariffs.
There is a growing perception that water cannot
be indefinitely provided as a service however,
there is still no clear-cut pricing option availabe.l
Differences over modalities of fixing the price of
water arise because water is both treated as basic
need or service and a commodity. Government
policies and regulations on water management
have so far been unable to stem the growing
problems related to water quality and quantity in
HP. Economic incentives and subsidies have not
been beneficial in terms of promoting
conservation of water resources. Government
subsidies to the irrigation and domestic water
supply sectors in the past several decades have
allowed for greater expansion and development
of both, but have also led to a complete undervaluing of the resource. Groundwater extraction
by pumping is indirectly encouraged through
subsidies for fuel and electricity. Rural and urban
water charges are much lower than the cost of
provision and suffer from poor operation and
maintenance. The result in all sectors has been
higher consumption and insufficient cost
recovery. Table 21 heading as given in sectoral
guidelines.
Table 21: Summary of identification and analysis of i ssues
Issues / Problems
Cause
Impacts/Risks
Reduced water availability due to
increasing demand (population,
resident/ tourists).
Unreliable water supply
Increase in demand from resident/
population/tourist
Deprivation of basic necessity and quality of
life
Water riots
Health risk
Reduced water availability due to
source overexploitation, source unsustainability and neglect of
traditional water source.
Limited water resources
Lack of river basin level planning
Competing water usage
Drying up of source
Catchment degradation
Waste of investment
Risk of food insecurity
84 | Page
Issues / Problems
Cause
Impacts/Risks
Reduced water availability due to
infrastructure constraints e.g. nonavailability of electricity supply and
increased leakage in the public
distribution system.
Unauthorized tapping/metering
Old/worn out infrastructure leading
to leakage
Reduced water availability due to
lack of integrated water
management strategies/plan,
monitoring and funds for
implementation.
Hydropower projects/other water
uses requires water diversion
Competing water use
Non-availability of adequate funds
for planning and implementing
Deterioration of surface and
ground water quality due to
contamination.
Water pollution due to fertilizer,
pesticides, sewage and dung ingress
in water source
Poor management of waste
Drinking water source/transmission
and distribution contamination due
to inadequate sewage and solid
waste treatment and disposal.
Inadequate sewage infrastructure
and sanitation services in the state.
Inadequate community
participation in rural water supply
and sanitation leads to poor water
management.
Inadequate ownership of the
resource
Ownership of water resources &
infrastructure rest with state.
Gaps in coordination of
institutions managing water sector
resources leads to gap in
operational efficiency and financial
realization.
Lack of implementation of reforms
Lack of pricing of resource
Continued subsidies on resource
Resource under valuation
Absence of decentralized operation
and maintenance of water supply
schemes
2.5.2
Environmental Issues associated with
Sewerage System
a. Increasing gap in sewage collection,
treatment and disposal (rural and urban) is
leading to water pollution: The gap in rural and
urban sewage generation and collection in the
state exceeds 1,50,000 kld and 49,000 kld
respectively. At district level, the gap in rural
sewage generation & collection ranges from 822
kld in Lahaul & Spiti to 31,060 kld in Kangra.
Similarly, the gap in urban sewage generation,
ranges from 1264 klpcd in Bilaspur & Kullu to
27,365 kld in Solan. These gaps indicates
discharge of sewage both in rural and urban areas
without collection and treatment.
Agriculture / Horticulture revenue loss
Unaccounted resource loss leading to strain
in existing source
Loss of revenue
Change in hydrological regimes leads to
variation in ecology of connected natural
drainage system as well as downstream
water uses
Ecological imbalance
Catchment degradation
Water pollution
Increased public health risk and burden of
diseases
Increased public health risk/mortality and
burden of water borne disease
Water related disease due to unsafe drinking
water on account of inadequate sanitation
Resource loss/wastage
Increased government expenditure for
management of resources
Increases drudgery of women for fetching
water in remote areas in the state.
Resources loss/wastage
Revenue loss to the sector
b. Increasing public health risk due to
discharge and disposal of untreated sewage
on land and water body: Both surface and
groundwater quality is deteriorating due to
extensive and severe pollution from domestic and
agricultural sources. The point sources of
untreated effluents and sewerage, and diffused
sources of pollutants deteriorate the quality of
surface and groundwater. Nearly all traditional
sources are contaminated in the state due to
unhygienic methods of handling water. At the
state level, cases of admission in hospitals due to
diarrhea increased from 16,263 in 1995 to 16,602
in 2002. Similarly, cases of admission in hospitals
due to hepatitis increased from 379 in 1995 to
421 in 2002. At district level, Chamba, Hamirpur,
Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Sirmaur
and Una reported increase in admission in
85 | Page
hospitals due to diarrhea during 1995 to 2002.
Similarly, Bilaspur, Chamba, Kangra, Kinnaur
and Una reported increase in admission in
hospitals due to hepatitis during 1995 to 2002.
c. Increased public health risks due to open
defecation in rural/urban areas and
inadequate sanitation at tourist units /tourist
destination / religious places / heritage sites
/trekking routes / tourist circuits /
transportation routes: The expected additional
sewage generation due to tourist arrivals will
exceed 847 mld in 2011 and 1338 mld in 2021 in
the top five tourist destinations. Vulnerability
analysis shows that sewage infrastructure in
Shimla, Kangra & Chamba districts, Kullu,
Ghumarwin & Bilaspur sadar tehsils is already
under stress. Additional tourist load will increase
pressure on existing sewerage infrastructure.
d. Inadequate integrated water resource,
water supply, sewage and sanitation
approach/ management strategies/plan
leads to higher water consumption and
sewage generation: Demand side management
in water sector has not been attempted so far.
There is, no system for the monitoring of the
water intake and use in industrial, construction
activity, sanitary applications, irrigation and other
purposes
without
assessing
carrying
capacity/potential. Construction of a large
number of reservoirs and dams; diversion of
streams and rivers and hydroelectric projects lead
to reduced flow into wetlands/ water bodies/
reservoir. Further, release of impounded water by
dam/reservoir depends on the management
authority. Small hydropower projects and other
infrastructure development projects requiring
water diversion also change the hydrology of the
wetland/ water body/ river. The reduced
downstream ecological flow leads to ecological
imbalance. Increasing water consumption /
demand by the population is leading to higher
sewage generation. Lack of management of
demand on the upstream side and lack of
optimized solution e.g. recovery, recycling,
reducing leads to wastage of resource and
increased pollution.
e. Inadequate finances to accelerate
/upgrade/implement sewage infrastructure
leads to water pollutionT
: here is a growing
perception that water cannot be indefinitely
provided as a service however, there is still no
clear-cut pricing option available. Differences
over modalities of fixing the price of water arise
because water is both treated as basic need or
service and a commodity. Government policies
and regulations on water management have so
far been inadequate to stem the growing
problems related to water quality and quantity in
HP. Economic incentives and subsidies have
not been beneficial in terms of promoting
conservation of water resources. Government
subsidies to irrigation and domestic water
supply sectors in the past several decades have
allowed for greater expansion and development
of both, but have also led to a complete undervaluing of the resource. Groundwater extraction
by pumping is indirectly encouraged through
subsidies for fuel and electricity. Rural and
urban water charges are much lower than the
cost of provision and suffer from poor
operation and maintenance. The result in all
sectors has been higher consumption and
insufficient cost recovery for water supply and
sanitation.
f. Gaps in institutional operation mechanism
related to sanitation leads to gaps in
operational efficiency: A number of agencies
are involved at state, district, tehsil and village
level for management of sanitation. Lack of
coordination and integrated planning leads to
gaps in infrastructure development and
operational inefficiency.
g. Tardy implementation of reform public
participation in water supply and sewage
sector leads to reduced coverage of sanitation
services: Lack of private and PRIs participation
in water supply distribution sewage collection and
treatment is indicative of gaps in policy
implementation. Besides PRI, water and
sanitation committees are an alternative
86 | Page
institutional mechanism being suggested though
relationship between them and PRI bodies is not
yet clearly articulated. Participation of NGOs
might be limited on account of their technical
limitations while large-scale private participation
is unlikely until new policies are firmly in place.
h. Inadequate awareness leads to lack of
community/NGOs participation in rural
water supply and sanitation: Since the
Government has the responsibility for providing
water supply and sanitation, community
initiatives are minimal in the sanitation sector.
Under difficult terrain and dispersed habitation,
managing a water supply can become very
expensive if sufficient social development input
is not provided. This is one of the main
problems now facing the rural water supply and
sanitation scheme in the StateM
. ahila Mandal is
present in most of villages but they are not
formed by the initiatives of the community.
Instead, the DRDA and other Government
Department for delivery of their scheme
constitute them. There are few NGOs working
especially for women issues or water supply and
sanitation. Rural people in Himachal are fairly
individualistic, Khatris, for instance, are almost
always owned by the individual households and
investments at community level are limited. A
summary of issues, causes & impacts is given in
Table 22.
Table 22: Summary of identification of issues, causes and analysis of impacts/risks
Issues
1. Increasing gap in sewage collection,
treatment and disposal is leading to
water pollution.
2. Increased public health risk due to
discharge and disposal of untreated
sewage on land and water body.
3. Increased public health risk due to
open defecation in rural/urban areas
and inadequate sanitation at tourist
units/tourist destination/transit points
and transportation routes.
4. Inadequate water supply/sewage/
sanitation water consumption and
sewage generation.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5. Inadequate finances to accelerate
/upgrade/implement water supply and
sewage infrastructure results in water
pollution.
•
6. Gap in institutional operational
mechanism related to sanitation leads to
gap in operational efficiency.
•
v
•
•
Causes
Increased sewage generation from
population/tourist
Inadequate infrastructure due to
incomplete connectivity,
incomplete coverage and absence
of sewage treatment plant.
Water pollution due to sewage and
dung ingress in water source
Unhygienic methods of handling
waste
Poor management of waste
Inadequate sanitation
infrastructure (rural & urban)
Unregulated tourist transit points
Drinking water
source/transmission and
distribution coming in contact with
sewage, municipal, industrial and
bio-medical waste
Competing water use
Inadequate demand side
management
Inadequate monitoring of
consumption of water
Independent institutional
responsibility
Inadequate pricing of resource
Continued subsidy
Resource under valuation
Inadequate implementation of
reforms
Lack of integrated planning and
•
•
Impacts/Risks
Increased water pollution
Increased burden of disease /
health risk
•
Increased burden of diseases
•
Increased burden of disease /
mortality
•
Change in hydrological regimes
leads to ecological imbalance
Resource loss
Catchment degradation/ Sewage
generation
Water pollution
•
•
•
•
Water pollution due to
inadequate infrastructure
•
•
Gaps in service delivery
Increased water pollution
87 | Page
Issues
7. Tardy implementation of reforms /
public participation in water supply and
sewage sector leads to reduced coverage
of sanitation services.
•
8. Inadequate awareness leads to lack of
community participation in sanitation
sector.
•
•
•
•
•
Causes
coordination
Inadequate implementation of
reforms
Inadequate development business
model
Lack of ownership of the resource
Difficult terrain dispersed location
Inadequate of gender participation
Inadequate of NGOs participation
Impacts/Risks
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.6
Environment initiatives taken by
the sector to address critical
environment issues
Initiatives in view of water supply plans and
schemes proposed by the sector to address the
critical issues in order to maintain the balance
between the availability and demand of water,
water conservation, sanitation, hygiene keeping in
view environment issues are discussed in the
section.
Various programmes and schemes implemented
to address the critical issues related to water are
described below:
Rural water Scheme
Swajaldhara programme: The programme gave
integrated approach to water, sanitation &
hygiene, ground water conservation and rain
water harvesting. Sirmaur district was covered
under the pilot project under this programme.
The basic features of the programme are as per
the guidelines issued in June 2003.
Urban Water Supply Scheme: Augmentation of
water supply schemes of 40 towns have been
completed. These towns are Shree Naina Devi
Jee, Nadaun, Rampur, Una, Chowari, Kangra,
Jawalamukhi, Nahan, Rohru, Santokhgarh,
Mehatpur, Dehra, Chamba, Rewalsar, Arki,
Daulatpur, Jogindernagar, Manali, Kullu,
Kotkhai, Sujanpur, Ghumarwin, Chaupa, Sunni,
Palampur, Gagret, Nagrota, Hamipur, Mandi,
Reduced infrastructure
development
Gaps in service delivery
Increased waste pollution
Unhygienic living condition/
Burden of disease
Increased government
expenditure for management of
sanitation
Water pollution
Nalagarh, Narkanda,Nurpur, Paonta, Theog,
Dalhousie, Shah Talai, Rajgarh, Sarkaghat, Bhota
and Solan. The Augmentation of water supply for
6 towns is in progress namely Shimla,
Sundernagar, Dharamshala, Bilaspur, Jubbal and
Bhunter. It is proposed to commission water
supply to Sundernagar and Dharamshala during
the year 2009-10.
Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme
(AUWSP)
Under this programme, towns with a population
less than 20000 (1991 census) and less rate of
supply were eligible for inclusion. The Schemes
were to be funded by the Centre and State in
50:50 ratio.
Prestigious Water Supply Schemes
Augmentation of Water Supply Scheme
Shimla
Nauti Khad (Gumma Pumping Station):For
source level augmentation, a proposal has been
approved for lifting of 4.54 MLD per day from
Nauti Khad down stream of Gumma. The first
stage has been completed. The work of second
stage is in progress. The scheme is designed for
an ultimate requirement of year 2016 to deliver
20 MLD ( 2.00 Crore litre per day) to supplement
existing scheme delivering already 30 MLD (
during Summers) water through 6 different
sources viz. (i) Gumma (ii) Ashwani khad (iii)
Churot (iv) Jagroti (v) Seog (vi) Chair.
88 | Page
Water Supply Scheme, Solan from River Giri:
Keeping in view the future growth and scarcity of
water in important places like Barog, Dharampur
and other areas, the population of 114 census
villages has also been added to this project. On
the basis of the above, the present water
requirement comes to be 10.07 MLD against the
available capacity of 6.27 MLD. To bridge the
gap between demand and supply, additional water
will be required and there is only one feasible
source i.e. Giri river. The proposal to provide
water for Solan town and 114 other villages was
accordingly prepared, keeping in view the growth
projections for 30 years. The estimate has been
administratively approved for Rs. 51.46 crore.
The work has been almost completed and
Scheme is being tested for commissioning.
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water
Mission: Sub-Mission projects are undertaken by
the States for providing safe drinking water to the
rural habitations facing water quality problems
like excess Fluoride, Arsenic, brackishness, Iron,
Nitrate or a combination of these. Sub Mission
projects are also taken up for ensuring source
sustainability through rain water harvesting,
artificial recharge, etc.
Hand Pumps programme: Although Hand
pumps usually do not provide coverage of a
habitation, (due to limitation of rigs operating
along road-sides only) they are supplementing the
existing piped water supply and have been
installed in drought prone areas, areas of acute
water scarcity and other problematic areas and
the areas where tankers have been deployed in
recent years.
Hand pump programme has been great success
in mitigating the people’s misery due to shortage
of drinking water in different pockets of drought
prone and acute water scarcity areas.
The programme was started during 1991-92 and a
total of 17651 hand pumps have been installed in
the state upto March-2009.
Sewerage: Towns in the State mostly serve as
health resorts, environment improvement assume
special significance particularly to avoid pollution
of the rivers and other water bodies of the State.
To abolish carrying of night soil on head load
and scavenging system in the country/states, the
Government has given top priority to connect
dry latrine system into water pour system. Hence,
the sewerage programme has assumed immense
importance. Under this programme sewerage
facilities are proposed to be provided in all towns
of the State. 13 sewerage schemes have been
completed
(Shimla,
Palampur,
Mandi,
Jawalamukhi Shri Naina Devi Ji, Chamba,
Bilaspur, Rohroo, Ghumarwin, Manali, Joginder
nagar, Arki, Rampur and 2 rural schemes
(Reckong-Peo and Sarahan). The work on 24
schemes is in progress (Una, Solan, Sundernagar,
Paonta,
Sarkaghat,
Kullu,
Mehatpur,
Santokhgarh, Dalhousie, Chowari, Bhuntar,
Dharamshala, Hamirpur, Kangra, Nagrota,
Jubbal, Sujanpur, Nadaun, Kotkhai, Narkanda,
Theog, Nurpur, Sunni and Dehra). Sewerage
scheme for Narkanda and Bhuntar was proposed
to be commissioned during the year 2008-09.
The Shimla Sewerage project was started in
November, 1997. Status of sewage treatment
Plants at 6 places is given below in Table 23.
Table 23: Status of STPs in Shimla
Dhalli (0.76 MLD )
North Disposal (5.80
MLD)
Summer Hill (3.93
MLD)
Sanjauli/Malyana
(4.44 MLD)
Snowdone
(1.35
MLD)
Lalpani (19.35 MLD)
Completed & commissioned
-do-do-doCompleted and tested
Completed & commissioned
Out of 179 Kms. Sewer-lines, 179.352 Kms.
sewer lines have been laid in different zone of the
Shimla town.
Irrigation
Initiatives taken to address the issues related to
irrigation and their status is summarized below:
89 | Page
•
•
•
•
Flood Protection Works:The flood prone
area in the State is 2.31 lakh ha. The
Government has initiated steps to protect
private properties and culturable land by
providing emergent flood protection measures
in the shape of embankments, spurs and wire
crates etc. Upto March, 2007, an area of 13555
ha. from the fury of floods was brought under
protection.
Channelisation of Swan River: Swan river
has a total catchment area of 1200 sq. km and
has a length of 65 Kms. in Himachal Pradesh.
There are 73 tributaries in the catchment area.
Approximately, 10,000 ha of agriculture land
is affected by floods and annually 2000 ha. of
fertile land is not being cultivated due to fear
of floods. During the past 10-12 years
extensive damage to civil structures,
properties, human life and livestock has been
reported. The estimated loss to crops and
property is to the extent of about Rs. 15
crores per annum.
Treatment of Catchment Area: There is a
provision of Rs. 75 lakh in the approved
project report of Rs.106.83 crore for
treatment of catchment area of tributaries
falling from Jhalera bridge to Santokhgarh
bridge. The Forest Deptt. has planted 58500
trees, in 50 ha., of different varieties. Besides,
check dams in the tributaries and planting of
grasses and bushes for bank protection has
been done. Further work is in progress by the
Forest Deptt.
Channelization of Bata river: River Bata
emerges as a Khala nearby village Kolar and
passes through the fertile land from Kolar to
Bata Bridge and finally joins the Yamuna
River. The Bata river keeps on changing its
course in rainy season and is further
influenced by the tail race water of Giri Bata
Hydel Project, which adds nearly 16000 cusecs
of water and it causes erosion of land on both
the banks of river. Over the years, Bata River
has been causing damage to the life and
property of the inhabitants located on the
banks of Bata River. Therefore, a
comprehensive detailed project report for
Bata River channelization costing Rs.30.11
crore has been prepared. An embankment of
3000 metres has been constructed at site for
channelisation of Bata River.
•
Command
Area
Development
Programme:
In order to bridge gap
between potential created and utilised
Command Area Development activities
(CAD) are also extended not only to medium
schemes but also to minor irrigation schemes.
The Command Area Development Programme
(CADP) was initiated in the year 1974-75 under
Centrally Sponsored Scheme with the objective
of utilization of created irrigation potential and
optimum agriculture production from irrigable
land. Initially 3 Medium Irrigation Project were
included under the Centrally Sponsored
Command Area Development Programme,
which has since been completed. 12 more CAD
projects stands completed under CAD
Programme. 6 CAD Projects are in progress in
the State. Upto 3/2010, 22407 ha. field channels
and 21811 ha. warabandi have been completed in
Himachal Pradesh.
1. Water quality
Initiatives taken to improve the quality of water
are as follows:
(a)
The State Pollution Control Board
ensures installation of Effluent Treatment
Plants by the industries before Consent to
Operate is granted.
(b)
To check pollution due to Sewage, the
State Pollution Control Board by
intervention and constant persuasion of
concerned authorities, got 23 numbers of
Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs)
commissioned and 32 numbers of STPs
are under construction as on 31/03/2008
by I&PH Department.
(c)
STP or STP cum ETPs have been
installed.
90 | Page
(d)
The Sewage Treatment Plants are also
installed in hotels above 25 rooms capacity
outside the municipal limit.
2.7
Environment related
carried out in the sector
studies
Environment related studies carried out by I &
PH are:
Hydrology Project–II is aimed at improving the
existing system and developing an integrated and
comprehensive hydrological data collection and
information system in the State. The
Hydrological Information System (HIS), is of
immense use for all water resource sector
stakeholders
World Bank has approved a credit of US$ 104.98
Million to the Government of India for the
Hydrology Project Phase-II. (IBRD Ln. No
4749-IN). The total cost of the Project is US$
135.01 Million. Phase-I of Hydrology Project was
implemented in the nine peninsular States of the
Country & by 6 Central agencies during 19952003. Phase-II of the project is being
implemented in 13 States including 9 districts of
HP-I & by 8 Central agencies. The Project is
proposed to be implemented in the State over a
period of six years starting from April 5, 2006.
Study on impact of river bed mining on water
sources.
Impact of various land uses on the infiltration
in Changar:Experiments were conducted to
evaluate the infiltration characteristics under
different land use systems in the project area. The
initial and steady state infiltration rates were
found as 145.18mm/hr and 14.51mm/hr
respectively on degraded land & barren soil
condition, 197.66 mm/hr and 31.29 mm/hr on
private hay land and 160 mm/hr and 85.63
mm/hr on grazing land covered under
community plantation with double ring
infiltrometer.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the
infiltration characteristics under different Land
use system. The initial & steady state infiltration
rates were found as145.18mm/hr and
14.51mm/hr respectively on degraded land &
barren soil condition, 197.66 mm/hr 197.66
mm/hr and 31.29 mm/hr on private hay land
and 160 mm/hr and 85.63 mm/hr on grazing
land covered under community plantation with
double ring infiltrometer.
2.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and water
pollution) carried out for
activities related to the sector.
Monitoring of National Aquatic Resources
(MINARS) is sponsoring the water quality
monitoring of major rivers of the State. The
monitoring is being carried out in the month of
April, July, October and January every year. In all
36 points have been selected on major rivers
Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Yamuna, Parvati, Sirsa,
Markanda & Sukhna, Samples are analyzed for 22
parameters which includes the physico-chemical
and bacteriological contents. The results are
shown in Table 24. Eighteen (18) points have
also been selected in major industrial towns for
the monitoring of ground water of hand pumps
& wells. It has been observed that quality of
ground water monitored in the State conforms to
the prescribed standards.
Physical and chemical qualities tested in samples
taken from all the fourteen water zones in Shimla
are found satisfactory conforming to prescribed
standards of drinking water. Water sample taken
from Public Tap located at Sanjaulli main Chowk
has shown bacteriological contamination.
Similarly water sample taken from Public tap at
Kasumpti near B.S.N.L office has shown the
presence of Coliform group of bacteria. Further,
HP PCB has set in place a river water quality
monitoring. Table 24- 28 shows the Monitoring
results on river quality, lake water quality and
other sources of water is given in the section.
91 | Page
Table 24: River Quality Data (Annual Avg.) Year 2003
Location
8.1
8.0
8.0
8.2
DO
Mg/l
10.0
9.1
10.1
9.8
BOD
Mg/l
0.3
0.7
0.9
0.6
FC
(MPN/100ml)
135
283
82
20
Temp
(ºC)
6
10
7
8
8.0
10.8
1.3
29
8
8.1
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.3
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.4
8.3
8.3
8.2
7.8
9.3
8.2
8.1
7.7
8.3
9.5
9.4
9.4
9.2
9.5
10.2
9.2
9.2
8.2
1.1
1.2
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.7
0.8
25
421
10
26
6
7
152
226
104
38
41
2
8
7
9
10
17
19
24
14
13
14
15
10
9
16
12
18
7.6
8.2
0.7
7
18
7.8
7.8
8.3
8.3
8.9
8.9
9.8
10.4
8.0
7.6
8
7.7
0.7
0.6
0.2
0.4
2
4.8
152
80
77
318
46
76
9
6
23
26
20
22
pH
Beas at U/S Manali, H.P.
Beas at D/S Kullu, H.P.
Beas at D/S Aut, H.P.
Beas at U/S Pandoh Dam, H.P.
Beas at Exit of Tunnel Dehal Power House,
H.P.
U/S Mandi, H.P
Beas at D/S Mandi, H.P.
Beas at D/S Alampur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Dehragopipur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Pong Dam, H.P.
Satluj at Nathpa Zakhri, H.P
Satluj at U/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Tatapani, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Bhakhra, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Chamba, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Madhopur, H.P.
Ravi at U/S of Madhopur
Headworks,Gurdaspur,Punjab
Parvati before Conf. to River Beas, H.P.
Largi at D/S, H.P.
River Sirsa , U/S Sitomajri Nallahgarh, H.P
River Sirsa , D/S Nalagarh Bridge, H.P
Yamuna at U/S, at Ponta Shahib
Yamuna at U/S, at Ponta Shahib
WQI
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Medium
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Medium
Table 25: Lakes Water Quality Data Year 2003
Lake / Pond
/ Tank /
Creek
Gobind Sagar
Lake
Pong Dam
Lake
Location
Gobindsagar Lake At
Bilaspur, H.P.
Pongdam Lake at Pong
Village,H.P.
Renuka Lake , 35 Km
from Patna Sahib North
, H.P
Renuka Lake
Tem
(c)
pH
Cond
Microm
aho/cm
DO
Mg/l
BOD
Mg/l
COD
Mg/l
FC
MPN/100
ml
TC
MPN/
100ml
10
8.4
308
9.3
0.6
53.0
58
159
24
8.4
236
8.1
0.9
3.0
5
27
20
8.6
1207
8.1
6.0
42.0
33
85
Samples analysis in the State Pollution
Control Board laboratories: The State
Pollution Control Board has 5 laboratories for
carrying out analysis of water, waste water, solid
waste, air and bio-monitoring samples. The
details of samples analyzed by the laboratories
during the year 2007-08 is given in Table 26.
Table 26: Number of Samples Analyzed in State Pollution Control Board’s Laboratories
S.
No.
1
Number of Samples Analyzed in State Boards Laboratories
Type of Samples
Water
&
Trade
Effluent
Parwanoo
764
Paonta
Sahib
336
Jassur
181
Sunder
Naggar
183
Shimla
-
92 | Page
S.
No.
Number of Samples Analyzed in State Boards Laboratories
Type of Samples
Waste
Water
2
RM/ Study
etc. water
samples
Bio-Monitoring
Paonta
Sahib
83
Parwanoo
1110
-
12
Water quality of major rivers in Himachal
Pradesh monitored under MINARS and state
Jassur
128
Sunder
Naggar
346
-
Shimla
-
-
water quality monitoring programme for year
2008 is given in Table 27.
Table 27: Water quality of major rivers in Himachal Pradesh (January 2008)
Name of the location
Lift Nala D/S Hotel Combermere,
Lift Nala U/S M.C. Waste Processing Site
Lift Nala D/S MSW Processing Site, Shimla
Ashwani Khad U/S Lift Nala
Ashwani Khad D/S Lift Nala
Giri River D/S Yashwant Naggar,
Satluj River bef. conf. with Spiti at Khab
1867
Spiti River bef. conf. with Satluj at Khab
Satluj River after confluence of River Spiti at Khab
Satluj River bef. conf. with Tidong River
Tidong River bef. conf. to R. Satluj
Satluj River after conf. with Tidong River
Satluj River U/S Shorang Khad
Sorang River bef.conf. to R. Satluj
Satluj River D/S Shorang Khad
Baspa River U/S Reservoir
Baspa River D/S Reservoir at Kuppa
Baspa River Baspa Project Reservoir
Satluj River U/S TRT Baspa Hydel Project Reservoir
Satluj River bef. conf. to Baspa River
Satluj River After Conf. To Baspa
Satluj River at Wangtu Bridge, 1389-R- Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Nathpa,
Satluj River bef. conf to Ganvi Khad
Ganvi Khad
Satluj River D/S Ganvi Khad
Satluj River U/S TRT Jhakri
Satluj River D/S TRT Jhakri
Satluj River U/S Landfill site, Rampur
Satluj River D/S Landfill site, Rampur
Satluj River U/S Rampur, 1086-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Rampur,1087-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Dattnagar, Rhep, Rampur
Satluj River U/S Tatapani,1013-R-Sat-A,
Satluj River U/S Slapper, 1014-R-Sat-A
pH
D.O.
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
T.C. MPN/SPC per 100ml
7.7
7.48
6.56
7.09
6.75
8.14
7.56
8.4
8.5
8.4
8.9
8.7
11.6
-
4
14
12
3
30
0.6
0.1
320
820
750
60
360
180
2
7.59
7.71
7.69
7.32
7.64
7.26
7.38
7.39
7.71
8.15
7.7
7.52
7.74
7.47
7.28
8.42
7.92
7.51
7.01
7.83
7.95
7.27
7.92
8.02
8.14
8.58
7.61
8.07
10.1
10.5
10.2
10.5
9.8
10.2
9.6
9.8
10.1
9.8
10.7
9.8
9.4
9.5
10.1
10.4
10.5
11.2
11.4
9.6
10.5
9.4
12.4
0.1
1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
Nil
Nil
4
Nil
6
36
50
42
4
8
6
60
50
66
19
20
18
40
22
40
20
26
34
56
130
70
80
240
93 | Page
Name of the location
pH
D.O.
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
T.C. MPN/SPC per 100ml
Satluj River Dehar Power House, 1005-R- Bea-A
Satluj River D/S Slapper, 1015-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Acc Barmana. Satluj
River
Satluj River D/S Bhakhra 1016-R-Sat-A
Satluj River U/S Bhakra
Satluj River D/S Bilaspur, 1291-L-Gol-A
Swan River D/S Santokgarh 1869-R- Swan
Swan River U/S Landfill Site, Santokhgarh
Swan River D/S Landfill Site, Santokhgarh
Beas River U/S Manali, 1001-R-Bea-A
Beas River D/S Manali
Beas River U/S Waste Processing Facility
Manali
Beas River D/S Waste Processing Facility
Manali
R. Beas D/S of Conf. With Allaign Nalla
Allaign Nalla bef. conf. with Beas
R. Beas D/S conf. with Duhangan Nalla
Duhangan Nalla bef. conf with R. Beas
Beas River U/S Kullu
Beas River D/S Kullu 1002-R-Bea-A
Beas River U/S Waste Processing Facility
Kullu
Beas River D/S Waste Processing Facility
Kullu
Beas River U/S of Conf. Of R. Parvati
Parvati River U/S Manikaran
Parvati River D/S Manikaran
Parvati River River at Bhunter 1290-R- Par_A
Beas River D/S of conf. of R. Parvati
Sainj River U/S Envisaged Power House site of
Parvati-II
Sainj River D/S Envisaged Power House site of Parvati-II
Sainj River U/S Envisaged Power House Site of ParvatiIII
Sainj River D/S Envisaged Power House Site Of ParvatiIii
Beas River U/S Fermenta Biodil
Beas River D/S Fermenta Biodil
Beas River D/S Aut , 1003-R-Bea-A
Largi River D/S Largi ,1090-R-Lar-A
Beas River D/S of Conf. of trt of Largi
Hep Power House
Beas River U/S Pandoh Dam , 1004-R- Bea-A
Beas River D/S Pandoh Dam
Suketi River U/S of conf. of Dregger Outfall of
SNR Balancing Reservoir
Suketi River at Dadour Bridge
Shuketi Khad U/S Mandi,
Beas River D/S Mandi , 1006-R-Bea-A
7.92
8.01
7.99
12.5
12.3
12
0.5
0.4
0.7
920
540
920
7.79
7
7.9
8.01
7
7.6
7.91
7.03
7.54
10.8
11
12
9.4
8.6
7.7
9
10.9
11.7
0.1
0.4
0.8
2.2
1.4
1.8
0.2
5.9
1.1
20
24
540
160
120
160
26
>2400
> 2400
7.38
11.6
1.3
> 2400
7.15
8.06
7.13
7.31
7.56
7.08
7.58
11.5
11.4
11.7
11.6
10.3
10.4
11.7
1.4
0.9
0.4
0.7
2.2
2.4
1.7
> 2400
> 2400
> 2400
350
> 2400
> 2400
> 2400
7.59
11.6
1.9
> 2400
7.47
7.45
7.65
7.26
7.52
7.59
11.7
12.3
11.7
9
10.2
11.9
1.2
1
1.3
1.2
1.6
1.1
2400
79
> 2400
>2400
> 2400
46
7.56
7.5
11.8
11.8
1.5
1
130
130
7.74
11.8
1.6
130
7.73
7.97
7.82
8.05
7.77
11.7
11.7
11.5
12
11.5
0.6
0.5
1
0.6
1.3
280
1600
920
180
23
7.78
7.52
8.13
11.6
11.4
10.8
0.4
0.7
0.6
23
70
> 2400
7.63
7.99
7.56
9.7
10.1
11.5
1.3
0.6
0.4
> 2400
> 2400
920
94 | Page
pH
D.O.
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
T.C. MPN/SPC per 100ml
7.15
8.37
8.37
7.99
8.42
10.7
9.3
8.7
11
11
7.6
0.3
0.5
0.7
1
> 2400
17
21
240
350
Name of the location
Beas River U/S Salt Mine Drang
Beas River D/S Salt Mine Drang
Beas River D/S Mandi , 1006-R-Bea-A
Beas River U/S of conf. of Envisaged TRT of UHL-III
Beas River D/S of conf. of Envisaged Trt
TRT – Tail Race Tunnel
Sewage water quality of different STPs in
Shimla in November 2009 is given in Table 28.
Table 28: Sewage Water Quality of different STPs
November 2009
Name/ Location of STP
Lalpani
Sanjauli (Malyana)
Snowdone
Dhalli
Summerhill
North disposal Shimla
pH
Inlet
Outlet
7.22
7.90
8.10
8.02
7.98
8.05
7.00
7.25
7.46
7.45
7.26
7.45
TSS
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
1240.00
140.00
298.00
270.00
234.00
395.00
120.00
100.00
60.00
68.00
48.00
58.00
290.00
310.00
350.00
410.00
370.00
400.00
COD
Outlet
80.00
80.00
46.00
80.00
58.00
68.00
Inlet
BOD
Outlet
94.00
102.00
275.00
316.00
234.00
280.00
TDS
Inlet
Outlet
18.00
24.00
15.00
22.00
14.00
24.00
740.00
820.00
1230.00
1640.00
1260.00
2200.00
640.00
760.00
256.00
412.00
278.00
400.00
Outlet
Inlet
December 2009
Name/ Location of STP
Lalpani
Sanjauli (malyana)
Snowdone
Dhalli
Summerhill
North disposal Shimla
pH
Inlet
Outlet
TSS
Inlet
Outlet
7.30
7.02
1180
8.32
7.55
1220
Data Not Available
8.12
7.4
425.00
8.30
7.14
405.00
Data Not Available
COD
Inlet
BOD
Outlet
Inlet
TDS
Outlet
100.00
120.00
310.00
310.00
80.00
88.00
108.00
104.00
22.00
28.20
720.00
900.00
640.00
700.00
76.00
56.00
394.00
390.00
80.00
60.00
310.00
265.00
19.00
18.00
1880.00
2100.00
405.00
400.00
95 | Page
2.9
Institutional mechanisms within
the sector to address identified
environment issues
The organizational setup of IPH department is
given in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Organizational Setup of IPH Department
2.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations and
changing lifestyles; migratory
populations including tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
Water demand in rural & urban areas is given in
Table 29 & water required is given in Table 30.
Table 29: Water Demand/requirement
District
Chamba
Lahaul & Spiti
Kinnaur
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Bilaspur
Una
Water Demand (Kld)
Category
2008
Urban
5059.657
Rural
32381.65
Total
37441.31
Urban
0
Rural
2523.43
Total
2523.43
Urban
0
Rural
5949.605
Total
5949.605
Urban
24496.02
Rural
42173.66
Total
66669.68
Urban
6982.625
Rural
31210.33
Total
38192.95
Urban
13358.1
Rural
31091.77
Total
44449.86
Urban
3215.347
Rural
24223.6
Total
27438.95
Urban
5774.764
Rural
31052.8
Total
36827.57
96 | Page
District
Kangra
Kullu
Mandi
Hamirpur
Water Demand (Kld)
Category
2008
Urban
10580.87
Rural
96238.1
Total
106819
Urban
4407.974
Rural
26695.37
Total
31103.35
Urban
8932.546
Rural
63826.97
Total
72759.52
Urban
4424.526
Rural
29051.09
Total
33475.62
District
Lahaul & Spiti
Kinnaur
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Table 30: Water Required
District
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
(Dharamshala)
Kullu
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur(Paonta
Sahib)
Solan
Una
Shimla
Lahaul & Spiti
Total Absolute Water
Demand(KL/day)
2008
37441.31
27438.95
33475.62
10580.87
Bilaspur
Una
Kangra
31103.35
72759.52
66669.68
6982.625
Kullu
Mandi
44449.86
36827.57
66669.68
2523.43
Hamirpur
Details of sewage generated in rural & urban
areas in Himachal Pradesh is given in Table 31.
Table 31: Sewage Generation in Himachal
Pradesh
District
Chamba
Sewage (Kld)
Category
2008
Urban
4300.71
Rural
27524.4
Total
31825.1
Sewage (Kld)
Category
2008
Urban
0
Rural
2144.92
Total
2144.92
Urban
0
Rural
5057.16
Total
5057.16
Urban
20821.6
Rural
35847.6
Total
56669.2
Urban
5935.23
Rural
26528.8
Total
32464
Urban
11354.4
Rural
26428
Total
37782.4
Urban
2733.05
Rural
20590.1
Total
23323.1
Urban
4908.55
Rural
26394.9
Total
31303.4
Urban
8993.74
Rural
81802.4
Total
90796.1
Urban
3746.78
Rural
22691.1
Total
26437.8
Urban
7592.66
Rural
54252.9
Total
61845.6
Urban
3760.85
Rural
24693.4
Total
28454.3
Sewerage facility and status of sewerage treatment
plant of some of the towns of Himachal is
summarized in the following section.
Shimla: Shimla Municipal Area has an
underground sewerage system and is maintained
by IPH. The details of sources of water for
Shimla city is given in Table 32.
Table 32: Details of Sources of Water for Shimla City
S.N.
Source Name / River
Name
Transmission
Type
Year of
Start
1
Dhalli Catchment Area
Gravity
1875
2
Cherot / Jagroti Nallah
Pumping
1914
3
Chair Nallah
Pumping
1914
Installed
capacity
(MLD)
Quantity of
water
produced
(MLD)
4.54
4.80
2.50
Supply to SMC (MLD)
Non Lean
Period
Lean Period
1.80
3.86
0.23
3.86
0.20
2.65
3.00
2.50
1.42
97 | Page
S.N.
Source Name / River
Name
Transmission
Type
Year of
Start
4
Nauti Khad (Gumma)
Pumping
1924&
1982
5
Ashwani Khad
Pumping
1992
6
Sub Total
Tube Wells (10 no.)
Installed
capacity
Quantity of
water
Supply to SMC (MLD)
24.06
19.75
24.06
16.80
10.06
10.80
10.80
6.30
36.62
33.55
37.36
24.52
2.63
Total
30.00
The combined design capacity of the water
sources is 45.96 MLD, although the present yield
is limited to 39.21 MLD (from the five sources)
due to technical problems. Presently, 27.37 MLD
of treated water from main sources is supplied to
SMC and 2.63 MLD from tube wells during the
lean period. The total water supplied to the city is
33.00 MLD.
Bilaspur: In Bilaspur town sewerage lines were
laid in the year 1956-57. As per 1991, Census,
there were 2499 residential houses in the town,
out of which 1000 households i.e. 40 % sewerage
connections. The length of present sewer lines is
23,880 metres having 1235 manholes. Presently,
the sewage is being disposed in open Nallah and
Khuds. In order to improve the sanitary
conditions in the planning area, H.P. IPH
Department has proposed to construct four
treatment plants at Luhnu ground, at Diara below
the house of Late Sh. Hari Chand Advocate, near
water sports building at Roura and Police Lines,
Lakhanpur in Sector I, Naggar Parishad. The
estimated cost of these plants is Rs. 351 Lakhs
the type of sewerage treatment and place of
disposal of sewerage is given in Table 33.
Table 33: Type of sewerage treatment and
place of disposal
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Location
Nihal Kharian
Road
Near Girl School
Near Durga
temple, Roura
Near meat market,
Roura
Near Luxmi
Type of
treatment
Place of
disposal
Sedimentation
Nallah
Sedimentation
Nallah
Sedimentation
Nallah
Sedimentation
Nallah
Sedimentation
Nallah
Sr.
No.
Location
Type of
treatment
Place of
disposal
Narayan temple,
Diara
Near house of Late
Sh. Harish
6
Sedimentation
Nallah
Chander,Advocate,
Diara
Near Nalla Ka
7
Sedimentation
Nallah
Naun
Near Lower
8
Sedimentation
Nallah
Dholra
Near Lower
9
Sedimentation
Nallah
Lakhanpur
Source: Executive Engineer, H.P. Irrigation and Public Health
Department, Bilaspur.
Dalhousie: There is no sewerage system existing
in the town. 48.27% houses have dry latrines and
51.73% have flush latrines. At present, night soil
from dry latrines is being disposed off in the
depressions and open Nallahs. There is no
sewerage system existing in the town. 48.27%
houses have dry latrines and 51.73% have flush
latrines. At present, night soil from dry latrinesis
being disposed off in the depressions and open
Nallahs.
Hamirpur: Majority of the houses have their
own septic tanks and very few houses have the
sewerage connection that too in the Govt. sector
buildings like Housing Board Colony, NIT,
Polytechnic etc. The sewerage scheme of
Hamirpur town is under construction. Besides
laying the sewerage network in town, the Govt.
has provided subsidies for converting the dry
latrines into water borne latrines under the low
cost sanitation scheme, under the rural sanitation.
98 | Page
Kullu: The town does not have comprehensive
sewerage system and is dependent on septic tanks
and soak pits. The IPH department is
implementing a sewerage scheme for the right
bank of river Beas which shall cater to Naggar
Panchayat area and area from Dhungri to Suinsa.
Sewerage Connections: The 95.62% houses
does not have sewerage connection as given in
Table 34.
Table 34: Sewerage Connection
Sewerage
Yes
No
Total
No
20
437
457
%
4.38
95.62
100.00
Mandi: As per 2001 Census, there were 6714
households in the town, out of which 2191 have
sewerage connections. Rests have private sanitary
system of septic tanks and soak pits. IPH
Department has provided 100 sewerage
connections to other people. Sewerage Treatment
Plants have been designed for 40,000 persons.
Type of sewerage treatment plants and place of
disposal in Mandi is given in Table 35.
Table 35: Type of sewerage treatment and
place of disposal in Mandi
Sr.
No.
1
2
Location
Raghunath
- ka Padhar
Khaliar
Type of
Treatment
Biological
Treatment
Biological
Treatment
Capacity of
Treatment
Plant
3.83
Million
Litres per Day
(MLD)
0.47
Million
Litres per Day
(MLD)
Place of
Disposal
River
Beas
River
Beas
at Bheuli in Sector-VIII and Shilla Kipper in
Sector-VII. The length of existing sewer lines is
51,552 meter with 2,917 manholes. The diameters
of sewer pipe line vary from150 mm to 600 mm.
This system was designed for a population of
41,600 persons. However, to cater for the future
requirement, a sewerage scheme worth Rs.
1079.32 Lakhs for laying of 150 mm to 600 mm
diametre sewer pipe lines is under active
consideration of IPH department.
Nahan: The town has no sewerage system.
Drainage is generally through covered drains.
Nahan town is famous on account of its covered
drains. Town and Country Planning Department,
Himachal Pradesh has implemented a number of
schemes for channelisation and covering of
existing Nallahs.
Solan: Out of total households, 22% households
are having sewerage system, 53% households
have septic tanks, 3% households flush it into
open drain, 2% households have dry system of
manual carriage, 3% of the households have pit
latrine and 17% households are without latrine
facilities and defecate in open. The details of
sewerage system in Splan district is given in Table
36.
Table 36: Sewerage system in Solan district
Sr. No.
1.
2.
Source: Executive Engineer, H.P. Irrigation & c PuHbelialth
Department, Mandi
3.
m
Besides laying the sewerage network in the town,
Government of H.P. is also providing subsidies
for converting the dry latrines into water borne
latrines under Low Cost Sanitation schemes
outside the Naggar Parishad areas. Presently, two
Sewerage Treatment Plants at Raghunath -Ka –
Paddar in Sector – XI and Khaliyar in Sector- X
are existing. Two more sites have been identified
4.
5.
6.
Total
Description
Connected with
sewerage system
Connected with
own septic tank
Flush flowing into
open drain
Dry system of
manual carriage
Pit latrine
No latrine available
No. of
households
2151
22
5295
53
320
3
223
2
281
1700
9970
3
17
100
%
Status of on-going sewerage schemes (STP) in
Himachal Pradesh is given in Table 37.
99 | Page
Table 37: Status of ongoing sewerage schemes (STP)
Sr. No.
District
Name of
Scheme
Hamirpur
1
Hamirpur
Sujanpur
Nadaun
Total
Kullu
2
Kullu
Bhunter
Total
3
Sirmaur
Paonta
Total
4
Solan
Solan
Total
Sundernagar
5
Mandi
Sarkaghat
Total
Una
6
Una
Mehatpur
Santokhgarh
Total
Chowari
Dalhousie
7
8
Chamba
Shimla
Total
2
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Narkanda
Sunni
1
1
1
1
Theog
9
Sewerage Treatment Plants
Nos.
Capacity (Mld)
3.13
3
1.35
0.68
1.5
2
1.75
1.31
0.2
3
0.27
8
10.19
2.5
3
2.57
0.38
0.99
3
0.46
0.87
6
7.77
0.44
3
1
1.72
3
3.16
2.81
3
2.9
2.98
3
8.69
1
3.55
1.35
2
1.67
3 Septic tank
4
6.57
0.63
2
2.53
0.94
3
0.73
0.09
1
1.6
6
6.52
1
1
Kangra
Total
Kangra
2
0.65
0.57
0.44
0.51
0.93
0.66
3.76
Remarks(Status)
Commissioned
Commissioned
98 % work completed
40% completed
Work awarded
Tender to be recalled
do
do
Commissioned
95 % completed.
Commissioned
70 % completed
100 % completed.
47 % completed
Completed but to be commissioned
95 % completed.
Estimate under process.
New proposal for zone A C D & E
Submitted for approval
Zone B, 2.9 MLD commissioned.
Completed
Yet to be started
40 % completed
Commissioned
98 % completed
90 % completed
Work yet to be started.
Work yet to be started
Treatment was divided into 3 zones.
Now as per instruction of CE (NZ), the
scheme will be based on single T/unit,
for which capacity of T/plan is to be
finalized. Treatments were divided into 4
zones. Now as per instruction of CE, the
scheme will be based on single T/unit,
for which capacity of T/plant is to be
finalized.
Tender for STP awarded
Working estimate under process
Material arranged.
-
6
1.68
Tender under progress
100 | Page
Sr. No.
District
Name of
Scheme
Sewerage Treatment Plants
Nos.
Capacity (Mld)
1.46
3
0.54
1 (Septic
Tank)
0.12
1
1.38
1
1.34
1
3.05
7
9.57
56.23
Dehra
Nagrota
Nurpur
Total
Grand Total
Source: IPH, Himachal Pradesh
Remarks(Status)
do
DNIT got approved
Technical approval under process
85% work completed
Tender received & under process.
Command
Area
Developm
ent (CAD)
Flood
Protection
Achievement
during 2009-10
up to 11/09
Area Protected
under
Flood
Protection upto
3/09
Achievement
during 2009-10
up to 11/09
FC 0
ha WB
0 ha
Solan
Una
Lahaul &
Spiti
Kullu
Kinnaur
Kangra
ha
Sirmaur
Irrigation
Shimla
Hand
pumps
Habitation yet to 7732 2416 2683 6613
379
3840 346
be covered as on
01.04.09 (Total)
Achievement
5580 1220 2388 6652
379
2727 342
during 2009-10
up to 11/09
(Total)
Status of Hand 1012 1417 2023 4535
141
569
340
Pump up to
3/09
Achievement
36
113
104
289
0
4
13
during 2009-10
up to 11/09
Area
covered 9455 7693 7019 65054
7908 7501 6156
under Irrigation ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
upto 3/09
Achievement
49
25
104
257 ha
149
40
134
during 2009-10 ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
up to 11/09
No
No
FC 3268 No
No
No
Area
covered No
CAD CAD CAD
under
CAD CAD CAD CAD ha
Work Work Work WB 2842 Work Work Work
upto 3/09
Mandi
Water
Supply
Hamirpur
Description
Bilaspur
Chamba
Table 38: District wise Status of Habitation Coveredand is Yet to be Covered by IPH
10239
7703
4338
3613
1946
6515
5990
3423
2418
1349
1946
1220
1422
1732
1240
181
121
96
201
100
31491
ha
11653
ha
2787
5 ha
1583
ha
1675
7 ha
130
ha
207
ha
267
ha
170
ha
702
ha
FC 7015 No CAD
ha
Work
WB
6938 ha
FC 60
ha WB
60 ha
FC
No
6761
CAD
hac WB Work
6761 ha
FC 0
ha WB
0 ha
676.15 426 ha 165
ha
ha
2338.7
8 ha
1013
.39
ha
920.
82
ha
1157.
23 ha
703
ha
131
ha
1487.
36 ha
240
ha
1 hac
92 ha
25
ha
0 ha
44 ha
0 ha
20 ha
70 ha
0 ha
4 ha
0
FC
5286 ha
WB
5193 ha
FC
0hac
WB
0hac
5973.
14 ha
350
ha
Blockwise cases of waterborne diseases in
Mandi district given in Table 39.
101 | Page
Table 39: Reported Cases of waterborne diseases in Mandi district
Name of the
Block: Medical
Population
OPD
Diarrhoea
IPD Total
Number of cases registered in last one year (April 2005 to March 2006)
Gastroenteritis
Typhoid
Hepatitis
TOTAL Incidence
OPD IPD Total OPD IPD Total OPD IPD
Total
Ratti
160024 5973 524 6497 1679 519 2198 331 346 677
98
36 134
9506
5.94%
Riwalsar
78584 3738 180 3918 176 52 228 367 78 445
18
14
32
4623
5.88%
Drang
(Paddhar)
87831 5099 525 5624 1012 500 1512 357 177 534
72
6
78
7748
8.82%
Chauntra
72742 2476 33 2509
41 30
71 140 31 171
1
0
1
2752
3.78%
Chakhiot
(Bagsaid)
65836 2194 224 2418 160 104
264
31
1
32
0
0
0
2714
4.12%
Seraj
82125 4806 265 5071 541 103
644
6
0
6
0
0
0
5721
6.97%
Dharampur
95816 3419 199 3618 514 73 587 597
2 599
0
0
0
4804
5.01%
Gopalpur
98845 4809 416 5225 558 118
676 1323 454 1777
49
3
52
7730
7.82%
Rohand
(Sundernagar) 126081 4158 179 4337 704 204
908 962 185 1147
0
0
0
6392
5.07%
Karsog
102686 5241 301 5542 728 125
853 897 136 1033
93
0
93
7521
7.32%
TOTAL
970570
44759
7941
6421
390 59511
6.13%
Source: Environment related studies & Study on opportunity cost of unclean water with regard to health in Himachal Pradesh by IPH Dept. HP,
WASH, GTZ.
Habitations covered by IPH for water supply in
terms of partially covered, fully covered and
not covered have been summarized in the Table
40 (a) and Table 40 (b).
Table 40(a): Habitations covered by IPH
Sr.
No.
Name of
District
1
Chamba
2
Kangra
3
Una
4
Hamirpur
5
Bilaspur
6
Mandi
7
Kullu
8
Lahaul & Spiti
9
Shimla
10
Solan
11
Sirmaur
12
Kinnaur
Grand Total
Habitations as per survey 2003 as on 1.4.2008
NC
(0-10)
471
106
198
0
0
1563
701
2
523
591
891
4
5050
PC
(11-40)
2994
797
813
704
1433
4162
1010
3
2312
1259
1020
20
16527
Total
(NC+PC)
3465
903
1011
704
1433
5730
1711
5
2835
1850
1911
24
21582
FC
4267
5710
935
1979
983
4509
2129
341
4868
1763
2427
355
30266
G.Total
7732
6613
1946
2683
2416
10239
3840
346
7703
3613
4338
379
51848
Target for 2008-09 (GOI)
MNP
324
85
95
65
130
530
158
0
260
171
180
2
2000
ARWSP
516
136
150
102
210
845
250
1
416
272
282
4
3184
Total
840
221
245
167
340
1375
408
1
676
443
462
6
5184
102 | Page
Table 40(b): District wise habitations covered by I PH
Sr.
No.
Name of
District
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Chamba
Kangra
Una
Hamirpur
Bilaspur
Mandi
Kullu
Lahaul
&
8
Spiti
9
Shimla
10
Solan
11
Sirmaur
12
Kinnaur
Grand Total
Coverage up to 12/08
Status of survey 2003 (as on 1.01.09)
Under ARWSP
Under MNP
NC
PC
Total
NC PC
Total
NC
PC
Total
(0-10) (11-40)
(NC+PC)
(0-10) (11-40) (NC+PC) (0-10)
(11-40)
(NC+PC) FC
G. Total
47
102
17
0
0
237
10
117
251
120
204
112
402
10
164
353
137
204
112
639
20
20
4
9
0
0
34
16
288
27
44
0
19
118
21
308
31
53
0
19
152
37
404
0
172
0
0
1297
675
2589
519
649
500
1302
3642
979
2993
519
821
500
1302
4939
1654
4739
6094
1125
2183
1114
5300
2186
7732
6613
1946
2683
2416
10239
3840
0
70
34
105
4
626
1
350
82
86
9
1744
1
420
116
191
13
2370
0
0
9
107
0
199
0
53
90
185
4
849
0
53
99
292
4
1048
2
453
548
679
0
4230
2
1909
1087
749
7
13934
4
2362
1635
1428
7
18164
342
5341
1978
2910
372
33684
346
7703
3613
4338
379
51848
District/Circle wise status of installed and non
functional Hand-pump upto 01.02.2010 is given
in Table 41.
Table 41: District/Circle wise status of installed and non functional Hand-pump upto
01.02.2010
Sr.
No.
Distt.
1
2
1 Shimla
Circle
3
R/Peo
Rohru
Shimla
ShimlaU/Area
Total:2 Solan
Shimla
Nahan
Total:3 Sirmaur
Nahan
4 Kinnaur
R/Peo
5 L&S
Kullu
R/Peo
Total:6 Hamirpur Hamirpur
7 Bilaspur
Bilaspur
8 Una
Una
Hamirpur
9 Mandi
S/Ghat)
Sundernagar
Total:10 Kullu
Kullu
11 Chamba
Chamba
Chamba-
No. of Non Functional Handpumps &
reason
Non
Repaira
Water
Total
Repairabl
ble
level down (6+7+8)
e
Total Hand
pump installed
upto 31.03.09
Total
Handpump
installed upto
31.01.2010
4
123
538
515
5
133
642
577
6
1
23
19
7
0
12
10
8
5
14
0
9
6
49
29
10
0
0
0
44
1220
610
1122
1732
1422
141
99
241
340
2023
1471
1240
44
1396
645
1288
1933
1518
160
112
246
358
2246
1605
1360
0
43
12
21
33
21
6
3
0
3
50
17
12
0
22
5
5
10
75
8
0
1
1
4
21
71
0
19
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
5
26
51
0
84
21
26
47
96
14
3
1
4
59
64
134
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
61
50
2
566
1380
1946
569
937
75
675
1541
2216
598
986
78
0
68
68
16
24
0
0
30
30
18
7
0
16
28
44
18
4
0
16
126
142
52
35
0
20
17
37
8
5
0
Quality
Problem/
Excess iron
103 | Page
Sr.
No.
Distt.
12 Kangra
Circle
No. of Non Functional Handpumps &
reason
Non
Repaira
Water
Total
Repairabl
ble
level down (6+7+8)
e
Total Hand
pump installed
upto 31.03.09
Total
Handpump
installed upto
31.01.2010
1012
1218
2499
1064
1218
2733
24
23
19
7
35
64
4
0
0
35
58
83
5
0
0
818
4535
17651
909
4860
19314
18
60
353
33
132
399
0
0
171
51
192
923
19
19
182
Tribal
Total:Nurpur
Dharamshala
Hamirpur
(Dehra)
Total:G.Total:
Quality
Problem/
Excess iron
District /Tehsil wise Status of Irrigation in HP
Bilaspur: The net irrigated area in the district
during 1998-99 was 3,164 ha. The kuhls
constitute the major source of irrigation in the
district which accounted for 72.41% of the
net irrigated area during the 1998-99. These
small water channels called kuhls are made by
making notches on the river and other water
sources and water is thus led to the fields for
irrigation. The irrigation by wells and tube wells
was available to 194 hectares and 679 ha of
irrigated land was irrigated by other sources of
irrigation in the district during 1998-99. The
breakup of net irrigated area and percentage net
irrigated area to total net cropped area at
tehsil/sub-tehsil level is given in Table 42.
Table 42: Net Irrigated Area (in ha)
Agricultural
Year
Kuhls/Canals
1990-91
1,854
1991-92
N.A.
1992-93
2,393
1993-94
2,323
1994-95
2,323
1995-96
2,291
1996-97
2,291
1997-98
2,291
1998-99
2,291
Source: - District Statistical Abstract-2000
Tank
N.A.
31
22
22
-
Well and
Tube well
264
N.A.
485
564
564
194
194
194
194
At C.D. block level, data shows that
Ghumarwin block with 262 villages have a total
area of 20,281 hectares. Of this 51.1% of land
is cultivable and 11.2% is an irrigated land.
Geharwin block, all the 275 village have a total
area 33,919 hectares. 31.2% land is cultivable
and of this 2.7% land is under irrigated. The
C.D. block, Bilaspur Sadar has a total 49,920
hectares area of 428 villages. The percentage of
cultivable area accounts for 22.1%. Of this
17.9% area is under irrigation.
Other
sources
771
N.A.
1
679
679
679
679
Total
2,889
N.A.
2,910
2,909
2,909
3,164
3,164
3,164
3,164
Percentage of net
irrigated area sown to
total net area
8.9
N.A.
9.1
9.1
9.0
10.2
10.2
10.2
10.4
Source of irrigation are:Government Canal,
Private Canal, Well (without electricity), Well
(with electricity), Tubewell (without electricity),
Tubewell (with electricity), Tank, River, Lake,
Water fall,
Chamba: The hilly terrain of the district
present difficulties in providing adequate
irrigation facilities. The only source of irrigation
available in the district is Kuhls. Out of total
cropped area of the district, only 6,580 hectares
were having irrigation facilities of one type or
the other, which shows that large part of
104 | Page
Percentage of
Percentage
Total
irrigated area
of cultivable
area in
to total
area to total
Ha
cultivable
area
area
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Pangi
59
41,034
5.3
45.2
Tisa
170
49,599
12.8
0.1
Saluni
225
40,191
19.1
1.3
Chamba
111
29,918
22.4
4
Bhattiyat
323
57,738
17.8
24.3
Mehla
129
58,321
14.3
3.2
Bharmaur
101
45,892
17.4
0
District
1,118 322,69
15.3
8.3
Total:
3
Note : - Cultivable area = irrigated area + unirrigated area
Table 43 also shows C.D blockwise distribution
of villages according to land use. It gives details
of total area and cultivable area available of
inhabited villages in the district. Cultivated area
includes irrigated as well as unirrigated area. It
further elaborates the extent of cultivable area
under irrigation. There are total 1,118 inhabited
villages in the district having a total area of
322,693 hectares. Of this, 15.3% is cultivable
and 8.3% of total cultivable area has irrigation
facility.
Kangra: Kangra district is drained by several
perennial rivers and khads which provide vast
potential for development of irrigation facility
to the cultivated area. Cultivated area is mainly
irrigated by means of kuhls by diverting water
of streams through the kuhls. The net
1999- 30,128
2,056 2000
Source: District Statistical Abstract Kangra, 2000
32,194
The only major irrigation project in the State is
Shahnehar project in Kangra district and is
under execution. On completion of this
project, an irrigation potential of 15,287
hectares shall be created.The main source of
irrigation in the district are lift canals,
government canals, private canals, tube-wells,
and wells etc.
Kinnaur: The major source of irrigation in the
district is kuhls. The other sources of irrigation
are not in use due to hilly terrain. Table 45
shows the area irrigated by the different sources
of irrigation from 1991-92 to 1999-2000 in the
district as well as tehsil/sub-tehsil.
Table 45: Source wise Irrigated Area (In
Hectares)
year
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
4,841
4,258
4,307
5,622
-
Nichar
Sangla
Kalpa
Morang
Irrigated
area
Number
Sr.
Name of C.
of
No
D. block inhabited
.
villages
Year
Source wise irrigated area ( in hectares)
Well
and
Canal/Kuhl
Tank
Others
Total
Tube
Well
Tehsil wise irrigated
area
for the year 1999-2000
Table 43: Percentage of irrigated area to
cultivable area
Table 44: Irrigated area (source-wise) in
1999-2000
Other sources of
irrigation viz. Canal,
Well, Lake, Tube well
etc.
Irrigation facilities are being provided by the
Soil Conservation Wing of Agriculture
Department. A watershed irrigation tank of 9
Cum capacity is provided at subsidy by the
Department while community irrigation
schemes are being provided at 100% subsidy.
Table 43 given details of the total area in
hectare at the percentage of irrigated area to
total cultivable area.
cultivated area in the district was 118,521
hectares out of which 32,194 hectares were
irrigated during 1998-99. The proportion of net
irrigated area was only 27.16% of the total net
cultivated area during 198-99. It shows that
more than 70% of area depends on rainfall. The
irrigated area (source wise) during 1999-2000 is
given in Table 44.
Irrigation by kuhls
cultivated land depends upon the vagaries of
weather. The proportion of irrigated area is
only 9.92% out of total net cultivated area in
the district.
184
994
1,442
1,062
105 | Page
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
19992000
5,523
5,523
5,528
5,534
4,690
-
Pooh
Hangrang
Total
605
403
4,690
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Kinnaur-2000
Kullu: During 1999, the total net cultivated
area in the district was 35,524 hectares. Out of
this area only, 2,267 ha was under irrigation.
The major source of irrigation in the district is
Kuhls, lift irrigation where water is lifted from
the streams/rivers by electric motor and tanks
wherein rainwater is stored. The other sources
of irrigation are not in use due to the hilly
terrain. More than half of the total irrigated area
falls in Kullu and Manali Tehsils which
constitutes the main Kullu valley. Details of
area irrigated by different sources is given in the
Table 46.
Table 46: Irrigated Area Source-wise from
1995-96 to 1998-99
Total
Others
including
Kuhls & lift
irrigation
Tube well
Well
Tank
Agriculture year
Canal
Source wise irrigated Area (Ha.)
1995-96
2,596
2,596
1996-97
N.A.
N.A.
1997-98
2,665
2,665
1998-99
2,267
2,267
Tehsil wise irrigated Area for the year 1998-99
Kullu
1,063
1,063
Manali
446
446
Sainj
42
42
Banjar
2
2
Ani
148
148
Nirmand
566
566
Total
2,267
2,267
Source: Statistical Abstract, Kullu-2000.
Lahaul & Spiti: The rain in the district is very
scanty and occasional. The people, therefore
are constrained to depend upon perennial
irrigation facilities which are sourced from
springs, nallahs and rivers through the local
kuhls. Most of the cultivated area in the district
is irrigated while in Lahaul it is almost 100%, in
Spiti it is about 85%. District Land Record
shows that 3,264 ha land is under irrigation in
the district during 1999-2000. Of these, 1,361
ha of irrigated land pertains to Lahaul, 763 ha
to Udaipur and 1,140 ha to Spiti tehsil. 971 ha
of irrigated land of district was under cereals.
818 ha under potato cultivation, 18 ha under oil
seeds and 1,457 ha under the various pulses and
peas. Irrigation sources in Lahaul & Spiti
district during 1999-2000 is given in Table 47.
Table 47: Irrigation sources in Lahaul &
Spiti district during 1999-2000
District/Tehsil/
Sub-tehsil
Source wise irrigated area (in
hectares)
Other
Sources
(Kuhl/
Canal Well
Total
spring
Govt.&
Private)
Lahaul (T)
Udaipur (S.T)
Spiti (T)
Lahaul & Spiti
-
-
1,361
763
1,140
3,264
1,361
763
1,140
3,264
Source: District Land Record Officer, Keylong
Mandi: Irrigation is entirely from Kuhls or
small water courses emanating from the minor
streams and hill torrents. There is no irrigation
from Beas and very little from Suketi while the
beds of their main tributaries are usually too
deep in their lower courses to permit large areas
being watered. 1997-98, only 13,139 ha
constituting 14.34% of the net cropped area of
91,612 hectares in the district was irrigated. The
lift irrigation has been introduced and shallow
wells have been dug by employing German rigs
supplied under the Indo-German Agriculture
Projects in the valley areas. The gravity
irrigation schemes are also being executed
making productive use of the stream flow.
Sprinkle irrigation was introduced in Balh valley
and the system has become popular and
extends to lower areas. The tube-wells have
been introduced in Balh valley. A more efficient
system of irrigation with under ground airconditioned pressure pipes connected directly
with the centrifugal pump and (which lift out
for irrigation) protected with alfa-alfa valves has
106 | Page
been introduced. The additional benefit of this
arrangement is that it saves the valuable
agricultural land, and protection from wastage
and the land thus saved meets the cost of
construction in about eight years. Area irrigated
by various sources is given in Table 48.
Table 48: Area irrigated by various sources
Govt. Irrigatio-n
Scheme
Private Lift
Irrigation
Scheme
Private Tube-well
1,635
697
895
865
2
803
-
662
3
112
218
149
5
77
7,772
1,510
369
948
848
873
973
133
129
4
-
1
1
-
14,405
1,513
1,365
1,166
1,001
878
6,030
-
43
-
60
-
-
98
-
555
549
837
-
-
756
549
837
-
-
-
-
-
310
-
-
310
Tank
PrivateKuhl
3,337
55
3,282
Govt. Kuhl
Govt.Tube-well
Sirmaur
Rajgarh
Nahan
Pachhad
Renuka
Shillai
Paonta
Sahib
Kamrau
Dadahu
Nohra
Dhar
Ronhat
13,139
Govt. Canal
District/
tehsil/Sub-tehsil
1997-98
202
12,937
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Mandi, 2000
Total Area Irrigated
Year
Total
irrigated
Area (in
Ha.)
Other
sources (in
Ha.)
Irrigated by
well (in Ha)
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Sirmaur- 2001
Solan: Due to terrain extensive irrigation is difficult
in the district. However, cultivated area exists in
patches in villages along the hill slopes which is
basically suited for minor irrigation. The district has
a number of perennial streams with immense scope
for exploitation of surface water potential. Tehsil
wise irrigated area by various sources in Solan
district is given in Table 49.
Table 49: Net irrigated area by various
sources (in ha) in Solan district
Tehsil/Subtehsil
Canal/Kuhl Pond
Arki
Kandaghat
Kasauli
Krishangarh
Nalagarh
Ramshehar
Solan
2,117
732
1,354
640
2202
865
1,281
5
-
District
Total
9,191
5
Well
and
Tap
Other
sources
Total
Irrigated
Area
320
1,726
4
-
143
32
5
184
5
2
2,260
769
1,674
645
4,122
874
1,283
2050
371
11,627
Table 50 shows that 11,627 ha of land in Solan
district is irrigated by various sources. As many
as 9,191 hectares of land was irrigated by canal
or local Kuhls, while irrigation source of
well/taps was available to another 2,050 ha of
irrigated land in the district, 371 ha was
irrigated by other sources and only 5 ha was
irrigated by ponds. 4122 ha of land in Nalagarh
tehsil was covered under irrigation facilities
whereas it was available to only 645 ha of land
in Krishangarh sub-tehsil. Crop wise 12,013 ha
of irrigated area was covered by wheat, 9,891 ha
by maize, 7,992 ha by paddy, 915 ha by pulses
and 132 and 116 ha by barley and potato
respectively. Existence of excess irrigated area
while calculating it covered under various crops
is due to counting of sowing and irrigation
occasions at various times.
Una: The main river of district is Swan which
does not provide the perennial source of water.
However, the water level in plain area and
adjoining to Swan river is shallow which can be
used for irrigation by digging tube wells. Besides
this, water of river Satluj has been lifted at village
Bhabour Sahib of Punjab to provide irrigation
facility to the some of villages of Una tehsil. The
main sources of irrigation in the district are
Canals, Tube- wells and Wells.
2.11
Information on human resource
management issues (which
may
have
relevance
to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational training, awareness
levels etc.
Principal
Secretary
(IPH)
to
the
Government
of
Himachal
Pradesh:
Himachal Pradesh Irrigation & Public Health
Department is under the overall administrative
control of Principal Secretary (IPH) to the
Government of Himachal Pradesh.
Source:-Statistical Abstract, Solan district,2000
107 | Page
Engineer-in-Chief: The Department is headed
by Engineer-in-Chief whose office is at Shimla
and s/he is assisted by four Zonal Chief
Engineers & a Chief Engineer-Design and
Monitoring for effective management and
implementation of Government programme in
this sector.
Dharamshala Zone: District Kangra and
Chamba comes under the jurisdiction of this
zone. 3 IPH circles namely Nurpur,
Dharamshala, Shahnehar at Fatehpur and
Chamba comprise this zone.
Sr.
No.
8
107
9
10
201
146
11
12
13
14
15
3
1
1
3
12
2.12
Mandi Zone: District Kullu, Mandi and Lahaul
area of District Lahaul & Spiti comes under the
jurisdiction of this zone. 2 IPH circles namely
Kullu and Sundernagar comprise this zone.
Shimla Zone: District Shimla, Solan, Sirmaur,
Kinnaur and Spiti area of District Lahaul &
Spiti come under the jurisdiction of this zone. 5
IPH circles namely Reckong Peo, Rohru,
Shimla-9, WS&S Circle Shimla-3 and Nahan
comprise this zone.
Hamirpur Zone: District Hamirpur, Bilaspur
and Una come under the jurisdiction of this
zone. 3 IPH circles namely Hamirpur, Bilaspur
and Una comprise this zone. Details of other
employees in IPH Department is given in Table
50.
Table 50: Status of other employees in IPH
Department
Sr.
No.
1
No. of
Employees
593
2
26
3
1
4
5
3
5
6
31
7
30
Designation
Junior Engineer
(Civil)
Junior Engineer
(Mechanical)
Junior Engineer
(Electrical)
Legal Assistant
Personal
Assistant
Sr. Scale
Stenographer
Circle Head
Status As
on
31-12-2005
31-12-2005
31-12-2005
31-12-2004
31-12-2005
31-12-2005
No. of
Employees
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Designation
Draughtsman
Divisional Head
Draughtsman
Draughtsman
Junior
Draughtsman
Jamadar
Restorer
Sweeper
Daftri
Peon
Status As
on
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
31-12-2006
Regulatory Analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment
implications
(negative or positive) and
compliance with the same.
State Water Policy Draft
HP Tourism Policy
HP Municipal Act
HP Ground Water Pollution Act
HP Town & Country planning Act
Panchayati Raj Act
State Sector Reforms
NREGA/EIVS/IHDSP/UIDSMT/RGU
RF/JNNURM
Rural Tourism Infrastructure Development
Scheme
Total Sanitation Campaign
Health Vision, 2008
HP Non-Biodegradable Garbage (Control)
Act
River/Stream
Bed
Mining
Policy
Guidelines
HP Municipal Act/ HP Municipal Bye-Law
New Hydropower Policy
HP Forest Sector Policy
Notification No. IPH-B (C) 10-1/2004
Notification No. IPH-B (C) 10-3/2004
Notification No. IPH-B (F) 2-2/2004
Notification No. IPH-B (F) 5-4/2004
31-12-2006
108 | Page
CHAPTER 3 HEALTH
3.1
Resource Inventory of existing
assets of the sector
The attempt of the Himachal Pradesh
Government in providing health care to the
people of the State has been to follow the
determining principle of the World Health
Organisation meet held at Geneva in 1979. It was
“with the objective of continually improving the
state of health of the total population, every
individual should have access to primary health
care and through it, to all levels of
comprehensive health system.” The Government
of Himachal Pradesh aware that the primary
health care has to be the hub of the health
system. It has to be comprehensive in addressing
the main health problems in the community
providing promotive, preventive, curative and
rehabilitative care. These services include:
movement towards better health of the people of
the State which does not signify merely the
absence of disease. WHO defines health as a
“complete state of physical, mental, and social
well being.” The state of health of the individual,
or the community, is a function of the socioeconomic environment and the Health Vision
aim to promote:
• a stake in a change of the system;
• a hope in a more concerted effort to tackle
problems and
• a vision for more people responsive to health
care.
The Health Vision gives the vital rates to be
achieved by 2008 as given in Table 1.
Table 1:
Vital Health Rates for Himachal
Pradesh
Health Indicators
•
•
•
•
•
Health education and its promotion
Promotion of nutrition
Adequate supply of safe water
Basic sanitation
Maternal and child care and family welfare
services
• Immunization against the major infectious
diseases
• Prevention and control of the locally
endemic diseases
• Appropriate treatment for common diseases
and injuries
Health Vision 2008: The Government of
Himachal Pradesh has drawn a Health Vision
2008. The purpose is to have a directional
Table 2:
District
1.Bilaspur
Existing SRS2002
20.7
7.5
52
31
Vision
2008
19.00
7,0
45
20
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate
Neonatal
Mortality
Rate
Child Mortality Rate
13
10
Total Fertility Rate
2.3
2.0
SRS: Sample Registration System. Source: Health Vision 2008
State has 1640 Health Centres – 1135 with the
Department of ISMH and 505 Primary Health
Centres, 439 (PHCs) and 66 Community Health
Centres (CHCs) with the HFWD- functioning at
the Primary Health Care level. Details of various
Government Health Institutions is given in Table
2.
District-wise position of buildings in respect of various Government health
institutions as on 31-3-2008
Type of
Institutions
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
Total
Govt. Panchayat Donated
Number
Building Building Building
(31-3-08)
1
1
6
1
1
6
Rented
Building
Under Construction
if any
6
109 | Page
District
2.Chamba
3.Hamirpur
4.Kangra
5.Kinnaur
6. Kullu
7.Lahaul & Spiti
8.Mandi
9.Shimla
Type of
Institutions
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Dr.R.P. Zonal Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
NSCB Zonal Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
SUB-Centres
DDU Zonal Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Total
Govt. Panchayat Donated
Number
Building Building Building
(31-3-08)
27
2
116
1
3
7
42
0
170
1
1
5
25
0
151
1
8
14
77
2
434
1
1
3
21
0
33
1
1
5
17
0
101
1
0
3
16
0
36
1
5
11
61
0
312
1
11
7
76
9
261
24
2
91
1
3
7
30
0
125
1
1
5
20
0
73
1
8
12
61
2
127
1
1
3
15
0
21
1
1
5
16
0
87
1
0
3
15
0
23
1
5
10
44
0
235
1
11
5
68
9
169
Rented
Building
Under Construction
if any
1
0
2
9
0
25
0
0
2
6
0
6
3
45
0
0
0
3
0
2
1
5
7
71
0
0
1
16
1
0
0
307
2
4
24
0
4
1
1
9
6
0
11
0
1
0
0
1
1
3
0
10
4
0
0
0
1
0
13
0
6
7
1
6
4
3
3
4
0
76
1
2
0
2
1
7
19
35
49
8
0
8
1
1
110 | Page
Total
Govt. Panchayat Donated
Number
Building Building Building
(31-3-08)
12
40
73
449
22
2071
3
9
39
73
449
22
2071
12
40
66
347
22
1261
3
9
39
66
347
22
1261
District Wise Number of
hospitals in Himachal Pradesh
as on 31-03-2008
District
Zonal
Hospital
District
Hospital
Civil
Hospital
Ref.
Hospital
Teaching
Hospital
Total
Hospital
HOSPITALS
1.Bilaspur
2.Chamba
3.Hamirpur
4.Kangra
5.Kinnaur
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
4
2
9
2
1
7
1
10
6
0
76
0
1
6
1
0
7
8
8
40
0
2
0
1
0
1
1
7
23
0
0
0
0
0
1
54
0
129
0
0
0
1
54
0
129
0
0
6
7
0
667
0
0
0
6
7
0
667
0
0
0
41
0
14
1
10
17
97
0
23
1
1
11
17
97
0
23
41
14
HOSPITALS
District wise details of hospitals in Himachal
Pradesh is given in Table 3.
Table 3:
0
District
Total
Hospital
H.P.
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Zonal Hospital
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
9
Teaching
Hospital
HP
1
4
3
17
3
72
1
4
3
19
5
130
1
1
4
18
1
108
Ref.
Hospital
12.Una
1
4
3
36
3
148
1
4
4
32
5
178
1
1
5
19
1
131
Civil
Hospital
11.Solan
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Regional Hospital
Other Hospital
CHC
PHC
CD
Sub-Centres
Under Construction
if any
District
Hospital
10.Sirmaur
Rented
Building
Zonal
Hospital
Type of
Institutions
District
6.Kullu
7. Lahaul &
Spiti
8.Mandi
9.Shimla
10.Sirmaur
11.Solan
12.Una
H. P.
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
8
3
4
1
33
1
1
1
0
0
4
0
2
0
0
0
3
6
12
5
5
2
52
Details of dental hospital are given in Table 4.
111 | Page
2.
H.P. Govt. Dental College &
Hospital
Himachal Dental College
3.
4.
Himachal Institute of Dental
Sciences
5.
MNDAV Dental College &
Hospital
Details of district wise no. of medical
institutions, hospitals (CHC, PHC and
dispensaries) etc. as on 31.03.2008 is given in
Table 5.
Table 6:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
6
2
Chamba
4
7
3
Hamirpur
2
5
4
Kangra
9
5
Kinnaur
2
6
Kullu
7
8
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
9
Shimla
10
Sirmaur
11
12
7
8
116
385
355
170
611
560
0
151
434
366
77
2
434
1962
1704
21
0
33
226
197
17
0
101
392
345
3
16
0
36
136
94
6
11
61
0
312
1110
909
12
7
76
9
261
2224
1803
5
3
36
3
148
604
391
Solan
5
4
32
5
178
721
554
Una
2
5
19
1
131
369
347
Civil Dispensaries
6
District
Primary Health
Centres
Beds
(In-Position)
3
Beds (Sanctioned)
2
1
1
Bilaspur
Sr.
No.
4
5
27
2
42
0
25
14
3
2
5
1
Sr.
No.
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
73
449
22
2071
9174
7625
Bilaspur
2005
2006
30-62007
31-32008
2
2
2
2
5
5
6
5
27
27
27
25
2
2
2
0
117
117
116
151
385
385
385
385
355
355
-
Hamirpur
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health
Centres Total
Primary
Health
Centres Total
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
Table 8:
Sr.
No.
52
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of Beds
(in position)
Table 7:
1
Sub Centres
Community Health
Centres
District wise number of medical
Institutions,
beds
and
Community Development Block
in Himachal Pradesh As On 3103-2008
Hospitals
Table 5:
Beds
(In-Position)
H.P.
Beds (Sanctioned)
13
Sub Centres
1.
Chandigarh Nalagarh Road,
Budh, (Baddi)
Teh. Nalagarh
(H.P.)
Shimla – 171 001
(Himachal
Pradesh)
Sunder Naggar,
Distt. Mandi,
(HimachalPradesh
Paonta Sahib,
Distt. Sirmaur
(H.P.)
Tatul, P.O.
Oachghat-173223
(H.P.)
District
Civil Dispensaries
Bhojia Dental College &
Hospital
Sr.
No.
Location
Primary Health
Centres
Name of dental hospital
Community Health
Centres
Sr.
No.
Dental hospital at Himachal
Pradesh
Hospitals
Table 4:
30-6
2005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
24
27
25
25
0
2
0
0
152
117
151
151
434
385
434
434
366
366
Chamba
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
4
4
4
4
112 | Page
Number of
Medical
Institutions
Sr.
No.
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
2
3
4
5
6
7
Table 9:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
Sr.
No.
7
7
7
7
4
40
40
41
42
0
0
0
0
169
169
170
170
611
611
611
611
0
0
560
560
5
Kangra
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health
Centres
(Total)
Primary
Health
Centres
(Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
SubCentres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
General
Hospitals
Community
Health
Centres
(Total)
Primary
Health
Centres
(Total)
7
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
8
8
8
9
13
13
13
14
78
78
78
77
2
2
2
2
434
434
434
434
1462
1462
1462
1962
1204
1704
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
0
0
0
0
33
33
33
33
226
226
226
226
197
197
Table 11: Kullu
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health
Centres
(Total)
Primary
Health
Centres
(Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
3132008
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
5
17
17
17
17
0
0
0
0
100
100
101
101
392
392
392
392
345
345
Table 12: Lahaul & Spiti
Table 10: Kinnaur
Number of
Medical
Institutions
6
Number of
Medical
Institutions
Sr.
No.
1
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
3
4
5
6
17
17
21
21
7
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of Beds
(in position)
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
14
14
14
16
0
0
0
0
35
35
36
36
136
136
136
136
94
94
113 | Page
Table 13: Mandi
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
3132008
6
6
6
6
9
9
10
11
59
59
60
61
0
0
0
0
311
311
311
312
1110
1110
1110
1110
909
909
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary
Health Centres
(Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (InPosition)
1
2
3
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
6
7
Sr.
No.
1
4
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
5
11
12
12
12
6
6
5
7
7
7
77
77
76
76
9
9
9
9
260
261
261
261
2182
2174
2224
2224
1803
Sr.
No.
1
3
4
3030-662006
2005
5
5
30-62007
5
3132008
5
6
5
7
3
3
3
3
34
34
35
36
3
3
3
3
148
148
148
148
604
604
604
604
391
391
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (InPosition)
30-62005
3062006
3062007
3132008
5
5
5
5
3
3
4
4
32
32
32
32
5
5
5
5
178
178
178
178
921
921
721
721
554
554
Table 17: Una
2
1803
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
Table 16: Solan
3
Table 15: Sirmaur
Sr.
No.
5
2
Table 14: Shimla
Sr.
No.
4
Number of
Medical
Institutions
General
Hospitals
Community
Health Centres
(Total)
Primary Health
Centres (Total)
Civil
Dispensaries
Sub- Centres
Number of
Beds
(Sanctioned)
Number of
Beds (in
position)
30-62005
30-62006
30-62007
31-32008
2
2
2
2
4
4
5
5
20
20
19
19
1
1
1
1
131
131
131
131
369
369
369
369
347
347
114 | Page
Details of medical institutions in Kangra district
is given in Table 18.
Sr.
No.
Table 18: List of Medical Institutions in
Kangra district
30
Sr.
No.
Name of Medical
Institutions
1
Dr. R.P. Hospital
Dharmsala
Civil Hospital, Palampur
Civil Hospital, Nurpur
Civil Hospital, Dehra
Gopipur
Civil Hospital, Kangra
Civil Hospital, Baijnath
Civil Hospital, Garli
Civil Hospital, Thural
General Hospital, Yol
Maternity Hospital,
Kangra
Community Health
Centre, Jawalamukhi
Community Health
Centre, Indora
Community Health
Centre, Nagrota
(Bagwan)
Community Health
Centre, Gangath
Community Health
Centre, Jawali
Community Health
Centre, Shahpur
Community Health
Centre, Fatehpur
Community Health
Centre, Rehan
Community Health
Centre, Chadhiar
Community Health
Centre, Dadasiba
Community Health
Centre, Jai Singhpur
Community Health
Centre, Nagrota Surian
Primary Health Centre,
Lanj
Primary Health Centre,
Tyara
Primary Health Centre,
Takipur
Primary Health Centre,
Ichhi
Primary Health Centre,
Laynna
Primary Health Centre,
Dharini
Primary Health Centre,
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Name of Tehsil
Kangra
Palampur
Nurpur
Dehra Gopipur
Kangra
Baijnath
Dehra Gopipur
Lambagaon
Kangra
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Kangra
38
Dehra Gopipur
39
Indora
40
Kangra
Nurpur
Jawali
Kangra
Fatehpur
Nurpur
Palampur
Dehra Gopipur
Jai Singhpur
Dehra Gopipur
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
Name of Medical
Institutions
Chari
Primary Health Centre,
Baroh
Primary Health Centre,
Kandi
Primary Health Centre,
Chamunda Devi
Primary Health Centre,
Kotla
Primary Health Centre,
Sadwan
Primary Health Centre,
Jassur
Primary Health Centre,
Kherian
Primary Health Centre,
Jalag Draman
Primary Health Centre,
Lambagaon
Primary Health Centre,
Majheen
Primary Health
Centre,Gopalpur
Primary Health Centre,
Panchrukhi
Primary Health Centre,
Tumbar
Primary Health Centre,
Bhawarana
Primary Health
Centre,Garh
Primary Health Centre,
Khaira
Primary Health Centre,
Dhira
Primary Health Centre,
Jaind
Primary Health Centre,
Sulah
Primary Health Centre,
Beer
Primary Health Centre,
Kandwari
Primary Health Centre,
Mahakal
Primary Health Centre,
Tarmehar
Primary Health Centre,
Dalip Naggar
Primary Health Centre,
Kothi-Kohar
Primary Health Centre,
Sansai
Primary Health Centre,
Kasba-Kotla
Name of Tehsil
Baroh
Baroh
Palampur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Jai Singhpur
Jaisinghpur
Jaisinghpur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Dhira
Palampur
Palampur
Baijnath
Baijnath
Baijnath
Baijnath
Baijnath
Baijnath
Baijnath
Dehra Gopipur
115 | Page
Sr.
No.
Name of Medical
Institutions
57
Primary Health Centre,
Pragpur
Primary Health Centre,
Pir Saloohi
Primary Health Centre,
Haripur
Primary Health
Centre,Darkata
Primary Health Centre,
Khundian
Primary Health Centre,
Dola - Karyana
Primary Health Centre,
Tihri
Primary Health Centre,
Masroor
Primary Health Centre,
Ray
Primary Health Centre,
Gharjarot
Primary Health Centre,
Dhametta
Primary Health Centre,
Baranda
Primary Health Centre,
Kuther
Civil Dispensary,
Bandian Khopa
Civil Dispensary, Paprola
Civil Dispensary, Rajoon
Civil Dispensary, Manan
Civil Dispensary, pharer
Civil Dispensary, Naura
Civil Dispensary,
Bachhwain
Civil Dispensary, Bhatoli
Fakorian
Civil Dispensary, Dari
Civil Dispensary,
Khaniyara
Civil Dispensary,
Janiyanker
Civil Dispensary, Molag
Civil Dispensary,
Badhukhar
Civil Dispensary,
Bharmar
Civil Dispensary,
Dhameta
Civil Dispensary,
Chalwara
Civil Dispensary, Paral
Civil Dispensary,
Damtala(ESI)
Civil Dispensary, Sunhai
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Name of Tehsil
Sr.
No.
Name of Medical
Institutions
Name of Tehsil
89
Dehra Gopipur
Dehra Gopipur
Dehra Gopipur
Dehra Gopipur
Khundian
Dehra Gopipur
Dehra Gopipur
Dehra Gopipur
Indora
Fatehpur
Jawali
Indora
Jawali
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Palampur
Dehra Gopipur
Kangra
Kangra
Kangra
Lambagaon
Nurpur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Nurpur
Indora
Kangra
Civil Dispensary, HatliJambawalan
Nurpur
90
Civil Dispensary, Baswa
Bajiran
Nurpur
91
Civil Dispensary, Nurpur Nurpur
92
Civil Dispensary, Dharun Nurpur
93
Civil Dispensary,
Dhurana (Dol)
Nurpur
94
Civil Dispensary, Ladauri Nurpur
95
Civil Dispensary, TikkaNagrota
Nurpur
96
Civil Dispensary, Banoori Palampur
97
Civil Dispensary, Rakkar
Palampur
98
Civil Dispensary,
Sansarpur-Terrace
Dehra Gopipur
99
Civil Dispensary, Sunhet
Dehra Gopipur
100 Civil Dispensary, Rakkar
Dehra Gopipur
101 Civil Dispensary, Bagli
Kangra
102 Civil Dispensary,
Mecleodganj
Dharmsala
103 Civil Dispensary, Seon
Kangra
104 MCW Centre, Dharmsala Dharmsala
105 MCW Centre, Bir
Baijnath
106 MCW Centre, Nurpur
Nurpur
107 MCW Centre, Pragpur
Dehra Gopipur
108 Ayurvedic Hospital,
Paprola
Palampur
109 Ayurvedic Hospital,
Dharmsala
Dharmsala
110 Ayurvedic Hospital,
Dehra
Dehra Gopipur
111 Ayurvedic Hospital,
Ispur
Kangra
Source: Department of Health & Family Welfare
Himachal Pradesh.
Type & location of medical institutions in
Kinnaur district is given in Table 19.
Table 19: List of medical institutions in
Kinnaur District
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Name of medical
Institutions
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Name of Village
Katgaon
Tapri
Sapni
Rupi
Urani
Miru
Bara-khambha
Spillow
Morang
Giabong
116 | Page
Name of medical
Name of Village
Institutions
11 Primary Health Centre
Hango
12 Primary Health Centre
Ribba
13 Primary Health Centre
Lippa
14 Primary Health Centre
Kanam
15 Primary Health Centre
Kalpa
16 Primary Health Centre
Tangling
17 Primary Health Centre
Kilba
18 MCW Centre
Reckong Peo
19 Community Health Centre Nichar
20 Community Health Centre
Poo
21 Community Health Centre Sangla
22 Distt. Hospital
Reckong Peo
23 Civil Hospital
Chango
State Special Hospital
24 I.T.B.P. Hospital
Reckong Peo
25 Project Hospital
Bhawa-Naggar
26 Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Reckong Peo
Source: Department of Medical & Health, Himachal
Padesh
Sr. No.
Type and location of medical institutions at
Bilaspur district is given Table 20.
Table 20: List of medical Institutions in
Bilaspur district
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Name of Medical
Institutions
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Name of
Centre
Kalol
Bapiara
Barthin
Talai
Gehrwin
Bheri
Namhol
Panjgain
Badhetar
Swarghat
Bhajun
Malokhar
Behal
Bagi
Rajpura
Bhakhara
Dadhol
Hatwar
Talyana
Diara
Saloa
Swahan
Tarsooh
Chharol
Manwa
Sr.
Name of Medical
Name of
No.
Institutions
Centre
26 Civil Dispensary
Kuh-manjwar
27 Civil Dispensary
Roura
28 MCW Centre
Bilaspur
29 MCW Centre
Bharari
30 MCW Centre
Barthin
31 MCW Centre
Ghumarwin
32 MCW Centre
Panjgain
33 Community Health Centre
Markand
34 Community Health Centre
Ghawandal
35 Community Health Centre
Bharari
36 Community Health Centre
Harlog
37 Community Health Centre
Jhandutta
38 Distt. Hospital
Bilaspur
39 Civil Hospital
Ghumarwin
40 Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Bilaspur
41 Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Kandraur
Source: Department of Medical & Health Himachal
Padesh.
Type and location of medical institutions in
Chamba is given in Table 21.
Table 21: List of Medical Institutions in
Chamba district
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Name of Medical
Institutions
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
Community Health Centre
District Hospital
Civil Hospital
Referral Hospital
Zonal Hospital
Project Hospital (Special)
Project Hospital (Special)
General
Hospital
(Cantonment Board)
General
Hospital
(Cantonment Board)
Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Ayurvedic Hospital
Name of
Centre
Sahoo
Choori
Kilar
Bharmaur
Holi
Kihar
Saluni
Chamba
Dalhousie
Chuari Khas
Tissa
Surgani
Tissa
Dalhousie
Bakloh
Chamba
Bharmaur
Type and location of medical institutions in
Kullu district is given below in Table 22.
117 | Page
Table 22: List of Medical Institutions in
Kullu district
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Name of Medical
Institution
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
M.C.W. Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Distt. Hospital
Civil Hospital
Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Lady Wellington Hospital
Name of
village
Naggar
Raison
Bran
Bhutti
Garsa
Bhuntar
Sainj
Goshaini
Neither
Arsu
Dugher
Thatibir
Kothi
Manikaran
Jagatsukh
Neol
Jaon
Kullu
Manali
Ani
Dalash
Nirmand
Jari
Kullu
Banjar
Katrain
Manali
Source: Department of Health & Family Welfare,
Himachal Pradesh
Type and location of medical institutions in
Lahaul & Spiti district is given in Table 23.
Table 23: List of Medical Institutions in
Lahaul & Spiti district
Sr. Name of Medical
Name of Villages
No. Institutions
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Sissu
Gondhla
Tholang
Tingret
Gemur
Thirot
Jahalman
Tabo
Sagnam
Sr.
No.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Name of Medical
Name of Villages
Institutions
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
MCW Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Distt. Hospital
Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Phurra
Samdo-Darcha
Hansa
Kibbar
Losar
Udaipur
Udaipur
Shansha
Kaza
Keylong
Keylong
Type and location of medical institutions in
Mandi district is given in Table 24.
Table 24: List of medical Institutions in
Mandi district
Sr. No. Name of medical Institutions Name of Villages
1
Primary Health Centre
Rawalsar
2
Primary Health Centre
Baggi
3
Primary Health Centre
Gokhara
4
Primary Health Centre
Kataula
5
Primary Health Centre
Nagwain
6
Primary Health Centre
Shiva Badar
7
Primary Health Centre
Smaila
8
Primary Health Centre
Dharwar
9
Primary Health Centre
Gopalpur
10 Primary Health Centre
Jamni
11 Primary Health Centre
Bhamla
12 Primary Health Centre
Dhalwan
13 Primary Health Centre
Thona
14 Primary Health Centre
Fatehpur
15 Primary Health Centre
Bhadarwar
16 Primary Health Centre
Marhi
17 Primary Health Centre
Scoh
18 Primary Health Centre
Cholthala
19 Primary Health Centre
Madap
20 Primary Health Centre
Tihra
21 Primary Health Centre
Nihari
22 Primary Health Centre
Sainj
23 Primary Health Centre
Pangana
24 Primary Health Centre
Chauntra
25 Primary Health Centre
Makreri
26 Primary Health Centre
Pandhol
27 Primary Health Centre
Barot
28 Primary Health Centre
Nohali-Draman
118 | Page
Sr. No. Name of medical Institutions Name of Villages
29 Primary Health Centre
Badi-Dhar
30 Primary Health Centre
Sudhar
31 Primary Health Centre
Pali
32 Primary Health Centre
Balh-Tikkar
33 Primary Health Centre
Jachh
34 Primary Health Centre
Jhungi
35 Primary Health Centre
Balio Chowki
36 Primary Health Centre
Gada-Gusain
37 Primary Health Centre
Thuang
38 Primary Health Centre
Rohanda
39 Primary Health Centre
Dehar
40 Primary Health Centre
Hara-Boi
41 Primary Health Centre
Chowk
42 Primary Health Centre
Jarol
43 Primary Health Centre
Khural
44 Primary Health Centre
Taleli
45 Civil Dispensary
Lagna
46 Civil Dispensary
Dev-dhar
47 Civil Dispensary
Parwara
48 Civil Dispensary
Batheri
49 Civil Dispensary
Chukhu
50 Civil Dispensary
Ashla
51 Civil Dispensary
Chamiyar
52 Civil Dispensary
Kothi-Gheri
53 Civil Dispensary
Nanwan
54 Civil Dispensary
Sidhyani
55 Civil Dispensary
Khuhan
56 Civil Dispensary
Kanaid
57 Civil Dispensary
Maloh
58 MCW Centre
Mandi
59 MCW Centre
Sundarnaggar
60 MCW Centre
Sarkaghat
61 MCW Centre
Jogindarnagar
62 MCW Centre
Karsog
63 MCW Centre
Ahju
64 MCW Centre
Gohar
65 MCW Centre
Paunta
66 Community Health Centre
Padhar
67 Community Health Centre
Kotli
68 Community Health Centre
Gohar
69 Community Health Centre
Baldwara
70 Community Health Centre
Ratti
71 Community Health Centre
Ladbharol
72 Community Health Centre
Bagsaid
73 Community Health Centre
Dharampur
74 Community Health Centre
Janjehli
75 Zonal Hospital
Mandi
Sr. No. Name of medical Institutions Name of Villages
76 Civil Hospital
Sundarnaggar
77 Referral Hospital
Sarkaghat
78 Civil Hospital
Jogindarnagar
79 Civil Hospital
Karsog
80 Civil Hospital
Sandhol
81 Sanjeevani Hospital (Pvt.)
Mandi
82 Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Jogindarnagar
83 Distt. Ayurvedic Hospital
Mandi
84 Colony Hospital
Sundarnaggar
85 BSL Hospital
Pandoh
86 BSL Hospital
Salapar
Type and location of medical institution in
Shimla district is given in Table 25.
Table 25: List of Medical Institutions in
Shimla District
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Name of Medical
Institutions
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Name of Villages
Kholighat
Ghanvi
Deothi
Bahali
Lalsa
Kungal Balti
Gopalpur
Taklech
Naraingarh
Jeori
Samaij
Belupul
Kutara
Lower Koti
Summer-Kot
Pujarli-IV
Pujarli-III
Tikar
Katlah
Narkanda
Kotighat
Smathla
Baragaon
Malandi
Jalog
Thanedhar
Virgarh
Dharampur
Chhaila
Matiana
Balag
Bani
Tharoach
119 | Page
Sr.
No.
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Name of Medical
Institutions
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Civil Dispensary
Community Health
Name of Villages
Kupvi
Marog
Tikkari
Jhinna
Laani
Kiari
Kalbog
Saraswati-Naggar
Giltari
Devgarh
Gumma
Badiara
Ghoshali
Kwar
Deudi
Jangla
Mashobra
Dhami
Shogi
Kufri
Koti
Annadel
Rewalpur
Sarain
Barthata
Garaug
Himari
Mandal
Mandhol
Chabba
Ghaini
Pandoa
Naldehra
Ghanahatti
Gumma
Jatol
Kasumpti
Chhota Shimla
Dhar Phagli
Sanjauli
HP Sectt. Shimla
Jakhoo
HP Vidhan Sabha
HP High Court
Shimla
Shogi Ripon (ESI)
Bhutti
Kharan
Dhar-Gaura
Dharara
Balsan
Dharech
Ghund
Mohari
Kotkhai
Sr.
No.
88
89
90
91
92
Name of Medical
Institutions
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
M & CW Centre
106
General Hospital
General Hospital
107
General Hospital
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Civil Hospital
Cancer Institution
117
Cancer Institution
118
Private/Mission/Trust
Hospital, Shimla
119 Private/Mission/Trust
Hospital, Shimla
120 Private/Mission/Trust
Hospital, Shimla
Distt. Ayurvedic
Hospital
Ayurvedic Hospital
Source: Department of Health &
Himachal Pradesh.
Name of Villages
Chirgaon
Kumharsain
Nankhari
Kotgarh
Seoni
DDU Hospital,
Shimla
Chhota Shimla
Tilak Naggar
Sanjauli
Ghannahatti
Chaupal
Rohru
Theog
Rampur
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Sangri
DDU Hospital,
Shimla
Indira Gandhi
Medical College &
Hospital
Kamla Nehru
Hospital, Shimla
Rampur
Junga
Sarahan
Theog
Jubbal
Chaupal
Rohru
Nerua
Radiotherapy Unit,
IGMC Shimla
Isolation
Hospital,Shimla
Sanitarium Hospital,
Shimla
Indus Hospital,
Shimla
Tara Hospital, Shimla
Chhota Shimla,
Shimla
Rohru
Family Welfare,
120 | Page
Type and location of medical institutions at
Sirmaur district is given in Table 26.
Table 26: List of Medical Institutions in
Sirmaur
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Name of medical
Name of Villages
Institutions
Primary Health Centre Kaulla-Wala-Bhoond
Primary Health Centre Dhagera
Primary Health Centre Parara
Primary Health Centre Badag
Primary Health Centre Jamta
Primary Health Centre Narag
Primary Health Centre Bagthan
Primary Health Centre Mangarh
Primary Health Centre Dhamla
Primary Health Centre Koti-Padhog
Primary Health Centre Ronhat
Primary Health Centre Kafota
Primary Health Centre Kanti-Mashwa
Primary Health Centre Lana-Cheta
Primary Health Centre Haripurdhar
Primary Health Centre Koti-Dhiman
Primary Health Centre Bogdhar
Primary Health Centre Gatadhar
Primary Health Centre Naura-Dhar
Primary Health Centre Jakhna
Primary Health Centre Majra
Primary Health Centre Khundian
Primary Health Centre Kamrau
Primary Health Centre Sataun
Civil Dispensary
Banethi
Civil Dispensary
Chilog
Civil Dispensary
Ghinni
Civil Dispensary
Dimber
Civil Dispensary
Phagu
Civil Dispensary
Rampur-Bharapur
Civil Dispensary
Badripur (ESI)
Civil Dispensary
Malwa Cotton Mills, Paonta
Sahib (ESI)
Civil Dispensary
Sahabu-Khera (ESI)
Civil Dispensary
Charna
Civil Dispensary
Chjokar
Civil Dispensary
Tikkari Dasakna
Civil Dispensary
Kayari-Gunda
Civil Dispensary
Kala Amb (ESI)
Sr. Name of medical
No.
Institutions
39 M & C.W. Centre
40 M & C.W. Centre
41 M & C.W. Centre
General Hospital
42 Zonal Hospital
43 Civil Hospital
44 Civil Hospital
45 Referal Hospital
46 Civil Hospital
47 District Ayurvedic
Hospital
Name of Villages
Nahan
Dadahu
Rajgarh
Nahan
Rajgarh
Paonta Sahib
Dadahu
Sarahan
Nahan
Type and location of medical institutions at
Solan district is given below in Table 27.
Table 27: List of Medical Institutions in
Solan
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Name of Medical
Institutions
Community Health Centre,
Nalagarh
Community Health Centre,
Syri
Community Health Centre,
Dharampur
District Hospital, Solan
Civil Hospital, Chail
Civil Hospital, Kandaghat
Civil Hospital, Parwanoo
Civil Hospital, Arki
Name of Place
Nalagarh
Kandaghat
Dharampur, Kasauli
Solan
Kandaghat
Kandaghat
Dharampur, Kasauli
Kunihar, Arki
Hospitals run by Cantonment Board
9
10
General Hospital, Kasauli
General Hospital, Subathu
Dharampur, Kasauli
Dharampur, Kasauli
Type and location of medical institutions in
Una district is given in Table 28.
Table 28: List of Medical Institutions at
Una
Sr.
No.
1
1
2
3
4
Name of Medical Institutions Name of Place
2
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
Primary Health Centre
3
Amlehar
Amb
Churudu
Badehra
121 | Page
Sr.
Name of Medical Institutions Name of Place
No.
Rajputana
5 Primary Health Centre
Marwari
6 Primary Health Centre
Thanakalan
7 Primary Health Centre
Sohari-Takoli
8 Primary Health Centre
Kungrath
9 Primary Health Centre
Dulehar
10 Primary Health Centre
Basdehra
11 Primary Health Centre
Badsali
12 Primary Health Centre
Bathree
13 Civil Dispensary
Akrot
14 Civil Dispensary
DharamshalaMahanta
15 Civil Dispensary
Dhusara
16 Civil Dispensary
Lathiyani
17 Civil Dispensary
Badehra
18 Civil Dispensary
Santokhgarh
19 Civil Dispensary
Chalola
20 Civil Dispensary
Dehlan
21 Civil Dispensary
Mehatpur-(Esi)
22 MCW Centre
Santokhgarh
23 Community Health Centre
Haroli
24 Community Health Centre
Gagret
25 Community Health Centre
Gagret
26 Community Health Centre
Dhundla
27 Distt. Hospital
Una
28 Civil Hospital,Chintpurni
Amb
29 Sarswati Mehta Charitable
Hospital
Kotla (Amb)
30 Mehta Charitable Hospital
Oel (Gagret)
31 Lala Lachman Dass Hospital
Panjwar
(Gagret)
Details of Sub centre, PHC, CHC & various
health professionals are given below in Table
29.
Table 29: Health
Infrastructure
Himachal Pradesh
Particulars
Sub-centre
Primary Health
Centre
Community Health
Centre
Multipurpose
worker
(Female)/ANM at
Sub Centres &
PHCs
Health Worker
(Male) MPW(M) at
Sub Centres
of
1128
186
In
position
2071
449
46
73
-
2520
2496
24
2071
1270
801
Required
Shortfall
-
Particulars
Required
In
position
114
Shortfall
Health Assistant
449
335
(Female)/LHV at
PHCs
Health Assistant
449
62
387
(Male) at PHCs
Doctor at PHCs
449
407
42
Obstetricians &
73
3
70
Gynaecologists at
CHC
Physicians at CHCs
73
6
67
Paediatricians at
73
1
72
CHCs
Total specialists at
292
10
282
CHCs
Radiographers
73
47
26
Pharmacist
522
341
181
Laboratory
522
208
314
Technicians
Nurse/Midwife
960
1062
(Source: RHS Bulletin, March 2008, M/O Health & F.,.W
GOI)
A consolidated list of health institutions in the
State is given in Table 30.
Table 30: Other Health Institutions in
Himachal Pradesh
Health Institution
Medical College
District Hospitals
Referral Hospitals
City Family Welfare Centre
Rural Dispensaries
Ayurvedic Hospitals
Ayurvedic Dispensaries
Unani Hospitals
Unani Dispensaries
Homeopathic Hospitals
Homeopathic Dispensary
Number
2
12
25
1109
3
1
14
The State has 1640 Health Centres – 1135 with
the Department of ISMH and 505 (439 PHCs
and 66 CHCs) with the HFWD- functioning at
the Primary Health Care level. The coverage of
rural population by the Primary Health Care
Institutions is given in Table 31.
122 | Page
The second factor that helps in assessing the
impact of PHC is the median distance of the
Health Institutions from the villages. According
to NFHS -1 (1992), median distance of a subcentre and PHC was 3.5 and 6.9 km.
respectively in the State. A remarkable
achievement for the State was that at the time
of NFHS-2 (1998-99), the median distance of
Sub Centres (SC) was reduced to 1.5 Km. The
distance of PHC reduced from 6.9 km to 6.4
km. However, with the conversion of some of
the Civil Dispensaries (CD) into Primary
Health Centres during 2000-2001, the median
distance for a PHC would be further reduced.
Median distance from nearest health facility is
given in Table 32.
Table 32: Distance from the nearest health
facility
PHC or
S/C
Hospit
al
Disp./
Clinic
Other
Health
Within village
Less than five
km.
5-9 km.
10 km.
Median distance
(km)
PHC
Distance
S/C
Health Facility (Percentage)
46.3
13.1
47.7
7.1
40.7
60.2
37.1
25.2
39.1
17.4
34.7
32.2
9.8
6.8
29.5
32.2
11.2
2
25.8
49.7
13.2
11.4
7.5
0
1.5
6.4
1.3
9.9
2.3
0
Source: NFHS - 1998-99
Modern System of Medicine
A survey has shown that the Indian System of
Medicine draws larger percentage of people in
Himachal Pradesh than in the neighboring
States of Punjab and Haryana. About 93%
prefer the modern system of medicine. The
State has a fairly extensive network of a public
7
8
9
10
11
12
District
C.Hs
CHCs
PHCs
CDs
S/Cs
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
2
4
2
8
2
2
5
7
5
13
3
5
27
40
24
78
17
17
2
0
0
2
0
0
117
169
152
434
33
100
1
3
14
0
35
6
11
5
5
2
50
9
6
3
3
4
66
59
77
34
32
20
439
0
9
3
5
1
22
311
260
148
178
131
2068
CH: Civil Hospital; CHC: Community Health CentreH
; PC:
Primary Health Centre; CD: Civil Dispensary; S/C: Sub-Centre
(Source: Health at a Glance, 2005)
District wise total bed capacity in public health
institutions is given in Table 34.
Table 34: District-wise
Institutions
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
Public
Health
Total
2651
12488
83066
NCC
3000
20000
80,000
Sr.N
o.
1
2
3
4
5
6
AC
5000
30000
1.20 lakh
Table 33: District wise allopathic public
health institutions
UHC
Rural
populatio
n covered
HHC
Government
of India
norms for
hills
2
2
3
5
1
1
1
65
100
69
228
40
65
20
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
2
2
-
69
104
73
235
44
67
24
2
3
1
1
3
25
163
144
78
77
69
1118
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
3
4
1
1
166
149
80
80
74
1165
AHC
Sub-Centre
PHC
CHC
GOI
norms for
plains
Hospitals
Institutions
health institutions (allopathic) whose details (as
on 31st March 2005) is given in Table 33.
District
Table 31: Average rural population covered
by health institutions (as on 31
March 2005)
AHC: Ayurvedic Health Centre; HHC: Homeopathy Hhealt
Centre; UHC: Unani Health Centre; AC: Amchi Clinic;NCC:
Nature Cure Centre Source: Department of ISMH
Besides one each, there are one Ayurvedic
College at Paprola (Kangra) and two
Panchkarma Units at Bilaspur and Paprola.
123 | Page
Ayurvedic
Unani
Any
combination
93
97.8
97
95.91
1.93
0.21
1.91
1.78
4.3
1,12
0.35
1.53
0.09
0.39
0.04
0.27
0.39
0.06
0.04
0.07
97.39
97.8
98.24
96.31
0.41
0.92
0.74
2.09
0.45
0.64
0.61
1.03
1.41
0.44
0.15
0.27
0
0
0.26
0.05
In compliance to Biomedical Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules, Municipal
Corporation of Shimla established a centralized
treatment facility for incineration of infectious
hospital waste during the month of August
2002. Biomedical waste (yellow bag) collected
from different health care establishments is
being incinerated in a Centralized Treatment
Facility (CTF) established by Municipal
Corporation of Shimla since August 2002.
Details CBWTF in Himachal Pradesh is given
Table 36.
Name of CBWTF
Cities/towns
Covered
Treatment
Facility
installed at
CBWTF
Shimla
Incinerator
Town &
- 100
1.
Solan,
Kg/hr &70
Nalagarh &
Kg/hr
Baddi Town
Kullu,
Municipal Council,
Manali and
Incinerator
2.
Akhara Bazar,
Bhunter
- 70 Kg/hr
Kullu
Town
Distt.
Incinerator
BMWT Plant Pvt.
Kangara,
- 200
Ltd., Pangoli,
3.
Chamba,
Kg/hr,
Pathankote,
Hamirpur&
Autoclave,
Punjab.
Una
Shredder,
(As per the information provided by the SPCBs/PCfC
ors the
Year 2008)
Municipal
Corporation, The
Mall, Shimla
Further, details of CBWTF is given in Table 37.
Table 37: Common incarnation facility of
Himachal Pradesh
1
2
3.2
Regional
Hospital
Dist.
Sirmaur
Civil
Hospital,
Paonta
SahIb
Equipment
installed &
their
capacity
No of
medical
Establishme
nt
Connected
No.
of Beds
covered
Total
quantity
of waste
treated
APCS at
Incinerator
Homeopathic
RURAL
Himachal
Punjab
Haryana
India
URBAN
Himachal
Punjab
Haryana
India
Allopathic
Table 35: Utilization of Health Care
Services by various systems of
Medicine
Sr.
No.
Common
Biomedical
Waste
Treatment
Facility
A survey on the utilization of health care
services across various systems of medicine in
Himachal Pradesh vis-à-vis the neighboring
States and India reveals that the percentage of
treatments in allopathic system in rural
Himachal Pradesh (93%) is slightly lower than
that in the neighboring States of Punjab
(97.8%) and Haryana (97%) where as the
Indian average is (95.91%). It means that more
people than those in the neighboring States
have faith in the Indian System of Medicine and
Homeopathy. It is because the State
Government had been playing a pro-active role
in promoting the Indian System of Medicine. A
comparative detail of utilization of health care
services across various system of medicine is
given in Table 35.
Table 36: Availability of Biomedical Waste
Treatment Facilities (CBWTF)
in Himachal Pradesh
Sr. No.
Indian System of Medicine
Incinerator
25 Kg/hr
Incinerator
10 Kg/hr
01
100
30-35 No
kg/day
10
30
20-25 No
kg/day
Patterns of Planning and
Development in the Sector
Himachal Pradesh has set up health and family
welfare advisory committees known as Parivar
Kalyan Salahkar Samiti level (PARIKAS) at the
panchayat, block and district levels for the
involvement of the PRIs. The functions of the
panchayat PARIKAS include supervision and
monitoring; implementation of national health
programmes; ensuring cleanliness of the
124 | Page
villages; checking pollution of water, air and
noise; making people aware of dog and snake
bites and their first aid treatment; cleaning and
using bleaching powder, etc., for traditional
water sources; disseminating information about
Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) care;
checking regular opening of Sub-Centres and
ensuring that immunisation and other necessary
facilities are being provided to the newborn by
the health functionaries; helping in updating the
records of births, deaths and marriages; and
preparing health micro plans every year.
The functions of the block and district level
PARIKAS are to provide effective leadership
and able guidance; hold periodic inspection of
health institutions through sub-committees
(with each sub- committee having an elected
representative and a medical officer nominated
by PARIKAS); appropriate counseling,
whenever
required;
and
disseminating
Information, Education and Communication
(IEC). It is also envisaged that the PARIKAS at
the three levels will be broad based and shall
function as interdepartmental co-ordination
committees.
National Vector Borne Disease Control
Program (NVDCP): This program mainly
controls malaria in the State. Laboratory
technicians and surveillance worker are
deployed in malaria endemic districts under this
program though instances of malaria are less.
Revised National TB Control Program
(RNTCP); The state run TB control initiatives
which incorporates the principles of Directly
Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) for
control and eradication of TB. The programme
provides free of cost, quality anti-tubercular
drugs through the numerous PHC and the
growing number of DOTS providers in private
sector.
Sewerage development plan is being
administered by the Urban Development
Department instead of Irrigation & Public
Health (IPH) department w.e.f. 1.4.2008.
Hence the previous programme under this head
and activities prepared for the annual plan
2008-09 are for 56 towns in Himachal Pradesh,
out of which 49 towns are under IPH
Department. 6 towns (Yol, Bakloh, Kasauli,
Sabhatu, Dagshai and Dalhousie Cantonment)
are under Cantonment Boards and Parwanoo is
under Housing Board.
Sewerage schemes for 13 towns namely, Sh.
Naina Deviji, Chamba, Mandi, Bilaspur,
Palampur,
Rohroo,
Shimla,
Manali,
Ghumarwin, Jawalamukhi, Arki, Jogindernagar
& Palampur, 2 rural / tribal schemes Sarahan &
Reckong Peo respectively have been completed
up to 31st March, 2007.
In addition, other plans/schemes like integrated
low sanitation scheme, state sanitation
strategies consisting of schemes for urban poor
and city sanitation task force and total
sanitation
campaign,
Environmental
Improvement of Urban Slums (EIUS) are being
implemented at state level.
Rural and urban water supply plans under
Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), Accelerated
Rural Water Supply Program (ARWSP) Rajiv
Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission
(RGNDWM) and Prime Minister Gramodaya
Yojana – Rural Drinking Water, desilting of
water bodies and water conservation works
under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Scheme are major
plans / programs to provide access to potable
drinking water in the state.
Mahila Gram Panchayat Swasthya Sahayika
Scheme (MGPSS) 2009:The main objective
of this scheme is to promote the role of Gram
Panchayat in providing basic health care to
their resident. These includes preventive,
promotive and curative health services
including antenatal/natal care, RCH, sanitation
and nutrition.
125 | Page
Nutritional Program for Adolescent Girls
(NPAG): This programme is implemented on
pilot basis in urban slums. Under this scheme,
anganwadi workers weigh all adolescent girls
(11-19 years) in the community four times in a
year and BPL food grain is distributed to them
having body weight less than 35 kg.
In order to achieve these rates in a short span
of five years, the Health Department geared
itself by undergoing a reform process. A brief
description of the reforms undertaken is given
below:
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) –
The Vision
The National Rural Health Mission (2005-12)
seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural
population throughout the country with special
focus on 18 states, which have weak public
health indicators and/or weak infrastructure.
These 18 States are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam,
Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh,
Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur,
Mizoram, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh,
Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura,
Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh. The Mission is
an articulation of the commitment of the
Government to raise public spending on Health
from 0.9% of GDP to 2-3% of GDP .
Goals set in NRHM
• Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)
• Universal access to public health services
such as women’s health, child health, water,
sanitation & hygiene, immunization, and
nutritions
• Prevention and control of communicable
and non-communicable diseases, including
locally endemic diseases
• Access to integrated comprehensive primary
healthcare
• Population stabilization, gender and
demographic balance
• Revitalize local health traditions and
mainstream AYUSH
• Promotion of healthy life styles
Upgradation of CHCs to Indian Public Health
Standards (IPHS) is a major strategic
intervention under the National Rural Health
Mission (NRHM). The purpose is to provide
sustainable quality care with accountability and
people’s participation along with total
transparency. This requires the development of
a proper management structure which may be
called as Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS) (Patient
Welfare Committee) / Hospital Management
Society (HMS).
Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS): Rogi Kalyan
Samiti (Patient Welfare Committee) / Hospital
Management Society is a simple yet effective
management structure. This committee, which
would be a registered society, acts as a group of
trustees for the hospitals to manage the affairs
of the hospital. It consists of members from
local Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), NGOs,
local elected representatives and officials from
Government sector who are responsible for
proper functioning and management of the
hospital / Community Health Centre / FRUs.
RKS / HMS is free to prescribe, generate and
use the funds with it as per its best judgment
for smooth functioning and maintaining the
quality of services.
Structural Reforms
• There were 139 Civil Dispensaries
functioning in the rural areas of the State
that were doing the job of dispensing
medicines. These were mainstreamed to
provide preventive, promotive and curative
health care.
• To increase the number of institutional
deliveries, 24 hour service in selected
institutions has been started. These
institutions are working since 2002 and the
results have been encouraging. 13210
deliveries were conducted in these
institutions during the year 2004. Maximum
126 | Page
number of 6283 was in Hamirpur District
and the lowest 134 was at Sirmaur District.
Table 38 gives the district-wise details of
such institutions:
•
Table 38: Institutional Deliveries – 24 hour
Service in Selected Institutions
District Hospital
CHC
PHC
Bilaspur
5
5
Hamirpur
6
2
Kangra
1
11
6
Shimla
6
9
Sirmaur
1
3
1
Solan
1
3
8
Una
1
3
2
Total
4
37
33
Source: Health and Family Welfare Department
Total
10
8
18
15
5
12
6
74
B.
•
Functional Reforms for Health sector
A. Efficiency related
•
•
•
•
•
Functional Integration of Department of
Indian System of Medicines and the
Department of Health and Family
Welfare to follow standard protocol in
National Health Programmes. The ISMH
earmarked 661 Institutions in the State
for the purpose. The training of ISMH
Medical Officers was initiated in 2005.
Decentralization of Administrative and
Financial Powers right up to the PHC
level.
Merging of all Health and Family Welfare
Societies into one at the State and the
District levels.
Interconnectivity of MIS for collecting
data for NHP/Disease Surveillance and
Manpower Planning. To begin with, the
field data is being collected in the revised
and consolidated Forms 6, 7, and 8. This
has considerably reduced the paper work
in the field. More attention is being given
to health related problems.
Privatization of support services in
Health Institutions: Three support
services; viz., scavenging, laundry, and
•
C.
•
diet are being transferred to Private
Sector, wherever possible.
Rationalization of Drug Use: Essential
Drug List, Drug Formulary and Standard
Treatment Guidelines have been prepared
after the formulation of Essential Drug
Policy. Capacity building of Medical
Officers in the use of generic drugs is a
continuing process and is on before
generalizing their use.
Resources related
Establishment of Society under the
Registration of Societies Act called Rogi
Kalyan Samiti at all Hospitals up to the
CHC Level. These Samitis would
improve:System
efficiency;
Service
quality; Patient satisfaction; Local
decisions and initiative of the Officers;
Accountability at Hospital level; Resource
utilization; The Hospital itself; Resource
generation
through
Community
Financing and User’s Charges.
Provision of Seed Money to improve
such facilities that add to resource
generation in the Hospitals.
Governance related
Policy Formulation: A Health Vision for
2020 has been developed for the State.
In order to establish a better co-ordination
between the public and private sector, Health
Vision 2008 prescribes the following steps:
i)
Enact legislation to regulate the private
sector (private clinics, nursing homes etc.)
and put a check on quackery.
ii) To establish norms and standards for
space, equipment and human resource for
private medical care institutions.
iii) Involvement of genuine private sector in
the preventive and promotive health care
activities like immunization, special
campaigns, IEC activities, control of
epidemics etc.
127 | Page
iv)
To establish a fool proof mechanism for
coordinating the activities of two sectors
at the State, District and Block levels.
Health Vision –2008, Health and Family
Welfare Department follows following aspects
of training:
I)
In-service training will also focus on
management issues in health sector.
Induction training for Medical Officers,
with a focus on management, shall be
started on priority basis.
It shall be ensured that high quality
training is provided.
Private training institutions shall be
encouraged.
A basic pre requisite for development of
training system will be creation of
separate cadre of trainers.
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
3.3
Technology adopted in the
Sector along with any changes
in technology
Health sector is a growing field where new
technologies have been adopted so that work
done in health sector being completed quickly
and more effectively. The technology being
adopted in health sector is mainly in laboratory
where diagnosis and analysis of samples is
being done.
Treatment Technology used for biomedical waste treatment: The environmental
regulations actually mandate the treatment of
infectious medical waste on a daily basis if it is
stored at room temperature. A number of
treatment methods are available. The final
choice of suitable treatment method is made
carefully on the basis of various factors, many
of which depend on local conditions including
the amount and composition of waste
generated, available space, regulatory approval,
public acceptance, cost, etc. The current
technology used in Himachal Pradesh for
biomedical waste management is given in Table
39.
Table 39: Status of Bio-medical waste treatment technology-2009
No. of Common Bio-medical Waste
Treatment Facility/Private Agencies
Operational
3
3.4
Under Construction
0
No. of Healthcare
facility which are
utilizing
CBWTF/private
Agencies
265
No. of HCF
having
treatment and
disposal
facilities
273
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
1.
Private Sector: A large number of
private clinics, nursing homes and hospitals
have come up mainly at Shimla and other
district towns. A few private hospitals have
been set-up at sub-divisional level too. Total
bed capacity of private sector in the State is
about 500.
2.
NGO and Voluntary sector: It is not
certain if the curative care services are proneded
by their sector. A large number of NGOs are,
however, coming forward to mitigate the
Total no. of treatment equipment (excluding CBWTF)
Incinerator
With
Without
APCD
APCD
1
7
Auto-clave
5
Micro-wave
0
Hydroclave
0
Shredder
4
sufferings of humanity in collaboration or
under the guidance of the Department of
Health and Family Welfare. A charitable
hospital at Bhota in Hamirpur District is being
run by religious organization. Chinmaya
Tapovan Trust, Kangra conducts training
programmes for 11 village health guides, 20
traditional birth attendants, 20 bal sevikas, 18
mahila mandal workers, 9 multipurpose health
workers and 3 adolescent field workers. There
are few NGOs extending support in the Health
Care namely as Himachal Pradesh Voluntary
Health Association (HPVHA) at Shimla,
Society for Social Uplift through Rural Action
(SUTRA) at Jagjitnagar, Solan, People’s Action
for People in Need (PAPN) at Sirmaur, Society
128 | Page
for Environmental and Rural Awakening (ERA)
at Kangra.
a)
b)
3.
Human Resource Development: The
biggest challenge to the health-care education
institution is not just technical, managerial or
financial development but quality human
resource development that includes following:
•
•
•
Development
of
young
health
professionals and supportive staff who
are responsible to social, technical,
scientific and management abilities to
work effectively in a comprehensive
health system;
development of a faculty consisting of
not only good teachers but good role
models with social vision, commitment to
ethical norms and values that inspires the
community; and
Development of a team of supportive
staff that complements with skill and
dedication the faculty in the educational
institutions.
There are quite a few basic and in-service
training institutions in the State as follows:
4.
Health and Family Welfare Training
Centres at Shimla and Kangra: These
training institutions are meant to impart inservice training to Medical Officers and paramedical staff of the Health Department
regularly according to the needs of the
Department. A Principal who is assisted by an
Epidemiologist, Medical Professor and other
faculty heads each training centre. Guest faculty
is also invited from H&FW Directorate, other
institutions and departments.
5.
Para-medical Training Schools: There
are facilities for pre-service and in-service
trainings for all categories of staff in the
Department. Details of training facilities are
given below:
c)
General Nursing Training Schools = 5
(Total capacity 230 per batch)
Female Health Workers Training Schools
= 7 (Total capacity 420 per batch)
Male Health Workers Training Schools =
6 (Total capacity 360 per batch)
Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla and
Zonal Hospital Dharamshala also train
Operation Theatre Assistants (20), Lab.
Technicians (75) Radiographers (20) and Para
Medical Ophthalmic Assistants (20). Trainings
are given only when there is a need to fill the
departmental vacancies.
6.
Medical and Dental Colleges:There
are two Medical Colleges and one Dental
College in Government sector besides four
more Dental Colleges at Sundernagar, Paonta,
Solan and Baddi, in private sector. Medical
College at Shimla has an intake capacity of 65
and Tanda has an intake of 50. Dental College
at Shimla has 30 seats. Medical College, Shimla
also has facilities for 16 post- graduate degrees
and 8 diploma specialties. The Departmental
Head of Medical Education is also the Secretary
in the Health Department, but it is a separate
Directorate as is the Directorate of Dental
Services.
7.
Training
facilities
in
ISM&H
Department: The two institutions which
impart training are namely:
a)
b)
Ayurvedic College at Paprola (Kangra). It
has an yearly intake of 50, for five and
half years course of BAMS and
Pharmacy
Training
School
at
Jogindernagar. It has capacity to train
Ayurvedic Pharmacists in two years
course and trainings are conducted as per
the needs of the Department.
8.
Vanaspati Van (Herbal Gardens):The
Western Himalayas have about 1350 herbal and
aromatic plants. Half the number is available in
the hills of Himachal Pradesh. The State has
129 | Page
also been considered as ideal for growing the
following seven plants: Shatavari, Daru Haldi,
Vatsnabh, Atees, Chirayata, Kuth and Kutki.
An Herbal-Medicine Board is functioning in the
State with the Chief Minister as its President
and the Director of ISMH as its Secretary. A
number of medicinal herbs are being grown
here for demonstration purpose. The annual
production of herbs here is worth Rs.1.00 lakh.
A Herbarium has also been established here.
3.5
Critical Environment Issues /
Hotspots associated with the
Sector
1. Water related diseases due to non access
to safe drinking water:
At the state level, cases of admission in
hospitals due to diarrhoea increased from
16,263 in 1995 to 16,602 in 2002. Similarly,
cases of admission in hospitals due to hepatitis
increased from 379 in 1995 to 421 in 2002. At
district level, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kinnaur,
Kullu, Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Sirmaur and Una
reported increase in admission in hospitals due
to diarrhea during 1995 to 2002. Similarly,
Bilaspur, Chamba, Kangra, Kinnaur and Una
reported increase in admission in hospitals due
to hepatitis during 1995 to 2002.
A large section of population in the state lacks
access to potable water supply. Water
distribution in monitored by the MC Shimla,
Solan and Palampur whereas in Parwanoo it is
being distributed by HIMUDA. In other areas,
it is with the IPH department. However, the
gap in demand and supply for rural potable
water in the state exceeds 2,00,000 kilolitres per
day (kld) considering a benchmark of 70 litres
per capita per day (lpcd). Similarly the gap in
urban potable water supply in the State exceeds
50,000 kld considering a benchmark of 135
LPCD.
At district level, the gap in supply and demand
of urban potable water ranges from 1383 kld in
districts Bilaspur and Kullu to 27,365 kld in
Solan. Further, the gap in rural potable water
supply ranges from 822 klpcd in Lahaul & Spiti
to 31,000 klpcd in Kangra. These gaps indicate
that population in rural areas is more affected
by low access as well as shortage of potable
water in the state. It also indicates that urban
areas have better infrastructure to meet water
supply demand in comparison to rural areas.
2. Health issues due to inadequate
sanitation: The gap in rural and urban sewage
generation and collection in the state exceeds
1,50,000 kld and 49,000 kld respectively. At
district level, the gap in rural sewage generation
& collection ranges from 822 kld in Lahaul &
Spiti to 31,060 kld in Kangra. Similarly, the gap
in urban sewage generation, ranges from 1264
klpcd in Bilaspur & Kullu to 27,365 kld in
Solan. These gaps indicate discharge of sewage
both in rural and urban areas without collection
and treatment.
3. Health issues due to inadequate solid
waste collection and treatment:
• The gap in rural and urban municipal
solid waste generation, collection and
treatment at state level is about 758
Tonnes per Day (TPD) and 185 TPD
respectively. At district level, it ranges
from 4.2 TPD in Lahaul & Spiti to 157.7
TPD in Kangra in rural areas. Similarly, it
ranges from 4.8 tpd in Bilaspur & Kullu
to 104.5 TPD in Solan in urban areas.
• The gap in rural and urban biomedical
waste generation and collection and
treatment at state level exceeds 3 TPD
and 1TPD respectively. In rural areas, this
gap ranges from 60 kg per day in Lahaul
& Spiti to 709 kg per day in Kangra.
Similarly, it ranges from 55 kg per day in
Bilaspur and Una to 305 kg per day in
Shimla.
• The gaps in MSW and BMW
management indicate untreated waste
disposal in both rural and urban areas.
• Lack of sewage, MSW & BMW
collection, and treatment and disposal
130 | Page
facilities results in vulnerability of water
supply sources to both microbiological
and chemical contamination. Further, the
population behavior with respect to
personal hygiene and sanitation gets
adapted to existing situation. It is
reflected in practices like open defecation,
less usage of latrines, reduced washing of
hands and bathing and poor kitchen
cleanliness.
4. Inadequate health infrastructure: Number
of beds available per 1000 population is 1.2 in
the State, which is much less than 3.96 per 1000
population in the world. NRHM 2007-08
report highlights lack of health infrastructure in
the State due to inadequate mechanism of drugs
distribution, inadequate capacity of existing
infrastructure
including
buildings
and
equipment,
shortage
of
trained
medical/paramedical staff at PHC/CHC level
and lack of participation of NGOs/CSOs and
the private sector in health care system.
5. Health deterioration due to air pollution:
• At State level, the percentage of
population dependent on biomass/fuel
wood for cooking in rural and urban
areas exceeds 80% and 20 % respectively.
This indicates exposure of population
especially women to smoke / indoor air
population.
• Increase in registered vehicles and
expansion of road network in urban areas
has resulted in deterioration of urban air
quality. Industrial areas like Baddi, Kala
Amb and Parwanoo have been classified
as severely polluted areas based on
Comprehensive Environment Pollution
Index (CEPI), developed by CPCB. Air
pollution from industries is one of the
major factors in the determination of this
index.
6. Health deterioration due to malnutrition:
Low birth weight, mothers malnutrition, low
birth weight of new borne, delayed feeding of
new borne, underfeeding of the mother,
inadequate breastfeeding of the baby, delayed
weaning practices, social taboos about food,
religious hurdles & sentiments, worminfestation, water-borne diseases, acute
respiratory infections, non availability of
nutritional food locally cause burden of diseases
in Himachal Pradesh. These indicate
malnutrition amongst children and pregnant
women.
7. Occupational health of workers in
industries: Data from Labour Bureau,
Government of Himachal Pradesh indicate
negligible occurrence of “occupational disease”
as per Factory Act 1948 and Employees State
Insurance Act, 1948. This has been attributed
to low level of reporting both by employers and
employees to the respective agencies. However,
the CEPI data from CPCB and hospital
admission statistics for upper & lower
respiratory diseases in districts having major
industries in Himachal Pradesh indirectly
indicate occupational health issues of industrial
workers.
8. Communicable disease due to tourism:
HIV positive cases are concentrated in the five
districts of Shimla, Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Mandi
and Kangra. Four districts except for
Hamirpur, are major tourist destination. A
number of HIV/AIDS infections have also
been reported along the national highways i.e.
from Shimla to Kangra and from Anandpur
Sahib to Manali.
9. Lack of awareness: State Project
Implementation
Plan
NRHM-2007-08
highlights lack of awareness about health issues
due to limited reach and extent of public
awareness campaign on account of hilly
terrain/topography and inadequate of NGOs
and CSOs participation in the health sector in
the state.
131 | Page
10. Inadequate health infrastructure for
management
of
hazardous
waste,
biomedical waste and radioactive waste:
With advancement of medical science most of
the hospitals/nursing homes are now equipped
with latest instruments for diagnosis and
treatment of various diseases. One of the most
important aspect associated with hospitals is the
safe management of the wastes generated from
these establishments, which contains human
anatomical wastes, blood, body fluid,
disposable syringe, used bandages, surgical
gloves, blood bags, intravenous tubes, etc.
Besides, BMW, the generation of mercury
waste (thermometer, fluorescent lights and
CFLs etc), inadequate/improper collection and
disposal thereof is not adequate. This poses
health risks and increased environment
management costs. The main concern lies with
the
hospital
waste
generated
from
hospitals/nursing homes as it may pose
deleterious effects due to its hazardous nature.
Bio-medical wastes, if not handled in a proper
way, is a potent source of diseases like AIDS,
Tuberculosis, Hepatitis and other bacterial
diseases causing serious threats to human
health. The related issue with the inadequate
health infrastructure is improper siting of
facilities
(to
treat
and
dispose
biomedical/hazardous/ solid waste) which have
been set up in the state. The improper siting,
inadequate treatment and disposal of waste
(resulting out of mixing of waste from different
streams) pose grave threats to human well
being and natural environment.
11. Inadequate Monitoring and Evaluation:
The participation of Health and Family Welfare
Department in health monitoring and
inspection vis a vis environment risks is
inadequate. Inadequate monitoring of banned
chemicals and other substances, poor reporting
of the incidences results in delaying raising of
alarm/early warning of health epidemics,
disease outbreaks and infestations to the
citizens.
12. Inadequate Research and Development
(R&D) and medical professional course/
training in emerging health issues:Diseases
like cancer, heart disease, hypertension,
diabetes, etc and various microbial threats like
viral flue cholera, plague have not been given
adequate attention in the State. The current
standards/accreditation of medical professional
courses/ training including paramedical training
need to be upgraded and matches with the best
in the industry and duly accredited.
Pressure on account of increasing gaps and
slow implementation of policy, programmes,
plans and projects is leading to emergence of
sector specific issues and risks/impacts. An
analysis of the issues, causes and impacts has
been carried out and summarized in Table 40.
Table 40: Issues, Causes and Impacts
Issues / Problems
1. Water related disease due to non
access to safe drinking water
2. Health issues due to inadequate
sanitation
Causes
Untreated water supply source
Microbiological contamination
from human/animal excreta, etc.
Chemical contamination from
agriculture / pesticides
Lack of dependable source of
water
Lack of storage infrastructure
Lack of infrastructure:
Latrines
Sewage collection, treatment &
disposal
Personal hygiene awareness
Impacts/Risks
Health Risks / Epidemics /
Diarrhoea / Water related diseases
Health Risk / Unhygienic living
conditions
Health Risk / Unhygienic living
conditions / Water borne disease
132 | Page
Issues / Problems
3. Health issues due to inadequate
solid waste collection & treatment
4. Personal hygiene & sanitation
5. Health deterioration due to air
pollution
6. Lack of awareness about health
issues practices
7. Inadequate health infrastructure
8. Health deterioration due to
malnutrition
9. Occupational health of workers
in industries
10. Communicable disease due to
tourism (HIV/AIDS)
11. Inadequate health infrastructure
for management of hazardous
waste, biomedical waste, radioactive
waste
12. Inadequate Monitoring and
Evaluation:
Causes
Inadequate infrastructure
Municipal solid waste collection,
treatment & disposal
Biomedical waste collection,
treatment & disposal
Population behavior with respect to:
Open defecation
Washing of hands
Kitchen cleanliness
Bathing
Use of latrines
- Exposure to smoke due to burning
of domestic fuel
Air pollution due to increased
vehicular traffic
Air pollution due to emissions
from industries
Limited reach & extent of public
awareness campaign due to
topography / hilly terrain
Lack of NGOs / CSOs /CBOs
participation
Inadequate mechanism for drugs
availability and distribution
Inadequate utilization of the
heath infrastructure due to
various legal constraints
Inadequate capacity of health
infrastructure / facilities
including buildings & equipment
Shortage of trained medical /
paramedical staff at PHC / CHC
level
Lack of participation of NGOs /
CSOs and private sector in health
care system
Poor nutrition to vulnerable
groups e.g. BPL families infant
and pregnant women
Inadequate ventilation
cleanliness, sanitation and safe
working practices.
Proliferation of HIV/AIDS due
to unsafe practices
Lack of awareness
Improper siting
Inadequate treatment and
disposal
Mixing of wastes from different
streams
-Inadequate awareness
-Inadequate staff
-Inadequate capacity and skills
Impacts/Risks
Health Risk / Unhygienic living
conditions / Water borne disease
Health Risk / Unhygienic living
conditions / Water borne disease
Health Risks / Increase in
respiratory disease
Health Risks / Increased burden of
disease / mortality
Health Risks / mortality
Health Risks / Morbidity &
Mortality
Health Risks / Increased burden
disease
Health Risks / Increased burden of
disease
Health Risks / Increased burden of
disease
Early warning of health
epidemics/disease outbreak not
functional
133 | Page
Issues / Problems
13. Inadequate Research and
Development (R&D) and medical
professional course & training in
emerging health issues
3.6
Causes
Impacts/Risks
-Lack of specialized and super
specialty health institutions in the state
Lack
of
trained
health
professionals/paramedical staff
- Maintaining quality health education
as per MCI standards
Health Risks / Increased burden of
disease
Projected growth in Health Tourism
may not be realised
Environment Initiatives taken
by the sector to address Critical
Environment Issues
Common Bio-Medical Waste Treatment
Facility (CBWTF): Expression of interest
(EOI) has been invited from interested parties
to shortlist competent parties who could
subsequently bid for setting up, running and
managing the Common Bio-Medical Waste
Treatment Facility (CBWTF) at any one or
more among the following locations in the state
strictly as per the CPCB, HPPCB and other
regulating bodies guidelines for following
details:
Shimla (covering Shimla and Kinnaur
districts)
Kangra (covering Kangra and Chamba
districts)
Solan (covering Solan and Sirmaur districts)
Mandi (covering Mandi and Kullu districts)
Hamirpur (covering Hamirpur, Una and
Bilaspur districts)
•
2.
3.
The Health and Family Welfare Department
has issued detailed instructions in the Manual
for managing the Hospital Waste.
1.
The waste shall be segregated at the point
of generation and stored in coloured
containers as per the colour code
prescribed in the Bio-medical Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules 1998.
The prescribed colour code is:
• Black : General waste, peels, paper,
and wrappers;
4.
Yellow: Human anatomical tissue,
blood, body fluids, waste
contaminated with blood, dressing
and soiled cotton and all other to be
incinerated waste;
• Red: Same as yellow but needs
deep burial;
• Blue / Grey: Sharps and plastic
waste for shredding / autoclaving /
to be micro waved.
The Manual also mentions of the
disinfectants to be used for disinfecting
sharp waste, disposable infectious plastics,
infectious glassware, blood and body
fluids. It says that the most economical
and effective disinfectant is hypochlorite.
The other disinfectants mentioned in the
Manual are, Methylated Spirit (70%),
Alcoholic hand wash (70% methyl alcohol
to which 1% glycerin is added),
Gluteraldehyde (2%) and Savlon (1%).
The duties of MS have been defined in the
Manual as the officer who would apply to
the H.P. Pollution Control Board for
authorization for the handling of biomedical waste and see that the new waste
bags and containers are ordered on a
regular basis to maintain continuous
supply.
The H.P. State Pollution Control Board
gives this report on bio-medical waste. Till
March 2005 in all 580 Govt. and 194
private health institutions have been
identified. Out of these 774 health
institutions 346 have been exempted from
seeking authorization under Rule-8, of the
Bio-Medical Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules, 1998. 401 health
institutions have applied for authorization
134 | Page
5.
3.7
and 129 have been granted authorization.
108 defaulting institutions have been
served with show cause notice under the
Bio-medical Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules, 1998. These health
institutions
have
installed
twelve
incinerators.
Municipal
Corporation,
Shimla and Municipal Committee, Kullu
have Common Waste Treatment Facility
Incinerators.
Disease Surveillance Laboratories carry out
testing for infectious and contagious
diseases, such as malaria, typhoid, cholera
and hepatitis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
These laboratories, therefore, generate
waste which includes infected human
tissues and blood samples, microbes,
discarded chemicals, sharps, etc. Such
waste, if not managed properly, carries the
risk of infection for waste handlers and to
the larger community and is also a
potential environmental hazard, through
pollution of land, water and ground water.
Although the amounts of waste generated
from such laboratories is small, its varied
and hazardous composition requires
comprehensive management of the waste
lifecycle, from source to disposal, to
prevent adverse impacts on the
environment and public health. Adequate
waste management in laboratories will not
only improve overall environmental
performance but also facilitate in providing
a safe workplace for the laboratory
personnel. In addition, laboratories have to
comply with the environmental regulations
of the Government of India, specifically
the Bio-Medical Rules (prepared in 1998
and amended in 2000 &2003).
preserving the quality of our environment.
Hospital waste generated during the patient
care is its a cause of concern. It is a potential
health hazard to the health care workers, public
and flora and fauna of the area. Emission of
gases by Incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin,
Hydrochloric acid etc have promoted the
Department of Health and Family Welfare to
think seriously about the matter and the
diseases transmitted through improper disposal
of hospital waste. The Central Government has
already passed an Act in 1996 and Bio-Medical
Waste (Handling and Management) Rules were
introduced in 1998.
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector
The Manual prescribes adequate surveillance
programme for constant reporting and
investigation of infections, the first being the
formation of Hospital Infection Control
Committee (HIFCOM). Other steps that are to
be taken to check the menace are:
Himachal Pradesh has entered an era in which,
as a result of spread of education and enhanced
awareness, the public is expressing increasing
concern about protecting human health and
Department of Health and Family Welfare has
brought out a Hospital Manual and its Chapter
XIII is on Prevention of Hospital Acquired
Infection and Hospital Waste Management.
During hospitalization or after the discharge of
the patient from the hospital, he or she may
develop an infection called Nosocomial
Infection. This occurs as a result of:
• Improper asepsis of the environment due
to accumulation of untreated hospital waste
and the unscientific way in which this waste
is disposed off
• Improper
asepsis
of
equipment,
instruments;
• Poor sterilization/ disinfection techniques;
• Invasive monitoring and therapeutic
procedures;
• Transmission of infection by staff carriers;
• Consumption of infected food, milk and
water;
• An epidemic arising in the community and
spreading to the hospital.
135 | Page
• Adequate sanitation and disinfection of
environment;
• Adhere strictly to aseptic techniques while
performing surgical and instrumentation
procedures;
• Segregate contaminated instruments;
• Provision of source isolation;
• Discourage
indiscriminate
use
of
antibiotics.
Bio-medical Waste Management: A
Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility
(CBWTF) is a setup where biomedical waste,
generated from a number of healthcare units, is
imparted necessary treatment to reduce adverse
effects that this waste may pose. Biomedical
waste generation data at major health care
facilities of Shimla town on daily basis under
present study have been collected for two
consecutive years. There are around 100 clinics
and health care facilities in the limits of
Municipal Corporation of Shimla. In the
present study only five major health care
facilities are considered.
Lack of awareness amongst the hospital staff
including doctors towards the segregation of
infectious waste is one of the main reasons for
mismanagement of Bio-medical waste in the
hospital.
Table 41: Waste Generation in Major
Hospitals of Shimla Town
No.
Name of the
Hospital
Quantity of
waste /bed in
kg.
Total
quantity
in kg.
Indira Gandhi
0.858
450.0
Medical College
Kamala Nehru
2
1.95
295.02
Hospital
Deen Dayal
3
0.644
128.80
Hospital
4
Indus Hospital
1.3
130.0
Army Hospital at
5
0.386
38.56
Tutu
Total
1062.48
Source: Report on Solid Waste Management in Shimla Town
1
NRHM is a landmark for providing accessible
and affordable health care to all citizens living
in rural areas particularly to the poorer and
weaker sections. It lays stress on reducing
maternal and infant morality, universal access to
public health services, prevention and control
of communicable and non-communicable
disease, ensuring population stabilization,
maintaining gender balance, revitalization of
local health traditions and promotion of healthy
life styles. Under the overall umbrella of
NRHM a number of programmes especially the
Reproductive and Child Health Programme
(RCH-II), Immunization Programme, Janani
Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Disease Control
Programme have been included. The mission
focuses on decentralized implementation of the
activities and funneling of funds, it sets the
stage for Distt. Management of Health and
active community participation in the
implementation of health programmes. The
Himachal Pradesh Govt. has already
constituted the State and Distt. Health Mission
and grass-root activities have been started with
zeal and zest. All the CHCs would be converted
into First Referral Units under the programme
in a phased manner. Similarly, 50% of the
PHCs in the State would be providing 24 hours
services by the end of the programme. The
programme also focuses on convergence with
IPH, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj,
Ayurveda and Social Justice and Empowerment
Departments.
3.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and
water pollution) should be
carried out for activities related
to the sector
At present, there is no mechanism for
environmental monitoring within the sector
related to environment issues. However, HP
State Pollution Control Board monitoring, air,
water, noise, effluent including trade effluent
from industries as described in potable water
sector.
136 | Page
Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic
Resources (MINARS) is sponsoring the water
quality monitoring of major rivers of the State.
The monitoring is being carried out in the
month of April, July, October and January
every year. In all 36 points have been selected
on major rivers Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Yamuna,
Parvati, Sirsa, Markanda & Sukhna, Samples are
analyzed for 22 parameters which includes the
physico-chemical and bacteriological contents.
The results are shown in Table 24. Eighteen
(18) points have also been selected in major
industrial towns for the monitoring of ground
water of hand pumps & wells. It has been
observed that quality of ground water
monitored in the State conforms to the
prescribed standards.
Physical and chemical qualities tested in
samples taken from all the fourteen water zones
in Shimla are found satisfactory conforming to
prescribed standards of drinking water. Water
sample taken from Public Tap located at
Sanjaulli main Chowk has shown bacteriological
contamination. Similarly water sample taken
from Public tap at Kasumpti near B.S.N.L
office has shown the presence of Coliform
group of bacteria. Further, HP PCB has set in
place a river water quality monitoring. Table 4245 shows the Monitoring results on river
quality, lake water quality and other sources of
water is given in the section.
Table 42: River Quality Data (Annual Avg.)Year 2003
Location
Beas at U/S Manali, H.P.
Beas at D/S Kullu, H.P.
Beas at D/S Aut, H.P.
Beas at U/S Pandoh Dam, H.P.
Beas at Exit Of Tunnel Dehal
Power House, H.P.
U/S Mandi, H.P
Beas at D/S Mandi, H.P.
Beas at D/S Alampur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Dehra gopipur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Pong Dam, H.P.
Satluj at Nathpa Zakhri, H.P
Satluj at U/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Tatapani, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Bhakhra, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Chamba, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Madhopur, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Of Madhopur
Headworks,Gurdaspur,Punjab
Parvati before Conf. to River Beas,
H.P.
Largi at D/S, H.P.
River Sirsa , U/S Sitomajri
Nallahgarh, H.P
River Sirsa , D/S Nalagarh Bridge,
H.P
Yamuna at U/S, at Paonta Sahib
8.1
8.0
8.0
8.2
DO
Mg/l
10.0
9.1
10.1
9.8
BOD
Mg/l
0.3
0.7
0.9
0.6
FC
(MPN/100ml)
135
283
82
20
Temp
(ºC)
6
10
7
8
8.0
10.8
1.3
29
8
8.1
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.1
8.3
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.4
8.3
8.3
8.2
7.8
9.3
8.2
8.1
7.7
8.3
9.5
9.4
9.4
9.2
9.5
10.2
9.2
9.2
8.2
1.1
1.2
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.7
0.8
25
421
10
26
6
7
152
226
104
38
41
2
8
7
9
10
17
19
24
14
13
14
15
10
9
16
12
18
7.6
8.2
0.7
7
18
7.8
9.8
0.7
152
9
7.8
10.4
0.6
80
6
8.3
8.0
0.2
77
23
8.3
7.6
0.4
318
26
pH
8.9
8
2
46
20
WQI
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Medium
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
137 | Page
Location
pH
Yamuna at U/S, at Paonta Sahib
8.9
DO
Mg/l
7.7
BOD
Mg/l
4.8
FC
(MPN/100ml)
76
Temp
(ºC)
22
WQI
Medium
Table 43: Lakes Water Quality Data Year 2003
Lake / Pond /
Tank / Creek
Gobind Sagar
Lake
Pong Dam Lake
Renuka Lake
Location
Gobindsagar
Lake At
Bilaspur,
H.P.
Pongdam
Lake at
Pong
Village,H.P.
Renuka
Lake , 35
Km from
Patna Sahib
North , H.P
Te
m
(c)
pH
Cond
Micromaho/c
m
DO
Mg/l
BOD
Mg/l
COD
Mg/l
FC
MPN/100ml
TC MPN /
100ml
10
8.4
308
9.3
0.6
53.0
58
159
24
8.4
236
8.1
0.9
3.0
5
27
20
8.6
1207
8.1
6.0
42.0
33
85
Samples analysis in the state board
laboratories: The State Pollution Control
Board has 5 laboratories for carrying out
analysis of water, waste water, solid waste, air
and bio-monitoring samples. The details of
samples analyzed by the laboratories during
the year 2007-08 are given in Table 44.
Table 44: Number of Samples Analyzed in State Polluti on Control Board’s Laboratories
Sr.
No.
1
2
Type of Samples
Water
&
Waste
Water
Trade
Effluent
RM/ Study
etc. water
samples
Bio-Monitoring
Number of Samples Analyzed in StatePollution Control Boards
Laboratories
Paonta
Sunder
Parwanoo
Jassur
Shimla
Sahib
Naggar
764
336
181
183
1110
83
128
346
-
12
-
-
Water quality of major rivers in Himachal
Pradesh monitored under MINARS and state
-
water quality monitoring programme for year
2008.
Table 45: Water quality of major rivers in Himachal P radesh (January 2008)
Name of the location
Lift Nala D/S Hotel Combermere,
Lift Nala U/S M.C. Waste Processing Site
Lift Nala D/S MSW Processing Site,
Shimla
Ashwani Khad U/S Lift Nala
Ashwani Khad D/S Lift Nala
Giri River D/S Yashwant Naggar,
Satluj River bef. conf. with Spiti at Khab
D.O.
mg/l
7.7
7.48
6.56
8.4
8.5
8.4
BOD
mg/l
4
14
12
7.09
6.75
8.14
7.56
8.9
8.7
11.6
-
3
30
0.6
0.1
pH
T.C.
MPN/SPC per 100ml
60
360
180
2
320
820
750
138 | Page
Name of the location
Spiti River bef. conf. with Satluj at Khab
Satluj River after confluence of River Spiti at
Khab
Satluj River bef. conf. with Tidong River
Tidong River bef. conf. to R. Satluj
Satluj River after conf. with Tidong River
Satluj River U/S Shorang Khad
Sorang River bef.conf. to R. Satluj
Satluj River D/S Shorang Khad
Baspa River U/S Reservoir
Baspa River D/S Reservoir at Kuppa
Baspa River Baspa Project Reservoir
Satluj River U/S trt Baspa Hydel Project
Reservoir
Satluj River bef. conf. to Baspa River
Satluj River After Conf. To Baspa
Satluj River at Wangtu Bridge, 1389-RSat-A
Satluj River D/S Nathpa,
Satluj River bef. conf to Ganvi Khad
Ganvi Khad
Satluj River D/S Ganvi Khad
Satluj River U/S trt Jhakri
Satluj River D/S trt Jhakri
Satluj River U/S Landfill site, Rampur
Satluj River D/S Landfill site, Rampur
Satluj River U/S Rampur, 1086-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Rampur,1087-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Dattnagar, Rhep, Rampur
Satluj River U/S Tatapani,1013-R-Sat-A,
Satluj River U/S Slapper, 1014-R-Sat-A
Satluj River Dehar Power House, 1005-RBea-A
Satluj River D/S Slapper, 1015-R-Sat-A
Satluj River D/S Acc Barmana. Satluj
River
Satluj River D/S Bhakhra 1016-R-Sat-A
Satluj River U/S Bhakra
Satluj River D/S Bilaspur, 1291-L-Gol-A
Swan River D/S Santokgarh 1869-RSwan
Swan River U/S Landfill Site, Santokhgarh
Swan River D/S Landfill Site, Santokhgarh
Beas River U/S Manali, 1001-R-Bea-A
Beas River D/S Manali
Beas River U/S Waste Processing Facility
Manali
D.O.
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
T.C.
MPN/SPC per 100ml
7.59
7.71
-
0.1
1
Nil
Nil
7.69
7.32
7.64
7.26
7.38
7.39
7.71
8.15
7.7
7.52
10.1
10.5
10.2
10.5
9.8
10.2
9.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
4
Nil
6
36
50
42
4
8
6
60
7.74
7.47
7.28
9.8
10.1
9.8
0.1
0.1
0.1
50
66
19
8.42
7.92
7.51
7.01
7.83
7.95
17.27
7.92
8.02
8.14
8.58
7.61
82.07
7.92
10.7
9.8
9.4
9.5
10.1
10.4
10.5
11.2
11.4
9.6
10.5
9.4
12.4
12.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.
0.5
20
18
40
22
40
20
920
84.01
7.99
12.3
12
540
0.
0.7
920
7.79
7
7.9
8.01
10.8
11
12
9.4
20
0.1
0.4
0.8
2.2
24
540
160
7
7.6
7.91
7.03
7.54
8.6 120
7.7
9
10.9
11.7
1.4
1.8
0.2
5.9
1.1
160
26
>2400
> 2400
pH
26
56
240
34
130
70
80
139 | Page
Name of the location
Beas River D/S Waste Processing Facility
Manali
R. Beas D/S Of Conf. With Allaign Nalla
Allaign Nalla bef. conf. with Beas
R. Beas D/S conf. with Duhangan Nalla
Duhangan Nalla bef. conf with R. Beas
Beas River U/S Kullu
Beas River D/S Kullu 1002-R-Bea-A
Beas River U/S Waste Processing Facility
Kullu
Beas River D/S Waste Processing Facility
Kullu
Beas River U/S of Conf. Of R. Parvati
Parvati River U/S Manikaran
Parvati River D/S Manikaran
Parvati River River at Bhunter 1290-RPar_A
Beas River D/S of conf. of R. Parvati
Sainj River U/S Envisaged Power House
site of Parvati-II
Sainj River D/S Envisaged Power House site
of Parvati-II
Sainj River U/S Envisaged Power House Site
Of Parvati-III
Sainj River D/S Envisaged Power House Site
Of Parvati-Iii
Beas River U/S Fermenta Biodil
Beas River D/S Fermenta Biodil
Beas River D/S Aut , 1003-R-Bea-A
Largi River D/S Largi ,1090-R-Lar-A
Beas River D/S of Conf. of trt of Largi
Hep Power House
Beas River U/S Pandoh Dam , 1004-RBea-A
Beas River D/S Pandoh Dam
Suketi River U/S of conf. of Dregger
Outfall of snr Balancing Reservoir
Suketi River at Dadour Bridge
Shuketi Khad U/S Mandi,
Beas River D/S Mandi , 1006-R-Bea-A
Beas River U/S Salt Mine Drang
Beas River D/S Salt Mine Drang
Beas River D/S Mandi , 1006-R-Bea-A
Beas River U/S of conf. of Envisaged trt
Of Uhl-Iii
Beas River D/S of conf. of Envisaged Trt
TRT – Tail Race Tunnel
pH
D.O.
mg/l
BOD
mg/l
1.3
T.C.
MPN/SPC per 100ml
7.38
11.6
7.1.54
8.06
7.13
7.31
7.56
7.08
7.58
11.5
11.4
11.7
11.6
10.3
10.4
11.7
1
0.9
0.4
0.7
2.2
2.4
1.7
2400
> 2400
2400
350
> 2400
> 2400
> 2400
7.59
11.6
1.9
> 2400
7.47
7.45
7.65
7.26
11.7 >
12.3
11.7
9
1.2
1
1.3
1.2
2400
79
> 2400
>2400
7.52
7.59
10.2 >
11.9
1.6
1.1
> 2400
46
7.56
11.8
1.5
130
7.5
11.8
1
130
7.74
11.8
1.6
130
7.73
7.97
7.82
8.05
7.77
11.7
11.7
11.5
12
11.5
0.6
0.5
1
0.6
1.3
280
1600
920
180
23
7.78
11.6
0.4
23
7.52
8.13
11.4
10.8
0.7
0.6
70
> 2400
7.63
7.99
7.56
7.15
8.37
8.37
7.99
9.7
10.1
11.5
10.7
9.3
8.7
11
1.3
0.6
0.4
7.6
0.3
0.5
0.7
> 2400
> 2400
920
> 2400
17
21
240
8.42
11
1
350
>
>
> 2400
140 | Page
3.9
Institutional
Mechanisms
within the Sector to address
identified Environment Issues
The Directorate of Health and Family Welfare
functions under the administrative control of
Secretary (Health) Govt. of HP and is located
at Block No. 6, SDA Complex, Kasumpati,
Shimla-9. The Directorate is headed by the
3.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
Director of Health Services. Roles and
Responsibilities have been given to Panchayati
Raj Institutions: Health and Family Advisory
Committees have been formed at the three
levels of the Panchayati Raj Institutions. These
have been named as PARIKAS (Parivar Kalyan
Salahkar Samiti). Their composition and works
have been defined.
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations
141 | Page
and
changing
lifestyles;
migratory
populations
including
tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions
The Department of Health and Family Welfare,
Government of Himachal Pradesh and is
engaged in providing primitive, preventive and
curative health to the people of the State
through a net-work of 2071 Health Sub
Centers, 443 PHCs, 22 Civil Dispensaries, 72
Community Health Centres, 36 Civil Hospitals,
9 Regional Hospitals, 3 Zonal Hospitals, 1 TB
Sanatorium, 3 Leprosy Hospitals, 1 Himachal
Pradesh State Hospital of Mental Health &
Rehabilitation Centre, Mental Health Hospital,
1 Hospital for the Mother & Child, 1 ESI
Hospital and 8 ESI Dispensaries, 2 Medical
Colleges and 1 Govt. Dental College in the
State as on 31.03.2007.
National Average of 5401. Similarly, a PHC is
providing health care facilities to about 13,367
people against the National Average of 32,469
whereas a CHC is serving 88,911 people against
the National Average of 2, 43,427.
Top Ten Causes of Diseases Burden :The
top ten causes of diseases burden in different
age group for females and males are shown in
Table 46 and 47. Among children of 0-4 years
diarrhoeal diseases, low birth weight and lower
respiratory infection are leading causes of
diseases burden. Among the reproductive age
group, road accidents and other unintentional
injuries, iron deficiency anemia, tuberculosis,
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and
upper respiratory infections are leading cause of
diseases burden. DALY has two components
namely Years Life Lost due to premature
mortality (YLL) and Year Life Lost Due to
Disability (YLD). The local data essential for
the mortality (YLL) component of DisabilityAdjusted Life Years (DALY) are the number of
deaths by age, sex and average age at death
within respective age groups.
In Himachal Pradesh, presently one Health Sub
Centre is serving 2838 people against the
Table 46: Top ten causes of Burden of Diseases (DALYs) among females in Himachal
Pradesh
Rank
0-4 yrs
5-14 yrs
15-44 yrs
Other
unintentional
injuries (OUI)
45-59 yrs
Chronic
Obstructive
Diseases
60 +yrs
Road accident
OUI
Iron –deficiency
anaemia
Chronic
Obstructive
Pulmonary
Diseases
Self-inflicted
injury
Ischaemic heart
disease
OUI
Tuberculosis
Ischaemic heart
disease
Road accident
Tuberculosis
1
Diarrhoeal diseases
Iron-deficiency
anaemia (IDA)
Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
2.
Low birth weight
OUI
3.
Lower Respiratory
Infectious
Asthma
4.
Other infectious
diseases
Other infectious
diseases
5.
IDA
Diarrhoeal diseases
6.
Dental caries
Otitis Media
Tuberculosis
Other
infectious
diseases
Road accident
7
Upper Respiratory
Infections
Dental caries
Asthma
Peptic ulcer
IDA
8.
Asthma
Upper Respiratory
Infections
Other infectious
diseases
IDA
Cataracts
OUI
142 | Page
Rank
0-4 yrs
5-14 yrs
9.
Otitis Media
Lower Respiratory
Infections
10
OUI
Vitamin A
Deficiency
15-44 yrs
Upper
Respiratory
Infections
Dental carrier
45-59 yrs
60 +yrs
Asthma
Asthma
Dental carrier
Dental carrier
Table 47: Top ten causes of Burden of Diseases (DAL Y) among Males in Himachal
Pradesh
Rank
0-4 yrs
5-14 yrs
1.
Diarrhoeal diseases
Iron-deficiency
anaemia
2.
Low birth weight
Diarrhoeal
diseases
3.
Other infectious diseases
4.
Lower Respiratory
Infectious diseases
5.
Iron deficiency anaemia
6.
Dental caries
7
8.
Upper Respiratory
Infections
Otitis Media
9.
Other unintentional
injuries
10
Other digestive injuries
15-44 yrs
Iron-deficiency
anaemia
Other
unintentional
injuries(OUI)
COPD
45-59 yrs
Chronic
Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
(COPD)
60 +yrs
Chronic
Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
Iron-deficiency
anaemia
Other infectious
diseases
OUI
OUI
Self-inflicted
injury
Other infectious
diseases
Rheumatic heart
disease
Otitis Media
Tuberculosi s
Tuberculosis
Asthma
Road accidents
Ischaemic heart
disease
Ischaemic heart
disease
Iron-deficiency
anaemia
Dental caries
Peptic Ulcer
Dental cariies
Dental car
Road accident
Upper
Respiratory
Infections
Lower
Respiratory
Infections
Dental caries
Lower
Respiratory
Infections
Asthma
Diarrhoeal diseases
Road accident
Tuberculosis
Cataracts
Asthma
OID
Other
unintentional
injuries
The overall top ten causes of burden of
diseases among males and females shown in
Table 46 & 47 indicates that respiratory
infections, diarrhoeal diseases, iron deficiency
anaemia, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive
pulmonary diseases and road accidents are six
major causes of disease burden in both sexes.
The disease burden on account of iron
Other infectious
diseases
deficiency anaemia and tuberculosis in both the
sex is mostly in the age group 15-44 years. This
calls for early diagnosis and treatment for both
the conditions. Leading causes of disability
(YLD) in males and females is given in Table
48.
Table 48: Leading causes of disability (YLD) in males and females in Himachal Pradesh
Male
%
Female
Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Diseases
26.09
Iron deficiency anaemia
14.19
Other unintentional injuries
Dental caries
12.24
7.08
Iron deficiency anaemia
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Diseases other unintentional
injuries
Diarrhoeal diseases
Other unintentional injuries
%
20.13
17.15
13.04
12.68
143 | Page
Male
Diarrhoeal diseases
Asthma
Other unintentional injuries
Upper Respiratory Infection
Lower Respiratory Infection
Otitis media
%
Female
Other infectious diseases
Dental caries
Asthma
Tuberculosis
Road accident
Upper Respiratory Infection
6.15
5.92
5.23
4.80
3.24
2.28
The gap in the information collection system is that
disease-wise information is not collected. 42 different
types of illness are identified under seven main
heads – 1.Nervous System; 2. Digestive System; 3.
Blood Flow System; 4. Respiratory System; 5. Skin
%
11.64
7.31
5.87
5.61
5.38
4.78
System: 6. Fevers; and 7. Eye Diseases. Districtwise number of patients attending the ISMH
institutions for treatment during 2003-04 is given in
Table 49.
Table 49: Number of patients treated by ISMH
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
RAH Paprola
RAH Shimla
TOTAL
RAH: Rajkiya Ayurveda Hospital
Source: ISMH Department
Outdoor
407650
200463
395386
1221428
62610
283815
29790
699385
471234
271284
301467
406200
47189
30551
4828452
2003
Indoor
12743
3535
2684
6384
2801
194
2324
314
1736
3009
9716
2375
4702
52517
Total
420393
203998
398070
1227812
65411
284009
29790
701709
471548
273020
304476
415916
49564
35253
4880969
Outdoor
408266
313604
391543
1048070
63444
281569
59883
684149
447271
279305
310777
398603
47340
30903
4764727
2004
Indoor
10728
3156
4376
11868
1706
83
1999
17060
1695
3801
4782
2773
409
64436
Total
418994
316760
395919
1059938
65150
281652
59883
686148
464331
281000
314578
403385
50113
31312
4829163
Number of patients – outdoor as well as indoor that went to the Institutions run by HFW during
1999 -2004 is given in Table 50.
Table 50: Patients treated during 1999 to 2004 in HFW institutions
Year
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
New
7181755
6935854
7175041
7262338
7494032
7674236
Outdoor
Old
2339358
2144187
2163166
2088000
2091433
2193077
Total
9521113
9080041
9338207
9350338
9585465
9867313
New
256368
256652
273573
284734
294096
314878
Indoor
Old
1142745
1145051
136106
1114900
1111253
1152414
Total
1399113
1401703
1409679
1399634
1405349
1467292
New
7438123
7192506
7448614
7547072
7788128
7989114
Total
Old
Total
3482103
3289238
3299272
3202900
3202686
3345491
10920226
10481744
10747886
10749972
10990814
11334605
District-wise number of cases reported in
Hospitals as Indoor admission is given in Table
51.
144 | Page
Table 51: District-wise number of cases reported in Hospitals as indoor Admission
Bilaspur
1995
2000
Hamirpur
1995
2000
Kangra
2000
2002
Kinnaur
2000 2002
D.
Case
D.
Case
D.
Case
D.
Case
D.
Case
D.
Case
Case
D.
Case
Case
D.
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
2 0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
4 0
0
0
1 0
5
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0 0
0
0
2 0
0
0
Prostate Cancer
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Lymphoma
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Parkinson's diseases
16
0
0
0
0
0 45 0 37 0
23
0
42
0
11
0
15 0
155 0
40 0
155 0
Cirrhosis of the liver
43
4
3
2
1
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
5
15
20 17 34 0
Nephritis & Nephrosis
6
0
145 0
90
0 149 0 296 4
249 2
16
0
59
2 143 2
Congenital abnormalities
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0 0
6
0
12
1
5
0
0
0
4
0
5
0
Unintentional poisonings
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Diarrhoeal Diseases
1313 5 1073 1 1072 0 906 15 999 7 1190 3 1195 5 1091 1 1618 0
Polio
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Hepatitis
5
0
12
0
63
0 13 0 23 0
31
0
40
1
10
1
16 0
66
0
52 0
143 0
4
0
1 1
5
0
Malaria
13
0
8
0
0
0 15 0
0 0
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Filariasis
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Trachoma
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
3
1
0
0
0
0
16
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Intestinal Helminths
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
216 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Protein energy malnutrition
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4 0
115 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
0
10 0
0 0
15 0
0 0
2
0
H. Pylori (peptic ulcers)
33
1
41
1
3
0 21 2 178 1
176 1
35
0
35
0
61 0
1661 0
12 8
103 0
10 0
5 0
5
0
Other Digestive disorders
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
Acute respiratory infections
3
0
0
1
0
0
661 0
502 0 130 0 174 24 156 0
32
0 1047 3 203 8 296 0
Chronic respiratory diseases
100 4
180 16 70
275 10 327 0
Lung & related cancers
0
1
0
0 204 21 60 0
3
Kullu
0
8 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
2
0
2 0
2
0
Lahaul &Spiti
1995
2000
2002
1995
0
0
14 0
1
0
0
Mandi
2000
2002
1995
35 0 35 0
27 0
0
0
9
423 0
4
0 61 0
97 0
6 0
4
0
0 0
1
1
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
3033 2 2433 0
2651 0
0
174 0 604 1
0
16
0
0
2002
2
167 6 146 3 224 1
0 0
5701 7 532 8
115 0
100 0 11 0
19 0
3281 0 107 0
124 0
110 5
3 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
3 0
0
0
0
0
3
2
4 0
Shimla
2000
D.
Case
1
Liver Cancer
D.
D.
Case
Stomach Cancer
D.
D.
Case
1995
Dt.
1995
Case
2002
D.
2002
Case
Case
Selected Diseases
Chamba
1995 2000
2002
0
0
0
Sirmaur
1995
2000
2002
1995
2000
2002
Case
D.
D
D.
Case
Case
D.
D.
Case
D.
D.
Case
Case
D.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
1
0
0
0
0
40
8
60 12 71 16
0
0
8
1
8
0
Liver Cancer
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
Prostate Cancer
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
2
14
3
23
4
0
0
34
8
0
0
0
33
2
49
3
47
3
0
0
6
0
5
Lymphoma
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Parkinson's diseases
3
0
21
0 149 0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0 511 0 387 0 842 0 238 0 413 0 219 0
52
0 612 0 561 0
Cirrhosis of the liver
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
Nephritis & Nephrosis
7
0
60
0 347 14 6
0
3
0
1
0
2
4
0
0
1
0 178 0 1986 1 1555 0 125 2 315 0 433 0
13
0 276 4 304 1
Congenital abnormalities
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Unintentional poisonings
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0 168 0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 445 1
20
0
43
0
4
0
80
3
85
D.
Case
0
Case
D.
0
D.
Case
3
Case
D.
0
Diarrhoeal Diseases
D.
Dt.
Case
0
0
Case
D.
Case
Stomach Cancer
5
Case
Case
Selected Diseases
75
2
65
0
843 0 2387 0 1108 0 50 0 115 4 87 1 3102 11 2684 3 3188 0 2941 26 2401 14 2151 4 1362 13 1459 1 1615 1
Polio
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Hepatitis
47 0
13
0
17
0
4
0
2
0
2
0 103 6
44
0
85
0
85
3
44
0
40
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Malaria
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
77
0
145 | Page
Filariasis
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Trachoma
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
50
0
0
Intestinal Halminths
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Protein energy malnutrition 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
4
0 290 1
0
H. Pylori (peptic ulcers)
60 0
76
0
31
3
0
0 28 0
Other Digestive disorders
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Acute respiratory infections 324 0 117 0 111 0
0
0
0
0 83 0 2273 0 1695 0 446 0 340 17 142 7 198 8 535 1 261 0 276 2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
92
0
0
0
10
7
0 938 2 602 0 915 0 723 8 492 7 660 5
4
0 108 0 123 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 136 0
0
0
61
0
11
0
0
18
0
53 11 76
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
19
5
2
22
0
0
0
0
59
3 145 50 0
0
0
0
0
0 548 5 1028 0 361 0 1159 22 74
86
0 165 1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
83
6 107 16 130 21
0
0
10
1
2
0
Cardiovascular disease
0
0
21
0
16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 333 0 682 14 88
0
80
0
32
0
66
3
82
1
Selected Diseases
Stomach Cancer
Liver Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Lymphoma
Parkinson's diseases
Cirrhosis of the liver
Nephritis &
Nephrosis
Congenital
abnormalities
Unintentional
poisonings
Diarrhoeal Diseases
Polio
Hepatitis
Malaria
Filariasis
Trachoma
Intestinal Healminths
Protein energy
malnutrition
H. Pylori (peptic
ulcers)
Other Digestive
disorders
Acute respiratory
infections
Chronic respiratory
diseases
Lung & related
cancers
Cardiovascular disease
0
0
D.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Solan
2000
2002
Case
Dt.
Case
0
10
106
0
0
0
0
4 0 3 0
0
0
0
0
97 0 0 0 1576
4
0
3
104
0
30
1995
D.
Case
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 4390
0
0
0
0
Una
2000
D.
Case
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0 0 18
0
12
0
58
0
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1189
0
7
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1992
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1107
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
0
84
0
78
0
0
0
0
129
0
200
95
0
0
0
1995
Case
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
0
50
D.
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2002
Case
0
0
0
0
2398
0
0
D.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1995
Case
54
15
33
0
10
109
678
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
162
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
462
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
139
0
0
0
0
0
181
0
94
126
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
94 0
5 361 2
0
Lung & related cancers
2
86
0
0
Chronic respiratory diseases 311 0
4
4
0
0
2
HIMACHAL PRADESH
2000
2002
D.
Case
D.
Case
D.
9
83
13
9
2
53
13
25
4
2
61
3
5
0
0
0
0
0
8
2
654
3967
25
14
230
3672
5
19
189
1
20
0
17
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
591
0
17
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16263
0
379
120
0
208
11
374
83
0
10
0
0
1
0
12
17242
0
210
16
0
0
14
105
35
0
2
0
0
0
0
2
16602
0
421
0
0
0
316
253
11
0
1
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
3510
13
1800
17
2162
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
199
2
0
0
11378
52
4018
25
1887
10
16655
066
141
1
0
0
6662
59
1880
24
13
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
89
8
128
21
141
0 20 1069 0
240
669 0
1315
0
0
0
4
21
Trends of malaria in Himachal Pradesh from
1960-2005 is given in Table 52.
Table 52: National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (Malaria) in Himachal
Pradesh
Year
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Blood Slides
Collected
7877
30677
59400
85928
84808
131577
114830
208058
265716
266631
219410
Blood Slides
Examined
7877
30677
59400
85928
82742
126305
112450
208382
244924
237928
199126
Number Found
Positive
1
16
7
45
38
122
63
50
116
71
87
PV
Cases
1
11
4
25
30
114
61
49
111
69
87
PF
Cases
0
5
3
20
8
8
2
1
5
2
0
SPR 2.1
API
0.04
0.1
0.05
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.1
0.07
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.03
9.5
13.9
12
10
9.9
9.2
7.7
146 | Page
Year
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Blood Slides
Collected
224195
311781
421840
319512
302626
272652
563825
631256
524978
676385
842600
721960
719694
726479
745825
717344
711635
717691
716994
695304
732494
708111
668808
600159
596556
587277
594425
633175
627970
582890
567815
521896
503935
502202
483371
Blood Slides
Examined
217551
266093
305208
321803
295757
256826
463754
588649
514792
646449
807589
681064
685598
680516
695373
684886
693320
701053
702247
681787
724531
703301
665928
597549
593844
582537
591289
627661
626847
581296
566859
520834
503935
500901
479358
Number Found
Positive
111
236
2075
8078
16481
22110
42154
49947
39870
49044
85534
48708
38947
27966
36478
42136
22460
10209
8589
14379
20115
7251
4062
3091
6695
8349
5320
1433
700
491
349
176
133
126
129
PV
Cases
109
234
2073
8076
16478
22104
42147
49931
39859
48979
85136
48562
38754
27173
35819
41812
22395
10168
8575
14349
20110
7242
4060
3085
6682
8336
5316
1432
694
491
349
176
126
119
129
PF
Cases
2
2
2
2
3
6
7
16
11
65
398
146
193
793
659
324
65
41
14
30
5
9
2
6
13
13
4
1
6
0
0
0
7
7
0
SPR 2.1
API
0.05
0.08
0.6
2.5
5.5
2.6
9.0
8.6
7.7
7.5
10.5
7.1
5.7
4.1
5.2
6.1
3.2
1.4
1.2
2.1
2.8
1.0
0.6
0.5
1.1
1.4
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.08
0.7
2.7
5.3
7.3
13.5
16.1
12.0
14.6
25.0
13.8
11.0
7.8
10.0
11.3
5.9
2.7
2.2
3.6
4.9
1.7
1.0
0.7
1.5
1.9
1.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.07
0.04
0.028
0.026
0.03
7.9
9.3
10.6
10.9
9.6
8.5
14.8
18.7
15.7
19.2
23.6
19.4
19.4
19.0
19.0
18.4
18.2
18.3
17.9
16.9
17.7
17.1
15.9
14.1
14.0
13.3
13.3
13.9
13.7
12.5
12.0
11.0
10.4
10.4
9.7
Trend of AIDS control programme in Himachal Pradesh
are given in Table 53.
Table 53: Trend of AIDS Control Programme as on 31-03-2008
2000
Number of persons screened
23870
Number of HIV positive cases 201
Number of AIDS cases
72
Sero-Positivity rate per 1000
2001
26939
278
87
2002
30949
350
92
11.0
2003
35773
531
143
14.8
2004
43859
817
186
18.8
2005
49918
1212
263
24.3
2006
50610
1640
344
28.73
2007
63151
2170
434
34.36
147 | Page
District- wise HIV/AIDS cases since 1987 is
given in Table 54.
Table 54: District wise HIV/AIDS cases
Up To 30-06-2006 since 1987
Up To 31-03-2006 since 1987
HIV/AIDS Percentage AIDS Percentage HIV/AIDS Percentage
AIDS
Percentage
District/Others
Cases
Cases
Cases
Cases
1. Bilaspur
2. Chamba
3. Hamirpur
4. Kangra
5. Kinnaur
6. Kullu
7. Lahaul-Spiti
8. Mandi
9. Shimla
10. Sirmaur
11. Solan
12. Una
13. Others
( Non-Himachalis)
Total
( HIV +ve)
254
14.28
32
1.80
441
24.79
422
23.72
9
0.51
25
1.41
0
0.00
186
10.46
127
7.14
28
1.57
64
3.60
152
8.54
59
2
92
54
1
6
0
74
39
6
17
4
16.39
0.56
25.56
15.00
0.28
1.67
0.00
20.56
10.83
1.67
4.72
1.11
( HIV +ve)
242
14.76
31
1.89
411
25.06
377
22.99
9
0.55
23
1.40
0
0.00
180
10.98
105
6.40
28
1.71
61
3.72
134
8.17
58
2
89
54
1
6
0
71
30
6
17
4
16.86
0.58
25.87
15.70
0.29
1.74
0.00
20.64
8.72
1.74
4.94
1.16
39
1779
6
360
1.67
100.00
39
1640
6
344
1.74
100.00
2.19
100.00
2.38
100.00
Temporal details of HIV/AIDS in Himachal
Pradesh is given in Table 55.
Table 55: Temporal details of HIV/AIDS in Himachal Pradesh
Year
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
New Cases Detected
Target Ach.
% Ach.
3000
401
13.37
500
319
63.80
500
291
58.20
500
308
61.60
300
279
93.00
300
239
79.67
200
220
110.00
200
196
98.00
200
186
93.00
250
151
60.40
250
210
84.00
200
227
113.50
200
163
81.50
200
167
83.50
200
361
180.50
300
335
111.67
400
371
92.75
200
409
204.50
50
335
670.00
50
263
526.00
100
280
280.00
308
250
275
231
84.00
Cases Deleted
Target
Ach.
200
307
250
300
208
300
357
300
378
200
362
200
384
200
517
250
221
250
388
200
792
300
278
300
578
300
911
600
1104
1000
625
1000
857
500
279
340
368
400
258
289
285
300.00
272
% Ach.
-
153.50
125.00
69.33
119.00
126.00
181.00
192.00
258.50
88.40
155.20
396.00
92.67
192.67
303.67
184.00
62.50
85.70
55.80
108.24
64.50
90.67
148 | Page
Year
2006-07
2007-08
New Cases Detected
Target Ach.
% Ach.
198
246
-
Cases Deleted
Target
Ach.
217
236
% Ach.
-
Detail of cases of Leprosy in Himachal
Pradesh during 2007-08 is given in Table 56.
Table 56: Cases of Leprosy in Himachal Pradesh during 2007-08 (upto 31-03-2008)
MB
PB
TTL
10000
MB
PB
Cases
Under
Treatment
TOTAL
9
17
3
22
4
12
2
15
28
16
49
8
185
1
1
8
1
3
2
3
11
27
4
61
10
18
3
30
5
15
2
17
31
27
76
12
246
2.62
3.49
0.65
2
5.32
3.53
5.38
1.68
3.84
5.26
13.6
2.39
3.62
8
16
3
17
5
12
14
36
17
46
5
179
2
1
1
7
1
1
3
7
30
4
57
10
17
4
24
6
13
0
14
39
24
76
9
236
New Cases
Detected
District
1. Bilaspur
2. Chamba
3. Hamirpur
4. Kangra
5. Kinnaur
6. Kullu
7. Lahaul & Spiti
8. Mandi
9. Shimla
10. Sirmaur
11. Solan
12. Una
H.P.
Ancdr/
Cases
Detected
MB
PB
Cases
Under
Treatment
TOTAL
9
19
3
23
3
12
2
16
26
15
43
7
178
3
3
2
2
5
12
27
9
19
3
26
3
15
2
18
28
20
55
7
205
PR/10000 OPA IPA TOTAL
0.24
0.37
0.06
0.17
0.32
0.35
0.54
0.18
0.34
0.39
0.98
0.14
0.3
5
2
9
3
5
2
2
20
6
49
7
110
4
17
3
17
10
16
8
14
6
95
9
19
3
26
3
15
2
18
28
20
55
7
205
District wise prevalence rate of leprosy per
10000 population during 1998 – 2008 is given
in Table 57.
Table 57: District wise prevalence rate per 10000 population during 1998 – 2008 under NLEP
PR/10,000
PR/10,000
PR/10,000
PR/10,000
PR/10,000
0.14
0.59
0.5
0.25
0.6
0.65
0.32
0.16
0.41
0.79
0.56
0.52
0.47
PR/10,000
0.3
1.3
0.7
0.7
4.6
1.7
0.3
0.7
1.2
4.5
0.4
1.8
1.3
PR/10,000
1. Bilaspur
2. Chamba
3. Hamirpur
4. Kangra
5. Kinnaur
6. Kullu
7. Lahaul-Spiti
8. Mandi
9. Shimla
10. Sirmaur
11. Solan
12. Una
H.P.
PR/10,000
1998-99 1999-00 PR/10,000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
PR/10,000
District
0.23
0.41
0.26
0.23
0.6
0.72
0
0.27
0.51
1.7
0.47
0.2
0.55
0.29
0.48
0.22
0.21
0.48
0.76
0.3
0.24
0.54
0.74
0.6
0.13
0.39
0.17
0.48
0.14
0.23
0.63
0.92
0.00
0.29
0.58
0.75
0.54
0.24
0.41
0.28
0.39
0.16
0.13
0.86
0.51
0.00
0.31
0.54
1.07
0.96
0.34
0.43
0.08
0.48
0.18
0.17
1.00
0.27
0.00
0.12
0.67
0.41
1.33
0.12
0.37
0.24
0.48
0.13
0.23
0.55
0.27
0.28
0.13
0.39
0.32
0.94
0.10
0.31
0.21
0.35
0.09
0.13
0.43
0.31
0.00
0.15
0.41
0.32
1.00
0.08
0.28
0.24
0.37
0.06
0.17
0.32
0.35
0.54
0.18
0.34
0.39
0.98
0.14
0.30
149 | Page
Details of case of leprosy in HP during 2006-07
in given in Table 58.
Table 58: Cases of Leprosy in Himachal Pradesh during 2006-07
New Cases Detected
Target Mb
Pb
Total
%Age Ach
1. Bilaspur
10
7
2
9
90.00
2. Chamba
30
15
0
15
50.00
3. Hamirpur
10
3
2
5
50.00
4. Kangra
35
16
5
21
60.00
5. Kinnaur
15
3
0
3
20.00
6. Kullu
20
12
1
13
65.00
7. Lahaul-Spiti
5
0
0
0
0.00
8. Mandi
20
13
2
15
75.00
9. Shimla
45
32
7
39
86.00
10. Sirmaur
25
13
4
17
68.00
11. Solan
45
35
17
52
115.56
12. Una
15
4
5
9
60.00
IGMC
0
H.P.
275
153
45
198
72.00
District
3.11
Information
on
Human
Resource Management Issues
(which may have relevance to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational
training,
and
awareness levels, etc.
The Directorate is headed by the Director of
Health Services. There is also a Mission
Director specifically for the NRHM. DirectorHealth services is assisted by one Additional
Director, 4 Joint Directors, 6 Deputy
Directors/ Programme Officers, one Deputy
Director, CRS, Assistant Director Nursing,
Communication Officer and other supervisory
staff including one Administrative Officer, one
Deputy Controller (F &A), one Assistant
Controller (F&A), 6 Superintendents and one
Assistant Drug Controller. The Directorate is
divided into six main branches viz. Medical-1
(Establishment
of
Medical
Officers,
Pharmacists, Staff Nurses, Lab Technicians
etc.) Medical-2 (Establishment of Male and
Female Health Workers, Drivers, Class-IV staff
etc.) Medical -3 (Procurement, Cash, Audit and
Accounts), Medical-4 (Planning Budget,
expenditure and major civil works), Medical-5
(NRHM and other National Programmes),
Medical -6 General and Miscellaneous branch.
Target
10
35
10
40
15
25
3
25
50
30
45
12
300
Cases Deleted
Pb
Total
3
10
1
22
3
7
8
37
0
4
1
11
0
1
3
13
11
37
3
17
23
48
5
10
0
156 61
217
Mb
7
21
4
29
4
10
1
10
26
14
25
5
%Age Ach.
100.00
62.86
70.00
92.50
26.67
44.00
33.33
52.00
74.00
56.67
106.67
83.33
72.33
The legal cell assists in the defence of court
cases. A separate State Level Aids Control
Society under the State Programme Officer
implements the Aids Control Programme
exclusively. There are two Health and Family
Welfare Training institutes under Principals at
Parimahal (SHFWTC) Shimla and RHFWTC
Chheb, Kangra. There are also 6 GNM
Training Schools and MPW training Schools
under the Department. A Composite Testing
Lab at Kandaghat also functions under the
control of DHS.
At the District level the Health Department
functions through the office of Chief Medical
Officers who are assisted by Medical Officer
(Health) and other District Health Programme
Officers like DTO, DLO, DAPO, DSO, etc.
At the Block Level, Block Medical Officers
(BMO's) look after the Primary Health Care
establishments within the blocks. The Civil and
Regional Hospitals function under the control
of the Senior Medical Officers while the Zonal
and other Secondary Care Hospitals function
under the control of Medical Suprintendents.
Capacity building of Medical Officers for
proper utilization of the powers is being done
along with the RCH Refresher Courses held in
the two Training Centres of the State at Shimla
and Kangra.
150 | Page
3.12
Regulatory analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment
implications
(negative or positive), and
compliance with the same
Health sector and cross sector policy and
regulatory framework at state level shows the
intent of the state government to address
inadequate service delivery in order to reduce the
disease burden in the state. A list of policy and
programme is described below.
Policy Plan Programme
• National Rural Health Mission (200512)
• Atal Swasthya Sewa
• PARIKAS
• Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water
Mission
• Mahila Gram Panchayat Swasthya
Sahayika Scheme
• National Health Policy/programmes
interfacing with policies & programmes
of the environment related sectors.
• National
Rural
Health Mission
promotes village/district health plans to
achieve sanitation up to Indian Public
Health Standards.
• National Urban Sanitation Policy, State
level urban sanitation strategies and city
sanitation plans.
• State’s Health Vision 2008 promotes
initiation and strengthening existing
system for liquid, solid and excreta
disposal.
• Sewerage development plans/schemes
are being implemented under IPH &
Urban Development Department.
• Sanitation schemes, state sanitation
strategies city sanitation task force and
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
total sanitation campaign implemented
in the state.
Integrated low sanitation scheme and
total sanitation campaign
Biomedical Waste Rule, 1998
Municipal Solid Wastes (Management
and Handling) Rules 2000
Solar thermal programmes
Special nutrition programme for
adolescent girls
State Employment Insurance Scheme is
applicable for occupational disease as
defined in ESI Act 1948.
IEC component of major health/water
supply/sanitation plans / programmes
& scheme.
Guidelines on Mercury-Contaminated
Wastes, CPCB Hazardous Material
Rules
Hazardous
Waste
(Management,
Handling
and
Transboundary
Movement) Rules 2008
Reference
• Department of Health and Family
Welfare, HP
• Department of Dental Health
• Department of Ayurved, HP
• Medical Council of HP
• Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,
Government of India
• RHS Bulletin, Ministry of Health &
Family Welfare, Government of India
• NFHS-1998-99
• NRHM
• Solid Waste Management Report of
Shimla Town
• State Pollution Control Board
• Central Pollution Control Board
• Department of Planning
151| Page
CHAPTER 4 ROAD & TRANSPORT
4.1
Resource inventory of existing
assets of the sector
Roads are a very vital infrastructure for rapid
economic growth of the State/country. In fact,
the development of important sectors of
economy such as Agriculture, Horticulture,
Industry, Mining and Forestry depends upon
efficient road network. Sector such as
education, health, family planning and
promotion of tourism also depend upon
efficient road network. So the primary objective
is to provide connectivity by way of all weather
roads to all the habitations (villages) in the state.
There are four agencies managing roads. The
National Highways are looked after by the
Government of India, the State Highways by
the Himachal Pradesh Public Works
Department (HPPWD), the town roads by the
municipal bodies and the rural roads partly by
HPPWD and partly by the Rural Development
Department. There is no agency to coordinate
between these which often work in a
compartmentalized manner. Details of
development of road network in the State since
its formation is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Category of roads in Himachal
Pradesh
S.
No.
1
2.
3.
4.
Category of
Road
National
Highways
Border Roads
State highways
Rural Roads
Total
Single
Lane
486
Double
Lane
749
422
901
19291
21100
269
617
701
2336
Total
1235
691
1518
19992
23436
Source: Planning Department (2003): 1994-95
Himachal Pradesh is connected with a wide
network of roads connecting its cities,
important towns, villages, industrial centres,
places of tourist importance and other remote
areas. The primary road network consists of
1235.53 kms of eight National Highways,
namely NH1A, NH20, NH21, NH21A, NH22,
NH70,NH 72, and NH88; 691 kms of Border
Roads; 1518.50 kms of State Highways; 2318
kms of Major Roads and about 20541 kms of
Rural Roads. Barring a very few majority of
these roads are in poor condition and not
conforming to the standards required for safe
and efficient movement of traffic. As of 31st
March 2005, the length of the motorable roads
was only 24922. About 90 percent of these
motorable road lengths i.e. 22567 are made of
single lane roads and only 2355 are double lane
only roads. 14219 kms length is metalled
and/or tarred, and balance 10703 kms is
unmetalled.
On an average about 2500 kilometers of road is
added every five years. The growth rate of road
network was higher in the initial years of
development, which slowed down in the
subsequent years as after the basic connectivity
at the district and subdivision level was
provided. Moreover, demand for funds for
other sectors of the economy like health,
education and social services increased.
I Existing Status of Road network and
Pathways as on (31.03.2009)
1. National Highways: There are eleven
National Highways with a total length
of 1470.606 kms. The highest length was found
in NH-22 followed by NH-21 and NH-70,
which was more than 200 kms. Smallest
highway was NH-73A which was only 7.420
kms. Details of National Highway are given in
Table 2. Upto the end of December, 2009, 57
kms long portion had been provided with
metalling and tarring.
152 | Page
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Jalandhar
Hoshiarpur
Gagret
Mubarikpur Amb
Nadaun Hamirpur
Taunidevi
Awahdevi Tihra
Dharampur Kotli
Mandi road
Ambala
Naraingarh Kala
Amb Paonta
Dehradun
Rishikesh
Haridwar road
Shimla
Brahampukhar
Ghagus Hamirpur
Nadaun Ranital
Kangra (Mataur)
road
Laldhank Bata
Chowk road
Paonta Rajban
Shillai Menus
Hatkoti road, Km
Shahpur Jogindernagar 10.000
11
20
196.800
21-A Shimla
Jogindernaga
r
Solan
21
Shahpur
Pandoh
240.835
22
Shimla
294.916
70
Shahpur
Solan
=122.916
Rampur
=172.00
Hamirpur
72
Shimla
Solan
57.00
88
Shahpur
Shimla
Shahpur
Length in
division (in
kms)
Shahpur
Jogindernaga
r
91.000
Total
1470.606
NH No.
20A
48.875
206.560
Solan =
60.600
Hamirpur =
137.100
Name of
National
Highways
Sr. No.
Length in
division (in
kms)
Name of
Division
Name Of
Circle
NH No.
1-A
Name of
Division
2
Jalandhar
Panthankot
Jammu Srinagar
road
Pathankot Chakki
Mandi road
Pinjore Nalagarh
Swarghat road
Chandigarh Mandi
Manali road
Ambala Kalka
Shimla Wangtoo
Kaurik road
0/0 to108/0 &
149 to 160/500
(41.0Km in
Uttaranchal)
Nagrota Ranital
Dehra
Mubarikpur road,
Km. 0/0 to 91/0
Name Of
Circle
1
Name of
National
Highways
Sr. No.
Table 2: National Highways in Himachal
Pradesh
197.700
73-A Shimla
Solan
7.420
72-B Shimla
Solan
119.500
Road Transport: Road Transport is the
mainstay of economic activity in the Himachal
Pradesh as other means of transport namely
Railways, Airways, Auto Rickshaw etc. are
negligible. Therefore, such Himachal Road
Transport Corporation (HRTC) assumes
paramount importance. The passenger
transport services to the people of Himachal
Pradesh within and outside the State are being
provided by HRTC, with a fleet strength of
1,997 buses (as on September, 2009).
According to National Policy, all villages are
ultimately to be connected with all weather
motorable road in tribal area. District wise
requirement of motorable roads to connect all
villages (except isolated) have been worked out
and achievements by March, 2005 are given in
Table 3.
Table 3: Road Density in Himachal Pradesh
Sr.
No.
Name of
Distt./ Area
Area
in
Kms
Population
as per 2001
Census
Road density required to connect all
except isolated villages
Density
Required
Per 1000
length in
Per 100
Kms
Sq.Kms.
population
Position of motorable road on
3/2005
Density in Kms.
Length
Per 1000
Per 100
in Kms
Sq.Kms
population
1
Kinnaur
6401
78334
891
13.91
11.37
637
9.95
8.13
2
Lahaul & Spiti
13835
33224
1421
10.27
42.77
1053
7.61
31.69
3
Chamba
(Pangi
Bharmaour
area)
Total
3419
54844
964
28.19
17.58
325
9.50
5.93
23655
166402
3276
13.85
19.69
2015
8.52
12.11
153 | Page
Apart from National Highway and Border
Roads, work on 190 State Highways and Rural
Roads initiated in tribal area by the end of
March 2005 having total length of 2000 kms.
Out of this length, 1468 (including central
roads) has been made motorable upto March,
2005 having spill over of 583 kms. length.
On the formation of present HRTC on
02.10.1974, the total routes operated by HRTC
were 379 which have grown to 1733 routes in
2000-2001 and the fleet strength have grown
from 733 to 1728 in 2000-2001. As the road
length increased, basic infrastructure for
development also kept pace with it, this had
direct relation on the growth of the HRTC.
HRTC operates three types of buses, ordinary
buses, high-tech buses and deluxe buses. HRTC
regular Deluxe / Semi Deluxe / Ordinary Bus
services from Shimla to the other major cities in
the state apart from important stations of
North India such as Jaipur, Delhi, Chandigarh,
Jalandhar, Gurgaon, Amritsar, Dehradun,
Haridwar, Pathankot, and Ambala. Himachal
Pradesh Tourism Development Development
Corporation (HPTDC) has a large fleet of wellmaintained luxury coaches operating within and
outside the State. HPTDC also provides buses,
tata sumo, and jeeps on hire basis and organises
sightseeing tours, special tours and packages to
meet the exclusive travel requirements of the
tourists.
Sr.
No.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
2. State Highway:The total length of state
Highway in the State is 1625.70 kms. The
highest length of State highways is found in
SH-13 followed by SH-33, SH-32 and SH-16,
which was more than 100 kms. Smallest
highway (SH-1) is only 26 kms. Details of State
Highwayis given in Table 4.
Table 4: State Highways in Himachal
Pradesh
Sr.
No.
1
Name of Road
Lal Dhank Paonta
Rajban
Hatkoti
(except
NH
District
Shimla
Length
in Kms
26.00
SH.
No.
1
15
16
17
18
19
Name of Road
portion and RD
133/0 to 171/0 in
Uttarakhand)
KumarhattiSarahan-Nahan
(Dosarka)
Chhaila
Neripul
Yashwant Naggar
Oachghat
Kumarhatti
Sainj
Chaupa
Nerwa Shallu
Shalaghat
Arki
Kunjhar
Barotiwala
Theog
Kotkhai
Hatkoti Rohru
Sainj Ani Banjar
Aut
Samla
Tatapani
Mandi
Shimla
Kunihar
Ramshehar
Nalagarh Ghanoli
Dharamshala
Dadh
Palampur
Holta
Chadhiar
Sandhol (Except
NH portion)
Jogindarnagar
Sarkaghat
Ghumarwin
(except
NH
portion)
Jawalamukhi
Dehra Jawali Rajaka-Talab
Mehatpur
Una
Mubarikpur
Daulatpur
H.P.
Boundary (except
NH portion)
Pong
Dam
Fatehpur Jassur
Nurpur
Lahru
Tunuhatti
Una-Aghar Barsar
Jahu
Bhambla
Nerchowk
Pathankot
Banikhet Chamba
Tissa
Hamirpur
Sujanpur Thural
Maranda
Shahpur Sihunta
Chowari
Length
in Kms
SH.
No.
Sirmaur/
Solan
78.00
2
Shimla/
Sirmaur/
Solan
86.30
6
Shimla
90.00
8
Solan
80.40
9
Shimla
80.00
10
Kullu/
Mandi
Shimla/
Mandi
Shimla/
Solan
96.00
11
185.60
13
112.30
16
Kangra/
Mandi
90.00
17
Mandi/
Bilaspur
83.00
19
Kangra
79.60
22
Una
67.00
25
Kangra
53.00
27
Kangra/
Chamba
Una/
Hamirpur/
Mandi
Chamba
42.20
28
126.30
32
139.00
33
Hamirpur
/Kangra
59.00
39
Chamba
52.00
43
District
Total
1625.70
3. Roads: The density of road is about 44.76
kms per 100 sq. km. of the area which is less
154 | Page
against 76.80 kms per 100 sq. km for all India.
The total paved length constitutes about 57.05
%. Practically, the entire road network falls
under rural roads. Only 14473 kms length has
Cross-Drainage works. As on 31st March 2009,
the total road length in Himachal Pradesh was
32450 km. of this length 30302 km are
motorable and 345 km jeepable and 1803 km
are less than jeepable tracks. Between the years
1996 & 2009, the length of motorable roads has
been increased but jeepable and less than
jeepable (track) roads has decreased
significantly during the same period as given in
Table 5.
Sr.
No.
3
4
5
6
7
8
Table 5:
Year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Roads
including
Highway (Kms)
Motor able
Double
Single
Lane
Lane
2200
2250
2290
2309
2329
2332
2336
2336
2344
2355
2369
2374
2377
2377
17110
17510
17980
18491
19145
19874
20427
21100
21648
22567
23599
25210
26434
27925
Jeepable
910
921
961
1001
950
906
781
598
481
442
390
381
365
345
National
Less than
jeepable
(Track)
4445
4475
4542
4572
4310
4105
3959
3771
3611
3103
2653
2299
2195
1803
Total
24665
25156
25773
26373
26734
27217
27503
27805
28084
28467
29011
30264
31371
32450
Source: Public works Department & Deptt. Of Econocsmi&
statistics, Himachal Pradesh
4. Other metalled roads: Total length of
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
major district road was 1753.05 kms in of
Himachal Pradesh. Details of major district
road is given in Table 6.
19
Table 6:
21
Sr.
No.
1
2
There Major District
(MDR) in the State
Name of
Road
Nahan
Dadahul
Haripurdhar
Solan Meenus
(except State
Roads
22
Sirmaur
Length
Kms
87.00
MDR
No.
1
Sirmaur/Solan
98.00
2
District
20
23
24
25
26
Name of
Road
Highway-6
portion)
Banethi
Rajgarh
Chandol
Markanda
bridge Suketi
Park
Kala
Amb Trilokpur
Kolar Bilaspur
Parwanoo
Kasauli
Dharampur
Subathu Solan
Barotiwala
Baddi
Sai
Ramshar
Kufri
Chail
Kandaghat
Solan
Barog
Kumarhatti
Dharampur
Kasauli
Arki Dhundan
Bhararighat
Nalagarh
Dhabota
Bharatgarh
Shogi
Mehli
Junga
Sadhupul
Mashobra
Bhekhalti
Narkanda
Thanadbar
Kotgarh Bithal
Rampur
Mashnoo
Sarahan Jeori
Bakrot
Karsog(Sanarli)
Sainj
Salapper
Tattapani
Sunni Luhri
Mandi Kataula
Bajaura
Mandi Gagal
Chailchowk
Janjehli
Chailchowk
Gohar Pandoh
Mandi
Rewalsar
Kalkhar
Nore
Wazir
Bowli
Kullu Naggar
Manali
(left
Bank)
Jia Manikarn
Swarghat
Length
Kms
MDR
No.
Sirmaur
127.00
3
Sirmaur
21.50
4
Sirmaur
Solan
13.00
65.32
5
6
Solan
44.95
7
Solan/Shimla
57.00
8
Solan
13.00
9
Solan
10.50
10
Solan
18.70
11
Solan
9.40
12
Shimla
49.40
13
Shimla
18.00
14
Shimla
44.00
15
Shimla
62.00
19
Mandi
41.80
21
Mandi/Shimla
120.80
22
Mandi
51.00
23
Mandi
45.80
24
Mandi
29.60
25
Mandi
28.00
26
Kullu
37.00
28
Kullu
39.40
29
Kullu
Bilaspur/Una
33.50
55.70
30
31
District
155 | Page
Sr.
No.
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Name of
Road
Nainadevi
Bhakhra
Naina
Devi
Kaula
Da
Toba
Bamta
Kandrour
Nagaon Beri
District
Length
Kms
MDR
No.
Bilaspur
12.20
32
Bilaspur
6.70
33
Bilaspur
/Solan
Hamirpur
37.00
34
30.00
35
Hamirpur
21.00
36
Hamirpur
11.30
37
Hamirpur
/Mandi
Una
45.00
38
17.50
39
Una
15.00
40
Una
8.00
41
Sr.
No.
43
44
Name of
Road
Dadh Malan
Banikhet
Dalhouse
Khajiar
Chamba
Bharmour
45
Hamirpur
Bhoranj Jahu
Nadaun
Sujanpur
Barsar
Deothsidh
Sujanpur
Sandhol Marhi
Nangal
Santokhgarh
Tahliwal
Polian Jaijon
(HP Boundary)
Una
Hoshiarpur
Bankhandi
Hoshairpur
Tahliwal
Garhshankar
(H.P
Boundary)
Bharwain
Chintpurni
Kandrori
Damtal
Baijnath
Ladbharol
Kandapattan
Gaggal Chetru
Dharamshala
Mcleodganj
Rait
Charhi
Dharamshala
Kaloha
Pragpur
Dhaliara
Dadasiba
Sansarpur
Kandwal
Damtal
Una /Kangra
95.56
33.00
43
Kangra
24.00
44
Kangra
20.00
45
Kangra
60.92
46
Kangra
16.50
47
MDR
No.
48
49
Chamba
45.00
52
Total
1753.05
5. Village connectivity in State: According to
Census 2001, the State has a total number of
17495 inhabited and 2623 uninhabited villages
out of which only 6410 villages have been
connected by pucca roads which is only 36.6%
of the villages. It has been estimated that the
state requires a total of 39045 kms of road
length to provide connectivity to all the villages.
The road length is 25191 kms thereby requiring
construction of another about 13854 km of
roads in the state. Details of village connectivity
is given in Table 7.
Table 7: Village connectivity in the State
Total
village
(No.)
Villages
Inhabitated Uninhabited connected by
Village
village
pucca road
(%)
Villages
connected
by pucca
road No.
20118
17,495
6410
42
Kangra/Mandi
Kangra
Chamba
Length
Kms
4.00
29.00
District
2,623
36.6
6. Bridges: The State has 1604 bridges as on 31 st
March, 2009. Average construction of new
bridges has increased from 25, 29, 34 & 57
between the year 1970-71 & 1979-80, 1980-81 &
1989-90, 1990-91 & 1999-2000 and 2000-01 &
2008-09 respectively. Highest number of bridges
was found in Kangra district followed by Mandi,
Chamba, Kullu and Shimla and lowest in
Kinnaur, Lahaul & Spiti and Bilaspur district.
District wise details of bridges completed during
1966 – 2009 is given in Table 8.
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
8
-
3
2
4
10
2
66
1
-
-
47
1
8
1
3
1
2
-
9
1
6
2
1
4
-
5
-
Total
During
the Year
Complete
d upto
end of the
year
Chamba
Upto 3/66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
Bilaspur
1
2
3
4
Year
Sr. No.
Table 8: Detail of Bridges Completed in Himachal Pradesh (as on 31/03/2009)
168
1
8
10
168
169
177
187
156 | Page
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
2
3
1
1
1
3
5
1
1
3
4
3
4
1
3
4
1
3
5
2
2
2
2
7
4
1
3
10
7
7
4
4
2
6
7
3
6
8
6
3
15
6
7
8
6
9
2
4
4
1
1
6
8
4
10
10
14
10
6
6
10
10
9
11
11
13
21
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
2
1
6
3
3
8
2
1
3
1
3
6
4
3
6
4
1
2
3
2
1
3
5
3
3
5
1
1
1
4
1
2
1
1
3
-
1
1
1
4
2
2
1
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
3
5
2
3
1
3
1
3
2
2
1
3
6
2
4
5
8
9
4
5
4
2
3
4
2
3
5
7
14
13
6
6
6
7
2
1
5
3
2
2
2
2
1
8
2
3
4
7
7
4
3
1
3
4
3
10
4
3
7
5
5
7
3
7
1
2
6
2
1
2
3
2
8
5
6
2
6
1
1
1
4
1
4
10
5
2
1
6
3
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
4
2
3
3
2
3
3
1
7
5
2
1
1
5
4
1
2
7
3
2
1
6
3
1
1
1
7
3
2
3
1
1
1
4
4
5
5
1
3
1
5
1
1
3
2
2
4
2
2
3
5
7
3
24
21
14
26
18
35
23
24
19
26
40
30
25
29
34
32
31
35
30
25
24
30
35
30
30
25
38
30
28
42
55
53
58
40
64
55
51
211
232
246
272
290
325
348
372
391
417
457
487
512
541
575
607
638
673
703
728
752
782
817
847
877
902
940
970
998
1040
1095
1148
1206
1246
1310
1365
1416
42
2006-07
4
7
4
15
0
5
2
14
9
2
2
3
67
1483
43
2007-08
1
5
4
17
8
3
2
7
2
3
1
1
54
1537
44 2008-09
2
7
4
21
5
1
1
14
2
1
1
8
67
1604
128 383
46
141
60
177
95
100
1604
Total upto 3/2009 68
160
7.District Wise Road Network:Highest road
length (single and double lane) is found in
Kangra and Shimla districts which were 33% of
the total length of roads in the State. Lowest
length of double lane road was observed in
Hamirpur (52 kms) and Chamba (92 kms)
districts. The Hamirpur and Una have no
136 110
Total
During
the Year
Complete
d upto
end of the
year
Bilaspur
6
2
3
1
3
13
5
2
2
1
5
1
1
4
3
6
3
3
4
3
11
3
5
3
3
3
2
6
3
6
3
7
2
4
Year
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
3
1
3
2
1
4
2
1
1
Sr. No.
5 1969-70
6 1970-71
7 1971-72
8 1972-73
9 1973-74
10 1974-75
11 1975-76
12 1976-77
13 1977-78
14 1978-79
15 1979-80
16 1980-81
17 1981-82
18 1982-83
19 1983-84
20 1984-85
21 1985-86
22 1986-87
23 1987-88
24 1988-89
25 1989-90
26 1990-91
27 1991-92
28 1992-93
29 1993-94
30 1994-95
31 1995-96
32 1996-97
33 1997-98
34 1998-99
35 1999-2000
36 2000-01
37 2001-02
38 2002-03
39 2003-04
40 2004-05
41 2005-06
jeepable and less than jeepable track. The
lowest road network was observed in Kinnaur,
Una and Hamirpur as given in (Table 9).
157 | Page
Details of districtwise metalled, non-mettalled
road constructed during 1998 – 2009 is given in
Table 10.
Less than
jeepable Track
(km)
Jeepable (km)
Motorable single
lane (km)
Motorable double
lane (km)
District
Total (km)
Table 9: District wise types of road with
length
Airports: There are three Airports in Himachal
Pradesh. These airports are Gaggal near
Kangra, Jubbal near Shimla and Bhuntar near
Kullu. All these airports are accessible only by
regional level flights. They can handle only 15
seater aircrafts. All the 3 airports together can
handle 38 aircrafts.
Bilaspur
1486
125
1348
0
13
Chamba
3071
92
1993
280
706
Hamirpur
1714
52
1662
0
0
Kangra
5281
468
4800
3
10
Kinnaur
989
177
549
20
243
Kullu
1578
128
1384
6
60
Lahaul-Spiti
1191
260
909
2
20
Mandi
5145
191
4415
27
512
Shimla
4860
339
4481
3
37
Sirmaur
2861
216
2548
2
95
Solan
2616
173
2334
2
107
Una
1658
156
1502
0
0
Total State
32450 2377 27925 345
1803
(* Status as on 31 March 2009)
Source: Deptt. of Economics & Statistics, Himachal Pradesh
Railways: There are only two narrow gauge
railway lines connecting Shimla with Kalka (96
km) and Jogindernagar with Pathankot (113
km) and one 33 Km. broad gauge railway line
from Nangal Dam to Charuru (District Una).
Metalled
2924
3097
1808
1792
1328
20800
1151
1172
744
760
831
9742
1894
2048
1098
1077
515
11732
3045
3220
1842
1837
1346
21474
1324
1287
817
806
870
10664
1886
2036
1068
1074
495
11542
3210
3323
1885
1880
1365
22206
1442
1398
859
845
911
11441
1845
1989
1058
1073
467
11322
3287
3387
1917
1918
1378
22763
1832
1961
1054
1074
425
11082
3377
3482
1957
1977
1406
23436
1691
1624
980
995
1074
13453
2006-07
Total
1892
2032
1110
1069
557
11893
200506
Un metalled
1032
1065
698
723
771
8907
2005-06
Total
710
525
583
2029
256
496
634
2005-06
647
499
532
1905
249
505
646
Unmetalled
545
567
567
1940
302
417
280
200405
720
652
758
2305
337
466
322
200102
Metalled
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H.P.
200405
1309
1118
1210
4085
576
945
941
2001
-02
Total
673
514
568
1957
245
506
637
Unmetalled
636
604
642
2128
331
439
304
200001
Metalled
Unmetall
ed
1255
1092
1150
3969
558
913
914
200001
Total
Metalled
Unmetall
ed
District
200405
19992000
Metalled
199899
200304
199899
1999
2000
1998-99
200304
19992000
Total
Table 10: Metalled and un-metalled road during 1998 - 2009
200001
1367
1151
1290
4210
586
971
968
788
680
884
2440
366
478
350
635
492
496
1871
234
519
643
1423
1172
1380
4311
600
997
993
617
467
485
1789
235
503
640
1473
1211
1465
4430
614
1029
1015
926
783
1066
2931
400
582
401
2006-07
200102
200607
200708
2007-08
200809
200809
Metalled
Unmetalled
District
UnTotal
metalled
Metalled
Unmetalled
Total
Metalled
Unmetalled
Total
Metalled
Unmetalled
Total
Metalled
Unmetalled
Total
580
454
443
1586
1506
1237
1509
4517
974
816
1140
3093
578
474
405
1555
1552
1290
1545
4648
1008
890
1189
3349
621
416
390
1415
1629
1306
1579
4764
1039
948
1247
3611
710
421
373
1350
1749
1369
1620
4961
1074
993
1277
3856
914
423
388
1267
1988
1416
1665
5123
Kinnaur
227
627
412
225
637
413
231
644
424
251
675
432
271
703
Kullu
Lahaul
& Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H.P.
478
632
1060
1033
637
433
462
620
1099
1053
658
450
503
622
1161
1072
696
468
612
639
1308
1107
734
479
705
666
1439
1145
1818
1693
1024
1046
1133
14219
1843
2092
1047
1082
320
10703
3661
3785
2071
2128
1453
24922
1902
1756
1041
1098
1220
14974
1941
2254
1218
1121
259
10994
3843
4010
2259
2219
1479
25968
1978
1863
1071
1143
1265
15753
2131
2444
1465
1172
263
11831
4109
4307
2536
2315
1528
27584
2069
1942
1094
1205
1359
16514
2290
2668
1603
1197
251
12643
3468
3596
1996
2022
1421
23992
200203
200708
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
1777
1972
1016
1027
347
10539
200203
4359
4610
2697
2402
1610
29157
2003
-04
200809
Total
1098
1036
1352
987
437
362
2085
1473
1714
4080
1188
5268
439
765
287
747
726
1512
512
2166
2000
1123
1263
1456
17290
657
2440
2820
1641
1244
202
13012
1169
4606
4820
2764
2507
1658
30302
158 | Page
1237
1509
4517
816
1140
3093
474
405
1555
1290
1545
4648
890
1189
3349
416
390
1415
1306
1579
4764
948
1247
3611
421
373
1350
1369
1620
4961
993
1277
3856
423
388
1267
1416
1665
5123
Kinnaur
227
627
412
225
637
413
231
644
424
251
675
432
271
703
Kullu
Lahaul
& Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H.P.
478
632
1060
1033
637
433
462
620
1099
1053
658
450
503
622
1161
1072
696
468
612
639
1308
1107
734
479
705
666
1439
1145
1843
2092
1047
1082
320
10703
3661
3785
2071
2128
1453
24922
1902
1756
1041
1098
1220
14974
1941
2254
1218
1121
259
10994
3843
4010
2259
2219
1479
25968
1978
1863
1071
1143
1265
15753
2131
2444
1465
1172
263
11831
4109
4307
2536
2315
1528
27584
2069
1942
1094
1205
1359
16514
2290
2668
1603
1197
251
12643
1777
1972
1016
1027
347
10539
3468
1818
3596
1693
1996
1024
2022
1046
1421
1133
23992 14219
2008
-09
2008
-09
Total
454
443
1586
Total
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Total
District
2008
-09
Un-metalled
2007
-08
Metalled
2007
-08
Un-metalled
2007
-08
Metalled
2006
-07
Total
2006
-07
Un-metalled
2006
-07
Metalled
2005
-06
Total
2005
-06
Un-metalled
2005
-06
Metalled
2004
-05
Total
2004
-05
Un-metalled
2004
-05
Metalled
2003
-04
Unmetalled
2003
-04
1036
1352
437
362
1473
1714
4080
1188
5268
439
765
287
747
726
1512
512
4359
2166
4610
2000
2697
1123
2402
1263
1610
1456
29157 17290
657
2440
2820
1641
1244
202
13012
1169
4606
4820
2764
2507
1658
30302
District wise metalled & un-metalled road
density (as on 31-03-2009) is given in Table
11.
Table 11: Metalled and un-metalled Road density
Status as on 31.3.2009
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
Name of
District.
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Area of Distt. Metalled
(Sq. Kms.)
roads
(Kms.)
1167
6528
1118
5739
6401
5503
13835
3950
5131
2825
1936
1540
55673
Road
Road density
UnRoad
density per
per 100
Metalled density per
Total roads (Kms)
100
Sq.Kms of
roads 100 Sq.Kms
Sq.Kms.of
Area.
(Kms.)
of Area.
Area.
1036
1098
1352
4080
439
765
512
2166
2000
1123
1263
1456
17290
88.77
16.82
120.93
71.09
6.86
13.90
3.70
54.84
38.98
39.75
65.24
94.55
31.06
437
987
362
1188
287
747
657
2440
2820
1641
1244
202
13012
37.45
15.12
32.38
20.70
4.48
13.57
4.75
61.77
54.96
58.09
64.26
13.12
23.37
1473
2085
1714
5268
726
1512
1169
4606
4820
2764
2507
1658
30302
126.22
31.94
153.31
91.79
11.34
27.48
8.45
116.61
93.94
97.84
129.49
107.66
54.43
District wise village connectivity with
motorable roads as on 31-03-2009 is given in
Table 12.
Table 12: Village Connectivity with Motorable road (as on 31.3.2009)
Sr. No. Name of District Total nos of villages
1
2
3
4
5
6
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
962
1113
1634
3614
233
172
No. of villages
No. of Villages unconnected with road connected with road
651
311
488
625
1069
565
2194
1420
58
175
109
63
% of connected
villages
67.67
43.85
65.42
60.71
24.89
63.37
159 | Page
Sr. No. Name of District Total nos of villages
7
8
9
10
11
12
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
284
2823
2515
966
2378
755
17449
No. of villages
No. of Villages unconnected with road connected with road
118
166
11529
1294
926
1589
616
350
1049
1329
437
318
9244
8205
% of connected
villages
41.55
54.16
36.82
63.77
44.11
57.88
52.98
District & tehsil wise villages connected during
1981 – 2001 is given in Table 13.
Table 13: Villages connected by pucca road for year 1981, 1991 & 2001
District
Tehsil
Chamba
Chamba
1981
villages
villages
connect
connect
ed by
ed by
pucca
pucca
road
road
(%)
Nos.
50.73
557
14.07
161
143
Chamba
27.27
7390
Chamba
CD
block
Chamba
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
29.8
333
32.9
Pangi
-
-
Pangi
-
-
Pangi
Pangi
5.1
36.87
66
Tisa
-
-
Chaurah
Chaurah
11.9
23
Saluni
59.41
120
Saluni
9.13
21
Saluni
Saluni
25.8
32
Mehla
15.38
20
Bhalai
37.7
29
Dalhousie
44.6
54
Bhattiyat 3.8
26.38 53
86
Bhattiyat
4
Bhattiyat
72.29
167
Sihunta
38.75
31
Bharmaur
Nainadevi
Billaspur
sardar
Ghumarw
in
Hamirpur
28.85
30
19.32
182
36.36
44
24.46
68
12.89
70
Bharmaur
4.04
4
3
Sihunta
43.2
35
Holi
23.4
11
Bharmaur
25.9
14
53.2
513
Nainadevi
Billaspur
sardar
52
78
55.4
154
Ghumarwin
62.6
194
Jhanduta
38.3
87
44.8
733
11.29
183
26.65
431
Hamirpur
11.68
41
Hamirpur
24.85
85
Hamirpur
42.3
145
Barsar
12.61
43
Bijhri
26.71
90
Bijhri
46.3
157
Bhoranj
11.36
35
Bhoranj
25.65
79
Bhoranj
51.6
160
Nadaun
Sujanpur
Tira
12
51
35.25
153
218
13
913
12.24
31.57
24
1143
Nadaun
Sujanpur
Tira
48.8
6.63
24.33
Nadaun
Sujanpur
Tira
27
49.9
53
1809
Kangra
24.88
207
41.32
119
Kangra
54.7
170
Kangra
Kangra
Tehsil
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Chaurah
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
2001
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
59.09
Chamba
Bilaspur
C.D.
Block
1991
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Kangra
Nurpur
25.05
128
Nurpur
32.54
164
Nurpur
51.2
198
Indora
48.6
52
29.39
102
Indora
59.9
67
Fatehpur
Dehra
Gopipur
17.6
44
Indora
Nagrota
Surian
36.84
42
Fatehpur
31.7
72
28.89
221
Pragpur
42.54
114
Jawali
55.6
101
Kundian
7
17
Rait
40.74
110
Harchakiran
39.7
23.026
Shahpur
61.3
110
Lambagraon
3.52
10
Lambagraon
19.49
53
160 | Page
District
Tehsil
1981
villages
villages
connect
connect
ed by
ed by
pucca
pucca
road
road
(%)
Nos.
C.D.
Block
190
Bhawara
33.68
98
Fatehpur
17.6
44
Panchruki
36.15
94
Dehra
Nagrota
Bagwan
23.87
121
33.68
70
Hangrang
25.81
56
26
4
Pooh
58.33
7
16.67
2
Poo
Tehsil
CD
block
Dharamshal
a
Baroh
Dehra
Gopipur
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
72.5
111
26.9
43
50.9
206
44
Jaswan
51.2
Rakkar
90.1
91
Kundian
15.7
34
Thural
32.5
27
Dhira
38.9
44
Jaisinghpur
52.3
114
Palampur
55.3
218
Baijnath
65.3
130
Multhan
20
7
Hangrang
33.3
40
78
6
Poo
30
8
Morang
23.7
9
Kalpa
33.33
4
Kalpa
Kalpa
58
22
Nichar
40.91
9
Nichar
Nichar
29.5
26
Sangla
-
-
Sangla
25
7
28.99
54.12
49
46
34.88
60
47.7
Kullu
Kullu
48
Kullu
60
82
30
75.68
Naggar
73
27
Banjar
7.32
3
Naggar
Banjar
24
28
16.67
7
Banjar
28.6
12
Ani
-
-
Ani
5.88
1
Ani
35.3
6
Nirmand
-
-
Nirmand
Nirmand
26.9
7
13.39
32
-
&
19.49
53
30.3
97
Lahaul
25.2
32
Lahaul
26.7
51
Lahaul
30.2
58
Spiti
-
-
Spiti
2.47
2
Spiti
30.5
29
Udaipur
-
-
12.4
348
15.19
428
25.9
748
Mandi
16.94
83
Mandi sadar
26.25
84
Mandi
34.6
128
Jogindarnagar
17.34
69
chauntra
Drang
11.9
18.01
32
49
Padhar
Jogindarnagar
18.5
40.5
35
83
Bharol(La
d)
-
-
Gopalpur
20.2
61
Bharol
9
13
Sandhol
-
-
Rawalsar
15.7
27
Sandhol
1.6
1
Dharampur
5.81
15
Dharampur
37.1
33
10
Kotli
73
46
Sarkaghat
25.7
70
Baldwara
37
50
Sundarnagar
46.6
75
Mandi
Mandi
33.77
50
Morang
Kullu
Lahaul
Spiti
2001
24.97
Kinnaur
Kullu
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
Palampur
Baijnath
Kinnaur
1991
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Seraj
Sarkaghat
Sundarna
13.59
16.05
64
39
Sundarnagar
19.34
47
161 | Page
District
Tehsil
1981
villages
villages
connect
connect
ed by
ed by
pucca
pucca
road
road
(%)
Nos.
C.D.
Block
1991
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
2001
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
33.9
20
Bali chokri
9.3
9
Thunag
17.8
30
28.2
42
28
Tehsil
CD
block
Aut
Bali
chokri
4.49
4
Chachyot
25
49
Chachyot
17.33
39
Chachyot
Nihri
13.7
Karsog
7.71
40
Karsog
12.28
64
Karsog
18.4
85
15.6
347
14.11
326
18.9
477
Shimla
18.2
103
24.6
124
-
-
Rampur
24.37
29
Rampur
13.21
28
Rampur
25.5
39
Nankhari
Kumharsa
in
5
3
Narkhanda
44.81
69
Nankhari
8.1
7
35.9
56
Mashobra
14.99
113
Kumharsain
34.3
57
Seoni
19.8
40
Chauhara
1.27
1
Seoni
27.7
56
Junga
23.7
14
Theog
10.97
43
Theog
13.96
55
Theog
20.8
83
Chaupal
1.63
2
Chaupal
0.34
1
Shimla
shimla
(rural)
Shimla(urba
n)
Junga
Shimla
Cheta
Nerua
-
-
Jubbal
22.47
20
Kotkhai
20.93
36
8.88
15
Jubbal
Kotkhai
14.4
37
Tikar
Rohru
Rohru
13.25
22
Chirgaon
Dodra
Kawar
Sirmaur
Rajgarh
Sirmaur
16.44
159
13.57
19
Sangrah
207
7.44
9
Pachhad
12.26
32
Renuka
2.41
4
Nahan
Paonta
Sahib
22.82
34
Nahan
22.97
48
37.63
70
Paonta Sahib
45.95
85
Shaillai
Pachhad
21.45
Shillai
16
64
2
1
21.51
505
25.91
14.26
26.67
121
67
144
21.29
19.24
56
117
Ronhat
Solan
Solan
Solan
Kunihar
Arki
Kandagha
t
Nalagarh
27.19
73590
31.35
13057
15.62
8970
Solan
Kunihar
Dharampur
36.45
33.2
9242
23303
Kandaghat
Nalagarh
Chaupal
10.7
13
Cheta
2.4
1
Neerua
7.9
15
Jubbal
13
17
Kotkhai
14.5
25
6
Tikar
14.6
Rohru
12
15
Chirgaon
Dodra
Kawar
4.3
5
-
-
32.8
317
Rajgarh
35
49
Nohra
21.3
10
Pachhad
24
63
Renuka
21.6
16
Dadahu
9.6
7
Nahan
Paonta
Sahib
47.8
65
61.9
86
Kamrau
33.3
15
Shillai
14.3
4
Ronhat
9.1
32.8
2
783
40.2
28.9
27.5
192
138
74
30.3
34.6
165
214
Arki
Solan
Kunihar
Kandaghat
Dharampu
r
Nalagarh
162 | Page
Tehsil
Ramshahr
Kasauli
Tehsil
CD
block
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
Villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
59.3
450
83.03
287271
Una
51.35
38
Una
97.91
115328
Una
89.2
124
Amb
43.43
76
Amb
70.96
66145
Amb
50.2
122
Bangana
29.63
80
Gagret
5926.01
76217
Bangana
49.7
1
53.2
29581
Bharwain
60
27
Haroli
81.82
27
Haroli
100
25
• For the year 1981, % of maximum number of
village are connected by pucca road in
Chamba (50.73%), followed by Una
(40.04%).
• In the year 1991, Una has the maximum
number of village connected by pucca road
with 83.03 % followed by Bilaspur of 31.89
%.
• In the year 2001, percentage of village
connected by pucca road was maximum in
Una with 59.3% followed by Bilaspur of
53.2 %.
District wise Transport
Himachal Pradesh
facilities
in
Bilaspur: The district is connected by all
weather roads as well fair weather roads with all
important cities and towns of the State and the
country. National Highway No.21 passes
through the district. There is no rail link in the
district. The nearest railway station is at Kirtpur
Sahib in Ropar district of Punjab which is about
84 kms. from Bilaspur. The district is has
transport depot at Bilaspur and buses ply on 90
routes in the state and inter-state routes. Out of
these routes, 18 are inter-state routes while
remaining operates with in the state. This depot
has fleet of 84 buses which covers distance of
38.37 Lakhs kms. during 1999-2000. During the
decade, there has been sharp increase
registration of vehicles in this district. The
various type of vehicles registered during 1991
were 579 & 1244 vehicles during 1999-2000.
Year wise number of vehicles registered in
Bilaspur district is given in Table 14.
Table 14: Motor Vehicles Registered
Registered during the year
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
Category of
vehicles
Buses
Trucks
Motor Cycles
Scooters
Jeeps
Private Cars
Pickup Vans
Tractors
Petrol Tankers
Delivery Vans
Deptt. Cars
Others
1999-2000
Village data given in Table 13, indicate that in
last 3 decades.
1998
Dhundal
1997
Una
C.D.
Block
2001
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
Nos.
1996
Una
1991
villages
connect
ed by
pucca
road
(%)
1991
District
1981
villages
villages
connect
connect
ed by
ed by
pucca
pucca
road
road
(%)
Nos.
8.31
1909
32.24
17109
40.04
221
14
76
32
371
8
29
4
34
11
579
19
193
12
373
11
70
56
5
6
30
775
21
325
17
479
5
132
63
3
65
1,110
24
121
10
649
57
64
2
68
995
9
161
54
590
105
186
66
4
45
24
1,244
Source: District Statistical Abstract-2000.
Chamba: In the absence of railways and
navigable rivers, the district is entirely
dependent upon the road transport system. At
the end of year 1997-98, HRTC had a fleet of
79 buses plying on 98 routes. In addition, the
buses of Punjab Roadways, Jammu & Kashmir
Road Transport Corporation and private buses
are also plying in the district. The goods are
mainly being transported & operated by the
private truck operators. The total road length in
the district was 1,255 kms. including state
163 | Page
Sr.
No.
5
6
7
8
highways during 1998 out of this about 83 kms.
length of roads, is double lane and length of
1,172 kms. is single lane. The length of jeepable
roads is 410 kms, while less than jeepable roads
in the district is 1,008 kms. Where other means
of transport are not possible, the sheep, goats,
mules and ponies are used to carry essential
commodities. The main HRTC routes falling in
the districts are given in Table 15.
Total mileage in
kms.
844
1,340
668
464
Name of Routes
Chamba-Shimla
Chamba-Haridwar
Chamba-Mandi
Chamba-Amritsar
Chamba-Katra
Chamba-Panchrukhi
Chamba-Delhi
Holi-Palampur
Total mileage in
kms.
590
500
1,280
564
In the districts Chamba, there is gradual
increase in the length of single and double lane
motorable roads in the district. The length of
12 kms. has been added in the category of
double lane motorable roads during 1990-1998
while length of single lane motorable increased
from 889 kms. to 1,172 kms. between 1990 and
1998.Length of roads in Chamba during 1990
to 1998 is given in Table 16.
Table 15: Routes & Total mileage of
HRTC buses in Chamba
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
Name of Routes
Table 16: Roads including National Highways (in kms.) in Chamba
Type of Roads
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Motorable Double lane
71
71
71
73
76
76
79
N.A.
83
Motorable Single lane
889
912
946
953
982
1039
1077
N.A.
1,172
Jeepable
325
330
390
402
414
370
380
N.A.
410
Less than Jeepable
917
936
920
939
939
955
975
N.A.
1,008
2,227
2,367
2,411
2,440
2,511
N.A.
2,673
Total
2,202
2,249
Source: District Statistical Abstract, 2000
Hamirpur: The district is neither linked with
air nor with railway line. Therefore, the entire
goods transportation is done by road in the
district. The district has a good number of
roads and it is connected by roads to the
outside areas. The goods are transported by
private truck operators while in case of
passenger transport, the buses of various
regions are mainly plied by HRTC. HRTC
Hamirpur is plying a fleet of 95 buses. Punjab
Roadways are also plying buses on various
routes in the district. The district headquarters
Hamirpur is linked with the state capital by a
bus route. The main bus routes linking up the
district with other states are HamirpurHaridwar,
Awahadevi-Delhi,
HamirpurAmritsar, Sujanpur Tira-Delhi, HamirpurChandigarh and Hamirpur-Manali-Ladakh.
By the end of March 1999, the total length of
roads was 1,184 kms. out of which 1,183 kms
was motorable road. The length of double lane
road was 71 kms, 1,112 kms. of single lane road
and one kilometre jeepable road. All the tehsils
and C.D. blocks headquarters are well
connected by roads. The State Highways Nos.
32 & 39 and National Highway nos. 70 & 88
pass through the district. During the period
1.1.1999 to 31.12.1999, 1,741 vehicles were
registered in the district. Number and type of
motor vehicles registered during, 1999 in
Hamirpur is given in Table 17.
Table 17: Registered Vehicles in Hamirpur
during Year 1999
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
Type of Vehicles
Total Number
Bus
Truck
Private car
63
199
190
164 | Page
4
5
6
7
8
9
Scooter/Motor Cycle
914
Jeep
67
Tractor
121
Pickup Van
18
Petrol Tanker
3
Others
166
Total
1,741
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Hamirpur - 2001
Kangra: Kangra is the only district which has
the largest network of railway. District is
connected by 163 kms. long narrow gauge line
between Pathankot and Jogindarnagar. Apart
from carrying passengers the railways facilitate
the movement of essential commodities and
construction material.
Table 18: Metalled and un-metalled roads
in kms. During 1955 - 1999
Sr.
Year Metalled Unmetalled Total
No.
1
1995 3,665
224
3,889
2
1996 3,746
242
3,988
3
1997 3,808
249
4,057
4
1998 3,877
257
4,134
5
1999 3,969
257
4,226
Source - District Statistical Abstract, Kangra, 2000
In addition to these motorable roads, the
district has 37 kms. jeepable and 220 kms. nonjeepable roads. In 1999, vehicles were registered
in the district. Number and type of motor
vehicles registered in 1999 is given in Table 19.
With the construction of airport at Gagal,
district has also been linked with air service.
The district has been extensively linked with
roads where regular buses ply. There is a vast
network of roads and all the important places
like district/tehsil/sub-tehsil headquarters have
been linked with motorable roads on which
regular government and private buses ply. Most
of the villages have also been connected by vast
network of motorable roads. Out of total road
length of 4,226 kms, the motorable road length
was 3,969 kms by the end of March, 1999 in the
district. State Highway No.5, 21, 23, 27 and
National Highway No. 1-A happen to pass
through district.
Table 19: Registered vehicles in 1999
There are 4 depots of HRTC in the district,
namely Baijnath depot having a fleet of 74
buses, Dharmsala depot 94 buses, Dehra
Gopipur depot 62 buses and Palampur depot
have 66 buses during the period 1996-97. The
Transport Departments of the neighbouring
states such as Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab,
Haryana, etc. are also plying their buses on
reciprocal basis. Length of metalled and unmetalled roads during 1995 to1999 is given in
Table 18.
Kinnaur: The district is neither linked with air
nor with railway. Therefore, the entire goods
transportation is done by road in the district.
The goods are transported by private truck
operators. Before the formation of state, there
were no motorable or even jeepable roads in
the district. Now all the tehsil headquarters are
connected with the district headquarters by
motorable roads. In order to provide maximum
transport facilities to the people, the
Government is constructing additional link
road with view to connect each panchayat with
their respective tehsil/ block headquarters. A
number of kutcha roads linking the villages are
maintained by the H.P. PWD. The district has
about 997 kms. road length (as of March, 1999)
Sr. No.
1
2
Type of Vehicle
Total Number
Bus
118
Truck
237
Motor Cycles &
3
2,981
Scooter
4
Private Car
883
5
Jeep
154
6
Pick up Van
59
7
Tractor
403
8
Petrol Tanker
4
9
Tempo
8
10
Govt. Vehicles
21
11
Ambulance
1
12
Mini Truck
106
13
Other
16
Total
4,985
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Kangra, 2000
165 | Page
only 558 kms. of motorable roads, 80 kms.
jeepable roads and 359 kms. of less than
jeepable roads. Reckong Peo bus depot of
HRTC is operating a fleet of 46 buses daily on
different routes. Some buses are also plying on
inter-district and inter-state routes. Length and
growth of metalled and unmetalled roads
during 1994-95 to 1998-99 in the district is
given in Table 20.
Table 20: Metalled and unmetalled roads
the Manali–Amritsar, Manali-Delhi, KulluNirmand, Manali-Jawalaji, Manali-Dehradun,
Manali-Chamba,
Kullu-shimla,
KulluTrilokinath, Manali-Jammu, Kullu-Leh, KulluKeylong routes etc.
The district is not connected with railway line.
However, Kullu has network of roads where
regular buses ply. Length and growth of
metalled and un-metalled roads from 1995 to
1999, is given in Table 22.
(in kms.)
Year
Metalled
Unmetalled
Jeepable
Total
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
485
490
500
525
558
346
346
348
356
359
65
76
70
75
80
896
903
918
956
997
In 1999, 266 vehicles were registered in the
district. Number and type of motor vehicles
registered in 1999 is given in Table 21.
Table 21: Registered vehicles in 1999
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Type of Vehicles
Total number
Bus
Truck
Motorcycle
Scooter
Jeep
Private car
Pick up Van
Tractor
Govt. Vehicle
Mini Truck
Private Bus
Total
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Kinnaur-2000
9
31
29
23
59
82
1
3
5
32
1
266
Kullu: The district headquarters is situated on
National Highway No. 21. It is also served
better by State Highway No. 11 & 14 and other
metalled & unmetalled roads. Total road length
in the district was 1,235 kms. in 1999.
Motorable road length was 913 kms. Kullu is
well connected with the different places of the
state and other places outside the state. HRTC
Kullu started its operation during the year
1976-77. In 1997, the depot has a fleet of 90
buses to provide services long route services on
Table 22: Metalled and un-metalled roads
(in kms.) in Kullu
Year
Metalled
Un-metalled
1995-96
377
475
1996-97
392
481
1997-98
402
493
1998-99
417
496
Source: Statistical Abstract Kullu-2000.
Total
852
873
895
913
In addition to these motorable roads, Kullu has
29 kms. Jeepable and 291 kms. less than
Jeepable roads. In 1999, 1,207 vehicles were
registered in the district. Sub-division wise
number and type of motor vehicles registered
in 1999, is given in Table 23.
Table 23: Motor Vehicles registered in 1999
Sr.
No.
1
2
Category
of
Vehicles
Sub-division wise number of vehicles
registered
Kullu Manali Banjar Ani Total
Buses
12
Trucks
27
10
1
Motor
3
55
41
2
Cycle
4
Scooter
141
118
5
5
Jeeps
28
25
12
6
Pvt. Cars
93
233
30
7
Tractors
32
22
3
Petrol
8
4
Tankers
Total
562
521
63
Source: Statistical Abstract, Kullu-2000.
7
12
45
3
101
6
2
34
5
270
67
390
62
-
4
61
1,207
Lahaul & Spiti: The Government is trying to
link every village of the district by roads and
provide regular bus service to the people.
HRTC has strengthened its activities
considerably in the district during the last
twenty years. Two regional offices at Keylong
and Kaza are functioning in the district, which
166 | Page
provide bus facilities to other parts of the state
and local areas of the district with respective
sub-divisional headquarters. The HRTC
operates a fleet of 15 buses on 14 routes. The
places which have a regular bus services are
Delhi-Keylong, Keylong-Shimla, KeylongDharamshala, Keylong-Chintpurni, KazaShimla and Kaza-Kullu, etc. These buses cover
a distance of 5,740 kms. on annual basis as
given in Table 24. The transport facility for
connecting the district with other places is
available for five months in Keylong region and
for nine months in Spiti region of the district.
Within these two regions, local buses used to
ply in the fair weather during the winter season.
Details of transport facilities in Lahaul & Spiti
during 1999 – 2000, is given in Table 24.
Table 24: Transportation
facilities
Lahaul & Spiti District
Year
No. of
buses
No. of
routes
in
Distance covered
during the year
1999-2000
15
14
5,740 kms.
Source: R.T.O. Keylong, Udaipur and Kaza, Superintendent of
Police Keylong (Ps. 50-51 of District Statistical Abstract, Lahaul
& Spiti District 2000)
Mandi: The district has been connected with
National Highway-21 and narrow gauge
Pathankot-Jogindarnagar railway line. It is well
connected with all weather roads with many
prominent places and cities. Most of the
villages and all the towns are linked with the
district and tehsil headquarters by a network of
motorable roads. Even the remote villages,
where it is not possible to construct motorable
roads, footpaths and bridle roads have been
constructed. The total length of metalled and
unmetalled roads in the district during the year
1997-98 was 977 and 1865 kms. respectively as
compared to 698 and 1609 kms. in 1990-91.
A fleet of 219 ordinary buses of H.R.T.C. from
Mandi, Sundarnaggar and Sarkaghat depots are
plying on the road every day. Moreover,
numerous private buses are also operating
within the district. 2,795 vehicles were
registered and operating in the district in 1999.
H.R.T.C. buses of Mandi depot covered 62.46
Lakhs kilometers distance during 1998-99 while
the distance covered by the buses of
Sundarnaggar and Sarkaghat Depots during the
same period was 47.90 and 44.83 Lakhs kms
respectively. Details of road & transport status
in Mandi in during 1998 – 99 are given in Table
25.
Table 25: Roads and transport status in Mandi district during 1998-99
Roads (in kms.)
Year
Metalled
Unmetalled
Registered
Vehicles
1
2
3
4
1998-99
977
1,865
2,795
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Mandi-2000 Page 90-95
Shimla: Shimla district has mountainous
terrain throughout and rail transportation is
difficult, roads are the only means of
transportation. By the end of the year 1998-99,
the total roads length in the district was 3641
kms., of which 311 kms. were double lanes,
2,786 kms. single lane, 69 kms. jeepable and
475 kms. less than jeepable. In order to
promote transportation facility, the state
government has allotted route permits for
plying mini buses. There are five depots of
Nationalised Transport
Bus
Trucks
Other
5
207
6
1
7
4
Distance
No. of
Covered
Depot
(M000 Kms.)
8
9
149.04
3
HRTC operating in Shimla during the year
1998-99. These were namely Dhalli Depot,
Tara Devi Depot, Rohru Depot, Shimla Depot
and Rampur Depot. HRTC is also operating
local bus services in Shimla town and its
periphery areas. There are number of taxis at
various places which provide transportation
facility to the needy persons. The State Tourism
Corporation has a fleet of deluxe buses for
sight seeing purposes. The buses from Punjab,
Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar
167 | Page
Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu & Kashmir
are also plying in the district. Besides, there
were 4.4 kms. of pucca metalled roads 383.3
kms. of Kutcha un-metalled road and 1450.6
kms. bridle path developed by the Forest
Department during 1999-2000 in the district.
Road length during 1998 – 99 is given in Table
26
Table 26: Road length in Shimla during 1998-99
Year
Motorable
double lane
Motorable
single lane
1
2
3
1998-99
311
2,786
Source: Statistical Abstract Shimla , 2000.
Total road length in the district in kms.
Total
Jeepable
Less than
road
road
jeepable road
length
4
5
6
69
475
3,641
Sirmaur: The district is not connected with any
railway line and the nearest railway station are
Dehradun and Ambala from Nahan and Poanta
Sahib. The district is extensively linked with the
roads where the regular buses ply. The goods
are transported by private operators while the
passenger transport is controlled by the HRTC.
Buses of the other State Transport
Corporations and to some extent, the private
owners also ply on various routes in the district.
The State Transport Corporation operates its
buses to link the district with Delhi, other states
and district headquarters as well as the interior
parts of the district and tehsil/sub-tehsil
headquarters. As many as 1,682 vehicles of
various kinds in the district were registered
during, 2000. A fleet of 80 H.R.T.C. buses were
plying on the road covering a distance of 6,432
thousand kilometres during the year 1999-2000
as given in Table 27.
Table 27: Registration of vehicles, no. of
buses and distance covered
during the year 1999-2000
Year
19992000
No. of
registered
vehicles
No. of buses
plied on the
road
1,682
80
Distance
covered by
the buses
during the
year (in M000
kms.)
6,432.391
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Sirmaur-2001
Page 62-63
Motorable road per
100 sq. kms. of area
7
60.36
Solan: There is a network of 2264 Kms. length
of roads in Solan. Beside roads in the district.
Total length of a railway line upto 72 Kms also
exists. National Highway No. 22 and railway
line passes through the district. All the block
headquarters in the district are well connected
with the major commercial centres, district
headquarters and Shimla. There are three
transport depots viz. Solan, Parwanoo and
Nalagarh which are functioning in the district.
In Solan district during 1995-96 these depots
were having a fleet strength of 138 buses and 3
other vehicles and operational mileage covered
by the fleet was about 110 thousand Kms.
During 1999-2000 Solan district depots were
having 142 vehicles and the mileage covered
was 1,21,000 kms as given in Table Table 28.
In the district, out of a total road length of 2264
Kms, 171 Kms. is double motorable road.
About 1621 Kms. is single motorable road, 50
Kms. is jeepable road and 422 Kms. is non
jeepable road as given in Table 28. All the tehsil
headquarters are now connected with the
district headquarters by motorable roads. Most
of the villages are also connected with the
tehsil/sub-tehsil headquarters by a vast net
work of motorable roads.
Table 28: No. of vehicles, motorable roads
and distance covered in Kms. in
Solan district
Particulars
1 Motor
Vehicles
199596
199697
199798
199899
19992000
138
141
140
140
138
168 | Page
(A)Buses
(B) Truck
3
3
4
4
4
(C)Other
Vehicles
Total
141
144
144
144
142
2
155
159
162
163
167
Operational
Motorable
road
110.5 118.63 125.36 124.49 121.82
3 Distance
covered in
Kms.(‘000)
Souirce: District Statistical Abstract Solan-2000 (Page-93)
Table 29: Roads and distance in Kms.
(including National Highway) in
Solan district
Item
199495
199596
199697
199798
1 Double lane
motorable
153
161
165
169
roads
2 Single lane
motorable
1,502 1,525 1,560 1,506
roads
3 Jeepable
47
47
47
50
roads
4 Other non
415
417
418
422
Jeepable roads
Total
2,117 2,150 2,190 2,227
Source: District Statistical Abstract Solan (Page-94)
199899
171
1,621
50
2,264
Una: The district is connected by the roads
from Chandigarh, Delhi, Punjab and Himachal
Pradesh. The district headquarters is also
connected by broad guage railway line. The
goods are transported by private truck
operators while in case of passenger transport
the buses of various regions are mainly plied by
H.R.T.C. A fleet of 94 buses of HRTC is plying
on different routes. Punjab Roadways is also
plying buses on various routes in the district.
The total length of metalled and unmetalled
roads is 1,515 kms. including National and State
Highways during 1999-2000. Out of this, 90
kms of road length is double lane while
remaining length of road is single lane.
All the tehsils and block headquarters are well
connected by roads and State Highway 32
passes through the district. During 2000-2001,
2,836 vehicles were registered in the district,
detail as given in Table 30.
Table 30: No. of registered vehicles in Una
during 2000-2001
Sr.
Name of
Total Number
No.
Vehicle
1
HRTC Bus
21
2
Truck
46
3
Motor cycle/
1,883
Scooter
4
Moped
40
5
Jeep/Tata
87
Sumo
6
Private
507
Car/Van
7
Pick-up Van
30
8
Tractor
148
9
Petrol Tanker
2
10
Department’s
2
Car
11
Crain
1
12
Ambulance
2
13
Mini Truck
38
14
Three-wheeler
4
15
Private Bus
21
16
Mini Bus
4
Total
2,836
Source: District Statistical Abstract, Una-2001
4.2
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
and
Hilly regions, generally, have extremes of
climatic conditions, difficult and hazardous
terrain, topography and high altitude areas. The
region is sparsely populated and basic
infrastructural facilities available in more
developed plains of hinterland are mostly
absent. The areas and, therefore, the roads are
affected by floods consequent to torrential
rainfall, land-slide, snow-fall, avalanche, etc.
compelling certain roads to be kept closed in
part of the year, especially in winter months. A
recommendation about the alignment survey
and geometric design of Hill Roads was first
published in 1973 and revised in 1982.
Planning of Roads in Hill Areas: Planning of
road in hill areas is much different from the
plains. Significantly, large number of villages are
sparsely populated and located in isolation at
169 | Page
different altitude unlike in plain areas. It is
usually not possible topographically as well as
economically to directly link them with
motorable roads. Alignment of roads has, thus,
to be circuitous and is primarily governed by
topography. In hilly areas, road links should be
provided on the basis of cluster or group of
villages as far as feasible because the
populations of each village may be very low.
Villages located within a radius 1.6 km and
having altitude difference of not more than 200
m can be considered as one cluster or groups of
villages. Isolated villages, having population of
more than 500 should be provided with an allweather link road. For a cluster of villages of
population less than 500, a selective approach
of an all-weather road may be worked out
keeping in view the local conditions. For new
roads, connecting new areas an estimation of
traffic likely to generate can be done by studies
on population and consumer needs,
development plans for the area and traffic on
adjacent roads.
reaches with winding alignment where straight
sections are few and far between. In such cases,
discretion may be exercised and instead of
normal camber, the carriageway may be given a
uni-directional cross fall towards the hill side
having regard to factors, such as, the direction
of super elevation at the flanking horizontal
curves, ease of drainage, problem of erosion of
the down-hill face, etc.
Basic Principles of Geometric Design: A
uniform application of design standards is most
desirable for the road safety and smooth flow
of traffic. The use of optimum design standards
will reduce the possibility of early obsolescence
of the facilities brought about the inadequacy of
the original standards.
As a general rule, geometric features of highway
except cross-sectional elements do not lend
themselves suitable for stage construction.
Particularly in the case of hill roads,
improvement of features, like, grade and
curvature at a later date can be very expensive
and may sometimes be impossible. It is,
therefore, necessary that ultimate geometric
requirements of hill roads should be kept in
view right in the beginning.
The cross falls for earth shoulders should be at
least 0.5 % more than the pavement camber
subject to a minimum of 3 %. On superelevated sections, the shoulders should
normally have the same cross fall as the
pavement. In order to minimize the damage to
edges of pavement due to over flooding of
drains and from surface water as well as wheels
of vehicles coming on the road edge, it is
recommended that hard shoulders may be
provided between edge of the pavement and
drain with stone edging upto the depth of road
crust parallel to the road edge. Top of these
edge stones may be kept about 2 cm below the
roadway level at the edge. In case the roads are
in grade, the stone edging shall also be in the
same grade and run parallel to the road edge.
Source: Hill roads IRC:52-2001
Camber/Cross Fall: Generally, the pavement
on straight reaches should be provided with a
crown in the middle and surface on either side
sloping towards the edge. However, this may
not be possible in every situation, particularly in
Capacity Values: The computation of capacity
of study sections is based on the capacity values
as given in Table 31. These values correspond
to the World Bank appraisal guidelines for
similar road projects in India.
For a given surface type, the steeper values of
camber should be adopted in areas having high
intensity of rainfall and the lower values where
the intensity of rainfall is low. The camber of
cross fall on straight sections of roads should
be as given below.
a) Earth roads -3 to 4 % (1 in 33 to 1 in 25)
b) Gravel or WBM Surface - 2.5 to 3 % ( 1 in
40 to 1 in 33)
c) Bituminous surfacing -2.0 to 2.5 % (1 in 50
to 1 in 40)
d) Concrete pavement - 2.0 %
170 | Page
Table 31: Capacity Values
Carriageway
Single Lane
Intermediate Lane
Double Lane
Capacity (PCUs/Day)
4,000
12,000
20,000
The above capacity values are for bituminous
surface roads in plain terrain with low curvature and
having standard pavement width of 3.75 m for
single lane, 5.5 m for intermediate lane and 7.0 m
for double lane, and good quality shoulders. For
other conditions of terrain and curvature,
substandard pavement widths, unsuitable shoulders,
the above capacity values will have to be suitably
modified.
Recommended design service volumes for roads is
given in Table 32.
Table 32: Recommended design service volumes for Roads
Carriageway
Single Lane
Intermediate Lane
Paved width
(m)
3.75
5.50
Double Lane
7.00
Curvature
(Degrees per km)
Low (0-100)
High (>101)
Low (0-200)
High (>201)
Low (0-100)
High (>101)
Low (0-200)
High (>201)
Low (0-100)
High (>101)
Low (0-200)
High (>201)
Terrain
Rolling
Hilly
Rolling
Hilly
Rolling
Hilly
Capacity
(PCUs/Day)
1800
1700
1600
1400
5700
5600
5200
4500
11000
10000
7000
5000
Capacity Considerations in Hill Roads: IRC: 641990 ‘Guidelines for Capacity of Roads in Rural
Area’ contains recommended design service
volumes for hill roads as given in Table 33. The
capacity of two-lane roads can be increased by
providing paved and surfaced shoulders at least
1.5 m width on either side. Provision of hard
paved shoulders results in slow moving traffic
being able to travel on the shoulder which
reduces the interference to fast traffic being
able to travel on the shoulder which reduces the
interference to fast traffic on the main
carriageway.
Table 33: Recommended Design Service Volumes for Hill Roads
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
Types of Road
Single-lane
Intermediate-lane
Two-lane
Design Service Volume in PCU/day
For low curvature (0For high curvature (above
Carriageway width
200 degrees per km)
200 degrees per km)
3.75 m
1,600
1,400
5.5 m
5,200
4,500
7.0
7,000
5,000
Design Speed: Normally, ‘ruling design speed’
should be the guiding criterion for correlating the
various geometric features. “Minimum Design
Speed” may, however, be adopted in sections
where site conditions including costs do not
permit that. The design speeds for various
categories of hill roads is given in Table 34.
171 | Page
Table 34: Design Speeds (km/h)
Sr.
Road Classification
No.
1.
National & State Highways
2.
Major District Roads
3.
Other District Roads
4.
Village Roads
Mountainous terrain
Ruling
Minimum
50
40
40
30
30
25
25
20
Planning issues in development of hill area
• Development pattern of hilly area is
governed by its topographical constraints
like steep slopes, elongated hilly spurs,
forest areas, and zones of perpetual
sunshades. Due to extremely limited
vehicular accessibility and dependence on
pedestrian movement, development of
Shimla is concentrated in a limited area
• The Ridge and southern slopes are more
amenable for development due to gradual
slopes and sunny side. Thus all major land
uses are located on southern slopes of
Shimla.
• Shimla is facing the problems typically
faced by any hilly region like soil erosion,
flooding of foothills, scarcity of buildable
land, emergence of linear urban corridors,
inaccessibility of certain areas, uneven
development of urban system etc.
• The high growth of population coupled
with the floating population is exerting
heavy pressure on existing infrastructure
and also leading to encroachments,
unauthorized constructions, construction
activities not incompatible with traditional
culture and heritage of the city, etc.
• Poor enforcement of zoning regulations.
Road Infrastructure development and
growth: There are four agencies handling
roads. The National Highways are looked after
by the Government of India, the State
Highways by the State PWD, the town roads by
the Municipal bodies and the rural roads partly
by the PWD and partly by the Rural
Development Department. The development
Steep terrain
Ruling
Minimum
40
30
30
20
25
20
25
20
of roads in the State since its formation is given
in Table 35.
Table 35: Road Infrastructure in Himachal
Pradesh
Plan period
Road length (in Km)
1951-56
504
1956-61
1300
1961-66
2114
1966-69
6196
1969-74
9042
1974-79
10394
1980-85
13637
1985-90
15560
1992-97
18376
1997-2002
20837
2002-03
23436
Source: Planning Department (2003):1994-95
On an average, about 2500 kilometers of road
length is added every five years in the state. The
growth rate of road network was higher in the
initial years of development, which slowed
down in the subsequent years as after the basic
connectivity at the district and subdivision level
was provided, the demand for funds for other
sectors of the economy like health, education
and social services increased. Over 90% of the
road network consists of single lane roads as
given in Table 36. With the high growth rate of
vehicle population and use, the problems of
congestion arise.
Table 36: Category of roads in Himachal
Pradesh
Sr.
No.
1
2.
3.
4.
Category of
Road
National
Highways
Border Roads
State highways
Rural Roads
Total
Single
Lane
486
Double
Lane
749
1235
422
901
19291
21100
269
617
701
2336
691
1518
19992
23436
Total
Source: Planning Department (2003): 1994-95
172 | Page
Roads and Bridges (Central Sector) R
: oads
play a vital role in boosting the economy of the
hilly state like Himachal Pradesh. Starting
almost from a scratch the State Government
has constructed 32,926 Kms. of motorable
roads inclusive of jeepable track till December,
2009. Government has been assigning a very
high priority to road sector. Achievements
made upto December, 2009 are given in Table
37 and Table 38.
Table 37: Population
wise
connected with road
Villages
Connected
with road
(Population)
more than
1500
1000-1500
500-1000
200-500
Below 200
Total
villages
As on 31st March
2006
As on
Dec.
2009
2007
2008
2009
198
199
200
202
205
235
931
2726
4254
8344
239
977
2848
4268
8531
248
1050
2970
4371
8839
262
1151
3092
4536
9243
266
1175
3141
4595
9382
Source: Economic Survey Report, 2009-10
Table 38: Target and achievements
transport sector
Item
Unit
1. Motorable
2. Cross
drainage
3. Metalling
& tarring
4. Jeepable
5. Bridges
6. Villages
connectivity
Kms
Kms
Target
for
2009-10
1010
2294
Kms
1214
811
1214
Kms
No.
No.
19
72
335
5
32
139
19
72
335
(3) Demand management to secure maximum
social value for network use;
(4) Infrastructure expansion planning and
appraisal.
(a) Road maintenance: It is estimated by the
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
(MORTH), 2005 that out of the total road
length of 65569 Km in India, about 25000 Km
is under severe strain due to heavy traffic. The
allocation of budget on account of maintenance
of roads in the central sector is only 40% of the
requirement. Among the main issues in the
maintenance of roads in the context of
Himachal Pradesh are: preparation of road
inventories, analysis of defects, determination
of requirements and type of interventions,
arranging financial resources and preparation of
maintenance plans. The condition of roads gets
bad especially in segments of high use like the
national highways leading to tourist destinations
like Kullu-Manali, Shimla, Dharamshala and
Dalhousie. However, the Himachal Pradesh
Budget Manual provides for creation of a Road
and Infrastructure fund, no such fund has been
created.
in
Achievemen
t upto Dec.,
2009
611
1003
2009-10
Anticipat
ed
1010
2294
Source: Economic Survey Report, 2009-10
Concerns and Option: sThe Road Policy
Himachal Pradesh should focus on the
following concerns (as per the Road Policy).
(1) Road maintenance organization and
finance;
(2) Traffic management to improve traffic
system capacity, quality, or safety;
(b) Traffic Management: The traffic
management measures that may be useful in the
context of Himachal Pradesh are roadside
parking management, traffic circulation
measures, bus service priority and regulatory
measures under the Motor Vehicles Act. To
prevent roadside parking of vehicles, it is
essential that special parking areas are
developed. The basic reason forf lack of
parking facilities it is perception that parking
has to be provided at a social cost without any
additional charge to the users. However, the
biggest limitation with this assumption is that
often funds are not available from the public
resources to provide this facility since no bank
loan would be available for a venture with no
returns. To facilitate parking areas to come up,
it may be appropriate to treat parking space as a
normal commodity such as gas or electricity,
and to follow the implications of a commercial
173 | Page
or market approach for prices and investment
policy.
to reconcile city expansion with livability
(World Bank 2002).
However, traffic management cannot be seen
as a one-shot measure. It needs to be seen as a
continuous process. Otherwise, the benefits of
congestion reduction achieved by any such
intervention will be overtaken by the increasing
population of vehicles. Emphasis therefore has
to be on creating a favorable institutional
environment
that
encourages
effective
operation and development of technical skills
to implement new techniques.
Vehicle Population and Growth Rates:The
growth rates of vehicle population in the state
have been phenomenal. From an average
growth rate of 2.7 % during 1980-85, growth
rate of vehicle population increased to 7.8 % in
1995-2000. After 1998, the annual growth rates
of vehicle population increased substantially to
12 percent due to the availability of easy finance
and new vehicle models being launched in the
market. The number of vehicles (as on end of
December 2003), is given in Table 39.
Demand Management: The economic
rationale of demand management is that if price
directly incurred by travelers in making journeys
is lower than the full cost of the journey, then
some trips will impose a net cost to the
community. The full cost of a trip includes
personal cost borne by the traveller and the
social costs imposed by the traveller on the
community in the form of contribution to
congestion, the increase in accident potential,
and the polluting effects on the environment.
The objective of the demand management is to
secure the total level of traffic, and its
distribution by modes, locations, and times of
day that would exist if traffic by each travel
mode were to be charged prices equal to its full
marginal social cost.
Infrastructure Provision: Early planning and
reservation of space is necessary. Cities with
only 10 to 15 percent of their area devoted to
the transport infrastructure cannot support
unlimited motorization. Besides, once the
township is established it becomes rather
difficult to super impose additional transport
infrastructure. Moreover, where congestion is
suppressing demand, as is the case with most
towns in Himachal Pradesh, additional roads
normally mean additional traffic and hence
more congestion. Thus, a strategy that
combines necessary road capacity adjustment to
support city expansion with clear policies on
the allocation and use of the road space is likely
Table 39: Motor Vehicle Populations in
Himachal Pradesh
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Category of
vehicle
Two wheelers
Cars and jeeps
Trucks
Buses
Three wheelers
Others
Total
Source: DOT (2003)
Population
149,286
63,249
37,805
4,417
2,611
3,656
261,024
As percentage
to total
58
24
14
2
1
1
100
Two wheelers and cars comprised 82% of the
total vehicle population. The commercial
vehicles were only 25% of the total vehicle
population. The motor vehicle population in
Himachal Pradesh is thus rising with higher
share of personal vehicles. Within the personal
vehicles as well, the share of two wheelers is
very high (about 60%). This composition of
vehicle population coupled with high growth
rates of personal vehicles has caused serious
problems of congestion, accidents and
pollution.
Promoting
Safe
Transport:
Another
important externality resulting out of transport
use is impact of users on accident risks via their
level of care reflected in the shape of their
driving style and speed and their activity level
reflected in the form of number of kilometers
traveled. It is argued that reducing accident
externalities rely on the use of liability and
174 | Page
compensation rules. The Indian Motor Vehicles
Act makes third party insurance necessary for
all vehicles. With risk aversion, insurance comes
into play. The premium that one has to pay is
not related to the number of kilometers
traveled by the insured and the driving style of
the individual. In addition, the road users also
cause damage to the roads, which in turn
becomes a cause of accident for the other users.
Therefore, a tax on the damage caused could
also be useful in controlling road accidents
while at the same time providing a resource
base to repair the damage. In this case, the road
damage is a function of the vehicle weight. The
latter depends on the weight per axle.
Introduction of a kilometer charge that is a
function of the number of axle loads of a heavy
vehicle could be an efficient alternative to
tackle such a situation.
Integration of Transport in Town and
Country Planning: An effective transport
planning has to begin at the time of planning of
a town or a facility. The sustainability of the
urban transport system must be considered a
critical part of the sustainability of the total
urban system. Very often towns, market
complexes, and industrial areas are planned
without taking into consideration the transport
requirements. As a result not enough provisions
are made for parking. It is observed that traffic
may eventually expand to fill the road space
available. Moreover, new developments around
the new roads would cause an increase in the
vehicle fleet and in the level of car use. Another
way of tackling the problem is by spatially
locating trips destinations in a way that
optimizes road use. The historical configuration
of many urban areas limits the scope of this
solution. Moreover, land use and transport are
linked by very complex relationships. In
general, these constitute long-term solutions
and are characterized by high level of
inflexibility. The modification of the natural
landscape could be irreversible and the cost of
environmental degradation should be taken into
account. To protect the built and natural
environments, the plan should help reduce car
traffic by making public transport an attractive
option. Achieving such integration will require
coordinated planning of services and facilities;
pricing and investment regimes that reflect the
full costs and benefits of the various transport
modes and close linkage of transport with
economic, environmental and social policy
initiatives.
The HRTC has introduced some new schemes
for the benefit of people of the state like:
(i)
Smart Card Scheme: Smart card is
obtainable on payment of Rs. 50 and is
valid upto one year. Passenger get a
discount of 10 % and senior citizens get
discount of 20 %.
(ii) Group Discount Scheme : A group of 4
to 10 persons travelling more than 100
kms. will get a discount of 10 % and a
group of more than 10 persons will get a
discount of 15 %.
(iii) Courier Service : HRTC has introduced
courier service through its buses from
booking office to booking office w.e.f.
1.11.2000.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
(PMGSY): The Government of India launched
the Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana
(PMGSY) on 25th December 2000. PMGSY is
a 100 percent Centrally Sponsored Scheme and
50 percent of the cess levied on High Speed
Diesel (HSD) has been earmarked to fund the
scheme. The primary objective of the PMGSY
is to provide connectivity by way of an all
weather road to the eligible un-connected
habitations in the rural area, in such a way that
all
un-connected
habitations
with
a
population of 500 persons and above are to be
covered in plain area. In respect of Hill State
(North-East, states, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu
& Kashmir, Uttaranchal) and the desert areas
(as identified in the Desert Development
Programme) as well as the Tribal (Schedule-V)
area, the objective would be to connect
habitations with a population of 250 persons
and above.
175| Page
The PMGSY will permit up-gradation (to the
prescribed standards) of the existing roads in
those districts where all the eligible habitations
of the designated population size have been
provided all weather road connectivity.
However, it must be noted that up-gradation is
not central to the programme and can not
exceed 20% of the state’s allocation as long as
eligible unconnected habitations in the state still
exist.
Phase-wise length of roads constructed,
expenditure incurred and habitations connected
under PMGSY and World Bank are given in
Table 40.
Table 40: Phase-wise length of roads constructed, expenditure incurred and habitations
(UPTO 31.5.2009)
S.
No.
1
No. of
No. of
roads
completed
sanctioned
roads
Phase
Remarks
127
127
534.600
534.600
302
302
245
242
932.706
925.206
445
440
(2003- 370
325
1881.935
1701.755
796
786
(2004- 105
58
620.213
424.300
284
223
(2005- 105
75
614.496
494.406
295
236
(2006- 391
164
2088.756
1348.440
831
391
(2007- 74
2
517.315
58.175
154
2
Clearance
of
proposals
received on 31.12.2007
(2008- 13
0
96.296
0.000
28
0
Sanctioned Received
92
587.640
521.795
264
234
Bank 66
(2005-
30
424.725
282.078
164
117
Bank 13
(2007-
0
65.095
6.750
19
0
Total :1624
Phase-VI(2006- 178
07) Additional
proposals
1115
79
8363.777
2042.160
6297.505
1005.630
3582
-
2731
-
2
Phase-VII (2007- 47
08)
0
619.735
73.365
-
-
Clearance of proposals
received on 31.12.2007.
3
World
Bank
Phase-III (200708)
Phase-VIII
(2008-09)
Total :Grand Total
31
0
362.82
28.00
-
-
Clearance of proposals
received on 31.12.2007.
6
0
48.855
0
0
0
262
1886
79
1194
3073.57
11437.347
1106.995
7404.5
0
3582
0
2731
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
1
4
Phase-1
(2000-01)
Phase-II
(2001-02)
Phase-III
04
Phase-IV
05)
Phase-V
06)
Phase-VI
07)
Phase-VII
08)
Length of
proposed
road (Kms.)
Length of
No. of
No. of
roads
Habitations
Habitations
constructed
to be
benefited
(Kms.)
benefited
Phase-Vlll
09)
World
Phase-I
(2004-05)
World
Phase-II
06)
World
Phase -III
08)
Bank 115
Clearance of proposals
has been received on
31.12.2007
176 | Page
Central Roads Fund (CRF
): All State roads
including State Highways, Major District Roads
and other roads of importance can be taken up
under this programme. The State Govt. can
also consider Urban Roads for inclusion in the
programme. It may, however, be noted that
roads which are classified as rural roads are not
to be included in this programme.
Types of works to be considered in this
programme shall consist of construction of
missing bridges; cross drainage works;
rehabilitation of bridges; widening to two lanes;
strengthening of weak pavement sections;
improvement of riding quality/periodic renewal
of selected stretches of SH/MDR; engineering
aspects of road safety works covering
improvement of traffic junctions, road marking,
signaling, construction of subways and over
bridges, construction of parking lay-byes, bus
sheds, highway patrolling scheme etc.; research
and development; development of data base;
training of highway engineers; contribution of
professional organizations like Indian Roads
Congress, Indian National Group of
International Association for Bridge &
Structural Engineers (IABSE) and National
Institute for Training of Highway Engineers
(NITHE) etc.; construction of bye-passes,
parallel service roads along National Highways/
State Highways in built up areas may be
considered in exceptional cases. Status of
sanctioned projects under CRF is given in
Table 41.
Table 41(a): Status of Sanctioned Projects under CRF
7
1
8
3
8
2
4
6
-
3
3
1
-
7
4
11
3
8
2
4
7
-
Length for roads (In kms) & Bridges
(In mtrs)
Roads
Bridge
116.840
13.350
469.57
116.135
239.00
14.585
104.112
14.450
30.065
56.165
75.00
-
39
7
46
465.702
No. of Projects Sanctioned (In Nos)
Year of Sanction
Roads
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Up to 31/05/09
Total:
Bridges
46 road and bridges has been sanctioned out of
which 29 roads and bridges have been
completed as on 31st March 2009. The progress
of completed projects was higher in bridges
Total
783.57
(86%) than the roads (57%). Table 42 gives the
details of sanctioned and completed projects in
Himachal Pradesh.
Table 41(b): Progress of Roads and Bridges in the State of Himachal Pradesh
Sanctioned (in nos.)
S.No.
Roads
Bridges
Total
Completed as on 31/05/2009
( In Nos)
Roads
Bridges
Total
In Progress (in nos.)
Roads
Total
Bridges
1
39
7
46
23
6
29
16
1
Note: Projects completed include 5 projects on TKH road & 1 Bridge also considered as closed
17
177 | Page
4.3
Technology/schemes adopted
in the sector along with any
changes in technology
Bio-engineering: Bio-engineering is the use of
vegetation, either alone or in conjunction with
civil engineering structures, to reduce instability
and erosion on slopes. It should be a
fundamental part of the design and
construction of all roads in rural (and urban)
hill areas, mainly because it provides one of the
best ways to armour slopes against erosion.
Because of the steep and dynamic slopes found
in the Himalayas, most hill roads are engineered
near to the margin of safety. Bio-engineering is
an effective way of enhancing civil engineering
structures to increase stability as far as possible.
It is relatively low in costs uses local materials
and skill, and provides livelihoods benefits
through economically useful products.
Both bio-engineering and civil engineering
systems performengineering function.s Table 42
shows the main functions of common
structures of each category. Obviously plants
cannot emulate all of the functions of civil
engineering systems, particularly those having
effects deeper than about 0.5 meter. Also, plant
types vary in their ability to serve the various
engineering functions. During the initial
assessment of bio-engineering possibilities in
Himachal Pradesh, certain technical areas were
identified as requiring skill development among
the majority of professional level staff. These
sub-disciplines are poorly covered in almost all
civil engineering courses, because slope stability
in the Himalayas is a relatively small niche.
Table 42: Comparison of the main engineering functions performed by civil and bioengineering structures
Civil Engineering Techniques
Technique
Function
Stone Pitching
Armour
Rivetment
Armour
Dentition Work
Armour
Check Dam
Catch & Support
Retaining Wall
Support & Catch
Drainage Systems
Drain & Some Support
Bolster
Support, Armour & Catch
Bio-engineering Techniques
Technique
Function
Horizontal Grass
Armour, Catch, Reinforce
Diagonal Grass
Armour, Drain, Reinforce
Palisades
Catch, Reinforce, (Support)
Brush Layering
Catch, Reinforce, (Support)
Shrub Planting
Catch, Reinforce, Anchor, Support
Tree Planting
Reinforce, Anchor, Support
Bamboo Planting
Catch, Armour, Reinforce, Support
Despite these potential difficulties, the use of
bio-engineering is fully compatible with the
approach outlined for the State Roads Project,
which is currently in preparation by the
Government of Himachal Pradesh and the
World Bank. Its use would promote both the
pro-environmental and improved asset
management objectives of the project. It also
supports the aims of institutional development
and the move towards a sector-wide approach,
through the broadening of capacity in Himachal
Pradesh to manage its infrastructure assets
better by using cost-effective solutions for
slope stabilisation. The planned widening of
roads will involve massive hill cutting, resulting
in yet more unstable slopes, and with the
disposal of surplus debris, the stability of slopes
will be a key environmental issue to be
mitigated under the HP State Roads Project. In
the light of this, the introduction of these
techniques is a good practical example of the
Bank’s stated aim of helping the Government
of Himachal Pradesh to gain access to global
knowledge for mitigating the adverse effects of
unscientific road construction and the
stabilisation of unstable slopes.
Under most circumstances, bio-engineering can
be effectively combined with appropriate and
low cost geotechnical applications to provide
the most cost-effective, integrated solution to
slope stability problems. This is important for
places like Himachal Pradesh because, with the
steep and dynamic slopes found in the
Himalayas, most hill roads are engineered near
178 | Page
to the margin of safety. Bio-engineering is the
most affordable and effective way of enhancing
civil engineering structures to increase stability
as far as possible. The vegetative structures are
also flexible, being capable of absorbing
movement and recovering from damage. In this
respect, bio-engineering is simply part
sustainable asset management since it helps to
ensure the life of physical structures, and
reduces overall maintenance costs. On
roadsides, plants reduce the falling of debris
from degrading slopes, which is one of the
greatest contributors to road maintenance costs
through blocked drains and damaged
pavements. In this context, vegetation is very
important in the control of erosion and shallow
forms of instability (1 to 3 meters in depth at
most). Some typical applications of bioengineering are described in Table 43.
However, it must also be appreciated that the
beneficial effects may be insignificant under
extreme conditions, particularly in tropical and
monsoonal climates, and that it plays no
significant role in the stabilization of deeper
failures of soils or rock.
Table 43: Description of the main systems
of Bio-engineering
System
Type
Grass
Planting
Shrub and
Tree
Planting
Brush
Layering,
Palisades
and
Fascines,
etc
Design and Function
Grass seed is spread on the slope,
armouring the surface. Alternatively, grass
is hand-planted in lines across the slope.
The lines armour the slope and catch
debris. Angled lines planted by hand may
also help to drain the surface, but catch
little debris
Shrubs or trees are planted at regular
intervals on the slope. As they grow, they
create a dense network of roots in the
soil. The main engineering functions are
to reinforce and, later, to anchor. In the
long term, large trees can also be used for
slope support.
Woody cuttings are laid in lines across the
slope, usually following the contour, in
particular configurations. These form a
strong
barrier,
preventing
the
development of rill, and trap material
moving down the slope. In the long term,
a small terrace will develop. The main
engineering functions are to catch debris,
Composite
Systems
and to armour and reinforce the slope. If
they are angled, these structures can
provide a drainage function.
A range of composite systems are
commonly used examples are: Live check
dams, which armour and reinforce gully
beds and catch debris; vegetated stone
pitching,
which
provides
strong
armouring for ephemeral water courses;
planted geotextiles, where the geotextile
provides armouring, later supplemented
by the vegetation, which also reinforces
the soil.
Vegetation as a key component in off-road
engineering is also environmentally sound and
effectively forms a practical application of
several environmental mitigation measures. In
the hills, roads are an inseparable part of the
slopes that they cross and they must be fully
integrated into this landscape if they are to be
sustainable. Bio-engineering techniques offer
the best way of blending roads into the
landscape and limiting damage to surrounding
agricultural, horticultural and forest land. They
allow the restoration of something of the
original vegetation and ecosystems, and
particularly of tipping sites and spoil disposal
areas. Through both implementation and later
productivity, they offer social and economic
benefits for poor rural farmers. These benefits
assume even greater significance due to the very
small land holding size in the hills.
The practical options for bio-engineering in
environments such as those found in Himachal
Pradesh can be summarized.
• Grass planting: large clump grasses can be
planted in various configurations, such as
contour, diagonal or even down slope lines,
depending on the characteristics of the
materials, and perhaps combined with a jute
or synthetic geo-textile. This provides erosion
control and shallow reinforcement.
• Vegetative structures using hardwood
cuttings: brush layers, fascines and palisades,
with the angle of the lines determined by the
type of material and slope on which they are
applied. These also control erosion, catch
179 | Page
debris and provide strong, fibrous root
reinforcement.
• Tree planting, as part of a plant community
with under storey of shrubs and grasses: a
wide range of possibilities are available, to
suit all environmental conditions. Tree roots
offer greater reinforcement and anchorage.
Many of the bio-engineering techniques most
appropriate to the roadside slopes of
Himachal Pradesh require the intensive use
of grass planting, using slips produced
through vegetative propagation. This is
technically straightforward and suitable
species are available locally, but current
nursery capacity of the HPPWD will need to
be expanded to provide an adequate volume
of soil beds to allow the bulking-up of grass
clumps. Current capacity is adequate for the
provision of other bio-engineering materials
(containerized
seedlings
and
rooted
hardwood cuttings), though a range of
different species will need to be introduced.
These will all be either local or derived from
ecologically similar sources in nearby states.
MS project 2003: Highlights of the technology
used for the project can be summarized as:
Road construction development Plan had
been made by NIIT Ltd. using MS project
2003 for Himachal Pradesh Public Works
Department.
To start with, a simple project for training
purpose on construction of road from
Anandpur to Geha was considered.
Project is as per the Detailed Project
Report of road under PMGSY (Pradhan
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana)
Tools used: Microsoft Office (project
professional 2003) enterprise-wide project
planning
and
management
using
Microsoft’s
Enterprise
Project
Management Solution, based on Microsoft
office Project 2003 and its supporting
technologies, Windows 2003 server,
including Windows Share Point, SQL
Server 2000,and office system 2003.
Project baseline involves following steps :
Taking a snapshot of the project
Does not stop the addition of tasks,
changing of resources etc.
Allows for a comparison between actual
data and planned (baseline) recommend
best practice.
Modernisation of Maintenance
Management
(i) Introduction of Pavement Management
System (PMS): The PMS based on the
rationale method of assessment of distress
and decision support system for taking up
the maintenance activities is to be
introduced for productive use of meagre
resources. NHAI has developed Road
Information System (RIS), which will
include the inventory of the National
Highways with NHAI and also be used for
the PMS purpose. Similarly, the Ministry
has started developing a programme for
inventorisation and Pavement Management
System with the assistance of Central Road
Research Institute.
(ii) Introduction
of
mechanisation
in
maintenance: Several machines for repair of
distresses in pavement have been
introduced. Their use would need to be
encouraged to improve the maintenance
culture. Similarly, Mobile Bridge inspection
units are also to be procured for proper
inspection / distresses in bridges.
(iii) Maintenance by contract : Traditionally,
road maintenance works are executed
departmentally by the Public Works
Department. In order to raise efficiency
these maintenance works may be
outsourced to private sector. NHAI has
introduced operation, maintenance and
tolling contract for the National Highways
entrusted with NHAI. Similar concepts are
also to be started for the National
Highways with the State PWDs.
(iv) Corridor Management: It is being
increasingly
appreciated
that
the
180 | Page
maintenance of only roads and bridges
section of National Highways are not
sufficient for safe movement of vehicles.
Corridor Management; which comprises
comprehensive management of the road
section including engineering and nonengineering aspects are to be introduced for
proper management and maintenance of
National Highway sections. This Corridor
Management should include. Maintenance
of roads and bridges to the desired
standard, tackling safety hazards and traffic
bottlenecks; traffic management; collection
of user fee; incidence management & land
management.
For this purpose Highway Police Patrol, crane
and tow truck service, medical aid posts,
communication system, advance information
system, setting up of control stations, etc. are to
be considered. NHAI has initiated this corridor
management aspect. All these sections of
National Highways are to be covered in phases.
(v) Legislative Matter: The Control of National
Highways (Land & Traffic) Act, 2002 has come
into force from January, 2005. These acts give
power for control of encroachment within
right-of-way, control of access to National
Highways, control of traffic plying on National
Highways, control of construction activities by
the side of the National Highways. The
Highway Administration for enforcing the
various provisions of this Act has already been
established. Necessary steps are to be taken for
enforcement of the various provisions of this
Act for safe and speedy movement of traffic on
National Highways.
Computerization: Department of Transport is
one of the department in Himachal Pradesh
where not only the computerization has been
introduced to a larger extent but has been
accepted by the department officials as well as
people in the State. The computerization has
been taken up with following objectives:
• Improvement in the quality of services by
re-engineering the administrative processes
in order to extend convenience to users,
minimization of expenditure/ manual work
and sharing of information.
• To ensure greater transparency, efficiency,
objectivity, accountability and speed that
can help overcome unbridled discretion and
corruption by providing improved services
in a time bound manner.
• To bring Government departments closer
to the masses by offering efficacious and
speedy services under a single window.
• Reduction in response time in the delivery
of services i.e. better citizen services.
• Direct participation of the masses in
governance.
• Ensuring revenue so as to be selfsustainable.
• Greater control over the processes & quick
implementation of government policies
from time to time.
• Instant access to information if needed by
any other government department.
The department has taken up computerization
in following areas of its activities as given in
Table 44.
Table 44: Area of computerization
Sr.
No.
Area of Computerization
Software
Areas Already Computerised
Registration of Vehicles, Permit Issuance
Vahan
1. and other related activities
Issuance of Various Types of
2. Driving/Learner/Conductor Licenses and Sarthi
related activities
Computerization of all transport barriers
3. for the collection of various fees and taxes eNaka
4. Composite Fees drafts management
Projects Under Pipeline
Route Permit, Time Table and SRT
5. Collection MIS
Reports and Returns Management
6. Information System
CFMIS
Pathkar
eRRMIS
181 | Page
Fulfillment of Objectives: The fulfillment of
these objectives has been observed to be in the
following ways:
• The Post-computerization process has
removed several hurdles for the citizens
in obtaining Licenses, Registration of
vehicles and paying of taxes.
• The public is getting the desired
document same day in the evening or
latest by the next day.
• The passing/inspection fee, registration
fee, token tax, HPA entry/cancellation
fee etc. is being calculated by the system
itself and there will be no scope for any
error or discretion. It will also help in
the better monitoring of Govt. revenue.
• Up keep and maintenance of
voluminous record is not a problem.
• The MIS reports required from time to
time by the Govt. for monitoring and
policy making purposes can be obtained
without much efforts and loss of time.
Similarly, query can be raised with any
field.
• The license is generated in Form-7 in
the form of a laminated card which has
a good get up and is easy to carry and
contains more information.
• The driving license database is very
helpful for the persons who are in need
of blood of particular group. Citizens
can check the blood group owner with
particular group especially rare blood
groups from the touch screen kiosk and
can contact the person and request
him/her blood.
• There is an overwhelming response
from the common people who were
extremely willing to pay the service
charges in lieu of quick and high quality
delivery of services.
• The biggest advantage of this initiative
would be that once the all the
subdivisions are inter-linked; the owner
of a motor vehicle will have a lot of
flexibility in depositing
anywhere in the State.
the
tax
Alternative Technologies:
With ever
depleting supplies of crude oil and rising prices,
it is being increasingly felt that alternate modes
of transport and alternative sources of fuel for
transport related usage needs to be found out.
In addition, energy efficient modes of transport
like electric trolley; buses and battery-operated
vehicles would present a radically different
direction in the years to come. A shift from
personalized transport to the public transport
would also ease the problems of energy
consumption, emissions, congestion, and road
safety.
It has been advocated that the development of
new communication technologies, such as
telecommuting,
tele-shopping
and
videoconferencing may allow limiting vehicle
use. Concerns include the fact that the available
time made possible by such technologies can be
used for other (non-business) trips and that
activities such as videoconferencing may
generate additional travel as a complementary
activity. The experience of the telephone as a
substitute to the mail system constitutes a
precedent.
Introduction of mixed traffic modes is yet
another factor that could play a major role in
reducing emission and improving public safety.
The transport planning should invariably
include walking and cycling. This integration
can be achieved by providing extensive cycle
tracks, bicycle parking at important places like
market areas, railway stations and educational
institutions
4.4
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
Stakeholders in road network & Pathway
transport sector are:
182 | Page
• Direct transport users traveling public,
distributive industry
• Indirect transport users households,
consumers, agricultural producers, healthcare providers, education providers.
• Transport facilitator’s regulators, roads
administrators, enforcement agencies.
• Transport provider’s freight and public
transport operators, road construction
companies.
• Transport servicer’s equipment suppliers,
maintenance industry.
• Urban community consumers, users of
rural facilities.
• National community defence and geopolitical interests.
• External community importers of rural
produce, multi-national manufacturers and
trading companies, tourists.
Nature of each stakeholder’s involvement
in the transport sector
• Transport related activities (qualified and
quantified)
• Administrative activities (planning, funding,
regulating)
• Users demands
• Resources used (quantified and qualified)
• Funding (scale and sources)
• Performance measures (quantity and
quality)
Stake holder & their involvement in the sector
are given in Table 45.
Table 45: Stakeholder & their involvement
Involvement
Direct
Indirect
U
Stakeholders Name
Public
Line deptt.(PWD)
Municipality
Gram Panchayat
Zila Panchayat
Border Road Organisation
(BRO)
U
U
U
U
U
4.5
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
Environmental issues associated with road and
highway sector involves issues related to biophysical and social environment are described
below. These include generic as well as specific
issues related to the sector.
Inadequate access due to poor road
connectivity: Lack of access to roads and
difficulty in transportation of agricultural
products due to difficult terrain and sparse
population in interior areas, high cost of surface
transport produce to the consuming markets;
and poor communication network due to
hostile terrain lead to spoilage and wastage of
products.
Poor road conditions leads to delayed access
to warehousing as well as markets: Hundreds
of apple farmers are facing trouble in Himachal
Pradesh, as their produce is not able to reach
markets on time due to bad road conditions e.g.
in Kotkhai subdivision of Shimla, the
cultivators inform that due to poor road
conditions and landslips the apple-loaded
trucks get stuck in long traffic jams. They
further said that sometimes the trucks, instead
of reaching in a day, take almost three days to
reach the markets in Delhi and other cities,
which damage the fruit.
Development of new roads infrastructure
leads to associated environmental problems:
New road infrastructure development in hilly
terrain leads to a number of environmental
impacts. Some of these impacts are on account
of project activities like hill cutting, filling,
blasting and disposal of muck. Road
development may lead to fragmentation of
habitat, loss of flora and fauna, loss of habitat,
triggering landslides and soil erosion. Further,
hydropower development requires movement of
heavy equipment and material in interior areas
for which existing road infrastructure needs
183 | Page
upgradation resulting in increased intensity of
impacts.
Development of road infrastructure leads to
unplanned / unauthorized urbanization
both in rural and urban areas : Improved
access to road infrastructure leads to unplanned
development and urbanization both in rural and
urban areas. e.g. urbanization beyond the
boundaries of master plan in urban areas as well
as mushrooming of dhabas along major roads/
highways in the rural areas lead to congestion,
traffic jams, air and water pollution.
Inadequate parking infrastructure in urban
areas leads to congestion and air pollution:
Due to increase in urban traffic especially during
tourist season, the existing infrastructure runs
out of capacity. This leads to traffic jams, air
pollution and loss of fuel. Shimla, Kullu and
Manali etc.
Traffic congestion at tourist spot in rural
areas leads to problems of air pollution and
waste generation: Due to increase in traffic at
tourist locations e.g. Rohtang pass, especially
during tourist season, traffic jams occur very
frequently, which result in air and water
pollution as well as solid waste disposal
problems in ecologically fragile areas.
Inadequate traffic management in urban
areas leads to air and noise pollution: Due to
lack of integration of traffic and transportation
plan with master plan, existing infrastructure
runs out of capacity leading to air and noise
pollution.
Inadequate public transportation in urban
areas leads to traffic congestion: Poor public
transportation and its non integration with other
modes of transport leads to traffic congestion in
urban areas resulting in air and noise pollution.
Inadequate safety and public health risks
due to road infrastructure: Increased number
of accidents due to congested infrastructure and
occurrence of disease like HIV/ AIDS due to
migrant labor and truckers leads to public health
risk.
Inadequate funds for road / highway
upgradation and infrastructure development:
Lack of funds for highway upgradation and
infrastructure development leads to increased
gap in demand and availability of infrastructure.
Further, lack of private sector participation and
absence of PPP model leads to greater
requirement of resources.
Pressure on account of increasing gaps and
slow implementation of policy, programs, plans
and projects is leading to emergence of sector
specific issues and risks/impacts. An analysis of
the issues, causes and impacts has been carried
out and summarized in Table 46.
Table 46: Issues, Causes and Impacts
Issues
Inadequate access due to poor road
connectivity
Causes
Inadequate availability of
infrastructure facilities &
collection facilities
Expensive transportation
Poor road conditions leads to delayed
access to warehousing as well as
markets
Inadequate maintenance of road
infrastructure
Poor traffic management
Input resource loss
Impacts/Risks
Loss/ Wastage of produce and
increased pollution
Deterioration in quality of
produce
Input resource loss e.g.
fertlizers, soil nutrients, water
etc.
Loss/ Wastage of produce and
increased pollution
Deterioration in quality of
produce
Input resource loss e.g.
fertlizers, soil nutrients, water
184 | Page
Issues
Development of new roads
infrastructure leads to associated
environmental problems
Causes
Change in land use
Impacts/Risks
Habitat degradation
Air pollution
Water pollution
Soil pollution
Land use change
Development of road infrastructure
leads to unplanned / unauthorized
urbanization both in rural and urban
areas
Fragmentation of habitat
Loss of flora and fauna
Unauthorized shops and
encroachment adjacent to right of
way both in rural and urban areas
Inadequate parking infrastructure in
both urban and rural areas leads to
congestion and air pollution
Lack of space at markets /
commercial establishment, tourist
places, religious places
Vehicle numbers exceeding
planned development
Soil erosion
Restricted movement leads to
safety hazardous
Waste generation (MSW &
sewage)
Congestion on the road
Traffic congestion
Air pollution
Safety / public health hazardous
Traffic congestion at tourist spot in
rural areas leads to problems in air
pollution and waste generation
Adhoc development in the
absence of planned development
Air pollution
Waste generation
Safety / public health risks
Inadequate traffic management in
urban areas leads to air and noise
pollution
Lack of traffic management
during peak season tourist
Air pollution
Noise pollution
Inadequate public transportation in
urban areas leads to traffic congestion
Lack of alternate transportation
system and inefficient operation
of existing system e.g. ropeways,
combination of existing public
transportation with other modes
Air pollution
Noise pollution
Safety / public health risks
Inadequate safety and public health
risks due to road infrastructure
Migration of labour for new
construction and upgradation of
road infrastructure
Difficult operation of health
infrastructure
Difficult access to health
infrastructure
Safety / public health risks
Stress on environmental carrying
capacity
Inadequate funds for road / highway
upgradation and infrastructure
development and upgradation
Lack of private participation in
road infrastructure development
Lack of funds result in decreased
environmental management
Non implementation /
mainstreaming of environmental
and safety safeguards
Degraded quality of life
4.6
Environment initiatives taken
by the sector to address critical
environment issues
As per 11th Five Year Plan (Report of World
Group on Roads) improvement of National
Highways under various phases of NHDP has
185 | Page
already been decided and implementations
programme have been furnished. As per the
present programme, a length of 21,090 Km of
National Highways will still remain with State
PWDs and BRO.
During 10th Five Year Plan, priority was given
to Improvement of Riding Quality (IRQP) of
existing network as against widening of NHs to
two lanes. Now, all the National Highways
should be having a minimum of 2-lane
standards and it is felt that under the 11th Five
Year Plan the priority may be given for the
construction of missing links to two lane roads
and constructions of missing Bridges, widening
of NHs to two lane standards wherever there
are single or intermediate lane widths. Similarly
rehabilitation/repair/reconstruction of existing
weak bridges, culverts and construction of new
bridges /culverts at these location, need to be
taken up on priority. Because of limitation of
funds, other types of improvement may be
taken up on selective basis.
Forwarding Path as per the Working group
11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012): Several
actions have been suggested for effectively
tackling of environmental and social impacts
resulting from up gradation of roads. Following
actions can go a long way in effectively tackling
of the environment and social impacts resulting
from up-gradation of road projects.
1. Creation of special cells in the
MORT&H/NHAI/PWDs of States / UTs
to coordinate all activities related to
environmental impacts of highway projects.
2. Social dimensions of resettlement and
rehabilitation of affected people must be
incorporated in all highway projects
involving displacement of people at the
project preparation stage itself and proper
R&R plan implemented before execution of
works.
3. Removal of encroachments on NH/SH &
MDR land and to prevent future
encroachments.
4. A Corridor Management Plan should be
drawn up for major state highways so that
the problems of ribbon development,
encroachments, uncontrolled access and
poor safety can be tackled.
5. Control on roadside advertisements to
preserve the visual aesthetics.
6. Consideration may be given to recycling of
existing pavements to reduce the need for
more road building aggregates.
7. Promotion of use of waste materials such as
fly-ash and copper slag, etc.
8. Use of bio-engineering techniques for
protection of slopes in hill areas and
reducing risk of landslides.
9. Implementation of the Control of National
Highway (Land and Traffic Act), 2002 for
improved traffic management and control
of access on National Highways.
10. Up gradation of vehicle technology to meet
the future emission standards laid down by
the Government.
11. An effective Inspection and Maintenance
programme of in-use vehicle.
Quality Assurance system: The HPPWD is
moving towards accreditation for quality
assurance systems under ISO 90013. It has also
been agreed to aim for accreditation for ISO
14001, which covers environmental issues of
corporate activities, including an environment
policy and overall environment strategy and
management systems. Both are important for
the introduction of a well organized system of
slope stabilization and protection works. The
Department
would
develop
specific
environmental measures, such as how to cope
with spoil during maintenance (as distinct from
during construction and widening). Hence, part
of the environmental strategy must be the
assigning of designated dumping sites in safe
areas and the acceptance that additional haulage
costs will be balanced against reduced
maintenance costs. Other related topics that
will be covered under this strategy include
general construction management, labour and
equipment camps, waste disposal, worker
safety, traffic management, preservation and
186 | Page
plantation of trees, and water use in
construction. All of these have some level of
bearing on the good practice use of bioengineering techniques. The Department has
some in-house capacity, but will eventually need
to reform, so that it becomes more streamlined
and efficient.
The implementation of the State Roads Project
through Himachal Pradesh Road and Other
Infrastructure
Development
Corporation
Limited or (HPRIDC) is a welcome step in this
direction. It is important that the introduction
of bio-engineering works follows a strategy that
promotes this modernization of governance,
rather than adding to the organization that
needs to be reformed. Operations through the
HPRIDC are subject to separate accounting
and a more open financial management system,
and this will be advantageous in the use of new
techniques. Yet there will still be close
collaboration with government, and hence
considerable capacity development spin-offs. In
essence the project is to be implemented by the
HP government through the HPRIDC, using
the PWD for execution. Upgrading works will
be executed by contractors to be supervised by
an
independent
engineer
(Supervision
Consultant) under this project. A Technical
Examiner (also independent consultant) will
assess the Periodic Maintenance Works. On a
pilot basis, bio-engineering works using local
plant species will be given trials to rehabilitate
some vulnerable locations and identified
dumping sites along road stretches subject to
periodic maintenance.
Improvement & Resettlement Plan: The
Government of India has requested the
assistance of the World Bank for the
improvement and rehabilitation of State
Highways, Major District Roads and Other
District Roads in the State of Himachal
Pradesh. The improvement works will consist
mainly in raising the formation level,
upgrading/improvement of road geometrics,
widening to two-lane/intermediate-lane from
the existing, intermediate-lane or single-lane
width, and pavement strengthening, improving
the cross drainage. Road stretches crossing
urban areas may also require upgrading to a
two-lane cross section, and/or provision for
drains, sidewalks and parking where required.
In some cases, new alignments (by-passes)
and/or realignments may also be required. The
Government of Himachal Pradesh (GOHP)
through the Himachal Pradesh Road
Infrastructure
Development
Corporation
(HPRIDC) is the executing agency for the
project and establishment and infrastructure of
Himachal Pradesh Public Works Department
(HPPWD) shall be utilized by the HPRIDC for
implementation. The Government of Himachal
Pradesh has pre-selected approximately 413 km
of roads for Phase-I. The project preparation is
being undertaken in two Phases:
Phase 1 (Project Preparation) is to provide the
information and assessments necessary for
World Bank appraisal of the proposed Project,
including feasibility study and screening of the
1675 km of prioritized roads to finalize about
800km for inclusion in the project, preliminary
design and environmental and social assessment
and then final design of about 50 percent of
identified project roads (413 km for
upgrading/improvement), economic analysis
and development of proposals for selected
institutional measures to be undertaken under
the Project.
Phase II (Project Implementation) will cover
final design of the remaining roads to be
included in the Project, and assistance with
project implementation, co-ordination, and
strengthening of engineering skills.
Minimization of Impacts: Due importance
has been given to environmental and social
issues while designing the road. The
coordination between social and design team
helped in reducing the number of PAPs. In the
design,
various
mitigation
measures
incorporated include: delineation of CoI;
concentric widening; provisions of covered
drainage; provision of toe wall/retaining wall;
187 | Page
specific protection to save structures on uphill;
provision of bypasses; reduction of speed;
alternatives
considered;
community
consultation & highway health risk.
4.7
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector
Strategic Option Studies (SOS): As a first
step in May 2005, the State PWD has
successfully completed a Strategic Option Study
(SOS) and identified about 1675 km of State
Highways (SH) and Major District Roads
(MDR) the prioritized up-gradation and
improvement. In June 2006, 171.965 km length
of roads has been found to be without proper
ground alignment. Although no physical
verification was possible, all to the extent
possible environmental screening analysis has
been carried out for these roads.
Feasibility Study: The feasibility study has
been carried out for the road network of 1675
km (43 road links) identified by the SOS study.
The feasibility study has come out with a list of
high priority roads based on the engineering
and economic aspects prepared using the HDM
model. The Economic Internal Rate Return
(EIRR) has been calculated using the model for
each of the project roads. The roads, which
have a rate of return of 12% and above have
been qualified for the up-gradation. The EIRR
does
not
include
a
comprehensive
environmental and social screening and scoping
analysis. Therefore, environmental and social
screening and scoping studies have carried out
prioritization based on these issues.
Environmental Screening and Scoping
Studies: The environmental and social
screening report (ESR) has been prepared to
establish the environmental sensitivity of the
project roads under consideration. The study
has established the boundaries of the further
studies required (scoping) based on the
proximity to legally defined ecological
resources. Other project roads have to obtain
state level clearance from the State Pollution
Control Board (SPCB) and State Level
Environmental Impact Assessment Authority
(SEIAA) set up by the Government of India at
State level. Because of the World Bank’s
categorization as Category A projects, an EIA is
also required for all roads considered for upgradation.
The
feasibility
study
(that
includes
environmental screening also) has identified
approximately 800 km of high priority roads,
which will be subjected to detailed design and
associated studies in two or more phases. The
first set of 413 kms of road constituting phase 1
(both batch 1 and 2) has been identified by the
State Government to include in the project.
This 413 km of roads is part of the final 800 km
of roads that have been identified as a part of
the feasibility study.
State Road Improvement project for the 250
km road: To reduce traveling time and to
ensure faster movement of perishable farm
produce (fruits and vegetables), better roads are
the only feasible alternative, as the mountainous
topography of the state makes railways and civil
aviation unviable. Upgradation of the road
network in the state will increase the
connectivity of places, safe mobility of goods
and people, resulting in greater utilisation of
resources and socio-economic development of
the people. The State Government has
undertaken widening and improving /
upgrading the road network in the state to meet
the demands of growing economy. It has
completed Strategic Option Study and
identified 1675 km road length covering some
of the state highways and district roads. Out of
this, planning and designing work in respect of
following five high priority roads is being taken
up in Phase I package II of the project, of
which detail designs and alignments have been
completed for the following five road stretches:
• Nahan-Sarahan-Kumarhatti
• Draman-Sihunta
188 | Page
• Bharwana-Lambagaon-Jaisinghpur
• Ranital-Lenj-Kotla
• Sarkaghat-Jahu-Ghumarvein
Source: Govt, HP (Himachal Pradesh State Road
Project, HPSRP)
EIA summary for Theog-Rohru Project
road: The Government of Himachal Pradesh
has initiated an ambitious plan for
improving/upgrading the road network of the
state to meet the requirements of a growing
state economic and match up with
infrastructure development taking place
elsewhere in the country. The Government of
Himachal Pradesh through the HPRIDC would
be the executing agency for the project. The
establishment and infrastructure of the
HPPWD would be utilized by the HPRIDC for
project implementation. An environmental
screening and scoping exercise was carried out
and a report has been prepared to establish the
environmental sensitivity of the project roads
under consideration, using which appropriate
decisions can be made. The study also
establishes the context and need for further
studies required (scoping) with regard to
ecologically sensitive and environmentally
important areas. The feasibility study (that
includes environmental screening also) will
finally help in identifying approximately 800
kms of high priority roads, for which detailed
design and associated studies will be taken up in
two or more phases.
Proposed Improvements of the Project
Road: Less than 10% of the state roads are
double-laned, only 50% of the road length has
drainage and valley side safety measures.
Depending on the present condition of the
selected
roads,
different
levels
of
improvement/up-gradation measures will be
required for different road stretches. The
improvement works will mainly consist of:
cutting of hill ward side for widening; raising
the formation level where ever required;
upgrading/improving
road
geometrics;
widening to two-lane/intermediate lane from
existing intermediate-lane/single-lane widths;
pavement strengthening, and improving cross
drainage; stabilization of the hill slope as far as
possible by breast walls, retaining walls and or
bio engineering techniques; road Stretches
crossing urban areas may also require
alternative new alignments or realignments, or
provision for drains, sidewalks and parking
along existing road; construction of bridges and
their approach roads; river training works;
pedestrian guard rails and safety barriers;
replacement of culverts and construction of
new culverts; replacement/rehabilitating of
culverts will accommodate two full lanes for the
full formation width; realignments &
construction of viaducts.
A total of 1.31 kms of realignments have been
considered in the project to improve safety.
Including this 1.31 kms of realignment there are
129 locations where in the project road
widening has shifted slightly to either right
hand side or Left hand side leaving oxbow land
(left over land portions) in all these locations.
Several environmental enhancement proposals
have been recommended at these locations as
given below.
Road safety measures, rain shelters (bus
waiting shed) and parking area wherever
there is a space available away from
junctions and pedestrian crossings.
Wherever possible, the provisions of bus
lay-byes have been included in the design.
Implementation of a Resettlement Action
Plan (RAP). The RAP has elaborate
implementation arrangements including the
services of NGOs.
Environmental Impacts: Environmental
impacts are debris and waste disposal; impact to
forest reserves (land requirement as well as the
forest tree cutting; water construction; soil
erosion; loss of agricultural areas/horticultural
areas; social impacts including land acquisition
and resettlement; impact to wildlifetraffic/wildlife conflict; impact to drinking
189 | Page
water sources such as, HP’s and springs;
provision for parking areas; impact to religious
properties; longitudinal and cross drainage;
stabilization of slopes; impact to religious
properties; monkey menace-traffic/monkey
conflict & longitudinal and cross drainage.
Major findings of study are:
1. The field surveys coupled with institutional
and local community consultations revealed
several biodiversity concerns along the
project road. To resolve this concern, a
Biodiversity impact assessment study needs
to be conducted with the help of a
wildlife/forestry expert. During various
engineering, environmental and social
surveys considerable faunal presence along
the project roads was observed.
2. Wildlife presence is found in all forest
regions/categories in the state and
therefore
becomes
an
important
consideration. This presence is noted even
beyond the designated protected areas such
as Sanctuaries and National Parks.
3. Project influence areas of all roads are rich
in floral and faunal diversity.
EIA for 3 roads starting from Una Town:
This project relates to the Una link roads
constituting Mehatpur-Una (12 Km), Una-Amb
(33 km) and Una-Nerchowk (126.7 kms)
project roads. From where the second road
starts and ends at Amb at 50.50 kms as given in
Table 47. The 3rd road starts from Una
traversing through Bilaspur, Hamirpur and
Mandi districts of Himachal Pradesh.
Table 47: Physical location of project
Road Name
Mehatpur-Una
Una-Amb
Una-Nerchowk
Length
(km)
12.000
33.000
126.700
Districts
Una
Una
Una,Hamirpur and
Bilaspur
Total: 184 kms
The roads, which have a rate of return of 12%
and above have been, qualified for the upgradation. The EIRR does not include a
comprehensive environmental and social
screening and scoping analysis. Therefore
prioritization based on these issues has been
carried out by the environmental and social
screening and scoping studies as a part of the
feasibility studies.
A total of 4.09 kms of realignments for
Mehatpur-Una-Amb and 10.57 kms for the
Una-Nerchowk has been considered to
improve
safety.
Several
environment
enhancement
proposals
have
been
recommended at Road safety measures, Rain
shelters (bus waiting shed) and parking area and
implementation of a resettlement Action Plan
Start
Location
Mehatpur
Una
Una
Chainage
(km)
5.000
18.000
0.000
End
Location
Una
Amb
Nerchowk
Chainage
(km)
18.000
50.000
126.700
(RAP). The Economic Internal Rate of Return
(EIRR) as given in Table 48.
Table 48: Economic Return Details of the
Project Road
Road Section
Una-Jalera-Mehatpur-Una
(4 Laning)
Una-Amb
Una-NerChowk
22%
NPV
(INR.
Million)
802
27%
47%
1532
10079
EIRR (%)
Environment Management Plan for
widening and strengthening of Theog
Kotkhai –Hatkoti -Rohru road:The project
road starts from Theog town with 0.000
chainage and ends at 80.684 km just at the
beginning of Rohru town. This road traverses
through Shimla district only. This State
190 | Page
Highway (SH-28) is the only link and access to
apple orchard farms of the area, most of the
economic activity and income of the local
residents depends on this State Highway. The
road passes through hilly terrain with steep
grade and acute, blind and sharp turns at most
of the places. Part of this road is a predominant
snowfall area. During winters, this road
becomes
inaccessible.
Most
of
the
settlements/villages/towns are connected
through link road to the project road. This is
the only connectivity to the Dodra-Kwar,
difficult and tribal areas of Himachal Pradesh.
The road traverses through four important
townships viz. Theog, Kotkhai, Jubbal and
Rohru. The archaeologically significant
structures at Hatkoti Mata temple and few
other temples were also located in the nearby
areas towards Rohru. This section passes
through eco-sensitive areas such as reserved
forests (RF). The land requirement for
widening is minimal due to the implementation
of a State funded project under Central Road
Fund (CRF) scheme.
Level of Service of identification of sections
warranting capacity augmentation: The
Level of Service (LOS) at which a road operates
can be judged by its Volume Capacity Ratio
(V/C). In order to rank the roads as per their
existing Level of Service (LOS), the study links
have been arranged in the descending order of
their V/C ratios and grouped together on the
basis of their present LOS.
Out of 90 links measuring a total length of
1614.527 km, 64 links measuring a length of
1200.91 km are operating below LOS B, with
V/C > 0.5; 55 links measuring a length of
1025.90 km are operating below LOS C with
V/C > 0.7 and 34 links measuring a length of
665.15 km are operating below LOS D with
V/C > 1.0. This section wise breakup of level
of service is given in Table 49.
Table 49: Section wise breakup of Service
LoS
LOS
Below
B
C
D
V/C
Greater
than
0.50
0.70
1.00
No of
Sections
Length (kms)
64
55
34
1200.91
1025.90
665.15
For State Highway or other important Roads in
rural areas, the design service volume of traffic
is normally taken as 50 percent of their
maximum capacity. In other words, these roads
should be designed for a volume-capacity ratio
(V/C) of 0.50. This V/C corresponds to a
Level of Service (LOS) B. The inadequacy of
the capacity of state roads can, therefore, be
gauged by the extent by which its V/C exceeds
0.50.
As indicated above, 64 sections measuring a
length of 1200.91 km have V/C > 0.50. These
links are, therefore, carrying traffic beyond their
design service volume and area operating below
LOS B. The situation is expected to only
worsen with the rapid growth of traffic in
future. All these sections, therefore, warrant
capacity augmentation to bring them to the
desired Level of Service B.
Principal Findings of the study:Earlier the
Ministry of Roads Transport & Highways
(MORT & H) (erstwhile MOST). GOl has also
issued
guidelines
to
different
State
Governments for framing proposals of road
improvement programmes for World Bank
Loans. According to those guidelines, road
improvement schemes were required to be
divided into following categories.
i)
Expressways on corridors where traffic
volume is very high, say greater than
40,000 PCUs/day
ii) Four-laning of existing 2-lane roads
where traffic volume is high, say,
between 18,000 and 40,000 PCUs/day
iii) Improving poor two-lane roads to good
two-lane roads
191 | Page
iv) By passes around congested towns
v) Widening to regular two-lane roads of
sections, which are either single-lane or
intermediate lane.
4.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and
water pollution) carried out for
activities related to the sector
Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality was started
in Himachal Pradesh. Over these 25 years there
have been significant change in pattern of
industrialization and other activities that have
an impact on air pollution. The road network in
the State today is reaching far into the interior
and the dams are being constructed in remote
areas. The air quality is thus likely to
deteriorate.
vehicular influx as the State being hilly the rail
and air connections are limitedO.wing to its
geo-physical features (mountainous area and
location on the Himalayas), the ecosystems here
are more sensitive to environmental damage.
The State Pollution Control Board has set up
monitoring stations at major industrial and
tourist towns in the state. The ambient air
quality in major tourist and industrial towns is
deteriorating with SPM, NOx and PM10
reaching threshold levels.
A comparison of data of 1996 and 2004 as per
Air Quality Criteria laid down by CPCB shows
that air quality remains unchanged except for
SPM levels in Shimla that show improvement
in Air Quality Category. Location wise air
quality status in Himachal Pradesh is given in
Table 50.
Air Pollution from Vehicles: The large
number of tourist’s inflow leads to very high
Table 50: Air Quality Status in Himachal Pradesh
Location
Category
SO2
NO2
M
1996
SPM
H
Shimla, Takka Bench Sensitive
L
on Ridge
Shimla Bus Stand
Residential
L
L
M
Parwanoo Sector-IV Residential
L
L
H
Parwanoo Sector-1
Industrial
L
L
L
Jassur Near PCB Residential
L
L
M
Office Damtal
Jassur Old Road Residential
L
L
H
Damtal
Paonta
Sahib Industrial
L
L
M
Industrial Area
Paonta
Sahib Industrial
L
L
M
Industrial
Area
Gondhpur
[Source: NAAQMS/10/1998-99 and Website HPSEP and PCB]
The HPSPCB and PCB checked a total number
of 2001 vehicles in Vehicular Monitoring and
Mass Awareness Camps in the State during the
year 2002-2003. Out of these vehicles 1254
were Diesel driven and 747 Petrol driven.
Vehicles checked for smoke density and COHC concentration respectively, only 51.75% of
diesel driven and 72.29% of petrol driven
vehicles were found meeting the prescribed
RPM
N
O
T
M
O
N
I
T
O
R
E
D
2004
SPM
L
SO2
L
NO2
M
RPM
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
C
L
M
L
M
-
L
L
H
-
L
L
M
-
L
L
M
-
standards. About 48.25% (649) of diesel driven
vehicles and 27.71% (207) of petrol driven
vehicles did not meet the laid down standards.
[Source: Annual Report 2003-04, HPSPCB and PCB.
There is a dire need to increase the number of
ambient air quality monitoring stations so that
the network is more representative. It is also
important to start monitoring of RPM and CO.
192 | Page
Air quality monitoring data covering SO2, NO2
& RSPM during April 2008 – March 2009 is
given in Table 51, 52 & 53.
Table 51: Air Quality of SO2
June, 2008
July, 2008
Aug., 2008
Sept.,2008
Oct., 2008
Nov., 2008
Dec., 2008
Jan., 2009
Feb., 2009
Monthly
2
3.2
Average
Peak
5.6
7.9
Monthly
Housing Board,
1
1
Average
Baddi
Peak
1
1
Monthly
1
1
Average
A.H.C. Barotiwala
Peak
1
1
Monthly
2
2
Regional Office,
Average
Damtal
Peak
2
2
Monthly
2
2
Old Road, Damtal
Average
Peak
2
2
Monthly
2
2
Kala Amb
Average
Peak
3.9
3.9
Monthly
2
2
Kala Amb,
Average
Trilokpur
Peak
2.4
2.4
Monthly
2
2
Paonta Sahib
Average
Peak
2.9
2.4
Monthly
2
2
Paonta Sahib,
Average
Gondpur
Peak
3.4
3.9
Monthly
2
2.4
Parwanoo, Sec-4
Average
Peak
2
6
Monthly
2
2.7
Parwanoo, Sec-1
Average
Peak
2
6.8
Monthly
2.7
3.1
Tekka Bench,
Average
Shimla
Peak
6.3
12.6
Monthly
5
3
Bus Stand Shimla
Average
Peak
12.9 10.4
Source: State Pollution Control Board, Himachal Pradesh
2.4
2.7
2.1
2.2
2.8
2.7
2
2
2
2
5.1
2.6
5.7
2.8
4.5
2.1
5.1
2
7.9
3
5.7
2.2
6.8
2
6.2
2
7.4
2
7.4
2
6.2
2.8
5.7
2.2
4.5
2.1
2
2
10.2
2.5
4.5
2
5.1
2
4.5
2
5.1
2
5.1
2
7.6
2
5.1
2
4.5
2
2
2
6.8
2.1
2
2
4.5
2
5.1
2
5.7
2
4.5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
6.7
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2.9
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3.9
2.9
2
3.9
2
3.9
2
6.1
1.6
4
2
3.6
2
5.1
2
6.1
2
6.1
2
6.6
2
3.9
2
2
2
2
2
3.3
2.2
3.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
2.4
2
2
2
2.4
1.8
7.1
3.4
4.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
3.6
2.9
2.9
2
2.9
2
2.4
2.1
9.7
2.1
4.1
3
4.1
2.3
4.6
2
6.1
2
5.1
2
5.1
2
4.5
2.4
4.5
2.2
4.5
2.2
4.5
2.2
10.2
2.4
5.1
3.1
4.5
2
6.4
2
4.5
2
5.1
2
5.1
3.1
4.5
2.6
4.5
2.8
4.5
2.9
4.5
2.4
5.7
2.2
5.1
2.5
5.7
2.5
6.8
2.9
6.8
2.8
10.7
2.9
6.8
3.3
7.1
2.8
6.8
2.9
5.3
2.8
5.8
3.6
8.7
2.5
7.3
2.9
7.8
3.6
6.8
3.1
7.3
11.3
7.1
6.8
9.2
11.7
8.7
7.8
9.2
10.2
Location
SO2 in µg/
3
m
Mar., 2009
May, 2008
April, 2008
Month
DIC Baddi
193 | Page
Table 52: Air Quality of NOx
July, 2008
Aug., 2008
Sept.,2008
Oct., 2008
Nov., 2008
Dec., 2008
Jan., 2009
Feb., 2009
Mar., 2009
Monthly
14.1 13.2
Average
Peak
18.8 24.4
Monthly
Housing Board,
1
1
Average
Baddi
Peak
1
1
Monthly
1
1
Average
A.H.C. Barotiwala
Peak
1
1
Monthly
18.7 18.3
Regional Office,
Average
Damtal
Peak
55
24.8
Monthly
19.9 21.1
Old Road, Damtal
Average
Peak
30.1 29.3
Monthly
13.3 14.6
Kala Amb
Average
Peak
17.9 17.5
Monthly
11.8 11.6
Kala Amb,
Average
Trilokpur
Peak
14.6 14.2
Monthly
11.7 12
Paonta Sahib
Average
Peak
16.3 14.6
Monthly
13.1 14.6
Paonta Sahib,
Average
Gondpur
Peak
17.5 17.5
Monthly
10.5 10.2
Parwanoo, Sec-4
Average
Peak
12.5 22.1
Monthly
11
11.1
Parwanoo, Sec-1
Average
Peak
14.4 18
Monthly
4.7
5.1
Tekka Bench,
Average
Shimla
Peak
11
14
Monthly
8.9
8.7
Bus Stand Shimla
Average
Peak
20.1 21
Source: State Pollution Control Board, Himachal Pradesh
June, 2008
NOX in µg/
3
m
May, 2008
Location
April, 2008
Month
10.6
11.4
7.1
7.5
9.8
10.1
10.4
10.4
11.8
11.1
16.6
11.8
17.6
12.1
15.6
7.1
13.7
6.4
15.6
9.3
15.6
8.8
17.1
9
15.6
7.7
15.6
8.4
16.1
8.2
17.6
12.5
18.5
11.4
14.6
7.6
10.7
6.5
19.5
9.5
13.6
7.8
13.7
7.7
13.2
8.4
12.7
8.5
14.1
7.9
16.6
14.7
15.6
15.1
12.7
14.7
10.7
16.2
15.6
15.5
10.7
15.6
11.7
12.4
13.7
12.8
13.7
14.5
12.7
16.7
20.9
17
22.1
17.8
22
18.8
22
18.6
24.7
21.6
22.9
19
17.5
18.3
21.5
16.4
23
20
23.9
21.1
23.8
13.9
28
13.9
25.6
13
27.5
14.3
30.1
13.8
28.5
16.1
29.9
18.2
24.2
19.7
26.5
19.9
27.5
20.9
16.7
11.8
16.3
11.2
15.9
10.7
18.6
11.6
15.4
12.3
19.1
13.5
23.6
13.3
27.6
14.7
23.6
13.4
24.5
15.5
18.7
11.5
13.4
11
13
11.2
13.9
10.1
15.4
12.6
16.3
13.7
17.3
14.2
17.7
14.8
17.2
13.8
19.5
15.5
16.3
13.6
13.4
13.3
15
13.2
14.5
13
16.8
13.6
18.1
15.5
17.7
17.1
19
18.8
17.7
19.4
19
18.4
17.1
8.5
15.4
7.5
17.5
7.1
18.1
6.9
16.8
10.5
19
8.9
21.3
8
22.7
7.4
23.2
7.6
22.7
7.8
17.8
9.2
21.5
8.8
15.6
6.8
13.7
8.3
27.3
9.7
18
11.6
13.2
10.3
14.3
9.8
12.7
10.8
13
10.3
16.6
6
12.7
6.4
12.7
8.7
14.1
9.6
14.1
7.3
20
6.8
14.6
6.4
14.6
5.2
15.2
6.5
19.5
6.2
12.8
11.7
22.8
12.5
24
8.7
23.3
9.6
23.8
12.4
22.4
9
18.3
6.4
11.9
9.5
16.5
10.7
14.6
7.9
21.9
30.2
24
23.3
26.5
21.9
18.3
43.4
21.5
18.3
DIC Baddi
194 | Page
Table 53: Air Quality of RSPM
4.9
Institutional
mechanisms
within the sector to address
identified environment issues
The HPPWD is moving towards accreditation
for quality assurance systems under ISO 90013.
It has also been agreed to aim for accreditation
for ISO 14001, which covers environmental
issues of corporate activities, including an
Nov., 2008
Dec., 2008
Jan., 2009
Feb., 2009
Mar., 2009
46.3
53.7
81
90.3
94.8
102.6
46.4
55.3
145.7
28.2
142.4
51.7
171.4
61.3
176.6
86.8
449.3
98.8
559.2
127.8
102
49.4
125.5
49.3
61.6
39.7
120.7
36.6
145.3
63.3
159.1
43.2
200.6
68.6
274.9
54.2
101.4
96.9
129.1
60.2
101.8
48
68.6
55
106.5
66.6
71.8
55.7
154.8
56.9
87.5
53.1
174.6
62
184.3
67.3
73
66
164
75
194
83.6
90
73.2
171
88
157
75.4
173
71.3
189.5
84.7
101
225
142
277
132
243.6
124
235.7
155
312.2
123
228.5
129
260.3
151
284.9
440
69
465
60
361
84
288
68.2
766
103.7
356
110.9
364
70.1
472
117
219
82
151
68
223
83.1
143
90
185
114
166
104
141
86
258
102.6
166
178
143
216
411
154.1
165
183
326
201.6
135
205.9
142
179.1
224
157.3
351
31
435
50
483
64.5
273
84.7
335
86.1
348
87.3
271
73.5
300
71.3
89
43
102
61
168.6
63
161.3
99
152
126.7
202.1
109.3
151.8
129.4
136.9
110.3
98
57
114
51.5
117
47
190.4
36.7
282.7
41.8
293.3
51.4
258.7
56
185.3
83
137
57
116
51.5
161
62
102
46.6
125
51.3
108
53
107
60.3
142
87.3
137
116
119
103
91
104
92
221
Oct., 2008
Sept.,2008
Monthly
142 186
134
85.9
Average
Peak
247 613.5 261.5 172.8
Monthly
101.1 64
Housing
1
1
Average
Board,
Peak
184.6 195.1
Baddi
1
1
Monthly
89.8
50.4
1
1
A.H.C.
Average
Barotiwala
Peak
134.7 131.1
1
1
Regional
Monthly
56
70
53
51.3
Office,
Average
Damtal
Peak
06
114
97
88
Monthly
65
88
68
62.4
Old Road,
Average
Damtal
Peak
95
159
106
125
Monthly
234 236
248
223
Kala Amb Average
Peak
486 595
472
422
Kala
Monthly
112 107
110
90
Amb,
Average
Trilokpur
Peak
165 158
177
145
Monthly
99
96
105
33
Paonta
Average
Sahib
Peak
163 187
276
165
Paonta
Monthly
134 191
134
167
Sahib,
Average
Gondpur
Peak
306 385
214
387
Monthly
56
75
64
39
Parwanoo,
Average
Sec-4
Peak
101 147
220
158
Monthly
130 113
98
80
Parwanoo,
Average
Sec-1
Peak
217 297
185
207
Tekka
Monthly
62
73
45
40
Bench,
Average
Shimla
Peak
142 161
85
130
Monthly
62
73
65
60
Bus Stand
Average
Shimla
Peak
120 247
124
124
Source: State Pollution Control Board, Himachal Pradesh
DIC
Baddi
Aug., 2008
July, 2008
June, 2008
RSPM in
3
µg/ m
May, 2008
Location
April, 2008
Month
environment policy and overall environment
strategy and management systems. Both are
important for the introduction of a well
organised system of slope stabilisation and
protection works. The Department would
develop specific environmental measures, such
as how to cope with spoil during maintenance
(as distinct from during construction and
widening). The implementation of the State
Roads Project through a Corporation (the
195 | Page
Himachal
Pradesh Road and Other
Infrastructure
Development
Corporation
Limited or (HPRIDC). It is important that the
introduction of bio-engineering works follows a
strategy that promotes this modernisation of
governance, rather than adding to the
organisation that needs to be reformed.
Upgrading works will be executed by
contractors to be supervised by an independent
engineer (Supervision Consultant) under this
project. A Technical Examiner (also
independent consultant) will assess the Periodic
Maintenance Works. On a pilot basis, bioengineering works using local plant species will
be given trials to rehabilitate some vulnerable
Figure 1:
locations and identified dumping sites along
road stretches subject to periodic maintenance.
The organizational-cum-function chart of the
Public Works Department, Himachal Pradesh
indicating its organizational set up and
functions at different levels of hierarchy, is
shown in Figure 1.
Organizational-cum-function chart of the Pulibc Works Department, Himachal
Pradesh
The Organizational Structure of the Transport
Department is given in Figure 2. The sector is
affected by outdated management and
implementation practices.
196 | Page
Figure 2: The Organizational Structure of the Transpor t Department
4.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations
and
changing
lifestyles;
migratory
populations
including
tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
Himachal Pradesh is the leader in road
development among the hill States, it has yet
to implement its own targets and meet its
requirements. Only half of the roads are allweather roads, large stretches are unmetalled
and of inferior quality with poor compacting
and drainage. The road system is totally
inadequate to meet the needs of the greatly
expanded tourist industry which has to
become a dynamic component of the
economic development of Himachal Pradesh.
There is a need for construction of roads all
over the inhabited area. As of March 2009,
status of connectivity of villages with
motorable road is given in Table 54. In this
context, it is necessary to emphasize the
importance of taking adequate care to
preserve the environment of this beautiful hill
State when constructing roads.
197 | Page
Table 54: Village Connectivity with Motorable road as on 31.3.2009
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Name of
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total:-
Total Nos of
Villages
962
1113
1634
3614
233
172
284
2823
2515
966
2378
755
17449
No. of Villages
No. of Villages Un- %age of Connected
Connected with Road connected with Road
Villages
651
311
67.67
488
625
43.85
1069
565
65.42
2194
1420
60.71
58
175
24.89
109
63
63.37
118
166
41.55
11529
1294
54.16
926
1589
36.82
616
350
63.77
1049
1329
44.11
437
318
57.88
9244
8205
52.98
Tehsil wise Connectivity of Pucca Roads:
As per Census 2001, the number and
percentage of villages connected by pucca road.
Districts/ tehsil wise connectivity of roads is
given in Table 55.
Table 55: Village Connected by pucca road
District
Tehsil
CD block
Chamba
Pangi
(%)
29.8
32.9
5.1
Nos
333
79
3
Chaurah
11.9
23
Salooni
Bhalai
Dalhousie
Bhattiyat
Sihunta
Holi
Bharmaur
25.8
37.7
44.6
43.8
43.2
23.4
25.9
53.2
52
55.4
62.6
38.3
44.8
42.3
46.3
51.6
48.8
27
49.9
54.7
32
29
54
53
35
11
14
513
78
154
194
87
733
145
157
160
218
53
1809
170
Chamba
Chamba
Bilaspur
Bilaspur
Nainadevi
Billaspur Sadar
Ghumarwin
Jhanduta
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Bijhri
Bhoranj
Nadaun
Sujanpur Tira
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kangra
villages connected by pucca road
Kangra
198 | Page
District
Tehsil
CD block
Nurpur
Indora
Fatehpur
Jawali
Harchakiran
Shahpur
Dharamshala
Baroh
Dehra Gopipur
Jaswan
Rakkar
Kundian
Thural
Dhira
Jaisinghpur
Palampur
Baijnath
Multhan
Kinnaur
Kinnaur
Hangrang
Poo
Morang
Kalpa
Nichar
Sangla
Kullu
Kullu
Naggar
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Lahaul
Spiti
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Mandi
Mandi
Padhar
Jogindarnagar
Bharol
Sandhol
Dharampur
Kotli
Sarkaghat
villages connected by pucca road
(%)
51.2
59.9
31.7
55.6
39.7
61.3
72.5
26.9
50.9
51.2
90.1
15.7
32.5
38.9
52.3
55.3
65.3
20
33.3
40
30
23.7
58
29.5
25
47.7
60
73
28.6
35.3
26.9
30.3
30.2
30.5
25.9
34.6
18.5
40.5
9
1.6
37.1
73
25.7
Nos
198
67
72
110
23
100
111
43
206
44
91
34
27
44
114
218
130
7
78
6
8
9
22
26
7
82
30
27
12
6
7
87
58
29
748
128
35
83
13
1
33
46
70
199 | Page
District
Tehsil
CD block
Baldwara
Sundarnaggar
Aut
Bali chokri
Thunag
Chachyot
Nihri
Karsog
Shimla
Shimla
Shimla (rural)
Shimla urban)
Rampur
Nankhari
Kumharsain
Seoni
Junga
Theog
Chaupal
Cheta
Nerua
Jubbal
Kotkhai
Tikar
Rohru
Chirgaon
Dodra Kawar
Sirmaur
Sirmaur
Rajgarh
Nohra
Pachhad
Renuka
Dadahu
Nahan
Paonta Sahib
Kamrau
Shillai
Ronhat
Solan
Arki
Solan
Una
Solan
Kunihar
Kandaghat
Dharampur
Nalagarh
villages connected by pucca road
(%)
37
46.6
33.9
9.3
17.8
28.2
13.7
18.4
18.9
24.6
25.5
8.1
34.3
27.7
23.7
20.8
10.7
2.4
7.9
13
14.5
14.6
12
4.3
32.8
35
21.3
24
21.6
9.6
47.8
61.9
33.3
14.3
9.1
32.8
40.2
28.9
27.5
30.3
34.6
59.3
Nos
50
75
20
9
30
42
28
85
477
124
39
7
57
56
14
83
13
1
15
17
25
6
15
5
317
49
10
63
16
7
65
86
15
4
2
783
192
138
74
165
214
450
200 | Page
District
Una
Tehsil
CD block
villages connected by pucca road
(%)
89.2
50.2
49.7
60
100
Una
Amb
Bangana
Bharwain
Haroli
District wise status of roads with respect to no.
of households, transport, parking facilities
villages connected with amenities in Himachal
Pradesh is described below.
Nos
124
122
152
27
25
area of 23.29 hectare which is 16.45% of the
total urban area and 2.47% of planning area.
Bilaspur: Road passing through Bilaspur
Planning Area are; i) Chandigarh-Manali
National Highway 21 connecting Bilaspur with
Chandigarh on one side and Mandi-KulluManali on other side; ii) Shimla-Dharamshala
National Highway 88 connecting Bilaspur with
Shimla on one side and Hamirpur-KangraDharamshala on other side.
Mandi: There a good network of inter and
intra district roads which provide accessibility
to town from its hinter land. Four roads are
passes through Mandi Planning Area. These
roads are; i) Chandigarh-Manali National
Highway-21 connecting Chandigarh on one
side and Manali on other side; ii) PathankotMandi National Highway-20; iii) HoshiarpurDharampur-Mandi Highway-70; and iv)
Hoshiarpur- Mandi State Highway-32.
The roads emanating from Bilaspur Town are;
i) State Arterial road A-IV Bilaspur to
Kandrour via Chandpur connecting National
Highway 88 at Kandrour; ii) Link road from
Bilaspur to Shira- Bandla- Brahmpukhar; iii)
Link road from Badhyat to Sungal via Nog.
Beside above, numbers of internal roads are
existing in the town. The lengths of these roads
are 23.40 Km. Status of road in Bilaspur with
respect to households is given in Table 56.
Five roads has been emanating from Mandi
Planning Area. These roads are i) A single lane
By-Pass connecting Talyar with National
Highway-21 at Mangwain; ii) Mandi-Majhwar
road via Mohal Nela; iii) Mandi-Skore road via
Mohal Purani Mandi; iv) Kataula road through
Mohal Khaliar and Mohal Chippnu; and v) Link
road through connecting Bir-Tungal. Besides
above, a number of internal roads exist in town.
The length of these roads is 3.73 kilometer.
Table 56: Status of
District
Solan: The National Highway No. 22 is a
prominent road passing through Solan town. It
is an important road from many points of view.
Firstly it is a defence road connecting Delhi,
Dehradun, Ambala and Chandigarh to the
China Border. Next it is the life line of State as
well as all raw products, building materials,
passengers, goods etc. come through this route
only. It is on account of its significance that
there are two by-passes within Solan Planning
Area. These are: i) Solan by- pass linking
Saproon and Chambaghat; and ii) Barog bypass linking Saproon and Kumarhatti via Anji
& Raboun.
Road
in
Bilaspur
Sr.
House
Approach road
Percentage
No
hold
1.
Motorable
2031
50.10 %
2.
Jeepable road
699
17.24 %
3.
Foot path
1044
25.75 %
4.
No path
280
6.91 %
Total
4054
100.00 %
Source: - Survey by H.P. Town and Country Planning
Department 2002
Existing Road Network in Chamba
District: The major roads including State
Highway emanating form the town, local roads
as well as by lanes interlinking various mohallas
in main town and localities in newly developing
area, bus stand, work shop, parking lot have an
201 | Page
Besides N.H.-22, The Solan has many other
important roads connecting Solan to its nearby
areas, towns or settlements. These are: i) Solan Rajgarh road; ii) Solan - Subathu - Arki Road;
iii) Solan - Kandaghat road via Basal and
Salumana; iv) Solan - Jaunaji – Road; v) Solan Damrog - Jatoli road; and vi) Solan - Ashwani
Khad road. It will ultimately connect Solan to
Herth as well as Chail.
Kullu: The area under consideration depends
almost entirely upon the road system for its
transportation requirements, except a small airstrip. The NH-21 passes through all the major
settlements i.e. Bajaura, Bhuntar, Kullu,
Katrain, Patlikuhal Manali etc. of the valley and
connects them with each other. From Aut to
Manali this road runs parallel to river Beas on
its western bank after Manali, where it crosses
the river. This road carries total intra-regional
as well as inter-regional traffic to and from the
valley. Hence, this road is the backbone of
transportation network of the Kullu region.
Another most significant traffic artery of the
area is Kullu-Manali road via Naggar and
Jagatsukh. It runs parallel to the Beas on its
eastern bank from just opposite to Kullu town
to Manali where it joins with NH-21. This road
links the eastern and western banks of the Beas.
It connects the important settlements on the
eastern bank of the river such as Jagatsukh,
Sarsai, Haripur and Naggar etc. Eastern bank of
the valley is well known for apple and other
fruit crops. Total length of this road from Kullu
to Manali is 39 km.
Besides, the above mentioned roads which
serve the entire valley there are other link roads
such as Babeli-Jindore mule road, Chhaten SeriBenchi, Dobhi-Phojal up to Neri, Dobhi school
to Gharakar, Shirar – Bysor to village Shirar,
Katrain-Channi up to Jandi, Katrian to Ghuntu
Bag, Patlikuhal Naggar, Patlikuhal, BaragranHallan, NH-21 to Bran, Bhang to Burua,
Shanag to Goshal and Palchan - Burua to
Cajhech on right bank of river Beas and
Seobagh to left bank, Kais-Soi-Sor-Jana,
Nagger to Pulgan, Naggar-Patlikuhal, NaggarJana, Chakki-Hallan, Sarsai-15 mile, Jagatsukh,
Hamta pass, link to village Kothi and Palchan
to Naggar on left bank etc. Most of the rural
settlements are far off from traffic routes,
hence have poor accessibility. In spite of the
fact that roads are the only means of
transportation in the valley, the road network is
not efficient to meet the existing transportation
needs of the valley, particularly in rural areas.
Shimla: The transportation network is
predominantly road based. The role of railway
in meeting the requirements of commuters in
Shimla is insignificant. The internal circulation
pattern of the city is linear and the natural
geographical hill spurs have governed the
network pattern. Following are the main roads,
which serve the Shimla Planning Area.
National Highways
•
Chandigarh-Kaurik National Highway
-22: Chandigarh -Kaurick National
Highway-22 connects Shimla with Solan,
Kalka, Parwanoo and Chandigarh, on one
hand and Narkanda and Rampur, on the
other. Its width ranges from 10 metres to
12 metres.
• Shimla-Mataur
(Kangra)
Road
National Highway -88: Shimla -Mataur
National Highway-88 connects Shimla city
with Ghagas, Hamirpur, Jawala Ji, Kangra
and Mataur on Pathankot-Mandi National
Highway-20. Its width ranges from 6
metres to 9 metres. Its length within
Shimla Planning Area is about 13
kilometres. i.e. from Shimla town to
Ghanahatti. It acts as lifeline for populous
belt of the state.
• Tutikandi-Dhalli By- Pass: This
Bypass connects barrier with Khalini,
New Shimla, Kasumpti and further
Dhalli. It is acting as an alternate route
and easing the heavy traffic load of the
Cart road. Its length within Shimla
Planning Area is about 25 kilometers
and its width ranges from 9 metres to
12 metres.
202 | Page
State Highways
•
Cart road/Circular Road
The Cart Road is the main arterial road
of the city, which runs parallel to the
Mall in the city area, serving the various
parts of the Shimla city. The width of
Cart road ranges from 5 meter to 8
meter.
• Regional Roads
Major arterial roads which emanate
from the city are Tara Devi-JubbarhattiKunihar road, Dhalli-Tattapani road,
Kufri-Chail road and Kasumpti-Junga
road.
• The Mall
The Mall is a "pedestrian artery". The
main town has grown up in the form of
a crescent around it. The commercial
central area along the Mall is the hub of
social life.
Una: Nangal – Una – Amb road which passes
through the town is acting as its lifeline. This
highway divides the Una town into two halves
i.e. North – Old town and South newly
developed areas. Other major roads connect it
with Hamirpur, Mandi, Nangal town ship,
Amb, Hoshiarpur, Pathankot, Chintpurni,
Gagret, Santokhgarh and Mehatpur. It has an
excellent model location and known as
Gateway of North Himachal. A pedestrian path
has been proposed on Una-Ki-Khud joining 84
pouries with the D.A.V. school to ease the
pedestrian rush of the students on the State
Highway especially on the bridge site.
Bilaspur: The area existing under major roads
including National Highway- 21, other link
roads passing through the Planning Area and
parking places is 81.74 Hectare, which is 7.28%
of the Planning Area. The National Highway-21
passes through Bilaspur Planning Area. Traffic
volume on this Highway has increased due to
the Associated Cement Companies (ACC)’s
Cement Factory, at a distance of 23 Kilometre
at Barmana, which generates about 400 trucks
per day out of which majority of trucks passes
through Bilaspur town enroute to nearest
broad-gauge railhead at Kiratpur Sahib.
Parking Facility: Parking is a major problem
in all urban areas of the State. According to the
survey conducted by H. P. Town and Country
Planning Department, 36% households do not
have any parking facility, out of which 98% are
parking the vehicles on roadside resulting traffic
jams and causing accidents as given in Table 57.
Therefore parking facilities have to be created
in new areas. The over all parking problems can
be solved by creating private parking spaces as
a commercial venture and by making
mandatory provisions in the Zoning
Regulations in this regard.
Table 57: Availability of Parking Facilities
Sr.
No
1.
2.
Availability
House hold
Percentage
Yes
850
64 %
No
480
36 %
Total
1330
100 %
Source: Survey by H.P. Town and Country Planning Dpeartment
2002.
The 64% households have parking facilities.
Majorities of the households’ i.e. 97.92 % who
do not have any parking facility are parking
their vehicles on road as given in Table 58.
Table 58: Non -Availability of Parking
Facilities
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
Non-availability/
House
Percentage
alternative used
hold
On road side
470
97.92 %
Paid parking
10
2.08 %
Free parking
Total
480
100 %
Source: Survey by H.P. Town and Country Planning Dpeartment
2002
Mandi: The area existing under circulation
network is 50.86 ha which includes National
Highway 20, 21 and 78 with 23.59 ha area, State
Highway-32 with 5.90 ha area and other
internal roads with 29.37 ha area. The existing
area under Terminal Facilities i.e. Bus Terminal
is 0.41 ha. Under Parking Facilities 0.42 ha area
is existing this way total existing area under
traffic and transportation use works out to
51.69 ha which is 2.25% of the Planning Area.
203 | Page
Una: A by-pass road connectivity is required
for the traffic of state Highways Nangal – Una
– Amb road and other major roads with four
lanes and internal roads with two lanes are also
required to be provided. For increasing
vehicular traffic, parking, repair and terminal
facilities will have to be provided on the
outskirts of the town. Bus stand has quite
inadequate area to cater the present and future
increasing vehicular traffic and passing facilities.
It is proposed that present HRTC workshop
situated in the heart of the town on proposed
to be utilized to construct a modern Bus stand
with modern amenities for passengers. The
scattered mechanical repair shops/workshops
and service stations on State Highway and
other roads creating traffic hazards is proposed
to be shifted on old Hoshiarpur road in sector-I
and space between Basoli road and Basoli-KiKhud i.e. on Una-Nangal road in Sector-IV.
The Una-Ki-Khud is proposed to be
channelised to use the waste land and to utilize
this land for the purpose or urbanization. It will
also solve the problem of floods which due to
this adjoining residential areas.
Chamba: The major roads including State
Highway emanating form the town, local roads
as well as by lanes interlinking various mohallas
in main town and localities in newly developing
area, bus stand, workshop, parking lot have an
area of 23.29 ha which is 16.45% of the total
urban area and 2.47% of Planning Area. As per
survey conducted, there are 7.2% taxies and
27.74% buses as means of transport per day.
However during the peak season of tourists and
Manimahesh Yatra the number of cars/taxis
and buses increased 5 times to ten times
respectively.
Parking of vehicles particularly of the private
ones, trucks and taxis is as over problem. The
vehicles are parked anywhere on the roadside in
the town in a haphazard manner, particularly in
central commercial area i.e. Chaugan Bazar of
the town and near the public places in the
morning and evening peak hours. Much
unauthorized and haphazard parking reduces
the effective width of road, thereby hindering
the smooth flow of traffic. Location wise status
of parking in Chamba Planning Area is given in
Table 59.
Table 59: Parking Status
Planning Area
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
Location
Nearby Shitla
Bridge on Chamba
Pathankot road
Nearby Sultanpur
Chowk
Baloo Chowk area
Zero Chowk
(organized
parking)
Zero Chowk on
Chamba –
Bharmaur road
Hardaspura
Chowk
Nearby main post
office
On Museum Road
On Chaugan Road
near Hospital
Parking near the
District Court
in
Chamba
Four
Two
Wheeler
Wheeler
(LV)
Four
wheele
r (HV)
48
50
15
25
63
24
20
4
25
10
13
14
3
12
6
2
1
1
35
15
-
15
35
11
13
-
28
4
-
Kullu: Three rope ways at places like Raison,
Rampur and Baner, are of great significance to
the adjoining areas since they join the two parts
of the valley. Approximately 32% of tourists
plus local passenger traffic is catered by public
transport constituting of private and public
buses, whereas remaining 68% of tourist /
passenger traffic depend upon private light
motor vehicles.
The National Highway-21 passes through the
Kullu Valley Planning Area and occupies 45.45
ha of area in the left out Kullu Valley Planning
Area. The other roads occupies 60.74 ha
including circulation network, bus stops,
parking spaces occupy 2.81 ha area. The total
area under traffic and transportation including
circulation network, bus stops and parking
spaces is 109 ha, which is 1.84% of the left out
Kullu Valley Planning area.
Parking of vehicles, particularly that of the
privately owned taxies and auto is a critical
problem. These vehicles are parked any where
204 | Page
on the sides of roads at Duara, Patlikuhal,
Naggar, Jagatsukh and Palchan etc. in a
haphazard manner. The problem of parking is
worst in Alu ground, Patlikuhal, Bandrol and
Naggar bazaar area. The maximum private
hotels do not have sufficient space for parking
within their premises. The survey conducted by
the Department in the commercial areas at the
nodal locations as given in the Table 60,
vehicles are parked on road side and there are
no other developed parking spaces available in
these areas.
Table 60: Location of parking spaces
Sr.
No.
1.
Location of Site
Village Bandrol
2.
3.
4.
Village Duara
Village Patlikuhal
Village Barod
5.
6.
7.
Village Naggar
Village Jagatsukh
Village Palchan
Total
District wise transport facility is given in Table
61.
Capacity
12 taxies, 40 trucks and
12 tractors.
10 taxies and 30 trucks.
35 taxies and 40 trucks.
15 taxies, 100 trucks and
15 Buses.
25 taxies and 5 trucks.
8 taxies and 5 trucks.
30 taxies, 35 trucks, 12
tractors and 15 buses.
135 taxies, 228 trucks,
12 tractors and 15
buses
Table 61: Transport Facility in Himachal Pradesh
District
CD Block
Chamba
Chamba
Pangi
Tissa
Saluni
Chamba
Bhattiyat
Mehla
Bharmaur
Bilaspur
Bilaspur
Ghumarwin
Geharwin
Bilaspur Sadar
Hamirpur
Hamirpur
Sujanpur Tira
Nadaun
Hamirpur
Bijhri
Bhoranj
Kangra
Kangra
Nurpur
Indora
Fatehpur
Nagrota Surian
Bus Service
402
3
37
101
60
141
33
27
574
144
184
246
891
91
266
155
194
185
2127
180
107
122
97
Railway
Station
57
1
1
1
18
Navigable
Waterway
4
2
2
185
2
111
72
43
1
16
10
205 | Page
District
CD Block
Bus Service
Pragpur
Dehra
Kangra
Rait
Nagrota Bagwan
Bhawarna
Lambagraon
Baijnath
Panchrukhi
185
263
166
141
180
216
172
129
169
90
38
28
24
111
29
33
24
13
12
167
118
49
1,207
117
115
129
174
101
110
173
92
55
141
54
98
94
127
198
113
91
134
68
15
523
83
113
112
125
58
32
1210
272
323
223
249
Kinnaur
Kinnaur
Pooh
Kalpa
Nichar
Kullu
Kullu
Naggar
Kullu
Banjar
Ani
Nirmand
Lahaul & Spiti
Lahaul & Spiti
Lahaul
Spiti
Mandi
Mandi
Chauntra
Drang
Dharampur
Gopalpur
Sundarnaggar
Rawalsar
Mandi Sadar
Chachyot
Seraj
Karsog
Shimla
Shimla
Rampur
Narkanda
Theog
Mashobra
Basantpur
Chaupal
Jubbal Kotkhai
Rohru
Chauhra
Sirmaur
Sirmaur
Rajgarh
Pachhad
Nahan
Paonta Sahib
Sangrah
Shillai
Solan
Solan
Kunihar
Nalagarh
Dharampur
Solan
Railway
Station
1
3
8
8
5
5
6
9
8
1
55
9
1
22
1
10
5
Navigable
Waterway
1
10
1
2
2
14
1
12
1
56
4
-
206 | Page
District
CD Block
Bus Service
Kandaghat
143
489
110
75
211
93
6787
Una
Amb
Gagret
Una
Dhundla
Una
Himachal Pradesh (Total)
Railway
Station
6
3
3
146
Navigable
Waterway
302
Details of district wise connectivity of road &
road density is given in Table 62
Table 62: District Level Connectivity of Roads
Position as on 31.03.09
2008-09
2008-09
Unmetalled
Total
2008-09
Metalled
District
Road density
per 100 Sq.Kms.of Area
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul-Spiti
1098
1036
1352
4080
439
765
512
987
437
362
1188
287
747
657
2085
1473
1714
5268
726
1512
1169
31.94
126.22
153.31
91.79
11.34
27.48
8.45
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
H.P.
2166
2000
1123
1263
1456
17290
2440
2820
1641
1244
202
13012
4606
4820
2764
2507
1658
30302
116.61
93.94
97.84
129.49
107.66
54.43
District wise details of registered of motor
vehicles is given in Table 63.
Types of Vehicles
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
L&S
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Table 63: District wise Number of Registered Motor Vehicles (2008)
Buses
21
73
75
98
14
55
3
90
20
17
138
41
Trucks
Motor
cycle/scooter
Private cars
160
238
219
348
79
194
4
258
328
240
3088
20
951
1105
2218
7807
43
840
79
2646
893
2324
3879
3686
472
592
756
2314
214
999
28
1318
2260
546
1760
543
Jeeps
45
20
27
140
34
137
2
111
96
58
71
38
Tractors
25
59
131
156
9
36
24
118
17
113
131
-
Water tankers
-
4
2
-
7
-
-
3
2
-
-
-
Departmental cars
1
4
-
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
207 | Page
Chamba
Bilaspur
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
L&S
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
167
233
181
250
83
563
36
394
270
166
386
77
Types of Vehicles
others
Total
1842 2328 3609
Source: Registration & Licensing Authorities of H.P
11113
484
2824
176
4939
3887
3465
9453
4405
Details of registered vehicles during 2006 –
2008 are given in Table 64.
Table 64: State Level (Registered Vehicles)
Year
Buses
Trucks
Motor
cycle/scooter
Private
cars
Jeeps
Tractors
Water
tankers
Departmental
cars
others
Total
2006
1071
2956
29175
14506
1549
1189
74
49
2969
53640
2007
576
5397
32953
13175
2079
1132
64
194
6635
62205
2008
645
5176
26471
11802
779
819
18
9
2806
48525
Details of registered vehicles during 2005 –
2007 are given in Table 65.
Note: Data collect from Statistical Outline of Himachal Pradesh
Table 65: Number of Registered Motor
Vehicles
4.11
Sr.
No.
Category of Vehicles
Registered during the
year
2005
2006
2007
1
Buses
2
Trucks
2176
2436
5397
3
Motor cycles/Scooters
20170
29175
32953
4
Pvt. Cars
5682
14506
131755
5
Jeeps
1053
1549
2079
6
Pick up vans
1336
833
1132
7
Tractors
815
1189
2267
8
Statio Wagons
14
2
127
9
Petrol/water tankers
141
74
64
10
Delivery vans
27
95
26
11
Cabs (Taxies etc.)
421
102
293
12
-
298
457
1120
2728
3464
14
Omni Buses
Others (Tempo, Crane,
Ambulance etc)
Deptt. Cars
95
18
194
15
Maxi Cabs
-
1
1
33409
53640
62205
13
356
Total
634
576
Source: Concerned Registration and Licensing Authority, H.P
2007-08
Information on human resource
management issues (which
may
have
relevance
to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational training, awareness
levels etc.
Himachal Pradesh Public Works Department is
headed by the Engineer-in-Chief with
Headquarters at Shimla. Works and matters
regarding codes, Specifications, Planning &
Monitoring, Inter-State Connectivity for the
entire State and also the entire establishments
of PWD are controlled by the Engineer-inChief. On administrative and functional
considerations, the department has been
divided into three zones namely North, Central
and South Zones. All the three zones are
headed by Chief Engineers. Headquarters of
South Zone is at Shimla; those of North and
Central Zones are at Dharamshala and Mandi
respectively.
208 | Page
Chief Engineer (National Highways) with
headquarters at Shimla controls the Planning
and Execution of works of National Highways
traversing through the State.
Engineer-in-Chief (Quality & Design) acts as
State Level Quality Co-Ordinator for achieving
quality parameters of works in the State.
Material Testing Laboratories at State level and
Zonal Laboratories are under his control. He
conducts quality control checks throughout the
State. He is the in-charge for Standardization
of Designs and Drawings for Buildings, Bridges
and Assurance of common Technical
Instructions, Manual of Order, Codes &
Specifications, Schedule of Rates, Training
Programs, Workshops and allied fields, etc.
Chief Engineer (PMGSY) is monitoring,
planning and having day to day interaction with
Govt. of India (MORD) for the works of
PMGSY and PMGSY (World Bank) funded
projects through National Rural Road
Development Agency (NRRDA).
Chief Engineer (Electrical) controls the works
related to electrical installation, central heatin,g
air conditioning, lifts, fire-fighting, fire alarm
system, L.T. Sub-Station, Public Address
system and CCTV systems in all Govt.
residential & non-residential buildings.
Chief Architect is heading Architectural Wing
at Shimla. This wing deals with all Architectural
planning for buildings undertaken by PWD
under North, South and Central Zones. In
addition, this wing also undertakes consultancy
jobs for corporate bodies and institutions, such
as Regional Engineering College Hamirpur
and Railways, etc.
Superintending Engineer Arbitration Circle
Solan deals with the entire arbitration cases of
the Department.
Duties and responsibilities of officers in the
Department of Transport, Himachal
Pradesh are described below.
1.
Director Transport, Himachal Pradesh
i)
Director Transport being administrative
head of the Transport Department in the
State is responsible for the efficient
working of Transport Department
exercise all administrative and financial
powers as adjoined upon the heads of the
department in Himachal Pradesh.
ii)
S/He is also the Chairman of Regional
Transport Authorities constituted by the
Govt. of HP.
iii) S/He shall submit to the Govt. budget
and
appropriation
proposals
in
consolidated form for the department as
a whole for consideration/approval.
iv) S/he shall ensure the implementation of
Central Motor Vehicle Act/Rules, HP
Motor Vehicle Rules, HP Motor Vehicle
Taxation Act/Rules in letter and spirit.
v)
S/He approves all kinds of models of
vehicles to be allowed to be registered in
the State.
vi) S/he shall submit proposals regarding
policy matters pertaining to the
department to the Additional Chief
Secretary (Transport) for finalization.
vii) S/He shall ensure the achievements of
financial targets set by the Govt.
viii) S/He also recommends the cases to the
Govt. for allotment of Registration series
to all the RTOs/RLAs in Himachal
Pradesh.
ix) S/he has over all control over all the
RTOs in the Himachal Pradesh and also
exercise in direct control over R&Ls for
realization of taxes due the State under
the Motor Vehicle Act/Rules and HP
Motor Vehicle Taxation Act and as well
as settlement of audit paragraphs
pertaining to them and issue directions
thereof.
x)
S/he is also Chairman-cum-Chief
Executive Officer of E-Governance
Society of Transport Department, HP.
xi) S/He shall exercise all the powers
delegated to him/her by the State Govt.
209 | Page
from time to time and is directly
answerable to the Govt.
2.
Additional Commissioner TransportCum-Secretary, State Transport
Authority, HP
i)
The Additional Commissioner Transportcum- Secretary, STA, HP shall assist the
Director Transport in the performance of
his/her duties and responsibilities and all
proposal shall have to be initiated
through him/her to the Head of
Department.
ii)
S/he has been delegated with the powers
of Head of Offices in Directorate & S/he
will be responsible for administrative
matters of the Department.
iii) S/he also acts as controlling officers of
RTOs in Transport Department and
issues necessary directions/clarifications
to them.
iv) S/he shall be required to inspect the
working of all the RTO offices and after
inspecting, the field offices will record
inspection notes.
v)
S/he will also exercise financial power
attached to his/her post in the capacity of
being controlling officer.
vi) S/he will act as Nodal Officer in respect
of Transport Department for issues
related to the preparation of Long Term
Master Plan for HP.
vii) S/he will act as Ex-officio-Vigilance
Officer in respect of Transport
Department.
viii) S/he shall have to finalize the reciprocal
agreements on behalf of HP Govt. with
the adjoining states.
ix) Public Information Officer under RTI
Act, 2005 in Directorate of Transport,
HP.
x) Being a Secretary, STA, S/he is also
looking after the following jobs:
•
Registering
authority
for
commercial vehicles such as
Taxi/Maxi/ Contract carriage
buses and also for non-transport
xi)
vehicles under the HP 62 & HP
62 A series.
•
Grant of Taxi/Maxi Permits
•
Grant of National Permits of
Trucks.
•
Grant of All India Permits for
Contract Carriage Buses/within
state permits.
•
Compounding challan powers to
streamline the traffic.
•
Appellate Authority under section
15(1) of Himachal Pradesh Motor
Vehicle Taxation Act, 1972.
•
To co-ordinate and regulate the
activities and policies of RTA.
•
To settle all disputes and decide all
the matters on which differences
of opinion arise between RTAs.
•
Licensing Authority including
International Driving License.
•
Member
Secretary
of
EGovernance Society of Transport
Department.
Any other job assigned by the Head of
Department.
3.
Joint Commissioner Transport-CumRegional Transport Officer (Flying
Squad)
i)
Clarification / directions regarding Stage
Carriage Permits / Time Tables / Inter
state
agreements
with
Regional
Transport Offices in the State through
Additional Commissioner Transport.
To check the illegal plying of vehicles in
all over he State and vested with
compounding / challan powers to
streamline the traffic in accordance with
provisions of Motor Vehicle Act/Rules,
HP Motor Vehicle Rules, HP Motor
Vehicle Taxation Act/ Rules and also
realize the taxes on the spot, due
towards State of HP.
Power to renew / NOC of driving
licenses issued earlier. iv) Any other job
assigned by the Head of Department.
ii)
iii)
210 | Page
4.
Regional Transport Officers
(Shimla/Solan/ Sirmaur/ Una/
Bilaspur / Hamirpur/Dharamshala/
Mandi/ Kullu & Chamba)
i)
He is the Head of office and assigned
the powers of DDOs being a
Controlling officer.
ii)
iii)
To check the illegal plying of vehicles in
his/her jurisdiction and compounding /
challan powers to streamline the traffic
as RTO.
Powers to issue (basic & National
permits for goods vehicles, three
wheeler/stage
Carriage/Taxi/Maxis as sanctioned by
the STA/RTA.
ii)
To check the illegal plying of vehicles in
his/her jurisdiction and compounding
challan powers to streamline the traffic as
RTO Flying Squad.
iii)
Any other job assigned by the Head of
Department.
6.
Assistant Commissioner Transport
(Technical)
i)
He is the head of Technical Section in
Headquarter.
ii)
He submits proposal for approval of
models of different kind of vehicles to the
Director
Transport,
HP
through
Additional Commissioner Transport, HP.
iii)
The work relating to Road Safety
programme, Pollution Check Centers and
Opening / inspection of Driving Training
School have been done under his
supervision.
iv)
Power to registration of vehicles
(taxi/maxi/personalized & commercial
vehicles).
v)
Power to issue temporary permit for
carrying out repair of vehicle.
iv)
Clarification to all the Motor Vehicle
Inspectors in Technical matters.
vi)
Power to issue special permit under
section 88(8) of Motor Vehicle Act, 1988.
v)
vii)
Power to convene the meeting of stage
carriage/HRTC for joint time Table and
issuance of time Tables.
To check the illegal plying of vehicles in
all over the State and Compounding
challan powers to streamline the traffic as
Asstt. Commissioner Transport (Tech.).
vi)
To maintain data regarding vehicle
inspection/driving test taken by the
Motor Vehicle Inspector in the Pradesh.
vii)
Any other job assigned by the Head of
Department.
viii) To act as Public Information Officer.
ix)
Licensing authority in respect
Driving/Conductor licenses.
x)
S/he is the Secretary of Regional
Transport Authority of the region
concerned for preparation of agenda for
the meeting of RTA.
xi)
of
Any other job assigned by the Head of
Department.
5.
Regional Transport Officer (Flying
Squad), Dharamshala & Kullu
i)
S/he is the Head of office and assigned
the powers of DDOs being a Controlling
officer.
Besides, following positions are above
place namely; Assistant Controller (F&A) ;
Budget Branch; DDO; Accounts Branch; Cash
Section- Cash Counter for general public;
Pension Branch; Composite Fee; Construction
of bus stand; Assurances of Assembly
Questions- Budget Assurances; Head of Audit
211 | Page
Branch; Review meeting; Section Officer (SAS);
Assistant Regional Transport Officers
(Parwanoo / Baddi / Barotiwala / Kala Amb /
Paonta Sahib /Mehatpur/ Gagret/ Swarghat /
Damtal
/
Kandwal
&
Tunuhatti);
Superintendent Grade-II (Establishment);
Superintendent
Gr-II
(General);
Superintendent Gr-II (Enforcement); Senior
Assistants; Senior Assistant (Establishment);
Senior Assistant-1 (Enforcement); Senior
Assistant-2 (Enforcement); Senior Assistant
(Stage Carriage); Senior Assistant (Bill); Senior
Assistant (Cashier); Senior Assistant (Store);
Senior Assistant (Two in each RTO offices);
Motor Vehicle Inspector; Personal Assistant;
Junior Auditor; Junior Assistant/Clerk Clerk
(HQ); Clerk (field offices); Traffic Inspector;
Programmer; Computer Operator; Drivers;
ConsTables; Home Guard
4.12
Regulatory Analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment
implications
(negative or positive) and
compliance with the same
Road infrastructure and transportation sector
and cross sector policy and regulatory
framework at state level shows the intent of the
state government to address inadequate service
delivery in order to reduce the disease burden
in the state. A list of policy and program is
given below:
• National Road Transport Policy
• The Central Road Funds (State Roads)
Rules
• Motor Vehicles Act
• Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
• Environment Protection Rules
• The Himachal Pradesh Road Infrastructure
Protection Act
• The Himachal Pradesh Municipal Act, 1994
• The Himachal Pradesh Business Bye-Laws
• The Himachal Pradesh Town and Country
Planning Act
• The Himachal Pradesh Panchayati Raj Act
• Policy on Development on New Township
• The Himachal Pradesh Road Infrastructure
Protection Act
• The Himachal Pradesh Panchayati Raj Act
• The Forest (Conservation) Act
• Wildlife Protection Act
• Municipal Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules, 2000
• Biological Diversity Act, 2002
• The Air (Preservation and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981
• The Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1994
• National Urban Transport Policy
• Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control)
Rules, 2000
• Policy on Development on New Township
• Tourism Policy, 2005
• Right of Way Policy
• The Control of National Highways (Land
and Traffic) Act
• National Policy on Resettlement &
Rehabilitation
• The Control of National Highways (Land
and Traffic) Act
• The Carriage by Road Act
• Land Acquisition Act
212 | Page
Reference
• Department of Planning
• HP Public Works Department
• Department of Economics & Statistics, HP
• Department of Transport
• Districts Statistical Abstract
• State Environment Report (Year not
• Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
mentioned)
• Department of Rural Development
• State Pollution Control Board
213 | Page
CHAPTER 5 MINING & GEOLOGY
5.1
Resource Inventory of existing
assets of sector
Minerals constitute a fundamental component
of material and economic base of Himachal
Pradesh. It is now on the threshold of
becoming the “Cement State” of India as good
quality limestone, which is one of the most
important ingredients in the manufacture of
cement, is available in plenty. At present there
are three cement plants in the large and
medium sector. Besides, 3 mini cement plants
are functioning in the State. 4 large scale
cement plants have been approved to be set up
in the state based on limestone deposits at
Sunder Naggar, Alsindi (Mandi district),
Boroh-Shind (Chamba) Bagga-Bhalag (Solan
District) and based on the reject of the NMDC
mine of Arki, District, Solan. One cement
plant based on the Gumma limestone deposit
(District Shimla) is under consideration.
Himalayan tectogen 215 mineralize at the
base of the Palaeozoic-eocene rocks
forming a crust over the pre Tertiary
rocks found in Deharu & Chapla in
Shimla. Bench & Nahan in Sirmaur,
Deothal in the Solan.
•
Beryl found near Wangtu bridge site and
at Shapki in Kinnaur district and also in
Chaur mountain area.
•
Clay found in along coarse of Satluj at
Shiasu, Ganfa, Chango, Shalkar, Sumdo,
Hurling, Atargoo, Kioto in Kinnaur and
Lahaul & Spiti district. Fluvial clay occurs
at Sirmuri Tal and Nimba Ka Khala in
Sirmaour District. Clay associated with
granite occur at Kinnaur, Mandi and
Sirmaur district. Small pockets at Karsog,
Chuch, Batala bel, Garain, Negi Nal,
Bashaich and Phaish, Tarai, Dopha and
Nid and Chaur granitic complex in
Sirmaur. Clays associated with Shiwalik
rocks are recorded from Kangra District.
•
Coal is a Carbonised weed having no
economic significance occurs in the
Subathu formation and Shiwalik group
found in Bilaspur, Kangra District,
Manasai and Dehar in Mandi District.
•
Copper is a Precambrian-Cambrian
sequences, Naraul formation, Rampur
group found in Rangbar in Kinnaur
District, Garsha valley of Kullu, Uchich
area of Parvati Valley, Manikaran , Larji
Rampur Window Zone, Chander tal area
of Lahaul in Kunzom la formation.
•
Garnet found in small xtals occur in
Sarakani and Rorung Dhar area of Kullu
district. Large xtals associated with
Pegmatoids and Schists occur in the
southern part of Chaur mountain area.
The various mineral found in the various
districts of Himachal and their form of
occurrence is given below.
• Antimony is a associated base metal
sulphides confined to granitic rocks of
Vaikrata group of Rohtang Gneissic
complex (central xtalline zone) exposed
near the snout of the Bara Shigri glacier
found in Kullu, Lahaul & Spiti district.
•
•
Barytes occurs as fracture filling epigenic
veins in sandstone of Ordovician Thango
formation. It is also recorded in Krol
group, Infra krol-Blaini sequence found in
Arsomang and Gekod Thach in Kinnaur
District Kanti, Tatyana, Batowri, Kheel
and Banaur area along right flan of the
Tons river in Sirmaur District.
Bauxite appears to be a palaeosol formed
over Proterozoic sediments of the lesser
214 | Page
• Gold is a Primary gold-associated with
late Archean palaeoproterozoic volcano
216 mineralized sequences (Rampur
group) B. Gold as paleoplacer in
Shiwalik rocks in the Middle and Upper
Shiwaliks Subgroups. C. Neoplacer gold
is well distributed in the present day
sediments of most the rivers and
rivulets draining the middle and upper
Shiwalik terrains and also in lower and
higher Himalaya found in Primary
Gold- with uranium at Manikaran in
Kullu. With Quartzite of Khaspat area,
Nogli, Powari in Shimla District
Morang in Kinnaur District.
•
Iron Ore is a Magnetite and Haematite
in low grade Schists of Salkhala group,
Haimanta group, 216 mineralize
Thango
formation.
Found
in
Charayandhar, Thang, Sangalwara and
Jhungie
area
of
Mandi
District. Dharamshala in Kangra district.
Gargi & Garsa in Kullu District. Pujarli
in Shimla district. Mangsu la area in
Kinnaur district (Magnetite).Haematite
quartzite in Thango & Shitikar in Spiti
valley.
•
Kyanite found in Xyals of Kyanite
often a beautiful blue color are available
in profusion in Kinnaur and Bhabeh
areas and also in eastern parts of Kullu
district.
•
Lead & Zinc Ore is anIndividual
mineralized zone is lenticular and
confined to shear zone in Deoban
carbonates close to contact with
overlying
clastic
Shimla
group.
Sphalerite is the dominant sulphide
followed by galena and chalcopyrite
found in Kinnaur, Kullu and Lahaul &
Spiti district. At Panuh, Shangri,
Mangana in Solan District. Amba Khola
in Sirmaur District. (No Economic
Importance). Lead–Zinc Mineralization
in the Tons valley (Chamri & Ambota)
is important. (galena, sphaleritechalcopyrite-pyrite are identified).
• Limestone and dolomite is a lower
Himalaya - The Shali, Deoban, Larji are
the main Mesoproterozoic carbonate
belts of great potential. The other belts
with carbonate lithounits are Meso to
Neo Proterozoic Mandhali, BasantpurKunihar, Krol and Jutogh. Higher
Himalaya- Early Carboniferous, lipak
formation and the Triassic-Early
Jurrasic Lilang group are important
belts. The early carboniferrous Kalhel
limestone in Chamba. PalaeoceneEocene Kakra and Subathu formations
also have carbonate rocks. Found in
Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandi, Shimla, Solan,
Lahaul & Spiti, Chamba, Bilaspur etc.
•
Magnesite is an often associated and is
restricted to the basal part of the Batal
and Manjir formation found in Chamba
district.
• Pyrite is a Lenses of Pyrite occurs at
many places in rocks of Jutogh group.
Found in Tara devi in Shimla district
Haipurdhar in Sirmaur district.
• Quartz, Silica, Pebble-Glass Sand is
quartzites of Manikaran, Nagthat, Muth
and Subathu formations also have glass
sand potential. Found in White quartz
pebbles in bed of Jaijon and Kum khad
in Una district similarly quartzite
pebbles are reported from Aruali,
Banda, Sieha and Solag in Bilaspur
district, Barhwaini and Bhadroa in
Kangra district.
•
Radioactive mineral is a Uranium
mineralization in the form of visible
yellow brown encrustations on
weathered surfaces of the Manikaran
Quartzite of the Rampur Group and
also in paragneisses of Jeori-Wangtu
Granitoid Complex close to a tectonic
dislocation. Uranium in ShiwaliksShiwalik
sediments
in
certain
lithostratigraphic units contains high
concentration of Uranium. Found in
Kasha area, Nogli valley in Shimla
215 | Page
district Rampur rocks in Parbati and
Garshal valleys of Kullu district.
District wise various minerals exploited in
Himachal Pradesh is given below.
•
Rock phosphate is phosphatic nodules
occur in terminal Proterozoic BatalKatargali-Formation, Permian Gungri
Formation and Salooni Formation,
Jurrasic
Spiti
Formation,
and
Palaeocene-Eocene Kakra and Subathu
Formations, Khatpul and Taltapani
formation. Found in Rajgarh and
Deoria area of Sirmaur, Nigali-Shyan la
area (Lower tal area).
•
Gypsum is an early carboniferous
Lipak formation contains large reserve
of good quality gypsum of evaporite
origin. Gypsum occuring as thin bands
associated with the red shale dolomite
sequence of Krol B of Vendian age.
Found in Liwa Thach in Lipak gad to
Hurling and also near Losar and
Dhuma, Shalkar and in Gyundi river in
Kinnaur and Lahaul & Spiti district
Korga and Bharli in Sirmaur district.
A. Limestone
Limestone is a calcareous sedimentary rock
composed of mineral calcite (CaCO3) which
upon calcination yields lime (CaO) for
commercial use. Cement and Iron & Steel
industries are the major consumers of
limestone. It is also utilized in chemical
industries like calcium carbide, bleaching
powder, soda-ash, precipitated calcium
carbonate, etc. Besides, it is used as fluxing
material in ferro-alloys, pelletization plants,
foundaries and in the production of sponge
from iron, as refining materials in the
production of sugar; as an additive in glass
industry; as a coating material in fertilizers
industry, etc.
• Silver is a Argentiferous Galena is
known from Uchich in the Parbati
valley where old workings exist in
Manikaran Quartzite. Found in Parbati
valley in Kullu (Saugthan). Chargaon in
Kinnaur district.
•
Slate is a confined to Kullu, Salkhala
group and Batal formation, Khokan
formation. Found in Mandi, Chamba
and Kangra district.
•
Rock Salits a Ropri formation of Shali
group found in Guma Drang in Mandi
district, Mandbari in Kangra district.
•
Natural gas is a Lower Shiwaliks,
Subathu group as it contains organic
matter and degree of metamorphism is
higher. Found in Jawalamukhi &
Nurpur of Kangra district.
Total Deposits of Limestone in Himachal
Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh has vast reserves of the
limestone, spread over various locations. The
State is ranked 4th in all India as far as reserve
under proven category is concerned and 7th as
far as total reserves are concerned. The district
wise details of the limestone deposits of all
grades (including cement grade) in Himachal
Pradesh are as given below in Table 1.
216 | Page
Table 1: District wise details of Limestone Reserve
(In Million tonnes)
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Kangra
Kullu
Mandi
Sirmaur
Shimla
Solan
Lahaul & Spiti
Kinnaur
Total
Proved
370
400
10
Probable
150
850
20
500
150
550
20
200
50
100
1980
1390
Possible
500
100
10
120
600
1200
1600
1000
1000
100
6230
Total
1020
1350
40
120
1120
1550
1650
1650
1000
100
9600
The distribution of important limestone bearing
Formations are as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Reserves of limestone district wise
217 | Page
Reserves of limestone district wise is
described below
i)
Bilaspur district
Gagal- Barmana Limestone:Large reserves
of limestone (both dolomitic and nondolomitic) occur amongst the Pre Tertiary
rocks near Jamthal (31º24': 76º52’), Aur or
Gagal-Hill (31º06'; 31º20’:76º51'), Chhabiawae
(31º23':76º51') and Darobn (31º21’:76º51’). The
limestone is suitable for cement manufacture.
In Gagal-Burmana area, the reserves of cement
grade limestone have been estimated as 117.1
million tonnes. The Gagal limestone deposit
contains CaO 45.20% to 47.80% and MgO
0.91%. The Burmana limestone deposit
contains CaO 47.62% and MgO 1.47%.
Figure 2: Geological map of the Gagal Limestone
Occurrence of dolomite has been reported
from a locality 1.5 kilometre west of Lohrda
(31º15’:76°00’) and 800 metre east of Bhajun
(31º14':76°49’). The analyses show that the
dolomite may find use as flux. Occurrences of
calcareous tufa have been recorded at Lathwin
(31º31':76º41') and near Thakurdwars (31º26':
76°31’).
Himalaya. It forms a rugged hilly terrain
with a range of elevation from 990 Metre to
2244 Metre and it lies to the east of river
Siul and limestone belt gradually rise upto
the height of 3000 metre in Southeast
direction. The general physiography of the
area is as given in figure 3.
ii) Chamba
district:
Broh
Sind
belt
((31º30’:76º55’) of limestone in Chamba
district is located 40 km away from
Chamba, on Chamba –Tissa Road.
Topographically the area belongs to lesser
218 | Page
Figure 3:
Google earth 3 D image of Broh Sind Palllain
mestone belts showing general
physiography of the area
The rocks of the Chamba region are grouped
into (1) the lower and (2) the upper sequence.
The lower sequence rests on the Middle
Proterozoic Bhalai Formation. The Bhalai
Formation is conformably overlain by the
Chamba Formation, which consists of grey,
buff, olive stained slates, phyllite and
psammites. The Chamba formation is followed
in succession upwards by the Pukhri
Formation, which consists of dark grey,
carbonaceous, thinly bedded slates and phyllite
along with subordinate quartzite and is overlain
by Manjir formation, which constitutes the
uppermost part of the lower sequence in the
Chamba region. The Manjir Formation consists
of grey and purple thinly bedded slate which at
places contains pebbly horizon. The upper
sequence is represented by the lower Salooni
Formation, also known as the Katarigali
Formation (unfossiliferous,) and is overlain by
the Saho Volcanics and the upper Salooni
Formation (containing lower Permian plant
fossils). The Upper Salooni Formation is
overlain by the (Early to Middle Permian)
Kalhel limestone that forms the youngest
formation in the area. It is mainly crystalline
limestone of variegated colours, interbedded
with grey coloured quartzites in the upper part.
The general geology of the area is given in
Table 2.
219 | Page
Table 2: Showing general stratigraphy of the area
Symbolic Representation of
Formation
Formation
Age
Thickness
Lithology
KALHEL
LIMESTONE
Lr. Triassic
400 m
UPPER
SALOONI
M. Permian
to U.
Permian
400 m
SAHO
VOLCANICS
M. Permian
10-50 m
Metavolcanics of basaltic and
andesitic composition
KATARIGALI
(Lr. Salooni)
UP. Carbo
To M.
Permian
800 m
MANJIR CONG
L. Cambrian
1000 m
PUKHRI SLATE
M.
Proterozoic
2000 m
Dark grey and carbonaceous
pyritous slates, containing black
phosphatic nodules / siliceous
crystalline limestone /
carbonaceous phyllite /
phyllitic quartzites
Grey and purple
metamorphosed pebbly
mudstones paraconglomerates
with inter calated bands of grey
states, consisting conglomeretic
flysch
A rapid alteration of slates or
phyllites and metasiltstonemetagreywaoke, constituting
shaly flysch
CHAMBA
FORMATION
M.
Proterozoic
3500 m
Monotonous aleration of
metagrey – waoke and slate,
forming sandy flysch
BHALAI
FORMATION
(Dalhousie
Granite)
M.
Proterozoic
3500 m
Greyish green, talcose phyllites
and schists, garnet – biotite
schist, micaceous quartzites and
interbedded with bands of dark
grey crystalline limestone with
associated Dalhousie Granite
The limestone belong to the upper most part of
the Kalhel Formation. In the area the limestone
bed is 600 metre thick and is underlain by
quartzite, dolomite and slate. Limestone has a
Grey and yellow dolomitic
limestones with interbedded
white and grey orthoquartzites
in the upper part and numerous
stems and osccles of crinoids in
the lower part
Limestones interbedded with
grey calcareous states /
calcareous phyllites / quartzites
low dip toward north at 90 to 300. The reserves
so far proved by drilling are estimated to be 400
million tonnes and inferred reserve are about
850 million tonnes. The core recovery in most
220 | Page
of the bore holes is about 60% and at places it
is 100%. The average chemical composition of
limestone is as given in Table 3.
Table 3:
Chemical
limestone
Constituent
CaO
MgO
R2O3
Insolubles
LIO
composition
of
%age
52.64
1.35
0.7
2.85
42.61
Dolomitic limestone is associated with
Mangnesite in Salooni and Durlai Formations
in the district. Dolomitic Limestone bands
ranging in thickness from one to three metres
have been found at Sidh Ka Dehra
(33°02'15":76°26’00”).
Tundru
(35°05’15":76°27'30"),
Chinar
Got
(33°06’15”:76°29’30"), Kuldhan Got (33°45'
05":76°24'30") and Chabi Got 33°08'
45":76°08’45”). The dolomite bands occur in
Sidh Dehra Formation. Thin bands of marble
associated with tremolite occur in Kilar
Formation around Batwas (33°05’ 15”:
76°27’45”), Pindru (38°01’30”:76°26'15") and
Sarkund (33°01’15”: 76°24’00”). Bands of
dolomite ranging in thickness from one metre
to two metres with strike extension ranging
from 50 to 100 metres have been found within
Sidh Dehra Formation at about one kilometre
west of Tiaso Adwar (33°09’15':76°30’30")
iii)
Kangra District: Cement grade
limestone deposit is reported at Dharamkot
(32°13’:76°19'), about 3 kilometres north of
Dharamshala (32°13':76°19’). The deposit
comprises dark grey and pink limestone. The
gross reserves of easily quarriable limestone
(cement grade) are of the order of 17.6 million
tonnes. The pink limestone contain on an
average CaO 47. 52% and MgO 2.01% while
the grey limestone contains on an average CaO
41.92%. A deposit of calcareous tufa occurs on
the south western flank of the Ramgarh ridge,
east of Samlarah (31°41’:76°19’).Calcareous
tufa has also been
(32°18':75°17’).
recorded
near
Nagni
iv) Kinnaur district:Carbonate rocks are
present in the Manchap and Lipak Formations
and in the Lilang Group as persistent bands.
v) Kullu district: Several thick bands of pink,
cream and purple limestone interbedded with
dolomite occur in the Aut Formation of Larji
Group near Hurla (31°50’: 77° 11’) Tharas 31°
50’:'77°11’), Dalasni (31°47’:77°12’) and Larji
(31°43':77°13’). Several thick bands of grey
dolomite interbedded with limestone of Larji
Group occur as tectonic window in the
southern parts of the Kullu valley. A dolomite
band is well exposed on the ridge east of the
river Beas between Hurla (31°50’:77°11’15”)
and south of Larji (31°46';77°14') and also in
the Hurla - Garsah and Larji-Behali sections in
the Garsha and Sainj Valleys respectively.
vi) Mandi district
a) Alsindi Limestone Deposit: Cement grade
limestone belonging to the Sorgharwari
Formation of Shali Group occurs between
Alsindi (31º17' 45’: 77º 07’45”) in Mandi district
in the west and Jaunrog (31º18’00”: 77º20’30”)
in Shimla District in the east. The limestone
was investigated along a strike length of 15 km
by the Geological Survey of India. The
estimated reserves are of the order of 550
million tonnes. The limestone has been
investigated by the Geological Wing,
Department of Industries. About 200 million
tonnes of limestone is approximately in 1.5 sq
km of area. It is pink to grey in colour and
contains thin shale partings. The limestone
contains CaO varying from 44.40 to 52.00%
and MgO trace to 9.80%.
It is situated at a distance of about 70 Km
from Shimla on Shimla- Basantpur TattapaniKarsog State Highway No 13. The area forms
part of the Lesser Himalaya and shows typical
mountainous topography. Physiographically,
the area is bounded in the east and south-east
221 | Page
by Badeog Dhar and in the south by Rista-KiDhar. The terrain ranges in height between
1200 metres to 1992 metres above mean sea
level. The drainage pattern is mostly dendritic.
The limestone deposits of the area belongs to
Sorgharwari Formation of Shali Group which is
fine grained, dense, homogeneous and exhibit
concoide to subconcoidel fractures. The colour
varies from pink to grey. The pink limestone at
places contains purple to green shale partings.
The general geology of the Shali Group is as
given below in Table 4.
Table 4: Litho-stratigraphy of the Shali Group
Group
Formation
Bandla
Parnali
Makri
Tattapani
Shali
Sorgharwari
Khatpul
Khaira
Ropri
Lithology
Green and purple coloured shale, slate, siltstone, sporadic earthy
limestone , thin bedded orthoquartzite and a fairly persistent band
of white quartzarenite at the base.
Cherty dolomite, grey limestone and white quartzarenite.
Grey, green, black and purple shales and slates, thin bedded
limestone, thin bedded quartzarenite with or without dolomite.
Cherty dolomite, grey and pink in colour with grey phyllitesed
shales.
Pink and grey cream textured limestone with shale partings.
Massive dolomite with sporadic quartzarenite, and a thin red shale
band at the base.
Mainly pink and purple, also white quartzarenite.
Brick red shale and siltstone with grey dolomitteheinlower
horizon; local development of salt, salt grit and the marly
lithocomplex “Lokhan”
The Sorgharwari Formation comprise of pink,
grey and cream coloured limestone with thin
shale partings, and stretches from Koti in South
East to Alsindi and further to Gagal- Barmana
and Sundernagar in the North – West. In the
Alsindi area, the Shali belt is only 2.80 Km
broad and this structurally narrow part of the
Shali belt is called as “Alsindi Corridore”.
Thickness
(In Metres)
250
700
180
610
460
300
380
400
The Sorgharwari member achieves its
maximum thickness of 300 metres in the area.
The limestone bed has two distinct sequences
namely; the lower, pink to purple limestone; the
upper, grey limestone
The grey limestone generally succeeds the pink
limestone. At places it has banded appearance.
Creamish grey limestone of Sorgharwari
Member interbeds with pink limestone before
grading into Tattapani Formation. Along the
road section, in the basal part, the limestone is
very thinly bedded and the shale partings
constitute about 20 percent of the rocks. In this
section, it is highly puckered and jointed. The
limestone breccia which appears to have been
formed as a result of solution action is exposed
along the slopes of Aliad Nala about 200
metres from the main road along Uday-Aliad
footpath.
The pink to purple limestone is very fine
textured, creamy, well laminated, banded and
bedded. It is also fine grained, dense
homogeneous and exhibit concoidal or
subconcoidal fractures. Pink limestone at places
contains purple and green shale parting.
The general strike of the rock is NW-SE
dipping NE 230 to 720. The rocks in the vicinity
of Aliad village have been folded into anticlines
and synclines thereby increasing the thickness
of the deposits. The maximum width of
limestone is about 650 metres and is exposed in
222 | Page
the vicinity of Aliad Village and the maximum
strike length is about 600 metres near Village
Aliad.
The limestone deposits can be classified as
complex deposits because it is moderately to
steeply dipping; frequent intercalations, with
variable thickness; uniform quality but with
irregular boundaries.
Based on drilling data about 200 million tonnes
of limestone have been proved by the
geological Wing, Department of Industries,
H.P. in approx. 1.5 sq. km. area and about 400
million tonnes have been inferred in rest of the
unexplored
area.
b) Sundernagar Limestone Deposit: Cement
grade limestone belonging to the Sorgharwari
Formation of Shali Group also occurs in Ropa Banaik– Kiran-Bhojpur area (31º31':76º54’ to
31º32':76º56’) of Sundernagar Subdivision. The
deposit starts from Ropa Quarry near village
Banaik (old Sundernagar) in the N-W end and
extends in the SE direction towards Kiran and
Dovaida then towards other side of hill slope
upto right bank of Lindi Khad and runs upto
Bhojpur and Badairn etc. The limestone of the
area belongs to the Shali Formation. The
general succession of the rocks in the area is as
given in Table 5.
Table 5:
Succession of Rocks
Recent Material
Purple pink
Limestone
Flesh Dolomitic
Limestone
Grey Dolomitic
Limestone
Consisting of fine grained
argillaceous soil with rounded to sub
rounded boulders of dolomitic
limestone
Well bedded pink limestone with
purple and green shale parting
Hard flesh coloured to light pink
coloured dolomitic limestone with
grey colored dolomitic band
Grey hard dolomite with shale
parting and with algal stromatolites
Grey dolomitic limestone belongs to the
Khatpul Formation of Shali Group and flesh
coloured dolomitic limestone is a transition
stage between dolomitic and purple limestone.
The Purple – Pink limestone belongs to the
Sargharwari Formation of the Shali Group.
The limestone has been investigated by the
Geological Wing, Department of Industries and
has proved 225 million tonnes of limestone.
The average chemical analysis of the limestone
are as given in the Table 6.
Table 6:
Kiran
Block
Ropa
Area
Bhojnagar
Area
Average chemical analysis of the
Sundernagar area limestone
CaO%
MgO
%
LiO%
R2O3%
Fe2O3%
47.95
1.66
39.57
0.32
8.94
48.87
1.35
39.69
0.38
8.22
48.72
1.63
40.00
0.42
8.11
Shimla District
Limestone deposits of Deoban, Shali Group,
Shimla and Mandhali Formation occur in
different parts of this district.
a)
GumaRohanaSugraithi
Limestone, Tehsil Chaupa, District Shimla:
The
deposit
lies
in
between
º
º
º
30 46’00"N:77 42’00"E- 0 54’45"N:77°42’45”E)
along Minas-Guma -Chaupal link road and falls
in Survey of India Toposheet Nos 53 F/9 and
F/13. The area is located in the South Eastern
part of Tehsil Chaupal of District Shimla. The
Eastern part is bounded by the Tons, river
forming the boundary between Uttaranchal and
Himachal Pradesh. In the Southern part, the
Sainj Khad marks the boundary between
Shimla and Sirmaur Districts of Himachal
Pradesh. Guma area can be approached from
Shimla via-Chaupa and Tiuni. It is about 153
Kms. SE of Shimla via Shimla-Chaupa-NerwaShillai road. Guma is also connected with
Shimla by a 175 Kms. long metalled road viaHatkoti-Tiuni. The area is also connected with
Paonta Sahib by 102 km long Paonta-Chaupa
metalled road and from Dehradun via
Vikasnagar-Koti – Minas-Nerwa link road.
Dehradun is the nearest broad gauge Rail Head
and is about 125 Kms. from Guma. Based on
the large scale mapping of Deoban and
associated formations by the Geological Survey
of India, the Geological sequence of the area
can be divide into three blocks namely;
223 | Page
Rohana- Bigrauli – Bohar Block; GumaBhatkar-Sobal-Paban-Bandar Block; SugraithiChaur- Badera Block.
b)
Kothi-Sal-Bagh limestone Deposit
District. Shimla: The cement grade limestone
deposit belonging to Sorghawari Formation of
Shali Group have been reported in the KothiSal-Bagh Area (31°14' 00”- 31°15' 30”- :
77°14’30”-77°15’30”). The deposit is linked
with an all weather road and lies at a distance of
72 Km from Shimla. The Shimla- BasantpurKingal road passes through the deposit and
Sunni- Luhri road runs roughly along the
bottom of the deposit (District Shimla side
deposit). The limestone belongs to the Shali
Group. The Shali Group in this area forms a
Window Structure where older rocks are
exposed, surrounded by the younger rocks. The
rocks also show formation of an anticline
structure and its one limb is exposed on the left
bank of river Satluj in district. Shimla and other
limb passes towards the other side of river
Satluj in Mandi district. This Window structure
is again interrupted by a fault running in almost
North-South to SSW direction. The total
Geological reserves computed by Geological
Survey of India are to the tune of 700 million
tonnes.
Sirmaur district: The chemical, cement and
dolomitic grade of limestone deposits occurs in
different parts of this district. The limestone
bearing horizon in Sirmaur can be classified
into 18 sectors as Naura Area, Sangrah area,
Bhootmari area, Pamta area, Baldawa area,
Bagan Dhar area, Malani Shilla area Milla area,
Tatiyan area, Kamroo area, Chowki Marigwal –
Korga area, Banor Bharli area, Bohar Khatwar
area, Poka- Bhadrog area, Manal area, Koti
Dhiman area, Biala area and dolomitic magnesia
limestone horizon of the Parara area. The total
limestone reserve of Sirmaur districts are as per
Geological Survey of India is about 1200
million tonnes.
Mineral resources potential, location in district
is described in Table 7.
Table 7: Mineral Resources of Himachal Pradesh
Mineral
Limestone
District
Bilaspur
Kangra
Mandi
Sirmaur
Locality
Gagal – Barmana
Dharamkot
Alsinid and Junrog
Kariali Block
Jalog-Thench Block
Chamga Nala
Shali
Datwardi
Hathana
Dida
Nohra
Bulain Dhar
Magnesite
Rock Salt
Chamba
Mandi
Muchetar Nala
Guma
Drang
Slate
Chamba
Rupaina
Bhora
Chaunda Devi
Potential
117.1 million tons
17.6 million tons – 42.52
550 million tonnes CaO – 34.4 to 52%
MgO – 9.8% Shimla Drawal
80.43 million tonnes CaO – 4.50%
3.185 million tonnes
224 million tonnes CaO – 44.8%
146 million tones CaO – 45.25%
101.36 million tonnes CaO – 53.93%
29.87 million tones CaO – 53.9%
34.65 million tonnes CaO – 53.22%
6.26 million tonnes (Upto 60 m depth)
CaO – 53.95%
1.94 million tonnes (Upto 60 m depth)
CaO – 53.60%
55,620 tonnes MgO – 39%
7.55 million tonnes Grade NaCl –
70.40%, KCl – 3% Impurities – 21%
7.55 million tonnes Grade NaCl –
70.40%, KCl – 3% Impurities – 21%
518400 tonnes
1360800 tonnes
6480 tonnes
224 | Page
Mineral
District
Kangra
Locality
Renda
Between Kalam Nadi
and Sapri
Dharamkot
Got
Bhatti
Bara Singri
Arsomang
Potential
172800 tonnes
115500 tones
992250 tonnes
21600 tonnes
Impurities – 21%, 162000 tonnes
Stibnite
Lahaul & Spiti
105682 tones, 1.65%
Barytes
Kinnaur
3 veins 20 to 60 m long and 15 to 40 cm
width. Another vein as 30 m long
97.70% BaSO4
Clay
Kangra
Kothar
15000 tonnes
Hatli
5076 tonnes
Sirmaur
Kalidhang
Reserve of clay around Kalidhang, 2.63
million tonnes upto a depth of 20 Silica
Sand
Una
Jaijoan Dil Khad
Total reserve for Grade A 50309
tonnes, 97.44% SiO2
Bathri
Total reserve for, Grade A, B & C upto
a depth of 2 m 842570 tonnes
Gypsum
Kinnaur
Shalkar
1.25 million tonnes upto a depth 25 m.
Grade not given. Total in situ reserve in
this belt may be 100 million tonnes
Kyanite
Lahaul & Spiti
Kyanite 40 m in thickness and traceable
for 1 km
Source: State of the Environment Report- H.P.-State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, March, 2000
The district wise commercially exploitable
minerals are given in Table 8.
Table 8:
Bilaspur
Kangra
Chamba
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul &
Spiti
Solan
Una
Mandi
Hamirpur
Shimla
Sirmaur
Commercially exploitable minerals in Himacahl Pradesh
Limestone. Dolomitic Limestone, Shale, brick earth, minor minerals like sandstone and bajri.
Roofing slate, Brick earth and minor minerals, like sandstone and bajri.
Limestone, Roofing slate, magnesite and mino r minerals like sandstone and bajri.
Gypsum and minor minerals like sandstone and bajri
Roofing slate, quartzite crystal, mineral water, semi-precious stone and minor minerals like san dstone and
bajri.
Antimony-ore, gypsum and minor minerals like sandst one and bajri
Lime stone, diplomatic limestone, shale, building Stone and minor minerals like sandstone and
bajri
Silica boulders and minor minerals like sandstone a nd bajri
Limestone, rock salt, and minor minerals likesandstone and bajri
Silica-sand boulders and minor minerals like sandst one and bajri
Limestone, quartzite, slabs slate and minor minerals like sandstone and bajri
Limestone, Barytes, Gypsum, Shale, quartzite and mi nor minerals like sandstone and bajri
The same can be represented in figure 4.
225 | Page
Figure 4: Location of minerals in Himachal Pradesh
Table 9: Mineral Production / Value
Sr.
Mineral
No.
Major Minerals
1.y Limestone cement
grade
2.y Limestone fine
grade
3.y Shale
4.y Baryte
5.y Rock Salt
6.y Silica Sand used in
Production
(tons)
Value
(Lakh)
5901346
3914.27
78656
1022.00
347302
929
1056
12643
42.26
1.58
10.56
5.04
1406552
617.40
2.y Sand
3.y Building stone
1326263
528.16
627136
146.38
4.y Boulder
5.y Quartzite
824086
316.04
31484
9.44
6.y Slate
7.y Limestone Kiln
grade
8.y Aggregate
7137
104.29
4496
5.45
525170
74.20
glass industries/
Sand stone used as
raw mix in cement
Minor Minerals
1.y Bajri
Table 10: Mineral based Industries in
Himachal Pradesh:
Major Cement Plants
Mini Cement Plants
Hydrated Lime and
Calcium Carbonate
Limestone Powder/chips
Stone cutting units
Hollow Blocks
Stone crushers
5.2
3 Nos.
3 (in operation)
20 Nos.
25 Nos.
5 Nos.
14
About 250
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
and
The Geological Wing was set up in the
Department of Industries, H.P. in the Year
1964 -65 with only one Geologist, who was
heading the Organisation on deputation from
Geological Survey of India. On the
reorganisation of erstwhile State of Punjab, in
November 1966, majority of Geologist and
staff were allotted to Himachal Pradesh. Thus,
a well equipped Geological Wing started
Source: State Geologist, Industry Department, Himachal
Pradesh.
226 | Page
functioning in the Himachal Pradesh from
Nov, 1966 with following functions:
1. Exploration of mineral wealth of the
State for their scientific and economical
exploitation and setting up of mineral
based industries like large cement plants
etc.
2. Development and regulation of
minerals by granting various mineral
concessions through leases, auctions,
short term permits etc. Implementation
of River/Stream Bed Mining Policy,
2004, Policy guidelines for Registration,
Location, Installation and Working of
Stone Crushers in Himachal Pradesh,
Court Cases, redressal of complaints
etc.
3. Preparation of survey document of each
district;
4. Scrutiny
of
Miningcum
–
Environment Management Plans;
5. Carrying
out
geo-technical
studies/investigations
of
bridges,
buildings, landslides, road alignments,
hydro-electric projects, I&PH schemes,
Geological, stability / feasibility report
of various roads constructed under
PMGSY as per the user agencies
demands
(approximately
60
assignments per year) etc.
6. Geo-environmental studies of lakes,
geothermal studies etc.
The Geological Wing of Industries Department
is engaged in exploration of mineral wealth of
the state, their scientific and economic
exploitation and setting up of mineral based
industries like large cement plants, development
and regulation of minerals by granting various
mineral concessions through leases, auctions
short term permit. preparation of survey
documents of each District, scrutiny of Miningcum-Environment Management Plans, carrying
out geo-technical studies / investigations of
bridges, buildings, etc. and Geoenvironment
studies of lakes, geothermal studies. Apart from
this, Department is implementing the
River/Stream Bed Mining Policy, the Crusher
Policy, preparing survey documents of each
district, carrying out geo-technical survey of
roads, bridges, landslides, parking sites and
checking of various mining plans.
Source: FYP-07-12
Table 11: Detail of leases granted in Himachal Pradesh
Major Mineral
4
4
20
Slate
2
20
Screening
55
2
Hollow Block
49
2
Sand
2
5
7
48
1
21
1
31
12
8
34
10
178
Cutstone
1
1
crusher
Limestone
Silica Sand
Baryte
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Total
Limestone
District
Minor Mineral
Total
8
14
9
3
3
4
5
17
8
21
14
1
1
10
12
1
14
7
71
1
24
1
35
19
79
58
14
324
:
227 | Page
:
The Industries based on minerals provides
direct employment to about 12,500 persons and
indirectly to more than 40,000.
While granting the lease, the environmental
clearance and clearance under Forest
Conservation Act, 1980 etc. are required as
provided in the rules. As per present policy of
the State, at least 50% of clinker or any other
%age as prescribed by the Government has to
be converted into cement through grinding
units located in Himachal Pradesh. The cement
plant will be eligible for incentives as per the
Industrial Policy of the State and Central
Government prevalent at the time of coming
into production. Further, the applicant shall be
required to meet the conditions of the
employment of at least 70% of Himachalis as
prescribed in the Industrial Policy Guidelines
2004 and as amended from time to time.
Integrated Infrastructure Development
Scheme
The Integrated Infrastructure Development
Centre (IIDC) Scheme Goalthai was approved
for Rs 432 lakh by the Govt. of India, Ministry
of SSI financed by the State Govt. and the
Central Govt. in the ratio of 3:2.
The I.I.D. Centre is situated 6 kms away from
Nangal on Nangal- Bhakhra Dam Road. Total
area of this IID Centre is 492.48 bighas and has
been developed in two phases. 148 plots have
been developed and 144 plots have been
allotted to entrepreneurs.
Existing status of cement industry:Himachal Pradesh has vast limestone deposits
which are capable of sustaining large numbers
of limestone based industries which include
cement plants and other industries engaged in
the manufacture of calcium carbonate, poultry
grit, lime, limestone powder etc. These
industries are generally located near limestone
deposits. There are three cement plants (M/s
Associated Cements Co. Ltd. Gagal, District,
Bilaspur, M/s Ambuja Cements Ltd. Darlaghat,
District, Solan and M/s Cement Corporation of
India, Rajban, District, Sirmaur) in large and
medium sectors. Besides about 3 mini cement
plants, 9 hydrated lime and quick lime calcium
carbonate units, 88 numbers of limestone
powder/poultry feed have been set up.
1. Central Transport Subsidy: The new
industrial units are allowed 75% transport
subsidy for a period of five years from the date
of commencement of commercial production.
This scheme which was operational on
disbursement from the State budget and
reimbursement from the Government of India
basis but now this system has been changed and
the Central Government has placed funds with
HPSIDC Ltd. as a Nodal Agency for
disbursement on behalf of GOI to the
Industrial Units.
2. Central Capital Investment Subsidy: The
Central Capital Investment Subsidy for the
industrial units coming up in the State is
admissible @ 15% under the Special Package of
Incentives notified for Himachal Pradesh.
Under this Scheme, Rs 64.07 crores has been
provided by the Govt. of India, Department of
Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIP&P) for
disbursement to units as per norms of the
Scheme.
3. Collection of Statistics of SSI Units: A
Central Plan Scheme “Collection of Statistics of
SSI units” is being implemented in Himachal
Pradesh. Under the Scheme, a Nucleus Cell has
been created at the Directorate Level. The main
objective of the Cell is to update data on SME
sector, maintain the frame list of SME units
functioning in the State, conduct surveys etc.
228 | Page
5.3
Technology adopted in the
sector alongwith any changes
in the technology
radicals. In addition, systematic mapping of 4
sq km area was carried out to delineate different
rock horizons and structural analysis.
(B)
Geo-technical/Geo-environmental
investigations:
(A)
Geological Exploration
1. Cement grade limestone of GummaRohana area (Tehsil Chaupa) Shimla
District.
Shimla.
Drilling work for exploration of cement grade
limestone was carried out payment basis on the
request of M/s India Cements Ltd. Drilling
upto 478.15 mtrs. in Gumma-Rohana block of
Tehsil Chaupa, District. Shimla.
2. Karaili-Kothi-Sal-Bagh area of Tehsil
Sunni, Shimla District.
Sub-surface exploration of cement grade
limestone was carried out up to 68.65 mtrs in
Karail-Kothi- Sal-Bagh area after grant of
prospecting licence in favour of M/s Dalmia
Cements Ltd.,
3. Drilling for foundation testing
Drilling for geo technical investigations were
carried out in different parts of the state.
4. Drilling done during the year 2008-2009 was
- 611.60 mtrs.
5. Location of mining leases, stone crushers,
auction sites and applied for areas in district
Una district were marked on Survey of India
Topo-Sheets on 1: 50,000 scale. The detail was
subsequently transferred to 1:250,000 scale map
for office use.
6. Reconnaissance Survey to confirm the
continuity of Sorgharwari limestone extension
on the western side of Alsindi was carried out.
8 samples were collected at different locations
to know the chemical composition of different
Geotechnical Investigations:
During the financial year 2008-2009, following
Geo-Technical studies were undertaken as per
the request made by different Govt.
Departments & District Administration etc.:Geotechnical Report of the site proposed for
Govt. Degree College Building at Killar,
District, Chamba; Section Store at Darka Phati
Balh Kothi Tarapur, Tehsil & District. Kullu;
Indoor Stadium site at Rohroo, District, Shimla;
Shopping Complex Cum - Waiting Hall near
ice-skating ground at Lakkar Bazar Bus Stand in
Shimla Town; Dogri to Samana Tiun link road
in Tehsil & District. Kullu; border road from
Sugar point along Indo-China border in Lahaul
& Spiti District; road from Tara Devi to Malog
Julgi (Jeepable road) in Tehsil and District.
Shimla; link road from Dhella Kofardhar
Mankhi Dhank in Tehsil Rampur, District,
Shimla; Bhojnagar to Neri Kalan via Tikkri
road, Tehsil Kasauli, District, Solan; Malaghat
to Ghaighat road in Tehsil Kasauli, District,
Solan, Garaunghati to Kamlog road, Tehsil
Kasauli, District, Solan; Berli Manlog link road
in District, Solan; Bridge over Sumra Khad near
village Sumra in District, Kinnaur; Foot Bridge
on Satluj river at Behna in District, Shimla;
Founding Level on left side abutment of
Shantha Bridge Nerwa, Tehsil Chaupa, District,
Shimla; Bridge over Masshrain Khad near
village Timvi, Tehsil Chaupa, district, Shimla;
Bridge on the Sainj Khad on Simloh
Mandholghat Dargi via Naggar road in Shimla
District; Augmentation of flow irrigation
scheme from Kanan Nallah to Village Kibbar
in Lahaul-Spiti District; Improvement of flow
irrigation scheme from Shilla park/nallah
source to Lanja in Tehsil Spiti, District. Lahaul
& Spiti; Flow irrigation scheme (kuhl) from
Ulla Nallah to Keuling Village under Kaza SubDivision, District. Lahaul & Spiti; Flow
irrigation scheme (kulh) from Ulla Nallah to
Lara Village under Kaza Sub-Division, Lahaul
& Spiti district.
229 | Page
5.4
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
Two days workshop with the stakeholders on
the new draft MMDR Act under the
Chairmanship of Hon’ble Minister of Mines &
DoNER and under the Chairpersonship of
Secretary (Mines) was held in 2009 Himachal
Pradesh.
The main stakeholders who are directly or
indirectly involve in environment preservation
and restoration are as given below:
1. Forest Department2. Department of Environment, Science
& Technology
3. State Pollution Control Board
4. HPPWD
5. IPH Department
6. Mining Department
7. Industries Department
8. Rural and Panchayati Raj Institutions
5.5
Critical Environment Issues /
Hot spots associated with the
sector
Environment and Social issues related to Mining
sector are improper siting of mining areas,
impact on air quality, impact on water quality
and quantity, noise pollution,, inadequate
hazardous waste treatment and disposal, land
degradation, impact on flora and fauna, and
impact on aesthetics.
1. Improper siting of mining areas: Mineral
deposits are site specific and have to be
developed and mined/operated only where
they exists. Hence, it is all the more important
to select proper mining sites which cause least
damage to environment. Some of the impacts
include disturbance to environment, forest
land, fertile land problems due to land
acquisition and rehabilitation of land and
persons displaced; disturbance to vegetation
growth and fauna of the area; air, water and
noise pollution; land degradation and waste
disposal. Loss of aesthetic beauty etc.
Department of Industries/mining wing has
created land banks (both private and
government land) in Solan, Una, Kangra,
Sirmaur, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Shimla and
Mandi Districts for attracting entrepreneurs
and investors. These areas are close to source
of raw material extracted from natural
resources.
2. Poor ambient air quality: Ambient Air
quality/Air Pollution is due to dust generated
during various processes of mining. Dust
generated due to various mining activities
causing air pollution are drilling; blasting;
loading and unloading of mined material; on
haulage roads transportation of material
through trucks; fixed sources like crushers,
screen, conveyors etc., Consequences of air
pollution due to dust generated during mining
operations may cause, visible plumes and haze;
staining and soiling of surfaces; poor aesthetic
or chemical contamination of vegetation, water
bodies; effect on personal comfort; amenities
health and occupational health hazard. Dusts
containing toxic metals are Lead, Mercury,
Zinc, Cobalt etc. Air Quality trends in Himachal
Pradesh indicate higher concentration of
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Paonta Sahib.
Removal of vegetation from the area designated
for mining and other purposes produces dust
which when air-borne, increases the
concentration of SPM in the surrounding areas.
Removal, handling, transportation and storage
of soils also increases the concentration of
SPM in the atmosphere. The use of diesel run
equipments in these activities causes increases
in level of NOx. Drilling and blasting of
overburden and mineral contributes to SPM and
explosive fumes into the atmosphere.
230 | Page
3. Water quality / water pollution /
depletion of water sources: Water pollution
may be caused by direct discharge of mine
waste to water streams. Due to erosion and
wash off from mined out areas and waste
dumps, the water drained may be charged with
suspended
solid
particulates
dissolved
chemicals and toxic substances, or may be
acidic, alkaline, or polluted by acid mine
drainage not fit the survival of fish and benthic
invertebrates. Impact of mine drainage on
water regime is due to degradation of surface
and sub-surface water quality & alteration of
surface run off and stream flow, water
pollution could cause rise in turbidity and
suspended matter, rise in temperature by a few
degree ºC, poor aesthetic condition due to
change in colours due to toxic elements, foam
and froth due to mineral beneficiation, radioactivity, etc.
In the industrial area of Baddi, Barotiwala,
Nalagarh, Kala Amb & Parwanoo, the water
quality of the River Sirsa, Markanda and Sukhna
Nallah is categorized as ‘D‘ because of low levels
of oxygen due to organic pollution. River Sirsa is
categorized as A to D because industrial and
domestic effluent pollutes river in Baddi,
Barotiwala and Nalagarh region.
4. Noise pollution due to mining activities:
The noise generated due to mining and allied
equipments arises from working of machinery
like loaders, dozers, locomotives, fixed plant
installations like crushers, conveyors, pump,
ventilation fans, mobile plants like compressed
air rock drills, large portable compressors,
diesel, trucks, front end loaders. Due to
blasting activities, exposure to noise beyond
certain level is harmful to human health and
efficiency. Noise pollution has become a part of
industrial and urban life. Urban people are at
constant exposure to such pollution contributed
by movement of vehicles and blowing of horns.
5. Waste management: Waste is generated
due to removal of overburden and inter
burden. Refuse from ore processing plants
including slimes, mud and tailings; waste from
lubricants; oil and grease from mining
machinery and disposal of sub-grade mineral.
External dumps are permanent sources of land
pollution through wash off with rains and air
borne dust through wind action. They present
ugly and repulsive look. In hilly areas, the waste
flowing through natural surface destroys
vegetation, chokes natural drainage and run off
during rainy season, spoils the surrounding
landscape in terms of stability and natural land
form.
6. Change in land use: Mining is a temporary
land use and is not an everlasting process. The
land use pattern undergoes a change due to use
of land for mining, excavation, dumping and
other associated activities. Where communities
exist at a potential mine site, mining impacts on
environment can significantly influence
community attitude to the operation. Mining
leads to change in topography, change in local
drainage patterns etc. Topography and land use
change is due to digging of open pits and dumping
of over burden rock mass in the form of the
heaps. The land use pattern undergoes a change
due to the use of the land for mining, dumping
and other associated activities. The land use in the
surrounding areas is also affected due to the
impact of mining on water regime. Polluted water
from pits affects the characteristics of the top soil,
affecting the end use. The damage pattern on the
surface undergoes a change due to the alterations
in the surface topography due to mining and
associated activities.
7. Loss of Flora and Fauna: The mining
operation causes change in flora and also have
effect on the plantation in the core as well as
buffer zone. Impact on fauna due to noise,
land degradation and deforestation also results
from change in the land use, loss of natural
vegetation cover, removal of vegetation (flora)
and fauna from the area is required for mining and
other purposes. Pollution of water in the
surrounding water bodies, due to flow of debris on
the slope, affect the aquatic ecology of water
bodies. Dust in the atmosphere is contributed by
231 | Page
the mining and associated activities. Dust when
deposited on the leaves of the plants in the
surrounding areas, retard their growth.
8. Poor Aesthetics / visual Impacts: Mining
activities remove vegetation cover, modify the
land forms, create colour contrasts and impose
man made objects into natural vistas, looks sore
to the eyes. The removal of vegetation from the
mining area and the flow of debris on the slope give
an ugly look. Summary of identification and
analysis of issues is given in Table 12.
Table 12: Summary of Identification and Analysis of Issues
Issues
1. Siting of mining areas
Causes
Mining deposits are site specific and is
developed and mined / operated only
where they exists.
2. Ambient Air quality/Air
Pollution due to dust generated
during various processes of
mining.
Dust generated due to various mining
activities causing air pollution.
Drilling, Blasting
Loading and unloading of mined
material
On haulage roads transportation of
material through trucks.
Fixed sources like crushers, screen,
conveyors etc.
Dust blows.
3. Water quality / water pollution
/ depletion of water sources.
- Direct discharge of mine waste to
water streams erosion and wash off
from mined out areas and waste
dumps.
The water drained may be charged
with suspended solid particulates
dissolved chemicals and toxic
substances, or may be acidic, alkanine,
or polluted by acid mine drainage not
fit the survival of fish and benthic
Impacts/Risks
Disturbance to environment,
forest land, fertile land, etc.
Problems due to land acquisition
and rehabilitation of land and
persons displaced.
Disturbance to vegetation
growth and fauna of the area.
Air, water and noise pollution.
Land degradation and waste
disposal etc.
Loss of aesthetic beauty etc.
The consequences of air pollution
due to dust generated during mining
operations may impact.
Visible plumes and haze.
Staining and soiling of surfaces.
Aesthetic or chemical
contamination of vegetation or
water bodies.
Effect on personal comfort,
amenity and health.
Occupational health hazard like.
‘Silicosis’ a serious life
threatening lung disease
caused due to mining and
quarrying of silicate
minerals.
‘Mesothelioma; a type of
cancer caused due to
exposure of asbestos
mining – also termed as –
“asbestosis”.
Dusts containing toxic metals namely
Lead, Mercury, Zinc, Cobalt etc.
Impact of mine drainage on
water regime due to degradation
of surface and sub-surface water
quality.
Alteration of surface run off and
stream flow.
Water pollution could cause
following harmful effects.
Rise in turbidity and suspended
matter.
232 | Page
Issues
Causes
invertebrates.
- Drilling and Plasting
4. Noise pollution
5. Waste management
The noise generated due to mining
and allied equipments arises from:
Working of machinery like loaders,
dozers, locomotives etc.
Fixed plant installations like
crushers, conveyors, pump,
ventilation fans.
Mobile plants like compressed air
rock drills, large portable
compressors, diesel, trucks, front
end loaders etc.
Due to blasting and drilling
activities.
• Removal of overburden and inter
burden.
• Refuse from ore processing plants
including slimes, mud and tailings.
• Waste from lubricants, oil and
grease from mining machinery.
Disposal of sub-grade mineral.
Impacts/Risks
Rise in temperature by a few
degree ºC.
Aesthetic pollution due to
change in colour due to toxic
elements.
Foam and froth due to mineral
beneficiation.
Radio-active pollution
Lowering of watertable and
depletion of water resources.
Exposures to noise beyond
certain level is harmful to human
health and efficiency.
The generation of unreasonable
noise within the environment
affects people adversely.
Interference with sleep.
Effect on hearing
Effect on communication.
Effect on mental and physical
health.
Effect on working efficiency.
Continuous exposure of workers
to high level of noise may result
into
Annoyance
Fatigue
Hypertension
Loss of hearing
Temporary shift in threshold
limit of hearing.
Other anatomical disturbance like
change in breathing amplitude,
gastric secretion etc.
External dumps are permanent
sources of land pollution
through wash off with rains and
air borne dust through wind
action. They present ugly and
repulsive look.
In hilly areas, the waste flowing
through natural surface destroys
vegetation, chokes natural
drainage and the run off during
rainy season, spoils the
surrounding landscape in terms
of stability and natural land
form.
233 | Page
Issues
6. Change in land use.
Causes
Mining is a temporary land use and is
not an everlasting process. The land
use pattern undergoes a change due to
the use of land for mining, excavation,
dumping and other associated
activities.
7. Loss of Flora and Fauna
Development of Mining areas,
Drilling, Blasting and Excavation
8. Poor
impacts
5.6
Aesthetics
/
visual
Mining activities remove vegetation
cover, modify the land forms, create
colour contrasts and impose man
made objects into natural vistas.
Environment initiatives taken
by sector to address critical
environment issues
i. Zoning Atlas & Associated Activities:
Apart from its regulatory role, the State
Pollution Control Board is undertaking a proactive visionary approach by making use of
scientific tools such as GIS application for
environment management etc. To undertake
the Spatial Environmental Planning Program,
the State Board has a state of the art facility in
terms of infrastructure and technical
manpower. It has so far covered all the districts
under Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries. In
addition, the State Board has also taken lead
towards revising all these zoning atlases as per
the modified criteria devised by the Central
Pollution Control Board and the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, Govt. of India and
Impacts/Risks
Where communities exist at a
potential mine site, mining
impacts on the environment can
significantly influence
community attitude to the
operation.
Change in topography.
Change in local drainage patterns
etc.
Loss of natural vegetation cover.
Displacement / dispersion of
fauna
Degradation of land
Looks sore to the eyes
consequently more sites are available now for
sustainable industrialization. The summary of
the activities undertaken/being undertaken by
the State Board in order to achieve the
objectives of sustainable industrialization are as
follows:
1. Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries for all
districts of the State.
2. Industrial Estate Planning for Baddi,
Barotiwala-Nalagarh in Solan and Paonta
Sahib in Sirmaur.
3. State Environmental Atlas of Himachal
Pradesh.
5. District-wise Environmental Atlases for
Solan, Sirmaur, Kangra, Mandi &
Hamirpur and remaining districts are also
being covered.
234 | Page
ii. Policy Guidelines for Registration,
Location, Installation and working of stone
crushers in Himachal Pradesh. (notified on
11/8/2004 ): On the directions from the
Hon’ble High Court of H.P. in CWP No.
228/02 titled as Sh. Desh Raj Vs State of H.P.
and titled as others, the State Government has
notified the Policy Guidelines for Registration,
Location, Installation and Working of stone
crushers in Himachal Pradesh. It defines
procedure for registration and installation of
stone crushers as per siting parameters notified
by the Department of Science and Technology
on 29/4/03 and 10/9/04.
iii. Noise monitoring: The State Pollution
Control Board monitors noise in Shimla, Solan,
Baddi-Barotiwala,
Nalagarh
and
Una/Mehatpur areas. Solan and BaddiBarotiwala recorded high noise pollution than
Shimla. Noise and vibrations due to blasting
and operation of the machines drive away wild
animals and birds from the nearby forest.
5.7
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector
Studies/reports done by Geological wing
1. Geological Report on the Saline Water
Spring Located Around Village-Hiran, Near
Jwalaji In District Kangra of Himachal
Pradesh.
2 Ageological report on the site proposed for
improvement of flow irrigation scheme
Langja in Gram Panchayat Langja TehsilSpiti, District Lahaul & Spiti.
3. Geological note on the Construction of
Bridge over Lingti Nala near Village Rama
in District Lahaul and Spiti.
4. Geotechnical Report in respect of Soil
Erosion, Sinking of Land and Landsliding
at Ridge,”The Mall” on Shimla District,
Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.
5. Geological Report on the Stability of Hill
Slope for the protection of
6. Radha Swami Satsang Beas building
complex, Shimla
7
Geotechnical report in respect of Soil
Erosion, Sinking of Land and Landsliding
at Barog, District Solan, Himachal Pradesh.
8. Feasibility report: District Una, HP
5.8
Environment
monitoring/
impacts for the activities related
to the sector
There is no environment monitoring
mechanism within the sector. Environment
monitoring is carried out by State Pollution
Control Board.
5.9
Institutional
mechanisms
within the sector to address
identified environment issues
Geological Wing: The Geological Wing was
set up in the Department of Industries, H.P. in
the Year 1964 -65 with only one Geologist,
who was heading the Organisation on
deputation from Geological Survey of India.
On the reorganisation of erstwhile State of
Punjab, in November 1966, majority of
Geologist and staff were allotted to Himachal
Pradesh. Thus a well equipped Geological Wing
started functioning in the Himachal Pradesh
from Nov, 1966 with following functions:
•
Exploration of mineral wealth of the State
for their scientific and economical
exploitation and setting up of mineral based
industries like large cement plants etc.
• Development and regulation of minerals by
granting various mineral concessions
through leases, auctions, short term permits
etc. Implementation of River/Stream Bed
Mining Policy, 2004, Policy guidelines for
Registration, Location, Installation and
Working of Stone Crushers in Himachal
Pradesh, Court Cases, redressal of
complaints etc.
• Preparation of Survey Document of each
District;
235 | Page
•
Scrutiny of Mining- cum – Environment
Management Plans;
• Carrying
out
geo-technical
studies/investigations of bridges, buildings,
landslides, road alignments, hydro-electric
projects, I&PH schemes, Geological,
stability / feasibility report of various roads
constructed under PMGSY. As per the user
agencies demands (approximately 60
assignments per year) etc.
• Geo-environmental studies of lakes,
geothermal studies etc.
Geological Wing. Geological Wing is headed by
the State Geologist who works under the
control and supervision of Director of
Industries. The State Geologist is further
assisted by Geologists and Assistant Geologist
and by the Mining Officers in the field, apart
from the supporting staff from drilling,
surveying, draughtsman and ministerial staff.
Organizational chart
The organisational chart of the Industries
Department is as indicated below:
The Director of Industries is the overall incharge of the Directorate including the
Store Purchase
Organisation
Additional. Controller of Stores
Joint Director of Industries
Tehsildar
Naib Tehsildar
Store Inspection Officers
Superintendent Gr.-I S.O. (Audit)
Geological & Mining
State Geologist
Geologists
Assistant Geologists
Driller Superintendent Gr.-I S.O
(Audit)
Assistant Driller
Lab Assistant
Administration
Addl. Director of
Industries (Admn.) Assistant Controller
(F&A)
Superintendent Gr.-I
Sericulture
Project Co-ordinator
Industrial Development
Industrial Advisor
Joint Director of
Industries
Project Co-ordinator
Deputy Directors of
Industries
Manager
Handloom
Dy. Director of
Industries
236 | Page
Field Offices
District Industries Centre
General Managers
Managers/ Member
Secretaries, SWCAs, Parwanoo, Baddi, Nalagarh,Paonta Sahib, Kala
Amb,Sansarpur Terrace, Gwalthai,& Damtal
Industrial Promotion
Officers
Economic Investigators Extension Officer (Industries) (Block Level)
5.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations
and
changing
lifestyles;
migratory
populations
Mining
Mining Officers
Mining Inspectors
Assistant Mining Inspectors Mining
Guards
including
tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
The location limestone bearing belts of the
Sirmaur District are as given below in the
figure 5.
:
Figure 5: Location Limestone bearing belts of the Sirmaur District
Solan District
a) Arki Limestone deposit: Low silica (L.D.
grade) limestone deposit of Basantpur
Formation have been investigated by the
237 | Page
Geological Wing, Department of Industries,
H.P. The deposit is situated 2 Km NNW of
Arki on Shalaghat- Kunihar Road and lies
between longitudes 760 58’ 02”- 760 58’ 24” and
latitudes 31011’05”- 31011’36”.A total of 87
million tonnes of reserve had been proved in
this area. The average chemical analysis is given
below in Table 13.
Table 13: Chemical analysis Arki limestone
deposit
Constituent
CaO
MgO
SiO2
R2O3
Fe2O3
Al2O3
%age
53.78
1.10
0.50
0.35
0.11
0.25
The area has been leased out to National
Mineral Development Corporation.
b) Kashlog- Mangu Limestone deposit:
Limestone deposit having a strike length of
about 1.2 Kms with an average width of upto
0.5 km, suitable for cement manufacture had
been investigated by the Geological Wing,
Department of Industries. The Geological
reserve in the Kaslog Mangu area, Tehsil Arki,
District Solan is given below in Table 13.
Table 14: Kaslog &
deposit
Block
Western (
Kaslog)
Eastern
Mangu
Total
Mangu
limestone
Reserve in Million Tonnes
Proved Probable Possible
Total
40.53
6.54
3.88
50.96
85.41
21.20
24.13
130.74
125.94
27.76
28.01
181.7
c) Bagga - Bhalag limestone Deposit: The
deposit is located between latitude 31019’04”N
-31020’58”N and longitude 76052’45”E 76055’04”E in Mangal, area of Solan. The
deposit had been investigated by the Geological
Wing, Department of Industries. The average
chemical analysis of the Bagga- Bhalag
Limestone deposit, is given in Table 15.
Table 15: Chemical analysis of the Bhalag
& Bagga limestone deposit
Constituent
CaO
MgO
SiO2 ( Insoluble)
Fe2O3
Al2O3
LIO
B.
%age
Bhalag Block
Bagga Block
46.81
40.00
2.44
1.75
10.94
20
0.69
1.2
1.17
2.30
38.02
33
Baryte
a) Sirmaur District: The barytes deposits in
Sirmaur district is usually associated with Krol
limestone and appear to have formed by the
process of replacement. The mineral occur in
either pure form of admixed with dolomite of
the Krol Formation. In the Jogar- ka- Khala
however it is associated with Balaini Boulder
beds.
i) Kanti (30 0 37’ N – 77 038’ E): The deposit is
situated about 1 km SSE of Kanti on the
northern slope of the hill. The mineral occurs
associated with Krol limestone in the form of a
vein which has an average width of 7 metres
and is traceable for about 50 metres. Further to
east, three or four other small outcrops of
barytes are met with the same strike but these
are comparatively small and the mineral is also
greatly admixed with dolomite. In some cases,
the specks of galena mineral were also found
associated with barytes. The deposit was first
prospected
by
the
Sirmaur
Mineral
Development Corporation when five or six
trenches were put in the main vein across the
deposit.
ii ) Tatyana ( 30 0 38’ 30”N – 77 038’ E): The
deposit is situated about one km south east of
Tatiyana Village on the northern slope of
limestone hillock near a spring. This occurrence
is similar to nature to that at Kanti with the
difference that here the mineral is very much
admixed with dolomite. The zone of baryte
covers an area of 350 X 120 metre on the slope
of the hill. This area was also first investigated
by the Sirmaur Mineral Development
Corporation.
238 | Page
C. Rock Salt
a) Mandi District: The rock salt occurs in
Guma (31° 58’:76°51’) and Drang (31° 46’: 76°
56’) areas. The total reserves of rock salt are
about 75 million tonnes. Chemical analysis
indicates on an average insoluble impurities
21%, KCL 3 % and NaCl about 70.40% and
the rest consisting of CaO, CaSO4and MgO.
Detailed geological work and drilling has been
carried out to assess the grade and reserves.
Drilling data shows that except for minor
intercalation of non productive beds (clay,
quartzite, etc.) the cores are composed of salt
throughout the area investigated. Chemical
analysis show that the average salt content is
over 70% and with depth no regular change in
the salt content is indicated. Besides Drang,
saline
grits
occur
intermittently
in
discontinuous patches over a linear distance of
18 kms northwest of Mandi The important
occurrences of this salt grit are: Megal (31°45’:
76°57'), Drang, 9310 480 20”; 760 570 00”)
Herkalan (31° 56’: 76° 52’),Guma (31° 56’: 76°
51’), Dewalkhas (32° 05’: 76° 40’) and Kandbad
(32° 071: 75° 35’).
i) Drang -Gumma Rock Salt deposit: Rock
Salt has been extracted since long in Mandi hills
at two locations namely Drang and Gumma.
These mines were transferred to M/s
Hindustan Salts Ltd. in 1963, after acquiring
these from erstwhile Mandi State by Govt. of
India. Mandi Salt belt extends from Mandi to
Jogindernagar and even further, but three
places viz. Megal, Drang and Gumma where
Salt is known to occur, lie along N.H.-20.
Drang is at a distance of about 40 Kms. from
Jogindernagar and about 17 kms. ahead of
Mandi.
b) Kangra district: Thin, white, saline
encrustation forms on the surface of pebbles
and rocks near Behna (31°22’:77°23') are
observed.
Figure 6: Occurrence of rock salt in Himachal Pradesh
239 | Page
D. Silica Sand
a) Una District: Deposits to the tune of 2.5
million tonnes have been envisaged up to a
depth of one metre, by the Geological Wing
Department of Industries, Himachal Pradesh in
the Bathri, Gardhala & Padhauri Khads of the
Una District. The reserve in long run may
prove to be much more because of the
replenishment of boulders by seasonal high
water Khads. Stream beds form the boulder
deposits, the source for which is boulder
conglomerate of the Upper Shiwalik. All the
khads are situated 18 to 33 km in the south
west of Una and they lie within a distance of 15
km. The area covered includes both regular and
abandoned courses. Regular course is that part
of stream which gets water during rainy season
and abandoned courses are the dead course.
Regular courses cover 3,097,725 sq. metres in
the various khads. Thickness of the deposit
varies from one to three metres. One metre of
depth was taken into consideration while
calculating the reserves and to fix the easily
quarriable depth. All the deposits comprise
quartzite, sand and fraction of granite,
limestone and breccia-fragments. Quartzites are
white, spotted white, greenish white, blackish
grey, pink, purple to greyish green. The entire
material of the stream beds has been classified
as white, spotted white, greenish white,
quartzite fragments, gravel and sand. Quartzite
fragments are rounded, sub-rounded and
discoidal in shape having smooth surface. Their
size varies from gravel to boulder. Gravel has
not been taken into consideration because its
hand picking would be uneconomical. During
the monsoons, these beds are replenished to a
very large extent from the Shiwalik rocks due to
erosion by heavy flows. The result of chemical
analysis of silica boulders of the Una District is
given below in Table 16.
Table 16: Chemical analysis of silica
boulders of the Una District
Constituent
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
TiO2
CaO
MgO
Loss
Ignition
of
Pure white
boulders
98.035 %
1.386 %
0.110%
Nil
0.1 %
0.056 %
0.0286 %
Spotted
white
boulders
98.053 %
1.274 %
0.133 %
Nil
0.135 %
0.056%
0.319%
Greenish
boulders
97.678 %
1.50 %
0.21 %
Nil
0.17 %
0.109 %
0.306 %
b) Bilaspur District: Soft white quartzite,
found near Sirha (51°21’: 76° 47’), Aruali (31°
18’ : 76° 47’), Banda (310 19’ : 76° 47’) and
Solag (31° 21’ : 76° 50’), may be suitable for
glass industry.
c ) Kangra District: Soft quartzite boulders
which yield good glass sands on crushing occur
near Barhwain (31° 48': 76° 08’) and on the
Bastram ridge. Smaller deposits also occur in
the Khads near Bhadroa (320 15' : 75° 41’).
E. Building Stones: The principal rock types
used as building stone are limestones (including
marbles), sandstones, slates and granites.
Building stone is also commonly referred to as
'Dimension Stone' in many countries. Building
stones are naturally occurring rocks of igneous,
sedimentary or metamorphic origin which are
sufficiently consolidated to enable them to be
cut or shaped into blocks or slabs for use as
wall, paving or roofing materials in the
construction of buildings and other structures.
Important building stones which area mined in
Himachal Pradesh is slate, sandstone and
quartzite and river borne material e.g. boulders,
cobbles etc)
1. Slate: Slate is a fine grained, hard, compact,
cleavable rock derived from microcrystalline
metamorphic rocks of clays and shale and
possesses a cleavage that permits it to split
readily into thin smooth sheets. The thin layers
split along the cleavage planes may cut across
bedding planes. The metamorphism of shale by
240 | Page
:
pressure produce slates which are characterized
by the presence of close-set planes of cleavage
along which they can be split easily into thin
sheets. The cleavage plane is related to the
direction of pressure to which the material was
subjected and not to the bedding plane. Slate
has emerged as an alternative to granite and
marble which are comparatively costly. Slate
has the aesthetic value like other dimension
stones i.e. granite and marble. Slate is cut and
fabricated into dimensional form. Slate is
categorized into minor and major minerals in
the country depending on its end use. The slate
industry has received a boost in recent years
due to increased interest in architecture. The
export of slate has increased, over the years.
The major use of slate in foreign markets is in
roofing tile, but other uses as flooring tile and
cladding are also picking up.
Occurrences: Himachal Pradesh is known in
the country for its good quality of slate, which
find place in foreign market also because of its
pleasing colour, durability and uniformity in
thickness. The art of extraction of slates is
known to the local people of the area since
generations. The good quality thick bands of
slates occur in Chamba, Kangra, Mandi, Kullu
district and to some extent in Shimla, Sirmaur
and Kinnaur, & Solan district. Slates are
confined to Kullu Group, Shimla Formation,
Chamba Formation, Jaunsaur Formation &
Katargali Formation.
As per rough estimate there are about 81
million tonnes of the inferred reserves of slate
in the State. District wise slate reserves in the
State are given below in Table 17.
Table 17: Reserves of the slate
District
Chamba
Kangra
Kullu
Mandi
Shimla
Kinnaur
Solan
Total
Reserves in tonnes
32000000
7000000
19000000
11000000
9000000
2000000
1000000
81000000
District wise important slate occurrence is
described below.
a) Chamba district: Good deposits of slate,
suitable for roofing, paving and fencing
purposes occur in Kullu, Chamba and
Katarigali Formations in different parts of
Chamba district.
In Kullu Formation, the slates are confined to
its middle part. Good deposits of slate suitable
for roofing, paving and fencing purposes occur
in a zone nearly seven kms in length extending
from near Talai (320 21’ 55” : 760 04’ 30”) to
northwest of Makotsu (320 24’ 50” :760 01’
10”). The slate belt attains its maximum
thickness of 884 metres in Chakki nala and
minimum thickness of 200 metres near
Makotsu.
The following are the important slate
occurrences in the formation:
(I) Rupaina (31 0 22’00”: 76003’ 35”) -Nargal
(320 22’ 15”: 760 02’ 25”) area: The slate
belt in this area is 240 m thick and extends
over a strike length of above 800m. The
probable reserves estimated are of the
order of 5, 18, 400 tonnes.
(ii) Bhora (32 0 23' 05": 76002' 50”)-Bela
(32022”40": 76002’ 15") area: The slate
horizon in this area is about 560 m thick
extending over a strike length of about
900m. The probable reserves are of the
order of 1,360.800 tonnes.
(iii) Chaunda Devi (l32° 24' 40": 760 01’ 50")
area: The slate deposit is 320 m thick and
extends over a strike length of about 700
m. The probable reserves are of the order
of 6,04,800 tonnes.
(iv) Renda (32 0 24' 40" : 76001’15”) area: The
slate horizon in this area is 160 m thick
and extends over a strike length of 400
metres. The probable reserves are of the
order of 1,72,800 tonnes.
(v) In Chuari (320 25’50” : 760 01’ 00”)Dalhousie (320 34’: 750 58’) area, five
horizons of slate have been recorded in
241 | Page
Kullu Formation. Out of these, the two
top most horizons contain good quality
slate.
The slate bearing localities in this area are:
Khotri {32°25’55”:76002’ 10”), Chamari
(32º26’00”:76001’15”), Debrera
(32º27’10”:76º00’10”), Dabriara (32º28’ 55”:76º
00’25”), Kophru (32º 59’ 00”: 76º00’10”), Base
(32º29’10”:76º 59’ 45”), Dramman
(32º29’50”:75º59’25”), Sugalu
(32º31’00”:75º59’10”), Sappar
(32º30’50”:75º58’35”), Kunna
(32º31’10”:75º58’35”), Basti
(32º31’15”:75º58’35”), Kathu-Ka-Khol (32º29’
55” : 75º58’ 45”), Thanoli (32º00’15” :
75º58’30”), Grarana (32º29’30” :75º58’00”).
The total reserves of cleavable slates occurring
in the area, between Kalm Nadi in the
southeast and near Sapri (320 33’ 25” : 750 58’
35”)in the north west have been estimated to
be of the order of 11,505,000 cu m. The
reserves have been calculated upto a depth of
15ml.
(vi) In the Chamba Formation, fairly good
deposits of slate occur in its middle and upper
parts in the area north and north east of Rakh.
This formation, in fact, is the main source of
slates being produced in the Chamba and
Bharmour tehsils of this district. The important
slate
bearing
localities
are
Dulara
(32°29’05”:76º14’35”),
Dhanara
(32º26’25”:76º14’45”), Se (32º29’40”:76º14’30”)
and Panthal (32º28’55”:76º14’30”). The
investigation carried out in the slate belt in the
area between Sajhot (32º30’05:76º13’55”) to
near Dudiana (32º28’50”:76º 15’20”) have
revealed the probable reserves of the order of
18.4 million tonnes. In the Katarigali Formation
a zone of dark grey black shale/slate has been
traced from near Kandail in the northwest to
near Gharola (32º26’10”:76º27’10”) in the south
west.
b) Kangra district: A more or less continuous
slate belt of variable width and thickness occur
over a strike extension of about seven
kilometres from a little west of Bhagsunath (320
14’ 40”: 76020’00”) in the south west to near
Chamba Pass (32º17'04”:76º15’10”) in the
northwest. The belt comprise two slaty
horizons of variable widths occurring at
different stratigraphic levels within the Kullu
Formation. One of the horizons occurs at the
base of streaky and gneissose quartzite. is about
75 metres wide and has an average width of
about 120 metres. The important slate
occurrences are as under:
(I)
Dharamkot (32°15’05”:76°19’15”) area:
The slate horizon in this area is 210 m
thick extending over a strike length of
1750 m. The probable estimated reserves
are of the order of 9,92,250 tonnes.
(II) Ab Got (32°16’50”:76°17’35”) area: The
slate horizon in this area is 40 m thick
and extends over a strike length of 200
m. The probable estimated reserves are
of the order of 21,600 tonnes.
(III) Area
north
of
Bhatti
(32°16’45":76°15’15”): The 60 m thick
slate belt extends over a strike length of
100 m. The probable reserves are of the
order of 1,62,000 tonnes.
The above area is known for important
Khaniyara Slate mining. Mining in this area
started along Manjhi and Manuni Khad in 1850.
In 1867, Mr. R. W. Shaw established “Kangra
Valley Slate Quarry” and worked till
independence in 366 Acre (146 hectare area),
204 Acre in Manuni Khad and 162 Acre in
Manjhi Khad. Then, it were worked by the
Khaniyara Gabli Dhar Slate Quarry Board.
2.
Sandstone and Quartzites: Sandstone
and quartzite suitable for building occur
throughout the geological column and
have a State wide distribution. The
general description of the Formations
bearing building stone of quartzite,
sandstones, quartzarenite, suitable for
242 | Page
the construction purpose is given in
Table 18.
Table 18: State wide Distribution of Mineral
Formation
Shiwalik
Sirmaur
Ladungsari
Lilang
Kuling
Lipak
Sanugba
Tal
Krol
Infrakrol
Jaunsaur
Shimla
Kullu
Shali
Largi
Rampur
Dharagad
Sundernagar
Jutog
Total
Approximate reserve in Million
tonnes
18000
13000
3000
1500
6000
1300
300
1200
1000
80
1800
2400
10000
2000
300
7600
200
400
4700
74780
3 River borne material: The cobbles, pebbles
and boulders of the Newer Formation are the
important source of raw material for the stone
crushers in Himachal Pradesh.
F. Other Minerals
1. Asbestos
a) Kangra district: Small occurrence of
asbestos of uneconomic nature occur in a nala
south east of Kami village (32º12’: 78º35').
b) Mandi District: The highly weathered
basaltic rocks of Darla volcanics exposed along
the right bank of a small nala flowing between
Ardhi and Badsar contain very thin fibres of
asbestos.
c) Shimla district: Chrysotile asbestos was
observed by Captain Palmer in association with
a dolerite dyke on the Shali ridge north of
Shimla. The occurrence of Asbestos in
Himachal Pradesh is given in figure 7:
Figure 7: Location of occurrence of Asbestos in Himachal Pradesh
243 | Page
2.
Bauxite
a)
Shimla District
(i)
Occurrence of bauxite has been reported
about one kilometre northeast of village
Deharu (30°49’:77°39’). The bauxite
forms basal part of the Subathu
Formation (Eocene). It occurs at a
number of places as localized pockets
which range in thickness from one to
three metres but generally do not extend
laterally beyond 10 metres. The bauxite is
earthy pale-grey and brownish in colour
and is characterised by well developed
pisolitic texture. Sample of bauxite on
chemical analysis indicated the presence
of Al203 55.10% Si02 24.97%, Fe2O3
1.20% TiO2 5%
(ii) In Chapla area (31°03’:77°11’), the
bauxite deposit occurs mostly as
lateritised rocks at the base of the
Palaeocene Kakra rocks. Thickness and
length of the zones vary from one to five
metres and one to five kilometres
respectively. The deposit is low in
alumina and high in silica content.
b) Sirmaur district: In Benchi area
(30°47’:77°37’), bauxite occurs in isolated
patches at the base of Eocene/Palaeocenc
rocks i.e. Kakra and Subathu Formations. The
deposit contains low alumina and high silica.
Bauxite is also reported near Nahan (30°
33’:77°16’) and its outcrop is buried under a
landslide.
c) Solan district: In Deothal area
(30°51”:77°10”), bauxite occurs as pisolitic ore
having a thickness of one to five metres
traceable for about 1.5 km.
The occurrence of bauxite in Himachal Pradesh
are as given below in the Figure 8.
:
Figure 8: Location of occurrence of Bauxite in Himachal Pradesh
244 | Page
(iv)
3.
Beryl
a)
Chamba district
(i)
Beryl bearing pegmatites have
been located in Kilar gneiss
around
Haksu
bridge
(33°05’:76°23’0.
(ii) Pegmatite bodies with beryl have
been found within gneisses of
Kilar Formation. The pale yellow
to light bluish-green beryl occurs
at about one kilometres east of
Dehda
nala
bridge
(33º05’10”:76º22’30”) and about
1.5
km
south
of
Jules
(33º05’35”:76º 23’15”. The visual
estimate of beryl in pegmatite is
less than 0.5%.
b)
Kinnaur district
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Pale blue beryl has been
reported from the Wangtu
bridge (31º 32’: 78° 15’) and for
some distance up the Satluj and
Shipki La (31º49’:78º45’) Pass.
Beryl associated with pegmatite
has been reported from near
Riuni
village
(78º04’20”:31º04’16”)
and
Nalgan
Ghatti
(31°19’20”:
78°12’15”).
Sporadic
bluish
coloured
transluscent hexagonal crystals
of beryl are noticed in the
pegmatites intrusive into the
schistose rocks of the Vaikrita
Group
in
Morang
(31°36’00':78°26’30')
Tirung
º
º
(31 34’30': 78 27’00') area.
c)
(v)
Greenish blue beryl is found in
the pegmatite along its contact
with the country rocks near
Ribba (31º35’15':78º22’00”) and
near the confluence of Kashanj
Khad and Satluj river.
Small crystals of beryl within
pegmatite veins traversing the
Rakcham granite have been
reported from the area between
Pangi (31º36': 78º21') and Akpa
(31° 35’00”: 78º 22’ 45”).
Kullu district
(i)
Beryl
bearing
pegmatites
intrusive into gneissoses schist
and granites have been reported
from Sara Umga Thach
(32º10’:77º29’) and north east of
Pando Seo Thach (31º56'
30”:77º40’30”).
(ii)
Sporadically beryl is found
associated with pegmatites in
Mantalai (31º51’45”:77°47’ 15”)
area and in Tanang Khol
(31°57’:70033’).
(iii)
Crystals of beryl measuring upto
eight cms in length are found
associated with the pegmatites
at
Munni
Thach
(31°59’45”:77°39’45”)
and
Piangniru Thach (32°14’30”:
77°18'30”). The occurrence of
Beryl in Himachal Pradesh is as
given in figure 9.
245 | Page
:
Figure 9: Locations of occurrence of Beryl in Himachal Pradesh
4. Clays: Clay occurrences in Himachal
Pradesh can be broadly classified into (i)
lacustrine and fluvial, (ii) residual associated
with granite and (iii) associated with the Middle
and Upper Shiwaliks.
a) Sirmaur district: Brick -clay of fluvial origin
occurs at and around Sirmur Tal (30º32’ 30":
77º39' 20"), 16 kms north of Paonta Sahib.
Similar clays also occurs along the Nimba -ka Khala, The occurrence extends for 500 metres
with an average width of 80 m. The average
thickness is 3.38 m with 1.2 m thick
overburden. Other occurrences of this type of
day are at Rati Kharak (30º31’00":77º32’ 10")
and Kalidhang (30º36’30":77º39'30"). At Rati
Kharak the clay occurs in an area, 480 m in
length and 120 m in width. The thickness of the
clay is two metres. In Kalidhang area, the clay
occurs on both sides of Khasuda Ka Khala.
The deposit is 540 m in length and 180 m in
width. Thickness varies from 20 m to 30 m.
The deposit contains clay bands of varying
colours. The clay bands are inter layered with
bands of gravel, pebbles and sandy loamy soil.
The varved nature of the clay deposit indicates
that the clay is of lacustrine origin. The reserves
of the clay around Kalindhang are about 2.93
million tonnes upto a depth of 20 m. The
location of the clay deposit in Sirmaur district
are as given in Figure 10
246 | Page
Figure 10: Locations of the clay deposit in Sirmaur district
b)
Kangra district
(i)
Yellow coloured clay has been reported
from three kilometres west of Shahpur
(32º13’:76°12”).
Light grey to whitish grey clay bands
varying in thickness from half to three
metres and having 90% clay contents
has been reported from Middle and
Upper
Shiwaliks,
at
Khajan
(32°19'30":75°54’05”), Indpur (32°091
30":75°44' 00"), Paliana(32°09’00")
75°54'30") Kothar (32°04’34”:75°52’10”)
and Hatli (32º05’05”:75º50’50”) in Nurpur Tehsil.
Reserves of white clay of Kothar area
are of the order of 15,000 tonnes. The
clay is composed of montmorillonite,
kaolin, quartz, carbonate and Fe-oxide.
Reserves of clay of Hatli area are
around 5070 tonnes. The clay contains
montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, quartz,
muscovite and albite.
Kinnaur district
China clay occurs as alteration product
(ii)
c)
of granite, gneiss and pegmatite near
Lipa (31°39':78º24'). Lacustrine clays
occur at Shalkar, Chango and Ganfa
along the Spiti river.
d)
Kullu district
China clay occurrence has been
reported
from
near
Bathua
(31°28':77°32') which is locally used for
white washing.
e)
Lahaul & Spiti district: Two
lacustrine clay pockets have been
reported at Kioto (32°56':77°55') and
Atargoo (32°78°10’). The first one is
about 500 metres in length with a
maximum width of 80 metres while the
latter one is 250 metres in length with a
maximum thickness of 15 metres.
Mandi district : Small irregular
pockets and lenses of clay are found
within the weathered muscovite granite,
tourmaline
-muscovite
granite,
porphyritic granite and pegmatite of
Mandi -Karsog granite complex at Mohi
f)
247 | Page
(31° 35':76° 55' ), Seri Chak (31° 06'
54": 76° 55' 45"), Seul (31°40’36":76°55'
36"), Saul Khad (31° 40’28':76°53J’27"),
Dhalar (31°35'24":76°55'30"), Batala
Beh (31°15’50":77°13’20"), Karsog
(31°23'00":77°12'00"),
Chichot
(31°33’00":
77°01’00"),
Garaich
(31°24'30":77°14’45”), Negi Nal (31°26'
00':77°11’00”),
Bashaich
(31°26’15”:77°13'30"),
Phaish
(31°27’00":77°05’15"),
Tarai
(31º35’09”:76°59’56"),
Dopha
(31°31’33":77°01’22"),
Nid
(31°32'20";77°01’00"),
Oangthar
(31°32’37":77°06’15').
Seri,(30°
36'55":77°00’06"),
Raipri
(31°37'34":77°00'30'),
Burahata
(31°36'09":77°01’59"), Balhari (31º39'
03":77°00’45”, Pingla (31°35’16";77º01’
23"), Rakbnun (31°47' 30":77°17’30”),
Tarapur (31°38' 00":76°59’37"), Kohlu,
Dalikar (31°37’38” 77°01’00"), and
Rackchui (31°39’05': 76°59' 43").
The clay pockets in the above areas range in
length from 10 metres to 220 metres and only
the clay pocket at Phaish extends for about one
kilometres. The width of the clay pockets varies
from one metre to 1040 metres
g)
Shimla district: Pottery clays resulting
from the decomposition of limestone
associated with carbonaceous slates are
described as occurring on the spurs of
the hills running north from Shimla
(31º08’;77º10'). They have been used for
the manufacture of bricks, tiles and
coarse pottery. The location of the clay
deposit in Himachal Pradesh is given in
figure 11.
:
Figure 11:
Locationg of clay deposits of
Himachal Pradesh
4.
Coal
a)
Kangra district: Coal occurs near Dehra
Gopipur (31° 531:76°83’) in the Pinjor
sand rock of the Upper Shiwalik
Formation and in the Nahan sandstone.
The report of coal occurrence from this
locality was based on two very small
lenticular pockets and a few stringers of
lignite in the north eastern cliff of Beas
river. The first pocket contains a few
lenticular remains of carbonised wood.
The thickness of second occurrence
varies from one centimetre to seven
centimetres with maximum length of
about 30 cm.
b)
Mandi district: A carbonaceous
horizon is traceable for about 90 metres
near Mansai (31°34:76°51'). There is
another 91 centimetres thick seam
traceable for 45 m, 750 m to the south
of the earlier one. A coal seam near
Dehar (31°251:76°491) crops out in and
near the steep right bank of Sutlej river
about 280 m upstream of the
suspension bridge. The carbonaceous
horizon is interbedded with limestone
with almost vertical dips. Two
carbonaceous seams, 180 cm and 90cm
thick could be traced for a distance of
about 90m.
c)
Sirmaur
District:
At
Deothal
(31°51’:77°10’) in the tributary of Kewal
Khala there is occurrence of coal in the
Subathu Formation, but due to folding
in the rock it has been greatly crushed
and it occurs in soft powder form.
d)
Solan District: The coal of uneconomic
value is also reported in the Taksal area
of the Solan District
e)
Bilaspur
District:
A
lenticular
carbonaceous matter occurs in the
Subathu Shale near Dela (31° 24’: 76°
46’),
Maliwarkhad
and
Bandla
(31°20’:76°46’). The coal deposits of
Himachal Pradesh are as shown in the
figure 12.
248 | Page
:
Figure 12: Showing occurrence of coal in Himachal Pradesh
6.
Copper
a) Lahaul & Spiti district
Malachite staining is occasionally noticed in
association with quartz veins in Chandra Tal
(32º39':77º37') and Sarchhu (32º42'30":77°32’)
areas. Copper mineralisation in the form of
chalcopyrite, malachite and azurite are seen
along brecciated zones and within quartz veins
associated with limestone of the Kunzam-La
Formation in between Chander Tal & Bara
Lacha pass (32°44':77°26’). In this area, two
types of veins have been encountered:
• The veins which shows the
mineralization of chalcopyrite are
ferruginous and is restricted to the
peripheries.
• The veins which do not show any
mineralization are white in colour.
Copper mineralization is also reported in the
Shitikar area (32º25': 77º40'). Here the quartz
veins are the mineralized body and varies in
length from 5 cm to 30 metres. The breath also
varies from 1 cm to 2 metres. About 6 veins
show chalcopyrite mineralization occurring as
stringers. Out of 126 samples analyzed by the
Geological Survey of India, only four sample
shows 150 ppm copper otherwise most of the
sample shows 50 or less than 50 ppm of
copper.
b)
Kullu District
(i)
Malachite
stains
and
sparse
disseminations of chalcopyrite have
been reported in the massive quartzites
belonging to Bhallan Formation of the
Rampur
Group
at
Seond
(31°541:77°13/). The copper values
vary from 0.1 % to 0.22%. The
mineralisation is restricted to very
limited area of about 60m along a road
cutting.
Stains of malachite are observed in
quartz veins traversing chloritized schist
near Shatnala bridge. Sample from
Shatgar (31°58':77°12') gave copper
value as 1.21 %. The mineralisation
comprises stains of malachite with
sparse dissemination of chalcopyrite
and pyrite.
In Maol (Mahul) (31°551:77°07') area,
(ii)
(iii)
the sulphide mineralization occurs over
249 | Page
a strike- length of one kilometres and is
in the form of grains of Chalcopyrite
and pyrite and patches, incrustations
and stains of malachite and azurite. The
mineralization is impersistent and
sporadic in nature.
(iv)
In Garsa Valley, i.e., the area lying
between Kurla Nal in the north and the
Sainj Khad in the south, and to the east
of Beas river, the copper mineralisation
is manifested by numerous surface
shows in the form of stains and
encrustations of malachite and azurite,
covering an area of about 9 km x 6 km.
c) Chamba District: It is believed by the
inhabitants of Chamba District that a large
quantity of copper ore had been mined from
the Silagharat in the old times. Historically the
mining in the area is said to have been carried
out in 1559 A. D. It is said that in the times of
Raja Partap Singh Verman, the ruler was in
need of source of revenue for repair of Laxmi
Narayan Temple. A farmer from the Hul area
presented to the Raja a piece of copper and
informed him of the existence of a large
deposit. Thus, a rich deposit of copper is said
to have been found and worked.
d)
Kinnaur District
(i)
Malachite encrustations are reported in
the
Manchhap
nala
(31°25’30”:78°33’30”) section.
Few specks of pyrite and chalcopyrite
with malachite stains have been noticed
in quartz veins near Mangsula
(31°22'30”:78° 30’ 30"). These veins are
more frequent near the Granite Batal
Formation contact.
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
A few malachite stains have been
noticed in the phyllites of the Batal
Formation near Lippa (31°39’:78°38”).
Two small old workings for copper are
observed near Rangbar (31°49’:78°24’)
in the Ropa valley. It consists mainly of
malachite and azurite coatings along the
joint planes and fissures of quartzite
bands in the Kunzam La Formation.
An old working of copper is reported
near Sangnam (31°47’:78°28’). Cu
values of 550 ppm have been obtained
from here.
Sparsely disseminated pyrite occurs in
quartzites and phyllites north east of
Sangnam. In a nala north of Giabong,
malachite and azurite stains are seen in
phyllites.
e) Sirmaur District: At Sataun (30º33’;77º38’),
copper mineralization occurs in the
carbonaceous shales and quartzites of the Blaini
Formation. The mineralisation zone is 25m
wide along a road section and consists of
stringers and disseminations of pyrite and
chalcopyrite. Copper values range from 0.13%
to 4.40%. One zone has analysed and showed
2.27% Cu along 1.30 m width.
f) Solan district: An old Copper mine exists
near Solan (30º55’: 77° 07’) in the Simla Group
of rocks.
The location of the copper ore deposits in
:
Himachal
Pradesh are shown in Figure 13.
250 | Page
:
Figure 13: Showing location of Copper ore in Himachal Pradesh
:
7.
Flourspar
a)
Kinnaur district: Rare occurrence of
light green crystals of flourspar has
been reported in the pegmatite veins at
Wangtu (31º32’:78º04’) bridge.
8.
Galena
a)
Sirmaur district: (i) Massive lode of
a minor deposit comprising galena and
sphalerite have been reported at Anyar
(30°44’:77°44’). The samples from old
working have been analysed indicating
lead 0.75% and zinc 0.21% Another
sample gave 10% zinc/content.
i
Three old working (adits) exist at Anyar in
the Infra Krol phyllites, slates and
limestones. The middle adit shows
mineralisation and is 2.80 m long extending
in N 600 W direction after which it
becomes narrow and is caved. This audit is
located in yellowish – brown friable
phyllite trending N 70º W- S70º E and
dipping 65º to NE. The ore body consist
of massive load comprising pyrite, minor
specks of galena and sphalerite. The load is
0.70 m thick and strikes in N 50º W –S50º
E direction and dips 35º to 65º to the NE.
The load appears to be localized along the
anticline trending N70º W- S70º E.
Another small lode about 0.30 m thick
occurs to the hangwall side. The northern
old mine occurs at the contact of phyllite
and grey limestone. This audit is 3.70 m
long and inclined at an angle of 30º in a
N50º E direction.
ii. Synsedimentary, polymetallic sulphide
mineralisation
occurs
within
an
interbedded slate-limestone sequence near
the Deoban-Shimla Group contact in
Dathyari- (30°41’ 77°45’)
– Chamri
(30°43’:77°44’) – Auri (30º42’:77°44’)
251 | Page
area. Three mineralised lodes 20cm to
150cm thick ranging in length from 75m to
80m have been delineated over a strike
length of nearly 340 metres.
iii.
b)
Small lenses and veins of quartz with
galena are observed in slate and phyllite
exposed in the Amba area (30º38:77º27’).
Large
pebbles
with
rich
galena
mineralisation are a common sight all along
the AmbaNala. Small gossanised band
measuring 4m x 1m occurs in sandstone
and shale of Subathu Formation, one
kilometre east of Chapla (30°58’ :77 º27’) in
Dabur God. Lead value varies from 0.9 to
0.38%.
Shimla district
Lead in the form of vein occurs in
schist and gneiss of Jutogh Group at
Darkoti (31° 07’: 77° 36’). At Darkoti
the lead mineralization occurs in
garnetiferous mica schist, granitic gneiss
and quatz- mica schist.
c)
Solan district: Lead ore is found in the
form of some galena pebbles of varying
size at Tal (31°10’: 76°53’) in the Arki
Tehsil. A ferruginous limestone band,
north of Tal has indicated 1.2% Zn and
0.29% Pb over an average width of 7.5
m.
A small gossanized band 4 m X 1 m
occurs in the sandstone and shales of
Subathu Formation about one km east
of Chapla (31°58’:77°00’) in Dabur
Gad.
d)
Kullu district
(i)
A few specks of galena have been
observed in the quartz veins and
chlorite-schist
at
Sangthan
(31°58’:77°15’). Lead values range from
100 to 240 ppm and Zinc values varying
from 200 to 470 ppm.
(ii)
Minor disseminated specks of sulphide
are observed in quartzose phyllite east
of Komand (Kot Kandi) (31°
53’:77°14’). Chemical analysis has
shown 400 ppm lead.
(iii)
In Khanor Khad area near Manikaran
(32°02’:77°27’) the ore and gossan
together yielded lead, gold and copper.
At Uchich (32°01’:77°23’) the lode is
over 60 centimetres in width and
contains lead, gold and silver.
(iv)
At Chong (31077’:77°11) the ore
contains lead, and silver. A small
stringer of galena associated with quartz
vein has also been reported from near
Garona (31°50’:77°14’). Occurrences of
lead ore have also been reported from
north east of Behali.
e)
Lahaul
f)
Kinnaur district
(i)
Specks of galena have also been noticed
along thin quartz veins in the gneisses
near Nalgan ghati (310 19’ 20”: 780 12’
50”).
A few specks of galena are observed in
a minor shear zone exposed east of
Alingdar (310 26’ 30’; 780 38’30”).
(ii)
& Spiti district: The
occurrence of galena in small quartz
vein infiltrated along a fault plane in
upper Triassic limestone between Po
(32° 03’ :78° 23’) and Dankhar (32° 05’
78° 16’) in the Spiti valley has been
noted by Haden. Galena associated
with vein quartz occurs in the quartzite
of the Polen Formation near Tabo.
Locations of the Galena deposits in Himachal
Pradesh are as shown in Figure 14.
:
252 | Page
Figure 14: Location of Galena occurrence in Himachal Pradesh
:
9.
Garnet
10. Gold
a)
Kullu district
Gold in Himachal Pradesh occurs in three
distinct settings:
(i)
(ii)
Small garnet crystals have been
reported to occur in the Sarkani
(31º43’:77º16’) – Rorung Dhar
(31º34’:77º26’) area.
Garnet crystals in the gneiss and
schist have been reported around
Sara Umga Glacier (32º10’:77º31’).
b)
Sirmaur district: Garnet occurs in
abundance in the mica schists and is
conspicuously developed all along the base of
Chor mountain. It is commonly seen on the top
hills comprising mica schist and in the beds of
nalas that flow through the mica schist. For the
most part garnets are small in size but in a few
places e.g. Kehdi ka Dhar it attain the size of 4
cm in diameter. The garnets met within the
nalas are usually rounded through rolling
action.
1
2
Primary Gold is associated with Late
Archean Paleoproterozoic VolcanoSedimentary sequence (mainly Rampur
Group). It occurs in association with
Uranium in Manikaran Quartzite of
Kashapat area.
Paleoplacer Gold – In the Shiwalik
Formation known from many localities
in Himachal Pradesh namely found
Bilaspur, Kangra, Sirmaur & Una
Districts and occurs as small flakes,
known as “colours” in the coarse sand
and pebbly beds of the Middle and
Upper Shiwalik Formations. The
concentration seldom goes above 0.2
gm/tonne.
253 | Page
3.
Neoplacer Gold is well distributed in
the present day sediments of most of
the rivers and rivulets draining the
Middle and Upper Shiwalik Formation.
It is located in the foot hill zone of
Newer Formation in the Shiwalik belt
and even at places in the Lower and
Higher Himalaya. The Gold occurs in
the point bars and meander channels
largely associated with coarse to pebble
beds.
Survey of India along the Sir Khad,
Sukar Khad, Drug Nala, Kariali Nala
and Lindi Nala between 31º23’N &
31º29’N -76º35’ & 76º43’ E. The stream
sediments of the Sir Khad along the
south east of Tira shows megascopic
gold and yield 2 to 15 grain of gold on
panning of 5 kg material, similarly Drug
nala sediments yield about 8-20
megascopic grains of gold on panning
of 5 Kg material.
a)
Mandi district: Small Quantity of
Gold has been reported in the bed of
Satluj river at Jauri (31º19’ N -77º02’ E).
The detailed analysis of the area
between Dharampur & Sarkaghat (lying
between 31º41’ N & 31º52’ N -76º39’ &
76º47’ E) shows poor concentration of
gold value ranging less than 20 ppb to
100 ppb. Flakes of Gold are frequently
seen in the sediments of the Sun and
Alian Khads, particularly between
Hukal and Kandewale and average
concentration is < 6 ppb to 20 ppb.
(e) Una District: Occurrence of gold
flakes in the river sediments of Basoli
river nere Basoli was reported by the
Geological Survey of India in 1985-86.
The Geological Survey of India
investigated area of Soan River,
Ambwali Khad, Panjoa ki Khad, Garni
Khad, Una di Khad, Borewali Khad,
Fatehal di Khad, Kajni ki Khad,
Sunkewali Khad, and Borewali Khad.
The sediments of all these streams
shows incidents of gold.
b)
Kangra district: Gold washing in the
Beas River at Rai (32º10’N -75º55’E)
and downstream was reported, with an
yield of about 73 grains/cubic yard.
The analysis of bed rock and stream
sediments have shown gold values less
than 0.1 ppb.
c)
Kullu district: Gold panning was
reported at Shamshi (31º53’ N -77º12’
E) in the river sands of Beas River.
d)
Kinnaur district: Small Quantity of
Gold are obtained from sand bars along
the Satluj River between Morang
(31º36’N -78º28’ E) and Wangtu
(31º32’N -78º04’E).
e)
Bilaspur District: Placer gold is
recorded from the nala sands towards
the northeast of Ghumarwin (31º27’N76º42’E), the source being the boulder
beds of Shiwaliks. The detailed
investigation was done by Geological
(f) Sirmaur District: Placer gold has been
reported from the Shiwaliks and is
reported in different part of the district.
The Geological Survey of India had
done detailed investigation in the Ujjal
Ki Nadi, Gumti Nala, Trilokpur Nadi,
Khiari Ka Khala, Bharion Khala, Matar
ka Khala, Jamni Nala, Somb River ,
Salauni ki Nadi etc. The investigation
shows that all these river sediments are
auriferous.
Location of gold in Himachal Pradesh is
given in figure 15.
254 | Page
:
Figure 15: Location of Gold deposit in Himachal Pradesh
Gypsum
inferred upto 25m down depth
extension. The total in- situ reserves in
a)
District Sirmaur: Gypsum occurs at
this belt, however, may be over 100
several places in massive form in the
million tonnes. Small occurrences of
Krol Limestone and as selenite crystals
gypsum are known from similar beds
associated with the carbonaceous shales
in the Nahan Sandstone. The deposits
exposed near Tari Khango Pass. The
of the former type are comparatively
gypsum is mostly of alabaster type,
large whereas those of the later are
soft, white, granular, with common
usually very small.
large pockets of anhydrite and small
selenite zones.
Gypsum deposit in District Sirmaur are found
in Korga, Bharli, Shilorna, Kulthiana, Ridana,
c) Lahaul & Spiti district: Gypsum
Bhaunrari, Nahan
associated with the Lipak Formation
occurs on the right bank of Spiti river,
b) Kinnaur: Large deposits of gypsum
east of Losar (32°25’:77°45’), along the
occur associated with the Lipak
right
bank
between
Hurling
Formation between Liwa Thach
(32°04’:78°31’)
and
Sumdo
º
(31º55’:78º30’)
and
Kapusa
(32 04’:78º36’), in Gyundi Valley
(32º04:78º34’) especially in the Yulang
(32º16’:77º50’) and at Dhuma Dangse
Valley, north of Chango, and in the
(32º25’:77º40’).
The
occurrence
º
º
Yangthang (31 53’:78 :37’) area. A small
between Hurling and Sumdo is quite
area around Shalkar (32º00’:78º34’) was
extensive. Anhydrite and selenite are
covered by detailed mapping and
locally associated with gypsum in this
reserves of 1.25 million tonnes were
stretch.
Elongated
crystals
of
transluscent gypsum are present in the
Spiti Formation, east of Lamayuru.
11.
255 | Page
Figure 16: Location of Gypsum deposits in Himachal Pradesh
12.
Iron Ore
a)
Sirmaur district: Magnetite occurs as
lenticles in quartzite of Jutogh Group at
Lana Cheta (30º47’:77º22’) – Kanhari
(30º47’:77º21’) area, known as Lana
Cheta Iron ore.
Lana Cheta Iron ore deposit: Lana Cheta
area is situated on the borderline of the Renuka
and Rajgarh Sub-division of District Sirmaur.
The area is situated at an altitude of about 1300
metre above mean sea level, along either bank
of Nait Khala, with two parallel ridges on either
side. The Nait Khala flows in south western
direction and cuts across the strike of the
Formation. It is a perennial stream and is fed by
seasonal transverse tributaries which run mostly
parallel to the strike formations.
The Iron ore deposit of Lana Cheta had been
known since long and was possibly worked by
the local blacksmiths for the manufacture of
their tool etc. The iron ore occurrences south
and south-east of Kanhari village are popularly
known as Lana-Cheta iron ore deposits. They
are exposed along the banks of Nait Khala. The
mineralization is restricted at the base of
quartzites of Jutog Group. No mineralization is
seen in the carbonaceous slate and schist.
Lower horizon: There are two main localities
namely Kanhari old workings and Fumaria old
workings. Kanhari old workings are situated
along the northern scarp of the Nait Khala,
about 800 metres south of Kanhari village.
There are two old workings; one being just
along the foot-path and the other is about 20
metres South West of the first one. The
mineralization is restricted to the old workings
only and there is hardly any lateral extension.
256 | Page
Upper horizon: The upper horizon is exposed
640 metres in north eastern direction from the
lower horizon and has greater extensions but
poor concentrations. Starting from almost top
of the ridge south of Kanhari village, it is
exposed along the banks of Mait Khala which
passes through the Reoli ridge and, with a few
exposures in the fields North East of
Chandrona village, is again exposed along the
Southern slopes of Chandrona ridge and
gradually pinches out in South East direction.
Detail of iron ore reserves in Lana Cheta are
given in Table 19.
Table 19: Detail of reserve of iron ore in Lana Che ta area
Block
Left bank block
Right bank block
Neoli block
Chandrona block
Upper Khaneri old working
Lower Khaneri old working
Main Fumaria old working
b)
Iron ore reserve in metric tonnes
4500
6000
3000
2000
70
10
370
Kangra district: Iron ore occurs as
magnetite particles disseminated in the
Talcose Schist in the neighborhood of
the Dharamshala (32º14’:76º13’). Iron
ore is also reported to occur near Bir
(32º03’:76º47’)
and
Kohad
(32º05’:76º52’).
c)
Kinnaur district: Magnetite tuff are
reported
from
Mangru
La
(31º22’:78º30’) in which small scale
smelting had also been carried out. The
magnetite
occurs
as
profuse
disseminations as octahedral crystals in
the volcanogenic sediments which
shows very low grade metamorphic and
are grouped with Kunzam La
Formation.
d)
Kullu district : Bands of hematite –
quartzite about 3 to 6 centimetre thick
and about 2 metre long have been
reported from north of Roshal Village
(32º02’:77º18’). Old working of Iron ore
are reported from Gargi (32º02’:77º20’)
and south of Garahan (31º58’:77º20’).
e)
Lahaul & Spiti district: About five
km South east of village Muth the
occurrence of red hematite in the
Thango Formation is reported
(31º57’:77º00’). Lenticular hematite
Average 30 percent of magnetite
Average 30 percent of magnetite
Average 30 percent of magnetite
Average 30 percent of magnetite
Average 80 percent of magnetite
Average 50 percent of magnetite
Average 65 percent of magnetite
quartzite occurs in the Tango
Formation at Tango (32º02’:77º57’) and
Shitekar (32º26’:77º40’). The main band
of Tango is 1.5 to 2.5 metre thick and
extends for 130 metre along the strike.
f)
Mandi district: Magnetite associated
with hematite occurs in schist and
phyllite
in
a
belt
extending
intermittently from Rama Bhet
(31º3’1:77º06’) upto the vicinity of
Sangalwaro (31º30’:77º13’). Sparsely
disseminated magnetite and hematite
occur around Jhungi (31º25’:77º06’) in
the phyllites. Magnetite occurs as
disseminated grains in quartzite and as
concentration in thin bands near
Kohar Khas (32º06’:76º48’). The iron
bearing quartzites have been traced
from about one and a half kilometres
north of Baragoran (32º05’:76º00’) to
Multhan (31º031:76º05).
Shimla district: Hematite is found as bands
and lenses in the Rohru area. Alternating bands
of iron ore with biotite-schist were encountered
at Shil (31º09:77º40’). The bands are frequent
though at the most only 2.5 cm thick. More
important occurrences are distributed in the
Banoti Valley around Narain (31º12’:77º39’) and
Shekal (31º11’:77º39’). Two old workings of
257 | Page
hematite are located at Soom south of Pujarli
(31º11’:77º40’). The old workings are within the
hematite quartzite band (Jutogh Group)
measuring about 50m x 10m. Location of iron
ore deposits is given in figure 17.
Figure 17: Location of Iron ore deposits of Himachal Pradesh
13.
a)
b)
(i)
(ii)
Kyanite
Kinnaur district: Kyanite blades
measuring eight to 15 cm in length in
kyanite staurolite schist have been
reported from Morang (31º36'00”:
78º26’30”)-Tirung (31º34’30”:78º27’00”)
area.
Kullu district
Kyanite has been reported in the rocks
of Central Gneiss and Schist Formation
around Bershani (31º06’:77º26”), Khir
Ganga Thach (32º00’:77º31”) and Tanti
Thach (31º57’:77º30’).
Fairly long blades of kyanite are found
in schist and gneisses south of Tapru
Thach
(31º58’00”:77º32’30”)
two
kilometres upstream of Ori Age Thach
(31º57’15”:77º33’00”) in the Tang Khol
(31º57’00”:77º 33’00”), Chini Gohru
Thach (31º58’00”:77º34’ 30”) and in
(iii)
(iv)
Bakar Kiara Khol (31º58’00”:77º32’00”).
The blades have crystals upto 20 cm.
The occurrences are of sporadic nature.
Bluish translucent blades of kyanite
associated with gneiss are noticed in
Bakerbihal Khol (31º46’00”:77º41’00”)
Bhagon Thach (31º58’00”:77º36’30”),
Ratiruni Thach (32º00’30”:77º40’30”)
and several other places. The individual
blades at times exceed 10 cms. in
length.
Kyanite blades occur in quartz-mica
schist of the Central Gneiss Formation
east
of
Khirganga
Thach
(31º59’40”:77º30’30”), east of Kalga
Thach (31º59’45”:77º27’30”) Bhalingach
Thach (31º59’00”:77º29’00”) and Tunda
Bhuj Thach (31º58’00”:77º35’00”).
Schistote xenoliths occurring in granite
occurrences have no economic
significance.
258 | Page
c)
area of Miyar Valley. The main zone
rich in mineralization is 40 m in
thickness and traceable for over one
kilometer. Location of Kyanite in
Himachal Pradesh is given in figure 18.
Lahaul & Spiti district: Significant
kyanite mineralisation associated with
meta sediments of the Batal Formation
(Precambrian) has been reported from
the Thanpattan (32º56’00”:76º54’30”)
Figure 18: Location of Kyanite in Himachal Pradesh
14.
Lithium
a)
Kinnaur
district:
The
granite
pegmatite veins intrusive into the rocks
of Vaikrita Lipak Formations in the
Yangthang (31º53’:78º37') area show
Lithium values of 300-1000 ppm.
15.
Magnesite: Magnesite is reported only
in Chamba district, Magnesite occurs in
grey phyllite of Salooni Formation in
lense like irregular shape and a few
deposits are large in size. Invariably the
dolomite limestone is found associated
with magnesite. At places carbonaceous
phyllite are seen coming in contact with
magnesite deposit. Magnesite is
medium to very coarse grained and
crystalline in nature. Granular and
bladed texture is commonly developed.
(I)
Lenses of magnesite occur in the
Katarigali
Formation
near
the
confluence of Muchetar nala and the
Ravi river (32º23'00":76°39’100"). The
main magnesite band is exposed in a
vertical cliff face on the left side of
Muchetar nala and extends towards
WNW to the ridge top. It is a lensoid
band varying in size between 30 x 3 m
and 350 x 10 m. On an average, its
thickness varies between four and nine
metres. The estimated reserves,
calculated up to five metres depth are
of the order of 55,620 tonnes. About
500 m downstream of the confluence of
contain kyanite blades upto five
centimetres in length north of Ratiruni
Thach and east of Mantalai. All the
259 | Page
:
ii)
(iii)
Muchetar nala and Ravi River, occur
several small lenses of magnesite
varying in size between 2 m x .5 m and
10 m x 2 m.
In Duner (32°02':76°19’) magnesite is
associated with dolomite, inter- bedded
with slate and carbonaceous shale of
upper part of Katarigali Formation.
Chemical analysis has revealed MgO
38.19% and CaO 1.40%.
A lensoid band of magnesite body 3
metres thick and 700 metres in strike
length is recorded in Katarigali
Formation
at
Tundah
(32°30'16":76°28/14").
Chemical
analysis of a single sample revealed
MgO 37.15% and CaO 6.02%.
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
Some irregular patches and small pockets of
varying size of magnesite occur in the dolomite
bands southwest of Kao (32°28’09":76°35'24').
The chemical analysis of a single specimen
revealed MgO 36.50% and CaO 3.13%.
Small pockets of magnesite associated with a
limestone band of Katarigali Formation occur
near Pasan Got area (32°43’50":76º21’30'). The
chemical analysis of single specimen indicated
MgO 41.72% and CaO 2%.
iv)
In the area north of Bhajund
(52º45’15":76°26’25") pockets and
lenses of magnesite (2 m x 0.7 m) have
been noticed in a 3 metres thick
dolomitic limestone band which marks
the contact between the Katarigali and
Manjir Formations. The magnesite
grades into dolomitic limestone.
xi)
Magnesite lenses along with limestone
varying in thickness from 7 metres over
a strike length of about 75 m are seen in
Suni area.
In Kala (32º23’45':76º38’ 30") area,
magnesite bands with thickness from a
few metres to 20m have been located.
Magnesite bands ranging in thickness
from 1 to 10 m have been reported
from Panglod nala (32º48’30':76º21’30'').
Lenticular magnesite bands ranging in
thickness from a few metres to 20 m
have been reported at a number of
places
south
of
Manimahesh
(32º23'45':76º38 ‘130').
Lenticular
bands
of
magnesite
associated with dolomite/limestone in
Katarigali Formation occur in Chanota
(32º22':76°29')
and
Gharola
(32º26':76º27') areas. The size of the
magnesite bands at Chanota varies
between 30 m x 3 m and 350 m x 10 m
with thickness varying between four
and nine metres. Chemical analysis of a
few samples has revealed MgO 45.15%.
In Gharola area the size of the
magnesite lenses varies between 10 m x
2 m and 1 m x 30 cm.
Magnesite bodies ranging in thickness
from one metre to five metres with
strike extension for 50m have been
found in the lower horizon of Dunai
Formation, about half a kilometre north
of Keh Got (32º58' 30":76º22’30') and
about one kilometre north of Riali Got.
Location of magnesite deposit in
Himachal Pradesh is given in figure 19.
260 | Page
Figure 19: Location of magnesite deposit in Himachal Pradesh
16.
Mineral water
:
º
º
a) Bilaspur district: At Bhasra (31 14’:77 47’)
the water is strongly saline, and it is said to be
efficacious in cases of scrofula, dropsy and
rheumatism.
ii)
b)
Kangra district
(iii)
(i)
At Jawalamukhi (31º52’:76º23’) water is
saline and is being used as a cure for
goitre.
At Lausa (32°23’:76°05’), water is
sulphurous at a temperature of 22°c. It
contains in 1,000 parts, Na2 SO4 -0.159,
NaCl- 0.74, Na2CO3 2.600 and CaCO3
0.0040. It is used to cure goitre.
At Tatwani (32°07’:76°46’) there is a
spring in the bed of the Lum, a tributary
of the Birmi river. The temperature of
water is 49°C. Water is limpid with a
saline taste and slightly alkaline.
261 | Page
(iv)
c)
Residues contain 92.33% of sodium
chloride with small quantities of
chloride, sulphate and carbonate of
lime, also 0.012 parts of sodium
bromide in 1,000 parts.
At Tira (32°08':76°14') a saline spring
occurs with 42.2°0 C temperature of
water. Water is limpid with a saline taste
and is slightly alkaline. Residue contains
93.23% of sodium chloride with small
quantities of sulphate and carbonate of
lime.
Kinnaur district: At Changrizang
(32°03’:78°40') water issues at 46.5°C
from seven or eight small vents within a
space of 20 m. It is strongly charged
with
H2S
and
leaves
saline
encrustations. Hot spring is also
reported
from
Skiba,
Thopan,
Karcham, Tapti, and Roura Thach.
d)
Kullu district
(i)
There are three springs at Vashishtha
(32°16':77°15’) one of which gives a
copious discharge. The temperature of
water is 59° C. Water emits H2S and is
much resorted to for medicinal
purposes.
(ii)
At Manikaran (32°02’:77°25’) there are
as many as fourteen springs.
Temperature of water varies from
71.4°C to 94.4°C (boiling point at this
elevation). Discharge of water is
exceedingly copious. Sulphuretted
hydrogen is emitted, but the water is
clear and palatable containing 3.2 parts
of saline matter in 10,000. It deposits
large
quantities
of
ferruginous
travertine.
e)
Solan district There are altogether five
springs at Jaoni (31°32’:77°50’). The
temperature of water is 55° C. Water is
clear with a disagreeable saline taste and
deposits of ferruginous matter.
f)
Mandi district: Ten springs occur on
the right bank of the Satluj river near
Tattapani
(31°14:77°50’).
The
temperature of water is 57° C. The
water is strongly sulphurous with a
disagreeable saline taste. It contains
chloride and sulphate of soda.
Location of mineral water in Himachal
Pradesh is given in figure 20.
Figure 20: Locations of mineral water in Himachal Pradesh
262 | Page
17.
Molybdenum
Kinnaur district: Single, steel grey grain of
molybdenite has been recorded in rocks near
the snout of Jabgya glacier.
18.
Nickel & Cobalt
Kullu district: Traces of nickel and cobalt have
been reported from the copper ore occurring in
quartzite in the Naraul (31°49’:77°13'), & Danala (31°47’:77°15’) area of Garsah valley.
The mineralisation comprises chalcopyrite,
covellite, pyrite and cobalt-nickel bloom.
19.
Ochre
Lahaul & Spiti district: Yellow ochre in
recent deposits near Dauksa along Ratang river
(32°13:78°05) is known to occur.
20.
a)
i)
Pyrite
Shimla district: In the old Patiala and
Keonthal States, pyrite deposit has been
recorded the deposit is commonly
known as Taradevi pyrite deposit
though these exist at different localities.
Pyrite occurrences restrict themselves
to the lower horizon of Jutogh Group,
i.e. Boileauganj quartzites. Nowhere
mineralisation has been observed in the
overlying carbonaceous schists and
mica schists.
Rampur area: About 1.5 Km SouthWest of' Badhari (31°05’40”:77°06’30”)
in the Nala section on the left bank,
yellow to turmeric brown and red stains
recorded. Yellow exposures smell like
sulphur. The number of these stains
increases as the main vein is
approached. Water of the nala flowing
through the vein has reddish brown to
yellowish colour. Occurrence of pyrite
can be subdivided into three types
namely:
a) Vein
b) Pockets
c) Spordiac and disseminations
Veins: Just southwest of Rampur, a pyrite vein
is exposed on the steep escarpment of the left
bank of the nala. The country rocks are
quartzite. The vein runs in N 10º W - S10ºE to
N20ºW – S20ºE direction. It follows the
schistosity planes. The strike length of the vein
is 23 metre and thickness varies from 10 cms to
30 cms. There are some minute vein separated
from the main vein by quartzites and quartz
schists. These veins are discontinuous Leaching
of sulphur, due to the oxidization of pyrite, is
very prominent. In the steep escarpment
sulphurous encrustations are observed over a
considerable distance, away from the vein in the
strike direction.
Pockets: Mineralisation in small pockets and
cavities has been observed at number of places.
These are associated with quartz veins. Pockets
are parallel to the schistosity planes of chlorite
schists.
Sporadic and disseminations: Mineralisation
in the form of minute disseminations has been
recorded the main vein sporadically scattered in
the country rocks.
ii) Rahana Area in this area 21 old workings
have been reported (31°04’10”:77°09’50”). All
except one are in collapsed condition. The vein
is discontinuous and the exposed strike length
is 21 metre and apparent thickness varies from
5 cm to 10 cm. the trend of this vein is the
same as that of lower one. The ore occurs in
the powdery form and the veins follows the
planes of' schistosity. Small exposures of pyrite
in the shapes of small lenses have been
observed at the confluence of Shimri and
Ghosh nalas (31°04’45”:77°06’10”). These
lenses are associated with quartz veins.
iii) Taradevi Area (31°00’:77°10’) in this area
pyrite occurs in the following two localities
a) Badhai Ghat Nala - In Badhai Ghat Nala,
there is an old mine in collapsed condition and
appears to have been sunk from roof. No
mineralisation has been observed on and
around the face of the adit.
b) Kyari Nala. - In this Nala, on both the
banks, there are, one dozen of old adits, most
of them in abandoned condition and also
blocked at the entrance because of roof
263 | Page
collapse. The pyrite vein is approximately 40
cm thick at the entrance of audit, which thins
out with depth to 6 cms.
A zone of pyrite dissemination associated with
chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite is recorded in the
phyllite and schist of the Jaunsar Group near
Matiana (31°13':77°24’). The mineralisation is
associated with impersistent veins of white
quartz. The longest vein is about two metres
long and eight centimetres wide. Small veinlets
are about 40 to 50 cm long and 1 to 2
centimetres wide. The mineralisation zone is
exposed in the road cutting. It runs for about 2
kilometres of which the second kilometre is a
zone of sparsely disseminated pyrite. The
chemical analysis shows that the pyrite contains
0-5 to 5.8% sulphur.
Pyrite occurrences have also been reported
from near Bhuin (31°07’:77°27’) on the Theog
(31°07’:77°32’) Kotkhai road.
Small cubes of pyrite are disseminated in the
carbonaceous schist of Jutogh Group over an
area of about 3 square metres along the road
cutting, east of Rohru (31°12’:76°45’).
The occurrence of 70 centimetres wide zone of
pyrite disseminations in a band of carbonaceous
phyllite has been recorded north of the Sungri
Rest House (31°23’:77°42’). The band is
traceable for a distance of about three
kilometres along the strike with an average
width of about 240 cm.
Pyrite occurrence is also recorded at Chirgaon
(31°32’:78°06’) and Purbani (31°36’:78°18’).
Chamba district: Sporadic cubes of pyrite
occur in Kamli Got area along joint planes in
slates and phyllites in 2 to 5 metres thick zone
traceable for a length of 150 cm, about 800 m
southwest of Mawa (32°46’:76°18’). Such
mineralisation is also recorded 2 kilometres east
of Kamli Got (32°461:78°20) in the debris of
quartzitic slates on the right bank of Lanj nala.
The pyrite associated with pyrrhotite is of no
economic significance.
Pyrite has been recorded in highly crushed
carbonaceous slates of Katarigali Formation
near the Chakoli bridge (32°45’30":76°00’),
Bharaura
(32°46’:75°
58’),
Kanthili
(32°47’:75°57’) and Sumu Kuthi (32°48’:75°56')
as disseminated cubes, veins, stringers and fine
grained impregnation. Near Chakoli Bridge,
pyrite veins vary in thickness from mm to 4.5
cm.
Sirmaur district: An occurrence of pyrite in
the form of lenses and veins in limestone and
slate was recorded at Sayasu (30°4’:77°4’) and
Diyandon (30°43’:77°43’). The steeply dipping
vein at Sayasu is exposed in the bed of the Tons
River, for a distance of 150 metres with a
thickness varying between 50 cms and 1.2
metres. An analysis the sample showed 30%
sulphur with arsenic in traces.
Lahaul & Spiti district: Dissemination and
stringers of pyrite were observed in the Shatul
Gneiss near Dulgi Ghati (31°26’:78°05’) and in
the rocks of Jutogh Group west of Brandy
Khagau (31°26’:78°06’).
Bilaspur district: At Belag (31°24’:76°46’) and
other places in the district, pyritiferous material
occur as lumps in coal. The occurrences are of
no economic significance.
21.
Radioactive
Minerals:
Uranium
mineralisation in the form of visible yellow
brown encrustations on weathered surfaces of
the Manikaran Quartzite of the Rampur Group
and also in paragneisses of Jeori-Wangtu
Granitoid Complex close to a tectonic
dislocation is reported from Kasha area, Shimla
district, in Parbati and Garshal valleys of Kullu
district. It is also reported in Batal Formation in
Kinnaur District and in Shiwalik Belt of
Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Solan and Sirmaur district.
Kullu District
Chhinjra - Shakirandhar Sector ( 31 º51’:
76 º16’) : Uranium-mineralised quartzites, of the
Manikaran Formation in Kullu district, extend
from Chhinjra in the north to Shakirandhar in
the south over a strike length of 45 km. Major
vein densities have been observed only at
Chhinjra and Shakirandhar. The Kullu-Banjar
area has a number of uranium occurrences with
varying percentage of U3O8. Occurrences of
Uranium in Kullu district is given in Table 20.
264 | Page
Table 20: Uranium occurrences in Kullu district (Narayan Das et al. 1979)
Locality
Type
Extent
Sample Assay Data
Chhinjra area
(Parbati Valley)
Vein type associated with
occasional pods and
disseminations
121.4 hectares
Ore from selective blocks assays
0.32% U3O8
Dhara-Khanora Nal (Parbati
Valley
Vein type mainly
1sq. km
Spot sample assays up to 0.1% Up
Sajwar-Shakirandhar Range
(Banjar Valley)
Vein type with occasional
disseminations
Distributed
between 400 and
2700 m altitude
Ore grade from selective block
assays up to 0.74% U3O8
Hirub-Shakirandhar
Range (Banjar Valley)
Vein type
171 sq. m
Selective ore grade assays
about 0.58% U3O8
Giagi - Khalandi Shakirandhar
(Banjar Valley)
Vein type
120 sq. m
447 sq. m
Dharagad-Bandal
(Tirthan Valley)
Vein type only
120 sq. m
Nadahra
( Tirthan Valley)
Vein type with occasional
pods and disseminations
Scattered in
patches over 900
sq m
Kundi- Panihar ( Tirthan
Valley)
Disseminations and vein
type
Disseminations and vein
type
Bhatrang- Pingrang Valley
Shimla District
Kasha
(31 º24’30":77 º50’15")Pat
º
º
(31 24’00”:77 50’00”)
area:
Uranium
mineralisation is seen at Kasha, in the south
eastern part of the Rampur Window of the
Nogli valley. Host rock is highly sheared gneiss
with bands of schists and phyllite, ericite,
ilmenite, rutile, sphene, apatite, zircon and
tourmaline occur as accessories. U-minerals like
pitchblende/uraninite and atunite and sulphides
namely
pyrite,
chalcopyrite,
pyrrhotite
constitute the ore mineral. Pitchblende /
uraninite, occurring in a high state of alteration
(UO3:UO2 = 10), is the primary uranium
mineral. Carnotite, uranophane, schoepite,
fourmarierite, kasolite, wolsendorifite and
gastunite are the secondary uranium minerals
present. The main mineralised band is confined
to parallel shear zones near the thrust plane and
mineralization is controlled by schistocity
Spot samples assay from
0.093 % up to 3.65% U3O8
and in some 8.2% U3O8,
Spot samples assay
between 0.16% and
10.7% U3O8
Spot samples assay between 0.175
to 3.0 % U3O8
90 sq. m
Spot values upto 3.38% U3O8
from the vein
3 sq. m
Samples assay upto 0.19 % U3O8
superimposed on bedding and subsequently
folded. Veins, fracture fillings and dispersions
developed during subsequent deformation
contain
secondary
uranium
minerals.
Mineralisation indicates wide range of
remobilisation from the surrounding gritty
quartzite and metabasic rocks known for higher
concentration of uranium (an average of 70
ppm U in gritty quartzite and up to 140 ppm U
in metabasic rocks).
Kinnaur district: Anamolous radioactivity
value is observed near Ropa village
(31º48:78º26) where the black slates of the Batal
Formation are exposed. The yellowish
encrustations along fracture planes in the
Wangtu Granite are reported to be carnotite.
Location of Uranium in Himachal Pradesh is
given in figure 21.
265 | Page
Figure 21: Locations of Uranium in Himachal Pradesh
Uranium in the Shiwalik Belt: Shiwalik
sediments in certain lithostratigraphic units
contain high concentration of uranium. The
maximum incidence of radioactivity is found in
the Lower and Middle Shiwalik sandstones. A
few U-anomalies have been located in the
Upper horizons of the Middle Shiwalik.
Individual radioactive anomaly zones in
Shiwalik Belt range from a few sq.m to 6000 sq.
m., and the thickness of the zones range from a
fraction of a metre to as much as 10m. The
radiometric assay values of samples in the
anomalous zones range from 0.001 to as high
as 0.6% U3O8 with low thorium. Mineralisation
is strata-bound and mostly tabular, although
local disturbance has been noted. Leaching of
parent uranium from the beds has taken place.
Intense oxidation implying migration of
uranium has been observed. Uraninite, along
with coffinite is the primary mineral and
walfenite.
Uranophane,
B-uranophane,
autonite, tyuyamunite and meta-tyuyamunite are
the secondary minerals occurring in the
oxidation zones. In the Upper Shiwalik
subgroup, vertebrate fossils, those which are
phosphatic, contain 0.05% to 0.34% Upx with
no thorium. Sandstone hosting the fossils is
poor in uranium. Uranium has leached into
groundwater. In the Nalagarh-Pathankot area,
the hydrogeochemical sampling has indicated
about 30 zones of anomalous concentrations of
uranium in the waters to the extent of 4 to 40
ppb U.
22. Rock Phosphate: Rock phosphate in
Himachal Pradesh occurs in formations ranging
in age from Precambrian to Eocene, however
no extensive deposit is known from the State.
Some formations, such as the Shali, Salooni,
Krol and Subathu hold good potential for
phosphate potentiality.
266 | Page
Shall Group: Pockets of shale and chert of the
Khatpul member and the dolomites of the
Tattapani member were found to be mildly
phosphatic (0.6 to 0.8 % P2O5) near Pata in
district Solan and Kandi (31º19’:76º44’) in
Mandi district.
Shimla Group: Shale and limestone of the
Basantpur Formation have been sampled and
tested for phosphate in parts of Solan and
Mandi districts. The carbonaceous shales have
been sampled northwest of Khad, northeast of
Barech, near Ropar and Suin and Doha and
Neri. In all these localities. However, the
phosphate content of the samples analysed was
less than 0.5 % P2O5.
Infra Krol: Lenses and thin discontinuous
bands of phosphorite or phosphatic chert
interbedded with the Infra Krol shales were
reported from parts of Sirmaur and Solan
districts. These being streaky in nature, are only
of academic interest.
Salooni Formation; Phosphatic nodules
varying from 1.5 cm to 7 cm, in diameter and
analysing 20 to 30 % P2O5, were recovered
from the black slates. A few sporadically
distributed nodules were also seen in the grey
slate and phyllites. The phosphatic nodules
have been recorded from a number of localities
in district Chamba such as Tarota (320 42’ : 760
05’), Dhaneli nala (32º 45’:76º00’), Chikoli
bridge, Dhamot (32º43’:76º05’) and from
Tiloga, Thamiru (32º48’:76º57’), Deutal
(32º45’:76º00’), Bhatinund (32º43’:76º04’) of
Chamba District.
Krol Formation: The Krol sandstone so far
has been one of the best prospects for
phosphorite in Himachal Pradesh. A promising
horizon of bedded phosphorite occurs in the
Krol-Deoria area near Solan. Fragments of
phosphatic chart interbedded in the Krol
sandstone were reported from Ochhghat area
in Solan district. Phosphorite in the KalorDeoria area (32º 52’:76º44’) Shimla district
occurs interbedded with the Krol sandstone
and with the overlying Krol A shales.
Tal Group: Presence of similar nodules from
the Tal Formation was reported from Paonta
tehsil of Sirmaur district. The Tal Formation in
Sirmaur district occurs in two synelines namely
the Nigali Dhar (30º34’:70º43’) and the Korgai
synclines. Rock phosphate in the area is
generally found in the Lower Tal only.
However, some pockets of phosphatic chert
have also been reported to occur in the Krol
dolomite near Shamyala and Nigali. Cherty
pebbles occuring in the conglomerates of the
Upper Tal are also mildly phosphatic. These
conglomerates are conspicuously developed
near Charag Dhar in the Nigali Dhar Syncline.
Three types of phosphorite have been
differentiated in the Lower Tal (i) The
commonest variety resembles black crushed
chert. (ii) The rusty yellowish brown, granular
phosphorite occuring as bands, whose
thickness ranges from one centimetre to more
than 1 metre. This variety is well developed
between Banana and Kheunal and at Shamyala.
(iii) Phosphatic nodules occurs mostly in the
black carbonaceous shales of the Lower Tal.
The nodules vary in size from less than 1
centimetre to as much as 10 cms and analyse 20
to 25 % P2O5.. After detailed work on the Tal
Formation in both the Nigali Dhar and the
Korgai synclines, it was concluded that there is
no band showing appreciable thickness and
phosphate content to be of economic value.
Bands analysing more than 2% P2O5. Over a
thickness of one metre or more, are rare in
occurrence and have a very limited lateral
extent. The area and the rocks have therefore
been found to be having no economically
workable phosphate deposit.
Kuling Formation: In Kinnaur district black
cherty nodules have been reported in the shale
of Kuling Formation contain 21% P2O5. The
phosphatic horizon is about 21 m thick but
percentage of nodule is very low.
267 | Page
Spiti Shale: In Lahaul & Spiti Phosphatic
nodules ranging from 4 to 10 cm from the Spiti
Shales are reported to have analysed 5-15 %
P2O5. Location of Rock phosphates
Himachal Pradesh is given in figure 22.
in
:
Figure 22: Rock phosphate bearing horizon of H.P.
23. Silver
Kullu district: Several lodes of argentiferous
galena in the neighbourhood of Manikaran
which are as under:(i) Uchich have been reported about 69 cm
wide lode had been reported from
(32°01':77°23’). The ore samples show gold and
silver mineralisation.
(ii ) Khenor Khad: Three mineralised zones
have been reported from this place. First zone
has yielded silver, second zone lead, gold, silver
and copper, and the third zone, several
centimetres thick, has yielded lead, gold and
silver.
Sirmaur district: Silver has been reported
three kilometres east of Chiargaon. The
samples, however, gave a value of only 10 ppm
of Ag.
Kinnaur district: The galena boulders in Amba
(30°38’:77°27’) area contain up to 250 ppm
silver.
24.
Rubidium
Kinnaur district The pegmatite veins intrusive
into the Carboniferous rocks in the Yangthang
(31°53’:78°37’) area contain upto 350 ppm of
rubidium.
268 | Page
25.
Stibnite
(Bara Sigri area (31º17’N -77º36’ E), Lahaul
& Spiti District): The history of discovery of
Stibnite goes back to 1854. Antimony deposit
near Bara Sigri Glacier have been reported the
main bed of 10-15 feet thickness consist of Iron
ore, with antimony and other metals on the
sides. Location of Pyrite in Himachal Pradesh is
given in figure 23.
:
Figure 23: Location of Pyrite occurrences of Himach al Pradesh
Details of stibnite in Bara Sigri area is given in
Table 21.
.
Table 21: Description of stibnite and associated sulphide ore veins in Bara Sigri area
Sr.
No
1
2
Host Rock
Length
Width
Strike
Pegmatite
Pegmatite
3
4
5
Pegmatite
Pegmatite
Quartzo- fedspathic granites
6
7
Pegmatite
Quartzo- fedspathic granites
30.5 Cm
7.5 Cm
NNE-SSW
Ore occur as splash and N350E-S350W
disseminated products
Ore occur as splash along joints and fractures
6.7 metres
5 Cm
N500E-S50 0W
Ore occur as splash and N600W-S60 0E
disseminated products
2.7 metres
7.5 Cm
N100W-S10 0E
Ore occur as splash and N300E-S30 0W
disseminated products
Dip
Vertical
Vertical
60 0SE
63 0SW
87 0SW
Vertical
269| Page
There are 9 old working pits reported in the
area. The other ore bodies are also located in
the area which varies in width form 0.5 cm to
1.5 cm. The rough estimate of the anticipated
reserves are about 10,000 tonnes with 1.65% of
Sb. Location of stibnite in Himachal Pradesh is
given in figure 24.
Figure 24: Showing location of Stibnite Ore
26.
Sulphur
Lahaul & Spiti district: Small quantity of
Sulphur is associated with Gypsum near Losar
(32º25’ N-77º45’ E) and also small quantity of
sulphur is associated with other gypsum deposit
of Lahaul & Spiti district. The deposition of the
sulphur can be grouped into three categories
namely; Associated with hot springs; Associated
with gypsite and Associated with river terrace.
Sulphur associated with hot springs: Various
sulphur springs are situated along the Parechu
and on the thrust in the vicinity of Giu Nala.
Sulphur, Borax and Gypsum are associated and
are deposited at the orifice of the spring. The
Sulphur occurs as precipitate. However, the
quantity associated is too insignificant for
economic use.
270 | Page
Sulphur associated with Gypsite: This type
of deposit occurs associated with gypsite and
limestone. This sulphur is powdery or at places
oolitic. It occurs in various shades of yellow
and red. The sulphur, thus found is small in
quantity and occurs irregularly. At most of the
places, they do not continue beyond a depth of
more than 0.9 metres.
Sulphur deposits associated with river
terrace: The river Parechu has a course roughly
parallel to the thrust and hence the river
terraces with sulphurous soil also have same
trend. It occupy an area of 0.03 sq km. The
deposit occurs within thick beds of river
terrace. With subsequent deepening of the
valley the terrace are now much above the
present river level.
The hot springs exists, parallel to thrust and
along the banks of the river and sulphur
precipitated got diffused in the loose matrix in
between the pebble and cobble of the river
terraces now found at higher level, thus leaving
sulphurous soil all along the slope of the valley.
The quantity is too insignificant for economic
use.
District Kullu: Sulphur deposit is associated
with spring deposits in Parbati valley and hot
water springs in Beas River.
Figure 25: Location of Sulphur deposit in Himachal Pradesh
271 | Page
27.
Talc/ Steatite
Shimla district: An occurrence of talc has
been reported from near Asrau (31º29’: 78º20’)
and Idpa (31º29’:78º24’). The rocks consist of
talc schists.
Sirmaur district Steatite of good quality occurs
at Nahan (30º33’:77º17’)
28.
Tourmaline
Kinnaur district
(i)
(ii)
Tourmaline has been reported in the
pegmatites traversing the gneisses and
granites
around
Rakchhan
(31º23':78º26')
and
Chhitul
(31º21’:78º26’).
In Khokpea nala, a small lens of
tourmaline rich graphite schist is
exposed within the Vaikrita Group.
Similar concentration is noticed in
quartzites about a kilometre south east
of Shangi (31º33’:78º29’).
Kullu district
(I) Tourmaline bearing pegmatites intrusive
into gneisses and granites have been
reported
around
Umga
Thach
º
º
(32 10':77 27’)
and
Samsi
Thach
(32º07’77º29’).
(ii) Black crystals of tourmaline, five
centimetres in length and over one
centimetre in width, are present in
pegmatites around Sara Unga Thach
(32º10:77º29) and Pando-Seo Thach
(31º56’: 77º40').
29.
Zinc
Lahaul & Spiti district: Zinc blende is
sparingly disseminated through the gangue of
the antimony ore at Bukkanbudi (31º42':75º49’).
Sirmaur district: Zinc is found associated with
galena and pyrite at Anyar (30º44’:77º45’) and
Chamri (30º43’:77º45’). At Anyar, the samples
analysis of from old working shows 1.5% Zn
and 0.21 %Pb. Another sample gave 10% Zn.
At Chamri the zone contains 3.01% Zn and
3.01 % Pb.
5.11
Information on human resource
management issues (which
may
have
relevance
to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational training, awareness
levels etc.
The Director of Industries is the overall
incharge of the Directorate including the
Geological Wing. The State Geologist who
works under the control heads geological Wing
and supervision of Director of Industries. The
State Geologist is further assisted by Geologists
and Assistant Geologist and by the Mining
Officers in the field, apart from the supporting
staff from drilling, surveying, draughtsman and
ministerial staff.
The Industries Minister (Hon’ble Chief
Minister) heads the Industries Department. At
the Secretariat level, there is a two tier structure
with the Principal Secretary (Industries) and the
Joint/Deputy/Under Secretary (Industries).
The Geological and Mining Wing is headed by
the State Geologist. He reports to the Director
of Industries for mineral exploration/regulation
works. He is further assisted by Geologists,
Assistant Geologists, Superintendent Gr.- I &
II, ministerial and other staff.
The organisational set up in the field offices of
the Department of Industries is as under:
(i) District Industries Centres: The District
Industries Centre are headed by General
Managers. They are further assisted by
Managers, Industrial Promotion Officers,
Economic Investigators, Extension Officers
(Industries) at Block level, ministerial and other
staff.
In order to provide facilities to entrepreneurs
close to their places of work, Single Window
Clearance Agencies were functioning at
272 | Page
Parwanoo, Baddi, Nalagarh in Solan District,
Paonta Sahib, Kala Amb in Sirmaur District,
Gwalthai in Bilaspur District and Sansarpur
Terrace, Damtal in Kangra District.
(ii) Mining Offices: The Mining Office is
headed by a Mining Officer. S/he is assisted by
Mining Inspectors, Asstt. Mining Inspectors,
Mining Guards and ministerial and other staff.
Further, more the Drilling operation is headed
by Drillers who are assisted by Asstt. driller and
Laboratory Assistant.
major cement plant is used by them in
their own plants.
• Other major minerals mainly limestone
and very rare silica sand and Baryte are
marketed by the lessee themselves in the
open market.
• Minor minerals are also marketed by the
lessees/contractors in the open market.y
5.12
The total sanctioned strength of officers &
employees in the Department of Industries is
given in Table 22.
Table 22: Staff position in respect
Industries Department
Sr.
Sanctioned
Category
No.
posts
1
Class-I
47
2.
Class-II
121
3. Class-III
615
4. Class-IV
430
Total
1213
of
Vacant
10
25
241
63
339
The following six Board/Corporations are
functioning under the administrative control of
the Industries Department: I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
H.P. State Industrial Development
Corporation Ltd. (HPSIDC).
H.P. Financial Corporation Ltd. (HPFC).
H.P. State Handicrafts & Handloom
Corporation Ltd. (HPSH&HC)
H.P. State Small Scale
Industries and
Export Corporation Ltd. (HPSSI&EC)
H.P. General Industries Corporation
Ltd.(HPGIC)
H.P. Khadi and Village Industries
Board.(HPKVIB)
The State Development Report 2002 suggested
following Marketing Strategies of Major and
Minor Minerals which have ramifications for
manpower especially the marketing of minerals.
•
Limestone extracted from the mines of
Regulatory Analysis to identify
regulations
that
have
environment implications and
compliance with the same.
Mining sector and cross sector policy and
regulatory framework at state level shows the
intent of the state government to address the
issues relating to improper siting poor ambient
air quality, deteriorating water quality and
quantity, noise pollution, waste treatment and
disposal, land degradation, loss of flora and
fauna, and poor aesthetics. A list of policy and
programme is given below.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environment (Siting for Industrial
Projects) Rules, 1999
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
EIA Notification, 2006 and amendments
Zoning Atlas
Central Pollution Control Board
Comprehensive Environment Pollution
Index (CEPI)
The Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981
National Ambient Air Quality Standard
(NAAQS)
National Water Policy, 2002
State Water Policy
The Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution ) Act, 1974
HP Ground Water (Regulation and Control
of Development and Management) Rules,
2007
273 | Page
• The Noise Pollution (Regulation and
Control) Rules, 2000
• Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling
and Transboundary Movement) Rules,
2008
• The Land Acquisition Act, 1894
• The Forest Conservation Act, 1927
• Mining Policy
• Industrial Policy
• Forest Sector Policy
Reference
•
•
Department of Industries
State of Environment Report (Year not
mentioned)
• Districts Statistical Abstract
• HP State Pollution Control Board
274 | Page
CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY
6.1
Resource inventory of the
existing assets of the sector
Himachal Pradesh has made significant
progress in the field of industrialization in the
past few years. The Industrial Sector has
achieved the take off stage with well diversified
base of industries ranging from rural and
traditional handloom and handicrafts, cottage,
tiny and SSI units to high-tech precision
industries. The liberalized economy, delicensing
and incentives provided by the Central
Government for promotion of industries by
notification of Govt. of India’s Special Package,
of Incentives for the State have proved to be a
“Pull factor” to attract various industries to the
State. After the announcement of these
incentives and the package the flow of
investment to the State has increased manifold.
Between 07-01-2003 and 31-03-2011, there are
14313 New Small, Medium & Large scale Units,
of which 1019 are in Medium & Large Scale &
registered with the Department of Industries
with an investment of Rs. 31177.57 crore and
employment to about 1.7 lakh persons.
The share of industries in the State GDP has
increased from 1.1% in 1950-51 to over 17%
during 2006-07. Presently the Industrial sector
has been contributing about Rs. 200 crores in
the State exchequer in the form of state taxes,
duties and levies. Apart from this accruals of
direct and indirect taxes in the form of
CST/GST, road taxes, duties on industrial
products and exports. On an average the
Industries
department
has
been
generating/earning annual revenue of Rs. 54
crores by way of royalties from mines, sale of
industrial plots/sheds, service charges and other
sources.
During the year 2010-11, 963 small scale
industrial units have been registered with an
investment of Rs. 96539.36 lakh which provides
employment opportunities to 10,002 persons.
In medium & large sector, 27 industrial units
with an investment of Rs. 211833.6 lakhs
provide employment opportunities to about
3740 persons. With the announcement of New
Industrial Package by Government of India
with effect from 7th January, 2003 and
subsequent revision of the State Industrial
Policy in 2004, there has been a spurt in the
industrial investment coming to the State. The
huge investment has increased the demand for
industrial land and power and has put more
pressure on the existing infrastructure. This has
necessitated commensurate increase in
developmental
activities
especially
strengthening
of
infrastructure
and
augmentation of existing infrastructure
throughout the State. Significant requirement of
funds has, therefore, arisen for building of
roads, development of plots, acquisition of
land, strengthening of T&D network for power,
creation of common facilities, social and
commercial related infrastructure.
As per data collected from Director of
Industries, Himachal Pradesh, during 1979-80
to 2001-02, Large & Medium industries (L&M)
have increased 8.7 times. The investment in this
sector has gone up 11.5 times between 1990-91
and 2001-02 and employment has doubled. In
the Small Scale Industries (SSI) sector, between
1980 and 2002, the number of units has
multiplied 4.2 times. The investment increased
4.5 times during 1990-91 to 2001-02 and
employment 1.5 times. By March 2002, the total
production was worth Rs. 5000 crore, providing
direct employment to 1.56 lakh persons, with an
investment of Rs. 3048 crore in the SSI and
L&M sectors.
The investment in the L&M scale sector
accounts for 78% while employment only 19%.
On the other hand, in the SSI and tiny sectors
investment is only 22% and employment 81%.
In the Eighth Plan (1992-97) the number of
industrial units increased from 21,630 to 25,777
(19.3%), employment from 1,05,277 to 1,30,560
275 | Page
persons (24%) and investment from Rs. 446.38
crore to Rs. 2081.01 crore (466.6%). On the
other hand, in the Ninth Plan (1997-02)
industrial units increased 13.1%, employment
Table 1:
16.2% and investment 46.5% as given in Table
Table 1.
Growth of Industry in Himachal Pradesh
Year
Units (No.)
Employment (No.)
SSI
L&M
Total
SSI
L&M
Total
1979-80
6969
22
6991
1990-91
20545
110
20655
86227
15125
101352
1991-92
21518
112
21630
89997
15280
105277
1992-93
22440
114
22554
93577
15747
109324
1993-94
23265
121
23386
96779
17824
114603
1994-95
24121
129
24250
100119
19693
119812
1995-96
24845
147
24992
103269
22467
125736
1996-97
25617
160
25777
106665
23895
130560
1997-98
26378
173
26551
110112
25988
136100
1998-99
27253
174
27427
114491
26103
140594
1999-00
28045
182
28227
119618
28930
148548
2000-01
28731
188
28919
122745
29047
151792
2001-02
29479
191
29670
126594
29382
155976
Source: Director of Industries Himachal Pradesh.
The industries exist only in eight districts. More
than 95% of these industries are in the
periphery districts of Solan, Sirmaur, Kangra
and Una districts. In the remaining districts
L&M industries are mainly based on local raw
material, like the two cement plants in Bilaspur,
while the electronics industries have been
located in Shimla mainly due to the availability
of better infrastructure and manpower. The
major
industries
are
food
products,
textile/spinning, chemical and chemical
products, electronics, steel and steel products,
paper and paper products and precision and
Table 2:
Investment (in crore) Current Prices
SSI
L&M
Total
150.54
222.38
289.28
350.2
412.4
465.1
485.34
518.78
564.43
613.56
643.5
685.48
200.84
224
265
404.33
761.27
1447.4
1595.66
2031.14
2085.41
2288.49
2310.52
2363.34
351.38
446.38
554.28
754.53
1173.67
1912.5
2081.01
2549.92
2649.84
2902.05
2954.03
3048.82
mechanical engineering. They constitute 80% of
the total L&M industries.
In the SSI and Tiny sectors of Himachal
Pradesh, 65% of the industrial units relate to
food and allied products, hosiery, wood and
wood products and mechanical items. These,
along with chemical and allied products, are
major sources of employment. Details of the
number of industrial units and the employment
provided by different types of industrial groups
are given in Table 2 and Table 3.
District wise number of Industrial Units, Investment and Employment (as on 31
March 2002)
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kullu
Kinnaur
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
SSI
1879
1879
2286
7844
2000
506
542
2904
2723
2291
2639
2386
Units (No.)
L&M
Total
3
1882
3
1882
—
2286
6
7850
1
2001
—
506
—
542
1
2905
4
2727
30
2321
138
2777
8
2394
Employment (No.)
SSI
L&M
Total
6876
1221
8097
6876
1221
8097
8322
—
8322
34096
791
34887
9784
52
9836
1533
—
1533
1452
—
1452
11620
186
11806
10080
541
10621
10057
4343
14400
17436
21345
38781
10091
903
10994
Investment (in crore) Current Prices
SSI
L&M
Total
28.65
384.66
413.32
28.65
384.66
413.32
35.61
—
35.61
143.69
21.35
165.04
33.81
6.25
40.07
2.97
—
2.97
2.31
—
2.31
63.14
2.7
65.84
43.6
33.29
76.89
85.78
256.14
341.93
161.32
1640.04
1801.36
63.92
18.9
82.82
276 | Page
Units (No.)
Employment (No.)
SSI
L&M
Total
SSI
L&M
Total
HP
29479
191 29670 126594 29382 155976
Source: Directorate of Industries Himachal Pradesh
District
Table 3:
Investment (in crore) Current Prices
SSI
L&M
Total
685.42
2363.33
3048.78
Industrial Group wise, number of Units and Employment in Small-Scale
Industries in the State (as on 31 March, 2001)
Units
Employment
Number
Percentage
Number
Percentage
1
Food & Allied
7982
27.7
27937
18.9
2
Hosiery
3916
13.6
11748
8
3
Wood & Wood Products
3562
12.4
16029
10.9
4
Paper & Paper Products
462
1.6
2541
1.7
5
Leather & Leather Products
1336
4.6
4676
3.2
6
Glass & Ceramic
577
2
6058
4.1
7
Chemical & Allied
1621
5.6
19452
13.2
8
Mechanical Items
4136
14.3
31020
21.1
9
Electric & Electronics
931
3.2
8379
5.7
10
Misc. & Other
4319
15
19435
13.2
Total
28842
100
147275
100
Source: State Industrial Profile of Himachal Pradesh (2001-02), by Small Industries Service Institute(SISI), Government of India, Solan,
Himachal Pradesh.
Sr. No.
Industrial Groups
District wise details of Industries in Himachal
Pradesh are given in Table 4.
Table 4:
Sr.
No.
Types of Industries in Himachal Pradesh
Districts
No. of
Industries
Major Types of Industries
1
Bilaspur
1037
Flour Mills , Cattle Feed, Engineering, Ply Industries, Poultry Feed, Steel
Works, Allied Industries, Food Products, Furniture Industry, Grinding
Industries, Handicraft Industry, Hosiery, Informatoin & Technology, Knitting
Works, Printing Press, Packaging Industries, BeautyParlour, Pharmaceuticals,
Welfare Society, Saw Mill etc.
2
Chamba
735
Flour Mills, Automobile Service, Bakery, BoutiqueC
, olor Lab, Cream Factory,
Furniture Industries, Handloom Industry, Metal Industry, Oil Mills, Printing
Press, Weaving Works, Wool Carding, Hosiery, Welding Works etc.
3
Hamirpur
1186
Agro Industry, Flour Mills, Bakery, Batisa Udyog, Beauty Parlor, Engineering
Service, Food Processing Industry, Furniture Indursites, Handicraft Industry,
Information & Technology, Metal Industry, Mushroom, Oil Mills, Printing
Press, Steel Industry, Stone Crusher, Timber Indust ry, Trader & Manufacturer,
Weaving Works, Hosiery, Welding Works
4
Kangra
3050
Agro Industry, Flour Mills, Bakery, Beauty Parlour, Boutique, Chem ical Udyog,
Computers Technology, Crushing Company, Engineering Service, Electronics
Works, Fabrication, Furniture Industries, Handicraft Industry, Handloom
Weaving Industry, Masala Grinding Unit, Metal Industry, Printing Press,
Processing Unit, Poultry Feed Mills, Rice Mill, Ste el Industry, Wool Industry,
Weaving Works, Welding Works etc.
5
Kinnaur
509
Flour Mills, Bakery, Furniture Industries, HandloomIndustry, Metal Industry,
Weaving Works etc.
277 | Page
Sr.
No.
Districts
No. of
Industries
Major Types of Industries
6
Kullu
890
Allied Industry, Beverage Industry, Flour Mills, Bakery, Carding Industry,
Chemical Udhyog, Crushing Company, Fabrication, Fur niture Industries,
Hosiery Udhyog, Handicraft Industry, Handloom Industry, Masala Grinding
Unit, Metal Industry, Printing Press, Processing In d ustry, Grinding Mill, Saw
Mill, Steel Industry, Tea Industry, Wool Industry We,aving Works, Welding
Works etc.
Cooperative Industrial Society, Crafts Women Weaver Company, Industries,
Processing Society, Steel Fabrication etc.
7
Lahaul & Spiti
66
8
Mandi
1768
9
Shimla
2094
10
Sirmaur
1089
11
Solan
1494
Industries, Garments, Packaging, Pharmaceuticals Works, Crusher, Fabricaotrs,
Agro Mills, Allied Industries, Bricks Industry, Flo ur Mills, Electronic
Equipment, Rolling Mills, Handloom Enterprises, Feed Industry etc.
12
Una
1014
Agarbatti Works, Agro Engineering Works, Crusher, Chemical Udhyog,
Furniture Works, Packaging Works, Painting Works, Food Processing
Industries Welding Works, Cattle Feed, Flour MillAs,gro Industries, Timber
Store etc.
Milk Foods, Information Technology, Rolling Shutter, We aving Industry,
Stone Crusher, Printing Press, Oils Mills, Namkeen Industry, Furniture
Industries, Food Processing, Engineering, Carpentry Works, Fabrication,
Handicrafts, Steel Industry, Core Product, Agro Ind ustry, Automobiles Works,
Carding Industry, Bakery Unit etc.
Rice Mill, Art Dyers & Dry Cleaners, Confectioners,Flour Mills, Fabricators,
Paper Products, Crusher, Furniture Industries, Heal ing Products, Handlooms,
Processing Software Centre, Parlour etc.
Allied Industries, General Mills, Packaging, Chemical IndustrieCs,omposite
Unit, Bakery, Crushers, Weaving Unit weaving Unit, Wooden Furniture Work,
Engineering Works, Mineral & Chemical, Fabricators, Rice Mill, Grinding
Works etc.
Source: Industrial Census 2008, Himachal Pradesh
Status of Industry in Himachal Pradesh:
During the last few years, the industrialization
in the State of H.P. has made significant
progress. In 31st March 2011, State of HP have
about 37835 (37364 Small Scale and 471
Medium & Large Scale) Industrial Units with an
investment of about Rs. 13492.14 Crores and
employment of about 2.554 lakh persons
registered with the Department of Industries.
The details of registered industrial units are
given in Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7.
Table 5:
District wise details of industrial
units
registered
in
the
Small, Medium
&
Large
scale Sector (status: as on 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No of Investment (
District
Employment
No.
units
Rs. in lakh)
1 Bilaspur
2280
53827.71
9904
2 Chamba
1763
3303.43
6102
3 Hamirpur
2768
6264.33
9966
4 Kangra
8873
35226.71
40160
5 Kullu
2489
7303.15
13235
6 Kinnaur
571
514.62
1789
7 Lahaul &
Spiti
576
321.79
1589
8 Mandi
3824
10427.32
15813
9 Shimla
3392
24029.91
13028
10 Solan
4871
937064.98
96909
11 Sirmaur
3170
164142.95
27533
12 Una
3258
106787.37
19377
Total
37835
1349214.27
255405
278 | Page
Table 6: Year wise details of units
registered in the Small Scale
Sector (status: as on 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No.
Year
1 up to 0203
2 2003-04
3 2004-05
4 2005-06
5 2006-07
6 2007-08
7 2008-09
8 2009-10
10 2010-11
Total
Investment
Employment
( Rs. in
generated
lakh)
30176
70977.48
129871
No of units
set up
663
913
914
952
842
909
1032
963
37364
3708.48
8891.44
12217.3
45272.78
70637.33
73795.48
75320.01
96539.36
457359.66
3769
6412
6611
10665
11302
10939
10011
10002
199582
:
Table 7: Year wise details of units
registered in Medium & Large
Scale Sector (Status: upto 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No.
Year
1 up to 0203
2 2003-04
3 2004-05
4 2005-06
5. 2006-07
6. 2007-08
7. 2008-09
8. 2009-10
10 2010-11
Total
No of units
set up
Investment
Employment
( Rs. in
generated
lakh)
196
15
35
64
46
19
46
23
27
471
237806
3494
30287
50159.24
61525.9
48263.61
114103.26
134382.42
211833.6
891855.03
29823
762
3473
4606
4568
1923
4225
2703
3740
55823
District Industries Centres (DICs) have been
functioning in all the districts of the state. The
objective of DIC programme is to provide all
facilities, services and support required by
village and small entrepreneurs under single
roof. The industrial areas and estates have been
set up to provide infrastructure facilities to the
entrepreneurs. Three industrial estates have
been set up to provide infrastructure facilities
to the entrepreneurs at Kangra, Jawali and Dera
Gopipur-Gopipur in the district. Besides these,
seven industrial areas namely Nagoya Bagwan,
Nagri, Dhaliyara, Sansarpur Terrace, Baib
Attariyan, Nagrala and Raja-Ka-Bagh have been
set up to attract the entrepreneurs from the
different parts of the country.
An economic census was conducted by the
Department of Economics and Statistics,
Himachal Pradesh in 1998. The information on
location of enterprises, description of activities
of enterprises, nature of operation, type of
ownership, social group of owner, power and
fuel used for the activity and the number of
persons engaged in the enterprise under
agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, were
collected.
While analyzing the distribution of nonagricultural enterprises by major activity group,
it is revealed that both in rural and urban areas
retail trade, community, social and personal
services and manufacturing were three most
important activity groups followed by hotel and
restaurants. The share of establishments in total
non-agricultural enterprises was the highest in
electricity, gas and water supply followed by
communication, finance and real estate and
mining and quarrying community social and
personal services and transport.
Handicrafts: Art of weaving occupies a place of
pride in the crafts of the district. This
household industry is certainly of the very
ancient origin in the district. The district is rihc
in producing wool. The wool spinning and
weaving is important household industry of
many households in this district. Woollen caps,
shawls, pattoos and tweed cloth (Patti) are
woven from home-spun yarn for self use and
local marketing. ‘Patti’ is used for making coats,
long coats and caps etc.
District wise Status
Himachal Pradesh
of
Industries
in
Bilaspur: Presently, the economy of the district
is confined mainly to agriculture. There is only
one large scale industry at Barmana engaged in
production of cement.
Due to availability of raw material, M/s
Associated Cement Company limited has set up
a cement factory on a large scale in private
279 | Page
sector at Barmana. At Barmana, M/s
Associated Cement Companies Limited, has
two cement units with a capacity of 30 Lakhs
tonnes. These units have provided employment
to 1065 persons. Another medium scale
industrial unit with investment of Rs.128 Lakhs
producing flexible packaging material is located
in industrial area of Bilaspur. It provided
employment to 167 persons. During 1999, 90
industrial units on small scale were registered in
the district. These are such as match splint unit,
hosiery, ayurvedic drug manufacturing units,
tyre retreading, paint and varnish making unit,
stone crushers etc. Besides these, there are few
artisan units like handloom, leather shoe
making, pottery, black smithy, wooden ware,
etc. A resin and turpentine factory is also
functioning in the public sector near Bilaspur
Town. Furniture factory established by
Himachal
Pradesh
General
Industries
Corporation Ltd. is also functioning in the
district.
The Department of Industry is trying to create
requisite infrastructural facilities for the
industrial
sector.
To
encourage
the
entrepreneurs to establish industries, the
Department is providing various incentives
such as allotment of land in industrial area,
power charges concessions, capital investment
subsidy on fixed assets, interest subsidy, freight
subsidy, sales tax incentives, subsidy on
feasibility report, etc. Besides, KVIC/KVIB
also provides margin money subsidy for
establishing small industrial units. The pace of
industrial growth is slow in the district. In 1991,
there were 86 registered factories which have
increased to 90 in 1999.
The cottage industries like weaving, basketry,
rope making, mat making, earthen-ware, black
smithy, carpentry, rice mills, oil mills, seed
crushing, leather work, gold and silver smithy
which are essential for the self sufficiency of
rural area are scattered all over the district. The
Khadi and village Industries Board is also
helping the people in the establishment of
village industries. The Board distributed loans
worth Rs 37,57,000 as well as grant worth Rs
16,00,000 to village industries numbering 11
during the period 1999-2000. During the year
1999-2000 a sum of Rs. 7.08 lakh was
sanctioned by the Banks as loans to 20 small
scale industrial units.
Chamba: Chamba district is most backward as
no large or medium scale industry exists in the
district. Chamba produces shawls and other
woollen goods and cotton fabrics. Chamba
‘chappals’ are very famous and there demand
very high. Government of Himachal Pradesh
runs a leather training centre which trains local
workers who are associated with this sector.
To inculcate the spirit of industrialization
Government of Himachal Pradesh has
established two Industrial Training Institute in
Bilaspur district which provide training in 13
trades like Tailoring and cutting, Electrician,
Fitter, motor mechanic, Draughtsman (civil),
Carpentry, Bleaching and Dying, Steno (Hindi),
Hand weaving, Motor Driving & Computer etc.
Himachal Pradesh Khadi & Village Industries
Board is engaged in setting up of village
industries by providing loans, subsidy and other
incentives. The Board provides loan/ margin
money as per prescribed rate of interest of
Khadi Commission.
The important village industries are weaving,
carpentry and black smithy which are practiced
since the old times to cater to the local needs.
The rich traditional skills of its inhabitants and
opportunities for local resources based
industries, offer a vast potential for growth of
small scale and cottage based industries in the
district. The cottage industries like weaving,
basketry, rope making, mat making, earthen
ware, black smithy, carpentry, rice mills, leather
works, gold and silver smithy are essential for
the self sufficiency of rural areas which are
scattered all over the district. There is one
training institute relating to technical education
at Chamba. The industrial sector consists of the
units mostly under tiny and cottage industries.
280 | Page
Among the other industries, Handloom is the
most common for the development of
handicrafts industries in the district the
Handloom and Handicrafts Corporation runs
textile production centres at Chamba and Tisa,
footwear factory and Chamba ‘Rumal’
production centre at Chamba.
District Industries Centre (D.I.C.) is the nodal
agency of development of industrial activities in
the district. District Industries Centre has
developed 12 industrial plots and constructed
15 sheds at Sultanpur and all the sheds are
occupied by the entrepreneurs. Another
industrial area is at Parel. The District
Industries Centre has constructed nine sheds
and developed 10 plots. At Hatli, 5 sheds are
ready and 22 plots have been developed. At
Holi, 10 sheds are under construction. A few
more industrial areas acquired for the
construction of sheds in the district are
Industrial Area Garnota (109 bighas acquired),
Industrial Area Judera (6.14 bighas acquired)
and Industrial Area Bhanota (16.15 bighas
acquired).
The availability of land, water and power is
satisfactory in the district. Natural resources
and availability of other raw materials the types
of industrial units have good potential in the
district, as given in Table 8.
Table 8: Type of Industry in Chamba
District
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Types of
Industry
Wool
based
Industry
Resin
based
Industry
Herbal
based
Industry
Cement
Factory
Mine based
Industry
Availability of Natural Resources
and Raw Material
Wool is available in sufficient
quantity in the district.
This industry can also be set up as
there are plenty of Devdar/Chil
trees.
‘Dhoop’ and Cedar wood oil can be
promoted.
A cement plant is expected to be
installed by Larson and Turbo
company in the district.
Sand, slate mines are available in
plenty from which flooring chips,
6
7
8
Honey
based
Industry
Fruit based
Industry
Forest
based
Industry
flower pots and bricks can be
manufactured.
A honey processing plant can be set
up in the district as the bee keepers
are producing plenty of honey.
Fruit canning, pickles, jam, jellies
and juice can be produced in the
district.
Furniture manufacturing units,
wood carving activities can be
promoted.
Inspite of various incentives, the pace of
industrialization is slow because of problems
like marketing, lack of entrepreneurship and
remote location of the district.
Hamirpur: There are no large scale industrial
units in the district due to lack of infrastructural
facilities, resources and demand. An industrial
estate has been set up at the distance of 2 km.
from Hamirpur. Units have been established.
M/s Verma Steel Fabricators & M/s Dev Raj
Sewing Machine Assembling, M/s Jagdamba
Association has set up resin and turpentine
factory at Kahdru assisted by Village and Khadi
Board and P.V.C. shoes at Hamirpur.
The district has Engineering College,
Polytechnic and ITI. A good number of skilled
ex-servicemen are also available in the district.
Under various programmes, incentives and
subsidies are being provided to entrepreneurs
to promote the industrial growth in the district.
Financial assistance is being given to educated
& unemployed youths in this regard. Whatever
industrial units have been set up in the past are
either servicing units such as atta chakki, cotton
carding,
oilseed
crushing,
automobile
workshops and other mechanical workshops
etc. Some small scale establishments such as
cottage type units undertaking production of
gate, grills, agricultural implements, water tanks,
furniture both steel and wooden, soap units,
polythene sheet, dhoop making etc. have come
up on the basis of demand. There are also some
cottage type hosiery, knit wear, bakery and
candles manufacturing units functioning in the
district.
281 | Page
The State Handicraft Board runs a training and
production centre and also procurement units
in the district. The Board has shawl producing
centres at Hamirpur and Dugna. A bamboo
basket making centre is functioning at Bhalet
and a carpet weaving centre at Ranghr in Tira
Sujanpur tehsil. All the aforesaid units are quite
small.
While analysing the distribution of nonagricultural enterprises by major activity groups,
it is revealed that both in rural and urban areas
retail trade, community, social, personal
services and manufacturing were the most
important activity groups followed by hotels
and restaurants.
Kangra: The District has many resources of
water, hydropower, minerals, forests, cool and
dust free climate. All these factors provide
favourable condition for setting up agriculture
based food processing and electronic industries
in the district. However, there is much scope
for the small and medium size industries.
Kangra district has tea processing factory at
Baijnath, Bir, Palampur and Sidhwari. Suraj
industries at Sansarpur Terrace is engaged in
the manufacturing of vanaspati ghee while
another industrial unit at Kandori known as
Him Ispat Ltd. is manufacturing cold rolled
steel strips, in the district.
Five industrial training institutes at Shahpur,
Nurpur Neharan Pukhar, Dhameta and Saliyana
have been established to provide training in
different trades. In addition to these, three
more institutes for women are also functioning
at Dharmshala, Palampur and Jwali. One
Government Polytechnic has been set up at
Kangra.
Prime Minister 'Rojgar Yogna' for providing
assistance to educated unemployed youths for
self employment has been launched all over the
state. There is a potentiality for setting up of
herbal, mineral, horticultural and agricultural
based industries in the district. The state
Government is giving special emphasis for
electronic units. Tea is grown in Kangra district
especially in Dharmshala, Palampur and
Baijnath at an altitude of 1,000 metres to 1,500
metres above mean sea level. A good number
of people are engaged in 'dhoop' making, lac
industry, Katha making, slate industry, wool
spinning and weaving, bamboo work and
pottery. The industrial growth in the district has
been hampered by certain constraints as
transportation of raw material and finished
goods which entails high cost resulting in high
cost of finished goods.
Some other important small and cottage
industries, which are exist in the districts are
Dhoop Making (Jwalamukhi and Kangra), Lac
Industry (Nurpur and Dehra Gopipur), Katha
Making and Slate Industry.
Apart from this, handloom and handicrafts are
also an important cottage industry of the
district. Handloom work, such as Floral Shawls,
Carpet Weaving, Gudmas and Namdas, Bed
Sheets, Woollen Sweaters and Mufflers are
produced in various parts of the district,
employing good number of local people.
Wooden Work, Bamboo Work and Pottery is
also provide gainful employment to the people.
Kinnaur: As regards industries, Kinnaur is
however undeveloped district in the State.
Because of climate & topography conditions of
the district. The chances of setting up large
scale industries are rare. Because lack of means
of transportation and communication as well as
other economic and infrastructural facilities.
However, traditional village and rural
household industries like spinning, weaving,
black smithy, silver smithy, gold smithy,
carpentry, wood and metal carving, basketry,
flour milling, oil milling, fruit processing and
distilling exist in almost all parts of the distric t.
Two centres manufacturing shawls, gudmas and
namdas are functioning in the district at Spillo
and Nichar. There is one Industrial Training
Institute located at Reckong Peo which imparts
282 | Page
training in various trades such as wireman,
weaving, stenography (Hindi) and electrician.
Besides, there is an Industrial Technical
Institute for the girls in Reckong Peo which
imparts training in tailoring, weaving, knitting,
carpet weaving and carpentry, etc
Table 9:
Sr.
No.
Industries found in Kinnaur District are
based on Wool, Silk and Fibre textiles (276),
Food products (128) and Wood Products
Industries. Details of type of Industries is given
in Table 9.
Types of Industries in Kinnaur District
Industry group of description
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
NIC code
Two digit
level
Cumulative
Number of
Units as on
31.03.2008
Food Products
20
128
Other Food Products
21
-Beverages, Tobacco & Tobacco Products
22
--Cotton Textiles
23
-Wool, Silk & Fibre Textiles
24
276
Jute, Hemp & Mesta Textiles
25
Hosiery & Garments
26
10
Wood Products
27
51
Paper Products & Printing
28
6
Leather Products
29
-Rubber & Plastic Products
30
-Chemical & Chemical Products
31
-Non Metallic Mineral Products
32
-Basic Metal Industry
33
-Metal Products
34
25
Machinery & Parts Except Electric
35
-Electrical Machinery & Apparatus
36
-Transport Equipments & Parts
36
-Misc. Manufacturing Industries
37
6
Water Works & Supply
42
-Construction
50
-Activities Allied to Construction
51
-Restaurant & Hotels
69
-Storage & Water Housing Services
74
-Real Estate & Business
82
-Education, Scientific & Research
92
-Medical & Health Services
93
-Recreational & Culture Services
95
-Personal Services
96
-Repair Services
97
14
Services Not Elsewhere Classified
99
-Other Services & Groups
100
17
Total
533
Source: Endst.No. Ind. Kin. PMT/4/2006-District Industries Centre, Reckong Peo, Kinnaur
Kullu: The district is centrally located and it is
locked from almost all directions by lofty
mountains. Besides, the district does not have
any basic raw materials and minerals except
lime stone for setting of large and medium scale
industrial unit. The district has bright potential
Number of
SIDO units deregistered
during quarter
----------------------------1
1
Cumulative
No. of units
(as on
30.06.2008)
128
---276
-10
51
6
--------25
---6
---------14
-18
534
for establishing industrial units for processing
of fruit product as Kullu district is one a major
producer of apple and other fresh fruits in the
state. However, the district is known for some
of its beautiful traditional handicrafts in
283 | Page
weaving. M/s D.S. Foods Ltd. Raison is
medium scale industrial unit of the district.
Handicrafts: Art of weaving occupies a place of
pride in the crafts of the district. This
household industry is certainly of the very
ancient origin in the state. In the series of
weaving, Kullu shawls are famous among the
handicrafts of district. Kullu caps and mufflers
are considered popular gifts of this district and
are much in demand in the state and in others
parts of the country. Plain shawls of Pashmina
locally known as ‘Loi’ are woven by all
households. Shawls are of two kinds, one is
plain and other is of different designs. The
shawls are woven from home- spun yarn as well
as from the imported yarn called R“uffle”. The
designed shawls known asPh“ulwali” are of
recent origin and their prices depend on the
quality of material used and design pattern
woven on them by the craftsman.
Another allied craft is the weaving of Pattoos
and tweed cloth (Patti). ‘Patti’ is used for
making coats, long coats C( holas) and caps etc.
Kullu caps are made of coloured woollen cloth
with a velvety circular band of shaneel around
it. ‘Pullans’ foot wear (like bed room slippers)
are made of fibres and wool are other products
of handicrafts of upper reaches of inner and
outer Seraj, ‘Pattoos’ are also made of local wool.
These are thicker and heavier than shawls.
Ordinary thick and soft one is called “Dohru”
are mostly used as bed blankets. The “Pattoos”
woven of fine wool with coloured strips are
used by women folk as a dress in the rural
areas.
The weavers of Kullu district have also formed
Co-operative Society to encourage the export
of handicraft goods. Bhutti Weavers Cooperative Society is one of the oldest cooperative society which provides technical and
financial assistance to its members and has
opened sale outlets in different parts of the
state.
Lahaul and Spiti: Lahaul & Spiti district does
not have any significant industry worth. This is
partly because of non availability of raw
material, no local expertise exists and no local
market exists for the produce. Only household
industries like carpet making, carding of wool
and weaving of woolen and pashmina shawls
and other clothes exist. The Government of
Himachal Pradesh has opened carpet weaving
training centre at Keylong, wool spinning and
weaving centre at Keylong and sub centre at
Junda, Government Pashmina Spinning and
weaving centre at Chhiljam in Spiti with subcentre at Hikam.
There are many Lamas who are adept painters.
Their paintings, wood carvings and clay models
are real master pieces and the finish indeed
immaculate. Their art can flourish considerably
if they are provided infrastructural facilities and
marketing of their finished goods are arranged
by government agencies. At the end of 19992000, there were 17 registered industries
functioning in the district.
Mandi: The district is predominantly an
agricultural tract and devoid of medium and
small scale industries. It is endowed with
bountiful resources of hydropower, minerals,
forests and cool and dust free climate. All these
factors provide favourable conditions for agrobased, forest based, food processing, beverages
and electronics industries in the district. The
setting up of these industries will also improve
avenues of employment to the large number of
agriculturists raising their income and standard
of living. A start was given to this programme
during the five year plans with the object of
utilizing the available raw materials and
providing employment and improving the
economic condition of people. The training and
production centres in various trades have been
started in the district as a part of the plan
programme. Liberal loans were given at
concessional rates of interest for setting up of
new industries and augmentation of the existing
units. As a result of this, a number of smallscale industries have sprung up in the district.
284 | Page
The Industries Department is also providing
margin money to the extent of 50% to the
educated & unemployed people. The
industrialists are also getting subsidy of freight
under writing of share capitals, concessional
rates for industrial plots, building construction
materials, relief in electricity tariff, installati on
of diesel generating sets, central sale tax and
preference in purchases by the Government of
Himachal Pradesh. At the end of 1999, as many
as 102 industries with the capacity of 2,473
personnel were functioning in the district.
About 15 industrial units were granted loans to
the tune of 345.3 thousands and another 117
units were granted subsidy to the tune of Rs.
2,065.9 thousands during the same period.
During 1998-99, the district had 18 mechanical
based industries, 12 forest based, 34 cloth
industry, 4 food processing, 2 paper based, 7
processing and repairing, 34 flour mills, 5
chemical based and 9 other types of industries
functioning in the district, besides a large
number of small scale industrial units registered
with the Industry Department. The department
runs Polytechnic College at Sundernagar, which
provides full time diploma courses in Civil,
Mechanical, Electrical, Automobile Engineering
etc. Besides, the Industrial Training Institute at
Mandi provides the training of turner, fitter,
electrician, draughtsman, surveyor, carpenter,
motor mechanic, tailoring, stenography and
mechanical refrigeration etc. Besides, the
Industries Department, the Khadi and Village
Industry Board has provided grants of
Rs.179,610 and loan of Rs. 194,653 to 23
industrial units during the end of 1998-99 for
purchasing of raw materials and augmentation
of units etc. Only one large and medium
industrial unit i.e. M/s Fermenta Biotech
Limited, Takoli was established in 1989 with
the investment of Rs. 574.52 lakh. It produces
87 tonnes of penicillin G. Amidose Biocatalyst
and 6-n-Amylmetacresol every year by
providing employment to 93 people.
Shimla: The economy of the district is
confined to agriculture and horticulture. In
order to provide infrastructural facilities to the
entrepreneurs, industrial areas were established
at Shoghi. Four large and medium scale units
viz. M/s Bhillai Wires Pvt. Ltd., established in
1995 with the total investment of Rs.2,990
lakhs with 160 personnel and installed capacity
of 400,00 kms. Fibre, M/s Durha Machine Pvt.
Ltd., established in 1989 with the total
investment of Rs.250 lakh with 28 manpower
and installed capacity of 60 million leadtabs,
M/s Indian Magnetics Ltd., established in 1989
with the total investment of Rs. 874 Lakhs with
103 manpower and installed capacity of
327,572,17 squares of video tape/video
cassettes and M/s Ramson Communication
Ltd. established in 1992 with the total
investment of Rs. 200 lakh with 110 manpower
and installed capacity of 15,000 lines of
subscriber carrier and long line equipment are
functioning at Shoghi in Shimla district. The
State Government Agencies are sanctioned and
distributed a sum of Rs.30.51 lakh to 11
industrial units during the year 1998-99 as loan
and advances.
There were so many cottage and small scale
registered units in the district. Among the agrobased industries, the units functioning in the
district are atta chakki, cotton carding, thresher,
oil expeller, bakery, fruit canning and
preservation, etc. Forest based industries in the
district are engaged in the manufacturing of
wooden packing cases, wooden furnitures, toys,
sticks, joinery, beehives and other wooden
novelties. Mineral based industrial units in the
district mainly consist of stone crusher and
earthen pottery while textile based industrial
units are manufacturing of hosiery products,
woollen shawls, patties, chaddars, thread balls,
fancy handicrafts etc. Engineering and allied
industrial units are engaged in manufacturing of
barbed wire, wire nails, tin smithy products,
steel fabrication & furniture, auto repairs and
sewing machine assembling. The chemical
based industrial units are engaged in the
production of laundry soap, detergent, ink, tyre
retreading and polythene bags etc. Electronic
based industries are engaged in manufacturing
of video cassettes, television, voltage stabilizer,
285 | Page
TV/Radio repair and intercom system, etc. The
different industrial training institutes are
functioning in the district. The District
Industries Centre in collaboration with small
industries
service
institute
organises
entrepreneur development programme courses.
The Himachal Pradesh Khadi and village
Industries Board is also playing an important
role to train the persons in industries. The main
marketing centres in the district are Shimla,
Theog, Rampur, Kotkhai, Jubbal, Rohru,
Chaupal and Narkanda, etc. The district is rich
in raw material for the establishment of cottage
and small scale industries. However, the raw
material like cement, sheet and wax etc. is being
allotted from raw material depot at Parwanoo.
The district has no quality marking centre in
existence. For quality marking of the products,
manufactures have to go outside the district
which not only takes time but also increase the
cost of production. There were total 28,836
industries in the district during 1998 out of
which 1339 based on agriculture and another
27,497 on non-agricultural industries. About
96,377 persons were engaged in these industries
i.e. 2,458 persons in agriculture and 93,919
persons in non-agriculture based industries.
The district has 147 factories with the
manpower of 3,750 persons and 85 regular
based small scale industrial units functioning
during the year 1998-99.
Sirmaur: Few industries were introduced
during the time of Raja Shamsher Singh, one of
them is the Nahan Foundry Ltd. which was set
up for the first time in 1875 A.D. which was
taken over by the Himachal Pradesh
Government in 1964. The main items of the
production of this factory are cane, crusher,
cast iron and black sheets panes, flour mills,
centrifugal mono blocks pump sets and other
agricultural implements and accessories. The
State Government decided to convert it into
H.P.P.W.D. & I.P.H. state workshop and
transferred all operational assets within factory
premises to the said workshop in 1988. Resin
and turpentine factory in Nahan is another
oldest factory, which has its raw material from
the extraction of chil trees, which are in
abundance in the district. This factory was
opened in 1945 and came into operation from
1949 onwards. The control and administration
of the factory has been completely taken over
by the State Government in 1957.
The cement corporation of India has set up
cement factory at Rajban with an installed
capacity of 600 metric tonnes per day that has
generated an employment to about 750
persons. Other important factories being
Himachal Mineral and Chemical, Paonta Sahib,
Himachal Mill Ltd., Paonta Sahib, Nahan
Ceramics, Paonta Sahib, Farm Fresh Fruit Pvt.
Ltd., Bata Mandi, Paonta Sahib, Himachal
Pradesh Surgical, Paonta Sahib, Govt.
Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Majra, Himachal
Turpentine Products Ltd., Kala Amb, Himachal
Mine Quartts, Bata Mandi, etc. There are
numerous units in the district registered with
the Industries Department which includes
industries like saw mills, leather units, utensil
repairs and making, weaving and atta chakkies
etc.
There were 24 large scale industrial units
registered with the Industries Department with
the capital investment of Rs.45,285.97 Lakhs
and 4,608 industrial workers in these units as
on 31.3.2001. Apart from these, 87 Small Scale
Serviceable units were also functioning in the
district with capital investment capacity of Rs.
64.56 Lakhs and 178 skilled workers. During
the year 2000-2001, a total 1,199 small scale
units were registered with capital investment of
Rs. 9,026.65 Lakhs to provide employment
about 6,449 workers. In order to accelerate the
pace of the industrialization, three growth
centres/industrial areas namely Kala Amb,
Dhaula Kuan and Paonta Sahib have been set
up in the district during the early nineties.
To provide technical skill in industrialization
amongst the youth, the Government has started
training institutions at various places so that the
pace of industrialization can be accelerated in
the district. There are industrial tailoring
286 | Page
institutes for girls at Nahan and other centers at
Trilokpur, Paonta Sahib, Rajgarh, Badaur in
Renuka and Bajon in Shalai and Baragat at
Sangrah. There is an Industrial Training
Institute at Nahan which imparts training in
various fields like fitter, turner, electrician,
radio, T.V., Mechanic, draughtsman etc. The
rural industrial training institutes at Paonta
Sahib and other places have been transferred to
Himachal Pradesh Village and Khadi Board.
The Government has set up sericulture centres
farms at Dhaula Kuan, Devinagar, Katesan
Devi, Parduni, Karonda Wali Ghatti, Sainwala
and Puruwala. The Government with the
intention to popularize silk farming provides
subsidy and loan to the individuals for rearing
cocoon. The traditional cottage industries
indeed play their vital role in the rural economy
which is ban making handloom weaving, basket
making, etc.
ancillary units are also functioning in the
district. Most of these units are located in the
foothills due to locational advantage and
proximity to market in neighbouring states.
Solan: In view of the limited availability of
agricultural
land
and
ever
growing
unemployment, the industries have been
accorded a prominent place in the development
of the district. The district is quite rich in
mineral resources. Out of the main minerals
viz. building stones, brick clay, limestone, sand
and boulders, the latter is being used as raw
material for crushers. Large deposits of
limestone have been found in Arki tahsil which
are being used by large capacity cement plant in
Darlaghat.
There are about 2,644 registered small scale
industries units functioning in the district
generating employment to about 17,191
persons. 70% of these units are located in rural
area. The important items manufactured
include parts of tractors, automobile bearings,
fittings, wrist watches, watch cases, watch
jewels, tape recorders, video and audio
cassettes, clinical and industrial thermometers,
activated carbon, medicines, fruits and
mashroom canning, PVC footwear, ACSR
conductors, ACC pipes, high density polythene
films etc. The Industries Department has
created good infrastructure in the form of
industrial estates/industrial areas in the distric.t
The State Government has provided liberal
incentives to the prospective industrialists for
setting up of industrial units in the district.
Further industrial estates/areas have been
developed at Parwanoo, Baddi, Barotiwala,
Solan etc. An export and import park is also
coming up at Baddi for promoting industrial
development in the district. The district also
enjoys proximity to Chandigarh and the states
of Punjab and Haryana. The district has
excellent road and communication network. In
view of the potential undertaking non-farm
sector activities exists in the district.
Solan is the most industrially advanced district
in the state. There are about 126 medium and
large scale industries located in the district
having fixed capital investment of Rs.1950.02
crores generating employment to 38,281
persons. The main manufacturing items being
produced by medium and large scale sectors are
cement, telecom equipment, fruits, dial watches,
telephone parts, textiles, cotton/synthetic yarn,
forging, ayurvedic medicines IMFL, PCP,
medicines, flour, steel ingots, magnetic head,
computers software/hardware, etc. except
Mohan Meakins Breweries Ltd. all these units
have come up very recently. A large number of
A large number of families in rural areas are
also engaged in traditional jobs like blacksmithy
carpentry etc. Kunihar block has the largest
number of such artisans followed by Nalagarh,
Dharampur, Solan and Kandaghat blocks. State
Directorate of Industries has identified growth
centres viz. Solan, Nalagarh, Parwanoo and
Barotiwala. Besides, Dhaampur, Jabli, Kunihar,
Kandaghat, Kasauli and Baddi have also been
identified as growth centres. The District
Industries Centre (DIC) is entrusted with the
task of ensuring overall industrial development
in the district by way of identification and
motivation of suiTable beneficiaries for setting
287 | Page
up of household, village and cottage industries,
tiny sector units, small scale industries and large
and medium scale industries as well as for
providing various incentives as admissible
under the Industrial Policy of the State to
various industrial units. The centre has been
preparing bankable schemes/projects for the
beneficiaries for availing financial assistance
from the banks. Solan, Parwanoo, Baddi,
Barotiwala are the main industrial centres in the
district. Besides, DIC is also helping in the
implementation of Prime Minister Rozgar
Yojna Scheme in the district. The district is first
in Himachal Pradesh to achieve 100% of
(PMRY) target in respect of disbursement of
PMRY loans for the consecutive years. The
Industries Department is providing a number
of incentives to the entrepreneurs. The
department is also conducting entrepreneurship
development programmes in coordination with
the HIMCON.
Una: There have been no large scale Industrial
units in the district due to lack of infrastructural
facilities, resources and demand. In the district,
Industrial activities are being looked after by
the District Industries Centre, Una which was
established during 1979 with a an objective to
provide all the facilities under one roof such as
preparing of the project reports, procuring of
raw material and marketing of finished goods,
etc. District Industries Centre provides several
incentives e.g. 10% subsidy of capital
investment, subsidy on rate of interest, margin
money, exemption from sales and purchase
taxes.
The medium scale industries are engaged in the
manufacturing of Liquid Petroleum gas
cylinders, coated cotton fabrics, P.V.C. films,
P.V.C. sheetings, HDPE, woven fabric socks,
decorative & laminated sheets, malted spirits,
country liquor and craft paper, etc. The small
scale industries are manufacturing steel
furniture, gate, grills, building material, wooden
furniture, plastic pipes and water tanks, etc.
Industries Department of the State has
developed industrial centres in the district
where all facilities to set up the industrial units
are easily available. The most of industries in
the district are located in Mehatpur, Tahliwal,
Amb and Gagret.
The district has an I.T.I. and a good number of
skilled ex-servicemen are also available in the
district. Financial assistance is provided to
entrepreneurs and educated unemployed
youths. The district has still a good scope for
industrial development. Mehatpur, Amb,
Tahliwal and Gagret have been added to the
industrial area.
Source: Census data, Himachal Pradesh
Industrial Infrastructure: Availability of
high quality industrial infrastructure with basic
amenities and modern facilities in different
industrial areas and estates is most essential for
sustaining and accelerating industrial growth.
The Industry Department of the State had
developed by March 31, 2002, 30 industrial
areas and 10 industrial estates in different ???
with only basic amenities as roads, power,
sewerage, water and communication. Besides,
more industrial areas and estates are proposed
to be developed during the Tenth Five Year
Plan in different districts. One growth centre
with an estimated cost of Rs. 22 crore has been
developed at Sansarpur Terrace in Kangra
district. Besides, an export promotion industrial
park, with an investment of Rs. 20 crore, is
being developed at Baddi as a sponsored
project by the Union Ministry of Commerce. In
addition, the Department of Industries
proposed to set up an apparel park, clusters,
agri-export zones (AEZ), and special economic
zones (SEZ). Effective implementation of the
existing and proposed schemes and
programmes, encouragement of private sector
participation in infrastructure development, and
simplification of procedures are necessary to
ensure accelerated industrial growth in the state.
Mines and Minerals: The state has
considerable mineral resources including rock
288 | Page
salt, limestone, gypsum, silica-sand and baryte.
In 2002-03, 5.9 million tonnes of limestone, 5.2
lakh tonnes shale and 7 thousand tonnes slates
were produced in the state. Due to the high
availability of quality limestone, a key raw
material, the cement industry has flourished
within the state. Many domestic companies and
MNCs have established their manufacturing
facilities in Himachal Pradesh. The three big
cement plants of ACC, Jay Pee Cements and
Ambuja Cements in the state have a total
capacity of over 4 million tonnes. They plan to
further increase their capacity in future. Jai
Prakash Associates plans to set up a unit with
an investment of USD 110 million. Besides,
there are many other mineral based units like
stone crushing, calcium carbonate units,
hydrated lime units, etc within the state.
Commercially exploitable minerals found in
various districts of the State are given below.
Bilaspur: Limestone, dolomitic limestone,
shale, brick earth, minor minerals like sand,
stone and bajri.
Kangra: Roofing slate, Brick earth and minor
minerals like sand, stone and bajri.
Chamba: Limestone, Roofing slate, magnesite
and minor minerals like sand, stone and bajri.
Kinnaur: Gypsum and minor minerals like
sand, stone and bajri.
Kullu: Roofing slate, quartzite crystal, mineral
water & semi-precious stone and minor
minerals like sand, stone and bajri.
Lahaul & Spiti: Antimony-ore, gypsum and
minor minerals like sand, stone and bajri.
Solan: Lime stone, dolomitic limestone, shale,
building stone and minor minerals like sand,
stone and bajri
Una: Silica boulders and minor minerals like
sand, stone and bajri.
Mandi: Limestone, rock salt, roofing slate,
quartzite and minor minerals like sand, stone
and bajri.
Hamirpur: Silica boulders and minor minerals
like sand, stone and bajri.
Shimla: Limestone, quartzite, slabs slates and
minor minerals like sand, stone and bajri
Sirmaur: Limestone, dolomitic limestone
arites, gypsum, shale, quartzite and minor
minerals like sand, stone and bajri.
Textile industry: Sericulture is one of the key
cottage industries in the state besides handloom
and handicrafts. During 2003-04, 1, 14,000 kg
reeling cocoons were produced. There are
about 50,000 handlooms units primarily based
on wool. The main products of the textile
industry in the state are shawls, tweeds and
blankets, woolen carpets, traditional dresses and
other handicrafts.
Pharmaceutical Industry: Pharmaceutical
units have been set up in Himachal Pradesh
since there is special incentives policy pursued
by the Government. Ranbaxy, Torrent, Indo
Pharma, Nectar Life Sciences, Indo-Swift
Pharma (four units), Dr Reddy's Laboratories
and Cipla are some of the pharmaceutical
companies that have manufacturing facilities in
the state. UniChem plans to invest over USD
8.7 million on its third formulation
manufacturing facility. Indoco plans a
formulation facility whereas Pulse Pharma plans
its second plant for therapeutic nutrition in
Baddi. Torrent plans to set up a formulations
plant at Baddi at a cost of USD 21.7 million.
Zydus Cadila plans to establish a facility in
Baddi. The Baddi-Barotiwala-Nalagarh belt in
Solan district near Chandigarh is fast emerging
as an industrial belt. [Source: IBEF: March
30, 2005]
Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs: The state is
endowed with nature’s treasure like valuable
herbs, and other plants, etc. Some of these
herbs and plants available in the states are
guchhi, tej patta, patish, bankakari, dhoop roots,
brahmi, katha, kalajira, karu, banasha, kesar,
hippophae and some other species are found in
the high reaches. The state has one ayurvedic
college and two ayurvedic pharmacies. These
pharmacies are manufacturing some traditional
medicines, which are supplied to health
institutions of the state.
289 | Page
6.2
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
and
During 1948-52, Himachal Pradesh was Chief
Commissioner’s Province with 4 Districts i.e.
Chamba, Mahasu, Mandi & Sirmaur. In 1952, it
became a Part "C" State under Lt. Governor
and elected Legislative Assembly. Bilaspur
became the fifth District of the State. A
Development Officer from erstwhile Punjab
was having additional charge of Industries
Department in Chief Commissioner's Office.
Nahan Foundry at Nahan, Mohan Meakins
breweries at Kasauli and Solan, Salt Mines at
Darang (Mandi) and Rosin & Turpentine
Factories at Nahan and Bilaspur were the main
industrial units functioning in Himachal
Pradesh. Nahan Foundry was established in
1875 by the then Maharaja of Sirmaur State. It
was later made a Joint Sector Enterprise of the
Government of India. In the year 1952, this
Company was taken over fully by the
Government of India and it was registered as a
Public Limited Company under the Companies
Act on 25.10.1952. In September, 1964 its
ownership was transferred by the Government
of India to the Himachal Pradesh Government.
In SSI sector, four small gun factories were
functioning in Mandi District, manufacturing
high quality single barrel/double barrel guns.
The State remained Union Territory during the
period 1957 to 1971. Additional activities
entrusted to the Department included ITIs,
Employment
Exchanges,
Weights
and
Measures, Rural Industrial Training Institutes,
Tea and Sericulture. The District Industries
Offices were started in 1957 with one office
catering to more than three Districts. Extension
Officers (Industries) were also appointed at
block level. After reorganization of the State in
1966, District Industries Officers were
appointed for newly created Districts of
Kinnaur, Kangra and Kullu. The State Aid to
Industries Act-1968 was formulated.
Since the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)
emphasis has been laid on the co-ordinated
development of large and medium, small scale,
tiny and cottage industries, with a thrust on
package of attractive concessions and subsidies
to promote investment; high priority to
industries that are based on local raw materials
and provide major employment opportunities;
thrust on rural industrialisation, small-scale, tiny
and cottage industries; creation of quality
infrastructure through setting up industrial
areas/estates with at least one industrial
area/estate established in each district of the
state & strengthening support institutions and
setting up new industrial projects in the public
sector.
The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) provided
an outlay of Rs. 20.35 crore for the
implementation of various promotional
schemes and a package of incentives,
concessions, and spent Rs. 20.48 crore. The
Seventh Plan (1985-90) continued with the
same policy but with greater vigour and thrust.
The Seventh Five Year Plan provided an
enhanced outlay of Rs. 35.45 crore but the
actual expenditure was Rs. 42.62 crore. During
the Sixth and Seventh Five Year Plans the
industry gained a momentum and grew at a
faster pace. During the Eighth Plan (1992-97)
an outlay of Rs. 76.2 crore was approved and
the expenditure incurred was Rs. 86.46 crore.
In this plan, the main emphasis was on
providing more infrastructure facilities to the
entrepreneurs by establishing industrial
areas/estates at the tehsil and block levels, thus
enabling industrial activity in the rural and farflung areas of the state. During this period,
new industrial policies were introduced in
1991 and 1996. According to the Industrial
Policy of 1991, the industrial areas were
categorised in A, B or C grade, to bring about
a balanced industrial development in the state.
The categorisation was based on location and
the following parameters:
• Distance from the border of the adjoining
states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar
290 | Page
Pradesh (except within Shimla district).
• Extent of industrial development /
industrial backwardness existing in that
block.
• Extent of overall backwardness of the
block.
• Extent of potential for generating
employment for the local people.
The existing development blocks were
categorised accordingly. The quantum of
concessions and subsidies and the duration of
their applicability will depend on the category
of the industrial block (A, B or C), the type of
industry
(tiny/khadi
&
village/small
scale/L&M) or whether these were in the
priority or general sector. Based on these
parameters, the industrial policy of 1996 also
continued to provide the package of incentives
and subsidies which included sales tax
concessions; electricity duty exemption; capital
investment and interest subsidies; special
schemes of incentives to specific categories of
entrepreneurs like the Schedule Caste, the
Schedule Tribes, women, and the physically
handicapped; special package of incentives to
tiny, cottage and khadi & village industries; up
to 15% purchase price preference in
government / semi-government organisations
to the tiny/SSI sector and up to 3% to the
large and medium sector; additional
concessions to priority industries like out-ofturn allotment of plots; special schemes and
facilities to NRIs and special support and
incentives for export promotion; in addition,
the Government of India provided 75%
transport subsidy to industry.
The beginning of the Ninth Plan (1997-2002),
continued with the same concessions and
incentives as stated in the Industrial Policy of
1996, but new policy guidelines in 1999, laid
emphasis on expansion and upgradation of the
infrastructure and ensuring advantages to
investors. The plan also envisages a thrust on
the development of the tiny, cottage, khadi &
village and small-scale industries by graded
incentives. According to these guidelines, the
state has been divided into two categories,
namely “industrially developed areas” and
“industrially backward areas” instead of A, B
and C categories. The development blocks of
Paonta Sahib and Nahan in Sirmaur district and
Nalagarh, Dharampur and Solan in Solan
district would fall in the category of “industrially
developed areas”. The rest of the state will be in
the category of “industrially backward areas”.
The industrial policy of 1999 also incorporates,
a special package of incentives for fruit,
vegetable and maize based units consuming
locally available raw material. The Ninth Plan
provided an outlay of Rs. 150 crore but utilised
only Rs. 91.90 crore. The Tenth Plan (2002-07)
has an approved outlay of Rs. 104.73 crore for
the industrial sector. Plan-wise approved outlay
and actual expenditure and its percentage to the
total plan figures are given in the Table 9.
Table 10: Plan wise outlay approved and actual expenditure
Plan Wise Outlay Approved and Actual Expenditure
Outlay (in
Percentage Share to
Actual Expenditure (in
Plan
Period
crore)
Total Plan
crore)
6th Plan
1980-85
20.35
3.27
20.49
7th Plan
1985-90
35.45
3.01
42.62
8th Plan
1992-97
76.2
3.2
86.54
th
1997-02
150.00
2.63
91.90
9 Plan
Source: Different Five Year Plans, Himachal Pradesh.
The highlights of Impact of Industrial Policy
Announced by the Government of India
(Dated 7 January 2003). The policy will be most
Percentage Share of
Total Expenditure
3.08
3.22
3.05
1.29
beneficial to excisable and profitable units with
production of more than Rs. 1 crore. Most
entrepreneurs will prefer to set up new units in
291 | Page
the periphery districts as these have close
proximity to the neighbouring states and
Chandigarh, access to raw materials and better
connectivity. These periphery districts will have
the same incentives and concessions as are
applicable to the inner districts. Most of the
units located in the inner districts (backward
areas) are in the small-scale, tiny and cottage
sectors and are not excisable (production less
than Rs. 1 crore). Therefore, the industrial
policy notified by the Government of India
would not be of much benefit to most of the
units located in the inner districts.
A bee-keeping cluster has been promoted by
KVIB in Kullu; another for steel / wooden
furniture in Mandi district and one for bamboo
in Kangra district are under consideration.
Similarly, NABARD, and SIDBI have identified
clusters for metal, woodcraft, wool weaving and
Tibetan handicrafts in Kullu district. SIDBI has
appointed Him Bunkar as the implementing
agency.
Besides these identified clusters, some of the
District Industries Centres (DICs) of the
Industry Department have recommended
activities, which could be viable under the
industrial cluster programme. District wise
details of cluster & activities and areas are
given in Table 11.
Table 11: District wise Recommended Clusters and A ctivity in HP
District
Kangra
Name of the Area
1) Kandror
2) Nagri
Lahaul & Spiti 1) Udaipur
Kinnaur
1) Tapri
Kullu
1) Kullu
Mandi
1) Nerchowk
2) Ramnagar
Sirmaur
1) Rajgarh
2) Sangarh
3) Shillai
Shimla
1) Shimla
1) Hamirpur &
Hamirpur
Nadaun
Bilaspur
1) Lethwin
2) Bhadrog
Source:State Industrial Profile of Himachal
Solan, Himachal Pradesh.
Name of the Activity
Engineering/agriculture implements
Wood carving
Weaving of woollen patti
Metal fabrication
Shawl weaving, bamboo craft, pattu making etc.
Automobile
Wooden and steel furniture
Fruit processing
Limestone
Weaving
Food products, pickles, Jam, packaging & potato wrappers (at Theog)
Shawl making, furniture, hosiery, leather products, card board boxes & herbal
processing
Potters
Weavers
Pradesh(2001-02) by a Small Industries Service Institute(sSISI), Government of India,
The industrial developed areas were found in
Solan and Sirmaur districts, L&M units account
for 88%, investment 70% and employment
34% while in the remaining 10 districts
categorised as backward areas/districts, SSI and
tiny sector units account for 82%, investment
30% and employment 66%. Another feature is
that in Solan and Sirmaur districts. Investment
in the SSI sector per unit is Rs.5 lakh to Rs. 6
lakh, while in Kinnaur and Lahaul & Spiti it is
as low as Rs. 50,000 per unit and in the
remaining districts Rs. 1.5 lakh to Rs. 2 lakh. It
also reveals that in the backward districts SSI,
tiny and the cottage industry form a major
industrial sector and hold the key to large-scale
employment and generation of economic
activities in remote areas. These industries are
based on local raw materials and artisan
entrepreneurs.
NABARD has selected Solan as a model
district to launch its newly initiated project,
“District Rural Industries Project”. The
purpose of this project is to create rural nonfarm sector (RNFS) activities, which will be
undertaken in association with different
government agencies as well as NGOs.
To create a state of art infrastructure, the
292 | Page
following aspects need priority;
• Modernisation of industrial areas/estates.
• Cluster development around thrust areas.
• Promotion of maximum participation of
the private sector in the development of
sustainable industrial infrastructure.
• Government as a facilitator through
decentralisation, deregulation and selfcertification.
• Thrust on fostering clusters around villages,
facilitating rural industrialisation.
• Local educated youths should be trained for
each cluster, activity and location wise to
adopt new designs, testing and marketing
techniques
for
ensuring
long-term
sustainability of these clusters.
Twenty Point Programme: The new 20 Point
Economic Programme was announced by the
Prime Minister on 14th January, 1982. It focused
attention on some of the most important social
and economic programmes included in the
sixth plan and sought to impart greater
dynamism to them. The 20 Point Programme is
the agenda for action before the nation and
needs to be implemented in letter and spirit,
whole heartedly and with dedication. This
programme was again revised in the year 1986
in order to implement this programme more
efficiently. While the thrust of the new
programme continued to be on providing
better living conditions for the less privileged
sections of the society, it also aimed at all
around improvement in productivity. The
Industries Department is implementing two of
the points of this programme which are
Permanent Registration of SSI Units (now
discontinued), assistance to Scheduled Caste
families and Assistance to Scheduled Tribe
families.
industries
are
areas/districts.
located
in
backward
Schemes for Industrially Backward
Areas/Districts: The industries in these
districts are SSI, tiny, khadi and village
industries. In addition, artisan entrepreneurs
also belong to this category. These industries
are mainly based on local raw materials and
hold the key to large-scale employment and
generation of economic activity. The new
industrial
policy
announced
by
the
Government of India has significantly
enhanced the financing pattern and grants for
the development of industrial infrastructure in
the State. Some schemes are given below.
i.
ii.
iii.
The financing pattern of Integrated
Infrastructure Development Centres
(IIDC) between the Government of
India and SIDBI will change from 2:3 to
4:1, and the GoI funds would be in the
nature of grants, so as to provide the
required infrastructural support.
Deen Dayal Hathkargha Protsahan
Yojna and other incentives of the
Ministry of Textiles: The funding pattern
between the Government of India and
the State will be changed from 50:40 to
90:10 under these schemes. The Ministry
of Textiles will extend to Himachal
Pradesh its package of incentives, as
notified for the North- Eastern States.
Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY):
The Ministry of Agro & Rural Industries
will provide to Himachal Pradesh
relaxation under PMRY with respect to
age (i.e. 18-40 years from 18-53 years)
and subsidy at 15% of the project cost
subject to a ceiling of Rs.15,000 per
entrepreneur.
Strategy for Industrial Development: The
pattern of industrial development of the State is
based on its division into industrially developed
and backward areas. Most of the large and
medium industries are located in developed
areas, while a small-scale, tiny, khadi and village
293 | Page
Strategy for Industrial Growth in Backward
Districts is given below:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Thrust on setting up small and medium
sized clusters around the villages,
incorporating
state
of
the
art
infrastructure,
facilitating
rural
industrialisation. This will further facilitate
technological and marketing support at
affordable cost to small scale, tiny and
cottage industries.
Set up information hub in each cluster and
industrial area to facilitate marketing and
product information from international
and other related agencies.
Modernisation of industrial areas and
estates.
Promotion
of
maximum
private
participation in the development of
sustainable
modern
industrial
infrastructure.
Appoint a nodal agency to co-ordinate and
formulate plans to implement the schemes
and
programmes
of
industrial
development awarded to state by
Government of India so that maximum
benefits could be achieved.
Advisory councils should be constituted
for each cluster involving representatives
of industries, technical and Research and
Development (R&D) institutions.
Developed Areas and Periphery Districts:
Most of L&M industries are located in the
developed areas, parts of Solan and Sirmaur
districts which are categorised as periphery
districts. Some of these are also located in
Kangra and Una districts. Mostly, these
industries have shifted from other states to
reap the benefits of incentives and subsidies.
The major industries are food products and
beverages, textiles and spinning, precision and
light
engineering,
chemical
and
pharmaceuticals, electronics including magnetic
components, paper and paper products, steel
and steel products.
2003, will encourage more industries to set up
units in the periphery districts, achieving
substantial growth. Sustainability of the
migrated industrial units might, however, may
be limited to the period during which the
incentives are applicable. For long-term
sustainability, the State Government has to
provide high grade infrastructure, responsive &
good governance.
To convert the periphery districts into a hub of
the industrial sector and for long-term
sustainability, a well thought-out, co-ordinated
strategy has to be formulated. The suggestions
are given below.
• Industrial clusters and Agri-export Zones
(AEZs) should be set up, activity/product
wise. This will facilitate building a
centralized modern infrastructure. These
facilities will significantly upgrade the
technological, marketing and management
capabilities of SMEs.
• The private sector should be encouraged
to participate effectively in setting up
clusters, AEZs and modernisation of the
existing industrial areas and estates on a
sustainable basis with initial financial
assistance from the Government of India
and support from Government of
Himachal Pradesh.
• New industrial units should develop
physical as well as institutional
infrastructure i.e., the complete product
should be manufactured in the State. A
monitoring mechanism may be evolved to
ensure this.
• Fostering close interaction between
entrepreneurs,
associations,
R&D
institutions, design centres, testing centres
and technical institutions.
Brief
details of
employment-oriented
industrial groups mainly located in the
backward areas are given below.
Agro/Food Processing Industry: The food
processing industry is limited mainly to the
The fiscal incentives and measures announced
by the Government of India on January 7,
294 | Page
traditional processing of agricultural and
horticultural raw materials using low-grade
technology. Due to conducive agro-climatic
conditions, the State has tremendous scope
for the production of horticulture products as
off-season vegetables, tomatoes, peas,
cauliflower, cabbage and seasonal fruits like
apple, plums, apricots and olive. There is a
large scope for expanding and diversifying
food processing industries in the State.
Understandably, these industries have been
declared priority industries and are given
special incentives and concessions in the
Industrial Policy of the state. Some fruits and
vegetables are processed within the State by
public/private sector units such as HPMC,
HIMCO, HIMFED, NAFED located at
Kullu, Mandi and Parwanoo.
The growth of value-added horticulture/food
processing industry is very important for rural
employment. The agro/food processing
industry has the potential of expansion and
growth, if modern tools and techniques are
employed. The following need to kept in mind
to develop horticulture/food processing
industry.
•
Integration of the farming sector,
processing industry and marketing, i.e.,
vertical integration of different activities
across the agro-business chain.
Textile
and
Hosiery
Industries:
Textile/spinning is one of the important
industries which accounts for 60% of the total
employment offered in the large and medium
sector. It has attracted large investments in the
state. These industries are located in the
periphery districts. The new Industrial Policy is
also likely to attract more textile and hosiery
units to the state. The major hosiery industries
are in the SSI and Tiny sector located in the
backward areas. The main products are shawls,
patti, caps, jackets, sweaters and mufflers.
Clusters have been suggested at Kullu, Shillai,
Udaipur and Hamirpur. These clusters will
facilitate
for
weavers,
artisans
and
entrepreneurs, introduction of new products
and designs, technical and marketing support,
skills upgradation and training, and liaison with
banks and Government Departments. This will
greatly enhance the capabilities of the industries
resulting
in
higher
production
and
employment.
Cement Industry: Himachal Pradesh is gifted
with natural wealth of vast limestone deposits
which are capable of sustaining large numbers
of limestone based industries which include
cement plants and other industries engaged in
the manufacture of calcium carbonate, poultry
grit, lime, limestone powder etc. These
industries are generally located near to the
limestone deposits. In Himachal Pradesh, there
are four cement plants in the large and medium
(L&M) sector in addition to three mini plants.
The position of cement industries as in 2002 is
given in Table 12.
• Agri-parks and clusters should be set up to
facilitate centralised, modern infrastructure,
latest processing and packaging techniques
and to impart training. These facilities
should be available to medium and smallscale industries and the farmers, on a
shared basis against a reasonable cost.
:
Table 12: Status of Cement Plants in Himachal Pradesh
Production
Date
M/s ACC Ltd.
(i)12.03.84
(ii)15.09.94
M/s Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd.
26.09.95
M/s CCI Ltd.
1.04.80
Total Production Capacity 34 lakh tones
Name of company
Investment
(Rs. In crore)
471
404
28
918
Production Capacity
(lakh tonnes)
22
453
473
10
2
Employment
295 | Page
The domestic requirement of cement is 10 lakh
tonnes. The rest is supported to other states.
Cement manufacturers were keen that cement
clinker should be allowed to be supplied to
other states, so that finished cement could be
manufactured there. A formula was worked
out between the State Government and the
manufacturers that clinker and cement could
be supported to other state in the ratio of
50:50. However, in the new industrial policy,
clinker has been placed in the negative list, i.e.,
such incentives as excise duty and income tax
exemption are not applicable to clinkers, but
applicable to cement. In the changed situation,
the manufacturers will prefer to manufacture
cement in Himachal Pradesh itself, while
clinker supply to other states might be limited.
Three more large-scale cement plants, based
on limestone, have been approved to be set up
in Sundernagar, Alsindi (Mandi District) and
Chamba. These plants in the private sector are
being set up by:
• M/s Larsen & Toubro Ltd.,
Chamba.
• M/s Grasim Industries Ltd., at
Alsindi (Mandi).
• M/s Harish Chandra Ltd.,
Sundernagar.
More proposals under consideration are M/s
Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd. Which has
proposed to set up new plants near their plant,
already in production in Solan district. In
addition, two plants one at Koti and another in
Gumma in Shimla district, are also under
consideration. In 2008-09, three cement plants
(M/s Associated Cements Co. Ltd. Gagal,
District Bilaspur, M/s Ambuja Cements, Ltd.
Darlaghat, District Solan and M/s Cement
Corporation of India, Rajban, District Sirmaur)
in large and medium sector, besides 3 mini
cement plants, 9 hydrated lime and quick lime
calcium carbonate units, 88 numbers of
limestone powder/poultry feed have been set
up.
To exploit the available limestone deposits for
setting up of major cement plants, mining
leases and prospecting licenses have been
granted in favour of the following companies
during the year 2008-09.
1.
M/s India Cement Ltd.: The MoU was
signed with the company on 11-05-2006 to
set up 2 million tonnes capacity cement
plant based on Gumma-Rohana limestone
deposits in Tehsil Chopal, District. Shimla
and a mining lease was granted on 03-062008 for an area measuring 977-77-34 ha.
2. M/s Lafarge India Ltd.: The MoU was
signed with the company on 08-03-2007 to
set up 2 million tonnes capacity cement
plant based on Alsindi limestone deposits
in Tehsil Karsog, Mandi District and a
mining lease was granted on 07-07-2008
and 06-08-2008 respectively for an area
measuring 9886-01-19 bighas.
3. M/s Ambuja Cements Ltd.: Prospecting
licence over an area of 520 ha was granted
on 29-07-2008 to carry out detailed survey
of cement grade limestone deposit near
village Gyana, Chalyana, Mangu etc. in
Tehsil Arki, District Solan to enhance their
existing cement production based on these
deposits.
4. M/s Dalmia Cement Ltd.: Prospecting
license over an area of 25 sq km was
granted on 12-09-2008 to out carry
detailed survey of cement grade limestone
deposit in Kariyali-Kothi-Sal Bagh
limestone deposit in Tehsil Sunni of
District Shimla for setting up of a large
cement plant.
Handloom, Khadi & Village Industries
Sector: Handloom is an important cottage
industry of Himachal Pradesh and has the
second largest employment potential in the
rural sector. The importance of the handloom
industry in the economy lies in the artistic
designs, low-cost investment and family based
skills which are passed on from generation to
296 | Page
generation with no formal training. There are
about 42,000 handlooms in the state, primarily
based on wool and providing gainful
employment to about 45,000 weavers. The
major products woven on handlooms are
woollen ladies’ shawls, woollen gents’ shawls,
woollen tweeds, shirting, dress material and
woollen carpets, etc. Weaving activities are
mostly undertaken in Kullu, Mandi, Kinnaur,
Kangra, Lahaul & Spiti and Chamba districts of
the state. The Handloom sector, with a long
tradition of excellence in its craftsmanship,
occupies a place of eminence in preserving the
State’s heritage and culture and plays a vital role
in the economy. It represents one of the most
aesthetic aspects of our existence as the
innovative weaver, with his skilful blending of
myths, symbols and imagery provides the cloth
an appealing dynamism. The level of artistry
and intricacy achieved in the handloom cloth is
unique. It can meet every need ranging from
the exquisite fabrics, which takes months to
weave, to popular items of mass production for
daily use. The handloom industry in Himachal
Pradesh is one of the important cottage
industries which are providing gainful
employment to about 45000 handloom
weavers. The main handloom concentration
areas are Kullu, Mandi, Kangra, Kinnaur,
Chamba, Shimla and Lahaul Spiti districts. The
main handloom products are Shawls, Stoles,
Tweeds and Dress material etc. For the survival
of Kullu Shawls being woven in Kullu District,
the Government of India has registered it
under “Geographical Indicators (GI)” Act.
There is a vast potential of development of
handloom industry in the state. Keeping in
view the changing scenario, there is need to
diversify the existing products by introducing
new designs according to modern trends. A
project named “Hill Area Woollen
Development Project” has been taken up in
co-operation with Government of India. These
programmes includes setting up training-cumdemonstration centres for training weavers on
improved
looms
and
equipment,
modernisation of traditional pit looms into fly
shuttle looms; setting up production-cumservice centres and improving the designs,
quality of products and introducing needbased designs according to modern trends.
Manufacturing of readymade garments
(woollen) on a large scale in the design-cumfashion centre would also be undertaken. In
addition, for the development of the
handloom industry in the state, various
centrally sponsored schemes like Deen Dayal
Hathkargha Protsahan Yojana, Baba Saheb
Ambedkar Hastshilp Vikas Yojana sponsored
by the office of Development Commissioner
of Handlooms, Ministry of Textiles,
Government of India are being implemented.
The Department has setup seven sericulture
divisions viz. Ghumarwin, Mandi, Palampur,
Dehra, Nadaun Sirmaur and Shimla under
which 73 Sericulture Extension-cum-chawki
centres are functioning. About 89 mulberry
farms and 30 mulberry nurseries are
functioning in the State. These sericulture
centres conduct incubation of silkworm eggs,
young age rearing and distribute chawki-reared
silkworms to the farmers for late age rearing for
production of silk cocoons. Mulberry saplings
and technical guidance to the sericulturists are
being provided. Currently sericulture is spread
over in about 2100 villages and its major
concentration is in the district Bilaspur, Kangra,
Mandi, Hamirpur, Una and Sirmaur.
New Initiatives: The Department of
Industries for the development of sericulture
industry in the potential areas of the State has
undertaken following new initiatives:
I)
The Department of Industries has been
propagating high leaf yielding saplings of
improved mulberry variety S-146, S-1635,
TR-10 etc. for plantation to promote
sericulture. Mulberry tree plantation on
the wastelands has been tied up under
ongoing
various
afforestation
programmes
like
NREGS,
MildHimalayan Watershed Development
Project (MHWDP) etc.
297 | Page
ii)
High yielding bivoltine silkworm races of
CSR series, evolved by CSB research
institutions have been introduced for
improving production and productivity.
The Regional CSB Research institution in
association departmental farms are also
utilized for departmental young age
rearing of silkworms before these young
silkworms are distributed to the farmers
for further rearing to produce silk
cocoons. Surplus leaves are utilized by the
Sericulture farmers for rearing late age
silkworms for production of silk cocoons.
iii) Distribution of silkworm food plants:
One year-old mulberry saplings of
improved varieties are distributed to the
planters at the nominal price of Rs.0.25
each from the Departmental nurseries.
iv)
Distribution
of
silkworm: The
Government bears the cost of incubation
of silkworm seed. Young silkworms
reared for ten days under department
technical supervision are distributed to
the seri-farmers at the nominal price of
Rs. 20 for worms hatched from each
ounce of silkworms seed for late age
rearing and production of silk cocoons.
v) Disinfection of private rearing houses:
Disinfection of private rearing room or
spaces rearing equipment free supply of
disinfecting material and rodenticide to
the sericulturists for prevention of
silkworm diseases and pests is provided.
vi) Technical assistance and guidance:
Technical assistance and guidance are
provided
to
the
sericulturists/
entrepreneurs.
vii) Marketing
arrangements:
Marketing
arrangements are made to fetch a fair
price of silk-cocoon produce.
Categorization of the State: The State of
Himachal Pradesh has been categorized into
three categories 'A', 'B' & 'C' depending upon
the location, distance from the border of the
State, extent of industrial development, extent
of overall backwardness, resource availability &
potential for employment generation for local
people.
Category "A" areas are partly included in four
Development Blocks of Paonta Sahib and
Nahan in Sirmaur District and Dharampur and
Nalagarh in Solan district excluding backward
panchayats notified by the State Government.
Category "B" areas include 49 full Development
Blocks located in 10 non-Tribal Districts and
part of the four Development Blocks included
in Category “A“ areas excluding backward
panchayats located in these areas.
Category "C" areas (Tax Free Zones) include 24
Development Blocks including all the seven
Tribal Development Blocks in Kinnaur, Lahaul
& Spiti and Chamba Districts and 17 other
Development Blocks in Chamba, Kullu, Mandi,
Shimla and Sirmaur Districts and also includes
all
Backward
Panchayats
located
in
Development Blocks under the 'A' and ‘B’
Category areas. Graded incentives have
accordingly been provided for Industry in the
New Industrial Policy in terms of fiscal
incentives such as Sales Tax, Electricity Duty
Concessions. Under Sales Tax Incentives, 1%
CST is being charged from all industrial
enterprises up to 31.03.2013 or till the CST is
not phased out, 100 % deferment or payment
of 65 % of the applicable rate of VAT has been
provided in 'A' and 'B' category areas for a
period of 5/8 years respectively whereas it is
exempted in 'C' category areas for 10 years. All
new industrial units with connected load up to
100 KVA excluding those units in negative
category shall be charged a concessional rate of
Electricity Duty at the rate of 10 paisa per unit
for a period, of 5 years from the date of
commencement of commercial production in
category “B” and “C” areas only. This incentive
is not admissible to units in A category areas.
298 | Page
Additional incentives have been provided for
thrust sector industries in 'B' & 'C' category
locks in terms of allotment of land at
concessional rates, exemptions from payment
of electricity duty & interest subsidy. These
include out of turn allotment of plots/land
/sheds in industrial areas/estates, exemption
from payment of State Excise Duty for a period
of 7 years for units manufacturing wine/ cider
out of locally produced fruits, total exemption
from the payment of Electricity Duty for a
period of 10 years from the date of their
commencement of production and Interest
subsidy @5 % per annum with a ceiling of Rs. 2
Lakhs per annum for a period of 3 years for
Horticulture produce, Vegetable produce,
Maize based and herbal based industries.
Category 'C' areas of the State have been
declared as Tax Free Zones, which are
exempted from the payment of any State Taxes
& Duties excluding levies in the shape of cess,
fees, royalties etc., for a period of 10 years.
Central Government Incentives: The
Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department
of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIP&P)
notified the following Package of Incentives for
the States of Uttarakhand and Himachal
Pradesh on 07/01/03. The main highlights of
the Package are as under:
•
15% Capital Investment Subsidy on the
investment made in plant & machinery
subject to a ceiling of Rs. 30 lakhs per
unit. This incentive is presently
applicable to the units, which
commence commercial production or
undertake substantial exemption on or
after 07.01.2003 and ending before
06.01.2013.
•
100% Income Tax Exemption for initial
period of 5 years and thereafter 30% for
companies and 25% for other than
companies for a further period of 5
years from the date of commencement
of commercial production. This
incentive is presently applicable to the
units, which commence commercial
production or undertake substantial
exemption on or after 7th day of
January, 2003 and ending before 1st day
of April 2012.
•
100% outright exemption from
payment of Central Excise Duty for a
period of 10 years from the date of
commencement
of
commercial
production. This incentive is presently
applicable to the units, which
commence commercial production or
undertake substantial exemption on or
after 7th day of January, 2003 and
ending before 1st day of April 2010.
The following incentives and concessions will
be available to such New Enterprises registered
on permanent basis as a Specified Category of
Activities:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
Concessional rate of Electricity Duty @
10 Paisa per unit for a period of 5 years
from the date of commencement of
commercial production.
Interest subsidy @5 % per annum on
term loan and working capital with a
ceiling of Rs. 1 Lakh per annum for a
period of 3 years.
Fixed Capital Investment Subsidy @
15% subject to a maximum of Rs. 5
Lakhs on cost of structure, building,
plant and machinery.
Sanction of water and electricity
connection on priority.
Exemption from the payment of
Luxury Tax and Entertainment Tax (as
applicable) for a period of 5 years from
the date of commencement of
commercial production.
These incentives are admissible for all locations
in case of thrust industries and in specified
locations for other industries except 20
299 | Page
categories of industries falling in the negative
list.
Central Transport SubsidyI:ndustrial units
located in the State are reimbursed 75% of the
cost of transportation of their raw materials/
finished goods to and from the location of their
units anywhere in the State to the nearest
specified broad gauge rail head under the
Central Transport Subsidy scheme. This
subsidy is available for a period of the 5 years
from the date of commencement of production
The H.P. State Industrial Development
Corporation Ltd. has been designated as Nodal
Agency for channelizing funds to the State
under the Scheme.
Major Programmes and Schemes
Small Scale Industries: The spectrum of
industries in the country extends from the
organized Large Scale industries to modern
Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME)
and unorganized traditional industries. The last
two i.e. modern MSME and unorganized
traditional industries known as Village and
Table 13:
Small Industries (V&SI) constitute an
important segment of the State economy. The
Village and Small Industries Sector provided
maximum employment which is next only to
the agricultural sector in the State. In terms of
value addition it is estimated to contribute
about 50% of value added in the manufacturing
sector. The growth in this sector, besides
resulting in self-employment and wider
dispersal of industrial and economic activities,
ensures maximum utilization of local resources,
both human and material.
The Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises
Development Act, 2006 received the assent of
the President on 16-06-2006. This Act was
made applicable from 02-10-2006 as notified
vide notification no. 2(3)/2006 (F) SSI dated
18-7-2006. The definitions of Micro, Small and
Medium Scale Industrial enterprises in
manufacturing and services sectors were
notified vide notification no. 4(1)/2006-MSME
Policy I dated 29-09-2006. As per the new
definitions, the classification of enterprises is as
under:-
Classification of Industrial Enterprises
Sr.
No.
Classification of industrial
enterprises
Limit for manufacturing enterprises (In
plant & Machinery)
1
2
Micro enterprises
Small enterprises
is up to Rs 25 lakhs
Above Rs. 25 lakhs and up to Rs.5 crores
3
Medium enterprises
Above Rs. 5 crores and up to Rs.10 crores
4
Large enterprises
More than Rs.10 crores
Infrastructure Development: In order to
provide infrastructural facilities to the
entrepreneurs, 38 industrial areas have been
established at Bilaspur, Gwalthai, Garnota,
Hatli, Hamirpur, Nadaun, Nagrota Bagwan,
Sansarpur Terrace, Nagri, Dhaliara, Bain
Attarian, Badhal, Raja-Ka-Bag, Nargala Jawali,
Shamshi, Reckong Peo, Sauli Khad (Mandi),
Ratti, Bhambla, Maigal, Shoghi, Maindli, Jais,
Jubber Hatti, Paonta Sahib, Kala Amb, Baddi,
Barotiwala, Chambaghat, EPIP Baddi (Ph- I &
Limit for services
enterprises
(In plant & Machinery)
up to Rs.10 lakhs
Above Rs. 10 lakhs and up to
Rs.2 crores.
Above Rs. 2 crores and up to
Rs.5 crores.
More than Rs.5 crores
II), Banalgi, Mamlig, Katha Bhatoli, Mehatpur,
Amb, Tahliwal, Gagret and Jeetpur Bheri.
Similarly 15 industrial estates have been
developed with the relevant infrastructure
facilities at Sultanpur, Parel, Shivnagari (Holi),
Kangra, Dehra, Jawali, Keylong, Saigloo, Pali,
Pandranu, Raighat, Sunda Bhonda, Parwanoo,
Chambaghat and Dharampur.
To attract investment in the State and to ensure
easy availability of land to prospective
300 | Page
entrepreneurs in various parts of Himachal
Pradesh, the Department Industries has
constituted a Land Bank comprising of
government and private land which are
available for setting up of Industries. The
private Land Bank comprises of such land
whose owners have consented to sell their land
to private Entrepreneurs through mutual
negotiations. The Department of Industries will
provide escort and facilitation services in case
the Entrepreneurs are willing to purchase such
private land. More than 6,000 Bighas of land
has been identified in six districts namely
Hamirpur, Sirmaur, Kangra, Una, Mandi &
Solan.
Industrial Areas/Estates: Development of
industrial infrastructure has been one of the
priorities of the State Government. In order to
provide infrastructural facilities to the
entrepreneurs, 41 Industrial Areas and 15
Industrial Estates have been developed in the
State as given in Table 14.
Table 14: District Wise Details of Industrial Areas/Estates
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kullu
Kinnaur
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Una
Solan
Name of Industrial Area
1. Bilaspur
2.Golthai (Integrated Infrastructure DevelopmentntrCee
IIDC)
1. Hatli
2. Garnota
1. Hamirpur
2. Nadaun
1. Nagrota Bagwan
2. Dhaliara
3. Nagri
4.Sansarpur Terrace ( Growth Centre)
5. Bain Attarian
6. Badhal
7. Raja Ka Bagh
8.Nargala Jawali
1. Shamshi
1. Reckong Peo
1. Ratti
2. Bhambla
3. Sauli Khad (Mandi)
1. Shoghi
2. Maindli
3. Jais
4. Jubber Hatti
1. Kala Amb
2. Paonta Sahib
1. Tahliwal
2. Gagret
3. Mehatpur
4. Amb
5. Jeetpur Bheri
6. Basal
1. Baddi
2.EPIP Baddi (Ph-I &II)
3. Barotiwala
4. Chambaghat
Name of Industrial Estate
1. Shivnagari (Holi)
2. Sultanpur
3. Parel
1. Kangra
2. Dehra
3. Jawali
1. Keylong
1. Saiglu
2. Palli
1. Raighat
2. Pandranu
3. Sunda Bhonda
1. Parwanoo
2. Chambaghat
3. Dharampur
301 | Page
District
Total
Name of Industrial Area
5. Banalagi
6. Mamlig
7. Katha Bhatoli Kalan
8. Vakanaghat
9. Lodhi Majra
10. Majhol
41
Name of Industrial Estate
15
Source: Department of Industries Website, Himachal Pradesh
Setting up of Trade Centre at Baddi: To
facilitate exporting units, a Trade Centre is
being set up at Baddi with an investment of Rs.
10.81 crore. Trade Centre will be set up at
Baddi with Government of India assistance of
Rs. 5.40 crore, the State Government will
contribute equity amounting to Rs. 3.2 crore
and rest of the share amounting to Rs. 2.21
crore will be contributed BBNIA. The
components of this project are construction of
two Exhibition Halls with the capacity of 500
and 100 gathering, two Conference Halls with
the capacity of 50 & 25 audiences, one
Amphitheatre for outdoor meets, office space,
toilet/pantry, sufficient parking area and green
landscaped area.
Setting up of an Inland Container Depot at
Baddi: To provide facilities like warehousing
storage custody and handling of cargo to the
industrial units established in the State a
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has
signed on 17th October, 2008 for the
establishment of Inland Container Depot (ICD)
at Baddi by Container Corporation of India
(CONCOR). The total cost for its
establishment is Rs. 53.00 crores. This will
include setting up of warehouses, administrative
buildings, railway siding, installation of heavy
machinery and equipment etc. The State
Government has transferred 86 bighas (65240
sq. mts) of Government land to CONCOR at
nominal lease of Re. 1/- per acre per annum for
95 years. CONCOR will be responsible for the
storage/custody/cargo
handling/custom
clearances. It will also manage all warehousing
activities and will be responsible for storage,
custody, handling of the cargo at Container
Freight Station and customs clearance. The
CONCOR will also bear the cost of customs.
Thus, CONCOR will provide a single window
service to customers and fix tariff for
booking/delivery/handling/
transporting/warehousing of container and of
cargo. The establishment of a Container Freight
Station and of ICD in Baddi region of
Himachal Pradesh will give a tremendous boost
to the development and growth of industries in
the region.
Supply of Gas to Industrial Units in the
State: For the supply of gas as energy to the
industrial, transport and domestic sectors in the
state, a Co-operation Agreement/MOU was
signed between GAIL (India) Ltd. and
Government of Himachal Pradesh on
4.11.2008. In order to assess the demand for
Natural Gas Liquid Hydrocarbons & LPG in
industrial & transport sector, the major
industrial hubs i.e. Baddi, Barotiwala, Nalagarh,
Parwanoo, Tahliwal, Mehatpur, Gagret, Amb,
Kala Amb, Paonta Sahib, Sansarpur Terrace,
Dehra, Raja-ka-Bagh, Damtal, Nagrota Bagwan
& Gwalthai have been identified. In addition,
the existing Cement plants situated at Barmana
in District Bilaspur, Darlaghat in District Solan
and Rajban in District Sirmaur have been
identified to assess the demand of energy in
transport sector.
The demand for Energy in these areas is
growing at a tremendous rate for Industrial,
Domestic and Transport sector. In this area,
the industries and allied sector is consuming
almost 400 MW of energy and in near future,
the requirement of power for these areas is
likely to go up considerably as more industrial
activities and educational institutions will be
coming up in this corridor due to Special
Package of Incentive announced by the
302 | Page
Government of India with respect to Central
Excise Duty and Corporate Income Tax
Advantages from utilizing NG full form for
power and energy generation are as follows:
• Industrial Units situated in Himachal
Pradesh can supplement their power
requirements by using NG. They can
overcome the inconvenience caused by
peak load power cuts. They may also not
have to install polluting and expensive
diesel gensets.
• Many new cement plants are coming up in
different areas of the Himachal Pradesh. An
estimated 20000 trucks will be required to
evacuate the material from these plants. If
these HCVs can run on CNG, it will reduce
the pollution levels considerably. The same
logic applies to other goods and passenger
carrying vehicles.
• In the commercial sector, power produced
from NG can serve the energy and heating
requirements of educational institutions,
hotels, shopping malls, housing projects etc.
of which many are planned in Himachal
Pradesh.
• In the domestic sector, widespread usage of
Piped Gas by the households for cooking
and heating purposes will reduce the
pressure on fossil fuels and fuel wood,
thereby contributing to environmental
protection.
Strategy of 11th Plan: The main emphasis of the
Government of Himachal Pradesh is to take the
industries to interiors of the State. For this,
availability of good quality infrastructure is very
important to attract industry and ensure that
these projects are sustainable in the long run.
The State Government is laying more emphasis
on development of self contained Industrial
Areas and Estates where basic amenities like
roads, power water, sewerage, drainage,
communication etc. are provided. Hence in
order to create adequate infrastructure to
support the incoming investments and projects
during the 11th Five Year Plan, the department
shall accord highest priority for the development
of infrastructure in the existing as well in new
industrial areas and estates by providing better
road network, adequate water supply, drainage
system, quality and uninterrupted electric supply
and other allied services in the State. In order to
improve infrastructure for industries in the State,
a short term infrastructure plan with an
estimated cost of Rs. 20.85 crores from State
Plan is being implemented. An amount of Rs.
25.03 crores has been spent on creation of
export infrastructure during the last four years in
Kala Amb-Baddi-Barotiwala-Nalagarh region
which is the main export corridor of the State.
The State Government has approved the setting
up of an Inland Container Depot (ICD) at the
cost of Rs. 24.08 crores through Container
Corporation of India at Baddi for the benefit of
exporting industries. It is also proposed to setup three Special Economic Zones at a total cost
of Rs. 7642 crores Rs. 510 crore in Kangra
district, Rs. 4392 crores in Una and Rs. 2740
crores in Solan district where industries would
be set up by the prospective investors. The
creation of infrastructure development shall
certainly facilitate the establishment of new units
and attract more investment to these areas. The
development of industrial infrastructure has
been and will remain one of the main priorities
of the State Government during 11th Plan. A
gradual shift from the subsidies to attract
industries towards providing infrastructure is
envisaged. Escort services are being provided to
obtain necessary clearances and approvals from
all concerned departments and agencies under a
single roof. At the State level, an initiative has
been started to liberalise the control. Industries
in high technology areas where there is a large
value addition, with low volume of raw material
involved have been included in private sector. In
order to speed up the process of
industrialization, main emphasis is being given
for promotion of industries based on raw
material, establishment of new industries in
industrially backward areas, making provision of
employment to the people of State, development
of industrial infrastructure and address
environmental issues. Incentives and Subsidies
303 | Page
are most important attractions to woo
investment in the industrially backward State like
Himachal Pradesh and to make the industrial
units more competitive and viable. Although
most of the incentives and subsidies have been
discontinued yet there are few incentives and
subsidies, which are still being given under the
State Industrial Policy, 2004.
The Government of India on 07.01.2003
announced various fiscal, infrastructure and
schematic incentives under the notified the
Special Package of Incentives for the States of
Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The main
highlights of the Package are as under:
A. Fiscal Incentives to industrial units
i) 100% Income Tax Exemption for initial
period of 5 years and thereafter 30% for
companies and 25% for other than
companies for a further period of 5 years
from the date of commencement of
commercial production*.
ii) 100% outright exemption from payment
of Central Excise Duty for a period of 10
years from the date of commencement of
commercial production*.
iii) 15% Capital Investment Subsidy on the
investment made in plant & machinery
subject to a ceiling of Rs. 30 lakh per
unit*.
B.
Incentives
for
Infrastructure
Development
(I) The funding pattern under the Growth
Centre Scheme currently envisaging a
central assistance of Rs.10 crore per
centre has been raised to Rs.15 crore per
centre.
(ii) The financing pattern of Integrated
Infrastructure Development Centres
(IIDC) between Government of India
and SIDBI will change from 2:3 to 4:1,
and the Government of India funds
would be in the nature of a grant, so as
to provide the required infrastructural
support.
C. Incentives for other schemes
(I) Under
Deen
Dayal
Hathkargha
Protsahan Yojna, the funding pattern
between Government of India and the
State Govt. has changed from 50:50 to
90:10.
(ii) Under Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana
(PMRY), the age limit has been changed/
enhanced from (18-35 years to 18-40
years).
D. Other Incentives being provided by
Govt. of India
(I) 75%
Freight
Subsidy
on
the
transportation of finished goods and raw
materials from and to the nearest rail
head on broad gauge for a period of 5
years from the date of commercial
production. This incentive was applicable
up to 31-03-2007.
(ii) 33.33% Investment Subsidy on the
investment in plant & machinery and
technical civil work subject to a
maximum ceiling of Rs.75 lakh for Food
Processing industries from the Ministry
of Food Processing Industries, Govt. of
India.
In order to provide additional incentives to the
industries and to ensure equitable industrial
development and employment generation, the
State Govt. has notified a New Industrial Policy
and Incentives Rules-2004 on 30-12-2004. This
Policy has become effective from 31-12-2004.
The highlights of the new policy are as under:
1.
2.
The new policy envisages accelerating the
Industrial development, employment
generation and creating an environment
which attracts additional investment to the
State. The new units will have to provide
employment to at least 70 % Himachalis to
get the incentives.
For the equitable Industrial Development,
the State has now been categorized into
three categories.
304 | Page
3. Khadi produce being produced by village
industry in the State will be exempted from
the payment of tax.
4. A new category of activities called
'Specified Category of Activities' primarily
based on Agricultural and Horticultural
produce, Tourism and Allied Sectors has
been introduced so as to encourage such
activities in the State and provide them
incentives.
Besides, the State Government has taken
various measures for simplification of Labour
laws like enhanced freedom to employ
contractual labour by industrial units under the
Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act,
1970, measures aimed at minimization of
records, allowing two-shift operation with
women workers to enable women workers to
work in the night shifts also beyond the
prescribed working hours under Section 66 (1)
(b) of the Factories Act etc. These measures
have not only increased the productivity but
also simplified the procedure for maintaining
the record under different labour laws enacted
by the Central Government and being
implemented by the State Government. The
States are mostly guided by the policy of the
Central Government for major policy issues
and have to follow the policy of Government
of India. Economic Reforms at macro level,
liberalisation of trade and commerce, removal
of trade barriers/restructuring of labour laws,
the role of different sectors etc. are the main
issues which fall under the purview of
Government of India and have great bearing on
the industrial development.
The Industrial Policy issues and the industrial
scenario highlighted by the Planning
Commission, Government of India shall be
quite relevant in view of emergence of WTO
and its conditions which consider protection as
discriminatory or barriers to trade and therefore
these are also relevant in our case. However, for
hilly backward states like Himachal Pradesh,
these special incentives such as income tax
holiday, freight subsidy, capital investment
subsidy should continue during Eleventh Five
Year Plan to offset the locational disadvantage
which results in high cost of production.
6.3
Technology adopted in the
sector along with any changes
in technology
The existing Industrial Areas and Estates
provide the basic infrastructure, but modern
and technological infrastructure is highly
inadequate. Modernisation and technological
upgradation through innovative Research,
Design and Development (RD&D), human
resource development through skill upgradation
and training, adoption of small and medium
sized clusters around the villages for systematic
infrastructure development, market-oriented
policies, simplified procedures and good
governance are essential for the industrial
growth of the state.
The State Government has identified
administrators and mangers, with technological
and professional background, to work as
facilitators and co-ordinators for rapid, nonpolluting industrialisation, especially in the
interior and rural areas.
The Department register certain activities
related to commercial exploitation and value
addition of Agro/ Horticulture/Animal
Husbandry/ Pisciculture/ Sericulture /
Floriculture
/Bio-Technology/Agri-business
/Tourism and other allied sectors as 'Specified
Category of Activities'. The SSI and tiny sector
uses low-level technology, resulting in low
industrial productivity and poor quality of
products.
Sericulture is an agro- based labour intensive
rural cottage industry, which is providing
subsidiary employment to the rural people and
income by way of rearing silkworms to produce
silk cocoons. Apart from Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh has emerged out as
exclusively bivoltine silk-cocoon producing
state in the country.
305 | Page
6.4
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
The following Board/Corporations are major
stakeholder in the Industries Sector
• Department of Industries
• H.P. State Industrial Development
Corporation Ltd. (HPSIDC).
• H.P. State Handicrafts & Handloom
Corporation Ltd.(HPSH&HC)
• H.P. State Small Scale Industries and
Export Corporation Ltd. (HPSSI&EC)
• H.P. General Industries Corporation
Ltd.(HPGIC)
• H.P. Khadi and Village Industries
Board.(HPKVIB)
• Department of Environment, Science
and Technology
• H.P. State Pollution Control Board
M/s Gujarat Ambuja Cement Ltd has proposed
to set up new plants near their plant, already in
production in Solan district. In addition, two
plants one at Koti and another in Gumma in
Shimla district, are also under consideration.
The installation of these plants may create
environmental problems. The emission levels at
every stage of the plant should be kept below
the permissible level. A state level
“environmental impact assessment and
monitoring committee should standardise
specifications, tools and equipment to be used
compulsorily by all cement manufactures for
environmental pollution control.
6.5
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
Environment and Social issues relating
Industries sector are improper siting of
industries, impact on air quality, impact on
water quality and quantity, noise pollution,
inadequate hazardous waste treatment and
disposal, land degradation, impact on flora and
fauna, and impact on aesthetics.
Improper siting of industries: Industrial
Areas in Himachal Pradesh located in the
border areas adjoining Punjab, Haryana,
Chandigarh, Uttarakhand and Jammu &
Kashmir has attracted a large number of
projects. This is especially so in case of
Industrial Areas of Baddi, Barotiwala, and
Parwanoo in Solan District, Mehatpur, Tahliwal
and Amb in Una District, Paonta Sahib and
Kala Amb Industrial Areas in Sirmaur District,
Sansarpur Terrace in Kangra District and
Golthai in Bilaspur District. Over 90% of the
investments in the medium and large Scale
sector are in pipeline and projects coming up in
Himachal Pradesh are being implemented in
these locations. Baddi, Barotiwala and Nalagarh
area in Solan District has come up as a
destination
especially
for
Textile,
Pharmaceutical and Packaging industry. H.P.
State Pollution Control Board has prepared
Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries for all
districts of the State, Industrial Estate Planning
for Baddi, Barotiwala-Nalagarh in Solan and
Paonta Sahib in Sirmaur, Sustainable Tourism
Development of Dharamshala, McLeodganj
and Bhagsunath areas of district Kangra and
State Environmental Atlas of Himachal
Pradesh. The State Industrial Policy 2004 states
that preference will be given to develop activity
specific Industrial Areas like Food Parks,
Electronic City, Export Processing Zones,
Export Promotion Parks, Bio-Technology
parks, Information Technology Parks, Textile
Clusters, Pharmaceutical Clusters Housing,
Labour Colony, Business Centres multiplexes
etc. throughout the State, especially in the areas
away from the border areas of the State and
procedure for approval of the State
Government under Section 118 of the
Himachal Pradesh Land Reforms and Tenancy
Act will be simplified and approval process
306 | Page
expedited. Top priority will also be given to
link such existing Industrial Areas and new
clusters with ‘A’ class quality road to provide
efficient inter-State and intra-State connectivity.
Further, Department of Industries has created
land banks (both private and government land)
in Solan, Una, Kangra, Sirmaur, Hamirpur,
Bilaspur, Shimla and Mandi Districts for
attracting entrepreneurs and investors to set up
industries. The siting of Industries is being
done as per the available land bank and not as
per the Zoning Atlas for Industries. Moreover,
EIAs has an inbuilt mechanism for site
selection and has scope of assessing alternate
sites as well though the EIA tool has not been
adequately used.
Poor ambient air quality:Air Quality Trends
in H.P indicates thahtigher concentration of
SPM in Paonta Sahib industrial area is
contributed by industrial, construction activities
& vehicular movement in the area. Ambient Air
quality at Baddi and Kala Amb (Industrial
Areas) is very well within the prescribed
standards with regard to concentration of
gaseous pollutants. However, the concentration
of SPM (pollutants) earlier showing increasing
trend has shown marginal improvement during
the preceded months, which is mainly due to
increased infrastructure construction activities
in the area.
Removal of vegetation from the area
designated for mining and other purposes
produces dust, which when air-borne causes an
increase in the concentration of SPM in the
surrounding areas. Removal, handling,
transportation and storage of soils also cause an
increase in the concentration of SPM in the
atmosphere. The use of diesel equipment in
these activities causes an increase in the level of
NOx. Drilling and blasting of overburden and
mineral contribute to SPM building up and
explosive fumes into the atmosphere.
Deteriorating water quality and quantity:
With the increasing population, urbanization
and industrialization, it is becoming difficult to
provide adequate amount of water to the users.
At the same time, the problem of water quality
has cropped up and has become more
important in the recent years rather than
quantity of water. It is almost impossible to
find pure water in nature as water being a
universal solvent readily dissolves and collects
all kinds of impurities but the crux of the
problem lies in the contamination that is taking
place due to human activities. The pollution by
human activities emanating either from use of
water for domestic or industrial purposes or as
a result of ever increasing rate at which organic
or inorganic chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals
are being used and are being released into the
atmosphere or over land whereby they are able
to enter the water cycle have degraded though
water resources to a large extent. The
industrialization coupled with discharge of
untreated sewage
is responsible
for
deterioration in water quality.
In the industrial area of Baddi, Barotiwala,
Nalagarh, Kala Amb & Parwanoo, the water
quality of the River Sirsa, Markanda and
Sukhna Nallah is categorized as ‘D’ because of
low levels of oxygen due to organic pollution.
River Sirsa is categorized as A to D because
industrial and domestic effluent pollutes river
in Baddi, Barotiwala and Nalagarh region. River
Sukhna is categorized as ‘D” because Industrial
and domestic effluent pollutes river in D/S
Parwanoo town.
Noise pollution: Noise pollution has become
a part of industrial and urban life. Urban people
are at constant exposure to such pollution
contributed by movement of vehicles and
blowing of horns. The State Pollution Control
Board monitors noise in Shimla, Solan, BaddiBarotiwala, Nalagarh and Una/Mehatpur areas.
Solan and Baddi-Barotiwala recorded high
noise pollution than Shimla. Noise and
vibrations due to blasting and operation of the
machines drive away wild animals and birds
307 | Page
from the nearby forest. The equipment used in
the mines for various purposes including
transportation of the overburden and mineral
generate continuous noise. Blasting produces
impulsive noise.
Inadequate hazardous waste treatment and
disposal: Hazardous waste in Himachal
Pradesh comprises sludge from Effluent
Treatment Plant, Waste Oil, Contaminated
Containers, Others (Residual wastes) and
Process Residue. There are 1716 industrial units
responsible for generation of hazardous wastes (as
on 31-03-08). Management/mode of disposal of
sludge from Effluent Treatment Plant is 2357.2
T/year and other residual wastes are secured
onsite, while used oil is 3622.5 tonnes / year and
process residue amounting to 1118.4 tonnes /
year are recycled. Contaminated containers of
67604 number / year are also recycled / reused
after cleaning and 18860 tonnes of other waste
per year. Hazardous Wastes generated by
Industries are usually a by-product of industrial
operations which involve heavy metals such as
arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury,
etc; processes which utilize different categories
of oil and petrochemicals; products such as
PVC and plastics; waste products from
photocopiers; chemicals such as PCBs; and
finally, by-products such as dioxins and furans
which are now recognized as extremely toxic
substances, affecting all forms of life. As per
the report of High Powered Committee (HPC)
on Hazardous Wastes set up by Government
of India, the Himachal Pradesh generates 2159
Tonnes per Annum (TPA) of Hazardous Waste
against a national total of 4434257 TPA. Waste
Generated from Pulp & Paper Industry and
Calcium Carbide Industry of Paonta & Kala
Amb area is being recycled.
Land degradation:Topography and land use
change due to digging of open pits and dumping
of overburden rock mass in the form of the heaps.
The land use pattern undergoes a change due to the
use of the land for mining, dumping and other
associated activities. The land use in the
surrounding areas is also affected due to the
impact of mining on water regime. Polluted water
from pits affected the characteristics of the topsooil,
affecting the end use. The damage pattern on the
surface undergoes a change due to the alterations
in the surface topography due to mining and
associated activities.
Loss of Flora and Fauna: Removal of all
vegetation (flora) and fauna from the area is
required for mining and other purposes. Pollution
of water in the surrounding water bodies, due to
flow of debris on the slope, affect the aquatic
ecology of water bodies. Dust in the atmosphere is
contributed by the mining and associated activities .
Dust when deposited on the leaves of the plants in
the surrounding areas, retard their growth.
Poor Aesthetics: The removal of vegetation
by way of clearing the area for setting Industrial
areas and the flow of debris on the slope gives
an ugly look.
Inadequate
infrastructure
and
civic
amenities in the Industrial areas: The Critical
infrastructure and emergency resources for
instance fire, police, medical, civil defence, etc.
are also not adequately provided in the Industrial
areas. The State Industrial Policy 2004 aims to
encourage development of State of the Art
Industrial Areas, through its agencies like the
Industries Department, Himachal Pradesh State
Industries
Development
Corporation,
Himachal Pradesh Housing and Urban
Development
Agency,
Area
Specific
Development Agencies to be set up in potential
locations themselves or through Public-PrivateParticipation mode as also through exclusive
participation of private investors. These
Industrial Areas will be self contained Industrial
Areas equipped with modern basic amenities,
well planned taking into account future
expansion needs, have high quality,
infrastructure like roads, power, water, telecom,
sanitation, effluent management and disposal,
housing and other social amenities etc. Such
projects will be given top priority and time
bound clearances ensured. The Industry Policy
308 | Page
2004 also states that the State Government is
fully conscious of the need to catalyse the
urban rejuvenation process especially in areas
of industrial concentration. This would require
strengthening of urban local bodies and
accessing various Central Government schemes
for urban sector reforms including setting up of
waste management systems with active
involvement of the private sector. Special focus
would be laid on creation of Area Specific
Statutory Development Agencies which would
be entrusted with the task of managing urban
growth in areas of their jurisdiction and for
ensuring creation and strengthening of planned
growth of social, housing, health, commercial
and other related infrastructure. Nodal cities
will be identified and peripheral towns
developed within a specified radius by these
statutory agencies.
Inadequate Carrying Capacity based
planning process: At the time of the
formation of the State, there was virtually no
industry in the State of Himachal Pradesh
except a few industrial establishments such as
Mohan Meakins and Nahan Foundry. Initially,
industrialization in the state was aimed at
developing and up-dating the existing
traditional skills and arts in the cottage and tiny
sectors through handlooms and handicrafts.
The main objective was to use the traditional
skills of the local populace and raise their
standards of living. Even in the 70s the state
had very little modern manufacturing
industries. Till 1977-78 there were only about
5700 SSI units and about 10 Large and Medium
units employing just a few thousand people. As
on 31/03/2004, there are 30839 Small Scale
Industrial Units wherein an investment of
about Rs. 746.85 crores is involved and
employment opportunities to about 1.34 lakhs
people have been generated. However, as per
the current Industrial Policy, 2004 of Himachal
Pradesh the state has not adequately examined
supportive and assimilative capacity of the areas
while setting aside areas for industrial
development. Prioritisation of Industries in
Himachal Pradesh for developing a long term
perspective has not been adequately done. This
is also partly responsible for the current pattern
of Ribbon development pattern of Industries in
the state.
Limited technological options to switch to
green/clean technologies: Industries based
socio- economic development in Himachal
Pradesh has exerted pressure on raw materials
like water, minerals, forest produce, etc.
Capability and skills to manage the natural
resources optimally are limited and is further
compounded by the lack of adequate and skilled
human resources to manage the natural
resources optimally. Adoption of cleaner
modes of production can help in natural
resource conservation and elimination of
gaseous, liquid or solid wastes, reduction by
reduced consumption of raw materials,
modification and upgradation of the
technological processes so that optimal
utilisation of natural resources is made possible,
and helps in adoption of preventive rather than
corrective approaches to pollution control.
Impact of Cement industry on tourism and
transportation sector: Due to the high
availability of quality limestone, a key raw
material, the cement industry has flourished
within the State. Many domestic companies and
MNCs have established their manufacturing
facilities here. There are three cement plants
(M/s Associated Cements Co. Ltd. Gagal,
District. Bilaspur, M/s Ambuja Cements, Ltd.
Darlaghat, District. Solan and M/s Cement
Corporation of India, Rajban, District. Sirmaur)
M/s Jay Pee Cement in large and medium
sector which have a total capacity of over 4
million tonnes per annum, besides about 3 mini
cement plants, 9 hydrated lime and quick lime
calcium carbonate units, 88 numbers of
limestone powder/poultry feed have been set
up. Besides, four large scale cement plants have
been approved to be set up in the State based
on limestone deposits at Sunder Nagar, Alsindi
(Mandi district), Boroh-Shind (Chamba) BaggaBhalag (Solan District) and based on the reject
309 | Page
of the NMDC mine of Arki, District, Solan.
One cement plant based on the Gumma
limestone deposit (District Shimla) is under
consideration.
Most of the limestone quarrying is open cast and
causes substantial degradation of the land due to
depositing of overburden. The domestic
requirement of cement is 10 lakh tonnes. The
rest is supplied to other states. Cement
manufacturers were of the view that cement
clinker should be allowed to be supplied to
other states, so that finished cement could be
manufactured there. A formula was worked out
between the state government and the
manufacturers that clinker and cement could be
supplied to other state in the ratio of 50:50.
However, in the new industrial policy, clinker
has been placed in the negative list, i.e., such
incentives as excise duty and income tax
exemption are not applicable to clinkers, but
applicable to cement. In the changed situation,
the manufacturers will prefer to manufacture
cement in Himachal Pradesh itself, while
clinker export to other states might be limited.
The cement industry has affected ambient air
quality and putting stress on the local
infrastructure including roads in the fragile
mountainous regions. It has also impacted
negatively on the tourist inflow.
Inadequate transport management and
infrastructure for transporting industrial
and agri-horticulture produce:The current
infrastructural facilities for transportation of
industrial produce are inadequate as this aspect
has not been adequately addressed. Further,
truck operators unions prevent free play of
market forces in areas of their jurisdiction. The
Industrial Policy 2004 aims to addressing issues
related to transportation of industrial produce
so as to lay the foundation of strong and
consistent growth of the industrial sector. For
the first time under the State Industrial Policy,
setting up of post harvest management
infrastructure like, setting up of cold storages,
mechanized packing houses, mechanized
grading houses, setting up of ropeways
exclusively for the transportation of locally
produced agriculture and horticultural produce,
setting up of servicing centres to render farm
related management services and services such
as maintenance of farm equipment and
machineries will be treated as activities eligible
for a specific package of incentives and
concessions under this policy.
Issues relating to migration, labour, housing
and health: Indiscriminate growth of existing
urban clusters has been witnessed in Himachal
Pradesh especially in the vicinity of Industrial
area. Though the Industrial Policy 2004 has
made provision for employment of 70%
bonafide Himachalis in Industries of the state,
there has been demand supply gap for housing
especially low cost for migratory industrial
labour in new areas which are emerging due to
setting up of industry and related commercial
activities. Due emphasis has not been given to
ensure creation of adequate housing facilities of
various categories, including industrial labour.
The other required social infrastructure namely
schools, medical and other community facilities
are also not adequate. With a view to contain
indiscriminate growth of existing urban clusters
and to ensure availability of adequate housing
in new areas emerging due to setting up of
industry and related commercial activities, The
Industrial Policy 2004 emphasises on ensuring
creation of adequate housing facilities of
various categories, including industrial labour.
Specific areas will be demarcated around such
industrial clusters where housing infrastructure
could be created both in the government and
private sector.
Permission for purchase of land for captive
housing would be given in a time bound
manner for purchase of land to the industrial
units set up in the State. Similarly supply of
power and water to such housing complexes
would be made on priority. Industries would be
actively encouraged to tie up with local
adjoining panchayats and villages for arranging
captive accommodation by helping such
310 | Page
villagers augment their accommodation so as to
cater to the specific needs of the workers who
could be housed in such units. Further, there
are unresolved issues related to muster and
attendance roll, minimum wages, and health
insurances.
The above identification and analysis of issues
has been summarised in Table 15.
Table 15: Summary of identification and analysis of issues
Issues
1. Siting of industries
2. Poor ambient air quality
3. Deteriorating water quality and
quantity
Causes
Concentration of industries in
foothills of Shivalik Himalaya and
focus on extraction of few
mineral resources
The siting of Industries is being
done as per the available land
bank and not as per the Zoning
Atlas for Industries.
Concentration of industries in
foothills of Shivalik Himalaya
Ancillary development in the
industrial area including urban
infrastructure
entailing
construction activities, vehicular
emissions and industrial emissions
Concentration of industries in
foothills of Shivalik Himalaya.
Ancillary development in the
industrial area including urban
infrastructure
entailing
construction activities, improper
discharge of industrial effluents
(treated / untreated), sewage and
municipal solid wastes
Deeper excavation on the surface
or underground digging
Exposure of fresh rocks due to
mining initiates weathering with
the inevitable generation of
substances which cause water
pollution
4. Noise pollution
Mining
activities
increase
suspended solids and chemical
contamination in the water at the
site and downstream
Congregation of industries in a
limited area
Ancillary development in the
industrial area including urban
infrastructure
entailing
construction activities, vehicular
Impacts/Risks
Over extraction
resources and
pollution
of mineral
environment
Exceedence of National Ambient
Air quality Standards (NAAQS)
Impact on human health
particularly industrial workers
Deterioration of quality water in
terms of benchmarks set in
Primary Water Quality Criteria
and Designated Best Use for
Fresh Waters (A-E)
Water Table decreases locally,
often drastically, resulting in the
drying up of wells and springs of
the neighborhood.
Adversely affect water users and
the aquatic ecosystem. The
impact is particularly significant
if water users downstream of the
site are abstracting water for
drinking/domestic
use.
Suspended solids can also
significantly
increase
water
treatment costs.
Exceedence of National Ambient
Noise levels.
Disturbance to wild animals and
birds from the nearby forest.
311 | Page
Issues
5. Hazardous waste treatment and
disposal
6. Land degradation
Causes
movement, industrial operations,
etc
Noise and vibrations due to
blasting and operation of the
machines, equipments used in the
mines for various purposes
including transportation of the
overburden and mineral.
Congregation of industries in
foothills of Shivalik Himalaya
Hazardous waste in Himachal
Pradesh comprises sludge from
Effluent Treatment Plant, Waste
Oil, Contaminated Containers,
Residual wastes and Process
Residue
Gaps in hazardous waste
generation and treatment
Inadequate number of Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETPs) and
treatment e.g. there is no CETP
for Baddi and Barotiwala area
The change in land use due to
mining, excavation, dumping and
other associated activities
Digging of open pits and
dumping of overburden rock
mass in the form of the heaps
7. Loss of Flora and Fauna
Polluted water from pits affect
the characteristics of the topsoil,
affecting the end use. The damage
pattern on the surface undergoes
a change due to the alterations in
the surface topography due to
mining and associated activities.
Removal of all vegetation (flora)
and fauna from the area for
mining and other purposes.
Impacts/Risks
Impact on human health
particularly on the Industrial
workers
Gaps between hazardous waste
generation and treatment may
increase further leading to
deterioration of water quality
The land use in the surrounding
areas is affected due to the
impact of mining on water
regime.
Change in value of the land and
surrounding areas
Reduction in water water level
Loss of green cover to concrete
structures
Loss of natural vegetation cover
by clear felling, smothering and
Ecological imbalance
Pollution of water in the
surrounding water bodies, due to
flow of debris on the slope, affect
the aquatic ecology of water
bodies.
Dust in the atmosphere is
contributed by the mining and
associated activities. Dust when
deposited on the leaves of the
312 | Page
Issues
8. Poor Aesthetics
9. Inadequate infrastructure and civic
amenities in the Industrial areas
Causes
plants in the surrounding areas,
retard their growth
Overclustering of Industries
The removal of vegetation from
the mining area and the flow of
debris on the slope give an ugly
look.
Improper
siting
of
Industries/Industrial Areas
Inadequate need assessment of
infrastructure and civic amenities
10. Inadequate carrying capacity based
planning process
Inadequacies in Perspective/
Master Plan for Industrial Areas.
Inadequacies in Perspective/
Master Plan for Industrial Areas
Ribbon development
Impacts/Risks
Change in land use
Change in value of the land and
surrounding areas
Pressure
on
existing
infrastructure and civic amenities
Over exploitation of resources
beyond recovery
Pressure
on
existing
infrastructure and civic amenities
Haphazard growth, leading to
ribbon development
Inadequate
attention
on
promoting cluster based approach
for
development
of
Industries/Industrial Areas
Incompetence of system
11. Limited technological options to
switch to green/clean technologies
Inadequate incentives for setting/
switching
green/clean
technologies
Inadequate understanding of
green/clean technologies which
could be introduced in Himachal
Pradesh
Limited financial resources
12. Impact of Cement industry on
tourism and transportation sector
13. Inadequate transport management
and infrastructure for transporting
industrial
and
agri-horticulture
produce
Growth in Cement Industries in
State as a result of Industrial
Policy focus on utilization of
limestone resources
Inadequate
infrastructure
including roads to assimilate the
unplanned growth in the cement
Industry
Inadequate
assessment
of
planning for infrastructure needs
including
transportation
infrastructure
Deterioration
of
baseline
environment conditions of land,
water, air and noise
Increased capital cost and
investment for setting /switching
to green/clean technologies
Impact on ambient air and noise
quality
Deterioration of quality of roads
and related infrastructure
Reduced inflow of tourists
Increased pressure on available
infrastructure for transportation
of industrial agri-horticulture
produce
313 | Page
Issues
Causes
14. Issues relating to migration,
labour, housing and health
Impacts/Risks
Influx of migratory work force
(skill /unskilled) in and around
Industrial Areas
Inadequate civic amenities in and
around Industrial Areas
Inadequate Social Infrastructure
(Housing
facilities,
health,
education institutions, etc.)
6.6
Environment initiatives taken
by the sector to address critical
environment issues
Environment Management in Ambuja
Cement Plant at Darlaghat: A glass bag
house (GBH) has been installed for the control
of emissions from the kiln and raw mill section,
the most polluting section in a cement factory.
The GBH has an efficiency of 99.9% and
maintains emissions even below 50 gm/Nm3.
Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) have been
installed at the clinker cooler and cement mill
sections, while bag filters have been installed at
the coal mill, cement mill and packing plant, for
the control of emissions. The emissions from
all the stacks are maintained at much below 100
mg/Nm3, as against the National Standards of
150 mg/Nm3 for the cement industry. Bag
filters have also been installed at all material
handling/ loading/unloading points for the
control of fugitive emissions. There is no solid
waste generation and all the dust collected in
the air pollution control equipment is
automatically recycled into the process.
Setting up of a Solid Waste Management
Plant: Solid Waste Management Plant has been
set up at Village Majra, Tehsil Nalagarh,
District Solan with a total cost of Rs. 35.00
crores. A Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) namely
Deterioration
of
baseline
environment
conditions
especially of air, noise and water.
Social unrest in view of increased
migration
Deterioration of quality of life in
the existing urban/peri-urban
areas and around Industrial Areas
Rise
in
instances
communicable diseases.
of
M/s Shivalik Solid Waste Management Ltd. has
been incorporated for its construction. The
SPV has further awarded this work to M/s
United Phosphate Ltd. which will operate this
facility on BOT basis and recover user charges
from the industries. First phase of the project is
completed and Solid Waste Management Plant
started receiving the Hazardous Waste from
Member Industries in the state of Himachal
Pradesh with effect from 20th June, 08 which
will definitely result in protection of
environment, ecology etc. of the State which
are otherwise harmful not only for human lives
but for the entire environment, ecology, air and
water pollution.
Setting up of a Common Effluent
Treatment Plant (CETP):To protect the
local environment from industrial pollution, a
Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) is
being set up at village Sheetalpur, Tehsil
Nalagarh District Solan. A Special Purpose
Vehicle (SPV) named M/s Doon Infrastructure
Ltd. has been incorporated for this purpose by
the M/s Baddi-Barotiwala-Nalagarh Industries
Association Ltd. A patch of land measuring
30.08 bighas is being leased out to M/s Doon
Infrastructure Ltd. (SPV) for setting up of this
facility on token lease amount of Re. 1/- per sq
m for a period of 50 years. A CETP is
proposed to be set up under the Integrated
Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme (IIUS)
314 | Page
scheme of Govt. of India with a cost of Rs.
185.00 crores. A detailed project report on this
behalf has been sent to Govt. of India for
approval/sanction.
Source: Annual administration Report, 2008-09
Policy guidelines for control of location,
installation or working of stone crushers and
their registration in the state of Himachal
Pradesh: Taking into consideration the
overriding principle of protection of ecology
and environment, to ensure that not a single
stone crushing unit in the State causes any
pollution of any type and in consonance with
the “River/Stream Bed Mining Policy
Guidelines for the State of Himachal Pradesh2004” as notified on 28-02-2004,
Environmental Awareness: In order to make
the general masses aware of the environmental
issues the following awareness activities were
carried out by HPSPCB during the year.
a) World Environment Day 5th June, 2007:On
occasion of the World Environment Day, the
State Board organized the following activities:
(i)
Vehicular monitoring in the major towns
of the State.
(ii) Activities like quiz competition, drawing
competition, slogan writing and debates
were organized for the School children by
field offices and laboratories. They have
also participated in cleaning of natural
springs (drinking water sources) campaign
in their respective localities.
(iii) Rallies were taken out by the school
children carrying banners and signboards
on environmental slogans.
(iv) Distribution of pamphlets on vehicular
pollution, air pollution and noise
pollution amongst general public and
students.
b) Advertisement and Publicity: During the year
2007-08 the State Board intensified mass
awareness campaign through publication of
matter in the leading national, local newspapers,
weekly & quarterly magazines.
Action for Improvement of Water Quality:
No unit is operating without proper water
pollution control system, e.g. Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETP). The State Board
ensures installation of Effluent Treatment
Plants by the industries before Consent to
Operate is granted. It is mandatory for
Industries having work force more than 100, to
install STP or STP cum ETPs.
Implementation o f Recycled Plastics
(Manufacture and Usage) Rules, 2003
As per the provisions of the Recycled Plastics
Manufacture and Usage Rules, 2003, every
occupier manufacturing carry bags or
containers of virgin plastic or recycled plastic or
both shall have to get registered with the State
Board. There are 50 Plastic manufacturing units
operational in Himachal Pradesh. The State
Board processed all the registration applications
received and registered 9 units with State Board
during 2007-08 for a term of three years. The
cumulative number of units registered with the
State Board as on 31/03/2008 is 34.
6.7
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector
As per State of the Environment ReportHimachal Pradesh, 2000. The State Board has
identified 124 units for generating waste falling
into the various categories of hazardous wastes
listed in Schedule-I under Hazardous Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules, 1989. The
Board granted authorization to 52 units. Till
2002-2003 the Board has also identified about
480 units responsible for generating waste
falling into the various categories of hazardous
wastes listed in Schedule-I under Hazardous
Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989
and amendment Rules, 2000. All such units
were asked to obtain the authorization for in
site and secured storage of waste. The Board
granted the authorization to 189 units and 218
315 | Page
units have been served with the notice under
said Rules for compliance. The remaining cases
are under process for grant of authorization
Source Annual Report State Board-2003-04
By 2004-05, the Board has identified about 842
units. Out of which 505 are operational up to
March 2005 and responsible for generating waste
falling in to the various categories of hazardous
wastes listed in Schedule-I under Hazardous
Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989
and amendment Rules, 2000 and 2003. All such
units were asked to obtain the authorization for in
site and undertake secured storage of waste. The
Board has granted authorization to 504 units.
6.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and
water pollution) carried out for
activities related to the sector
There is no environment monitoring
mechanism within the sector. Compliance
monitoring of Industries is carried out by HP
State Pollution Control Board.
Ambient Air Quality
The monitoring of Ambient Air Quality was
started in 1986-87 under the National Ambient
Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)
with an objective to find the current status of
pollution and to study the trends as a result of
increasing industrialization. The general
objectives of the programme are:
1.
2.
To evaluate the general air quality
conditions in the city and to provide
the basis for analyzing long term trends
of pollution concentrations.
To provide the data for subsequent
development of air quality standards
and pollution prevention and control
programme for the city.
The Suspended Particulate Matter is
monitored with High Volume Sampler and
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter
(RSPM) with the help of Respirable Dust
Sampler on the basis of three days per station
per week for 24 hours at 6 Towns/Cities
covering 11 number of locations in the State.
The State Pollution Control Board has
received sanction from CPCB for setting up of
additional 4 nos of air quality monitoring
stations at Dharamshala, Manali, Una &
Sundernagar.
Ambient air quality monitoring stations are
located in 3 Industrial areas and 4 Residential
Areas. Though there is only 1 sensitive location
(Tekka bench on Ridge) in Shimla, it is not
located in an Industrial area. Ambient air quality
monitoring stations are given in Table 16.
Table 16 Ambient Air Monitoring Stations
in Himachal Pradesh
Station
City
Shimla
Location
Takka Bench on
S-1
Ridge
S-2
Shimla
Shimla Bus Stand
P-1
Parwanoo Sector-IV
P-2
Parwanoo Sector-I
Jassur
Near PCB Office
J-1
Damtal
J-2
Jassur
Old Road Damtal
Paonta
Paonta
Sahib
PO-1
Sahib
Industrial Area
Paonta
Gondhpur
PO-2
Sahib
Industrial Area
Source: Website of HPSEP and PCB
Category
Sensitive
Residential
Residential
Industrial
Residential
Residential
Industrial
Industrial
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
has developed Air Quality Criteria for the
assessment of air quality. The monitored areas
have been divided into three area classes as
Industrial Area, Residential, Rural & other
Area and Sensitive Area. The air quality is
classified on the basis of Exceedence Factor
(EF) that is defined as observed annual mean
concentration of a criterion pollutant divided
by Annual standard for the respective pollutant
and area class in terms of Low (Where EF is
less than 0.5), Moderate (EF is between 1.0 and
0.5), High (Where EF is between 1.0 and 1.5)
316 | Page
and Critical (EF is more than 1.5). Based on
the above 3 classifications, the Air Quality of
Himachal Pradesh is given in Table 17.
Table 17: Air Quality Status in Himachal Pradesh in Terms of Air Quality Category by
CPCB
Location
Shimla, Tekka Bench on Ridge
Shimla Bus Stand
Parwanoo Sector-IV
Parwanoo Sector-1
Jassur Near PCB Office Damtal
Jassur Old Road Damtal
Paonta Sahib Industrial Area
Paonta Sahib Industrial Area Gondhpur
Category
Sensitive
Residential
Residential
Industrial
Residential
Residential
Industrial
Industrial
SO2
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
NO2
M
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
1996
SPM
H
M
H
L
M
H
M
M
RPM
N
O
T
M
O
N
I
T
O
R
E
D
SO2
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
NO2
M
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
2004
SPM
L
L
C
L
M
H
M
M
RPM
L
L
M
-
-
Source: NAAQMS/10/1998-99 and Website HPSEP and PCB
A comparison of data of 1996 and 2004 as per
Air Quality Criteria laid down by CPCB shows
that air quality remains unchanged except for
SPM levels in Shimla that show improvement
in Air Quality Category. Another positive
aspect is that HP PCB has started monitoring
RPM at some stations. The Respirable
Particulate Matter (RPM) corresponds to
particles that are less than 10-micron in size and
therefore more important from health point of
view as these can reach lungs.
The air quality data pertaining to Industrial,
residential, sensitive, rural and other areas from
HP PCB’s Annual Report 07-08 has been
scrutinized for monthly average and peak
values for these locations and the trends of
monthly average SO2, NOx and RSPM are
shown below.
Ambient Air Quality at Parwanoo: Air quality
of Parwanoo town is being monitored at two
different locations, one at Sector IV (Station
No.1), which falls under Residential Area Zone
‘R’ and other Station at Sector I (Station No. 2),
which falls under Industrial Area Zone ‘IT
’. he
Data Station No. 1 & 2 shown in Table 18. The
monthly mean average values of SO2 & NOx
were observed well below the permissible limit
for 24 hour average. However, the peak values
of SO2 were observed as high as 8.3µg/m 3 and
8.2µg/m 3 respectively at both stations and peak
values for NOx observed as 28.3 µg/m 3 at
Station No. 1 and 32.9 µg/m 3 at Station No. 2.
The peak values of RSPM were observed as
high as 358.3 µg/m 3 and 407.2 µg/m 3 in the
month of May & December, 2007 at both the
Stations respectively. However, the monthly
mean average values for RSPM ranged between
36.0 µg/m 3 to 101.0 µg/m 3 at Station No. 1 and
41.0 to 128.4 µg/m 3 at Station No. 2. From
these observations, it can be concluded that the
air quality was poorer at Station No. 2 in
comparison to Station No.1. Annual average
values for RSPM at Station No. 1 was observed
as 63.15 µg/m3. The annual average value of
RSPM is above the permissible limit of 60
µg/m 3 prescribed for residential area whereas
the annual average value of RSPM at Station
No. 2 was observed as 85.3 µg/m 3 and is below
the permissible limit of 120 µg/m 3 for Industrial
Area. However in comparison to previous year’s
data, there is decrease in the level of RSPM at
both the locations.
317 | Page
Table 18: Ambient Air Quality at Parwanoo
Month
Station-1
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
Station-2
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
SO2 in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
NOX in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
RSPM in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Avg.
Peak
2.3
2.3
2.0
2.1
2.4
2.0
2.3
2.6
2.5
2.1
2.2
2.1
8.3
7.4
2.0
6.2
7.4
2.0
5.7
7.8
6.6
5.1
6.59
4.53
7.4
7.1
6.8
5.5
5.8
8.0
10.0
10.2
10.3
6.4
7.6
8.3
18.6
16.1
17.8
11.7
14.8
27.3
18.5
28.3
20.2
13.65
18.95
15.12
62.0
76.0
64.0
36.0
36.0
42.6
56.0
101.0
75.3
67.0
69.0
73.0
116.1
358.3
147.0
72.6
100.7
92.2
154.0
239.0
184.1
116.0
115.0
287.0
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.3
2.1
2.8
3.2
2.8
2.2
2.7
3.0
5.1
5.2
4.5
4.5
5.7
4.5
6.2
7.9
6.8
5.1
8.2
7.9
11.9
10.2
10.7
8.4
6.2
9.6
12.8
12.4
12.8
9.3
9.7
11.5
32.9
23.4
18.7
15.0
13.8
14.6
22.0
23.4
29.3
21.5
22.6
16.6
96.0
103.0
73.0
54.0
41.0
43.2
85.0
104.0
128.4
110.0
77.0
109.0
155.5
346.6
243.0
176.8
103.2
104.0
236.0
231.0
407.2
331.0
116.0
205.0
Ambient Air Quality at Paonta Sahib:
Ambient air quality of Paonta Sahib is being
monitored at two different locations, one at
Paonta Sahib town (Station No.1) and other
industrial area Gondpur (Station No. 2). Station
No 1 falls under Residential Area Zone ‘R’ and
Station No. 2 falls under Industrial Area Zone
‘I’. All the values of SO2 and NOx remained
below the permissible limit prescribed for 24
hour average of 80 µg/m 3 at Station No. 1 and
120 µg/m 3 at Station No. 2. However, the peak
values of SO2 were observed as 3.9 µg/m 3 and
3.4 µg/m 3 respectively at both stations and peak
values for NOx observed as 27.6 µg/m 3 at
Station No. 1 and 26.0 µg/m 3 at Station No. 2.
The monthly average values of RSPM observed
above the prescribed 24 hrs standard of 100
µg/m 3 in 6 months during April 2007 and
November, 2007 to March 2008 at Station No.
1 while at Station No. 2 the average value of
RSPM observed above the prescribed 24 hrs
standard of 150 µg/m 3 throughout the year
except in the month of August 2007. Annual
average values for RSPM at Station No. 1 & 2
were observed as 86.6 µg/m 3 & 173.7 µg/m 3
these values of RSPM are above the annual
permissible limit of 60 µg/m 3 and 120 µg/m 3
prescribed for residential and industrial area
respectively as given in Table 19. However in
comparison to previous year’s data, there is a
slight decrease in the level of RSPM at both the
locations.
318 | Page
Table 19: Ambient Air Quality at Paonta Sahib
Month
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
SO2 in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
2.0
3.2
2.0
3.2
2.0
3.2
2.0
2.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.4
NOX in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
14.3
17.9
14.1
19.7
13.2
17.1
13.1
17.1
13.2
19.7
13.1
17.1
RSPM in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
202.0
388.0
176.0
407.0
173.0
305.0
154.0
318.0
118.0
277.0
191.2
394.0
2.0
2.0
2.9
2.9
13.7
14.4
22.8
26.0
187.0
204.0
384.0
551.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.4
2.9
2.9
14.1
12.8
13.4
13.1
22.8
17.1
17.5
17.1
169.0
169.0
162.0
179.0
389.0
321.0
379.0
380.0
Ambient Air Quality at Kala Amb: Ambient
air quality of Kala Amb is being monitored at
two different locations, one at Kala Amb
(Station No.1) and other at Trilokpur (Station
No. 2). Station No.1 stations falls under
Industrial Area Zone and Station No.2 falls in
Residential Area Zone ‘R’. From Table 20 it is
revealed that all the values of SO2 and NOx
remained below the permissible limits
prescribed for 24 hour average of 120 & 180
µg/m 3 at both the stations. Monthly average
values of SPM were observed in the range of
249 µg/m 3- to 657 µg/m3 at Station no 1 and
monthly average at Station No.2 was observed
to in the range 51.6 µg/m3 to 253µg/m 3 for
SPM. The annual average values of SPM at
Station no 1 and 2 were observed as 398.4 and
141.7 respectively which are above the
permissible limit of 360 µg/m 3 and 140 µg/m 3
prescribed for industrial and residential area
respectively for Station No. 1 & 2.
The monthly mean values of RSPM was
observed above the prescribed 24 hour standard
of 150 µg/m 3 in all the 6 monitoring month’s i.e
October, 2007 to March 2008 at Station No. 1.
Annual average values for RSPM at Station No.
1 & 2 were observed as 240.5 µg/m 3 &
96.9µg/m 3 respectively. The annual average
values of RSPM are above the permissible
annual average limit of 120 µg/m3 and 60 µg/m3
for industrial and residential area respectively.
However in comparison to previous year’s data,
there is decrease in the level of SPM at both the
locations.
Table 20: Ambient Air Quality at Kala Amb
SO2 in µg/ m 3
Month
Station-1
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Monthly
Avg.
NOX in µg/ m 3
Peak
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Monthly Avg.
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
2
2.9
2.9
2.9
14.6
14.1
13.5
13
13
12.8
13.6
13.6
Peak
21.9
17.9
21.9
19.7
19.5
21.1
21.1
17.1
RSPM in µg/ m 3
Monthly Avg.
375
303
Peak
628
653
319 | Page
SO2 in µg/ m 3
Month
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
Station-2
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
Monthly
Avg.
NOX in µg/ m 3
Peak
Monthly Avg.
Peak
RSPM in µg/ m 3
Monthly Avg.
Peak
2
2
2
2
2
3.38
3.86
5.8
13
13
13.5
13.4
17.9
7.88
17.88
22.76
184
214
179
188
376
416
362
456
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2.4
2.6
2.4
2.1
2
2
2
6.4
2
3.38
2.9
2.6
12.9
11.7
11.9
11.7
11.9
11.2
11.7
13.9
11.5
11.16
10.81
11.2
12.9
15.9
17.5
15
23.4
19.5
15
30.4
16.3
17.07
14.63
17.49
71
103.5
104
110
94
99
122
265
215
245
151
170
Ambient Air Quality at Baddi: Ambient air
quality of Baddi is being monitored
continuously at top of the office building of
Industries Department which falls under
Industrial Area Zone ‘I’. Table 21 indicates that
all the values of SO2 and NOx remained below
the permissible limit prescribed for 24 hour
average of 120 µg/m 3. The monthly mean
values of RSPM observed above the prescribed
24 hour standard of 150 µg/m 3 in all 5
monitoring months i.e November, 2007 to
March 2008. The annual average values of
RSPM are above the prescribed annual average
limit of 120 µg/m 3 for industrial area.
Table 21: Ambient Air Quality at Baddi
SO2 in µg/ m 3
Month
April, 07
May, 07
June, 07
July, 07
August, 07
Sept., 07
October, 07
Nov., 07
Dec., 07
January, 08
Feb., 08
March, 08
NOX in µg/ m 3
RSPM in µg/ m 3
Monthly
Peak
Avg.
-
Monthly Avg.
Peak
Monthly Avg.
3.1
2.6
9.7
8.7
13.7
11.8
28.3
25.6
2.6
2.4
2.3
8.4
5.1
6.8
12.3
10.5
9.9
24.5
21.1
20.5
-
-
2.8
3.7
6.8
10.2
12.4
15.1
18.5
38.0
-
-
3.5
3.4
2.9
7.9
7.9
6.8
13.4
13.3
12.4
22.9
22.9
20.0
223.0
193.5
204.0
415.9
426.1
436.0
2.8
3.4
7.9
7.9
12.5
12.4
22.4
22.5
218.0
199.0
1009.0
571.0
Peak
320 | Page
Table 22: Ambient Air Quality of Himachal Pradesh
March, 2009
February, 2009
January, 2009
December, 2008
Nov., 2008
Oct., 2008
Sept.,2008
August, 2008
July, 2008
June, 2008
May, 2008
April, 2008
Month
Location
SO2 in
µg/m3
DIC
Baddi
M.
Average
2
3.2
2.4
2.7
2.1
2.2
2.8
2.7
2
2
2
2
Peak
M.
Average
5.6
-
7.9
-
5.1
2.6
5.7
2.8
4.5
2.1
5.1
2
7.9
3
5.7
2.2
6.8
2
6.2
2
7.4
2
7.4
2
Peak
-
-
6.2
5.7
4.5
2
4.5
5.1
4.5
5.1
5.1
M.
Averag e
-
2.8
2.2
2.1
2
10
.2
2.5
2
2
2
2
2
Peak
M.
Average
2
2
7.6
2
5.1
2
4.5
2
2
2
6.8
2.1
2
2
4.5
2
5.1
2
5.7
2
4.5
2
Peak
M.
Average
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
6.7
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Peak
M.
Average
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2.9
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3.9
Peak
M.
Average
3.9
2
3.9
2
2.9
2
3.9
2
3.9
2
6.1
1.6
4
2
3.6
2
5.1
2
6.1
2
6.1
2
6.6
2
Peak
2.4
M.
2
Averag e
2.4
2
3.9
2
2
2
2
2
3.3
2.2
3.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
Peak
2.9
M.
2
Averag e
2.4
2
2.4
2
2
2
2.4
1.8
7.1
3.4
4.1
2
2.5
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
3.1
2
3.6
2.9
Peak
3.4
M.
2
Averag e
3.9
2.4
2.9
2
2.9
2
2.4
2.1
9.7
2.1
4.1
3
4.1
2.3
4.6
2
6.1
2
5.1
2
5.1
2
Peak
2
6
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
5.1
4.5
6.4
4.5
5.1
Parwanoo
, Sec-1
M.
Average
2
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.2
10
.2
2.4
3.1
2
2
2
2
Tekka
Bench,
Peak
M.
Averag e
2
2.7
6.8
3.1
5.1
3.1
4.5
2.6
4.5
2.8
4.5
2.9
4.5
2.4
5.7
2.2
5.1
2.5
5.7
2.5
6.8
2.9
6.8
2.8
Housing
Board,
Baddi
A.H.C.
Barotiwala
Regional
Office,
Damtal
Old Road,
Damtal
Kala Amb
Kala
Amb,
Trilokpur
Paonta
Sahib
Paonta
Sahib,
Gondpur
Parwanoo
, Sec-4
321 | Page
March, 2009
February, 2009
January, 2009
December, 2008
Nov., 2008
Oct., 2008
Sept.,2008
August, 2008
July, 2008
June, 2008
SO2 in
µg/m3
May, 2008
Location
April, 2008
Month
Shimla
Peak
Bus
Stand,
Shimla
6.3
M.
5
Averag e
Peak
12
.9
DIC
Baddi
12.6
.6
3
10
10
.7
2.9
6.8
7.1
6.8
5.3
5.8
8.7
7.3
7.8
6.8
3.3
2.8
2.9
2.8
3.6
2.5
2.9
3.6
3.1
7.3
11.3
7.1
6.8
9.2
11.7
8.7
7.8
9.2
10.2
.4
M.
14.1
Averag e
13.2
10.6
11.4
7.1
7.5
9.8
10.1
10.4
10.
4
11.8
11.
1
Peak
24.4
16.6
17.6
15.6
13.7
15.6
15.6
17.1
15.6
M.
Average
-
11.8
12.1
7.1
6.4
9.3
8.8
9
15.
6
7.7
16.
1
8.2
Peak
-
-
17.6
18.5
14.6
10.7
19.5
13.6
13.7
12.7
M.
Average
-
12.5
11.4
7.6
6.5
9.5
7.8
7.7
13.
2
8.4
Peak
-
-
16.6
15.6
12.7
10.7
15.6
10.7
11.7
13.7
M.
Average
18.7
18.3
14.7
15.1
14.7
16.2
15.5
15.6
12.4
13.
7
12.
8
Peak
55
24.8
20.9
22.1
22
22
24.7
22.9
17.5
23
M.
Averag e
19.9
21.1
17
17.8
18.8
18.6
21.6
19
18.3
21.
5
16.
4
Peak
30.1
29.3
23.8
28
25.6
27.5
30.1
28.5
29.9
26.5
M.
Average
13.3
14.6
13.9
13.9
13
14.3
13.8
16.1
18.2
24.
2
19.
7
Peak
17.9
17.5
16.7
16.3
15.9
18.6
15.4
19.1
23.6
23.6
M.
Average
11.8
11.6
11.8
11.2
10.7
11.6
12.3
13.5
13.3
27.
6
14.
7
Peak
14.6
14.2
18.7
13.4
13
13.9
15.4
16.3
17.3
17.2
Paonta
Sahib
M.
Averag e
11.7
12
11.5
11
11.2
10.1
12.6
13.7
14.2
17.
7
14.
8
Paonta
Sahib,
Peak
M.
Averag e
16.3
13.1
14.6
14.6
16.3
13.6
13.4
13.3
15
13.2
14.5
13
16.8
13.6
18.1
15.5
17.7
17.1
19
18.
8
17.7
19.4
Housing
Board,
Baddi
A.H.C.
Barotiwala
Regional
Office,
Damtal
Old Road,
Damtal
Kala Amb
Kala
Amb,
Trilokpur
18.8
8.4
8.5
14.5
20
19.9
13.4
13.8
14.
1
7.9
12.
7
16.
7
23.
9
21.
1
27.
5
20.
9
24.
5
15.
5
19.
5
15.
5
19
18.
4
322 | Page
10.
3
14.
6
5.2
15.2
19.
5
6.2
11.
9
9.5
16.5
43.
4
102
.6
21.5
559
.2
127
.8
102
274
.9
54.
2
101.4
87.
5
53.
1
174.6
171
157
173
73.2
88
75.
4
71.3
124
235.7
155
312.2
123
228
.5
129
260.3
17.5
17.5
17.1
15.4
17.5
18.1
16.8
19
21.3
M.
Average
10.5
10.2
8.5
7.5
7.1
6.9
10.5
8.9
8
Peak
12.5
22.1
17.8
21.5
15.6
13.7
27.3
18
13.2
M.
Average
11
11.1
9.2
8.8
6.8
8.3
9.7
11.6
10.3
Peak
14.4
18
16.6
12.7
12.7
14.1
14.1
20
14.6
M.
Average
4.7
5.1
6
6.4
8.7
9.6
7.3
6.8
6.4
Peak
11
14
12.8
22.8
24
23.3
23.8
22.4
18.3
M.
Average
8.9
8.7
11.7
12.5
8.7
9.6
12.4
9
6.4
Peak
20.1
21
21.9
30.2
24
23.3
26.5
21.9
18.3
M.
142
Averag e
186
134
85.9
46.3
53.7
81
90.3
94.8
Peak
613.5
261.5
172.8
145.7
142.4
171.4
176.6
449.3
M.
Averag e
-
101.1
64
28.2
51.7
61.3
86.8
98.8
Peak
-
-
184.6
195.1
61.6
120.7
145.3
159.1
200.6
M.
Averag e
-
89.8
50.4
39.7
36.6
63.3
43.2
68.6
Peak
-
-
134.7
131.1
101.8
68.6
106.5
71.8
154.8
M.
Average
56
70
53
51.3
48
55
66.6
55.7
56.9
Peak
06
114
97
88
73
164
194
90
Old Road,
Damtal
M.
Averag e
65
88
68
62.4
66
75
83.6
Kala Amb
Peak
M.
Average
95
234
159
236
106
248
125
223
101
225
142
277
132
243.6
SO2 in
µg/m3
Nov., 2008
Peak
Location
March, 2009
February, 2009
10.8
Oct., 2008
13
Sept.,2008
12.7
August, 2008
14.
3
9.8
July, 2008
7.6
22.
7
7.8
June, 2008
23.2
May, 2008
22.
7
7.4
April, 2008
January, 2009
December, 2008
Month
Gondpur
Parwanoo
, Sec-4
Parwanoo
, Sec-1
Tekka
Bench,
Shimla
Bus Stand
Shimla
DIC
Baddi
Housing
Board,
Baddi
A.H.C.
Barotiwala
Regional
Office,
Damtal
247
6.5
10.7
46.4
49.4
96.9
62
14.
6
7.9
18.
3
55.
3
125
.5
49.
3
129
.1
60.
2
184
.3
67.
3
189
.5
84.
7
151
284
.9
323 | Page
December, 2008
January, 2009
February, 2009
March, 2009
Bus Stand
Shimla
Nov., 2008
Tekka
Bench,
Shimla
Oct., 2008
Parwanoo
, Sec-1
Sept.,2008
Parwanoo
, Sec-4
August, 2008
Paonta
Sahib,
Gondpur
July, 2008
Paonta
Sahib
June, 2008
Kala
Amb,
Trilokpur
May, 2008
Location
April, 2008
Month
486
112
595
107
472
110
422
90
440
69
465
60
361
84
288
68.2
766
103.7
356
110
.9
364
70.1
472
117
Peak
165
M.
99
Average
158
96
177
105
145
33
219
82
151
68
223
83.1
143
90
185
114
166
104
141
86
258
102
.6
Peak
M.
Average
163
134
187
191
276
134
165
167
166
178
143
216
411
154.1
165
183
326
201.6
135
205
.9
142
179.1
224
157
.3
Peak
306
M.
56
Average
385
75
214
64
387
39
351
31
435
50
483
64.5
273
84.7
335
86.1
348
87.
3
271
73.5
300
71.
3
Peak
101
147
220
158
89
102
168.6
161.3
152
151.8
M.
Average
130
113
98
80
43
61
63
99
126.7
202
.1
109
.3
136
.9
110
.3
Peak
217
297
185
207
98
114
117
190.4
282.7
258.7
M.
Average
62
73
45
40
57
51.5
47
36.7
41.8
293
.3
51.
4
Peak
M.
Average
142
62
161
73
85
65
130
60
137
57
116
51.5
161
62
102
46.6
125
51.3
108
53
107
60.3
142
87.
3
Peak
120
247
124
124
137
116
119
103
91
104
92
221
SO2 in
µg/m3
Peak
M.
Average
Water quality: With the increasing population,
urbanization and industrialization it is
becoming difficult to provide adequate amount
of water to the users. At the same time the
problem of water quality has cropped up and
has become more important in the recent years
rather than quantity of water. It is almost
impossible to find pure water in nature as water
being a universal solvent readily dissolves and
collects all kinds of impurities but the crux of
the problem lies in the contamination that is
taking place due to human activities. The
pollution by human activities emanating either
from use of water for domestic or industrial
129.4
56
185
.3
83
purposes or as a result of ever increasing rate at
which organic or inorganic chemicals,
pesticides, heavy metals are being used and are
being released into the atmosphere or over land
whereby they are able to enter the water cycle
have degraded water resources to a large extent.
The industrialization coupled with discharge of
untreated
sewage
is
responsible
for
deterioration in water quality
The quality of surface water in India are
monitored via a network that functions in a 3tier system; Tier-I: Global Environmental
324 | Page
Monitoring
System
(GEMS);
Tier-II:
Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic
Resources Systems (MINARS); Tier-III: Water
Quality Monitoring by State Pollution Control
Boards in addition to GEMS and MINARS. At
present it comprises of 784 stations spread over
the country. [Source CPCB Annual Report
2002-03]. In Himachal Pradesh it is being
monitored at 23 Locations under MINARS
over the Rivers Satluj, Beas, Ravi and their
tributaries by HPSEP and PCB. The UseClassification and Primary Water Quality
Criteria developed by CPCB for assessing the
water quality for fresh water are given in Table
23.
Table 23: Primary Water Quality Criteria and Designated Best use of fresh water
Characteristics
A*
B*
C*
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) mg/l, Minimum
6
5
4
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) mg/l, Max.
2
3
3
Total Coliform (TC) Organism MPN/100 ml, Max. **
50
500
5000
pH value
6.5 - 8.5
6.5 - 8.5
6-9
Free ammonia (as N), mg/l, Maximum
Electrical conductivity, micro-mhos per centimetre
Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Maximum
Boron, mg/l Maximum
*Class-A
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection.
Class-B
Outdoor bathing organized.
Class-C
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection.
Class-D
Propagation of wildlife & fisheries.
Class-E
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal.
A total of 22 parameters are monitored,
however, only key parameters are reported in
the Table 24& 25. The Surface Water Quality
D*
4
6.5 - 8.5
1.2
-
E*
6.5 - 8.5
2250
26
2
of Rivers in Himachal Pradesh as reported by
the State Pollution Control Board is given in
Table 24.
Table 24: Month wise variation in River Water Quality(June 2004 to January 2008)
Month-Year
pH
Jun-04
7.15-8.49
Oct-04
6.62-8.97
Jan-05
4.47-8.81
Apr-05
7.2-9.04
Jul-05
7.18-9.0
Oct-05
7.42-8.59
Jan-06
0.09-8.94
Apr-06
7.04-9.64
Jul-06
6.56-9.42
Oct-06
6.77-8.81
Jan-07
6.67-8.88
Apr-07
0.1-8.6
Jul-07
0.45-8.34
Oct-07
0.24-9.18
Jan-08
0.15-8.58
Source: Himachal Pradesh Pollution Control Board
DO (mg/l)
TC (MPN/
SPC/100ml)
BOD (mg/l)
6.8-10.6
6.9-11.8
8.0-13.0
1.3-12
6.2-10.8
4.0-10.8
6.5-12.4
0-12.4
2.5-9.9
2.2-10.6
1.8-12.8
0.2-10.2
0.3-13.0
0-12.9
0-12.5
0.1-2.0
0.1-0.8
0.1-2.1
0.1-18
0.1-2.4
0.1-3.6
0.1-6.0
0.1-430
0.1-840
0.1-200
0.1-1150
0-640
0.1-12
0.1-14
0.1-540
9-418
2-280
2-410
1-15000
17-2400
1-5600
2-3800
0-30000
3-420
1.0-8000
0-4200
2.0-3800
0->2400
0->2400
2->2400
Table 25: River Quality Data (Annual Avg.) Year 2006
Location
Beas at U/S Manali, H.P.
Temp
( 0C)
4
pH
7.49
DO
(mg/l)
11
BOD
(mg/l)
1
FC (MPN/100
ml)
2
325 | Page
Location
Beas at D/S Kullu, H.P.
Beas at D/S Aut, H.P.
Beas at U/S Pandoh Dam, H.P.
Beas at exit of tunnel dehar power house, H.P.
U/S Mandi, H.P.
Beas at D/S Mandi, H.P.
Beas at D/S Palampur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Dehragopipur, H.P.
Beas at D/S Pong Dam, H.P.
River Satluj b/c with river Spiti at Khab, KinnaurDistrict,
H.P.
Satluj at Nathpa Jhakri, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Rampur, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Tattapani, H.P.
Satluj at U/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Slapper, H.P.
Satluj at D/S Bhakhra, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Chamba, H.P.
Ravi at U/S Madhopur, H.P.
Parvati before conf. to river Beas, H.P.
Largi at D/S, H.P.
River Sirsa , U/S Sitomajri Nalagarh, H.P.
River Sirsa , D/S Nalagarh bridge, H.P.
River Sirsa at D/S Nalagarh district. Solan, H.P.
River Yamuna at U/S Paonta Sahib
River Yamuna at D/S Paonta Sahib
6.9
Institutional
mechanisms
within the sector to address
identified environment issues
The Industries Minister (Hon’ble Chief
Minister) heads the Industries Department. At
Temp
( 0C)
7
7
8
9
15
16
19
21
19
14
10
11
12
12
11
11
16
10
21
7
6
17
25
25
20
20
7.66
7.88
7.86
7.85
7.97
7.85
7.72
7.84
7.83
DO
(mg/l)
9.8
10.6
9.9
9.5
8.8
8.5
7.6
7.4
6.7
BOD
(mg/l)
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.7
FC (MPN/100
ml)
3
2
5
4
2
7
5
11
10
8.07
8.18
8.03
8.18
8.03
7.96
8.03
8.13
7.85
7.7
7.61
7.78
8.11
8.37
7.85
9.12
9.22
8.5
9.8
10.3
10.3
10.1
9
9.1
8.7
10.1
7.6
10.1
11
10.3
12.4
9.2
8
8.1
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.2
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.7
1.1
1.6
23
4.6
4.3
28
38
37
6
7
4
5
5
3
2
35
395
950
11
15
pH
the Secretariat level, there is a two tier structure
with the Principal Secretary (Industries) and the
Joint/Deputy/Under Secretary (Industries).
The organisational chart of the Industries
Department is as indicated below.
326 | Page
Store Purchase
Organisation
Additional. Controller of Stores
Joint Director of Industries
Tehsildar
Naib Tehsildar
Store Inspection Officers
Superintendent Gr.-I S.O. (Audit)
Administration
Addl. Director of
Industries (Admn.) Assistant Controller
(F&A)
Superintendent Gr.-I
Geological & Mining
State Geologist
Geologists
Assistant Geologists
Driller Superintendent Gr.-I S.O (Audit)
Assistant Driller
Lab Assistant
Industrial Development
Sericulture
Project Co-ordinator
Industrial Advisor
Joint Director of
Industries
Project Co-ordinator
Deputy Directors of
Industries
Manager
Handloom
Dy. Director of Industries
Field Officer
District Industries Centre
General Managers
Managers/ Member
Secretaries, SWCAs, Parwanoo, Baddi, Nalagarh,Paonta Sahib, Kala
Amb,Sansarpur Terrace, Gwalthai,& Damtal
Industrial Promotion
Officers
Economic Investigators Extension Officer (Industries) (Block Level)
The following six Board/Corporations are
functioning under the administrative control of
the Industries Department:
I.
H.P. State Industrial Development
Corporation Ltd. (HPSIDC).
Mining
Mining Officers
Mining Inspectors
Assistant Mining Inspectors Mining Guards
II. H.P. Financial Corporation Ltd. (HPFC).
III. H.P. State Handicrafts & Handloom
Corporation Ltd. (HPSH&HC)
IV. H.P. State Small Scale Industries and
Export Corporation Ltd. (HPSSI&EC)
327 | Page
V.
H.P. General Industries Corporation Ltd.
(HPGIC)
VI. H.P. Khadi and Village Industries Board.
(HPKVIB)
State Level Single Window Clearance and
Monitoring Authority (SLSWC& MA)T
: he
State Govt. has provided a new orientation and
accelerated speed to industrial development in
the State. With a view to provide umbrella
support to existing and new ventures, the State
Govt. has notified a State Level Single Window
Clearance
and
Monitoring
Authority
(SLSWC&MA) under the Chairmanship of
Hon’ble Chief Minister, Himachal Pradesh to
discuss and solve all contentious and interdepartmental issues regarding setting up of
industrial units, monitor and review the
progress of units already approved and expedite
the approvals (administrative and statutory) of
each concerned department necessary for the
establishment of the unit in the State. The
Single Window Clearance Agencies are
functioning at Paonta Sahib in Sirmaur District,
Gwalthai in Bilaspur District, Sansarpur Terrace
in Kangra District, in addition to SWCAs at
Parwanoo and Baddi in Solan District.
6.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations
and
changing
lifestyles;
migratory
populations
including
tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
After the notification of Special Package in
January 2003, the Department has approved
1019 new investment proposals and 154
expansion proposals in Medium & Large Scale
Sector up to 31/3/2011 with combined
envisaged investment of Rs. 31206.37 crores
and employment potential of 181975 persons.
After getting the special package of incentives
from the Department of Industries, the growth
of Medium & Large Industries has been
increased by more than 3.5 times from January,
2003 to March, 2011 with an investment of Rs.
828.5 crores to 31177 crores which provides
employment to 170041 (3.82 times increased)
person during the same period. The details are
given in Table 26, Table 27 and Table 28.
Table 26: District wise details of approval/
registration of New Medium &
Large Industrial Projects: (From
07-01-2003 to 31-03-2011)
Sr. District
No.
1. Bilaspur
2. Hamirpur
3. Kangra
4. Kullu
5. Shimla
6. Solan
7. Sirmaur
8. Una
9. Chamba
10 Mandi
Total
Number
of Units
12
1
29
2
13
669
205
86
1
1
1019
Investment
Proposed
(Rs. in
Employment
Lakhs)
82852.01
2403
268.53
19
101753.61
4191
999.92
130
115844.94
3702
1699431.85
96332
476748.56
30041
468998.22
32343
80000.00
600
90860.00
280
3117757.64
170041
Table 27: Details of registered/ approved
industrial units by the Industries
Department after the special
package of incentives. (From 0701-2003 to 31-03-2011)
Investment
Number
Proposed
(Rs. in
of units
Employment
Crores)
1. New Medium/
1019 31177.57
170041
Large
Scale
projects
2. Expansion of
154
2879.90
11934
existing units
of
medium
and large scale
sector
Sr.
No.
Category
328 | Page
Table 28: Year wise details of the
approved/registered
New
Medium
&
Large
Scale
Industrial Projects after special
package (from 07-01-2003 to 3103-2011)
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Year
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Total
Investment
Proposed
(Rs. in
employment
Crores)
284
3946.20
44491
225
3355.44
28208
244
5411.30
37390
145
6728.80
27004
28
2746.73
4996
48
6230.91
14612
30
1321.64
7721
15
1436.59
5619
1019
31177.57
170041
Number of
Units
In addition 154 proposals of substantial
expansion in Medium & Large Scale industrial
Sector involving an investment of Rs. 2879.90
crores and employment potential of 11934
persons were also approved as given in Table
29.
Table 29: Year wise details of the
approved/registered Expansion
in Medium & Large Scale
Industrial Projects after special
package (from 07-01-2003 to 3103-2011)
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Year
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Total
Investment
Proposed
( Rs. in
Employment
Crores)
15
21.18
384
37
356.21
1735
15
277.4
1158
9
181.3
429
3
24.52
126
27
951.02
3437
35
506.07
2758
13
562.2
1907
154
2879.9
11934
No. of
projects
Approval of new Small Scale Industries:
Department of Industries has approved 13294
new investment proposals and 257 expansion
proposals in Small Scale Industries sector up to
31/3/2011
with
combined
envisaged
investment of Rs. 10239.19 crores and
employment potential of 317819 persons. After
getting the special package of incentives from
the Department of Industries, the growth of
small scale Industrieshas been increased by
more than 6 times from January, 2003 to
March, 2011 with an investment of Rs. 831.69
crore to 10006.33 crores which provides
employment to 314317 (6.5 times increased)
person during the same period. The details are
given in Table 30, Table 31 and Table 32.
Table 30: District wise details of approval/
registration of New Small Scale
Industrial Projects after special
package (from 7-1-2003 to 31-032011)
Sr.
Number of
District
No.
Units
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kullu
Kinnaur
Lahaul &
Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Solan
Sirmaur
Una
Total
582
242
378
1088
511
70
25
862
612
5720
1510
1694
13294
Investment
Proposed
(Rs. in
employment
Lakhs)
19989.28
8946
5342.28
3936
4895.2
3641
52973.57
16502
9505.18
4753
343.03
574
122.8
10203.09
13468.35
621029.9
130706.37
132054.43
1000633.48
130
8215
6222
168215
41120
52063
314317
Table 31: Details of registered/ approved
industrial units by the Industries
Department after the special
package of incentives. (from 0701-2003 to 31-03-2011)
Investment
Number
Proposed
(Rs. in
of units
Employment
crores)
1. New
Small
13294 10006.33
314317
Scale Units
2. Expansion of
257
232.86
3535
existing units of
small
scale
sector
Sr.
No.
Category
329 | Page
Table 32: Year wise details of the
approved/registered New Small
Scale Industrial Projects after
special package (from 07-01-2003
to 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No.
year
Investment
Proposed
(Rs. in
employment
Lakhs)
2140
83169.76
48259
Number of
Units
1. Upto 200304
2. 2004-05
3. 2005-06
4. 2006-07
5. 2007-08
6. 2008-09
7. 2009-10
8. 2010-11
Total
2018
162095.8
1937
98405.83
1867 140981.61
1810 141030.97
1010 104187.39
1679 199554.77
833
71207.35
13294 1000633.48
39522
39606
47568
48077
34672
44029
12584
314317
In addition 257 proposals of substantial
expansion in Small Scale Industrial Sector
involving an investment of Rs. 23286.20 lakh
and employment potential for 3535 persons
were also approved as shown in Table 33.
Table 33: Year wise details of the
approved/registered expansion
in Small Scale Industrial Projects
after special package (from 0701-2003 to 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Year
Upto 200405
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Total
No. of
projects
Investment
Proposed
( Rs. in
Employment
Lakhs)
104
81
42
10
7
10
3
257
1722.78
4293.8
869.24
499.47
113.42
15702.29
85
23286
1138
1845
294
86
34
105
33
3535
State Level Single Window Clearance &
Monitoring Authority: With a view to ensure
expeditious clearances from the respective
Departments for setting up of new industrial
units, a State Level Single Window Clearance
and Monitoring Authority under the
Chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Minister has
been constituted to clear projects and ensure
speedy approval from various Departments or
Agencies. The Authority has so far held 51
meetings and cleared 864 projects with an
investment of Rs. 28412.74 crores and
employment potential to about 140031 persons.
The year wise details of the meetings are given
in Table 34.
Table 34: Year wise details of the meetings
(Status: upto 31-03-2011)
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
7
8
Year
No. of
meetings
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Total
2
9
8
7
3
7
11
4
51
Propose
No. of
Proposed
d
units
investment (Rs in
employ
approved.
Crores)
ment
30
232
227
160
28
76
79
32
864
541
3625
5441
4971
3269.31
6848.01
1649.22
2068.2
28412.74
4459
28083
36857
25283
4712
21255
11286
8096
140031
Rates for the allotment of plots in the
industrial areas/estate of the Industries
Department for the year 2008-09: The
Committee constituted under Rule 6.2 of
revised rules regarding Grant of Incentives,
Concessions and Facilities to Industrial Units in
H.P. 2004 has determined the premium of plots
in respect of industrial areas/estates of the
Industries Department for the year 2011-12 is
given in Table 35. The following rates shall be
applicable with immediate effect.
Table 35: District wise rates of developed and un-developed industrial area/ estates
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Name of Industrial Area (IA)/
Industrial Estates (IE)
IA Bilaspur
IA Goalthai
IA Hatli
IA Garnota
Rates in Rs. Per Sq. Mtrs.
Developed
Undeveloped
1210
825
1100 (Commercial)
330
220
330 | Page
District
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kullu
Kinnaur
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Una
Solan
Name of Industrial Area (IA)/
Industrial Estates (IE)
IE Shivnagri (Holi)
IE Sultanpur
IE Parel
IA Hamirpur
IA Nadaun
IA Nagrota Bagwan
IA Dhaliara
IA Nagri
IA Sansarpur Terrace
IA Bain Attarian
IA Raja Ka Bag
IA Nargla Jawali
IE Jawali
IE Kangra
IE Dehra
IA Shamshi
IA Reckong Peo
IE Keylong
IA Ratti
IA Bhambla
IA Sauli Khud (MND)
IE Siaglu
IE Palli
IA Shoghi
IA Jais
IE Raighat (Theog)
IE Pandranu
IA Kala Amb
IA Gondpur (Paonta Sahib )
IA Tahliwal
IA Gagret
IA Mehatpur
IA Amb
IA Jeetpur Bheri
I.A Basal
I.A Deoli Ghanari
Aghlour
IA Baddi
EPIP Baddi (Phase I)
EPIP Baddi (Phase II)
IA Barotiwala
IA Katha Bhatolikalan
IA Lodhimajra
EC .Chambaghat
IE.Chambaghat
IA Banalagi
IA Mamleeg
IA Vaknaghat
IE Dharampur
IA Parwanoo
Rates in Rs. Per Sq. Mtrs.
Developed
Undeveloped
@Rs 2/- per sq ft
550
550
1210
1100
1375
550
440
880
880
880
550
550
2200
1100
2750
825
@Rs 1/- per sq ft
1320
1100
1650
660
660
1650
550
550
275
2420
1650
2420
1650
1100
605
1320
605
1650
935
1320
825
880
550
1100
572
550
440
3300
2200
3300
2200
3300
2200
3300
2200
3300
2200
1463
3850
3080
3850
3080
825
550
1100
2420
1815
7260
4840
331 | Page
List of Industries generating hazardous waste is
given in Table 36. The hazardous waste
disposed off at TSDF site at Dhabota.
Table 36: Major Hazardous Waste generating Industries in the State
S
1.
Auro Dying Ltd.
2.
Auro Textiles Ltd.
3.
Asian Paints
4.
Birla Textile Mills
5.
Bcc Fuba India Ltd.
6.
Cadbury India Ltd.
7.
Cadila Healthcare Ltd.
8.
Cipla Ltd.
9.
Dabur India Ltd.
10.
Dabur Pharma Ltd.
11.
Dr. Reddy Lab. Ltd.
12.
Glen Mark Pharmaceuticals
13.
Godrej Hershey Ltd.
14.
Goish Remedies
15.
Goodrej Consumer Product
16.
Groer & Well (I) Ltd.
17.
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
18.
Indo Swift Ltd.
19.
Indo Swift Ltd.
20.
Johnson & Johnson Ltd.
21.
Johnson Diversey India
22.
Kandhari Beverages
23.
Krishi Rasayan Export
24.
Panacea Biotech Ltd.
25.
Procter & Gamble Home P
26.
Sc Johnson Product Ltd-2
27.
Sara Textile Ltd.
28.
Sarvotam Care
29.
Torrent Pharmaceuticals
30.
TVS Motors
31.
Winsome Textile Industries
32.
Wipro Ltd.
33.
Wockardt Ltd.
34.
Wrigley India (P) Ltd.
35.
H.M. Steel
36.
Mahan Group Companies
37.
Malwa Cotton
38.
Pasupati Spinning Mills
39.
Case Cold Roll Forming
40.
Ranbaxy Laboratories
41.
International Cars & Mot
42.
Luminous Power
43.
Fermenta Biotech
44.
Morpen Laboratories
45.
Kamla Dial Devices Ltd.
46.
Faderal Mogul Bearing
47.
Gabriel India Ltd.
48.
Ind Swift Ltd.
49.
Mahle Fileter
50.
P.A Magnet
51.
Solochrome
52.
Tafe Motors & Tractors
53.
Shivalik Biometals Control
Source: HPSPCB
Name of Unit
Area
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Nalagarh
Baddi
Baddi
Nalagarh
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Nalagarh
Baddi
Baddi
Barotiwala
Buranwala
Nalagarh
Baddi
Baddi
Nalagarh
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Baddi
Nalagarh
Jharmajri
Majra
Nalagarh
Baddi
Jharmajri
Baddi
Baddi
Kala Amb
Paonta
Paonta
Kala Amb
Kala Amb
Paonta
Una
Una
Mandi
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Kasauli
Parwanoo
Parwanoo
Ch. Ghat
332 | Page
6.11
Information
on
human
resource management issues
(which may have relevance to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational training, awareness
levels etc.
The Industries Minister (Hon’ble Chief
Minister) heads the Industries Department. At
the Secretariat level, there is a two tier
structure with the Principal Secretary
(Industries) and the Joint/Deputy/Under
Secretary (Industries).
(i) Administration and Accounts Wing:
The Administrative and Accounts Wings is
headed by the Additional Director (Admn.).
He reports in administrative/accounts matters
to the Director of Industries. He is further
assisted by Assistant Controller (F&A),
Superintendent(s) Gr.-I & II and by
ministerial and other staff.
(iv) Handloom Wing: The Handloom Wing
is headed by a Deputy Director (Handloom)
who reports to the Director for Handloom
(Director of Industries) and is further assisted
by SIO (Textiles), Superintendent Gr.-II,
ministerial and other staff.
(v) Geological & Mining Wing: The
Geological and Mining Wing is headed by the
State Geologist. He reports to the Director of
Industries for mineral exploration/regulation
works. He is further assisted by Geologists,
Assistant Geologists, Superintendent Gr.- I &
II, ministerial and other staff. The
organisational set up in the field offices of the
Department of Industries is as under:a)
(ii) Industrial Development WingI:n this
wing Industrial Advisor, Joint Director of
Industries, Project Co-odinator and Deputy
Directors, report to the Director of Industries
for the development of industries in the State.
The Officers of these wings are further
assisted by Manager, Industrial Promotion
Officer, Superintendent (s) Gr.-II, ministerial
and other staff.
(iii) Sericulture Wing: The Sericulture Wing
is headed by the Dy. Director (Sericulture) at
the Directorate level. He reports to the
Director of Industries for sericulture
development. He is further assisted by
Superintendent(s) Gr.-II, ministerial and other
staff.
District Industries Centres
The District Industries Centre are headed
by General Managers. They are further
assisted
by
Managers,
Industrial
Promotion
Officers,
Economic
Investigators,
Extension
Officers
(Industries) at Block level, ministerial and
other staff.
In order to provide facilities to
entrepreneurs close to their places of
work, Single Window Clearance Agencies
were functioning at Parwanoo, Baddi,
Nalagarh in Solan District, Paonta Sahib,
Kala Amb in Sirmaur District, Gwalthai
in Bilaspur District and Sansarpur
Terrace, Damtal in Kangra District.
b)
Mining Offices
The Mining Office is headed by a Mining
Officer. He is assisted by Mining
Inspectors, Asstt. Mining Inspectors,
Mining Guards and ministerial and other
staff. Further more, the Drilling
operation is headed by Drillers who are
333 | Page
assisted by Asstt. Driller and Laboratory
Assistant.
c)
Sericulture Offices
The Sericulture Wing has 7 divisions.
The Deputy Director (Sericulture) heads
the Palampur Division, Silk Seed
Promotion Officer, Nadaun heads the
Nadaun Division besides holding
additional Charge of Dehra Division.
The Charge of the Shimla Division was
with Project Co-ordinator. The General
Manager, DICs, Mandi and Sirmaur hold
the additional charges of Mandi and
Nahan Divisions respectively. The
Charge of the Ghumarwin Division was
with the Manager, District Industries
Centre, Bilaspur. These Officers are
further assisted by Sericulture Officers,
Development Officers, Technical Officer
(Tassar), Sr. Sericulture Inspectors,
Extension Officers (Tassar), Technical
Assistants (Tassar), ministerial and other
staff.
· Zoning Atlas
· Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
· Comprehensive Environment Pollution
Index (CEPI)
· The Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981
· National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS)
· National Water Policy, 2002
· State Water Policy (Draft)
· The Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution ) Act, 1974
· H.P. Ground Water (Regulation and Control
of Development and Management Rules,
2007
· The Noise Pollution (Regulation and
Control) Rules, 2000 (as amended to date)
· The Hazardous Wastes (Management,
Handling and Transboundary Movement)
Rules, 2008
· Land Acquisition Act, 1894
6.12
Regulatory analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment
implications
(negative or positive), and
compliance with the same.
· The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
· Mining Policy
· The Industrial Policy, 2004
· H.P. Forest Sector Policy & Strategy, 2005
· The Factories Act, 1948
Industries sector and cross sector policy and
regulatory framework at state level shows the
intent of the state government to address the
issues relating to improper siting of industries,
poor ambient air quality, deteriorating water
quality and quantity, noise pollution,
inadequate hazardous waste treatment and
disposal, land degradation, loss of flora and
fauna, and poor aesthetics. A list of policy and
programme is given below.
· Minimum Wages Act, 1948
· The Contract Labour (Regulation and
Abolition) Act, 1970
References:
· Department of Industries
· State Geologist
· State Environment Report (Year not
mentioned)
· Districts Industries Centres
· The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
· State Pollution Control Board
· EIA Notification, 2006 and amendments
· Central Pollution Control Board
· Districts Statistical Abstract
· Department of Planning
334 | Page
CHAPTER 7 ENERGY
7.1
Resource inventory of the
existing assets of the sector
Energy is the most vital infrastructure input for
economic,
agriculture
and
industrial
development of any country. It is indeed, the
fulcrum on which vests the future pace of
growth and development. Hence, there has
been an increasing demand of energy in its
various forms. The most significant of these
forms is the electrical energy, availability of
which has been recognised as an index of a
India’s overall economic growth and level of
development. Therefore, India needs to
accelerate the development of electrical energy
sector to meet its aspirations especially in the
field of industry, agriculture and also for
commercial and domestic activities.
Power can be tapped from renewable and nonrenewable resources. The availability of the
primary sources of energy in Himachal Pradesh
is shown in Table 1:
Table 1:
Hydro-power
Biogas
Solar
Wind
Geo-thermal
Tidal
Coal
Oil
Gas
Primary Source of Energy
Renewable resources
Yes
Yes, limited
Yes
Negligible potential
Yes
No
Non-renewable resources
No
No
No (not economically
viable)
The above table shows that out of various
renewable sources of electricity Hydro power,
Solar and Geothermal are the major sources of
electricity and none of the non renewable
sources are useful for power generation.
Hydro Potential
Projects under Operation (i/c
HIMURJA Projects)
Projects which are under
execution/allotted and planned for
11th Plan Period
Projects which have been
allotted/under process of allotment
and expected to yield benefit during
the 12th Plan period
Projects which would have to be
readvertised
Projects which have been abandoned
due to environmental considerations
Projects under investigation for
preparation of DPR
HIMURJA Projects proposed/under
execution){750-26.60} [Under
Operation - 26.60 MW]
TOTAL POTENTIAL
In MW
6370.12
5744.10
5615.50
1481.00
435.00
46.50
723.40
20415.00
Renewable Resources of Energy used in
Himachal Pradesh
Hydro potential status:Himachal Pradesh has
been blessed with vast hydroelectric potential in
its five river basins, namely Yamuna, Satluj,
Beas, Ravi and Chenab. Himachal Pradesh has
a vast Hydel potential and through preliminary
hydrological, topographical and geological
investigation, total power potential so far
identified is approximately 21000 MW, which is
nearly 14% of the total hydro power potential
of the entire country. Basin-wise availability of
hydro potential is indicated in Table 2.
335 | Page
Table 2:
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Basin wise availability of hydel
potential
River Basin
Satluj
Beas
Ravi
Chenab
Yamuna
Mini-Micro
Projects
Total
Total HydroPotential
(MW)
9450.25
4604.00
2359.00
3032.30
591.52
750.00
Catchment
area (Km2)
20398
13663
5528
7850
5872
This year, Himachal Pradesh is estimated to
provide a surplus of 2,000 Megawatt of
electricity to Delhi, Rajasthan, Haryana and
Punjab.
20787.07 equivalent
to 21000.00
Source: Status note by HPSEB
Out of this available Hydel potential, only
6183.00 MW (31% of the total Hydel potential)
has been exploited by various agencies, which
also includes 326.20 MW by H.P. State
Electricity Board as given in Table 3.
Table 3:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Hydel power harnessed
various agencies
Name of the Projects
Giri
Bassi
SVP Bhaba
Andhra
Thirot
Binwa
Baner
Gaj
Ghanvi Project
Gumma
Mini/Micros (9 Nos)
Total
Beas, a single hydropower plant of the
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board is
generating over 10 to 15 percent power above
its usual limit.
by
Capacity
60.00 MW
60.00 MW
120.00 MW
16.95 MW
4.50 MW
6.00 MW
12.00 MW
10.50 MW
22.50 MW
3.00 MW
10.75 MW
326.20 MW
In addition to own generation of 326.20 MW of
power by HPSEB, the State Government also
receives free power to the extent of 12% of the
installed capacity from Baria Suil, Nathpa
Jhakhri, Chamera-I, Chamera-II, Malana,
Baspa-I etc., besides its share as a State of the
region in various projects and other legal share
in BBMB projects.
Present situation: Himachal Pradesh has
shown an increase in hydropower generation in
(2010) on account of the rising temperature, as
the water levels of all Himalayan regions rivers
have gone up. Due to water surplus in the River
"This electricity, the powerhouse will produce
with all its capacity in the month of April - May
till August- September. The capacity is 126
megawatt but power works on 130-135. The
main reason is melting ice,”
"In lean season, in winters, our power capacity
goes down to 35 megawatts and out of three
machines, only one works and that machine
also work on 32-42 megawatts,".
(Source:-http://www.newkerala.com/news/fullnews121712.html)
Solar and Geothermal potential status:
Himachal Pradesh has the highest heat flow
and highest thermal gradient geothermal basin
in India. The first pilot binary 5 kW power
plant was successfully operated by the
Geological Survey of India at Manikaran, which
proved the power producing capability of this
province. Scientific data from 500 meter drillholes estimated reservoir temperatures as high
as 260ºC. Space heating experiments were also
successfully conducted using thermal discharge
by the Geological Survey of India.
The non-conventional sources of geo-thermal
and solar power have potential for rural and
hamlet electrification schemes. However,
considering the potential and resource base, HP
concentrate on large hydro power projects,
mini-and micro-hydel schemes in conventional
power.
Biomass as energy resource is used in all the
districts of the Himachal Pradesh with majority
of it in rural areas as shown in the Table 4.
336 | Page
Table 4:
District wise Bio- mass dependency
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal
Pradesh
Population 1991
% population using
biomass
% rural population
using biomass
2,95,357
3,93,286
3,69,128
11,74,072
71,270
3,02,432
31,294
7,76,372
6,17,404
3,79,695
3,82,268
3,78,269
51,70,847
90.770
85.221
91.682
88.307
73.517
85.279
84.364
88.815
66.187
84.271
73.173
91.073
83.967
94.85
80.60
96.51
91.02
71.52
92.62
84.30
95.94
89.29
92.51
85.00
94.86
90.96
Non-Renewable Resources of Energy used
in Himachal Pradesh
Consumption trends of Coke & Coal: Both
coke and coal is consumed mainly in the cold
areas of Chamba, Kinnaur, Lahaul & Spiti and
Shimla district. The consumption pattern of the
State is given in the Table 5 below. The
consumption of coal has actually decreased
Table 5:
% urban
population using
biomass
24.57
14.56
30.11
28.78
0.00
16.52
0.00
18.92
6.23
19.45
7.88
49.12
16.78
from 74,283 quintals in 1996, to 69,528 quintals
in 2000. This decrease in consumption can be
partially attributed to an increase in awareness
amongst the people about the potential harmful
effects of the burning of coal on the
environment and mainly due to the
Government’s decision to ban the use of coal
in all Government offices.
Number of Consumers and Consumption of Coal/C oke
Consumption (in quintal)
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal Pradesh
1996-97
NA
4124
NA
NA
18,633
NA
24,286
NA
27,240
NA
NA
NA
74283
Population 1999
1999-00
NA
4815
NA
NA
17,992
NA
25,076
NA
21,645
NA
NA
NA
69528
Consumption trends of Fuelwood
Traditionally, fuel wood has been the main source
of energy in the entire State because of its readylyy
3,48,865
4,70,472
4,21,552
13,67,902
82,242
3,62,366
35,340
9,14,733
7,19,908
452400
462442
438257
6076479
Per capita consumption
(per kg of
Kilo calorie per
coal)
person
0.00
NA
1.02
4080
0.00
NA
0.00
NA
21.88
87,520
0.00
NA
70.96
2,83,840
0.00
NA
3.01
12,040
0.00
NA
0.00
NA
0.00
NA
1.14
4560
availability. About 6-8 kg of fuel wood is consumed
per day per household in the State and its annual
per capita consumption has been estimated at 785
kg. The level of fuel wood consumption is mainly
337 | Page
related to the natural resource base and the climatic Plan is to accelerate the actualization of its
conditions of an area.
hydro power potential of about 20,000 MW.
Such actualization would have the following
Table 6: Biome
wise
per
capita
twin benefits:
consumption of Fuel wood
Per capita
(a) The country would gain in ameliorating
Biome
District
consumption of
shortages in this critical infrastructure
zone
fuel wood
sector, through enhanced production
A
Kinnaur
1000 kg/annum
of “green energy”.
(b)
The State’s financial resources would
Lahaul & Spiti
be augmented in such manner that its
B
Kullu
800 kg/annum
financial dependence on Central
Chamba
Government resources would diminish.
C
Shimla
600 kg/annum
Currently, 6183 MW i.e. 31% of the total
hydro-potential of the state is actualized. 5676
MW potential (28% of the total) stands allotted
and with a greater pace of investment, this
potential can be actualized within the Eleventh
Plan period. Thus, by 2012, H.P. can hope to
actualize 11,859 MW, i.e. 59% of its total
potential.
Kangra
D
Sirmaur
500 kg/annum
Solan
Bilaspur
Una
Hamirpur
Mandi
7.2
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
and
A. Hydro power development in Himachal
Pradesh: In Himachal Pradesh, the hydropower development was started even before it
became full fledged State. A small project was
commissioned during 1908 by erstwhile Raja of
Chamba, another at Chaba near Shimla in 1912,
followed by commissioning of Shanan hydroelectric project (110 MW) in District. Mandi
during mid twenties by the British Giri Hydel
Project (60MW) and Bassi Hydro Electric
Project (H.E.P.) (60 MW) were added later on
by the then Department of Multi-purpose and
Power, Himachal Pradesh Government,
HPSEB was subsequently created in September
1971, for investigations and execution of
various HEPs, and transmission and
distribution of power in the State.
The overarching vision and mission of
Himachal Pradesh for the Eleventh Five Year
Work on the balance 41% (@8200 MW) needs
to be allotted at the earliest and targeted for
completion within the Twelfth Plan, i.e. year
2017.
To achieve the actualization of the balance
hydro power potential of Himachal Pradesh, a
total investment of about Rs.98,000 crores
would be required by the various entities of the
State Government and Central Government, as
well as by the private sector.
During the next 12th Plan, the State
Government would like to invest in equity
participation for 3,000 MW additional capacity.
This would necessitate investment through the
State Plan of about Rs. 2500 crores. In addition,
the transmission and distribution networks
would also need to be considerably
strengthened through the APDRP; such
schemes would include investment for
renovation/modernization of earlier power
stations and rural electrification of the few left
out villages. An outlay of Rs. 1,000 crore would
be necessary for such investments. Thus, the
338 | Page
total power sector outlay for the Eleventh Plan
is proposed as Rs. 3500 crore.
(Source: Planning Department, Government of
Himachal Pradesh Approach Paper: Eleventh
Five-Year Plan (2007-2012) Himachal Pradesh).
The status of hydro-power in the State is
slightly better as 6060 MW under various
agencies including State Sector through HPSEB
has been developed. Projects aggregating 8500
MW installed capacity are at various stages of
execution under State through HPSEB, Private,
and Central/Joint Sectors for commissioning
during 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. Rest of the
power potential nearing 10,000 MW would
remain to be harnessed.
During 10th Five Year Plan six HEPs namely,
Holi (3 MW), Larji (126 MW) and Khauli (12
MW) in State Sector, Nathpa Jhakri (1500
MW), Chamera-II (300 MW) in Joint / Central
Sector, Baspa-II (300 MW) in Private Sector
and 26.60 MW through HIMURJA have been
commissioned which added the generation
Table 8:
Sr.
No.
I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
capacity of 2267.60 MW to National Grid
during 10th Five Year Plan.
In the 11th Plan, 5744.10 MW of power is
proposed to be added through State Sector
(1133.10 MW), Central Sector & Joint Sector
(2763.00 MW) and Private Sector (1848.00
MW).It is envisaged to harness the entire
identified power potential of Himachal Pradesh
by the year 2020.
The basin-wise, numbers of projects in
different sectors are given below in Table 7.
Table 7:
River
CHENAB
RAVI
BEAS
SATLUJ
YAMUNA
Basin wise number of Projects
Central
4
6
2
1
Joint
2
-
Private
15
11
12
17
4
State
5
5
9
12
7
The details of Hydro-electric Projects already
under operation are given in Table 8.
Hydro-electric projects under operation
Name of Project
STATE SECTOR
Andhra Project
Giri Project
Gumma Project
Rukti Project
Chaba Project
Rongtong Project
Nogli Project
SVP-Bhaba Project
Ghanvi Project
Binwa Project
Gaj Project
Baner Project
Uhl-II Project
(Bassi Project)
Sal-II Project
Gharola Project
Bhuri-Singh P.H.
Holi Project
Sissu Project
Billing Project
Shansha Project
Killar Project
Thirot
Basin
Yamuna
-do-doSatluj
-do-do-do-do-doBeas
-do-do-doRavi
-do-do-doChenab
-do-do-do-do-
No. of Units and
Rating (MW)
3x5.65
2x30
2x1.15
2x60
2x11.25
2x3
2x3.5
2x6
4x15
2x1
3x100 KW
3x1.5
Installed Capacity
(MW)
16.95
60.00
3.00
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.50
120.00
22.50
6.00
10.50
12.00
60.00
2.00
0.05
0.45
3.00
0.10
0.20
0.20
0.30
4.50
339 | Page
Sr.
No.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
III.
1.
2.
3.
IV
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
V
1.
Name of Project
Basin
Total
JOINT SECTOR
Bhakra Dam
Right Bank
Left Bank
Nathpa-Jhakri
B.B.M.B.(Dehar PH)
Pong Dam
Total
CENTRAL SECTOR
Baira-Suil
Chamera-I
Chamera-II
Total
PRIVATE SECTOR
Malana
Solang
Titang
Raskat
Manjhi
Baspa-II
Dehar
Bara-gaon
Total
OTHERS
Shanan Project
Installed Capacity
(MW)
329.50
Satluj
2.
Yamuna Share
Total
Grand Total
Source: Status note of HPSEB.
Table 9:
No. of Units and
Rating (MW)
-doBeas
-do-
5x132
5x108
6x250
6x165
6x60
660
540
1500
990
360
4050
Ravi
-do-do-
3x60+uprating
3x180
3x100
198
540
300
1038
Beas
-do-do-do-doSatluj
-do-do-
2x43
86
01.00
0.90
0.80
4.50
300
5.00
3.00
401.20
3x100
Beas
1x50
110.00
-do-
4x15
131.57
241.57
6060.27
H.E.P. planned for commissioning during 10th Plan (2002-07)
Sr. No.
I
1.
Name of Project
STATE SECTOR
Larji Project
Basin
Capacity (MW)
Beas
126
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Satluj
Beas
Ravi
Beas
Satluj
Satluj
66
12
3
100
8
4.5
319.50
Satluj
Beas
Beas
Yamuna
Beas
300
9
15
70
16
410
III
Keshang-I
Khauli Project
Holi Project
Uhl-III Project
Ghanvi-II
Bhaba Aug. P.H.
Total
PRIVATE SECTOR
Baspa-II
Fozal Project
Neogal Project
Dhambari-Sunda
Patikari
Total
JOINT/CENTRAL SECTOR
1.
Nathpa-Jhakri
Satluj
1500
II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
340 | Page
Sr. No.
2.
Name of Project
Chamera-II
Total
IV
MINI-MICRO
HYDEL
SCHEMES
1.
Mini-Micro Projects
Grand Total
Source: Information Collected from HPSEB
Basin
Ravi
Capacity (MW)
300
1800
151
2680.50
The details of the hydel schemes
commissioned during 2007, 2012 & up to the
year 2020 are given below in Table 10 and 11.
Table 10: Projects planned for commissioning during 11 th Five Year Plan (2007-12)
Name of Project
STATE SECTOR
Renuka
Kashang-I
Kashang-II
Kashang-III
Kut
Jangi Thopan
Shong Karcham
Thopan Powari
Kilhi Bahl
Sainj
Kuther
Bajoli-Holi
Chamba
Total
CENTRAL/JOINT SECTOR
Chamera-III
Kol-Dam
Rampur
Parbati-I
Parbati-II
Parbati-III
Gyspa Dam
Sawra Kuddu
Total
PRIVATE SECTOR
Sai Kothi
Budhil
Harsar
Bharmour
Siul
Lambadug
Baragaon
Fozal
Malana-II
Dhaula Sidh
Allain Duhangan
Tirthan
Chirgaon-Majhgaon
Paudital Lassa
Tangnu-Romai
Name of Basin
Installed Capacity in (MW)
Yamuna
Satluj
-do-do-do-do-do-doBeas
-doRavi
-do-do-
40.00
66.00
60.00
132.00
15.00
480.00
402.00
400.00
7.50
100.00
260.00
180.00
125.00
2267.50
Ravi
Satluj
-doBeas
-do-doChenab
Yamuna
231.00
800.00
400.00
750.00
800.00
501.00
240.00
110.00
3832.00
Ravi
-do-do-do-doBeas
-do-do-do-do-do-doYamuna
-do-do-
17.00
70.00
60.00
45.00
13.00
25.00
11.00
6.00
100.00
80.00
192.00
18.00
46.00
24.00
44.00
341 | Page
Name of Project
Dhamwari Sunda
Shalvi
Sorang
Tidong-I
Karcham-Wangtoo
Total
Total I+II+III
Source: Status note to HPSEB.
Name of Basin
-do-doSatluj
-do-do-
Installed Capacity in (MW)
70.00
7.00
60.00
100.00
1000.00
1988.00
8087.50
Table 11: Projects which have been identified andropposed for commissioning during
12th and 13th Plans (up to Year 2020)
Sr. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Name of Project
Rupin
Bahairari
Tidong-II
Baspa-I
Luri
Kuling Lara
Lara
Ropa
Mani Nadang
Lara Sumta
Sumta Kathang
Chango-Yangthang
Khab-I
Khab-II
Yangthang Khab
Gharopa
Gara-Gosain
Sal-I
Kugti
Chanju-I
Chanju-II
Bara-Bangahal
Chattru
Khoksar/Tunsha
Seli
Bardang/Tingar
Sach Khas/Sagpari
Patam
Teling
Tingret
Miyar
Tandi
Rashil
Dugar
Gondhala/Chandra Bhaga
Reoli/Dugli
Total
Source: Status Note of HPSEB.
Name of Basin
Yamuna
Satluj
-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-doBeas
-doRavi
-do-do-do-doChenab
-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-do-doChenab
Capacity in MW
39.00
5.50
90.00
210.00
425.00
40.00
60.00
60.00
70.00
104.00
130.00
140.00
450.00
186.00
400.00
85.00
25.00
6.50
45.00
40.00
23.00
200.00
140.00
150.00
150.00
180.00
210.00
60.00
81.00
81.00
90.00
150.00
150.00
360.00
270.00
715.00
5621.00
Details of private sector hydro electric projects
is given in Table 12.
342 | Page
Table 12: Status of Private Sector Hydro Electric Pr ojects in Himachal Pradesh
Name of Project/ Dependable
Sr.
installed Capacity Year Energy
No.
(MW)
MUs (90%)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Sr.
No.
11.
Date of
Signing of
Status of Project
MOU/IA
DISTRICT KINNAUR
Karcham-Wangtu 4428
M/S Jaipee
22.8.1993/
Estimated Cost = Rs. 7720 Crores
(1000 MW)
Karcham Hydro 18.11.1999
TEC 31.3.2003 E&F 14.9.2001
Corporation Ltd.
Acquisition of land and remaining
clearances in process. Project works
have been started and likely to be
commissioned during 2009-10
Titong-I
M/S Nuziveedu 23.9.2004
The company is in process of
(100 MW)
Seeds Ltd.
preparation of DPR.
Secundrabad
Sorang (60 MW)
M/S SSJV Projects23.9.2004
The company is in process of
Pvt. Ltd.
preparation of DPR.
Bangalore
(Himachal
Consortium)
DISTRICT SHIMLA
Sainj (3 MW)
M/S East India 26.6.2000/
TEC 23.4.2002 The project being less
Petroleum Ltd.
24.7.2004
than 5 MW stands transferred to
HIMURJA. Remaining clearances are
in progress.
Paudital Lassa
M/S Shree
6.6.2002
DPR under examination in HPSEB and
(24 MW)
Jai Lakshmi
slated for commissioning in 2009-10.
Tangu Romai
163
M/S PCP
5.7.2002
DPR is under scrutiny in HPSEB and is
(44 MW)
International Ltd.
slated for commissioning during 200910.
DISTRICT MANDI
Patikari
78
M/S East India 21.6.2000/
TEC 27.9.2001
(16 MW)
Petroleum Pvt.
9.11.2001
Forest 1.11.2004 Company has
Ltd.
commenced project works w.e.f. 2005.
Lambadug
M/S Himachal
13.6.2002
DPR under scrutiny in HPSEB.
(25 MW)
Consortium
Company is in process of obtaining
clearances. Detailed S&T works in
progress. Project is scheduled for
commissioning during 2008-09.
DISTRICT KULLU
Allain Duhangan
Estt. cost Rs. 922.36 Crore TEC
673
AD Hydro
28.8.1993/
(192 MW)
Power Ltd.
22.2.2001
20.8.2002
E&F
12.12.2000
MoEF
18.10.2002
The project works have been recently
commenced and likely to be
commissioned during 2009-10.
Estt. Cost Rs. 581 Crore TEC
Malana-II
428
M/S Everest
7.5.2002/
15.10.2004 In process of obtaining
(100 MW)
Power Pvt. Ltd. 14.1.2003
various statutory / Non statutory
clearances and has initiated process
for land acquisition. Project is
scheduled to be completed during
2008-09.
Name of Project/ Dependable
Date of
Executing
installed Capacity Year Energy
Signing of
Status of Project
Agency
(MW)
MUs (90%)
MOU/IA
Baragaon
54
M/S Padmini
6.6.2002
DPR under examination. Scheduled for
Executing
Agency
343 | Page
(11MW)
12.
Budhil
(70 MW)
13.
Dhaula-Sidh
(40 MW)
286
-
Traders
DISTRICT CHAMBA
M/S Lanco
23.9.2004
Green Power
Pvt. Ltd.
Hyderabad
DISTRICT HAMIRPUR
M/S GVK
20.6.2002
Industries
Ltd.
B . Small Hydro Projects (SHP’s) in
Himachal Pradesh (Including Mini-Micro
Schemes):
Government of Himachal Pradesh has been
laying a great thrust for encouraging generation
of power through renewable energy sources
with special emphasis of SHPs, including and up
to a capacity of 5 MW in the state. Out of the
total potential of 750 MW, 469 sites with
capacities ranging from 100 KW to 5 MW, has
so far, been identified. The State Government
has entrusted the implementation of Micro (less
than 100 KW), Mini (100 KW-2000 KW) and
commissioning in 2008-09.
Estt., cost 290 Crore DPR
under scrutiny in HPSEB
DPR under scrutiny in HPSEB for
TEC. Project slated for commissioning
during 2009-10.
SHPs (2000 KW-25000 KW) through private
investment to HIMURJA (Himachal Pradesh
Government Energy Development Agency).
For hydel schemes above 5MW capacity,
administrative control is with HPSEB, but for
liaison work with MNES, HIMURJA will
remain the Nodal Agency. The administrative
charge of HIMURJA has also been transferred
to MPP and Power, during 2000, for better coordination of policies at Government level.
Table shows the status of SHPs under
HIMURJA is given in Table 13.
Table 13: Abstract of Status of SHPs
S. No.
Description
1.
Total No. of projects for which MOUs signed
2.
Total MOUs in operation
3.
Total estimated capacity of projects
4.
Total No. of DPRs received
5.
Total No. of DPRs yet to be submitted
6.
Total No. of DPRs for which TEC accorded by HPSEB
7.
Total No. of projects for which IAs signed
8.
Total No. of companies with whom IA signed
9.
Total estimated capacity
10.
Total estimated cost in crores
11.
Total No. of PPAs signed
Source: A Note From HIMURJA
Out of 64 projects for which IAs have been
signed since March 2002, two projects namely
Manjhi (4.50 MW) in District Kangra and
Baragaon (3.00 MW) in Kullu District have
been commissioned in June and July 2004
respectively and works on seven projects is in
progress. These schemes are Jiwa (1.00 MW),
Aleo (3 MW) and Suman-Sarwari (2.50 MW) in
Total
235
186
419.39 MW
148
25
84
64
43
186.75 MW
1120.42
28
Kullu District, Manjhal (1.00 MW) and Dehar
(5.00 MW) in Chamba District, Ching (1.00
MW) in Shimla District and Manal (3.00 MW) in
Sirmaur District. Forest clearance cases for 36
projects have been submitted, out of which 18
have been approved. The estimated investment is
expected to be approx. Rs. 2186.70 crores.
344 | Page
Further, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh has
recently approved revised policy guidelines for
SHPs (up to 5MW) which envisage mainly the
following points:-
•
Micro-hydel projects up to 2 MW
capacity will be exclusively reserved for
bonafide Himachalis and Co-operative
societies.
•
Royalty in the form of power to H.P.
Govt. will be free up to twelve years @
12% for the next 13 years and thereafter
it would be @ 18%.
•
The Independent Power Producers
(IPP) would sell power to HPSEB @
Rs. 2.50 per unit.
•
The upfront premium up to 2 MW has
been prescribed at Rs. 25000.00 per MW
with a slab of Rs. 40,000.00. For SHPs
above 2 MW, up to 5 MW, the rate of
upfront premium shall be Rs. 45000.00
per MW with a ceiling of Rs. 75,000.00.
•
The private or Government land shall be
on lease basis except for permanent
structures, at the rates approved by the
Government for the agreement period.
•
The registration of employment-related
information to the Labour Department
and local police station on monthly basis
too has been made mandatory for the
IPP.
•
IPP can be permitted to transfer the
project further to any IPP/turn-key
contractor subject to the payment of Rs.
75 Lakhs per MW as one-time offer.
C.
Development of Non-Conventional
Energy Sources:
HIMURJA (Himachal Pradesh Government
Energy Development Agency) has been
constituted to promote and popularise
renewable and provide appropriate energy
systems at affordable prices among the larger
public and also encourage R&D efforts in the
renewable energy sector.
HIMURJA has made concerted efforts to
popularise renewable energy through the
Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme
(IREP), and has taken up as full-fledged
programme in the State with the financial
support of MNES, Govt. of India. Initially, the
programme was started on a pilot basis in two
blocks, Theog and Spiti of the State, and later on
extended to 45 blocks in a phased manner.
Efforts are also being made to propagate fuel
efficient devices and non-conventional energy
devices like solar cookers, solar water heating
systems, improved chullahs, improved water mills
and photovoltaic lights. The achievements made
under different programmes are as under:i)
•
•
•
Solar
Thermal
Programme:
Extension
29,573 Solar Cookers have been provided in
the state up to December 2004 to potential
beneficiaries.
3265 Solar Water Heating Systems of
different capacities with a total capacity of
5,91,400 (litre per day) LPD have been
installed/ booked in different parts of the
state.
The State Government has taken a decision to
make the installation of Solar Water Heating
Systems mandatory in all Government buildings
/institutions.
Type of equipment
Number of equipment
provided to the state
29573
3265
Solar Cookers
Solar
Water
Heating
Systems
Solar Photovoltaic Street 2426
Lighting Systems
Solar PV Domestic Lights
14744
Source: Economic survey-2005 and State of Environment report,
Himachal Pradesh
345 | Page
ii)
Solar Photo Voltaic Programme:
Though 100% electrification has been achieved
in the State, yet there are a number of hamlets
and small pockets of houses, which are still unelectrified. Some of these houses are so remotely
located that the people living there cannot hope
for electrification by conventional means since it
is
not
possible
to
lay
the
transmission/distribution lines for covering
these areas as it is a very costly proposition. The
only alternative for such a multitude of
hamlets/pockets of houses is electrification by
providing solar photovoltaic systems for
decentralized application.
• 2426 Solar P.V. Street Lights, 14744
Domestic P.V. Lights have been
provided at subsidized rates in Himachal
Pradesh up to December, 2004.
• Efforts were also made to electrify
rural/remote villages.
Two villages Chasak Bhatori and Murch in
Pangi have been electrified by Solar
Photovoltaic Systems. Similarly Bara Bhangal
has also been electrified. Domestic Solar Lights
have been provided to the villages @ Rs. 500/per beneficiary household.
D. Transmission and Distribution
The need for strengthening the Transmission &
Distribution system in the State is being felt for
the last few years for evacuation of power from
various inter-state and central projects and for
reduction of losses and reliability of supply
within the State.
Reliable and efficient transmission system is of
utmost importance for any power utility.
HPSEB has therefore taken steps to plan and
create adequate additional transmission system
for power evacuation from upcoming projects
and to cater to the requirements of industrial
belt besides strengthening of the existing
system. However, because of paucity of funds
the work on the already sanctioned,
transmission and distribution schemes is getting
delayed and thus work on new schemes can not
be taken up. Schemes under Accelerated Power
Development Reform Project (APDRP) have
been prepared for all the 12 Circles and stand
sanctioned for an amount of Rs. 322.78 crore
by Govt. of India. These schemes include new
33 KV Sub-Station, Augmentation of SubStation, Renovation and Modernisation of SubStations, Re-conductoring of High Tension
(HT) and Low Tension (LT) Lines installation
of Electronic Meters and computerised billing
etc. Govt. of India/Govt. of H.P has released
an amount of Rs. 306.875 crore. The loan
component of Rs. 15.89 crore has been
arranged by HPSEB from M/S Rural
Electrification Corporation (REC) Ltd. An
amount of Rs. 313.55 crore has been utilized
ending 3/07. Under these schemes HPSEB has
completed the works of 13 Nos. 33 KV SubStation (New),17 No. Sub-Station (Aug.), 8
Nos. 22 KV Control Points 2194 Km High
Tension (HT) Line,1258 Km Low Tension
(LT) Line, 2354 Nos. Distribution Sub-Stations
(New) and 350 No. Distribution Sub-Stations
(Aug.) in the different places of the State. But
due to cost escalation, about 80 % of the
physical scope of works in the scheme could be
achieved. Revised schemes have been prepared
for balance works of the original schemes for
seven (7) circle for an additional amount of Rs.
73.6 crore under Accelerated Power
Development Reform Project (APDRP). The
schemes have been approved by Ministry of
Power without any financial assistance. Revised
schemes for remaining five (5) circles are also
under preparation. State has achieved reduction
of T&D losses to the level of 18.98% i.e.
reduction of 7.63% against target of 4% during
last four years. For sustainable development, all
out efforts are being made to reduce T&D
losses to the level of 15% by the end of
Eleventh Plan.
346 | Page
7.3
Technology adopted in the
sector along with any changes
in technology
Development of Non-Conventional Energy
Sources
With the growth in the economy, the demand
for energy increases tremendously due to
rapid industrialisation, better standard of
living and increased infrastructural network.
As the conventional sources of energy are
limited, there is an immediate need to explore
new and alternative sources of energy,
encourage the use of proven technologies
such as solar water heating system and other
efficient energy devices.
HIMURJA has been constituted to promote and
popularise renewable and provide appropriate
energy systems at affordable prices among the
larger public and also encourage R&D efforts in
the renewable energy sector.
HIMURJA has made concerted efforts to
popularise renewable energy through the
Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme
(IREP), and has taken up as full-fledged
programme in the State with the financial
support of Ministry of Non-conventional
Energy Sources (MNES), Govt. of India.
Initially, the programme was started on pilot
basis in two blocks, Theog and Spiti of the
State, and later on extended to 45 blocks in a
phased manner.
The State Government has taken a decision to
make the installation of Solar Water Heating
Systems
mandatory
in
all
Govt.
buildings/institutions etc.
In order to conserve energy, HIMURJA has
provided energy efficient devices like Pressure
Cookers, CFL Systems etc. to identified IRDP
families in the selected IREP blocks.
Type of equipment
Number of equipment
provided to the state
Pressure Cookers
105823
CFL Systems
11196
improved wheels (gharats)
1247
Source: State of Environment report, Himachal Prade sh
Wind Energy
There is little scope for exploitation of wind
energy in the State for power generation and
other mechanical uses like lifting of ground
water. Efforts are being made to strengthen the
wind data base through wind monitoring
stations.
Development of Mini / Micro Projects
These following projects are executed by
HIMURJA executed under the UNDP-GEF
scheme
Project
Lingti
Kothi
Juthed
Purthi
Gharola
Bara Bhangal
Sach
Capacity
400 KW
200 KW
100 KW
100 KW
100 KW
40 KW
900KW
Projects executed by private investors
Sural
Solang
Raskat
Titang
100 KW
1000 KW
800 KW
900 KW
These following projects are executed
by HIMURJA executed under the
State/ MNES scheme
Kunnu Charang
Sissu
Billing
Shansha
Chattru
Saichu
Bagrod Sidhata
200 KW
800 KW
400 KW
400 KW
50 KW
200 kW
1100 kW
Portable Micro Hydel Generator Sets
Fifteen Portable Micro Hydel Generator sets
have been commissioned in the State. Out of
which, 12 are in Pangi sub division of
347 | Page
Chamba district, 2 in Dodra Kawar and 1
demonstration unit at Sarahan in Shimla district
which was damaged in flash floods during
July,2003, and is being rehabilitated.
the tehsil indicating high pressure are Nichar,
Morang, Sangla, Spiti, Lahaul, Udaipur, Renuka,
Balichowki, Jogindernagar, Manali, Bilaspur,
Sadar, Indora and Nurpur.
7.4
1. Change in natural flow / hydrology and
water dynamics of the reservoir/wetland/
water body: Construction of a large number of
reservoirs and dams; diversion of streams and
rivers and hydroelectric projects lead to reduced
flow into wetlands/ water bodies/ reservoir.
Further, release of impounded water by
dam/reservoir depends on the management
authority. Small hydropower projects and other
infrastructure development projects requiring
water diversion also change the hydrology of
the wetland/ water body/ river. The reduced
down stream ecological flow leads to ecological
imbalance in aquatic flora and fauna including
fisheries.
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
There are various stakeholders involved in the
power sector as listed below.
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
7.5
HP State Electricity Regulatory Commission
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
(HPSEB)
HIMURJA
HP Power Corporation Ltd.
NHPC
HPPCB
SJVNL
Forest & Wildlife
Department of Environment, Science and
Technology
Department of Fisheries
I&PH Department
BBMB
Rural Development
Farmers — the largest user group but
dispersed in rural areas
Households — also important consumers
and concentrated in urban areas
Industry – significantly affected by energy
cuts; largest firms may pursue alternative
sources
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
Vulnerability analysis of the districts indicates
that eight districts show pressure due to
hydropower development. These districts are
Kinnaur, Lahaul & Spiti, Chamba, Kullu,
Sirmaur, Mandi, Bilaspur and Kangra. Some of
Further, competing water uses both in the
upstream and downstream of the reservoir lead
to issues of water availability and water quality.
2. Silting of reservoirs due to deteriorating
catchment leads to their reduced storage
capacity / reduced power generation:
Scientific literature show that the normal
expectancy of dams in India is assumed to be
100 years but reservoirs in India are estimated
to be losing storage capacity at an average
annual rate of about 1% due to
sedimentation. Data on 116 Indian large dams
were analysed to determine the severity of
sedimentation. By 2020 over 20% of reservoirs
will have lost about 50% of their storage
capacity, e.g. the Baira Siul project (3x66MW)
in Himachal Pradesh, for instance, handles
nearly 10,000 tonnes of silt per day, per
machine during critical monsoon days. Material
loss alone is 10% by weight. Pong dam is one
of the 81 major reservoirs in India, which is
monitored by CWC. CWC estimates indicate
that the reservoir is experiencing 0.41% as
yearly average loss in capacity. Similarly,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Mumbai
348 | Page
has reported (Journal of spatial Hydrology, Vol
8, No. 2. Fall 2008) that useful life of Govind
Sagar Reservoir is about three fourth of the
period (142 years) estimated by BBMB.
3.
Catchment
area
disturbance
e.g.
deforestation/removal of vegetation/grazing is
leading to soil erosion and siltation of water
body / reservoirs and destruction of aquatic
fauna/flora: Continuous deforestation both
legal & illegal in the catchment is leading to
declining forest cover and degradation of
support lands. Further, uncontrolled grazing in
meadows & pasture land is leading to increased
pressure and reduced water holding capacity of
forests and other lands. This is causing
continuous soil erosion & siltation. Further, the
destruction of habitat of fishes including
molluscs (pila, snails, etc.), phytoplankton and
zooplankton/ grasses lead to loss of fish
productivity and species. The reduced depth of
reservoirs due to siltation further add to loss of
fish productivity and species. For example in
Pong reservoir it has been observed that due to
heavy siltation, shallow areas get choked in the
periphery leading to destruction of fish feeding
grounds. The draw down areas of Pong
reservoir is occupied by nomadic graziers and
gujjars during March-June. Besides stray cattle
also graze in the fringe area. Most of the
projects in river and tributaries have been
planned /under implementation cascade.
Presently, CAT plans are being prepared on
project to project basis, therefore individual
CAT plans of the projects are getting prepared.
Further, the flow in the finances in the present
systems by CAMPA (managed by GoI) to
GoHP is very slow resulting in delays of
implementation of CAT plans.
4. Depletion of benthic flora and fauna in
reservoir/ water body due to dredging/
desilting: Dredging / desilting leads to high
TDS/ turbidity and decreased oxygen level
thereby increasing fish mortality. Further,
disturbance in benthic flora and fauna leads to
decreased fish productivity.
5. Change in land use in the catchment and
fringe areas / buffer zone e.g. submergence
and promotion of agriculture / horticulture
activities is leading to adverse impacts on
reservoirs/water bodies: Submergence is
leading to loss of land resulting in change in
land use in the catchment. Further, shift in land
use and increased agricultural production
patterns in the catchment, buffer zone e.g.
submergence and promotion off agriculture /
horticulture activities is leading to adverse
impacts on reservoirs/water bodies.
Submergence not only causes change in land
use but also create Rehabilitation &
Resettlement issues. Shift in land use and
agricultural production patterns in the
catchment, buffer zone and fringe areas is
leading to adverse impacts on wetlands/
reservoir/ water body in Himachal Pradesh e.g.
shorelines of lakes/ wetlands are farmed during
the draw down phase in Pong reservoir. The
water bodies become recipient of insecticides,
pesticides, fertilizers and heavy metals.
Depleted oxygen and higher nutrients level may
lead to decline in fisheries. Further,
bioaccumulation may lead to potential health
risk e.g. It has been reported in Pong wetland
report of Forest Department that the chemicals
such as CAN, Urea, 12-32-16, DAP, Sulphur
Phosphate and insecticides such as nuvan, etc.
pollute water reservoir and deteriorates flora
and fauna.
6. Inadequate enforcement of regulated
activities due to involvement of multiple
agencies e.g. operation of reservoir is
managed by power utility, forest areas /
wetlands come under jurisdiction of
department of fisheries, tourism promotion
under Department of Tourism etc.:Lack of
coordination between multiple agencies to poor
enforcement of regulated activities leading to
water pollution and impacts on aquatic and
terrestrial flora and fauna.
349 | Page
7. Inadequate flow monitoring at each
reservoir leads to sub-optimal flow
management: Lack of flow measurement in
the river basin leads to sub-optimal flow
management and variation downstream flow
through the year. An online command and
control regime can assist in flood management
as well as maintenance of ecological flow in the
river.
8. Hazardous waste generation due to CFL
disposal: Since CFL contains mercury, lack of
used CFL collection and disposal mechanism
will lead to increased generation of household
hazardous waste.
9. Inadequate usage of non-conventional
sources of energy: Lack of usage of nonconventional sources of energy e.g. solar energy
at household as well as at commercial
establishments (tourist / hotels / resorts /
offices) is leading to higher consumption of
fossil fuel resulting in greater emissions both in
rural and urban areas.
10 Inadequate bio-energy utilization in the
State: Among various types of natural
biomasses, Pinus trees are abundantly found in
Himachal Pradesh up to an altitude of 5500
feet. Pine needles of these trees are a major
cause of fire during summer season when
plants shed these needles. A majority of the
fires are reported from the pine forests since
during the summer the trees shed pine needles
that are highly inflammable due to the rich
content of turpentine oil The burning of this
biomass causes not only environmental
pollution, GHG emissions and also destroy the
other flora and fauna. Very little work has been
done on utilizing these pine needles as
reinforcing material in the polymer composites.
Pine needles have a potential ability to work as
the reinforcement for polymer matrix. The
mechanical properties of pine needles
reinforced polymer matrix are higher than that
of matrix polymer. High weight content of pine
needles enables the Pinus composites to
increase their strength in the most effective
way, when the pine needles are modified into
the ‘particle size’. The pine needles have the
potential to be an ideal substitute fiber of
synthetic fibers for synthesis of green
composites. These composites can be future
materials for the fabrication of eco-friendly
materials. This precious wealth of nature is not
exploited for better end products. This can also
be attributed to inappropriate pricing of pine
needles and collection mechanism in State.
11. Disaster management during
Construction phase and Operation phase
An extremely important issue pertains to dam
failure. It is well known that the Alaknanda
catchment lies in the geo-dynamically sensitive
Himalayan region (Seismic zone IV; IS
1893:2000), thus naturally prone to disasters.
Earthquakes magnitude of 8.5 on Richter Scale
have been recorded in the Himalayas. In wake
of the kind of developmental interventions
associated with hydropower projects,it may be
noted that any serious manmade/natural
disaster due to failure of dam/s may occur. The
reasons of the dam failure could be technical
flaw in the design or extreme rainfall event,
earthquake etc.
There are four major points for disaster during
the construction and operation phase.
• Man made failure
• Natural calamities
• Cavity
Collapse
in
underground
construction (Tunnel, power house, etc.)
• Oil spillage from Transformers, etc.
An analysis of the issues, impacts has been
carried out and has been summarized in Table
14.
350 | Page
Table 14: Issues, Cause and Impacts
Issues
01. Change in natural
flow/hydrology and water
dynamics of the
reservoir/wetland/ water
body
Causes
Construction of a large number of reservoirs
and dams; diversion of streams and rivers and
hydro-electric projects lead to reduced flow
into wetlands/ water bodies/ reservoir.
Further, release of impounded water by
dam/reservoir depends on the management
authority. Small hydropower projects and other
infrastructure development projects requiring
water diversion also change the hydrology of
the wetland/ water body/ river.
02. Silting of reservoirs due
to deteriorating
catchment leads to their
reduced storage
capacity / reduced
power generation
03. Catchment area
disturbance e.g.
deforestration / removal
of vegetation/grazing is
leading to soil erosion
and siltation of water
body / reservoirs and
destruction of aquatic
fauna/flora
Continuous soil erosion in the catchment area
04. Depletion of benthic flora
and fauna in wetlands/
reservoir/ water body
due to dredging/
desilting
Depletion of benthic flora and fauna in
wetlands/ water body/ reservoir due to
dredging/ desilting.
05. Change in land use in the
catchment and fringe areas /
buffer zone e.g. submergence
and promotion of agriculture
/ horticulture activities is
leading to adverse impacts on
reservoirs/water bodies
Submergence causes change in land use. Shift
in land use and agricultural production patterns
in the catchment, buffer zone and fringe areas.
It has been reported in Pong wetland report of
forest department that the chemicals such as
CAN, Urea, -321-126, DAP, Sulphur
Phosphate and insecticides such as nuvan, etc.
pollute water for reservoir and deteriorates
flora and fauna.
− Lack of coordination between agencies.
− Lack of implementation of integrated basin
plan.
06. Inadequate enforcement of
regulated activities due to
involvement of multiple
agencies e.g. operation of
reservoir is managed by power
utility, forest areas / wetlands
Continuous deforestation both legal & illegal in
the catchment is leading to declining forest
cover and productivity of forests and support
lands. Further, uncontrolled grazing in
meadows & pasture land is leading to increased
pressure and reduced water holding capacity of
forests and other lands. This is causing
continuous soil erosion & siltation.
Impacts/risks
Changes in Hydrological
regime leading to variation in
ecology
of
the
small
stream/khud which in turn
affects large streams and
rivers.
Ecological imbalance in
aquatic flora and fauna
including fisheries.
Drying
up
of
areas
downstream Dam/ Diversion
Reduced power generation
Reduced life of reservoir
Ecological imbalance in the
catchment and downstream
Dam/ Diversion
Siltation leading to reduction
of capacity of reservoir/dam/
wetland.
Loss of habitat/ biodiversity/
productivity.
Disturbance to feeding,
breeding and nesting of birds
including migratory birds.
Disturbance to wetland/
ecology and food chain.
Disruption of breeding and
feeding of fish.
Alteration in water flow
Decrease in water retention
leads to high TDS/ turbidity
and decreased oxygen level
thereby
increasing
fish
mortality.
Potential health risk across the
entire food chain.
Fish mortality and decline in
productivity.
Rehabilitation
and
resettlement issues
Ecological imbalance due to
loss of forest land
Loss of fish species.
Ecological imbalance in aquatic
flora and fauna including
fisheries.
Loss of wetland/ water body/
reservoir
area
due
to
351 | Page
Issues
come under jurisdiction of
department of fisheries,
tourism promotion under
department of tourism etc.
07. Inadequate flow
monitoring at each reservoir
leads to sub-optimal flow
management:
08. Hazardous waste
generation due to CFL
disposal
Causes
−
09. Inadequate usage of
non-conventional
sources of energy
10 Inadequate Bio-energy
utilization in the state
11 Disaster during
Construction phase and
Operation Phase
7.6
Impacts/risks
institutional gaps.
Deteriorate surface
quality.
water
Lack of basin planning approach and basin
plans.
Reduced
availability
ecological flow
Ecological imbalance
Lack of collection and disposal
mechanism for CFL
Inadequate awareness on the impact of
unscientific disposal of hazardous waste
Hazardous waste generation
Public health risk
Water contamination and Air
pollution
Lack of awareness
Lack of mass replications
Technology constraints
Expensive option
Inappropriate pricing of pine needle and its
collection mechanism
Man made failure
Natural calamities
Cavity
collapse
in
underground
construction (Tunnel, power house, etc.)
Oil spillage from Transformers, etc.
Environment initiatives taken
by the sector to address critical
environment issues
1. Environment Safeguards
Some of the major environmental aspects and
their safe-guards are briefly described as under:Ÿ During construction period of the hydel
scheme, the muck generated from excavation
is being disposed off at the earmarked
dumping sites.
Ÿ Effective ventilation system in underground
structures, wetting of un-metalled roads
frequently to prevent generation of dust, etc.
are being provided.
Ÿ Engineering measures like gully control, bench
terracing land-slide control, hill slope
of
Impacts due to hydropower
development
Higher emission of air
pollutions
Excessive
exploitation
of
conventional resources leaving
the resources depleted
Non utilization of pine needles
leading to forest fires and
GHG emissions
Flooding
Damage to Properties
Loss of lives
stabilisation and cut are being stabilised by
proper shortcreting and rock-bolting etc.
Ÿ Whenever possible, fish passage is being
provided, especially on the hydel schemes
located on the main rivers. Also Aquaculture
facilities are being provided on the hydel
schemes having reservoirs.
Ÿ Himachal Pradesh Government has already
notified suitable instructions to all the
existing and upcoming hydel projects in the
State to release and maintain minimum water
flow of fifteen percent of lowest inflow
downstream into the river body throughout
the year, for separate drinking water,
irrigation arrangements, environmental and
ecology etc.
Ÿ It is further made mandatory on the part of
all hydel project authorities to install
appropriate instruments or devices to keep
352 | Page
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
the record of water flow on a day-to-day
basis.
Social impacts including loss of homes and
agriculture areas are compensated based on
Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy of
Himachal Pradesh Government.
Anti-poaching laws are enforced to protect
wildlife with the help and guidance of State
Forest Department.
Loss of forests and habitats for wildlife are
compensated by carrying out compensatory
afforestation in and around the project area
and also in the catchment area as per plan and
provision in Catchment Area Treatment Plan
(CAT) for concerned river basin, biological
measures such as nursery development,
horticulture plantation and silvipastoral
plantation in catchment areas of the project
and also creation of greenbelts around the
reservoir, are being taken under Environment
Management Plan of the Project.
Adequate funds are being provided for habitat
improvement, conservation of endangered
species and enrichment of flora and fauna.
About 1.5 percent of the estimated cost of the
project shall be spent on socio-economic
development of the area.
2.
Energy Conservation Programme
under HIMURJA: In order to conserve
energy, HIMURJA has provided energy
efficient devices like Pressure Cookers, Nutan
Stoves and Nutan Jyoti to identified IRDP
families in the selected IREP blocks. So far
105823 Pressure Cookers, 11,196 CFL Systems,
26881 Nutan Jyoti and 41,579 Nutan Stoves
have been provided to identified families at a
subsidized rate:-
• 1247 improved wheels (gharats) with
improved efficiency have also been
installed/booked in different parts of the
State up to December, 2004.
Type of equipment
Number of equipment
provided to the state
Pressure Cookers
105823
CFL Systems
11196
improved wheels (gharats)
1247
Source: State of Environment Report, Himachal Prade sh
Solar Energy: The State Government has
made it mandatory for all government buildings
situated at 2000m above MSL to have passive
solar techniques incorporated in them.
Table 15: List
of
buildings
using
renewable energy and energy
conservation measures
S.
No.
1
Name of the
building
Himurja Office
2
HP State Cooperative Bank
MLA Hostel
3
Location
Shimla
Shimla
Features
Water
heating, PV
for
lighting
Air heating
Shimla
Integrated
solar cooker,
water heating
Source: - http://mnre.gov.in/booklets/solar-energy/ch6.pdf
The Central Government has decided to
develop two Himachal Pradesh towns as solar
cities and two educational institutes as energy
parks. The Central Government has agreed in
principle to develop Shimla and Hamirpur
towns as solar cities and the Dr.Y.S. Parmar
University of Horticulture and Forestry at
Nauni in Solan district and the National
Institute of Technology at Hamirpur as energy
parks under the Ministry of New Renewable
Energy’s programmes.
Atal Bijli Bachat Yojna launched by
Himachal Pradesh: The ambitious Atal Bijli
Bachat Yojna has launched by the Government
of Himachal Pradesh to save on power
consumption and power bills by domestic
consumers which have been provided four CFL
bulbs per family free of cost.
353 | Page
The endeavour of Himachal Pradesh
Government is to promote CFL use at such a
massive scale was indeed a herculean task
which the State had accomplished successfully.
Although the Union Government had also
launched one Bachat Lamp Yojna on 25th
February, 2009, which was somewhat different
to that of Atal Bijli Bachat Yojna since it was
facilitating the domestic consumers of the state
with four free CFL bulbs per family. The
objective of both the schemes was similar since
it aimed at power saving by every consumer.
The power thus saved would be of immense
value to the states which were power deficit
during summer season.
Electrification Programme of the Ministry was
initiated for electrification through renewable
energy sources of those unelectrified remote
villages and remote unelectrified hamlets of
electrified census villages where grid
connectivity is either not feasible or not cost
effective.
Around 3330 unelectrified census villages and
830 unelectrified hamlets of electrified villages
have been provided with basic electricity facilities.
System installation work is currently going on in
1670 remote villages and 630 remote hamlets.
State-wise details of projects sanctioned and
completed are given in Table 16.
3.
Remote
Village
Lighting
Programme:
The
Remote
Village
Table 16: Physical progress of implementation of Remote Village Electrification
Programme
Sr.
No.
1.
4.
State
Himachal Pradesh
Total Villages
Sanctioned
since 2001
21
Villages
Completed
upto July 07
1
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran
Yojna - Scheme of Rural Electricity
Infrastructure
and
Household
Electrification:
This new scheme has been launched by the
Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, to provide
access to electricity for all rural households in five
years for reaching the goals of the National
Common Minimum Programme (NCMP). The
approval of the Govt. of India has already been
accorded in March, 2005.
The highlights of the programme are as
follows:
•
The scheme will be implemented through
the Rural Electrification Corporation
(REC) and act as a nodal agency.
Ninety percent capital subsidy would be
provided by the Central Government for
•
•
•
•
On going
villages
Total hamlets
sanctioned
20
1
Hamlets
completed
upto July
2007
overall cost of the project.
Below Poverty Line (BPL) households to
get electricity connection free of charge.
Revenue sustainability of electricity
supply to be ensured through franchises,
which might be NGOs, users
associations, co-operatives or individual
entrepreneurs with association of
Panchayati Raj Institutions.
No discrimination in the hours of supply
between rural and urban households.
Services of Central Public Sector
Undertakings (CPSUs) made available to
states willing to utilize their services for
implementing of the programme.
The scheme will create the necessary
information through:-
354 | Page
a) Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone
(REDB):Provision of 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) substations of adequate capacity and lines in
blocks where these do not exist.
b) Creation of Village
Infrastructure (VEI)
Electrification
Electrification of un-electrified villages.
Electrification of un-electrified habitations.
Provision of distribution transformers with
the appropriate capacity in electrified villages/
habitations.
5. Environment Management in SJVNL – A
Perspective
a)
The “Environment” comprises all entities,
natural or manmade, external to oneself,
which provide value, now or perhaps in
the future, to humankind. Environmental
concerns relate to their degradation
through actions of humans.
b)
The present day consensus reflects three
foundational aspirations. First, that human
beings should be able to enjoy a decent
quality of life; second, that humanity
should become capable of respecting the
finiteness of the biosphere; and third, that
neither the aspiration for the good life, nor
the recognition of biophysical limits
should preclude the search for greater
justice in the world.
7.7
Environment related studies
carried out in the sector
1.
Environmental
Surveillance
and
Monitoring of Hydroelectric Projects: In
view of the amount of work involved in the
Environmental Monitoring of Hydroelectric
Projects, the State Pollution Control Board has
been finding it increasingly difficult to conduct
the proper surveillance and monitoring of
Hydroelectric Projects from its own resources
in terms of manpower and mobility. At the
same time in view of the public concerns and
the requirement of mandatory provisions of
the Water Act, 1974, Air Act, 1981 and
Environmental Clearance; it is essential that
the periodic monitoring is conducted and
regular checks are exercised on the activities of
Hydel Projects which have adverse impacts
from Water & Air besides muck/debris
management. In this regard the State Board at
the time of evaluating the EIA/EMP of the
proposed projects ensures that costs in respect
of monitoring of Environmental Management
Plan with reference to checking of muck
management, restoration plan, water and air
quality monitoring are in-built in the
EIA/EMP. This approach has also been
upheld and endorsed by the State
Government. At present seven projects have
been approved namely: 1. Parbati (Stage-II)
Hydroelectric Project, Kullu District 2. Kol
Dam Hydroelectric Project, Bilaspur District 3.
Chamera (Stage-III) Hydroelectric Project,
Chamba District 4. Karcham Wangtu
Hydroelectric Project, Kinnaur District; 5
Rampur Hydel Project, Shimla/Kullu District;
6 Budhil Hydroelectric Project, Chamba
District; 7. Sawda-Kuddu Hydroelectric
Project,
Shimla
District,
8.
Sorang
Hydroelectric Project, Kinnaur District; 9.
Tidong Hydroelectric Project, Kinnaur District
and Uhl Stage-III Hydroelectric Project, Mandi
District.
2. Environmental Status Mapping of Satluj
Catchment in Himachal Pradesh
The Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Government of India is doing a pilot study, in
view of increasing development activities in
the catchment of Satluj. The main objective of
this study is to prepare an environmental
status report of the Satluj catchment and to
identify the environmental issues and
conservation measures required for resolving
these problems. Besides, the outcome of this
environmental resource inventory/spatial
environmental information database would
be helpful to the development agencies and
355 | Page
user institutions of the State in their decisionmaking wherein, all aspects related to
environment are considered in relation to the
entire catchment system and to achieve the
development targets which are compatible
with the environmental setting of the
catchment. This composite view of
environmental
status
mapping
and
HP State Council for Science, Technology and
Environment has done remote sensing based
studies for Tidong-I & II hydroelectric projects
in Kinnaur district, for HPJVVNL . As per
survey carried out by CRRID in 2002, some
branches need to be given priority and added at
degree level; one of them is Environmental
Engineering.
•
•
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Integrated Kashang Hydro-electric
Project (243 MW) of Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Lambadung Hydro-electric Project
conservation
priorities
of
the
region/catchment would also be useful to the
environmental regulators to have a neutral
opinion in decision making while granting
environmental clearances to the development
projects at the State and Central level.
•
•
•
(25 MW), Kangra District, Himachal
Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for MTPA Central Plant, Himachal
Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for MTPA Lime Stone Production at
Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Exploratory Drilling of Oil
Exploration in Nahan-Solan District,
Himachal Pradesh.
356 | Page
•
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Shongtong-Karchan Hydro-electric
Project (402 MW), Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Exploratory Drilling of Oil
Exploration in Kangra-Mandi District,
Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for MTPA Cement Grinding Unit and 30
MW multifuels based power plant at
Solan District, Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Vardhana Roofing, Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Natural Mineral Development
Cooperation, Himachal Pradesh.
Environmental Impact Assessment Study
for Metro Trade India Limited, Himachal
Pradesh.
•
•
•
•
•
7.8
Environment monitoring (key
parameters such as air and
water pollution) carried out for
activities related to the sector
There is no environment monitoring mechanism
within the sector but environment monitoring is
carried out by the HP Pollution Control Board
within the State.
Air Quality Trends in H.P.: The recent trend
of air quality revealed that higher concentration
of SPM/RSPM in Residential areas such as
Station No-1 in Paonta Sahib, Station No-1 in
Jassur and Sector – IV in Parwanoo is mainly
due to more traffic movement in these areas.
Whereas, higher concentration of SPM in
Paonta Sahib Industrial Area is contributed by
industrial, construction activities & vehicle
movement in the area. Station-wise details of
concentration of SPM/RSPM, SO2 and NOx
are given below.
Air Quality at Shimla: Air quality at Shimla is
within the prescribed standards so far as
concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2,NOx)
are concerned. However, there is a sharp rise in
the concentration of SPM during 2006 resulting
in to poor air quality of the city, which is mainly
arising out of fuel combustion in automobile
sector, which has increased exponentially.
Air Quality at Damtal (Jassur, Kangra): Air
quality at Damtal has shown a marginal
improvement and concentration of SPM is close
to the prescribed standard limit, whereas,
concentration of gaseous pollutants is below the
standards.
Summary of river basin-wise monitoring
points and status of overall surface water
quality with respect to important water quality
parameters are given below in Table 17.
Air Pollution: Ambient Air Quality is being
monitored in the State in terms of SO2 (Sulfur
dioxide), NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), SPM
(Suspended Particulate Matter) and RSPM
(Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter) by the
State Pollution Control Board under the Project –
National Ambient Air Monitoring Programme
(NAMP).
Table 17: River-Wise Water Quality Status (January 2007)
1
Beas
12
Status of water
quality
A to C
2
3
Ravi
Satluj
2
9
A
A to B
4
5
6
Parvati
Pabber/Tons
Yamuna
1
1
2
A
A
A
Sr. No.
Monitoring
point
Rivers
Remarks
Untreated sewage pollutes river D/S of
Kullu & Mandi town.
Water quality is very good.
Water quality is good. Though, untreated sewage from
Rampur and Bilaspur pollute the river.
Water quality is very good.
Water quality is very good.
Water quality is very good.
357 | Page
7
Sirsa
3
Status of water
quality
A to D
8
9
Renuka Lake
Sukhana
1
1
A
D
10
Lift Nala MSW
site
Swan
Markanda
1
D
2
1
A to B
A
Sr. No.
11
12
Monitoring
point
Rivers
Remarks
Industrial and domestic effluent pollutes river in Baddi,
Barotiwala and Nalagarh region.
Water quality is very good.
Industrial and domestic effluent pollutes river in D/S
Parwanoo town.
Effluents from hotels and domestic sources pollute river
in D/S Shimla town.
Water quality is good.
Water quality is very good.
Source: HPSPCB Shimla
Water Quality Index of Rivers of Himachal
Pradesh:
Water quality index has been calculated on the
basis of data taken from the CPCB to know the
status of water quality of rivers and some
reservoir or Lakes which are either flowing or
situated in the state. After calculation of water
quality indices summary of results are given
below in Table 18.
Table 18: Results of Water Quality Index of Various Rivers Flowing through H.P region
RIVER
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
BEAS
LOCATION
Beas at U/S
Manali H.P
Beas at U/S
Kullu H.P
Beas at D/S
Kullu H.P
Beas at U/S
Pandoh Dam,
H.P
Beas at exit of
Tunnel Dehar
Power House,
H.P
U/S Mandi,
H.P
Beas at D/S
Mandi, H.P
Beas at D/S
Alampur, H.P
Beas at D/S
Dehra Gopipur,
H.P.
Beas at D/S
Pong dam H.P
Water Quality Index
2003
2004
2005
Value Criteria Value
Criteria Value Criteria
Beas river in H.P
Value
2006
Criteria
75
Good
84
Good
88
Good
92
Excellent
74
Good
85
Good
87
Good
89
Good
77
Good
85
Good
86
Good
92
Excellent
81
Good
85
Good
85
Good
88
Good
80
Good
89
Good
85
Good
89
Good
80
Good
82
Good
88
Good
91
Excellent
68
Medium
83
Good
86
Good
87
Good
84
Good
91
Excellent
91
Excellent
88
Good
80
Good
90
Good
88
Good
85
Good
89
Good
88
Good
87
Good
82
Good
Satluj river in H.P
SATLUJ
SATLUJ
Satluj at Nathpa
Zakhri, H,P
Satluj at U/S
86
Good
89
Good
91
Excellent
89
Good
77
Good
78
Good
80
Good
90
Good
358 | Page
RIVER
SATLUJ
SATLUJ
SATLUJ
SATLUJ
SATLUJ
LOCATION
Rampur, H.P
Satluj at D/S
Rampur H.P
Satluj at U/S
Tattapani, H.P
Satluj at U/S
Slapper H.P
Satluj at D/S
Slapper H.P
Satluj at D/S
Bhakhra, H.P
2003
Value Criteria
Water Quality Index
2004
2005
Value
Criteria Value Criteria
Value
75
Good
77
Good
77
Good
84
Good
77
Good
79
Good
79
Good
82
Good
77
Good
85
Good
84
Good
83
Good
78
Good
86
Good
88
Good
86
Good
91
Excellent
89
Good
82
Good
85
Good
2006
Criteria
Ravi river in H.P
Ravi at U/S
Chamba, H.P
Ravi at U/S
Madhopur, H.P
RAVI
RAVI
84
Good
94
Excellent
94
Excellent
89
Good
88
Good
90
Good
90
Good
89
Good
87
Good
91
Excellent
87
Good
93
Excellent
Parvati river in H.P
PARVATI
Parvati before
conf. to River
Beas H.P
LARGI
Largi at D/S
H.P
77
Good
89
Good
Largi river in H.P
79
Good
89
Good
Sirsa river iIn H.P
River Sirsa U/S
Sitomajri Nallah
H.P
River Sirsa D/S
Nalagarh Bridge
H.P
SIRSA
SIRSA
78
Good
83
Good
84
Good
79
Good
74
Good
70
Medium
67
Medium
56
Medium
Yamuna river in H.P
YAMUNA
YAMUNA
7.9
River Yamuna
U/S Paonta
Sahib, H.P
River Yamuna
D/S Paonta
Sahib, H.P
71
Good
73
Good
74
Good
69
Good
64
Medium
70
Medium
69
Good
68
Good
Institutional
mechanisms
within the sector to address
identified environment issues
The State Electricity Board in accordance with
the provisions of Electricity Supply Act (1948)
was formed in 1971. Accordingly, all functions
of the Department of Multipurpose Power
Projects, such as generation, execution of hydro
electric projects except functions of flood
control and minor irrigation were transferred to
the Board. The organizational chart of HP State
Electricity Board given below:-
359 | Page
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board Limited
Existing Organization
Organisational Chart of HP PCL
360 | Page
7.10
Data
/
documentation
pertaining
to
addressing
demographic issues in the
context of the sectors, such as
population
changes;
requirements of populations
and
changing
lifestyles;
migratory
populations
including
tourists;
transhumants; transit labour
population; pressures felt by
communities due to degraded
environment conditions.
Details of Hydro-Power in HP in State,
Central, Joint sector, Private sector HIMURJA
projects are given in Table 19.
Table 19: Projects under operation
Sr.No.
Name of Project
A. State Sector
1
Andhra
2
Giri
3.
Gumma
4.
Rukti
5.
Chaba
6.
Rongtong
7.
Nogli
8.
Bhaba
9.
Ganvi
10.
Binwa
11.
Gaj
12.
Baner
13.
Uhl-II (Bassi)
14.
Larji
15.
Khauli *
16.
Sal-II
17.
Holi
18
Bhuri Singh P/House
19
Killar
20
Thirot
Total
B. Central/ Joint Sector
1.
Yamuna Project (HP Share)
2.
Bhakhra
3.
Nathpa Jhakhri
4.
Baira Siul
5.
Chamera-I
6.
Chamera-II
7.
Uhl-I (Shanan)
8.
Pong Dam
9.
B.S.L.
Total
C. Private Sector
1.
Malana
2.
Baspa-II
Total
Total A+B+C
Name of Basin
Installed capacity (MW)
Yamuna
Yamuna
Yamuna
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
16.95
60.00
3.00
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.50
120.00
22.50
6.00
10.50
12.00
60.00
126.00
12.00
2.00
3.00
0.45
0.30
4.50
466.95
Yamuna
Satluj
Satluj
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Beas
Beas
Beas
131.57
1325.00
1500.00
198.00
540.00
300.00
110.00
396.00
990.00
5490.57
Beas
Satluj
86.00
300.00
386.00
6343.52
361 | Page
Sr.No.
Name of Project
D. HIMURJA Projects
1
Dehar
2
Maujhi
3.
Raskat
4.
Baragran
5.
Aleo
6.
Marthi
7.
Titang
8.
Lingti
9.
Ching
10
Manal
Total
Total A+B+C+D
Details of projects under execution, allotted
planned for 11th plan period is given in Table
Name of Basin
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Satluj
Satluj
Yamuna
Yamuna
Installed capacity (MW)
5.00
4.50
0.80
3.00
3.00
5.00
0.90
0.40
1.00
3.00
26.60
6370.12
20.
Table 20: Projects under execution/allotted and planned for 11 th plan period
Sr.No.
Name of Project
A. State Sector
1
Bhaba Aug. PH
2
Kashang-I
3
Kashang-II
4
Kashang-III
5
Ganvi-II
6
Shongtong Karcham
7
Uhl-III
8
Sainj
9
Khauli-II
10
Sawra Kuddu
11
Chirgaon Majhgaon
12
Dhamwari Sunda
13
Renuka
Total
B. Central / Joint Sector
1
Chamera-III
2
Kol-Dam
3
Rampur
4
Parbati-II
5
Parbati-III
Total
C. Private Sector
1.
Allain Duhangan
2.
Malana-II
3.
Patikari
4
Neogal
5.
Lambadug
6.
Baragaon
7
Fozal
8
Baner-II
Name of Basin
Installed capacity (MW)
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Beas
Beas
Beas
Yamuna
Yamuna
Yamuna
Yamuna
4.50
130.00
65.00
48.00
10.00
402.00
100.00
100.00
6.60
111.00
46.00
70.00
40.00
1133.10
Ravi
Satluj
Satluj
Beas
Beas
231.00
800.00
412.00
800.00
520.00
2763.00
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
Beas
192.00
100.00
16.00
15.00
25.00
11.00
9.00
6.00
362 | Page
Sr.No.
9
10
11
12
13
14
Name of Project
Tidong-I
Sorang
Karcham Wangtoo
Raura
Paudital Lassa
Tangnu Romai
Name of Basin
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Yamuna
Yamuna
Installed capacity (MW)
100.00
100.00
1000.00
8.00
24.00
50.00
15
Sai Kothi
Ravi
17.00
16
Harsar
Ravi
60.00
17
Bharmaur
Ravi
45.00
18
Budhil
Ravi
70.00
Total
Total:A+B+C:
1848.00
5744.10
Details of projects allotted/under process of
allotment during 12th plan period is given in
Table 21.
Table 21: Projects which have been allotted/under pr ocess of allotment and expected to
yield benefit during the 12th Plan period
Sr.No.
Name of Project
A. Central /Joint Sector
1
Khab-I
2
Khab-II
3
Luhri
4
Parbati-I
B. Private Sector
1
Chanju-I
2
Chanju-II
3
Bara Banghal
4
Bajoli-Holi
5
Kuther
6
Suil
7
Sal-I
8
Bardang
9
Chattru
10
Miyar
11
Tingret
12
Teling
13
Tandi
14
Rashil
15
Gondhala
16
Khoksar
17
Ropa
18
Mane Nadang
19
Lara
20
Bahairari
21
Chango Yangthang
Name of Basin
Installed capacity(MW)
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Beas
Total:
450.00
186.00
750.00
750.00
2136.00
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Ravi
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
25.00
17.00
200.00
180.00
260.00
13.00
6.50
126.00
108.00
90.00
81.00
69.00
104.00
102.00
144.00
90.00
60.00
70.00
60.00
5.50
140.00
Remarks
Allotted to SJVNL
Allotted to SJVNL
Allotted to SJVNL
Allotted to NHPC
Allotted
Allotted
Allotted
Allotted
Allotted
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Allotted
363 | Page
Sr.No.
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Name of Project
Yangthang Khab
Sumta Kathang
Kut
Tidong-II
Jangi thopan
Thopan Porari
Kilhi-Balh
Dhaula-Sidh
Shalvi
Rupin
Name of Basin
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Satluj
Beas
Beas
Yamuna
Yamuna
Total:
TOTAL (A+B)
Installed capacity(MW)
261.00
130.00
24.00
60.00
480.00
480.00
7.50
40.00
7.00
39.00
3479.50
5615.50
Remarks
Under process of allotment
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Allotted
Allotted
Allotted
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Under process of allotment
Allotted
Details of projects which have to be readvertised are given in Table 22.
Table 22: Projects which have to be readvertised
Sr.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Name of Project
Patam
Seli
Dugar
Gyspa
Sach-Khas
Reoli/Dugli
Kuling Lara
Lara Sumta
Total
Name of Basin
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Chenab
Satluj
Satluj
Installed capacity(MW)
60.00
454.00
236.00
170.00
149.00
268.00
40.00
104.00
1481.00
Details of abandoned due to environmental
consideration are given Table 23.
Table 23: Projects which have been abandoned due to environmental considerations
Sr. No. Name of Project
1 Baspa-I
Name of Basin
Satluj
2
Chamba
Ravi
3
Gharopa
Beas
Total
Installed capacity(MW)
Remarks
210.00
Abandoned due to
Environmental/social reasons
and was proposed in
Central/Joint Sector
126.00
Abandoned due to
environmental considerations
99.00
Abandoned due to
environmental considerations
435.00
Details of projects under investigation for
preparation of DPR are given in Table 24.
Table 24: Projects under investigation for preparationof DPR
Sr.
Name of Project
No.
1 Devi Kothi-II
2
Channi
Name of
Basin
Ravi
Ravi
Installed
Remarks
capacity(MW)
13.50
PFR has been prepared.S&I works to be taken up for
preparation of DPR.
18.00
PFR has been prepared. S&I works to be taken up for
364 | Page
3
Sai Kothi-II
Ravi
Total
preparation of DPR.
PFR has been prepared.S&I works to be taken up for
preparation of DPR.
15.00
46.50
Milestones Achieved
•
•
•
First hill state in the country to
achieve 100% electrification of all
census village in the year 1988.
Consumer
coverage
has
touched 98% as per REC's survey &
HPSEB has been adjudged one of the
best Board's in India.
Installed and commissioned a power
house which is at the highest
•
altitude in the world (Rongtong Power
House at an altitude of approx. 12,000
ft.)
Installed and commissioned a totally
underground Power Housewhich is
unique in Asia (Bhaba Power House 120 MW).
District wise details of requirement of different
sources of energy in 2001 are given in Table 25.
Table 25: District-wise Requirement of Different Sources of Energy in Year 2001
District
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahaul & Spiti
Mandi
Shimla
Sirmaur
Solan
Una
Himachal Pradesh
Electricity
(million kWb)
31.73
14.79
8.35
16.19
1.85
6.30
0.79
7.69
19.42
26.32
73.98
11.85
219.26
LPG
(million kg)
0.25
0.19
0.48
1.18
0.10
0.23
0.47
0.65
0.96
0.38
0.57
0.47
5.93
The State Government has opened up power
sector to private sector. NTPC and NHPC
have also been given large projects like
Chamera-II (300 MW), Kol Dam (800 MW)
and Parbati (2051 MW) schemes for
execution. The State Government is also
encouraging co-operative sector by reserving
sites in the small and micro-hydel sectors,
Kerosene
(million kltr)
0.40
0.63
0.52
1.82
0.56
0.13
0.07
1.03
1.11
0.52
0.79
0.56
8.14
Coal
(tonnes)
0.00
501.87
0.00
0.00
1865.05
0.00
2585.14
0.00
2251.75
0.00
0.00
0.00
7203.81
Fuel wood
(thousand
tonnes)
181.84
393.62
217.89
852.70
85.24
303.30
36.43
476.51
448.85
236.33
242.49
227.31
3702.51
which will involve local community and
increase the employment opportunities to
local people. The State would get 12% free
power on all new installations which will
increase the resources of the State to a
significant extent. Details of energy generated
& consumed during 2006-2009 is given in
Table 26.
Table 26: Energy Generated & Consumed (Million Unit )
Item
1
1. Energy generated
2. Energy consumed in stations
auxiliaries
3. Energy Purchased for other
2006-07
2
1,432.37
6.08
2007-08
3
1,864.94
5.94
2008-09
4
2,075.14
6.07
5,056.95
5,433.37
6047.50
365 | Page
states
4. Energy available for sale
5. Energy sold:
I- With in the state
(a) Domestic
(b) Non-Domestic and NonCommercial
(c) Commercial
(d) Industrial
(e) Public Lighting
(f) Agricultural
(g) Bulk & Misc.
(h) Govt. Irrigation and Water
Supply Scheme
(i) Temporary Supply
(j) Antyodaya
Total
II- Outside the state
Total Energy Sold
Source: Himachal Pradesh Electricity Board.
6,442.78
7,196.80
8014.50
947.19
63.386
1,057.90
77.349
1088.52
80.585
225.776
2,553.52
11.35
26.40
127.461
324.881
248.252
3,100.40
12.61
26.65
146.505
334.973
274.663
3,385.30
13.01
28.74
177.05
389.331
19.37
1.118
4,300.44
1,255.27
5555.708
23.407
0.458
5,018.436
1,198.620
6,227.276
22.705
0.596
5,460.51
1,498.21
6958.717
Details of HEPs planned for commissioning
during 10th FYP is given in Table.....
Table 27: H.E.P. Planned for Commissioning During 10 th Plan (2002-07)
Sr. No.
I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Name of Project
State Sector
Larji Project
Keshang-I
Khauli Project
Holi Project
Uhl-III Project
Ghanvi-II
Bhaba Aug. P.H.
Total
II
Private Sector
1.
Baspa-II
2.
Fozal Project
3.
Neogal Project
4.
Dhambari-Sunda
5.
Patikari
Total
III
Joint/Central Sector
1.
Nathpa-Jhakri
2.
Chamera-II
Total
IV
Mini-Micro Hydel Schemes
1.
Mini-Micro Projects
Grand Total
Source: Information Collected from HPSEB
Out of above Nathpa-Jhakri (1500 MW),
Baspa-II (300MW) and Holi (3MW) hydel
schemes have already been completed,
Basin
Capacity (MW)
Beas
Satluj
Beas
Ravi
Beas
Satluj
Satluj
126
66
12
3
100
8
4.5
319.50
Satluj
Beas
Beas
Yamuna
Beas
300
9
15
70
16
410
Satluj
Ravi
1500
300
1800
151
2680.50
whereas Larji project (126 MW) and Khauli
project (12 MW) are scheduled to be
commissioned during 2005-06.
366 | Page
Hydro Power generation in the State has been
accorded top priority and has adopted multi
pronged strategy so as to meet the increasing
power demand within the State, also to bridge
the gap in the demand and supply in the
northern region as a whole. In view of this, a
phased programme to take up various major,
medium, small and mini/micro schemes in the
State, to harness the balance identified potential
has been prepared. It is planned to harness
2680.50 under 10th Plan, 8087.50 MW during
11th Plan and 5621 MW during 12th and 13th
Plan (up to year 2020). The commissioning of
these hydel schemes can play a major role in
power development programmes in the northern
region, which will provide an economic base for
overall development of Himachal Pradesh.
7.11
Information on human resource
management issues (which
may
have
relevance
to
environment management) in
the sector such as: manpower,
vocational training, awareness
levels etc.
Human Resources of HPERC is described
below.
H.P. Electricity Regulatory Commission (HPERC)
Sr. No.
1.
2. (i)
(ii)
3.
4
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Designation
Chairman
Secretary, HAS
I.A.S.
Executive Director (TFA)
Executive Director (TFA)
Director (T&D)
PAO
Dy. Director (TA)
Dy. Director
Dy. Director (TE)
Sr. AO
Reader
APS
Supdt. (Gr.-II)
Sr. Asstt.
Sr. Asstt.
P.A.
P.A.
Computer Operator
Record Keeper
P.A.
Jr. Scale Stenographer
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Clerk (against the post of Sr. Scale Stenographer)
Peon
Peon
Peon
P.A.
367 | Page
HP State Electricity Board
Director (P)
CE
(Arbitration)
Chairman cum Managing Director
Director(Technical)
Director(operation)
Director
(F&A)
CE (Trans)
CE (PSP)
CAO
CE (I&P)
CE(Sys. Op)
CE (OPER)
CE (Design)
CE (Proj.)
CE (Larjee)
CE(Gen.)
CE(Sys.Plg)
CE (Comm)
CE (OP(N))
CE (OP(S))
CE(MM)
Satluj Jal Vidhyut Nigam Limited (SJVN)
Board of Directors: For carrying out its
business, SJVN is headed by a full time
Chairman & Managing Director and four
functional Directors viz, Director (Personnel),
Director (Finance), Director (Electrical) and
Director (Civil). In addition, there are three
senior officers of the Government of India and
two senior officers of the Government of
Himachal Pradesh, as part time Govt.
Directors. Also, there are three independent
Non-Official Directors.
• Part Time Government Directors
• Independent Directors
Sub-Committees of the Board:
Board of Directors has the following subcommittees:
a. Audit Committee.
b. Share Allotment and Transfer
Committee.
c. Committee of Directors for Investment
of Surplus Funds
d. Investors Grievance Committee
e. Remuneration Committee
The compositions of the Sub-Committees of
the Board are given below:
a)T Audit Committee
Secretary
Secretary
CE(P&M)
Director
P&M
Electrical
Director
P&M
Civil
b) Share Allotment and Transfer
Committee.
c) Committee of Directors for Investment
of Surplus Funds
d) Investors Grievance Committee.
e) Remuneration Committee.
Key Executives
• Chief Vigilance Officer, VIGILANCE
• General Manager, Commercial &
Systems Operation
• Company Secretary, Secretary
• General Manager ,Corporate
Monitoring & Coordination
• Additional GM, (Civil Contracts &
DRB) ,Corporate Civil Contracts
• Additional General Manager (Electrical
Contracts), Corporate Electrical
Contracts
• GM, Corporate Planning
• Executive Director, Personnel &
Administration
• General Manager (F&A), Finance &
Accounts
• Executive Director , Civil Design
• GM, Electrical Design
• Deputy General Manager, Consultancy
368 | Page
• GM, QA&I
• Sr. Manager IT &C
• Deputy General Manager , Mechanical
& Gates
• LAO
• Additional GM , Information
Technology & Communications
Project Sites
•
Additional General Manager, RHEP
• GM, NJHPS
• GM, LHEP
• Additional GM , Dhalasidh HEP
1. HPPCL
•
Board of Directors
• Chairman
• Managing Director
• Company Secretary
• Director (Personal)
• Director (Finance)
• Director (Civil)
• Director (Electrical)
• AGM/DGM(Personal)
• AGM/DGM (Personal)
• AGM/DGM(Finance)
• AGM/DGM(Finance)
• Chief Environment Specialist
• DGM (Corp. Plang.)
• DGM (Corp. Mont.)
• DGM (EP&C)
• GM (Civil)
• GM (Corporate)
• GM (Electrical)
• Quality Assurance
• HOP’s of all Projects
• Electrical (Design)
• QA
7.12
Regulatory analysis to identify
any regulations that have
environment
implications
(negative or positive), and
compliance with the same
Hydropower and Non-conventional energy
sector and cross sector policy and regulatory
framework at state level shows the intent of the
State Government to address inadequate
Service delivery and quality in order to reduce
demand and supply gap. A list of policy and
programme is given below.
• National Water Policy, 2002
• State Water Policy (Draft)
• National Hydropower Policy
• State Hydropower Policy, 2006
• NAPCC (Conservation) Act
• Indian Forests Act / River Stream Bed
Mining Policy, NWCP/NLCP
• HP Forest Sector Policy & strategy,
2005
• National Biosphere Reserve
Programme.
• Catchment Area Treatment Plans
• Biological Diversity Act, 2002
• The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
• National Biodiversity Action Plan
369 | Page
• Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974
• National Policy on Resettlement and
Rehabilitation
• National Disaster Management
Guidelines Management of Landslides
and Snow Avalanches
Reference
• National Wetlands Conservation
Programme,
•
• The Wetlands (Conservation and
Management) Rules, 2010
• HP State Electricity Board
• State Eco-tourism Policy, 2005
• National Environment Policy - 2006
• Energy Conservation Act, 2001
• Hazardous Waste (Management,
Handling & Transboundary Movement)
Rules, 2008
Department of Energy
• HP Electricity Regulatory Commission
• HP Power Corporation Ltd.
• HIMURJA
• HP NHPC
• Department of Fisheries
• Department of Forest & Wildlife
• Atal Bijli Bachat Yojana
• Department of Environment, Science and
Technology
• Environment Protection Rules
• HP State Pollution Control Board
• The Electricity Act, 2003
• Department of Planning
•
Ministry of New and Renewable energy GoI
370 | Page
CHAPTER 8 MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE
8.1
Resource inventory of existing
assets of the sector
The agricultural produce sector has been one of
the most important components of the Indian
economy. The increasing trend of agricultural
production has brought, in its wake, new
challenges in terms of finding market for the
marketed surplus. There is also a need to
respond to the challenges and opportunities,
that the global markets offer in the liberalised
trade regime. To benefit the farming
community from the new global market access
opportunities,
the
internal
agricultural
marketing system in the country needs to be
integrated and strengthened. Government of
India is striving to prepare the Indian
agricultural
markets
and
marketing
environment so as to provide maximum benefit
to the producers and in turn, compete with the
global markets. Agriculture and agricultural
marketing need to be re-oriented to respond to
the market needs and consumer preferences.
Agricultural marketing reforms and creation of
marketing infrastructure has been initiated to
achieve the above purpose.
Agriculture contributes around 25% of the
GDP and employs 65% of the workforce in the
country. Significant strides have been made in
agriculture production since independence. The
agriculture production of food grains increased
from 51 million tonnes in 1950-51 i.e. before
beginning of the 1st Five Year Plan to 213
million tonnes in 2003-04. The output of
oilseeds went up to 23 million tonnes. Similarly,
the production of fruit and vegetables also
increased to more than 134 million tonnes. The
subject of agriculture and agricultural marketing
is dealt with both by the States as well as the
Central government in the country.
There are 10 Agricultural Produce Market
Committees (APMC) in the State established
under the Himachal Pradesh Agricultural and
Horticultural Produce Marketing (Development
and Regulation) Act, 2005 (Act No.20 of 2005).
There are one Principal market yard, one or more
sub yards and collection centres in each market.
The H.P. State Agricultural Marketing Board
exercises superintendence and control over the
A.P.M.Cs.
With a view to coping up with the need to
handle increasing agricultural production, the
number of regulated markets have also been
increasing in the country. While by the end of
1950, there were 286 regulated markets in the
country, the number stands at 7521 by the end
of March, 2005. The Central Government
advised all the State Governments to enact
Marketing Legislation to promote competitive
and transparent transactional methods to
protect the interests of the farmers. Barring a
few, most of the States and Union Territories
embarked upon a massive programme of
regulation of markets after enacting the
legislation. Most of these regulated markets are
wholesale markets. There are in all 7293
wholesale markets in the country. Besides, the
country has 27294 rural periodical markets,
about 15% of which function under the ambit
of regulation. The advent of regulated markets
has helped in mitigating the market handicaps
of producers/sellers at the wholesale
assembling level. But, the rural periodic markets
in general, and the tribal markets in particular,
remained out of its developmental ambit.
Farmers have to travel long distances with their
produce to avail the facility of regulated
markets. The National Commission on
Agriculture (1976) had recommended that the
facility of regulated market should be available
to the farmers within a radius of 5 km and if
this is considered a bench mark, the command
area of a market should not exceed 80 sq km.
However, in the existing scenario, except Delhi,
Punjab, Chandigarh and Pondicherry, in no
State, the density of regulated markets is close
to the norm.
371 | Page
Both covered and open auction platforms exist
in only two-thirds of the regulated markets.
Presently only one-fourth of the markets have
common drying yards. Trader modules viz.
shop, godown and platform in front of shop
exist in 63% of the markets. The cold storage
units exist only in 9% of the markets and
grading facilities exist in less than one-third of
the markets. The basic facilities viz. internal
roads, boundary walls, electric lights, loading
and unloading facilities and weighing
equipment are available in more than 80% of
the markets. Farmers’ rest houses exist in more
than half of the regulated markets. It is evident
from the above that there is considerable gap in
the facilities available in the market yards. The
status of the market infrastructure in the state is
given below.
(f)
Covered Auction
338m2 (approx.)
platform
Annual Arrival
Annual arrival of fruit & vegeTable recorded
during the year.
Year
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
Fruit
5918 Qts
5433 Qts
5485 Qts
Vegetable
13675 Qts
13712 Qts
12826 Qts
APMC Hamirpur
Annual arrivals
Annual arrivals of fruit & vegetables recorded
during the year 2001-2002, 2002-2003 & 20032004 is given below in Table 1.
APMC Bilaspur
Table 1:
Dissemination of Market Information
The daily whole sale rates of 24 notified
Agriculture Produce was sent to the Director of
Agriculture Shimla, which are broadcasted on
AIR Shimla daily. Apart from Akashvani None
Doordarshan Shimla is also telecasting the
market rates. APMC Bilaspur also has been
linked with AGMARKNET Portal. Where any
farmer can excess the arrivals and Prices is this
market along markets in the Country.
Principal market yard Bilaspur. (Main features)
(a)
Area
1196 Sq. Mtr.
(b)
No of Shops
25
(c)
No of Booths
20
(d)
(e)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Farmer Rest
House
Other Facilities
3 Rooms & Dormitory
(20 Beds)
Toilet, Light, Drinking
water, Parking place &
Canteen.
Sub Market Yard Namhol (Main Features)
Area
3 Bighas 7 Biswa
No of shops
6 No
Office
1 No
Booth/Store
4 No.
Cold Room
1 No
Annual arrivals of fruits &
vegetables in APMC Hamirpur
Year
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
Fruits
3515.7 MT.
3399.4 MT.
3445.8 MT.
being compiled
Vegetables
13118.8 MT.
12766.5 MT.
13959.1 MT.
being compiled
PMC Solan
Annual Arrival
Annual arrival of fruit & vegetables recorded
during the year 2002-2003 to 2005-06 up to 31st
December, 2005 is given below in Table 2.
Table 2:
Year
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
2005-2006
upto12/05)
Annual arrivals of fruits
vegetables in APMC Solan
Fruits
1879.4 MT
3288.7 MT
5530 MT
10125.8 MT
&
VegeTables
19577.4 MT
21758.1 MT
25896 MT
21279.1 M.T
Dissemination of Market information: Daily
whole sale rates of 24 notified Agricultural
Produce items are sent to the Director of
Agriculture Shimla, which are broadcasted on
372 | Page
All India radio Shimla daily. This market has
also been linked with AGMARKNET
PORTAL where any farmer can excess the
arrivals and prices in this market along other
markets in the country.
Principal Market Yard Solan Kather (Main feature)
(a)
Area
10047 Sq. mtr.
(b)
No. of Shops
50
(c)
Covered auction
2
Platform
(d)
Other facilities
Toilet, light , drinking
provided
water, Banking
,farmer Rest House,(6
Double Bed Set,2
VIPs Set,
3 Dormitory, canteen
& 2 STD Booth
8.2
Patterns of planning
development in the sector
(i)
(ii)
and
With a view to provide to electronic
connectivity to all the important wholesale
markets in the country, the Marketing Research
& Information Network Department is
implementing a Marketing Information
Network Scheme viz. ‘AGMARKNET’. The
aim of the scheme is to collect and disseminate
(price and market related) information in
respect of agricultural commodities. The
scheme was launched in the year 2000-01 and
as on date 1269 markets from all over the
country have been linked to a central portal. It
is planned to connect 2700 important markets
to the AGMARKNET Portal by March 2007.
The Scheme is planned to be continued during
the XI Plan period by enhancing its scope to
cover 500 additional markets including
remaining principal regulated markets, if any,
farmer/ consumer markets, private markets,
panchayat markets, urban markets and special
commodity markets. Following activities are
also proposed to be undertaken while
implementing the Scheme during the XI Plan
to fully achieve various objectives of the
Scheme:
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Information
regarding
export
documentation, export infrastructure,
transportation facilities, exporters,
marketing
experts,
agri-business
corporate, quality standards, grading/
packhouse
infrastructure,
plant
quarantine facilities, package of best
marketing practices, seasonality of
commodities will be provided on the
portal.
Information on contract farming, direct
marketing opportunities, value addition
facilities etc. to be enriched and tie-ups
between farmers/
growers and
sponsors/ buyers will be facilitated
through the portal by evolving a specific
software system through outsourcing of
work to an expert agency. It would be
developed as an interactive query based
system to educate the farmers on issues
raised by them and would serve as a
national clearing house for buyback and
contract farming arrangements.
Information on warehouses along with
addresses, accreditation facilities and
their distance, pledge financing facilities,
etc. will also be provided on the portal.
Area specific Success Stories will be
loaded at the portal so that farmers get
knowledge and can plan for trading of
their produce.
GIS based Atlas will be expedited for
the content enrichment and system will
be put in place for regular data
updating.
A data validation software will be
developed to identify the wrong
reporting and for removal of
undesirable data from the central data
base.
Electronic display boards will be
provided at every networked market for
displaying minimum and maximum
price of important commodities,
arrivals, temperature, etc. These efforts
would be dovetailed, as far as possible,
with the action being taken by the
Forward Market Commission under the
373 | Page
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv
Scheme of the Department of
Consumer Affairs.
An aggressive publicity campaign of
AGMARKNET will be launched for
efficient and timely utilization of
information by the farmers, traders, etc.
The programme of capacity building of
different stakeholders of the Scheme
will be taken up with the help of
NIAM/
MANAGE/
SAMETIs/
ATMAs/ KVKs. The programmes for
sensitization of farmers and training of
stakeholders
and
extension
functionaries of the States will also be
taken up under the Scheme.
The translation of contents of portal
into regional languages is necessary and
this work be undertaken through the
concerned State Marketing Boards/
Directorates.
Strategic alliances will be developed
with corporate, telecom players and
private users for strengthening market
intelligence services.
The programme initiated under
Common Service Centres (CSC)
Scheme of DIT would help in achieving
wider dissemination of information on
establishment
of
linkage
of
AGMARKNET portal with the
proposed IT kiosks at CSCs.
To ensure timely collection and regular
transmission of market information
from each node, the personnel engaged
by State Marketing Directorates/
Boards would be given monetary
incentive
and
best
market
functionaries/ Boards/ Directorates
would be given recognition (awards).
DMI will collaborate with the agencies
of Ministry of IT & Communications
and others for facilitating dissemination
of market information at grass root level
through mobile telecom service
providers.
The
price
forecasting
software
developed by NIAM will be
strengthened by outsourcing the work
to a competent agency and will be
integrated with AGMARKNET.
(xvi) After ensuring consistent and timely
reporting of data with the help of the
State Governments/ Marketing Boards
and achieving the optimum coverage,
infrastructure and strength for the
portal,
the
revenue
model
recommended in the Evaluation Study
will be evolved and implemented
towards the end of the XI Five Year
Plan.
The State Government/ Marketing Board will
provide to the DMI the list of markets to be
covered for computer connectivity under the
scheme. The selected markets will provide site
for installation comprising (1) Dust free
computer room; (2) Power Requirement; (i)
Electrical points- 3 (15 Amp 6 pin sockets with
switches), input to be protected by 6 Amp
MCB; (ii) 220/230 Volt power supply; (iii) Line,
neutral and Earth connection on the specified
socket terminals; (iv) Proper Earth Pit copper
wire earthing (with earth to neutral voltage less
than 3 V) with an exclusive phase; (3)
Computer Operator; (4) One telephone with
STD facility, wherever required Market
Committees/ Controlling authorities of
AGMARKNET node at market level would
continue to collect relevant data and
information, feed it and transmit it to the State
level and AGMARKNET portal. NIC will train
suiTable persons from each node in operating
computer & handling software package.
Market Intervention Scheme (MIS): The
Government of Himachal Pradesh has
introduced the policy of Market Intervention
Scheme (MIS) for the procurement of Mango,
Apple and Citrus Fruits in the State. In order to
implement the (MIS) of the State Government,
the HPMC, being the premier fruit marketing
agency, procures the unmarkeTable fruits
which are processed under most hygienic
conditions in its processing plants. The efforts
made by the Corporation have resulted in
stabilizing the prices of the fruits in the market.
374 | Page
Apart from fruits procured under MIS, HPMC
also procures other fruits like Peach, Pear,
Plum, Litchi, Almonds, strawberry, kiwi etc.
grown in the State, for marketing and
processing to increase the capacity utilisation of
Table 3:
Procurement Prices of the Fruits (Rate: Rs./Kg.)
Year
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
2004-2005
2005-2006
2007-2008
2008-2009
2009-2010
the Plants and to assist the farmers of the State
in getting remunerative returns for their
produce. Procurement prices of the fruits under
the MIS for last five years are given in Table 3.
Mango
Seedless
Grafted
3.08
3.75
3.33
4
3.33
4
3.58
4.25
3.58
4.25
3.58
4.25
4.08
4.75
4.58
5.25
4.5
5.25
Export of Fruit and Fruit Products: At
present, Himachal Pradesh produces over 4.00
lakh tonnes of Apples annually which is
cultivated at an altitude ranging between 6,000
to 10,000 ft. above sea level and is free from
pollution. The quality of Himachal Apple meets
the entire export standards. In the past HPMC
has exported quality apples to Iran, UAE, Sri
Lanka, Singapore and U.K. Fresh apples are
available from August to November on firm
demand.
Scheme for development/strengthening of
agricultural
marketing
infrastructure,
grading and standardization
This scheme has been formulated to develop
marketing infrastructure in the country to cater
to the post-harvest requirement of production
and marketable surplus of various farm
products. An expert committee set up by the
Ministry of Agriculture has estimated that an
investment requirement of Rs.11,172 crores in
next 10 years would be necessary for
infrastructure development in agricultural
marketing. A major portion of this investment
is expected to come from private sector, for
which an appropriate regulatory and policy
environment is necessary.
Apple
3.75
4
4
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.75
5.25
5.25
Kinnow/Orange
‘B’ Grade
‘C’ Grade
4.35
3.75
4.6
4
4.6
4
4.85
4.25
4.85
4.25
4.85
4.25
5.35
4.75
5.85
5.25
5.85
5.25
Galgal
2.6
2.85
2.85
3.1
3.1
3.15
3.65
4.15
4.15
Objectives
The main objectives of the Scheme are:
i. To provide additional agricultural
marketing infrastructure to cope up with
the large expected marketable surpluses
of agricultural and allied commodities
including dairy, poultry, fishery, livestock
and minor forest produce.
ii. To promote competitive alternative
agricultural marketing infrastructure by
inducement of private and cooperative
sector investments that sustain incentives
for quality and enhanced productivity
thereby improving farmers’ income.
iii. To strengthen existing agricultural
marketing infrastructure to enhance
efficiency.
iv. To promote direct marketing so as to
increase market efficiency through
reduction in intermediaries and handling
channels thus enhancing farmer’s income.
v. To provide infrastructure facilities for
grading, standardization and quality
certification of agricultural produce so as
to ensure price to the farmers
commensurate with the quality of the
produce.
vi. To promote grading, standardization and
quality certification system for giving a
375 | Page
major thrust for promotion of pledge
financing
and
marketing,
credit,
introduction of negotiable warehousing
receipt system and promotion of forward
and future markets so as to stabilize
market system and increase farmers’
income.
vii. To promote direct integration of
processing units with producers.
viii. To create general awareness and provide
education and training to farmers,
entrepreneurs and market functionaries
on agricultural marketing including
grading, standardization and quality
certification.
(b)
Salient Features of the Scheme
Scheme linked to Reforms
(i)
(ii)
The scheme will be implemented in
those States which amend the APMC
Act, wherever required, to allow
direct marketing and contract farming
and to permit setting up of markets in
private and cooperative sectors.
Credit linked back-ended subsidy
shall be provided on the capital cost
of general or commodity specific
infrastructure for marketing of
agricultural commodities and for
strengthening and modernization of
existing
agricultural
markets,
wholesale, rural periodic or in tribal
areas. State Agricultural Produce
Marketing Boards/ Committees or
other State agencies will be free to
decide as to the quantum of loan or
invest their own funds in lieu of loan
as per their requirement.
Marketing Infrastructure
(iii) ‘Marketing Infrastructure’ for purpose of
the scheme may comprise of any of the
following:
(a) Functional infrastructure for collection/
assembling, drying, cleaning, grading,
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
standardization, SPS (Sanitary &
Phytosanitary) measures and quality
certification,
labeling,
packaging,
ripening chambers, retailing and
wholesaling, value addition facilities
(without changing the product form)
etc. Transportation facility will not be
covered under the scheme. However,
reefer vans, or any other refrigerated
vans used for transporting agricultural
produce, which are essential for
maintaining cold supply chains, shall be
eligible for assistance under the Scheme.
Market user common facilities in the
project
area
like
shops/offices,
platforms for loading/ unloading/
assembling and auctioning of the
produce, parking sheds, internal roads,
garbage
disposal
arrangements,
boundary walls, drinking water,
sanitation arrangements, weighing &
mechanical handling equipments, etc.;
Infrastructure for Direct marketing of
agricultural commodities from producers
to consumers/processing units/ bulk
buyers, etc.
Infrastructure for supply of production
inputs and need-based services to the
farmers;
Infrastructure (equipment, hardware,
gadgets, etc) for E-trading, market
intelligence, extension and market
oriented production planning; and
Mobile infrastructure for post-harvest
operations
(excluding
transport
equipment) will be eligible for assistance
under the scheme. However, exclusion
of transport equipment shall not affect
the development of cold chain
infrastructure and reefer vans, or any
other refrigerated vans used for
transporting agricultural produce, which
are essential for maintaining cold supply
376 | Page
chains, shall be eligible for assistance
under the Scheme.
8.3
Technology adopted in the
sector along with any changes
in technology
Strengthening of farmer through Market
Information: To establish a nation-wide
information network for speedy collection and
dissemination of market information and data
for its efficient and timely utilization & to
facilitate collection and dissemination of
information related to better price realization
by the farmers, ministry of Agriculture,
Government of India, has launched the ICT
based Central Sector Scheme of Agricultural
Marketing
Information
Network
(AGMARKNET). Market information is
needed by farmers in planning production and
marketing, and equally needed by other market
participants in arriving at optimal trading
decisions. The existence and dissemination of
complete and accurate marketing information is
the key to achieve both operational and pricing
efficiency
in
the
marketing
system.
Advancement
in
Information
and
Communication Technology (ICT) has made
the world a smaller place and a larger market at
one
go.
On
AGMARKNET
portal
(http://agmarknet.nic.in) over 300 plus markets
are regularly reporting price related which is
being disseminated through the portal. 14
nodes of Himachal Pradesh are also sending the
data to this portal. Any farmer/ orchardist can
access the rates of their produce in the markets
of the country by only clicking on this website.
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratories: For the
rapid propagation of horticulture and
floriculture planting material, the State
Department of Horticulture has promoted two
plant tissue culture laboratories, one each in the
public and private sector. The details of these
laboratories are given in Table 4.
Table 4:
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory
Details in the State
Sr. Name and Address of the
No. Laboratory
Approximate plant
propagation
capacity
1.
Agrigene International,
Highway Home, Sanjauli,
Shimla 171006
Two lakh micro
plants
2.
Department of
Biotechnology, Dr. Y S
Parmar University of
Horticulture and Forestry,
Nauni, District Solan, HP.
50000 virus free
plants per year
Olive Stations: For promoting the
development of olives in the State, three Olive
Stations have been established with the
objective of collection of varieties and
development of suitable package of practices
for its cultivation. The description of these
stations is given in Table 5.
Table 5:
Description of Olive Stations in
the State
Sr
No
Name of Station
Area
(hectares)
No's of
Olive
plants
1.
Olive Station, Panarsa,
District Mandi,
Himachal Pradesh.
4.80
1000
2.
Olive Station, Lanji,
District Chamba,
Himachal Pradesh
8.09
1900
3.
Olive Station, Jerva,
District Sirmaur,
Himachal Pradesh.
6.36
399
Walnut Development Stations: A walnut
development station has been established at
Nohra in district Sirmaur for the collection of
walnut varieties and to develop and adapt
technology for the cultivation of this fruit. The
station has an area of 4.40 ha with 351 walnut
plants.
Plant Protection Centres: 337 Plant
Protection Centres have been established in the
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different fruit growing regions of the State with
the objectives of serving as (i) supply/sale
centres for plant protection chemicals and
equipments and (ii) extension units for the
dissemination of technical information to the
local farmers. The district wise details of plant
protection centres are given in Table 6.
Table 6:
District wise Plant Protection
Centres
Sr
Name of Districts
No
No's of units
1.
Shimla
78
2.
Kinnaur
20
3.
Solan
23
4.
Bilaspur
16
5.
Mandi
47
6.
Sirmaur
13
7.
Kangra
16
8.
Una
13
9.
Hamirpur
16
10.
Chamba
47
11.
Kullu
42
12.
Lahaul & Spiti
6
Total
337
Table 7:
8.4
Stakeholder involvement in
environment preservation and
restoration
Himachal Pradesh Horticultural Produce
Marketing and Processing Corporation Ltd.
(HPMC): HMC has established two Fruit
Processing Plants with a combined capacity to
process about 20,000 MT of fruit every year
and has acquired a third on lease hold basis.
These plants are located at Jarol (Sundernagar)
in Mandi District and Parwanu in Solan
District. The Parwanoo Plant has all the latest
systems like aseptic bulk packaging, tetrapak
filling, spiraflow equipment, hi-tech continuous
pulper line and pomace drying unit. HPMC has
also taken over FP Jabli on lease basis from the
HIMPROCESS during the year 2003 and this
has helped in increased production of juices,
drinks and other fruit based products.
The HPMC has set up a chain of Packing
Houses, at Gumma, Rohru, Jarol-Tikkar, Oddi,
Bhunter and Patlikuhl, Grading Houses at
Rajgarh, Chindi, Rekong Peo and Chailchowk.
Cold Storages in producing areas are at
(Gumma, Rohru, Jarol-Tikkar, Oddi and
Patlikuhl). At present HPMC has pre-cooling
facilities at Oddi and Patlikuhl. Beside, these
Cold Storages in producing areas, HPMC has
established Cold Storages in terminal markets at
Parwanoo, Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai. It has
Transhipment Centres, Canning Units and Sales
Offices in all the principal fruit markets of the
country. HPMC is also making Himachal
Apples available to world community through
exports. The Stakeholders involvement within
the sector is summarised below in Table 7.
Stakeholder’s Role / Involvement in the Sector
Stakeholder Name
Farmers
The Himachal Pradesh State
Cooperative Marketing And
Consumer's Federation Ltd.
(HIMFED)
Agriculture Department
Role/Involvement
Helps to procure seeds to Agriculture Department
Provides fertilizers to Fruit Growers.
Impart latest technology to farmers for increasing
378 | Page
Stakeholder Name
Role/Involvement
agricultural production.
To ensure timely supply of agricultural inputs.
To educate farmers about soil & water conservation
technologies
To impart training regarding Integrated Pest Management
and use of farmers friendly bio-fertilizers.
To create irrigation facilities through minor/tank irrigation
schemes to obtain maximum returns from their land.
Horticulture Department
HPMC
Provides Fertilizers & Pesticides
Helps in marketing fresh fruits and vegetables, processing the un -marketable
surplus and marketing the processed products. In near future H.P.M.C. is
planning to link its offices with Internet to help farmers to sell their fruits directly
to various markets in India.
ATMA
8.5
Involved For Sustainable Agriculture Development
Critical environment issues /
hotspots associated with the
sector
1. Inadequacy of system approach in
agriculture/
horticulture
marketing
practices leads to spoilage/ wastage:
Trading and marketing structure is traditional
consisting of a long chain of intermediaries. As
many as 75% of the farmers sell their produce
at the farm level. They cannot afford to go to
distant mandis on account of inadequacy of
facilities,
expensive
transportation
and
malpractices in the assembling markets. The
long marketing channel is detrimental to quality
and safety of those perishable products. The
multiple handling add costs and increase postharvest losses, adversely affecting the income of
farmers and making produce comparatively
costlier to the consumers. To minimize these
losses, improvements are required at various
levels, viz.: harvesti