Noise Figure Analyzers NFA Series Performance

Noise Figure Analyzers NFA Series Performance
Noise Figure Analyzers
NFA Series
Performance Verification and
Calibration Guide
The specifications in this manual are applicable to models having
Serial Prefix GB4446 and greater.
Manufacturing Part Number: N8973-90012
January 2011
Supersedes November 2004
© Copyright 2004 - 2011 Agilent Technologies
Safety Notices
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material,
including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose. Agilent Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained
herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself
with the symbols and their meaning before operating this instrument.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life. Do not
proceed beyond a warning note until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of the product. Do
not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated conditions are fully understood
and met.
NOTE
Note calls out special information for the user’s attention. It provides operational
information or additional instructions of which the user should be aware.
ii
General Safety Information
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of
operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to comply with these
precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety
standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Agilent
Technologies assumes no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these
requirements.
DO NOT operate the product in an explosive atmosphere or in the presence of
flammable gasses or fumes.
DO NOT use repaired fuses or short-circuited fuseholders: For continued protection
against fire, replace the line fuse(s) only with fuse(s) of the same voltage and current
rating and type. Disconnect product from mains supply voltage before replacing
fuse.
DO NOT perform procedures involving cover or shield removal unless you are
qualified to do so: Operating personnel must not remove equipment covers or
shields. Procedures involving the removal of covers and shields are for use by
service-trained personnel only.
DO NOT service or adjust alone: Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may
exist even with the equipment switched off. To avoid dangerous electrical shock,
service personnel must not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another
person, capable of rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT operate damaged equipment: Whenever it is possible that the safety
protection features built into this product have been impaired, either through
physical damage, excessive moisture, or any other reason, REMOVE POWER and
do not use the product until safe operation can be verified by service-trained
personnel. If necessary, return the product to an Agilent Technologies Sales and
Service Office for service and repair to ensure the safety features are maintained.
DO NOT substitute parts or modify equipment: Because of the danger of
introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform any
unauthorized modification to the product. Return the product to an Agilent
Technologies Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure the safety
features are maintained.
iii
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective earth ground
incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only be inserted in a
socket outlet provided with a protected earth contact. Any interruption of the
protective conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the
equipment could be impaired. This product must be used in a normal condition
(in which all means for protection are intact) only.
CAUTION
This product is designed for use in INSTALLATION CATEGORY II and
POLLUTION DEGREE 2, per IEC 61010 Second Edition and 664 respectively.
Trademark Acknowledgement
Microsoft® is a US registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
Updated Information
Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about the NFA
Noise Figure Analyzer Series, including firmware upgrades and application
information, please visit the following Internet URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/nf/
iv
Lifting and Carrying
Use the handle for lifting or carrying the unit.
Before attempting to lift or carry the instrument consider the following basic lifting
techniques to help avoid personal injury.
Using one arm to lift instrument.
•
BRACE your body with the opposite arm, if possible.
•
Reach for the instrument - bend your knees and waist, and keep your back
straight.
•
GRASP the instrument firmly - using the handle.
•
LIFT with your legs, using the free arm for balance.
•
KEEP your shoulders level - switch hands regularly.
Electromagnetic Compatibility
This product conforms with the protection requirements of European Council
Directive 89/336/EEC for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).
The conformity assessment requirements have been met using the technical
Construction file route to compliance, using EMC test specifications EN
55011:1991 (Group 1, Class A) and EN 50082-1:1992.
In order to preserve the EMC performance of the product, any cable which becomes
worn or damaged must be replaced with the same type and specification.
See “Declaration of Conformity” on page vi.
v
Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field
Immunity
When a 3 Vm-1 radio-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to the Noise Figure
Analyzer according to IEC 61000-4-3:1995, degradation of performance may be
observed. When the frequency of the incident field matches the frequency of a
measured noise figure or gain, the values displayed will deviate from those
expected. This phenomenon will only affect that specific frequency, and the
Analyzer will continue to perform to specification at all other frequency sample
points.
The Noise Figure Analyzer may be unable to calibrate a chosen frequency sample
point, if the frequency matches that of an incident electromagnetic field.
Declaration of Conformity
A copy of the Manufacturer’s European Declaration of Conformity for this
instrument can be obtained by contacting your local Agilent Technologies sales
representative.
Declaration of Compliance
This instrument has been designed and tested in accordance with CAN/CSA
22.2 No. 61010-1-04 & UL Std. No. 61010-1 (2nd Edition).
vi
Contents
1. Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Purpose of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Calibration Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Before You Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Front and Rear Panel Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Recording the Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Recommended Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Input VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
VSWR Test Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Related Adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
vii
Contents
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Frequency Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Noise Source Supply Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Gain Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Required Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Instrument Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
viii
Contents
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Measurement Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Test Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Test Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Related Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Required Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
3. Technical Specifications
Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Noise Figure and Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
RF Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Display units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Noise Source Drive Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
A. Model N8973A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
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Contents
Input VSWR Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Frequency Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
B. Model N8974A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Input VSWR Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Frequency Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
C. Model N8975A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
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Contents
Input VSWR Test Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Frequency Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Measurement Jitter Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
D. Caring for Connectors
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Connector Part Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Handling and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Obvious Defects and Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Mating Plane Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Precision 7 mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Sexed Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Cleaning Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Precision 7 mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Cleaning Interior Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Drying Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Mechanical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
xi
Contents
Precision 7mm Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Sexed Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Using Connector Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Zeroing the Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Align Connectors Carefully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
To Make a Preliminary Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Disconnection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Principles of Microwave Connector Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
xii
1
Preparing for Calibration and
Performance Verification Test
This chapter covers preparation and equipment required for doing the calibration
and performance verification tests.
1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Purpose of Tests
Purpose of Tests
The calibration and performance test procedures verify the electrical performance of
the Agilent Technologies N8973A, N8974A and N8975A series of Noise Figure
Analyzers (NFAs) in accordance with their published specifications.
NOTE
You do not need to access the interior of the instrument to perform the tests.
If for any reason the unit measures out-of-specification, then adjustment procedures
are supplied where applicable.
The Noise Figure Analyzers must be able to reach thermal equilibrium in
accordance with the temperature stability specifications before performing any tests
or adjustments.
NOTE
System performance is only guaranteed if each instrument in the test system/process
is within the manufacturer’s recommended calibration period.
2
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Calibration Cycle
Calibration Cycle
The analyzer requires periodic verification of operational performance. Under
normal use and environmental conditions, the instrument should be calibrated at 12
month intervals.
The tables on the following pages list the tests required to perform the annual
calibration, thus periodically verifying the instruments performance.
Chapter 1
3
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Before You Start
Before You Start
Switch on the Noise Figure Analyzer and let it warm up for 1 hour.
Read the rest of this section before you start any of the tests, and make a copy of the
relevant test records for the model you are testing provided in Appendices A
through C.
CAUTION
Ensure that the recommended torque settings detailed in Table 1-3 are adhered to at
all times.
CAUTION
Ensure that a valid ENR measurement table has been loaded from the C: or A: drive
before carrying out any performance test. The analyzer will not perform a
measurement without an ENR table loaded.
4
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
This symbol is used to indicate power ON (green LED).
This symbol is used to indicate power STANDBY mode
(yellow LED).
This symbol indicates the input power required is AC.
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is marked
with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to
instructions in the documentation.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European
Community.
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the Australian
Spectrum Management Agency.
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme a la norme NMB du Canada.
This is also a symbol of an Industrial Scientific and Medical
Group 1 Class A product (CISPR 11, Clause 4).
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the CSA
International.
This symbol indicates separate collection for electrical and
electronic equipment mandated under EU law as of August 13,
2005. All electric and electronic equipment are required to be
separated from normal waste for disposal (Reference WEEE
Directive 2002/96/EC).
Indicates the time period during which no hazardous or toxic
substance elements are expected to leak or deteriorate during
normal use. Forty years is the expected useful life of the
product.
This symbol on all primary and secondary packaging indicates
compliance to China standard GB 18455-2001.
Chapter 1
5
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recording the Test Results
Recording the Test Results
Performance verification test records for each Noise Figure Analyzer are provided
in the section following the tests.
Each test result is identified as a TR (test record) entry in the performance tests and
in Appendix pertaining to the model you are testing. We recommend that you make
a copy of the performance verification test record, record the test results on the copy,
and keep the copy for your calibration test record. This record could prove valuable
in tracking gradual changes in test results over long periods of time.
6
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Recommended Test Equipment
The following tables list the recommended test equipment for the performance tests.
The tables also list recommended equipment for the Noise Figure Analyzer
adjustment procedures.
When performing the performance test manually any recommended equipment that
meets the critical specifications given in the table can be substituted for the
recommended model when manually testing.
NOTE
Substitution is not permitted when using the automated performance verification
and adjustment software.
Table 1-1
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25 ms to 100 ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5 Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy:
5071A
< 1 x 10-10/day
Vector Network Analyzer 1
10 MHz to 3 GHz
3753ES or
8753ET, opt 004
Vector Network Analyzer 2
3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
8722ES or
8722ET, opt 004
Type N Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85032B
UUT: N8973A
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85033D
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to 3 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
Chapter 1
7
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-1
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85052D
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
83620/30/40/50B
Option 001 or 008
Power Level Range: -55 dBm
Digital Multimeter
Input Resistance of 10 MΩ
3458A
Accuracy of 10 mV on 100 V range
Attenuator/Switch Driver
Compatible with 8494G/H Programmable
step attenuators
11713A
1 dB Step Attenuator
Attenuation Range: 0 to 11 dB
8494G/H Option 2
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: 3.5 mm (F)
Calibrated at 50 MHz with accuracy of
0.010 dB
Noise Source
Frequency Range:10 MHz to 6.7 GHz
Typical ENR: 4.5 - 6.5 dB
346A Std or Option
001
Connection: 3.5 mm(M) or Type N
Noise Source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
346C
Typical ENR: 12.0 - 17.0 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm(M)
8
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-2
Recommended Accessories, Adaptors and Cables
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended
model
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Cable
50 Type N (M to M)
11500C
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
Cable (X 2)
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
11500E
3.5mm (M) to 3.5 mm (M), 61 cm
(24 in.)
Microwave Cable 2
2.4 mm (M) to 2.4 mm (M), 81 cm (32 in.)
85133C
Frequency band: 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
Adapter
50 Type N (F) to 7 mm (included in 85032B
Type N Calibration Kit)
85054-60001
Adapter
50 Type N (F) to 3.5 mm Precision (F)
1250-1745
Adapter
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm Precision (F)
11901C
Adapter
N8973A Type N (M) to 3.5 mm (F)
1250-1744
OR
N8974A/N8975A 3.5 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
Adapter
83620/83630 3.5 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
1250-1749 or
83059A
1250-1749 or
83059A
OR
83640/83650 2.4 mm Precision (F) to
3.5 mm (F)
11901C
DVM Adapter
BNC (F) to Dual Banana Plug (M) Adapter,
50 Ω
E9637A
BNC Lead
Length 12 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Chapter 1
9
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Recommended Test Equipment
Table 1-3
Recommended Torque Settings
Type
Description
Precision
7mm
12 lb-in (136 N-cm.)
Precision
3.5mm
8 lb-in (90 N-cm)
SMA
5 lb-in (56 N-cm) Use the SMA wrench to connect male
SMA connectors to female precision 3.5min connectors.
Connections of male precision 3.5mm. connectors to female
SMA connectors can be made with the precision 3.5mm
torque wrench (8 lb-in).
Type-N
Type-N connectors may be connected finger tight. If a
torque wrench is used, 12 lb-in (136 N-cm) is
recommended.
10
Chapter 1
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures
To perform a calibration run, the performance verification tests listed in Table 1-4
below must be completed.
If any of the performance verification tests fail, perform the corresponding
calibration adjustment listed in Table 1-4.
If the performance verification tests fail and no calibration adjustment procedure is
available, the instrument must be returned to Agilent Technologies for repair. Please
contact your local Agilent Technologies Customer Sales and Service Office for
replacement parts or repair service information. See the NFA User’s Guide for the
address of your nearest office.
Table 1-4
Verification and adjustment listings
Test no.
Performance Verification Test
Calibration Adjustments
1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test 2 (if applicable)
2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
3
Input VSWR
4
Frequency Accuracy
5
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
6
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
7
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
8
Instrument Noise Figure
9
Measurement Jitter
Chapter 1
11
Preparing for Calibration and Performance Verification Test
Performance Verification and Adjustment Procedures
12
Chapter 1
2
Test Descriptions
This chapter descibes each test required for calibration and performance
verification.
13
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Description
The test applies to NFAs with either the standard 10 MHz frequency reference or 10
MHz precision frequency reference (Option 1D5).
The test measures both the frequency reference accuracy and the ability to set the
timebase. The frequency reference accuracy is measured with the NFA’s 10 MHz
REF OUT connected to the frequency counter's Channel A input. A cesium beam
frequency standard, or some other 10 MHz ± “house standard” provides the
frequency reference for the frequency counter. The timebase to be set is measured
by changing the setting of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which controls the
frequency of the timebase. The frequency difference over the range of DAC settings
is calculated and compared to the specification.
Test Specification
Standard
Option 1D5
Ageing Rate
< ±2 ppm/year
< ±0.1 ppm/year
Settability
< ±0.5 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Temperature Stability
< ±6 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Related Adjustment
10 MHz Frequency Reference Adjustment (see page 20).
14
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25ms to 100ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
The frequency standard provides the reference for the Universal Counter. You can
use a company-specific standard in place of the 5071A, providing it meets the
critical specifications as listed in Table 2-1.
Test Setup
Before starting the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test, connect the
equipment as shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
10 MHz
Ref Out
UNIVERSAL
COUNTER
10 MHz
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
Ref In
Channel 1
BNC Cable
Chapter 2
15
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Test Procedure
NOTE
The NFA must be on and in internal frequency mode for at least 1 hour before you
start the test.
NOTE
Throughout the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Procedure the
term ‘the Worksheet’ refers to the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test
Worksheet on page 19 and the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the 10 MHz Out
Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for
the model number being tested.
Step 1. Check that the NFA is not in the external reference mode. If the external reference is
connected, remove it from the 10 MHz Ref Input.
Step 2. Ensure that the NFA’s preset condition is set to its factory settings.
Press the System key, the More menu item, then set the Power On/Preset menu
item to Power On(Preset) and Preset to Preset (Factory).
Step 3. Preset the NFA by pressing the Preset key. Wait for the routine to finish.
Step 4. Set the Universal Counter controls as follows:
1. Press Gate and ExtArm
2. Press any one of the arrow keys until Time is displayed.
3. Press Gate and ExtArm again and using the arrow keys, set the Time to 10s and
press Enter to set the value.
4. On Channel 1, press 50Ω / 1MΩ until the LED is lit.
5. On Channel 1, press x10 Attenuator until the LED is extinguished.
6. On Channel 1, press AC/DC until LED next to DC extinguished.
7. On Channel 1, press 100 Hz Filter until the LED is extinguished.
16
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
8. On Channel 1, press Trigger/Sensitivity until Auto Trig is displayed.
9. Use the arrow keys (—>) to toggle to Off.
10. Press Freq and Ratio.
Step 5. When the Universal Counter reading has stabilized, record the reading in the
Worksheet as Counter Reading 1 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
This reading is taken as the actual frequency reference of the NFA.
Step 6. Increase the NFA's fine DAC control by 1 step from its initial value.
Press the System key, then the More, More and Service menu keys. Enter the
service password -2010, press Enter, then press Service, Time Base, and Fine
menu items. Press the Up Arrow key to increment the Fine control menu item by 1.
The value displayed in the Fine menu item is now 1 more than the initial value.
Step 7. When the frequency counter reading has stabilized, record reading in the Worksheet
as Counter Reading 2 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
Step 8. Decrease the NFA’s fine DAC control by 1 step to return to its initial value detailed
in step 6, then again decrease the NFA’s fine DAC control by 1 step.
Step 9. When the frequency counter reading has stabilized, record the reading in the
Worksheet as Counter Reading 3 with 0.1 Hz resolution.
Step 10. Press Preset on the NFA to return the DAC settings to their initial values.
Step 11. Subtract Counter Reading 1 from Counter Reading 2 and record the difference in the
Worksheet as the Positive Frequency Change.
Positive Frequency Change = Counter Reading 2 - Counter Reading 1
Step 12. Subtract Counter Reading 1 from Counter Reading 3 and record the difference in the
Worksheet as the Negative Frequency Change.
Negative Frequency Change = Counter Reading 1 - Counter Reading 3
Chapter 2
17
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Step 13. Compare the Positive Frequency Change and Negative Frequency Change values
recorded in the Worksheet and record the largest value in the Worksheet as the
Maximum Frequency Change.
Step 14. Divide the Maximum Frequency Change by 2 (Maximum Frequency Change/2) and
record the result as the settability in the Worksheet.
Step 15. Ensure that the calculated measurement figure given in the Worksheet is within the
published specifications.
Step 16. Once verified that the value is within specifications, Counter Reading 1 with 0.1 Hz
resolution is then taken as the actual frequency reference of the Noise Frequency
Analyzer and this reading is recorded on the Test Record.
Step 17. Once verified that the value is within specifications, the measured frequency is then
recorded on the Test Record.
18
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy
Table 2-2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Worksheet
Description
Calculations
Counter Reading 1
Reading
Measurement
________________Hz
Counter Reading 2
Reading
________________Hz
Counter Reading 3
Reading
________________Hz
Positive Frequency Change =
Counter Reading 2 - Counter Reading 1
________________Hz
Negative Frequency Change =
Counter Reading 1 - Counter Reading 3
________________Hz
Maximum Frequency Change =
Highest Positive or Negative Value
________________Hz
Settability =
Maximum frequency Change / 2
________________Hz
Chapter 2
19
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Test Description
The adjustment applies to NFAs with both the standard 10 MHz frequency reference
and 10 MHz precision frequency reference (Option 1D5).
The adjustment is performed by calculating the actual frequency error in Hertz from
Counter Reading 1 given in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy Test (see page 14).
The negative or positive error is used to define what the new DAC setting should be.
After the DAC settings are adjusted and saved, the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy
Test is re-run to verify the unit meets it’s published specification.
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-3
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment Test Equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Universal Counter
Time Interval Range: 25ms to 100ms
53132A
Single Operation Range: +2.5 to -2.5Vdc
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
The frequency standard provides the reference for the Universal Counter. You can
use a company-specific standard in place of the 5071A, provided it meets the critical
specifications listed in Table 2-3.
20
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Test Setup
Before starting the 10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment, connect the
equipment as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
10 MHz
Ref Out
UNIVERSAL
COUNTER
10 MHz
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
Ref In
Channel 1
BNC Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Before performing any adjustments ensure that the 10 MHz Frequency Reference
Accuracy test has been done and that the measured frequency is outside the
published specification.
NOTE
The NFA must be on and in internal frequency mode for at least 1 hour before you
start the test.
Chapter 2
21
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Step 1. Note Counter Reading 1 for the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy Test and calculate the
actual error in Hertz.
Actual Error = 10 MHz - Counter Reading 1
Step 2. With the actual error calculated, determine which DAC setting to adjust from the
table below.
Table 2-4
Example 2-1
DAC setting adjustments
Control Setting
Standard Step Size (Hz)
Option 1D5 Step Size (Hz)
Coarse
≈ 7 Hz
≈ 0.1 Hz
Fine
≈ 1 Hz
≈ 0.0015 Hz
Standard NFA Actual Error
If a standard NFA Actual Error = 10,000,000 Hz - 10,000,012 Hz
the error is -12 Hz
From Table 2-4, the DAC setting must be decremented by 1 coarse setting and 5 fine
settings giving an approximate -12 Hz adjustment. Therefore, if the original settings
were, for example, Coarse = 127 and Fine = 136, then the new settings after
adjustment are Coarse = 126, Fine = 131.
NOTE
A negative error value decrements [⇓], while a positive error value increments [⇑].
Step 3. Access the Service menus Time Base sub-menu and press the System key. Then
press the More, More and Service menu keys. Enter the service password -2010,
press Enter, then press Service and Time Base.
Decrement [⇓] the NFAs DAC settings by pressing Coarse once and Fine five
times.
OR
You can type in the new value on the numeric keypad and then press Enter.
22
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
10 MHz Out Frequency Reference Adjustment
Step 4. Wait for the frequency counter reading to stabilize and ensure that the adjusted value
is within the published specification. Repeat the adjustment procedure until the
correct value is obtained.
Step 5. Press Save from the Time Base sub-menu to ensure that the values are stored in
memory.
NOTE
It is recommended that you preset the NFA and repeat the 10 MHz Frequency
Reference Accuracy Test (see page 14) to verify the adjusted DAC settings.
Chapter 2
23
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Input VSWR
Test Description
The Input VSWR test measures the worst case VSWR over each of the specified
frequency bands detailed in the Table 2-1 on page 24. The test measures VSWR
directly from the Network Analyzer, however the conversion below can be used if
measuring return loss.
VSWR or voltage standing wave ratio can be calculated from the reflection
coefficient using the following equation:
Equation 2-1
[1 + ρ]
[ 1 + rho ]
VSWR = ----------------------- ≅ ⎛ VSWR = -----------------⎞
[ 1 – rho ] ⎝
[ 1 – ρ ]⎠
Table 2-5
VSWR Frequency Test Bands
PART 1
CAL VNA 10 MHz - 3.0 GHz
PART 2
TEST VSWR
10 MHz - 500 MHz
PART 3
TEST VSWR
500 MHz -1500 MHz
PART 4
TEST VSWR
1500 MHz -3000 MHz
24
N8973A
N8974A
N8975A
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Table 2-5
VSWR Frequency Test Bands
N8973A
PART 5
CAL VNA 3.0 GHz - 6.7 OR
26.5 GHz
PART 6
TEST VSWR
3.0 GHz -6.7 GHz
N8974A
N8975A
•
•
•
•
PART 7
TEST VSWR
6.7 GHz -20.0 GHz
PART 8
TEST VSWR
20.0 GHz -26.5 GHz
NOTE
NOTE
•
•
• denotes test required for associated model number.
The NFA uses several frequency dependent paths within the front end assemblies to
cover its operating range. It is therefore not possible to complete a single VSWR
swept measurement at a single fixed frequency point over its entire operating range.
Chapter 2
25
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
VSWR Test Specification
N8973A
N8974A
N8975A
10 MHz to 500 MHz
< 1.5:1
< 1.5:1
< 1.5:1
> 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
< 1.7:1
< 1.7:1
< 1.7:1
> 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 1.8:1
< 1.8:1
< 1.8:1
> 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
N/A
< 1.3:1
< 1.3:1
> 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz
N/A
N/A
< 2.1:1
> 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz
N/A
N/A
< 2.4:1
Related Adjustments
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-6
Test Equipment required for Input VSWR test
Equipment description
Critical specification for
equipment substitution
Recommended model
Vector Network Analyzer 1
10 MHz to 3 GHz
8753ES or 8753ET, Option 004a
Vector Network Analyzer 2
3 GHz to 26.5 GHz
8722ES or 8722ET, Option 004b
N Type Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50 Ω
85032B
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to
3 GHz c
UUT: N8973A
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50Ω
85033D
Frequency Band: 10 MHz to
3 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
26
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Table 2-6
Test Equipment required for Input VSWR test
Equipment description
Critical specification for
equipment substitution
Recommended model
3.5mm Calibration Kit
Impedance: 50Ω
85052D
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
UUT: N8974A and N8975A
Cable
50 N Type (M to M)
11500C
Frequency Band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
Adapter
50 N Type (F) to 7 mm
(included in 85032B N Type
Calibration Kit)
85054-60001
Adapter
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm
Precision (F)
1250-1745
Adaptor
2.4 mm (M) to 3.5 mm
Precision (F)
11901C
UWave Cable
2.4 mm (M) to 2.4 mm (M),
81 cm (32 in.)
85133C
Frequency band: 3 GHz to
26.5 GHz
a. Option 004 is only required for the ET models.
b. Option 004 is only required for the ET models.
c. Part 1 of this procedure lists hard and soft keys for the 8753ET. Other network analyzers such
as the 8753D or E may have different hard and soft key labelling. Please refer to the
appropriate Users Guide for the relevant menu maps.
Chapter 2
27
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Test Setup
Figure 2-3
Input VSWR: Equipment Connection
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 1
Adapter 2
(if Applicable)
Port 1
Adapter 1
(if Applicable)
Cable 1
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Input VSWR Test Procedure the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the
Input VSWR Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model number
being tested.
The Input VSWR test requires the following stages:
1. Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 1 from 10 MHz to 3 GHz
2. Measuring VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz
3. Measuring VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
4. Measuring VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
5. Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 2 from 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz or 26.5 GHz
6. Measuring VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
7. Measuring VSWR from 6700 MHz to 26500 MHz
28
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 1 from 10 MHz to 3 GHz
Step 1. Press the Preset key on the Network Analyzer.
Step 2. Set the Active Channel to 1 (press Chan 1).
Step 3. Set the measurement mode to S11 (press the Meas key and Reflection).
Step 4. Set the start and stop frequencies.
For the N8973/4/5A models (frequency range 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz): press Start, 1, 0,
M/µ then Stop, 3, ., 0, G/n
Step 5. Set the measurement format to SWR (press the Format key and SWR).
Step 6. Set the number of measurement points to 801 points (press the Sweep Setup key,
and NUMBER of POINTS, 8, 0, 1, x1
Step 7. Set the power level to -30dBm (press the Sweep Setup key and Power, -, 3, 0, x1
Step 8. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-3.
NOTE
During this test procedure, ET model network analyzers do not require adaptor 1,
while NFA N8973A do not require adaptor 2.
Figure 2-4
Input VSWR Test Setup 1
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 1
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Port 1
Adapter 1
(if Applicable)
Chapter 2
Input
Cable 1
Adapter 2
(if Applicable)
29
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Step 9. Select the relevant calibration kit in use from the Cal menu, as the calibration kit
selection is dependant on the NFA being tested (press the Cal key, Calibration Kit
selection and Return).
NOTE
The connector type applies to the test port or adaptor if fitted and not the NFA under
test.
Step 10. Select an S11 port calibration (press the Cal key, then Calibrate Menu and
Reflection 1-port).
Step 11. Connect the Open to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Opens and then select the relevant menu key).
Step 12. Connect the Short to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Shorts and then select the relevant menu key).
Step 13. Connect the Load to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Load, select the relevant menu key and then done 1-port CAL).
Step 14. Save the calibration (press the Save/recall key and then Save State).
30
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 29.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 10 MHz to 500 MHz.
Press the Start key then 1, 0, M/µ; then press the Stop key and 5, 0, 0 M/µ.
NOTE
Ensure the VNA Correction and Interpol functions are both set to On.
Step 3. On the NFA ensure that the preset is set to the factory settings (press the System key
and More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. On the NFA press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish
Step 5. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode: Single).
Step 6. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key and Freq Mode,
Fixed).
Step 7. Set the fixed frequency to 250 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key and Fixed
Freq, 2, 5, 0, MHz).
Step 8. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 9. Set the Network Analyzer to autorange (press the Scale Ref key and Auto Scale).
Step 10. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key
and Mkr Search [ON], Search: Max).
Step 11. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 12. Verify that the measured VSWR from 10 MHz to 500 MHz is within the published
specification.
Chapter 2
31
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 29.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 0, ., 5, G/n; then press the Stop key and 1, ., 5, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 1000 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key
and then Fixed Freq, 1, ., 0, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key,
Mkr Search [ON] and then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 500 MHz to 1500 MHz is within the
published specification.
32
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 29.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop frequencies from 1.5 GHz to 3.0 GHz.
Press the Start key then 1, ., 5, G/n then the Stop key and 3, ., 0, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 1750 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key
and then Fixed Freq, 1, 7, 5, 0, MHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key
and Mkr Search [ON], Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 1500 MHz to 3000 MHz is within the
published specification.
Chapter 2
33
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Calibrating the Vector Network Analyzer 2 from 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz or 26.5
GHz
Step 1. Press the Preset key on the Vector Network Analyzer.
Step 2. Set the Active Channel to 1 (press Chan 1).
Step 3. Set the measurement mode to S11 (press the Meas key and Reflection).
Step 4. Set the start and stop frequencies.
The start and stop frequencies depend on the frequency range of the NFA:
For the N8974A (frequency range 3 GHz to 6.7 GHz): press Start, 3, G/n then Stop,
6, ., 7, G/n
For the N8975A (frequency range 3 GHz to 26.5 GHz): press Start, 3, G/n then
Stop, 2, 6, ., 5, G/n
Step 5. Set the measurement format to SWR (press the Format key and SWR).
Step 6. Set the number of measurement points to 1601 points (press the Sweep Setup key,
and NUMBER of POINTS,1, 6, 0, 1, x1
Step 7. Set the power level to -30dBm (press the Sweep Setup key and Power, -, 3, 0, x1
Step 8. Connect the type adapter and the μWave cable to port 1 as shown in figure inFigure
2-5.
Figure 2-5
Vector Network Analyzer: Adaptor Connection
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 2
Adapter 3
Port 1
uWave Cable
34
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Step 9. As the calibration kit selection is dependant on the NFA being tested, select the
relevant calibration kit in use from the Cal menu (press the Cal key, Calibration Kit
selection and Return).
NOTE
The connector type applies to the test port or adaptor if fitted and not the NFA under
test.
Step 10. Select an S11 port calibration (press the Cal key, then Calibrate Menu and
Reflection 1-port).
Step 11. Connect the Open to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Opens and then select the relevant menu key).
Step 12. Connect the Short to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Shorts and then select the relevant menu key).
Step 13. Connect the Load to the test port or, if fitted, the adapter and perform the open
calibration (press Load, select the relevant menu key and then done 1-port CAL).
Step 14. Save the calibration (press the Save/recall key and then Save State).
Measuring Input VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz
Figure 2-6
Input VSWR Test Setup 2
VECTOR NETWORK
ANALYZER 2
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Input
Port 1
Adapter 3
uWave Cable
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 35.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR from 3000
Chapter 2
35
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
MHz to 6700 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 3,., 0, G/n; then press the Stop key and 6, ., 7, G/n
NOTE
Ensure the VNA Correction and Interpol functions are both set to On.
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 5000 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key
and then Fixed Freq, 5, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key,
Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 3000 MHz to 6700 MHz is within the
published specification.
Measuring Input VSWR from 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 35.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR from 6700
MHz to 20000 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 6, .,7, G/n; then press the Stop key and 2, 0, ., 0, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 15 GHz (press the Frequency/Points key and
then Fixed Freq, 1, 5, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key,
Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 6700 MHz to 20000 MHz is within the
published specification.
36
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Input VSWR
Measuring Input VSWR from 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-6 on page 35.
Step 2. Set the Network Analyzer Start/Stop to measure the DUT’s input VSWR from
20000 MHz to 26500 MHz.
Press the Start key and then 2, .,0, G/n; then press the Stop key and 2, 6, ., 5, G/n
Step 3. Set the fixed frequency of the NFA to 23 GHz (press the Frequency/Points key and
then Fixed Freq, 2, 3, GHz).
Step 4. Restart the measurement sweep on the DUT (press the Restart key).
Step 5. Using the marker peak function on the network analyzer, determine the maximum
displayed VSWR over the measured frequency range (press the Marker Fctn key,
Mkr Search [ON] then Search: Max).
Step 6. Record the maximum displayed signal frequency and VSWR on the Test Record.
Step 7. Verify that the measured VSWR from 20000 MHz to 26500 MHz is within the
published specification.
Chapter 2
37
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Accuracy
Test Description
The NFA filter shape is asymmetrical. The center frequency is defined at the half
power level under the curve. The frequency accuracy tests are performed by
measuring selected Phot points along the filter curvature. The half power value of the
Phot measurements is then calculated. The frequency which closest matches this
value is given as the center frequency point.
For test purposes the narrow bandwidths are verified at the narrowest bandwidth of
100 kHz. This is due to the fact that the NFA uses digital sample processing (DSP).
It is therefore only necessary to verify the narrowest bandwidth with the most
accurate specification.
Test Specification
Bandwidth
Frequency range 10
MHz to 3 GHz
4 MHz
±100 KHz
+χ
2 MHz
±20 KHz
+χ
1 MHz
±20 KHz
+χ
400 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
200 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
100 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
Frequency range 3
GHz to 26.5 GHz
4 MHz
±400 KHz
+χ
2 MHz
±400 KHz
+χ
1 MHz
±200 KHz
+χ
400 KHz
±80 KHz
+χ
200 KHz
±40 KHz
+χ
100 KHz
±20 KHz
+χ
χ is equal to the tuned frequency * (1 ± frequency standard in use).
38
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-7
Equipment required for Frequency Accuracy test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
(see note)
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
83620/30/40/50B Option
001 and 008
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -55dBm
Adapter 1
Adapter 2
RF Cable
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm
(F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
11500E
3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61 cm (24 in.)
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz Timebase Accuracy
5071A
(Aging): < 1 x 10-10/day
BNC Lead (X 2)
NOTE
Length 122cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
Synthesized Sweeper model 83620B cannot be used test NFA N8975A.
Chapter 2
39
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-7
Frequency Accuracy test setup
BNC Cable
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
SYNTHESIZED
Ref In SWEEPER
Ref In
10 MHz
Input
FREQUENCY
STANDARD
RF Output
Adapter 2
Adapter 1
RF Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Frequency Accuracy Test Procedure the term ‘the Worksheet’ refers
to the Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet on page 45 and the term ‘the Test
Record’ refers to the Frequency Accuracy Test Procedure Test Record detailed in
the relevant Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-7 on page 40.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key and wait for the preset routine to complete.
2. Set the power level to -70dBm (press the Power Level key and -, 7, 0, dB(m)).
3. Switch RF ON
40
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 3. Set the NFA as follows:
1. On the NFA ensure that the preset is set to the factory settings (press the System
key and More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
2. Press the Preset key and wait for the preset routine to complete.
3. Set the measured results to Phot (press the Result key and Phot).
4. Select a single graphical display of Phot, press the
key.
5. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode: single).
6. Set the frequency mode to sweep (press the Frequency/Points key and Freq
Mode, Sweep).
7. Set the number of measured points to 201 (press the Frequency/Points key and
More, Points, 2, 0, 1, Enter).
8. Set the measured units to linear (press the Scale key and Units Linear).
9. Fix the IF Gain (press the System key, More, More, and Service. Enter the
service password -, 2, 0,1 ,0 press Enter, Service and then press IF Test and
Fixed IF Gain (On). Set the IF Gain Value to 16 and press IF Gain Value, 1, 6,
Enter).
10. For models N8974A and N8975A, run the YIG Tuned Filter alignment (press
the System key, Alignment, and then press Align YTF and wait for the
alignment routine to complete).
Step 4. Set the Sweeper frequency to 14 MHz, the first frequency listed in the Test Record
(press the CW key and 1, 4, MHz).
Step 5. Set the NFA frequency to 14 MHz, the first frequency as listed in the Test Record
(press the Frequency/Points key and Center Freq, 1, 4, MHz).
Step 6. Set the NFA frequency span to 8 MHz, the first frequency span as listed in the Test
Record (press the Frequency/Points key and Freq Span, 8, MHz).
Step 7. Set the NFA bandwidth to 4 MHz, the first bandwidth as listed in the Test Record
(press the Averaging/Bandwidth key and Bandwidth, 4 MHz).
Step 8. Restart the NFA measurement sweep (press the Restart key).
Chapter 2
41
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 9. Once the single sweep is complete set the NFA to autorange (press the Scale key
and Autoscale).
Step 10. Before obtaining the Phot measurements and performing the calculations ensure that
the filter shape is similar to the one relating to the bandwidth in Figure 2-8 and
Figure 2-9.
Step 11. Obtain the Phot tabulated measurements (press the Format key and Table). Use the
tab keys below the display to scroll through the results.
Alternatively output the trace data to disk, using the File Manager as follows:
1. Insert a writable disk in drive A: and press the File key and Save, Trace.
Ensure that drive A: is selected as the To: path.
2. Enter the file name or use the default provided and press Enter to save the *.CSV
file to disk.
The data can now be used in a spreadsheet application to perform the following
calculations.
42
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Figure 2-8
Typical 4 MHz bandwidth filter shape
Figure 2-9
Typical 100 KHz bandwidth filter shape
Chapter 2
43
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 12. Perform the frequency accuracy calculations either using a spreadsheet such as
Microsoft® Excel (see page 49), or manually (see page 50).
Step 13. Repeat steps 4 to 12 above for the remaining frequencies, spans and bandwidths as
listed in the data into the Test Record. Ensure the measured values are within its
published specification.
Step 14. Reset the IF Gain (press the System key, then More, More, and Service. Enter the
service password -, 2, 0,1 ,0 press Enter, Service and then press IF Test and Fixed IF
Gain (Off).
NOTE
The DSP bandwidths are verified at the narrowest bandwidth only. This is due the
fact that they use digital sample processing (DSP), therefore it is only necessary to
verify the narrowest bandwidth.
44
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
1
22
43
2
23
44
3
24
45
4
25
46
5
26
47
6
27
48
7
28
49
8
29
50
9
30
51
10
31
52
11
32
53
12
33
54
13
34
55
14
35
56
15
36
57
16
37
58
17
38
59
18
39
60
19
40
61
20
41
62
21
42
63
Chapter 2
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
45
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
64
85
106
65
86
107
66
87
108
67
88
109
68
89
110
69
90
111
70
91
112
71
92
113
72
93
114
73
94
115
74
95
116
75
96
117
76
97
118
77
98
119
78
99
120
79
100
121
80
101
122
81
102
123
82
103
124
83
104
125
84
105
126
46
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
127
148
169
128
149
170
129
150
171
130
151
172
131
152
173
132
153
174
133
154
175
134
155
176
135
156
177
136
157
178
137
158
179
138
159
180
139
160
181
140
161
182
141
162
183
142
163
184
143
164
185
144
165
186
145
166
187
146
167
188
147
168
189
Chapter 2
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
47
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Table 2-8
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency Accuracy Test Worksheet
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot reading
(dB)
Equation 1
No.
190
194
198
191
195
199
192
196
200
193
197
201
Center Frequency:
_______ MHz
Bandwidth:
_______ MHz
Span:
_______ MHz
Equation:
Frequency
(MHz)
Summed
Phot
reading
(dB)
Equation 1
Power = Summed Phot reading 201/2
Power = ____________WattHz
48
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Performing the frequency accuracy calculations using the CSV file in a
spreadsheet
The following procedure uses Microsoft Excel.
Step 1. Open Excel.
Step 2. Open the .csv file from the A: drive. From the File menu select Open and Look in:
(A:). Select files of Type: Text Files (*.prn; *.txt; *.csv).
Figure 2-10
Example Excel File
Column A contains the measured frequency. Column B contains the corresponding
Linear Phot value. Disregard Column C null terminator information.
Step 3. Increase the column widths to 20 to view the data more accurately.
Step 4. Enter the following formula into cell D1 = SUM(B$1:B1), copy this formula and
paste it from cell D2:D201.
Step 5. Enter the following formula into cell D202 =D201/2. This value returns the ½
Power reading.
Chapter 2
49
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Step 6. Use Cells D1 to D201 as a look up reference and find the cell, which closest
matches the ½ Power Reading in cell D202.
The corresponding frequency in Column A is given as the center frequency point.
Enter the reading into the appropriate column in the Test Record. Ensure that the
measured value meets its published specification.
Performing the frequency accuracy calculations manually
Step 1. Using the displayed Phot results sum the values and enter the summed values on the
Test Worksheet Table on page 45.
Example 2-2
1 GHz CW at the 4 MHz bandwidth
For the 1 GHz CW at the 4 MHz bandwidth each Phot reading shown in the Figure
2-12 on page 51 is summed with the previous cell(s) until the total power under the
curve is equated in the lower right hand column. Example sum reading 1 to reading
6 = 0.369.
Figure 2-11
Displayed Table Values
50
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Frequency Accuracy
Figure 2-12
Example 2-2 summed Phot for reading 1 to reading 6
Step 2. Calculate the half power level from the data as shown in Figure 2-12.
Equation: ½ Power = Summed Phot Reading 201 / 2
Step 3. Use the summed value column as shown in Figure 2-12 as a look up reference and
find the cell, which closest matches the ½ Power Reading. The corresponding
frequency column is given as the center frequency point. Enter the reading into the
Test Worksheet Table on page 45 and ensure the measured value is within its
published specification.
Chapter 2
51
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Test Description
The Noise Source Supply Accuracy test verifies that the noise source drive supply
meets the published specifications. A Digital Multimeter is connected to the +28V
noise source supply BNC connection. The supply is then tested in the on and off
states.
Test Specification
•
Noise Off
0.0V ± 1.0V
•
Noise On
+28V ± 0.1V
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
The following equipment is required for the Noise Source Supply Accuracy test.
Table 2-9
Equipment required for Noise Source Supply Accuracy test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Digital Multimeter
Input Resistance of 10 MΩ
3458A
Accuracy of 10 mV on 100 V range
DVM BNC Adapter
BNC (F) to Dual Banana Plug (M) Adapter,
50 Ω
E9637A
BNC Lead
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency 10 MHz
10503A
52
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-13
Equipment setup for Noise Source Supply Accuracy test
DIGITAL
MULTIMETER
NOISE
FIGURE
ANALYZER
BNC Cable
+28V Noise
Source Supply
Adapter on
(2 Wire) HI/LO
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Procedure the term ‘the Test
Record’ refers to the Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record detailed in the
relevant Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-13.
Step 2. Select the DC range on the digital multimeter (press DCV in the FUNCTION/RANGE
menu).
Step 3. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then More,
Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. On the NFA press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish.
Step 5. Set sweep to single (press Sweep, Sweep Mode: single).
Step 6. Set the noise source off (press the System key, then More, More and Service. Press
Enter Password then enter the service password -2010. Press Enter then Service
and Noise Source Off).
Step 7. Enter the digital multimeter reading into the Test Record as the Noise Source Supply
Off measurement.
Chapter 2
53
Test Descriptions
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Step 8. Set the noise source on (press the System key, then More, More and Service. Press
Noise Source On). Press Enter Password then enter the service password -2010.
Press Enter then Service and Noise Source On).
Step 9. Enter the digital multimeter reading in the Test Record as the Noise Source Supply
On measurement.
Step 10. Press the Preset key to return to the default Noise Source Supply State.
Step 11. Verify that the measured values are within the published specifications.
54
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Test Description
A precision step attenuator, calibrated at 50 MHz with an accuracy of 0.010dB, is
used as an external standard to measure the NFA’s Noise Figure Range and
Accuracy over a 22dB range. The results are then used to determine the Instrument
Uncertainty for the given ENR values over their respective measurement ranges.
A 50 MHz CW signal is passed through a precision step attenuator. The signal path
is referenced at 0dB attenuation. The attenuator is then stepped in 1dB steps from 1
to 11 taking the analyzers Phot measurement at each step. Only one step attenuator is
used in the measurement to reduce the overall measurement uncertainty of the
standard. It is therefore necessary to re-reference the measurement and repeat the
test covering the range from 12-22dB. All levels tested below 1dB are interpolated
from the measured points, as the minimum step attenuator setting is 1dB.
For test purposes the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy is only tested at the lower
frequency band with the most accurate specifications.
Test Specification
Table 2-10
N8973A, N8974A and N8975A specification
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7dB
12 - 17dB
20 - 22dB
Noise Figure Measurement Range
0 to 20dB
0 to 30dB
0 to 35dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
± 0.10dB
Related Adjustment
None
Chapter 2
55
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-11
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy test equipment
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range:
83620/30/40/50B
Option 001 and 008
50 MHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -54dBm to -65dBm
Attenuator/Switch
Driver
Compatible with 8494G/H Programmable step
attenuators
11713A
1 dB Step Attenuator
Attenuation Range: 0 to 11dB
8494G/H Option 002
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: 3.5mm (F)
Calibrated at 50 MHz with accuracy of 0.010 dB
Adapter 1
Adapter
RF Cable (X 2)
56
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
50 MHz 3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61cm (24 in.)
11500E
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Test Setup
Figure 2-14
Equipment required for Noise Figure Range and Accuracy test
SYNTHESIZED
SWEEPER
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
ATTENUATOR
SWITCH DRIVER
Input
PRECISION 1dB
STEP ATTENUATOR
Adapter 1
RF Cable
Control
Adapter 2
Cable
Attenuator X
RF Cable
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Procedure the term ‘the
Worksheet’ refers to the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Worksheet on page
60 and the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for the model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-14.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key.
2. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the CW key and 5, 0, MHz.
3. Set the power level to -54 dBm (press the Power Level key and -, 5, 4, dB(m).
4. Switch RF ON
Step 3. Set the Switch Driver as follows:
Chapter 2
57
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
1. Ensure the LOCAL LED is on.
2. Set the attenuator to 0dB. The settings are as follows:
Table 2-12
Switch Driver Attenuator Settings (1 = LED On, 0 = LED Off)
Attenuator X
1dB Step Attenuator
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
5
1
0
1
0
6
0
1
1
0
7
1
1
1
0
8
0
0
1
1
9
1
0
1
1
10
0
1
1
1
11
1
1
1
1
Step 4. Set the NFA as follows:
1. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then More,
Power On (Preset), Power On Preset and Preset (Factory)).
2. Press the Preset key and wait for the routine to finish.
3. Set the measured result to Phot (press the Result key and Phot).
4. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key and Sweep Mode (Single)).
5. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key and Freq
Mode, Fixed).
6. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the Frequency/Points key and Fixed Freq,
58
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
5, 0, MHz).
7. Set the averaging to 101 (press the Averaging/Bandwidth key and Average
Mode (Point), Averages, 1, 0, 1, Enter, Averaging On).
8. Select the display to meter mode (press the Format key and Format, Meter).
9. Fix the IF Gain (press the System key then More, More and Service. Press
Enter Password, then -2010 and Enter. Then press Service , IF Test and Fix IF
Gain On. Set the IF Gain Value to 16 and press IF Gain Value, 1, 6 and Enter.
Step 5. Restart the NFA measurement sweep by pressing the Restart key.
Step 6. Record the measured Phot value in the Worksheet as the -54dB Ref 1 Level.
Step 7. Step the attenuator in 1dB steps from 1 - 11dB recording the measured Phot at each
point in the Worksheet as the -55 to -65dB levels. Remember to press the Restart
key at each measurement.
Step 8. Set the synthesizer power level to -65dBm (press the Power Level key, then -, 6, 5,
dB(m)).
Step 9. Reset the attenuator to 0dB and press the Restart key to restart the NFA sweep.
Step 10. Record the measured Phot value in the Worksheet as the -65dB Ref 2 Level.
Step 11. Step the attenuator in 1dB steps from 1 - 11dB recording the measured Phot at each
point in the Worksheet as the -66 to -76dB levels. Remember to press the Restart
key at each measurement.
Step 12. Reset the IF Gain (press the System key then More, More and Service. Press Enter
Password, then -2010 and Enter. Then press Service , IF Test and Fix IF Gain
Off).
Step 13. Enter the attenuator metrology data information in the Worksheet provided as
Actual Attenuation using equation 1.
Step 14. Calculate the Measured Attenuation and enter the values in the Worksheet using
equation 2.
Step 15. Use the Actual and Measured attenuations given in the Worksheet to calculate the
Actual and Measured Noise Figures in the Test Record.
Step 16. Calculate the Noise Figure Instrument Uncertainty Error for each ENR
measurement range detailed in the relevant model number tables in Appendices A
through D. Enter the values into the appropriate test record and ensure that the
measured values are within their published specifications (pass/fail).
Chapter 2
59
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-13
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Worksheet
Attenuator
Step Size (dB)
Input
Level
(dBm)
Measured
Phot (dB)
Range
(dB)
Actual
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 1
Measured
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 2
0
-54 Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
Ref 1
-----
-----
-----
0.125
-----
-----
-----
0.5
1
-55
1
2
-56
2
3
-57
3
4
-58
4
5
-59
5
6
-60
6
7
-61
7
8
-62
8
9
-63
9
10
-64
10
11
-65
11
0 Ref 2
-65 Ref 2
Ref 2
Ref 2
1
-66
12
2
-67
13
3
-68
14
4
-69
15
5
-70
16
6
-71
17
7
-72
18
60
Ref 2
Ref 2
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-13
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Worksheet
Attenuator
Step Size (dB)
Input
Level
(dBm)
8
-73
19
9
-74
20
10
-75
21
11
-76
22
Equation 1
Measured
Phot (dB)
Range
(dB)
Actual
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 1
Range dB 0.125
= Metrology Data dB at 1dB / 8
Range dB 0.5
= Metrology Data dB at 1dB / 2
Range dB 1 to 11
= Metrology Data dB from 1 to 11
Measured
Attenuation (dB)
Equation 2
Range dB 12 to 22 = Metrology Data dB from 1 to 11 + (11dB to re-reference)
Equation 2
Range dB 0.125
= Measured AttenuationdB at 1dB / 8
Range dB 0.5
= Measured AttenuationdB at 1dB / 2
Range dB 1 to 11
= Measured PhotdB Ref 1 - Measured PhotdB from -55 to -65
Range dB 12 to 22 = Measured PhotdB Ref 2 - Measured PhotdB from -66 to -76 +
(11dB to re-reference)
NOTE
The ENR values given in the calculations are taken to be 5dB, 15dB and 22dB
respectively. The actual and measured attenuations supplied within the appropriate
Test Records are calculated from in the equations in the Tables on page 62.
Chapter 2
61
Test Descriptions
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
Table 2-14
Table 2-15
4.5-6.5 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
5 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Actual
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
5 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Measured
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
14-16 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
15 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Actual
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
15 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Measured
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Range dB 0.125 to 11
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
Range dB 12 to 15
=
Actual NF - Measured NF +
Instrumentation Uncertainty at 11 dB
(re-reference)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
Table 2-16
20-22 dB Noise Source ENR Test Record
Actual NF range
=
22 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Actual
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Measured NF range
=
22 dB ENR - 10LOG (10^ (Measured
AttenuationdB/10) -1)
Range dB 0.125 to 11
=
Actual NF - Measured NF
Range dB 12 to 22
=
Actual NF - Measured NF +
Instrumentation Uncertainty at 11 dB
(re-reference)
Instrumentation Uncertainty:
62
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
NOTE
You must perform the Noise Figure Range and Accuracy performance test (see
page 55) before this test.
Test Description
The NFA uses internal IF attenuator values for measuring gain. The test comprises
of an internal IF attenuator calibration. Using an external 50 MHz CW signal at
-46dBm the attenuator values are computed as error ratios.
The analyzer only uses a range of 40dB for any given measurement from -20dB to
>+40dB within the available 0 - 70dB IF attenuator range. Therefore, the actual
Instrumentation Uncertainty is calculated as the maximum peak to peak error over
any 40dB range within the available 0 - 70dB IF attenuator range. The 30 available
ranges are all tested for the maximum and minimum Peak to Peak values within
their respective 40dB range. The 30 peak to peak values are then compared and the
worst case error is reported as the Instrumentation Uncertainty error.
The graph below shows a typical plot of the data. 1 of the 30 available ranges is
shown giving the typical Instrumentation Uncertainty for the specific range between
30 to 70dB.
Chapter 2
63
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Figure 2-15
Typical Instrumentation Uncertainty for the range 30 to 70dB
Test Specification
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Range: -20 to >+40dB
Instrumentation Uncertainty: ±< 0.17dB
Related Adjustment
None
64
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-17
Equipment required for Gain Measurement Uncertainty test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range:
83620/30/40/50B Option
001 and 008
50 MHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): 0.02%
Power Level Range: -46 dBm
Adapter 1
Adapter 2
RF Cable
N8973A N Type (M) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1744
N8974/5A 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83620/30 3.5mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
1250-1749 or 83059B
83640/50 2.4mm Precision (F) to 3.5mm (F)
11901B
50 MHz 3.5mm (M) to 3.5mm (M), 61cm (24
in.)
11500E
Test Setup
Figure 2-16
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Setup
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
SYNTHESIZED
SWEEPER
Input
Type N Cable
Chapter 2
RF Output
Adapter
65
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Procedure the term ‘the
Worksheet’ refers to the Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Worksheet 1 on page
68 or Worksheet 2 on page 70, and the term ‘the Test Record’ refers to the Gain
Measurement Uncertainty Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix for the
model number being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-16.
Step 2. Set the Synthesized Sweeper as follows:
1. Press the Preset key.
2. Set the frequency to 50 MHz (press the CW key, then 5, 0, MHz).
3. Set the power level to -46 dBm (press Power Level, then -, 4, 6,dB(m)).
4. Switch RF ON.
Step 3. Ensure that the NFA preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then
More, Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 4. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait until the routine is finished.
Step 5. Set the NFA frequency mode to fixed (press Frequency/Points key, Frequency
Mode and Fixed).
Step 6. Set the NFA frequency to 50 MHz (press Frequency/Points key, Fixed Frequency,
then 5, 0, MHz).
Step 7. Run the IF attenuator calibration routine (press the System key, then More, More
and Service. Press Enter password, then -, 2, 0, 1, 0 and Enter. Then press
Service, followed by IF Test and Gain Lin Test). The test takes approximately 30
seconds to complete the routine.
Step 8. Record the results. Press the Gain Lin Results menu item once the above routine is
complete. Use the tab keys below the display to scroll through the results. Press
[|<—] or [—>|]). Record the Delta results along side the corresponding index value
in the Worksheet No. 1.
66
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Step 9. Convert the delta ratios to dB error values using 10*LOG10 (Delta reading from
index 1 to 71). Enter the value in the Worksheet No. 1.
Example: Index 16 = 1.004545 = 10 * LOG10 (1.004545) = 0.019694dB
Step 10. Using the error data calculated in the Worksheet No. 1, enter the peak-to-peak error
in dB over the 30 available measurement ranges in the Worksheet 2.
Step 11. Record the worst Instrumentation Uncertainty into the Test Record and ensure that
the measured value is within its published specification.
Chapter 2
67
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-18
Index
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 1
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Index
1
36
2
37
3
38
4
39
5
40
6
41
7
42
8
43
9
44
10
45
11
46
12
47
13
48
14
49
15
50
16
51
17
52
18
53
19
54
20
55
21
56
22
57
23
58
68
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-18
Index
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 1
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
Index
24
59
25
60
26
61
27
62
28
63
29
64
30
65
31
66
32
67
33
68
34
69
35
70
Delta Ratio
Error (dB)
71
Chapter 2
69
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-19
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 2
Index Range
Measured Range
(dB)
1 - 41
0 - 40
2 - 42
1 - 41
3 - 43
2 - 42
4 - 44
3 - 43
5 - 45
4 - 44
6 - 46
5 - 45
7 - 47
6 - 46
8 - 48
7 - 47
9 - 49
8 - 48
10 - 50
9 - 49
11 - 51
10 - 50
12 - 52
11 - 51
13 - 53
12 - 52
14 - 54
13 - 53
15 - 55
14 - 54
16 - 56
15 - 55
17 - 57
16 - 56
18 - 58
17 - 57
19 - 59
18 - 58
20 - 60
19 - 59
21 - 61
20 - 60
22 - 62
21 - 61
70
Peak-Peak
Instrumentation
Uncertainty (dB)
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Table 2-19
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Worksheet 2
Index Range
Measured Range
(dB)
23 - 63
22 - 62
24 - 64
23 - 63
25 - 65
24 - 64
26 - 66
25 - 65
27 - 67
26 - 66
28 - 68
27 - 67
29 - 69
28 - 68
30 - 70
29 - 69
31 - 71
30 - 70
Chapter 2
Peak-Peak
Instrumentation
Uncertainty (dB)
71
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Description
A noise source is connected to the NFA's input. The instrument then measures its
own uncorrected noise figure. For test purposes the NFA is tested at the most
accurate 20-26°C performance specification.
Test Specification
N8973A
10 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 4.4dB
+0.00117dB/MHz
10 MHz to 3000 MHz
< 4.4dB
+0.00117dB/MHz
>3000 MHz to 13200 MHz
<10.5dB
>13200 MHz to 26500 MHz
<12.5dB
N8974A and N8975A
NOTE
Specifications covering the frequency range of 10 MHz to 3000 MHz are referenced
to 0 MHz. To calculate the specification for any given frequency point within this
range simply multiply the frequency by the corresponding dB/MHz value and add
the initial dB value.
For example:
Frequency = 1500 MHz
Specification = 1500 * 0.00117 + 4.4dB = <6.155 dB
72
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-17
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8973A
Chapter 2
73
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-18
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8974A
Figure 2-19
Typical plots with limit lines for the N8975A
74
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Related Adjustment
None
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-20
Required equipment for Instrument Noise Figure Test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Noise source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 3 GHz
346A standard or Option
001
Typical ENR: 4.5 - 6.5 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm (M) or N Type
Noise source
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to
26.5 GHz
346C
Typical ENR: 12.0 - 17.0 dB
Connection: 3.5 mm (M) or N Type
Adapter
3.5 mm Precision (F) to 3.5 mm (F)
83059B
BNC Lead
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
NOTE
Equipment selection for this test is dependant on the model number of the NFA.
Reference must be made to Figure 2-20 for the actual equipment configuration
required for each individual model number.
Chapter 2
75
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Setup
Figure 2-20
Instrument Noise Figure Test Setup
N8973A
Type N
Opt 001
346A
OR
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Adapter
OR
N8974A
3.5mm
Std.
Insert ENR Disk
and Load from A:
Load ENR Data from C:
346A
OR
OR
Input
+28V Noise
Source Supply
Adapter
BNC Cable
N8975A
3.5mm
Std.
346C
76
Create File from Data on
Noise Source Label
NOISE
SOURCE
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Instrument Noise Figure Test Procedure the term ‘the Test Record’
refers to the Instrument Noise Figure Test Record detailed in the relevant Appendix
for the model number being tested
Step 1. Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2-20 on page 76.
Step 2. Ensure that the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then More,
Power On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 3. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait for the preset routine to finish.
Step 4. Load the noise source ENR calibration file from diskette (A:) or from the NFA’s
internal memory (C:). Alternatively, create an ENR file from the data supplied on
the noise source label (refer to the Noise Figure Analyzers NFA Series User's
Guide for more details). Do not calibrate the source. The NFA should display
Uncorrected in the active window.
Step 5. Configure the NFA as follows:
1. Set the measured result to Noise Figure (press the Result key, then
Noise Figure).
2. Select a single graphical display of Noise Figure (press the
key).
3. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key, then Sweep Mode: single).
4. Set the frequency mode to sweep (press the Frequency/Points key, then Freq
Mode and Sweep).
5. Set the start frequency (press the Frequency/Points key, then Start, 1, 0, MHz).
Chapter 2
77
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
6. Set the stop frequency dependant on the NFA’s upper frequency range.
For the N8973A set the stop frequency to 3.0 GHz (press Stop, 3, ., 0, GHz).
For the N8974A set the stop frequency to 6.7 GHz (press Stop, 6, ., 7, GHz).
For the N8975A set the stop frequency to 26.5 GHz (press Stop, 2, 6,., 5, GHz).
7. Set the number of measured points to 401 (press the Frequency/Points key,
then More, Points, 4, 0, 1, Enter).
Step 6. Models N8974A and N8975A only: run the Yig Tuned Filter alignment by pressing
System, Alignment and Align YTF then wait for the alignment routine to complete.
Step 7. Restart the NFA sweep by pressing the Restart key.
Step 8. Once the single sweep is complete set the NFA to autorange (press the Scale key
and the Autoscale menu item.
Step 9. Set the specification limit lines as follows:
1. Press the Limit Lines key, then Limit Line 1⇑, Type Upper and Editor.
2. Set the first frequency to 10 MHz and the limit to 4.4dB, connected to Yes by
default (press 1, 0, MHz, [—>|], 4, ., 4, Enter or X1).
3. Dependant on the NFA being tested, repeat 2. for the remaining frequencies and
limits as detailed in Figure 2-21 thru Figure 2-23.
78
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-21
Specification limit line setup for N8973A
Figure 2-22
Specification limit line setup for N8974A
Chapter 2
79
Test Descriptions
Instrument Noise Figure
Figure 2-23
Specification limit line setup for N8975A
4. Display the limit line on the screen (press <—Prev key and then Display On).
Step 10. Ensure the trace is below the limit line and enter the overall pass/fail result within
the Test Record.
Step 11. Complete the Test Record by entering values at fixed frequency points on the trace.
These values are purely for reference to the historical data, alternatively the screen
could be saved to disk and archived, printed etc.
Step 12. Activate the markers function on the analyzer (press the Marker key and the Marker
1, State and Normal menu items).
Step 13. Set the marker readout to 10 MHz, the first frequency with the Test Record. Press 1,
0, MHz and enter the marker value in the Test Record beside the corresponding
frequency point.
Step 14. Repeat step 12 and step 13 for the remaining frequency points within the Test
Record, recording the marker reading at each point and ensuring that the measured
points are within the published specifications.
80
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Measurement Jitter
Test Description
A noise source is connected to the NFA's input. The Analyzer then measures linear
Y-Factor over 100 samples. The standard deviation is then calculated using the
"non-biased" or "n-1" method. STDEV uses the following formula:
σ =
Equation 2-2
2
n x – ⎛ x⎞
⎝
⎠
----------------------------------------n(n – 1)
∑
2
∑
The linear value is then converted to Log10 to give the Y-factor Standard Deviation
with no averaging.
Test Specification
Jitter with no averaging: Y-factor Standard Deviation <0.10dB
Related Adjustment
None
Chapter 2
81
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Required Test Equipment
Table 2-21
Required equipment for Instrument Measurement Jitter Test
Equipment description
Critical specification for equipment
substitution
Recommended model
Noise source
Frequency Range: 1 GHz
346A Standard or option
001
Typical ENR: 4 - 7dB
Connection: 3.5 mm(M) or N Type(M)
Adapter
3.5 mm Precision (F) to 3.5 mm(F)
83059B
BNC cable
Length 122 cm (48 in.), Frequency
10 MHz
10503A
Test Setup
Figure 2-24
Measurement Jitter Test Setup
N8973A
Type N
Opt 001
346A
OR
NOISE FIGURE
ANALYZER
Adapter
N8974A
N8975A
3.5mm
Std.
Insert ENR Disk
and Load from A:
OR
Load ENR Data from C:
346A
OR
Input
+28V Noise
Source Supply
BNC Cable
Create File from Data on
Noise Source Label
NOISE
SOURCE
82
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Test Procedure
NOTE
Throughout the Measurement Jitter Test Procedure the term ‘the Worksheet’ refers
to the Measurement Jitter Test Worksheet on page 86. The term ‘the Test Record’
refers to the Measurement Jitter Test Record detailed in the relevant model number
Appendix for the being tested.
Step 1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 2-24.
Step 2. Ensure the preset is set to factory settings (press the System key, then More, Power
On/Preset, Power On (Preset) and Preset (Factory)).
Step 3. Press the Preset key on the NFA and wait for the routine to finish.
Step 4. Load the noise source diskette (A:) or from the NFA’s internal memory (C:).
Alternatively, create an ENR file from the data supplied on the noise source label
(refer to the Noise Figure Analyzers NFA Series User's Guide) for more details). Do
not calibrate the source. The NFA should display Uncorrected in the active
window.
Step 5. Set the NFA as follows:
1. Set the measure result to Y-Factor (press the Result key, then Y-Factor).
2. Set sweep to single (press the Sweep key, then Sweep Mode: single).
3. Set the frequency mode to fixed (press the Frequency/Points key, then Freq
Mode and Fixed).
4. Set the fixed frequency to 1 GHz (press Frequency/Points, Fixed Freq,
1, GHz.
5. Set measure to Linear mode (press the Scale key, then Units Linear).
6. Select the display to meter mode (press the Format key, then Format and
Meter).
Step 6. Restart the NFA sweep (press the Restart key).
Step 7. Repeat step 6, recording 100 displayed linear Y-Factor values within the Worksheet.
Step 8. Calculate the linear standard deviation with the equation given below:
Chapter 2
83
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
σ =
Equation 2-3
2
n x – ⎛ x⎞
⎝
⎠
----------------------------------------n(n – 1)
∑
2
∑
where n = number of samples, ∑ = sum, x = measured values
Using an example result of approximately 2.5, the standard deviationLin can be
calculated as follows.
σ
84
=
√ 100*sum(value 1 to 1002) - (sum value 1 to 100)2 / 100(100-1)
=
√ 100* 638.3963 - 63838.4147 / 9900
=
√ 0.000123
=
0.011071Lin
Chapter 2
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Table 2-22
Example worksheet
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading (Lin)
1-10
11-20
81-90
91-100
2.51173
2.53236
2.51882
2.54814
2.52119
2.52459
2.52375
2.51989
2.53333
2.52733
2.54246
2.52309
2.50778
2.50358
2.52668
2.52371
2.51997
2.52640
2.53861
2.53395
2.53139
2.52554
2.53976
2.54141
2.51906
2.53011
2.54001
2.52784
2.49573
2.51576
2.54133
2.50001
2.52075
2.54708
2.54232
2.54418
2.53547
2.53010
2.55278
2.52636
Step 9. Convert the linear standard deviation to Log10 using
10 * LOG10 (1+ standard deviationLin)
to give the standard deviation for Y-Factor results with no Averaging. Enter the
result into the Test Record ensuring that the measured value is within its published
specification.
Example:
Standard Deviation
=
10 * LOG10 (1+ standard deviationLin)
=
10 * LOG10 (1+ 0. 011071Lin)
=
0.0478dB
Chapter 2
85
Test Descriptions
Measurement Jitter
Table 2-23
Measurement Jitter Test Worksheet
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
Y-Factor
Reading
(Lin)
1-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
86
Chapter 2
3
Technical Specifications
Specifications apply over 0° C to +55° C unless otherwise stated. The Noise Figure
Analyzer meets specification after 2 hours storage within the operating temperature
range, 1 hour after the analyzer is turned on with ALIGNMENT running.
89
Technical Specifications
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency Range1 N8973A
Measurement
Bandwidth
(nominal)
10 MHz to 3 GHz
N8974A
10 MHz to 6.7 GHz
N8975A
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
N8973/4/5A
4 MHz, 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 400 KHz, 200 KHz, 100 KHz
Frequency
Reference2
Standard
Opt. 1D5a
Aging
< ±2 ppmb/year
< ±0.1 ppm/year
Temperature Stability
< ±6 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
Settability
< ±0.5 ppm
< ±0.01 ppm
a. Option 1D5 is recommended for applications requiring high frequency
stability.
b. ppm = parts per million(10-6)
1. The N8974A and N8975A NFA models have a mechanical switch fitted to allow them to switch
between the 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz frequency range and the 3.0 GHz to 6.7 GHz and the 3.0 GHz
to 26.5 GHz frequency ranges respectively. If the frequency range you are working in crosses
the 3.0 GHz point, the mechanical switch operates. The mechanical switch has a limited number
of cycles over which it is reliable. To maximize the switches reliable life, switching over the
3.0 GHz switch should be limited where possible.
2. Temperature stability on the Standard Frequency reference is achieved 60 minutes after the
Analyzer is powered on.
90
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Frequency
Tuning Accuracy
(Start, Stop,
Centre, Marker)
Frequency (MHz)
Temperature (0oC - 55oC)
At measurement bandwidth of 4 MHz
10 - 3000
± Reference error + 100 kHz
> 3000 - 26500
± Reference error + 400 kHz
At measurement bandwidth of < 4 MHz
10 - 3000
± Reference error + 20 kHz
> 3000 - 26500
± Reference error + 20% of measurement
bandwidth
Chapter 3
91
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Noise Figure and Gain
Performance is dependent on the ENR1 of the noise source used:
N8973A
N8974A (< 3.0 GHz), N8975A (< 3.0 GHz)
Noise Figure
Gain
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7 dB
12 - 17 dB
20 - 22 dB
Measurement Range
0 to 20 dB
0 to 30 dB
0 to 35 dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± < 0.05 dB
± < 0.05 dB
± < 0.1 dB
Measurement Range
-20 to +40 dB
Instrument Uncertaintya
± < 0.17 dB
a. For measurement bandwidths below 4 MHz, and spacing between measurement points below
3 MHz, gain uncertainty may increase to a maximum of ±0.7 dB.
N8974A, N8975A (> 3.0 - 26.5 GHz)
Noise Figure
Gain
Noise Source ENR
4 - 7 dB
12 - 17 dB
20 - 22 dB
Measurement Range
0 to 20 dB
0 to 30 dB
0 to 35 dB
Instrument Uncertainty
± < 0.15 dB
± < 0.15 dB
± < 0.2 dB
Measurement Range
-20 to +40 dB
Instrument Uncertaintya
± < 0.17 dB
a. For measurement bandwidths below 4 MHz, and spacing between measurement points below
3 MHz, gain uncertainty may increase to a maximum of ±0.7 dB.
1. Excess Noise Ratio
92
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Instrument's own
Noise Figure
Frequency
Noise Figure
Noise Figure over a limited
temperature range of 23o C ± 3o C
10 MHz to
3.0 GHz
< 4.8 dB + (0.00124 * freq in MHz)
< 4.4 dB + (0.00117 * freq in MHz)
> 3.0 GHz to
13.2 GHz
< 12.0 dB
< 10.5 dB
>13.2 GHz to
26.5 GHz
< 16.0 dB
< 12.5 dB
Figure 3-1
Characteristic1 Noise Figure at 23°C ± 3°C (10 MHz to 3.0 GHz)
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
Chapter 3
93
Technical Specifications
Noise Figure and Gain
Figure 3-2
Characteristic1 Noise Figure at 23°C ± 3°C (3.0 GHz to 26.5 GHz)
Max external gain >65 dB
between noise
source output and
RF input2
Averaging
Up to 999 measurement results
Jitter3,4
Jitter with no averaging 5 dB Y-factor standard deviation <0.15 dB
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
2. Subject to maximum operating input power
3. Specified for a 4 MHz measurement bandwidth. Jitter in noise figure is equivalent to jitter in
Y-factor to within 10% for ENR >14dB and F <4dB. At minimum smoothing, jitter can limit
accuracy; the small jitter at high smoothing does not.
4. For true Gaussian noise, jitter reduces with increased averaging, typically by a factor of
1/√(number of averages)
94
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
RF Input
RF Input
Connector
N8973A
N female, 50Ω nominal
N8974/5A
APC 3.5 mm, 50Ω nominal (ESD sensitive)
SWR (50 Ω
reference)
SWR
Figure 3-3
10 MHz to
500 MHz
> 500 MHz
to 1.5 GHz
> 1.5 GHz
to 3.0 GHz
3.0 GHz to
6.7 GHz
6.7 GHz to
20.0 GHz
20.0 GHz to
26.5 GHz
< 1.5:1
< 1.7:1
< 1.8:1
< 1.3:1
< 2.1:1
< 2.4:1
Characteristic1 SWR at 23° C (10.0 MHz to 3.0 GHz)
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
Chapter 3
95
Technical Specifications
RF Input
Figure 3-4
Characteristic1 SWR at 23° C (3.0 GHz to 26.5 GHz)
Maximum
Operating Input
Power2
-10 dBm
Maximum
Protected Input
Level
±20Vdc; +15 dBm peak (or average) at RF
Note that this is the total wide-band noise power. Contributing factors are: Noise
source ENR, external gain, noise figure, and bandwidth (including DUT).
1. Characteristic values are met or improved on by 90% of instruments with 90% confidence.
2. This is the total wide-band noise power. Contributing factors are: Noise Source ENR, external
gain, noise figure and bandwidth (including DUT).
96
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Measurement
Measurement
Sweep
Number of points
2 to 401, or fixed frequency
Setting
Start/Stop, Center/Span, Frequency list of up to 401
points
Sweep trigger
Continuous or Single
Measurement
Speed (nominal)1,2
8 averages
64 averages
N8973A1
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8974A1 (≤ 3.0GHz)
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8975A1 (≤ 3.0GHz)
< 50 ms/measurement
< 42 ms/measurement
N8974A2 (> 3.0GHz)
< 70 ms/measurement
< 50 ms/measurement
N8975A2 (> 3.0GHz)
< 70 ms/measurement
< 50 ms/measurement
1. Corrected Noise Figure and Gain measured on a 3dB pad with a repetitive sweep of 101 points
from 600 MHz to 1.0 GHz with 4 MHz measurement bandwidth.
2. Corrected noise figure and gain measured on a 3 dB pad with a repetitive sweep of 101 points
from 4 GHz to 6 GHz with a 4 MHz measurement bandwidth.
Chapter 3
97
Technical Specifications
Measurement
Modes
Amplifier
Downconverter in DUT
With fixed or variable IF
Instrument can control an external LO via dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
Upconverter in DUT
With fixed or variable IF
Instrument can control an external LO via dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
System downconverter
Allows the use of an external downconverting mixer as part of the
measurement system. Instrument can control an external LO via
dedicated 'LO GPIB' connector
Loss compensation
Single value between noise source and DUT, and between DUT and
analyzer
SNS Series Noise
Source
ENR tables automatic upload. Continuous upload of Tcold.
98
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
Display
Display
Type
17cm color LCD panel
Output format
Graphical, table of values, or meter mode
Display channels
2
Number of
markers
4
Limit lines
Upper and lower for each of 2 channels
Display units
Noise figure
Noise figure (F dB), or as a ratio (F)
Gain
Gain (G dB), or as a ratio (G)
Y-factor
Y-factor (Y dB) or as a ratio (Y)
Effective noise
temperature
Effective input noise temperature in Kelvin, °C, °F
Phot
Relative power density in dB or as a ratio
Pcold
Relative power density in dB or as a ratio
Chapter 3
99
Technical Specifications
Connectivity
Connectivity
General
GPIB
IEEE-488 bus connector
LO GPIB
IEEE-488 bus connector dedicated to local oscillator control (SCPI or custom
command set)
Serial
RS-232, 9-pin D-SUB male
Printer
25-pin parallel D-Sub female, for connection with IEEE 1284 cable to a PCL3 or
PCL5 compatible printer
VGA Output1
15-pin mini D-SUB female
Probe Power
(nominal)
+15 Vdc, -12.6 Vdc at 150 mA max.
10 MHz REF OUT
50 Ω nominal BNC (f), >0 dBm
10 MHz REF IN
50 Ω nominal BNC (f), -15 to +10 dBm
Noise Source Drive Output
Connector
50 Ω-type BNC (f)
Output Voltage
ON:
28.0 V ±0.1 V at up to 60mA peak
OFF:
<1 V
1. 31.5 KHz horizontal, 60 Hz vertical sync rates, non-interlaced, Analog RGB 640 x 480
100
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
General Specifications
Data Storage
(nominal)
Internal drive:
30 traces, states or ENR tables
Floppy disk:
30 traces, states or ENR tables
Power
Requirements
On (line 1):
90 to 132 V rms, 47 to 440 Hz
195 to 250 V rms, 47 to 66 Hz
Power consumption <300 W
Dimensions
Standby (line 0):
<5 W
Without handle:
222mm(H) x 410mm(D) x 375mm(W)
With handle (max): 222mm(H) x 515mm(D) x 409mm(W)
Weight (typical,
without options)
N8973A:
15.5 kg (34.2 lbs.)
N8974A:
17.5 kg (38.6 lbs.)
N8975A:
17.5 kg (38.6 lbs.)
Audible Noise
<42 dBa pressure and <5.0 bels power (ISODP7779)
Temperature
Range
Operating:
0° C to +55° C
Storage:
-40° C to +70° C
Humidity Range
Operating
maximum relative humidity 80% for temperatures up to 31°C
decreasing linearly to 50% relative humidity at 40°C
Altitude Range
Operating
to 4,600 meters
Calibration
interval
1-year minimum recommended
Chapter 3
101
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
Electromagnetic
Compatibility
This product conforms with the protection requirements of European Council
Directive 89/336/EEC for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).
The conformity assessment requirements have been met using the technical
Construction file route to compliance, using EMC test specifications EN
55011:1991 (Group 1, Class A) and EN 50082-1:1992.
In order to preserve the EMC performance of the product, any cable which becomes
worn or damaged must be replaced with the same type and specification.
Radio-Frequency
Electromagnetic
Field Immunity
When a 3 Vm-1 radio-frequency electromagnetic field is applied to the Noise Figure
Analyzer according to IEC 61000-4-3:1995, degradation of performance may be
observed. When the frequency of the incident field matches the frequency of a
measured noise figure or gain, the values displayed will deviate from those
expected. This phenomenon will only affect that specific frequency, and the
Analyzer will continue to perform to specification at all other frequency sample
points.
The Noise Figure Analyzer may be unable to calibrate a chosen frequency sample
point, if the frequency matches that of an incident electromagnetic field.1
1. Radiated Immunity Testing. When tested at 3 V/m, according to IEC 801-3/1984, the displayed
average noise level will be within specifications over the full immunity test frequency range of
27 MHz to 500 MHz except at the immunity test frequencies of 223.5714 MHz ± selected
resolution bandwidth, and 437.1429 MHz ± selected resolution bandwidth, where the displayed
average noise level can be up to -45 dBm. When the Noise Figure Analyzer tuned frequency is
identical to these immunity test frequencies, the measurements could be corrupted and there
may be signals of up to -70 dBm displayed on the screen.
102
Chapter 3
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
Specifications
Supplemental
Information
Acoustic Noise
Emission/Geraeuschemission
LpA <70 dB
LpA <70 dB
Operator position
Am Arbeitsplatz
Normal position
Normaler Betrieb
Per ISO 7779
Nach DIN 45635 t.19
Chapter 3
103
Technical Specifications
General Specifications
104
Chapter 3
A
Model N8973A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when working
through each calibration and performance verification test on model N8973A.
105
Model N8973A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
106
Pass/Fail
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
1500MHz to 3000 Hz
≤ 1.8:1
Appendix A
Pass/Fail
107
Model N8973A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2996.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
108
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
Appendix A
Pass/Fail
109
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
110
± 0.05dB
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
± 0.05dB
-63
9
± 0.05dB
-64
10
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
0 - 30 dB
Appendix A
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass
/Fail
± 0.05dB
111
Model N8973A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
112
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass
/Fail
± 0.10dB
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
-20 to > +40 dB
Appendix A
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
113
Model N8973A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 3000
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
114
Pass/Fail
Appendix A
Model N8973A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix A
115
Model N8973A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
116
Appendix A
B
Model N8974A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when working
through each calibration and performance verification test on model N8974A.
117
Model N8974A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
118
Pass/Fail
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
> 500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
> 1500MHz to 3000MHz
≤ 1.8:1
> 3000MHz to 6700MHz
≤ 1.3:1
Appendix B
Pass/Fail
119
Model N8974A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
4000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
5000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6696.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
120
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
Appendix B
Pass/Fail
121
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
122
± 0.05dB
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
0 - 30 dB
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-63
9
-64
10
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
Appendix B
123
Model N8974A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measure
d NF
(dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
124
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.10dB
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
-20 to > +40 dB
Appendix B
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
125
Model N8974A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 6700
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
4000.00
< 10.50dB
5000.00
< 10.50dB
6000.00
< 10.50dB
6700.00
< 10.50dB
126
Pass/Fail
Appendix B
Model N8974A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix B
127
Model N8974A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
128
Appendix B
C
Model N8975A: Test Records
This appendix provides test records for you to photocopy and use when working
through each calibration and performance verification test on model N8975A.
129
Model N8975A: Test Records
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
10MHz Out Frequency Reference Accuracy Test Record
Standard results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Accuracy
± 20Hz
Settability
± 5Hz
Pass/Fail
Option 1D5 results:
Description
Measured Frequency (Hz)
Specification (Hz)
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
± 1Hz
Settability
± 0.1Hz
130
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Input VSWR Test Record
Input VSWR Test Record
Measured Frequency
Range
Frequency at
Max Measured
VSWR
Maximum
Measured
VSWR
Specification
10MHz to 500MHz
≤ 1.5:1
500MHz to 1500MHz
≤ 1.7:1
1500MHz to 3000MHz
≤ 1.8:1
3000MHZ to 6700MHz
≤ 1.3:1
6700MHz to 20000MHz
≤ 2.1:1
20000MHz to 26500MHz
≤ 2.4:1
Appendix C
Pass/Fail
131
Model N8975A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
14.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
30.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
60.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
100.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
300.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
600.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
1500.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
2000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 100 kHz + x
4000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
5000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
6000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
7000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
8000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
9000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
10000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
11000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
12000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
13000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
14000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
132
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Frequency Accuracy Test Record
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
15000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
16000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
17000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
18000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
19000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
20000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
21000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
22000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
23000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
24000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
25000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
26000.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
26496.00
8.00
4.00
± 10 kHz
± 400 kHz + x
Frequency
(MHz)
Frequency
Span
(MHz)
Selected
Bandwidth
(MHz)
Resolution
(MHz)
1000.00
2.00
0.10
± 5 kHz
Measured
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
Specification
Specification
Pass/Fail
Pass/Fail
± 20 kHz + x
Where X is equal to the Tuned Frequency * (1 ± Frequency Standard in use)
Appendix C
133
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply Accuracy Test Record
Noise Source Supply
Measured Voltage (V)
Specification (V)
Off
< 1.0 V
On
< ± 0.1V
134
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 4.5 - 6.5dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
0 - 20 dB
-56
2
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
± 0.05dB
-60
6
± 0.05dB
Appendix C
± 0.05dB
135
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 14 - 17dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.05dB
-----
0.5
± 0.05dB
-55
1
± 0.05dB
-56
2
± 0.05dB
-57
3
± 0.05dB
-58
4
± 0.05dB
-59
5
-60
6
± 0.05dB
-61
7
± 0.05dB
-62
8
0 - 30 dB
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.05dB
± 0.05dB
-63
9
± 0.05dB
-64
10
± 0.05dB
-65
11
± 0.05dB
-66
12
± 0.05dB
-67
13
± 0.05dB
-68
14
± 0.05dB
-69
15
± 0.05dB
136
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy Test Record
Results: 20 - 22dB Noise Source ENR
Input
Level
(dBm)
Range
(dB)
Actual
NF (dB)
Measured
NF (dB)
Noise Figure
Measurement
Range (dB)
-----
0.125
± 0.10dB
-----
0.5
± 0.10dB
-55
1
± 0.10dB
-56
2
± 0.10dB
-57
3
± 0.10dB
-58
4
± 0.10dB
-59
5
± 0.10dB
-60
6
± 0.10dB
-61
7
± 0.10dB
-62
8
± 0.10dB
-63
9
± 0.10dB
-64
10
-65
11
± 0.10dB
-66
12
± 0.10dB
-67
13
± 0.10dB
-68
14
± 0.10dB
-69
15
± 0.10dB
-70
16
± 0.10dB
-71
17
± 0.10dB
-72
18
± 0.10dB
-73
19
± 0.10dB
-74
20
± 0.10dB
-75
21
± 0.10dB
-76
22
± 0.10dB
0 - 35 dB
Appendix C
Instrument
Uncertainty
(dB)
Specification
(dB)
Pass/
Fail
± 0.10dB
137
Model N8975A: Test Records
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Gain Measurement Uncertainty Test Record
Measurement
Range (dB)
-20 to > +40 dB
138
Worst Pk-Pk
Instrumentation
Uncertainty
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
± 0.17dB
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
10.00 to 26500
Overall Frequency
Range Result
Test Line Limit
10.00
< 4.400dB
30.00
< 4.440dB
60.00
< 4.470dB
100.00
< 4.520dB
300.00
< 4.760dB
600.00
< 5.110dB
1000.00
< 5.570dB
1500.00
< 6.120dB
2000.00
< 6.740dB
3000.00
< 7.910dB
4000.00
< 10.50dB
5000.00
< 10.50dB
6000.00
< 10.50dB
7000.00
< 10.50dB
8000.00
< 10.50dB
9000.00
< 10.50dB
10000.00
< 10.50dB
11000.00
< 10.50dB
12000.00
< 10.50dB
Appendix C
Pass/Fail
139
Model N8975A: Test Records
Instrument Noise Figure Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Instrument Noise
Figure (dB)
Specification (dB)
13000.00
< 10.50dB
14000.00
< 12.50dB
15000.00
< 12.50dB
16000.00
< 12.50dB
17000.00
< 12.50dB
18000.00
< 12.50dB
19000.00
< 12.50dB
20000.00
< 12.50dB
21000.00
< 12.50dB
22000.00
< 12.50dB
23000.00
< 12.50dB
24000.00
< 12.50dB
25000.00
< 12.50dB
26000.00
< 12.50dB
26500.00
< 12.50dB
140
Pass/Fail
Appendix C
Model N8975A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Measurement Jitter Test Record
Frequency (MHz)
Standard Deviation
(dB)
1000
Specification (dB)
Pass/Fail
< 0.10dB
Appendix C
141
Model N8975A: Test Records
Measurement Jitter Test Record
142
Appendix C
D
Caring for Connectors
The material contained in this appendix may not be apply to the connector you are
using on the instrument.
143
Caring for Connectors
Introduction
Introduction
Recent advances in measurement capabilities have made connectors and connection
techniques more important than ever before. Damage to the connectors on
calibration and verification devices, test ports, cables, and other devices represent an
increasing burden in downtime and expense.
This Appendix will help you get the best performance from all coaxial microwave
connectors:
•
To know what to look for when cleaning and inspecting them, in order to
preserve their precision and extend their life.
•
To make the best possible microwave connections, improving the accuracy and
repeatability of all of your measurements, saving both time and money.
Connector Part Numbers
Refer to the latest edition of the HP RF and Microwave Test Accessories Catalog for
connector part numbers.
Handling and Storage
Microwave connectors must be handled carefully, inspected before use and when
not in use, stored in a way that gives them maximum protection. Avoid touching the
connector mating plane surfaces and avoid setting the connectors contact-end down,
especially on a hard surface.
Never store connectors with the contact end exposed. Plastic end caps are provided
with all Agilent connectors and these should be retained after unpacking and placed
over the ends of the connectors whenever they are not in use. Extend the threads of
connectors that have a retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut, then put the
plastic end cap over the end of the connector.
Above all, never store any devices loose in a box or in a desk or a bench drawer.
Careless handling of this kind is the most common cause of connector damage
during storage.
144
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Visual Inspection
Visual inspection and, if necessary, cleaning should be done every time a connection
is made.
Metal and metal by-product particles from the connector threads often find their
way onto the mating plane surfaces when a connection is disconnected and even one
connection made with a dirty or damaged connector can damage both connectors
beyond repair.
Magnification is helpful when inspecting connectors, but it is not required and may
actually be misleading. Defects and damage that cannot be seen without
magnification generally have no effect on electrical or mechanical performance.
Magnification is of great use in analyzing the nature and cause of damage and in
cleaning connectors, but it is not required for inspection.
Obvious Defects and Damage
Examine the connectors first for obvious defects or damage: badly worn plating,
deformed threads or bent, broken, or misaligned center conductors. Connector nuts
should move smoothly and be free of burrs, loose metal particles, and rough spots.
Immediately discard, or mark for identification and send away for repair, any
connector that has obvious defects like these.
Mating Plane Surfaces
Flat contact between the connectors at all points on their mating plane surfaces is
required for a good connection. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to
deep scratches or dents, and to dirt and metal or metal by-product particles on the
connector mating plane surfaces.
Also look for bent or rounded edges on the mating plane surfaces of the center and
outer conductors and for any signs of damage due to excessive or uneven wear or
misalignment.
Appendix D
145
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Light burnishing of the mating plane surfaces is normal, and is evident as light
scratches or shallow circular marks distributed more or less uniformly over the
mating plane surface. Other small defects and cosmetic imperfections are also
normal. None of these affect electrical or mechanical performance.
If a connector shows deep scratches or dents, particles clinging to the mating plane
surfaces, or uneven wear, clean it and inspect it again. Damage or defects like dents
or scratches, which are deep enough to displace metal on the mating plane surface of
the connector, may indicate that the connector itself is damaged and should not be
used. Try to determine the cause of the damage before making further connections.
Precision 7 mm Connectors
®
Precision 7mm connectors, among them APC-7 connectors, should be inspected
visually with the center conductor collets in place, and whenever the collet has been
removed. See Figure D-1.
The collet itself should be inspected for edge or surface damage and for any signs
that the spring contacts are bent or twisted. If they are, replace the collet. When the
collet has been re-inserted, verify that it springs back immediately when pressed
with a blunt plastic rod or with the rounded plastic handle of the collet removing
tool. Never use a pencil or your finger for this purpose.
Figure D-1
Precision 7mm Connector
Outer Conductor
Center Conductor
Collet
Dielectric
Support bead
146
Outer
Conductor
Mating Plane
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Visual Inspection
Sexed Connectors
On sexed connectors, especially precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors, pay special
attention to the female center conductor contact fingers (Figure D-2 and Figure
D-3). These are very easily bent or broken, and damage to them is not always easy
to see. Any connector with damaged contact fingers will not make good electrical
contact and must be replaced.
Figure D-2
Precision 3.5mm connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Figure D-3
SMA connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Appendix D
147
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning
Careful cleaning of all connectors is essential to assure long, reliable connector life,
to prevent accidental damage to connectors, and to obtain maximum measurement
accuracy and repeatability. Yet it is the one step most often neglected or done
improperly. Supplies recommended for cleaning microwave connectors are as
follows:
•
Compressed Air.
•
Alcohol.
•
Cotton Swabs.
•
Lint-Free Cleaning Cloth.
Compressed Air
Loose particles on the connector mating plane surfaces can usually be removed with
a quick blast of compressed air. This is very easy to do and should always be tried
first using compressed air from a small pressurized can. The stream of air can be
directed exactly where it is wanted through a plastic (not metal) nozzle. No hoses or
other connections are needed. Hold the can upright, to avoid spraying liquid along
with the vapor.
Cleaning Alcohol
Dirt and stubborn contaminants that cannot be removed with compressed air can
often be removed with a cotton swab or lint free cleaning cloth moistened with
alcohol.
NOTE
Use the least amount of alcohol possible, and avoid wetting any plastic parts in the
connectors with the alcohol.
148
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Alcohol should be used in liquid rather than spray form. If a spray must be used,
always spray the alcohol onto a cloth or swab, never directly into a connector.
Very dirty connectors can be cleaned with pure alcohol. Other solutions that contain
additives should not be used.
Carefully avoid wetting the plastic support bead (which is easily damaged by
alcohol) inside the connector and blow the connector dry immediately with a gentle
stream of compressed air.
Precision 7 mm Connectors
When precision 7mm connectors have been cleaned with the center conductor collet
removed, insert the collet and clean the mating plane surfaces again.
When the connector is attached to a small component, or to a cable, calibration, or
verification standard, the easiest way to do this is to put a lint-free cleaning cloth flat
on a table and put a couple of drops of alcohol in the center of the cloth. It should be
noted that it is not necessary to remove the collet to use this cleaning method.
Retract the connector sleeve threads so that the connector interface is exposed.
Gently press the contact end of the connector into the cloth moistened with alcohol,
then turn the connector.
Dirt on the connector interface will be scrubbed away by the cloth without
damaging the connector. Blow the connector dry with a gentle stream of compressed
air.
This cleaning method can be adapted even for fixed connectors such as those
attached to test ports. Simply fold the cloth into several layers of thickness, moisten
it, press it against the connector interface, and turn it to clean the connector. Blow
the connector dry with a gentle stream of compressed air.
Appendix D
149
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
Cleaning Interior Surfaces
Interior surfaces, especially on precision 3.5mm connectors, are very difficult to
reach, and it is easy to damage connectors in trying to clean them. The openings are
very small, and generally the center conductor is supported only at the inner end, by
a plastic dielectric support bead. This makes it very easy to bend or break the center
conductor.
One suitable method (Figure D-4) is to cut off the sharp tip of a round wooden
toothpick, or a smaller diameter wooden rod, and then to wrap it with a single layer
of lint-free cleaning cloth.
Figure D-4
Cleaning interior surfaces
NOTE
Metal must never be used (it will scratch the plated surfaces), and in cleaning
precision 3.5mm connectors the diameter must not exceed 0.070 in. (1.7 mm). The
wooden handle of a cotton swab, for example, is too large for this purpose. Even
though the handle can sometimes be inserted into the connector, even when wrapped
in lint-free cloth, movement of the handle against the center conductor can exert
enough force on the center conductor to damage it severely.
Moisten the cloth with a small amount of alcohol and carefully insert it into the
150
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Cleaning
connector to clean the interior surfaces. Use an illuminated magnifying glass or
microscope to see clearly the areas you wish to clean.
Drying Connectors
When you have cleaned a connector, always be sure that it is completely dry before
reassembling or using it. Blow the connector dry with a gentle stream of clean
compressed air and inspect it again under a magnifying glass to be sure that no
particles or alcohol residues remain.
Appendix D
151
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Mechanical Inspection: Connector Gages
Even a perfectly clean, unused connector can cause problems if it is mechanically
out of specification. Since the critical tolerances in microwave connectors are on the
order of a few ten-thousandths of an inch, using a connector gage is essential.
Before using any connector for the first time, inspect it mechanically using a
connector gage. How often connectors should be gaged after that depends upon
usage.
In general, connectors should be gaged whenever visual inspection or electrical
performance suggests that the connector interface may be out of specification, for
example due to wear or damage. Connectors on calibration and verification devices
should also be gaged whenever they have been used by someone else or on another
system or piece of equipment.
Precision 3.5mm and SMA connectors should be gaged relatively more often than
other connectors, owing to the ease with which the center pins can be pulled out of
specification during disconnection.
Connectors should also be gaged as a matter of routine - after every 100 connections
and disconnections initially, more or less often after that as experience suggests.
Table D-1
Recommended connector gages
Connector gage kits containing all of the items required are included in many
Agilent calibration kits. They are also available separately. Part numbers are as
follows.
Type
Part Number/Ordering Information
Precision 7mm
(APC-7)
85050-80012
Precision 3.5mm
11752D
Precision 2.4mm
11752E
Type-N
85054-60047
152
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
Mechanical Specifications
The critical dimension to be measured, regardless of connector type, is the position
(generally, the recession or setback) of the center conductor relative to the outer
conductor mating plane.
Mechanical specifications for connectors specify a maximum distance and a
minimum distance that the center conductor can be positioned behind (or, in female
Type-N connectors, in front of) the outer conductor mating plane. Nominal
specifications for each connector type exist, but the allowable tolerances (and
sometimes the dimensions themselves) differ from manufacturer to manufacturer
and from device to device. Therefore, before gaging any connector, consult the
mechanical specifications provided with the connector or the device itself.
Precision 7mm Connectors
In precision 7mm connectors, contact between the center conductors is made by
spring-loaded contacts called collets. These protrude slightly in front of the outer
conductor mating plane when the connectors are apart. When the connection is
tightened, the collets are compressed into the same plane as the outer conductors.
For this reason, two mechanical specifications are generally given for precision
7mm connectors: the maximum recession of the center conductor behind the outer
conductor mating plane with the center conductor collet removed; and a minimum
and maximum allowable protrusion of the center conductor collet in front of the
outer conductor mating plane with the collet in place.
The center conductor collet should also spring back immediately when pressed with
a blunt plastic rod or with the rounded plastic handle of the collet removing tool.
Never use a pencil or your finger for this purpose.
With the center conductor collet removed, no protrusion of the center conductor in
front of the outer conductor mating plane is allowable, and sometimes a minimum
recession is required. Consult the mechanical specifications provided with the
connector or the device itself.
Sexed Connectors
In Type-N and precision 3.5mm connectors, the position of the center conductor in
the male connector is defined as the position of the shoulder of the male contact pin
Appendix D
153
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
- not the position of the tip. The male contact pin slides into the female contact
fingers and electrical contact is made by the inside surfaces of the tip of the female
contact fingers on the sides of the male contact pin.
50 Ohm Type-N Connectors
NOTE
No Type-N connector should ever be used when there is any possibility of
interference between the shoulder of the male contact pin and the tip of the female
contact fingers when the connectors are mated. In practice this means that no
Type-N connector pair should be mated when the separation between the tip of the
female contact fingers and the shoulder of the male contact pin could be less than
zero when the connectors are mated. Gage Type-N connectors carefully to avoid
damage.
Type-N connectors differ from other connector types in that the outer conductor
mating plane is offset from the mating plane of the center conductors. The outer
conductor sleeve in the male connector extends in front of the shoulder of the male
contact pin. When the connection is made, this outer conductor sleeve fits into a
recess in the female outer conductor behind the tip of the female contact fingers
(Figure D-5).
Figure D-5
Type-N connectors
MALE
Outer Conductor
Mating Plane
FEMALE
Therefore the mechanical specifications of Type-N connectors give a maximum
protrusion of the female contact fingers in front of the outer conductor mating plane
and a minimum recession of the shoulder of the male contact pin behind the outer
154
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Mechanical Specifications
conductor mating plane.
As Type-N connectors wear, the protrusion of the female contact fingers generally
increases, due to wear of the outer conductor mating plane inside the female
connector. This decreases the total center conductor contact separation and should
be monitored carefully.
75 Ohm Type-N Connectors
75Ω Type-N connectors differ from 50Ω Type-N connectors most significantly in
that the center conductor, male contact pin, and female contact hole are smaller.
Therefore, mating a male 50Ω Type-N connector with a female 75Ω Type-N
connector will destroy the female 75Ω connector by spreading the female contact
fingers apart permanently or even breaking them.
NOTE
If both 75Ω and 50Ω Type-N connectors are among those on the devices you are
using, identify the 75Ω Type-N connectors to be sure that they are never mated with
any 50Ω Type-N connectors.
Appendix D
155
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Using Connector Gages
Before a connector gage is used, it must be inspected, cleaned, and zeroed.
Inspecting and Cleaning the Gage
Inspect the connector gage and the gage calibration block carefully, exactly as you
have inspected the connector itself. Clean or replace the gage or the block if
necessary (dirt on the gage or block will make the gage measurements of the
connectors inaccurate and can transfer dirt to the connectors themselves, damaging
them during gaging or when the connection is made).
Zeroing the Gage
Zero the gage by following the steps described below. Be sure that you are using the
correct connector gage and correct end of the gage calibration block for the
connector being measured.
•
Hold the gage by the plunger barrel (not the dial housing or cap) and, for male
connectors, slip the protruding end of the calibration block into the circular
bushing on the connector gage. For precision 7mm, female precision 3.5mm use
the flat end of the gage calibration block. For female Type-N connectors, use the
recessed end of calibration block.
•
Hold the gage by the plunger barrel only (Figure D-6). Doing so will prevent
errors in gage readings due to the application of stresses to the gage plunger
mechanism through the dial indicator housing.
•
Carefully bring the gage and gage block together, applying only enough pressure
to the gage and gage block to result in the dial indicator pointer settling at a
reading.
156
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
•
Gently rock the two surfaces together, to make sure that they have come together
flatly. The gage pointer should now line up exactly with the zero mark on the
gage. If it does not, inspect and clean the gage and gage calibration block again
and repeat this process. If the gage pointer still does not line up with the zero
mark on the gage, loosen the dial lock screw and turn the graduated dial until the
gage pointer exactly lines up with zero. Then retighten the lock screw.
Figure D-6
Using the connector gage
NOTE
Gages should be checked often, to make sure that the zero setting has not changed.
Generally, when the gage pointer on a gage that has been zeroed recently does not
line up exactly with the zero mark, the gage or calibration block needs cleaning.
Clean carefully and check the zero setting again.
Appendix D
157
Caring for Connectors
Using Connector Gages
Measuring Connectors
Measuring the recession of the center conductor behind the outer conductor mating
plane in a connector is done in exactly the same way as zeroing the gage, except of
course that the graduated dial is not re-set when the measurement is made.
If the connector has a retractable sleeve or sliding connector nut - precision 7mm
connectors, for example - extend the sleeve or nut fully. This makes it easier to keep
the gage centered in the connector.
Hold the gage by the plunger barrel and slip the gage into the connector so that the
gage plunger rests against the center conductor. Carefully bring the gage into firm
contact with the outer conductor mating plane.
Apply only enough pressure to the gage so that the gage pointer settles at a reading.
Gently rock the connector gage within the connector, to make sure that the gage and
the outer conductor have come together flatly. Read the recession (or protrusion)
from the gage dial. (For maximum accuracy, measure the connector several times
and take an average of the readings.)
Rotate the gage relative to the connector between each measurement. To monitor
connector wear, record the readings for each connector over time.
158
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Making Connections
Making good connections is easy if a few simple principles are kept in mind:
•
Aall connectors must be undamaged, clean, and within mechanical specification.
•
The connectors must be precisely aligned with one another and in flat physical
contact at all points on the mating plane surfaces.
•
The connection must not be too tight or too loose.
•
Lateral or horizontal (bending) force must not be applied to the connection, nor
should any connection ever be twisted.
Align Connectors Carefully
Careful alignment of the connectors is critical in making a good connection, both to
avoid damaging connectors and devices and to assure accurate measurements.
As you bring one connector up to the other and as you make the actual connection,
be alert for any sign that the two connectors are not aligned perfectly. If you suspect
that misalignment has occurred, stop and begin again.
Alignment is especially important in the case of sexed connectors, such as precision
3.5mm and SMA connectors, to avoid bending or breaking the contact pins. The
center pin on the male connector must slip concentrically into the contact fingers of
the female connector. This requires great care in aligning the two connectors before
and as they are mated.
When they have been aligned, the center conductors must be pushed straight
together, not twisted or screwed together, and only the connector nut (not the device
itself) should then be rotated to make the connection. (slight resistance is generally
felt as the center conductors mate).
Appendix D
159
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Alignment of precision 7mm connectors is made easier by the fact that the
connector sleeve on one of the connectors must be extended fully (and the sleeve on
the other connector retracted fully) in order to make the connection. Extending the
sleeve creates a cylinder into which the other connector fits.
If one of the connectors is fixed, as on a test port, extend that connector sleeve and
spin its knurled connector nut to make sure that the threads are fully extended, while
on the other connector, fully retract the connector sleeve.
To Make a Preliminary Connection
Align the two connectors carefully and engage the connector nut over the exposed
connector sleeve threads on the other connector.
Gently turn the connector nut until a preliminary connection is made. Let the
connector nut pull the two connectors straight together. Do not twist one connector
body into the other (as you might drive a screw or insert a light bulb) as this is
extremely harmful and can damage the connectors.
When the mating plane surfaces make uniform, light contact, the preliminary
connection is tight enough. Do not overtighten this connection.
NOTE
At this stage all you want is a connection in which the outer conductors make gentle
contact at all points on both mating surfaces. Very light finger pressure (no more
than 2 inch-ounces of torque) is enough.
160
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Final Connection Using a Torque Wrench
When the preliminary connection has been made, use a torque wrench to make the
final connection. Tighten the connection only until the “break” point of the wrench
is reached, when the wrench handle gives way at its internal pivot point. Do not
tighten the connection further.
Also make sure that torque actually is being applied to the connection through the
torque wrench, not only to the wrench handle or in any way that prevents the break
point of the wrench from controlling the torque applied to the connection.
Suggestions to ensure that torque is actually being applied are given in Table D-2 on
page 162.
Using a torque wrench guarantees that the connection will not be too tight, thus
preventing possible damage to the connectors and impaired electrical performance.
It also guarantees that all connections will be made with the same degree of
tightness every time they are made.
Torque wrenches pre-set to the correct value for each connector type are included in
many Agilent calibration kits, and they are also available separately. Torque settings
are detailed in Table D-2.
When using a torque wrench, prevent rotation of anything other than the connector
nut that is being tightened with the torque wrench. Generally this is easy to do by
hand (all the more so if one of the connectors is fixed) as on a test port. In other
situations, an open-end wrench can be used to keep the bodies of the connectors
from turning.
Hold the torque wrench lightly by the knurled end of the handle only. Apply force at
the end of the torque wrench only, perpendicular to the wrench and always in a plane
parallel to the outer conductor mating planes. This will result in torque being applied
to the connection through the wrench until the break point of the wrench is reached.
Avoid pivoting the wrench handle on the thumb or other fingers. This results in an
unknown amount of torque being applied to the connection when the break point of
the wrench is reached. Avoid twisting the head of the wrench relative to the outer
conductor mating plane. This results in applying more than the recommended
torque.
Appendix D
161
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
Table D-2
Recommended Torque Settings
Type
Description
Precision
7mm
12 lb-in (136 N-cm.)
Precision
3.5mm
8 lb-in (90 N-cm)
SMA
5 lb-in (56 N-cm) Use the SMA wrench to connect male
SMA connectors to female precision 3.5min connectors.
Connections of male precision 3.5mm. connectors to female
SMA connectors can be made with the precision 3.5mm
torque wrench (8 lb-in).
Type-N
Type-N connectors may be connected finger tight. If a
torque wrench is used, 12 lb-in (136 N-cm) is
recommended.
To reiterate the main do’s and do not’s detailed previously:
•
Avoid holding the wrench tightly, in such a way that the handle is not pivoted
but simply pushed downward the same amount throughout its length. If this is
done, an unlimited amount of torque can be applied.
•
Hold the wrench at the same point near the end of the handle every time, and
always in the same orientation. Whenever possible, begin tightening the
connection with the wrench held horizontally
Disconnection
Disconnect connectors by first loosening the connector nut that was tightened in
order to make the connection. If necessary, use the torque wrench or an open-end
wrench to start the process, but leave the connection finger tight. At all times
support the devices and the connection to avoid putting lateral (bending) force on
the connectors.
Complete the disconnection by disconnecting the connector nut completely.
NOTE
Never disconnect connectors by twisting one connector or device out of the other as
one might remove a screw or a light bulb. This is extremely harmful and connector
162
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Making Connections
damage can occur whenever the device body rather than the nut alone is being
turned.
If the connection is between sexed connectors, pull the connectors straight apart and
be especially careful not to twist the body of any device as you do so. Twisting the
connection can damage the connector by damaging the center conductors or the
interior component parts to which the connectors themselves are attached. It can
also scrape the plating from the male contact pin or even (in rare instances) unscrew
the male or female contact pin slightly from its interior mounting, bringing it out of
specification (this can also occur if the female contact fingers are unusually tight).
Appendix D
163
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Adapters
Adapters are used to connect a device with one connector interface to a device or to
test equipment that has another interface, or to reduce wear on connectors that may
be difficult or expensive to replace. Reducing wear is possibly the most important
use of adapters, especially when devices that have SMA connectors are being used.
SMA connectors are low-cost connectors generally used up to about 23GHz. They
are not precision mechanical devices and are not designed for repeated connections
and disconnections as they wear out quickly and are very often found, upon
assembly, to be out of specification, even before they have been used. This makes
them potentially destructive to any precision 3.5mm connectors with which they
might be mated.
CAUTION
Worn, damaged, or out-of-specification SMA connectors can destroy a precision
3.5mm connector even on the very first connection. For this reason it is
recommended that you use high-quality precision adapters, sometimes called
“connector savers”, whenever more than a few connections are to be made between
SMA and precision 3.5mm connectors.
In most applications two adapters will be required, one each at the input and the
output of the device. Male-female adapters cause no change in the sex of the
interface. The same interface is presented when the adapter is in place as is
presented in the original setup.
Same-sex adapters (male-male, female-female) change the sex of the interface. For
example, if the original interface presents a male connector, attaching a
female-female adapter will result in a female interface to which devices or cables
that have male SMA (or male precision 3.5mm) connectors can be connected.
Adapters are included in many Agilent calibration kits and with many Agilent
devices, or they may be ordered separately.
164
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Adapters
Table D-3
Adapters
Type
Description
Precision 7mm and
Type-N
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5 mm
Precision 7mm/male 50Ω Type-N Precision
7mm/female 50Ω Type-N
Precision 3.5mm
and SMA
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
Female 3.5mm/female 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/male 3.5mm
Precision 7mm/female 3.5mm “Connector
saver” male 3.5mm/female 3.5 mm
“Connector saver” male 3.5mm/male 3.5mm
Appendix D
165
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table D-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Handling and Storage
DO
DO NOT
•
Keep connectors clean.
•
Touch mating plane surfaces.
•
Extend sleeve or connector nut.
•
Set connectors contact-end down.
•
Use plastic end caps during
storage.
Visual Inspection
DO
DO NOT
•
Inspect each connector carefully
before every connection.
•
Look for metal particles, scratches
and dents.
•
Use a damaged connector EVER.
Cleaning
DO
DO NOT
•
Try compressed air first.
•
Use any abrasives.
•
Clean connector threads.
•
Get liquid onto plastic support
beads.
166
Appendix D
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Table D-4
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
Gaging
DO
DO NOT
•
Clean and zero the gage before
using.
•
Use correct gage type.
•
Use correct end of calibration
block.
•
Gage all connectors before first
use.
•
Use an out-of-spec connector.
Making Connections
DO
DO NOT
•
Align connectors carefully.
•
•
Make preliminary connection
lightly.
Apply bending force to
connection.
•
Overtighten preliminary
connection.
•
Twist or screw in connectors.
•
Tighten past “break” point of
torque wrench.
•
Turn connector nut only to tighten.
•
Use a torque wrench for final
connection.
Appendix D
167
Caring for Connectors
Principles of Microwave Connector Care
168
Appendix D
Index
Numerics
10MHz Out Freqency Reference
Adjustment
Test Procedure, 21
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy
Related Adjustment, 14
Required Test Equipment, 15
Test Description, 14
Test Procedure, 16
Test Record, 106, 118, 130
Test Setup, 15
Test Specification, 14
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Adjustment
Required Test Equipment, 20
Test Description, 20
Test Setup, 21
10MHz REF IN, 100
10MHz REF OUT, 100
3.0 GHz switch, 90
A
adaptors and cables
recommended, 9
adaptors for connectors, 164
adjustment procedures, 11
Aging, 90
alignment
connectors, 159
Altitude Range, 101
Audible Noise, 101
B
Buyer’s remedies, iv
C
Calibration
Cycle, 3
calibration
annual, 3
Index
Input VSWR vector network
analyzer, 29
Input VSWR vector network
analyzer 2, 34
interval, 3
preparing for test, 1, 4
test description, 13
Calibration interval, 101
Caring for Connectors, 143
75 ohm type-n connectors, 155
adaptors, 164
alignment, 159
cleaning, 148
cleaning interior surfaces, 150
cleaning solvents, 148
compressed air, 148
disconnection, 162
drying, 151
final connection, 161
gages, 156
handling and storage, 144
inspecting and cleaning the gage,
156
introduction, 144
making connections, 159
mating plane surfaces, 145
measuring connectors, 158
mechanical inspection, 152
mechanical specifications, 153
microwave principles, 166
obvious defects and damage, 145
precision 7mm, 146
precision 7mm cleaning, 149
precision 7mm mechanical
specifications, 153
preliminary connection, 160
sexed connectors, 147, 153
type-n connectors, 154
visual inspection, 145
zeroing the gage, 156
Caution definition, ii
center frequency, 38
cleaning
connectors, 148
drying connectors, 151
interior connector surfaces, 150
precision 7mm connectors, 149
solvents for connectors, 148
compressed air
connector cleaning, 148
connectivity
10MHz REF IN, 100
10MHz REF OUT, 100
GPIB, 100
LO GPIB, 100
printer, 100
probe power, 100
serial, 100
technical specifications, 100
VGA output, 100
Connector, RF input, 95
D
Data Storage, 101
Declaration of conformity
N8973A, vi
N8974A, vi
N8975A, vi
defects and damage
connectors, 145
Dimensions, 101
disconnection of connectors, 162
display
technical specifications, 99
Display channels, 99
display output format, 99
display type, 99
Display units, 99
Downconverter in DUT, 98
E
Electromagnetic compatibility, 102
exclusive remedies, iv
169
Index
F
filter shape, 38
final connection
connectors, 161
Floppy disk storage, 101
frequency
technical specifications, 90
Frequency Accuracy
mdel N8975A Test Record, 132
model N8973A Test Record, 108
model N8974A Test Record, 120
performing calculations manually,
50
performing calculations using CSV
file, 49
Related Adjustment, 39
Required Test Equipment, 39
Test Description, 38
Test Procedure, 40
Test Setup, 40
Test Specification, 38
G
gages
inspecting and cleaning, 156
measuring connectors, 158
using with connectors, 156
zeroing, 156
gain
technical specifications, 92
Gain Measurement Uncertainty
Related Adjustment, 64
Required Test Equipment, 65
Test Description, 63
Test Procedure, 66
Test Record, 113, 125, 138
Test Setup, 65
Test Specification, 64
Test Worksheet No. 1, 68
Test Worksheet No. 2, 70
GPIB connector, 100
170
H
handling and storage
connectors, 144
Humidity Range, 101
I
Input VSWR
10MHz to 500MHz measurement,
31
1500MHz to 3000MHz
measurement, 33, 35
500MHz to 1500MHz
measurement, 32
6700MHz to 26500MHz
measurement, 36, 37
model N8973A Test Record, 107
model N8974A Test Record, 119
model N8975A Test Record, 131
Related Adjustments, 26
Required Test Equipment, 26
Test Description, 24
Test Procedure, 28
Test Setup, 28
Test Specification, 26
vector network analyzer 2
calibration, 34
vector network analyzer calibration,
29
Instrument Noise Figure
model N8974A Test Record, 127
Related Adjustment, 75
Required Test Equipment, 75
Test Description, 72
Test Procedure, 77
Test Setup, 76
Test Specification, 72
Internal drive storage, 101
L
Limit lines, 99
LO GPIB connector, 100
Loss compensation, 98
M
markers, 99
Maximum operating input power, 96
Maximum protected input level, 96
measuement
using gages on connectors, 158
measurement
Input VSWR 10MHz to 500MHz,
31
Input VSWR 1500MHz to
3000MHz, 33, 35
Input VSWR 500MHz to
1500MHz, 32
Input VSWR 6700MHz to
26500MHz, 36, 37
technical specifications, 97
Measurement Jitter
Related Adjustment, 81
Required Test Equipment, 82
Test Description, 81
Test Procedure, 83
Test Record, 115, 127, 141
Test Setup, 82
Test Specification, 81
mechanical
connector inspection, 152
connector specifications, 153
precision 7mm connector
specifications, 153
mechanical 3.0 GHz switch, 90
microwave
principles of connector care, 166
model N8973A
worksheets and test records, 105
model N8974A
worksheets and test records, 117
model N8975A
worksheets and test records, 129
Modes, 98
N
N8973A
Index
Index
Declaration of conformity, vi
N8974A
Declaration of conformity, vi
N8975A
Declaration of conformity, vi
noise figure
instrument’s own, 93
technical specifications, 92
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy
model N8973A Test Record, 110
model N8973A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 111
model N8973A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 112
model N8973A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 110
model N8974A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 123
model N8974A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 124
model N8974A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 122
model N8975A Test Record, 135
model N8975A Test Record
14-16dB Results, 136
model N8975A Test Record
20-22dB Results, 137
model N8975A Test Record
4.5-6.5dB Results, 135
model N8975A Test Worksheet, 60
Related Adjustment, 55
Required Test Equipment, 56
Test Description, 55
Test Procedure, 57
Test Setup, 57
Test Specification, 55
Noise Source Drive Output, 100
Noise Source Supply Accuracy
Related Adjustment, 52
Required Test Equipment, 52
Test Description, 52
Test Procedure, 53
Test Record, 109, 121, 134
Index
Test Setup, 53
Test Specification, 52
Note definition, ii
number of, 99
Number of markers, 99
Number of points, 97
Measurement Jitter, 82
Noise figure Range and Accuracy,
56
Noise Source Supply Accuracy, 52
RF Input
technical specifications, 95
O
Operating altitude range, 101
Operating humidity range, 101
Operating temperature, 101
Output format, 99
S
Safety Notices, ii
Serial port, 100
Settability, 90
Setting, 97
SNS Series Noise Source, 98
Speed per frequency point, 97
Storage temperature, 101
Sweep, 97
Sweep trigger, 97
switch reliability, 90
SWR (50 W reference), 95
System downconverter, 98
P
performance verification
preparing for test, 1, 4
test description, 13
performance verification and
adjustment procedures, 11
Power Requirements, 101
preliminary connection
connectors, 160
Preparing for Calibration and
Performance Verification Test,
1, 4
Printer port, 100
Probe power, 100
purpose of tests, 2
R
recommended accessories, 9
recommended test equipment, 7
recording of test results, 6
required test equipment
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 15
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Adjustment, 20
Frequency Accuracy, 39
Gain Measurement Uncertainty, 65
Input VSWR, 26
Instrument Noise Figure, 75
T
technical specifications, 89
altitude range, 101
audible noise, 101
averaging, 94
calibration interval, 101
connectivity, 100
connector, 95
data storage, 101
dimensions, 101
display, 99
electromagnetic compatibility, 102
frequency, 90
frequency range, 90
humidity range, 101
jitter, 94
max operating input power, 96
max protected input level, 96
measurement, 97
modes, 98
noise figure and gain, 92
171
Index
power requirements, 101
RF Input, 95
SNS, 98
speed per frequency point, 97
sweep, 97
tuning accuracy, 91
valid temperature range, 89
weight, 101
Temperature Range, 101
Temperature Stability, 90
test descripntion
Measurement Jitter, 81
Test description, 13
test description
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 14
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Adjustment, 20
Frequency Accuracy, 38
Gain Measurement Uncertainty, 63
Input VSWR, 24
Instrument Noise Figure, 72
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy,
55
Noise Source Supply Accuracy, 52
test equipment
recommended, 7
test procedure
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 16
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Adjustment, 21
Frequency Accuracy, 40
Gain Measurement Uncertainty, 66
Input VSWR, 28
Instrument Noise Figure, 77
Measurement Jitter, 83
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy,
57
Noise Source Supply Accuracy, 53
test purposes, 2
test record
172
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 106, 118, 130
Gain Measurement Uncertainty,
113, 125, 138
Measurement Jitter, 115, 127, 141
model N8973A frequency
accuracy, 108
model N8973A input VSWR, 107
model N8973A noise figure range
and accuracy 14-16dB results,
111
model N8973A noise figure range
and accuracy 20-22dB results,
112
model N8973A noise figure range
and accuracy 4.5-6.5dB
results, 110
model N8974A frequency
accuracy, 120
model N8974A input VSWR, 119
model N8974A instrument noise
figure, 127
model N8974A noise figure range
and accuracy 14-16dB results,
123
model N8974A noise figure range
and accuracy 20-22dB results,
124
model N8974A noise figure range
and accuracy 4.5-6.5dB
results, 122
model N8975A frequency
accuracy, 132
model N8975A input VSWR, 131
model N8975A noise figure range
and accuracy, 135
model N8975A noise figure range
and accuracy 14-16dB results,
136
model N8975A noise figure range
and accuracy 20-22dB results,
137
model N8975A noise figure range
and accuracy 4.5-6.5dB
results, 135
noise figure range and accuracy
model 8974A, 122
noise figure range and accuracy
model N8973A, 110
Noise Source Supply Accuracy,
109, 121, 134
test records
model N8973A, 105
model N8974A, 117
model N8975A, 129
test results
recording, 6
test setup
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 15
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Adjustment, 21
Frequency Accuracy, 40
Gain Measurement Uncertainty, 65
Input VSWR, 28
Instrument Noise Figure, 76
Measurement Jitter, 82
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy,
57
Noise Source Supply Accuracy, 53
test specification
10MHz Out Frequency Reference
Accuracy, 14
Frequency Accuracy, 38
Gain Measurement Uncertainty, 64
Input VSWR, 26
Instrument Noise Figure, 72
Measurement Jitter, 81
Noise Figure Range and Accuracy,
55
Noise Source Supply Accuracy, 52
test worksheet
Gain Measurement Uncertainty,
68, 70
Index
Index
model N8975A noise figure range
and accuracy, 60
test worksheets
model N8973A, 105
model N8974A, 117
model N8975A, 129
U
Upconverter in DUT, 98
V
verification and adjustment listings,
11
VGA output, 100
visual inspection
connectors, 145
W
warm up time, 4
Warning
compressed air, 148
liquid freon, 148
safety class 1 product, iv
use as specified, iv
Warning definition, ii
Warranty, iv
Weight, 101
worksheets and test records
model N8973A, 105
model N8974A, 117
model N8975A, 129
Index
173
Index
174
Index
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