Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux
Oracle® Grid Infrastructure
Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
E10812-04
March 2010
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
E10812-04
Copyright © 2007, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Douglas Williams
Contributing Authors: David Brower, Jonathan Creighton, Barb Lundhild, Saar Maoz, Markus Michalewicz,
Hanlin Qian, Janet Stern
Contributors: Aiman Al-Khammash, Troy Anthony, Ram Avudaiappan, Mario Barrientos, Mark Bauer, Yuki
Feng, Mark Fuller, Barb Glover, Fred Glover, Paul Harter, Yingwei Hu, Masakazu Ito, Mayumi Hayasaka,
Prakash Jashnani, Sameer Joshi, Sana Karam, Roland Knapp, Erich Kreisler, Jai Krishnani, Shashi Lanka,
John Leys, Karen Li, Rich Long, Scott Lu, Dave Marshall, Greg Mengel, Manami Miyanaga, Anil Nair, Van
Okamura, Stefan Pommerenk, Srinivas Poovala, Justin Ren, Sudhe Sampath, Shachi Sanklecha, Vishal
Saxena, Janelle Simmons, Akshay Shah, Ara Shakian, Vivian Schupmann, James Spiller, Malai Stalin, Dipak
Saggi, Bob Thome, S. Matt Taylor, Preethi Vallam, Rick Wessman, Jim Womack, Warren Xu, Sivakumar
Yarlagadda, Min Yu, Yunzhou Zheng, Ricky Zhu
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Intended Audience......................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Related Documents .....................................................................................................................................
Conventions .................................................................................................................................................
ix
ix
x
xi
What's New in Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Configuration? ............ xiii
Desupported Options ...............................................................................................................................
New Features for Release 2 (11.2) ...........................................................................................................
New Features for Release 1 (11.1) ...........................................................................................................
1
xiii
xiii
xvi
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
Typical and Advanced Installation ..........................................................................................
Preinstallation Steps Completed Using Typical Installation ...............................................
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks .......................................................................
Verify System Requirements..............................................................................................
Check Network Requirements...........................................................................................
Check Operating System Packages ...................................................................................
Create Groups and Users....................................................................................................
Check Storage.......................................................................................................................
Prepare Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management .......................................
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software .....................................................................
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-6
2 Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation
Tasks
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Installing the Linux Operating System ....................................................................................
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation........................................................................
Completing a Default Linux Installation..........................................................................
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM............................................................
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM ......................................................
Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices...........................................................................................
Installation Fixup Scripts ...........................................................................................................
Creating Installation Fixup Scripts with CVU........................................................................
Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal................................................................
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure......................................
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-7
iii
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7
2.7
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.8.4
2.8.5
2.8.6
2.8.7
2.9
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.13.1
2.13.2
2.13.3
2.14
2.15
2.15.1
2.15.2
2.15.3
2.15.4
2.15.5
2.16
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists.................. 2-8
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist ........... 2-8
Creating the Oracle Grid Infrastructure User.................................................................. 2-9
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path....................................................................... 2-12
Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users...... 2-12
Example of Creating Standard Groups, Users, and Paths.......................................... 2-19
Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths................................. 2-20
Checking the Hardware Requirements ................................................................................ 2-21
Checking the Network Requirements................................................................................... 2-23
Network Hardware Requirements................................................................................. 2-24
IP Address Requirements ................................................................................................ 2-25
DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service ...................... 2-26
Grid Naming Service Configuration Example ............................................................. 2-27
Manual IP Address Configuration Example ................................................................ 2-28
Network Interface Configuration Options.................................................................... 2-29
Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon ................................................................. 2-29
Identifying Software Requirements ...................................................................................... 2-30
Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms ................................... 2-30
Software Requirements List for x86-64 Linux Platforms ........................................... 2-34
Checking the Software Requirements................................................................................... 2-39
Network Time Protocol Setting ............................................................................................. 2-40
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux ........................................................................... 2-41
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)............................................ 2-42
Requirements for Enabling IPMI.................................................................................... 2-42
Configuring the IPMI Management Network.............................................................. 2-42
Configuring the IPMI Driver .......................................................................................... 2-43
Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation ............................................................ 2-47
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments .......................... 2-47
Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner......... 2-48
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments ......................... 2-48
Setting Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users.......................... 2-50
Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration................................................... 2-51
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands ........................................ 2-51
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory................... 2-52
3 Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
iv
Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options........................................................
Overview of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC Storage Options ...........................
General Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC.....
Supported Storage Options ................................................................................................
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options ..............................................................
Shared File System Storage Configuration..............................................................................
Requirements for Using a Shared File System ................................................................
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files ...........................
Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Data Files.......................................................................
Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files...................................................................................
3-1
3-1
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-7
3-7
3-9
3.2.5
Configuring Storage NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters...................................... 3-9
3.2.6
Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Clusterware ............ 3-10
3.2.7
Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC.......................... 3-11
3.2.8
Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS........................... 3-11
3.2.9
Creating Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems ............. 3-13
3.2.10
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems................... 3-14
3.2.11
Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS .................. 3-15
3.3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration ...................................... 3-15
3.3.1
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ............................ 3-15
3.3.2
Using Diskgroups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM................................. 3-30
3.3.3
Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS) 3-30
3.3.4
Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances .................................................................... 3-32
3.4
Desupport of Block and Raw Devices................................................................................... 3-32
4
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.4
4.5
5
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Procedures
5.1
5.1.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.4
6
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI .................................................... 4-1
Installing Grid Infrastructure .................................................................................................... 4-6
Running OUI to Install Grid Infrastructure ..................................................................... 4-6
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File............................... 4-7
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation ..................................... 4-7
Installing the Software Binaries ......................................................................................... 4-7
Configuring the Software Binaries.................................................................................... 4-8
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function............................................................................ 4-10
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files ...................................... 4-10
Required Postinstallation Tasks................................................................................................
Download and Install Patch Updates ...............................................................................
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks .....................................................................................
Back Up the root.sh Script ..................................................................................................
Install Cluster Health Management ..................................................................................
Tune Semaphore Parameters .............................................................................................
Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group.........................................................................
Using Older Oracle Database Versions with Grid Infrastructure .......................................
General Restrictions for Using Older Oracle Database Versions .................................
Pinning Cluster Nodes for Oracle Database Release 10.x or 11.x.................................
Enabling The Global Services Daemon (GSD) for Oracle Database Release 9.2 ........
Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands ........................................................................
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation...................................................
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-5
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-7
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid Infrastructure
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware ...................................................................
Migrating Standalone Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster...........................................
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries.................................................
Deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries ........................................
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM ................................................................................
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-3
v
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
A
6-3
6-5
6-5
6-6
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
B
About the Deinstallation Tool............................................................................................
Downloading The Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations.............................
Example of Running the Deinstall Command for Oracle Clusterware and ASM .....
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster.....
General Installation Issues........................................................................................................
Interpreting CVU "Unknown" Output Messages Using Verbose Mode ...........................
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Setup...............................
About the Oracle Clusterware Alert Log ...............................................................................
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux ....................................................................
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installations...........
Interconnect Configuration Issues...........................................................................................
Oracle ASM Library Driver Issues ..........................................................................................
A-1
A-4
A-5
A-7
A-7
A-8
A-8
A-8
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
n
n
n
4.
4.
n
4.
6.
5.
n
n
n
n
n
n
How Response Files Work........................................................................................................
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode ...............................................
General Procedure for Using Response Files .................................................................
Creating the oraInst.loc File......................................................................................................
Preparing a Response File.........................................................................................................
Editing a Response File Template ....................................................................................
Recording a Response File.................................................................................................
Running the Installer Using a Response File .........................................................................
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File ............................................
Running Database Configuration Assistants Using Response Files ..................................
About the Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode........................
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode ..........
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .........................................................
About the Postinstallation Configuration File................................................................
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File..................................
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-5
B-6
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-8
B-9
B-9
B-9
C Configuring Large Memory Optimization
C.1
C.1.1
C.2
D
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
vi
Overview of HugePages ........................................................................................................... C-1
What HugePages Provides................................................................................................ C-1
Restrictions for HugePage Configurations ............................................................................ C-2
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration.......................................................................
Understanding Oracle Groups and Users.......................................................................
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path .............................................................
Understanding Network Addresses ................................................................................
Understanding Network Time Requirements................................................................
Understanding Storage Configuration ...................................................................................
Understanding Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System ..........
About Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances ..........................................................
D-1
D-1
D-3
D-3
D-6
D-6
D-6
D-6
n
n
About Converting Standalone Oracle ASM Installations to Clustered Installations D-7
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade.................................................................................... D-7
E How to Complete Installation Prerequisite Tasks Manually
n
n
n
3.
3.
n
n
4.
F
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes................................................................
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System...................................................
Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes .................................................................................
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes.......................................................
Configuring Kernel Parameters ...............................................................................................
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation ................................................................
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux.........................................
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually........................................................................................
E-1
E-1
E-2
E-4
E-5
E-5
E-6
E-7
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2
F.1
F.2
F.3
F.4
F.4.1
F.4.2
F.5
F.5.1
F.5.2
F.6
F.7
Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades.....................................................................
Unset Oracle Environment Variables......................................................................................
Restrictions for Clusterware and Oracle ASM Upgrades ....................................................
Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation...................................
Verifying System Readiness for Upgrades .....................................................................
Checks to Complete Before Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation..
Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release .......................................................
Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Clusterware..................................................
Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Automatic Storage Management ..............
Updating DB Control and Grid Control Target Parameters ...............................................
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade ..........................................................
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-3
F-3
F-3
F-3
F-4
F-5
F-6
F-6
Index
vii
List of Tables
2–1
2–2
2–3
2–4
2–5
2–6
2–7
2–8
2–9
3–1
3–2
3–3
3–4
3–5
3–6
B–1
B–2
viii
Swap Space Required as a Multiple of RAM ...................................................................... 2-22
Grid Naming Service Example Network............................................................................. 2-27
Manual Network Configuration Example .......................................................................... 2-28
Linux x86 (32-bit) Operating System Kernel Requirements ............................................. 2-31
Linux x86 (32-bit) Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package Requirements .......... 2-31
Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements ........................................... 2-33
Linux x86-64 Operating System Kernel Requirements ..................................................... 2-34
Linux x86-64 Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package Requirements ...... 2-35
Linux x86-64 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements...................................... 2-37
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC............................... 3-4
Oracle Clusterware Shared File System Volume Size Requirements................................. 3-6
Oracle RAC Shared File System Volume Size Requirements.............................................. 3-6
Total Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Required by Redundancy Type ..................... 3-17
Total Oracle Database Storage Space Required by Redundancy Type........................... 3-17
ORACLEASM Script Options ............................................................................................... 3-25
Response Files for Oracle Database........................................................................................ B-4
Response files for Oracle Grid Infrastructure....................................................................... B-4
Preface
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux explains how to configure a server
in preparation for installing and configuring an Oracle grid infrastructure installation
(Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management). It also explains how
to configure a server and storage in preparation for an Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) installation.
Intended Audience
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux provides configuration information
for network and system administrators, and database installation information for
database administrators (DBAs) who install and configure Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management in a grid infrastructure for a cluster
installation.
For customers with specialized system roles who intend to install Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), this book is intended to be used by system
administrators, network administrators, or storage administrators to configure a
system in preparation for an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster installation, and
complete all configuration tasks that require operating system root privileges. When
grid infrastructure installation and configuration is completed successfully, a system
administrator should only need to provide configuration information and to grant
access to the database administrator to run scripts as root during an Oracle RAC
installation.
This guide assumes that you are familiar with Oracle Database concepts. For
additional information, refer to books in the Related Documents list.
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible to all users, including users that are disabled. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/.
ix
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
Deaf/Hard of Hearing Access to Oracle Support Services
To reach Oracle Support Services, use a telecommunications relay service (TRS) to call
Oracle Support at 1.800.223.1711. An Oracle Support Services engineer will handle
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Related Documents
For more information, refer to the following Oracle resources:
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Documentation
This installation guide reviews steps required to complete an Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation, and to perform preinstallation
steps for Oracle RAC.
If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then complete preinstallation
tasks as described in this installation guide, complete grid infrastructure installation,
and review those installation guides for additional information. You can install either
Oracle databases for a standalone server on a grid infrastructure installation, or install
an Oracle RAC database. If you want to install an Oracle Restart deployment of grid
infrastructure, then refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux
Most Oracle error message documentation is only available in HTML format. If you
only have access to the Oracle Documentation media, then browse the error messages
by range. When you find a range, use your browser's "find in page" feature to locate a
specific message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error
message using the error message search feature of the Oracle online documentation.
Installation Guides
■
Oracle Diagnostics Pack Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
Operating System-Specific Administrative Guides
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for UNIX Systems
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrative
Guides
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
x
■
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administrative Guides
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide
Generic Documentation
■
Getting Started with the Oracle Diagnostics Pack
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Reference
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Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
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monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
xi
xii
What's New in Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation and Configuration?
This section describes new features as they pertain to the installation and
configuration of Oracle grid infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage
Management), and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). This guide replaces
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide. The topics in this section are:
■
Desupported Options
■
New Features for Release 2 (11.2)
■
New Features for Release 1 (11.1)
Desupported Options
Note the following:
Block and Raw Devices Not Supported with OUI
With this release, OUI no longer supports installation of Oracle Clusterware files on
block or raw devices. Install Oracle Clusterware files either on Oracle Automatic
Storage Management diskgroups, or in a supported shared file system.
New Features for Release 2 (11.2)
The following is a list of new features for installation of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM 11g release 2 (11.2):
Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Clusterware Installation
With Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2), Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) and Oracle Clusterware are installed into a single home
directory, which is referred to as the Grid Infrastructure home. Configuration
assistants start after the installer interview process that configures Oracle ASM and
Oracle Clusterware.
The installation of the combined products is called Oracle grid infrastructure.
However, Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management remain
separate products.
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux for information
about how to install Oracle grid infrastructure (Oracle ASM and
Oracle Clusterware binaries) for a standalone server. This feature
helps to ensure high availability for single-instance servers
xiii
Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Clusterware Files
With this release, Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting disks can be placed on
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
This feature enables Oracle ASM to provide a unified storage solution, storing all the
data for the clusterware and the database, without the need for third-party volume
managers or cluster filesystems.
For new installations, OCR and voting disk files can be placed either on Oracle ASM,
or on a cluster file system or NFS system. Installing Oracle Clusterware files on raw or
block devices is no longer supported, unless an existing system is being upgraded.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) is a new
multi-platform, scalable file system and storage management design that extends
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) technology to support all
application data. Oracle ACFS provides dynamic file system resizing, and improved
performance using the distribution, balancing and striping technology across all
available disks, and provides storage reliability through the mirroring and parity
protection Oracle ASM provides.
Oracle ASM Job Role Separation Option with SYSASM
The SYSASM privilege that was introduced in Oracle ASM 11g release 1 (11.1) is now
fully separated from the SYSDBA privilege. If you choose to use this optional feature,
and designate different operating system groups as the OSASM and the OSDBA
groups, then the SYSASM administrative privilege is available only to members of the
OSASM group. The SYSASM privilege also can be granted using password
authentication on the Oracle ASM instance.
You can designate OPERATOR privileges (a subset of the SYSASM privileges,
including starting and stopping Oracle ASM) to members of the OSOPER for ASM
group.
Providing system privileges for the storage tier using the SYSASM privilege instead of
the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between Oracle
ASM administration and database administration, and helps to prevent different
databases using the same storage from accidentally overwriting each other's files.
See Also:
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
Cluster Time Synchronization Service
Cluster node times should be synchronized. With this release, Oracle Clusterware
provides Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS), which ensures that there is a
synchronization service in the cluster. If Network Time Protocol (NTP) is not found
during cluster configuration, then CTSS is configured to ensure time synchronization.
Enterprise Manager Database Control Provisioning
Enterprise Manager Database Control 11g provides the capability to automatically
provision Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC installations on new nodes, and
then extend the existing Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC database to these
provisioned nodes. This provisioning procedure requires a successful Oracle RAC
installation before you can use this feature.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for information about this feature
xiv
Fixup Scripts and Grid Infrastructure Checks
With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2), the installer (OUI) detects when
minimum requirements for installation are not completed, and creates shell script
programs, called fixup scripts, to resolve many incomplete system configuration
requirements. If OUI detects an incomplete task that is marked "fixable", then you can
easily fix the issue by generating the fixup script by clicking the Fix & Check Again
button.
The fixup script is generated during installation. You are prompted to run the script as
root in a separate terminal session. When you run the script, it raises kernel values to
required minimums, if necessary, and completes other operating system configuration
tasks.
You also can have Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) generate fixup scripts before
installation.
Grid Plug and Play
In the past, adding or removing servers in a cluster required extensive manual
preparation. With this release, you can continue to configure server nodes manually, or
use Grid Plug and Play to configure them dynamically as nodes are added or removed
from the cluster.
Grid Plug and Play reduces the costs of installing, configuring, and managing server
nodes by starting a grid naming service within the cluster to allow each node to
perform the following tasks dynamically:
■
Negotiating appropriate network identities for itself
■
Acquiring additional information it needs to operate from a configuration profile
■
Configuring or reconfiguring itself using profile data, making hostnames and
addresses resolvable on the network
Because servers perform these tasks dynamically, the number of steps required to add
or delete nodes is minimized.
Improved Input/Output Fencing Processes
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) replaces the oprocd and Hangcheck processes
with the cluster synchronization service daemon Agent and Monitor to provide more
accurate recognition of hangs and to avoid false termination.
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) Integration
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is an industry standard
management protocol that is included with many servers today. IPMI operates
independently of the operating system, and can operate even if the system is not
powered on. Servers with IPMI contain a baseboard management controller (BMC)
which is used to communicate to the server.
If IPMI is configured, then Oracle Clusterware uses IPMI when node fencing is
required and the server is not responding.
Oracle Clusterware Out-of-place Upgrade
With this release, you can install a new version of Oracle Clusterware into a separate
home from an existing Oracle Clusterware installation. This feature reduces the
downtime required to upgrade a node in the cluster. When performing an out-of-place
upgrade, the old and new version of the software are present on the nodes at the same
time, each in a different home location, but only one version of the software is active.
xv
Oracle Clusterware Administration with Oracle Enterprise Manager
With this release, you can use Enterprise Manager Cluster Home page to perform full
administrative and monitoring support for both standalone database and Oracle RAC
environments, using High Availability Application and Oracle Cluster Resource
Management.
When Oracle Enterprise Manager is installed with Oracle Clusterware, it can provide a
set of users that have the Oracle Clusterware Administrator role in Enterprise
Manager, and provide full administrative and monitoring support for High
Availability application and Oracle Clusterware resource management. After you have
completed installation and have Enterprise Manager deployed, you can provision
additional nodes added to the cluster using Enterprise Manager.
SCAN for Simplified Client Access
With this release, the single client access name (SCAN) is the hostname to provide for
all clients connecting to the cluster. The SCAN is a domain name registered to at least
one and up to three IP addresses, either in the domain name service (DNS) or the Grid
Naming Service (GNS). The SCAN eliminates the need to change clients when nodes
are added to or removed from the cluster. Clients using the SCAN can also access the
cluster using EZCONNECT.
SRVCTL Command Enhancements for Patching
With this release, you can use srvctl to shut down all Oracle software running
within an Oracle home, in preparation for patching. Oracle grid infrastructure
patching is automated across all nodes, and patches can be applied in a multi-node,
multi-patch fashion.
Typical Installation Option
To streamline cluster installations, especially for those customers who are new to
clustering, Oracle introduces the Typical Installation path. Typical installation defaults
as many options as possible to those recommended as best practices.
Voting Disk Backup Procedure Change
In prior releases, backing up the voting disks using a dd command was a required
postinstallation task. With Oracle Clusterware release 11.2 and later, backing up and
restoring a voting disk using the dd command is not supported.
Backing up voting disks manually is no longer required, because voting disks are
backed up automatically in the OCR as part of any configuration change. Voting disk
data is automatically restored to any added voting disks.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
New Features for Release 1 (11.1)
The following is a list of new features for release 1 (11.1)
Changes in Installation Documentation
With Oracle Database 11g release 1, Oracle Clusterware can be installed or configured
as an independent product, and additional documentation is provided on storage
administration. For installation planning, note the following documentation:
xvi
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide
This book provides an overview and examples of the procedures to install and
configure a two-node Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC environment.
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
This book (the guide that you are reading) provides procedures either to install Oracle
Clusterware as a standalone product, or to install Oracle Clusterware with either
Oracle Database, or Oracle RAC. It contains system configuration instructions that
require system administrator privileges.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
This platform-specific book provides procedures to install Oracle RAC after you have
successfully completed an Oracle Clusterware installation. It contains database
configuration instructions for database administrators.
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
This book provides information for database and storage administrators who
administer and manage storage, or who configure and administer Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
This is the administrator's reference for Oracle Clusterware. It contains information
about administrative tasks, including those that involve changes to operating system
configurations and cloning Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
This is the administrator's reference for Oracle RAC. It contains information about
administrative tasks. These tasks include database cloning, node addition and
deletion, Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) administration, use of SRVCTL and other
database administration utilities, and tuning changes to operating system
configurations.
Release 1 (11.1) Enhancements and New Features for Installation
The following is a list of enhancements and new features for Oracle Database 11g
release 1 (11.1):
New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM operating system group for Oracle ASM
Administration
This feature introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for
performing Oracle ASM administration tasks. Using the SYSASM privilege instead of
the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between Oracle
ASM administration and database administration.
OSASM is a new operating system group that is used exclusively for Oracle ASM.
Members of the OSASM group can connect as SYSASM using operating system
authentication and have full access to Oracle ASM.
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
The Oracle Validated Configuration RPM can be installed on servers using Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or Oracle Enterprise Linux operating systems. It is available from the
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). This RPM completes most preinstallation
configuration tasks required for installing Oracle Clusterware, including setting kernel
xvii
parameters and adding required kernel RPMs. It also prepares a server for installation
of Oracle RAC.
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
xviii
1
1
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Cluster
This chapter describes the difference between a Typical and Advanced installation for
Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster, and describes the steps required to complete a
Typical installation.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Typical and Advanced Installation
■
Preinstallation Steps Completed Using Typical Installation
■
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
1.1 Typical and Advanced Installation
There are two installation options for Oracle grid infrastructure installations:
■
■
Typical Installation: The Typical installation option is a simplified installation
with a minimal number of manual configuration choices. Oracle recommends that
you select this installation type for most cluster implementations.
Advanced Installation: The Advanced Installation option is an advanced
procedure that requires a higher degree of system knowledge. It enables you to
select particular configuration choices, including additional storage and network
choices, use of operating system group authentication for role-based
administrative privileges, integration with IPMI, or more granularity in specifying
Oracle Automatic Storage Management roles.
1.2 Preinstallation Steps Completed Using Typical Installation
With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2), during installation Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) generates Fixup scripts (runfixup.sh) that you can run to complete
required preinstallation steps.
Fixup scripts are generated during installation. You are prompted to run scripts as
root in a separate terminal session. When you run scripts, they complete the
following configuration tasks:
■
If necessary, sets kernel parameters required for installation and runtime to at least
the minimum value.
1.3 Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
Complete the following manual configuration tasks
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
1-1
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
■
Verify System Requirements
■
Check Network Requirements
■
Check Operating System Packages
■
Create Groups and Users
■
Check Storage
■
Prepare Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
See Also: Chapter 2, "Advanced Installation Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks" and Chapter 3,
"Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)" if you need any information
about how to complete these tasks
1.3.1 Verify System Requirements
Enter the following commands to check available memory:
grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
The minimum required RAM is 1.5 GB for grid infrastructure for a cluster, or 2.5 GB
for grid infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle RAC. The minimum required swap
space is 1.5 GB. Oracle recommends that you set swap space to 1.5 times the amount of
RAM for systems with 2 GB of RAM or less. For systems with 2 GB to 16 GB RAM, use
swap space equal to RAM. For systems with more than 16 GB RAM, use 16 GB of
RAM for swap space. If the swap space and the grid home are on the same filesystem,
then add together their respective disk space requirements for the total minimum
space required.
df -h
This command checks the available space on file systems. If you use normal
redundancy for Oracle Clusterware files, which is three Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
locations and three voting disk locations, then you should have at least 2 GB of file
space available on shared storage volumes reserved for Oracle grid infrastructure files.
Note: You cannot install OCR or voting disk files on raw partitions.
You can install only on Oracle ASM, or on a supported storage option.
The only use for raw devices is as Oracle ASM disks.
If you plan to install on Oracle ASM, then to ensure high availability of Oracle
Clusterware files on Oracle ASM, you need to have at least 2 GB of disk space for
Oracle Clusterware files in three separate failure groups, with at least three physical
disks. Each disk must have at least 1 GB of capacity to ensure that there is sufficient
space to create Oracle Clusterware files.
Ensure you have at least 4.5 GB of space for the grid infrastructure for a cluster home
(Grid home). This includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) files and log files.
df -h /tmp
1-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
Ensure that you have at least 1 GB of space in /tmp. If this space is not available, then
increase the size, or delete unnecessary files in /tmp.
For more information, review the following section in Chapter 2:
"Checking the Hardware Requirements"
1.3.2 Check Network Requirements
Ensure that you have the following available:
■
Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the Cluster
■
IP Address Requirements
■
Intended Use of Network Interfaces
1.3.2.1 Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the Cluster
During Typical installation, you are prompted to confirm the default Single Client
Access Name (SCAN), which is used to connect to databases within the cluster
irrespective of which nodes they are running on. By default, the name used as the
SCAN is also the name of the cluster. The default value for the SCAN is based on the
local node name. If you change the SCAN from the default, then the name that you use
must be globally unique throughout your enterprise.
In a Typical installation, the SCAN is also the name of the cluster. The SCAN and
cluster name must be at least one character long and no more than 15 characters in
length, must be alphanumeric, and may contain hyphens (-).
For example:
NE-Sa89
If you require a SCAN that is longer than15 characters, then be aware that the cluster
name defaults to the first 15 characters of the SCAN.
Refer to the following section for the SCAN address requirements.
1.3.2.2 IP Address Requirements
Before starting the installation, you must have at least two interfaces configured on
each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.
1.3.2.2.1 IP Address Requirements for Manual Configuration The public and virtual IP
addresses must be static addresses, configured before installation, and the virtual IP
addresses for each node must not currently be in use. Oracle Clusterware manages
private IP addresses in the private subnet on interfaces you identify as private during
the installation interview.
Configure the following addresses:
■
A public IP address for each node
■
A virtual IP address for each node
■
A single client access name (SCAN) configured on the domain name server (DNS)
for Round Robin resolution to three addresses (recommended) or at least one
address.
The single client access name (SCAN) is a cluster alias used to provide service access
for clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a whole,
rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
1-3
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients. It also adds location
independence for the databases, so that client configuration does not have to depend
on which nodes are running a particular database. Clients can continue to access the
cluster in the same way as with previous releases, but Oracle recommends that clients
accessing the cluster use the SCAN.
If you manually configure addresses, then Oracle strongly
recommends that you use DNS resolution for SCANs.
Note:
See Also: Appendix D, "Understanding Network Addresses"for
more information about network addresses
1.3.2.3 Intended Use of Network Interfaces
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You must identify each interface as a
public or private interface, and you must use the same private interfaces for both
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. For interfaces that you plan to have used for
other purposes—for example, an interface dedicated to a network file system—you
must identify those instances as "do not use" interfaces, so that Oracle Clusterware
ignores them.
You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy, in case
of a NIC failure, but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate interfaces for
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. If you use more than one NIC for the private
interconnect, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding. Note that multiple
private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover, unless bonded.
1.3.3 Check Operating System Packages
Refer to the tables listed in Section 2.9, "Identifying Software Requirements" for the list
of required packages for your operating system, or use a system configuration script
such as the Oracle Validated RPM, as described in Section 2.1, "Installing the Linux
Operating System".
1.3.4 Create Groups and Users
Enter the following commands to create default groups and users:
One system privileges group for all operating system-authenticated administration
privileges, including Oracle RAC (if installed):
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
groupadd -g 1200 dba
useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
mkdir -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01
chmod -R 775 /u01/
1.3.5 Check Storage
You must have space available on Oracle ASM for Oracle Clusterware files (voting
disks and Oracle Cluster Registries), and for Oracle Database files, if you install
standalone or Oracle Real Application Clusters Databases. Creating Oracle
Clusterware files on block or raw devices is no longer supported for new installations.
1-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
Note: When using Oracle ASM for either the Oracle Clusterware files
or Oracle Database files, Oracle creates one Oracle ASM instance on
each node in the cluster, regardless of the number of databases.
1.3.6 Prepare Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Install the Linux ASMLIB RPMs to simplify storage administration. ASMLIB provides
persistent paths and permissions for storage devices used with Oracle ASM,
eliminating the need for updating udev or devlabel files with storage device paths
and permissions.
If you cannot install the ASMLIB RPMs, or choose to configure your storage devices
manually, then review the relevant sections in Chapter 3.
See Also: Chapter 3, "Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure
for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)" if
you require detailed storage configuration information, or require
more information about ASMLIB
ASMLib 2.0 is delivered as a set of three Linux packages:
■
oracleasmlib-2.0 - the Oracle ASM libraries
■
oracleasm-support-2.0 - utilities needed to administer ASMLib
■
oracleasm - a kernel module for the Oracle ASM library
Each Linux distribution has its own set of ASMLib 2.0 packages, and within each
distribution, each kernel version has a corresponding oracleasm package.
1.3.6.1 Installing ASMLIB Packages Automatically with ULN
If you are registered with the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN), then you can
download and install ASMLIB packages for your system automatically. To install
ASMLIB from ULN:
1.
Log in as root
2.
Run the following command:
# up2date -i oracleasm-support oracleasmlib oracleasm-'uname -r'
This command installs the support tools, the library, and the kernel driver for the
Linux kernel version running on your system.
See Also: Chapter 2.1, "Installing the Linux Operating System" for
information about how to register for ULN
1.3.6.2 Installing ASMLIB Packages Manually
If you are not a member of ULN, or are using a Red Hat or SUSE Linux kernel, then
complete the following procedures on each node that you intend to make a member of
the cluster:
■
Determine the Correct Oracleasm Package
■
Download and Install the Oracleasm Package
■
Configure ASMLib
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
1-5
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
1.3.6.2.1 Determine the Correct Oracleasm Package Determine which kernel you are using
by logging in as root and running the following command:
uname -rm
For example:
# uname –rm
2.6.9-5.ELsmp i686
The example shows that this is a 2.6.9-5 kernel for an SMP (multiprocessor) server
using Intel i686 CPUs.
1.3.6.2.2 Download and Install the Oracleasm Package After you determine the kernel
version for your system, complete the following task:
1.
Open a Web browser using the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/index.html
2.
Select the link for your version of Linux.
3.
Download the oracleasmlib and oracleasm-support packages for your
version of Linux.
4.
Download the oracleasm package corresponding to your kernel version.
5.
Log in as root and install the Oracle ASM packages.
1.3.6.2.3
Configure ASMLib Log in as root, and enter the following command:
# oracleasm configure -i
Provide information as prompted for your system. the oracleasm command by
default is in the path /usr/sbin. If you enter the command oracleasm configure
without the -i flag, then you are shown the current configuration.
See Also: Section 3.3.1.4.1, "Installing and Configuring the Oracle
ASM Library Driver Software" for additional information about
configuration
1.3.6.3 Mark Oracle ASM Candidate Disk Partitions
For OUI to recognize partitions as Oracle ASM disk candidates, you must log in as
root and mark the disk partitions that Oracle ASM can use. To mark a disk for use by
Oracle ASM, enter the following command syntax, where ASM_DISK_NAME is the
name of the Oracle ASM disk group, and candidate_disk is the name of the disk
device that you want to assign to that disk group:
oracleasm createdisk ASM_DISK_NAME candidate_disk
For example:
# oracleasm createdisk data1 /dev/sdf
1.3.7 Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software
1.
Start OUI from the root level of the installation media. For example:
./runInstaller
2.
Select Install and Configure Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster, then select Typical
Installation. In the installation screens that follow, enter the configuration
information as prompted.
1-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
If you receive an installation verification error that cannot be fixed using a fixup
script, then review Chapter 2, "Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks" to find the section for configuring cluster
nodes. After completing the fix, continue with the installation until it is complete.
See Also: Section 4.1, "Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
with OUI."
Typical Installation for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
1-7
Preinstallation Steps Requiring Manual Tasks
1-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
2
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation
Tasks
2
This chapter describes the system configuration tasks that you must complete before
you start Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) to install Oracle grid infrastructure for a
cluster.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Installing the Linux Operating System
■
Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices
■
Installation Fixup Scripts
■
Creating Installation Fixup Scripts with CVU
■
Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal
■
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
Checking the Network Requirements
■
Identifying Software Requirements
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Network Time Protocol Setting
■
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
■
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
■
Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
■
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
■
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory
2.1 Installing the Linux Operating System
Note: Ensure you have minimum hardware configuration completed
before installing the operating system.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-1
Installing the Linux Operating System
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. It
contains the following topics:
■
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
■
Completing a Default Linux Installation
■
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
■
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
2.1.1 Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select a minimal install option (either a
custom installation where you select the Minimal option from Package Group
Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack). This
installation lacks many RPMs required for installation. However, when you install the
Oracle Validated RPM for your platform, the RPM downloads the minimum number
of packages required to run Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database.
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM
by using up2date. If you are not a ULN customer, and your operating system is Red
Hat or Oracle Enterprise Linux, then you can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM at the
following URLs:
Enterprise Linux 4:
http://oss.oracle.com/el4/oracle-validated/
Enterprise Linux 5:
http://oss.oracle.com/el5/oracle-validated/
If you are not a member of ULN or RHN (Red Hat support
network) and you are an Oracle support customer, then you can
download instructions to configure a script that replicates Oracle
Validated RPM package downloads at the following URL:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Search for "minimal Linux".
SSH is required for Oracle grid infrastructure installation. OpenSSH should be
included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. To confirm that SSH packages
are installed, enter the following command:
# rpm -qa |grep ssh
If you do not see a list of SSH packages, then install those packages for your Linux
distribution.
The Oracle Validated RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but
does not install the X Window System server packages. To use
graphical user interfaces such as Oracle Universal Installer,
configuration assistants, and Enterprise Manager, set the display to a
system with X Window System server packages.
Note:
2-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Installing the Linux Operating System
2.1.2 Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Validated RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This
installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual checks
of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize the RPMs
during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to My Oracle Support:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Search for "Default RPM."
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution, and for your system configuration.
2.1.3 About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Enterprise Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and
you are an Unbreakable Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation
configuration tasks by using the Oracle Validated Configurations Setup RPM,
available from the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN).
When it is installed, the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM does the following:
■
■
■
Automatically installs any additional packages needed for installing Oracle grid
infrastructure and Oracle Database
Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA
(dba) groups for that user
Sets and verifies sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, user limits,
and driver parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle
Validated Configurations program
To become an Oracle Unbreakable Linux customer, contact your sales representative,
or purchase a license from the Unbreakable Linux store:
https://shop.oracle.com/product/enterpriselinux
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
If you are using Oracle Enterprise Linux 4.7 and higher, or Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.2
and higher, then the Oracle Validated RPM is included on the install media.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-3
Installing the Linux Operating System
The Oracle Validated RPM sets kernel parameters and
resource limits only for the user account oracle. To use multiple
software account owners, you must perform system configuration for
other accounts manually.
Note:
In addition, users and groups are created using the next available ID
numbers. If server group and user IDs are not identical on the cluster
nodes where you run the Oracle Validated RPM, then it is possible
that these ids will be different on the nodes, and the different group
and user IDs will cause installation to fail.
To avoid this issue, run the command id user on all nodes, where
user is the software owner user account. If group or user IDs are not
identical on all the nodes, then change them as necessary to ensure
that they are identical.
2.1.4 Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Oracle Unbreakable Linux channels, and
to add the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Validated Configurations Setup RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Enterprise Linux workstation installation, or a default
Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
2.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Enterprise Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to ULN at the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens, and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux
channel that is appropriate for your installation of Linux (for example: "Oracle
Software for Enterprise Linux 4 (x86_64)."
6.
Click Subscribe.
7.
From a terminal session, as root, enter the following command:
# up2date --nox --show-channels
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Software
for Enterprise Linux channel. For example:
el4_i386_latest
el4_i386_oracle
8.
Open a terminal session as root, and install the Oracle Validated Configurations
Setup RPM with up2date, using the following command:
# up2date --install oracle-validated
9.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
2-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Installation Fixup Scripts
Check the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM log file to
review system configuration changes:
Note:
/etc/sysconfig/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
2.2 Reviewing Upgrade Best Practices
Always create a backup of existing databases before
starting any configuration change.
Caution:
If you have an existing Oracle installation, then record the version numbers, patches,
and other configuration information, and review upgrade procedures for your existing
installation. Review Oracle upgrade documentation before proceeding with
installation, to decide how you want to proceed.
You can upgrade Oracle ASM 11g release 1 (11.1) without shutting down an Oracle
RAC database by performing a rolling upgrade either of individual nodes, or of a set
of nodes in the cluster. However, if you have a standalone database on a cluster that
uses Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the standalone database before
upgrading. If you are upgrading from Oracle ASM 10g, then you must shut down the
entire Oracle ASM cluster to perform the upgrade.
If you have an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
installation, then review Oracle upgrade documentation. The location of the Oracle
ASM home changes in this release, and you may want to consider other configuration
changes to simplify or customize storage administration. If you have an existing
Oracle ASM home from a previous release, then it should be owned by the same user
that you plan to use to upgrade Oracle Clusterware.
During rolling upgrades of the operating system, Oracle supports using different
operating system binaries when both versions of the operating system are certified
with the Oracle Database release you are using.
Using mixed operating system versions is only supported for
the duration of an upgrade, over the period of a few hours. Oracle
does not support operating a cluster with mixed operating systems for
an extended period. Oracle does not support running Oracle grid
infrastructure and Oracle Real Application Clusters on heterogeneous
platforms (servers with different chip architectures) in the same
cluster.
Note:
To find the most recent software updates, and to find best practices recommendations
about preupgrade, postupgrade, compatibility, and interoperability, refer to "Oracle
Upgrade Companion." "Oracle Upgrade Companion" is available through Note
785351.1 on My Oracle Support:
https://metalink.oracle.com
2.3 Installation Fixup Scripts
With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects when
the minimum requirements for an installation are not met, and creates shell scripts,
called fixup scripts, to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If OUI detects an
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-5
Creating Installation Fixup Scripts with CVU
incomplete task, then it generates fixup scripts (runfixup.sh). You can run the fixup
script after you click the Fix and Check Again Button.
You also can have CVU generate fixup scripts before installation.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
information about using the cluvfy command
See Also:
The Fixup script does the following:
■
■
If necessary sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation,
including:
–
Shared memory parameters.
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters.
Sets permissions on the Oracle Inventory (central inventory) directory.
2.4 Creating Installation Fixup Scripts with CVU
If you have SSH configured between cluster member nodes for the user account that
you will use for installation, then you can check your cluster configuration before
installation and generate a fixup script to make operating system changes before
starting the installation.
To do this, log in as the user account that will perform the installation, navigate to the
staging area where the runcluvfy command is located, and use the following
command syntax, where node is a comma-delimited list of nodes you want to make
cluster members:
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node -fixup -verbose
For example, if you intend to configure a two-node cluster with nodes node1 and
node2, enter the following command:
$ ./runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n node1,node2 -fixup -verbose
2.5 Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal
During installation, you are required to perform tasks as root or as other users on
remote terminals. Complete the following procedure for user accounts that you want
to enable for remote display.
Note: If you log in as another user (for example, oracle), then
repeat this procedure for that user as well.
To enable remote display, complete one of the following procedures:
■
If you are installing the software from an X Window System workstation or X
terminal, then:
1.
Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
If you are installing the software on another system and using the system as
an X11 display, then enter a command using the following syntax to enable
remote hosts to display X applications on the local X server:
# xhost + RemoteHost
2-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote hostname. For example:
# xhost + somehost.example.com
somehost.example.com being added to the access control list
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
command to connect to the system where you want to install the software:
# ssh -Y RemoteHost
where RemoteHost is the fully qualified remote hostname. The -Y flag ("yes")
enables remote X11 clients to have full access to the original X11 display.
For example:
# ssh -Y somehost.example.com
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command
to switch the user to root:
$ su - root
password:
#
■
If you are installing the software from a PC or other system with X server software
installed, then:
If necessary, refer to your X server documentation for more
information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X
server software that you are using, you may need to complete the
tasks in a different order.
Note:
1.
Start the X server software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts
to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software as the
Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster software owner (grid, oracle) and
start a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
4.
Open another terminal on the remote system, and log in as the root user on
the remote system, so you can run scripts as root when prompted.
2.6 Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group and a software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure.
■
Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
■
Creating the Oracle Grid Infrastructure User
■
Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path
■
Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users
■
Example of Creating Standard Groups, Users, and Paths
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-7
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths
During a grid infrastructure installation, both Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management are installed.
You no longer can have separate Oracle Clusterware installation
owners and Oracle Automatic Storage Management installation
owners.
Note:
2.6.1 Determining If the Oracle Inventory and Oracle Inventory Group Exists
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, OUI creates the
oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by
default, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Central Inventory directory. An
oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the
Oracle central inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to
write to the central inventory (the OINSTALL group privilege).
If you have an existing Oracle central inventory, then ensure that you use the same
Oracle Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle
software users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this
directory.
To determine if you have an Oracle central inventory directory (oraInventory) on
your system:
Enter the following command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In the previous output example:
■
■
The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory
The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in
this example, oinstall).
Use the command grep groupname /etc/group to confirm that the group specified
as the Oracle Inventory group still exists on the system. For example:
$ grep oinstall /etc/group
oinstall:x:1000:crs,oracle
2.6.2 Creating the Oracle Inventory Group If an Oracle Inventory Does Not Exist
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
2-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
The preceding command creates the group oinstall, with the group ID number
1000. Members of the OINSTALL group are granted privileges to write to the Oracle
central inventory (oraInventory).
By default, if an oraInventory group does not exist, then the installer lists the primary
group of the installation owner for the grid infrastructure for a cluster as the
oraInventory group. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all
planned Oracle software installation owners.
Group and user IDs must be identical on all nodes in the
cluster. Check to make sure that the group and user IDs you want to
use are available on each cluster member node, and confirm that the
primary group for each grid infrastructure for a cluster installation
owner has the same name and group ID.
Note:
2.6.3 Creating the Oracle Grid Infrastructure User
You must create a software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure in the following
circumstances:
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to separate grid infrastructure
administrative privileges from Oracle Database administrative privileges.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle grid infrastructure
software installations is called the grid user. A user created to own either all
Oracle installations, or only Oracle database installations, is called the oracle
user.
2.6.3.1 Understanding Restrictions for Oracle Software Installation Owners
If you intend to use multiple Oracle software owners for different Oracle Database
homes, then Oracle recommends that you create a separate software owner for Oracle
grid infrastructure software (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and use that owner
to run the Oracle grid infrastructure installation.
If you plan to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC, then Oracle recommends that
you create separate users for the Oracle grid infrastructure and the Oracle Database
installations. If you use one installation owner, then when you want to perform
administration tasks, you must change the value for $ORACLE_HOME to the instance
you want to administer (Oracle ASM, in the grid infrastructure home, or the database
in the Oracle home), using command syntax such as the following example, where
grid is the Oracle grid infrastructure home:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid; export ORACLE_HOME
If you try to administer an instance using sqlplus, lsnrctl, or asmcmd commands
while $ORACLE_HOME is set to a different binary path, then you will encounter errors.
When starting srvctl from a database home, $ORACLE_HOME should be set. or srvctl
fails. But if you are using srvctl in the grid infrastructure home, then $ORACLE_
HOME is ignored, and the oracle home path does not affect srvctl commands. You
always have to change $ORACLE_HOME to the instance that you want to administer.
To create separate Oracle software owners to create separate users and separate
operating system privileges groups for different Oracle software installations, note that
each of these users must have the Oracle central inventory group (oraInventory group)
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-9
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
as their primary group. Members of this group have write privileges to the Oracle
central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are also granted permissions for
various Oracle Clusterware resources, OCR keys, directories in the Oracle Clusterware
home to which DBAs need write access, and other necessary privileges. In Oracle
documentation, this group is represented as oinstall in code examples.
Each Oracle software owner must be a member of the same central inventory group.
You cannot have more than one central inventory for Oracle installations. If an Oracle
software owner has a different central inventory group, then you may corrupt the
central inventory.
Caution: For grid infrastructure for a cluster installations, the Grid
home must not be placed under one of the Oracle base directories, or
under Oracle home directories of Oracle Database installation owners,
or in the home directory of an installation owner. During installation,
ownership of the path to the Grid home is changed to root. This
change causes permission errors for other installations.
2.6.3.2 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists,
enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):
# id oracle
If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. The user
and group ID numbers must be the same on each node you intend to make a cluster
member node.
To use the existing user, ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory
group (oinstall). If this user account will be used for Oracle Database installations,
and you plan to have a different user account as the owner of the Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle ASM binaries, then ensure that the Oracle account is also a member of the
group you plan to designate as the OSDBA for ASM group (the group whose members
are permitted to write to Oracle ASM storage).
2.6.3.3 Creating or Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
If the Oracle software owner (oracle, grid) user does not exist, or if you require a
new Oracle software owner user, then create it. If you want to use an existing user
account, then modify it to ensure that the user ID and group IDs are the same on each
cluster member node. The following procedures uses grid as the name of the Oracle
software owner, and dba as the OSASM group. To create separate system privilege
groups to separate administration privileges, complete group creation before you
create the user Section 2.6.5, "Creating Job Role Separation Operating System
Privileges Groups and Users," on page 2-12.
1.
To create a grid installation owner account where you have an existing system
privileges group (in this example, dba), whose members you want to have
granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance, enter a
command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G dba grid
2-10 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the user ID number of the user
you create for Oracle grid infrastructure, as you require it later during
preinstallation, and you must have the same user ID number for this user on
all nodes of the cluster.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group. For example: oinstall.
The -G option specified the secondary group, which in this example is dba.
The secondary groups must include the OSASM group, whose members are
granted the SYSASM privilege to administer the Oracle ASM instance. You can
designate a unique group for the SYSASM system privileges, separate from
database administrator groups, or you can designate one group as the OSASM
and OSDBA group, so that members of that group are granted the SYSASM
and SYSDBA privileges to grant system privileges to administer both the
Oracle ASM instances and Oracle Database instances. In code examples, this
group is asmadmin.
If you are creating this user to own both Oracle grid infrastructure and an
Oracle Database installation, then this user must have the OSDBA for ASM
group as a secondary group. In code examples, this group name is asmdba.
Members of the OSDBA for ASM group are granted access to Oracle ASM
storage. You must create an OSDBA for ASM group if you plan to have
multiple databases accessing Oracle ASM storage, or you must use the same
group as the OSDBA for all databases, and for the OSDBA for ASM group.
Use the usermod command to change existing user id numbers and groups.
For example:
# id oracle
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oracle) groups=501(oracle)
# /usr/sbin/usermod -u 1001 -g 1000 -G 1000,1001 oracle
# id oracle
uid=1001(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall),1001(oracle)
2.
Set the password of the user that will own Oracle grid infrastructure. For example:
# passwd grid
3.
Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on
each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node.
Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm
that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups
and users.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-11
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
2.6.4 Creating the Oracle Base Directory Path
The Oracle base directory for the grid installation owner is the location where
diagnostic and administrative logs, and other logs associated with Oracle ASM and
Oracle Clusterware are stored.
If you have created a path for the Oracle Clusterware home that is compliant with
Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines for Oracle software paths then
you do not need to create an Oracle base directory. When OUI finds an OFA-compliant
path, it creates the Oracle base directory in that path.
For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[19]/app, and it must be writable by any member of the oraInventory (oinstall)
group. The Optimal Flexible Architecture path for the Oracle base is /u01/app/user,
where user is the name of the Oracle software installation owner.
Oracle recommends that you create an Oracle base path manually, particularly if you
have separate grid infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle Database software owners,
so that you can separate log files.
For example:
#
#
#
#
#
mkdir
chown
chmod
mkdir
chown
-p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
-R grid:oinstall /u01/
-R 775 /u01/
-p /u01/app/oracle
oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
Placing Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster binaries on a
cluster file system is not supported.
Note:
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2
location, then you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1,
which supports shared writable mmaps.
2.6.5 Creating Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups and Users
A Job Role Separation privileges configuration of Oracle ASM is a configuration with
groups and users that divide administrative access privileges to the Oracle ASM
installation from other administrative privileges users and groups associated with
other Oracle installations. Administrative privileges access is granted by membership
in separate operating system groups, and installation privileges are granted by using
different installation owners for each Oracle installation.
This configuration is optional, to restrict user access to Oracle
software by responsibility areas for different administrator users.
Note:
If you prefer, you can allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one
administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all system
privileges on the storage and database tiers.
For example, you can designate the oracle user to be the installation owner for all
Oracle software, and designate oinstall to be the group whose members are
granted all system privileges for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, and all Oracle Databases on the servers, and all privileges as installation
owners. This group must also be the Oracle Inventory group.
2-12 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Oracle recommends that you use at least two groups: A system privileges group
whose members are granted administrative system privileges, and an installation
owner group (the oraInventory group) to provide separate installation privileges the
OINSTALL privilege. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools such as Cluster
Verification Utility, if you do choose to use a single operating system group to grant all
system privileges and the right to write to the oraInventory, then that group name
should be oinstall.
■
Overview of Creating Job Role Separation Groups and Users
■
Creating Database Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
To use a directory service, such as Network Information
Services (NIS), refer to your operating system documentation for
further information.
Note:
2.6.5.1 Overview of Creating Job Role Separation Groups and Users
This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to use Job Role
Separation. Log in as root to create these groups and users.
■
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
■
Database Groups for Job Role Separation Installations
■
Oracle ASM Groups for Job Role Separation Installations
2.6.5.1.1 Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation Oracle recommends that
you create the following operating system groups and users for all installations where
you create separate software installation owners:
One software owner to own each Oracle software product (typically, oracle, for the
database software owner user, and grid for Oracle grid infrastructure.
You must create at least one software owner the first time you install Oracle software
on the system. This user owns the Oracle binaries of the Oracle grid infrastructure
software, and you can also make this user the owner of the Oracle Database or Oracle
RAC binaries.
Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group,
so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory
(oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are
set correctly. The database software owner must also have the OSDBA group and (if
you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle documentation, when
Oracle software owner users are referred to, they are called oracle users.
Oracle recommends that you create separate software owner users to own each Oracle
software installation. Oracle particularly recommends that you do this if you intend to
install multiple databases on the system.
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own the Oracle grid infrastructure binaries
is called the grid user. This user owns both the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management binaries.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA, SYSASM
and SYSOPER privileges
See Also:
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-13
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
2.6.5.1.2 Database Groups for Job Role Separation Installations The following operating
system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). If you do not create
separate OSDBA, OSOPER and OSASM groups for the Oracle ASM instance, then
operating system user accounts that have the SYSOPER and SYSASM privileges
must be members of this group. The name used for this group in Oracle code
examples is dba. If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group,
then the OSDBA group you define is also by default the OSASM group.
To specify a group name other than the default dba group, then you must choose
the Advanced installation type to install the software or start Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI) as a user that is not a member of this group. In this case, OUI
prompts you to specify the name of this group.
Members of the OSDBA group formerly were granted SYSASM privileges on
Oracle ASM instances, including mounting and dismounting disk groups. This
privileges grant is removed with 11g release 2, if different operating system groups
are designated as the OSDBA and OSASM groups. If the same group is used for
both OSDBA and OSASM, then the privilege is retained.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
(the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
To use the OSOPER group to create a database administrator group with fewer
privileges than the default dba group, then you must choose the Advanced
installation type to install the software or start OUI as a user that is not a member
of the dba group. In this case, OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group.
The usual name chosen for this group is oper.
2.6.5.1.3 Oracle ASM Groups for Job Role Separation Installations SYSASM is a new system
privilege that enables the separation of the Oracle ASM storage administration
privilege from SYSDBA. With Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g release 2
(11.2), members of the database OSDBA group are not granted SYSASM privileges,
unless the operating system group designated as the OSASM group is the same group
designated as the OSDBA group.
Select separate operating system groups as the operating system authentication groups
for privileges on Oracle ASM. Before you start OUI, create the following groups and
users for Oracle ASM
■
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Group (typically asmadmin)
This is a required group. Create this group as a separate group if you want to have
separate administration privilege groups for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database
administrators. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose
members are granted privileges is called the OSASM group, and in code examples,
where there is a group specifically created to grant this privilege, it is referred to as
asmadmin.
If you have multiple databases on your system, and use multiple OSDBA groups
so that you can provide separate SYSDBA privileges for each database, then you
should create a separate OSASM group, and use a separate user from the database
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Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
users to own the grid infrastructure installation (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM). Oracle ASM can support multiple databases.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance
as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit
mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration tasks.
SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.
■
The ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM, typically asmdba)
Members of the ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM) are
granted read and write access to files managed by Oracle ASM. The grid
infrastructure installation owner and all Oracle Database software owners must be
a member of this group, and all users with OSDBA membership on databases that
have access to the files managed by Oracle ASM must be members of the OSDBA
group for ASM.
■
Members of the ASM Operator Group (OSOPER for ASM, typically asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle ASM instance
administrative privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up
and stopping the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group
also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
To use the ASM Operator group to create an ASM administrator group with fewer
privileges than the default asmadmin group, then you must choose the Advanced
installation type to install the software, In this case, OUI prompts you to specify
the name of this group. In code examples, this group is asmoper.
If you want to have an OSOPER for ASM group, then the grid infrastructure for a
cluster software owner must be a member of this group.
2.6.5.2 Creating Database Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups:.
■
Creating the OSDBA Group to Prepare for Database Installations
■
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations
■
Creating the OSASM Group
■
Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group
■
Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group for Database Access to Oracle ASM
■
When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User
■
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
■
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
■
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
■
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
2.6.5.2.1 Creating the OSDBA Group to Prepare for Database Installations If you intend to
install Oracle Database to use with the grid infrastructure installation, then you must
create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
An OSDBA group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-15
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
If the OSDBA group does not exist, or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create
it as follows. Use the group name dba unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1200 dba
2.6.5.2.2 Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installations Create an OSOPER group
only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of
database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator privileges). For most
installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. To use an OSOPER group,
then you must create it in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. Use the group name
oper unless a group with that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1201 oper
2.6.5.2.3 Creating the OSASM Group If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require
a new OSASM group, then create it as follows. Use the group name asmadmin unless
a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1000 asmadmin
2.6.5.2.4 Creating the OSOPER for ASM Group Create an OSOPER for ASM group if you
want to identify a group of operating system users, such as database administrators,
whom you want to grant a limited set of Oracle ASM storage tier administrative
privileges, including the ability to start up and shut down the Oracle ASM storage. For
most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSASM group, and provide that
group as the OSOPER for ASM group during the installation interview.
If you require a new OSOPER for ASM group, then create it as follows. In the
following, use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
2.6.5.2.5 Creating the OSDBA for ASM Group for Database Access to Oracle ASM You must
create an OSDBA for ASM group to provide access to the Oracle ASM instance. This is
necessary if OSASM and OSDBA are different groups.
If the OSDBA for ASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA for ASM
group, then create it as follows. Use the group name asmdba unless a group with that
name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1300 asmdba
2.6.5.2.6 When to Create the Oracle Software Owner User You must create an Oracle
software owner user in the following circumstances:
2-16 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation
If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle grid infrastructure, such
as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle
Database software, such as oracle.
2.6.5.2.7 Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists To determine whether an
Oracle software owner user named oracle or grid exists, enter a command similar
to the following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):
# id oracle
If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. To use the
existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group
and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one
of the following sections for more information:
■
■
To modify an existing user, refer to the "Modifying an Existing Oracle Software
Owner User" section on page 2-18.
To create a user, refer to the following section.
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on
each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node.
Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm
that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups
and users.
2.6.5.2.8 Creating an Oracle Software Owner User If the Oracle software owner user does
not exist, or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows.
Use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists.
1.
To create an oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
2.
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the oracle user ID number, as
you require it later during preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group--for example, oinstall
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group, the OSDBA for ASM group, and, if required, the OSOPER for ASM
group. For example: dba, asmdba, or dba, asmdba, asmoper
Set the password of the oracle user:
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-17
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
# passwd oracle
2.6.5.2.9 Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User If the oracle user exists, but
its primary group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or
OSDBA for ASM groups, then enter a command similar to the following to modify it.
Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group
using the -G option:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba oracle
Repeat this procedure on all of the other nodes in the cluster.
2.6.5.2.10
Creating Identical Database Users and Groups on Other Cluster Nodes
You must complete the following procedures only if you are
using local users and groups. If you are using users and groups
defined in a directory service such as NIS, then they are already
identical on each cluster node.
Note:
Oracle software owner users and the Oracle Inventory, OSDBA, and OSOPER groups
must exist and be identical on all cluster nodes. To create these identical users and
groups, you must identify the user ID and group IDs assigned them on the node
where you created them, and then create the user and groups with the same name and
ID on the other cluster nodes.
Identifying Existing User and Group IDs
To determine the user ID (UID) of the grid or oracle users, and the group IDs (GID)
of the existing Oracle groups, follow these steps:
1.
Enter a command similar to the following (in this case, to determine a user ID for
the oracle user):
# id oracle
The output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=502(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper),506(asmdba)
2.
From the output, identify the user ID (UID) for the user and the group identities
(GIDs) for the groups to which it belongs. Ensure that these ID numbers are
identical on each node of the cluster. The user's primary group is listed after gid.
Secondary groups are listed after groups.
Creating Users and Groups on the Other Cluster Nodes
To create users and groups on the other cluster nodes, repeat the following procedure
on each node:
1.
Log in to the next cluster node as root.
2.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the oinstall, asmadmin, and
asmdba groups, and if required, the asmoper, dba, and oper groups. Use the -g
option to specify the correct GID for each group.
#
#
#
#
#
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
/usr/sbin/groupadd
-g
-g
-g
-g
-g
2-18 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
1000
1100
1200
1201
1300
oinstall
asmadmin
dba
oper
asmdba
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
Note: If the group already exists, then use the groupmod command
to modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same group ID for a
particular group on this node, then view the /etc/group file on all
nodes to identify a group ID that is available on every node. You must
then change the group ID on all nodes to the same group ID.
3.
To create the oracle or grid infrastructure (grid) user, enter a command similar
to the following (in this example, to create the oracle user):
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmdba,dba oracle
In the preceding command:
–
The -u option specifies the user ID, which must be the user ID that you
identified in the previous subsection
–
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group, for example oinstall
–
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which can include the OSASM,
OSDBA, OSDBA for ASM, and OSOPER or OSOPER for ASM groups. For
example:
–
A grid installation owner: OSASM (asmadmin), whose members are
granted the SYSASM privilege
–
An Oracle Database installation owner without SYSASM privileges access:
OSDBA (dba), OSDBA for ASM (asmdba), OSOPER for ASM (asmoper)
If the user already exists, then use the usermod command to
modify it if necessary. If you cannot use the same user ID for the user
on every node, then view the /etc/passwd file on all nodes to
identify a user ID that is available on every node. You must then
specify that ID for the user on all of the nodes.
Note:
4.
Set the password of the user. For example:
# passwd oracle
5.
Complete user environment configuration tasks for each user as described in the
section Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments on
page 2-47.
2.6.6 Example of Creating Standard Groups, Users, and Paths
The following is an example of how to create the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall),
and a single group (dba) as the OSDBA, OSASM and OSDBA for ASM groups. In
addition, it shows how to create the grid infrastructure software owner (grid), and
one Oracle Database owner (oracle) with correct group memberships. This example
also shows how to configure an Oracle base path compliant with OFA structure with
correct permissions:
# groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
# groupadd -g 1200 dba
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-19
Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G dba grid
useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba oracle
mkdir -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
mkdir /u01/app/oracle
chown oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
chmod -R 775 /u01/
After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall). Members
who have the central inventory group as their primary group, are granted the
OINSTALL permission to write to the oraInventory directory.
A single system privileges group that is used as the OSASM, OSDBA, OSDBA for
ASM, and OSOPER for ASM group (dba), whose members are granted the
SYSASM and SYSDBA privilege to administer Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM,
and Oracle Database, and are granted SYSASM and OSOPER for ASM access to
the Oracle ASM storage.
An Oracle grid installation for a cluster owner (grid), with the oraInventory
group as its primary group, and with the OSASM group as the secondary group.
An Oracle Database owner (oracle) with the oraInventory group as its primary
group, and the OSDBA group as its secondary group.
/u01/app owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions. This ownership and
permissions enables OUI to create the Oracle Inventory directory, in the path
/u01/app/oraInventory.
/u01 owned by root.
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions.
These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the
installation process.
/u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions.
2.6.7 Example of Creating Role-allocated Groups, Users, and Paths
The following is an example of how to create role-allocated groups and users that is
compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) deployment:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
groupadd -g 1000 oinstall
groupadd -g 1100 asmadmin
groupadd -g 1200 dba1
groupadd -g 1250 dba2
groupadd -g 1300 asmdba
groupadd -g 1301 asmoper
useradd -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmadmin,asmdba,asmoper grid
useradd -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba1,asmdba oracle1
useradd -u 1102 -g oinstall -G dba2,asmdba oracle2
mkdir -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
chown -R grid:oinstall /u01
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle1
chown oracle1:oinstall /u01/app/oracle1
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle2
chown oracle2:oinstall /u01/app/oracle2
chmod -R 775 /u01
After running these commands, you have the following groups and users:
2-20 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall), whose
members that have this group as their primary group are granted permissions to
write to the oraInventory directory.
A separate OSASM group (asmadmin), whose members are granted the SYSASM
privilege to administer Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM.
A separate OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba), whose members include grid,
oracle1 and oracle2, and who are granted access to Oracle ASM.
A separate OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper), whose members include grid,
and who are granted limited Oracle ASM administrator privileges, including the
permissions to start and stop the Oracle ASM instance.
An Oracle grid installation for a cluster owner (grid), with the oraInventory
group as its primary group, and with the OSASM (asmadmin), OSDBA for ASM
(asmdba) and OSOPER for ASM groups as secondary groups.
Two separate OSDBA groups for two different databases (dba1 and dba2) to
establish separate SYSDBA privileges for each database.
Two Oracle Database software owners (oracle1 and oracle2), to divide
ownership of the Oracle database binaries, with the OraInventory group as their
primary group, and the OSDBA group for their database (dba1 or dba2) and the
OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba) as their secondary groups.
An OFA-compliant mount point /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before
installation.
An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle1 owned by oracle1:oinstall with 775
permissions.
An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle 2 owned by oracle2:oinstall with 775
permissions.
A Grid home /u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775
(drwxdrwxr-x) permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and
are changed during the installation process to root:oinstall with 755
permissions (drwxr-xr-x).
An Oracle base for the grid installation owner /u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned
by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions, and changed during the installation
process to 755 permissions. The grid installation owner Oracle base directory is the
location where Oracle ASM diagnostic and administrative log files are placed.
During installation, OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory, in the path
/u01/app/oraInventory. This path remains owned by grid:oinstall, to
enable other Oracle software owners to write to the central inventory.
2.7 Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
■
■
Select servers with the same chip architecture; running 32-bit and 64-bit Oracle
software versions in the same cluster stack is not supported.
Ensure that the server is started with run level 3 or run level 5.
Ensure servers run the same operating system binary. Oracle grid infrastructure
installations and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) support servers
with different hardware in the same cluster.
Each system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-21
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
■
■
At least 1.5 GB of physical RAM for grid infrastructure for a cluster installations
without Oracle RAC; at least 2.5 GB of physical RAM if you plan to install Oracle
RAC after installing grid infrastructure for a cluster.
At least 1024 x 768 display resolution, so that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
displays correctly
Swap space equivalent to the multiple of the available RAM, as indicated in the
following table:
Table 2–1
Swap Space Required as a Multiple of RAM
Available RAM
Swap Space Required
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
On Linux, the Hugepages feature allocates non-swappable
memory with large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable Hugepages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
If you encounter an OUI error indicating inadequate swap space size,
but your swap space meets the requirements listed here, then you can
ignore that error.
■
■
■
■
1 GB of space in the /tmp directory
4.5 GB of space for the grid infrastructure for a cluster home (Grid home) This
includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) files and log files.
On Linux x86, if you intend to install Oracle Database, then allocate 4 GB of space
for Oracle base.
For Linux x86_64 platforms, if you intend to install Oracle Database, then allocate
4.6 GB of disk space for the Oracle base.
If you are installing Oracle Database, then you require additional space, either on a file
system or in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group, for the Fast
Recovery Area if you choose to configure automated database backups.
See Also:
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
To ensure that each system meets these requirements, follow these steps:
1.
To determine the physical RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the physical RAM installed in the system is less than the required
size, then you must install more memory before continuing.
2.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
2-22 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
If necessary, refer to your operating system documentation for information about
how to configure additional swap space.
3.
To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
This command displays disk space in 1 kilobyte blocks. On most systems, you can
use the df command with the -h flag (df -h) to display output in "humanreadable" format, such as "24G" and "10M." If there is less than 1 GB of disk space
available in the /tmp directory (less than 1048576 1-k blocks), then complete one
of the following steps:
■
■
4.
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to make available the space
required.
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact
your system administrator for information about extending file systems.
To determine the amount of free RAM and disk swap space on the system, enter
the following command:
# free
Note that available RAM and swap space change, depending on user activity on
the server.
5.
To determine if the system architecture can run the software, on all platforms,
enter the following command:
# uname -m
This command displays the processor type. If you intend to
install on a 64-bit architecture, then the output should be "x86_64."
Note:
2.8 Checking the Network Requirements
Review the following sections to check that you have the networking hardware and
internet protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster
installation:
■
Network Hardware Requirements
■
IP Address Requirements
■
DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
■
Manual IP Address Configuration Example
■
Grid Naming Service Configuration Example
■
Network Interface Configuration Options
■
Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-23
Checking the Network Requirements
For the most up-to-date information about supported network
protocols and hardware for Oracle RAC installations, refer to the
Certify pages on the My Oracle Support Web site at the following
URL:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
2.8.1 Network Hardware Requirements
The following is a list of requirements for network configuration:
■
Each node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards
(NICs): one for the public network interface, and one for the private network
interface (the interconnect).
To use multiple NICs for the public network or for the private network, Oracle
recommends that you use NIC bonding. Use separate bonding for the public and
private networks, because during installation each interface is defined as a public
or private interface.
■
The public interface names associated with the network adapters for each network
must be the same on all nodes, and the private interface names associated with the
network adaptors should be the same on all nodes.
For example: With a two-node cluster, you cannot configure network adapters on
node1 with eth0 as the public interface, but on node2 have eth1 as the public
interface. Public interface names must be the same, so you must configure eth0 as
public on both nodes. You should configure the private interfaces on the same
network adapters as well. If eth1 is the private interface for node1, then eth1
should be the private interface for node2.
■
■
For the public network, each network adapter must support TCP/IP.
For the private network, the interconnect must support the user datagram protocol
(UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP
(minimum requirement 1 Gigabit Ethernet).
UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC, and
TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. You must use
a switch for the interconnect. Oracle recommends that you use a
dedicated switch.
Note:
Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the
interconnect.
■
■
For the private network, the endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces
must be completely reachable on the network. There should be no node that is not
connected to every private network interface. You can test if an interconnect
interface is reachable using ping.
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You must identify each interface
as a public or private interface, and you must use the same private interfaces for
both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.
You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy, in
case of a NIC failure, but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate
interfaces for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. If you use more than one NIC
2-24 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
for the private interconnect, then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding.
Note that multiple private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover,
unless bonded.
IP addresses on the subnet you identify as private are assigned as private IP
addresses for cluster member nodes. You do not need to configure these addresses
manually in a hosts file.
2.8.2 IP Address Requirements
Before starting the installation, you must have at least two interfaces configured on
each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.
You can configure IP addresses with one of the following options:
■
■
Dynamic IP address assignment using Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS). If you
select this option, then network administrators assign static IP address for the
physical hostname and dynamically allocated IPs for the Oracle Clusterware
managed VIP addresses. In this case, IP addresses for the VIPs are assigned by a
DHCP and resolved using a multicast domain name server configured as part of
Oracle Clusterware within the cluster. If you plan to use GNS, then you must have
the following:
–
A DHCP service running on the public network for the cluster
–
Enough addresses on the DHCP to provide 1 IP address for each node's virtual
IP, and 3 IP addresses for the cluster used by the Single Client Access Name
(SCAN) for the cluster
Static IP address assignment. If you select this option, then network administrators
assign a fixed IP address for each physical hostname in the cluster and for IPs for
the Oracle Clusterware managed VIPs. In addition, domain name server (DNS)
based static name resolution is used for each node. Selecting this option requires
that you request network administration updates when you modify the cluster.
Oracle recommends that you use a static hostname for all
server node public hostnames.
Note:
Public IP addresses and virtual IP addresses must be in the same
subnet.
2.8.2.1 IP Address Requirements with Grid Naming Service
If you enable Grid Naming Service (GNS), then name resolution requests to the cluster
are delegated to the GNS, which is listening on the GNS virtual IP address. You define
this address in the DNS domain before installation. The DNS must be configured to
delegate resolution requests for cluster names (any names in the subdomain delegated
to the cluster) to the GNS. When a request comes to the domain, GNS processes the
requests and responds with the appropriate addresses for the name requested.
To use GNS, before installation the DNS administrator must establish DNS Lookup to
direct DNS resolution of a subdomain to the cluster. If you enable GNS, then you must
have a DHCP service on the public network that allows the cluster to dynamically
allocate the virtual IP addresses as required by the cluster.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-25
Checking the Network Requirements
2.8.2.2 IP Address Requirements for Manual Configuration
If you do not enable GNS, then the public and virtual IP addresses for each node must
be static IP addresses, configured before installation for each node, but not currently in
use. Public and virtual IP addresses must be on the same subnet.
Oracle Clusterware manages private IP addresses in the private subnet on interfaces
you identify as private during the installation interview.
The cluster must have the following addresses configured:
■
A public IP address for each node
■
A virtual IP address for each node
■
A single client access name (SCAN) configured on the domain name server (DNS)
for Round Robin resolution to three addresses (recommended) or at least one
address.
The single client access name (SCAN) is a name used to provide service access for
clients to the cluster. Because the SCAN is associated with the cluster as a whole,
rather than to a particular node, the SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes
from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients. It also adds location
independence for the databases, so that client configuration does not have to depend
on which nodes are running a particular database. Clients can continue to access the
cluster in the same way as with previous releases, but Oracle recommends that clients
accessing the cluster use the SCAN.
The SCAN addresses must be on the same subnet as virtual IP addresses and public IP
addresses. For high availability and scalability, Oracle recommends that you configure
the SCAN to use Round Robin resolution to three addresses. The name for the SCAN
cannot begin with a numeral. For installation to succeed, the SCAN must resolve to at
least one address.
Oracle strongly recommends that you do not configure SCAN
VIP addresses in the hosts file. Use DNS resolution for SCAN VIPs. If
you use the hosts file to resolve SCANs, then you will only be able to
resolve to one IP address and you will have only one SCAN address.
Note:
See Also: Appendix D, "Understanding Network Addresses" for
more information about network addresses
2.8.3 DNS Configuration for Domain Delegation to Grid Naming Service
If you plan to use GNS, then before grid infrastructure installation, you must configure
your domain name server (DNS) to send to GNS name resolution requests for the
subdomain GNS serves, which are the cluster member nodes.
You must configure the DNS to send GNS name resolution requests using delegation.
Configure delegation using the following procedure:
1.
In the DNS, create an entry for the GNS virtual IP address. For example:
gns-server.clustername.com: 192.0.2.1
The address you provide must be routable.
2.
In the DNS, create an entry similar to the following for the delegated domain,
where clusterdomain.example.com is the subdomain you want to delegate:
clusterdomain.example.com: NS gns-server.clustername.com
2-26 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
When using GNS, you must configure the resolve.conf on the nodes in the
cluster to contain name server entries that are resolvable to corporate DNS servers.
The total timeout period configured—a combination of options attempts (retries)
and options timeout (exponential backoff)—should be less than 30 seconds. For
example, where xxx.xxx.xxx.42 and xxx.xxx.xxx.15 are valid name server addresses
in your network, provide an entry similar to the following in
/etc/resolv.conf:
options attempts: 2
options timeout: 1
search clusterdomain.example.com example.com
nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.42
nameserver xxx.xxx.xxx.15
/etc/nsswitch.conf controls name service lookup order. In some system
configurations, the Network Information System (NIS) can cause problems with
Oracle SCAN address resolution. Oracle recommends that you place the nis entry
at the end of the search list. For example:
/etc/nsswitch.conf
hosts:
files
dns
nis
2.8.4 Grid Naming Service Configuration Example
If you use GNS, then you need to specify a static IP address for the GNS VIP address,
and delegate a subdomain to be delegated to that static GNS IP address.
As nodes are added to the cluster, your organization's DHCP server can provide
addresses for these nodes dynamically. These addresses are then registered
automatically in GNS, and GNS provides resolution within the subdomain to cluster
node addresses registered with GNS.
Because allocation and configuration of addresses is performed automatically with
GNS, no further configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware provides dynamic
network configuration as nodes are added to or removed from the cluster. The
following example is provided only for information.
With a two node cluster where you have defined the GNS VIP, after installation you
might have a configuration similar to the following for a two-node cluster, where the
cluster name is mycluster, the GNS parent domain is example.com, the subdomain
is grid.example.com, 192.0.2 in the IP addresses represent the cluster public IP
address network, and 192.168.0 represents the private IP address subnet:
Table 2–2
Identity
Home
Node
Grid Naming Service Example Network
Host Node
Given Name
Type
Address
Address
Resolved
Assigned By By
GNS
VIP
None
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclustergns.example.com
virtual
192.0.2.1
Fixed by net DNS
administrator
Node 1
Public
Node
1
node1
node11
Public
192.0.2.101
Fixed
GNS
Node 1
VIP
Node
1
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node1-vip
Virtual
192.0.2.104
DHCP
GNS
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-27
Checking the Network Requirements
Table 2–2 (Cont.) Grid Naming Service Example Network
Identity
Home
Node
Node 1
Private
Address
Resolved
Assigned By By
Host Node
Given Name
Type
Address
Node
1
node1
node1-priv
Private
192.168.0.1
Fixed or
DHCP
GNS
Node 2
Public
Node
2
node2
node21
Public
192.0.2.102
Fixed
GNS
Node 2
VIP
Node
2
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node2-vip
Virtual
192.0.2.105
DHCP
GNS
Node 2
Private
Node
2
node2
node2-priv
Private
192.168.0.2
Fixed or
DHCP
GNS
SCAN
VIP 1
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan.grid.example.com
virtual
192.0.2.201
DHCP
GNS
SCAN
VIP 2
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan.grid.example.com
virtual
192.0.2.202
DHCP
GNS
SCAN
VIP 3
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
myclusterscan.grid.example.com
virtual
192.0.2.203
DHCP
GNS
1
Node hostnames may resolve to multiple addresses, including any private IP addresses or VIP addresses currently running on that
host.
2.8.5 Manual IP Address Configuration Example
If you choose not to use GNS, then before installation you must configure public,
virtual, and private IP addresses. Also, check that the default gateway can be accessed
by a ping command. To find the default gateway, use the route command, as
described in your operating system's help utility.
For example, with a two node cluster where each node has one public and one private
interface, and you have defined a SCAN domain address to resolve on your DNS to
one of three IP addresses, you might have the configuration shown in the following
table for your network interfaces:
Table 2–3
Manual Network Configuration Example
Home
Node
Host Node
Given Name
Type
Address
Address
Resolved
Assigned By By
Node 1
Public
Node 1
node1
node11
Public
192.0.2.101
Fixed
DNS
Node 1
VIP
Node 1
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node1-vip
Virtual
192.0.2.104
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file
Node 1
Private
Node 1
node1
node1-priv
Private
192.168.0.1
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file, or
none
Node 2
Public
Node 2
node2
node21
Public
192.0.2.102
Fixed
DNS
Node 2
VIP
Node 2
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
node2-vip
Virtual
192.0.2.105
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file
Identity
2-28 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Network Requirements
Table 2–3 (Cont.) Manual Network Configuration Example
Home
Node
Host Node
Given Name
Type
Address
Address
Resolved
Assigned By By
Node 2
Private
Node 2
node2
node2-priv
Private
192.168.0.2
Fixed
DNS and
hosts file, or
none
SCAN
VIP 1
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
mycluster-scan virtual
192.0.2.201
Fixed
DNS
SCAN
VIP 2
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
mycluster-scan virtual
192.0.2.202
Fixed
DNS
SCAN
VIP 3
none
Selected by
Oracle
Clusterware
mycluster-scan virtual
192.0.2.203
Fixed
DNS
Identity
1
Node hostnames may resolve to multiple addresses.
You do not need to provide a private name for the interconnect. If you want name
resolution for the interconnect, then you can configure private IP names in the hosts
file or the DNS. However, Oracle Clusterware assigns interconnect addresses on the
interface defined during installation as the private interface (eth1, for example), and
to the subnet used for the private subnet.
The addresses to which the SCAN resolves are assigned by Oracle Clusterware, so
they are not fixed to a particular node. To enable VIP failover, the configuration shown
in the preceding table defines the SCAN addresses and the public and VIP addresses
of both nodes on the same subnet, 192.0.2.
All host names must conform to the RFC 952 standard, which
permits alphanumeric characters. Host names using underscores ("_")
are not allowed.
Note:
2.8.6 Network Interface Configuration Options
The precise configuration you choose for your network depends on the size and use of
the cluster you want to configure, and the level of availability you require.
If certified Network-attached Storage (NAS) is used for Oracle RAC and this storage is
connected through Ethernet-based networks, then you must have a third network
interface for NAS I/O. Failing to provide three separate interfaces in this case can
cause performance and stability problems under load.
2.8.7 Enabling the Name Service Cache Daemon
To allow Oracle Clusterware to better tolerate network failures with NAS devices or
NFS mounts, enable the Name Service Cache Daemon (nscd).
To check to see if nscd is set to load when the system is restarted, enter the command
chkconfig --list nscd. For example:
# chkconfig --list nscd
nscd
0:off
1:off
2:off
3:on
4:off
5:off
6:off
In the preceding example, nscd is turned on for run level 3, and turned off for run level
5. The nsdc should be turned on for both run level 3 and run level 5.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-29
Identifying Software Requirements
To change the configuration to ensure that nsdc is on for both run level 3 and run
level 5, enter one of the following command as root:
On Red Hat and Oracle Enterprise Linux 4 and 5:
# chkconfig --level 35 nscd on
On SUSE SLES10 and11:
# chkconfig --level 35 nscd on
To start up nscd in the current session, enter the command as root:
# service nscd start
To restart nscd with the new setting, enter the following command as root:
# service nscd restart
2.9 Identifying Software Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following
operating system software is installed on the system. To check these requirements refer
to the section "Checking the Software Requirements" on page 2-39, following this
section.
OUI performs checks your system to verify that it meets the listed operating system
package requirements. To ensure that these checks complete successfully, verify the
requirements before you start OUI.
Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default
software packages (RPMs), unless you specifically intend to perform a minimal
installation, and follow the directions for performing such an installation to ensure
that you have all required packages for Oracle software.
Oracle recommends that you do not customize RPMs during a default operating
system installation. A default installation includes most required packages, and will
help you to limit manual checks of package dependencies
Oracle does not support running different operating system
versions on cluster members, unless an operating system is being
upgraded. You cannot run different operating system version binaries
on members of the same cluster, even if each operating system is
supported.
Note:
The following is the list of supported Linux versions and requirements at the time of
release:
■
Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms
■
Software Requirements List for x86-64 Linux Platforms
2.9.1 Software Requirements List for x86 (32-bit) Linux Platforms
For installations of Oracle grid infrastructure, ensure that you have the kernel versions
and packages listed in Table 2–4 and Table 2–5.
2-30 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Identifying Software Requirements
If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC in addition to Oracle grid
infrastructure, then check Table 2–6 to determine if you must install additional
packages for the features you plan to use.
For Asianux Server, Oracle Enterprise Linux, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, system requirements are identical by kernel version.
Specifically:
Note:
Asianux 2, Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
requirements are the same.
Asianux Server 3, Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5 requirements are the same.
Table 2–4
Linux x86 (32-bit) Operating System Kernel Requirements
Linux Distribution
Requirements
Asianux Distributions
■
Asianux 2, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Asianux Server 3, kernel 2.6.18 or later
■
Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2, kernel 2.6.18 or later
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2, kernel 2.6.18 or later
■
SUSE 10, kernel 2.6.16.21 or later
■
SUSE 11, kernel 2.6.27.19 or later
Enterprise Linux
Distributions
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Distributions
SUSE Enterprise Linux
Distributions
Table 2–5
Item
Linux x86 (32-bit) Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package Requirements
Requirements
Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
4, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
Linux 4
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
gcc-3.4.6
gcc-c++-3.4.6
glibc-2.3.4-2.41
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-headers-2.3.4
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105
libgcc-3.4.6
libstdc++-3.4.6
libstdc++-devel-3.4.6
make-3.80
pdksh-5.2.14
sysstat-5.0.5
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-31
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–5 (Cont.) Linux x86 (32-bit) Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package
Item
Requirements
Asianux Server 3, Enterprise The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Linux 5, and Red Hat
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
Enterprise Linux 5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-static-0.125
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-24
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-headers-2.5
kernel-headers-2.6.18
ksh-20060214
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.2
libgomp-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
SUSE 10 Packages
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.4-31.63
glibc-devel-2.4
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2
make-3.80
sysstat-8.0.4
2-32 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–5 (Cont.) Linux x86 (32-bit) Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package
Item
Requirements
SUSE 11 packages
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.19
gcc-4.3
gcc-c++-4.3
glibc-2.9
glibc-devel-2.9
ksh-93t
libstdc++33-3.3.3
libstdc++43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.3_20081022
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libgcc43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++-devel-4.3
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5
Table 2–6
Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements
Item
Requirement
LDAP package
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to
use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca,
or schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for your Linux
distribution.
Pluggable Authentication
Modules for Linux (Linux
PAM)
Install the latest Linux PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules
for Linux) library for your Linux distribution. PAM provides
greater flexibility for system administrators to choose how
applications authenticate users. On Linux, external scheduler
jobs require PAM.
Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call
Interface, Oracle C++ Call
Interface, Oracle XML
Developer's Kit (XDK)
Intel C/C++ Compiler 10.1 or later and the version of GNU C
and C++ compilers listed previously for the distribution are
supported for use with these products.
Note: Intel C/C++ Compiler v10.1 can be used only with gcc
3.4.5, gcc 4.0 or gcc 4.1 standard template libraries to build OCCI
applications.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same
compilers as OCCI.
Oracle ODBC Drivers
If you intend to use Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), then
you should install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux.
You should obtain the most current ODBC driver from your
operating system vendor. You can read about ODBC at the
following URL:
http://www.unixodbc.org
The ODBC RPMs are only needed if you plan on using ODBC. If
you do not plan to use ODBC, then you do not need to install the
ODBC RPMs for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, or Oracle
RAC.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-33
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–6 (Cont.) Linux x86 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements
Item
Requirement
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
You can use the following optional JDK version with the Oracle
JDBC/OCI drivers; however, it is not required for the
installation:
■
Sun JDK 1.5.0-06 (JDK 5.0) with the JNDI extension
■
IBM Java 5.0 32-bit (SR1) or later
Note: By default, IBM Java 5.0 (32-bit) is installed with this
release.
Oracle Real Application
Clusters
For a cluster file system, use one of the following options:
OCFS2
■
Version 1.2.9 or later
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2
location, then you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1,
which supports shared writable mmaps.
To check your OCFS version, enter the following command:
modinfo ocfs2
To check the version of OCFS2 tools and OCFS2 console, enter
the following command:
rpm -qa| grep ocfs2
Ensure that ocfs2console and ocfs2-tools are at least
version 1.2.9
For information about OCFS2, refer to the following Web site:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on My
Oracle Support.
2.9.2 Software Requirements List for x86-64 Linux Platforms
For installations only of Oracle grid infrastructure, ensure that you have the kernel
versions and packages listed in Table 2–7 and Table 2–8.
If you intend to install Oracle Database or Oracle RAC in addition to Oracle grid
infrastructure, then check Table 2–9 to determine if you must install additional
packages for the features you plan to use.
For Asianux Server, Oracle Enterprise Linux, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, system requirements are identical by kernel version.
Specifically:
Note:
Asianux 2, Oracle Enterprise Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
requirements are the same.
Asianux Server 3, Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5 requirements are the same.
Table 2–7
Linux x86-64 Operating System Kernel Requirements
Linux Distribution
Requirements
Asianux Distributions
■
Asianux 2, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Asianux 3, kernel 2.6.18 or later
2-34 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–7 (Cont.) Linux x86-64 Operating System Kernel Requirements
Linux Distribution
Enterprise Linux
Distributions
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Distributions
SUSE Enterprise Linux
Distributions
Requirements
■
Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2, kernel 2.6.18 or later
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7, kernel 2.6.9 or later
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2, kernel 2.6.18 or later
■
SUSE 10, kernel 2.6.16.21 or later
■
SUSE 11, kernel 2.6.27.19 or later
Table 2–8 Linux x86-64 Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
4, and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
Linux 4
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
expat-1.95.7
gcc-3.4.6
gcc-c++-3.4.6
glibc-2.3.4-2.41
glibc-2.3.4-2.41 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-headers-2.3.4
libaio-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libaio-devel-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libgcc-3.4.6
libgcc-3.4.6 (32-bit)
libstdc++-3.4.6
libstdc++-3.4.6 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 3.4.6
make-3.80
pdksh-5.2.14
sysstat-5.0.5
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit)
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit)
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-35
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–8 (Cont.) Linux x86-64 Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package
Requirements
Item
Requirements
Asianux Server 3, Enterprise The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
Linux 5, and Red Hat
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
Enterprise Linux 5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-24
glibc-2.5-24 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5 (32 bit)
glibc-headers-2.5
ksh-20060214
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
make-3.81
sysstat-7.0.2
unixODBC-2.2.11
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit)
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit)
SUSE 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.0
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.4-31.63
glibc-devel-2.4
glibc-devel-32bit-2.4
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
make-3.80
sysstat-8.0.4
2-36 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–8 (Cont.) Linux x86-64 Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC Package
Requirements
Item
Requirements
SUSE 11
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.19
gcc-4.3
gcc-32bit-4.3
gcc-c++-4.3
glibc-2.9
glibc-32bit-2.9
glibc-devel-2.9
glibc-devel-32bit-2.9
ksh-93t
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.104
libstdc++33-3.3.3
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3
libstdc++43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-32bit-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-32bit-4.3.3_20081022
libgcc43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++-devel-4.3
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5
Table 2–9
Linux x86-64 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements
Item
Requirement
LDAP package
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to
use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca,
or schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for your Linux
distribution.
Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call
Interface, Oracle C++ Call
Interface, Oracle XML
Developer's Kit (XDK)
Intel C/C++ Compiler 10.1 or later and the version of GNU C
and C++ compilers listed previously for the distribution are
supported for use with these products.
Note: Intel C/C++ Compiler v10.1 can be used only with gcc
3.4.5, gcc 4.0 or gcc 4.1 standard template libraries to build OCCI
applications.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same
compilers as OCCI.
Pluggable Authentication
Modules for Linux (Linux
PAM)
Install the latest Linux PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules
for Linux) library for your Linux distribution. PAM provides
greater flexibility for system administrators to choose how
applications authenticate users. On Linux, external scheduler
jobs require PAM.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-37
Identifying Software Requirements
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Linux x86-64 Oracle Database Features Package Requirements
Item
Requirement
Oracle ODBC Drivers
If you intend to use Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), then
you should install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux.
You should obtain the most current ODBC driver from your
operating system vendor. You can read about ODBC at the
following URL:
http://www.unixodbc.org
The ODBC RPMs are only needed if you plan on using ODBC. If
you do not plan to use ODBC, then you do not need to install the
ODBC RPMs for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, or Oracle
RAC.
To use ODBC, you must also install the following additional 32bit ODBC RPMs, depending on your operating system:
Asianux 2, Enterprise Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
Asianux Server 3, Enterprise Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
You can use the following optional JDK version with the Oracle
JDBC/OCI drivers; however, it is not required for the
installation:
■
Sun JDK 1.5.0-06 (JDK 5.0) with the JNDI extension
■
IBM Java 5.0 32-bit (SR1) or later
Note: By default, IBM Java 5.0 (32-bit) is installed with this
release.
Oracle Real Application
Clusters
For a cluster file system, use the following option:
OCFS2
■
Version 1.2.9 or later
To check your OCFS version, enter the following command:
modinfo ocfs2
To check the version of OCFS2 tools and OCFS2 console, enter
the following command:
rpm -qa| grep ocfs2
Ensure that ocfs2console and ocfs2-tools are at least
version 1.2.7
For information about OCFS2, refer to the following Web site:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on My
Oracle Support.
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
For OCFS2 certification status, refer to the Certify page on My
Oracle Support.
2-38 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
2.10 Checking the Software Requirements
To ensure that the system meets these requirements, follow these steps:
1.
To determine which distribution and version of Linux is installed, enter the
following command:
# cat /proc/version
Only the distributions and versions listed in the previous table
are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of Linux.
Note:
2.
To determine whether the required kernel errata is installed, enter the following
command:
# uname -r
The following is sample output displayed by running this command on a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4.0 system:
2.6.9-55.0.0.0.2.ELsmp
In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.6.9) and errata level
(55.0.0.0.2.ELsmp) on the system.
Review the required errata level for your distribution. If the errata level is
previous to the required minimum errata update, then obtain and install the latest
kernel update from your Linux distributor.
3.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar
to the following:
# rpm -q package_name
Alternatively, if you require specific system architecture information, then enter
the following command:
# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep
package_name
You can also combine a query for multiple packages, and review the output for the
correct versions. For example:
# rpm -q binutils compat-libstdc++ elfutils gcc glibc libaio libgcc libstdc++ \
make sysstat unixodbc
If a package is not installed, then install it from your Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from your Linux distributor's Web site.
4.
To determine if OCFS2 is installed, enter the following command:
# /sbin/modinfo ocfs2
To install the Oracle Database files on an OCFS2 file system and the packages are
not installed, then download them from the following Web site. Follow the
instructions listed with the kit to install the packages and configure the file system:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-39
Network Time Protocol Setting
2.11 Network Time Protocol Setting
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) requires time synchronization across all nodes
within a cluster when Oracle RAC is deployed. You have two options for time
synchronization: an operating system configured network time protocol (NTP), or
Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service. Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization
Service is designed for organizations whose cluster servers are unable to access NTP
services. If you use NTP, then the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization daemon (ctssd)
starts up in observer mode. If you do not have NTP daemons, then ctssd starts up in
active mode and synchronizes time among cluster members without contacting an
external time server.
Before starting the installation of the grid infrastructure,
Oracle recommends that you ensure the clocks on all nodes are set to
the same time.
Note:
If you have NTP daemons on your server but you cannot configure them to
synchronize time with a time server, and you want to use Cluster Time
Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster, then
deactivate and deinstall the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
To deactivate the NTP service, you must stop the existing ntpd service, disable it from
the initialization sequences and remove the ntp.conf file. To complete these step on
Oracle Enterprise Linux, and Asianux systems, run the following commands as the
root user
# /sbin/service ntpd stop
# chkconfig ntpd off
# rm /etc/ntp.conf
or, mv /etc/ntp.conf to /etc/ntp.conf.org.
Also remove the following file:
/var/run/ntpd.pid
This file maintains the pid for the NTP daemon.
When the installer finds that the NTP protocol is not active, the Cluster Time
Synchronization Service is installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across
the nodes. If NTP is found configured, then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service
is started in observer mode, and no active time synchronization is performed by
Oracle Clusterware within the cluster.
To confirm that ctssd is active after installation, enter the following command as the
Grid installation owner:
$ crsctl check ctss
If you are using NTP, and you prefer to continue using it instead of Cluster Time
Synchronization Service, then you need to modify the NTP configuration to set the -x
flag, which prevents time from being adjusted backward. Restart the network time
protocol daemon after you complete this task.
To do this, on Oracle Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Linux, and Asianux systems, edit the
/etc/sysconfig/ntpd file to add the -x flag, as in the following example:
# Drop root to id 'ntp:ntp' by default.
OPTIONS="-x -u ntp:ntp -p /var/run/ntpd.pid"
2-40 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
# Set to 'yes' to sync hw clock after successful ntpdate
SYNC_HWCLOCK=no
# Additional options for ntpdate
NTPDATE_OPTIONS=""
Then, restart the NTP service.
# /sbin/service ntp restart
On SUSE systems, modify the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/ntp with the
following settings:
NTPD_OPTIONS="-x -u ntp"
Restart the daemon using the following command:
# service ntpd restart
2.12 Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
Install the operating system package cvuqdisk. Without cvuqdisk, Cluster
Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks, and you receive the error message
"Package cvuqdisk not installed" when you run Cluster Verification Utility. Use the
cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (for example, x86_64, or i386).
To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:
If you prefer, you can choose to disable Cluster Verification
Utility shared disk checks by adding the following line to the file
grid_home/cv/admin/cvuconfig:
Note:
CV_RAW_CHECK_ENABLED=FALSE
1.
Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the
installation media. If you have already installed Oracle grid infrastructure, then it
is located in the directory grid_home/rpm.
2.
Copy the cvuqdisk package to each node on the cluster. You should ensure that
each node is running the same version of Linux.
3.
Log in as root.
4.
Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the
cvuqdisk package:
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to deinstall the
existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
5.
Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that will own
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-41
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
6.
In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the following
command to install the cvuqdisk package:
rpm -iv package
For example:
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.7-1.rpm
2.13 Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) provides a set of common interfaces
to computer hardware and firmware that system administrators can use to monitor
system health and manage the system. With Oracle 11g release 2, Oracle Clusterware
can integrate IPMI to provide failure isolation support and to ensure cluster integrity.
You can configure node-termination with IPMI during installation by selecting a nodetermination protocol, such as IPMI. You can also configure IPMI after installation with
crsctl commands.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
information about how to configure IPMI after installation
See Also:
2.13.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI
You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster
nodes to be managed with IPMI:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC)
running firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports
IPMI over LANs, and configured for remote control using LAN.
Each cluster member node requires an IPMI driver installed on each node.
The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared
network, but Oracle recommends that you configure a dedicated network.
Each cluster member node's Ethernet port used by BMC must be connected to the
IPMI management network.
Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.
Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode
when they are powered off. In this case, they may operate only at a lower link
speed (for example, 100 MB, instead of 1 GB). For these platforms, the network
switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to
the lower speed, or IPMI will not function properly.
2.13.2 Configuring the IPMI Management Network
You can configure the BMC for DHCP, or for static IP addresses. Oracle recommends
that you configure the BMC for dynamic IP address assignment using DHCP. To use
this option, you must have a DHCP server configured to assign the BMC IP addresses.
If you configure IPMI, and you use Grid Naming Service
(GNS) you still must configure separate addresses for the IPMI
interfaces. As the IPMI adapter is not seen directly by the host, the
IPMI adapter is not visible to GNS as an address on the host.
Note:
2-42 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
2.13.3 Configuring the IPMI Driver
For Oracle Clusterware to communicate with the BMC, the IPMI driver must be
installed permanently on each node, so that it is available on system restarts. The IPMI
driver is available on the Asianux Linux, Oracle Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and SUSE Enterprise Linux distributions supported with this release.
2.13.3.1 Configuring the Open IPMI Driver
On Linux systems, the OpenIPMI driver is the supported driver for Oracle
Clusterware deployments with IPMI.
You can install the driver dynamically by manually loading the required modules. To
install the driver manually:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Run the following commands:
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
# /sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
3.
(Optional) Run the command /sbin/lsmod |grep ipmi to confirm that the
IPMI modules are loaded. For example:
# /sbin/lsmod | grep ipmi
ipmi_devintf
12617
ipmi_si
33377
ipmi_msghandler
33701
Note:
4.
0
0
2 ipmi_devintf,ipmi_si
You can install the modules whether or not a BMC is present.
Open the /etc/rc.local file using a text editor, navigate to the end of the file,
and enter lines similar to the following so that the modprobe commands in step 2
will be run automatically on system restart:
# START IPMI ON SYSTEM RESTART
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_msghandler
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_si
/sbin/modprobe ipmi_devintf
5.
Check to ensure that the Linux system is recognizing the IPMI device, using the
following command:
ls -l /dev/ipmi0
If the IPMI device has been dynamically loaded, then the output should be similar
to the following:
# ls -l /dev/ipmi0
crw------- 1 root root 253, 0 Sep 23 06:29 /dev/ipmi0
If you do see the device file output, then the IPMI driver is configured, and you
can ignore the following step.
If you do not see the device file output, then the udevd daemon is not set up to
create device files automatically. Proceed to the next step.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-43
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
6.
Determine the device major number for the IPMI device using the command grep
ipmi /proc/devices. For example:
# grep ipmi /proc/devices
253 ipmidev
In the preceding example, the device major number is 253.
7.
Run the mknod command to create a directory entry and i-node for the IPMI
device, using the device major number. For example:
# mknod /dev/ipmi0 c 253 0x0
The permissions on /dev/ipmi0 in the preceding example allow the device to be
accessible only by root. The device should only be accessed by root, to prevent a
system vulnerability.
2.13.3.2 Configuring the BMC
Configure BMC on each node for remote control using LAN for IPMI-based node
fencing to function properly. You can configure BMC from the BIOS prompt, using a
distribution-specific management utility, or you can configure BMC using publicly
available utilities, such as the following:
IPMItool, which is available for Linux:
http://ipmitool.sourceforge.net
IPMIutil, which is available for Linux and Windows:
http://ipmiutil.sourceforge.net
Refer to the documentation for the configuration tool you select for details about using
the tool to configure the BMC.
When you configure the BMC on each node, you must complete the following
■
■
Enable IPMI over LAN, so that the BMC can be controlled over the management
network.
Enable dynamic IP addressing using DHCP or GNS, or configure a static IP
address for the BMC.
■
Establish an administrator user account and password for the BMC
■
Configure the BMC for VLAN tags, if you will use the BMC on a tagged VLAN.
The configuration tool you use does not matter, but these conditions must be met for
the BMC to function properly.
2.13.3.2.1 Example of BMC Configuration Using IPMItool The following is an example of
configuring BMC using ipmitool (version 1.8.6).
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Verify that ipmitool can communicate with the BMC using the IPMI driver by
using the command bmc info, and looking for a device ID in the output. For
example:
# ipmitool bmc info
Device ID
.
.
.
2-44 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
: 32
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
If ipmitool is not communicating with the BMC, then review the section
"Configuring the Open IPMI Driver" on page 2-43 and ensure that the IPMI driver
is running.
3.
Enable IPMI over LAN using the following procedure
a.
Determine the channel number for the channel used for IPMI over LAN.
Beginning with channel 1, run the following command until you find the
channel that displays LAN attributes (for example, the IP address):
# ipmitool lan print 1
. . .
IP Address Source
IP Address
. . .
b.
: 0x01
: 140.87.155.89
Turn on LAN access for the channel found. For example, where the channel is
1:
# ipmitool lan set 1 access on
4.
Configure IP address settings for IPMI using one of the following procedure:
■
Using dynamic IP addressing (DHCP)
Dynamic IP addressing is the default assumed by Oracle Universal Installer.
Oracle recommends that you select this option so that nodes can be added or
removed from the cluster more easily, as address settings can be assigned
automatically.
Note:
Use of DHCP requires a DHCP server on the subnet.
Set the channel. For example, if the channel is 1, then enter the following
command to enable DHCP:
# ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc dhcp
■
Using static IP Addressing
If the BMC shares a network connection with the operating system, then the IP
address must be on the same subnet. You must set not only the IP address, but
also the proper values for netmask, and the default gateway. For example,
assuming the channel is 1:
# ipmitool lan set 1 ipaddr 192.168.0.55
# ipmitool lan set 1 netmask 255.255.255.0
# ipmitool lan set 1 defgw ipaddr 192.168.0.1
Note that the specified address (192.168.0.55) will be associated only with
the BMC, and will not respond to normal pings.
5.
Establish an administration account with a username and password, using the
following procedure (assuming the channel is 1):
a.
Set BMC to require password authentication for ADMIN access over LAN. For
example:
# ipmitool lan set 1 auth ADMIN MD5,PASSWORD
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-45
Enabling Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)
b.
List the account slots on the BMC, and identify an unused slot (a User ID with
an empty user name field). For example:
# ipmitool channel getaccess 1
. . .
User ID
: 4
User Name
:
Fixed Name
: No
Access Available
: call-in / callback
Link Authentication : disabled
IPMI Messaging
: disabled
Privilege Level
: NO ACCESS
. . .
c.
Assign the desired administrator user name and password and enable
messaging for the identified slot. (Note that for IPMI v1.5 the user name and
password can be at most 16 characters). Also, set the privilege level for that
slot when accessed over LAN (channel 1) to ADMIN (level 4). For example,
where username is the administrative user name, and password is the
password:
#
#
#
#
#
#
d.
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
ipmitool
user set name 4 username
user set password 4 password
user enable 4
channel setaccess 1 4 privilege=4
channel setaccess 1 4 link=on
channel setaccess 1 4 ipmi=on
Verify the setup using the command lan print 1. The output should appear
similar to the following. Note that the items in bold text are the settings made
in the preceding configuration steps, and comments or alternative options are
indicated within brackets []:
# ipmitool lan print 1
Set in Progress
Auth Type Support
Auth Type Enable
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Set Complete
NONE MD2 MD5 PASSWORD
Callback : MD2 MD5
User
: MD2 MD5
Operator : MD2 MD5
Admin
: MD5 PASSWORD
OEM
: MD2 MD5
DHCP Address [or Static Address]
192.168.0.55
255.255.255.0
00:14:22:23:fa:f9
public
TTL=0x40 Flags=0x40 Precedence=…
192.168.0.1
00:00:00:00:00:00
IP Address Source
IP Address
Subnet Mask
MAC Address
SNMP Community String
IP Header
Default Gateway IP
Default Gateway MAC
.
.
.
# ipmitool channel getaccess 1 4
Maximum User IDs
: 10
Enabled User IDs
: 2
User ID
User Name
Fixed Name
Access Available
Link Authentication
2-46 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
:
:
:
:
:
4
username [This is the administration user]
No
call-in / callback
enabled
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
IPMI Messaging
Privilege Level
6.
: enabled
: ADMINISTRATOR
Verify that the BMC is accessible and controllable from a remote node in your
cluster using the bmc info command. For example, if node2-ipmi is the network
hostname assigned the IP address of node2's BMC, then to verify the BMC on
node node2 from node1, with the administrator account username and the
password mypassword, enter the following command on node1:
$ ipmitool -H node2-ipmi -U username -P mypassword bmc info
If the BMC is correctly configured, then you should see information about the
BMC on the remote node. If you see an error message, such as Error: Unable
to establish LAN session, then you must check the BMC configuration on
the remote node.
2.14 Automatic SSH Configuration During Installation
To install Oracle software, Secure Shell (SSH) connectivity must be set up between all
cluster member nodes. OUI uses the ssh and scp commands during installation to
run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. You must
configure SSH so that these commands do not prompt for a password.
SSH is used by Oracle configuration assistants for
configuration operations from local to remote nodes. It is also used by
Enterprise Manager.
Note:
You can configure SSH from the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) interface during
installation for the user account running the installation. The automatic configuration
creates passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes. Oracle
recommends that you use the automatic procedure if possible.
To enable the script to run, you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any
Oracle software installation owners, and remove other security measures that are
triggered during a login, and that generate messages to the terminal. These messages,
mail checks, and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owners from
using the SSH configuration script that is built into the Oracle Universal Installer. If
they are not disabled, then SSH must be configured manually before an installation
can be run.
See Also: Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands
for information about how to remove stty commands in user profiles
2.15 Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
You run the installer software with the Oracle grid infrastructure installation owner
user account (oracle or grid). However, before you start the installer, you must
configure the environment of the installation owner user account. Also, create other
required Oracle software owners, if needed.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner
■
Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
■
Setting Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-47
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
■
Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
■
Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands
2.15.1 Environment Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Owner
You must make the following changes to configure the Oracle grid infrastructure
software owner environment:
■
■
■
Set the installation software owner user (grid, oracle) default file mode creation
mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that
the user performing the software installation creates files with 644 permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the installation software
owner (grid, oracle)
Set the software owner's environment variable DISPLAY environment variables in
preparation for the Oracle grid infrastructure installation
2.15.2 Procedure for Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environments
To set the Oracle software owners' environments, follow these steps, for each software
owner (grid, oracle):
1.
Start a new terminal session; for example, start an X terminal (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost + hostname
The hostname is the name of the local host.
3.
If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the
software, then log in to that system as the software owner user.
4.
If you are not logged in as the user, then switch to the software owner user you are
configuring. For example, with the grid user:
$ su - grid
5.
To determine the default shell for the user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
Caution: Use shell programs supported by your operating system
vendor. If you use a shell program that is not supported by your
operating system, then you can encounter errors during installation.
6.
Open the user's shell startup file in any text editor:
■
Bash shell (bash):
$ vi .bash_profile
■
Bourne shell (sh) or Korn shell (ksh):
$ vi .profile
■
C shell (csh or tcsh):
2-48 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
% vi .login
7.
Enter or edit the following line, specifying a value of 022 for the default file mode
creation mask:
umask 022
8.
If the ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME, or ORACLE_BASE environment variables are
set in the file, then remove these lines from the file.
9.
Save the file, and exit from the text editor.
10. To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
11. If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter a command
similar to the following to direct X applications to display on the local system:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=local_host:0.0 ; export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the system (your
workstation, or another client) on which you want to display the installer.
12. If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free space, then
identify a file system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TEMP and TMPDIR
environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file system:
Note: You cannot use a shared file system as the location of the
temporary file directory (typically /tmp) for Oracle RAC installation.
If you place /tmp on a shared file system, then the installation fails.
a.
Use the df -h command to identify a suitable file system with sufficient free
space.
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$
#
#
#
c.
su - root
mkdir /mount_point/tmp
chmod 775 /mount_point/tmp
exit
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TEMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-49
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TEMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TEMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TEMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
13. To verify that the environment has been set correctly, enter the following
commands:
$ umask
$ env | more
Verify that the umask command displays a value of 22, 022, or 0022 and that the
environment variables you set in this section have the correct values.
2.15.3 Setting Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
To improve the performance of the software on Linux systems, you must increase the
following resource limits for the Oracle software owner users (grid, oracle):
Process Resource Shell Limit
Item in limits.conf
Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors
nofile
65536
Maximum number of processes available to nproc
a single user
16384
Maximum size of the stack segment of the
process
10240
stack
In addition, to increase the shell limits:
1.
On each node, add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file
(the following example shows the software account owners oracle and grid):
grid
grid
grid
grid
grid
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
soft
hard
soft
hard
hard
soft
hard
soft
hard
hard
nproc
nproc
nofile
nofile
stack
nproc
nproc
nofile
nofile
stack
2047
16384
1024
65536
10240
2047
16384
1024
65536
10240
2.
Repeat this procedure on all other nodes in the cluster, and for all Oracle software
owners that you intend to use to install Oracle software.
3.
When the limits.conf file is changed, these changes take effect immediately.
However, if the grid or oracle users are logged in, then these changes will not
take effect until you log these users out and log them back in. You must do this
before you attempt to use these accounts to install.
2-50 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Configuring Grid Infrastructure Software Owner User Environments
2.15.4 Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration
If you are on a remote terminal, and the local node has only one visual (which is
typical), then use the following syntax to set the DISPLAY environment variable:
Bourne, Korn, and Bash shells
$ export DISPLAY=hostname:0
C shell:
$ setenv DISPLAY hostname:0
For example, if you are using the Bash shell, and if your hostname is node1, then enter
the following command:
$ export DISPLAY=node1:0
To ensure that X11 forwarding will not cause the installation to fail, create a user-level
SSH client configuration file for the Oracle software owner user, as follows:
1.
Using any text editor, edit or create the software installation owner's
~/.ssh/config file.
2.
Make sure that the ForwardX11 attribute is set to no. For example:
Host *
ForwardX11 no
2.15.5 Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands
During an Oracle grid infrastructure installation, OUI uses SSH to run commands and
copy files to the other nodes. During the installation, hidden files on the system (for
example, .bashrc or .cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they
contain stty commands.
To avoid this problem, you must modify these files in each Oracle installation owner
user home directory to suppress all output on STDERR, as in the following examples:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
if [ -t 0 ]; then
stty intr ^C
fi
■
C shell:
test -t 0
if ($status == 0) then
stty intr ^C
endif
Note: When SSH is not available, the Installer uses the rsh and rcp
commands instead of ssh and scp.
If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are loaded
by the remote shell, then OUI indicates an error and stops the
installation.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-51
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory
2.16 Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home
Directory
During installation, you are prompted to provide a path to a home directory to store
Oracle grid infrastructure software. Ensure that the directory path you provide meets
the following requirements:
■
■
■
■
It should be created in a path outside existing Oracle homes, including Oracle
Clusterware homes.
It should not be located in a user home directory.
It should be created either as a subdirectory in a path where all files can be owned
by root, or in a unique path.
If you create the path before installation, then it should be owned by the
installation owner of Oracle grid infrastructure (typically oracle for a single
installation owner for all Oracle software, or grid for role-based Oracle
installation owners), and set to 775 permissions.
Oracle recommends that you install Oracle grid infrastructure on local homes, rather
than using a shared home on shared storage.
For installations with Oracle grid infrastructure only, Oracle recommends that you
create a path compliant with Oracle Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines,
so that Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) can select that directory during installation.
For OUI to recognize the path as an Oracle software path, it must be in the form u0[19]/app.
When OUI finds an OFA-compliant path, it creates the Oracle grid infrastructure and
Oracle Inventory (oraInventory) directories for you.
To create an Oracle grid infrastructure path manually, ensure that it is in a separate
path, not under an existing Oracle base path. For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chown grid:oinstall /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
With this path, if the installation owner is named grid, then by default OUI creates the
following path for the grid home:
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
Create an Oracle base path for database installations, owned by the Oracle Database
installation owner account. The OFA path for an Oracle base is /u01/app/user,
where user is the name of the Oracle software installation owner account. For
example, use the following commands to create an Oracle base for the database
installation owner account oracle:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
2-52 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory
If you choose to create an Oracle grid infrastructure home
manually, then do not create the Oracle grid infrastructure home for a
cluster under either the grid installation owner Oracle base or the
Oracle Database installation owner Oracle base. Creating an Oracle
Clusterware installation in an Oracle base directory will cause
succeeding Oracle installations to fail.
Note:
Oracle grid infrastructure homes can be placed in a local home on
servers, even if your existing Oracle Clusterware home from a prior
release is in a shared location.
Homes for Oracle grid infrastructure for a standalone server (Oracle
Restart) can be under Oracle base. Refer to Oracle Database Installation
Guide for your platform for more information about Oracle Restart.
Advanced Installation Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks 2-53
Requirements for Creating an Oracle Grid Infrastructure Home Directory
2-54 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
3
3
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure
for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC)
This chapter describes the storage configuration tasks that you must complete before
you start the installer to install Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM), and that you must complete before adding an Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) installation to the cluster.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options
■
Shared File System Storage Configuration
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
■
Desupport of Block and Raw Devices
3.1 Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options
This section describes supported options for storing Oracle grid infrastructure for a
cluster storage options. It contains the following sections:
■
Overview of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC Storage Options
■
General Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
■
Supported Storage Options
■
After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options
See Also: The Oracle Certify site for a list of supported vendors for
Network Attached Storage options:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/support/metalink/
Refer also to the Certify site on My Oracle Support for the most
current information about certified storage options:
https://metalink.oracle.com/
3.1.1 Overview of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC Storage Options
There are two ways of storing Oracle Clusterware files:
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM): You can install Oracle
Clusterware files (OCR and voting disks) in Oracle ASM diskgroups.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
3-1
Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options
Oracle ASM is the required database storage option for Typical installations, and
for Standard Edition Oracle RAC installations. It is an integrated,
high-performance database file system and disk manager for Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle Database files. It performs striping and mirroring of database files
automatically.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS) provides a
general purpose file system. You can place Oracle Database binaries on this
system, but you cannot place Oracle data files or Oracle Clusterware files on
ACFS.
Only one Oracle ASM instance is permitted for each node regardless of the
number of database instances on the node.
For Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) 11g
release 2 (11.2) for Linux, Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) and Oracle ASM Dynamic Volume
Manager (Oracle ADVM) are only supported in the following
environments:
Note:
■
Red Hat and Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, 32-bit
■
Red Hat and Oracle Enterprise Linux 5, 64-bit
For OVM environments, Red Hat and Oracle Enterprise Linux 5
Update 4 or later is required.
You cannot put Oracle Clusterware binaries and files on Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
You cannot put Oracle Database files on Oracle ACFS.
You can put Oracle Database binaries on Oracle ACFS.
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2
location, then you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1,
which supports shared writable mmaps.
ACFS provides a general purpose file system for other files.
■
A supported shared file system: Supported file systems include the following:
–
Network File System (NFS): Note that if you intend to use NFS for your data
files, then you should create partitions large enough for the database files
when you create partitions for Oracle grid infrastructure. NFS mounts differ
for software binaries, Oracle Clusterware files, and database files.
Placing Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster binaries on a
cluster file system is not supported.
Note:
You can no longer use OUI to install Oracle Clusterware or Oracle
Database files on block or raw devices.
See Also: My Oracle Support for supported file systems and NFS or
NAS filers
3-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options
3.1.2 General Storage Considerations for Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC
For all installations, you must choose the storage option to use for Oracle grid
infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM), and Oracle Real Application
Clusters databases (Oracle RAC). To enable automated backups during the
installation, you must also choose the storage option to use for recovery files (the Fast
Recovery Area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type.
3.1.2.1 General Storage Considerations for Oracle Clusterware
Oracle Clusterware voting disks are used to monitor cluster node status, and Oracle
Cluster Registry (OCR) files contain configuration information about the cluster. You
can place voting disks and OCR files either in an Oracle ASM diskgroup, or on a
cluster file system or shared network file system. Storage must be shared; any node
that does not have access to an absolute majority of voting disks (more than half) will
be restarted.
3.1.2.2 General Storage Considerations for Oracle RAC
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options to use for each file
type:
■
■
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
Oracle recommends that you choose Oracle ASM as the storage option for
database and recovery files.
For Standard Edition Oracle RAC installations, Oracle ASM is the only supported
storage option for database or recovery files.
If you intend to use Oracle ASM with Oracle RAC, and you are configuring a new
Oracle ASM instance, then your system must meet the following conditions:
–
All nodes on the cluster have Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM 11g release
2 (11.2) installed as part of an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster
installation.
–
Any existing Oracle ASM instance on any node in the cluster is shut down.
Raw or block devices are supported only when upgrading an existing installation
using the partitions already configured. On new installations, using raw or block
device partitions is not supported by Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) or Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), but is
supported by the software if you perform manual configuration.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about how
to prepare for upgrading an existing database
■
If you do not have a storage option that provides external file redundancy, then
you must configure at least three voting disk areas to provide voting disk
redundancy.
3.1.3 Supported Storage Options
The following table shows the storage options supported for storing Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle RAC files.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
3-3
Reviewing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Storage Options
Note:
For information about OCFS2, refer to the following Web site:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
If you plan to install an Oracle RAC home on a shared OCFS2
location, then you must upgrade OCFS2 to at least version 1.4.1,
which supports shared writable mmaps.
For OCFS2 certification status, and for other cluster file system
support, refer to the Certify page on My Oracle Support.
Table 3–1
Supported Storage Options for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC
Storage Option
Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM)
OCR and Voting
Disks
Oracle
Clusterware
binaries
Oracle RAC
binaries
Oracle
Recovery
Oracle Database Files Files
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Note: Loopback devices are not
supported for use with Oracle
ASM
Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System
(ACFS)
Local file system
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
NFS file system on a certified NAS
filer
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Not supported by No
OUI or ASMCA,
but supported by
the software.
They can be
added or
removed after
installation.
No
Not supported by OUI No
or ASMCA, but
supported by the
software. They can be
added or removed after
installation.
Note: Direct NFS does not support
Oracle Clusterware files.
Shared disk partitions (block
devices or raw devices)
Use the following guidelines when choosing storage options:
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type provided that you satisfy all requirements listed for the chosen storage
options.
You can use Oracle ASM 11g release 2 (11.2) to store Oracle Clusterware files. You
cannot use prior Oracle ASM releases to do this.
If you do not have a storage option that provides external file redundancy, then
you must configure at least three voting disk locations and at least three Oracle
Cluster Registry locations to provide redundancy.
3.1.4 After You Have Selected Disk Storage Options
When you have determined your disk storage options, configure shared storage:
■
■
To use a file system, refer to Shared File System Storage Configuration on
page 3-5.
To use Oracle Automatic Storage Management, refer to "Using Diskgroups with
Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM" on page 3-30
3-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Shared File System Storage Configuration
3.2 Shared File System Storage Configuration
The installer does not suggest a default location for the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
or the Oracle Clusterware voting disk. If you choose to create these files on a file
system, then review the following sections to complete storage requirements for
Oracle Clusterware files:
■
Requirements for Using a Shared File System
■
Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
■
Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Data Files
■
Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files
■
Configuring Storage NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters
■
Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Clusterware
■
Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC
■
Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS
The OCR is a file that contains the configuration information
and status of the cluster. The installer automatically initializes the
OCR during the Oracle Clusterware installation. Database
Configuration Assistant uses the OCR for storing the configurations
for the cluster databases that it creates.
Note:
3.2.1 Requirements for Using a Shared File System
To use a shared file system for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM, and Oracle RAC, the
file system must comply with the following requirements:
■
To use an NFS file system, it must be on a certified NAS device. Log in to My
Oracle Support at the following URL, and click the Certify tab to find a list of
certified NAS devices.
https://metalink.oracle.com/
■
■
If you choose to place your Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) files on a shared file
system, then Oracle recommends that one of the following is true:
–
The disks used for the file system are on a highly available storage device, (for
example, a RAID device).
–
At least two file systems are mounted, and use the features of Oracle
Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) to provide redundancy for the OCR.
If you choose to place your database files on a shared file system, then one of the
following should be true:
–
The disks used for the file system are on a highly available storage device, (for
example, a RAID device).
–
The file systems consist of at least two independent file systems, with the
database files on one file system, and the recovery files on a different file
system.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
3-5
Shared File System Storage Configuration
■
The user account with which you perform the installation (oracle or grid) must
have write permissions to create the files in the path that you specify.
Upgrading from Oracle9i release 2 using the raw device or
shared file for the OCR that you used for the SRVM configuration
repository is not supported.
Note:
If you are upgrading Oracle Clusterware, and your existing cluster
uses 100 MB OCR and 20 MB voting disk partitions, then you can
continue to use those partition sizes.
All storage products must be supported by both your server and
storage vendors.
Use Table 3–2 and Table 3–3 to determine the minimum size for shared file systems:
Table 3–2
Oracle Clusterware Shared File System Volume Size Requirements
File Types Stored
Number of
Volumes
Volume Size
Voting disks with external
redundancy
3
At least 280 MB for each voting disk
volume.
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) with
external redundancy
1
At least 280 MB for each OCR
volume
Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and
voting disks) with redundancy
provided by Oracle software.
1
At least 280 MB for each OCR
volume
Table 3–3
At least 280 MB for each voting disk
volume
Oracle RAC Shared File System Volume Size Requirements
File Types Stored
Number of
Volumes
Volume Size
Oracle Database files
1
At least 1.5 GB for each volume
Recovery files
1
At least 2 GB for each volume
Note: Recovery files must be on a
different volume than database files
In Table 3–2 and Table 3–3, the total required volume size is cumulative. For example,
to store all Oracle Clusterware files on the shared file system with normal redundancy,
you should have at least 2 GB of storage available over a minimum of three volumes
(three separate volume locations for the OCR and two OCR mirrors, and one voting
disk on each volume). You should have a minimum of three physical disks, each at
least 500 MB, to ensure that voting disks and OCR files are on separate physical disks.
If you add Oracle RAC using one volume for database files and one volume for
recovery files, then you should have at least 3.5 GB available storage over two
volumes, and at least 5.5 GB available total for all volumes.
3-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Shared File System Storage Configuration
If you create partitions on shared partitions with fdisk by
specifying a device size, such as +300M, the actual device created may
be smaller than the size requested, based on the cylinder geometry of
the disk. This is due to current fdisk restrictions. Oracle recommends
that you partition the entire disk that you allocate for use by Oracle
ASM.
Note:
3.2.2 Deciding to Use a Cluster File System for Oracle Clusterware Files
For new installations, Oracle recommends that you use Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) to store voting disk and OCR files. For Linux x86 (32-bit)
and x86-64 (64-bit) platforms, Oracle provides a cluster file system, OCFS2. However,
Oracle does not recommend using OCFS2 for Oracle Clusterware files.
3.2.3 Deciding to Use Direct NFS for Data Files
Direct NFS is an alternative to using kernel-managed NFS. This section contains the
following information about Direct NFS:
■
About Direct NFS Storage
■
Using the Oranfstab File with Direct NFS
■
Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS
3.2.3.1 About Direct NFS Storage
With Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2), instead of using the operating system kernel
NFS client, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using
an Oracle internal Direct NFS client.
To enable Oracle Database to use Direct NFS, the NFS file systems must be mounted
and available over regular NFS mounts before you start installation. Direct NFS
manages settings after installation. You should still set the kernel mount options as a
backup, but for normal operation, Direct NFS will manage NFS mounts.
Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS configuration and mounting.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to
operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server
documentation.
Use NFS servers certified for Oracle RAC. Refer to the
following URL for certification information:
Note:
https://metalink.oracle.com
3.2.3.2 Using the Oranfstab File with Direct NFS
If you use Direct NFS, then you can choose to use a new file specific for Oracle data
file management, oranfstab, to specify additional options specific for Oracle
Database to Direct NFS. For example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional
paths for a mount point. You can add the oranfstab file either to /etc or to
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs.
With shared Oracle homes, when the oranfstab file is placed in $ORACLE_
HOME/dbs, the entries in the file are specific to a single database. In this case, all nodes
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
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Shared File System Storage Configuration
running an Oracle RAC database use the same $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab file.
In non-shared Oracle RAC installs, oranfstab must be replicated on all nodes.
When the oranfstab file is placed in /etc, then it is globally available to all Oracle
databases, and can contain mount points used by all Oracle databases running on
nodes in the cluster, including standalone databases. However, on Oracle RAC
systems, if the oranfstab file is placed in /etc, then you must replicate the file
/etc/oranfstab file on all nodes, and keep each /etc/oranfstab file
synchronized on all nodes, just as you must with the /etc/fstab file.
See Also: Section 3.2.5, "Configuring Storage NFS Mount and Buffer
Size Parameters" for information about configuring /etc/fstab
In all cases, mount points must be mounted by the kernel NFS system, even when they
are being served using Direct NFS.
Caution: Direct NFS will not serve an NFS server with write size
values (wtmax) less than 32768.
3.2.3.3 Mounting NFS Storage Devices with Direct NFS
Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the
configurations in /etc/mtab, which are changed with configuring the /etc/fstab
file.
Direct NFS searches for mount entries in the following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
Direct NFS uses the first matching entry found.
Note: You can have only one active Direct NFS implementation for
each instance. Using Direct NFS on an instance will prevent another
Direct NFS implementation.
If Oracle Database uses Direct NFS mount points configured using oranfstab, then it
first verifies kernel NFS mounts by cross-checking entries in oranfstab with
operating system NFS mount points. If a mismatch exists, then Direct NFS logs an
informational message, and does not operate.
If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct NFS, then Oracle Database
uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel NFS
mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size
Parameters for Oracle RAC" on page 3-11. Additionally, an informational message is
logged into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be
established.
The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are
also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for guidelines to
follow regarding managing Oracle database datafiles created with
Direct NFS or kernel NFS
3-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Shared File System Storage Configuration
3.2.3.4 Specifying Network Paths with the Oranfstab File
Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined in the oranfstab file for an
NFS server. The Direct NFS client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If
a specified path fails, then Direct NFS reissues I/O commands over any remaining
paths.
Use the following SQL*Plus views for managing Direct NFS in a cluster environment:
■
gv$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS.
■
gv$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS.
■
■
gv$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers
for which Direct NFS is providing files.
gv$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS.
Note: Use v$ views for single instances, and gv$ views for Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle RAC storage.
3.2.4 Deciding to Use NFS for Data Files
Network-attached storage (NAS) systems use NFS to access data. You can store data
files on a supported NFS system.
NFS file systems must be mounted and available over NFS mounts before you start
installation. Refer to your vendor documentation to complete NFS configuration and
mounting.
Be aware that the performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS
devices depends on the performance of the network connection between the Oracle
server and the NAS device.
For this reason, Oracle recommends that you connect the server to the NAS device
using a private dedicated network connection, which should be Gigabit Ethernet or
better.
3.2.5 Configuring Storage NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters
If you are using NFS for the Grid home or Oracle RAC home, then you must set up the
NFS mounts on the storage so that they allow root on the clients mounting to the
storage to be considered root instead of being mapped to an anonymous user, and
allow root on the client server to create files on the NFS filesystem that are owned by
root.
On NFS, you can obtain root access for clients writing to the storage by enabling no_
root_squash on the server side. For example, to set up Oracle Clusterware file
storage in the path /vol/grid, with nodes node1, node 2, and node3 in the domain
mycluster.example.com, add a line similar to the following to the /etc/exports
file:
/vol/grid/ node1.mycluster.example.com(rw,no_root_squash)
node2.mycluster.example.com(rw,no_root_squash) node3.mycluster.example.com
(rw,no_root_squash)
If the domain or DNS is secure so that no unauthorized system can obtain an IP
address on it, then you can grant root access by domain, rather than specifying
particular cluster member nodes:
For example:
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
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Shared File System Storage Configuration
/vol/grid/ *.mycluster.example.com(rw,no_root_squash)
Oracle recommends that you use a secure DNS or domain, and grant root access to
cluster member nodes using the domain, as using this syntax allows you to add or
remove nodes without the need to reconfigure the NFS server.
If you use Grid Naming Service (GNS), then the subdomain allocated for resolution by
GNS within the cluster is a secure domain. Any server without a correctly signed Grid
Plug and Play (GPnP) profile cannot join the cluster, so an unauthorized system cannot
obtain or use names inside the GNS subdomain.
Caution: Granting root access by domain can be used to obtain
unauthorized access to systems. System administrators should refer to
their operating system documentation for the risks associated with
using no_root_squash.
After changing /etc/exports, reload the file system mount using the following
command:
# /usr/sbin/exportfs -avr
3.2.6 Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle Clusterware
On the cluster member nodes, you must set the values for the NFS buffer size
parameters rsize and wsize to 32768.
The NFS client-side mount options for binaries are:
rw,bg,hard,nointr,tcp,nfsvers=3,timeo=600,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,actimeo=0
If you have Oracle grid infrastructure binaries on an NFS mount, then you must
include the suid option.
The NFS client-side mount options for Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting disk
files) are:
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Update the /etc/fstab file on each node with an entry containing the NFS mount
options for your platform. For example, if your platform is x86-64, and you are
creating a mount point for Oracle Clusterware files, then update the /etc/fstab files
with an entry similar to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/grid /u02/oracle/cwfiles nfs \
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Note that mount point options are different for Oracle software binaries, Oracle
Clusterware files (OCR and voting disks), and data files.
To create a mount point for binaries only, provide an entry similar to the following for
a binaries mount point:
nfs_server:/vol/bin /u02/oracle/grid nfs -yes \
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,vers=3,timeo=600,actimeo=0,suid
3-10 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
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See Also: My Oracle Support bulletin 359515.1, "Mount Options for
Oracle Files When Used with NAS Devices" for the most current
information about mount options, available from the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
3.2.7 Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC
If you use NFS mounts, then you must mount NFS volumes used for storing database
files with special mount options on each node that has an Oracle RAC instance. When
mounting an NFS file system, Oracle recommends that you use the same mount point
options that your NAS vendor used when certifying the device. Refer to your device
documentation or contact your vendor for information about recommended
mount-point options.
Update the /etc/fstab file on each node with an entry similar to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /u02/oradata
nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,tcp,nfsvers=3,timeo=600,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,actimeo=0
The mandatory mount options comprise the minimum set of mount options that you
must use while mounting the NFS volumes. These mount options are essential to
protect the integrity of the data and to prevent any database corruption. Failure to use
these mount options may result in the generation of file access errors. Refer to your
operating system or NAS device documentation for more information about the
specific options supported on your platform.
See Also: My Oracle Support note 359515.1 for updated NAS mount
option information, available at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com
3.2.8 Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
1.
Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to be
accessed using Direct NFS:
■
■
■
Server: The NFS server name.
Local: Up to four paths on the database host, specified by IP address or by
name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database host
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the NFS
server.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
■
Mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time Direct NFS client should wait for
a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is optional. The default
timeout is 10 minutes (600).
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-11
Shared File System Storage Configuration
■
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the
operating system, but instead sent using the IP address to which they are
bound.
The examples that follow show three possible NFS server entries in oranfstab. A
single oranfstab can have multiple NFS server entries.
Example 3–1 Using Local and Path NFS Server Entries
The following example uses both local and path. Since they are in different subnets, we
do not have to specify dontroute.
server: MyDataServer1
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.1
local: 192.0.100.0
path: 192.0.100.1
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
Example 3–2 Using Local and Path in the Same Subnet, with dontroute
The following example shows local and path in the same subnet. dontroute is
specified in this case:
server: MyDataServer2
local: 192.0.2.0
path: 192.0.2.128
local: 192.0.2.1
path: 192.0.2.129
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
Example 3–3 Using Names in Place of IP Addresses, with Multiple Exports
server: MyDataServer3
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
export: /vol/oradata6
2.
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
/mnt/oradata6
Oracle Database uses an ODM library, libnfsodm11.so, to enable Direct NFS.
To replace the standard ODM library, $ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm11.so, with
the ODM NFS library, libnfsodm11.so, complete the following steps on all
nodes unless the Oracle home directory is shared:
a.
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib.
b.
Enter the following commands:
cp libodm11.so libodm11.so_stub
ln -s libnfsodm11.so libodm11.so
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3.2.9 Creating Directories for Oracle Clusterware Files on Shared File Systems
Use the following instructions to create directories for Oracle Clusterware files. You
can also configure shared file systems for the Oracle Database and recovery files.
For both NFS and OCFS2 storage, you must complete this
procedure only if you want to place the Oracle Clusterware files on a
separate file system from the Oracle base directory.
Note:
To create directories for the Oracle Clusterware files on separate file systems from the
Oracle base directory, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, configure the shared file systems to use and mount them on each
node.
The mount point that you use for the file system must be
identical on each node. Ensure that the file systems are configured to
mount automatically when a node restarts.
Note:
2.
Use the df command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system.
3.
From the display, identify the file systems to use. Choose a file system with a
minimum of 600 MB of free disk space (one OCR and one voting disk, with
external redundancy).
If you are using the same file system for multiple file types, then add the disk
space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
4.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
5.
If the user performing installation (typically, grid or oracle) has permissions to
create directories on the storage location where you plan to install Oracle
Clusterware files, then OUI creates the Oracle Clusterware file directory.
If the user performing installation does not have write access, then you must
create these directories manually using commands similar to the following to
create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on the directory. For example,
where the user is oracle, and the Oracle Clusterware file storage area is
cluster:
# mkdir /mount_point/cluster
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/cluster
# chmod 775 /mount_point/cluster
After installation, directories in the installation path for the
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) files should be owned by root, and
not writable by any account other than root.
Note:
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-13
Shared File System Storage Configuration
When you have completed creating a subdirectory in the mount point directory, and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions, you have completed OCFS2 or
NFS configuration for Oracle grid infrastructure.
3.2.10 Creating Directories for Oracle Database Files on Shared File Systems
Use the following instructions to create directories for shared file systems for Oracle
Database and recovery files (for example, for an Oracle RAC database).
1.
If necessary, configure the shared file systems and mount them on each node.
The mount point that you use for the file system must be
identical on each node. Ensure that the file systems are configured to
mount automatically when a node restarts.
Note:
2.
Use the df -h command to determine the free disk space on each mounted file
system.
3.
From the display, identify the file systems:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space.
Two or more file systems with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space in
total.
Choose a file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space.
If you are using the same file system for multiple file types, then add the disk
space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space requirement.
4.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
5.
If the user performing installation (typically, oracle) has permissions to create
directories on the disks where you plan to install Oracle Database, then DBCA
creates the Oracle Database file directory, and the Recovery file directory.
If the user performing installation does not have write access, then you must
create these directories manually using commands similar to the following to
create the recommended subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and
set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
■
Recovery file directory (Fast Recovery Area):
# mkdir /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/fast_recovery_area
By making members of the oinstall group owners of these directories, this permits
them to be read by multiple Oracle homes, including those with different OSDBA
groups.
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
When you have completed creating subdirectories in each of the mount point
directories, and set the appropriate owner, group, and permissions, you have
completed OCFS2 or NFS configuration for Oracle Database shared storage.
3.2.11 Disabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Management Control of NFS
Use one of the following methods to disable the Direct NFS client:
■
■
■
Remove the oranfstab file.
Restore the stub libodm11.so file by reversing the process you completed in step
2b, "Enabling Direct NFS Client Oracle Disk Manager Control of NFS"
On all nodes, remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab
file.
If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then
you must restart the database for the change to be effective.
Note:
3.3 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Review the following sections to configure storage for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management:
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Using Diskgroups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
■
Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS)
■
Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances
3.3.1 Configuring Storage for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section describes how to configure storage for use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management.
■
Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle ASM
■
Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
■
Configuring Disks for Oracle ASM with ASMLIB
■
Configuring ASMLIB for Multipath Disks
■
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle ASM
3.3.1.1 Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle Automatic Storage Management,
you must determine how many devices and the amount of free disk space that you
require. To complete this task, follow these steps:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management for
Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting disks), Oracle Database files, recovery
files, or all files except for Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Database binaries. Oracle
Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter
file, and the password file.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-15
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for Oracle
Clusterware, Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a
shared file system for one file type and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management for the other.
Note:
If you choose to enable automated backups and you do not have a
shared file system available, then you must choose Oracle Automatic
Storage Management for recovery file storage.
If you enable automated backups during the installation, then you can select
Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery
files by specifying an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group for the
Fast Recovery Area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during
the installation, you have the following options:
■
■
2.
If you select an installation method that runs ASMCA in interactive mode,
then you can decide whether you want to use the same Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk group for database files and recovery files, or use
different failure groups for each file type.
If you select an installation method that runs DBCA in noninteractive mode,
then you must use the same Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group for database files and recovery files.
Choose the Oracle Automatic Storage Management redundancy level to use for
the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group determines how Oracle Automatic Storage Management
mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of
free disk space that you require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device.
The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
Because Oracle Automatic Storage Management does not mirror data in an
external redundancy disk group, Oracle recommends that you use external
redundancy with storage devices such as RAID, or other similar devices that
provide their own data protection mechanisms.
■
Normal redundancy
In a normal redundancy disk group, to increase performance and reliability,
Oracle Automatic Storage Management by default uses two-way mirroring. A
normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices (or
two failure groups). The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk
group is half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For Oracle Clusterware files, Normal redundancy disk groups provide 3
voting disk files, 1 OCR and 2 copies (one primary and one secondary mirror).
With normal redundancy, the cluster can survive the loss of one failure group.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you select normal redundancy.
■
High redundancy
In a high redundancy disk group, Oracle Automatic Storage Management uses
three-way mirroring to increase performance and provide the highest level of
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
reliability. A high redundancy disk group requires a minimum of three disk
devices (or three failure groups). The effective disk space in a high redundancy
disk group is one-third the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For Oracle Clusterware files, High redundancy disk groups provide 5 voting
disk files, 1 OCR and 3 copies (one primary and two secondary mirrors). With
high redundancy, the cluster can survive the loss of two failure groups.
While high redundancy disk groups do provide a high level of data protection,
you should consider the greater cost of additional storage devices before
deciding to select high redundancy disk groups.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for Oracle Clusterware
files, and for the database files and recovery files.
Use Table 3–4 and Table 3–5 to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for installing Oracle Clusterware files, and
installing the starter database, where you have voting disks in a separate disk
group:
Table 3–4
Total Oracle Clusterware Storage Space Required by Redundancy Type
Minimum
Redundancy Number of
Disks
Level
Oracle Cluster
Registry (OCR)
Files
Voting Disk
Files
Both File Types
External
1
280 MB
280 MB
560 MB
Normal
3
560 MB
840 MB
1.4 GB1
High
5
840 MB
1.4 GB
2.3 GB
1
If you create a diskgroup during installation, then it must be at least 2 GB.
If the voting disk files are in a disk group, be aware that disk
groups with Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting disks) have a
higher minimum number of failure groups than other disk groups.
Note:
If you create a diskgroup as part of the installation in order to install
the OCR and voting disk files, then the installer requires that you
create these files on a diskgroup with at least 2 GB of available space.
Table 3–5
Total Oracle Database Storage Space Required by Redundancy Type
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Database
Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.5 GB
3 GB
4.5 GB
Normal
2
3 GB
6 GB
9 GB
High
3
4.5 GB
9 GB
13.5 GB
4.
For Oracle Clusterware installations, you must also add additional disk space for
the Oracle Automatic Storage Management metadata. You can use the following
formula to calculate the additional disk space requirements (in MB):
total = [2 * ausize * disks] + [redundancy * (ausize * (nodes * (clients + 1) + 30) +
(64 * nodes) + 533)]
Where:
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-17
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
–
redundancy = Number of mirrors: external = 1, normal = 2, high = 3.
–
ausize = Metadata AU size in megabytes.
–
nodes = Number of nodes in cluster.
–
clients - Number of database instances for each node.
–
disks - Number of disks in disk group.
For example, for a four-node Oracle RAC installation, using three disks in a
normal redundancy disk group, you require an additional X MB of space:
[2 * 1 * 3] + [2 * (1 * (4 * (4 + 1)+ 30)+ (64 * 4)+ 533)] = 1684 MB
To ensure high availability of Oracle Clusterware files on Oracle ASM, you need to
have at least 2 GB of disk space for Oracle Clusterware files in three separate
failure groups, with at least three physical disks. Each disk must have at least 1 GB
of capacity to ensure that there is sufficient space to create Oracle Clusterware
files.
5.
For Oracle RAC installations, you must also add additional disk space for the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management metadata. You can use the following
formula to calculate the additional disk space requirements (in MB):
total = [2 * ausize * disks] + [redundancy * (ausize * (nodes * (clients + 1) + 30) + (64 *
nodes) + 533)]
Where:
■
ausize = Metadata AU size in megabytes.
■
clients = Number of database instances for each node.
■
disks = Number of disks in disk group.
■
nodes = Number of nodes in cluster.
■
redundancy = Number of mirrors: external = 1, normal = 2, high = 3.
For example, for a four-node Oracle RAC installation, using three disks in a
normal redundancy disk group, you require an additional 1684 MB of disk space:
[2 * 1 * 3] + [2 * (1 * (4 * (4+1) + 30) + (64 * 4) + 533)] = 1684 MB
If an Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is already running on the
system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage
requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the
installation.
6.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To protect against failures of this type, you could use two SCSI controllers, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller.
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Define custom failure groups after installation, using the GUI
tool ASMCA, the command line tool asmcmd, or SQL commands.
Note:
If you define custom failure groups, then for failure groups
containing database files only, you must specify a minimum of two
failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure
groups for high redundancy disk groups.
For failure groups containing database files and clusterware files,
including voting disks, you must specify a minimum of three failure
groups for normal redundancy disk groups, and five failure groups
for high redundancy disk groups.
Disk groups containing voting files must have at least 3 failure groups
for normal redundancy or at least 5 failure groups for high
redundancy. Otherwise, the minimum is 2 and 3 respectively. The
minimum number of failure groups applies whether or not they are
custom failure groups.
7.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
All of the devices in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group
should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group
device to be on a separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use.
Logical volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing
Oracle Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the
physical devices. They are not supported with Oracle RAC.
3.3.1.2 Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle ASM
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files in an
NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk
group.
To create these files, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
Refer to the NAS device documentation for more information about completing
this step.
2.
Switch user to root.
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system. For example:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4.
To ensure that the NFS file system is mounted when the system restarts, add an
entry for the file system in the mount file /etc/fstab.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-19
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
See Also: My Oracle Support note 359515.1 for updated NAS mount
option information, available at the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com
For more information about editing the mount file for the operating system, refer
to the man pages. For more information about recommended mount options, refer
to the section "Checking NFS Mount and Buffer Size Parameters for Oracle RAC"
on page 3-11.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS file system on the
local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group to create. For example: sales1.
7.
Create a directory for the files on the NFS file system, using the disk group name
as the directory name. For example:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg
8.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of
zero-padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/disk1 bs=1024k count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS file system. You must create one, two,
or three files respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk
group.
9.
Enter commands similar to the following to change the owner, group, and
permissions on the directory and files that you created, where the installation
owner is grid, and the OSASM group is asmadmin:
# chown -R grid:asmadmin /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
10. If you plan to install Oracle RAC or a standalone Oracle Database, then during
installation, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery string to specify a regular
expression that matches the file names you created. For example:
/mnt/oracleasm/sales1/
During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and
registered on ASMLIB with the string ORCL:* are listed as default
database storage candidate disks.
Note:
3.3.1.3 Using an Existing Oracle ASM Disk Group
To store either database or recovery files in an existing Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) disk group, then you have the following choices,
depending on the installation method that you select:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
interactive mode, then you can decide whether you want to create a disk group, or
to use an existing one.
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
The same choice is available to you if you use Database Configuration Assistant
after the installation to create a database.
■
If you select an installation method that runs Database Configuration Assistant in
noninteractive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for the new
database; you cannot create a disk group. However, you can add disk devices to
an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space for your requirements.
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance that
manages the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle
home directory.
Note:
To determine if an existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group exists,
or to determine if there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use the Oracle
ASM command line tool (asmcmd), Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or
Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure:
1.
View the contents of the oratab file to determine if an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management instance is configured on the system:
$ more /etc/oratab
If an Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system,
then the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:
+ASM2:oracle_home_path
In this example, +ASM2 is the system identifier (SID) of the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management instance, with the node number appended, and oracle_
home_path is the Oracle home directory where it is installed. By convention, the
SID for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance begins with a plus
sign.
2.
Set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to specify the
appropriate values for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance.
3.
Connect to the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance and start the
instance if necessary:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd
ASMCMD> startup
4.
Enter one of the following commands to view the existing disk groups, their
redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
ASMCMD> lsdb
or:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd -p lsdg
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-21
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size and
performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk group.
Note:
3.3.1.4 Configuring Disks for Oracle ASM with ASMLIB
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) library driver (ASMLIB)
simplifies the configuration and management of the disk devices by eliminating the
need to rebind disk devices used with Oracle ASM each time the system is restarted.
Without ASMLIB Linux 2.6 kernel and later, block device paths do not maintain
permissions and path persistence unless you create a permissions or rules file on
each cluster member node; block device paths that were /dev/sda can appear as
/dev/sdb after a system restart. Adding new disks requires you to modify the udev
file to provide permissions and path persistence for the new disk.
With ASMLIB, you define the range of disks you want to have made available as
Oracle ASM disks. ASMLIB maintains permissions and disk labels that are persistent
on the storage device, so that label is available even after an operating system
upgrade. You can update storage paths on all cluster member nodes by running one
oracleasm command on each node.
If you intend to use Oracle ASM on block devices for database storage for Linux, then
Oracle recommends that you install the ASMLIB driver and associated utilities, and
use them to configure the disks for Oracle ASM.
To use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) to
configure Oracle ASM devices, complete the following tasks.
■
Installing and Configuring the Oracle ASM Library Driver Software
■
Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASM Library Driver on x86 Systems
■
Administering the Oracle ASM Library Driver and Disks
To create a database during the installation using the Oracle
ASM library driver, you must choose an installation method that runs
ASMCA in interactive mode. You must also change the default disk
discovery string to ORCL:*.
Note:
3.3.1.4.1 Installing and Configuring the Oracle ASM Library Driver Software If you are a
member of the Unbreakable Linux Network, then you can install the ASMLIB rpms by
subscribing to the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel, and using up2date
to retrieve the most current package for your system and kernel. For additional
information, refer to the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/uln.html
To install and configure the ASMLIB driver software manually, follow these steps:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
Download the required ASMLIB packages from the OTN Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/index.html
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
You must install oracleasm-support package version 2.0.1
or later to use ASMLIB on Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Server,
or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
Note:
You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the
ASMLIB driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the
kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
3.
Switch user to the root user:
$ su -
4.
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 4 enterprise kernel
on an AMD64 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasmlib-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.9-11.EL-2.0.1.x86_64.rpm
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i
The oracleasm command in /usr/sbin is the command
you should use. The /etc/init.d path is not deprecated, but the
oracleasm binary in that path is now used typically for internal
commands.
Note:
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default user to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the Oracle
software owner user (for example,
oracle)
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the Grid
Infrastructure software owner (for
example, grid)
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-23
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default group to own the driver interface:
Standard groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSDBA group
for the database (for example, dba).
Job role separation groups and users
configuration: Specify the OSASM group
for storage administration (for example,
asmadmin).
Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Library driver on boot (y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
Fix permissions of Oracle ASM disks on boot?
(y/n)
Enter y to fix permissions of Oracle ASM
disks when the system starts.
The script completes the following tasks:
■
Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file
■
Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point
■
Mounts the ASMLIB driver file system
The ASMLIB driver file system is not a regular file system. It is
used only by the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library to
communicate with the Oracle Automatic Storage Management driver.
Note:
7.
Enter the following command to load the oracleasm kernel module:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm init
8.
Repeat this procedure on all nodes in the cluster where you want to install Oracle
RAC.
3.3.1.4.2 Configuring Disk Devices to Use Oracle ASM Library Driver on x86 Systems To
configure the disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group, follow these steps:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then follow these steps:
a.
If necessary, install or configure the shared disk devices that you intend to use
for the disk group and restart the system.
b.
To identify the device name for the disks to use, enter the following command:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
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Description
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
IDE disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first
IDE bus.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
Description
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
SCSI disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first
SCSI bus.
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk
partition on each disk.
Note:
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the
disk devices.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is the name you assign to the disk.
The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters,
numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with an
uppercase letter.
Note:
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, then make sure that you specify the correct
logical device name for the disk.
3.
To make the disk available on the other nodes in the cluster, enter the following
command as root on each node:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm scandisks
This command identifies shared disks attached to the node that are marked as
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disks.
3.3.1.4.3 Administering the Oracle ASM Library Driver and Disks To administer the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and disks, use the
oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described in Table 3–6.
Table 3–6
ORACLEASM Script Options
Option
Description
configure
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver, if necessary:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i
To see command options, enter oracleasm configure without the
-i flag.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-25
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Table 3–6 (Cont.) ORACLEASM Script Options
Option
Description
enable
disable
Use the disable and enable options to change the actions of the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system
starts. The enable option causes the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver to load when the system starts:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm enable
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver without
restarting the system:
start
stop
restart
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm restart
createdisk
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the
Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a
name:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DISKNAME devicename
deletedisk
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm deletedisk DISKNAME
Caution: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being
used by an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group. You
must delete the disk from the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk group before you unmark it.
querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk device or disk name
is being used by the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library
driver:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm querydisk {DISKNAME | devicename}
listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver disks:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm listdisks
scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which
shared disks have been marked as Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver disks on another node:
# /usr/sbin/oracleasm scandisks
3.3.1.5 Configuring ASMLIB for Multipath Disks
Additional configuration is required to use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library Driver (ASMLIB) with third party vendor multipath disks.
See Also: The Oracle Certify site for a list of supported vendors for
supported storage options:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/support/metalink/
Refer also to the Certify site on My Oracle Support for the most
current information about certified storage options:
https://metalink.oracle.com/
3.3.1.5.1 About Using Oracle ASM with Multipath Disks Oracle ASM requires that each disk
is uniquely identified. If the same disk appears under multiple paths, then it causes
errors. In a multipath disk configuration, the same disk can appear three times:
1.
The initial path to the disk
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
2.
The second path to the disk
3.
The multipath disk access point.
For example: If you have one local disk, /dev/sda, and one disk attached with
external storage, then your server shows two connections, or paths, to that external
storage. The Linux SCSI driver shows both paths. They appear as /dev/sdb and
/dev/sdc. The system may access either /dev/sdb or /dev/sdc, but the access is to
the same disk.
If you enable multipathing, then you have a multipath disk (for example,
/dev/multipatha), which can access both /dev/sdb and /dev sdc; any
input/output to multipatha can use either the sdb or sdc path. If a system is using
the /dev/sdb path, and that cable is unplugged, then the system shows an error. But
the multipath disk will switch from the /dev/sdb path to the /dev/sdc path.
Most system software is unaware of multipath configurations. They can use any paths
(sdb, sdc or multipatha). ASMLIB also us unaware of multipath configurations.
By default, ASMLIB recognizes the first disk path that Linux reports to it, but because
it imprints an identity on that disk, it recognizes that disk only under one path.
Depending on your storage driver, it may recognize the multipath disk, or it may
recognize one of the single disk paths.
Instead of relying on the default, you should configure Oracle ASM to recognize the
multipath disk.
3.3.1.5.2 Disk Scan Ordering The ASMLIB configuration file is located in the path
/etc/sysconfig/oracleasm. It contains all the startup configuration you specified
with the command /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure. That command cannot
configure scan ordering.
The configuration file contains many configuration variables. The ORACLEASM_
SCANORDER variable specifies disks to be scanned first. The ORACLEASM_
SCANEXCLUDE variable specifies the disks that are to be ignored.
Configure values for ORACLEASM_SCANORDER using space-delimited prefix
strings. A prefix string is the common string associated with a type of disk. For
example, if you use the prefix string sd, then this string matches all SCSI devices,
including /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc and so on. Note that these are not globs.
They do not use wild cards. They are simple prefixes. Also note that the path is not a
part of the prefix. For example, the /dev/ path is not part of the prefix for SCSI disks
that are in the path /dev/sd*.
For Oracle Enterprise Linux and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5, when scanning,
the kernel sees the devices as /dev/mapper/XXX entries. By default, the 2.6 kernel
device file naming scheme udev creates the /dev/mapper/XXX names for human
readability. Any configuration using ORACLEASM_SCANORDER should use the
/dev/mapper/XXX entries.
3.3.1.5.3 Configuring Disk Scan Ordering to Select Multipath Disks To configure ASMLIB to
select multipath disks first, complete the following procedure:
1.
Using a text editor, open the ASMLIB configuration file
/etc/sysconfig/oracleasm.
2.
Edit the ORACLEASM_SCANORDER variable to provide the prefix path of the
multipath disks. For example, if the multipath disks use the prefix multipath
(/dev/mapper/multipatha, /dev/mapper/multipathb and so on), and the
multipath disks mount SCSI disks, then provide a prefix path similar to the
following:
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-27
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
ORACLEASM_SCANORDER="multipath sd"
3.
Save the file.
When you have completed this procedure, then when ASMLIB scans disks, it first
scans all disks with the prefix string multipath, and labels these disks as Oracle ASM
disks using the /dev/mapper/multipathX value. It then scans all disks with the
prefix string sd. However, because ASMLIB recognizes that these disks have already
been labeled with the /dev/mapper/multipath string values, it ignores these disks.
After scanning for the prefix strings multipath and sd, Oracle ASM then scans for
any other disks that do not match the scan order.
In the example in step 2, the key word multipath is actually the alias for multipath
devices configured in /etc/multipath.conf under the multipaths section. For
example:
multipaths {
multipath {
wwid
alias
...
}
multipath {
...
alias
...
}
...
}
3600508b4000156d700012000000b0000
multipath
mympath
The default device name is in the format /dev/mapper/mpath* (or a similar path).
3.3.1.5.4 Configuring Disk Order Scan to Exclude Single Path Disks To configure ASMLIB to
exclude particular single path disks, complete the following procedure:
1.
Using a text editor, open the ASMLIB configuration file
/etc/sysconfig/oracleasm.
2.
Edit the ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE variable to provide the prefix path of the
single path disks. For example, if you want to exclude the single path disks /dev
sdb and /dev/sdc, then provide a prefix path similar to the following:
ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE="sdb sdc"
3.
Save the file.
When you have completed this procedure, then when ASMLIB scans disks, it scans all
disks except for the disks with the sdb and sdc prefixes, so that it ignores /dev/sdb
and /dev/sdc. It does not ignore other SCSI disks, nor multipath disks. If you have a
multipath disk (for example, /dev/multipatha), which accesses both /dev/sdb
and /dev sdc, but you have configured ASMLIB to ignore sdb and sdc, then
ASMLIB ignores these disks and instead marks only the multipath disk as an Oracle
ASM disk.
3.3.1.6 Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle ASM
By default, the 2.6 kernel device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device
file names when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev
applies default settings, then it changes device file names and owners for voting disks
or Oracle Cluster Registry partitions, corrupting them when the server is restarted. For
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Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
example, a voting disk on a device named /dev/sdd owned by the user grid may be
on a device named /dev/sdf owned by root after restarting the server.
If you use ASMLIB, then you do not need to ensure permissions and device path
persistency in udev.
If you do not use ASMLIB, then you must create a custom rules file. When udev is
started, it sequentially carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files.
These files are in the path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order.
For example, rules in the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before
rules in the rules file 90-ib.rules.
Where rules files describe the same devices, on Asianux, Red Hat, and Oracle
Enterprise Linux, the last file read is the one that is applied. On SUSE 2.6 kernels, the
first file read is the one that is applied.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
1.
Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices (white listed), by editing the
/etc/scsi_id.config file and adding "options=-g" to the file. For example:
# cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
options=-g
2.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting
permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the group whose members are
administrators of the grid infrastructure software. For example, using the
installation owner grid and using a role-based group configuration, with the
OSASM group asmadmin:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sd?1", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?2", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?3", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
3.
Copy the rules.d file to all other nodes on the cluster. For example:
# scp 99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
[email protected]:/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
4.
Load updated block device partition tables on all member nodes of the cluster,
using /sbin/partprobe devicename. You must do this as root.
5.
Enter the command to restart the UDEV service.
On Asianux, OEL5, and RHEL5, the commands are:
# /sbin/udevcontrol reload_rules
# /sbin/start_udev
On SLES10, the command is:
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
Check to ensure that your system is configured correctly.
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-29
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
3.3.2 Using Diskgroups with Oracle Database Files on Oracle ASM
Review the following sections to configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management
storage for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database Files:
■
Identifying and Using Existing Oracle Database Diskgroups on Oracle ASM
■
Creating Diskgroups for Oracle Database Data Files
3.3.2.1 Identifying and Using Existing Oracle Database Diskgroups on Oracle ASM
The following section describes how to identify existing diskgroups and determine the
free disk space that they contain.
■
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect your database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices
in a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its own failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To protect against failures of this type, you could use two SCSI controllers, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller.
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a
minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy and three
failure groups for high redundancy.
Note:
3.3.2.2 Creating Diskgroups for Oracle Database Data Files
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or
identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Use the following
guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
All of the devices in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group should
be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device to be on a
separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management disk group, Oracle does not recommend their use. Logical
volume managers can hide the physical disk architecture, preventing Oracle
Automatic Storage Management from optimizing I/O across the physical devices.
They are not supported with Oracle RAC.
3.3.3 Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS)
Oracle ACFS is installed as part of an Oracle grid infrastructure installation (Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management) for 11g release 2 (11.2).
3-30 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Storage Configuration
Oracle ACFS is supported only on Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.0
and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0. All other Linux releases supported
with Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster 11g release 2 (11.2) are not
supported for Oracle ACFS.
Note:
To configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System for an Oracle
Database home for an Oracle RAC database:
1.
Install Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management)
2.
Change directory to the grid infrastructure home. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
3.
Start Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant as the grid installation owner. For
example:
./asmca
4.
The Configure ASM: ASM Disk Groups page shows you the Oracle ASM disk
group you created during installation. Click the ASM Cluster File Systems tab.
5.
On the ASM Cluster File Systems page, right-click the Data disk, then select Create
ACFS for Database Home.
6.
In the Create ACFS Hosted Database Home window, enter the following
information:
■
■
Database Home ADVM Volume Device Name: Enter the name of the database
home. The name must be unique in your enterprise. For example: dbase_01
Database Home Mountpoint: Enter the directory path for the mountpoint. For
example: /u02/acfsmounts/dbase_01
Make a note of this mountpoint for future reference.
■
■
■
■
7.
Database Home Size (GB): Enter in gigabytes the size you want the database
home to be.
Database Home Owner Name: Enter the name of the Oracle Database
installation owner you plan to use to install the database. For example:
oracle1
Database Home Owner Group: Enter the OSDBA group whose members you
plan to provide when you install the database. Members of this group are
given operating system authentication for the SYSDBA privileges on the
database. For example: dba1
Click OK when you have completed your entries.
During Oracle RAC installation, ensure that you or the DBA who installs Oracle
RAC selects for the Oracle home the mountpoint you provided in the Database
Home Mountpoint field (in the preceding example, /u02/acfsmounts/dbase_
01).
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more
information about configuring and managing your storage with
Oracle ACFS
Configuring Storage for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 3-31
Desupport of Block and Raw Devices
3.3.4 Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from a prior release installed on your server, or
in an existing Oracle Clusterware installation, then you can use Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Configuration Assistant (ASMCA, located in the path Grid_
home/bin) to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance to 11g release 2 (11.2), and
subsequently configure failure groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS).
You must first shut down all database instances and
applications on the node with the existing Oracle ASM instance before
upgrading it.
Note:
During installation, if you chose to use Oracle ASM and ASMCA detects that there is a
prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after installing
the Oracle ASM 11g release 2 (11.2) binaries, you can start ASMCA to upgrade the
existing Oracle ASM instance. You can then choose to configure an ACFS deployment
by creating Oracle ASM volumes and using the upgraded Oracle ASM to create the
ACFS.
On an existing Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC installation, if the prior version of
Oracle ASM instances on all nodes is 11g release 1, then you are provided with the
option to perform a rolling upgrade of Oracle ASM instances. If the prior version of
Oracle ASM instances on an Oracle RAC installation are from a release prior to 11g
release 1, then rolling upgrades cannot be performed. Oracle ASM on all nodes will be
upgraded to 11g release 2 (11.2).
3.4 Desupport of Block and Raw Devices
With the release of Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) and Oracle RAC 11g release 2
(11.2), using Database Configuration Assistant or the installer to store Oracle
Clusterware or Oracle Database files on block or raw devices is not supported.
If you intend to upgrade an existing Oracle RAC database, or an Oracle RAC database
with Oracle ASM instances, then you can use an existing raw or block device partition,
and perform a rolling upgrade of your existing installation. Performing a new
installation using block or raw devices is not allowed.
3-32 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
4
4
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Cluster
This chapter describes the procedures for installing Oracle grid infrastructure for a
cluster. Oracle grid infrastructure consists of Oracle Clusterware and Automatic
Storage Management. If you plan afterward to install Oracle Database with Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), then this is phase one of a two-phase
installation.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
■
Installing Grid Infrastructure
■
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
■
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
■
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
4.1 Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
Before you install Oracle grid infrastructure with the installer, use the following
checklist to ensure that you have all the information you will need during installation,
and to ensure that you have completed all tasks that must be done before starting your
installation. Check off each task in the following list as you complete it, and write
down the information needed, so that you can provide it during installation.
❏
Shut Down Running Oracle Processes
You may need to shut down running Oracle processes:
Installing on a node with a standalone database not using Oracle ASM: You do
not need to shut down the database while you install Oracle grid infrastructure
software.
Installing on a node that already has a standalone Oracle Database 11g release 2
(11.2) installation running on Oracle ASM: Stop the existing Oracle ASM
instances. After the software is installed, start the Oracle ASM instances again.
Installing on an Oracle RAC Database node: This installation requires an
upgrade of Oracle Clusterware, as Oracle Clusterware is required to run Oracle
RAC. As part of the upgrade, you must shut down the database one node at a time
as the rolling upgrade proceeds from node to node.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-1
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC 9i release 2 (9.2) node,
and the TNSLSNR is listening to the same port on which the SCAN
listens (default 1521), then the TNSLSNR should be shut down.
Note:
If a Global Services Daemon (GSD) from Oracle9i Release 9.2 or earlier is running,
then stop it before installing Oracle grid infrastructure by running the following
command:
$ Oracle_home/bin/gsdctl stop
where Oracle_home is the Oracle Database home that is running the GSD.
If you have an existing Oracle9i release 2 (9.2) Oracle
Cluster Manager (Oracle CM) installation, then do not shut down the
Oracle CM service. Shutting down the Oracle CM service prevents the
Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) software from detecting
the Oracle9i release 2 node list, and causes failure of the Oracle grid
infrastructure installation.
Caution:
If you receive a warning to stop all Oracle services after
starting OUI, then run the command
Note:
Oracle_home/bin/localconfig delete
where Oracle_home is the existing Oracle Clusterware home.
❏
Prepare for Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Clusterware
Upgrade If You Have Existing Installations
During installation, you can upgrade existing Oracle Clusterware and cluster
Oracle ASM installations.
When all member nodes of the cluster are running Oracle grid infrastructure 11g
release 2 (11.2), then the new clusterware becomes the active version.
If you intend to install Oracle RAC, then you must first complete the upgrade to
Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) on all cluster nodes before you install
the Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) version of Oracle RAC.
All Oracle grid infrastructure upgrades (upgrades of existing
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM installations) are out-of-place
upgrades.
Note:
❏
Determine the Oracle Inventory (oraInventory) location
If you have already installed Oracle software on your system, then OUI detects the
existing Oracle Inventory (oraInventory) directory from the /etc/oraInst.loc
file, and uses this location. This directory is the central inventory of Oracle
software installed on your system. Users who have the Oracle Inventory group as
their primary group are granted the OINSTALL privilege to write to the central
inventory.
If you are installing Oracle software for the first time on your system, and your
system does not have an oraInventory directory, then the installer designates the
4-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
installation owner's primary group as the Oracle Inventory group. Ensure that this
group is available as a primary group for all planned Oracle software installation
owners.
Note:
The oraInventory directory cannot be placed on a shared file
system.
See Also: The preinstallation chapters in Chapter 2 for information
about creating the Oracle Inventory, and completing required system
configuration
❏
Obtain root account access
During installation, you are asked to run configuration scripts as the root user.
You must run these scripts as root, or be prepared to have your system
administrator run them for you. You must run the root.sh script on the first
node and wait for it to finish. If your cluster has four or more nodes, then
root.sh can be run concurrently on all nodes but the first and last.
❏
Decide if you want to install other languages
During installation, you are asked if you want translation of user interface text into
languages other than the default, which is English.
If the language set for the operating system is not supported
by the installer, then by default the installer runs in the English
language.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for detailed
information on character sets and language configuration
❏
Determine your cluster name, public node names, the SCAN, virtual node
names, GNS VIP and planned interface use for each node in the cluster
During installation, you are prompted to provide the public and virtual hostname,
unless you use a third party cluster software. In that case, the public hostname
information will be filled in. You are also prompted to identify which interfaces
are public, private, or interfaces in use for another purpose, such as a network file
system.
If you use Grid Naming Service (GNS), then OUI displays the public and virtual
hostname addresses labeled as "AUTO" because they are configured automatically.
If you configure IP addresses manually, then avoid changing
host names after you complete the Oracle grid infrastructure
installation, including adding or deleting domain qualifications. A
node with a new hostname is considered a new host, and must be
added to the cluster. A node under the old name will appear to be
down until it is removed from the cluster.
Note:
When you enter the public node name, use the primary host name of each node. In
other words, use the name displayed by the hostname command.
In addition:
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-3
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
–
Provide a cluster name with the following characteristics:
*
It must be globally unique throughout your host domain.
*
It must be at least one character long and less than 15 characters long.
*
It must consist of the same character set used for host names, in
accordance with RFC 1123: Hyphens (-), and single-byte alphanumeric
characters (a to z, A to Z, and 0 to 9). If you use third-party vendor
clusterware, then Oracle recommends that you use the vendor cluster
name.
–
If you are not using Grid Naming Service (GNS), then determine a virtual host
name for each node. A virtual host name is a public node name that is used to
reroute client requests sent to the node if the node is down. Oracle Database
uses VIPs for client-to-database connections, so the VIP address must be
publicly accessible. Oracle recommends that you provide a name in the format
hostname-vip. For example: myclstr2-vip.
–
Provide SCAN addresses for client access to the cluster. These addresses
should be configured as round robin addresses on the domain name service
(DNS). Oracle recommends that you supply three SCAN addresses.
The following is a list of additional information about node IP
addresses:
Note:
■
■
■
–
For the local node only, OUI automatically fills in public and VIP
fields. If your system uses vendor clusterware, then OUI may fill
additional fields.
Host names and virtual host names are not domain-qualified. If
you provide a domain in the address field during installation,
then OUI removes the domain from the address.
Interfaces identified as private for private IP addresses should not
be accessible as public interfaces. Using public interfaces for
Cache Fusion can cause performance problems.
Identify public and private interfaces. OUI configures public interfaces for use
by public and virtual IP addresses, and configures private IP addresses on
private interfaces.
The private subnet that the private interfaces use must connect all the nodes
you intend to have as cluster members.
❏
Identify shared storage for Oracle Clusterware files and prepare storage if
necessary
During installation, you are asked to provide paths for the following Oracle
Clusterware files. These files must be shared across all nodes of the cluster, either
on Oracle Automatic Storage Management, or on a supported file system:
–
Voting disks are files that Oracle Clusterware uses to verify cluster node
membership and status.
Voting disk files must be owned by the user performing the installation
(oracle or grid), and must have permissions set to 640.
–
Oracle Cluster Registry files (OCR) contain cluster and database configuration
information for Oracle Clusterware.
4-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preparing to Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure with OUI
Before installation, OCR files must be owned by the user performing the
installation (grid or oracle). That installation user must have oinstall as
its primary group. During installation, OUI changes ownership of the OCR
files to root.
If your file system does not have external storage redundancy, then Oracle
recommends that you provide two additional locations for the OCR disk, and two
additional locations for the voting disks, for a total of six partitions (three for OCR,
and three for voting disks). Creating redundant storage locations protects the OCR
and voting disk in the event of a failure. To completely protect your cluster, the
storage locations given for the copies of the OCR and voting disks should have
completely separate paths, controllers, and disks, so that no single point of failure
is shared by storage locations.
When you select to store the OCR on Oracle ASM, the default configuration is to
create the OCR on one ASM diskgroup. If you create the disk group with normal
or high redundancy, then the OCR is protected from physical disk failure.
To protect the OCR from logical disk failure, create another ASM diskgroup after
installation and add the OCR to the second diskgroup using the ocrconfig
command.
See Also: Chapter 2, "Advanced Installation Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a Cluster Preinstallation Tasks" and Oracle Database
Storage Administrator's Guide for information about adding disks to
diskgroups
❏
Ensure cron jobs do not run during installation
If the installer is running when daily cron jobs start, then you may encounter
unexplained installation problems if your cron job is performing cleanup, and
temporary files are deleted before the installation is finished. Oracle recommends
that you complete installation before daily cron jobs are run, or disable daily cron
jobs that perform cleanup until after the installation is completed.
❏
Have IPMI Configuration completed and have IPMI administrator account
information
If you intend to use IPMI, then ensure BMC interfaces are configured, and have an
administration account username and password to provide when prompted
during installation.
For nonstandard installations, if you must change configuration on one or more
nodes after installation (for example, if you have different administrator
usernames and passwords for BMC interfaces on cluster nodes), then decide if you
want to reconfigure the BMC interface, or modify IPMI administrator account
information after installation.
❏
Ensure that the Oracle home path you select for the grid infrastructure home
uses only ASCII characters
This restriction includes installation owner user names, which are used as a
default for some home paths, as well as other directory names you may select for
paths.
❏
Unset Oracle environment variables. If you have set ORA_CRS_HOME as an
environment variable, then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. You
should never use ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-5
Installing Grid Infrastructure
If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the
same user account to install this installation, then unset the following environment
variables: ORA_CRS_HOME; ORACLE_HOME; ORA_NLS10; TNS_ADMIN
4.2 Installing Grid Infrastructure
This section provides you with information about how to use the installer to install
Oracle grid infrastructure. It contains the following sections:
■
Running OUI to Install Grid Infrastructure
■
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File
4.2.1 Running OUI to Install Grid Infrastructure
Complete the following steps to install grid infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management) on your cluster. At any time during
installation, if you have a question about what you are being asked to do, click the
Help button on the OUI page.
1.
Change to the /Disk1 directory on the installation media, or where you have
downloaded the installation binaries, and start the runInstaller command. For
example:
$ cd /home/grid/oracle_sw/Disk1
$ ./runInstaller
2.
Select Typical or Advanced installation.
3.
Provide information or run scripts as root when prompted by OUI. If you need
assistance during installation, click Help. Click Details to see the log file. If
root.sh fails on any of the nodes, then you can fix the problem and follow the
steps in Section 6.4, "Deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing
Binaries," rerun root.sh on that node, and continue.
You must run the root.sh script on the first node and wait
for it to finish. If your cluster has four or more nodes, then root.sh
can be run concurrently on all nodes but the first and last. As with the
first node, the root.sh script on the last node must be run separately.
Note:
4.
After you run root.sh on all the nodes, OUI runs Net Configuration Assistant
(netca) and Cluster Verification Utility. These programs run without user
intervention.
5.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (asmca)
configures Oracle ASM during the installation.
When you have verified that your Oracle grid infrastructure installation is completed
successfully, you can either use it to maintain high availability for other applications,
or you can install an Oracle database.
If you intend to install Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) with Oracle RAC, then refer
to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for information about using cloning and node
addition procedures, and Oracle Clusterware Administration and
Deployment Guide for cloning Oracle grid infrastructure
4-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
4.2.2 Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Cluster Configuration File
During installation of grid infrastructure, you are given the option either of providing
cluster configuration information manually, or of using a cluster configuration file. A
cluster configuration file is a text file that you can create before starting OUI, which
provides OUI with information about the cluster name and node names that it requires
to configure the cluster.
Oracle suggests that you consider using a cluster configuration file if you intend to
perform repeated installations on a test cluster, or if you intend to perform an
installation on many nodes.
To create a cluster configuration file manually:
1.
On the installation media, navigate to the directory /response.
2.
Using a text editor, open the response file crs_install.rsp.
3.
Follow the directions in that section for creating a cluster configuration file.
The following is a list of additional information to note about installation:
■
If you are installing on Linux systems, you are using the ASM library driver
(ASMLIB), and you select Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) during
installation, then ASM default discovery finds all disks that ASMLIB marks as
ASM disks.
4.3 Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
Oracle recommends that only advanced users should perform
the software-only installation, as this installation method provides no
validation of the installation, and as this installation option requires
manual postinstallation steps to enable the grid infrastructure
software.
Note:
A software-only installation consists of installing Oracle grid infrastructure for a
cluster on one node.
If you use the Install Grid Infrastructure Software Only option during installation,
then this installs the software binaries on the local node. To complete the installation
for your cluster, you must perform the additional steps of configuring Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM, creating a clone of the local installation, deploying this
clone on other nodes, and then adding the other nodes to the cluster.
To perform a software-only installation:
4.3.1 Installing the Software Binaries
1.
Start the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle
Database 11g release 2 (11.2) installation media or download directory. For
example:
$ cd /home/grid/oracle_sw/Disk1
$ ./runInstaller
2.
Complete a software-only installation of Oracle grid infrastructure on the first
node.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-7
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
3.
When the software has been installed, run the orainstRoot.sh script when
prompted.
4.
The root.sh script output provides information about how to proceed,
depending on the configuration you plan to complete in this installation. Make
note of this information.
However, ignore the instruction to run the roothas.pl script. You must not run
this script until completing relink, installing software on other nodes, and
completing other required cluster configuration steps.
5.
To relink Oracle Clusterware with the Oracle RAC option enabled, run commands
similar to the following (in this example, the Grid home is /u01/app/11.2.0/grid):
$
$
$
$
cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/
set env ORACLE_HOME pwd
cd rdbms/lib
make -f ins_rdmbs.mk rac_on ioracle
6.
On each remaining node, verify that the cluster node meets installation
requirements using the command runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst.
Ensure that you have completed all storage and server preinstallation
requirements.
7.
Use Oracle Universal Installer as described in steps 1 through 4 to install the
Oracle grid infrastructure software on every remaining node that you want to
include in the cluster, and complete a software-only installation of Oracle grid
infrastructure on every node.
8.
If required relink the Oracle RAC binaries as described in step 5 on every node
where you installed the Oracle grid infrastructure software.
4.3.2 Configuring the Software Binaries
When you install or copy Oracle grid infrastructure software on any node, you can
defer configuration for a later time. This section provides the procedure for completing
configuration after the software is installed or copied on nodes.
To configure and activate software-only grid infrastructure for a cluster installations,
complete the following tasks:
1.
Using a text editor, modify the template file /Grid_
home/crs/install/crsconfig_params to create a parameter file for the
installer to use to configure the cluster. For example:
ORACLE_OWNER=grid
ORA_DBA_GROUP=oinstall
ORA_ASM_GROUP=asm
LANGUAGE_ID='AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1'
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/crs
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/crsbase
OCR_LOCATIONS=/u02/stor1/ocr,/u03/stor2/ocr
CLUSTER_NAME=example_cluster
HOST_NAME_LIST=node1,node2
NODE_NAME_LIST=node1,node2
VOTING_DISKS=/u02/stor1/vdsk,/u03/stor2/vdsk,/u04/stor3/vdsk
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=2
CRS_NODEVIPS='node1-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0,node2-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0'
NODELIST=node1,node2
NETWORKS="eth0"/192.0.2.64:public,"eth1"/192.0.2.65:cluster_interconnect
SCAN_NAME=example-scan.domain
SCAN_PORT=1522
4-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Installing Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
2.
On all nodes, place the crsconfig_params file in the path Grid_
home/crs/install/crsconfig_params, where Grid_home is the path to the
Oracle grid infrastructure home for a cluster. For example:
$ cp crsconfig_params /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/crsconfig_params
3.
After configuring the crsconfig_params file, log in as root, and run the script
Grid_home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl on each node, using the following
syntax:.
Grid_home/perl/lib/perl -IGRID_HOME/perl/lib -IGrid_home/crs/install Grid_
home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl
For example:
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/11.2.0/perl/lib/perl
-I/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/11.2.0/perl/lib \
-I/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/11.2.0/crs/install
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/11.2.0/crs/install/rootcrs.pl
4.
Using the information you noted from the root.sh script output in Section 4.3.1,
"Installing the Software Binaries," follow the output of the root.sh script, and
run the command Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl or Grid_
home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl as required. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
$ perl rootcrs.pl
Use Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl to configure Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server. Use Grid_
home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl to configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
cluster.
Oracle grid infrastructure can be used for standalone servers
and for clusters. However, if you first configure Oracle grid
infrastructure for a standalone server, and then decide you want to
configure Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster, then you must
re-link the Oracle software before you run rootcrs.pl to configure
Oracle grid infrastructure for a clusters. The Install Grid
Infrastructure Software Only installation option does not assume a
cluster configuration, and therefore does not automatically link the
Oracle RAC option.
Note:
5.
Change directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the
Grid Infrastructure home on each cluster member node.
6.
Enter the following command syntax, where Grid_home is the path of the Grid
Infrastructure home on each cluster member node, and node_list is a
comma-delimited list of nodes on which you want the software enabled:
runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName
For example
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName
"CLUSTER_NODES={node_list}" CRS=TRUE
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-9
Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
To enable the Oracle Clusterware installation on the local node only, enter the
following command, where Grid_home is the Grid home on the local node, and
node_list is a comma-delimited list of nodes on which you want the software
enabled:
runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName
"CLUSTER_NODES={node_list}" CRS=TRUE -local
For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName
"CLUSTER_NODES={node_list}" CRS=TRUE -local
4.4 Confirming Oracle Clusterware Function
After installation, log in as root, and use the following command syntax on each node
to confirm that your Oracle Clusterware installation is installed and running correctly:
crsctl check crs
For example:
$ crsctl check crs
CRS-4638:
CRS-4537:
CRS-4529:
CRS-4533:
Oracle High Availability Services is online
Cluster Ready Services is online
Cluster Synchronization Services is online
Event Manager is online
Caution: After installation is complete, do not remove manually or
run cron jobs that remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle or
its files while Oracle Clusterware is up. If you remove these files, then
Oracle Clusterware could encounter intermittent hangs, and you will
encounter error CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS
daemon.
4.5 Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
If you installed the OCR and voting disk files on Oracle ASM, then use the following
command syntax as the Grid Infrastructure installation owner to confirm that your
Oracle ASM installation is running:
srvctl status asm
For example:
$ srvctl status asm
ASM is running on node1,node2
Oracle ASM is running only if it is needed for Oracle Clusterware files. If you have not
installed OCR and voting disks files on Oracle ASM, then the Oracle ASM instance
should be down.
4-10 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
To manage Oracle ASM or Oracle Net 11g release 2 (11.2) or
later installations, use the srvctl binary in the Oracle grid
infrastructure home for a cluster (Grid home). If you have Oracle Real
Application Clusters or Oracle Database installed, then you cannot
use the srvctl binary in the database home to manage Oracle ASM
or Oracle Net.
Note:
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 4-11
Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files
4-12 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
5
5
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation
Procedures
This chapter describes how to complete the postinstallation tasks after you have
installed the Oracle grid infrastructure software.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Required Postinstallation Tasks
■
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Using Older Oracle Database Versions with Grid Infrastructure
■
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
5.1 Required Postinstallation Tasks
You must perform the following tasks after completing your installation:
■
Download and Install Patch Updates
Note: In prior releases, backing up the voting disks using a dd
command was a required postinstallation task. With Oracle
Clusterware release 11.2 and later, backing up and restoring a voting
disk using the dd command may result in the loss of the voting disk,
so this procedure is not supported.
5.1.1 Download and Install Patch Updates
Refer to the My Oracle Support Web site for required patch updates for your
installation.
Browsers require an Adobe Flash plug-in, version 9.0.115 or
higher to use My Oracle Support. Check your browser for the correct
version of Flash plug-in by going to the Adobe Flash checker page,
and installing the latest version of Adobe Flash.
Note:
If you do not have Flash installed, then download the latest version of
the Flash Player from the Adobe Web site:
http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
To download required patch updates:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Procedures
5-1
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
1.
Use a Web browser to view the My Oracle Support Web site:
https://metalink.oracle.com
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support Web site.
Note: If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, then click
Register for My Oracle Support and register.
3.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches & Updates.
4.
On the Patches & Update page, click Advanced Search.
5.
On the Advanced Search page, click the search icon next to the Product or Product
Family field.
6.
In the Search and Select: Product Family field, select Database and Tools in the
Search list field, enter RDBMS Server in the text field, and click Go.
RDBMS Server appears in the Product or Product Family field. The current release
appears in the Release field.
7.
Select your platform from the list in the Platform field, and at the bottom of the
selection list, click Go.
8.
Any available patch updates appear under the Results heading.
9.
Click the patch number to download the patch.
10. On the Patch Set page, click View README and read the page that appears. The
README page contains information about the patch set and how to apply the
patches to your installation.
11. Return to the Patch Set page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
12. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2) to
uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle
Support. The unzip utility is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
13. Refer to Appendix F on page F-1 for information about how to stop database
processes in preparation for installing patches.
5.2 Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you complete the following tasks as needed after installing
Oracle grid infrastructure:
■
Back Up the root.sh Script
■
Install Cluster Health Management
■
Tune Semaphore Parameters
■
Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
5.2.1 Back Up the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then the
installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during the installation. If
you require information contained in the original root.sh script, then you can
recover it from the root.sh file copy.
5-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
5.2.2 Install Cluster Health Management
To address troubleshooting issues, Oracle recommends that you install either Oracle
Cluster Health Monitor (IPD/OS), or OS Watcher and RACDDT, depending on your
Linux kernel version.
5.2.2.1 Installing Oracle Cluster Health Monitor (IPD/OS)
On Linux systems with Linux kernels greater than or equal to 2.6.9, install Oracle
Cluster Health Monitor (IPD/OS) (formerly known as Instantaneous Problem
Detection Operating System Tool).
The IPD/OS tool is designed to detect and analyze operating system and cluster
resource-related degradation and failures. The tool can provide better explanations for
many issues that occur in clusters where Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM and Oracle
RAC are running, such as node evictions. It tracks the operating system resource
consumption at each node, process, and device level continuously. It collects and
analyzes clusterwide data. In real time mode, when thresholds are reached, an alert is
shown to the operator. For root cause analysis, historical data can be replayed to
understand what was happening at the time of failure.
You can download the tool at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/clustering/ipd_
download_homepage.html
5.2.2.2 Installing OS Watcher and RACDDT
On Linux systems with Linux kernels earlier than 2.6.9, install OS Watcher to help
resolve operating system issues with your cluster. If you intend to install an Oracle
RAC database, then also install RACDDT. You must have access to My Oracle Support
to download OS Watcher and RACDDT.
OS Watcher (OSW) is a collection of UNIX/Linux shell scripts that collect and archive
operating system and network metrics to aid Oracle Support in diagnosing various
issues related to system and performance. OSW operates as a set of background
processes on the server and gathers operating system data on a regular basis. The
scripts use common utilities such as vmstat, netstat and iostat.
RACDDT is a data collection tool designed and configured specifically for gathering
diagnostic data related to Oracle RAC technology. RACDDT is a set of scripts and
configuration files that is run on one or more nodes of an Oracle RAC cluster. The
main script is written in Perl, while a number of proxy scripts are written using Korn
shell. RACDDT will run on all supported UNIX and Linux platforms, but is not
supported on any Windows platforms.
OSW is also included in the RACDDT script file, but is not installed by RACDDT.
OSW must be installed on each node where data is to be collected.
To download binaries for OS Watcher and RACDDT, go to the following URL:
https://metalink.oracle.com
Download OSW by searching for OS Watcher, and downloading the binaries from the
User Guide bulletin. Installation instructions for OSW are provided in the user guide.
Download RACDDT by searching for RACDDT, and downloading the binaries from
the RACDDT User Guide bulletin.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Procedures
5-3
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
5.2.3 Tune Semaphore Parameters
Refer to the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are
too low to accommodate all Oracle processes:
Oracle recommends that you refer to the operating system
documentation for more information about setting semaphore
parameters.
Note:
1.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following
formula:
2 * sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + overhead
for background processes + system and other application requirements
2.
Set semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
3.
Set semmsl (semaphores for each set) to 256.
4.
Set semmni (total semaphores sets) to semmns divided by semmsl, rounded up to
the nearest multiple of 1024.
5.2.4 Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an
Oracle Database for a standalone server or an Oracle RAC database, then you should
create the Fast Recovery Area for database files.
5.2.4.1 About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The Fast Recovery Area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files
related to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_
DEST parameter to the path for the Fast Recovery Area to enable on-disk backups, and
rapid recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to
system administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable Flash Recovery in the init.ora file, all RMAN backups, archive
logs, control file automatic backups, and database copies are written to the Fast
Recovery Area. RMAN automatically manages files in the Fast Recovery Area by
deleting obsolete backups and archive files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a Fast Recovery Area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and
you can also place flash recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate Flash Recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
The Fast Recovery Area is enabled by setting DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. The size of
the Fast Recovery Area is set with DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. As a general
rule, the larger the Fast Recovery Area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use,
Oracle recommends that you create a Fast Recovery Area disk group on storage
devices that can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the Fast
Recovery Area should be large enough to hold a copy of all of your data files and
control files, the online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover
your database using the data file backups kept under your retention policy.
5-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Using Older Oracle Database Versions with Grid Infrastructure
Multiple databases can use the same Fast Recovery Area. For example, assume you
have created one Fast Recovery Area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage,
shared by three different databases. You can set the size of the Fast Recovery Area for
each database depending on the importance of each database. For example, if
database1 is your least important database, database 2 is of greater importance and
database 3 is of greatest importance, then you can set different DB_RECOVERY_FILE_
DEST_SIZE settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database:
30 GB for database 1, 50 GB for database 2, and 70 GB for database 3.
See Also:
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
5.2.4.2 Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
To create a flash recovery file disk group:
1.
Navigate to the Grid home bin directory, and start Oracle ASM Configuration
Assistant (asmca). For example:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
2.
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group
3.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the Fast Recovery Area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the Fast
Recovery Area, and click OK.
4.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is
complete. Click OK.
5.
Click Exit.
5.3 Using Older Oracle Database Versions with Grid Infrastructure
Review the following sections for information about using older Oracle Database
releases with 11g release 2 (11.2) grid infrastructure installations:
■
General Restrictions for Using Older Oracle Database Versions
■
Pinning Cluster Nodes for Oracle Database Release 10.x or 11.x
■
Enabling The Global Services Daemon (GSD) for Oracle Database Release 9.2
■
Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands
5.3.1 General Restrictions for Using Older Oracle Database Versions
You can use Oracle Database release 9.2, release 10.x and release 11.1 with Oracle
Clusterware release 11.2.
If you upgrade an existing version of Oracle Clusterware, then required configuration
of existing databases is completed automatically. However, if you complete a new
installation of Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster, and then want to install a version
of Oracle Database prior to 11.2, then you must complete additional manual
configuration tasks.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Procedures
5-5
Using Older Oracle Database Versions with Grid Infrastructure
Before you start an Oracle RAC or Oracle Database installation
on an Oracle Clusterware release 11.2 installation, if you upgraded
from releases 11.1.0.7, 11.1.0.6, and 10.2.0.4, then you must install
patches required for that release. See Section 5.1.1, "Download and
Install Patch Updates" on page 5-1.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Upgrade Companion." "Oracle Upgrade
Companion," which is available through Note 785351.1 on My Oracle
Support:
https://metalink.oracle.com
5.3.2 Pinning Cluster Nodes for Oracle Database Release 10.x or 11.x
When Oracle Database version 10.x or 11x is installed on a new Oracle grid
infrastructure for a cluster configuration, it is configured for dynamic cluster
configuration, in which some or all IP addresses are provisionally assigned, and other
cluster identification information is dynamic. This configuration is incompatible with
older database releases, which require fixed addresses and configuration.
You can change the nodes where you want to run the older database to create a
persistent configuration. Creating a persistent configuration for a node is called
pinning a node.
To pin a node in preparation for installing an older Oracle Database version, use
Grid_home/bin/crsctl with the following command syntax, where nodes is a
space-delimited list of one or more nodes in the cluster whose configuration you want
to pin:
crsctl pin css -n nodes
For example, to pin nodes node3 and node4, log in as root and enter the following
command:
$ crsctl pin css -n node3 node4
To determine if a node is in a pinned or unpinned state, use Grid_
home/bin/olsnodes with the following command syntax:
To list all pinned nodes:
olsnodes -t -n
For example:
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/olsnodes -t -n
node1 1
Pinned
node2 2
Pinned
node3 3
Pinned
node4 4
Pinned
To list the state of a particular node:
olsnodes -t -n node3
For example:
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/olsnodes -t -n node3
node3 3
Pinned
5-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about pinning and unpinning nodes
See Also:
5.3.3 Enabling The Global Services Daemon (GSD) for Oracle Database Release 9.2
When Oracle Database 9i release 2 (9.2) is installed on an 11g release 2 (11.2) Oracle
grid infrastructure for a cluster configuration, the Global Services daemon (GSD) is
disabled by default. Use the following commands to enable the GSD before you install
a release 9.2 Oracle Database:
srvctl enable nodeapps -g
srvctl start nodeapps
5.3.4 Using the Correct LSNRCTL Commands
To administer 11g release 2 local and scan listeners using the lsnrctl command, set
your $ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the path for the grid infrastructure
home (Grid home). Do not attempt to use the lsnrctl commands from Oracle home
locations for previous releases, as they cannot be used with the new release.
5.4 Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
After installation, if you need to modify the Oracle Clusterware configuration, then
you must unlock the Grid home.
For example, if you want to apply a one-off patch, or if you want to modify an Oracle
Exadata configuration to run IPC traffic over RDS on the interconnect instead of using
the default UDP, then you must unlock the Grid home.
Caution: Before relinking executables, you must shut down all
executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are
relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle
shared libraries.
Unlock the home using the following procedure:
1.
Change directory to the path Grid_home/crs/install, where Grid_home is the path to
the Grid home, and unlock the Grid home using the command rootcrs.pl
-unlock -crshome Grid_home, where Grid_home is the path to your Grid
infrastructure home. For example, with the grid home /u01/app/11.2.0/grid,
enter the following command:
# cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
# perl rootcrs.pl -unlock -crshome /u01/app/11.2.0/grid
2.
Change user to the grid infrastructure software owner, and relink binaries using
the command syntax make -f Grid_home/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk target, where
Grid_home is the Grid home, and target is the binaries that you want to relink. For
example, where the grid user is grid, $ORACLE_HOME is set to the Grid home,
and where you are updating the interconnect protocol from UDP to IPC, enter the
following command:
# su grid
$ make -f $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk ipc_rds ioracle
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Postinstallation Procedures
5-7
Modifying Oracle Clusterware Binaries After Installation
To relink binaries, you can also change to the grid installation
owner and run the command Grid_home/bin/relink.
Note:
3.
Relock the Grid home and restart the cluster using the following command:
# perl rootcrs.pl -patch
4.
Repeat steps 1 through 3 on each cluster member node.
5-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
6
6
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
This chapter describes how to remove Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware
■
Migrating Standalone Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
■
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
■
Deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries
■
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
See Also: Product-specific documentation for requirements and
restrictions to remove an individual product
6.1 Deciding When to Deinstall Oracle Clusterware
Remove installed components in the following situations:
■
■
■
■
You have successfully installed Oracle Clusterware, and you want to remove the
Clusterware installation, either in an educational environment, or a test
environment.
You have encountered errors during or after installing or upgrading Oracle
Clusterware, and you want to reattempt an installation.
Your installation or upgrade stopped because of a hardware or operating system
failure.
You are advised by Oracle Support to reinstall Oracle Clusterware.
6.2 Migrating Standalone Grid Infrastructure Servers to a Cluster
If you have an Oracle Database installation using Oracle Restart (that is, an Oracle grid
infrastructure installation for a standalone server), and you want to configure that
server as a cluster member node, then complete the following tasks:
1.
Inspect the Oracle configuration with srvctl using the following syntax, where
db_unique_name is the unique name for the database, and lsnrname is the name of
the listeners:
srvctl config database -d db_unique_name
srvctl config service -d db_unique_name
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid Infrastructure
6-1
Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
srvctl config listener -l lsnrname
Write down the configuration information for the server.
2.
Change directory to Grid home/crs/install. For example:
# cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
3.
Stop all of the databases, services, and listeners that you discovered in step 1.
4.
Deconfigure and deinstall the Oracle grid infrastructure installation for a
standalone server, using the following command:
# roothas.pl -deinstall
5.
Prepare the server for Oracle Clusterware configuration, as described in this
document.
6.
Clone the Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster software from an existing node,
or install and configure Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster.
7.
Add the Oracle Database for support by Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster,
using the configuration information you recorded in step 1. Use the following
command syntax, where db_unique_name is the unique name of the database on the
node, and nodename is the name of the node:
srvctl add database -d db_unique_name -o $ORACLE_HOME -x nodename
For example, with the database name mydb_node1, and the nodename node1,
enter the following command:
srvctl add database -d mydb_node1 -o $ORACLE_HOME -x node1
8.
Add each service to the database, using the command srvctl add service.
6.3 Relinking Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Binaries
After installing Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM configured for a cluster), if you need to modify the binaries, then use the
following procedure, where Grid_home is the grid infrastructure for a cluster home:
Caution: Before relinking executables, you must shut down all
executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are
relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle
shared libraries.
As root:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl rootcrs.pl -unlock
As the grid infrastructure for a cluster owner:
$ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
$ Grid_home/bin/relink
As root again:
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl rootcrs.pl -patch
6-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
You must relink the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM binaries every time you
apply an operating system patch or after an operating system upgrade.
6.4 Deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without Removing Binaries
Running the rootcrs.pl command flags -deconfig -force enables you to
deconfigure Oracle Clusterware on one or more nodes without removing installed
binaries. This feature is useful if you encounter an error on one or more cluster nodes
during installation when running the root.sh command, such as a missing operating
system package on one node. By running rootcrs.pl -deconfig -force on
nodes where you encounter an installation error, you can deconfigure Oracle
Clusterware on those nodes, correct the cause of the error, and then run root.sh
again.
Stop any databases, services, and listeners that may be
installed and running before deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware.
Note:
To deconfigure Oracle Clusterware:
1.
Log in as the root user on a node where you encountered an error.
2.
Change directory to Grid_home/crs/install. For example:
# cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install
3.
Run rootcrs.pl with the -deconfig -force flags. For example:
# perl rootcrs.pl -deconfig -force
Repeat on other nodes as required.
4.
If you are deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware on all nodes in the cluster, then on the
last node, enter the following command:
# perl rootcrs.pl -deconfig -force -lastnode
The -lastnode flag completes deconfiguration of the cluster, including the OCR
and voting disks.
6.5 Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
The deinstall command removes Oracle Clusterware and ASM from your server.
The following sections describe the command, and provide information about
additional options to use the command:
■
About the Deinstallation Tool
■
Downloading The Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations
■
Example of Running the Deinstall Command for Oracle Clusterware and ASM
■
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
6.5.1 About the Deinstallation Tool
TheDeinstallation Tool (deinstall) stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle
software and configuration files on the operating system. It is available in the
installation media before installation, and is available in Oracle home directories after
installation. It is located in the path $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall.
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid Infrastructure
6-3
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
The command uses the following syntax, where variable content is indicated by italics:
deinstall -home complete path of Oracle home [-silent] [-checkonly] [-local]
[-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file] [-params name1=value
name2=value . . .] [-o complete path of directory for saving files] [-help | -h]
The default method for running the deinstall tool is from the deinstall directory in the
grid home. For example:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/deinstall
$ ./deinstall
In addition, you can run the deinstall tool from other locations, or with a parameter
file, or select other options to run the tool.
The options are:
■
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the Oracle home that you want to check
or deinstall. To deinstall Oracle software using the deinstall command in the
Oracle home you plan to deinstall, provide a parameter file in another location,
and do not use the -home flag.
If you run deinstall from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path, then the
-home flag is not required because the tool knows from which home it is being
run. If you use the standalone version of the tool, then -home is mandatory.
■
-silent
Use this flag to run the command in noninteractive mode. This option requires a
properties file that contains the configuration values for the Oracle home that is
being deinstalled or deconfigured.
To create a properties file and provide the required parameters, refer to the
template file deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in the response folder. If you
prefer, instead of using the template file, you can generate a properties file by
using the -checkonly option to have deinstall discover information from the
Oracle home that you want to deinstall and deconfigure. It generates the
properties file, which you can then use with the -silent option.
■
-checkonly
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle software home configuration.
Running the command with the checkonly flag does not remove the Oracle
configuration.
■
-local
Use this flag on a multinode environment to deconfigure Oracle software in a
cluster.
When you run deinstall with this flag, it deconfigures and deinstalls the Oracle
software on the local node (the node where deinstall is run). On remote nodes,
it deconfigures Oracle software, but does not deinstall the Oracle software.
■
-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file
Use this flag to run deinstall with a parameter file in a location other than the
default. When you use this flag, provide the complete path where the parameter
file is located. If you are running the deinstall command from the Oracle home
that you plan to deinstall, then you do not need to use the -paramfile flag.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
6-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
■
–
From the installation media or stage location: $ORACLE_
HOME/inventory/response.
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response.
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response.
-params [name1=value name2=value name3=value ...]
Use this flag with a parameter file to override one or more values in a parameter
file you have already created.
■
-o complete path of directory for saving response files
Use this flag to provide a path other than the default location where the properties
file (deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location before installation: $ORACLE_
HOME/
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response/.
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response.
-help | -h
Use the help option (-help or -h) to obtain additional information about the
command option flags.
6.5.2 Downloading The Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations
You can use the Deinstallation Tool (deinstall) to remove failed or incomplete
installations. It is available as a separate download from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) Web site.
To download the deinstall tool:
1.
Go to the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/products/database/index.h
tml
2.
Under Oracle Database 11g Release 2, click See All for the respective platform for
which you want to download the Deinstallation Tool.
The Deinstallation Tool is available for download at the end of this page.
6.5.3 Example of Running the Deinstall Command for Oracle Clusterware and ASM
As the deinstall command runs, you are prompted to provide the home directory
of the Oracle software that you want to remove from your system. Provide additional
information as prompted.
To run the deinstall command from an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster
home, enter the following command:
$ cd /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/deinstall/
$ ./deinstall
You can run generate a deinstall parameter file by running the deinstall
command using the -checkonly flag before you run the command to deinstall the
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid Infrastructure
6-5
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
home, or you can use the response file template and manually edit it to create the
parameter file to use with the deinstall command.
6.5.4 Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
You can run the deinstall command with the -paramfile option to use the values
you specify in the parameter file. The following is an example of a parameter file for a
cluster on nodes node1 and node2, in which the Oracle grid infrastructure for a
cluster software binary owner is grid, the Oracle grid infrastructure home (Grid
home) is in the path /u01/app/11.2.0/grid, the Oracle base (the Oracle base for
grid infrastructure, containing Oracle ASM log files, Oracle Clusterware logs, and
other administrative files) is /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/, the central Oracle Inventory
home (oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the virtual IP addresses (VIP) are
192.0.2.2 and 192.0.2.4, the local node (the node where you are running the
deinstallation session from) is node1:
#Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
#Fri Feb 06 00:08:58 PST 2009
LOCAL_NODE=node1
HOME_TYPE=CRS
ASM_REDUNDANCY=\
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/
VIP1_MASK=255.255.252.0
NEW_NODEVIPS='node1-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0,node2-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0'
VOTING_DISKS=/u02/storage/grid/vdsk
SCAN_PORT=1522
silent=true
ASM_UPGRADE=false
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
GPNPCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
LOGDIR=/home/grid/SH/deinstall/logs/
GPNPGCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_OWNER=grid
NODELIST=node1,node2
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=2
NETWORKS="eth0"/192.0.2.1\:public,"eth1"/10.0.0.1\:cluster_interconnect
VIP1_IP=192.0.2.2
NETCFGJAR_NAME=netcfg.jar
ORA_DBA_GROUP=dba
CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2
JREDIR=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/jdk/jre
VIP1_IF=eth0
REMOTE_NODES=node2
VIP2_MASK=255.255.252.0
ORA_ASM_GROUP=asm
LANGUAGE_ID='AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1'
CSS_LEASEDURATION=400
NODE_NAME_LIST=node1,node2
SCAN_NAME=node1scn
SHAREJAR_NAME=share.jar
HELPJAR_NAME=help4.jar
SILENT=false
local=false
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
GNS_CONF=false
JEWTJAR_NAME=jewt4.jar
OCR_LOCATIONS=/u02/storage/grid/ocr
EMBASEJAR_NAME=oemlt.jar
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
6-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
CRS_HOME=true
VIP2_IP=192.0.2.4
ASM_IN_HOME=n
EWTJAR_NAME=ewt3.jar
HOST_NAME_LIST=node1,node2
JLIBDIR=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/jlib
VIP2_IF=eth0
VNDR_CLUSTER=false
CRS_NODEVIPS='node1-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0,node2-vip/255.255.252.0/eth0'
CLUSTER_NAME=node1-cluster
How to Modify or Deinstall Oracle Grid Infrastructure
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Removing Oracle Clusterware and ASM
6-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
A
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure Installation Process
A
This appendix provides troubleshooting information for installing Oracle grid
infrastructure.
See Also: The Oracle Database 11g Oracle RAC documentation set
in the Documentation directory:
■
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment
Guide
This appendix contains the following topics:
■
General Installation Issues
■
Interpreting CVU "Unknown" Output Messages Using Verbose Mode
■
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Setup
■
About the Oracle Clusterware Alert Log
■
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
■
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installations
■
Interconnect Configuration Issues
■
Oracle ASM Library Driver Issues
A.1 General Installation Issues
The following is a list of examples of types of errors that can occur during installation.
It contains the following issues:
■
■
An error occurred while trying to get the disks
Could not execute auto check for display colors using command
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo
■
Failed to connect to server, Connection refused by server, or Can't open display
■
Failed to initialize ocrconfig
■
INS-32026 INSTALL_COMMON_HINT_DATABASE_LOCATION_ERROR
■
Nodes unavailable for selection from the OUI Node Selection screen
■
Node nodename is unreachable
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A-1
General Installation Issues
■
PROT-8: Failed to import data from specified file to the cluster registry
■
Timed out waiting for the CRS stack to start
■
YPBINDPROC_DOMAIN: Domain not bound
An error occurred while trying to get the disks
Cause: There is an entry in /etc/oratab pointing to a non-existent Oracle
home. The OUI log file should show the following error: "java.io.IOException:
/home/oracle/OraHome/bin/kfod: not found"
Action: Remove the entry in /etc/oratab pointing to a non-existing Oracle
home.
Could not execute auto check for display colors using command
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo
Cause: Either the DISPLAY variable is not set, or the user running the installation
is not authorized to open an X window. This can occur if you run the installation
from a remote terminal, or if you use an su command to change from a user that is
authorized to open an X window to a user account that is not authorized to open
an X window on the display, such as a lower-privileged user opening windows on
the root user's console display.
Action: Run the command echo $DISPLAY to ensure that the variable is set to
the correct visual or to the correct host. If the display variable is set correctly then
either ensure that you are logged in as the user authorized to open an X window,
or run the command xhost + to allow any user to open an X window.
If you are logged in locally on the server console as root, and used the su command to change to the grid infrastructure installation owner, then log out of
the server, and log back in as the grid installation owner.
Failed to connect to server, Connection refused by server, or Can't open display
Cause: These are typical of X Window display errors on Windows or UNIX
systems, where xhost is not properly configured, or where you are running as a
user account that is different from the account you used with the startx
command to start the X server.
Action: In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window
session, and enter the following command:
$ xhost fullyqualifiedRemoteHostname
For example:
$ xhost somehost.example.com
Then, enter the following commands, where workstationname is the host name
or IP address of your workstation.
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstationname:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
To determine whether X Window applications display correctly on the local
system, enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor. If this fails to work, then use of the
xhost command may be restricted.
A-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
General Installation Issues
If you are using a VNC client to access the server, then ensure that you are
accessing the visual that is assigned to the user that you are trying to use for the
installation. For example, if you used the su command to become the installation
owner on another user visual, and the xhost command use is restricted, then you
cannot use the xhost command to change the display. If you use the visual
assigned to the installation owner, then the correct display will be available, and
entering the xclock command will display the X clock.
When the X clock appears, then close the X clock and start the installer again.
Failed to initialize ocrconfig
Cause: You have the wrong options configured for NFS in the /etc/fstab file.
You can confirm this by checking ocrconfig.log files located in the path Grid_
home/log/nodenumber/client and finding the following:
/u02/app/crs/clusterregistry, ret -1, errno 75, os err string Value too large
for defined data type
2007-10-30 11:23:52.101: [ OCROSD][3085960896]utopen:6'': OCR location
Action: For file systems mounted on NFS, provide the correct mount
configuration for NFS mounts in the /etc/fstab file:
rw,sync,bg,hard,nointr,tcp,vers=3,timeo=300,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,actimeo=0
Note: You should not have netdev in the mount instructions, or
vers=2. The netdev option is only required for OCFS file systems,
and vers=2 forces the kernel to mount NFS using the older version 2
protocol.
After correcting the NFS mount information, remount the NFS mount point, and
run the root.sh script again. For example, with the mountpoint /u02:
#umount /u02
#mount -a -t nfs
#cd $ORA_CRS_HOME
#sh root.sh
INS-32026 INSTALL_COMMON_HINT_DATABASE_LOCATION_ERROR
Cause: The location selected for the Grid home for a cluster installation is located
under an Oracle base directory.
Action: For grid infrastructure for a cluster installations, the Grid home must not
be placed under one of the Oracle base directories, or under Oracle home
directories of Oracle Database installation owners, or in the home directory of an
installation owner. During installation, ownership of the path to the Grid home is
changed to root. This change causes permission errors for other installations. In
addition, the Oracle Clusterware software stack may not come up under an Oracle
base path.
Nodes unavailable for selection from the OUI Node Selection screen
Cause: Oracle grid infrastructure is either not installed, or the Oracle grid
infrastructure services are not up and running.
Action: Install Oracle grid infrastructure, or review the status of your installation.
Consider restarting the nodes, as doing so may resolve the problem.
Node nodename is unreachable
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A-3
Interpreting CVU "Unknown" Output Messages Using Verbose Mode
Cause: Unavailable IP host
Action: Attempt the following:
1.
Run the shell command ifconfig -a. Compare the output of this command
with the contents of the /etc/hosts file to ensure that the node IP is listed.
2.
Run the shell command nslookup to see if the host is reachable.
PROT-8: Failed to import data from specified file to the cluster registry
Cause: Insufficient space in an existing Oracle Cluster Registry device partition,
which causes a migration failure while running rootupgrade.sh. To confirm,
look for the error "utopen:12:Not enough space in the backing store" in the log file
$ORA_CRS_HOME/log/hostname/client/ocrconfig_pid.log, where pid
stands for the process id.
Action: Identify a storage device that has 280 MB or more available space. Oracle
recommends that you allocate the entire disk to Oracle ASM.
Timed out waiting for the CRS stack to start
Cause: If a configuration issue prevents the Oracle grid infrastructure software
from installing successfully on all nodes, then you may see error messages such as
"Timed out waiting for the CRS stack to start," or you may notice that Oracle
Clusterware-managed resources were not create on some nodes after you exit the
installer. You also may notice that resources have a status other than ONLINE.
Action: Deconfigure the grid infrastructure installation without removing
binaries, and review log files to determine the cause of the configuration issue.
After you have fixed the configuration issue, rerun the scripts used during
installation to configure Oracle Clusterware.
See Also: Section 6.4, "Deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware Without
Removing Binaries"
YPBINDPROC_DOMAIN: Domain not bound
Cause: This error can occur during postinstallation testing when the public
network interconnect for a node is pulled out, and the VIP does not fail over.
Instead, the node hangs, and users are unable to log in to the system. This error
occurs when the Oracle home, listener.ora, Oracle log files, or any action
scripts are located on an NAS device or NFS mount, and the name service cache
daemon nscd has not been activated.
Action: Enter the following command on all nodes in the cluster to start the nscd
service:
/sbin/service
nscd start
A.2 Interpreting CVU "Unknown" Output Messages Using Verbose Mode
If you run Cluster Verification Utility using the -verbose argument, and a Cluster
Verification Utility command responds with UNKNOWN for a particular node, then this
is because Cluster Verification Utility cannot determine if a check passed or failed. The
following is a list of possible causes for an "Unknown" response:
■
■
The node is down
Common operating system command binaries required by Cluster Verification
Utility are missing in the /bin directory in the Oracle grid infrastructure home or
Oracle home directory
A-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Setup
■
■
■
The user account starting Cluster Verification Utility does not have privileges to
run common operating system commands on the node
The node is missing an operating system patch, or a required package
The node has exceeded the maximum number of processes or maximum number
of open files, or there is a problem with IPC segments, such as shared memory or
semaphores
A.3 Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Setup
If the Cluster Verification Utility report indicates that your system fails to meet the
requirements for Oracle grid infrastructure installation, then use the topics in this
section to correct the problem or problems indicated in the report, and run Cluster
Verification Utility again.
■
User Equivalence Check Failed
■
Node Reachability Check or Node Connectivity Check Failed
■
User Existence Check or User-Group Relationship Check Failed
User Equivalence Check Failed
Cause: Failure to establish user equivalency across all nodes. This can be due to
not creating the required users, or failing to complete secure shell (SSH)
configuration properly.
Action: Cluster Verification Utility provides a list of nodes on which user
equivalence failed.
For each node listed as a failure node, review the installation owner user
configuration to ensure that the user configuration is properly completed, and that
SSH configuration is properly completed. The user that runs the Oracle
Clusterware installation must have permissions to create SSH connections.
Oracle recommends that you use the SSH configuration option in OUI to configure
SSH. You can use Cluster Verification Utility before installation if you configure
SSH manually, or after installation, when SSH has been configured for installation.
For example, to check user equivalency for the user account oracle, use the
command su - oracle and check user equivalence manually by running the
ssh command on the local node with the date command argument using the
following syntax:
$ ssh nodename date
The output from this command should be the timestamp of the remote node
identified by the value that you use for nodename. If you are prompted for a
password, then you need to configure SSH. If ssh is in the default location, the
/usr/bin directory, then use ssh to configure user equivalence. You can also use
rsh to confirm user equivalence.
If you see a message similar to the following when entering the date command
with SSH, then this is the probable cause of the user equivalence error:
The authenticity of host 'node1 (140.87.152.153)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 7z:ez:e7:f6:f4:f2:4f:8f:9z:79:85:62:20:90:92:z9.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Enter yes, and then run Cluster Verification Utility to determine if the user
equivalency error is resolved.
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A-5
Interpreting CVU Messages About Oracle Grid Infrastructure Setup
If ssh is in a location other than the default, /usr/bin, then Cluster Verification
Utility reports a user equivalence check failure. To avoid this error, navigate to the
directory Grid_home/cv/admin, open the file cvu_config with a text editor,
and add or update the key ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTESHELL to indicate the ssh path
location on your system. For example:
# Locations for ssh and scp commands
ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTESHELL=/usr/local/bin/ssh
ORACLE_SRVM_REMOTECOPY=/usr/local/bin/scp
Note the following rules for modifying the cvu_config file:
■
Key entries have the syntax name=value
■
Each key entry and the value assigned to the key defines one property only
■
Lines beginning with the number sign (#) are comment lines, and are ignored
■
Lines that do not follow the syntax name=value are ignored
When you have changed the path configuration, run Cluster Verification Utility
again. If ssh is in another location than the default, you also need to start OUI
with additional arguments to specify a different location for the remote shell and
remote copy commands. Enter runInstaller -help to obtain information
about how to use these arguments.
Note: When you or OUI run ssh or rsh commands, including any
login or other shell scripts they start, you may see errors about invalid
arguments or standard input if the scripts generate any output. You
should correct the cause of these errors.
To stop the errors, remove all commands from the oracle user's login
scripts that generate output when you run ssh or rsh commands.
If you see messages about X11 forwarding, then complete the task
"Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration" on page 2-51 to
resolve this issue.
If you see errors similar to the following:
stty: standard input: Invalid argument
stty: standard input: Invalid argument
These errors are produced if hidden files on the system (for example,
.bashrc or .cshrc) contain stty commands. If you see these
errors, then refer to Chapter 2, "Preventing Installation Errors Caused
by stty Commands" on page 2-51 to correct the cause of these errors.
Node Reachability Check or Node Connectivity Check Failed
Cause: One or more nodes in the cluster cannot be reached using TCP/IP
protocol, through either the public or private interconnects.
Action: Use the command /bin/ping address to check each node address.
When you find an address that cannot be reached, check your list of public and
private addresses to make sure that you have them correctly configured. If you use
third-party vendor clusterware, then refer to the vendor documentation for
assistance. Ensure that the public and private network interfaces have the same
interface names on each node of your cluster.
User Existence Check or User-Group Relationship Check Failed
A-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
Cause: The administrative privileges for users and groups required for
installation are missing or incorrect.
Action: Use the id command on each node to confirm that the installation owner
user (for example, grid or oracle) is created with the correct group
membership. Ensure that you have created the required groups, and create or
modify the user account on affected nodes to establish required group
membership.
See Also: "Creating Groups, Users and Paths for Oracle Grid
Infrastructure" in Chapter 2 for instructions about how to create
required groups, and how to configure the installation owner user
A.4 About the Oracle Clusterware Alert Log
The Oracle Clusterware alert log is the first place to look for serious errors. In the event
of an error, it can contain path information to diagnostic logs that can provide specific
information about the cause of errors.
After installation, Oracle Clusterware posts alert messages when important events
occur. For example, you might see alert messages from the Cluster Ready Services
(CRS) daemon process when it starts, if it aborts, if the failover process fails, or if
automatic restart of a CRS resource failed.
Enterprise Manager monitors the Clusterware log file and posts an alert on the Cluster
Home page if an error is detected. For example, if a voting disk is not available, a
CRS-1604 error is raised, and a critical alert is posted on the Cluster Home page. You
can customize the error detection and alert settings on the Metric and Policy Settings
page.
The location of the Oracle Clusterware log file is CRS_
home/log/hostname/alerthostname.log, where CRS_home is the directory in
which Oracle Clusterware was installed and hostname is the host name of the local
node.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide
A.5 Missing Operating System Packages On Linux
You have missing operating system packages on your system if you receive error
messages such as the following during Oracle grid infrastructure, Oracle RAC, or
Oracle Database installation:
libstdc++.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
libXp.so.6: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Errors such as these should not occur, as missing packages should have been identified
during installation. They may indicate that you are using an operating system
distribution that has not been certified, or that you are using an older version of the
Cluster Verification Utility.
If you have a Linux support network configured, such as the Red Hat network or
Oracle Unbreakable Linux support, then use the up2date command to determine the
name of the package. For example:
# up2date --whatprovides libstdc++.so.5
compat-libstdc++-33.3.2.3-47.3
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A-7
Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installations
Also, download the most recent version of Cluster Verification Utility to make sure
that you have the current required packages list. You can obtain the most recent
version at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/clustering/cvu/cvu_
download_homepage.html
A.6 Performing Cluster Diagnostics During Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installations
If the installer does not display the Node Selection page, then use the following
command syntax to check the integrity of the Cluster Manager:
cluvfy comp clumgr -n node_list -verbose
In the preceding syntax example, the variable node_list is the list of nodes in your
cluster, separated by commas.
If you encounter unexplained installation errors during or
after a period when cron jobs are run, then your cron job may have
deleted temporary files before the installation is finished. Oracle
recommends that you complete installation before daily cron jobs are
run, or disable daily cron jobs that perform cleanup until after the
installation is completed.
Note:
A.7 Interconnect Configuration Issues
If you use multiple network interface cards (NICs) for the interconnect, then the NICs
should be bonded at the operating system level. Otherwise, the failure of a single NIC
will affect the availability of the cluster node.
If you install Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC, then they must use the same
NIC or bonded NIC cards for the interconnect.
If you use bonded NIC cards, then they must be on the same subnet.
If you encounter errors, then carry out the following system checks:
■
■
Verify with your network providers that they are using correct cables (length,
type) and software on their switches. In some cases, to avoid bugs that cause
disconnects under loads, or to support additional features such as Jumbo Frames,
you may need a firmware upgrade on interconnect switches, or you may need
newer NIC driver or firmware at the operating system level. Running without
such fixes can cause later instabilities to Oracle RAC databases, even though the
initial installation seems to work.
Review VLAN configurations, duplex settings, and auto-negotiation in accordance
with vendor and Oracle recommendations.
A.8 Oracle ASM Library Driver Issues
The following is a list of error messages and how to address them.
Asmtool: Unable to clear device "devicepath": Input/output error
Cause: This is a write access error that can have several causes
Action: If the disk is mounted, then unmount it. For example: umount
/dev/sdb1. Make sure that the group and user that owns the device is the grid
A-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Oracle ASM Library Driver Issues
infrastructure installation owner and the oraInventory group. For example: chown
grid:oinstall.
Unable to open ASMLib; Unable to find candidate disks 'ORCL:*'
Cause: If you have created disks but you cannot discover candidate disks from
Oracle Universal Installer, this could be due to a variety of configuration errors
that prevent access to Oracle ASM storage.
Action: As the grid infrastructure installation owner, enter the command
/usr/sbin/oracleasm-discover, using the ASM disk path asm_diskstring.
For example:
[[email protected]]$ /usr/sbin/oracleasm-discover 'ORCL:*'
If you do not have /usr/sbin/oracleasm-discover, then you do not have
oracleasmlib installed. If you do have the command, then you should be able
to determine if ASMLib is enabled, if disks are created, and if other tasks to create
candidate disks are completed.
If you have resolved the issue, then you should see output similar to the following
when you enter the command:
[[email protected]]$ /usr/sbin/oracleasm-discover 'ORCL:*'
Using ASMLib from /opt/oracle/extapi/64/asm/orcl/1/libasm.so
[ASM Library - Generic Linux, version
Discovered disk: ORCL:DISK1 [78140097
Discovered disk: ORCL:DISK2 [78140097
Discovered disk: ORCL:DISK3 [78140097
2.0.4 (KABI_V2)]
blocks (40007729664 bytes), maxio 512]
blocks (40007729664 bytes), maxio 512]
blocks (40007729664 bytes), maxio 512]
Troubleshooting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Process
A-9
Oracle ASM Library Driver Issues
A-10 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
B
B
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
This appendix describes how to install and configure Oracle products using response
files. It includes information about the following topics:
■
How Response Files Work
■
Creating the oraInst.loc File
■
Preparing a Response File
■
Running the Installer Using a Response File
■
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Running Database Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
■
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
How Response Files Work
When you start the installer, you can use a response file to automate the installation
and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or partially. The installer uses the
values contained in the response file to provide answers to some or all installation
prompts.
Typically, the installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it prompts you to
provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When you use response
files to provide this information, you run the installer from a command prompt using
either of the following modes:
■
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting the installer, then it runs in silent mode. During a
silent mode installation, the installer does not display any screens. Instead, it
displays progress information in the terminal that you used to start it.
■
Response file mode
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then the installer runs in response file mode. During a
response file mode installation, the installer displays all the screens, screens for
which you specify information in the response file, and also screens for which you
did not specify the required information in the response file.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B-1
How Response Files Work
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For example, to specify the Oracle home name,
supply the appropriate value for the ORACLE_HOME variable:
ORACLE_HOME="OraDBHome1"
Another way of specifying the response file variable settings is to pass them as
command line arguments when you run the installer. For example:
-silent "ORACLE_HOME=OraDBHome1" ...
This method is particularly useful if you do not want to embed sensitive information,
such as passwords, in the response file. For example:
-silent "s_dlgRBOPassword=binks342" ...
Ensure that you enclose the variable and its setting in quotes.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX for more information about response files
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
The following table provides use cases for running the installer in silent mode or
response file mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode to do the following installations:
■
■
■
Complete an unattended installation, which you schedule using
operating system utilities such as at.
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction.
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it.
The installer displays progress information on the terminal that you used to
start it, but it does not display any of the installer screens.
Response file
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
multiple systems, providing default answers to some, but not all of the
installer prompts.
In response file mode, all the installer screens are displayed, but defaults for
the fields in these screens are provided by the response file. You have to
provide information for the fields in screens where you have not provided
values in the response file.
General Procedure for Using Response Files
The following are the general steps to install and configure Oracle products using the
installer in silent or response file mode:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a
system before running the installer in silent or response file mode.
Note:
1.
Create the oraInst.loc file if it is not present on the server.
2.
Prepare a response file.
3.
Run the installer in silent or response file mode.
B-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration
Assistant and Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode.
These steps are described in the following sections.
Creating the oraInst.loc File
If you plan to install Oracle products using the installer in silent or response file mode,
and an oraInst.loc file does not already exist, then you must manually create the
oraInst.loc file. This file specifies the location of the Oracle Inventory directory,
which is where the installer creates the central inventory of Oracle products installed
on the system.
If Oracle software has been installed previously on the
system, then the oraInst.loc file should already exist. If the file
does exist, then you do not need to create this file.
Note:
To create the oraInst.loc file, follow these steps:
1.
Switch user to root:
$ su - root
2.
Change directory:
# cd /etc/
3.
Use a text editor to create the oraInst.loc file, containing the following lines:
inventory_loc=$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
This example assumes that the $ORACLE_BASE environment variable for the
Oracle software installation owner is set to the path of the Oracle base directory,
such as /u01/app/oracle.
4.
Set the ownership of the oraInst.loc file to an Oracle software installation
owner, and to members of the oraInventory group, and change permissions to 664.
For example, if the installation owner is oracle, and the oraInventory group is
oinstall, then enter the following commands:
# chown oracle:oinstall oraInst.loc
# chmod 664 oraInst.loc
Preparing a Response File
This section describes the following methods to prepare a response file for use during
silent mode or response file mode installations:
■
Editing a Response File Template
■
Recording a Response File
Editing a Response File Template
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool. These files are located at database/response directory on
the installation media.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B-3
Preparing a Response File
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
files are located in the directory /response.
Note:
Table B–1 lists the response files provided with this software:
Table B–1
Response Files for Oracle Database
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database 11g
dbca.rsp
Silent installation of Database Configuration Assistant
netca.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
Table B–2
Response files for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Response File
Description
crs_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle grid infrastructure installations
Caution: When you modify a response file template and save a file
for use, the response file may contain plain text passwords.
Ownership of the response file should be given to the Oracle software
installation owner only, and permissions on the response file should
be changed to 600. Oracle strongly recommends that database
administrators or other administrators delete or secure response files
when they are not in use.
To copy and modify a response file:
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/response_file.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, then you can
edit the file in the response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Remember that you can specify sensitive information, such as passwords, at the
command line rather than within the response file. "How Response Files Work" on
page B-1 explains this method.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX for detailed information on creating response files
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
The installer or configuration assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
Note:
B-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
4.
Change the permissions on the file to 600:
$ chmod 600 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
A fully specified response file for an Oracle Database
installation contains the passwords for database administrative
accounts and for a user who is a member of the OSDBA group
(required for automated backups). Ensure that only the Oracle
software owner user can view or modify response files or consider
deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
Recording a Response File
You can use the installer in interactive mode to record a response file, which you can
edit and then use to complete silent mode or response file mode installations. This
method is useful for custom or software-only installations.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation
steps into a response file during installation by clicking Save Response File on the
Summary page. You can use the generated response file for a silent installation later.
When you record the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from the installer on the Summary page, before it starts to copy the software to the
system.
If you use record mode during a response file mode installation, then the installer
records the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Oracle Universal Installer does not record passwords in the
response file.
Note:
To record a response file:
1.
Complete preinstallation tasks as for a normal installation.
2.
If you have not installed Oracle software on this system previously, then create the
oraInst.loc file as described in Creating the oraInst.loc File.
3.
Ensure that the gride infrastructure software owner user (typically grid) has
permissions to create or write to the Grid home home path that you specify when
you run the installer.
4.
On each installation screen, specify the required information.
5.
When the installer displays the Summary screen, perform the following steps:
a.
Click Save Response File and specify a file name and location to save the
values for the response file, and click Save.
b.
Click Finish to create the response file and continue with the installation.
Click Save Response File and Cancel if you only want to create the response
file but not continue with the installation. The installation will stop, but the
settings you have entered will be recorded in the response file.
6.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes.
Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B-5
Running the Installer Using a Response File
Running the Installer Using a Response File
Run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying the response file you
created. The Oracle Universal Installer executable, runInstaller, provides several
options. For help information on the full set of these options, run the runInstaller
command with the -help option. For example:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
The help information appears in a window.
To run the installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks as for a normal installation
2.
Log in as the software installation owner user.
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, then set the DISPLAY
environment variable.
You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if
you are completing a silent mode installation.
Note:
4.
To start the installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command similar to the
following:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then the installer fails.
Note:
In this example:
■
■
■
■
5.
directory_path is the path of the DVD or the path of the directory on the
hard drive where you have copied the installation binaries.
-silent runs the installer in silent mode.
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during
installation, and a software-only installation is performed instead.
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response
file that you configured.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script. For example
$ su root
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names. To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy
and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
B-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Running Database Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
netca.rsp in the response directory in the database/response directory on the
DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
Note:
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly
configure the response file.
Note:
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca /silent /responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
■
■
The /silent option indicates runs Net Configuration Assistant in silent
mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
Running Database Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
You can run configuration assistants in response file or silent mode to configure and
start Oracle software after it is installed on the system. To run configuration assistants
in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file template.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the /response directory.
Note:
This section contains the following topics:
■
About the Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B-7
Running Database Configuration Assistants Using Response Files
About the Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
In the response file mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you
specify, in the response file or as command line options, to create a database. As it
configures and starts the database, it displays a window that contains status messages
and a progress bar. The window that it displays is the same window that is displayed
when you choose to create a preconfigured database during an Enterprise Edition or
Standard Edition installation.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must use a
graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable. Use -progressOnly
flag to set the run mode to response file.
Oracle provides a response file template named dbca.rsp in the /response
directory on the installation media.
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file or silent mode:
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
As an alternative to editing the response file template, you can
also create a database by specifying all required information as
command line options when you run Database Configuration
Assistant. For information about the list of options supported, enter
the following command:
Note:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Edit the file, following the instructions in the file.
Note: Database Configuration Assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
If you intend running Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, set
the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Use the following command syntax to run Database Configuration Assistant in
silent or response file mode using a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-progressOnly | -silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
B-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
In this example:
■
■
■
The -silent option runs Database Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
The -progressOnly option runs Database Configuration Assistant in
response file mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Use the following sections to create and run a response file configuration after
installing Oracle software.
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you otherwise provide manually during a graphical
user interface installation. However, the response file does not contain passwords for
user accounts that configuration assistants require after software installation is
complete. The configuration assistants are started with a script called
configToolAllCommands. You can run this script in response file mode by creating
and using a password response file. The script uses the passwords to run the
configuration tools in succession to complete configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle strongly
recommends that you store it in a secure location. In addition, if you have to stop an
installation to fix an error, you can run the configuration assistants using
configToolAllCommands and a password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file consists of the following
syntax options:
■
internal_component_name is the name of the component that the configuration
assistant configures
■
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
■
value is the desired value to use for configuration.
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=welcome
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
■
■
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
The owner of the response file should be the installation owner user, with the
group set to the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
To run configuration assistants with the configToolAllCommands script:
1.
Create a response file using the syntax filename.properties. For example:
$ touch cfgrsp.properties
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
B-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
2.
Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the password template,
modifying as needed.
Example B–1 Password response file for Oracle grid infrastructure installation for a
cluster
Oracle grid infrastructure requires passwords for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Configuration Assistant (ASMCA), and for Intelligent Platform
Management Interface Configuration Assistant (IPMICA) if you have a BMC card and
you want to enable this feature. Provide the following response file:
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
oracle.crs|S_BMCPASSWORD=password
If you do not have a BMC card, or you do not want to enable IPMI, then leave the S_
BMCPASSWORD input field blank.
Example B–2 Password response file for Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Database configuration requires configuring a password for the SYS, SYSTEM,
SYSMAN, and DBSNMP passwords for use with Database Configuration Assistant
(DBCA). In addition, if you use Oracle ASM storage, then configure the ASMSNMP
password. Also, if you selected to configure Oracle Enterprise Manager, then you must
provide the password for the Oracle software installation owner for the S_
HOSTUSERPASSWORD response.
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSMANPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_HOSTUSERPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager or Oracle ASM, then leave
those password fields blank.
3.
Change permissions to secure the file. For example:
$ ls -al cfgrsp.properties
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 cfgrsp
4.
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs, and run the configuration
script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
for example:
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/cfgrsp.properties
B-10 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
C
Configuring Large Memory Optimization
C
This appendix provides information for configuring memory optimization with large
page tables on the Linux operating system, using Hugepages. It contains the following
topics:
■
Overview of HugePages
■
Restrictions for HugePage Configurations
C.1 Overview of HugePages
You can choose to configure HugePages. For some uses, HugePages can provide
enhanced performance. However, this feature is an advanced configuration option. It
is not a requirement for Oracle RAC.
The following is an overview of HugePages. It does not provide RPM or configuration
information. The tasks you must perform for configuration depend on kernel
distribution and hardware on your system. If you decide to configure your cluster
nodes to use HugePages, then refer to your distribution documentation and to Oracle
Technical Network (OTN) and My Oracle Support for further information.
C.1.1 What HugePages Provides
HugePages is a feature integrated into the Linux kernel with release 2.6. It is a method
to have larger pages where it is useful for working with very large memory. It can be
useful for both 32-bit and 64-bit configurations. HugePage sizes vary from 2MB to
256MB, depending on the kernel version and the hardware architecture. For Oracle
Databases, using HugePages reduces the operating system maintenance of page states,
and increases TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) hit ratio.
Without HugePages, the operating system keeps each 4 KB of memory as a page, and
when it is allocated to the SGA, then the lifecycle of that page (dirty, free, mapped to a
process, and so on) must be kept up to date by the operating system kernel.
With HugePages, the operating system page table (virtual memory to physical
memory mapping) is smaller, since each page table entry is pointing to pages from 2
MB to 256 MB. Also, the kernel has fewer pages whose lifecyle must be monitored.
For example, if you use HugePages with 64-bit hardware, and you want to map 256
MB of memory, you may need one page table entry (PTE). If you do not use
HugePages, and you want to map 256 MB of memory, then you must have 256 MB *
1024 KB/4 KB = 65536 PTEs.
Configuring Large Memory Optimization C-1
Restrictions for HugePage Configurations
C.2 Restrictions for HugePage Configurations
To use HugePages, you must configure Grub to allocate memory for HugePages
during system startup. After paging space is reserved, HugePages can be used as
needed. However, if the space they require is not reserved in memory during system
startup, then a HugePages allocation may fail.
HugePages are not subject to allocation or release after system startup, unless a system
administrator changes the hugepages configuration by modifying the number of pages
available, or the pool size.
C-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
D
D
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
Installation Concepts
This appendix explains the reasons for preinstallation tasks that you are asked to
perform, and other installation concepts.
This appendix contains the following sections:
■
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
■
Understanding Storage Configuration
■
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
This section reviews concepts about grid infrastructure for a cluster preinstallation
tasks. It contains the following sections:
■
Understanding Oracle Groups and Users
■
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path
■
Understanding Network Addresses
■
Understanding Network Time Requirements
Understanding Oracle Groups and Users
This section contains the following topics:
■
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group
■
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Group
You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle
Inventory (oraInventory) directory, which is the central inventory record of all
Oracle software installations on a server. Members of this group have write privileges
to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory) directory, and are also granted
permissions for various Oracle Clusterware resources, OCR keys, directories in the
Oracle Clusterware home to which DBAs need write access, and other necessary
privileges. By default, this group is called oinstall. The Oracle Inventory group
must be the primary group for Oracle software installation owners.
The oraInventory directory contains the following:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts
D-1
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
■
■
■
A registry of the Oracle home directories (Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle
Database) on the system
Installation logs and trace files from installations of Oracle software. These files are
also copied to the respective Oracle homes for future reference.
Other metadata inventory information regarding Oracle installations are stored in
the individual Oracle home inventory directories, and are separate from the
central inventory.
You can configure one group to be the access control group for the Oracle Inventory,
for database administrators (OSDBA), and for all other access control groups used by
Oracle software for operating system authentication. However, this group then must
be the primary group for all users granted administrative privileges.
If Oracle software is already installed on the system, then the
existing Oracle Inventory group must be the primary group of the
operating system user (oracle or grid) that you use to install Oracle
grid infrastructure. Refer to "Determining If the Oracle Inventory and
Oracle Inventory Group Exists" to identify an existing Oracle
Inventory group.
Note:
Understanding the Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) is the central inventory location for
all Oracle software installed on a server.
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, the installer checks to see if you
have created an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) compliant path in the format
u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has
permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then the installer creates the Oracle
Inventory directory in the path /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
When you provide an Oracle base path when prompted during installation, or you
have set the environment variable $ORACLE_BASE for the user performing the Oracle
grid infrastructure installation, then OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the
path $ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if $ORACLE_BASE is set to
/opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path
/opt/oracle/oraInventory, one directory level above Oracle base.
If you have created neither an OFA-compliant path nor set $ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
As this placement can cause permission errors during subsequent installations with
multiple Oracle software owners, Oracle recommends that you either create an
OFA-compliant installation path, or set an $ORACLE_BASE environment path.
For new installations, Oracle recommends that you allow OUI to create the Oracle
Inventory directory (oraInventory). By default, if you create an Oracle path in
compliance with OFA structure, such as /u01/app, that is owned by an Oracle
software owner, then the Oracle Inventory is created in the path
u01/app/oraInventory using correct permissions to allow all Oracle installation
owners to write to this central inventory directory.
D-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under the Oracle Base
directory. This is because all Oracle software installations share a common Oracle
Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users, whereas there is a
separate Oracle Base for each user.
Understanding the Oracle Base Directory Path
This section contains information about preparing an Oracle base directory.
Overview of the Oracle Base directory
During installation, you are prompted to specify an Oracle base location, which is
owned by the user performing the installation. You can choose a location with an
existing Oracle home, or choose another directory location that does not have the
structure for an Oracle base directory.
Using the Oracle base directory path helps to facilitate the organization of Oracle
installations, and helps to ensure that installations of multiple databases maintain an
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) configuration.
Understanding Oracle Base and Grid Infrastructure Directories
Even if you do not use the same software owner to install Grid Infrastructure (Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM) and Oracle Database, be aware that running the
root.sh script during the Oracle grid infrastructure installation changes ownership
of the home directory where clusterware binaries are placed to root, and all ancestor
directories to the root level (/) are also changed to root. For this reason, the Oracle
grid infrastructure for a cluster home cannot be in the same location as other Oracle
software.
However, Oracle grid infrastructure for a standalone database--Oracle Restart--can be
in the same location as other Oracle software.
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform for
more information about Oracle Restart
Understanding Network Addresses
During installation, you are asked to identify the planned use for each network
interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. Identify each interface as a public or
private interface, or as an interface that you do not want Oracle Clusterware to use.
Public and virtual IP addresses are configured on public interfaces. Private addresses
are configured on private interfaces.
Refer to the following sections for detailed information about each address type:
■
About the Public IP Address
■
About the Private IP Address
■
About the Virtual IP Address
■
About the Grid Naming Service (GNS) Virtual IP Address
■
About the SCAN
About the Public IP Address
The public IP address is assigned dynamically using DHCP, or defined statically in a
DNS or in a hosts file. It uses the public interface (the interface with access available to
clients).
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts
D-3
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
About the Private IP Address
Oracle Clusterware uses interfaces marked as private for internode communication.
Each cluster node needs to have an interface that you identify during installation as a
private interface. Private interfaces need to have addresses configured for the interface
itself, but no additional configuration is required. Oracle Clusterware uses interfaces
marked as private as the cluster interconnects. Any interface that you identify as
private must be on a subnet that connects to every node of the cluster. Oracle
Clusterware uses all the interfaces you identify for use as private interfaces.
For the private interconnects, because of Cache Fusion and other traffic between
nodes, Oracle strongly recommends using a physically separate, private network. If
you configure addresses using a DNS, then you should ensure that the private IP
addresses are reachable only by the cluster nodes.
After installation, if you modify interconnects on Oracle RAC with the CLUSTER_
INTERCONNECTS initialization parameter, then you must change it to a private IP
address, on a subnet that is not used with a public IP address, nor marked as a public
subnet by oifcfg. Oracle does not support changing the interconnect to an interface
using a subnet that you have designated as a public subnet.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
further information about setting up and using bonded multiple
interfaces
See Also:
You should not use a firewall on the network with the private network IP addresses, as
this can block interconnect traffic.
About the Virtual IP Address
The virtual IP (VIP) address is registered in the GNS, or the DNS. Select an address for
your VIP that meets the following requirements:
■
■
The IP address and host name are currently unused (it can be registered in a DNS,
but should not be accessible by a ping command)
The VIP is on the same subnet as your public interface
About the Grid Naming Service (GNS) Virtual IP Address
The GNS virtual IP address is a static IP address configured in the DNS. The DNS
delegates queries to the GNS virtual IP address, and the GNS daemon responds to
incoming name resolution requests at that address.
Within the subdomain, the GNS uses multicast Domain Name Service (mDNS),
included with Oracle Clusterware, to enable the cluster to map hostnames and IP
addresses dynamically as nodes are added and removed from the cluster, without
requiring additional host configuration in the DNS.
To enable GNS, you must have your network administrator provide a set of IP
addresses for a subdomain assigned to the cluster (for example,
grid.example.com), and delegate DNS requests for that subdomain to the GNS
virtual IP address for the cluster, which GNS will serve. The set of IP addresses is
provided to the cluster through DHCP, which must be available on the public network
for the cluster.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about Grid Naming Service
See Also:
D-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Understanding Preinstallation Configuration
About the SCAN
Oracle Database 11g release 2 clients connect to the database using SCANs. The SCAN
and its associated IP addresses provide a stable name for clients to use for connections,
independent of the nodes that make up the cluster. SCAN addresses, virtual IP
addresses, and public IP addresses must all be on the same subnet.
The SCAN is a virtual IP name, similar to the names used for virtual IP addresses,
such as node1-vip. However, unlike a virtual IP, the SCAN is associated with the
entire cluster, rather than an individual node, and associated with multiple IP
addresses, not just one address.
The SCAN works by being able to resolve to multiple IP addresses in the cluster
handling public client connections. When a client submits a request, the SCAN listener
listening on a SCAN IP address and the SCAN port is made available to a client.
Because all services on the cluster are registered with the SCAN listener, the SCAN
listener replies with the address of the local listener on the least-loaded node where
the service is currently being offered. Finally, the client establishes connection to the
service through the listener on the node where service is offered. All of these actions
take place transparently to the client without any explicit configuration required in the
client.
During installation listeners are created. They listen on the SCAN IP addresses
provided on nodes for the SCAN IP addresses. Oracle Net Services routes application
requests to the least loaded instance providing the service. Because the SCAN
addresses resolve to the cluster, rather than to a node address in the cluster, nodes can
be added to or removed from the cluster without affecting the SCAN address
configuration.
The SCAN should be configured so that it is resolvable either by using Grid Naming
Service (GNS) within the cluster, or by using Domain Name Service (DNS) resolution.
For high availability and scalability, Oracle recommends that you configure the SCAN
name so that it resolves to three IP addresses. At a minimum, the SCAN must resolve
to at least one address.
If you specify a GNS domain, then the SCAN name defaults to clustername-scan.GNS_
domain. Otherwise, it defaults to clustername-scan.current_domain. For example, if you
start Oracle grid infrastructure installation from the server node1, the cluster name is
mycluster, and the GNS domain is grid.example.com, then the SCAN Name is
mycluster-scan.grid.example.com.
Clients configured to use IP addresses for Oracle Database releases prior to Oracle
Database 11g release 2 can continue to use their existing connection addresses; using
SCANs is not required. When you upgrade to Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2),
the SCAN becomes available, and you should use the SCAN for connections to Oracle
Database 11g release 2 or later databases. When an earlier version of Oracle Database is
upgraded, it registers with the SCAN listeners, and clients can start using the SCAN to
connect to that database. The database registers with the SCAN listener through the
remote listener parameter in the init.ora file. The REMOTE_LISTENER parameter
must be set to SCAN:PORT. Do not set it to a TNSNAMES alias with a single address
with the SCAN as HOST=SCAN.
The SCAN is optional for most deployments. However, clients using Oracle Database
release 11g release 2 and later policy-managed databases using server pools should
access the database using the SCAN. This is because policy-managed databases can
run on different servers at different times, so connecting to a particular node virtual IP
address for a policy-managed database is not possible.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts
D-5
Understanding Storage Configuration
Understanding Network Time Requirements
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) is automatically configured with Cluster Time
Synchronization Service (CTSS). This service provides automatic synchronization of all
cluster nodes using the optimal synchronization strategy for the type of cluster you
deploy. If you have an existing cluster synchronization service, such as NTP, then it
will start in an observer mode. Otherwise, it will start in an active mode to ensure that
time is synchronized between cluster nodes. CTSS will not cause compatibility issues.
The CTSS module is installed as a part of Oracle grid infrastructure installation. CTSS
daemons are started up by the OHAS daemon (ohasd), and do not require a
command-line interface.
Understanding Storage Configuration
Understanding Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
About Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances
About Converting Standalone Oracle ASM Installations to Clustered Installations
Understanding Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
Oracle Automatic Storage Management has been extended to include a general
purpose file system, called Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
(Oracle ACFS). Oracle ACFS is a new multi-platform, scalable file system, and storage
management technology that extends Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) functionality to support customer files maintained outside of the Oracle
Database. Files supported by Oracle ACFS include application binaries and
application reports. Other supported files are video, audio, text, images, engineering
drawings, and other general-purpose application file data.
About Migrating Existing Oracle ASM Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from a prior release installed on your server, or
in an existing Oracle Clusterware installation, then you can use Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Configuration Assistant (ASMCA, located in the path Grid_
home/bin) to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance to Oracle ASM 11g release 2
(11.2), and subsequently configure failure groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS).
You must first shut down all database instances and
applications on the node with the existing Oracle ASM instance before
upgrading it.
Note:
During installation, if you chose to use Oracle ASM and ASMCA detects that there is a
prior Oracle ASM version installed in another home, then after installing the Oracle
ASM 11g release 2 (11.2) binaries, you can start ASMCA to upgrade the existing Oracle
ASM instance. You can then choose to configure an ACFS deployment by creating
Oracle ASM volumes and using the upgraded Oracle ASM to create the ACFS.
On an existing Oracle Clusterware or Oracle RAC installation, if the prior version of
Oracle ASM instances on all nodes is Oracle ASM 11g release 1, then you are provided
with the option to perform a rolling upgrade of Oracle ASM instances. If the prior
version of Oracle ASM instances on an Oracle RAC installation are from an Oracle
Oracle ASM release prior to Oracle ASM 11g release 1, then rolling upgrades cannot be
performed. Oracle ASM is then upgraded on all nodes to 11g release 2 (11.2).
D-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
About Converting Standalone Oracle ASM Installations to Clustered Installations
If you have an existing standalone Oracle ASM installations on one or more nodes that
are member nodes of the cluster, then OUI proceeds to install Oracle grid
infrastructure for a cluster.
If you place Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting disks) on Oracle ASM, then
ASMCA is started at the end of the clusterware installation, and provides prompts for
you to migrate and upgrade the Oracle ASM instance on the local node, so that you
have an Oracle ASM 11g release 2 (11.2) installation.
On remote nodes, ASMCA identifies any standalone Oracle ASM instances that are
running, and prompts you to shut down those Oracle ASM instances, and any
database instances that use them. ASMCA then extends clustered Oracle ASM
instances to all nodes in the cluster. However, diskgroup names on the cluster-enabled
Oracle ASM instances must be different from existing standalone diskgroup names.
See Also:
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
With an out-of-place upgrade, the installer installs the newer version in a separate
Oracle Clusterware home. Both versions of Oracle Clusterware are on each cluster
member node, but only one version is active.
Rolling upgrade avoids downtime and ensure continuous availability while the
software is upgraded to a new version.
If you have separate Oracle Clusterware homes on each node, then you can perform
an out-of-place upgrade on all nodes, or perform an out-of-place rolling upgrade, so
that some nodes are running Oracle Clusterware from the earlier version Oracle
Clusterware home, and other nodes are running Oracle Clusterware from the new
Oracle Clusterware home.
An in-place upgrade of Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 is not supported.
See Also: Appendix F, "How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2" for instructions on completing rolling
upgrades
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Installation Concepts
D-7
Understanding Out-of-Place Upgrade
D-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
E
How to Complete Installation Prerequisite
Tasks Manually
E
This appendix provides instructions for how to complete configuration tasks manually
that Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) and the installer (OUI) normally complete
during installation. Use this appendix as a guide if you cannot use the fixup script.
This appendix contains the following information:
■
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
■
Configuring Kernel Parameters
■
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
Passwordless SSH configuration is a mandatory installation requirement. SSH is used
during installation to configure cluster member nodes, and SSH is used after
installation by configuration assistants, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Opatch, and other
features.
Automatic Passwordless SSH configuration using OUI creates RSA encryption keys on
all nodes of the cluster. If you have system restrictions that require you to set up SSH
manually, such as using DSA keys, then use this procedure as a guide to set up
passwordless SSH.
In the examples that follow, the Oracle software owner listed is the grid user.
If SSH is not available, then OUI attempts to use rsh and rcp instead. However, these
services are disabled by default on most Linux systems.
Note: The supported version of SSH for Linux distributions is
OpenSSH.
This section contains the following:
■
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
■
Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes
■
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes
Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System
To determine if SSH is running, enter the following command:
How to Complete Installation Prerequisite Tasks Manually
E-1
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
$ pgrep sshd
If SSH is running, then the response to this command is one or more process ID
numbers. In the home directory of the installation software owner (grid, oracle),
use the command ls -al to ensure that the .ssh directory is owned and writable
only by the user.
You need either an RSA or a DSA key for the SSH protocol. RSA is used with the SSH
1.5 protocol, while DSA is the default for the SSH 2.0 protocol. With OpenSSH, you can
use either RSA or DSA. The instructions that follow are for SSH1. If you have an SSH2
installation, and you cannot use SSH1, then refer to your SSH distribution
documentation to configure SSH1 compatibility or to configure SSH2 with DSA.
Configuring SSH on Cluster Nodes
To configure SSH, you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node, and
then copy all the keys generated on all cluster node members into an authorized keys
file that is identical on each node. Note that the SSH files must be readable only by
root and by the software installation user (oracle, grid), as SSH ignores a private
key file if it is accessible by others. In the examples that follow, the DSA key is used.
You must configure SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner that
you intend to use for installation.
To configure SSH, complete the following:
Create SSH Directory, and Create SSH Keys On Each Node
Complete the following steps on each node:
1.
Log in as the software owner (in this example, the grid user).
2.
To ensure that you are logged in as grid, and to verify that the user ID matches
the expected user ID you have assigned to the grid user, enter the commands id
and id grid. Ensure that Oracle user group and user and the user terminal
window process you are using have group and user IDs are identical. For example:
$ id
uid=502(grid) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(grid,asmadmin,asmdba)
$ id grid
uid=502(grid) gid=501(oinstall) groups=501(oinstall),502(grid,asmadmin,asmdba)
3.
If necessary, create the .ssh directory in the grid user's home directory, and set
permissions on it to ensure that only the oracle user has read and write
permissions:
$ mkdir ~/.ssh
$ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
Note:
4.
SSH configuration will fail if the permissions are not set to 700.
Enter the following command:
$ /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t dsa
At the prompts, accept the default location for the key file (press Enter).
E-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
Note: SSH with passphrase is not supported for Oracle Clusterware
11g release 2 and later releases.
This command writes the DSA public key to the ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub file and
the private key to the ~/.ssh/id_dsa file.
Never distribute the private key to anyone not authorized to perform Oracle
software installations.
5.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 on each node that you intend to make a member of the
cluster, using the DSA key.
Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File
Complete the following steps:
1.
On the local node, change directories to the .ssh directory in the Oracle grid
infrastructure owner's home directory (typically, either grid or oracle).
Then, add the DSA key to the authorized_keys file using the following
commands:
$ cat id_dsa.pub >> authorized_keys
$ ls
In the .ssh directory, you should see the id_rsa.pub keys that you have created,
and the file authorized_keys.
2.
On the local node, use SCP (Secure Copy) or SFTP (Secure FTP) to copy the
authorized_keys file to the oracle user .ssh directory on a remote node. The
following example is with SCP, on a node called node2, with the Oracle grid
infrastructure owner grid, where the grid user path is /home/grid:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/grid/.ssh/
You are prompted to accept a DSA key. Enter Yes, and you see that the node you
are copying to is added to the known_hosts file.
When prompted, provide the password for the grid user, which should be the
same on all nodes in the cluster. The authorized_keys file is copied to the
remote node.
Your output should be similar to the following, where xxx represents parts of a
valid IP address:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp authorized_keys node2:/home/grid/.ssh/
The authenticity of host 'node2 (xxx.xxx.173.152) can't be established.
DSA key fingerprint is 7e:60:60:ae:40:40:d1:a6:f7:4e:zz:me:a7:48:ae:f6:7e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.173.152' (dsa) to the list
of known hosts
[email protected]'s password:
authorized_keys
100%
828
7.5MB/s
00:00
3.
Using SSH, log in to the node where you copied the authorized_keys file. Then
change to the .ssh directory, and using the cat command, add the DSA keys for
the second node to the authorized_keys file, clicking Enter when you are
prompted for a password, so that passwordless SSH is set up:
[[email protected] .ssh]$ ssh node2
[[email protected] grid]$ cd .ssh
How to Complete Installation Prerequisite Tasks Manually
E-3
Configuring SSH Manually on All Cluster Nodes
[[email protected] ssh]$ cat id_dsa.pub
>> authorized_keys
Repeat steps 2 and 3 from each node to each other member node in the cluster.
When you have added keys from each cluster node member to the authorized_
keys file on the last node you want to have as a cluster node member, then use
scp to copy the authorized_keys file with the keys from all nodes back to each
cluster node member, overwriting the existing version on the other nodes.
To confirm that you have all nodes in the authorized_keys file, enter the
command more authorized_keys, and determine if there is a DSA key for
each member node. The file lists the type of key (ssh-dsa), followed by the key,
and then followed by the user and server. For example:
ssh-dsa AAAABBBB . . . = [email protected]
Note: The grid user's /.ssh/authorized_keys file on every
node must contain the contents from all of the /.ssh/id_dsa.pub
files that you generated on all cluster nodes.
Enabling SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes
After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all keys to each node
in the cluster, complete the following procedure, in the order listed. In this example,
the Oracle grid infrastructure software owner is named grid:
1.
On the system where you want to run OUI, log in as the grid user.
2.
Use the following command syntax, where hostname1, hostname2, and so on,
are the public hostnames (alias and fully qualified domain name) of nodes in the
cluster to run SSH from the local node to each node, including from the local node
to itself, and from each node to each other node:
[[email protected]]$ ssh hostname1 date
[[email protected]]$ ssh hostname2 date
.
.
.
For example:
[[email protected] grid]$ ssh node1 date
The authenticity of host 'node1 (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be established.
DSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,xxx.xxx.100.101' (DSA) to the list of
known hosts.
Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
[[email protected] grid]$ ssh node1.example.com date
The authenticity of host 'node1.example.com (xxx.xxx.100.101)' can't be
established.
DSA key fingerprint is 7z:60:60:zz:48:48:z1:a0:f7:4e.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1.example.com,xxx.xxx.100.101' (DSA) to the
list of known hosts.
Mon Dec 4 11:08:13 PST 2006
[[email protected] grid]$ ssh node2 date
Mon Dec 4 11:08:35 PST 2006
.
.
E-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters
.
At the end of this process, the public hostname for each member node should be
registered in the known_hosts file for all other cluster nodes.
If you are using a remote client to connect to the local node, and you see a message
similar to "Warning: No xauth data; using fake authentication data for X11
forwarding," then this means that your authorized keys file is configured correctly,
but your SSH configuration has X11 forwarding enabled. To correct this issue,
proceed to "Setting Display and X11 Forwarding Configuration" on page 2-51.
3.
Repeat step 2 on each cluster node member.
If you have configured SSH correctly, then you can now use the ssh or scp commands
without being prompted for a password. For example:
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh
Mon Feb 26 23:34:42
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh
Mon Feb 26 23:34:48
node2 date
UTC 2009
node1 date
UTC 2009
If any node prompts for a password, then verify that the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
file on that node contains the correct public keys, and that you have created an Oracle
software owner with identical group membership and IDs.
Configuring Kernel Parameters
This section contains the following:
■
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
■
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
■
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
Note: The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the
following section are recommended values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. Refer to your operating
system documentation for more information about tuning kernel
parameters.
Minimum Parameter Settings for Installation
During installation, or when you run the Cluster Verification Utility (cluvfy) with the
flag -fixup, a fixup script is generated. This script updates required kernel packages
if necessary to minimum values.
If you cannot use the fixup scripts, then review the following table to set values
manually:
Parameter
Value
File
semmsl
semmns
semopm
semmni
250
32000
100
128
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
How to Complete Installation Prerequisite Tasks Manually
E-5
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Parameter
Value
File
shmmax
Either 4 GB - 1
byte, or half the
size of physical
memory (in
bytes),
whichever is
lower.
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
Default:
536870912
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
shmall
2097152
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/file-max
ip_local_port_range
Minimum: 9000
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
Maximum:
65500
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
aio-max-nr
1048576
/proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value
listed in this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of
that parameter.
Note:
Additional Parameter and Kernel Settings for SUSE Linux
On SUSE systems only, complete the following steps as needed:
1.
Enter the following command to cause the system to read the
/etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2.
On SUSE 10 systems only, use a text editor to change the
/etc/sysconfig/boot.sysctl parameter RUN_PARALLEL flag from yes to
no.
3.
Enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter
/proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this grants members of
oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
After running this command, use vi to add the following text to
/etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system
restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
E-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
Note:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_
group.
4.
Repeat steps 1 through 3 on all other nodes in the cluster.
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
To check your OCFS version manually, enter the following commands:
modinfo ocfs2
rpm -qa |grep ocfs2
Ensure that ocfs2console and ocfs2-tools are at least version 1.2.7, and that the
other OCFS2 components correspond to the pattern ocfs2-kernel_version-1.2.7 or
greater. If you want to install Oracle RAC on a shared home, then the OCFS version
must be 1.4.1 or greater.
For information about OCFS2, refer to the following Web site:
http://oss.oracle.com/projects/ocfs2/
How to Complete Installation Prerequisite Tasks Manually
E-7
Checking OCFS2 Version Manually
E-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
F
F
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid
Infrastructure 11g Release 2
This appendix describes how to perform Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management upgrades.
Oracle Clusterware upgrades can be rolling upgrades, in which a subset of nodes are
brought down and upgraded while other nodes remain active. Oracle Automatic
Storage Management 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrades can be rolling upgrades. If you
upgrade a subset of nodes, then a software-only installation is performed on the
existing cluster nodes that you do not select for upgrade.
This appendix contains the following topics:
■
Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades
■
Unset Oracle Environment Variables
■
Restrictions for Clusterware and Oracle ASM Upgrades
■
Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
■
Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release
■
Updating DB Control and Grid Control Target Parameters
■
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
F.1 Back Up the Oracle Software Before Upgrades
Before you make any changes to the Oracle software, Oracle recommends that you
create a backup of the Oracle software and databases.
F.2 Unset Oracle Environment Variables
Unset Oracle environment variables.
If you have set ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable, following instructions
from Oracle Support, then unset it before starting an installation or upgrade. You
should never use ORA_CRS_HOME as an environment variable except under explicit
direction from Oracle Support.
If you have had an existing installation on your system, and you are using the same
user account to install this installation, then unset the following environment
variables: ORA_CRS_HOME; ORACLE_HOME; ORA_NLS10; TNS_ADMIN; and any
other environment variable set for the Oracle installation user that is connected with
Oracle software homes.
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 F-1
Restrictions for Clusterware and Oracle ASM Upgrades
F.3 Restrictions for Clusterware and Oracle ASM Upgrades
Be aware of the following restrictions and changes for upgrades to Oracle grid
infrastructure installations, which consists of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM):
■
■
To upgrade existing Oracle Clusterware installations to Oracle grid infrastructure
11g, your release must be greater than or equal to 10.1.0.3, 10.2.0.3, or 11.1.0.6.
To upgrade existing Oracle ASM installations to Oracle grid infrastructure 11g
release 2 (11.2) in a rolling fashion, your release must be at least 11.1.0.6.
See Also: Oracle Upgrade Companion" Note 785351.1 on My Oracle
Support:
https://metalink.oracle.com
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM upgrades are always out-of-place upgrades.
With 11g release 2 (11.2), you cannot perform an in-place upgrade of Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM to existing homes.
If the existing Oracle Clusterware home is a shared home, note that you can use a
non-shared home for the grid infrastructure for a cluster home for Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM 11g release 2 (11.2).
With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 1 and later releases, the same user that owned
the Oracle Clusterware 10g software must perform the Oracle Clusterware 11g
upgrade. Before Oracle Database 11g, either all Oracle software installations were
owned by the Oracle user, typically oracle, or Oracle Database software was
owned by oracle, and Oracle Clusterware software was owned by a separate
user, typically crs.
Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware both run in the Oracle grid infrastructure
home.
During a major version upgrade to 11g release 2 (11.2), the software in the 11g
release 2 (11.2) grid infrastructure home is not fully functional until the upgrade is
completed. Running srvctl, crsctl, and other commands from the 11g release 2
(11.2) home is not supported until the final rootupgrade.sh script is run and the
upgrade is complete across all nodes.
To manage databases in the existing earlier version (release 10.x or 11.1) database
homes during the grid infrastructure upgrade, use the srvctl from the existing
database homes.
■
■
During Oracle Clusterware installation, if there is a single instance Oracle ASM
version on the local node, then it is converted to a clustered Oracle ASM 11g
release 2 (11.2) installation, and Oracle ASM runs in the Oracle grid infrastructure
home on all nodes.
If a single instance (non-clustered) Oracle ASM installation is on a remote node,
which is a node other than the local node (the node on which the Oracle grid
infrastructure installation is being performed), then it will remain a single instance
Oracle ASM installation. However, during installation, if you select to place the
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting disk files on Oracle ASM, then a
clustered Oracle ASM installation is created on all nodes in the cluster, and the
single instance Oracle ASM installation on the remote node will become
nonfunctional.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
F-2 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release
F.4 Preparing to Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
If you have an existing Oracle Clusterware installation, then you upgrade your
existing cluster by performing an out-of-place upgrade. You cannot perform an
in-place upgrade.
F.4.1 Verifying System Readiness for Upgrades
Use Cluster Verification Utility to assist you with system checks in preparation for
starting a database upgrade. The installer runs the appropriate CVU checks
automatically, and either prompts you to fix problems, or provides a fixup script to be
run on all nodes in the cluster before proceeding with the upgrade.
With Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2), you can perform upgrades on a shared
Oracle Clusterware home.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
F.4.2 Checks to Complete Before Upgrade an Existing Oracle Clusterware Installation
Complete the following tasks before starting an upgrade:
1.
For each node, use Cluster Verification Utility to ensure that you have completed
preinstallation steps. It can generate Fixup scripts to help you to prepare servers.
In addition, the installer will help you to ensure all required prerequisites are met.
Ensure that you have information you will need during installation, including the
following:
■
■
■
■
■
2.
An Oracle base location for Oracle Clusterware.
An Oracle grid infrastructure home location that is different from your
existing Oracle Clusterware location
A SCAN address
Privileged user operating system groups to grant access to Oracle ASM data
files (the OSDBA for ASM group), to grant administrative privileges to the
Oracle ASM instance (OSASM group), and to grant a subset of administrative
privileges to the Oracle ASM instance (OSOPER for ASM group)
root user access, to run scripts as root during installation
For the installation owner running the installation, if you have environment
variables set for the existing installation, then unset the environment variables
$ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_SID, as these environment variables are used
during upgrade. For example:
$ unset ORACLE_BASE
$ unset ORACLE_HOME
$ unset ORACLE_SID
See Also:
Section F.2, "Unset Oracle Environment Variables"
F.5 Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release
Use the following procedures to upgrade Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Automatic
Storage Management:
■
Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Clusterware
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 F-3
Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release
■
Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Automatic Storage Management
When you upgrade to Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2),
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is installed in
the same home as Oracle Clusterware. In Oracle documentation, this
home is called the "grid infrastructure home," or Grid home. Also note
that Oracle does not support attempting to add additional nodes to a
cluster during a rolling upgrade.
Note:
F.5.1 Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Clusterware
Use the following procedure to upgrade Oracle Clusterware from an earlier release to
a later release:
Oracle recommends that you leave Oracle RAC instances
running. When you start the root script on each node, that node's
instances are shut down and then started up again by the
rootupgrade.sh script.
Note:
For single instance Oracle Databases on the cluster, only those that use
Oracle ASM need to be shut down. Listeners do not need to be shut
down.
1.
Start the installer, and select the option to upgrade an existing Oracle Clusterware
and Oracle ASM installation.
2.
On the node selection page, select all nodes.
In contrast with releases prior to Oracle Clusterware 11g
release 2, all upgrades are rolling upgrades, even if you select all
nodes for the upgrade.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you select all cluster member nodes for the
upgrade, and then shut down database instances on each node before
you run the upgrade root script, starting the database instance up
again on each node after the upgrade is complete. You can also use
this procedure to upgrade a subset of nodes in the cluster.
3.
Select installation options as prompted.
4.
When prompted, run the rootupgrade.sh script on each node in the cluster that
you want to upgrade.
Run the script on the local node first. The script shuts down the earlier release
installation, replaces it with the new Oracle Clusterware release, and starts the
new Oracle Clusterware installation.
After the script completes successfully, you can run the script in parallel on all
nodes except for one, which you select as the last node. When the script is run
successfully on all the nodes except the last node, run the script on the last node.
5.
After running the rootupgrade.sh script on the last node in the cluster, if you
left the check box with ASMCA marked, as is the default, then ASM Configuration
Assistant runs automatically, and the Oracle Clusterware upgrade is complete. If
F-4 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Performing Rolling Upgrades From an Earlier Release
you unclicked the box on the interview stage of the upgrade, then ASMCA is not
run automatically.
If an earlier version of Oracle Automatic Storage Management is installed, then the
installer starts ASM Configuration Assistant to upgrade Oracle ASM to 11g release
2 (11.2). You can choose to upgrade Oracle ASM at this time, or upgrade it later.
Oracle recommends that you upgrade Oracle ASM at the same time that you
upgrade the Oracle Clusterware binaries. Until Oracle ASM is upgraded, Oracle
databases that use Oracle ASM cannot be created. Until Oracle ASM is upgraded,
the 11g release 2 (11.2) Oracle ASM management tools in the Grid home (for
example, srvctl) will not work.
At the end of the upgrade, if you set the OCR backup location
manually to the older release Oracle Clusterware home (CRS home),
then you must change the OCR backup location to the Oracle grid
infrastructure home (Grid home). If you did not set the OCR backup
location manually, then this issue does not concern you.
Note:
Because upgrades of Oracle Clusterware are out-of-place upgrades,
the previous release Oracle Clusterware home cannot be the location
of the OCR backups. Backups in the old Oracle Clusterware home
could be deleted.
F.5.2 Performing a Rolling Upgrade of Oracle Automatic Storage Management
After you have completed the Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrade, if you
did not choose to upgrade Oracle ASM when you upgraded Oracle Clusterware, then
you can do it separately using the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (asmca) to perform rolling upgrades.
You can use asmca to complete the upgrade separately, but you should do it soon after
you upgrade Oracle Clusterware, as Oracle ASM management tools such as srvctl
will not work until Oracle ASM is upgraded.
ASMCA performs a rolling upgrade only if the earlier version
of Oracle ASM is either 11.1.0.6 or 11.1.0.7. Otherwise, ASMCA
performs a normal upgrade, in which ASMCA brings down all Oracle
ASM instances on all nodes of the cluster, and then brings them all up
in the new Grid home.
Note:
F.5.2.1 Preparing to Upgrade Oracle ASM
Note the following if you intend to perform rolling upgrades of Oracle ASM:
■
The active version of Oracle Clusterware must be 11g release 2 (11.2). To determine
the active version, enter the following command:
$ crsctl query crs activeversion
■
■
You can upgrade a single instance Oracle ASM installation to a clustered Oracle
ASM installation. However, you can only upgrade an existing single instance
Oracle ASM installation if you run the installation from the node on which the
Oracle ASM installation is installed. You cannot upgrade a single instance Oracle
ASM installation on a remote node.
You must ensure that any rebalance operations on your existing Oracle ASM
installation are completed before starting the upgrade process.
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 F-5
Updating DB Control and Grid Control Target Parameters
■
During the upgrade process, you alter the Oracle ASM instances to an upgrade
state. Because this upgrade state limits Oracle ASM operations, you should
complete the upgrade process soon after you begin. The following are the
operations allowed when an Oracle ASM instance is in the upgrade state:
–
Diskgroup mounts and dismounts
–
Opening, closing, resizing, or deleting database files
–
Recovering instances
–
Queries of fixed views and packages: Users are allowed to query fixed views
and run anonymous PL/SQL blocks using fixed packages, such as dbms_
diskgroup)
F.5.2.2 Upgrading Oracle ASM
Complete the following procedure to upgrade Oracle ASM:
1.
On the node you plan to start the upgrade, set the environment variable ASMCA_
ROLLING_UPGRADE as true. For example:
$ export ASMCA_ROLLING_UPGRADE=true
2.
From the Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) home, start ASMCA. For
example:
$ cd /u01/11.2/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
3.
Select Upgrade.
ASM Configuration Assistant upgrades Oracle ASM in succession for all nodes in
the cluster.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide and Oracle Database Storage
Administrator's Guide for additional information about preparing an
upgrade plan for Oracle ASM, and for starting, completing, and
stopping Oracle ASM upgrades
F.6 Updating DB Control and Grid Control Target Parameters
Because Oracle Clusterware release 2 (11.2) is an out-of-place upgrade of the Oracle
Clusterware home in a new location (the grid infrastructure for a cluster home, or Grid
home), the path for the CRS_HOME parameter in some parameter files must be
changed. If you do not change the parameter, then you encounter errors such as
"cluster target broken on dbcontrol or Grid control.
Use the following procedure to resolve this issue:
1.
Log in to dbconsole or gridconsole.
2.
Navigate to the Cluster tab.
3.
Click Monitoring Configuration
4.
Update the value for Oracle Home with the new Grid home path.
F.7 Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
After a successful or a failed upgrade to Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2), you
can restore Oracle Clusterware to the previous version.
F-6 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
The restoration procedure in this section restores the Clusterware configuration to the
state it was in before the Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrade. Any
configuration changes you performed during or after the 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrade
are removed and cannot be recovered.
To restore Oracle Clusterware to the previous release:
1.
On all remote nodes, use the command syntax Grid_home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl
-downgrade [-force] to stop the 11g release 2 (11.2) resources, shut down the 11g
release 2 (11.2) stack.
Note:
This command does not reset the OCR, or delete ocr.loc.
For example:
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl -downgrade
If you want to stop a partial or failed 11g release 2 (11.2) installation and restore the
previous release Oracle Clusterware, then use the -force flag with this
command.
2.
After the rootcrs.pl -downgrade script has completed on all remote nodes,
on the local node use the command syntax Grid_home/crs/install/rootcrs.pl
-downgrade -lastnode -oldcrshome pre11.2_crs_home -version pre11.2_crs_version
[-force], where pre11.2_crs_home is the home of the earlier Oracle Clusterware
installation, and pre11.2_crs_version is the release number of the earlier Oracle
Clusterware installation.
For example:
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl -downgrade -lastnode -oldcrshome
/u01/app/crs -version 11.1.0.6.0
This script downgrades the OCR, and removes binaries from the Grid home. If
you want to stop a partial or failed 11g release 2 (11.2) installation and restore the
previous release Oracle Clusterware, then use the -force flag with this
command.
3.
After the local node script completes, you are prompted to run root.sh from the
earlier release Oracle Clusterware installation home in sequence on each member
node of the cluster. After you complete this task, downgrade is completed.
Running root.sh from the earlier release Oracle Clusterware installation home
restarts the Oracle Clusterware stack, starts up all the resources previously
registered with Oracle Clusterware in the older version, and configures the old
initialization scripts to run the earlier release Oracle Clusterware stack.
How to Upgrade to Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 F-7
Downgrading Oracle Clusterware After an Upgrade
F-8 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Index
Numerics
32-bit and 64-bit
software versions in the same cluster not
supported, 2-21
A
accounts configured by, 2-3
ACFS. See Oracle ACFS.
aio-max-nr, E-6
AMD 64
software requirements for, 2-34
and asmcmd errors, 2-9
architecture
checking system architecture, 2-23
Asianux
operating system requirements, 2-31, 2-34
ASM
and multiple databases, 2-15
and rolling upgrade, F-5
ASM library driver (ASMLIB), 4-7
block device names, 3-25
candidate disks, 1-6, 3-22
characteristics of failure groups, 3-18, 3-30
checking disk availability, 3-24
configuring disks for ASM, 3-22
creating the OSDBA for ASM group, 2-16
disk groups, 3-16
displaying attached disks, 3-24
failure groups, 3-16
examples, 3-18, 3-30
identifying, 3-18, 3-30
identifying available disks, 3-24
number of instances on each node, 1-5, 3-2
OSASM or ASM administrator, 2-14
OSDBA for ASM group, 2-15
recommendations for disk groups, 3-16
required for Standard Edition Oracle RAC, 3-1
required for Typical install type, 3-1
rolling upgrade of, 4-2
space required for Oracle Clusterware files, 3-17
space required for preconfigured database, 3-17
storage option for data files, 3-3
storing Oracle Clusterware files on, 3-4
ASM disks
marking, 4-7
ASM group
creating, 2-16
ASM library driver (oracleasm)
installing, 3-22
ASMLIB, 4-7
configuring system startup options for
, 3-27
how to configure, 3-23
ASMSNMP, 4-3, B-10
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System.
See Oracle ACFS.
Automatic Storage Management. See Oracle ASM.
B
Bash shell
default user startup file, 2-48
setting shell limits, 2-50
.bash_profile file, 2-48
binaries
relinking, 5-7
block devices
and upgrades, 3-3
creating permissions file for Oracle Clusterware
files, 3-28
creating permissions file for Oracle Database
files, 3-32
desupport of, 3-32
desupported, 3-3
device name, 3-25
for upgrades only, 3-32
block devices desupported, xiv
BMC
configuring, 2-44
BMC interface
preinstallation tasks, 2-42
Bourne shell
default user startup file, 2-48
setting shell limits on Linux x86, 2-50
C
C shell
default user startup file, 2-48
setting shell limits, 2-50
Index-1
candidate disks
marking, 1-6, 3-22
central inventory, 2-13
about, D-1
central inventory. See Also OINSTALL group, and
Oracle Inventory group
changing host names, 4-3
checking Linux distribution, 2-39
chmod command, 3-14
chown command, 3-14
clients
connecting to SCANs, D-5
cluster configuration file, 4-7
cluster file system
storage option for data files, 3-3
cluster file systems
grid home not supported on, 3-2
cluster name
requirements for, 4-4
cluster nodes
private node names, 4-4
public node names, 4-3
specifying uids and gids, 2-18
virtual node names, 4-4
Cluster Time Synchronization Service, 2-40
Cluster Verification Utility
cvuqdisk, 2-41
fixup scripts, 2-5
user equivalency troubleshooting, A-5
commands, 2-50
asmca, 3-31, 4-6, 5-5, F-5
asmcmd, 2-9
cat, 2-39
chmod, 3-14
chown, 3-14
crsctl, 4-10, 5-6, F-2, F-5
dd, xvi
df, 1-2, 2-23
env, 2-50
fdisk, 3-24, 3-28
free, 2-23
groupadd, 2-18
id, 2-18
ipmitool, 2-44
lsdev, 3-24
lsmod, 2-43
mkdir, 3-14
modinfo, 2-39
modprobe, 2-43
nscd, 2-29
ntpd, 2-41
partprobe, 3-29, 3-32
passwd, 2-19
ping, 2-24
rootcrs.pl, 4-9, 5-7
and deconfigure option, 6-3
rootupgrade.sh, F-2
rpm, 2-39, 2-41
sqlplus, 2-9
srvctl, F-2
Index-2
swap, 2-23
swapon, 2-23
umask, 2-48
uname, 2-23, 2-39, 3-22
unset, F-3
useradd, 2-10, 2-17, 2-19
usermod, 2-18
xhost, 2-6
xterm, 2-7
configuring kernel parameters, E-5
cron jobs, 4-5, A-8
crs_install.rsp file, B-4
cssd agent and monitor, xv
ctsdd, 2-40
custom database
failure groups for ASM, 3-18, 3-30
requirements when using ASM, 3-17
Custom installation type
reasons for choosing, 2-14
cvuqdisk, 2-41
D
data files
creating separate directories for, 3-13, 3-14
setting permissions on data file directories, 3-14
storage options, 3-3
data loss
minimizing with ASM, 3-18, 3-30
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, B-7
database files
supported storage options, 3-4
databases
ASM requirements, 3-17
dba group. See OSDBA group
dbca.rsp file, B-4
deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware, 6-3
default file mode creation mask
setting, 2-48
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 2-3
deinstall, 6-1
deinstallation, 6-1
desupported
block devices, xiv
raw devices, xiv
device names
IDE disks, 3-24
SCSI disks, 3-25
df command, 2-23, 2-49
Direct NFS
disabling, 3-15
enabling, 3-11
for data files, 3-7
minimum write size value for, 3-8
directory
creating separate data file directories, 3-13, 3-14
permission for data file directories, 3-14
disk group
ASM, 3-16
recommendations for Oracle ASM disk
groups, 3-16
disk groups
recommendations for, 3-16
disk space
checking, 2-23
requirements for preconfigured database in
ASM, 3-17
disks
checking availability for ASM, 3-24
displaying attached disks, 3-24
disks. See Also ASM disks
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 2-49
E
emulator
installing from X emulator, 2-7
Enterprise Linux
operating system requirements, 2-31, 2-34
enterprise.rsp file, B-4
env command, 2-50
environment
checking settings, 2-50
configuring for oracle user, 2-47
environment variables
DISPLAY, 2-49
ORACLE_BASE, 2-49, B-3, D-2
ORACLE_HOME, 2-9, 2-49, F-3
ORACLE_SID, 2-49, F-3
removing from shell startup file, 2-49
SHELL, 2-48
TEMP and TMPDIR, 2-23, 2-49
errata
Linux kernel errata, 2-39
errors
X11 forwarding, 2-51, E-5
/etc/security/limits.so file, 2-50
Exadata
relinking binaries example for, 5-7
examples
ASM failure groups, 3-18, 3-30
F
failure group
ASM, 3-16
characteristics of ASM failure group, 3-18, 3-30
examples of ASM failure groups, 3-18, 3-30
fdisk command, 3-24
features, new, xiii
fencing, xv
and cssd agent and monitor, xv
and IPMI, xv, 2-42, 4-5
file mode creation mask
setting, 2-48
file system
storage option for data files, 3-3
file systems, 3-4
file-max, E-6
files
$ORACLE_HOME/lib/libnfsodm11.so, 3-12
$ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm11.so, 3-12
.bash_profile, 2-48
dbca.rsp, B-4
editing shell startup file, 2-48
enterprise.rsp, B-4
/etc/security/limits.so, 2-50
.login, 2-48
oraInst.loc, 2-8
oraInst.loc file, B-3
/proc/sys/fs/file-max, E-5
/proc/sys/kernel/sem, E-5
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, E-5
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, E-5
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni, E-5
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, E-5
.profile, 2-48
response files, B-3
filesets, 2-30
fixup script, 2-5
about, 1-1
G
GFS, 3-4
gid
identifying existing, 2-18
specifying, 2-18
specifying on other nodes, 2-18
globalization
support for, 4-3
GNS
about, 2-25
GNS virtual IP address, 4-3
GPFS, 3-4
grid home
and Oracle base restriction, 2-10
default path for, 2-52
disk space for, 2-22
unlocking, 5-7
grid infrastructure owner (grid), 2-13
grid naming service. See GNS
grid user, 2-13
group IDs
identifying existing, 2-18
specifying, 2-18
specifying on other nodes, 2-18
groups
checking for existing OINSTALL group, 2-8
creating identical groups on other nodes, 2-18
creating the ASM group, 2-16
creating the OSDBA for ASM group, 2-16
creating the OSDBA group, 2-15
OINSTALL, 2-8, 2-9
OSASM (asmadmin), 2-14
OSDBA (dba), 2-14
OSDBA for ASM (asmdba), 2-15
Index-3
OSDBA group (dba), 2-14
OSOPER (oper), 2-14
OSOPER for ASM, 2-15
OSOPER group (oper), 2-14
required for installation owner user, 2-13
specifying when creating users, 2-18
using NIS, 2-13, 2-18
H
hangcheck timer
replaced with cssd agent and monitor, xv
hardware requirements, 2-21
host names
changing, 4-3
legal hostnames, 4-4
I
id command, 2-18
IDE disks
device names, 3-24
INS-32026 error, 2-10
installation
and cron jobs, 4-5
and globalization, 4-3
response files, B-3
oraInst.loc file, B-3
preparing, B-3, B-5
templates, B-3
silent mode, B-6
using cluster configuration file, 4-7
installation types
and ASM, 3-17
Instantaneous Problem Detection Operating System
Tool. See
interfaces, 4-3
requirements for private interconnect, D-4
intermittent hangs
and socket files, 4-10
ip_local_port_range, E-6
IPMI
addresses not configurable by GNS, 2-42
configuring driver for, 2-43
preinstallation tasks, 2-42
preparing for installation, 4-5
J
JDK requirements, 2-30
job role separation users, 2-13
K
kernel
Linux errata, 2-39
kernel parameters
configuring, E-5
Korn shell
and LDAP, 2-33, 2-37
default user startup file, 2-48
Index-4
setting shell limits, 2-50
ksh
See Korn shell
L
LDAP
odisrvreg
system requirements for, 2-33, 2-37
oidca
system requirements for, 2-33, 2-37
schemasynch
system requirements for, 2-33, 2-37
legal hostnames, 4-4
libnfsodm11.so, 3-12
libodm11.so, 3-12
libpam, 2-33, 2-37
lightweight directory access protocol
See LDAP
limits.so file, 2-50
Linux
checking version, 2-39
cvuqdisk package, 2-41
determining distribution of, 2-39
kernel errata, 2-39
setting shell limits, 2-50
Linux (32-bit)
software requirements for, 2-30
Linux x86-64
software requirements for, 2-34
Linux-pam, 2-33, 2-37
log file
how to access during installation, 4-6
.login file, 2-48
lsdev command, 3-24
LVM
recommendations for ASM, 3-16
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-48
memory requirements, 2-21
minimal Linux installation
recommendation for, 2-2
mixed binaries, 2-30
mkdir command, 3-14
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-48
multiple databases
and ASM, 2-15
multiple oracle homes, 2-9, 3-14
My Oracle Support, 5-1
N
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, B-6
running at command prompt, B-6
netca, 4-6
netca.rsp file, B-4
Network Information Services
See NIS
new features, xiii
NFS, 3-4, 3-10
and data files, 3-9
and Oracle Clusterware files, 3-5
buffer size parameters for, 3-9, 3-11
Direct NFS, 3-7
for data files, 3-9
rsize, 3-10
NIS
alternative to local users and groups, 2-13
nofile
shell limit on Linux, 2-50
noninteractive mode. See response file mode
nproc
shell limit on Linux, 2-50
NTP protocol
and slewing, 2-40
O
OCFS2, 3-4
checking on Linux, 2-39
checking version of, 2-34, 2-38, E-7
download location for Linux, 2-39
grid home not supported on, 3-2
status of, 2-39
OCR. See Oracle Cluster Registry
OINSTALL group
about, D-1
and oraInst.loc, 2-8
checking for existing, 2-8
creating on other nodes, 2-18
OINSTALL group. See Also Oracle Inventory group
oper group. See OSOPER group
operating system
checking distribution and version of Linux, 2-39
different on cluster members, 2-30
limitation for Oracle ACFS, D-6
missing packages, A-7
requirements, 2-30
oprocd
replaced with cssd agent and monitor, xv
optimal flexible architecture
and oraInventory directory, D-2
ORA-27369
job of type EXECUTABLE failed with exit code
, 2-33, 2-37
Oracle ACFS
about, D-6
supported Linux versions for, 3-2
Oracle ASM
Configuring the Oracle ASM library driver, 3-23
Oracle ASM Library Driver
How to configure, 3-23
Oracle base
grid homes not permitted under, 2-53
Oracle base directory
about, D-3
grid home must not be in an Oracle Database
Oracle base, 2-10
minimum disk space for, 2-22
Oracle Cluster Registry
configuration of, 4-4
mirroring, 3-5
partition sizes, 3-6
permissions file to own block device
partitions, 3-28
supported storage options, 3-4
Oracle Clusterware
and file systems, 3-4
and upgrading Oracle ASM instances, 1-5, 3-2
installing, 4-1
rolling upgrade of, 4-2
supported storage options for, 3-4
upgrading, 3-6
Oracle Clusterware files
ASM disk space requirements, 3-17
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide
replaced by Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
Guide, xiii, 4-1
Oracle Database
creating data file directories, 3-13, 3-14
data file storage options, 3-3
operating system patch requirements for, 2-31,
2-35
privileged groups, 2-14
requirements with ASM, 3-17
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
response file, B-4
Oracle Disk Manager
and Direct NFS, 3-11
Oracle Enterprise Linux
and Oracle Validated RPM, 2-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager
ASMSNMP account, B-10
Oracle grid infrastructure response file, B-4
oracle home, 2-9
ASCII path restriction for, 4-5
multiple oracle homes, 2-9, 3-14
Oracle Inventory group
about, D-1
checking for existing, 2-8
creating, 2-8
creating on other nodes, 2-18
oraInst.loc file and, 2-8
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, B-4
Oracle patch updates, 5-1
Oracle Real Application Clusters
configuring disks for ASM, 3-24
operating system patch requirements for, 2-31,
2-35
Oracle Software Owner user
configuring environment for, 2-47
creating, 2-10, 2-16, 2-17
creating on other nodes, 2-18
determining default shell, 2-48
required group membership, 2-13
Index-5
Oracle software owner user
creating, 2-9
description, 2-13
Oracle Software Owner users
setting shell limits for, 2-50
Oracle Universal Installer
response files
list of, B-4
Oracle Upgrade Companion, 2-5
oracle user
and Oracle Validated RPM, 2-3
configuring environment for, 2-47
creating, 2-9, 2-10, 2-16, 2-17
creating on other nodes, 2-18
description, 2-13
determining default shell, 2-48
required group membership, 2-13
setting shell limits for, 2-50
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM, xvii
about, 2-3
included with Oracle Enterprise Linux, 2-3
installing, 2-4
troubleshooting, 2-4
ORACLE_BASE environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 2-49
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 2-49
ORACLE_SID environment variable
removing from shell startup file, 2-49
oracleasm RPM
installing, 3-22
oracle-validated.rpm, 2-3
oraInst.loc
and central inventory, 2-8
contents of, 2-8
oraInst.loc file
location, 2-8
location of, 2-8
oraInventory, 2-13
about, D-1
creating, 2-8
oraInventory. See Also Oracle Inventory group
OS Watcher, 5-3
OSASM group, 2-14
about, 2-14
and multiple databases, 2-15
and SYSASM, 2-15
creating, 2-16
OSDBA for ASM group, 2-15
about, 2-14
OSDBA group
and SYSDBA privilege, 2-14
creating, 2-15
creating on other nodes, 2-18
description, 2-14
OSDBA group for ASM
creating, 2-16
OSOPER for ASM group
about, 2-14
creating, 2-16
Index-6
OSOPER group
and SYSOPER privilege, 2-14
creating, 2-16
creating on other nodes, 2-18
description, 2-14
P
package cvuqdisk not installed, 2-41
packages
checking on Linux, 2-39
default Linux installation and, 2-30
packages. See Also RPMs
PAM, 2-33, 2-37
partition
using with ASM, 3-16
passwd command, 2-19
passwords
specifying for response files, B-2
See also security
patch updates
download, 5-1
install, 5-1
My Oracle Support, 5-1
PC X server
installing from, 2-7
permissions
for data file directories, 3-14
physical RAM requirements, 2-21
policy-managed databases
and SCANs, D-5
postinstallation
patch download and install, 5-1
root.sh back up, 5-2
preconfigured database
ASM disk space requirements, 3-17
requirements when using ASM, 3-17
privileged groups
for Oracle Database, 2-14
processor
checking system architecture, 2-23
/proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr, E-6
/proc/sys/fs/file-max file, E-6
/proc/sys/kernel/sem file, E-5
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, E-6
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall file, E-6
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, E-6
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni file, E-6
/proc/sys/kernel/shmni, E-6
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, E-6
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max file, E-6
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file, E-6
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max file, E-6
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, E-6
.profile file, 2-48
PRVF-5436 error, 2-40
R
RACDDT,
5-3
RAID
and mirroring Oracle Cluster Registry and voting
disk, 3-5
recommended ASM redundancy level, 3-16
RAM requirements, 2-21
raw devices
and upgrades, 3-3, 3-32
desupport of, 3-32
upgrading existing partitions, 3-6
raw devices desupported, xiv
recovery files
supported storage options, 3-4
Red Hat
operating system requirements, 2-31, 2-34
Red Hat Package Manager
See RPM
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 3-17
relinking grid infrastructure home binaries, 5-7, 6-2
requirements, 3-17
hardware, 2-21
response file installation
oraInst.loc file, B-3
preparing, B-3
response files
templates, B-3
silent mode, B-6
response file mode
about, B-1
reasons for using, B-2
See also response files, silent mode, B-1
response files
about, B-1
creating with template, B-3
crs_install.rsp, B-4
dbca.rsp, B-4
enterprise.rsp, B-4
general procedure, B-2
Net Configuration Assistant, B-6
netca.rsp, B-4
passing values at command line, B-2
passwords, B-2
security, B-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, B-6
response files.See also silent mode
rmem_default, E-6
rmem_max, E-6
rolling upgrade
ASM, 4-2
of ASM, F-5
Oracle Clusterware, 4-2
root user
logging in as, 2-6
root.sh, 4-6
back up, 5-2
running, 4-3
RPMs
checking, 2-39
default Linux installation and, 2-30
rsize parameter, 3-10
run level, 2-21
S
SCAN address, 4-3
SCAN listener, D-5
SCANs, 1-3, 2-26
understanding, D-5
use of SCANs required for clients of
policy-managed databases, D-5
scripts
root.sh, 4-3
SCSI disks
device names, 3-25
security
dividing ownership of Oracle software, 2-12
user authentication, 2-33, 2-37
See also passwords
sem file, E-5
semmni parameter
recommended value on Linux, E-5
semmns parameter
recommended value on Linux, E-5
semmsl parameter
recommended value on Linux, E-5
semopm parameter
recommended value on Linux, E-5
setting shell limits, 2-50
shell
determining default shell for oracle user, 2-48
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 2-48
shell limits
setting on Linux, 2-50
shell startup file
editing, 2-48
removing environment variables, 2-49
shmall, E-6
shmmax, E-6
shmmni, E-6
silent mode
about, B-1
reasons for using, B-2
See also response files., B-1
silent mode installation, B-6
single client access names. See SCAN addresses
software requirements, 2-30
checking software requirements, 2-39
ssh
and X11 Forwarding, 2-51
automatic configuration from OUI, 2-47
configuring, E-1
supported version of, E-1
when used, 2-47
stack
shell limit on Linux, 2-50
startup file
for shell, 2-48
storage
Index-7
marking ASM candidate disks, 4-7
supported storage options
Oracle Clusterware, 3-4
suppressed mode
reasons for using, B-2
SUSE
operating system requirements, 2-31, 2-34
swap space
requirements, 2-21
SYSASM, 2-14
and OSASM, 2-15
SYSDBA
using database SYSDBA on ASM
deprecated, 2-15
SYSDBA privilege
associated group, 2-14
SYSOPER privilege
associated group, 2-14
system architecture
checking, 2-23
T
tcsh shell
setting shell limits, 2-50
TEMP environment variable, 2-23
setting, 2-49
temporary directory, 2-23
temporary directory. See /tmp directory
temporary disk space
checking, 2-23
freeing, 2-23
requirements, 2-21
/tmp directory
checking space in, 2-23
freeing space in, 2-23
TMPDIR environment variable, 2-23
setting, 2-49
troubleshooting
and deinstalling, 6-1
asmcmd errors and oracle home, 2-9
automatic SSH configuration from OUI, 2-47
deconfiguring Oracle Clusterware to fix causes of
root.sh errors, 6-3
different group and user IDs, 2-4
disk space errors, 4-5
DISPLAY errors, 2-51
environment path errors, 4-5
error messages, A-1
intermittent hangs, 4-10
log file, 4-6
missing operating system packages, A-7
nfs mounts, 2-29
permissions errors and oraInventory, D-1
permissions errors during installation, D-2
public network failures, 2-29
root.sh errors, 6-3
run level error, 2-21
sqlplus errors and oracle home, 2-9
ssh, E-1
Index-8
ssh configuration failure, E-2
ssh errors, 2-51
stty errors, 2-51
Unable to clear device, A-8
Unable to find candidate disks, A-9
Unable to open ASMLib, A-9
unexplained installation errors, 4-5, A-8
user equivalency, A-5, E-1
user equivalency error due to different user or
group IDs, 2-11, 2-17
user equivalency errors, 2-9
voting disk backups with dd command, xvi
with OS Watcher and RACDDT, 5-3
X11 forwarding error, 2-51
U
uid
identifying existing, 2-18
specifying, 2-18
specifying on other nodes, 2-18
umask, 2-50
umask command, 2-48, 2-50
uninstall, 6-1
uninstalling, 6-1
upgrade
of Oracle Clusterware, 4-2
restrictions for, F-2
unsetting environment variables for, F-3
upgrades, 2-5
and SCANs, D-5
of Oracle ASM, F-5
using raw or block devices with, 3-3
upgrading
and existing Oracle ASM instances, 1-5, 3-2
and OCR partition sizes, 3-6
and voting disk partition sizes, 3-6
shared Oracle Clusterware home to local grid
homes, 2-53
user equivalence
testing, A-5
user equivalency errors
groups and users, 2-11, 2-17
user IDs
identifying existing, 2-18
specifying, 2-18
specifying on other nodes, 2-18
useradd command, 2-10, 2-17, 2-19
users
creating identical users on other nodes, 2-18
creating the grid user, 2-9
creating the oracle user, 2-10, 2-16, 2-17
oracle software owner user (oracle), 2-13
setting shell limits for, 2-50
setting shell limits for users on Linux, 2-50
specifying groups when creating, 2-18
using NIS, 2-13, 2-18
V
voting disks
backing up with dd command deprecated, xvi
configuration of, 4-4
mirroring, 3-5
partition sizes, 3-6
supported storage options, 3-4
W
wmem_default, E-6
wmem_max, E-6
workstation
installing from, 2-6
wsize parameter, 3-10
wtmax, 3-8
minimum value for Direct NFS,
3-8
X
X emulator
installing from, 2-7
X window system
enabling remote hosts, 2-6, 2-7
X11 forwarding
error, 2-51
X11 forwarding errors, E-5
xhost command, 2-6
xterm command, 2-7
Index-9
Index-10
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