WAR OF THE SUNS WAR OF RESISTANCE, 1937-1945 RULEBOOK Table Of Contents 1.0 – Introduction.......................................................................... 2 1.1 – Game Components...............................................................2 1.2 – Sides And Players.................................................................2 1.3 – Game Scale...........................................................................2 1.4 – The Map & Player Aids..........................................................2 Abbreviations.................................................................................3 1.5 – Glossary And General Concepts...........................................3 2.0 – Victory Conditions............................................................... 3 2.1 – Campaign Game...................................................................3 2.2 – Scenario Games....................................................................4 2.3 – Immediate Defeat..................................................................4 3.0 – The Playing Pieces.............................................................. 4 3.1 – Unit Counters........................................................................4 3.2 – Marker Counters....................................................................6 4.0 – General Game Concepts..................................................... 6 15.0 – Unit Breakdown............................................................... 19 15.1 – Breakdown Procedure.......................................................20 15.2 – Reassembly Procedure.....................................................20 16.0 – Guerrilla Warfare.............................................................. 20 16.1 – Guerrilla Bases..................................................................20 16.2 – Guerrilla Recruitment.........................................................20 16.3 – Converting Regular Units To Guerrillas.............................21 16.4 – Converting Guerrillas To Regular Units.............................21 16.5 – Non-Chinese Guerrilla Units..............................................21 16.6 – Anti-Guerrilla Warfare........................................................21 17.0 – Air And Naval Operations................................................ 23 17.1 – Bases And Ports................................................................23 17.2 – Zones And Deployment.....................................................23 17.3 – Status................................................................................23 17.4 – Reequipping Air Units........................................................23 17.5 – Missions............................................................................24 17.6 – Air/Naval Combat Sequence.............................................27 4.1 – Zones Of Control...................................................................6 4.2 – Stacking.................................................................................6 4.3 – Limited Operation Areas........................................................7 4.4 – Rounding And Cumulative Modifiers.....................................7 4.5 – Unused Capacities................................................................7 18.0 – Political Negotiations...................................................... 27 5.1 – Pre-Operation Segment........................................................7 5.2 – Operation Segment...............................................................7 5.3 – Post-Operation Segment......................................................7 19.0 – Threatened Cliques......................................................... 29 20.0 – Inflation............................................................................. 29 7.1 – Events Phase.........................................................................8 7.2 – Weather Events ....................................................................8 7.3 – Yellow River Dike Destruction..............................................10 7.4 – “Green Veil”.........................................................................10 7.5 – Drought/Locusts..................................................................10 7.6 – Disease................................................................................10 21.0 – Ground Unit Improvement.............................................. 30 5.0 – Sequence Of Play................................................................ 7 6.0 – Turn 0 Special Rules............................................................ 8 7.0 – Events................................................................................... 8 8.0 – Transport Routes............................................................... 10 8.1 – Off-Map Trails, Roads And Railroads..................................10 8.2 – River Routes........................................................................10 8.3 – Transport Route Construction.............................................10 8.4 – Transport Route Sabotage..................................................11 9.0 – Headquarters And Activation........................................... 11 9.1 – HQ Counters........................................................................11 9.2 – HQ Deployment And Movement.........................................11 9.3 – HQ Removal........................................................................11 9.4 – Activation.............................................................................11 9.5 – Command............................................................................12 10.0 – Supply............................................................................... 13 10.1 – Supply Centers..................................................................13 10.2 – Maintaining Supply............................................................13 11.0 – Movement......................................................................... 14 11.1 – Regular Movement............................................................14 11.2 – Special Movement Types..................................................15 11.3 – Transport...........................................................................15 12.0 – Combat............................................................................. 16 12.1 – Effects Of Terrain On Combat...........................................16 12.2 – Effects Of ZOCs On Combat.............................................16 12.3 – Determining Combat Results............................................16 12.4 – Post-Combat Movement...................................................16 12.5 – Surrender...........................................................................17 13.0 – Replacements.................................................................. 17 13.1 – Replacement Abilities........................................................17 13.2 – Replacement Points..........................................................17 13.3 – Chinese Replacements.....................................................17 13.4 – Oilfields..............................................................................18 13.5 – Replacement Restrictions.................................................18 13.6 – Converting CP To RP.........................................................18 14.0 – Unit Deployment.............................................................. 19 14.1 – Deployment Order.............................................................19 14.2 – Reinforcement & Replacement Deployment.....................19 18.1 – Peace Talks.......................................................................27 18.2 – Relations With Major Powers............................................28 18.3 – KMT Clique And Minor Country Political Affiliation...........28 20.1 – Isolating China...................................................................29 20.2 – Inflation Effects..................................................................29 20.3 – Controlling Inflation...........................................................30 21.1 – Sources Of Improvement..................................................30 21.2 – Improvement Procedure....................................................31 21.3 – Training..............................................................................31 22.0 – Factories........................................................................... 31 22.1 – Movement..........................................................................31 22.2 – Productivity........................................................................31 22.3 – Stacking Limit....................................................................31 23.0 – KMT Advisors And Japanese Collaborators................. 31 23.1 – KMT Military Advisors........................................................31 23.2 – Japanese Collaborators....................................................32 24.0 – Special Units.................................................................... 32 24.1 – Chindit Units......................................................................32 24.2 – British 3rd Commando Brigade.........................................32 24.3 – Artillery Units.....................................................................32 24.4 – Armor And Mechanized Infantry Units..............................32 24.5 – Japanese Navy Ground Forces.........................................32 24.6 – Japanese Puppet Forces..................................................33 24.7 – Chinese Army In India.......................................................33 24.8 – 20th Air Force B-29s.........................................................33 24.9 – Bandit Units.......................................................................33 24.10 – Engineer Units.................................................................33 25.0 – Alternate Histories (Optional)......................................... 33 25.1 – Further Concessions.........................................................33 25.2 – Stalin’s Choice...................................................................34 25.3 – Sian Forgiven.....................................................................34 25.4 – Wang Ming Ousts Mao......................................................34 25.5 – Peace Mission Of Wang Ching-Wei..................................34 25.6 – Japan’s China First Policy.................................................34 25.7 – Indian Uprising..................................................................34 25.8 – Stilwell’s Dream.................................................................35 25.9 – US Amphibious Landings..................................................35 25.10 – No Atomic Bombs...........................................................35 26.0 – Variant Rules (Optional).................................................. 35 26.1 – Simplified Rules.................................................................35 26.2 – Limited Intelligence...........................................................35 26.3 – Historical Game.................................................................35 Credits......................................................................................... 36 War of the Suns 2 1.0 – INTRODUCTION 天無二日 — There can never be two suns under one sky. This Chinese saying never became more true than when the Red Sun of the Imperial Japanese Empire launched its aggression against the White Sun of the newly unified China. Defending against this onslaught was a fragile coalition of the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), but each with their own agenda to also pursue. It is truly a miracle that such a divided China could sustain a large-scale war against an industrialized country like Japan for more than eight years. Five years after the end of the War of Resistance, however, both suns had set on the theater where millions had died. The final winner was not a sun but the red star of the Communists. 1.1 – GAME COMPONENTS 1.3 – GAME SCALE Each turn represents one season: Winter (December to February), Spring (March to May), Summer ( June to August), and Fall (September to November). The map scale is about 1:3,000,000, each hex being approximately 33 miles (55 km) across. One Stacking Point represents approximately 5,000 combatants. 1.4 – THE MAP & PLAYER AIDS The 3 included maps represents the vast geographical area over which the War of Resistance was fought, divided into the China-Indochina (CIC) and IndiaBurma-Siam (IBS) theaters. DESIGN NOTE: Siam was historically part of the Chinese theater, but the British had in reality a much stronger influence over it than China did. The map has been superimposed with a hexagonal grid to help adjudicate military activities like movement and combat. • 1760 counters printed on 10 separate countersheets • This Rulebook • • A Playbook, detailing the various campaigns and scenarios, order of battle information and various game aids and tables Mini-Map: A copy of the Territories Table map, with boxes to place markers designating territories and rivers affected by events. • • Eight Player Aids • Three 22" by 34" mapsheets • One 8.5" by 11" map overlay • 4 dice Task Force Boxes: To avoid unwieldy stacks on the map, the players may use the Task Force (TF) markers of the various sides to represent the air units and fleets in a given hex. Place the TF marker on the map, and place the counters in the corresponding Task Force Box on your display. Task forces including units from several sides should be represented by WA TF markers when in the IBS theater, or KMT TF markers when in the CIC theater. • War of the Suns is a 2 to 4 player strategic simulation of the eight year war in the China-Burma-India (CBI) theater of World War II. There are four different sides in the game: Activation Track: The HQ Chits of all the HQs in play are placed on this track to manage their activations during the Operation Segment [5.2]. • Japan. Controls the units of the Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy, Manchukuo, Mengkiang, Chinese collaborationists, Burma Defense Army, and Indian National Army, as well as pro-Japan Siamese and (Vichy) French units. Record Track: This track is used to place markers recording important game values, like victory points levels, remaining Transport Points or Command Points, Replacement Points, etc. • Kuomintang (KMT). Controls the units of the KMT cliques, as well as the Allied air units and fleets operating in the China-Indochina theater and the West Pacific Holding Box. Political Display: This display is used to record the political affiliation of the various KMT cliques [18.3] and of minor countries, as well as the attitudes of the three major powers toward Japan and the KMT [18.2]. • Holding Boxes: The two holding boxes represent off-map areas where units may enter play, operate in, or retreat to. Units in a friendly holding box are always in command and in supply. note: Numbers in [brackets] are rule references. 1.2 – SIDES AND PLAYERS • • • Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Controls the units of the CCP and Vietminh. • Western Allies (WA). Controls the units of the British Commonwealth, the ground units of the USA and Chinese Army in India, all the Allied air units and fleets operating in the India-BurmaSiam theater and the Indian Ocean Holding Box, as well as pro-WA Siamese and (Free) French units. Some tracks, tables, and boxes are printed on the map and the player aids: 1. 2. Indian Ocean Holding Box (represents off-map India and Ceylon) — Controlled by the WA. Ground units may move between the box and the IBS theater via air or sea transport, or the transport routes in India leading off map. This holding box also represents the Indian Ocean air and sea zones. Air units and fleets must perform one mission to redeploy to the IBS theater. NOTE: The CCP will be less active in the game than Japan and the KMT. Also, the WA enter play on Turn 18 only. Depending on the number of players, each player will control one or more sides. When a player controls several sides, rules specifically relating to one of his sides apply only to those forces controlled by that side. 1.2.1 – Four-Player Game: Each player controls one side. If more than four players are available, the players on a given side should allocate all the territories of the map among themselves; they are then responsible for handling the activations of all HQs of their side activated while within their respective territories. West Pacific Holding Box (represents mainly Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) — Controlled by Japan, unless otherwise specified. Ground units may only move between the box and the CIC theater via air or sea transport. This holding box also represents the West Pacific air and sea zones. Air units and fleets herein must perform one mission to redeploy to the CIC theater. • Unit Pools: These four boxes on the player displays are used to hold the following units: 1. Reinforcement Pool — Units becoming available on the current turn before they are deployed on the map, and units whose entry has been delayed for any reason to the current turn. 1.2.2 – Three-Player Game: One player controls Japan, another one controls the KMT, and the third controls both the CCP and the WA. 2. Replacement Pool — Replaceable units that have been eliminated. Only units in this Pool can be replaced. 1.2.3 – Two-Player Game: One player controls Japan and the other controls the KMT, the CCP, and the WA. See Garrison Requirements Table for a special garrison requirement. 3. Non-Replaceable (NR) Pool — NR units that have been eliminated, or units that have been relocated off map or demobilized as required by an OB. These units are sometimes referred to as “removed from play.” ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 4. Exchange Pool. Units that have been broken down into their component units. Abbreviations AS: Attack Strength. BC: British Commonwealth. BDA: Burma Defense Army. CA: Central Army. 3 FEP (Foreign Equipment Point) source: All on-map and off-map supply centers located outside of China. A FEP source is ‘open’ unless it is controlled by Japan or has been force to close by a game mechanic. A closed FEP source generates no FEP, and may lead to inflation if China is isolated [20.0]. Japanese: Controlled by Japan, no matter what service or nationality it belongs to. Ledo Road: The Ledo Road is considered built when all the trail hexes between Ledo (6041) and Mogaung (6437) have been improved to road hexes. CCP: Chinese Communist Party. Open hex: An open hex is a hex containing clear terrain and no other natural feature (i.e., desert, forest, or swamp). A hex with clear terrain and a city (for instance) is an open hex. CIC: China-Indochina (theater). Regular unit: Non-guerrilla ground combat unit. CnC: Chinese collaborators. River Route: A hex is bordering a River Route if the River Route runs along at least one of its hexsides. CAI: Chinese Army in India. CP: Command Points. DEP: Domestic Equipment Point. DS: Defense Strength. FEP: Foreign Equipment Point. IBS: India-Burma-Siam (theater). Transport route hex: A hex with a road or railroad, or a hex with a river route hexside. UST (United States Trained) units: “UST units” refer both to units with a “UST” annotation on their counter and units with “UST Improved” markers. 2.0 – VICTORY CONDITIONS IJA: Imperial Japanese Army. 2.1 – CAMPAIGN GAME IJN: Imperial Japanese Navy. Each side earns victory points (VPs) during the campaign game. The player with the highest VP total at the end of a game is the winner. Should there be a tie, the game is considered a draw. INA: Indian National Army. KMT: Kuomintang. MA: Movement Allowance. NR: Non-Replaceable. OR: Operational Radius. PC: Payload Capacity. RP: Replacement Point. SP: Stacking Points. SPD: Speed. UST: United States Trained. In a three-player game, the CCP-WA player’s VP total equals the average of the CCP and WA VP totals. In a two-player game, the KMT, CCP, and WA VP totals must each be higher than the Japanese VP total in order for the KMT-CCP-WA player to win. 2.1.1 – Japanese Victory Points: During each End of Turn Phase, Japan earns or loses VPs as follows, by comparing the Objectives (any city, oilfield, port, naval base, or airbase) it controls with those it controlled in the End of Turn Phase of the previous turn: +6 Japan gained control of any number of Objectives (including a city under Japanese partial control at the start of Turn 0) during the turn, and lost none. VP: Victory Points. –3 No change in Objective control from previous turn (but see [18.1]). WA: Western Allies. –6 Japan lost control of any number of Objectives. 1.5 – GLOSSARY AND GENERAL CONCEPTS Allied, enemy, friendly: A unit, counter, hex, ZOC, etc. is friendly if it is controlled, exerted, etc. by the same side. It is allied if it is controlled, exerted, etc. by an allied side. It is enemy if it is controlled, exerted, etc. by an enemy side. Japan is always enemy to the KMT, CCP, and WA (and vice versa). The KMT and WA are always allied, as are the CCP and the WA. The KMT and CCP are normally allied, but one of them may announce at any time (even in the middle of another player’s phase) that they are now enemy to each other. They may later revert to being allied, at any time they both agree upon it. Bridge: A road or railroad crossing a river hexside. (Note that roads and railroads do not always cross river hexsides.) Burma Road: The Burma Road is considered built when all the trail hexes between Myitkyina (6336) and Kunming (5627) have been improved to road hexes. Control: “Control” is an important concept in the game. A hex is controlled by the last side to exert an undisputed ZOC into it. A transport route is controlled by the side controlling all the hexes comprising the route (this also applies to the Ledo and Burma Roads). To control a river route, a side must control all the hexes bordering it (see River Route, below). A river route is considered uncontrolled if no side controls all bordering hexes. Effective Combat Strength: The modified combat strength of a unit; possibly modified by any “reduced” or “improved” marker on it. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. +6 Japan controls all cities in the provinces of Chahar, Suiyuan, Shansi, Shantung, and Hopeh, without having lost more than 6 Stacking Points (SP) of IJA units since the game start. To earn these VPs, Japan must also control at this time all the cities that it controlled at game start. This VP gain can happen only once per game. Example: During the turn, Japan gained control of one city, but lost control of one city, one oilfield, and one airbase: it scores -6 VPs. Example: During the turn, Japan gained control of one naval base but lost control of it in a KMT counterattack, thus scoring -3 VPs. 2.1.2 – KMT Victory Points: The VPs accumulated by the KMT are calculated at game end, as follows: KMT VP total = (total AS of all on-map CA units) divided by 5 (see [4.4.1] for rounding rules) 2.1.3 – CCP Victory Points: The VPs accumulated by the CCP are calculated at game end, as follows: CCP VP total = (total AS of all on-map CCP units and units of pro-CCP cliques + number of CCP guerrilla bases) multiplied by 2. War of the Suns 4 2.1.4 – WA Victory Points: The WA enter play on Turn 18. From then on, they earn VPs as follows during the End of Turn Phase of each turn: +5 No Japanese units within India +2 No Japanese units within Burma +1 Less than 3 Replacement Points (RP) were used to replace eliminated BC units during the turn 2.2 – SCENARIO GAMES War of the Suns includes several individual scenarios: • Three Operational Scenarios, each covering an important period of the eight-year war. Players should expect a playing time of about one hour per turn. • Four Mini-Scenarios, each covering just a few turns and using simplified rules. They should be completed in about 2 hours, and make good learning tools for the basic rules. The Playbook contains the descriptions, victory conditions, and orders of battle for all these scenarios; as well as the campaign game. 2.2.1 – Victory Conditions (Operational Scenarios): The Playbook lists a specific set of victory conditions for each Operational Scenario. At the end of a game, each side calculates the percentage of objectives it achieved; victory percentages higher than 100% (e.g., your victory conditions state that you must capture five cities by the end of the scenario but you capture six) are considered as 100%. The player with the highest percentage is the winner; if several players are tied for the highest percentage, the game ends in a draw. In a three-player game, the CCP/WA player’s victory percentage equals the average of the CCP and WA percentages. In a two-player game, the KMT, CCP, and WA victory percentages must each be higher than the Japanese victory percentage in order for the KMT/CCP/WA player to win. Ignore all Critical Victory Conditions (see below) for the KMT and CCP under this player configuration. To determine the level of success of the winning player, compare his victory percentage to the victory percentage of his opponent(s): • Percentage is 1-9 higher than that of his opponent: Marginal Victory • Percentage is 10-19 higher than that of his opponent: Major Victory • Percentage is 20+ higher than that of his opponent: Total Victory Example: In a two player game, the KMT player achieves 40% of his objectives, the CCP 60% and the WA gets 20%. The Japanese player gets 50%. The Japanese player wins a Major Victory. In three- and four-player games, the winner will be able to determine his level of success over each of the other players; thus, a Japanese player might win a Total Victory over the KMT, a Major Victory over the CCP, and a Marginal Victory over the WA. Two types of special victory conditions may also appear in some Operational Scenarios: • Immediate Victory Conditions: When a particular side achieves its Immediate Victory Conditions, the game ends in a Total Victory for this player.” All the other players lose. • Critical Victory Conditions: If a side has not achieved its Critical Victory Conditions by the end of the game, it scores either half its achieved victory percentage or no victory percentage at all, as specified by the scenario. 2.2.2 Victory Conditions (Mini Scenarios): All Mini Scenarios are short, two-player games, including a single objective that must be achieved by one side. Whether that side achieves its objective or not determines the winner of the game. 2.3 – IMMEDIATE DEFEAT In both campaign and scenario games, a side can suffer an immediate defeat under the following circumstances: 2.3.1 – Japan: Loss of the Central China Area Army – If the Japanese CChina AA HQ is permanently removed from play, Japan strikes an armistice with China and retreats its army to Manchukuo. The game ends with the defeat of the Japanese player. The remaining player with the highest VP total (for campaign games) or victory percentage (for scenario games) is the winner. 2.3.2 – KMT: The KMT suffers an immediate defeat in any of the following situations: • Loss of Chungking to the Japanese before Turn 16 – According to Russian archives, Stalin had decided to invade and divide China up with Japan if Chungking (4127) fell. A puppet state is set up under Mao in western China. Chungking must be held by the Japanese at the end of any turn prior to turn 16 for this to trigger. Taking it but then losing it in a game turn will not trigger a loss. If this happens, the game ends with the Japanese player as the winner. • Chiang surrenders – If the KMT Chiang Kai-Shek GHQ is permanently removed from play, many of the KMT factions and cliques are most likely to negotiate an armistice with Japan or become collaborators, while the rest continue a futile underground resistance. The game ends with the defeat of the KMT player. The remaining player with the highest VP total (for campaign games) or victory percentage (for scenario games) is the winner. Please follow the intention of this rule and attempt to preserve the GHQ. 2.3.3 – CCP: Mao surrenders – If the CCP Mao Tse-Tung GHQ is permanently removed from play, Wang Ming succeeds him, and under orders from the Comintern, the CCP becomes subordinated to KMT command. The game ends with the defeat of the CCP player. The remaining player with the highest VP total (for campaign games) or victory percentage (for scenario games) is the winner. Please follow the intention of this rule and attempt to preserve the GHQ. Optionally, in the case of Mao surrendering, the players may decide to continue the game; in a three-player game, the CCP-WA player controls only the WA from then on. The CCP and all pro-CCP cliques become pro-KMT cliques. Treat the Rectification Movement random event as No Event from now on. 2.3.4 – WA: Loss of Chittagong and Imphal before Turn 30 – Revolution breaks out in India after the fall of Chittagong and Imphal. Britain turns all its efforts toward quelling the uprisings in the most valuable of its colonies in Asia. The game ends with the defeat of the WA player. The remaining player with the highest VP total (for campaign games) or victory percentage (for scenario games) is the winner. Optionally, the players may decide to continue the game; in a three-player game, the CCP-WA player controls only the CCP from then on. All BC units, all CAI units, all US ground units in the IBS theater, and all Allied air units in the IBS theater are removed from play (withdrawn to off-map India); all future reinforcements of these kinds are forfeited. Siam and French Indochina automatically become pro-Japan on the following Negotiation Phase, but the Siamese and French units cannot be activated until a Japanese unit enters their respective countries. 3.0 – THE PLAYING PIECES 3.1 – UNIT COUNTERS Unit counters include ground and air units, and fleets. They represent the military units that fought in the war. The numbers and symbols on the counters represent the strength, movement capability and types of unit represented by each counter. In the playbook is a more extensive list of units for all the sides. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 5 War of the Suns 6 3.2 – MARKER COUNTERS Marker counters are used to record various game values and status. They include: • Turn Marker: To record the current turn on the Record Track. • Record Track Markers: To record values like victory, command, or transport points on the Record Track as they are received or spent. They may be combined with value markers to record higher values, or negative value markers for negative values. • Control and Clique Markers: To record control of hexes on the map. • Status Markers: To record various statuses (out of supply, out of command, improved, reduced, movement mode, etc.) applying to units on the map. The markers show the adjustments that apply to unit ratings. • Events Markers: To mark areas affected by events (snow, flood, famine, typhoon, etc.) on the mini-map. • Construction Markers: To mark construction (and destruction) of transport routes, airbases, naval bases, etc. on the map. War of the Suns also includes HQ chits, each one corresponding to one HQ, used on the Activation Track to record the number of remaining activations of each HQ. The players may use control markers as a reminder of which side controls a given hex (major cities and supply centers for instance), or KMT clique control markers as a reminder of which independent KMT clique controls a given hex. Allied transport routes hexes do not affect replacement or supply if the controlling side decides to leave the route open (e.g., a CCP unit might or might not allow KMT supply, or link to a Foreign Equipment Point (FEP) source, through a transport route it controls). 4.1.3 – Effects of ZOCs: ZOCs affect movement and combat: enemy units moving out of a ZOC are slowed down [11.1.4], enemy units can only be attacked by units exerting a ZOC in their hex, and ZOCs can cut off enemy units [12.2]. 4.2 – STACKING Non-ground units (HQs, air units, fleets) do not have a SP value and may stack freely. 4.2.1 – Stacking Limits: Stacking is counted in terms of SP. Units with a 0-SP value count as 0.5 SP for stacking; units without a printed SP value do not count towards stacking. There are two stacking limits in War of the Suns, which are enforced AT ALL TIMES (even during movement): • Absolute Stacking Limit (ASL): The ASL is the absolute maximum number of SP that is allowed in a hex at any time. A unit cannot enter a hex if this would violate the ASL in that hex. If as a result of combat, a unit is forced to retreat into a hex in violation of the ASL, it is eliminated. The ASL is 9 SP (including no more than six ground combat units) PER SIDE in an open hex, and 6 SP (including no more than four ground combat units) PER SIDE in a non-open hex, flooded hex, or single-hex island. • Effective Stacking Limit (ESL): The ESL is the maximum number of SP that can stack together in a hex without affecting movement and combat. The ESL is 6 SP PER SIDE in an open hex, and 4 SP PER SIDE in a non-open hex, flooded hex, or single-hex island. A marker counter should be placed over the playing piece(s), hex, or territory that it affects. All the playing pieces under a marker are considered to experience the status depicted on the marker. The uses of most markers are explained in the respective sections. 4.0 – GENERAL GAME CONCEPTS 4.1 – ZONES OF CONTROL 4.1.1 – Types of ZOC: A unit may exert a Standard ZOC, a Limited ZOC, or no ZOC: • Standard ZOC: All ground units with 1 or more SP exert a Standard ZOC. A Standard ZOC covers the hex the unit occupies plus the six hexes surrounding it (Exception: A Standard ZOC only extends into hexes that the unit can enter and across hexsides that it can cross). • Limited ZOC: Standard and Limited ZOC units that are in movement mode, out of supply Standard and Limited ZOC units, non-evading guerrilla units, bandit units, and 0-SP ground units exert a Limited ZOC. A Limited ZOC covers the hex the unit occupies (only). Units exerting Limited ZOC and markers causing Limited ZOC have a light colored strip behind their ratings as a reminder. • No ZOC: All units without a SP value printed on the counter (HQs, military advisors, collaborators, air units, fleets, and evading guerrilla units) exert no ZOC. They never control any hex [4.1.2]. 4.1.2 – Control: A unit controls all the hexes in its ZOC, unless a hex is also in an enemy ZOC. In this case, it is a disputed hex. No side controls a disputed hex, unless only one of them has units in the hex (note ZOCs do apply in-hex). In the rare case where it becomes important to know which of two allied sides control a given hex (for replacement calculations between the KMT and CCP for instance), the two sides will have to agree upon which one controls the “disputed” hex. If they cannot, treat the hex as disputed, and none of the sides control it. WA Control CCP Control KMT Control Japanese Control Sung Clique Control Effects on Movement: A unit leaving a hex in which its side has more SP than the ESL must spend 1 extra MP. Note that an individual unit or stack must have completed its move before another unit or stack may move. Effects on Combat: When a side has more SP in a hex than the ESL, its units in the hex have their total combat strength proportionally reduced so that only the SP within the ESL are considered. Round down any fractions. Example: Two Japanese divisions with DS of 13, and 5 SP and 4 SP respectively, are stacked in an open hex. If attacked, their combined DS is reduced to (13 + 13) x 6 / 9 = 17.333…rounded down to 17 4.2.2 – Multi-Force Stacking: Apart from US units, which may stack with no ill effects with any friendly/allied units, penalties apply to combat in hexes where the following stacking situations exist: • Allied units: Units from one side only (designated by the allied players; if they cannot agree, their opponent decides) contribute their AS to an attack, or their DS to a defense, but all units in the hex suffer the combat results. • Friendly units with different unit type symbol colors: Units from one service/faction/dominion only contribute their AS to an attack, or their DS to a defense, but all units in a defending hex suffer the combat results. 4.2.3 – HQ Stacking: Two HQs may never occupy the same hex, unless one of them is a GHQ. 4.2.4 – Stacking Arrangement: When stacking counters in a hex, players should arrange them as follows, from top to bottom: 1. Control and clique markers 2. Opium markers 3. Ground units being air or sea transported ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 4. Air units, fleets, and Task Force markers 5. Airbase and naval base counters 6. Factory counters 7. GHQ, HQ, military advisor, and collaborationist counters 8. Ground units in decreasing order of AS. If there are units from more than one side, Japanese units are placed on top, then WA units, then CCP units, then KMT units 9. Guerrilla, guerrilla base, and bandit counters 10. Transport route markers Any markers affecting a given counter/terrain feature (out of supply, movement mode, damaged, etc.) should be placed immediately on top of it. Alternatively, to avoid unwieldy stacks of counters, the players may decide not to place “inoperative” markers on air units, instead rotating the affected counters upside down to depict this status. Similarly, movement mode may be depicted by rotating the affected ground units upside down. Players are free to check all the counters on the map at any time, unless they use the Limited Intelligence variant rule [26.2]. 4.3 – LIMITED OPERATION AREAS Some units are restricted to a limited operation area which they cannot leave while they are on map. The specific areas are listed in the OBs next to the affected units. These are identified by a red MA (on ground units) or a red name (on leaders) on their counter. More general limited operation areas applying to a whole force are defined after the OB to which they apply. Units forced out of their limited operation area are eliminated. HQs are temporarily removed [9.3.1] in this case and may be redeployed during a subsequent turn. DESIGN NOTE: IJA armies of specific fronts and KMT warlords who stuck to their home territories have their HQs restricted to limited operation areas. PLAY NOTE: The General Events Chart lists some time-specific operational restrictions, applicable to a certain side rather than certain units. For instance, on Turns 16-17 the CCP isn’t allowed to attack the KMT, on Turn 30 Japan must maintain a reserve against potential US landings on China’s coasts, etc. 4.4 – ROUNDING AND CUMULATIVE MODIFIERS 4.4.1 – Rounding Rules: Rounding occurs only after all calculations are finished. Round down all decimals in favor of the defender when calculating combat ratios. In all other calculations, round all decimals from .00 to 0.49 down and from .50 to .99 up. 4.4.2 – Cumulative Modifiers: Unless otherwise specified, all effects are cumulative whenever multiple modifiers apply. 4.5 – UNUSED CAPACITIES Unused Replacement Points, Transport Points, and construction capacities cannot be accumulated from turn to turn. If not used, they are lost. 5.0 – SEQUENCE OF PLAY This section presents an overall view of the flow of a game turn. Players should refer to the Expanded Sequence of Play player aid for a detailed examination of a turn’s activities. 5.1 – PRE-OPERATION SEGMENT 5.1.1 – Events Phase: The players check whether fixed events, alternate histories, random events, or conditional events occur on this turn and apply their effects. 5.1.2 – Reinforcement Phase: All the sides deploy their reinforcements and apply all the relocations, reorganizations, etc. required by their OB for the current turn. HQs may be voluntarily removed from the map. 5.1.3 – Administration Phase: The sides collect for the turn their Command Points (CP), Replacement Points (RP), Domestic Equipment Points (DEP), Foreign Equipment Points (FEP), and Railroad Transport Points. Reset the River Transport Points markers to their maximum values. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 7 Remove “damaged” and “movement mode” markers from the map and update “disease” markers. Update the status of air units and fleets of all sides. Reequip air units with new aircraft models. 5.1.4 – Negotiation Phase: Perform peace talks, handle relations with major powers, and influence the political affiliation of KMT cliques and minor countries. The KMT may receive extra RP from foreign loans. 5.1.5 – China Isolation Phase: Check China’s connection status and determine its effects on inflation. 5.1.6 – Factory Phase: The KMT and CCP may move any of their factories, which are then inoperative for the turn. Inoperative factories staying put in a transport route hex become operative again. 5.1.7 – Guerrilla Phase: New guerrilla units may be recruited. All guerrilla units and WA Chindit units may be activated to move, attack, sabotage, and set up guerrilla bases; WA and CCP units must complete their activations before KMT units start theirs. CCP and KMT guerrilla units may be converted to regular units. 5.1.8 – Strategic Warfare Phase: Air units may perform strategic bombing missions, while fleets may perform bombardment or sea blockade missions. Enemy air units may interdict strategic bombing or bombardment missions. 5.2 – OPERATION SEGMENT 5.2.1 – HQ Chit Pool Setup: The HQ chits of all the on-map HQs are placed on the Activation Track, on the row corresponding to their Command Quality. 5.2.2 – HQ Activation Phase: Each side with enough CP remaining and at least one activation-eligible HQ on map announces whether it wants to participate in the activation roll; if all the sides choose not to take part in the activation roll (or no player has enough command points remaining), the Operation Segment ends immediately. Otherwise, the highest-rolling side becomes the Phasing Side and spends 2 CP to activate one of its eligible HQ, moving the chit of this HQ down one row on the Activation Track. 5.2.3 – Redeployment Phase: The Phasing Side may redeploy any of its friendly ready air units and fleets, as well as its currently activated HQ (and any higher-hierarchy HQ which possibly activated it). 5.2.4 – Movement Phase: All the friendly/allied ground units (including guerrilla) of the Phasing Side over which the activated HQ has command and which are within its Command Radius become activated. Activated CCP and KMT regular units may be converted to guerrilla units. The activated units may move up to their full movement allowance, using available railroad, river, air, or sea transport if allowed and desired. Armor and mechanized infantry units may attempt to overrun enemy-occupied hexes, while Japan may disband any of its non-IJA, non-IJN units. After all activated ground units have completed their movement, the activated HQ may move. 5.2.5 – Combat Phase: The Phasing Side may perform anti-guerrilla and anti-bandit sweeps, and then declares all its attacks. Eligible enemy units may perform Defensive Reserve Movement. Both sides have their air units and fleets perform any desired ground support and interdiction missions, then the Phasing Side may cancel or rearrange its attacks. Resolve combats in the order of the Phasing Side’s choice. 5.2.6 – Repeat Steps 5.2.2 to 5.2.5: A new HQ chit is selected via another activation roll, starting a repeat of the activation sequence. A side having just completed three consecutive activations cannot take part in this new roll. The Operation Segment ends if all the sides choose not to perform an activation roll, if no side can activate a HQ, or if the only side that could or wants to activate a HQ has just been the Phasing Side for the third time in a row. 5.3 – POST-OPERATION SEGMENT 5.3.1 – Supply Phase: Check supply for all units and accordingly place/ remove “Out of Supply” markers. Unsupported guerrilla units must be revealed. War of the Suns 8 5.3.2 – Replacement and Construction Phase: Each side may spend its RP, DEP, and FEP to replace any of its eliminated units and deploy them. Newly replaced Chinese elite units are marked with training markers. The KMT may expand its eligible units. Each side may build transport routes, airbases, naval bases, or other constructions. 5.3.3 – Training Phase: Remove training markers from all ground units (except Chinese elite units replaced in the immediately preceding Replacement and Construction Phase), changing them to their improved status. Place training markers on ground units entering the improvement process, and BC units receiving Chindit training. 5.3.4 – End of Turn Phase: Update the VP markers on the Record Track, and check whether any side meets the requirement for an Immediate Victory or Immediate Defeat. If this is not the case, advance the Turn marker to the next box of the Record Track. 6.0 – TURN 0 SPECIAL RULES Turn 0 is a special half-turn (mid-July-August, 1937) simulating the unique situation when elements from both sides were trying to limit the war. The following special rules apply only during Turn 0: HISTORICAL NOTE: Although the Marco Polo Bridge Incident (the opening salvoes of the war in Peiping) occurred before sunrise on July 8, 1937, large scale combat did not begin until mid-July. • • At the start of Turn 0, KMT, CCP, and Japanese units are stacked together in certain hexes. These hexes are all considered to be under KMT control. HISTORICAL NOTE: After the Boxer Rebellion, Japan (among other nations) was allowed to maintain garrisons around Peiping and Tientsin, while its concession in Shanghai was garrisoned by units of the IJN (including its 3rd Fleet). CCP units in Shensi were under reorganization, following an agreement with the KMT. These units were in close proximity to KMT units. No random event is rolled for during the Events Phase. • During the Admin Phase, each side receives half its normal number of Railroad Transport Points, and the River Transport Points markers are set at half their normal levels (round down in both cases as needed). • During the Admin Phase, both the KMT and Japan receive 6 CP, while the CCP receives 4 CP. The KMT receives 9 RP, 12 DEP, and 8 FEP. The CCP receives a single RP only on a successful Comintern roll [13.3.4] • No factory movement is allowed during the Factory Phase. • At the start of each of its activations, a side with on-map fleets receives half its normal number of Sea Transport Points. • As long as no combat has been declared since game start between Japanese and KMT units, Japanese units may ignore all KMT ZOCs when they move along the Chinwangtao-Tangku-Tientsin-Peiping railroad. • • The bridge between Hangchow (2106) and Shaohing (2105) is considered not to exist for any purpose on Turn 0. HISTORICAL NOTE: This bridge was under construction when war began and was completed in September 1937. Because of restrictions imposed by the Japanese government, Japanese units may move and attack within the five northern provinces of Hopeh, Chahar, Shantung, Suiyuan, and Shansi only on turn 0. This restriction is cancelled in territories (and only in those territories) where a Japanese unit has previously been attacked during the turn. No IJN ground units, air units, and fleets can be activated before Turn 1, unless the KMT attacks any of them during Turn 0. Should any IJN unit be attacked, all IJN units may immediately be activated on turn 0. 7.0 – EVENTS 7.1 – EVENTS PHASE • Fixed Events (listed on the General Events Chart): These include weather conditions, global war advances, etc. Every fixed event listed on the General Events Chart for the current turn automatically occurs. • Alternate Histories (Optional) (listed on the General Events Chart): These represent important events that did not occur historically, but might in the game. An alternate history occurs only if all the players agree or if the die roll winner so decides [25.0]. • Random Events (listed in the Random Events Table): These include changes in government policies, natural catastrophes, local events, etc. The table is divided into four different periods. Roll 2 dice and check the column of the Random Events Table corresponding to the current turn to determine which random event (if any) takes place. • Conditional Events (listed on the Conditional Events Chart): These include political proceedings and force redeployments linked to the course of military operations. If the requirements for a conditional event on the Conditional Events Chart are met at this point and this event has not yet occurred during the game, it takes place immediately. Do not roll for random events during Mini Scenarios, or on the first turn of any of the Operational Scenarios. 7.2 – WEATHER EVENTS All weather events last for one turn. 7.2.1 – Snow: During all Winter turns, there is automatically snow in Manchukuo, Inner Mongolia, and Northern China (see Territories Table). The Random Events Table can also cause Severe Snow to occur in various territories. Mark affected territories by placing “Snow” markers (on their back for Severe Snow) in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. See the Weather Effects Chart below for the effects of Snow and Severe Snow weather. 7.2.2 – Typhoon: During all Summer turns, there are heavy rain and typhoons in Central China, Southern China, Indochina, and Siam (see Territories Table). The Random Events Table can also cause Severe Typhoon to occur in various territories. Mark affected territories by placing “Typhoon” markers (on their back for Severe Typhoon) in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. See the Weather Effects Chart below for the effects of Typhoon and Severe Typhoon weather. 7.2.3 – Monsoon Rain: During all Summer and Fall turns, there is monsoon rain in Burma, India, and all hexes of the Yunnan province west of the Salween River. Mark affected territories by placing “Monsoon” markers in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. Monsoon rain has the following effects: • In an affected territory, roads and railroads are treated as trails, trails are considered not to exist, and river routes no longer allow river transport (but they keep their supply function). • During the Movement Phase, ground units must stop moving as soon as they enter a hex situated in an affected territory via a nonroad, non-railroad hexside, regardless of their remaining MPs. Their movement is over. • Ground units in a non-city hex situated in an affected territory during the Admin Phase suffer from disease [7.6]. • A Command or Supply Radius is reduced by two hexes if it passes through at least one affected territory. • Air units cannot carry out any mission in or through affected territories, except air freight to a city/airbase hex and redeployment. • Fleets have their Surface AS halved if the target hex is situated in an affected territory. Four types of events can occur during the Events Phase: ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns • 9 The KMT cannot receive Foreign Equipment Points (FEP) through the Burma Road or Ledo Road during Summer turns. It still receives them during Fall turns, though. can also cause Severe Flood to occur along the Yellow or Yangtze Rivers. Mark the affected rivers by placing “Flood” markers (on their back for Severe Flood) in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. 7.2.4 – Floods: The teal colored hexes on the banks of the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers represent areas that experience floods during all Summer turns. The Random Events Table See the Weather Effects Chart below for the effects of Flood and Severe Flood weather. WEATHER EFFECTS CHART Snow Severe Snow Air units have their Surface AS halved if their flight path passes through at least one affected territory. Air units have their Surface AS halved on a die roll of 1-3 (roll for each unit) if their flight path passes through at least one affected territory. Ground units attacking a hex situated in an affected territory have their effective AS halved. In an affected territory, roads and railroads are treated as trails, while trails are considered not to exist. In Inner Mongolia and Manchukuo, rivers are frozen: they are ignored for movement purpose, but do affect combat normally. All rivers in an affected territory are frozen: they are ignored for movement purpose, but do affect combat normally. In Northern China, rivers are half-frozen: movement and combat across rivers is prohibited unless across bridges. No hex situated in an affected territory generates any RP for any side. A ground unit moving through at least one affected territory has its MA reduced by 1 if it is 4 or less, or 2 if it is 5 or more. Units passing through affected territories exclusively by rail transport are unaffected. A Command or Supply Radius is reduced by one hex if it passes through at least one affected territory. Typhoon Air units have their Surface AS halved on a die roll of 1-3 (roll for each unit) if their flight path passes through at least one affected territory. Fleets have their Surface AS halved on a die roll of 1-3 (roll for each unit) if the target hex is situated in an affected territory. Roll 1D6 for each stack of units using amphibious attack against a coastal hex situated in an affected territory, or using sea transport to a hex situated in an affected territory that is not a friendly/allied naval base or port. On a 1-3 result, the sea Transport Points and MPs are spent but the transport cannot be executed. The units can try again during the same phase if they have MPs left and their side has Transport Points remaining. River transport and sea transport to friendly/allied naval bases and ports are unaffected. Severe Typhoon Air units have their Surface AS halved if their flight path passes through at least one affected territory. Fleets have their Surface AS halved if the target hex is situated in an affected territory. Ground units attacking a hex situated in an affected territory have their effective AS halved. No hex situated in an affected territory generates any RP for any side. No amphibious attack may be attempted against any hex situated in an affected territory. Roll 1D6 for each stack of units using sea transport to a hex situated in an affected territory that is not a friendly/allied naval base or port. On a 1-3 result, the sea Transport Points and MPs are spent but the transport cannot be executed. The units can try again during the same phase if they have MPs remaining and their side has Transport Points left. River transport and sea transport to friendly/allied naval bases and ports are unaffected. A ground unit moving through at least one affected territory has its MA reduced by 1 if it is 4 or less, or 2 if it is 5 or more. Units passing through affected territories exclusively by rail or river transport are unaffected. During the Movement Phase, mechanized and artillery units must stop moving as soon as they enter a hex situated in an affected territory via a non-road or non-railroad hexside, regardless of their remaining MPs. Their movement is over. A Command or Supply Radius is reduced by one hex if it passes through at least one affected territory. Flood The supply centers of Hankow (2816) and Nanchang (3011) on the Yangtze River generate reduced RP (see Replacement Aids). Severe Flood Affected hexes generate no RP for any side. Ground units in a non-city hex situated in an affected hex during the Admin Phase suffer from disease [7.6]. In flooded hexes, roads and railroads are treated as trails and trails are considered not to exist; river routes bordering flooded hexes are considered as nonexistent for river transport and supply purposes. Ignore all combat effects of river hexsides if the defender’s hex is a flooded hex. A Command or Supply Radius can enter but not pass through a flooded hex. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 10 7.3 – YELLOW RIVER DIKE DESTRUCTION The Yellow River’s course changes naturally every few hundred years, but it may also be altered by destroying the Chengchow dike (2022). Any side with at least one SP of units in the city may destroy the dike when the unit is activated; this changes the course of the river for the rest of the game. When this happens (and we’re sorry about this but after years of debate this was honestly the best solution), grab a piece of paper and write down the locations of all the units that will now be covered by the overlay (a small 8.5 by 11 map included with the game), pick those units up and lay down the overlay on the map. Then replace the units to their correct position. The overlay will be in play for the rest of the game. From then on, the Yellow River follows its altered course. The altered Yellow River suffers severe flood [7.2.4] every turn (not just summer) (see Terrain Effects Chart) for the remainder of the game. Transport routes in the flooded hexes, including the bridges near Pengpu and Hwainan are destroyed beyond repair until game end. off-map FEP source of Alma-Ata. Units are considered eliminated if forced to enter Mongolia. • • DESIGN NOTE: Sinkiang and Outer Mongolia were under Soviet control at the time. Railroads to Calcutta (India). The two railroads leading off the left edge of the map to Calcutta are connected. They also link to the offmap supply center in Calcutta. Railroad to Saigon (Indochina). The railroad leading off the lower right edge of the map to Saigon links to the off-map supply center in Saigon. A ground unit may travel via an off-map railroad by rail transport only if both ends of the connected railroad at the map edge are friendly/allied. A unit cannot otherwise exit the map. Other trails (from Sining and Kangting in western China) and railroads (from Letpadan in Burma, Bangkok in eastern Siam) leading off map cannot be used for off-map transport or supply trace. The dike has already been destroyed at the start of Operational Scenarios 2 and 3. 8.2 – RIVER ROUTES 7.4 – “GREEN VEIL” River routes are shown on the map by a very dark blue line inside the river hexsides they follow; they represent navigable river sections (which may not coincide with the main section of a river). River routes exist on the three rivers below: Gaoliang (a type of broomcorn) is widely cultivated in all the northern Chinese provinces, except Ningsia and Chinghai (see Territories Table). The crops provided perfect cover for guerrillas when they reached their full length between May and July. This “Green Veil”, as the Chinese called it, made evading guerrilla units harder to locate by anti-guerrilla sweeps [16.6.2]. During all Summer turns, mark affected territories by placing “Green Veil” markers in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. • The Yangtze River up to Luchow (4428); • The West River up to Wuchow (4711); • The Irrawaddy River up to Mandalay (7235) and a section of the Chindwin River. 7.5 – DROUGHT/LOCUSTS DESIGN NOTE: Despite being major rivers, the Yellow, Mekong, and Salween Rivers were too shallow or hazardous to navigate. The Random Events Table can cause Drought/Locusts to occur in various territories. Mark affected territories by placing “Drought/Locusts” markers in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map. Drought/locusts has the following effects: 8.3 – TRANSPORT ROUTE CONSTRUCTION • Ground units in a non-city hex situated in the affected territory during the Admin Phase suffer from disease [7.6]. • No hex situated in an affected territory generates any RP for any side. 7.6 – DISEASE During the Admin Phase, place a “Disease” marker on units in: • Any swamp hex; or • Any non-city hex affected by the Severe flood or Drought/Locusts random events; or • Any non-city hex in a territory affected by monsoon. Remove “Disease” markers from units in none of the hex types above. Units affected by disease (mainly malaria) fight with half their AS and move at half their MA. The following types of construction may be carried out during the Replacement and Construction Phase in a hex or on a hexside not affected by flood or monsoon rain: • Constructing Road: In any friendly/allied trail hex. • Constructing Railroad: In any friendly/allied road hex (including a road marker). • Extending River Route: On any potential river route hexside; the hexes bordering the river route must be friendly/allied. • Repairing Bridge: Any sabotaged bridge hexside; the hexes on both sides of the bridge must be friendly/allied. DESIGN NOTE: Most of the lower Yangtze River was navigable to the heavier vessels required by modern warfare. But to make some of the nonnavigable parts accessible to these troop transports and supply ships, proper harbor facilities had to be built, surveying expeditions had to be launched to chart the river bed and depth, and engineering works sometimes had to be undertaken. This is what extending a river route represents. 8.0 – TRANSPORT ROUTES Transport routes include roads, railroads, and river routes, or a combination thereof. They are crucial to maintaining supply [10.2.1] and providing ground units with increased mobility [11.1.1 and 11.3]. A side may mark the railroads and river routes under its control by placing its own control markers at both ends of these routes. Note that trails are not considered transport routes. Note also that roads and railroads do not always cross river hexsides. 8.1 – OFF-MAP TRAILS, ROADS AND RAILROADS Some railroads, roads, and trails extend off-map: • • Railroads to Hsinking (Manchukuo). The three railroads leading off the top edge of the map to Hsinking (today’s Changchun) are connected. They also link to the off-map supply center in Hsinking. Road and trail to Alma-Ata (USSR). The road (to outer Mongolia) and trail (to Sinkiang) leading off the left edge of the map link to the A transport route marker represents links to all the transport routes, towns, and cities in adjacent hexes. River route markers should be placed so that their top points to the end of the river route hexside. 8.3.1 – Construction Cost: Construction requires an RP expenditure (Exception: See [24.10]). In addition, the KMT and CCP must control a road/railroad/port linking any supply center in China to an open FEP source to be able to construct any railroad. The construction costs are: • 1 RP to construct one road or railroad in an open hex; 2 RP in a non-open hex. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns • • 1 RP to construct a road/railroad bridge across a minor river (bridges cannot be constructed across major rivers). A railroad bridge can only be constructed on an existing road bridge. 1 RP to construct two river route hexsides, both bordered by at least one open hex; 2 RP if at least one hexside is bordered by two non-open hexes. Friendly construction capacity cannot be transferred to an allied side. Each side can construct a maximum of four road hexes, four railroad hexes, and four river route hexsides during a given turn. Repairing damaged bridges has variable construction costs: • 1 RP for a road bridge across a minor river. • 2 RP for a road bridge across a major river, or a railroad bridge across a minor river. • 4 RP for a railroad bridge across a major river. The KMT and CCP cannot repair bridges across major rivers. 8.4 – TRANSPORT ROUTE SABOTAGE Roads and railroads can be sabotaged. River routes and trails can never be sabotaged. Mark the sabotaged transport route hexes with “Damaged” markers. DESIGN NOTE: The KMT tried to blockade the Yangtze and West River routes with naval mines and sunken ships during the war, but these attempts were never very successful. They usually took place where the strongholds are located on the map, so their effects have been factored into the effects of the strongholds. 8.4.1 – Sabotaging Roads and Railroads: Any ground unit may sabotage a road or railroad by spending +1 MP in the hex. A sabotaged railroad hex still functions as a road hex. A sabotaged road hex functions as a trail hex. The supply function of sabotaged transport routes is unaffected. Roads and railroads may also be sabotaged by successful strategic bombing, bombardment, or random event. All damaged roads and railroads are repaired in the Admin Phase of the following turn; the “Damaged” markers are removed, unless the hex is still controlled by the sabotaging side (and it wants to keep it sabotaged). 8.4.2 – Sabotaging Bridges: A ground unit may sabotage a bridge by spending +1 MP in a hex on one side of the bridge. Sabotaging a bridge does NOT at the same time sabotage the transport route on either side of the river (ground units can still enter the hex through the transport route). Place a “damaged bridge” marker in the hex, with its arrow pointing to the sabotaged bridge hexside. Unlike sabotaged roads and railroads, sabotaged bridges are NOT automatically repaired and must be reconstructed. Remove the damaged bridge marker once the bridge is repaired [8.3.1]. 8.4.3 – Removing Railroads: A side may remove up to four friendly railroad hexes (regardless of the presence of friendly units) during the Replacement and Construction Phase.. Place “removed railroad” markers in hexes where railroads were removed. Removed railroads cannot be repaired and must be reconstructed. 9.0 – HEADQUARTERS AND ACTIVATION 9.1 – HQ COUNTERS HQ counters represent the named formation and his staff. They have a DS of zero, and are removed from the map as soon as they happen to be in an enemy ZOC with no friendly/allied ground units stacked with them. DESIGN NOTE: The KMT and CCP commander names were selected on the basis of their real power rather than their theoretical hierarchical positions. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 11 9.2 – HQ DEPLOYMENT AND MOVEMENT 9.2.1 – Redeployment: During the Redeployment Phase, the Phasing Side can redeploy his activated HQ to any friendly/allied city, or any hex containing at least one unit over which the HQ has full command. In addition, if the HQ was activated by a higher-hierarchy HQ with red command quality, this higher-hierarchy HQ can also redeploy. A redeployment may be made via: • A path of connected ground hexes free of enemy ZOC that an infantry unit could enter during a normal move. • Air transport or sea transport (for sides with air or sea transport capacity) through an unlimited number of sea zones (sea transport) or over unlimited range (air transport). No Transport Points are spent. 9.2.2 – Movement: During the Movement Phase, the Phasing Side may move his activated HQ up to 6 MPs as an infantry unit, after all the activated ground units have completed their movement. The HQ may not use railroad, river, sea, or air transport during this phase. 9.3 – HQ REMOVAL If, during a turn, a HQ is removed from the map for any reason, immediately remove its corresponding HQ chit from the Activation Track. 9.3.1 – Temporary Removal: A HQ or GHQ is temporarily removed from play in any of the following situations: • The controlling side voluntarily removes it from the map during his Reinforcement Phase (HQ only). • It is in an enemy ZOC, not cut off, with no friendly/allied ground units (removal happens as soon as this situation occurs). • It is eliminated in combat while not cut off. • It is forced to retreat beyond its limited operation area [4.3] after combat. • It is temporarily removed due to its clique being threatened. A temporarily removed HQ is placed in the Replacement Pool. It may be redeployed to the map at no cost by the controlling side during any future Reinforcement Phase. 9.3.2 – Permanent Removal: A HQ or GHQ is permanently removed from play in any of the following situations: • It is in an enemy ZOC, cut off, with no friendly/allied ground units (removal happens as soon as this situation occurs). • It is eliminated in combat while cut off. • An OB or an event requires an off-map relocation, removal, or death of the HQ commander on the current turn. 9.3.3 – Removing KMT HQs: The KMT can never voluntarily remove a US HQ. It can voluntarily remove a KMT HQ only if this HQ is stacked only with CA unit(s) not belonging to the clique of the HQ. 9.4 – ACTIVATION During the Operation Segment, each side can activate friendly HQs, which in turn activate friendly ground units. The number of HQs activated by a side during an Operation Segment is limited by the CP available to this side, each activation requiring the spending of 2 CP. Furthermore, each HQ is limited to a maximum number of activations per Operation Segment, equal to its Command Quality rating. 9.4.1 – Command Points: Each side receives the following number of CP in each Admin Phase: • Japan and WA: Receive a number of CP equal to the number of RP received for the turn (listed on the General Events Chart), unless otherwise modified. • CCP: Receives 6 CP every turn. Exception: If there are fewer than 3 CCP HQs on map, receives a number of CP equal to twice the number of CCP HQs on map. War of the Suns 12 • KMT: Other than on Turn 0, receives 13 CP every turn. This amount might be reduced by inflation [20.0]. activated by the Hu Tsung-Nan HQ. The Hu Tsung-Nan HQ counter sports a “-1” as a reminder. 9.5 – COMMAND 9.4.2 – HQ Activation: At the start of the Operation Segment, each side places all the HQ Activation Markers of its on-map HQs on the 9.5.1 – Checking Command: Command is checked at the beginning of Activation Track. The track is divided into 4 rows (‘3 Activations left’, ‘2 the Movement Phase, BEFORE any Phasing Side unit moves. A unit is in Activations left’, ‘1 Activations left’, ‘Activations Complete’). The chit of command if at the start of the Movement Phase it is within the Command a HQ is placed on the row Entry Radius of the activated HQ (and this HQ is capable of commanding the corresponding to its Command Turn unit [9.5.3]). Units may move out of command should they wish. Quality (e.g., a 3-Command Rival KMT Quality HQ would have its Clique Clique Unless affected by weather, a Command Radius normally has a range of six chit placed in the ‘3 Activations Hierarchy hexes traced from a HQ or GHQ to the units. Command Quality Value left’ row). A Command radius: (Red if HQ is of Name Higher Command) On each HQ Activation Phase, • Cannot enter an enemy hex or a disputed hex (unless the disputed all the sides with at least 2 hex is occupied by friendly/allied units). remaining CP and one HQ chit on the ‘1’, ‘2’, or ‘3 Activations left’ rows announce whether they want to participate in an activation roll. Japan • Cannot enter a hex/cross a hexside that the unit whose command first declares its intent, followed by the WA, CCP, and KMT. No die roll status is being checked could not enter/cross during a normal is needed if only one side has remaining CP or HQs with activations left. move. If all the sides choose not to roll the die, the Operation Segment ends • Can enter but not pass through a desert, forest, or swamp hex, immediately, even if any side has some CP left. unless along a friendly/allied road or railroad. Each participating side (each side that said in the above that they wish to • Can enter but not pass through a flooded hex. participate) rolls 1D6. If only one side wants to go, no die roll is made. The side with the highest result (sides tied for the highest result roll The Command Radius of Chinese HQs does not extend outside the CIC again) spends 2 CP and activates one friendly HQ of its choice. This side theater. becomes the Phasing Side. Move the chit of the activated HQ down one row on the Activation Track. Regardless of these limitations, a unit is always in command if it is within the Command Radius distance of a HQ and adjacent to another inOnce the Phasing Side has completed its activation, the activation secommand unit of the same side. quence starts again as a new HQ chit is selected via another activation roll and all may choose to participate once again. Apply a -1 DRM to the side 9.5.2 – Out of Command: Only ground combat units may which just had one HQ activated, or a -2 DRM to the side which just had be out of command. Unless mustered, out of command units two HQs activated consecutively. A side having just completed its third cannot move or attack during an Operation Segment, even consecutive activation cannot take part in this new roll. if the attacked hex is within the Command Radius of the activated HQ. Players may use “out of command” markers Activating a Lower Hierarchy HQ: If the activated HQ has a higher to designate units outside the Command Radius of the hierarchy value than another HQ within its Command Radius, the side currently activated HQ. may choose to activate that HQ instead. For all purposes, the HQ considered to be activated is the lower-hierarchy HQ, not the higher-hierarchy Units in a friendly holding box and all IJN ground units within six hexes one. Exception: Move the HQ chit of the higher-hierarchy HQ (not the of a friendly naval base are considered in command. These units can be actually activated, lower-hierarchy HQ) down one row on the Activation activated when any HQ of the side is activated, whether they are within Track. the Command Radius of the HQ or not. They cannot attack however, unless the hex they enter the map (for units in Holding Boxes) or the hex PLAY NOTE: This allows the lower-hierarchy HQ to be activated more they start their move in (for IJN units within six hexes of a naval base) is times than it would normally be able to do on its own. also within the Command Radius of the activated HQ. 9.4.3 – Unit Activation: At the start of the Movement Phase, all the DESIGN NOTE: In reality, HQs outside the theater commanded offfriendly/allied ground units (including guerrilla, but not other HQs) of map reinforcements, and the Imperial Japanese Navy HQ commanded the the Phasing Side within the Command Radius of the activated HQ and IJN ground units. These units usually move in accordance with the needs over which it has command [9.5.3] become activated. of the HQs in the theater. Units may be activated (and thus move and attack) multiple times in a 9.5.3 – Full and Partial Command: A unique feature of War of the Suns is given turn. that a HQ may not always have full command over friendly ground units. Some HQs may have partial command over allied units, though. 9.4.4 – Mustering Units: In addition to activating in-command units, an activated HQ may also activate out-of-command units; the hierarchy • Full Command: A unit under full command of the activated HQ value of the HQ indicates the maximum number of SP of units that it can may move its full MA. muster. If mustered by a HQ, a unit must end its move in a hex closer to the HQ than the hex it started in; there is no such restriction if mustered • Partial Command: A unit under partial command of the activated by a GHQ. A unit can be mustered multiple times by different HQs HQ has its MA reduced by 1 if it is 4 or less, or by 2 if it is 5 during a given turn. or more. In addition, it attacks with half its AS (defense is not affected). A unit activated under partial command cannot be 9.4.5 – Administrative HQs: A HQ with its command quality printed in voluntarily moved to a hex where it would cause the ESL to be red on its counter and HQ Chit cannot directly activate units, though it exceeded or where it would be judged out of supply during the may still activate lower-hierarchy HQs [9.4.2] or muster units [9.4.4]. Supply Phase (unless it started its Movement Phase already out of supply). 9.4.6 – Operation Segment End: The Operation Segment ends if all the sides choose not to perform an activation roll, if no side can activate a HQ, • No Command: A unit over which a HQ has no command cannot or if the only side that could activate a HQ has just been the Phasing Side be activated by this HQ. for the third time in a row. Refer to the following table for the command capabilities of the various 9.4.7 – Hu’s HQ Communist Moles: Because of the communist moles HQs. A HQ has no command over units not specifically mentioned in the in his HQ, all units (regardless of clique) activated by the Hu Tsung-Nan table. HQ that attack CCP units suffer a -1 DRM on the Ground Combat Results Table. Units of the Hu clique are not affected if they were not ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 13 Command Capabilites Table HQ Full Command US HQ BC HQ Partial Command US units BC units UST Chinese units outside China non-UST Chinese units outside China KcR guerrilla units Pro-WA Siamese units FT guerrilla units Pro-WA French units BC units Pro-WA Siamese units FT guerrilla units Pro-WA French units IJA units IJA HQ IJN units INA units CnC units Pro-Japan Siamese units Mck unit Pro-Japan French units Mk units INA HQ Siamese HQ Units of own country or organization — French HQ CCP units CCP HQ Units of pro-CCP cliques Vm guerrilla units Units of non-rival Central Army cliques Units of assimilated cliques Central Army KMT HQ All other KMT units YoA units Assimilated clique KMT HQ CAI units Units of pro-KMT cliques Pro-KMT clique KMT HQ YoA units Pro-CCP clique KMT HQ Units of own clique Pro-Japan clique KMT HQ YoA units Unaffiliated clique KMT HQ CAI units CAI units 9.5.4 – Rival Cliques: The combat effectiveness of KMT ground combat units (Exception: US-trained units and improved units) might be affected in situations mixing rival cliques of the Central Army under the same command. An activated HQ has only Partial Command [9.5.3] over units from a rival clique that it activates, unless the HQ is stacked with the GHQ (Chiang Kai-Shek). Each of the following HQs has the name of its rival clique printed in the top right corner of its counter: • • Ho (Ho) and Chen (Ch): A unit of Ho clique under Chen’s command, or a unit of Chen’s clique under any commander of Ho’s clique. Wei (Wei) and Tang (Ta): A unit of Tang clique under Wei’s command, or vice versa. HISTORICAL NOTE: Ho and Chen had a long history of rivalry within the KMT. Tang was fiercely anti-communist while Wei was very close to the CCP. DESIGN NOTE: The adverse effects of multi-clique stacking [4.2.2] are caused by the difficulty to coordinate (due to different weapons, communication systems, etc.), while the adverse effects of rivalry are due to the unwillingness to do so. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 10.0 – SUPPLY 10.1 – SUPPLY CENTERS Supply centers are identified on the map by their large squares (see terrain effects chart). A unit can obtain supply from a friendly supply center only (allied supply centers cannot be used). Off-map supply centers (Mukden, Saigon, Calcutta) function like on-map ones. A supply center may be damaged and may not be used as a supply center (mark the hex with a damaged marker) until the next Admin Phase by: • An enemy air unit/fleet successfully bombing/bombarding it; or • A ground unit spending 2 extra MPs in the hex; or • The Scorched Earth Policy random event happening in the hex. 10.2 – MAINTAINING SUPPLY 10.2.1 Checking Supply: Each side must maintain supply to its units. Supply is checked during the Supply Phase of each turn. HQs, air units, fleets, CCP units, guerrilla units, and bandit units never need to check supply and never are out of supply. A unit is in supply if it can trace a path no longer than the side’s Supply Radius to one of the following supply sources: War of the Suns 14 • a transport route hex leading, via a friendly/allied continuous transport route (or combination of routes), to an undamaged friendly on-map supply center, or to a map-edge transport route hex linked to a friendly off-map supply center (to trace supply along a river route, all hexes bordering its traced length must be free of enemy units); or • an undamaged friendly supply center; or • a friendly port or naval base ( Japan and WA only). 10.2.2 Out of Supply: Place “Out of Supply” markers on out of supply units. Out of supply units have their AS, DS, and MA halved. Standard-ZOC out of supply units exert Narrow ZOC (out of supply Narrow ZOC units keep their Narrow ZOC). Remove the “Out of Supply” marker from an out of supply unit when: IJN units can draw supply from Japanese naval bases only. It receives air supply; or • It is converted to a guerrilla unit during the Movement Phase. Units judged to be out of supply while in a Desert hex are eliminated. Unless affected by weather and/or terrain, a Supply Radius is generally six hexes. KMT units unable to trace command per 9.5.1 to a KMT HQ stacked with US military advisor Wedemeyer [23.1.3] have a supply radius of four hexes only. 11.0 – MOVEMENT A Supply Radius: During the Movement Phase, all the friendly/allied activated [9.4.3] or mustered [9.4.4] ground units of the Phasing Side can move. • cannot enter an enemy hex or a disputed hex (unless the disputed hex is occupied by friendly/allied units), or any hex adjacent to a bandit unit [24.9] (unless the disputed hex is occupied by friendly/allied units). • Cannot enter a hex/cross a hexside that the unit whose supply status is being checked could not enter/cross during a normal move. • Can enter but not pass through a desert hex, forest hex, or swamp hex unless along a friendly/allied road, railroad or river route. • Can enter but not pass through a flooded hex. • Cannot extend more than one hex across a major river regardless of the length traced, unless across an undamaged bridge or friendly/allied river route. 11.1 – REGULAR MOVEMENT When moving, a unit moves from hex to hex, following a path of adjacent hexes on the map (jumping over hexes is not allowed), and spending a certain number of Movement Points (MP) from its Movement Allowance (MA) to enter each hex or cross certain hexsides. See the Terrain Effects Chart for the movement costs of the various terrain types. A unit can move only once during the Movement Phase, and cannot spend more MP than its MA (Exception: See [11.1.2]). Unused MP cannot be accumulated for later use or transferred to other units. Units are never forced to move. 11.1.1 – Road and Rail Movement: Entering a road or railroad hex via a road or railroad hexside costs 1/2 MP, regardless of other terrain features in the hex. Any fraction of MP not used is lost. DESIGN NOTE: Railroad embankments facilitate ground unit movement along them. Regardless of these limitations, a unit is always in supply if it is within Supply Radius distance of a supply source and adjacent to an in supply unit of the same side. PLAY NOTE: Be sure to note the difference between “railroad movement” and “railroad transport” [11.3.2]. Supply Example 1 Supply Example 2 C Dimapur (on the left map edge) is the only supply center shown here. Assume all hexes in the picture are friendly. • A unit in Hex A is out of supply, unless the Ledo Road has been constructed along at least three hexes starting from Ledo (6041) (inclusive). • A unit in Hex B is out of supply because a Supply Radius cannot pass through the forest or swamp hexes. • • A Hankow and Nanchang are the only two supply centers in the picture. The Yangtze River is experiencing a flood during this turn. • Assume all hexes in the picture are friendly. A unit in Hex A is in supply: it traces three hexes to Sinyang, then along the railroad to Hankow. • Assume Japan controls Hankow and all the railroad hexes north of it. A KMT unit in Hex B is out of supply: its supply path cannot reach Nanchang over the Yangtze River (the flood effectively cancels the existence of the river route and railroad on the right bank). While the supply path could cross the top-bound Yangtze River and reach the river route right of Madang running around the two lake hexes, the river route itself stops one hexside short of Nanchang because of the flood negating the river route bordering the Nanchang hex. A A unit in Hex C is out of supply, but can easily be air supplied [17.5.2] if the side has at least one transport air unit within range. B B ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 11.1.2 – Minimum Move: A ground unit eligible to move can move at least one hex during a phase, regardless of MP costs, but this rule cannot be used to move through prohibited terrain or leave an enemy ZOC. 11.1.3 – Enemy-Occupied Hexes: A unit may not enter a hex occupied by an enemy unit, unless: • an OB requires it; or • it is a commando unit; or • it is an evading guerrilla unit; or • all enemy units in the hex exert a Narrow ZOC or no ZOC; or • there is already a friendly/allied unit in the hex. 11.1.4 – Effects of ZOCs on Movement: When leaving a hex in an enemy ZOC, a unit must spend 2 extra MPs (Exception: It spends only 1 extra MP if it directly enters a friendly holding box or a hex containing friendly/ allied units only). Multiple ZOCs exerted in the hex have no additional effects. PLAY NOTE: A unit “leaves a hex in an enemy ZOC” when it enters a hex occupied by a Standard-ZOC enemy unit, or when it exits a hex occupied by a Standard- or Narrow-ZOC enemy unit. 11.2 – SPECIAL MOVEMENT TYPES Apart from regular movement, a unit may use the following special movement types during the Operation Segment. 11.2.1 – Administrative Movement: A ground unit moving by rail, sea, river, or air transport [11.3] is using administrative movement. Administrative movement spends the unit’s MP as well as Transport Points (either its side’s for railroad and sea transport, or the shared amount for river transport). A unit may use regular movement before and after administrative movement, and/or take part in multiple administrative moves if it has enough MP. 11.2.2 – Movement Mode: A ground unit can be put in movement mode for one turn by placing a “movement mode” marker on it at the start of its move. This unit: • Must be able to trace supply from every hex it enters during its entire movement. • Cannot move into or out of any hex in enemy ZOC. • Exerts a Narrow ZOC, if it normally exerts a Narrow or Standard ZOC. • Has its printed MA doubled, before taking weather, command, and supply effects into account. • Defends with half its normal DS if attacked. A unit with a DS of 1 becomes a 0-DS unit, and is eliminated as soon as it is alone in an enemy ZOC. Movement mode can be combined with administrative movement. DESIGN NOTE: Units in movement mode are moving at full speed, without preparation for combat. 11.2.3 – Overrun: During the Movement Phase, a stack including at least one armor or mechanized infantry unit may attempt to overrun an adjacent enemy-occupied hex. The Phasing Side announces the attempt, and then has every unit in the stack spend one extra MP and attack the enemy-occupied hex [12.0]. Both offensive and defensive ground support may be used in overrun attacks. If enemy units remain in the defending hex after the overrun attack, the overrunning stack’s move is over; if the hex is empty, the stack may continue moving as long as it has MP left. A given stack may perform multiple overrun attacks in a Movement Phase as long as every unit in it has adequate MP remaining to do so. Units that attempted overrun attacks during the Movement Phase may take part in regular combat in the following Combat Phase, regardless of the result of these overruns. 11.2.4 – Defensive Reserve Movement: During the Combat Phase, after the Phasing Side has declared all its attacks, enemy ground units in a hold©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 15 ing box or stacked on-map with a HQ and under full command of it may perform defensive reserve movement if: • They can reach an attacked hex within their MA; and • (For on-map units) The HQ chit of the HQ is not in the ‘Activations Complete’ row of the Activation Track. The Phasing Side may then cancel any of its attacks or rearrange them, either by adding activated units adjacent to the attacked hex or having the declared attacking units target another adjacent hex. Combats are resolved only after all defensive reserve movements are completed. 11.2.5 – Post-Combat Movement: Units involved in a combat might have to perform a combat retreat [12.4.1] and/or advance after combat [12.4.2]. 11.3 – TRANSPORT Ground unit mobility can be greatly increased by using the following transport modes. 11.3.1 – Transport Capacities: Most of the sides have a certain railroad and sea transport capacity, expressed in corresponding Transport Points, at their disposal. These are summarized on the Transport Capacity Table: in each Admin Phase, the Railroad Transport Point markers of the various sides are reset to the listed values, while each side with at least one fleet on map has its Sea Transport Points marker reset to ‘15’ at the beginning of each of its activations. The transport air units of the WA also provide them an air transport capacity. Ground units may use allied Transport Points if consent is given. Each river route has a maximum transport capacity per turn, which is shared by all sides on a “first come, first serve” basis. The Yangtze river route has a transport capacity of 20 Transport Points per turn, while the Irrawaddy/Chindwin and West River each have a capacity of 6 Transport Points. The corresponding markers are reset to these values in each Admin Phase. Example: Japan is carrying out the first activation of the Operation Segment. Some of the activated Japanese units perform a river transport up the Yangtze River route, using 12 river Transport Points. Only 8 river Transport Points are left to use (for the four sides) along the Yangtze river route until the end of the turn. The Transport Point Requirement Table indicates how many Transport Points are needed to transport a given unit. A unit uses up the same number of Transport Points in all forms of transport. The players should adjust the various Transport Point markers on the tracks as they are used. 11.3.2 – Railroad Transport: At any time during its move, a ground unit may initiate rail transport while in a railroad hex by spending 2 MPs and the required number of Rail Transport Points. It can then move freely along this railroad line, entering only connected, friendly/allied railroad hexes; the railroad section travelled must be linked to a friendly city. The unit may continue moving after exiting rail transport if it has any MPs left. WA units cannot use railroad transport along railroad hexes not linked to a railroad hex in India or Burma, while KMT units cannot use railroad transport along railroad hexes not linked to a railroad hex in China. 11.3.3 – River Transport: At any time during its move, a ground unit may initiate river transport while in a hex bordering a river route hexside by spending 2 MPs and the required number of River Transport Points. The unit can then move as far as it wants along this river route, travelling the hexsides. Every hex bordering the travelled river route hexsides must be friendly (but see below) and the travelled river route must link to a friendly city or port via a friendly river route. To exit river transport, the unit must pay the MP cost of its destination hex. When exiting river transport, the unit is placed in any hex bordering the river route. The unit may continue moving after exiting river transport if it has any MPs left. As an exception to the above rule, Japanese escorted river transport allows ground units to travel along an uncontrolled river route, as long as no hex bordering the travelled section contains an enemy-controlled KMT War of the Suns 16 stronghold. This requires a Japanese fleet to perform a river transport escort mission [17.5.3]. Example: A ground unit exerting a Narrow ZOC cannot attack an adjacent hex, unless it is stacked with a unit exerting a Standard ZOC. River transport may be combined with sea transport [11.3.4] to transport ground units from a port to a hex bordering a friendly river route, or from a hex bordering a friendly river route to a coastal hex. Both sea and river Transport Points are used in this case. A stack of units is cut off if all the adjacent hexes (excluding those which no unit in the stack can enter) are in enemy ZOC and not occupied by friendly/ allied units which are themselves not cut off. Units attacking cut off units benefit from a 1-column shift in their favor. 11.3.4 – Sea Transport: At any time during its move, a ground unit in a naval base or port may initiate sea transport and be transported to any friendly/allied naval base or port; coastal open hex; or coastal open hex occupied by enemy units (i.e., an amphibious attack) by spending the required MPs (see Actions Using MP or Affecting Combat chart under Terrain Effects Chart) and number of Sea Transport Points. To exit sea transport, the unit must pay the MP cost of its destination hex; it may continue moving after exiting sea transport if it has any MPs left. 12.3 – DETERMINING COMBAT RESULTS Sea transport requires at least one friendly fleet to perform a sea transport escort mission [17.5.3]. Both the initial and destination sea zones [17.2] of the sea-transported units must be either the sea zone in which the escorting fleet(s) is located, or sea zone(s) adjacent to the sea zone in which the escorting fleet(s) is located. 11.3.5 – Air Transport: At any time during its move and within its MA restrictions (see below), a ground unit in an airbase or city may initiate air transport and be transported to another hex by spending the required MPs (see Actions Using MP or Affecting Combat chart under Terrain Effects Chart). Air transport requires at least one friendly air unit with enough Payload remaining to perform an air freight mission [17.5.2]. The destination hex of the transported unit must be within operational radius of the air unit. There are three types of air transport: • • • Airlift: The ground unit uses up half its MA to be transported to a friendly/allied airbase or city not in enemy ZOC. The other half of its MA may be used to reach the airbase or city from which it will be air-transported and/or leave the destination hex to which it has been airlifted. Air Drop: Only parachute units may perform air drops. The ground unit must start the Movement Phase in the same airbase or city as the transporting air unit, and uses up all its MA. An air-dropping unit may land in any hex it could enter using normal movement, even if it is in enemy ZOC. Glider Landing: Only glider units may perform glider landings. Glider landing is similar to air drop in all respects, except that the landing hex must not be a Mountain hex. Some BC units may receive training to gain glider-landing capability [24.1]. 12.0 – COMBAT Activated and mustered units may attack enemy units during the Guerrilla, Movement, and Combat Phases. A unit may attack several times during a given turn, but only once in a given phase (Exception: Overruns [11.2.3]). Combat is never mandatory; a unit in an enemy ZOC is not forced to attack. Combat may occur between enemy units in adjacent hexes or in the same hex. Units stacked in the same hex may attack different hexes separately. An attacking unit may not divide its strength. If an enemy unit is attacked, all enemy units in the same hex must be attacked in a single combat. A given hex or unit can be attacked only once in a given phase (Exception: A unit that retreated during a phase can be attacked later in the same phase if it ended its retreat in a hex that is itself attacked [12.4.1]). Non-activated units can never attack. 12.1 – EFFECTS OF TERRAIN ON COMBAT A ground unit cannot attack a hex it is prohibited from entering. Also, see the Terrain Effects Chart for the combat effects of the various terrain types. 12.2 – EFFECTS OF ZOCS ON COMBAT A stack of units may attack a hex only if at least one unit in the stack exerts a ZOC in that hex. A unit can always defend, even if it doesn’t exert a ZOC in the hex containing the attacking unit(s). Add up the total AS of the attacking units and the total DS of the defending units. Compare these two totals to work out the combat ratio, and apply all column shifts required by the Ground Combat Results Table to arrive at the final combat ratio. Each side then rolls 1D6 (representing the performance variability of the units involved in the battle) and applies all required die roll modifiers (DRMs) to its respective result. Subtract the defender’s modified result from the attacker’s modified result to obtain the die roll difference (DR Diff.). Determine the combat result by cross-referencing the DR Diff. with the combat ratio on the Ground Combat Results Table. Note that: • Units in the same hex as enemy units must take losses (up to their elimination) before units that are only adjacent to enemy units. • Artillery units can take losses only if all friendly/allied units stacked with them have been eliminated. 12.4 – POST-COMBAT MOVEMENT 12.4.1 – Combat Retreat: When the Ground Combat Results Table requires a retreat, the retreating player must retreat his units by moving them 2 hexes (but without exceeding the printed MA of each unit, and taking into account the 2 MPs required to leave an enemy ZOC. A unit may only retreat one hex if there isn’t enough MA to retreat the second hex. Units from a single stack may retreat to different hexes. A unit is eliminated if: • There is no hex it can retreat to; or • It does not have enough MPs to retreat to any hex; or • It is forced to retreat off map (Exception: A ground unit may retreat to a friendly Holding Box and may return from there as reinforcements in a subsequent Reinforcement Phase); or • Its only retreat path leads it to a hex beyond its limited operation area; or • Its only retreat path enters an enemy controlled hex. Provided it has valid retreat options, a side may always choose to eliminate at least half the combat strength (AS if attacker, DS if defender) of its ground units instead of retreating. A unit retreating to a friendly hex which is attacked later in the same phase does not take part in the defense but suffers any adverse combat results inflicted on its side. Ground units may retreat after combat via sea transport without spending Transport Points (they still have to spend the 2 MPs required to exit an enemy ZOC, though, and are eliminated if they cannot) in the following situations: • Units defending in a port or naval base where a fleet (whatever its status) is based may retreat to a friendly/allied port or naval base within the same sea zone. • Units attacking from a hex that they entered in the immediately preceding Movement Phase via sea transport may retreat to the ports or cities they were transported from. • Units attacking from a hex that they entered in the immediately preceding Movement Phase via river transport may retreat to any friendly port or city linked to this hex via a friendly river route. • Units performing an amphibious attack (their landing hex is occupied by enemy units) must retreat after combat to the ports they were transported from if the combat result is “Inc” or “Retreat”. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 12.4.2 – Advance After Combat: After each combat is resolved, any of the attacking ground units may enter the hex the enemy units were defending in, if no enemy units remain in the attacked hex. Advance after combat can be done regardless of the attacking units’ MA or enemy ZOCs. 12.5 – SURRENDER Ground units may surrender as a result of combat. Surrendering units are eliminated and placed as normal in the Replacement or NR Pools (Exception: The BDA unit, see below). Surrenders may have additional repercussions: • • • • For each surrendering KMT or CCP unit (including guerrilla units), place a generic CnC unit [24.6.1] of equivalent SP value in the Reinforcement Pool. This unit may enter play during the Reinforcement Phase of the following turn in any Japanese railroad hex in China. The total SP value of surrendering CnC units is converted to an equivalent number of RP of the attacking side (KMT or CCP) and immediately recorded on the Record Track, for use in the Replacement and Construction Phase at the end of the turn. As for all RP, they are lost if not used by the end of the turn they become available. The total SP value of surrendering BC Indian units is converted to an equivalent number of RP that Japan must immediately use to replace INA units in the Replacement Pool at the time the combat is resolved (any RP not spent are lost). These replaced units will be placed on the map within 1 hex of any friendly Indian or Burmese city during the Replacement and Construction Phase at the end of the turn. PLAY NOTE: As this somewhat differs from the regular replacement procedure, be sure to remember these INA units when the Replacement and Construction Phase comes. When it surrenders, the BDA unit is flipped over to its PBF (Patriotic Burmese Force) WA side and placed in the Reinforcement Pool. It may enter play during the Reinforcement Phase of the following turn in any WA railroad hex in Burma. In addition to a surrender combat result, the following circumstances force a non-IJA, non-IJN Japanese unit to surrender: • It suffers a Retreat combat result when it was not stacked with an IJA or IJN unit at the beginning of the combat. (Exception: This does not apply during Anti-Guerrilla Sweeps.) • During an enemy activation after Turn 30 (when Japan’s doom became only a matter of time), it finds itself within an enemy ZOC while not stacked with an IJA or IJN unit. Causing this surrender does not prevent enemy units from continuing to move if they have remaining MP or from attacking in this activation. 13.0 – REPLACEMENTS Eliminated units in the Replacement Pool can be returned to play via the replacement process. A unit is replaced during the Replacement and Construction Phase by spending a number of RP available to the side equal to the SP value of the unit; additionally, some Chinese units require spending a number of DEP or FEP equal to their SP value [13.3]. 13.1 – REPLACEMENT ABILITIES The different sides have various abilities to replace units that were eliminated: • The WA may replace all WA air and ground units, all CAI units operating in the IBS theater, and any friendly minor country units. • Japan may replace all IJA, IJN, and collaborationist units, and any friendly minor country units. • The CCP may replace all CCP and Vietminh units. • The KMT may replace units of all KMT cliques that have not been dissolved, plus all ROCAF, SVG, and US air units. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 17 13.2 – REPLACEMENT POINTS In each Admin Phase (and possibly Negotiation Phase and Replacement and Construction Phase), the KMT and CCP receive a varying number of RP, DEP, and FEP. These amounts are calculated, based on the current on-map situation, according to the Replacement Aids instructions; their availability and use are recorded on the Record Track with the corresponding markers. The KMT can also receive RP from foreign loans [18.2], while the CCP can receive RP from the Comintern or from KMT/ Japanese sources [13.3.4]. The General Events Chart lists the number of RP available each turn to Japan and the WA. DESIGN NOTE: The WA and Japan receive a fixed number of RP because their war capacities were largely based on conditions and events beyond the theater. 13.3 – CHINESE REPLACEMENTS 13.3.1 – Replacement Types: The vast variety of weapons used among the Chinese units means that different kinds of human and financial resources — represented by RP — and equipment — represented by Domestic Equipment Points (DEP) and Foreign Equipment Points (FEP) — are needed to replace the various Chinese units. The KMT and CCP should separate all their replaceable non-mechanized and non-artillery ground units into three types: • Elite Units: A unit whose entry turn is printed in WHITE can be replaced by using a number of RP and FEP each equal to its SP value. HISTORICAL NOTE: These units used weapons imported from Germany, the Soviet Union, or later in the war, the USA. • Standard Units: A unit whose entry turn is in a YELLOW box can be replaced by using a number of RP and DEP each equal to its SP value. HISTORICAL NOTE: These units were issued standard weapons assembled in Chinese factories, including the Chinese version of the Mauser 98k rifle, mortars, and some light artillery. • Local Units: A unit whose entry turn is in a GREEN box can be replaced by using a number of RP equal to its SP value. HISTORICAL NOTE: These units equipped themselves with whatever weapons were at hand. Their soldiers never knew whether their rifles would fire or malfunction when next used — when they had rifles at all. Some used swords, spears, or antique firearms from the Manchu Dynasty era. Elite and standard units can be replaced at reduced strength, by using only RP. Reduced-strength units have their AS and DS both reduced by 1 if their printed AS is 4 or less, or by 2 if their printed AS is 5 or more. Place “Reduced” markers of the correct value on these units. A reduced-strength unit remains so until: • it is eliminated; or • the side spends the required EPs in a subsequent Replacement and Construction Phase to reequip it; or • it is improved [21.0]. Elite units replaced by spending full RP and FEP must remain in training for one complete turn. Mark these units with a “Training” marker [21.3]. 13.3.2 – Replacement Process: The KMT and CCP follow the steps below (the KMT completes all steps, then the CCP completes all the steps): 1. Spend FEP and RP to replace elite units; spend FEP to replace air units. 2. Spend DEP and RP to replace standard units. War of the Suns 18 3. Spend RP to replace local units; spend RP to construct roads, railroads, or airbases [17.1.2], and to extend river routes [8.3]. 4. Spend DEP or FEP to improve ground units [21.1]. In steps 2-4 above, FEP can be spent as DEP or RP, and DEP can be spent as RP, but not vice versa. 13.3.3 – KMT Unit Expansion: Many KMT Army unit counters have two sides: the front, or initial side, is used when these units first become available. The back, or expanded side, shows the combat strengths and SP of these units according to the standard TOE established at the Nanyue Military Conference, at the end of 1938. • Yumen Oilfield (western Kansu, off map): Discovered only as a random event. The side controlling the whole road section leading off map west through Kansu province from Lanchow (3038) controls this oilfield. • Daching Oilfield (Manchukuo): Discovered only as a random event. Japan controls this oilfield until the end of the game. 13.5 – REPLACEMENT RESTRICTIONS Replacing a unit always requires spending at least 1 RP, even for a 0-SP unit. Some specific unit types also have replacement restrictions, as explained below: 13.5.1 – Non-Replaceable Units: Non-replaceable regular ground units are designated as “NR” on their counters. When eliminated, these units are placed into the NR Pool. Eliminated “NR” generic units are simply removed from the map and available for later use. From Turn 6 on, during the Replacement and Construction Phase, the KMT may expand Army units from their initial side to their expanded side by: • replacing an eliminated unit directly on its expanded side; or • spending a number of RP (and the same number of DEP or FEP if necessary [13.3.1]) equal to the difference between the SP values on the initial and expanded sides. The on-map Army unit must be in supply and not in an enemy ZOC. • combining it with other units of the same clique at the end of a KMT Movement Phase, if the units are stacked in the same hex. The total AS, DS, and SP value from the combining units must all be equal to or greater than the corresponding ratings of the expanded unit. Remove the units merging with the expanded unit from the map as if they had been eliminated. DESIGN NOTE: Non-Replaceable status is due to different reasons. KMT independent divisions and the British colonial units that faced the initial Japanese attack were usually absorbed by existing units or disbanded after they were destroyed. The Army Group level of the KMT military was abandoned soon after war broke out. Collaborationist and guerrilla units are dealt with through distinct game systems. 13.5.2 – Air Units: Each side may replace one eliminated or inoperative air unit per turn, at the following cost: KMT Replacement Example: It is the Replacement and Construction Phase of Turn 6, and the KMT has 18 RP, 7 DEP, and 8 FEP. The KMT uses 6 RP and 6 FEP to replace two 3-SP elite Armies. Then, it spends 2 RP and 2 FEP to expand one on-map 2-SP elite Army to its 4-SP side. The KMT is left with 10 (18-8) RP and 7 DEP. • KMT or Japanese Sources: At the start of the Replacement and Construction Phase, the KMT and Japan may transfer any of their RP to the CCP, as a help or a negotiation tool, for instance. HISTORICAL NOTE: The CCP received funding from the KMT until the New 4th Army incident, where the communist Army was eliminated and disbanded by the KMT. 13.4 – OILFIELDS Each friendly oilfield generates 1 extra CP and 1 extra FEP (for KMT and CCP) or RP (for WA and Japan) every turn. There are three oilfields in the game: • Yenangyaung Oilfield (Burma): The WA control this oilfield as long as Japan does not. • KMT: 4 FEP to replace each ROCAF, SVG, or USAAF air unit. • KMT: Twice the normal number of RP and FEP. • Japan and WA: A number of RP equal to twice the unit’s SP value. Mechanized and artillery units cannot be replaced at reduced strength. 13.5.5 – Cavalry Units: Each side may replace one cavalry unit per turn. The KMT can only replace a cavalry unit if: Additional RP may also be available from the following sources: HISTORICAL NOTE: The CCP received some funding from the Comintern until its dissolution in 1943, and from the Soviet Union thereafter. WA: 4 RP to replace each RAF, USAAF, USN, or friendly RTAF air unit. 13.5.4 – Mechanized and Artillery Units: Each side may replace one mechanized unit AND one artillery unit per turn, at the following cost: 13.3.4 – Special CCP Replacement Capacity: Once it has replaced its eliminated units, the CCP can use any remaining RP to build new 1-1-5 or 3-3-5 generic infantry units. These are built by spending a number of RP equal to their SP value and deploying them within 1 hex of any CCP HQ on map. • 13.5.3 – Fleets: All fleets are Non-Replaceable units. Now, the KMT spends 3 RP to replace a 3-SP local unit. With 3 RP left, it replaces a 2-SP elite unit at reduced strength by spending 2 RP, and then spends its last RP on constructing one road in a trail hex. Comintern: The CCP rolls one die on every Admin Phase. On a 6, it receives 1 RP. Japan: 4 RP to replace each IJAAF, IJNAF, or friendly RTAF air unit. See [17.4.1] for special considerations on Soviet aircraft replacements for the KMT. The KMT spends 4 RP and 4 DEP to replace one 4-SP standard unit, then 3 DEP to remove the “Reduced” marker from a 3-SP standard unit that was previously replaced at reduced strength. The KMT has 6 (10-4) RP left. • • • There is at least one KMT regular unit in the home territory of the clique this cavalry unit belongs to; or • The Fu, Yen, Ma, or Sung clique has been assimilated by the KMT, and there is at least one KMT regular unit in the home territory of this clique; or • There is at least one KMT regular unit in the Jehol or Liaoning province. 13.6 – CONVERTING CP TO RP At the start of the Replacement and Construction Phase, Japan and the KMT may convert any remaining CP to RP usable for replacements. The conversion rate is the following: • Japan: 1 CP = 1 RP • KMT: 1 CP = 3 RP DESIGN NOTE: Japan and China never reached the enlistment percentages of WWII Germany or the Soviet Union and they could always have brought more men to war. But such extensive recruitment would have had various political costs. The CCP and WA cannot benefit from this rule, because extensive recruitment was the norm for the CCP, and a more systematic recruitment procedure was in place for the WA. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 14.0 – UNIT DEPLOYMENT 14.1 – DEPLOYMENT ORDER Follow the order below when sides are deploying their units at the same time: 1. All KMT non-guerrilla ground units and factory counters. 2. All CCP and WA non-guerrilla ground units. 3. All Japanese non-guerrilla ground units. 4. All CCP and WA guerrilla units and guerrilla bases. 5. All KMT guerrilla units and guerrilla bases. 6. Each side secretly writes down on a piece of paper where its HQs, air units, and fleets are to be deployed. Once this is done, all the sides simultaneously reveal their deployments. A unit can set up in enemy ZOC only if its setup instructions specifically indicate it. 19 Reinforcement Deployment Table Deployment Instructions • a hex in enemy ZOC; or • a hex where they would be judged out of supply during the Supply Phase; or • a hex outside their limited operation area. 14.2.1 – Reinforcement Deployment: Reinforcements are deployed during the Reinforcement Phase. If no entry hex is available to deploy reinforcement units, their arrival is delayed until the next Reinforcement Phase when an entry hex is available. Any reinforcement unit(s) may also have its arrival voluntarily delayed until a later turn. Alternatively, KMT and CCP reinforcements may be converted to guerrilla units if the conditions are met [16.3]. Specific Hex 14.2.2 – Replacement Deployment: Replaced units are deployed during the Replacement and Construction Phase, and cannot be deployed outside their limited operation area. If on a given turn a unit cannot be deployed for any reason, it cannot be replaced on this turn. Refer to the following table to deploy replaced units: Japanese Ground Units • IJA: Any railroad hex in Jehol or Liaoning, or West Pacific Holding Box. • IJN: West Pacific Holding Box. • Manchukuo: Any railroad hex in Jehol or Liaoning. • Mengkiang and Chinese Collaborators: Initial deployment hex listed in the Japanese OB for the unit. • INA: Within 1 hex of any friendly Indian or Burmese city (also see [12.5]). Other Ground Units • Unassimilated KMT Cliques: Any hex, within the home territory of the clique, linked to a friendly supply center of the clique via friendly/allied railroad or road hexes. No more than three units can be replaced per turn in each territory. • Central Army and assimilated KMT Cliques: Any hex, outside the home territories of any unassimilated cliques, linked to a supply center controlled by the Central Government (i.e., marked with ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. OR if this would cause the ASL to be exceeded, in the closest possible hex (player’s choice if multiple hexes are eligible) Air Unit and Fleet In the listed deployment hex In a hex of the listed territory containing a unit over which the HQ has full command (for KMT HQ, a hex containing at least one unit of the clique of the HQ) — Indian Ocean Holding Box May enter the map via air or sea transport, or transport route in India leading off map [1.4] — Indian Ocean Air Zone or Sea Zone West Pacific Holding Box May enter the map via air or sea transport [1.4] — West Pacific Air Zone or Sea Zone Any friendly road or railroad hex in the listed territory Specific Territory Specific Air or Sea Zone OR if no road or railroad hex is available, within 1 hex of a friendly unit in the listed territory — — Airbase or city in the listed air zone (for air units) Naval base or port in the listed sea zone (for fleets) a “white sun” control marker) via friendly/allied railroad or road hexes. No more than three units can be replaced per turn in each territory. There is no Reinforcement Phase on the first turn of Campaign and Scenario Games. Refer to the Reinforcement Deployment Table for reinforcement placement. HQ In the listed deployment hex, 14.2 – REINFORCEMENT & REPLACEMENT DEPLOYMENT Except for guerrilla units, all reinforcements and replacements must be deployed in a friendly hex or holding box. Unless otherwise stated, reinforcements (including reorganizing, relocating, demobilizing, and returning units) and replacements may never be deployed in: Ground Unit • CCP: Within 1 hex of any CCP HQ. • BC: Any railroad hex in India, or the Indian Ocean Holding Box. • US: Any railroad hex from Ledo (6041) to Dimapur (8644), or any friendly Holding Box. • CAI units in IBS theater: Any railroad hex from Ledo (6041) to Dimapur (8644). • Siam: Within 1 hex of Bangkok (8416). Air Units • IJAAF, ROCAF, SVG, RAF, and USAAF: Friendly airbase or city. • IJNAF and USN: West Pacific Holding Box, if it is friendly. • RTAF: Bangkok (8416) 15.0 – UNIT BREAKDOWN Units listed on the Breakdown Chart may break down into their component units. They may also be identified by their SP value printed on a white background and their counter backs showing their cadre unit. Component units may later reassemble into the original units. Except for a few of them, most of the detached component units are generic and can be used interchangeably if they belong to the same service/clique/dominion. Breaking down or reassembling costs no MP. War of the Suns 20 15.1 – BREAKDOWN PROCEDURE A unit may be broken down in the following situations: • At the start of a Movement Phase, if it is activated. • Just before applying losses suffered in combat. • At the start of the Replacement and Construction Phase, if it is in the Replacement Pool. B A D Substitute the original unit with the counters of its component units (flip the original unit over to its cadre side if it is part of its component units, remove it to the Exchange Pool if not). Note that the total combat strengths and SP value of the component units may sometimes be less than those of the original unit. 15.2 – REASSEMBLY PROCEDURE C Eligible component units may be reassembled back into their original unit in the following situations: • At the end of a Movement Phase of their side, if they occupy the same hex. • At the start of the Replacement and Construction Phase, if they are in the Replacement Pool. F If a cadre unit is part of the component units, flip it over to its original side and place the other component units aside for later use. If not, substitute the component units with the original unit from the Exchange Pool and place them aside. E 16.0 – GUERRILLA WARFARE The CCP, KMT, and WA may use guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla units: • may establish guerrilla bases, from which new guerrilla units can be recruited. • may sabotage transport routes and enemy airbases and naval bases. • may convert to regular units under specific conditions (KMT and CCP only). • may move during the Guerrilla Phase (whether in command or not) and the Movement Phase (only if in command). • cannot use rail, river, sea, or air transport. 16.1 – GUERRILLA BASES A guerrilla base marker defines a region where villagers equipped with crude weapons pledge allegiance to a side. This region includes the hex containing the guerrilla marker and the surrounding area delimited by the nearest roads, railroads, major river hexsides, and territory borders (exclusive). Any hex within this area containing a city, port, airbase, naval base, or terrain impassable to an infantry unit is NOT part of the guerrilla base area. A guerrilla unit may spend 3 MPs in a hex to establish a guerrilla base in a potential guerrilla base area if: • There is currently no friendly guerrilla base in the area; and • The hex does not contain any road, railroad, city, port, airbase, or naval base; and • The hex is located in a territory that Japanese units have entered at any previous point in the game (CCP guerrilla bases on the map on Turn 0 are not affected by this rule). Each side has its own guerrilla base markers to denote control. KMT and CCP guerrilla base markers may coexist in the same potential guerrilla base area, but not in the same hex. A guerrilla base marker itself has no ZOC and does not block movement. If there is no guerrilla unit of a given side in a guerrilla base area, this side’s guerrilla base marker may be removed by: Guerrilla Base Example A given side may have up to six Guerrilla Bases (A to F) in Shansi (composed of the Northern and Southern Shansi territories). • Any enemy unit that spends an extra 3 MPs in the guerrilla base hex. • The 3-Alls Policy random event occurring in the guerrilla base area. 16.2 – GUERRILLA RECRUITMENT One new guerrilla unit may be recruited at the start of the Guerrilla Phase from each guerrilla base that meets all the following conditions: • There is at least one Japanese unit in the TERRITORY where the guerrilla base is. • The guerrilla base marker hex can be linked to any hex outside the guerrilla base area through a series of connected hexes that are not within enemy ZOC. • The player who owns the guerrilla base rolls 1D6. Recruitment succeeds on a 1-3 result. Apply a -1 DRM if there is any guerrilla unit of the side within the guerrilla base area. Apply a DRM of +1 during Fall turns (harvesting season). The new guerrilla unit appears in the guerrilla base hex. If more than one side satisfies the recruitment requirements in the same area, the CCP always attempts recruitment first. The KMT may only attempt to recruit guerrillas if the CCP fails. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 16.3 – CONVERTING REGULAR UNITS TO GUERRILLAS Some KMT and all CCP regular units may be converted to guerrilla units. They can be identified by their SP value printed in white on a black background on their counter and a “G” entry turn code on their guerrilla unit side. This conversion may occur at two points in the Sequence of Play: • • During the Reinforcement Phase, if the received regular unit cannot be deployed within the listed area because it would then be within enemy ZOC or judged out of supply during the Supply Phase. Flip the unit to its guerrilla unit side and deploy it within the listed area. (Exception: If a listed deployment hex contains a road, railroad, city, port, airbase, or naval base, place the guerrilla unit in any eligible adjacent hex). At the start of the Movement Phase, when the regular unit is activated by an HQ with full command over it. Flip the unit to its guerrilla unit side. Once converted to a guerrilla unit, a unit can be converted back to a regular unit through rule 16.4, Point 3. 16.4 – CONVERTING GUERRILLAS TO REGULAR UNITS Guerrilla units may be converted to regular units in three ways: 1. At any time during the Guerrilla Phase, the KMT and CCP may convert guerrilla units occupying the same hex into regular infantry units from the Replacement Pool and/or regular units that are printed on the back of the involved guerrilla units, if all the following conditions are met: • The conversion does not result in any increase in total SP. • The sum of the AS, DS, and MA of the regular unit(s) cannot exceed the sum of the AS, DS, and MA of the converting guerrilla unit(s) (each unit has combined ratings of 8). • 2. 3. The conversion takes place in a hex in China (including foreign colonies in China), and not within enemy ZOC. Once on map, the regular unit is not activated for the remainder of the Guerrilla Phase. During the Guerrilla Phase, the CCP may create, at no cost, any number of generic CCP 3-3-5 infantry divisions, 2-2-5 infantry brigades, and 1-1-5 infantry regiments from guerrilla units in hexes not within enemy ZOC, provided there is no CCP regular unit in the Replacement Pool and all the involved guerrilla units have no regular unit printed on their back. A division is created from three CCP guerrilla units stacked together, a brigade is created from two units, and a regiment is created from one unit. Remove the guerilla unit(s) from the map and place the new regular unit in the same hex. When a named guerrilla unit with a regular unit side on its back is eliminated, its owner may either: • Place it in the NR Pool. It may be subsequently used as a newly recruited guerrilla unit. • Flip it to its regular unit side and place it in the Replacement Pool. It may be subsequently replaced like other regular units. 16.5 – NON-CHINESE GUERRILLA UNITS 21 • Free Thai (Seri Thai) Guerrilla Units: Under WA control, they are limited to operations within Siam. 16.6 – ANTI-GUERRILLA WARFARE 16.6.1 – Evading Guerrilla Units: A guerrilla unit may enter evasion mode at any time while it is activated to move and is within a friendly guerrilla base area in a hex containing no enemy unit (it can do so even if it does not move, or several times during the same activation). A generic unit has its counter flipped to its evading side, while a named unit is marked with an “evading” marker. Evading guerrilla units have no ZOC and cannot participate in any combat or sabotage action, but they ignore enemy ZOCs. An evading guerrilla unit is revealed (its counter is flipped back to its revealed side or its “evading” marker is removed) if: • It participates in any combat or sabotage; or • It enters a road or railroad hex; or • It becomes unsupported during the Supply Phase (see below); or • Its owner decides to do so at the moment an enemy unit enters its hex, or at any time while the unit is activated. Example 1: An evading guerrilla unit is revealed to attack an enemy unit in its hex. The guerrilla unit will not be able to revert to evasion mode until its next activation, and even so only if the enemy unit has retreated or been eliminated. Example 2: A moving evading guerrilla unit enters a railroad hex, thus causing it to be revealed. It spends an MP to sabotage the railroad and then leaves the hex, at which point it reverts back to evasion mode. Example 3: During the Movement Phase, a ground unit enters a hex occupied by an evading enemy guerrilla unit. The guerrilla unit’s owner decides to reveal it, thus now exerting a ZOC in the hex. The moving unit will have to spend extra MPs to be able to exit the hex. Guerrilla Support: Each guerrilla base area can support a total of two evading guerrilla units. If a guerrilla base area contains more than two of them during the Supply Phase, the evading units in excess must be revealed. If all evading units are from the same side, this side is free to choose which unit(s) to reveal. If the evading units are from different sides, they must agree upon which unit(s) to reveal; if they cannot, combat occurs. Each side rolls a number of dice equal to the number of its guerrilla units (evading or not) in the area. Compare the highest roll of both sides: on a difference of 3 or more, the side with the lower roll must eliminate one of its guerrilla units; on a difference of 1 or 2, it must reveal one of its guerrilla units. Repeat this procedure until only two evading guerrilla units are left in the area, or until guerrilla units from only one side remains. Example: Two evading CCP guerrilla units, and one evading and one revealed KMT guerrilla units are in the same guerrilla base area during the Supply Phase. The area cannot support three evading guerrilla units, and the sides fail to negotiate. The CCP rolls a ‘2’ and ‘6’, while the KMT rolls a ‘3’ and ‘4’. The difference is 2 (6 – 4), and the KMT had the lower roll (‘4’ to ‘6’): it is thus forced to reveal its evading unit. 16.6.2 – Anti-Guerrilla Sweeps: Revealed guerrilla units can be attacked like regular units during the Combat Phase. Evading guerrilla units can be attacked during the Combat Phase, but only through anti-guerrilla sweeps. Follow the procedure below: 1. Setting up the Sweep: The sweeping units must have started their activation within, or in a hex adjacent to, the guerrilla base area they intend to sweep. Units in an anti-guerrilla sweep cannot move or perform regular combat during their activation. The guerrilla units targeted by the sweep need not be in the ZOC of any sweeping units. Mechanized units, artillery units, units in enemy ZOC, and ground support missions cannot be used in anti-guerrilla sweeps. 2. Locating the Guerrillas: The Phasing Side splits its force so that each sweeping unit targets a specific guerrilla unit in the area. Not all guerrilla units in the area have to be targeted, and each guerrilla unit can only be targeted once during each Combat Phase (but it can be targeted by several sweeping units). Non-Chinese guerrilla units can never be converted to regular units. Each of the following guerrilla movements can have a maximum of two guerrilla units on the map: • Vietminh Guerrilla Units: Under CCP control, they are limited to operations within Indochina. • Kachin Guerrilla Units: Under WA control, they are limited to operations within the Kachin state in Northern Burma and the Yunnan Province west of the Salween River. HISTORICAL NOTE: The Kachin Rangers were under US command, as part of OSS Detachment 101. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 22 3. The Phasing Side rolls 1D6 for each targeted guerrilla unit in the area to determine whether it locates it. A result less than the total SP value of all units targeting the guerrilla unit is a success; flip the located guerrilla unit to its revealed side. Apply a -1 DRM if the Japanese NCSDF unit (red unit designation on its counter) is involved. Apply a +1 DRM for “Green Veil” effects during Summer turns in affected territories (see Territories Table). Regardless of DRMs, a ‘1’ roll is always a success, and a ‘6’ roll is always a failure. After the Phasing Side has completed all its location rolls in a given area, the guerrilla side may designate any non-targeted units (which remain in their hexes) in the area to assist in the defense of any of the located units. Fighting the Guerrillas: If the location roll is a success, compare the total AS of the sweeping units targeting the guerrilla unit with the total DS of the located guerrilla unit and the guerrilla units assisting in its defense. The guerrilla unit is considered to defend in the hex offering the best defensive combat effects within the area (defensive combat effects from hexside features – e.g., rivers – are ignored). Hill or Mountain hexes always provide a 2-column shift in favor of the guerrilla units. Apply any DRM and consult the Ground Combat Results Table as usual. Ignore all AR results. For DR results, the located guerrilla unit reverts back to evasion mode, then moves to any hex within an adjacent existing or potential guerrilla base area (as defined in 16.1). This does not cost any MP. A guerrilla unit cannot retreat through a road or railroad hex in enemy ZOC, since it would have to reveal itself. A guerrilla unit is eliminated if there is no area it can retreat to. Whatever its results, an anti-guerrilla sweep never triggers advance after combat. A retreated guerrilla unit cannot participate in the defense of the area to which it retreats if that area is attacked in the SAME Combat Phase; any such further combat has no effects on it. DESIGN NOTE: Although represented by a 1-SP counter, guerrilla units were normally split into much smaller groups that operated within a broad area instead of staying in one particular spot. This rule represents the sweeping units spending time searching for and attacking the many guerrilla groups constituting the guerrilla unit. Anti-Guerrilla Sweep Example Three CCP guerrilla bases are taken into consideration: the base in western Hopeh (0925) with one guerrilla unit, the base in northeastern Shansi (1027) with one unit, and the one in Pinghsing Pass (1227) with two units. (The guerrilla unit west of the Tatung-Taiyuan railroad belongs to another guerrilla base not shown here.) Japan activates the 10th Army HQ in Shihkiachwang, which in turn activates the 21 (Division) in Paoting and the 5-5-5 Brigade in Shihkiachwang to attempt to locate the guerrilla unit in Hopeh. The other Japanese units are not bordering the western Hopeh guerrilla base area and so cannot be used in this antiguerrilla sweep. The 33 (Division) in Taiyuan is also activated to attempt to locate one of the guerrilla units south of the Pingshing Pass. The CnC unit in Tatung is out of command, but if mustered, it could contribute its 1-SP value to locate the evading guerrilla unit in northeastern Shansi or the one near Ningwu. Its AS of ‘0’ would prevent it from participating in an attack though, and since there is no Japanese unit with an AS of 1 or more adjacent to these two guerrilla base areas, there would be no combat even if a guerrilla unit were located. Western Hopeh Guerrilla Base: The IJA has 5 SP performing the anti-guerrilla sweep. Japan rolls a 2. Despite the +1 “Green Veil” DRM, the sweep is still successful (3 is less than the 5-SP total value) and the guerrilla unit is flipped to its revealed side. The 13–1 combat ratio is reduced to 11–1 due to Hill terrain in the area, and resolved on the 9–1 column of the Ground Combat Results Table. The Japanese roll is a 1 and the CCP roll is a 2, yielding a DR Diff. of 1. The CCP guerrilla unit is eliminated. Note that the guerrilla base marker is not removed by combat. Pinghsing Pass Guerrilla Base: Japan has 3 SP performing the anti-guerrilla sweep. The Japanese roll is a 2, +1 for “Green Veil”. The guerrilla unit is not located (3 is not less than the 3-SP total value). On a Fall turn, the sweep would have located the guerrillas. Let’s say the Japanese rolled a 1 instead: the guerrilla unit is located. The CCP decides to add the non-targeted guerrilla unit to the defense. An ‘8’ AS against a ‘2’ DS results in a 4–1 ratio, reduced to 2–1 due to Level-2 terrain in the area. Both sides roll one die, resulting in a 2 DR Diff. An “Inc” result means that the CCP must lose half its total combat strength; one guerrilla unit (‘1’ DS) is eliminated. Japan must lose at least 1 AS point; the 33D is broken down into its 4-5-5 cadre side and one 3-3-5 regiment, which is eliminated. The Japanese suffered heavy losses, but the remaining guerrilla unit is now revealed: it would be easy to deal with in regular combat, if the Japanese could activate again before it reverts to evasion mode... HISTORICAL NOTE: This example is a reenactment of the Imperial Japanese Army “security operation” in Northern China during the Summer of 1941. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 17.0 – AIR AND NAVAL OPERATIONS 17.1 – BASES AND PORTS Airbases and naval bases are the two types of bases found in War of the Suns. Bases existing at the start of Turn 0 are printed on the map (they are also listed in the Playbook). Bases built during the game should be denoted with airbase or naval base markers. 17.1.1 – Base/Port Capacity: Airbases in a city have an unlimited air unit capacity. Airbases not in a city and cities without airbases have a capacity of one air unit. Carrier groups have a capacity of two ( Japanese) or four (American) carrier-based air units. Naval bases have an unlimited fleet capacity. Ports have a capacity of one fleet. 17.1.2 – Base Construction: A new airbase may be built in any friendly/ allied city, road, or railroad hex, for the same cost as the construction of a road in the hex [8.3.1]. Japan or the WA may convert a friendly commercial port to a naval base by spending 2 RP. Naval bases cannot be built in non-port hexes. Bases may also be built by engineer units [24.10]. 17.1.3 – Base Damage: A base can be damaged (mark it with a “damaged airbase” or “damaged naval base” marker) until the following Admin Phase by: • Enemy air units or fleets successfully bombing/ bombarding it. • Any ground unit spending 2 extra MPs in the hex. • The Scorched Earth Policy random event happening in the hex. 17.1.4 – Base/Port Capture: When the enemy captures a base, city, or port of a given side, this side must immediately relocate all the operative air units and fleets in it. Air units must relocate to other airbases or cities within the same air zone, while fleets must relocate to other naval bases or ports within the same sea zone. Ready (only) air units/fleets may spend one mission to redeploy to an adjacent air/sea zone instead. All inoperative air units/fleets, and any air units/fleets that cannot relocate or redeploy to a friendly/allied base/city/port are eliminated. PLAY NOTE: Remember that as soon as a ground unit exerting a Standard ZOC enters a hex adjacent to an enemy base, city, or port where there is no enemy ground unit, the base/city/port is captured! 17.1.5 – Carrier Groups: Carrier groups are fleets serving as airbases for carrier-based air units. Carrier groups include the Japanese Carrier Division — starting the campaign game in naval bases of the off-map West Pacific sea zone — and the US 3rd and 7th Fleets — made available by the US Amphibious Landings alternate history [25.9]. 23 17.2 – ZONES AND DEPLOYMENT The War of the Suns map includes various air and sea zones, whose adjacency relationships are depicted below: Indian Ocean Air Zone (off map) Indian Ocean Sea Zone (off map) When launching its air units on an offensive mission (fighter escort, strategic bombing, or offensive ground support), a carrier group may move within its sea zone or to an adjacent sea zone before launch. Air units on a defensive mission (interdiction or defensive ground support) can be launched only from a hex of the sea zone where the carrier group is currently situated. DESIGN NOTE: Carrier groups effectively extend the range of their air units. A carrier group in the South Sea zone could indeed launch offensive ground support missions against any coastal areas of the map. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. Bay of Bengal Sea Zone China-Indochina Air Zone South Sea Sea Zone West Pacific Air Zone (off map) Yellow Sea Sea Zone West Pacific Sea Zone (off map) NOTE: For game purpose, the Gulf of Thailand (the sea hexes around Bangkok) is considered to be part of the Bay of Bengal. During the Redeployment Phase, the Phasing Side may decide to redeploy its air units and fleets in ready status. Air units can only be deployed to friendly/ allied airbases or cities, and fleets can only be deployed to friendly/allied naval bases or ports. Redeployment within the same air/sea zone is free; redeployment from an air/sea zone to an adjacent zone requires air units/fleets to spend one mission. The KMT controls all non-Japanese air units in the CIC theater, while the WA controls all non-Japanese air units in the IBS theater. No units other than US air units may be redeployed between the CIC and IBS theaters. The units are controlled by the player that controls that theater. 17.3 – STATUS At any given time, an air unit or fleet always has one of the following statuses: • Ready: The unit/fleet is available to perform a mission during the turn. Once its mission is over, whether successful or not, the unit changes to unready status. During the Redeployment Phase, only ready air units/ fleets may be redeployed by the Phasing Side. • Unready: The unit/fleet has completed a mission during this turn. Its counter is flipped to its unready side. Unready air units/fleets revert to ready status during the Admin Phase of the following turn. Ready and unready air units/fleets are operative units. • Inoperative: The unit/fleet suffered damage in combat and is unavailable to perform any mission until repairs have been completed. Place “inoperative” markers above affected units/fleets. Inoperative units/fleets change to unready status during the Admin Phase of the following turn. A side may choose to replace inoperative air units during the Replacement and Construction Phase so that they will be ready on the following turn. This is performed exactly the same way as replacing units from the replacement pool. • Eliminated: The unit/fleet (including its pilots, for air units) has been wiped out in combat. It is removed from play and placed into the Replacement Pool (for air units) or NR Pool (for fleets). Land-based air units can never land on carrier groups, and carrier-based air units can never land on land airbases. When a carrier group is in an on-map sea zone [17.2], the owning side must specify any one hex of the zone as being the hex in which the carrier group is located when it launches its air units. When a carrier group is in an off-map sea zone, its air units are considered to be launching from the corresponding off-map air zone (West Pacific or Indian Ocean). India-BurmaSiam Air Zone During the Admin Phase, unready air units/fleets of all sides become ready, then inoperative air units/fleets of all sides become unready. 17.4 – REEQUIPPING AIR UNITS On the turn when an OB lists the availability of a new aircraft model and afterwards, this side may decide to re-equip any of its air unit counters of the eligible air force with the new aircraft model. Air units can be reequipped whether they are on map (in ready or unready status) or in the Replacement Pool. This takes place during the Admin Phase, after the Air Unit and Fleet Status Update. Replace all reequipping air unit counters with counters of the new model, in unready status for on-map units. War of the Suns 24 Note that an air unit equipped with a given aircraft type may be changed to a different type (e.g., a unit equipped with heavy bombers may reequip to light bombers, or fighters). 17.4.1 – Soviet Leftovers: On Turn 11, the two SVG air units in the game (equipped with I-16 fighters and SB light bombers) are relocated to the Soviet Union. Move their counters to the NR Pool if they are on map, or remove them from the game if they are in the Replacement Pool. From then on, Soviet planes are no longer available to the ROCAF, except for the leftover SVG counters in the NR Pool. Soviet-equipped ROCAF air units in the Replacement Pool can only be replaced if a leftover counter of the same aircraft model is in the NR Pool. Such a replacement costs no FEP. Also, any ROCAF air unit can reequip with the aircraft model of a leftover counter in the NR Pool. Both of these actions cause the permanent removal of the leftover counter from the NR Pool. Once no leftover counter is in the NR Pool, any eliminated Sovietequipped ROCAF air unit cannot be replaced; it must first be reequipped in the Replacement Pool with another aircraft model. Example 1: An I-15-equipped ROCAF air unit is eliminated during Turn 12 and is placed in the Replacement Pool, while the SB-equipped SVG counter is in the NR Pool. During the Admin Phase of Turn 13, the KMT player decides to reequip its I-15 ROCAF unit with the SBs of the leftover counter in the NR Pool and replaces the I-15 ROCAF counter with a SB ROCAF counter. On a subsequent Replacement Phase, he places the SBequipped ROCAF air unit back on the map, at no FEP cost, and removes the SB SVG counter from the NR Pool. A unit in the Replacement Pool can be re-equipped and replaced to the map using a single leftover counter from the NR Pool. Example 2: A ROCAF air unit equipped with Hawk IIIs (a US aircraft model) is on the map. During the Admin Phase, the KMT player decides to reequip it with the I-16s of the leftover counter is the NR Pool: he replaces the Hawk III ROCAF counter with a I-16 ROCAF counter (in unready status) and removes the I-16 SVG counter from the NR Pool. HISTORICAL NOTE: When the SVG left China in the Spring of 1940, all its aircraft were left behind to serve as ROCAF replacements. 17.5 – MISSIONS Each air unit/fleet may perform only ONE mission per turn (Exception: An air unit can perform multiple air freight missions [17.5.2]). • • Air Missions: An air unit must be of the right aircraft type for the mission if one type is specified. The range an air unit can fly over the course of a mission is double its operational range. The operational range of any air unit may be doubled on any mission by adding extra fuel tanks, but the Air AS, Surface AS, and payload capacity of the unit are halved for the duration of the mission. Place a “Drop tank” marker on affected units as a reminder. After its mission, an air unit does not have to return to the airbase from which it took off; it may land on any friendly/allied airbase or city. Air Mission Range Example: An I-16 fighter unit with a ‘7’ operational range may fly six hexes to its target, then eight more hexes to another airbase or city where it lands (6 + 8 = 14, which is not more than its range of 14 — double its operational range). Increased Air Mission Range Example: A Japanese Ki-21 heavy bomber unit may double its operational range, increasing its range to 46 but decreasing its Air AS to 3, its Surface AS to 5 and its payload capacity to 1. Naval Missions: A fleet may perform missions in the sea zone in which it is located or in an adjacent sea zone. After completing its mission, the fleet must return to a friendly/allied naval base or port in either its original sea zone or the sea zone in which it just operated. Air units/fleets may operate directly from off-map zones. When in the West Pacific zone, they are considered to take off/operate from any hex along the right map edge; when in the Indian Ocean zone, air units may take off from any India or Bay of Bengal hex along the left map edge, while fleets may operate from any Bay of Bengal hex along the left map edge. Enemy missions during a friendly activation are announced by the enemy AFTER all air and sea missions of the Phasing Side are confirmed, and before any mission is resolved. Exception: During the Movement Phase, the Phasing Side announces each of its air freight [17.5.2] and transport escort [17.5.3] missions as it resolves it. Any air or sea interdiction missions [17.5.7] targeting such a mission must be declared right after the Phasing Side announces its mission. Each of the following mission descriptions indicates whether it can be performed by air units (“AIR”) and/or fleets (“NAVAL”). 17.5.1 – Redeployment (AIR / NAVAL): During the Redeployment Phase, the Phasing Side may freely redeploy its ready air units between friendly/allied airbases or cities, or its ready fleets between naval bases or ports, within the same air or sea zone; this does NOT constitute a mission. It may also redeploy them between adjacent zones, but this constitutes a mission. Only US air units may be redeployed between the CIC and IBS theaters. No units other than US air units may be redeployed between the CIC and IBS theaters. When a carrier group redeploys, the air units it carries do not lose their ability to perform their air mission for the turn. 17.5.2 – Air Freight (AIR): Air freight missions may be carried out by transport (T) or heavy bomber (HB) air units of the Phasing Side during the Movement Phase; they are necessary to allow ground units to use air transport [11.3.5]. Air units on an air freight mission use their Payload Capacity to either transport or supply ground units (Exception: Heavy bomber units can only supply ground units, NOT transport them). Payload capacity is the yellow circled number on transports or “2” on all heavy bombers. As a unit uses its Payload Capacity, track it with “Payload remaining” markers. A unit performing air freight missions becomes unready after it has spent its last Payload. However, even though it is not technically unready yet, a unit with a “Payload remaining” marker cannot perform missions other than air freight. (It can redeploy within the same air zone, though, as this does not constitute a mission.) AIR TRANSPORT — 1 Payload allows an air unit to transport 1 SP of friendly/allied ground foot units from a friendly/allied airbase or city it is in to a destination hex within operational radius of this airbase or city [11.3.5]. Ground units transported by the same air unit do not need to have the same destination hex, as long as each destination hex is within operational radius of the airbase or city of origin. A side’s air units may be used to transport allied ground units if both sides agree. AIR SUPPLY — 1 Payload allows an air unit to supply out of supply ground units totaling an air supply value of 1. Ground units in different hexes can be supplied by a single air unit if each hex is within operational radius of its airbase or city of origin. A ground unit has an air supply value equal to its SP value (Exception: A 0-SP unit has a value of 1), modified by the following, cumulative conditions: • Double the value if the unit is a mechanized or artillery unit. • Halve the value if the unit is in an airbase or city hex. • Double the value if the unit is in a Hill or Mountain hex with no airbase and city. • Double the value if the unit is in an enemy ZOC. Example: A C-47 air unit can use 5 of its 6 Payload Capacity to supply a 3-SP BC infantry division in an open hex (air supply value of 3) and two 1-SP tank brigades in an airbase hex (air supply value of 2 x (1 x 2 x 1/2) = 2) if all are within its range. If the infantry division had been in a Hill hex, it would have required the whole Payload of the C-47 unit to supply it (air supply value of 3 x 2 = 6). If it had also been in an enemy ZOC, it would have required the whole Payload of two C-47 units to supply it (air supply value of 3 x 2 x 2 = 12). ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 25 17.5.3 – Transport Escort (NAVAL): Sea and river transport escort missions are necessary to allow ground units to use sea transport [11.3.4] and escorted river transport [11.3.3], respectively; they can be freely performed and do not count as a fleet’s one allowed mission per turn. The escorting fleet counters move to the landing hex where enemy air units on sea interdiction mission [17.5.7] may attack them. The escorting fleets must return to their original ports or naval bases after their mission. SEA TRANSPORT ESCORT — For a ground unit in a naval base or port to initiate sea transport [11.3.4], at least one friendly fleet must perform a sea transport escort mission. The side must specify which of its fleets are escorting the transport. Both the initial and destination sea zones of the sea-transported units must be either the sea zone in which the escorting fleet(s) is located, or sea zone(s) adjacent to the sea zone in which the escorting fleet(s) is located. and can only fire at bomber air units targeting it when attacked in air-to-sea combat. On an “R” result, redeploy the defending fleet to another naval base in the same sea zone (or to an adjacent sea zone, if the fleet was ready and decides to become unready to do so). On an “I” result, the fleet becomes inoperative in the targeted base. Fleets in the attacked base can only redeploy if allowed by an “R” result. Once the air-to-sea/naval combat is over, surviving air units/fleets of the strategic bombing/bombardment mission may bomb the naval base. A naval base that gets hit is marked with a “damaged naval base” marker; its capacity is reduced to one fleet and all inoperative fleets at the naval base are eliminated. Then, fleets that did not redeploy and now exceed the reduced capacity are eliminated. • Road/Railroad/Bridge: The road/railroad in the target hex and all bridge hexsides of the target hex are considered as two separate targets. If hit, mark the hex with appropriate “damaged road”, “damaged railroad”, and/or “damaged bridge” markers. Strategic bombing/bombardment missions cannot target roads/railroads in city hexes nor bridge hexsides of such hexes. See [8.4.1] and [8.4.2] for damage effects on road, railroad, and bridges. • Factories: Factories on their inoperative side cannot be targeted by strategic bombing/bombardment missions. Each DEP of the operative factories (whatever the combination of counters) in the targeted hex is a single target. A DEP that gets hit is destroyed and removed from play. Immediately record any DEP loss on the Record Track. Example: A Japanese fleet located in Canton (South Sea) would allow sea transport from the West Pacific zone to the Bay of Bengal zone. RIVER TRANSPORT ESCORT — Japanese ground units may use river transport along an uncontrolled river route [11.3.3] if at least one of the Japanese 3rd, 4th and 5th fleets performs a river transport escort mission. The fleet must start the Movement Phase in the sea zone the river route flows into. 17.5.4 – Fighter Escort (AIR): Fighter escort missions may be carried out by fighter air units. Their role is to protect from enemy interdiction friendly air units carrying out their missions, and to engage escaping enemy air units when enemy airbases are bombed. 17.5.5 – Strategic Bombing (AIR) / Bombardment (NAVAL): Strategic bombing and bombardment aim to undermine another side’s ability to wage war. These missions may be carried out during the Strategic Warfare Phase by air units with a Surface AS higher than 0 and by fleets. A strategic bombing/bombardment mission attacks a specified hex, which must be a coastal hex for bombardment missions. For each attacking unit/fleet, designate a strategic target in the hex, roll 1D6, apply any appropriate DRMs, and cross-reference on the Strategic Bombing/Bombardment Table the modified roll with the Surface AS of the unit/fleet to get the result. If a Hit is scored, the unit/fleet may attack another target in the hex; it may continue to attack in this way until it fails to get a hit or there are no targets left. A -1 DRM applies when the target type is different from the type of the previous target in the same mission. The five types of strategic targets, as well as the effects of hits against them, are as follows: • City/Oilfield/Supply Center: These are considered as a single target. A city/oilfield/supply center that gets hit is marked with a “damaged” marker and generates no CP, FEP, or RP for the side controlling it in the following Admin Phase. Also, a “damaged” supply center ceases to be a valid supply source [10.2.1]. • Airbase: Ready and unready enemy air units on the attacked base may redeploy. Redeployment is not automatic if the base is attacked by a strategic bombing mission with a fighter escort mission. In this case, resolve air-to-air combat [17.6] between the escorting fighter units and the defending (redeploying) air units; unready units cannot fire back. On a “–” result, the defending air unit may redeploy to another airbase or city in the same air zone (or to an adjacent air zone, if the unit was ready and decides to become unready to do so). On an “R” result, the unit must redeploy. On an “I” result, the unit becomes inoperative on the targeted base. Once the air-to-air combat is over, any surviving eligible air units of the strategic bombing mission may bomb the airbase. An airbase that gets hit is marked with an “airbase damaged” marker; its capacity is reduced to one air unit and all inoperative air units at the airbase are eliminated. Then, air units that did not redeploy and now exceed the reduced capacity are eliminated. • Naval Base: The air units/fleets of the strategic bombing/ bombardment mission may attack ready and unready enemy fleets in the targeted base. Use the Air and Sea Attack Table to resolve the air-to-sea/naval combat [17.6]; unready fleets cannot fire back. A defending fleet is considered to have a Speed of zero ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. Example: A Japanese G4M heavy bomber air unit performs a strategic bombing mission against the city of Chungking (4127). It has a Surface AS of 10, unmodified by weather, and ground anti-aircraft fire is ineffective. The Strategic Bombing/Bombardment Table “9–12” column shows that a die roll of 4-6 will hit. Japan decides to target the factories in the hex, represented by a single 2-DEP factory counter. He rolls a 6, scoring an automatic hit and eliminating 1 DEP, then targets the remaining DEP and rolls a 4, eliminating it as well. He now targets the city/supply center and again rolls a 4, but the -1 DRM results in a miss. The strategic bombing mission is over. 17.5.6 – Ground Support (AIR / NAVAL): Ground support missions may be carried out during the Combat Phase by air units with a Surface AS greater than 0 and fleets. Before a combat is resolved, a side may announce a ground support mission comprising any number of air units within range of a ground combat involving its units, and/or any number of fleets if any enemy unit involved in the combat occupies a coastal hex. If a side’s ground units are attacking, its fleets performing ground support may come from the sea zone containing the coastal hex or from an adjacent sea zone; if they are defending, its fleets must be located in the same sea zone as the coastal hex. Offensive ground support assists the Phasing Side’s ground attack, while defensive ground support assists the side targeted by the ground attack. After any potential air and sea combat has been resolved [17.6], compare the total Surface AS of all remaining air units and fleets that both sides have in ground support. Subtract the smaller total from the larger total to get the net ground support value; for every 5 full points of this value (do not apply the rounding rules), the side with the higher total Surface AS gets to add a +1 DRM to its roll on the Ground Combat Results Table. Example: A side assigns two air units and a fleet to offensive ground support; all three each have a Surface AS of 6. The opposing side assigns one 4-Surface AS air unit to defensive ground support. If no weather or random event effects apply and all survive air and sea combat, the net ground support value is (6x3)-4 = 14, which results in a +2 DRM on the Ground Combat Results Table for the attacking side. Units belonging to different air forces on the same side (e.g., IJAAF and IJNAF) cannot participate in the same ground support mission. This restriction does not apply to other air missions. A fleet on a ground support mission is considered to be in any coastal hex containing an enemy unit involved in the ground combat; enemy air units on sea interdiction missions [17.5.7] may attack the fleet in this hex. 26 War of the Suns Comprehensive Air-Sea-Ground Combat Example The KMT has just activated the Chen C. HQ in Nanking (not pictured), and decides to gather units from around the Kiangsu province to attack Shanghai. Japan responds by moving the SNLF unit from the West Pacific Holding Box to Shanghai as a defensive reserve movement. The KMT declares his air missions and sends the entire ROCAF into the combat, the Gamma 2E bomber air unit performing an offensive ground support mission while the Hawk II and III fighter air units escort it. Japan decides to engage its air units in the West Pacific Holding Box, launching them from the east map edge and having them fly 5 hexes to Shanghai. The A5M fighter air unit and the A2N fighter air unit from the Carrier Division will perform an air interdiction mission, while the D1A, B4Y, and G3M bomber air units are on a defensive ground support mission. Finally, the IJN 3rd Fleet deployed in Shanghai will perform a defensive ground support mission. In Fighters vs. Fighters combat, the A5M air unit fires first (due to its higher Speed of 8) and targets the Hawk III air unit. On the ‘+2’ (6 - 4) strength difference column of the Air and Sea Attack Table, a dice roll of ‘8’ (‘4’ and ‘4’) gives an ‘E’ result. The Hawk III air unit is eliminated and placed in the Replacement Pool, without a chance to fire back. Next to fire is the Hawk II air unit (Speed of 7); it can only target the slower A2N. The dice roll results in a ‘6’ (‘5’ and ‘1’), modified to ‘5’ for firing ROCAF units. The ‘0’ (3 - 3) column shows ‘–’, no effect. The A2N air unit may now fire at the Hawk II air unit (only possible because the Hawk unit targeted it first). The strength difference is ‘0’, while the dice roll is a ‘7’ (‘5’ and ‘2’), giving an ‘I’ result: the Hawk II air unit becomes inoperative and must return to base. The surviving fighter air units may now attack the bomber air unit. The A5M air unit fires at the Gamma 2E air unit. This is a +3 strength difference (6 - 3) shot, with a dice roll of ‘3’ (‘1’ and ‘2’), for no effect. The lucky Gamma air unit gets through on its ground support mission, but as this is a Summer turn, the possible effects of Typhoon have to be checked: a roll of ‘2’ halves the Surface AS of the Gamma air unit, which can only provide 2 points of ground support. (Note that if the Gamma air unit had been on a sea interdiction mission instead of a ground support mission, it would have attacked the IJN 3rd Fleet in Shanghai.) Japan now computes its total Surface AS on defensive ground support. Japan rolls a ‘6’, ‘3’, and ‘2’ to determine the effects of Typhoon on its B4Y, D1A, and G3M air units respectively. The B4Y air unit is unaffected, but the D1A air unit has its Surface AS halved to 4 and the G3M air unit has its own halved to 0.5, rounded up to 1. The 3rd Fleet also has its Surface AS halved to 2 due to a ‘3’ Typhoon roll. Japan thus has a ground support strength of 15 (8 + 4 + 1 + 2) in Shanghai. The ground support difference is 13 (15 - 2), or a +2 DRM for Japan in the upcoming ground combat. The total AS of the KMT ground units is 12 (4 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 1; the 10 (Artillery) unit uses its Special Attack AS because it is attacking a city hex and the AmR tank unit provides its antipersonnel strength of ‘1’ because the defenders include no tank or mechanized infantry units). Note that, had the Chen C. HQ not been stacked with the Chiang K.S. GHQ, the Ho clique units would have had their AS halved due to the Chen-Ho rivalry [9.5.4]. The two IJN units have a total DS of 3 (2 + 1). The initial combat ratio is 12:3, or 4–1. However, the Japanese units are defending in Major City terrain, and thus benefit from a 2-column shift (see Terrain Effects Chart) on the Ground Combat Results Table: the final ratio is 2–1. The KMT rolls a ‘4’, modified to a ‘5’ because the German military advisor Falkenhausen is stacked with the Chen C. HQ in Nanking. Japan rolls a ‘5’, modified to a ‘7’ by ground support. The DR Diff. is ‘-2’ (5 – 7), giving an “Inc” result on the 2–1 column. Japan must eliminate ground units whose cumulated DS equals at least half its total DS for the combat, or 2 (3 / 2, rounded up); it removes the ShSNLF unit from the map and places it in the Replacement Pool. The KMT also has to eliminate ground units whose cumulated AS equals at least 2. The 20i brigade unit must be eliminated first, since it is in the same hex as the enemy units; in addition, the KMT decides to eliminate the AM tank regiment unit (artillery units can only take losses if all friendly/allied units stacked with them have been eliminated). The surviving bomber air units return to their respective airbases or cities, while the 3rd Fleet remains in its naval base in Shanghai. The factory in Shanghai is now alone in a Japanese ZOC and is thus eliminated. HISTORICAL NOTE: This example is a reenactment of the KMT attack on Shanghai in August 1937. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns River Naval Ground Support: The Japanese 3rd, 4th and 5th Fleets can also perform ground support against enemy units in a hex bordering a river route, provided that there is an uninterrupted river route between their deployment hex and the enemy unit, even an uncontrolled one, not bordered by any hex containing an enemy-controlled KMT stronghold. If the Japanese ground units are attacking, the fleets may come from the sea zone the river route flows into or from an adjacent sea zone; if they are defending, the fleets must be located in the sea zone the river route flows into. When performing ground support along a river route, these Japanese fleets use their Surface AS on river routes. 17.5.7 – Interdiction (AIR):Interdiction missions are announced after an opposing side has announced its missions. There are two kinds of interdiction: • • Air Interdiction: Air interdiction missions may be carried out during any phase by ready fighter air units whose ranges allow them to reach the hex targeted by an enemy air mission. Airtransported ground units are eliminated if the air units transporting them are eliminated; they are returned to their airbases or cities of origin, with at least half their total DS eliminated, if the transporting air units suffer a “I” result; and they are returned to their airbases or cities of origin if the transporting air units suffer a “R” combat result. Redeploying air units cannot be the target of air interdiction missions. Sea Interdiction: Sea interdiction missions may be carried out during any phase by ready bomber air units whose ranges allow them to reach the hex targeted by an enemy naval mission (or the hex in which the fleet is deployed, for sea blockade missions). Sea- or river-transported ground units are eliminated if the fleets escorting them are eliminated; they are returned to their naval bases or ports of origin, with at least half their total DS eliminated, if the escorting fleets suffer a “I” combat result; and they are returned to their naval bases or ports of origin if the escorting fleets suffer a “R” combat result. Redeploying fleets cannot be the target of sea interdiction missions. PLAY NOTE: Ground units on unescorted river transport cannot be interdicted; it is assumed that without an escorting fleet, the small civilian vessels doing most of the transport are less conspicuous. 17.5.8 – Sea Blockade (NAVAL): During the Strategic Warfare Phase, each Japanese fleet may blockade all ports in China within 6 hexes of the hex where it is deployed to reduce the RP and FEP contributed to the KMT. Place a “sea blockade” marker on every affected port. See the Replacement Aids for details. 17.6 – AIR/NAVAL COMBAT SEQUENCE A combat involving air units and/or fleets is resolved by following step-by-step the sequence below. Only perform the steps relevant to the mix of involved units. Each air unit or fleet can only fire once in each step. When units are allowed to target enemy units during a step, all attacks must be declared before the first is resolved. Several units can target the same enemy unit, but a unit targeting an enemy unit which is destroyed before it attacks cannot change its target. Disengaging from Air-to-Air Combat: An air unit may attempt to disengage from air-to-air combat at any time if it has a higher speed than all the enemy air units targeting it. Each unit may attempt this only once per air-to-air combat. The disengaging air unit rolls 1D6. On a result lower than or equal to the speed difference between the disengaging air unit and the fastest enemy air unit targeting it, disengagement is successful. Enemy air units cannot fire at the disengaged unit, which must return to base at once. A unit failing to disengage remains in the air-to-air combat. DESIGN NOTE: This rule allows faster aircraft to use “hit and run” tactics, like the Flying Tigers which were initially outnumbered but still had great success against the Japanese. 17.6.1 – Fighters vs. Fighters: Fighter air units target and fire at each other. They fire in order of decreasing speed; in case of ties, the unit with ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 27 the higher Air AS fires first (roll a die for ties). An air unit may only target an enemy fighter air unit whose speed is not higher than its own, or a unit that fired at it during this combat. Consult the Air and Sea Attack Table to determine the results of each shot. Eliminated fighter air units are removed immediately and cannot fire back. Fighter air units suffering “Inoperative” and “Retreat” results cannot fire back and return to their airbases or cities once Fighters vs. Fighters combat is over. Fighter air units on bombing missions are considered as bombers and do not participate in this step, unless they abort their bombing mission; in this case, they engage in air-to-air combat with their normal Air AS. 17.6.2 – Fighters vs. Non-Fighters: Surviving fighter air units from the previous step now target any enemy non-fighter air units whose speed is not higher than their own (fighters on bombing missions are considered non-fighter units). The fighter air units of one side are all lined up against the non-fighter air units of the other side. Conduct air combat as in the previous step. Transport air units have no combat strength and are automatically eliminated if targeted. All surviving fighter air units, except those on bombing missions, are returned to their airbases or cities at the end of this step. 17.6.3 – Bombers vs. Fleets: Surviving bomber air units on sea interdiction missions now target enemy fleets. Bomber air units targeting a naval base may also engage enemy fleets in the base at this point. A fleet is considered to have a Speed of zero and can only fire at bomber air units targeting it. Consult the Air and Sea Attack Table to determine the results. 17.6.4 – Air Freight and Strategic Bombing Missions: Air transport, air supply, and strategic bombing missions are now executed. Return air units to their respective airbases or cities once they have completed their missions. 17.6.5 – Fleets vs. Fleets: All surviving fleets can now target and fire at each other. Sea-to-sea combat is resolved like air-to-air combat, except that disengagement is not allowed. Fleets fire in order of decreasing Surface AS. Carrier-based air units are eliminated if their carrier group is eliminated at the end of the combat sequence. 17.6.6 – Bombardment Missions: All surviving fleets on bombardment missions now execute them. Return the fleets to their naval bases or ports once they have completed their mission. 17.6.7 – Ground Support Missions: All surviving air units and fleets on ground support missions remain in their hex until the resolution of the ground combat they are supporting. Each side will contribute the Surface AS of all its surviving air units and fleets on offensive or defensive ground support missions when ground combat is resolved. Artillery units can also contribute to ground support [24.3]. 18.0 – POLITICAL NEGOTIATIONS Three kinds of political negotiation are possible during the Negotiation Phase: peace talks, handling relations with major powers, and influencing the political affiliation of KMT cliques and minor countries. Political negotiations allow the various sides to pursue their objectives via political means in addition to military operations. The Negotiation Matrix (see Political Display) summarizes the negotiation options available to the various sides. There is no Negotiation Phase during Mini Scenarios. DESIGN NOTE: Any Command Points (CP) used or lost during the Negotiation Phase represent the repercussions of political dealings on military affairs. 18.1 – PEACE TALKS Peace talks can occur between Japan and the KMT, or Japan and the CCP. A side may initiate peace talks with an enemy side during the Negotiation Phase of any turn. If the enemy side refuses to negotiate, the game proceeds as usual. If the enemy side agrees to negotiate, the side initiating the peace talks rolls 2D6. Apply a +1 DRM if peace talks were in progress between the two sides during the previous turn, and a -1 DRM for every peace talk attempt between the two sides that previously failed (either on the die roll or because the enemy side refused to negotiate) in the game. These modifiers are cumulative. War of the Suns 28 Use the “KMT-Japan failed peace talks” or “CCP-Japan failed peace talks” markers on the Record Track to record the number of previously failed peace talk attempts. • On a result of 6 or more, peace talks are in progress between the two sides. For the current turn, they cannot attack each other or perform any sabotage action against each other. Japan does not lose any VPs for capturing no Objective and losing none if peace talks are in progress with the KMT and it is not at war with the WA [2.1.1]. • On a result of 4 or 5, the enemy side has used the peace talks as a deception. The side initiating the peace talks loses half its CP remaining at the end of the Negotiation Phase. • On a result of 3 or less, the secret dealings with the enemy are leaked to the public, demoralizing the country. Besides losing CP for the turn as for a result of 4 or 5 (above), the side initiating the peace talks suffers a -1 DRM on all its attack and defense rolls on the Ground Combat Results Table for the turn. 18.2 – RELATIONS WITH MAJOR POWERS The attitudes of three major powers — Germany, the Soviet Union, and the Western Allies — toward the KMT and Japan are recorded on the Foreign Relations Status Track, using their respective control markers (Neutral attitude is shown by the absence of any marker). At any given time, each major power has one of the following attitudes: • Supporting KMT • Sympathetic to KMT • Neutral • Appeasing Japan • Supporting Japan PLAY NOTE: If the Stalin’s Choice alternate history [25.2] is in effect, the Soviet Union might be Supporting or Sympathetic to the CCP instead of the KMT. During the Negotiation Phase, both the KMT and Japan may give up 3 CP for each attempt to influence their relations with a specific major power. First, each side must secretly select how many attempts it will make on each power (either by writing on a piece of paper or through a third player). Each side then rolls 1D6 for each attempt; on a ‘5’ or ‘6’ result, the major power’s attitude is shifted one step in favor of that side. In a given Phase, a side can benefit from only one shift per specific major power; if a side successfully influences a particular major power on its first attempt, any CP spent on extra attempts to influence that power are wasted. At the end of the Negotiation Phase, the KMT receives loans, represented as a number of RP, from each major power that supports it. The amount of each supporting power’s loan is determined by rolling 2D6. • Japan receives 1 extra RP and 1 extra CP if it has not invaded Indochina. • The Border Closure random event may cause Japan to force Britain to close its FEP source to China. 18.3 – KMT CLIQUE AND MINOR COUNTRY POLITICAL AFFILIATION 18.3.1 – Home Territories: The territories over which a KMT clique or a minor country has influence are called its home territories. The Political Inclination Table details such territories. An unassimilated clique with a home territory is called an independent clique. Only independent cliques and minor countries may see their political affiliation change. 18.3.2 – Factions and Cliques: War of the Suns uses factions and cliques to depict the political divisions plaguing the KMT. Factions affect combat [4.2.2] and are subdivided into cliques. The game includes 10 independent KMT cliques (and two more, when some optional rules are used). Only the KMT, the CCP, and Japan are allowed to negotiate with a KMT clique, and such negotiations are only allowed when a clique is threatened [19.0]. HISTORICAL NOTE: Divisions between factions and cliques were never clear-cut in reality. The loyalties of many commanders followed only their personal interests. Refer to the KMT Faction and Clique Card for a brief history of all the factions and cliques. 18.3.3 – Minor Countries: The game includes two minor countries: Siam and French Indochina. No side may negotiate with (or invade) French Indochina before Turn 12, or Siam before Turn 18. Only the WA and Japan are allowed to negotiate with minor countries. 18.3.4 – Political Inclination: Each independent clique / minor country has a leader and a political inclination value (see Political Inclination Table). Political inclination reflects the beliefs and leanings of that leader towards the KMT, CCP, and Japan; the higher the value, the closer the leader shares the values of the side. Political inclination never changes and is unaffected by the current political affiliation of the clique or minor country. 18.3.5 – Political Affiliation Effects: A KMT clique may be unaffiliated, favoring a side (e.g., “pro-Japan”), or assimilated by a side. A minor country may only be unaffiliated or favoring a side — never assimilated. Political affiliation changes may occur as follows (note the directions): Unaffiliated ↔ Pro-side A → Assimilated by side A Political affiliation affects KMT cliques as described below: • Pro-KMT: The clique’s units and units activated by its HQ cannot attack CCP units. • Assimilated by KMT: See Note 2., below. • Pro-Japan: The clique’s units may only attack CCP units. If during a Japanese activation, a Japanese unit spends an extra MP, all the units of the clique currently in its ZOC must perform a combat retreat until they are no longer in an enemy ZOC (no combat occurs) (Exception: If there is no eligible retreat hex, no retreat happens). Japan may still attack the clique’s units. • Assimilated by Japan: The clique is dissolved. Permanently remove its HQ and replace all its regular units within its home territory and not stacked with units of other KMT cliques by CnC units of the same total SP value (any combination of the player’s choice). The replaced units are removed from the map as if they had been eliminated. • Pro-CCP: The clique’s units may only attack Japanese units and their ZOC have no effect on movement or supply of CCP units. CCP HQ have partial command over the clique’s units. The CCP may still attack the clique’s units. • Assimilated by CCP: The clique is dissolved. Permanently remove its HQ and replace all its regular units within its home territory and not stacked with units of other KMT cliques by CCP regular units of the same total SP value (any combination of the player’s 18.2.1 – Germany: Germany starts Turn 0 as Neutral. Remove any marker from the German section of the Foreign Relations Status Track at the start of Turn 9, as war breaks out in Europe; German loans are no longer available from then on. 18.2.2 – Soviet Union: The Soviet Union starts Turn 0 as Sympathetic to KMT. Remove any marker from the Soviet section of the Foreign Relations Status Track at the start of Turn 16, as Germany invades the USSR; Soviet loans are no longer available from then on. If the Soviet Union is Appeasing or Supporting Japan: • The CCP and Japan cannot attack each other during the turn. • The Border Closure random event may cause Japan to force the Soviet Union to close its FEP source to China. 18.2.3 – Western Allies: The Western Allies start Turn 0 as Neutral. They can no longer be Appeasing Japan or Supporting Japan from Turn 18 on, as Japan attacks Pearl Harbor (Exception: If the Japan’s China First Policy alternate history [25.6] is in effect) — if they were, they immediately become Neutral. From Turn 12 on, on each turn that the Western Allies are Appeasing or Supporting Japan: ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns choice). The replaced units are removed from the map as if they had been eliminated. • 29 • Potential Threat: A clique is under potential threat if any Japanese unit has invaded a neighboring territory of its home territory. A clique with multiple territories is threatened as soon as one of its territories is threatened. Example: The Yan, Fu, and Han cliques are under potential threat at the start of Turn 0. • Imminent Threat: A clique is under imminent threat if any Japanese unit has invaded any of its home territories. Example: The Sung clique is under imminent threat at the start of Turn 0. Unaffiliated: The clique’s units can be activated ONLY if the territory in which they are located becomes threatened. Political affiliation affects minor countries as described below: • Pro-WA: The WA control all the country’s HQ and units. • Pro-Japan : Japan controls all the country’s HQ and units. The Hanoi FEP source is closed for as long as French Indochina is pro-Japan. • Unaffiliated: Units available to an unaffiliated country are deployed according to its OB, but are controlled by no side and cannot be activated. Notes: To quickly assess whether and how much a clique is threatened, clique markers may be placed in the corresponding boxes of the mini-map on the home territories of independent cliques, and Japanese control markers on each of the neighboring territories containing Japanese units. A threatened clique is affected as follows: • If its HQ is not in its home territory, it must be redeployed to it during the Redeployment Phase of the next friendly activation [9.2.1]; this redeployment is in addition to the redeployment of the activated HQ. If it is impossible for the HQ to redeploy to its home territory, it is temporarily removed from the map until the soonest subsequent Redeployment Phase where it can be deployed there. If its home territory ceases to be threatened while it is off map, the HQ can be redeployed anywhere during the next Redeployment Phase. 1. Even if a unit belongs to a KMT clique that is unaffiliated, or favoring a side other than the KMT, it is still under KMT control and thus controls hexes for the KMT. 2. The various affiliations affect which HQ may command which units, and whether it has full or partial control over them [9.5.3]. 3. When the leader of a clique is permanently removed (for whatever reason), the clique is immediately assimilated by the side it was currently favoring, or it is assimilated by the KMT if it was unaffiliated. • Units of other cliques controlled by the KMT or CCP may enter an independent clique’s home territory only while it is threatened. • 4. Unaffiliated independent cliques may undergo affiliation change under certain circumstances (see Conditional Events Chart). A supply center controlled by a threatened pro-KMT clique contributes 1 more RP than if it is not threatened (see Replacement Aids). • A factory counter inside a clique’s home territory may only be moved if this clique is under imminent threat and Pro-KMT. Record the political affiliation of each clique and minor country with the appropriate control markers on the Political Affiliation Track of the Political Display. Leave a box empty to show unaffiliated status. 18.3.6 – Negotiation Process: During a Negotiation Phase, each eligible side may give up a number of CP to attempt to influence its relations with a selected minor country or threatened KMT clique. The number of CP required for each attempt depends on the Political Inclination of the clique or country toward the side: • 1 CP for a Political Inclination of 2; • 2 CP for a Political Inclination of 1; • 3 CP for a Political Inclination of 0. The process is identical to attempts on major powers [18.2]. The sides first secretly select how many attempts they will make on each clique or country, then they each roll 1D6 per attempt. On a ‘5’ or ‘6’ result, the clique’s or country’s relations are shifted one step in favor of that side. Apply the following DRMs to negotiation attempts on minor countries only: • On Turns 18 and 19, +1 for Japanese attempts • From Turn 30 on, +1 for WA attempts A side may benefit from only one shift per clique or country in a given Negotiation Phase; if it successfully influences a particular clique or minor country on an attempt, any CP spent on extra attempts to influence that power are wasted. Relation shifts with KMT cliques take place in the following order: Japanese, KMT, CCP. Example: The Yen clique is pro-CCP on Turn 0. During the Negotiation Phase, both the KMT and Japan successfully attempt to influence this clique. The Japanese success first causes the Yen clique to become unaffiliated, then the KMT success causes it to become pro-KMT. 19.0 – THREATENED CLIQUES An independent clique not pro-Japan may find itself under one of two different threat levels: ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. As soon as no Japanese units are in its home territory or any neighboring territory, a clique is no longer threatened. Units of other cliques inside its home territory do not have to leave, but if they do, they can only return if the clique is threatened again. Example: Japan has invaded Burma, a neighboring territory of the Yunnan province. The HQ of the Yunnan clique must return to Yunnan during the Redeployment Phase of the next KMT activation. All KMT and CCP units may now enter the province until there are no Japanese units in any neighboring territories of Yunnan. 20.0 – INFLATION China’s connection status affects inflation, and thus the number of CP and RP available to the KMT on a given turn. HISTORICAL NOTE: The economy of the KMT government depended very much on foreign trade. By 1944, even paper had to be imported through the Hump, and this cost more than the value of money subsequently printed on it. The foreign trade cut-offs caused inflation in the KMT-controlled areas. Commanders were soon unable simply to feed their men; many of them resorted to illegal dealings (opium trafficking, arms smuggling, extortion, etc.). Desertion became very common. 20.1 – ISOLATING CHINA China is isolated when the KMT controls no transport route from a friendly/allied, unblockaded supply center to an open FEP source during the China Isolation Phase. Conversely, China is connected when the KMT controls at least one such transport route. China’s connection is checked during the China Isolation Phase of each turn, and remains set for the whole turn duration (even if on-map conditions change). Move the “China isolated” marker along the Record Track to record the number of consecutive turns that China has been isolated until Hyperinflation, or the proper “Inflation” marker to record the number of consecutive turns that China has been connected under a given inflation condition. 20.2 – INFLATION EFFECTS There are three levels of inflation: mild, rampant, and hyperinflation. War of the Suns 30 If due to inflation, the KMT ends up with a negative number of CP, it loses 3 RP per negative CP, then sets its CP marker to zero. 20.2.1 – Mild Inflation: Mild inflation starts on the second consecutive China Isolation Phase that China is isolated. Inflation is over on the second consecutive China Isolation Phase that China is connected under mild inflation. When mild inflation is in effect: • • Eligible Training Hexes: Any friendly/allied supply center not in enemy ZOC that can be linked via a friendly/allied transport route to a friendly/allied operative factory. • Improvement Limits: The maximum number of SP of units that can start training in a given supply center on a given turn is limited to the combined DEP values of all the friendly/allied operative factories that are linked to the center via friendly/allied transport routes. The KMT loses 3 CP during the China Isolation Phase. 20.2.2 – Rampant Inflation: Rampant inflation starts on the fifth consecutive China Isolation Phase that China is isolated. Inflation falls back to mild on the third consecutive China Isolation Phase that China is connected under rampant inflation. When rampant inflation is in effect: • The KMT loses 6 CP during the China Isolation Phase. • The KMT loses 30% of its total RP during the China Isolation Phase, due to desertions and corruption. 20.2.3 – Hyperinflation: Hyperinflation starts on the eighth consecutive China Isolation Phase that China is isolated. Once it has reached hyperinflation, inflation never falls back. When hyperinflation is in effect: 21.1.2 – Open FEP Sources: Unused FEP may be used to have eligible units start training during the Training Phase, at the rate of one FEP per Stacking Point. • Eligible Units: All unimproved units of Local or Standard Replacement Types [13.3.1]. • Eligible Training Hexes: Any friendly/allied supply center not in enemy ZOC that can be linked via a friendly/allied transport route to an open FEP source or an unblockaded friendly/allied port. 21.1.3 – US Training: Unless otherwise specified, eligible units may be improved with US equipment and instructors flown in above the Himalayas (the “Hump”) from Turn 22 to Turn 30. The WA must keep one US fighter air unit in Ledo (6041) during the whole turn (to protect the air bridge) to be able to use this improvement source. This air unit can only perform interdiction missions, and only in Ledo. • The KMT loses 9 CP during the China Isolation Phase. • The KMT loses 60% of its total RP during the China Isolation Phase, due to desertions and corruption. • KMT units pay 1 MP instead of 1/2 MP when using road or railroad movement due to gasoline shortages. • • Roll 1D6 for each non-US trained KMT unit attacked by a Japanese unit. On a ‘1’ result, the unit deserts and is eliminated. On a ‘2-3’ result, the unit retreats before combat is resolved. A ‘4-6’ result has no effect. Eligible Units: All unimproved units which do not have ‘UST’ on their counter. • Hyperinflation never happens (inflation remains rampant even if China is isolated for eight or more consecutive China Isolation Phases) if the Stilwell’s Dream alternate history is in effect [25.8]. Eligible Training Hexes: Training must take place in the supply center of Kunming (5627). CCP units may similarly be trained in Yenan (2230) if the CCP controls the city and the CCP, KMT and WA all agree. • Improvement Limits: 20.3 – CONTROLLING INFLATION The KMT has two ways of preventing inflation from deteriorating during the China Isolation Phase (i.e., preventing the “China isolated” marker from advancing on the track): • Monetary Policy: The KMT may spend 5 RP to prevent inflation from deteriorating on this turn. • Peace Talks: If peace talks are in progress between the KMT and Japan, inflation does not deteriorate due to trade with Japanese-occupied areas. Example: Historically, China was isolated from Turns 19 to 30 and was connected from Turn 31 on. Thus, China entered mild inflation at the beginning of Turn 20 (Summer 1942), rampant inflation on Turn 23 (Spring 1943), and hyperinflation on Turn 26 (Winter 1943-44). If the KMT had spent 5 RP to control the economy on Turn 20, or if peace talks had been in progress with Japan on that turn, mild inflation would have been postponed to Turn 21. 21.0 – GROUND UNIT IMPROVEMENT During the Training Phase, the KMT and CCP may have their ground units in eligible hexes enter the training process to improve their AS and DS. 21.1 – SOURCES OF IMPROVEMENT KMT and CCP ground units may be improved in three ways: 21.1.1 – Factories: Unused DEP may be used to have eligible units start training during the Training Phase, at the rate of one DEP per Stacking Point of unit. • 1. Deployment: The KMT must maintain a portion of its US-trained improved units in Yunnan (see Garrison Requirements Table for details). HISTORICAL NOTE: These units helped defend Yunnan against the Japanese and cooperated with Stilwell’s counterattacks in northern Burma. 2. Factions: Of every four US-trained improved units, at least one must belong to a non-CA clique (including CCP units). 3. Combat: US-trained units and air units equipped with US planes can only be used against Japanese units. They can never be involved in any hostile action against another side. 4. Stacking Points: A maximum of 30 SP of ground units can receive UST improvement markers over the course of the game. Record the SP trained with the “Alpha force” marker on the Record Track. 5. KMT-CCP Conflict: If any unit is eliminated as a result of KMT-CCP combat on a given turn, the Hump improvement source cannot be used during the Training Phase of this turn. Moreover, any unit with ongoing US training that should have been completed on this phase instead suffers mandatory training interruption [21.3]. HISTORICAL NOTE: These units, part of a planned 36-division Chinese Army, were known as the Alpha Force. Victories in the Pacific and the Soviet guarantee to invade Japan after defeating Germany made it no longer necessary to equip and train KMT units to defeat Japan on the mainland after Winter 1944-45. Eligible Units: All unimproved units of Local Replacement Type [13.3.1]. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 21.2 – IMPROVEMENT PROCEDURE Mark units entering the training process with an improved “AS, DS +1” (for units with a printed AS of 4 or less) or “+2” (for units with a printed AS of 5 or more) marker, with a training marker on top of it. Use UST (“US-trained”) improvement markers for units improving with US training. Note that: 31 tory interruption, DEP/FEP are NOT credited back, and the SP value of the units DOES count (do NOT adjust the “Alpha force” marker). 22.0 – FACTORIES China had a limited military industry, with factories located mostly along the coast; their subsequent relocation to western China was vital to sustaining the Chinese war effort. Factory locations on Turn 0 are shown in the KMT OB. During the game, factories generate DEP for the side controlling them. A factory is always controlled by the KMT, unless it is in a hex controlled by the CCP. • An improved unit cannot be further improved. • An improved unit loses its improved marker if it is subsequently eliminated or expanded (it may later go through the improvement procedure again). Example: A unit with 3-4-4 original ratings is improved to 4-5-4 ratings. If eliminated, its “improved AS, DS +1” marker is removed before the unit is placed in the Replacement Pool. Each factory counter has two ratings: DEP value (left) and MA (right). • A reduced-strength unit that undergoes improvement does not improve; instead, it loses its reduced marker once training is complete. It may then undergo another improvement process to gain improved status. • An improved marker cannot be removed by itself to satisfy combat losses (i.e., a defending unit with 3-4-4 original ratings and an “improved AS, DS +1” marker could be eliminated to satisfy a combat loss of up to 5 combat strength points, but could not choose to only lose its marker to satisfy a 1-combat strength point loss). Except on Turn 0 when they cannot move, factories may move during the Factory Phase only; to do so, they can use either regular movement, or railroad or river transport (each DEP of a transported factory spends 2 Transport Points). Factories cannot use movement mode and do not require command or supply. • When an improved unit is broken down, its improved strength should be shared as much as possible among the component units, odd points going to the ones with the highest AS+DS totals. Example: A unit with an “improved AS, DS +1” marker is broken down into its cadre unit and component unit; the cadre unit gets the marker. If this unit was marked with an “improved AS, DS +2” marker, the cadre unit and component unit would both receive an “improved AS, DS +1” marker. A unit with an “improved AS, DS +2” marker is broken down into three component units; the two of them with the highest AS+DS totals each receive an “improved AS, DS +1” marker. 21.3 – TRAINING During the Replacement and Construction Phase, training markers must be placed on newly-replaced Chinese elite units [13.3.1]. During the Training Phase, remove training markers from all ground units (except Chinese elite units replaced in the immediately preceding Replacement and Construction Phase), which then change to their improved statuses. Then place training markers on ground units entering the improvement process [21.0] and BC units receiving Chindit training [24.1]. A unit with a training marker cannot move or attack. Other than during the Training Phase, training markers can be removed (thus interrupting training) under two circumstances: • At any time, to allow a training unit to move or attack; this is voluntary interruption. • When a training unit is attacked (it may then defend and retreat normally); this is mandatory interruption. When training is interrupted: • An elite unit with only a training marker has it replaced with a reduced marker of the correct value [13.3.1]. • Any unit with a training marker on top of an improved marker has both markers removed. • Any unit with a training marker on top of a reduced marker has its training marker removed. • A Chindit unit has its training marker removed and is flipped back to its non-Chindit side. On a voluntary interruption, any DEP and/or FEP spent to replace/improve these units are credited back to their side, and the SP value of units improved through US training [21.1.3] does not count toward the total allowed over the course of the game (adjust the “Alpha force” marker accordingly); on a manda©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. 22.1 – MOVEMENT Factory movement within a clique’s home territory is limited [19.0]. As soon as a factory counter finds itself in the ZOC of an enemy unit, it is destroyed, unless a friendly/allied unit is stacked with it. Destroyed factories cannot be replaced. 22.2 – PRODUCTIVITY Factory counters moving during the Factory Phase are placed inoperative side up on the map. Inoperative factory counters are flipped back to their operative side during the Factory Phase when they are in a transport route hex and do not move. Only operative factories generate DEP. 22.3 – STACKING LIMIT Each hex may hold up to 5 DEP of operating factories, regardless of other units. Inoperative factories do not count towards stacking. The controlling side may break a factory counter down into several factory counters whose total DEP value is equal to the DEP value of the initial counter; conversely, it can combine several factory counters into a single counter whose DEP value is equal to the total DEP value of the initial counters. 23.0 – KMT ADVISORS AND JAPANESE COLLABORATORS KMT military advisors must always stack and move with a CA HQ. Japanese collaborators must always stack and move with an IJA HQ. Military advisors and collaborators are removed from the map when the HQ they are stacked with is removed, and they share the permanent or temporary nature of the HQ’s removal [9.3]. They may be reassigned to another HQ if they return to play. Each military advisor and collaborator contributes his unique abilities to his side. 23.1 – KMT MILITARY ADVISORS A military advisor increases the Command Quality of the HQ with which it is stacked by one: when placing the HQ chit on the Activation Track, place it one row higher than normal (e.g., a 1-Command Quality HQ has its chit placed in the ‘2 Activations Left’ row). 3-Command Quality HQs do not benefit from this increase. HISTORICAL NOTE: Foreign military advisors played a significant role in almost every war of the KMT. Soviet advisors were active since the Northern Expedition in the 20s. They were later replaced by German advisors when the initial cooperation between the KMT and CCP broke up. Late in the war, American advisors stepped in. Ironically, ex-IJA officers were also to serve as KMT advisors during the Chinese Civil War and afterward. 23.1.1 – Alexander von Falkenhausen: Nazi military advisor von Falkenhausen is in China from Turn 0 to the end of Turn 4. War of the Suns 32 KMT units benefit from a +1 DRM when attacking in ground combat if they have been activated by the HQ Falkenhausen is stacked with. DESIGN NOTE: This simulates Falkenhausen’s expertise in blitzkrieg attack and modern warfare. 23.1.2 – Vasily Chuikov: Soviet military advisor Chuikov is in China from Turn 14 to the end of Turn 18. The KMT benefits from a +1 DRM against any Japanese attack in ground combat if the defender’s hex is a city within the Command Radius [9.5.1] of the HQ Chuikov is stacked with. Also, no hostile action between the KMT and CCP is allowed while the HQ Chuikov is stacked with is activated. DESIGN NOTE: This simulates Chuikov’s expertise in urban defense, as shown later in Stalingrad where he led the legendary 62nd Army, as well as the fact that he oversaw cooperation between the KMT and CCP. 23.1.3 – Albert Wedemeyer: American military advisor Wedemeyer is in China from Turn 29 on. The supply radius of all KMT units within the Command Radius [9.5.1] of the HQ Wedemeyer is stacked with is increased to 6 hexes. DESIGN NOTE: This simulates the revolution Wedemeyer brought to the KMT supply system, whose effects can still be seen in Taiwan today. HISTORICAL NOTE: Albert Wedemeyer was appointed as Chief of Staff to Chiang after Stilwell was recalled. He also served as commander of US forces in China. For game purpose, Wedemeyer is considered a KMT military advisor. 24.0 – SPECIAL UNITS 24.1 – CHINDIT UNITS The In 77B unit directly enters play as a Chindit glider unit. The Br 14B, Br 16B, Br 23B, In 111B, and WAf 3B units enter play as normal infantry units (most of them become available only through the breakdown of their parent division, see Breakdown Chart). They may be converted to Chindit glider units by undergoing training in any WA supply center or in the Indian Ocean Holding Box; flip the units over to their glider side and mark them with a training marker [21.3]. Chindit units: • may perform glider landings [11.3.5]. • may be activated during the Guerrilla Phase (whether they are in command or not), in addition to operating as regular units during the Operation Segment. • do not suffer the column shift for attacking enemy units in forest terrain. After any of its component units has become a Chindit unit, a parent division can never be reassembled. 24.2 – BRITISH 3RD COMMANDO BRIGADE The 3CdoB unit may move into an enemy-occupied hex during the Movement Phase. If it enters a hex containing enemy units and attacks these units during the same Operation Segment, use its red-boxed AS. 23.2 – JAPANESE COLLABORATORS 24.3 – ARTILLERY UNITS HISTORICAL NOTE: To promote the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere,” Japan established and supported various puppet regimes ruled by collaborators. These would help maintain order in China, and assist Japan’s swift advance in Burma. Artillery units can only attack in conjunction with at least one non-artillery friendly unit (which may or may not be in the same hex). Artillery units use their special AS when attacking a city hex, or a hex across a river, lake, or strait hexside if the defending units receive a defense bonus. 23.2.1 – Wang Ching-Wei: All Chinese collaborationist (CnC) units within the Command Radius of the HQ Wang is stacked with do not surrender on contact or during retreat [12.5]; instead, they apply the results called for by the Ground Combat Results Table. DESIGN NOTE: This simulates the charismatic nature of Wang, even in the eyes of his opponents, which allowed him to boost the morale of the forces in his presence. HISTORICAL NOTE: Wang Ching-Wei changed from revolutionary to opportunist after losing the power struggle with Chiang. Then, seeing the carnage of war turned him into a defeatist. In late 1938, Wang fled Chungking to collaborate with Japan, becoming the head of the Reformed Government in Japan-controlled Nanking. 23.2.2 – Aung San: All Japanese ground units activated by the HQ Aung San is stacked with are always considered in supply and may ignore the movement effects of forest terrain when operating in Burma outside the Kachin state. DESIGN NOTE: This simulates the valuable guidance that the BIA provided to Japanese units through the difficult Burmese terrain. Artillery units may also be used in ground support. In this case, they contribute their special AS to their side’s total ground support value, but their AS is not added to their side’s total AS during the subsequent combat. Artillery units can take combat losses only if all friendly/allied units stacked with them have been eliminated. 24.4 – ARMOR AND MECHANIZED INFANTRY UNITS These units do not have AS and DS like other ground units: instead, the leftmost rating on their counter is the antipersonnel strength, while the middle rating is the antitank strength. In combat, use the antitank strength in attack and defense if the enemy units include armor or mechanized infantry units; use the antipersonnel strength otherwise. PLAY NOTE: The game includes alternate counters for these units, showing the silhouette of their main fighting vehicle type. Armor and mechanized infantry units may perform overruns [11.2.3]. 24.5 – JAPANESE NAVY GROUND FORCES Aung San is removed from play in the Events Phase when Japan controls all the cities in Burma, or in the Events Phase of Turn 20, whichever is earlier. The IJN ShSNLF (Shanghai Special Navy Landing Force) has a limited operation area: the Shanghai hex. HISTORICAL NOTE: Aung San (father of human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi) organized the small Burma Independence Army (BIA) before Japan invaded Burma. The BIA grew quickly as Burma was overrun, and was later reorganized as the Burma Defense Army (BDA) for garrison duties in the country. Later in the war and still under Aung San, it turned against Japan as the Burma National Army. The generic IJN SNLF counter represents the many SNLF units (each one a few hundred men strong) formed at different times of the war. The IJN BF (Naval Base Force) units represent various units (each comprising a few hundred men) garrisoning the occupied naval bases. They have a limited operation area: all the Japanese naval bases. Sea-transported IJN ground units do not use up Japanese sea Transport Points. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 24.6 – JAPANESE PUPPET FORCES To prevent them from defecting to the Allies [12.5], Japan may disband any Mck, Mk, CnC, BDA, INA, pro-Japan Siamese, or pro-Japan French units by having an IJA or IJN ground unit spend one extra MP while in their hex at any point of the Movement Phase. 24.6.1 – Chinese Collaborationist Units: In addition to the CnC units listed in the Japanese OB, the following sources can provide generic Chinese Collaborationist (CnC) units as conditional reinforcements: • Bandit Units: Successfully recruited bandit units [24.9] are converted to 0-1-0-1 or 1-0-4-1 CnC units. • Surrendering KMT and CCP Units: Each KMT and CCP ground unit (including guerrillas) that surrenders causes a CnC unit of equivalent SP value to be placed in the Reinforcement Pool [12.5]. 0-1-0-1 CnC units can be freely converted to 1-0-4-1 CnC units, or vice versa, during the Reinforcement Phase. A stack of generic CnC units can combine into a generic CnC unit with an SP value equal to their combined SP values, as per [15.2]. A CnC unit cannot be broken down into smaller SP-value units. 24.6.2 – Indian National Army: The Indian National Army (INA) was organized from Indian prisoners taken during the Malaya campaign. Japanese HQs only have partial command over INA units. INA units use their red-boxed AS when attacking enemy units located in a hex within India. The Subhas Chandra Bose HQ becomes available only if the Indian Uprising alternate history is in effect [25.7) 24.7 – CHINESE ARMY IN INDIA The Chinese Army in India (CAI) units appear in the WA OB. Initially, they are controlled by the WA and can be activated only by US HQs. CAI units (and all US ground units) cannot leave the IBS theater, except when mandated by the Conditional Events Chart. When a CAI unit forced to leave the IBS theater first enters a hex, or lands in a hex, in China, it immediately ends its Movement Phase there. From then on, it is controlled by the KMT for all purposes, including replacements. Once they have entered China, CAI units can no longer enter the IBS theater. 24.8 – 20TH AIR FORCE B-29S The B-29 heavy bomber air unit arriving as KMT reinforcements in Chengtu on Turn 28 was used for Operation Matterhorn (the strategic bombing of targets outside China) and was not part of Chennault’s 14th Air Force. Its name is printed in red to distinguish it from other air units. This unit places two obligations on the KMT: • The KMT is required to expand the existing airbase at Chengtu on Turn 27 or before, to accommodate the B-29s, at a cost of 4 RP. • At least one US-equipped fighter air unit must remain at Chengtu airbase on every turn that the B-29 air unit is in China. This fighter unit can only perform interdiction missions in Chengtu. Should the fighter not be present, the B-29 is instantly removed from play and may reenter when a fighter returns to Chengtu as a reinforcement. The KMT might choose to not expand the airbase, refusing the deployment of the B-29s; or Japan might control Chengtu on Turn 28. In these cases: 33 Normally, no side controls this unit. But if a Japanese unit is in Szechwan or Kweichow province during the Admin Phase while the B-29 unit is in China, the B-29 unit becomes controlled by the KMT. DESIGN NOTE: From Turn 30, the B-29s were based on Pacific islands, thus making the base in China unnecessary 24.9 – BANDIT UNITS Bandit units appear on the map due to the Peasant uprising random event. Supply cannot be traced through any hex adjacent to a bandit unit. During the Operation Segment, the Phasing Side may attack or attempt to recruit each bandit unit (but not both against a given unit): • Regular units may attack bandit units only by using the anti-guerrilla sweep rules [16.6.2]. • If a bandit unit is within the Command Radius of the activated HQ, the Phasing Side (not the WA) may roll 1D6 to attempt to recruit it at the start of the Movement Phase. On a ‘1-3’ result, the recruitment fails and the bandit unit remains in the hex. On a ‘4-6’ result, replace the bandit unit with a 1-0-4 or 0-1-0 CnC unit ( Japan); either replace the bandit unit with a generic guerrilla unit, or remove the bandit unit and add an extra RP to the side (KMT or CCP). 24.10 – ENGINEER UNITS Instead of spending RP, a side may use a friendly engineer unit to construct transport routes, airbases, and naval bases. During a Movement Phase when it is activated, an engineer unit may spend extra MPs in a hex to: • Construct a road in a trail hex; or • Construct a railroad in a road hex; or • Construct a bridge across a regular river hexside of a hex; or • Repair a bridge across a river hexside of a hex; or • Construct an airbase in a city, road, or railroad hex; or • Construct a naval base in a port hex. The number of extra MPs needed is equal to the number of RP normally required for the construction. The number of MP of an engineer unit is the only limit to the number of constructions it can perform on a given turn. 25.0 – ALTERNATE HISTORIES (OPTIONAL) The alternate histories attempt to provide answers to “what if ?” questions in the campaign game. Note that some of them may greatly affect game balance. During the Events Phase of a turn with an alternate history listed on the General Events Chart, the players decide whether this event occurs or not. If they cannot all agree, each side rolls 1D6 and applies any specified DRM. The side with the highest result determines whether the alternate history occurs or not. Alternate history units are listed at the end of the OBs and have their entry turn preceded by an ‘A’ on their counters. 25.1 – FURTHER CONCESSIONS (TURN 0, KMT DRM +1) Chiang’s response to the Japanese aggression greatly affected the outcome of the war. He could have made further concessions to Japan after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident to strengthen his army before the final confrontation. Under this alternate history, Chiang concludes that delaying the war is in his best interests. • From Turn 28 on, the KMT can no longer improve KMT units with US equipment; • The game starts on Turn 4. • Perform all OB instructions for Turns 1-3. • On Turn 28, the KMT cannot receive a loan from a US source; • • On Turns 28 and 29, Japan receives +1 RP and +1 CP. The Stalin’s Choice [25.2], Sian Forgiven [25.3], and Wang Ming Ousts Mao [25.4] alternate histories may happen. • The CCP deploys four additional 1-1-5 generic regiments within the SKN Border Area. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 34 • The KMT may improve seven standard units [13.3.1] with German training and equipment. Mark them with the appropriate “improved” marker [21.2]. • Change the political affiliation of the Sung, Han, Yen, and Fu cliques to pro-Japan. • KMT CA units defending in the Kiangyin stronghold (1808) benefit from a 2-column shift on the Ground Combat Results Table until the Japanese capture the stronghold. • The players perform the following redeployments in the listed sequence. These must not violate any operational or faction limits (e.g., a unit cannot be repositioned to the home territory of a non-threatened clique) or pass through non-friendly hexes. (1) All Chinese units in Hopeh, Chahar, Shantung, Suiyuan, and Shansi (except units in the home territory of their clique) must be removed and redeployed to other friendly hexes. (2) Two new demilitarized zones are established: (1) All hexes north of the Yungting River (running along the Peiping (0724) and Tientsin (0722) hexes) in Hopeh; (2) All hexes within 2 hexes of Shanghai (1806). Chinese units originally deployed in these zones must be relocated elsewhere within the same province, and further units cannot be deployed within these areas. (3) The KMT and CCP may redeploy all their on-map units and factories originally deployed in non-home territories of Pro-Japan or unaffiliated cliques to other friendly hexes. (4) Japan may redeploy one of its on-map 0- or 1-SP units to each of the cities of Nanking (1910), Hankow (2816), and Canton (4507) for the protection of Japanese civilians. 25.2 – STALIN’S CHOICE (TURN 0, CCP DRM +1) During the War of Resistance, Stalin chose to support the KMT instead of his comrades of the CCP. For some, this decision was one of the reasons for the feud between the two communist nations in the 50s. Under this alternate history, Stalin places his bet on Mao. • • The Soviet Union starts Turn 0 as Sympathetic to CCP. Negotiations attempts on the Soviet Union can be made only by the CCP and Japan. The CCP, not the KMT, can benefit from Soviet loans (use normal rules). The Soviet SVG air units and military advisor Chuikov are received and controlled by the CCP instead of the KMT. All the rules pertaining to them apply normally. 25.3 – SIAN FORGIVEN (TURNS 1 AND 3, KMT DRM +1) After staging the Sian Incident, Chang Hsueh-Liang (the Young Marshal) of the Northeastern Army was imprisoned and Yang Hu-Cheng of the Shensi Army was sent abroad. Under this alternate history, Chiang Kai-Shek forgives them their involvement in the coup and restores them to their former power. • The Chang Hsueh-Liang HQ arrives as a reinforcement on Turn 1. The Yang Hu-Cheng HQ is received as a reinforcement on Turn 3 (on Yang’s return to China) only if all sides agree or, if they don’t, if the side with the highest event roll [25.0] decides so. • The Northeastern Army becomes a pro-KMT clique with its home territory in either Honan or Anhwei (KMT choice). • If the Yang Hu-Cheng HQ is received as a reinforcement, the Shensi Army becomes a pro-KMT clique with its home territory in Shensi. • Units of the Northeastern Army and Shensi Army cliques have their AS and DS increased by one when they are within the Command Radius of their respective HQ. • The Chiang Kai-Shek GHQ must be stacked with at least one CA unit at all times. • When/if they become cliques, the Northeastern Army and Shensi Army may see their political affiliation change like the other KMT cliques. 25.4 – WANG MING OUSTS MAO (TURN 3, CCP DRM +1) After returning from Moscow, the Soviet-groomed Wang Ming gained unanimous support of the Politburo. He could have taken the chance to oust Mao but didn’t. Under this alternate history, Wang Ming replaces Mao as head of the Chinese Communist Party. • Replace the Mao Tse-Tung GHQ with the Wang Ming GHQ. • The CCP and all pro-CCP KMT cliques become pro-KMT cliques. • Treat the Rectification Movement random event as No event from now on. • The CCP and KMT victory conditions remain unchanged. In a threeor four-player game, the CCP player stays in the game as a partner of the KMT player: he still controls the CCP units and tries to meet the CCP victory conditions. The CCP and KMT can no longer take hostile actions against each other. 25.5 – PEACE MISSION OF WANG CHING-WEI (TURN 6, KMT DRM +1) Close confidant of Sun Yat-Sen, and one of the most important members of the early Kuomintang, Wang Ching-Wei could have won over more support when he defected to the Japanese, had he used his influence wisely. Under this alternate history, Wang is more successful in neutralizing the Chinese warlords during his collaboration with Japan. • Japan may immediately make a free negotiation attempt (no CP are spent) on any three KMT cliques whose home territories have not experienced the Massacre random event up to this point in the game. In addition, if any of these free attempts succeeds, Japan enjoys a +1 DRM on all negotiation attempts with KMT cliques during the Negotiation Phase of Turn 6. 25.6 – JAPAN’S CHINA FIRST POLICY (TURN 17) This alternate history will preclude the Indian Uprising alternate history [25.7] from occurring. Under this alternate history, the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy agree to finish off China before taking on the Western Allies or the Soviet Union. Japan has to finish the war quickly, before its oil reserves are depleted and its economy risks collapsing. • Japan does not go to war against the Western Allies and does not attack in the Pacific and Southeast Asia. Japan may not invade Siam or any British colonies. French colonies can still be invaded. • The campaign game ends on completion of Turn 24. The KMT and CCP calculate their Victory Points per the normal procedure [2.1.2, 2.1.3]. Japan cannot win if it does not control Chungking (4127) at game end. • From Turn 18 to Turn 24 inclusive, Japan receives 12 RP and 12 CP per turn. • All ground units, air units, and fleets that should per OB instructions be relocated to the Pacific or IBS theater from Turn 17 on remain in the CIC theater instead. • All US units listed in the KMT OB and all units in the WA OB will never enter play. Exception: The Flying Tigers P-40 air unit arrives as reinforcements to China on Turn 19. • The Western Allies may be Appeasing Japan or Supporting Japan after Turn 17 [18.2.3]. 25.7 – INDIAN UPRISING (TURN 24, WA DRM +1) This alternate history will not occur if the Japan’s China First Policy alternate history [25.6] took place, or if the Massacre random event happened in Burma or India since game start. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns Subhas Chandra Bose (aka Nataji), leader of the Indian National Army, is still a folk legend among many Indians. He and his forces might have changed the history of Southeast Asia. Under this alternate history, the “Quit India” movement ignites armed revolution in India and leads to Gandhi’s arrest. Japan jumps at the chance and provides full support to Bose and his INA. 35 • For the remainder of the game: The KMT receives 10 extra RPs and CPs per turn. These points must be kept distinct from the others available to the KMT per the normal rules (use the “KMT RPs” and “KMT CP” markers with an “A” in the upper left to track them) and may only be used to replace conditional units provided by this alternate history. In addition to its one-air-unitper-turn limit [13.5.2], the KMT may replace one of this alternate history’s conditional air units per turn. • Defending BC Indian units not stacked with a British unit surrender on a Retreat combat result suffered in an attack including any INA unit [12.5]. • INA units no longer surrender when suffering a Retreat combat result as per [12.5]. • The Br 2D originally available as a conditional reinforcement remains in India to suppress the revolution and does not appear in the game. 25.10 – NO ATOMIC BOMBS (TURN 32, OCCURS ONLY IF AGREED BY ALL PLAYERS) • As long as any INA unit is within the Indian borders during the Supply Phase, all supply centers in India cease to be valid supply sources for the non-Japanese sides. Under this alternate history, no atomic bombs are dropped on Japan. The Soviet Union does not attack the Kwantung Army in Manchukuo until Operation Coronet — the invasion of the Kanto plain near Tokyo — takes place in Spring 1946. 25.8 – STILWELL’S DREAM (TURN 28, WA AND KMT DRM +1) The USA repeatedly tried to get a tighter control on KMT units in order to make them a more effective fighting force. But the Generalissimo and his loyalists would have none of it. Under this alternate history, Chiang Kai-Shek is removed in a coup organized by the OSS in Summer 1944, and his successor agrees to Roosevelt’s suggestion of appointing Stilwell as supreme commander of the Chinese forces. However, Stilwell would quickly experience difficulties in controlling units still loyal to Chiang (just as Li Tsung-Jen found out in 1949 when he became acting president of China). • • • Remove the Chiang Kai-Shek GHQ from play, as well as the HQs of the Chen, Tang, and Hu cliques of the Central Army. The Joseph Stilwell HQ is now controlled by the KMT and will serve as KMT GHQ for the remainder of the game (it is not removed from play on Turn 29). The Daniel Sultan HQ enters the game on Turn 29 with no limited operation area. US HQs may now activate Chinese units in China, with full command over UST units and partial command over non-UST units. If on map, the 20th Air Force B-29 heavy bomber air unit [24.8] is released for combat as part of the 14th Air Force during its stay in China (Turns 28 to 30). It is now controlled by the KMT and can perform missions as per the normal rules. • US financial help stabilizes the Chinese economy. Hyperinflation never sets in (or, if it already is in effect, it falls back to rampant inflation in the next China Isolation Phase). • CCP units in Yenan (2230) can be improved with US training if the CCP decides so. A maximum of one in four US-trained improved units [21.1.3] can belong to the CCP. In circumstances where it matters (e.g., the 30-SP limit is almost reached), CCP units must be given priority over KMT units for US training. • The KMT cannot attack CCP units from then on. This restriction is lifted if the CCP attacks the KMT; in this case, the CCP cannot receive US training for the remainder of the game. 25.9 – US AMPHIBIOUS LANDINGS (TURN 30, WA DRM +1 IF STILWELL’S DREAM ALTERNATE HISTORY OCCURRED) The USA had made plans to conduct amphibious landings in China. They might have concretized, had the KMT not crumbled during the Japanese Ichi-Go Offensive. Under this alternate history, the KMT holds its own under the Japanese attacks, and the US plans are implemented. DESIGN NOTE: These US units are not controlled by the WA because their objectives (and thus, their impact on victory conditions) are more closely related to those of the KMT than those of the WA in Burma and India. Placing them under KMT control also avoids violating the unit command rules in the CIC and IBS theaters. • The game continues until the end of Turn 34 (Winter 1945-46). • The final Victory Points of Japan and the WA are calculated at the end of Turn 32. 26.0 – VARIANT RULES (OPTIONAL) 26.1 – SIMPLIFIED RULES The players may agree to use any of the following before game start. 26.1.1 – Simplified Limited Operation Areas: Units with limited operation areas simply cannot leave the region (see Territories Table) where they are initially deployed, unless subsequently required by an OB. 26.1.2 – Simplified Deployment: Units with a specific entry hex listed in the OBs can be deployed freely in friendly hexes of the territory (see Territories Table) in which they are originally destined to be deployed. 26.2 – LIMITED INTELLIGENCE Players can check the counters in any stack of another side at any time, except ground units. Due to better intelligence, Japan may always examine ground units of the KMT and WA (but not CCP) sides. Also, ground units in a hex where a unit of another side exerts a ZOC must be revealed to this other side. Otherwise, a side cannot check the units under the top unit in a ground unit stack of another side (even an allied side), but can enquire about the SP, sizes, and types of ground units in the hex, which the player must honestly answer, saying for instance “There are 5 SP of units, one cavalry brigade, one armored battalion, and one infantry division”. DESIGN NOTE: The Allied sides cannot check each other’s units, because historically, there was some level of mistrust among them. Even the British never let the Chinese know of their battle plans and deployments. Guerrilla, guerrilla bases, and bandit counters do not represent the precise location of the groups they represent, but rather an indication of their existence in the surrounding area. As such, it is logical to let all the players know where they are. 26.3 – HISTORICAL GAME Players preferring a more historical game might want to use the following variants. 26.3.1 – No Political Negotiations: Political negotiations rules [18.0] are not used, but foreign loans are still received. The consequences of historical political activities are implemented during the Negotiation Phase. • • Eliminate any Japanese units in the West Pacific Holding Box. From now on, the holding box is controlled by the KMT. Turn 0: Sung clique pro-KMT. • Turn 2: Soviet Union supporting KMT — Sung clique assimilated by KMT — Han clique pro-Japan. • On Turn 30, the conditional US units listed in the KMT OB enter play in the West Pacific Holding Box under KMT control. These may only operate in the CIC theater and the West Pacific Holding Box. • Turn 3: Germany appeasing Japan — Han clique assimilated by KMT — Szechwan (Sc) clique assimilated by KMT — Yen clique unaffiliated. ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc. War of the Suns 36 • Turn 5: Germany supporting Japan. • Turn 22: Famine [in Honan province]. • Turn 6: Western Allies sympathetic to KMT — Yen clique proJapan. • Turn 23: Improved KMT Recruitment — Peasant Uprising [Hex 3720, Hunan province]. • Turn 7: Western Allies neutral. • • Turn 12: Peace talks between KMT and Japan — Western Allies appeasing Japan (Burma Road closure). Turn 24: Famine [in Northeastern India] — Peasant Uprising [Hex 3237, Kansu province]. • Turn 25: Rectification Movement. • Turn 13: Western Allies neutral — French Indochina pro-Japan. • Turn 27: Peasant Uprising [Hex 2519, Honan province]. • Turn 14: Western Allies sympathetic to KMT. • Turn 30: Famine [in Indochina]. • Turn 15: Western Allies supporting KMT (Lend-lease agreement with China, trade embargo against Japan). • Turn 31: Mutiny [in Shantung province]. • Turn 18: Siam pro-Japan. • Turn 24: Western Allies sympathetic to KMT (Start of Dixie Mission). • Turn 27: Yu clique unaffiliated. • Turn 29: Western Allies neutral (Stilwell recalled from China). 26.3.2 – No Random Events: Do not roll for random events. Instead, events occur following the historical schedule below. Information [in brackets] is given for historical interest only; players should follow the events’ instructions to determine their effects in the game. • Turn 2: Massacre [in Nanking (1911)]. • Turn 3: KMT Death (Liu Hsiang). • Turn 4: Opium [ Japan, in Inner Mongolia]. • Turn 5: Bio-Chemical Attack [in Hankow (2816)]. • Turn 6: Scorched Earth Policy [in Changsha (3515)] — Peasant Uprising [Hex 1318, Shantung province]. • Turn 9: Oilfield (Yumen). • Turn 11: KMT Death (Sung Che-Yuan). • Turn 12: Border Closure [Western Allies]. • Turn 14: Opium [CCP, in Shensi province]. • Turn 19: Peasant Uprising [Hex 4723, Kweichow province]. • Turn 20: Three-Alls Policy [in Hopeh province]. • Turn 21: Natural Catastrophe [Drought/Locusts, in Honan province]. HISTORICAL NOTE: Often significantly due to human causes, the great famines of the war—like the Bengal famine of 1943 which took more than three million lives or the 1945 famine that caused over one million deaths in northern Indochina—are an ignored part in a conflict ignored by much of the Western world. CREDITS Research and Design: Leonard To Development: Adam Starkweather Map and Box Art: Mark Mahaffey Counter Art: Bruce Yearian Rules Editing: Vincent Lefavrais Rules Formatting: Nick Richardson VASSAL Support: Kevin Graves Special Thanks: Akira Takizawa, for his help with research on Japanese units. Alpha Playtest: Leonard To, Lawrence Hung, Edwin Siu, Laikay, Anthony Lee, Wong Yat Fung. Proofreading: Aaron Silverman, John Clifford Original Design:<聖戰千秋> Long Live the Sacred War — Summer 1983 (winner of the First Hong Kong Wargame Design Competition) First Redesign: <八年抗戰> Eight Years’ War of Resistance — Summer 1991 Second Redesign: <天無二日> War of the Suns — September 2004- Spring 2013 ©2013 Multi–Man Publishing, Inc.