GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music

GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music
GCE Subject Level
Conditions and
Requirements for Music
Technology
March 2016
Ofqual/16/5867
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2
About this document ................................................................................................ 2
Requirements set out in this document ................................................................... 3
Summary of requirements ....................................................................................... 4
Subject Level Conditions ............................................................................................. 5
GCE Subject Level Conditions for Music Technology ............................................. 6
Assessment objectives ................................................................................................ 8
Assessment objectives – GCE Qualifications in Music Technology ........................ 9
Assessment requirements ......................................................................................... 10
Assessment requirements – GCE Qualifications in Music Technology ................. 11
Subject content (published by Department for Education) ........................................ 14
Introduction − Ofqual 2016
1
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
Introduction
About this document
This document (highlighted in the figure below) is part of a suite of documents which
sets out the regulatory requirements for awarding organisations offering reformed A
levels and AS qualifications.
General Conditions of Recognition
For all awarding organisations and all qualifications
GCE Qualification Level Conditions
For all reformed A levels and AS qualifications
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements
For reformed A levels and AS qualifications in Music Technology
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements
(other subjects)
We have developed all our requirements for GCE qualifications with the intention that
AS and A level qualifications should fulfil the purposes set out in the table below:
A levels
n
n
define and assess achievement of the
knowledge, skills and understanding which
will be needed by students planning to
progress to undergraduate study at a UK
higher education establishment, particularly
(although not only) in the same subject
area;
set out a robust and internationally
comparable post-16 academic course of
study to develop that knowledge, skills and
understanding;
Introduction − Ofqual 2016
AS qualifications
n
provide evidence of students’
achievements in a robust and
internationally comparable
post-16 course of study that is
a sub-set of A level content;
n
enable students to broaden
the range of subjects they
study.
2
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
n
permit UK universities to accurately identify
the level of attainment of students;
n
provide a basis for school and college
accountability measures at age 18; and
n
provide a benchmark of academic ability for
employers.
Requirements set out in this document
This document sets out the GCE Subject Level Conditions for Music Technology.
These conditions will come into effect at 12.01pm on 15 March 2016 for the following
qualifications:
n
all GCE A levels in Music Technology awarded on or after 1 April 2019; and
n
all standalone GCE AS qualifications in Music Technology awarded on or after
1 April 2018.
It also sets out our requirements in relation to:
n
assessment objectives – awarding organisations must comply with these
requirements under Condition GCE(Music Technology)1.2; and
n
assessment – awarding organisations must comply with these requirements
under Condition GCE(Music Technology)2.3.
Appendix 1 reproduces the subject content requirements for Music Technology, as
published by the Department for Education1. Awarding organisations must comply
with these requirements under Condition GCE(Music Technology)1.1.
With respect to the qualifications listed above, awarding organisations must also
comply with:
n
our General Conditions of Recognition,2 which apply to all awarding
organisations and qualifications;
1
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/gce-as-and-a-level-music-technology
2
www.gov.uk/government/publications/general-conditions-of-recognition
Introduction − Ofqual 2016
3
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
n
our GCE Qualification Level Conditions and Requirements3; and
n
all relevant Regulatory Documents4.
With respect to all other GCE qualifications in Music Technology, awarding
organisations must continue to comply with the General Conditions of Recognition,
the GCE Qualification Level Conditions,5 and the relevant Regulatory Documents.
Summary of requirements
Subject Level Conditions
GCE(Music Technology)1
Compliance with content requirements
GCE(Music Technology)2
Assessment
Assessment objectives
Assessment objectives – GCE Qualifications in Music Technology
Assessment requirements
Assessment requirements – GCE Qualifications in Music Technology
Appendix 1 – Subject content (published by Department for Education)
GCE AS and A level Subject Content for Music Technology
3
www.gov.uk/government/publications/gce-qualification-level-conditions-and-requirements
4
www.gov.uk/guidance/regulatory-document-list
5
www.gov.uk/government/publications/gce-qualification-level-conditions-for-pre-reform-qualifications
Introduction − Ofqual 2016
4
Subject Level Conditions
___________________________________________________________________
5
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
GCE Subject Level Conditions for Music Technology
Condition GCE(Music Compliance with content requirements
Technology)1
GCE (Music
Technology)1.1
In respect of each GCE Qualification in Music Technology
which it makes available, or proposes to make available, an
awarding organisation must –
(a) comply with the requirements relating to that qualification
set out in the document published by the Secretary of
State entitled ‘Music technology GCE AS and A level
subject content’6, document reference DFE-00214-2015,
(b) have regard to any recommendations or guidelines
relating to that qualification set out in that document, and
(c) interpret that document in accordance with any
requirements, and having regard to any guidance, which
may be published by Ofqual and revised from time to
time.
GCE (Music
Technology)1.2
6
In respect of each GCE Qualification in Music Technology
which it makes available, or proposes to make available, an
awarding organisation must comply with any requirements,
and have regard to any guidance, relating to the objectives to
be met by any assessment for that qualification which may
be published by Ofqual and revised from time to time.
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/gce-as-and-a-level-music-technology
GCE Subject Level Conditions for Music Technology − Ofqual 2016
6
6
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
Condition
GCE(Music
Technology)2
Assessment
GCE (Music
Technology)2.1
Condition GCE4.1 does not apply to any GCE Qualification in
Music Technology which an awarding organisation makes
available or proposes to make available.
GCE (Music
Technology)2.2
In respect of the total marks available for a GCE Qualification
in Music Technology which it makes available, an awarding
organisation must ensure that –
(a) 60 per cent of those marks are made available through
Assessments by Examination, and
(b) 40 per cent of those marks are made available through
assessments set by the awarding organisation that are not
Assessments by Examination.
GCE(Music
Technology)2.3
An awarding organisation must ensure that in respect of each
assessment for a GCE Qualification in Music Technology
which it makes available it complies with any requirements,
and has regard to any guidance, which may be published by
Ofqual and revised from time to time.
GCE Subject Level Conditions for Music Technology − Ofqual 2016
7
7
Assessment objectives
___________________________________________________________________
8
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
Assessment objectives – GCE Qualifications in
Music Technology
Condition GCE(Music Technology)1.2 allows us to specify requirements relating to
the objectives to be met by any assessment for GCE Qualifications in Music
Technology.
The assessment objectives set out below constitute requirements for the purposes of
Condition GCE(Music Technology)1.2. Awarding organisations must comply with
these requirements in relation to all GCE Qualifications in Music Technology they
make available.
Objective
Weighting
(A level)
Weighting
(AS)
AO1 Demonstrate use of music technology to
capture, edit and produce recordings
30-40%
30-40%
AO2 Demonstrate use of music technology to
create, edit and structure sounds to develop a
technology based-composition
20-30%
20-30%
AO3 Demonstrate and apply knowledge and
understanding of music technology
20-30%
25-35%
AO4 Use analytical and appraising skills to make
evaluative and critical judgements about the
use of music technology
10-20%
10-20%
Assessment objectives − Ofqual 2016
9
Assessment requirements
___________________________________________________________________
10
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
Assessment requirements – GCE Qualifications in
Music Technology
Condition GCE(Music Technology)2.3 allows us to specify requirements relating to
the objectives to be met by any assessment for GCE Qualifications in Music
Technology.
We set out below our requirements for the purposes of Condition GCE(Music
Technology)2.3. Awarding organisations must comply with these requirements in
relation to all GCE Qualifications in Music Technology they make available.
Forms of non-examination assessment
Condition GCE(Music Technology)2.2(b) states that an awarding organisation must
ensure that of the total marks available for a GCE Qualification in Music Technology,
40 per cent of those marks shall be made available through assessments set by the
awarding organisation which are not Assessments by Examination.
In respect of that 40 per cent, an awarding organisation must ensure that –
(a) 20 per cent of the total marks available for the qualification are made available
through a task which assesses a Learner's knowledge, skills and understanding in
relation to the capture, editing and production of recordings (the ‘Recording
Assessment'), and
(b) 20 per cent of the total marks available for the qualification are made available
through a task which assesses a Learner's knowledge, skills and understanding in
relation to the development of a technology-based composition (the 'Composition
Assessment').
The Recording Assessment
An awarding organisation must ensure that each Recording Assessment is designed
and set to –
(a) assess only assessment objective AO1,
(b) require each Learner to capture, edit and produce an audio recording, with a
duration of –
(i) for a GCE AS qualification, at least two minutes, and
(ii) for a GCE A level qualification, at least three minutes
(c) require each Learner to provide such additional evidence as is necessary to
enable the consideration of that Learner's level of attainment in respect of all of
the relevant criteria against which Learners' performance in that assessment will
be differentiated,
Assessment requirements − Ofqual 2016
11
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
(d) be taken under conditions specified by the awarding organisation, including, in
particular, conditions which ensure that the evidence generated by each Learner
can be Authenticated,
(e) minimise the predictability of those assessments, and
(f) facilitate comparability of those assessments, both within each set of
assessments7, and over time.
In respect of the task(s) which it sets for each Recording Assessment, an awarding
organisation –
(a) must not communicate the task(s) that it has set to Centres before 1 June in the
calendar year preceding the year in which the qualification is to be awarded,
(b) must ensure that each task details the evidence which must be submitted to the
awarding organisation.
The Composition Assessment
An awarding organisation must ensure that each Composition Assessment is
designed and set to –
(a) assess only assessment objective AO2,
(b) require each Learner to develop a technology-based composition with a duration
of –
(i) for a GCE AS qualification, at least two and a half minutes, and
(ii) for a GCE A level qualification, at least three minutes,
(c) require each Learner to provide such additional evidence as is necessary to
enable the consideration of that Learner's level of attainment in respect of all of
the relevant criteria against which Learners' performance in that assessment will
be differentiated,
(d) to be taken under conditions specified by the awarding organisation, including, in
particular, conditions which ensure that the evidence generated by each Learner
can be Authenticated,
7
For the purposes of these requirements, a ‘set of assessments’ means the assessments to be taken
by a particular Learner for a GCE Qualification in Music Technology. For clarity, the assessments
taken by Learners may vary, depending on any possible routes through the qualification.
Assessment requirements − Ofqual 2016
12
GCE Subject Level Conditions and Requirements for Music Technology
(e) minimise the predictability of those assessments, and
(f) facilitate comparability of those assessments, both within a set of assessments,
and over time.
In respect of the task(s) which it sets for each Composition Assessment, an awarding
organisation –
(a) must not communicate the task(s) that it has set to Centres before 1 September
in the calendar year preceding the year in which the qualification is to be
awarded,
(b) must ensure that each task details the evidence which must be submitted to the
awarding organisation.
Marking of assessments
The requirements in this section apply to all GCE Qualifications in Music Technology
which an awarding organisation makes available or proposes to make available.
An awarding organisation must ensure that the evidence generated by each Learner
in each assessment for a GCE Qualification in Music Technology which it makes
available is marked by that awarding organisation or a person connected to that
awarding organisation.
An awarding organisation must demonstrate to Ofqual's satisfaction in its
assessment strategy that –
(a) it has taken all reasonable steps to identify the risk of any Adverse Effect which
may result from its approach to marking of assessments, and
(b) where such a risk is identified, it has taken all reasonable steps to prevent that
Adverse Effect or, where it cannot be prevented, to mitigate that Adverse Effect.
Assessment requirements − Ofqual 2016
13
Subject content (published by
Department for Education)
___________________________________________________________________
14
Music technology
GCE AS and A level subject content
December 2015
Contents
The content for music technology AS and A level
3
Introduction
3
Aims and objectives
3
Subject content
4
Recording and production techniques for both corrective and creative purposes
4
Principles of sound and audio technology
7
Development of recording and production technology
8
Skills
9
List of acronyms
11
2
The content for music technology AS and A level
Introduction
1.
AS and A level subject content sets out the knowledge, understanding and skills
common to all AS and A level specifications in music technology.
Aims and objectives
2.
Together with the assessment objectives, subject content provides the framework
within which the awarding organisations create the detail of their specifications, ensuring
progression from a range of subjects at GCSE and to higher education.
3.
The specifications must provide access to higher education and university degree
courses in music technology and music technology-related subjects.
4.
AS and A level specifications in music technology must offer a broad and coherent
course of study which encourages students to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
understand the principles of sound and audio technology and how they are used in
creative and professional practice
understand a wide range of recording and production techniques and how they are
used in practice for both corrective and creative purposes
develop recording skills to demonstrate an understanding of sound and its capture
develop the skills to create and manipulate sound in imaginative and creative
ways
develop skills in critical and analytical listening to evaluate the use of sound and
audio technology in students’ own and others’ work
develop an understanding of the historical and cultural contexts of the use of
technology in the creation, performance and production of music
understand the interdependence of sound engineering knowledge, understanding
and skills
make links between the integrated activities of recording, processing, mixing,
sound-creation and creative music technology applications, underpinned by
analytical listening
understand the basic principles of acoustics, psycho-acoustics, and the
digitalisation of sound
understand the latest developments in music technology and the impact they have
on technology-based composition, performance and the tonal qualities of
recordings
develop and extend the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to create
recordings and technology-based compositions which communicate effectively to
the listener
3
•
•
•
understand the history and traditions of the sonic and musical applications of
technology and how they promote personal, social, intellectual and cultural
development
develop the skills required to manage music technology projects from inception to
completion, by evaluating and refining recordings and technology-based
compositions over extended periods of time
develop as effective and independent students, and as critical, creative and
reflective thinkers with enquiring minds
Subject content
5.
AS and A level specifications in music technology must build on the knowledge,
understanding and skills established at Key Stage 4 and a range of GCSE qualifications.
6.
AS and A level specifications in music technology must require students to
develop an in-depth knowledge and understanding of:
•
•
•
recording and production techniques for both corrective and creative purposes
principles of sound and audio technology
the development of recording and production technology
Specifications must also require students to apply these, where appropriate, to their own
work.
Recording and production techniques for both corrective and creative
purposes
7.
AS and A level specifications in music technology must require students to
develop knowledge and understanding for corrective and creative purposes of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
software and hardware
capture of sound
sequencing and MIDI
audio editing
EQ
dynamic processing
effects
balance and blend
stereo
synthesis
sampling
automation
pitch and rhythm correction and manipulation
mastering
4
8.
Students will be expected to know and understand the following for corrective and
creative purposes, and use in practical work as appropriate:
At AS and A level
Software and
hardware
•
•
Capture of
sound
•
•
•
the core functions of a Digital
Audio Workstation (DAW)
detailed below in this table
a range of hardware including
microphones and audio
interfaces
gain-structure and how it
affects noise and distortion
the characteristics and
suitability of microphone types
e.g. dynamic, condenser
the suitability of microphone
techniques e.g. distances
Additionally at A level
•
the advanced functions of a
Digital Audio Workstation
(DAW) detailed below in this
table
•
other programming
environments and new and
emerging software
•
the impact of new and
emerging software on music
production
•
the advantages and
disadvantages of microphone
types in terms of polar pattern
and frequency response
advanced microphone
techniques e.g. coincident pair
how microphones work
including microphone
sensitivity, electromagnetic
induction and capacitance
•
•
•
•
•
•
real time input
step input
quantise
velocity and note length
•
Audio editing
•
•
truncating
how to remove clicks and
noise
•
how and why clicks and noise
occur e.g. discontinuous
waveforms
EQ
•
different types of EQ in a
recording e.g. low-shelf, highshelf, band, LPF, HPF
•
how different parameters
affect sound
how to draw graphs of EQ,
e.g. Q, gain, frequency
Sequencing
5
•
•
how MIDI and/or OSC works
by studying data bytes
data bytes including note on,
pitch, controllers, pitch bend
LSB and MSB
Dynamic
processing
•
•
Effects
•
•
Balance and
blend
•
Stereo
•
Synthesis
•
Sampling
•
different uses of compression
and gating
how to adjust threshold and
ratio on a compressor in a
recording
•
reverb, delay, flange, chorus
phaser, wah-wah and
distortion in a recording
the core parameters including
reverb time and delay time
•
•
•
•
effects including ADT and
autotune
detailed parameters including
reverb pre-delay time and
delay feedback
the relative balance of parts
•
(tracks, instruments and/or
vocals)
how to identify pan positions
•
of individual parts (tracks,
instruments and/or vocals) in a
recording
how synthesis is used to
•
create different sounds by
using oscillators, filters,
envelopes and LFOs
how blend is affected by
compression, EQ and effects
pitch mapping,
cutting/trimming and looping
the use of samples in new
contexts to create new
meanings or effect
sample rate, bit-depth, other
synthesis parameters e.g. filter
and envelope
•
•
Automation
how to use advanced
parameters of a compressor
e.g. attack, release, knee,
sidechain
how to draw graphs of
compression and gating
how to use volume and pan
automation
6
•
panning law, mono-summing
and mid-side processing
how timbre is affected by a
wider variety of parameters
e.g. cut-off frequency,
resonance, attack, decay,
sustain, release, graphs, and
mapping of envelopes to filter
cut-off frequency
how to automate parameters
of plug-ins e.g. cut-off
frequency, delay feedback
Pitch and
rhythm
correction
and
manipulation
•
how to correct inaccuracies in
pitch and rhythm e.g. by retuning a vocal part or
tightening the rhythm in a
drum part
•
the parameters that allow
greater control and creativity
e.g. response time, transient
detection threshold and
groove templates
Mastering
•
limiting and perceived volume
•
•
parameters e.g. limiter gain
understanding how EQ works
in the mastering process
Principles of sound and audio technology
9.
AS and A level specifications must require students to develop knowledge and
understanding of:
At AS and A level
Additionally at A level
Acoustics
•
how the live room acoustics
affect the recording
•
acoustics including describing
a reverb tail e.g. pre-delay
time, early reflections and
reverberation time
Monitor
speakers
•
the characteristics of different
monitor speakers e.g. woofer,
tweeter
•
how monitor speakers work
(electromagnetic induction)
different types of monitor
speakers and how they affect
mix-translation
how leads and connectivity
work including signal path,
signal types
the different types and uses of
leads including jack and XLR
•
the differences between digital
and analogue recordings
the advantages and
disadvantages of digital and
analogue recordings
•
Leads
•
•
Digital and
analogue
•
•
7
•
•
how leads and connectivity
work including impedance
the advantages and
disadvantages of different
leads and connectivity
the specifications of digital and
analogue recordings and how
they affect sound quality e.g.
A/D and D/A conversion, tape,
vinyl and streaming
Numeracy
•
•
•
•
Levels
•
principles of levels and
metering including
management of levels to
prevent distortion and
maximise signal to noise ratio
•
how to display information
graphically e.g. in waveforms
and EQ curves
how to interpret graphs e.g.
frequency response graphs
and polar response graphs, to
understand how sound quality
is affected
technical numeracy including
binary, formulae, logarithms,
and how they are used in
music technology
how to make calculations to
describe sound waves
including waveforms,
frequency, phase and
amplitude
levels and metering including
dB scales, psycho-acoustics,
and when to use different
scales including peak and
RMS
Development of recording and production technology
10.
AS and A level specifications must require students to develop knowledge and
understanding of the history and development of recording and production technology
from the 1950s through the eras of:
•
•
•
•
•
direct to tape and mono recording (c.1950 – 1963)
early multitrack (c.1964 – 1969)
large scale analogue multitrack (c.1969 – 1995)
digital recording and sequencing (c.1980 – present day)
digital audio workstations (DAW) and emerging technologies (c.1996 – present
day)
11.
Through the context of the eras listed above AS and A level specifications will
require students to identify and describe how recording technology has been used to
create and shape sound, in relation to:
•
•
•
•
•
electric and electronic instruments
multi-track recording and equipment
samplers
synthesisers
DAW
8
•
recording media from a number of significant eras
12.
In addition, through the context of the eras listed above, A level specifications will
require students to:
•
•
•
describe the technical function and operation of recording equipment identified
through the eras
understand the impact of music technology on creative processes in the studio
understand the wider context of music technology and how it has influenced
trends in music e.g. computer games, popular music, film score, soundscapes in
art installations, sound effects for film
Skills
13.
AS and A level specifications in music technology must require students to use the
knowledge and understanding of recording and production techniques for both corrective
and creative purposes (as listed in paragraph 8) to develop and demonstrate their ability
to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
use music production tools and techniques to capture sounds including musical
instruments with accuracy and control
manipulate existing sounds and music with technical control and style to produce
recordings and technology-based compositions
effectively use processing techniques to produce a balanced final mix
develop competence as a music producer and sound engineer by producing
recordings and technology-based compositions
analyse critically and comment perceptively on music production techniques from
a range of source material and their impact on music styles
apply musical elements and language e.g. structure, timbre, texture, tempo and
rhythm, melody, harmony and tonality, dynamics within the context of music
technology
use aural discrimination to identify and evaluate music technology elements in
unfamiliar works and to refine recordings
14.
In addition, A level specifications in music technology must require students to
demonstrate the ability to:
•
•
•
use music production tools and techniques to create new sounds and music with
technical control and style
develop effectiveness as a music producer and sound engineer by producing
recordings and technology-based compositions
use aural discrimination and technical skill to refine technology-based
compositions
9
•
•
apply the additional A level knowledge and understanding listed in paragraph 8 to
extend the skills developed at AS level with increased sensitivity and technical
control
make informed decisions about equipment by analysing and interpreting a range
of data, graphical representations and diagrams relating to frequency response,
microphone polar patterns and dynamic response
10
List of acronyms
Term
Definition
A/D conversion
Analogue-to-digital conversion
ADT
Automatic double tracking or Artificial double tracking
D/A conversion
Digital-to-analogue conversion
DAW
Digital Audio Workstation
dB Scales
Decibel Scales
EQ
Equalisation
LFOs
Low Frequency Oscillation
LPF and HPF
Low Pass Filter and High Pass Filter
LSB and MSB
Least Significant Byte and Most Significant Byte
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
OSC
Open Sound Control
Q
Quality
RMS
Root-mean-square
11
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