‘RED CHAMBER’ OPERA TAKES ON A CHINESE EPIC JERUSALEM TRIP LEAVING THE COMFORT ZONE COSTLY PERKS VALUE IN A $450 CREDIT CARD PAGE 10 | CULTURE PAGE 10 | CULTURE PAGE 15 | BUSINESS ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 Papers show advocates of sugar shifted blame to fat Clinton set back by call to keep illness secret In 1960s, scientists took payments to play down sweets’ risks to heart Amid pressure, aides pledge to release fuller health history this week BY ANAHAD O’CONNOR BY AMY CHOZICK AND PATRICK HEALY The sugar industry paid scientists in the 1960s to play down the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat as the culprit instead, newly released historical documents show. The internal sugar industry documents, recently discovered by a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, and published Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine, suggest that five decades of research into the role of nutrition and heart disease, including many of today’s dietary recommendations, may have been largely shaped by the sugar industry. ‘‘They were able to derail the discussion about sugar for decades,’’ said Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at U.C.S.F. and an author of the JAMA paper. The documents show that a trade group called the Sugar Research Foundation, known today as the Sugar Association, paid three Harvard scientists the equivalent of about $50,000 in today’s dollars to publish a 1967 review of research on sugar, fat and heart disease. The studies used in the review were handpicked by the sugar group, and the article, which was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, minimized the link between sugar and heart health and cast aspersions on the role of saturated fat. Even though the influence-peddling revealed in the documents dates back nearly 50 years, more recent reports show that the food industry has continued to influence nutrition science. Last year, an article in The New York Times revealed that Coca-Cola, the world’s largest producer of sugary beverages, had provided millions of dollars in funding to researchers who sought to play down the link between sugary drinks and obesity. In June, The Associated Press reported that candy makers were funding studies that claimed that children who eat candy tend to weigh less than those who do not. The Harvard scientists and the sugar executives with whom they collaborated are no longer alive. One of the scientists who was paid by the sugar industry was D. Mark Hegsted, who went on to become the head of nutrition at the United States Department of Agriculture, where in 1977 he helped draft the forerunner to the federal government’s dietary guidelines. Another was Dr. Fredrick J. Stare, the chairman of Harvard’s nutrition department. In a statement responding to the JAMA report, the Sugar Association said that the 1967 review was published at a time when medical journals did not typically require researchers to disclose funding sources. The New England Journal of Medicine did not begin to require financial disclosures until 1984. The industry ‘‘should have exercised greater transparency in all of its reSUGAR, PAGE 7 DANIEL BEREHULAK FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES A grinding tradition A street organist in the Centro Histórico of Mexico City. While their numbers may be growing, organ grinders worry that a younger generation does not share the desire to preserve their culture. Many young people, forced to listen to their music while out at a restaurant or in a square, pay them to leave. PAGE 2 Married off by Khmer Rouge, into agony PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA BY STÉPHANIE GIRY In a vast courtroom on the outskirts of Phnom Penh, a middle-aged Cambodian woman soberly described a night nearly four decades ago that she said she had never talked about before. The local leader of the Khmer Rouge government had assigned her to marry one man, but at the last minute decided on another, she told the court. On their wedding night in early 1977, she refused his advances. The man complained to the chief, who raped her and threatened to kill her, before sending her back to live with her new husband. ‘‘I bit my lips and shed my tears,’’ said the woman, identified at the tribunal only as 2-TCCP-274 to protect her identity. She eventually let her husband have sex with her. The United Nations-backed tribunal investigating the crimes of the Khmer Rouge has turned in recent weeks to an RIO DE JANEIRO BY BEN SHPIGEL LIANNE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Genrik Pavliukianec of Lithuania winding up for a throw against the United States team. His hardest throws zip along the floor at 47 miles an hour, making the ball hard to block. A student collecting microbes from a hot spring in South Africa. Scientists hope the microbes can shed light on whether life might exist on Mars. HEALTH+SCIENCE, 14 ALIENS BELOW US ’:HIKKLD=WUXWUZ:?k@t@b@e@a" In men’s goalball, a sport for the visually impaired that, kind of, sort of, resembles a mix of handball and bowling, countries tend to have distinct playing styles. Finland excels at accuracy. China throws bounce balls. Brazil mixes speeds well. Then there is Lithuania. ‘‘They can throw it through anybody,’’ said Matt Simpson, a member of the United States team. Lithuania’s foremost practitioner of that tactic works in a library in Vilnius, the capital. His name is Genrik Pavliukianec, and his hardest throws zip along the floor at 47 miles an hour — which, for opponents tasked with preventing them from hurtling into the goal, is not unlike trying to react to an Aroldis Chapman fastball. The objective in goalball, played by teams of three blindfolded athletes, is to fling a hard rubber ball containing bells down a 9-meter-by-18-meter court and into a wide, low goal. The ball is about the size of a basketball, but heavier. Orienting themselves by relying on their athleticism, reaction time and auditory cues — the sound of the bells, the skid of the ball, its echo — players leave their PARALYMPICS, PAGE 6 Hillary Clinton’s campaign did not disclose her illness until two days after her diagnosis. was going to be that big a deal,’’ and she tried to shift the discussion to her Republican opponent, Donald J. Trump, and his lack of transparency. ‘‘It’s really past time for him to be held to the same standards,’’ she said. Mrs. Clinton’s aides acknowledged that they should have been more forthcoming and said she would release CLINTON, PAGE 4 TRUMP PRESSES HIS CASE Donald J. Trump scrambled to put Hillary Clinton on the defensive but showed restraint over her illness. PAGE 4 CLINTON’S ILLNESS PUTS FOCUS ON KAINE Senator Tim Kaine said he was not feeling added pressure to convince voters he is ready to be president. PAGE 4 ON LI N E AT I N Y T.CO M ALEXIA WEBSTER FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES or e-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org CAMBODIA, PAGE 7 In Paralympic goalball, players must listen hard to make catch Fallen captain’s grave draws crowd Honoring medical discoveries The grave of the Muslim soldier whose parents denounced Donald J. Trump has drawn thousands of visitors since their appearance at the Democratic convention in late July. WORLD NEWS, 3 The Lasker Awards will go to six researchers who made discoveries in physiology and virology and to a scientist who promoted science education. nytimes.com/science Joint push to punish North Korea Hedge fund takes aim, again The United States and South Korea vowed to seek new sanctions and the end of existing loopholes after a North Korean nuclear test. WORLD NEWS, 5 The hedge fund that helped prod Yahoo into selling its core business has a new target for its activism: the drug maker Perrigo. nytimes.com/dealbook A rocket for retail space travel 00800 44 48 78 27 aspect of the radical Maoist regime that has often been overlooked amid its mass killings and other brutalities: regulations governing marriage. The panel is considering whether the policies amounted to forced marriage or led to sexual assault, both potentially crimes against humanity. The people who have testified so far, most in their 60s, have laid bare the scope of a practice that many Cambodians describe anecdotally, if sometimes reluctantly. A wide range of experiences has emerged in court: women set aside for disabled soldiers, militiamen spying on couples to confirm they were having sex, people corralled into group weddings who engaged in desperate ploys to be paired off with vague DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES I N S IDE TO DAY’S PA P ER FOR SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION, CALL: Cambodians testified about abuse and heartache after being paired with strangers. Shortly after receiving a diagnosis of pneumonia on Friday, Hillary Clinton decided to limit the information to her family members and close aides, certain that the illness was not a crucial issue for voters and that it might be twisted and exploited by her opponents, several advisers and allies said this week. To those she did inform, Mrs. Clinton was emphatic: She intended to ‘‘press on’’ with her campaign schedule, she said. Her confidants concluded that she did not want to be challenged over her preference to keep the pneumonia private and continue working. Mrs. Clinton’s inner circle was mindful of both her guardedness and her expectation of loyalty once her mind is made up. And she was optimistic that she could recover over the weekend, when she had only two brief events on her schedule, said the advisers and allies, who insisted on anonymity to disclose private conversations. But Mrs. Clinton’s penchant for privacy backfired. On Monday, her campaign scrambled to reassure voters about her health, a day after she grew visibly weak and was filmed being helped into a van: unsettling images that circulated widely and led her aides to disclose the pneumonia diagnosis two days after the fact. In a phone interview with CNN’s Anderson Cooper on Monday night, Mrs. Clinton said she had kept her diagnosis a secret because ‘‘I just didn’t think it NEWSSTAND PRICES France ¤ 3.20 Andorra ¤ 3.50 Morocco MAD 30 Antilles ¤ 3.80 Senegal CFA 2.500 Cameroon CFA 2.500 Tunisia Din 4.500 Gabon CFA 2.500 Ivory Coast CFA 2.500 Reunion ¤ 3.50 IN THIS ISSUE No. 41,524 Business 15 Crossword 13 Culture 10 Opinion 8 Science 14 Sports 12 Matt Kuchar, J.B. Holmes and Rickie Fowler, who each have Ryder Cup experience, were selected by the team captain Davis Love III to take on Europe this month. nytimes.com/golf How to stop Pyongyang Can defiance be manipulated? The Obama administration’s policy has failed to halt North Korea’s nuclear program. But the next president still has a chance, Joel S. Wit writes. OPINION, 8 A study shows that teenagers make wiser choices if they are encouraged to reimagine healthy behavior as an act of rebellion. nytimes.com/upshot s t t s Euro Pound Yen S. Franc NEW YORK, TUESDAY 11:00AM €1= £1= $1= $1= PREVIOUS $1.1250 $1.1230 $1.3200 $1.3330 ¥102.140 ¥101.840 SF0.9710 SF0.9720 Fu ll c u rre n c y rat e s Pa g e 1 9 Paris, November 3-4, 2016 U.S. names Ryder Cup golfers Blue Origin, the secretive space company, has unveiled a rocket design aimed at making space travel more frequent and inexpensive. BUSINESS, 18 CURRENCIES Conference STOCK INDEXES TUESDAY t The Dow 11:00am 18,126.78 t FTSE 100 4pm 6,691.82 s Nikkei 225 close 16,729.04 OIL –1.08% –0.14% +0.34% NEW YORK, TUESDAY 11:00AM t Light sweet crude $45.02 –$0.92 Unlocking low-carbon opportunities To apply to attend this landmark conference, visit NYTenergy.com 2 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES page two IN YOUR WORDS Admiring a ruthless use of power Clinton falls ill at 9/11 event I’m far more worried about Trump’s mental health and reason than Clinton’s physical health. TO N Y83703, BOI SE , IDAHO This didn’t need to become a scandal incident, as I am sure it will over the next few weeks. When Ms. Clinton was diagnosed with pneumonia on Friday, her campaign should have announced this, and stated that as a result Ms. Clinton’s schedule would be a bit lighter than usual while she got some rest. Nobody except the alt-right would have cared. Instead the Clinton campaign says nothing about her minor/routine health concern on Friday and tries to continue with business as usual, claims that everything is totally fine, goes into radio silence mode before the campaign team realizes video of the wobbling is available on the internet and finally — FINALLY — comes clean. John Harwood L E T T E R F RO M A M E RIC A R ON , C ALI FOR NI A My admiration for Secretary Clinton just shot through the roof. To have her schedule, to still be campaigning, making speeches, enduring the interminable slog of a presidential race under the often harsh, withering gaze of the media all while battling pneumonia is beyond admirable. K ICKSOTI C, NEW YO RK I hope people aren’t taking this as some sign she’s unfit to take office. She has her faults, but she’s capable. And especially with what’s going on in Asia, with the nuclear testing, we need somebody with temperance, with tact, and who can defuse that situation, not escalate it. J.D. , U. S. A. Pneumonia does not mean ‘‘gravely ill.’’ The right-wing conspiracy theorists have made up stories out of thin air for weeks about Hillary having some sort of grave illness. They’re still wrong. T IN MANI C, NEW YO RK PHOTOGRAPHS BY DANIEL BEREHULAK FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES An organ grinder at the Centro Histórico of Mexico City. Many residents said they found the organs’ music awful. Some of the machines are over 50 years old and sound every bit their age. Grinding away at tradition MEXICO CITY See what readers are talking about and leave your own comments at inyt.com. Portable organs drawing more grimaces than grins as heyday fades IN OUR PAGES BY AZAM AHMED International Herald Tribune 1916 Circus Raided for Shirkers LO ND O N A raid for military absentees was made on a travelling circus on Monday [Sept. 11] night by the military authorities, assisted by the police and special constables and a large detachment from a volunteer training corps. The latter surrounded the circus tent while the military and police entered. The names and addresses of seventy men without necessary papers had been taken when all the lights went out, and the audience of between three and four thousand was left in darkness. The proceedings of the military and the remainder of the performance had to be abandoned. 1966 Tortured Pilot Escapes SAN DIEGO A young Navy pilot today [Sept. 13] calmly described his incredible escape from Laotian Communists and the barbaric tortures he experienced after being shot down early this year during a bombing raid over North Vietnam. Lt. Dieter Danglers’s adventures began when his propeller-driven Skyraider was downed Feb. 2 and ended with his dramatic July 20 rescue by helicopter after U.S reconnaissance planes spotted signal fires he had set in the jungle. He also told how a fellow escapee Air Force Lt. Duane Martin, of Denver, died when a villager virtually beheaded him with a machete. Find a retrospective of news from 1887 to 2013 at iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com. Business was not going well for Moisés Rosas. A saxophonist was down the street, making decent money. A young woman was loudly hawking eyeglass repair services. And Super Mario, stationed at the entrance to the pedestrian MEXICO CITY JOURNAL path, was drawing a crowd. Mr. Rosas’ portable organ was no match. Even in the center of a busy thoroughfare, the crowds flowed past as a river might a rock, parting to avoid him and then rejoining seamlessly. ‘‘This is a dying art,’’ Mr. Rosas said as he turned the dull metal lever of his instrument, wrenching out a troubled squawk. ‘‘The youth don’t really value us.’’ So it goes for Mexico City’s organ grinders, among the city’s more curious kinds of street performers. For years, they were beloved by residents, but now they are in a gloomy mood, convinced that their art — and a central part of the city’s culture — is fading away. Interviews with a dozen organists around town turned up mostly grievances, but their numbers tell a different story. According to their union president, there are more organ players now than there were at any time in the last 30 years. ‘‘These guys moan no matter what is happening,’’ Luis Román Dichi Lara, the head of the organ players’ union, said recently. ‘‘Today is a Tuesday. If you interview them tomorrow, which is usually a slow day, you won’t believe the complaints you will hear.’’ In truth, he said, business is booming. Oscar Rosas, 20, filling in for his aunt in her prime location in front of a soaring cathedral. Including nonunion members, whom he refers to as pirates, organ grinders number about 500, thanks to a lack of opportunities in other sectors of the economy. That is up from 350 when he started a few decades ago, Mr. Dichi Lara said. But the organists say that while their numbers may be growing, their wallets feel much lighter — a fact that union officials acknowledge. They are losing fans. Many young people, forced to listen to their music while out at a restaurant or in a square, pay them to leave. The ranks of older patrons, who recall the organ grinders with nostalgia, are thinning. Then there is the competition, which has multiplied in recent years. There are break dancers, mimes, movie characters, musicians, artisans and the afflicted, all vying for spare change. Worse, there are the superheroes. ‘‘Don’t even get me started on them,’’ Mr. Dichi Lara said. ‘‘You place yourself in the perfect spot, start your music and, boom, here come Thor, Batman and Spider-Man.’’ Competition aside, many residents said they thought that the organs themselves sounded awful. Some of the machines are more than 50 years old and sound every bit their age. ‘‘These songs, they play them over and over,’’ said Javier Hernández García, who runs a stall by the Zócalo, the city’s central square, where the organ grinders perform. ‘‘No one likes them, but we can’t get rid of them.’’ It is true that the organs have enjoyed staying power in Mexico. They first arrived in the country in the 1800s, making the trans-Atlantic journey from Germany into the parlors of the wealthy and privileged class, as well as in circuses. By the mid-1900s, the organs had grown more popular, and players began to switch from German polkas to Mexican music — songs of love and nostalgia that appealed to older generations. These days, if a player does not own his instrument, he can rent one for about $80 a week, the union said. For a variety of reasons — the cost of proper maintenance, the lack of repair know-how and overuse of the instruments — the melodies are often horribly off key. A cloud comes over diners’ faces when an organist pops up and begins cranking, forcing them to wait out the auditory assault. There is also a skill that newcomers do not appreciate, the older players say. It is a craft. An organist does not just turn the lever and let the instrument do its business. One must crank consistently, which is not so easy given the instrument’s weight. The tempo must differ from song to song. Beyond tradition, locations are also handed down by generation, which can give the business a Mafia-like air. Mr. Rosas, for instance, often works with his wife. His sister-in-law works another prime location outside the cathedral in the historical center, which she inherited from her mother. Mr. Rosas’ son, Oscar, 20, fills in for her when she is unable to work a shift. And the union leader, Mr. Dichi Lara? His brother-in-law is Moisés Rosas. ‘‘What can I say? We come from an organ-playing family,’’ Mr. Dichi Lara said. ‘‘But to be honest, Moisés’ organ is pretty badly out of tune.’’ Oscar’s, too. On a recent day, he mopped sweat from his brow as he played in his aunt’s fixed location, in front of the soaring cathedral. He is passionate about his work. ‘‘My dream is to one day earn enough money to buy one of these, to conserve this part of our culture on our own,’’ he said. This desire to preserve the culture seems to motivate donors as well. On a recent evening, Carlos Martínez dropped a few coins in the hat of Sergio Pérez, an organist midway through his evening shift. ‘‘Not many people help them,’’ said Mr. Martínez, 44, an office worker. ‘‘I don’t really like to listen to them that much, but if no one gives them money, they won’t survive.’’ Paulina Villegas contributed reporting. Albert Kumin, pastry chef for top restaurants, dies at 94 BY WILLIAM GRIMES Albert Kumin, one of the most celebrated pastry chefs in the United States, who created desserts for the Four Seasons and Windows on the World in Manhattan as well as for Jimmy Carter’s White House, died on Friday at his home O B I T U A RY in Stowe, Vt. He was 94. His death was confirmed by his daughter, Julie Kumin. Mr. Kumin, Swiss by birth, had been working for a decade in top Canadian hotels when Joe Baum invited him to come to New York in 1958 to work at the Four Seasons, his latest project for Restaurant Associates. It turned out to be a brilliant hire. For the restaurant’s signature dessert, Mr. Kumin invented chocolate velvet cake, a variation on the classic bombe — a dome of chocolate cake, glazed in chocolate, containing a mousse made with chopped-up Heath bars, amaretto and rum. Over the years, the restaurant made more than 200,000 of them. For Mr. Baum, the endlessly inventive Mr. Kumin created a Mexican choco- late candy cake for the pan-Latin restaurant La Fonda del Sol in Manhattan and several desserts for Windows on the World, atop the north tower of the World Trade Center, that attained star status, notably a lemon cream tart and a Grand Marnier chocolate cake. Mr. Kumin was invited to take over as pastry chef at the White House in 1979 while teaching at the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, N.Y. ‘‘To me it is an honor,’’ he told The Washington Post. ‘‘It’s about as high as you can go in our trade.’’ He left a year later for reasons never fully explained. He complained about the high price of Washington real estate. In addition, he told The New York Times, ‘‘the edelweiss I planted six years ago at my house is just beginning to grow, so I want to enjoy it.’’ Friends speculated that he simply grew bored. ‘‘Over the years you are going, going,’’ he told The Post on leaving the position. ‘‘Certainly I adjust, but it is pretty hard. It’s like you are in a newsroom and everything goes click, click, click, and then you go in an office and it gets quiet.’’ He did, however, help prepare the dinner in March 1979 to celebrate the sign- ing of the Camp David accords that took place the previous September, with President Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt, Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and more than 1,300 guests in attendance. At the International Pastry Arts Center, which he founded in 1985 in Katonah, N.Y., he educated dozens of pastry chefs who took positions at top restaurants across the United States. ‘‘He is one of the only people I know who can labor relentlessly in the kitchen, covering the work of three, while remaining totally calm, good-humored and friendly,’’ Jacques Pépin told Nation’s Restaurant News in 1993. The two men worked together in the 1960s for Howard Johnson’s, where Mr. Kumin was hired to organize a high-volume pastry operation. Albert Kümin (the umlaut was later dropped) was born on Jan. 13, 1922, in Wil, Switzerland. His father, Albert, was a hospital nurse and technician, and his mother, the former Regina Vogt, was a homemaker who cleaned houses to earn extra money. Mr. Kumin apprenticed to a local baker at 16 and, after completing his military service, worked at hotel restaurants in Davos, Basel, Winterthur and Zurich. Be- SUZANNE DECHILLO/THE NEW YORK TIMES Albert Kumin in 1988. Endlessly inventive, he worked as a White House chef for a year. cause of wartime shortages, he later recalled, ‘‘you had to work with nothing.’’ Keen to travel, he set sail in 1948 for Canada, where he found a job at the Ritz-Carlton in Montreal. A colleague there, a fellow Swiss named Henry Haller, later became the White House chef and recommended him for the pastry job. Mr. Kumin also worked at the Mount Royal Hotel and the Windsor in Montreal, the Harrison Hot Springs resort in British Columbia and the Chât- eau Lake Louise in Banff, where he met and later married Eva Bold, a farmer’s daughter from Saskatchewan. She died in 2010. In addition to his daughter, he is survived by a sister, Hedy Süter-Kumin, and two grandchildren. When Mr. Baum, of Restaurant Associates, came calling, at the behest of Albert Stöckli, the company’s Swiss-born executive chef, Mr. Kumin packed his ‘‘bible,’’ a thick notebook filled with recipes for every dessert he had ever made, beginning with his apprenticeship, and what he called Excalibur, the sword he used to cut hardened sugar. Thus armed, he proceeded to tantalize the palates of New York diners with desserts like his cherry-accented Rigi kirschtorte at the Four Seasons and mocha dacquoise at Windows on the World. ‘‘You must not taste only sugar,’’ he told The Times in 1979. ‘‘You must taste every ingredient that went into it: the butter, cream, eggs — everything.’’ Astonishingly, he never wrote a cookbook, nor did he articulate a philosophy. He did, however, have a standard. As he told The Post in 1979, ‘‘I am very fussy about the difference between good, very good and delicious.’’ Donald J. Trump has departed from Republican orthodoxy in multiple ways, but his consistently kind words for President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia stand as the most striking. Mr. Trump’s rejection of traditional Republican stances on trade and immigration helped him win the presidential nomination by building a powerful base among blue-collar white voters who feel most aggrieved by economic and cultural change. His embrace of Mr. Putin, however, fits no obvious political strategy. Staunch opposition to Moscow united the Republican Party throughout the Cold War. The collapse of what Ronald Reagan called the Evil Empire only changed so much; four years ago, the Republican nominee, Mitt Romney, described Russia as America’s top geopolitical foe. Nor does Mr. Putin have a significant American constituency. In an NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll from May, just 8 percent of American adults over Mr. Trump’s all, and 8 percent of embrace of Republicans, held a Mr. Putin fits favorable view of the no obvious Russian leader, a political former K.G.B. agent. So when Mr. strategy. Trump praises Mr. Putin, as he did last week, for his ‘‘very strong control over a country,’’ Republican political and policy experts explain it in purely personal terms: Mr. Trump admires the Russian leader’s ruthless use of power, even if it conflicts with American democratic principles. ‘‘He sees a man who, aspirationally, he would like to be like,’’ said Danielle Pletka, who directs foreign and defense policy studies at the conservative American Enterprise Institute. Referring to Mr. Trump, she added: ‘‘His instincts are authoritarian, and dangerous.’’ Peter D. Feaver, a Duke University professor who served on the National Security Council under President George W. Bush, described Mr. Trump’s admiration as ‘‘deeply troubling.’’ He recently joined 49 other Republican foreign policy veterans in a public letter that condemned Mr. Trump for lacking ‘‘basic knowledge about, and belief in, the U.S. Constitution, U.S. laws and U.S. institutions.’’ Mr. Trump has publicly urged Russian hackers, whom American intelligence officials believe broke into Democratic Party computers, to gain access to Hillary Clinton’s email account. He notes that he could team up with Mr. Putin, who ‘‘says great things about me,’’ to wipe out Islamic State terrorists. ‘‘Putin is playing him’’ for his own reasons, Mr. Feaver said. Those reasons, he added, include the Russian leader’s hope that Mr. Trump will weaken NATO, reduce America’s role in global affairs, and leave Moscow a freer hand. Mr. Trump is familiar with Mr. Putin’s country on several fronts: He staged a Miss Universe pageant in Moscow, explored real estate deals there and sold a Florida mansion to a Russian billionaire. Paul Manafort, his former campaign chairman, previously advised Viktor F. Yanukovych, a Ukrainian leader aligned with Russia. Admiring strength comes naturally to some like Mr. Trump in the business world, where executives have greater ability than politicians to get what they want. And strength has increasingly become the Obama-era rallying cry of the Republican Party’s base. Tea Party activists cheered on Republican rebels in Congress for shutting down the government and refusing to raise the debt limit. They ultimately forced the resignation of the speaker of the House of Representatives, John A. Boehner, for seeking compromise with a Democratic president. Ms. Pletka has nothing good to say about the Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, who she says would ‘‘stain the White House.’’ Nevertheless, she finds Mr. Trump’s views on Mr. Putin and other issues so objectionable as to make her ‘‘the lesser of two evils.’’ The question beyond November is whether Mr. Trump’s rise significantly reshapes the views of his party. He calls his policy America First, a phrase with historical echoes of the nativist, isolationist movement that tried to keep the United States out of World War II. ‘‘Is this a return to 1935, or is this an anomaly?’’ Ms. Pletka wondered. ‘‘I don’t think any of us knows the answer.’’ Printed in ATHENS | BALI | BEIRUT | BELGIUM | BIRATNAGAR | DHAKA | DOHA | DUBAI | FINLAND | FRANKFURT | GALLARGUES | HONG KONG | ISLAMABAD | ISTANBUL | JAKARTA | KARACHI | KATHMANDU | KUALA LUMPUR | LAHORE | LONDON | MADRID | MALTA | MANILA | MILAN | NEPALGUNJ NAGOYA | OSAKA | PARIS | SEOUL | SINGAPORE | SYDNEY | TAIPEI | TEL AVIV | TOKYO | U.S. | YANGON • Subscription Inquiries: Europe 00 800 44 48 78 27 (toll-free) Other countries +33 1 41 43 93 61; E-mail email@example.com; Fax +33 1 41 43 92 10 Advertising Inquiries: +33 1 41 43 92 06; Fax +33 1 41 43 92 12 • Printer: Paris Offset Print, 30, rue Raspail, 93120 La Courneuve. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES World News 3 U.N. chief working to seal climate deal WASHINGTON Secretary general wants pact to take effect before U.S. presidential election BY CORAL DAVENPORT GABRIELLA DEMCZUK FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Capt. Humayun Khan’s grave at Arlington National Cemetery has drawn thousands of visitors since his parents appeared at the Democratic National Convention in July. Many leave tokens. Fallen captain’s grave now a rallying spot ARLINGTON, VA. BY NICHOLAS FANDOS Nineteen rows down and 20 to the right. That’s the math Mimi Robinson wanted to know: the distance between her father and Capt. Humayun Khan at Arlington National Cemetery. Like many Americans, she was moved when Captain Khan’s father testified to his son’s values and sacrifice at the Democratic National Convention in July. So, a few days ago, she walked the neatly ordered grounds from the grave site of her father, a member of the Coast Guard who died in 2014, to the marker for Captain Khan. At the foot of the captain’s grave stone, with its Islamic crescent and Purple Heart inscription, she left a handwritten note on a sheet of loose-leaf paper. ‘‘I’ve been thinking about the ways politics and bureaucracy have tainted my love for this country,’’ she wrote. ‘‘But seeing your parents, learning about you — has shown and reminded me of the dignity, love and blessings stitched into the diverse fabric of the United States.’’ Since late July, thousands of people — veterans, relatives of fallen soldiers, even those with no connection to the cemetery — have made their way to Captain Khan’s grave, deep in the cemetery, to bear witness and offer words of support. ‘‘We try to count the messages’’ left behind, Captain Khan’s father, Khizr, said in an interview on Friday. ‘‘We have exhausted number 4,000 and counted on.’’ Captain Khan would have turned 40 on Friday. Khizr Khan and his wife, Ghazala, were too busy that day to visit his grave, but on Saturday, a day before the 15th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, they made the more than twohour drive from their home in Charlottesville, Va., as they had countless other times. The site — Section 60, Grave 7986 — is so frequently visited that tour guides CHET STRANGE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Khizr and Ghazala Khan at their home in Charlottesville, Va. ‘‘We try to count the messages’’ left behind, Mr. Khan said last week. ‘‘We have exhausted number 4,000 and counted on.’’ and other staff members have memorized the grave number so they can offer directions. It has emerged as a kind of organic meeting point, where lives intersect and people like Ms. Robinson come to do that math of proximity and sacrifice, and to make a statement about what Captain Khan’s story adds up to. ‘‘He was a person that put a face to everything good about minority groups in America,’’ Ms. Robinson said in an interview. ‘‘He’s what we all value in this country really deep down. It’s him and it’s other soldiers who don’t have the spotlight like he has right now.’’ Khizr Khan, who in his speech at the Democratic National Convention delivered a blistering denunciation of Donald J. Trump, the Republican presidential nominee, and whose family Mr. Trump later belittled, said the address had offered a reminder that ‘‘certain values are worth fighting for.’’ ‘‘Those values are and remain our values through Captain Humayun Khan’s values: care for others and the good of the nation,’’ he added. Charles Cowherd of Alexandria, Va., whose twin brother, an Army lieutenant, rests in a grave three plots from Captain Khan’s, has been visiting Section 60 since 2004, when his brother was killed in Iraq. Captain Khan died just weeks later, also in Iraq, in a suicide bombing in June at his base. That section of the cemetery contains the remains of many other service members who have died in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Lately, Mr. Cowherd said, he has noticed a difference among the mourners there. ‘‘The composition was a little bit different going to that grave,’’ he said. ‘‘It touched a segment of people that wouldn’t be going there otherwise.’’ Some, he said, are offering a rebuttal to Mr. Trump’s denigration of the Khan family. Mr. Trump, for example, played on religious stereotypes by suggesting that Mr. Khan had not allowed his wife to speak at the convention. ‘‘I think the people going there was a way of drawing distinction and saying that we as Americans support this family and support this fallen soldier, in a way, more’’ because of Mr. Trump’s comments, he said. The letters collected from the grave site end up piled in boxes on the dining room table at the Khans’ home. Slowly, Mr. Khan said, he and his wife are working through them. They read each note and write to thank those who have left return addresses. The stream of visitors to the grave site has subsided somewhat as fall has approached and as Mr. Khan and his wife have returned to something closer to normal life. After a crush of television appearances and media interviews after the convention, they have largely stayed off the air in recent weeks. They now have help from a public relations specialist, Stephanie Cutter, a former aide to President Obama. And Mr. Khan said he had tried to cap the number of speaking invitations he had accepted. But the letters are still coming at Grave 7986, new ones seemingly every day. Jennifer Lynch, a spokeswoman for the cemetery, said the grounds crew removed objects left at gravestones when they became ‘‘unsightly.’’ Along with letters, visitors to Captain Khan’s grave site have left stones and American flags, photographs and laminated prayers, and flowers of almost every color. Friends of the Khans who live in the area make frequent stops to collect the items, for later delivery. When the Khans visit the cemetery, the ritual is different now. Staff members do not question who Mr. Khan is when he forgets his entry pass to drive in. Visitors approach him to introduce themselves. The grave site, too, is no longer the family’s alone. ‘‘If we are standing there at his grave site, of course people begin to gather, and I will greet them and shake their hand, and they often ask to take a picture,’’ Mr. Khan said. ‘‘And then I’ll quietly move back just to take a picture myself.’’ As the United Nations General Assembly converged in New York on Tuesday, Secretary General Ban Ki-moon was using the gathering of world leaders to rush the 2015 Paris climate change accord into legal force this year, hoping to bind all countries to its strictures for at least the next four years — regardless of the outcome of the presidential election in the United States. Mr. Ban’s push to nail down the legal commitments of at least 55 countries to the global agreement comes as Donald J. Trump, the Republican presidential nominee who has called climate change a hoax, rises in the polls. Should Mr. Trump become president before the Paris pact enters into force, he could make good on his vow to withdraw the United States from the agreement — even if President Obama has signed on to it. The absence of the world’s largest economy and second-largest greenhouse gas polluter would cripple the first accord binding nearly every country to actions that would reduce planetwarming pollution. ‘‘There’s a huge amount at stake in whether the United States is in the agreement or not,’’ said Robert C. Orr, dean of the University of Maryland School of Public Policy and a special adviser to Mr. Ban. A withdrawal by the United States would ‘‘create a global diplomatic crisis,’’ he said. Mr. Ban’s push is highly unusual in the typically slow-moving world of complex United Nations accords. Historically, after nations have agreed to large treaties and accords at global summit meetings, years pass before the signatory governments complete the domestic legal and legislative processes required to translate global directives into domestic laws. The comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1996 but has still not entered into force. Experts in international law said they could not think of an example of a major United Nations agreement entering into legal force less than a year after it was finalized. The Paris deal was reached in December. At the time, the diplomats who forged the deal said that their goal was for it to enter into force by 2020. But Mr. Ban has planned a ceremony at the United Nations on Sept. 21, when he hopes to announce that enough countries have ratified the deal, or pledged to ratify it, to ensure it will enter into force before the inauguration of the next American president. To do that, he would need at least 55 countries representing 55 percent of climate-change emissions. ‘‘This would be entry into force in a lightning-quick way, if it happens,’’ said David Waskow, an expert in climate change diplomacy at the World Resources Institute, a Washington research organization. Once the requisite signatures are secured, each country will be legally bound to the deal for at least four years — even if the country’s government does not participate in the accord. That would be enough to keep the United States legally bound to the Paris deal through the first term of a Trump presidency. To date, at least 27 countries representing about 40 percent of global emissions have ratified the deal. But the bulk of those emissions — nearly 40 percent — are produced by two countries, the United States and China. Mr. Obama and President Xi Jinping of China jointly announced their countries’ adoption of the Paris deal this month at a summit meeting in Hangzhou, China. But it is far from certain that Mr. Ban can get enough countries to add up to the 55 percent threshold. No other countries have close to as many carbon emissions as China or the United States. The world’s third-largest carbon polluter, India, which emits about 7 percent of the world’s emissions, has been unclear about its plans to sign on. Although India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, emerged as a important broker of the Paris agreement, many members of his government remain wary of taking the final steps to clinch the deal. Rajendra M. Abhyankar, a former Indian minister of foreign affairs who is now a professor at Indiana University, said, ‘‘While many in our government want to go forward with the terms of the agreement, there is still a feeling that ratifying the agreement would be tying our hands in terms of what we can do economically.’’ ‘‘And from an international point of view, the sense is, why should we sign on if the United States might one day drop out?’’ he said. ‘‘The United States has signed on for now, but what will happen once Trump comes?’’ Another question mark is the European Union, whose 28 member countries together account for about 10 percent of global emissions. Under the Paris agreement, the union has pledged to collectively reduce its emissions 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. But the union cannot legally ratify that pledge until all 28 countries have separately ratified it in their own parlia- JASON SZENES/EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY Secretary General Ban Ki-moon is pushing for legal commitments of at least 55 nations. ments, a process that could take years. The British vote to leave the European Union could further complicate that process. In the face of such difficulties, Mr. Ban has redoubled his diplomatic efforts. In recent weeks, he has met with or telephoned dozens of world leaders, including Mr. Modi, to urge them to complete their ratification of the Paris deal by Sept. 21. At the Chinese summit meeting of the Group of 20 largest industrial economies this month, he pressed the issue with every world leader present, according to aides. He is seeing some success. On Monday, Brazil, which emits about 2 percent of global emissions, announced that it had completed its domestic ratification of the Paris deal. That came as a surprise to many, since Brazil’s climate pledge had been a signature policy of Dilma Rousseff, the country’s recently impeached president. The governments of Canada, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa, which together represent about 5 percent of global emissions, have said they expect to complete or pledge to complete their ratifications this month. The government of Japan, which emits about 3 percent of global emissions, is expected to take up its Paris ratification in a special parliamentary session this fall. Syria calmer but cautious as truce begins, with some violations reported BEIRUT, LEBANON BY ANNE BARNARD AND RICK GLADSTONE A cease-fire in the Syrian civil war, negotiated by Russia and the United States, officially took effect at sundown on Monday after a weekend of intensified fighting and a vow by Syria’s president to retake the entire country. Despite pessimism over how long the cease-fire would last, calm was widely reported after it started at 7 p.m. local time, but there were a few notable exceptions. Less than an hour into the truce, residents in the divided northern city of Aleppo said via text message that a government helicopter had dropped explosive cylinders on a rebel-held district. And in the southern province of Dara’a, a rebel faction said in a statement that it had killed four government soldiers. By midnight, opposition factions had reported 10 violations by government forces. Extensive doubts have been expressed among many entangled in the conflict that the cease-fire, timed to coincide with the start of the Muslim holiday Eid al-Adha, will be respected. Under the terms, if violence is significantly reduced for seven days, the United States and Russia will collaborate on new airstrikes against jihadist militants in Syria, and the Syrian Air Force will be barred from flying over insurgent-held areas. The United States supports an alliance of rebel groups, and Russia supports President Bashar al-Assad. But both countries share an antipathy for Islamic State and Nusra Front fighters who have seized parts of Syria and made it a magnet for jihadists. Under the cease-fire deal, during an initial period, all attacks are to stop except Syrian government attacks on those two jihadist groups. But the public does not know what the United States and Russia have defined as those groups’ territories — the opposition has little trust in the Syrian government or Russia, which have often applied those labels to all of Mr. Assad’s opponents. And government supporters doubt that the opposition groups will distance themselves from the extremists, as the Americans have promised. There was also new confusion in the early hours of the cease-fire: Secretary of State John Kerry said the United States would be able to approve Syrian government strikes, but the State Department reversed those comments less than two hours later. Mr. Assad used the hours before the cease-fire to promise victory in his country’s five-year civil war, punctuating his pledge by visiting a Damascus suburb that rebels surrendered last month. The loss of Daraya, which once symbolized rebel defiance in the face of encirclement and relentless bombing, reflected Mr. Assad’s strengthened position in the conflict since Russia intervened to help him a year ago. An agreement on the cease-fire was reached late Friday in Geneva by Russian and American diplomats, who have been struggling to find a way to reduce violence so that food and medicine can reach civilians. The agreement contains many caveats and unenforceable provisions. Skepticism about its effectiveness runs deepest among the American-backed Syrian opposition groups, which fear that Mr. Assad is now even more entrenched in power. Obama administration officials have also expressed doubts. The White House press secretary, Josh Earnest, said on Monday that the success of the agreement ‘‘places a lot of pressure on Russia to deliver.’’ ‘‘Based on our collective experience here on observing the situation,’’ Mr. MOHAMMED BADRA/EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY Syrian boys receiving care in a field hospital after a strike on the rebel-held city of Douma on the day a cease-fire was to take effect. Government-allied forces were suspected in the attack. Earnest said, ‘‘I think we have some reasons to be skeptical that the Russians are able or are willing to implement the arrangement.’’ ‘‘But,’’ he added, ‘‘we’ll see.’’ The cease-fire is the second negotiat- ed this year by Russia and the United States. The first, reached in February, collapsed within weeks. Mr. Kerry, who finished the cease-fire negotiation in Geneva with Russia’s foreign minister, Sergey V. Lavrov, said some breaches would not surprise him. ‘‘For all the doubts that remain — and there will be challenges in the days to come — this plan has a chance to work,’’ Mr. Kerry said in Washington, describing it as possibly ‘‘the last chance that one has to save a united Syria.’’ A group of 21 rebel groups issued a statement listing deep reservations about and criticisms of the cease-fire deal, but stopping short of rejecting it. Even if the accord reduces the killing in Syria, where by some estimates a half-million people have died since the conflict began in 2011, the prognosis for peace and reconciliation is unclear, Western political analysts said. ‘‘This accord may well save lives, and it’s a gain if for that reason only,’’ Cliff Kupchan, the chairman of the Eurasia Group, a political risk consulting firm in Washington, said in an email. ‘‘But in the end, it’s not likely to have meaningful impact for more than a limited period, or to jump-start a serious political track.’’ Anne Barnard reported from Beirut, and Rick Gladstone from New York. Reporting was contributed by Hwaida Saad from Beirut, Maher Samaan from Paris and Julie Hirschfeld Davis from Washington. 4 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES world news Trump uses opponent’s absence to press his case Republican denounces rival’s charge that many of his backers are bigoted BY ALEXANDER BURNS AND MAGGIE HABERMAN Donald J. Trump has hurled himself into a new effort to reshape the presidential race, scrambling to allay voters’ concerns about his temperament and put Hillary Clinton on the defensive over her critical comments about many of Mr. Trump’s supporters. Though Mr. Trump, the Republican nominee, has largely withheld comment about Mrs. Clinton’s health, showing uncharacteristic restraint after her campaign announced she had pneumonia, he took Mrs. Clinton’s unexpected absence from public view as an opportunity to press his case with ferocity. Among Mr. Trump’s advisers, there is a sense of urgency. With eight weeks left in the race — and just two before his first debate with Mrs. Clinton, the Democratic nominee — Mr. Trump may never again have such a window to make his argument to voters more or less uninterrupted. Without a forceful message and iron discipline heading into the debates, Mr. Trump could struggle mightily to overcome the deeply rooted opposition to his candidacy. An ABC News-Washington Post poll published over the weekend showed Mrs. Clinton with a five-percentage-point edge over Mr. Trump nationally, with six in 10 voters describing Mr. Trump as unqualified and biased against women and minorities. Mr. Trump seized the chance on Monday to turn the charge of intolerance against Mrs. Clinton: Denouncing the allegation that his supporters were bigoted, Mr. Trump argued in a speech in Baltimore that Mrs. Clinton had shown ‘‘contempt’’ for voters by deriding many of his supporters as racist and sexist, calling them a ‘‘basket of deplorables’’ at a fund-raiser on Friday. At a rally on Monday night in North Carolina, Mr. Trump said Mrs. Clinton was running a ‘‘hate-filled and negative campaign.’’ The Trump campaign also announced the support of R. James Woolsey, a former director of the Central Intelligence Agency, to reassure voters of Mr. Trump’s readiness for the presidency. Mr. Trump made no mention of Mrs. Clinton’s health in his campaign speeches. During two television interviews on Monday morning, he said he wished Mrs. Clinton well. He also did DAMON WINTER/THE NEW YORK TIMES Donald J. Trump at a campaign stop in Dundalk, Md., this week. He has scrambled to allay voters’ concerns about his temperament and largely withheld comment about Hillary Clinton’s health. not revive his frequent accusation that Mrs. Clinton lacks the physical strength to be president, though he suggested vaguely that ‘‘something is going on.’’ Instead, he used a speech to the National Guard Association of the United States to defend his supporters at length, arguing that they were right to be concerned about border security and crime and that those concerns did not indicate a hateful view of racial and religious minorities. ‘‘If Hillary Clinton will not retract her comments in full, I don’t see how she can credibly campaign any further,’’ Mr. Trump said, demanding an apology. He claimed that his campaign was doing ‘‘amazingly well with African-Ameri- can and Hispanic workers.’’ But Mr. Trump, who records little support in the polls among racial minorities and educated whites, did not address any of the past remarks that have contributed to his low standing with those groups. He has continued to call for a crackdown on immigrants who are in the country illegally, and has declined to retract his false assertions in the past that President Obama was not born in the United States. Mr. Trump has also not expressed regret for clashing with the family of a slain Muslim Army captain or renounced his proposal to bar Muslims from entering the country. Mrs. Clinton has rebuked Mr. Trump over the last month for what she has called his promotion of racially insensitive messages and policies and his alignment with leaders of the movement known as the alt-right, which is widely seen as holding fringe and racist views. Robert Blizzard, a Republican pollster, said that Mr. Trump appeared to be recovering his footing in the race but that it might be too late for him to change many voters’ longstanding assessment of his character and capabilities. ‘‘Hillary Clinton clearly won the summer, and there’s little doubt Donald Trump dug himself a very deep hole in the aftermath of the nominating conventions,’’ Mr. Blizzard said. ‘‘While Running mate’s illness puts focus on Kaine DAYTON, OHIO BY THOMAS KAPLAN When Hillary Clinton was searching for a running mate, she made clear her top criterion: Her selection needed to be ready to become president ‘‘if something were to happen,’’ as she put it. When she announced Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia as her choice, Mrs. Clinton affirmed that he had passed that test. Now, after Mrs. Clinton had to be helped into a van while departing a Sept. 11 anniversary ceremony on Sunday and the later disclosure that she had been given a pneumonia diagnosis on Friday, Mr. Kaine is coming under a more intense spotlight. When he took questions from reporters on Monday, cable news channels carried the exchange live, a rare level of attention for his candidacy. While everyone — politicians included — gets sick from time to time, the intense focus on Mrs. Clinton’s health brings with it a constitutional reminder: Mr. Kaine is not only a campaign-trail booster, but also a possible president himself. The scrutiny of Mrs. Clinton’s health ‘‘means that Tim Kaine has to step up his game,’’ said Douglas Brinkley, a presidential historian at Rice University. ‘‘He’s such an unknown quantity to the American people that he now has to kind of assume the mantle of what it would be like to have him as commander in chief, not just vice president,’’ Mr. Brinkley said. Nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency during a president’s term, eight because of a death and one because of a resignation. In four of those eight instances, the president was assassinated. In four other cases, the president died of natural causes, most recently in 1945, when Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage and Harry S. Truman became president. A lawyer by training, Mr. Kaine, who served as mayor of Richmond, Va., and as Virginia’s lieutenant governor and governor before winning election to the Senate in 2012, was seen as an appealing pick for Mrs. Clinton in large part because of his résumé and his policy chops. But he is not a well-known figure nationally, even after more than seven weeks as Mrs. Clinton’s running mate. In a CNN/ORC poll conducted this month, 19 percent of voters said they had never heard of Mr. Kaine, and an additional 21 percent said they had no opinion of him. ‘‘So far this has been a presidential Trump is starting to climb out of that hole now, his ability to take advantage of a few bad weeks for Clinton is going to be limited due to enduring views about his judgment, his temperament and his rhetoric toward other ethnicities and women.’’ And Democrats are skeptical that Mr. Trump will be able to reinvent himself by using Mrs. Clinton’s biting comments as a shield. Geoff Garin, a Democratic pollster who advises a pro-Clinton ‘‘super PAC,’’ described an exercise he uses in focus groups, asking voters to write down three words to describe Mr. Trump before the discussion begins. ‘‘People use the word ‘racist’ consistently to describe him,’’ Mr. Garin said. CHRIS STEWART/DAYTON DAILY NEWS, VIA ASSOCIATED PRESS Hillary Clinton’s running mate said he was not feeling added pressure to convince voters he is ready to be president. race that has been heavily focused on the presidential candidates, to an unusual extent,’’ said Joel K. Goldstein, a law professor at St. Louis University who is an expert on the vice presidency. Recalling his own bout with pneumonia, Mr. Goldstein cautioned that ‘‘the fact that somebody has pneumonia doesn’t mean there’s about to be a succession.’’ But he said the episode on Sunday would bring more attention to Mr. Kaine’s suitability to the presidency. ‘‘It should remind people of the importance of the two vice-presidential candidates, and whether they are appropriate presidential successors based on their experience, skill, character and substantive views,’’ he said. As he hopscotches from state to state, Mr. Kaine comes across more as a genial traveling salesman for the ClintonKaine ticket than as a president in waiting. In his speeches, he tends to focus on making a case against Donald J. Trump while talking up Mrs. Clinton. At times, he still expresses shock that he is even on the Democratic ticket, as if he had been plucked from anonymity to embark upon a great adventure. ‘‘I felt like I was Pinocchio turning into a real boy,’’ he told a crowd in Virginia on Friday, recalling when Mrs. Clinton asked him to be her running mate. ‘‘I mean, like, ‘Wow, what? You want me? Are you kidding?’’’ The biggest test of Mr. Kaine’s readiness will come on Oct. 4, when he faces Mr. Trump’s running mate, Gov. Mike Pence of Indiana, in the vice-presidential debate. ‘‘You don’t want a Sarah Palin situation where voters really have doubts about the second person on the ticket,’’ said Julian E. Zelizer, a professor of history and public affairs at Princeton. ‘‘It’s especially true if there are any kinds of concerns about age or health.’’ Mr. Kaine, 58, differs from the man he is hoping to succeed, Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., in that he is a relatively new member of the Senate, not an elder statesman. But Mr. Kaine has made a point of focusing on foreign policy during his time in the Senate, where he serves on the Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees. Speaking to reporters after an event in Dayton on Monday, Mr. Kaine said he did not think the new episode involving Mrs. Clinton’s health put any more pressure on him to convince voters he is ready to be president. Even before the latest incident, Mr. Kaine had tried to defend Mrs. Clinton against questions about her health, while also calling on Mr. Trump, who had accused Mrs. Clinton of lacking stamina, to be more forthcoming about his own health. Two weeks ago, Mr. Kaine mocked the letter from a doctor for Mr. Trump that asserted the candidate would be ‘‘the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency,’’ while he also declared Mrs. Clinton to be ‘‘one tough and one healthy person.’’ And as he campaigned here on Monday, he offered fresh testimony about Mrs. Clinton’s physical well-being. ‘‘I’ve just been on the campaign since July 22,’’ Mr. Kaine told the crowd. ‘‘Hillary Clinton has been on the campaign trail for 18 months. Her energy staggers me. I have a hard time keeping up with her.’’ Nick Corasaniti contributed reporting. ONLINE: ELECTION 2016 Hillary Clinton’s stumble is a fleeting moment that, like so much of her campaign, is impossible to separate from history. nytimes.com/magazine Mrs. Clinton is being treated for pneumonia, which can become serious or even fatal if it is not properly addressed, doctors said. nytimes.com/politics Clinton set back by call to keep pneumonia secret CLINTON, FROM PAGE 1 Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia on Monday in Ohio. Hillary Clinton’s illness brings the reminder that Mr. Kaine is a possible president himself. ‘‘But they also talk about him as a dangerous egomaniac.’’ Still, on a conference call with top supporters Monday, advisers to Mr. Trump spoke of Mrs. Clinton’s turbulent stretch as a source of relief: For the first time in a while, they said, they were starting the week on offense, according to people who participated in the call who spoke on the condition of anonymity about a private discussion. Campaign surrogates were told to hammer Mrs. Clinton for her description of Trump voters and to say as little as possible about her pneumonia diagnosis. Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, a retired Army officer who advises Mr. Trump, said there was optimism in the campaign that the momentum of the race had ‘‘totally shifted in Mr. Trump’s favor.’’ He predicted that voters would see a distinction between ‘‘a guy who made all kinds of comments as he was fighting to win the primaries’’ and the Donald Trump of the general election. Mr. Trump has taken other steps in recent days to steady his candidacy, moving to shore up his campaign in crucial swing states. With Mrs. Clinton holding a daunting advantage on the Electoral College map, Mr. Trump aimed a new television campaign at the four most critical states for his candidacy: Pennsylvania, Florida, Ohio and North Carolina. He has given his aides greater leeway in directing his television advertising, allowing the campaign to focus on that smaller cluster of states, a change from as recently as two weeks ago, when Mr. Trump was personally choosing where to run television ads, according to two people briefed on the Trump operation. Mr. Trump also removed the head of his Florida operation last week, replacing her with Susie Wiles, a veteran Republican operative close to Gov. Rick Scott. And Corey Lewandowski, Mr. Trump’s former campaign manager, who is still a trusted adviser, has visited New Hampshire in recent weeks, meeting with senior Republicans there and making suggestions on spending and strategy decisions in the state, two people familiar with his activities said. more details about her physical fitness and medical history this week, a concession to the political pressure that she is under because she chose not to reveal her diagnosis sooner. But the manner in which Mrs. Clinton’s illness became public has also revived concerns among supporters, and criticism among detractors, about her seemingly reflexive tendency to hunker down, often citing a ‘‘zone of privacy,’’ when she senses a political threat. Her desire for tight control over personal information deepened during the partisan wars of the 1990s, influenced her use of a private email server as secretary of state and now threatens to make her look, again, as though she has something to hide. ‘‘Usually you would think that the truth sets you free, but in the experiences that Hillary Clinton has lived through, that’s not necessarily accurate,’’ said Jay Jacobs, a Democratic Party leader in New York and close ally of the Clintons. Referring to 1990s investigations of the Clintons, he said: ‘‘Whether it’s Whitewater or Travelgate or other things, when the facts came out, it still didn’t solve the problem. They did nothing wrong, but there was still controversy. She is a very private person, and she would rather not put out information that she did not feel needed to be shared.’’ The new onslaught of questions about her health and medical records has been deeply frustrating to Mrs. Clinton and her team, who have sought to highlight the disparity between her and Mr. Trump over issues of transparency. Mrs. Clinton has released her tax returns, while Mr. Trump has not. She has provided exhaustive details about her policy proposals, while he has not. And she released considerably more medical information last year — in a letter from her physician, Dr. Lisa R. Bardack — than Mr. Trump did in his doctor’s letter, which contained little more than overthe-top boasts about his ‘‘strength and stamina.’’ Yet as much as they want the pressure to be on Mr. Trump, Mrs. Clinton and her advisers are now on the defensive. ‘‘She has been totally transparent on the important issues, including public policy ideas, far more than Trump,’’ said former Representative Barney Frank of Massachusetts, a longtime ally of Mrs. Clinton’s. ‘‘But there’s also a combination of a natural desire for privacy and the fear that information will be politically misused.’’ Mrs. Clinton has long relied on a tightknit, intensely loyal group of aides who share her instincts for political warfare and her skepticism and even hostility toward calls for fuller disclosure. Her campaign manager, Robby Mook, said Mrs. Clinton had not wanted her illness to deter her. ‘‘She just wanted to plow through it,’’ he told MSNBC, ‘‘and I think that’s part of what’s going to make her a great president.’’ Most voters have not been moved by questions about Mrs. Clinton’s health: 74 percent of registered voters said they were unconcerned about her being healthy enough to carry out the job of president, a Fox News poll last month found. But trustworthiness is a glaring problem for Mrs. Clinton. Roughly six in 10 voters said they did not trust her, about the same percentage who said they distrusted Mr. Trump, according to a Washington Post/ABC News poll released last week. Mrs. Clinton had several opportunities before Sunday to disclose that she had pneumonia, including one at a news conference on Friday where she discussed her plans to defeat the Islamic State, called for a rethinking of the Obama administration’s approach to North Korea and ridiculed Mr. Trump’s praise for the Russian president, Vladimir V. Putin. (At a fund-raiser that night, Mrs. Clinton, known for more calibrated phrasings, loosely suggested that half of Mr. Trump’s supporters fell into a ‘‘basket of deplorables’’ — bigots of one kind or another, essentially. She apologized the next day.) On Sunday morning, when reporters learned that Mrs. Clinton had departed early from a ceremony in Lower Manhattan for the 15th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, a campaign aide said only that she had been ‘‘overheated.’’ It was not until more than five hours after the startling video surfaced online, showing an ailing Mrs. Clinton being helped into a van, that her campaign released a statement from Dr. Bardack saying Mrs. Clinton had been told she had pneumonia and put on antibiotics. The events quickly intensified pressure on both Mrs. Clinton, 68, and Mr. Trump, 70, to be more forthcoming about their health and medical histories. Mr. Trump has said he will release more medical information this week. Mrs. Clinton does not plan to return to the campaign trail until Thursday at the earliest, advisers said. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 5 world news Joint push for sanctions against North Korea Lawmaker ousted from Brazilian Congress SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA BY CHOE SANG-HUN The United States and South Korea vowed on Tuesday to push for the ‘‘strongest possible’’ resolution at the United Nations Security Council, including new sanctions and the removal of existing loopholes, to punish North Korea for its latest nuclear test. The top American and South Korean envoys on North Korea expressed their resolve during a news conference in Seoul, the South’s capital, on Tuesday, speaking shortly after two nuclear-capable supersonic bombers from the United States Air Force base in Guam streaked over the South in a show of force. The flight by the B-1B bombers demonstrated the United States’ commitment to providing ‘‘extended deterrence,’’ including the threat of using nuclear weapons, to protect the South, said Gen. Vincent K. Brooks, the top American military commander in the country. It was also intended to help counter calls among nationalist politicians and scholars here who contend that the South must arm itself with nuclear weapons. On Tuesday, Sung Kim, Washington’s top official dealing with North Korea, and his South Korean counterpart, Kim Hong-kyun, reiterated that the South did not need to build its own nuclear bombs or to reintroduce American tactical atomic bombs that were withdrawn in the early 1990s. Their intention was ‘‘to secure the strongest possible resolution that includes new sanctions as quickly as possible,’’ Sung Kim said, declining to elaborate on how China, the North’s main ally on the Security Council, would respond. ‘‘The situation requires a swift and strong international response.’’ Kim Hong-kyun said such a resolution would seek to ‘‘close the loopholes’’ in the existing sanctions as well as to place ‘‘pressure on North Korea from all directions so that it will no longer be able to operate normally in the international community.’’ Washington and Seoul insisted on sanctions as the only option until North Korea agreed to return to the negotiating table with a commitment to abandoning nuclear weapons. But the nuclear test on Friday, the most powerful by the North to date, and its recent flurry of missile tests showed that despite years of sanctions, the country was advancing toward its proclaimed goal of fitting its ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. Cameron quits seat in British Parliament LONDON BY STEPHEN CASTLE The post is ancient, and the duties are light (nonexistent, actually). But in order to step down from his seat in the House of Commons, David Cameron, the former prime minister of Britain, had to take on another position on Monday: Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead. Under arcane parliamentary rules, normally referred to as ‘‘taking the Chiltern Hundreds,’’ the purely symbolic appointment provides a legal escape hatch from the House of Commons by disqualifying lawmakers from holding their seats. Embracing the role has helped many lawmakers bring down the curtain on their careers without waiting for the next election. In this case, it is formally closing out a political rise and fall defined by Mr. Cameron’s decision to stage a referendum on European Union membership. Mr. Cameron resigned as prime minister in June after failing to persuade Britons to vote to remain inside the bloc. The announcement on Monday means that he will also give up his parliamentary seat in Witney, Oxfordshire. The seat will be filled by a special election. ‘‘In my view, with modern politics, with the circumstances of my resignation, it isn’t really possible to be a proper backbench M.P. as a former prime minister,’’ Mr. Cameron told ITV News, using the abbreviation for member of Parliament. ‘‘I think everything you do will become a big distraction and a big diversion from what the government needs to do for our country.’’ Mr. Cameron, 49, had a swift rise through the ranks of British politics. He won his seat in Parliament in 2001 and became Conservative Party leader in 2005 and prime minister in 2010, at the head of a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. His administration faced the formidable task of stabilizing the economy after the financial crisis, making cuts to public spending in the process. Among the biggest changes ushered in by his government was the legalization of same-sex marriage. In the 2015 general election, Mr. Cameron led the Conservatives to an outright majority in the House of Commons, but he had little time to enjoy that victory, having promised in 2013 to hold a referendum on leaving the European Union by the end of 2017. Mr. Cameron favored remaining in Europe, and when he lost the referendum, his position as prime minister became untenable. RIO DE JANEIRO Conservative who led impeachment of Rousseff is facing graft charges BY SIMON ROMERO KIM HONG-JI/REUTERS A United States Air Force B-1B bomber flying over Pyeongtaek, South Korea, on Tuesday. Two of the bombers were sent from Guam as a sign of American commitment to ‘‘extended deterrence.’’ The Security Council in March adopted, with Chinese support, what Washington and Seoul said was the strongest and most effective sanctions resolution ever against North Korea, after its fourth nuclear test in January and its launch of a long-range rocket the next month. Like the previous resolutions, it sought to undermine the North’s ability to raise hard currency to finance its banned weapons activities. The resolution called for inspecting all cargo going in and out of the country, banning all weapons trade and expanding the list of individuals facing sanctions. But critics identified significant loopholes. North Korea was still able to buy oil and sell its coal and iron ore, as long as it was not used to finance the country’s nuclear weapons program — an activity that would be difficult to prove. Coal and iron ore are North Korea’s biggest exports to China, which remains the country’s last remaining major trade partner and whose vigorous enforcement is crucial to the success of any sanctions. But Beijing prefers keeping a nuclear-armed North Korea afloat as a buffer against the South and the United States, Seoul’s military ally, to risking the collapse of the North’s government with too-severe enforcement of sanctions, analysts say. The recent statistics on trade between China and North Korea, as well as news reports from their border, indicate that the Chinese still allow a boom- ing network of trade and smuggling across their 870-mile frontier. The resolution in March also did not affect tens of thousands of North Koreans employed in factories, construction projects and logging camps in Africa, China, the Middle East and Russia. Such workers send home $200 million to $300 million a year, most of which, human rights groups contend, ends up in the coffers of the North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un. The resolution also did not affect North Korean factories making clothes on contract for Chinese companies. Washington and Seoul said on Tuesday that they would also try to enforce new bilateral sanctions against North Korea. But both have so few trade and other transactions there that their actions would be largely symbolic, analysts said. Siegfried S. Hecker, an American nuclear expert at Stanford University, said the latest nuclear test by the North must be viewed with great concern, given what he called its growing ability to secure nuclear bomb fuel. North Korea’s capacity to produce plutonium remains limited to 13 pounds, or approximately one bomb’s worth, a year, he wrote in a paper posted on the website 38 North, which focuses on the country. While the nation’s capacity to produce highly enriched uranium, an alternative bomb fuel, remained highly uncertain, he said the North could add 330 pounds of it, about six bombs’ worth, a year to a current stockpile of perhaps 660 pounds to 880 pounds. Brazil’s lower house of Congress voted overwhelmingly late Monday night to expel the conservative lawmaker who led the charge to oust Dilma Rousseff, Brazil’s former president, reflecting how on edge the country’s political class remains over colossal corruption scandals. The chamber voted 450 to 10 to strip the lawmaker, Eduardo Cunha, of his seat as he faces a trial on graft charges. As a result, Mr. Cunha, 57, an evangelical Christian radio commentator who was the speaker of the lower house, loses the broad legal privileges that normally protect federal legislators from imprisonment. The expulsion of Mr. Cunha from the chamber he once deftly commanded, ranking him among Brazil’s most powerful politicians just a few months ago, shows that the political turmoil is far from settled. The new administration of President Michel Temer, the former vice president who broke with Ms. Rousseff, is grappling with low approval ratings, street protests and claims that it is trying to stifle corruption inquiries. Mr. Cunha faces an array of corruption charges, making him a symbol of the widespread graft and impunity in Brazil’s political system. Federal investigators say he took as much as $40 million in bribes, laundering the money through an evangelical megachurch while squirreling away millions in Swiss bank accounts. ‘‘It’s not me who says that Cunha is a criminal,’’ said Jean Wyllys, a socially liberal lawmaker who is among Mr. Cunha’s most prominent opponents. ‘‘It’s the prosecutor general of the republic in his indictment. And I agree with it.’’ ERALDO PERES/ASSOCIATED PRESS Eduardo Cunha increasingly found himself shunned by his colleagues in Congress. After losing the vote, Mr. Cunha is expected to be made ineligible to run for office for eight years. Even as he battled bribery charges, Mr. Cunha was arguably the top ally of Mr. Temer in seeking to impeach Ms. Rousseff on charges of manipulating the federal budget to conceal economic problems. Unlike Mr. Cunha and dozens of others in Congress who maneuvered to drive her from office, Ms. Rousseff remains rare among senior political figures in that she has not been accused of illegally enriching herself. Mr. Cunha, who frequently quotes from the Bible on social media, has repeatedly insisted that he is innocent. But as a prominent member of Mr. Temer’s centrist Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, which is plagued by various other graft scandals, Mr. Cunha steadily found himself shunned by his fellow lawmakers in the capital, Brasília. Various legislators in the lower house vented their ire against Mr. Cunha on Monday night. Clarissa Garotinho, a lawmaker from Rio de Janeiro, called him a ‘‘psychopath to the point of believing his own lies.’’ Investigators raised pressure on Mr. Cunha by charging his wife, Cláudia Cruz, a former journalist, in the corruption case after evidence showed that a secret Swiss bank account linked to Mr. Cunha was in her name. Prosecutors found that the couple had used their holdings for tennis lessons in Florida, jaunts to luxury hotels in Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, and in Paris, and shopping sprees at Giorgio Armani and Ermenegildo Zegna boutiques. Ms. Cruz, 49, said over the weekend that she was not afraid of going to prison if she is convicted of corruption charges. ‘‘I didn’t do anything for which I should be jailed,’’ she told the SBT television network, contending that investigators had invaded her privacy. Brazil’s Supreme Court dealt a blow to Mr. Cunha in May when it removed him from his daily duties as speaker of the lower house. Still, he continued to influence the workings of the chamber behind the scenes, defiantly remaining in a palatial residence paid for by taxpayers. After he resigned as speaker in July, Mr. Cunha vowed to keep fighting to clear his name and remain in the political arena. ‘‘Politics is the only activity where you can die and be resuscitated numerous times,’’ he told reporters in recent days. ‘‘I’ve lived through many things, seen a lot of things. This is like a seesaw. It doesn’t worry me.’’ Paula Moura contributed reporting from São Paulo, Brazil. 6 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES world news Delayed Zika results fuel anxiety in Florida MIAMI Pregnant women take up state’s free test offer but then face a wait of weeks Netanyahu criticized for provocative online video JERUSALEM BY LIZETTE ALVAREZ So many pregnant women have taken advantage of Florida’s offer of free Zika testing that state laboratories have been unable to keep pace, doctors and patients say, leading to long delays for women anxious to know whether the virus has passed to their fetuses. The delays began with a well-intentioned and much-applauded offer. On Aug. 3, Gov. Rick Scott announced that the state would provide the costly Zika tests to all pregnant women, a move intended to quell fears and allow low-income or uninsured women to be tested. Babies infected with Zika can be born with microcephaly, a devastating brain malformation, or with eye and ear defects. ‘‘We’re ramping that up across the entire state,’’ Mr. Scott said at the time. But hundreds of women in MiamiDade County, where Zika is spreading, have been waiting weeks for state results on the same kinds of tests that private laboratories are turning around in three to seven days, doctors said. For some women, the delays could complicate already distressing decisions about whether to terminate their pregnancies if they test positive. Florida forbids abortions after 24 weeks. State health officials declined to say how many tests had been done, provide a reason for the delay or explain how they planned to remedy it. But doctors and researchers attributed some of the delay to a lack of resources, with not enough staff members to analyze the test results. Acknowledging the delays, Dr. Lillian Rivera, the Florida Health Department administrator for Miami-Dade County, told a panel of Zika experts from the University of Miami last week that the reasons were complicated. Sometimes, she said, ‘‘tests are done and have been delivered, and sometimes there are bureaucratic reasons; they are in someone’s computer or fax machine.’’ The state has contracts for some of the work with two major private laboratories, LabCorp and Quest Diagnostics, she said. In a small number of Florida cases, the long wait can be traced to a final cumbersome test that must be analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or an approved laboratory to confirm the presence of the virus. For many women, the delays have added to the stress of pregnancy. ‘‘It worries me because I just want to know and I want to make sure the baby is healthy and everything is O.K.,’’ said Aileen Perez, 31, a nurse practitioner who is 20 weeks pregnant and has been waiting nearly five weeks for her results. Ms. Perez, though, said she was confident that her results would come back negative because she had been very careful — wearing long sleeves, applying repellent and staying indoors as much as possible. The Health Department said in a Fire at mosque where Orlando killer worshiped BY CHRISTINE HAUSER AND ALAN BLINDER The members of the Islamic Center of Fort Pierce had broken their fasts and left the mosque near Florida’s eastern shoreline. In the waning minutes of Sunday, less than an hour later, a surveillance camera recorded a man as he approached the mosque. Then came a flash as flames damaged the house of worship where the man who attacked an Orlando, Fla., nightclub often prayed. The authorities, including the F.B.I. and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, were investigating the fire as a potential hate crime, even as officials cautioned that they remained uncertain about the motive. The blaze occurred on the 15th anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks and nearly three months after Omar Mateen opened fire at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando. It also happened around the beginning of Eid al-Adha, a Muslim holiday. No one was injured in the attack. A spokesman for the St. Lucie County Sheriff’s Office, Bryan Beaty, declined to discuss whether Mr. Mateen’s ties to the mosque might have prompted the fire. The Sunni mosque has drawn attention as a place where young men who staged attacks had worshiped. In addition to Mr. Mateen, who was killed during the siege at Pulse, which left 49 other people dead, the Islamic Center was a frequent stop for Moner Mohammad Abusalha, who carried out a 2014 suicide bombing in Syria. In June, the Islamic Center’s imam, Syed Shafeeq Rahman, distanced himself and the mosque from Mr. Mateen. ‘‘There is nothing that he is hearing from me to do killing, to do bloodshed, to do anything, because we never talk like that,’’ the imam said of Mr. Mateen. Israel’s prime minister alleges that Palestinians support ethnic cleansing BY ISABEL KERSHNER JOSHUA PREZANT FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Unique Robinson, who is pregnant, being tested for the Zika virus in Hollywood, Fla. Long waits for test results can complicate decisions including whether to terminate their pregnancies. ‘‘It worries me because I just want to know and I want to make sure the baby is healthy and everything is O.K.’’ statement that more than 6,649 people had been tested for Zika statewide as of Monday. So far, 86 pregnant women in the state have tested positive. In all, 771 Florida residents have tested positive for the virus; most were infected while traveling abroad. The long waits for pregnant women in Florida come as Congress continues to argue over a bill that would inject $1.1 billion into efforts to prevent Zika, test for the virus and develop a vaccine. Congress left for its August recess after the bill stalled in the House as Republicans and Democrats clashed over a measure that would exclude Planned Parenthood from the list of providers designated to combat the virus. Some doctors worry that the backlog could get worse. Doctors recommend that pregnant women receive a Zika test every trimester, and obstetricians in Miami-Dade County say that many of their patients will soon need to be retested without knowing the initial results. Dr. Christine Curry, an obstetrician at the University of Miami Health System, which is a partner with Miami’s only public hospital, and a director of the university’s Zika response team, said she had 400 pregnant patients who were waiting for results, some for as long as six weeks. Doctors and pathologists are urging that Florida increase the number of tests they are sending to private labs to be processed, which would take some of the pressure off the state. ‘‘Anyone waiting four weeks, who is pregnant, that is a really long time,’’ Dr. Curry said. ‘‘It’s really stressful for them. The first ones we tested were in August, and they came back for the next appointment saying, ‘Where is my test result?’’’ Dr. Curry said the governor’s offer was significant because it gave low-income pregnant women or uninsured women a chance to be tested, but she said the state had not been able to cope with the numbers rushing to be tested. Private tests range from $120 to $750. Mr. Scott’s offer was ‘‘awesome,’’ Dr. Curry said, ‘‘but a mandate without resources is hollow.’’ In her office at Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami’s largest public hospital, the number of women seeking the test rose from one or two a day to 10 or 20 a day, or more, she said. Dr. Ellen Schwartzbard, an obstetri- cian at South Miami Hospital, said she had encountered similar problems. While most of her patients choose to go to private labs, 20 of the women who relied on free public testing are waiting for results four weeks later. ‘‘There is definitely a level of frustration,’’ she said. ‘‘This lag time of four to five weeks can impact the patients’ decisions to terminate the pregnancy because now they are further along in their pregnancies. Unfortunately, there is no control over the situation.’’ Pathologists said the backlog had grown tremendously, raising fears that if locally acquired Zika cases spread to other counties in Florida, the wait would grow considerably. Dr. David M. Anderson, the medical director of Pathology Laboratories at Jackson Memorial Hospital, said the hospital was waiting for the results of 800 to 900 specimens tested for Zika. Part of the backlog stems from the cumbersome testing process. Most people must undergo a series of tests to either rule out or confirm they have the virus. There is no one simple diagnostic test that does this, a complaint of doctors and researchers who are pushing for funding to develop a simpler, less costly kind of antibody test. The first blood or urine test, the PCR, is relatively straightforward but is ef- fective only if a person currently has the infection, which stays in the body for about two weeks. A negative result requires a patient to move on to an antibody test called IgM, which can show if someone has had the virus in the last 12 weeks. Both of those tests take only hours to process, and private labs have a turnaround time of a week or less. Quest plans to offer the IgM test, which LabCorp already offers, in the next few weeks. But if someone tests positive on the antibody test — and many do not — a more complicated antibody test typically follows, one that is conducted only by the C.D.C. or a C.D.C.-approved lab. This test pinpoints whether the antibody is related to Zika, and not dengue or Chikungunya. If the test is sent from an outside lab, it can take as long as five weeks to confirm results and deliver them because the test is complicated, said a C.D.C. spokesman, Benjamin Haynes. Mr. Haynes said there was no backlog for this kind of testing at the C.D.C. The C.D.C. has performed the antibody test this year on 3,500 samples, all but a few from the United States mainland. Some are from Puerto Rico. ‘‘Faster and better diagnostics is high on the list’’ of priorities, said Dr. Rivera, the Health Department administrator. Goalball players must listen hard to make catch PARALYMPICS, FROM PAGE 1 crouch to dive in front of the ball. When teams play Lithuania and Pavliukianec, those cues arrive just a bit faster. Through Monday’s games, including Lithuania’s 9-6 win over China, Pavliukianec had scored 19 goals. No one else had more than 13. He was replaced after 15 minutes — matches last 24 — in an opening 13-6 victory against Finland, presumably out of mercy; Pavliukianec had scored seven of Lithuania’s first 10 goals. Two days later, on Saturday, he added six against the United States, including the decisive tally with just over two minutes remaining in an 8-7 thriller. ‘‘I don’t do rankings of the players,’’ Lithuania’s coach, Karolis Levickis, said through an interpreter when asked to assess Pavliukianec’s place in the sport. ‘‘But it’s like a card game. Each player is like a different card, and he is the highest card.’’ Goalball has a small but devoted following in Lithuania, where Pavliukianec and his teammates train in a high school gym. It has a court, complete with raised lines that notify players where they are, that has been adapted for goalball, which emerged from the darkness of World War II as equal parts rehabilitation and pastime for visually impaired veterans in Europe. It has since spread to all corners of the world, from Oman to Venezuela, Malaysia to Belgium, though Lithuania’s status as a power has not wavered. Most elite nations, United States Coach Mike Lege said, have one standout player. For almost two decades, that player for Lithuania has been Pavliukianec, 40, who has won two Paralympic silver medals — in 2000 in Sydney and in 2008 in Beijing — but covets the gold that has eluded him. At Future Arena on Saturday, the boisterous Brazilian spectators urged Pavliukianec on, chanting his name during breaks in action — and only then. Since players need total silence to pick up their auditory cues during competition, noise is strictly prohibited while the ball is in play. LIANNE MILTON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Mantas Brazauskis of Lithuania, center, making a block in the second half of a goalball match at the 2016 Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro. The pace is fast. From the time a ball makes contact with the defense, a team has only 10 seconds to shoot. Pavliukianec plays on the left wing, where he likes to fire crosscourt shots, hard and low, into the far corner. Even if they make a save, his teammates tend to give the ball back to Pavliukianec. Against the United States, he took 53 of Lithuania’s 92 shots, and all four of its penalties. Unlike some players who rotate their whole bodies before unleashing the ball, as if throwing a discus, Pavliukianec takes a few short steps, then does a quarter-turn, generating tremendous torque. Levickis was reluctant to discuss Pavliukianec’s technique other than to compare it to that of a javelin thrower, who runs to gather momentum before releasing the javelin. ‘‘It’s a gift,’’ Levickis said. Speaking through an interpreter, Pavliukianec deflected most questions about himself. He said he did not think he had played well against the Americans. He said that he had a friendly relationship with some opponents, especially those from Ukraine and Finland, but that no one had ever commented on his velocity. As to how he polished that skill, he said: ‘‘There’s nothing very special. Just training.’’ Pavliukianec has been just training since 1991, he said, when he learned to play goalball at a school for the visually impaired. The game changed his life, but it is not a full-time job. A technical guru, he works with audiobooks. In his spare time, he likes crafting objects from wood. Usually that means toys for his daughter, but recently he constructed a table and benches. It should come as no surprise that he did it fast, he did it accurately and he did it well. In the absence of any prospect of peace with the Palestinians, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel has started a video war. His latest, and so far the most provocative, two-minute video in a recent series is titled ‘‘No Jews.’’ In the video, Mr. Netanyahu accuses the Palestinian leadership of demanding a Jew-free Palestinian state by opposing Israeli settlements in the West Bank. He adds, ‘‘There’s a phrase for that: It’s called ethnic cleansing.’’ A storm of international and domestic criticism followed the release of the video on Friday, with some calling Mr. Netanyahu’s arguments divisive and delusional. The American State Department described the language in the video as ‘‘inappropriate and unhelpful’’ and said it had taken the issue directly to the Israeli government. But many have cheered for him, saying Mr. Netanyahu is exposing the hypocrisy of Israel’s detractors, whose concern for human rights, they feel, seems to apply only to the Palestinians. Days after the release of the video, Israelis and Palestinians were still debating the effects of Mr. Netanyahu’s ‘‘hasbara’’ offensive, using a Hebrew term for pro-Israeli advocacy. Was Mr. Netanyahu destroying Israel’s international relations, ties already strained over the continued settlement construction in the Israeli-occupied West Bank that much of the world considers illegitimate? Or was he a public relations genius, using the world stage to score points with his home audience? ‘‘There is something ridiculous about Netanyahu’s claim against ‘ethnic cleansing of Jews,’’’ Ben-Dror Yemini, a political columnist often critical of Israel’s opponents, wrote in Monday’s edition of the newspaper Yediot Aharonot. Mr. Yemini wrote that population transfers were historically intended to ensure the right of self-determination and to establish nation states. He maintained that Mr. Netanyahu had turned that concept on its head. Israelis settling in the heart of Arab-populated areas of the West Bank were, he wrote, ‘‘the antithesis of the idea of self-determination and a Jewish and democratic nation state, because instead of separation there is a mix-up of hostile populations.’’ Xavier Abu Eid, an adviser to the Pal- ‘‘Inappropriate and unhelpful.’’ estine Liberation Organization in the West Bank, said, ‘‘We are not against people of any religion living in the state of Palestine.’’ He described Mr. Netanyahu’s use of the ‘‘religion card’’ as dangerous, adding, ‘‘There is a difference between settlers living in exclusive communities on stolen land and someone who is living in the country as a citizen like anybody else.’’ Mr. Abu Eid said that some American and Israeli Jews were already living in areas of the West Bank under Palestinian control. He said that his neighbors in Ramallah included Christians, Muslims, a Druse family from Golan Heights and a Jewish woman. The Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, in his greeting late Sunday for Eid al-Adha, the Muslim holiday, accused Israel of its own ethnic cleansing. He has made that claim before, including at the United Nations. Mr. Netanyahu’s latest video, recorded in English with versions that have Hebrew or Arabic subtitles, already has more than a million views between his Facebook page and the Facebook page of the Israeli prime minister’s office, and even more through other social networks and news media coverage. ‘‘The prime minister is twinning his powerful message with powerful technology to spread the truth farther and faster,’’ said David Keyes, Mr. Netanyahu’s recently appointed foreign media adviser. Answering questions by WhatsApp, Mr. Keyes, who is credited with orchestrating the video campaign, said the eight videos produced so far had over 42 million views. He added that Mr. Netanyahu has been making the same points raised in the video for decades, including in his book, ‘‘A Durable Peace.’’ Many Israelis were baffled by the timing of the video, given that Israel and the United States are close to signing a significant new aid package. In response to this concern, Mr. Keyes said, ‘‘Is there a bad time to criticize ethnic cleansing?’’ Mr. Keyes did not answer a question about the status the prime minister envisioned for Jews living in a future Palestinian state: as Palestinian citizens or Israeli citizens under military protection. Israeli analysts have described the videos as an attempt by Mr. Netanyahu to distract Israelis from his slipping popularity and the police inquiries plaguing him and his family. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 7 world news In 1960s, advocates of sugar shifted blame to fat SUGAR, FROM PAGE 1 search activities,’’ the Sugar Association statement said. Even so, it defended industry-funded research as playing an important and informative role in scientific debate. It said that several decades of research had concluded that sugar ‘‘does not have a unique role in heart disease.’’ The revelations are important because the debate about the relative harms of sugar and saturated fat continues today, Dr. Glantz said. For many decades, health officials encouraged Americans to reduce their fat intake, which led many people to consume lowfat, high-sugar foods that some experts now blame for fueling the obesity crisis. ‘‘It was a very smart thing the sugar industry did, because review papers, especially if you get them published in a very prominent journal, tend to shape the overall scientific discussion,’’ he said. Dr. Hegsted used his research to influence the government’s dietary recommendations, which emphasized saturated fat as a driver of heart disease while largely characterizing sugar as empty calories linked to tooth decay. Today, the saturated fat warnings remain a cornerstone of the government’s dietary guidelines, though in recent years the American Heart Association, the World Health Organization and other health authorities have also begun to warn that too much added sugar may increase cardiovascular disease risk. Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University, wrote an editorial accompanying the new paper in which she said the documents provided ‘‘compelling evidence’’ that the sugar industry had initiated research ‘‘expressly to exonerate sugar as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease.’’ ‘‘I think it’s appalling,’’ she said. ‘‘You just never see examples that are this blatant.’’ ‘‘Review papers, especially if you get them published in a very prominent journal, tend to shape the overall scientific discussion.’’ Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said that academic conflict-of-interest rules had changed significantly since the 1960s but that the industry papers were a reminder of ‘‘why research should be supported by public funding rather than depending on industry funding.’’ Dr. Willett said the researchers had limited data to assess the relative risks of sugar and fat. ‘‘Given the data that we have today, we have shown the refined carbohydrates and especially sugarsweetened beverages are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but that the type of dietary fat is also very important,’’ he said. The JAMA paper relied on thousands of pages of correspondence and other documents that Cristin E. Kearns, a postdoctoral fellow at U.C.S.F., discovered in archives at Harvard, the University of Illinois and other libraries. The documents show that in 1964, John Hickson, a top sugar industry executive, discussed a plan with others in the industry to shift public opinion ‘‘through our research and information and legislative programs.’’ At the time, studies had begun pointing to a relationship between high-sugar diets and the country’s high rates of heart disease. At the same time, other scientists, including the prominent Minnesota physiologist Ancel Keys, were investigating a competing theory that it was saturated fat and dietary cholesterol that posed the biggest risk for heart disease. Mr. Hickson proposed countering the alarming findings on sugar with industry-funded research. ‘‘Then we can publish the data and refute our detractors,’’ he wrote. In 1965, Mr. Hickson enlisted the Harvard researchers to write a review that would debunk the anti-sugar studies. He paid them a total of $6,500, the equivalent of $49,000 today. Mr. Hickson selected the papers for them to review and made it clear he wanted the result to favor sugar. Harvard’s Dr. Hegsted reassured the sugar executives. ‘‘We are well aware of your particular interest,’’ he wrote, ‘‘and will cover this as well as we can.’’ As they worked on their review, the Harvard researchers shared and discussed early drafts with Mr. Hickson, who responded that he was pleased with what they were writing. The Harvard scientists had dismissed the data on sugar as weak and given far more credence to the data implicating saturated fat. ‘‘Let me assure you this is quite what we had in mind, and we look forward to its appearance in print,’’ Mr. Hickson wrote. After the review was published, the debate about sugar and heart disease died down, while low-fat diets gained the endorsement of many health authorities, Dr. Glantz said. ‘‘By today’s standards, they behaved very badly,’’ he said. DOCUMENTATION CENTER OF CAMBODIA ARCHIVES A wedding at a Khmer Rouge prison in 1976. An inquiry into the regime’s crimes has turned to its marriage regulations. ECCC/ SOK HENG NHET A woman testified last month that a local Khmer Rouge chief had raped her when she resisted a marriage in 1977. Tribunal is told of Khmer Rouge forced marriages CAMBODIA, FROM PAGE 1 acquaintances rather than strangers. Some couples managed to find mutual compassion under the coercion, and built relationships that endured. Others continue to lead lives of quiet regret over the choices that were taken from them. Prosecutors have estimated, tentatively, that as many as several hundred thousand people were married in Khmer Rouge ceremonies between 1975 and 1979, though there have been no reliable surveys. The Khmer Rouge’s stated policy was to increase the country’s population, and in a society with a tradition of arranged marriage, the regime assumed the role of parent to an entire people as part of its utopian project to remake Cambodia. It held group weddings across the country, but without the customary Buddhist rituals and blessings from relatives and neighbors. Lawyers for the regime’s two surviving leaders, Khieu Samphan, 85, the head of state, and Nuon Chea, 90, the group’s chief ideologue, challenge the notion that the marriage regulations were inherently coercive. The defense has yet to present its case, but at least one lawyer has intimated that Khmer Rouge marriages were simply a variation on common, traditional arranged marriages. And any coercion or sexual abuse that occurred, both men’s defense teams have suggested, was the result of decisions by midlevel Khmer cadres, not state policy. The tribunal was established in 2006 to examine the effects of the Khmer Rouge’s radical policies, which historians say resulted in the deaths of some 1.7 million people. In 2014, Mr. Khieu Samphan and Mr. Nuon Chea were each sentenced to life in prison, primarily for crimes committed during the regime’s drive to move people out of cities to work in rural communes. That judgment is under appeal, and the court has moved on to crimes at detention centers and forced labor sites, and against two ethnic minority groups. The charge of forced marriage was included late in the development of the sprawling indictment, at the insistence of victims’ lawyers and women’s rights groups pushing for greater recognition of sexual violence and gender-based abuses in international criminal law. But the tribunal has heard evidence of the policy’s effects on men as well. One man with broad shoulders and a deep frown, known as 2-TCCP-232, told the tribunal how he had been forced to marry someone other than his fiancée. Speaking with his head down, he recalled that they had worked in separate mobile units in the same district, digging canals and carrying dirt. But they Killing of family in China stirs debate about poverty BEIJING BY JAVIER C. HERNÁNDEZ The young mother lived in obscurity in a wobbly house at the end of a dusty road. She did not speak much with strangers, spending her days tending to rows of wheat, peas and potatoes. Then, one day in late August, everyone in Agu Shan Village in northwestern China seemed to know her name: Yang Gailan. Ms. Yang, 28, was found dead outdoors alongside her children, three girls and a boy, all under 7 years old. The authorities said Ms. Yang killed herself after poisoning her children with pesticides and attacking them with an ax. The gruesome story, which was widely shared across social media over the weekend, has ignited concerns across China about the grim realities facing many rural families, as more people leave the countryside for jobs in big cities. It has also prompted a debate about inequality in Chinese society and the effectiveness of government efforts to reduce poverty, which President Xi Jinping has vowed to eliminate over the next four years. Ms. Yang was struggling to support her children on the roughly $500 sent home each year by her husband, Li Keying, a migrant worker in a nearby city in Gansu Province, Chinese news reports said. (Mr. Li was found dead this month, apparently a suicide.) Adding to frustrations about the case, local officials reportedly stripped Ms. Yang of welfare benefits two years ago because she did not meet the official CORRECTIONS • An article in some Saturday-Sunday editions about North Korea’s latest nuclear test misidentified the South Korean city that is home to the Sejong Institute. It is in Seongnam, not Seoul. • An article on Friday about the differing business strategies of Michael Dell and Meg Whitman misquoted Mr. Dell in one instance. Referring to the prospects of Dell Technologies, the company formed by the merger of his computer business and the data storage company EMC, he said: ‘‘Things are going well on a relative basis,’’ not ‘‘Things are going well on a personal basis.’’ • Because of an editing error, an article on Thursday about no-ad scoring and other timesaving measures in tennis misstated the day Bob and Mike Bryan lost in the men’s doubles tournament at the United States Open. It was on Tuesday, not the previous Friday. • A picture caption in the Sept. 3-4 issue with an article about Boulder, Colo., described a house in the city incorrectly. The house was the setting of the ‘‘Mork standard for poverty, which in China applies to people earning less than $350 per year. ‘‘When a person commits a crime for bread, then society is to blame,’’ one user wrote on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter. Others, though, said it was Ms. Yang’s responsibility to care for her family. After years of breakneck economic growth, China faces rampant inequality. Village life is rapidly deteriorating, and more than 82 million people, a vast majority of them in rural areas, still lived on less than $1 a day in 2014. Hu Xingdou, a professor at the Beijing Institute of Technology, said village officials often neglected needy families in doling out welfare benefits. ‘‘Sometimes people who deserve it don’t get it because the policy lacks transparency and justice,’’ Professor Hu said. Officials in Agu Shan Village, home to nearly 300 people, could not be reached for comment. Ms. Yang’s story gained prominence after a report last week by China Youth Daily, a state-run news outlet. The article said that on Aug. 26, Ms. Yang left home with her children, telling relatives she was going to check on the family’s sheep. Li Keyi, 21, a cousin of Ms. Yang’s husband, celebrated the Lunar New Year with the family in Agu Shan Village last year. In an interview on Monday, he said that even though the family did not live comfortably, Ms. Yang had encouraged him to stay and eat. ‘‘I couldn’t find a family that was poorer than they were,’’ he said. and Mindy’’ TV show, not the residence of the poet Allen Ginsberg. • An article on Aug. 30 about user-generated websites referred incorrectly to fake reviews on Yelp. Businesses featured on the site — not Yelp itself — solicited the fake reviews. • An article on Aug. 24 about classical music events in night clubs referred incorrectly to admission fees at events organized by Groupmuse in Boston. A $10 minimum donation for the players is solicited at the event; the fees are not voluntary. • Because of an editing error, an article in some Aug. 13-14 editions about a ban on the wearing of the full-body coverings nicknamed burkinis on the beaches of Cannes, France, referred imprecisely to French restrictions on clothing. A 2010 law that bans the wearing of most face coverings in public does not make any reference to religion, but the law has been widely interpreted to apply to burqas and niqabs, two garments often worn by Muslim women. were politically suspect because he had been a police officer, and some of her relatives had been ‘‘smashed’’ — taken away and presumably executed — as enemies of the revolution, he said. A unit chief warned that he, too, would be smashed if he tried to marry his fiancée. When he was told one day in 1978 that the Khmer Rouge would arrange a family for him, he did not dare protest. A group wedding was held, in the dark, for about 50 men and 50 women. Some, perhaps people ‘‘with good biographies,’’ seemed to have some say in choosing their partners, he said. But that night, he was afraid to even look at the woman he was marrying. They were couple No. 42. The next night, they were directed to a flimsy shack. ‘‘We treated each other like brother and sister,’’ he said. ‘‘I did not touch her.’’ They were too exhausted to have sex, he said. He still had not seen her face. ‘‘It was only in the morning that we could see each other clearly,’’ he said. And then they were sent back to work. Some academics say the Khmer Rouge’s regulation of marriage was intended to attack traditional Cambodian belief systems. Peg LeVine, a medical anthropologist and fellow at the University of Southern California Shoah Foundation’s Center for Advanced Genocide Research, said it ‘‘broke down, mutated and eroded the ancestral rituals that Cambodians practice to placate the spirit world.’’ But Anta Guissé, a lawyer representing Mr. Khieu Samphan, said in an email that the government’s regulations explicitly required bride, groom and the community to agree to any marriage. ‘‘The variety of ways in which marriage was handled in different areas is a revealing sign of that,’’ she said. One of Mr. Nuon Chea’s lawyers, Liv Sovanna, sought to portray sexual abuse as a violation of state policy rather than the result of it. He argued in court that the Khmer Rouge had held officials to a strict code of conduct, and he read from a provision known as Code 6, which condemned immoral behavior and stated, ‘‘Do not take liberties with women.’’ Questioning the woman who said she had been raped by a local chief for refusing to consummate her marriage, Mr. Liv Sovanna asked if she understood that rape was a serious offense under the Khmer Rouge. ‘‘Of course it was a serious offense,’’ she replied, unfazed. ‘‘But who could I tell? If I told anyone, I would be dead. Nobody could help me. He was a person in authority.’’ And yet, she testified to staying with the husband selected by the local chief, partly at the insistence of relatives, long after Vietnamese forces ousted the Khmer Rouge in 1979. In 2014, the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization, a nongovernmental group providing mental health support for survivors of the Khmer Rouge era, interviewed 106 victims formally participating in the court proceedings. Most said they had refused a Khmer Rouge wedding at least once, but nearly all said they had married in the end, most after being threatened. About half said they remained in their marriages from the Khmer Rouge era, most of them because they had come to feel sympathy or affection for their spouses. Some couples held a second wedding, this time in keeping with Buddhist tradition. The man forced to marry a woman whose face he did not know, 2-TCCP-232, also stayed with his wife after the fall of the regime. But he could not forget his first love. He told the court about meeting his fiancée later. ‘‘I took her hand,’’ he told the court. ‘‘We embraced. We wept. And we told each other that in this life we needed to do good deeds — because maybe it was bad deeds in our previous lives that had kept us apart, and so if we did good deeds in this life, maybe in a future one we could be together.’’ The world in your hands, every morning. Sit back, unfold the International New York Times, and savor a moment to yourself before the day begins. Discover the world’s most trusted perspective, unparalleled insights, expert opinions and much more. Additionally, your newspaper subscription includes unlimited access to NYTimes.com, and a wealth of indispensable apps for smartphone and tablet. Start the day at inyt.com/unfold 8 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES Opinion How to stop North Korea ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER JR., Publisher DEAN BAQUET, Executive Editor STEPHEN DUNBAR-JOHNSON, President, International TOM BODKIN, Creative Director PHILIPPE MONTJOLIN, Senior V.P., International Operations JOSEPH KAHN, Assistant Editor JEAN-CHRISTOPHE DEMARTA, Senior V.P., Global Advertising RICHARD W. STEVENSON, Editor, Europe ACHILLES TSALTAS, V.P., International Conferences PHILIP P. PAN, Editor, Asia CHANTAL BONETTI, V.P., International Human Resources CHARLOTTE GORDON, V.P., International Consumer Marketing JAMES BENNET, Editorial Page Editor PATRICE MONTI, V.P., International Circulation JAMES DAO, Deputy Editorial Page Editor HELENA PHUA, Executive V.P., Asia-Pacific TERRY TANG, Deputy Editorial Page Editor SUZANNE YVERNÈS, International Chief Financial Officer MARK THOMPSON, Chief Executive Officer, The New York Times Company STEPHEN DUNBAR-JOHNSON, Président et Directeur de la Publication KEEP THE PRESSURE ON MYANMAR It would be a mistake for the United States to lift all remaining sanctions on Myanmar now. When Myanmar’s leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, meets with President Obama and members of Congress in Washington this week, one of the items for discussion will be easing the remaining American sanctions on Myanmar. That may be a tempting move, given recent efforts by Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi to end ethnic conflict and the persecution of the Rohingya, a Muslim minority group, but it would be a mistake to lift all remaining sanctions now. Myanmar has made important progress on democratic reform, culminating with the victory of Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi’s party last November in the country’s first free election in a quarter century. And Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi has taken steps to heal Myanmar’s ethnic divisions. On Aug. 31, she convened a peace conference to bring together the country’s armed ethnic groups in hopes of ending decades of conflict. This month, at the invitation of her government, a team led by Kofi Annan, the former United Nations secretary general, began looking into the plight of the Rohingya. This is an important step given Myanmar’s dismal human rights record. The oppression of the Rohingya, who are deprived of basic rights, including citizenship and freedom to worship and marry, is appalling. More than 120,000 Rohingya remain detained in government camps. Thousands have fled the country, many into the hands of traffickers. The use of forced labor in Myanmar, including sex trafficking, is widespread. In June, the Obama administration listed Myanmar among the world’s worst offenders in human trafficking. Unfortunately, Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi’s new government has limited ability to tackle these problems because it is hobbled by the country’s 2008 Constitution, which gives Myanmar’s military the upper hand by reserving a quarter of the seats in Parliament for the military, empowering the military to appoint the ministers of defense, home affairs and border affairs, and to dissolve the government during a national emergency. Secretary of State John Kerry warned in May that the key to lifting the remaining sanctions is “the current Constitution. It needs to be changed.” Apparently, some of Myanmar’s lawmakers agree, and they believe that sanctions are still needed to keep the pressure on military leaders. Last month, U Hla Moe, a senior official in Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi’s party, explained that “the sanctions are imposed for those who are obstructions to the country’s democratic movements.” The Obama administration has progressively eased sanctions as Myanmar has moved toward democracy. In May, the administration lifted a broad range of sanctions, including against state-run banks and businesses. But, until there is constitutional reform that can deliver a durable democracy without military control, the remaining bans on trade and investment with Myanmar’s Department of Defense, armed groups and individuals who do business with the military, including in the lucrative gems trade, should remain in place. DISCLOSURE ON CANDIDATES’ HEALTH Presidential candidates’ willingness to release their health histories is as important a test of transparency as other forms of disclosure. As President Obama’s graying hair suggests, the American presidency is perhaps the most grueling and stressful political job there is. This year, both major party candidates for that job are past the nation’s customary retirement age. And while submitting health records is not a requirement for the job, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump would be doing American voters a great service by furnishing a much clearer picture of their physical health than the abbreviated and sunny reports provided so far. What brings the health issue to mind, of course, is the video of a stumbling Mrs. Clinton being hustled away from the 9/11 memorial service in New York on Sunday. She reappeared some two hours later to say she felt great. Hours later, her doctor issued a statement saying Mrs. Clinton had been suffering from pneumonia. Mrs. Clinton has released more information about her health than Mr. Trump has about his. Mr. Trump’s evaluation consists largely of a terse and bizarre report written by Dr. Harold Bornstein, his gastroenterologist, who, after a brief examination, said that if elected Mr. Trump, a selfprofessed fast-food addict, “will be the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency.” Mrs. Clinton’s record, consisting mainly of a letter written by her personal physician, Dr. Lisa Bardack, on July 28, 2015, is more than a year old and, while acknowledging her problem with blood clots, could use some updating. On Monday, a spokesman for Mrs. Clinton said she would release additional health information in coming days. For his part, Mr. Trump said he would make public “very, very specific” records, a remarkable promise coming from someone who has resolutely stonewalled on his tax returns. Should both candidates honor these pledges, and provide plenty of detail, the winners will be the voters. Joel S. Wit WASHINGTON It’s been a banner year for North Korea. The government in Pyongyang has already conducted 17 missile tests and two nuclear tests, including the most recent nuclear explosion on Friday. And there are still three and a half months left in 2016. Satellite photos of North Korea’s nuclear test site indicate that at least three more tests are possible at a moment’s notice. Since North Koreans often celebrate important dates with spectacular shows, the approaching 10th anniversary of its first nuclear detonation on Oct. 9 might be the perfect occasion. Even more alarming is that at this rate, Pyongyang may be able to deploy more powerful nuclear weapons and more dangerous delivery systems more quickly than previously expected. Last year, researchers at the institute where I work concluded that by 2020 North Korea could field an intercontinental ballistic missile able to reach the United States. But if Pyongyang tests the missile that has appeared in recent military parades, it could be sooner. The simple hydrogen bomb the North Koreans were expected to have by 2020 now may be ready and mounted on a missile earlier. All of this bad news should, just in time for a new presidential administra- tion, put to rest the misconceptions that have driven the United States’ failed North Korea policy, especially the idea that China, Pyongyang’s closest ally, will solve the problem. Beijing would certainly prefer that Kim Jong-un give up his nuclear weapons. And the Chinese do occasionally use their economic ties with North Korea to pressure Pyongyang. But China’s overriding priority will continue to be keeping North Korea as a stable buffer against American influence in South Korea. No amount of cajoling from Washington will cause China to squeeze North Korea with enough sanctions that it will give up its weapons or risk the government’s collapse. The next administration must recognize that the United States, not China, is the indispensable nation when it comes to dealing with North Korea. Our allies, who look to us to provide leadership, already know this. So do the Chinese, who insist that only Washington can persuade the North Koreans to stop their bad behavior. North Korean officials have even told me in private that it is true for them, too. If a new administration understands that the United States must take the lead, it can use the substantial diplomatic, military and economic power at its disposal to manage and potentially resolve this challenge. At the core will be a willingness to take all necessary steps to protect our allies, even measures that can anger China, like the recent decision to deploy advanced missile defenses in South Korea. A new administration should also seek to tighten sanctions, just as the Obama administration is doing, recognizing that, because of China’s enduring support for the government in Pyongyang, sanctions will always fall far short of pressuring North Korea the same way they did Iran. A successful strategy will It’s too late for have to include a Obama, but new diplomatic initiative aimed this is what the at persuading the next president North to first can do. stop expanding its arsenal and then to eventually reduce and dismantle its weapons. To persuade the North Koreans to do this, Washington will have to address their security concerns. In the short term, that may mean temporarily suspending or modifying some American-South Korean military exercises. In the longer term, it may mean replacing the armistice in place since the end of the Korean War with a permanent peace agreement. These initiatives will be met with skepticism not only in the United States — where many people believe that negotiating with North Korea is a waste of time — but also in Pyongyang. Nevertheless, there are signs that North Korea is interested in dialogue. On July 6, the government issued a pronouncement ostensibly seeking denuclearization talks with the United States, specifically mentioning Kim Jong-un’s name in support of this initiative. One reason North Korea may be motivated to consider denuclearization is economic. Since taking office in 2011, Mr. Kim has been committed to improving his country’s economy. He seems to believe that nuclear weapons would allow even more focus on that objective. Nevertheless, he has deliberately left room to ease off the nuclear track and explore a dialogue, perhaps reflecting an understanding that there are limits to what his country’s economy can achieve while it is isolated from the international community. Of course, no one is naïve enough to take these statements at face value. Talks between governments are the only way to know for sure. As the Obama administration winds down, little can be done to change policy at this point. Moreover, the North Koreans are unlikely to be responsive to new initiatives since they know that the next American administration will have its own approach. The first hundred days in office will be critical for the next American president. If a window is open to curb North Korea’s nuclear ambitions, it may not stay open for long. JOEL S. WIT is a senior fellow at the U.S.Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins University and the founder of its North Korea website, 38North. DOUG CHAYKA You hear the latest on Hillary? Zeynep Tufekci Contributing Writer Hillary Clinton has pneumonia. Did you know she has a body double? She was that blond woman waving at reporters in front of Chelsea Clinton’s apartment a few hours after Mrs. Clinton felt unwell and left the Sept. 11 commemoration at ground zero. Did you also hear that Mrs. Clinton has Parkinson’s disease? Her coughing fits prove it, as does her latest bout of illness. She has epilepsy, as well as advancing dementia. She has managed to hide all these illnesses through almost a year and a half of a grueling campaign because the man the world thinks is the head of her Secret Service detail is actually her hypnotist. He’s also a medical doctor. No, I haven’t lost my mind. I’ve just lost many hours on social media, where these conspiracy theories run rampant. Well before Mrs. Clinton fell ill and had to be assisted into a van on Sunday, former Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani of New York, a supporter of Donald J. Trump, said on Fox News that the news media had failed to cover her health and that viewers should “go online and put down ‘Hillary Clinton illness,’ take a look at the videos for yourself.” The events of last weekend will not help Mrs. Clinton, who spent Monday at home and canceled a trip to Califor- nia. Nor will they help the rest of us, stuck in this conspiracy election. Yes, the Clinton campaign should have disclosed her pneumonia diagnosis on Friday, curtailed her schedule and allowed her to recover. Lack of disclosure only increases the number of people who suspect she’s hiding something. But there’s also no amount of disclosure that would change the minds of people who think she’s been hiding epilepsy, Parkinson’s and dementia, thanks to her secret hypnotist and persuasive body double. Why The problem is misinformation much bigger than a single spreads so moment, or this quickly in this particular camconspiracypaign. Conspirtheory election. acy theories are like mosquitoes that thrive in swamps of low-trust societies, weak institutions, secretive elites and technology that allows theories unanchored from truth to spread rapidly. Swatting them one at a time is mostly futile: The real answer is draining the swamps. I’m originally from Turkey, so I’m used to my Western friends snickering at the prevalence of conspiracy theories in the Middle East. It is frustrating, but the reason for these theories is not a mystery. Elites do practice excessive secrecy. Foreign powers have meddled in the region for decades. Institutions that are supposed to be trusted intermediaries, separating facts from fiction while also challenging the powerful, are few and weak. It makes sense to gravitate toward explanations that attribute everything to secret cabals. And now, with social media, what remained of controls on keeping the worst stuff out of the public sphere has been demolished. Wait, what part of the world was I writing about again? My coughing fit brought about by my own advanced dementia must have confused me again. Conspiracy theories have been around a long time, but thanks to new technologies and decline of trust in institutions, it’s getting worse. First of all: There are actual conspiracies in the world. The powerful do routinely collude to hide information. To add to this, people like stories, and conspiracy theories are a form of storytelling. The trouble here isn’t a healthy suspicion of power, but the transformation of a culture of political distrust into a swirl of bizarre tales divorced from facts. We expect traditional news outlets to act as gatekeepers for information, helping us distinguish truth from rumor. They’ve never been perfect at this job, but the precarious economics of the industry is making the situation even worse. The new, internet-driven financing model for news outlets is great for spreading conspiracy theories. Each story lives or dies by how much attention it attracts. This rewards the outrageous, which can get clicks more easily. However, conspiracy theories can live only to the degree they can find communities to flourish in. That’s where social media comes in. Finding a community online has been great for many people — the dissident in Egypt, the gay teenager in a conservative town — but the internet is not Thor’s hammer, which only the purest of heart can pick up. Conspiracists can organize online and can push their version of the world into the mainstream. To fight conspiracy theories, we also don’t just need more fact-checkers. We need to fix the underlying dynamics. People think that their governments are working against them, or at least not for them, and in some cases this is true. Ruling elites around the world are circling their wagons, and fueling more suspicion and mistrust. Reversing that would be the best defense against baseless paranoia that masquerades as political action. The predominant internet business model isn’t always great for democracy, but it’s not the only option. We should support subscription, donation and philanthropy funded sources of information. Once “go viral or die” isn’t the only game in town, and with a more transparent and responsive government, our conspiracy fever might break. is an associate professor at the University of North Carolina School of Information and Library Science. ZEYNEP TUFEKCI Immeuble le Lavoisier, 4, place des Vosges, 92400 Courbevoie France. POSTAL ADDRESS: CS 10001, 92052 Paris La Défense Cedex. Tel: +33 1 41 43 93 00 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet address: inyt.com Subscriptions: email@example.com Tel: +33 1 41 43 93 61 Classified: +44 (0) 20 7061 3534/3533 Regional Offices: Asia-Pacific: #1201, 191 Java Road, Hong Kong Tel. +852 2922 1188 Fax: +852 2922 1190 U.K.: 18 Museum Street, London WC1A 1JN Tel. +44 (0) 20 7061 3500 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7061 3529 The Americas: 620 Eighth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10018 Advertising Tel. +1 212 556 7707 Fax: +1 212 556 7706, Circulation Tel. (toll free) +1 800 882 2884 or +1 818 487 4540 Fax: +1 818 487 4550 firstname.lastname@example.org IHT S.A.S. au capital de 240.000 ¤. RCS Nanterre B 732021126. Commission Paritaire No. 0518 C 83099 ©2016, The New York Times Company. All rights reserved. ISSN: 2269-9740. Material submitted for publication may be transferred to electronic databases. To submit an opinion article, email email@example.com. To submit a letter to the editor, email firstname.lastname@example.org. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 9 opinion The touch league that I love Gary Belsky The avalanche of distrust David Brooks I’m beginning to think this whole sordid campaign is being blown along by an acrid gust of distrust. The two main candidates, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, are remarkably distrustful. They have set the modern standards for withholding information — his not releasing tax and health records, her not holding regular news conferences or quickly disclosing her pneumonia diagnosis. Both have a problem with spontaneous, reciprocal communication with a hint of vulnerability. Both ultimately hew to a distrustful, stark, combative, zero-sum view of life — the idea that making it in this world is an unforgiving slog and that, given other people’s selfish natures, vulnerability is dangerous. Trump’s convention speech was the perfect embodiment of the politics of distrust. American families, he argued, are under threat from foreigners who are as violent and menacing as they are insidious. Clinton’s “Basket of Deplorables” riff comes from the same spiritual place. We have in our country, she jibed, millions of bigots, racists, xenophobes and haters — people who are so blackhearted that they are, as she put it, “irredeemable.” The parishioners at the Emanuel A.M.E. Church in Charleston, S.C., felt that even the man who murdered their close friends was redeemable, but Clinton has written off vast chunks of her fellow citizens as beyond hope and redemption. But these nominees didn’t emerge in a vacuum. Distrustful politicians were nominated by an increasingly distrustful nation. A generation ago about half of all Americans felt they could trust the people around them, but now less than a third think other people are trustworthy. Young people are the most distrustful of all; only about 19 percent of millennials believe other people can be trusted. But across all age groups there is a rising culture of paranoia and conspiracy-mongering. We set out a decade ago to democratize the Middle East, but we’ve ended up Middle Easternizing our democracy. The true thing about distrust, in politics and in life generally, is that it is selfdestructive. Distrustful people end up isolating themselves, alienating Hillary Clinton, others and corDonald Trump roding their inner natures. and much of Over the past society isolate few decades, the themselves. decline in social trust has correlated to an epidemic of loneliness. In 1985, 10 percent of Americans said they had no close friend with whom they could discuss important matters. By 2004, 25 percent had no such friend. When you refuse to lay yourself before others, others won’t lay themselves before you. An AARP study of Americans aged 45 and up found that 35 percent suffer from chronic loneliness, compared with 20 percent in a similar survey a decade ago. Suicide rates, which closely correlate with loneliness, have been spiking since 1999. The culture of distrust isn’t the only isolating factor, but it plays a role. The rise of distrust correlates with a decline in community bonds and a surge of unmerited cynicism. Only 31 percent of millennials say there is a great deal of difference between the two political parties. Only 52 percent of adults say they are extremely proud to be Americans, down from 70 percent in 2003. The rise of distrust has corroded intimacy. When you go on social media you see people who long for friendship. People are posting and liking private photos on public places like Snapchat and Facebook. But the pervasive atmosphere of distrust undermines actual intimacy, which involves progressive self-disclosure, vulnerability, emotional risk and spontaneous and unpredictable face-toface conversations. Instead, what you see in social media is often the illusion of intimacy. The sharing is tightly curated — in a way carefully designed to mitigate unpredictability, danger, vulnerability and actual intimacy. There is, as Stephen Marche once put it, “a phony nonchalance.” It’s possible to have weeks of affirming online banter without ever doing a trust-fall into another’s arms. As Garry Shandling once joked, “My friends tell me I have an intimacy problem, but they don’t really know me.” Distrust leads to these self-reinforcing spirals. As Alex Tabarrok of George Mason University observed recently, in distrustful societies parents are less likely to teach their children about tolerance and respect for others. More distrust leads to tighter regulations, which leads to slower growth, which leads to sour mentalities and more distrust. Furthermore, fear is the great enemy of intimacy. But the loss of intimacy makes society more isolated. Isolation leads to more fear. More fear leads to fear-mongering leaders. And before long you wind up in this death spiral. The great religions and the wisest political philosophies have always counseled going the other way. They’ve always advised that real strength is found in comradeship, and there’s no possibility of that if you are building walls. They have generally championed the paradoxical leap — that even in the midst of an avalanche of calumny, somebody’s got to greet distrust with vulnerability, skepticism with innocence, cynicism with faith and hostility with affection. Our candidates aren’t doing it, but that really is the realistic path to strength. I remember the play as if it were yesterday — or this past February, when it actually happened. I was a storytelling consultant/defensive end trying to sack a terrorism expert/quarterback who was 12 years my junior and several steps quicker. Failing miserably in my pursuit, I watched helplessly as my would-be prey lofted a desperate heave from midfield into the end zone. Improbably, the ball was caught for a touchdown by an actor/tight end who somehow jumped higher than three better athletes on my team there to stop him. We all shook our heads in disgust while the other guys celebrated with fist bumps. Just another Sunday morning at Booker T. Washington Middle School on the border of Morningside Heights and the Upper West Side of Manhattan, where miracle touchdowns occur about as often as petty squabbles. In other words, very often. We call our game — which recently kicked off its 12th season — the Fourth Down League. And for good reason: As with the aforementioned Hail Mary pass, far too many touchdowns are scored on the last play of an offensive series. But for all its frustrations, the F.D.L. is a wellspring for me, a health tonic that has lasted long past my athletic sell-by date. At nearly 55, I am the oldest player in the game — often by a couple of decades — a distinction that manifests itself mostly in displays of inadequacy on the field but occasionally in moments of perspective off it. (There’s a strong correlation between an athlete’s diminishing physical abilities and his inclination to find meaning in sports.) As it happens, the F.D.L. is a uniquely sharp lens through which to view the American experience. A typical game features 12 to 16 players, representing a mosaic of weekend warriors. Whites, blacks, Asians, Latinos — we’ve got ’em all, not to mention Orthodox Jews, fundamentalist Christians, lapsed Muslims and a few atheists. The best athlete in the game is a Senegalese film editor, the strongest arm belongs to a civil rights lawyer, and the toughest pass rusher is either the manager of a midtown deli or an elevator repairman from upstate New York. Our reigning Gentleman Award winner is a quality assurance administrator for the city, and the player with the hottest temper on Sundays is a massage therapist every other day of the week. The F.D.L. roster includes many fathers, a few college students and one son of a former University of Michigan running back. Not one of these people has any rational reason to show up when there’s a foot of snow on the field in January, but most do. We meet every Sunday from Sep- tember through March, on a soccer pitch rented from the city, to play “hard touch” football. In this variation, tackling a ball carrier means a twohanded tag anywhere below the neck. But other physical contact is allowed, even encouraged. So while I may not throw a receiver to the ground if he possesses the ball, I can put a shoulder into his side if he’s trying to catch it. Likewise, it’s perfectly legal for a bruising game show writer/offensive lineman to pancakeblock his uncle while blocking on a running play, sending me to the E.R. with what was unhelpfully detailed as torn cartilage and a bruised heart. (Unhelpful because there’s little to do for either except try not to laugh.) The quality of play varies weekly, but if on a football ability scale of 1-10 the N.F.L. rates double digits, the F.D.L. merits about a 3 (2.5 if it’s raining). That said, we are world class when it comes to bickering. Loud, extended arguments are the rule in our game. The causes — disputed tags, disputed penalties, disputed catches, A New Yorker’s disputed out-ofweekend bounds rulings and disputed football game is procedures for a health tonic settling disputes that offers a — are as varied rare chance for as they are cross-culturalmeaningless in religious-ethnicthe scope of any socioeconomic of our lives. interaction. Early on — when the F.D.L. comprised mostly relatives, college roommates and players from the same poker game — our outsize emotional outbursts attracted the occasional spectator, including young minority men from the neighborhood who came to see what all the yelling was about. To our surprise, many asked to play. Then as now, the F.D.L. “commissioner” — who daylights as a mutual fund manager — collected their contact info and included them on the emails sent to dozens of “regulars,” recapping the previous week’s contest and seeking commitments to play the next. Happily, these “walk-on” players showed up, stuck around, and, like the rest of us, began inviting friends. Given the endless arguments and parochial rules, we often wonder why our game appeals to newcomers. One prevailing theory involves self-interest, i.e., people will put up with a lot to have access to a dependable game on a decent field. But I think of this bonhomie as a reflection of communal good will and desire for connection, a shared sense that the F.D.L. represents a rare and meaningful opportunity for cross-cultural-religious-ethnic-socioeconomic interaction. Then again, I’m sentimental. When I moved to New York City in 1986, for a job as a business reporter, I sought activities that would make my new city feel like home. In my case, that meant finding a synagogue I could tolerate (Jews in groups make me nervous), identifying volunteer opportunities (I was raised to value “good works”) and locating a reliable game of weekend football (preferably on grass). I found one soon enough, involving more or less a dozen players who showed up more or less at the same time in more or less the same area of the Great Lawn. (This was back when the Central Park Conservancy allowed football games without a permit on that grassy expanse.) The players ranged in age from 18 to 35, but a few were older. One of the latter, a sinewy Upper East Side lawyer named Steve, turned out to be much older. I learned his age — 65 — when he brought his 30-something son to a game. When I asked Steve for the source of his gridiron longevity, he laughed and told me that he “forgot” to quit playing, despite the demands of career and family. “It helps,” he continued, “that I never stopped falling down.” Long before anyone talked about the role of microfractures in building strong bones, Steve intuited the concept. I didn’t think much of what he said then, but Steve’s answer stayed with me as I aged into a demographic range occupied by my father in my earliest memories. I would get hit during a game, and later — while nursing a bruise or icing a sprain — I tried to imagine my dad getting knocked head over heels at my age. It was a hard picture to conjure. My father, like most men of his generation, stopped playing contact sports long before middle age. I wonder today what he would say as I rage into the dying of the stadium lights. I’m pretty sure he would think I was an idiot. I prefer to think of myself as “plucky.” I’m no longer embarrassed when a younger, better athlete sends me flying on his way to make a play. Indeed, I’ve grown increasingly less self-conscious when younger players, having put me to the ground, offer apologies along with outstretched hands. I generally thank them, adding, “That’s why I’m here,” as I get up. (I don’t mention microfractures.) Playing deep into middle age with much younger men removes any — or at least most — pretense to machismo. Which is why, on most Sundays this season, you’ll find me running down a sideline on kickoffs and punts, content to bring up the rear of my team’s coverage, guarding against a costly outside return. Long gone are the days when I did the kicking. And that’s O.K. I no longer think I have any shot at the weekly M.V.P. award our commissioner hands out after games. My prize is the ability to play the next weekend. Plus I win more than my fair share of those arguments. GARY BELSKY is a co-author of “On the Origins of Sports: The Early History and Original Rules of Everybody’s Favorite Games.” About the ‘basket of deplorables’ Charles M. Blow Let’s get straight to it: Hillary Clinton’s comments Friday at a fund-raiser that half of Donald Trump’s supporters could be put in a “basket of deplorables” wasn’t a smart political play. Candidates do themselves a tremendous disservice when they attack voters rather than campaigns. Whatever advantage is procured through the rallying of one’s own base is outweighed by what will be read as divisiveness and disdain. Here is Clinton’s full quote: “You know, to just be grossly generalistic, you could put half of Trump’s supporters into what I call the basket of deplorables. Right? The racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic — you name it. And unfortunately there are people like that. And he has lifted them up. He has given voice to their websites that used to only have 11,000 people — now 11 million. He tweets and retweets their offensive, hateful, mean-spirited rhetoric. Now some of those folks — they are irredeemable, but thankfully they are not America.” Then, she continued: “But the other basket — and I know this because I see friends from all over America here — I see friends from Florida and Georgia and South Carolina and Texas — as well as, you know, New York and California — but that other basket of people are people who feel that the government has let them down, the econ- omy has let them down, nobody cares about them, nobody worries about what happens to their lives and their futures, and they’re just desperate for change. It doesn’t really even matter where it comes from. They don’t buy everything he says, but he seems to hold out some hope that their lives will be different. They won’t wake up and see their jobs disappear, lose a kid to heroin, feel like they’re in a dead end. Those are people we have to understand and empathize with as well.” That second basket got too little attention. Context doesn’t provide the sizzle on which shock media subsists. Noted. What Clinton said was impolitic, but it was not incorrect. There are things a politician cannot say. Luckily, I’m not a politician. Donald Trump is a deplorable candidate — to put it charitably — and anyone who helps him adA politically vance his racial, unwise, but not religious and ethnic bigotry is untrue, part of that statement. bigotry. Period. Anyone who elevates a sexist is part of that sexism. The same goes for xenophobia. You can’t conveniently separate yourself from the detestable part of him because you sense in him the promise of cultural or economic advantage. That hair cannot be split. In state after state that Trump won during the primaries, he won a majority or near majority of voters who supported a temporary ban on Muslims entering this country and who supported deporting immigrants who are in this country illegally. In June a Reuters/Ipsos poll found: “Nearly half of Trump’s supporters described African-Americans as more ‘violent’ than whites. The same proportion described African-Americans as more ‘criminal’ than whites, while 40 percent described them as more ‘lazy’ than whites.” A Pew poll released in February found that 65 percent of Republicans believe the next president should “speak bluntly even if critical of Islam as a whole” when talking about Islamic extremists. Another Reuters/Ipsos online poll in July found that 58 percent of Trump supporters have a “somewhat unfavorable” view of Islam and 78 percent believe Islam was more likely to encourage acts of terrorism. A February Public Policy Polling survey found “Trump’s support in South Carolina is built on a base of voters among whom religious and racial intolerance pervades.” What the poll found about those South Carolina supporters’ beliefs was truly shocking: • Eighty percent of likely Trump primary voters supported Trump’s proposed ban on Muslims. • Sixty-two percent supported creating a national database of Muslims and 40 percent supported shutting down mosques in the United States. • Thirty-eight percent wished the South had won the Civil War. • Thirty-three percent thought the practice of Islam should be illegal in this country. • Thirty-two percent supported the policy of Japanese internment during World War II. • Thirty-one percent would support a ban on homosexuals entering the country. On Saturday, Clinton issued a statement pointing out that “I regret saying ‘half’ — that was wrong.” Place the percentage where you will — or don’t — but the fact is indisputable. I understand that people recoil at the notion that they are part of a pejorative basket. I understand the reflexive resistance to having your negative beliefs disrobed and your sense of self dressed down. I understand your outrage, but I’m unmoved by it. If the basket fits . . . BRETT DEUTSCH Gary Belsky (second from right) lined up for a Fourth Down League play in 2015. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Is animal research ever ethical? Re “Regretting my animal research,” by John P. Gluck (Opinion, Sept. 6): Dr. Gluck may have second thoughts, but he does not speak for the many people who are benefiting, or one day could benefit, from medical breakthroughs that are a result of crucial, carefully regulated research with nonhuman primates. Further, he does not represent the many caring and committed scientists who do not question their decision to study primate models to save lives. Although accounting for less than one-half of 1 percent of all animal research, nonhuman primate research has resulted in life-changing medical advances for our most serious public health challenges. As an important example, patients with devastating illnesses like Parkinson’s disease now see marked improvement with deep brain stimulation made possible through primate research. We scientists do indeed take very seriously our commitment and obligation for the responsible and compassionate use of these animals. The strict regulations established by oversight agencies are fully embraced by researchers and institutions. Based on fact — and compassion for both people and animals — we know that this is ultimately profoundly lifesaving work. MAR SANCHEZ, WASHINGTON The writer is chairwoman of the Committee on Animals in Research, Society for Neuroscience. John P. Gluck’s brave and beautiful article sums up the power of cognitive dissonance (“I came to see that my natural recoil from intentionally harming animals was a hindrance to how I understood scientific progress”). When faced with actions that don’t reflect our ethics, we have two choices: We can change our behavior to align with our beliefs, or we can change our beliefs to align with our behavior. Our perception of animals as tools, property or food is precisely what enables us to rationalize our use of them for research, consumption, labor and entertainment. We can change our minds, and we can change our behavior. By granting animals moral consideration, we will find that we are better aligned with our own morals. COLLEEN PATRICK-GOUDREAU, OAKLAND, CALIF. 10 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES Culture travel music Left, Zion Square off the Jaffa road, where the tour ‘‘Seven Ways to Dissolve Boundaries’’ ended. Below, a tour group mingled with the crowd on board a train in Jerusalem as it rode through the cultural divide. Below left, Mahmoud Muna, the owner of the American Colony Bookstore, talking to tour participants. PHOTOGRAPHS BY RINA CASTELNUOVO FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Trips into the unknown JERUSALEM East Jerusalem tours to ‘dissolve boundaries’ challenge participants BY DEBRA KAMIN Mahmoud Muna, a Palestinian bookseller in East Jerusalem, does not mince words when it comes to his views on Israeli control over his part of the city, and his opinions can be difficult for Israelis to hear. At least, he presumes they are. Mr. Muna rarely engages in conversation with the Israeli Jews who live across the Green Line. Like most of the 800,000 citizens uncomfortably sharing real estate in Israel’s contested capital, where Arabs and Jews are staked out on opposite sides and communities are strictly segregated between the religious and the secular, everyday travel for Mr. Muna is circumscribed by lines real and invisible. But on a cool summer evening this month, Mr. Muna helped a group of cultural tourists cross one of those lines. His store in the historic American Colony Hotel became a stop on ‘‘Seven Ways to Dissolve Boundaries,’’ city tours billed as ‘‘doco-theatrical journeys into alternative realities’’ that promise to take participants out of their comfort zone and into parts of Jerusalem they might never go. The four-hour tours, which run through September with seven different variations (hence the name), were created by Mekudeshet, a three-week city- wide arts festival. Itineraries are kept secret, with participants informed only of an initial meeting point. The recent evening tour centered on the Jerusalem light rail — a smooth, modern train system that traverses East and West Jerusalem and is seen by many Palestinians as a symbol of Israeli occupation in the city. The 40 people on the tour were given audio systems and invited to travel the train’s entire route. Along the way, Karen Brunwasser, the deputy director of Jerusalem Season of Culture, an organization in West Jerusalem that is presenting Mekudeshet, gave a live, deeply personal monologue, spliced with music and excerpts of poetry, to describe the landmarks flashing by the windows and her own connection to the city. After leaving the train in Beit Hanina, a Palestinian neighborhood whose light rail stop was the site of fierce riots in July 2014, participants were guided across the tracks and invited to retrace their journey, this time stopping to meet a series of ‘‘boundary dissolvers’’ along the way. Each of the seven tours has its own cast of characters, among them Eran Tzidkiyahu, the Arabic-speaking son of Jewish market vendors who works as a tour guide taking Israelis into East Jerusalem; Nadim Shiban, the director of the Museum of Islamic Art in West Jerusalem; and Chaya Gilboa, a former ultra-Orthodox Jew who is one of the leading voices for pluralism and women’s rights in Jerusalem. Sunday’s tour began with a presentation by Yehuda Greenfield, whose architecture firm, SAYA, has been commissioned, as part of the Geneva Accords, to design the physical border — roads, transportation junctions and even the pedestrian crossings of the shared Old City — that would be part of a finalstatus agreement dividing East and West Jerusalem. ‘‘The concept of using borders, and being involved in borders, is very natural to a Jerusalemite,’’ Mr. Greenfield said. It ended at Zion Square, a major transit point, with a chat with Sarah Weil, a lesbian who became an activist after the death of Shira Banki, a 16-yearold girl stabbed to death at last year’s Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade by an ultra-Orthodox man. Ms. Weil spends Thursday nights on the square, encouraging strangers of different backgrounds to share a moment together. ‘‘My job is to get those people who are passing by each other to stop and look at each other,’’ she told the group. The discussion at Mr. Muna’s bookshop, on the seam of East and West Jerusalem, came in the middle of the tour. ‘‘You’ve been promised a chance to listen to someone who is working on some sort of a change in Jerusalem, so I wanted to tell you how I spend my afternoons,’’ Mr. Muna told the group, which was made up almost entirely of Israelis and Jewish tourists. He went on to detail his volunteer work as a cultural coordinator in East Jerusalem, creating art, theater and dance events — work that is required, he says, because the Israeli government has dismantled the cultural institutions in Jerusalem’s Palestinian neighborhoods. JERUSALEM, PAGE 11 An America opera company adapts China’s ‘War and Peace’ SAN FRANCISCO San Francisco Opera stages the novel ‘Dream of the Red Chamber’ BY AMY QIN It was a week before the premiere, and Bright Sheng, the composer and co-librettist of the new opera ‘‘Dream of the Red Chamber,’’ was already bracing for the backlash. To create his version of Cao Xueqin’s sprawling 18th-century classic about the decline of an aristocratic family in imperial China, Mr. Sheng reduced the book to its bare bones. The novel — over 2,400 pages in its standard English translation, twice as long as ‘‘War and Peace’’ — is told in a mere two hours and 20 minutes. Hundreds of characters have been cut, leaving just eight main figures in the final show, which runs through Sept. 29 at San Francisco Opera. The book’s many die-hard fans may not be pleased. ‘‘You can’t win with this, no matter what you do,’’ Mr. Sheng said after a recent rehearsal. ‘‘People will love you or hate you.’’ Such are the perils of adapting any beloved story. And to many in the Chinesespeaking world, ‘‘Dream of the Red Chamber’’ is that and more, widely regarded as a masterpiece — if not the masterpiece — of Chinese literature. Realizing the inevitable weight of expectations, the San Francisco Opera enlisted a team of creative heavyweights, all of Asian descent, to create the $3 million production. Mr. Sheng wrote the libretto with David Henry Hwang, the Tony Awardwinning playwright. Stan Lai, an acclaimed playwright and director, has staged the work, and Tim Yip, who won an Academy Award for art direction for his work on Ang Lee’s film ‘‘Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,’’ has designed the sets and costumes. The opera will be sung in English and accompanied by supertitles in English and Chinese. ‘‘We wanted it to have its own authenticity as a piece of operatic storytelling,’’ OPERA, PAGE 11 JASON HENRY FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Yijie Shi, center, during ‘‘Dream of the Red Chamber,’’ at the San Francisco Opera. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 11 exhibitions music books culture Prison honors a famous inmate READING, ENGLAND OPERA, FROM PAGE 10 Oscar Wilde gets a tribute at the facility that once jailed him BY FARAH NAYERI The Victorian prison compound at Reading near London would be just another penal facility if it weren’t for one star inmate: Oscar Wilde, who spent two excruciating years here from 1895 to 1897, after he was convicted of committing homosexual acts. Wilde was locked up in his cell 23 hours a day, and barred from any human contact during the hour he spent outside. Upon his release, he wrote about the gruesome conditions in a letter to the editor of the Daily Chronicle: including the ‘‘revolting sanitary arrangements,’’ with one small tin vessel per cell; and the innumerable cases of mental illness and insanity. Reading Prison went on being a functioning jail until 2013. Now, it is hosting a multidisciplinary tribute to Wilde (until Oct. 30) by a high-profile group of artists, writers and performers including Nan Goldin, Marlene Dumas, Ai Weiwei, Steve McQueen and Patti Smith. For the first time in the prison’s history, the public can actually visit its central wings, and spend time inside Wilde’s cell. ‘‘Inside: Artists and Writers in Reading Prison’’ is the brainchild of the artproducer duo Artangel, known for staging shows and events in unexpected locations. (They earned fame in 1993 with ‘‘House,’’ a temporary sculpture that involved the artist Rachel Whiteread making a concrete cast of the inside of a threestory house earmarked for demolition.) The duo lobbied the Ministry of Justice for permission to put on the show. ‘‘We thought: if we have the opportunity to make a project here, we ‘‘When Oscar Wilde was here, prisoners were basically kept on their own in their cells almost all the time, and there was almost no sound.’’ MARCUS J LEITH FOR ARTANGEL Above, Marlene Dumas’s painting of Oscar Wilde seen from inside a cell at Reading Prison in England; left, Wilde’s narrow cell; below, a photo of Wilde and his lover Lord Alfred Douglas, by Gillman & Co. (1893); below left, the exterior of the prison. MORLEY VON STERNBERG NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON MORLEY VON STERNBERG should think very carefully about how we could do that — not to sensationalize the experience, but to try and bring together a group of artists and writers to whom the place would speak,’’ said James Lingwood, Artangel’s co-director. ‘‘Without exception, the artists that we wanted to be our A List are here.’’ The exhibition is like a scavenger hunt. It starts in the prison’s tall, domed atrium, from which rows of cells dart out America opera company adapts Chinese epic novel on several floors. There is no suggested itinerary; visitors make their own way through the prison wings. Some of the cells they walk into are empty; others contain artworks by artists including Marlene Dumas and Richard Hamilton, videos by Nan Goldin, and/or headsets with which to listen to readings of texts written and voiced by authors such as Mr. Ai and Jeanette Winterson. Only 100 visitors will be admitted every hour, Mr. Lingwood said. ‘‘One of the things that was very important to us was that the soundtrack to the whole experience be silence,’’ he said. ‘‘When Oscar Wilde was here, prisoners were basically kept on their own in their cells almost all the time, and there was almost no sound.’’ ‘‘We want people to be deeply moved, to reflect,’’ he added. Wilde’s cell is a haunting, narrow space (3.4 meters by 2.15 meters) with painted brick walls, a tall vaulted ceiling, and a high window. There are no artworks to distract visitors inside it. In a neighboring cell are vintage copies of the books that he requested to read while in jail: volumes by Saint Augustine, and Pascal, and poetry by Wordsworth, Keats and Hafiz. The only authentic relic of Wilde’s time in the prison is the door of his cell — a sturdy piece of wood with heavy bolts and a peephole at the top. The door is set like an altarpiece on a plinth by the French artist Jean-Michel Pancin. Every Sunday, a specific performer (from a list including Ms. Smith, the actor Ralph Fiennes, and the author Colm Toibin) stands on the plinth and do a complete, five-to-six-hour reading of ‘‘De Profundis,’’ the soulful 50,000-word text that Wilde produced at Reading. (Ms. Smith will do an abridged reading, Mr. Lingwood said.) The visual artworks in the show are wide-ranging, from direct depictions of Wilde to loose evocations of captivity. Ms. Dumas, a South African-born painter, has produced a stirring portrait of Wilde beside a small, yellowish rendering of his young lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, nicknamed Bosie, whose father was responsible for the author’s imprisonment. In another cell, Dumas portrays the French author Jean Genet, who was also openly homosexual and served time in jail. Nearby, the American photographer Nan Goldin presents a revisited projection of Genet’s homoerotic movie ‘‘Un Chant d’Amour,’’ extracts from an early hand-tinted film of Wilde’s play ‘‘Salome,’’ and wall-to-wall photographs (many of them nudes) of the German actor Clemens Schick, Goldin’s male muse. In other wings of the prison, the artist Wolfgang Tillmans — who visited Reading earlier this year — displays inkjet print images of his twisted face as reflected in a mirror inside a cell. The artist and filmmaker Steve McQueen has wrapped one of the prison’s cell beds in a gold-plated mosquito net. The written texts (which can be listened to through headsets) include a letter from Mr. Ai to his son Ai Lao, describing the 81 days that he spent in secret detention in China in 2011; and a letter from the author Gillian Slovo to her mother Ruth First, a political activist who was assassinated in 1982 by the South African secret services while she was in exile in Mozambique. As for the Reading jail itself, local-government plans to redevelop it into a more permanent cultural site have been halted by the Ministry of Justice. The BBC reported in October that the ministry is keeping the jail on standby in case of a sudden surge in the prison population. said Matthew Shilvock, San Francisco Opera’s new general director. ‘‘But we also wanted it to be something that would resonate with people who grew up with and love the novel, as well.’’ A number of Chinese-Western amalgam operas have been created in recent years. Many of these, including the Metropolitan Opera’s ‘‘First Emperor,’’ the Pulitzer Prize-winning ‘‘Madame White Snake’’ and even the San Francisco Opera’s ‘‘The Bonesetter’s Daughter’’ have struggled to enter the repertory. Still, Mr. Shilvock said, presenting new work ‘‘also has great potential to attract excitement in a way that the standard repertory piece doesn’t always.’’ With ‘‘Dream of the Red Chamber,’’ the company is seeking to tap a growing interest in Western-style opera among Asians and Asian-Americans in the Bay Area. The production arrives eight years after San Francisco Opera’s highly successful premiere run of ‘‘The Bonesetter’s Daughter,’’ based on Amy Tan’s novel about a Chinese-American family. ‘‘‘Bonesetter’s Daughter’ was very, very popular and it was certainly the most popular new work that we did here during my time,’’ said David Gockley, who retired in July as the company’s general director. ‘‘Its success caused me to have my ear to the ground to locate another piece that would be interesting for our Chinese population.’’ Not long after ‘‘The Bonesetter’s Daughter,’’ the Minneapolis-based Chinese Heritage Foundation approached Mr. Gockley about adapting ‘‘Dream of the Red Chamber.’’ ‘‘I, of course, Googled it to death,’’ he said, ‘‘and learned more about it from members of our Chinese community here in San Francisco. The response I got was that there is not a Chinese or a Chinese-American that has not grown up and had some contact with this piece in some form.’’ Mr. Gockley turned to Mr. Sheng, a composer known for his skillful synthesis of traditional Chinese and Western musical styles. Even before signing on, the Shanghai-born Mr. Sheng was already what he called a ‘‘dilettante Redologist,’’ a nickname for the literary scholars who have dedicated their lives to studying the novel. Having read the book several times — first as a teenager during the Cultural Revolution, when it was banned — he understood the scale of the task. Deciding to focus on the central love triangle, Mr. Sheng was able to persuade Mr. Hwang, who had rebuffed initial requests, to write the libretto. ‘‘In the beginning, it just seemed like there were a lot of ways we could get it wrong,’’ Mr. Hwang said. ‘‘Really, the thing that convinced me was that Bright had a vision about how to boil the story down.’’ ‘‘Plus,’’ he added jokingly, ‘‘Bright grew up during the Cultural Revolution in China, and I grew up in L.A., so his will is stronger than mine.’’ Mr. Yip, the designer, who previously worked on a Chinese television adaptation of the novel, has sought to create a dreamlike effect with the sets. Painted panels rise and fall to create different patterns, like a loom — a reference to Cao Xueqin’s family business, making silk brocade for the emperor. ‘‘You can’t win with this, no matter what you do.’’ The opera revolves around the mythological Stone and Flower, who come down to earth from heaven. Stone becomes Bao Yu (in San Francisco, the tenor Yijie Shi), the spoiled heir to the wealthy Jia family, and Flower becomes Dai Yu (the soprano Pureum Jo), a sickly, poetic young woman who comes to live with the Jias after the death of her mother. Bao Yu and Dai Yu are in love, but his mother orders him to marry Bao Chai (the mezzo-soprano Irene Roberts), a beautiful heiress, to pay back the Jia family’s debt to the emperor. Bao Yu is defiant, but his love for Dai Yu is ultimately thwarted in a bride swap during a climactic wedding scene. In the final sequence, Dai Yu departs in a mournful chorus: ‘‘When spring has fled, and beauty is spent, who cares for the fallen petals? Both flower and maiden return to dust.’’ Mr. Lai, the director, said: ‘‘Impermanence and the fleeting quality of life — these are things that are very Buddhist and quintessentially Chinese. The biggest challenge was expressing these kinds of ideas for a Western audience in the limited moments you have.’’ In March, the opera will travel to the Hong Kong Arts Festival. Trips into the unknown on an East Jerusalem tour JERUSALEM, FROM PAGE 10 For 25 minutes, the group sipped coffee and listened as Mr. Muna laid bare his thoughts on what he described as Israel’s muzzling of cultural and religious leaders (‘‘It’s created an incredible amount of contradiction in our society’’); how he harnesses culture to create more political discourse (‘‘We are politicizing culture because it’s the only venue available to us’’); and even the spate of Palestinian knife attacks in the city (‘‘Israeli soldiers may be your friends or loved ones, but to us they are a symbol of the occupation, and a legitimate target’’). Yiscah Smith, an American-born transgender activist on the tour who lives in Nachlaot, a West Jerusalem neighborhood, left the American Colony shaken by Mr. Muna’s words. ‘‘It really disturbed me, and that’s good — that’s the reason I came,’’ she said. (Ms. Smith will tell her own story as part of a different ‘‘Dissolving Boundaries’’ tour this month.) ‘‘We need to hear these things. We need to not be afraid of it.’’ Ms. Brunwasser, a Philadelphia native who has lived in Jerusalem for 11 years, said the Jerusalem Season of Culture — which is staffed almost exclusively by Israeli Jews — understood its limitations in designing the tour. ‘‘We want to blur boundaries in the city, but we also don’t pretend we aren’t who we are and the situation in Jerusalem isn’t the situation,’’ she said. ‘‘The reality on the ground is that the majority of our audiences are still Israeli. And we knew that for our audiences, just stopping and getting off the train in Beit Hanina would be something that most of them had never done.’’ Bizarre behavior: Dr. Jekyll offline, Mr. Hyde on The Cybereffect. A Pioneering Cyberpsychologist Explains How Human Behavior Changes Online. By Mary Aiken. 387 pages. Spiegel & Grau. $28. BY JON RONSON Mary Aiken is sitting against a concrete wall in a police briefing room in South Los Angeles. ‘‘My stomach is churning, a combination of hunger, jet lag and apprehension.’’ She’s tagging along on a police raid of the biggest human trafBOOK REVIEW ficker in the United States. ‘‘It is unexpectedly chilly this morning. Fortunately I have a bulletproof vest and a steel ballistic helmet to keep me warm. … How on earth did I get here?’’ She got there by being a ‘‘forensic cyberpsychologist’’ — an adviser to Interpol, the F.B.I. and the White House on the psychology of online criminals. This is a much more exciting-sounding job title than the rest of us who write about the dark side of the internet tend to have, and she’s not afraid to play her advantage. She often begins a thought by writing, ‘‘As a forensic cyberpsychologist …’’ Even though our dysfunctional relationship with technology is the story of our times, readers often prejudge books on the topic as boring. So I’d have loved Ms. Aiken to continue in this thrilling — if slightly hacky — vein. Unfortunately, the raid is over within a couple of pages, and after that ‘‘The Cyber Effect’’ frequently descends into the familiar trudge of the pop-psychology book. There are the regular research stud- ies — on disinhibition, moral disengagement and deep vein thrombosis — peppered with anomalous case studies: the boy who played World of Warcraft for 36 hours straight and then jumped out of a window; the 12-year-old Wisconsin girls who stabbed a classmate 19 times while in thrall to Slender Man, a monster they had read about online and misjudged as real. Ms. Aiken sometimes ends these horrifying stories noting that this ‘‘is an extreme and thankfully uncommon example,’’ which makes you wonder why she included them. In fact, one of the Slender Man girls later received a diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia, though Ms. Aiken suggests that might have been the internet’s fault too. This is her provocative and at times compelling thesis: The internet — ‘‘the largest unregulated social experiment of all time,’’ in the words of the clinical psychologist Michael Seto — is turning us, as a species, more mentally disordered, anxious, obsessive, narcissistic, exhibitionist, body dysmorphic, psychopathic, schizophrenic. All this might unleash a ‘‘surge in deviant, criminal and abnormal behavior in the general population.’’ We check our mobile devices 1,500 times a week, sometimes even secretly, before the plane’s pilot tells us it’s safe. Our ethics have become so impaired that some of us take selfies in front of people threatening to jump from bridges. (Having spent years with people disproportionately shamed on social media for some minor transgression, I can attest to how the internet can rob people of empathy.) She paints an evocative image of sitting on a train to Galway, watching a BRÁULIO AMADO woman breast-feed her baby: ‘‘The baby was gazing foggily upward … looking adoringly at the mother’s jaw, as the mother continued to gaze adoringly at her device.’’ How will such a seemingly tiny behavioral shift like less eye contact between mother and baby play out over time? Ms. Aiken asks. ‘‘This small and simple thing, millions of babies around the world getting less eye contact and less one-on-one attention, could result in an evolutionary blip. Yes, I said it. Evolutionary blip. Less eye contact could change the course of human civilization.’’ If you think she’s getting a little overblown here, so do I. She makes important observations but weakens them by wildly overplaying her hand. Take the chapters on online pornography. It’s startling that a generation of 8- to 12year-olds is learning about sex via eas- ily accessible free porn. And the porn itself is getting more lurid than ever, thanks to the tech world’s devotion to algorithms. ‘‘Extreme content and scary scenarios, which always draw the most adult eyeballs, can be presented first … due to the popularity of the sensational information,’’ she explains. But then, while writing about how the internet normalizes aberrant sexual behavior, she lays into ‘‘Fifty Shades of Grey’’ for introducing ‘‘serious paraphilias, sexual sadism disorder and sexual masochism disorder, to the general reading public as a fun and fascinating pastime.’’ Surely, few of the novel’s millions of readers have fallen into sexual pandemonium. She diagnoses the former New York representative Anthony Weiner — who resigned from Congress after a sexting scandal — with ‘‘exhibitionistic disorder,’’ a paraphilia ‘‘that centers on a need to expose one’s genitals to others. … I call this cyber-exhibitionism.’’ After labeling Mr. Weiner from afar — never a likable practice, and one that has been banned as irresponsible by the American Psychiatric Association — she goes on to sucker-punch him. After he disastrously attempted to run for mayor of New York, reporters asked him what he planned to do next. ‘‘He whipped out his middle finger and flipped the bird,’’ Ms. Aiken writes. ‘‘Perhaps the next best thing to the open raincoat.’’ Actually, Mr. Weiner flipped the bird for reasons that had nothing to do with exhibitionism. He was evidently venting his frustration at a media that had, throughout his campaign, fixated on his scandal while ignoring his policies. At times like this, ‘‘The Cyber Effect’’ can feel like a nasty book. Then there’s the constant unhelpful mental health labeling. Internet trolls have ‘‘a set of characteristics that are found together in a cluster: narcissism, sadism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism.’’ She declares herself scandalized that hypersexual disorder was snubbed for inclusion in the DSM-5, making her a member of a rare group — someone who thinks there aren’t enough mental disorders in the DSM. In one particularly objectionable passage, she compares a 10-year-old boy showing his school friends a picture of his topless ‘‘very young girlfriend’’ to adult sex offenders who ‘‘generate an original indecent image of a child’’ to prove they have ‘‘access to a victim — and to original content.’’ While troubling, a middle schooler sharing photographs of his middle-school girlfriend with his peers does not equate to a propensity toward child pornography. Assertions like that are a small step from advocating that children be criminalized and placed on the sex offenders’ registry for this kind of behavior. (To her credit she later notes that law enforcement should differentiate between ‘‘teenage voluntary sexual exploration’’ and the ‘‘criminal generation of child abuse material.’’ So why liken the two so alarmingly herself?) Given that Ms. Aiken is a forensic cyberpsychologist, it’s no surprise that she tends to advocate ‘‘more governance’’ and ‘‘more regulation.’’ But there’s something a little ‘‘Reefer Madness’’ about this book. I wish it were less stigmatizing and more humanizing. Not every troll is a psychopath. Still, I nodded vigorously at times — especially at Ms. Aiken’s assertion that ‘‘the greatest trick social media and telecom companies ever pulled is trying to convince us that they can do nothing about cyberbullying.’’ Try complaining to Twitter when you’ve been subjected to abuse on their platform. You’ll almost certainly get a form letter telling you the abuse isn’t in contravention of their policies. But then Ms. Aiken undermines her case by accusing ‘‘device manufacturers’’ and ‘‘internet providers’’ of ‘‘collectively participating in the abuse of that child’’ when he or she comes across pornography or images of decapitation online. What? That’s Tim Cook’s fault? ‘‘All those complicit should be held accountable,’’ she writes. ‘‘Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, have pledged to donate 99 percent of their Facebook shares to the cause of human advancement. That represents about $45 billion at Facebook’s current valuation. I would respectfully suggest that all of this money be directed toward human problems associated with social media.’’ Oh, come on! All of it? While sporadically absorbing, ‘‘The Cyber Effect,’’ like the internet, frequently takes things out of proportion and creates hysteria from fragments. Jon Ronson is the author of ‘‘So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed.’’ His forthcoming series on sex and the internet — ‘‘The Butterfly Effect’’ — is being produced by Audible. ONLINE: MORE ON BOOKS For podcasts, reviews and other news visit nytimes.com/books 12 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES Sports soccer hockey tennis Welcome to the party. Now do your homework. SOCCER M A N C H EST E R, E N G L A N D Leicester, the Premier League champion, is schooled in the finer points of the Champions League before its start. BY RORY SMITH In the course of 155 pages, no detail is considered too fine, no issue deemed too trivial. From the level of glare given off by the stadium lights to the size of a club mascot — “only slightly larger than a normal person” — the manual issued by UEFA to every entrant in the Champions League, soccer’s most glamorous club competition, covers it. A vast majority of the teams preparing for the first round of group games this week, of course, will know many of the rules and regulations by heart. Bayern Munich, Barcelona, Juventus and the defending champion, Real Madrid, are here every year. They know that each dressing room should contain three individual seated toilets, that there must be space on the covered substitutes’ bench for 14 people, and that the sponsor’s logo on a goalkeeper’s gloves must not exceed 20 square centimeters. They will already have the position of the compulsory “beauty camera” — placed to offer a panoramic shot of the stadium — fixed in their minds. Their groundskeeping staff will be aware that each half of the playing surface must contain nine stripes of uniform width, the first four of them precisely 5.5 meters. The staff preparing the team’s gear will remember that the 600 Respect badges the clubs will be sent should be affixed to the left sleeve of all shirts, not the right, just as the equipment man will have set aside space to store the 84 official Adidas match balls he will receive. For newcomers like Leicester City, though, it is not just on the field where mixing with Europe’s elite will be an eye-opener. Claudio Ranieri, the club’s Italian manager, might only have turned his full attention to his team’s first Champions League game — in Belgium, against Club Brugge, on Wednesday — after falling to Liverpool during the weekend. But many at the club have spent months coming to realize that it takes more than being champions to make a Champions League club. For Ranieri and his squad, their job was done on April 19, when Manchester City’s failure to beat Newcastle United confirmed Leicester’s place in this season’s group stage. That had been Ranieri’s revised target for months. Only once that was secure did he drop his guard, just a little, and start explicitly discussing the faintly ludicrous possibility that Leicester might win the Premier League title. Two weeks later, as the city erupted in MICHAEL REGAN/GETTY IMAGES Leicester City, lifting the Premier League trophy last May, has played host to UEFA inspectors who check details like the size of the club’s mascot and the glare of stadium lights. astonished joy to celebrate the most remarkable championship of the modern era, those behind the scenes at the club were already conscious of the scale of the task that awaited them. The players might have met — and surpassed — their target, but for everybody else, the work was just beginning. Before the season had finished, Leicester already had appointed Andrew Neville, the club’s football director, as the point of contact for UEFA, European soccer’s governing body. Several members of the staff had contacted friends in the game who had worked with UEFA previously to conduct a preliminary site visit, before UEFA sent its own team to assess Leicester’s King Power Stadium during the summer. The stadium had never hosted European competition, so Leicester officials wanted to be forewarned about any potential problems. UEFA’s inspection team of nine arrived during the off-season. As they do at every home stadium, its members spent a full day in Leicester, holding meetings with officials on ticketing and news media arrangements, as well as meeting the police and Leicester’s security team. There was also a two-hour tour of the stadium by members of the club-led local organizing committee. The in-depth report UEFA’s advance team produced was then sent to the club, complete with a list of every issue the team would need to address to make sure the stadium met UEFA standards. As with the Champions League manual, no stone is left unturned. Everything from Leicester’s news media facilities — clubs must provide 30 positions for international broadcasters, as opposed to 18 in the Premier League, and ample seating for print and online reporters — to the resolution of the LED advertising boards that run along the edge of the field was evaluated. Even with the help of UEFA, which assigns a venue director to each stadium that will be used in the Champions League, the workload has been intense. If Leicester’s sudden success came as a surprise to the soccer world, to some extent, it caught the club unaware, too. Compared with the operations departments of England’s other Champions League entrants — Arsenal, Manchester City and Tottenham, all of whom are regulars in European competition — Leicester’s internal staff was more commensurate with that of a team at the lower end of the Premier League than one of Europe’s superclubs. That led to a recruitment drive this summer across a host of departments, but many staff members have found themselves doing multiple jobs while newcomers are sourced and trained. UEFA, at least, provides support, and direction. Workshops were held for all 32 teams before and after the group stage draw at Grimaldi Forum in Monte Carlo last month, on subjects ranging from ticketing to antidoping. Pierluigi Collina, the former referee well known for his familiar bald pate and gleaming eyes, held a talk on officiating; his Italian countryman, Giorgio Marchetti, conducted one on the competition’s regulations. Once those discussions finished, teams withdrew into private conclaves among the clubs drawn in the same group to discuss when fixtures would be held for both the senior teams and their UEFA Youth League equivalents, who hold a concurrent competition, as well as travel arrangements and predictions about how many fans might be expected to attend. All clubs are expected to recommend hotels to their opponents: Leicester offered the teams in its group — Club Brugge, F.C. Porto and F.C. Copenhagen — a choice of two within easy reach of King Power Stadium, with another halfdozen in case the visitors preferred a more idyllic location in the County of Leicestershire, the self-appointed Heart of Rural England. That, of course, led to yet more work. Leicester has sent reconnaissance teams to Belgium, Portugal and Denmark to establish where, precisely, the club would stay for its away trips, finalizing arrangements only after their recommendations were approved by Neville, the director of football Jon Rudkin and Ranieri himself. Now, at last, the end is in sight. The team is ready for the trip to Bruges — Ranieri and his players will fly out on a chartered plane on Tuesday morning — and King Power Stadium is, more or less, up to UEFA’s exacting standards ahead of Porto’s arrival for Leicester’s first home match, in two weeks. The final job will fall to John Ledwidge, the groundsman whose creativity inspired so many of Leicester’s eyecatching field designs toward the end of last season. This time, he will have clear instructions: “The height of the grass may not exceed 30 millimeters. The grass should be cut in straight lines, across the width of the pitch, perpendicular to the touchline. No other form of grass cutting (diagonal, circles, etc.) is permitted.” It is all there, in the manual. Page 95. Sweden is poised to soar at World Cup Champion with a vulnerable side HOCKEY A R L I N GTO N , VA . TENNIS Team’s defenders combine extraordinary talent with years of deep experience With 3 Grand Slam titles, Wawrinka still considers himself an outsider BY THE ASSOCIATED PRESS BY CHRISTOPHER CLAREY Victor Hedman may be one of the best defensemen in the N.H.L., but even he has found himself in awe of the talent of his teammates on Sweden’s blue line for the World Cup of Hockey. Hedman has watched the two-time Norris Trophy winner Erik Karlsson and Oliver Ekman-Larsson, a potential future Norris winner, man the power play. He has stepped onto the ice with his Tampa Bay defensive partner Anton Stralman to rekindle the chemistry that got the Lightning to the Stanley Cup final in 2015. And he has seen Niklas Hjalmarsson, who has won three Stanley Cups with the Chicago Blackhawks, blocking shots while Mattias Ekholm and Hampus Lindholm move the puck all over the ice. Sweden’s defense may be one of the best-constructed units in international play. “The competition there is, especially on D, it’s pretty remarkable,” Hedman said. “You look at the guys that didn’t make it. You have that kind of talent on the back end, it makes you appreciate being here.” John Klingberg of the Dallas Stars, who finished sixth in Norris Trophy voting last season, missed the cut and Sweden already has had to use one injury replacement after Niklas Kronwall withdrew from the tournament, which will begin Saturday in Toronto. Yet the greatness of the Swedish blue line is not just in its depth of talent but in its diversity. Karlsson, the Ottawa Senators’ captain, is a point-producing machine who can play 30 minutes a game just like Hedman, a 6-foot-6 force who skates well for his size. Ekman-Larsson of the Arizona Coyotes is somewhere in between after modeling his game on his countryman, Nicklas Lidstrom. “Obviously we feel very fortunate that we have that many defensemen we can pick from and all kinds of different defensemen, too,” Coach Rickard Gronborg said. “It feels like we have quite a few players to choose from, and we have excellent players that are not on the team but obviously we’ve got to make a cut somewhere and these are the guys After being raised on a Swiss farm, Stan Wawrinka took quite some time to feel as though he belonged in the grandest cities and grandest matches. “The first years when I came to New York, everything was too big and too much,” he said. “For me it was too difficult here, but bit by bit, it became one of my favorite places.” The love affair has only deepened after Sunday night’s four-set victory over Novak Djokovic in the United States Open final. The Arthur Ashe Stadium crowd, amplified by the new roof overhead, was audibly in his corner as he closed out a duel that was much more brutal than the final-set score of 6-3 would indicate. “I got the chills before serving for the match,” he said. “So much noise. So many people. I remember three years ago when I played Novak here, I lost in five sets and I got a standing ovation, and I got chills then, too.” Even at age 31, Wawrinka still has air of the ingénue about him, with his voice that still cracks and his openness about his vulnerabilities. In interviews, particularly in his native French, he lets you in — sharing his hopes and fears (and tears). How many star athletes would have volunteered that they cried because of the stress they were under just five minutes before walking on the court for Sunday’s final? Not many. But one of the keys to his success is how little of his own internal struggle and fatigue he had allowed to filter through once he made it out on court. Wawrinka certainly has a volatile side. He has berated himself plenty in public and broken many a racket. At the 2014 ATP World Tour Finals in London, he even lost his cool midmatch after being heckled by Mirka Federer, the wife of his friend and opponent Roger Federer. But down the stretch in New York this year, he was comparatively self-contained. Yes, he bellowed after big points, but in general, he channeled his energy into the essential: pointing repeatedly to his temple as he took out three very CHANG W. LEE/THE NEW YORK TIMES Erik Karlsson, in front, is part of a Swedish defense that is seen as even more talented than the lineup that played in the final against Canada in the 2014 Sochi Olympics. we feel like we’re going to win the battle with when the tournament starts.” Sweden reached the final at the 2014 Sochi Olympics after somehow leaving Hedman and Stralman off the roster and benching Ekman-Larsson. This team’s defense is deeper and more talented — and it has the benefit of time. “I just think we have a little bit more experience,” Karlsson said. “Most of the guys that are here played in the Olympics and that was two years ago, and everybody since then has gotten more mature and more experience and become better players, so I think that’s why we have a better blue line now than we did two years ago.” The Rangers goaltender, Henrik Lundqvist, who was a big part of the run in Sochi and helped Sweden to gold at the 2006 Olympics, said it was hard to rate this group against others. But he appreciates his country’s proud heritage on defense. “It’s been one of our strengths throughout the years, I think, to have a good D group,” Lundqvist said. “I think a lot of D-men growing up in Sweden really learn how to read the game well and play the puck well. They don’t just dump it in and go. They really try to make plays.” Canada has the Norris winner Drew Doughty, the formidable Shea Weber and other top N.H.L. players on its blue line, but Sweden enters the tournament with the best group of puck movers. Its power play was impressive in an exhibition victory against Finland on Saturday, and there was still time to tweak things before Sweden plays its World Cup opener Sunday against Russia. Lundqvist said Sweden was still working on playing as a unit, a dangerous prospect for the other seven teams. And there are enough versatile pieces to survive penalties and injuries and for players to be used at their positions of strength. “I think everybody on the blue line can do everything,” Ekman-Larsson said. “We’re good skaters, we’re really good with the puck. Hopefully we can use that in our favor.” dangerous opponents in a row by chasing down tennis balls and then pummeling them, although crucially not always pummeling them. It was quite a week’s work from a man who had not beaten a top-10 player this year before the United States Open. In the quarterfinals, he stopped the Olympic silver medalist Juan Martín del Potro, who had upset him at Wimbledon in July. In the semifinals, Wawrinka held off the Olympic bronze medalist Kei Nishkori, who had beaten him at the Rogers Cup in Toronto last month. Then came the highest hurdle: Djokovic, the world’s longstanding No. 1 player from Serbia, who had beaten him in four of their last five matches and 19 of 23 over all. But Wawrinka, unlike nearly every other tennis player on the planet, knew he could deal with prime Djokovic after having come back to beat him in the 2014 Australian Open quarterfinals and the 2015 French Open final. How many athletes would have volunteered that they cried just before walking on the court for the U.S. Open final? “I was focusing and trying not to show anything,” Wawrinka said Monday in an interview with reporters atop Rockefeller Center, with Manhattan laid out below him in the sunshine. “Yesterday, I knew it was really important because we all know how good Novak is and how he can take from a little thing you give him, he will bite it and he will take it.” Wawrinka wanted to give Djokovic as little cause for optimism as possible, and as the final played out, it was Djokovic who broke down after a fast start. He was the one hollering at his entourage, rolling his eyes, spreading his arms in frustration or smiling sardonically. He was the one, after all the grueling corner-to-corner rallies, who ended up with bloody blisters on his toes and grabbing at his legs as if he were about to cramp. And he was the one — whether or not there was gamesmanship in the mix — who felt compelled to take two injury timeouts for those blisters in the final set. “I think I’m one of the few who managed to make him crack physically in a Grand Slam, and that for me is something enormous,” Wawrinka said. It has been a surprising second half to the tennis season. After Djokovic won his first French Open in June, he held all four major singles titles. Who would have predicted then that he would fail to win Wimbledon, an Olympic medal or the United States Open? For Djokovic, there have been unspecified personal problems, an injured left wrist and on-court volatility, which was already simmering during the claycourt season and at Roland Garros. All this surely contributed to Wawrinka’s sense, despite his stage fright in the locker room, that he could take down Djokovic. “I had a feeling that this time, I have even more confidence to beat him,” Wawrinka said. And yet he remains reluctant to surrender his outsider’s role, which is working quite well. He is lightning quick to argue against expanding the Big Four — Djokovic, Federer, Rafael Nadal and Andy Murray — to the Big Five to make room for him, pointing out his own inconsistency. Still, in the last three years, he has won three major singles titles, which ties him with Murray for fourth place in this rightly named Golden Age behind Federer’s 17, Nadal’s 14 and Djokovic’s 12. Federer, by the way, owes his friend and compatriot Wawrinka a thank-you note for keeping Djokovic from closing the historical gap. But Wawrinka is in quite a club of his own as the first man since Jaroslav Drobny in the 1950s to win three majors after starting his run so late: at age 28 in Wawrinka’s case. Boundaries, mental and physical, are expanding. Like a diesel engine, Wawrinka takes time to warm up, but once he does, he has plenty of staying power. He talked Monday about how much he needed to get into long, draining rallies early on against Djokovic so that the pain in his legs would help him forget about the pressure. “That way, you focus more on things that are useful, and you don’t let your mind wander where it shouldn’t,” Wawrinka explained. Now, a player whose early career goals were, at most, modest lacks only one Grand Slam singles title: Wimbledon. Marian Vajda, one of Djokovic’s coaches, said he did not know how confident Wawrinka would be on grass. “He’s kind of a mysterious guy,” Vajda said. “He always doesn’t believe, and he gets it when he doesn’t believe.” Wawrinka has yet to get past the quarterfinals at the All England Club, but there is no mystery at this stage. Write him off at your peril, particularly if he faces a certain Serbian for the title. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 13 n.f.l. sports Protests revive spirit of activism from the days of Ali BY JOHN ELIGON AND SCOTT CACCIOLA Colin Kaepernick, the San Francisco 49ers quarterback who touched off a national debate when he chose not to stand during the playing of the national anthem before games, has emboldened a handful of other players to follow suit. In a protest against racial injustice, four Miami Dolphins players knelt on Sunday during the anthem, and a member of the Kansas City Chiefs raised his fist before a separate game, saying later that he had been acting in solidarity with Kaepernick. Two players from the New England Patriots and three from the Tennessee Titans also raised their fists. Those actions were considered radical because they happened amid a sports landscape where provocative stances by prominent athletes have been rare, even during surging and searing national discussions over race, justice and politics. According to current and former athletes and sports officials, professional athletes find themselves preoccupied with financial and branding concerns; an all-for-one-and-one-for-all sports culture; and fan bases that expect athletes to “shut up and play.” “If you don’t know what you’re up against, you’re screwing yourself,” said Ricky Jean Francois, a defensive end for the Washington Redskins. “You may lose your job. You may lose your endorsement. You may lose your relationship with high-ranking people. Guys don’t want to lose what they worked so hard for throughout their whole career.” Most athlete advocacy today tends to be in support of established causes. Many influential athletes, on social media or in the occasional forum, have made modest pleas against violence and for better race relations. Others have gone a step further. Miami Heat players posed for a picture wearing hoodies in 2012 after the shooting death of Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Fla. In 2014, basketball players from college to the pros warmed up in T-shirts that declared, “I Can’t Breathe” — a rallying cry for protesters after a New York police officer’s chokehold led to the death of Eric Garner on Staten Island. The University of Missouri football team last year refused to play until the university system president resigned STEPHEN BRASHEAR/ASSOCIATED PRESS Miami players refusing to stand for the national anthem. In recent years, provocative stances by prominent athletes have been rare. over the university’s perceived handling of racial tensions. (He resigned two days after the boycott was announced.) In July, several W.N.B.A. players wore T-shirts during warm-ups in support of the Black Lives Matter movement and five police officers then recently killed in Dallas. They received fines, later rescinded. That same month, four of the N.B.A.’s biggest stars — Carmelo Anthony, LeBron James, Chris Paul and Dwyane Wade — opened the ESPY Awards by urging fellow athletes to push for change on issues of race, policing and violence. Still, few recent athletes have stuck their necks out as far as Kaepernick has, let alone become firebrands like the ones remembered by previous generations. The brashness of Jack Johnson, a black boxer in the early 20th century, could have gotten him lynched — and, in fact, got him jailed, for having a romantic relationship with a white woman. NON SEQUITUR SUDOKU from teams and sponsors for athletes to censor themselves. “The less distractions for teams, the better,” Childress said. “I just think it’s in their best interests to keep you in the athlete box. Unless you just have some quirky personality thing that makes you more likable, or you’re really, really good, they want to just keep business as usual: Do your job on the court, and let’s keep the distractions to a minimum.” Today’s athletes are “not disruptive enough,” said Brendon Ayanbadejo, a former N.F.L. player who began voicing support for same-sex marriage rights in 2008, before they had been affirmed by most states. “I think if you want to be heard and you want to make a difference, you have to be disruptive. That’s the way your story is going to get picked up.” But such a move can be difficult when athletes find themselves confronting unwritten rules against talking about race, religion and politics. PEANUTS DOONESBURY CLASSIC 1987 GARFIELD CALVIN AND HOBBES WIZARD of ID DILBERT No. 1409 1 3 8 2 6 4 8 4 Created by Peter Ritmeester/Presented by Will Shortz (c) PZZL.com Distributed by The New York Times syndicate 4 5 Muhammad Ali missed some of his prime boxing years because he refused to fight in the Vietnam War. The Olympic sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos were suspended and sent home from the 1968 Summer Games after they thrust their fists into the air in a gesture of black solidarity. Smith and Carlos returned home to death threats, and their Olympic careers were effectively over. But Johnson and Ali competed in an individual sport and, because they were acting before professional sports were big business, did not risk losing the kind of huge endorsement deals that exist today. Team owners sometimes send subtle signals that players should avoid rocking the boat, to prevent a blizzard of political and social opinion. Josh Childress, who has played eight seasons in the N.B.A. and spent part of last season with the Texas Legends of the N.B.A. Development League, said there was “definitely a silent pressure” men by the police — have wrought vigorous and often fiery debate over race relations and justice. With the United States’ major sports leagues in some cases dominated by African-American players, some have felt compelled to speak out. But Anthony, a star forward for the Knicks, has expressed frustration that the action often ends at those statements, or the occasional joining of a march. Over the summer, after the police shootings in Baton Rouge, La., and suburban Minneapolis and the killing of five police officers in Dallas, Anthony posted an impassioned plea on Instagram. He called on athletes to do more than march and send messages on Twitter and, instead, “to put the pressure on the people in charge” to get “justice.” He later organized a town-hall-style forum in Los Angeles, along with members of the men’s and women’s Olympic basketball teams, the Los Angeles Police Department and community leaders. Michele A. Roberts, the executive director of the N.B.A. players’ union, credited Anthony for going beyond the usual expectation that athletes should just play their sport. “If you’re really worried about damaging your brand, you’ll do what a lot of people say: Play ball and shut the hell up, which is, sadly enough, a very popular belief among a significant part of our community,” she said, adding, “So while it was fairly neutral as far as statements go, it still crossed the line that a good number of people think players should never dare cross.” But no athlete lately has caused more commotion than Kaepernick. Kaepernick first caused an uproar when he was spotted sitting during the national anthem before a 49ers preseason game last month and told NFL.com that he had done so because he was not going “to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color.” Kaepernick, who was born to a white mother and a black father and was adopted, met fierce criticism from people inside and outside the league who said he was disrespecting the military. Although he had been relegated to a backup role entering the 49ers’ season opener Monday night, Kaepernick’s jersey has become the league’s top seller. He has vowed to donate his cut of the sales to organizations that further the cause of ending police brutality. “Whether it’s an agent, family members or financial advisers, there’s a culture around every athlete that says, Maximize your endorsements, maximize your salary, and connect as best you can to your community,” said Robert Boland, the director of the sports administration program at Ohio University. But is it even fair to expect athletes — especially black ones — to take the lead in fighting social injustices? “Athletes are not trained to be political; they’re not trained to be activists,” said Todd Boyd, who holds the Katherine and Frank Price endowed chair for the study of race and popular culture at the University of Southern California. “We don’t hold white athletes to these same standards.” Nor is it fair, Boyd said, to compare today’s athletes with their predecessors. “What people seem to forget is that Muhammad Ali was going to be drafted and sent to fight in Vietnam — this is a very real thing,” Boyd said. “Ali wasn’t just protesting out of the goodness of his heart. He was trying to avoid going to fight in a war he didn’t agree with.” Through the 1980s and ’90s, athlete activism seemed to simmer down as, perhaps not coincidentally, sports revenues and salaries rose and careful cultivation of brands became the norm. Perhaps no one embodied the spirit of carefully crafting an image more than Michael Jordan, the biggest sports star of his era. This year, after months of questions, he issued a statement objecting to a North Carolina law that curbed anti-discrimination protections for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people — a law that led the N.B.A. to move its All-Star Game out of the state. But Jordan had a longstanding aversion to taking political stances during his playing career. One of Jordan’s teammates with the Chicago Bulls, Craig Hodges, bucked that trend and, he said, paid a price. When the team visited the White House after winning its second straight title in 1992, Hodges handed President George H. W. Bush a letter asking him to do more to end injustices toward African-Americans. Neither the Bulls nor any other team in the league signed Hodges for the next season, ending his 10-year N.B.A. career. Hodges sued the league, claiming it had blackballed him because of his outspokenness, but his lawsuit failed. Recent events, however — particularly the shootings of unarmed black N.F.L. 9 3 9 1 7 6 8 7 1 2 5 Fill the grid so that Solution every row, column 1 7 4 3x3 box and 2 9 6 shaded 3x3 box contains each 5 8 3 of the numbers 9 2 5 1 to 9 exactly once. 3 1 8 6 4 7 4 3 9 7 5 1 8 6 2 No. 1309 5 7 1 4 9 8 2 6 3 2 8 6 1 7 3 5 9 4 3 4 9 6 2 5 1 8 7 9 5 7 8 4 2 6 3 1 8 1 2 3 6 9 7 4 5 6 3 4 7 5 1 8 2 9 BRIDGE | Frank Stewart Unlucky Louie told us that his family’s pet beagle had managed to climb onto a South Dealer bathroom counter and had knocked off a N-S vulnerable handheld mirror. ‘‘It shattered to pieces,’’ Louie sighed. North äK52 ‘‘Your dog broke a mirror?’’ I said. × J 10 7 3 ‘‘Poor mutt,’’ Cy the Cynic shrugged. µ A J 10 2 ‘‘He’s facing 49 years of bad luck.’’ åQ4 Louie’s own ‘‘bad luck’’ seems to be unending. As declarer at today’s slam, West East äQ97 ä 10 8 4 3 Louie drew trumps, led a club to ×62 ×95 dummy’s queen and returned a club: µK987 µ6543 seven, ten, jack. West then led the nine of åAJ82 å976 diamonds. FINESSE South Louie frowned, took the ace, ruffed a diaäAJ6 mond, ruffed a club, ruffed a diamond ×AKQ84 µQ and ruffed his last club. He next tried a å K 10 5 3 spade finesse with his jack, but West won. Down one. South West North East ‘‘Unlucky,’’ Louie fumed. 1× Pass 3× Pass Louie might have played West for the 3ä Pass 4µ Pass king of diamonds since East had not dou6× All Pass bled North’s cue bid of four diamonds. Opening lead - × 2 But Louie succeeds easily by taking the ace of diamonds before he leads the second club. When West takes the jack, any return gives Louie a trick and his contract. Daily Question: You hold: ä K 5 2, × J 10 7 3, µ A J 10 2, å Q 4. Your partner opens one club, you respond one heart and he bids one spade. What do you say? Answer: You have the values to jump to 2NT. Partner should treat that bid as inviting game; if your queen of clubs were the ace, you could bid 3NT yourself. If you’re vulnerable, in fact, you might try 3NT with your actual hand since it seems the defenders won’t have a promising suit with which to beat it. Tribune Content Agency CROSSWORD | Edited by Will Shortz Across 1 7 10 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 23 24 25 28 29 31 Gamer’s representation 33 “We choose to go to 34 the moon” speech 35 giver, informally 36 Wines said to go 38 well with steak Make do 41 Granola morsel 43 Emollient source 45 Wrangled Words on a pink 47 cigar band Losing effort? 49 Cacophony “Money talks,” e.g. 50 Fish that may be jellied or smoked With 36-Across, what this puzzle 52 features, literally 53 Give ___ go Gas or water College player, e.g. Yemeni capital A vital sign “Wee” fellow See 25-Across Japanese masked drama Respected tribesman Faux money Appear gradually, on film It occurs twice in “chalk talk” Miracle-___ (garden care brand) Organization that honored those referenced in the 25-/36-Across, with “the” “Bingo!” Angels’ instruments Solution to September 13 puzzle A C Q U I T S C O U P L E T T R I C K L E M A C A Q U E O R O T U N D R E P L E T E V A N Q V C L E P S H T I A T O L B E O N C O U C H S P A R E D S A Q M E E D E C H O G N A T P A N E R A G E N A S O D R S I B S C U E C A T T A R S P D Y O A R S R O C O R D I N O I O W N S P A M I O W A R I A N T I N P I T E L E E R A R D S Q U R T S E E O C S R I O P S Q U E S U N D O O D O R 1 55 Camcorder brand 56 “How ___ Your Mother” 57 En route 60 “O tempora! O mores!” orator 62 Whole bunch 63 The whole shebang 64 Willing to try 65 ___ Trueheart, Dick Tracy’s sweetheart 66 Bit of hope, in an expression 67 U.S. general who was a pentathlete in the 1912 Olympics Down 1 Mozart’s middle name 2 Wine from a single type of grape 3 Jolie of “Maleficent” 4 Ready to snap, maybe 5 Match.com datum 6 Website with “Ask Me Anything” interviews 7 Like some custody or tax returns 8 Budgetary excess 9 Jewelers’ purity measures: Abbr. 10 Ravi Shankar’s music 11 Magic potion 12 Triangular chip 13 March locale of note 19 Cries from a flock 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 15 17 18 20 21 24 10 11 12 13 16 19 23 26 30 27 28 31 33 32 34 35 36 41 45 37 38 42 47 50 48 52 55 59 40 44 51 54 56 57 58 62 63 64 65 66 67 60 PUZZLE BY DAN SCHOENHOLZ 22 Very standoffish 25 Actress Zadora 26 “One,” in a coin motto 27 Auditioner’s hope 30 Put on, as cargo 32 2016 running mate 34 72, on many courses 36 Savings acct. protector 37 Sofer of “General Hospital” 39 43 46 49 53 9 22 25 29 8 61 THE NEW YORK TIMES 39 The jaguar on a Jaguar’s hood, e.g. 40 Thus far 42 Paper for a pad 43 Like a fox 44 It’s smaller than a company 45 New Caledonia is a territory of it 46 Major vessels 47 Brief time, in brief 48 Sgt. Friday’s introduction 49 Quickie Halloween costume 51 In a deadpan manner 54 Degs. for many professors 56 “Law & Order: SVU” co-star 58 Subject of 12/8/1941 headlines 59 Reminiscent of 61 Bitter brew, briefly 14 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES health+science B R I E F LY Science WILDLIFE Visions of life on Mars in Earth’s depths A new take on the giraffe: It’s four species, not one WITWATERSRAND BASIN, SOUTH AFRICA You would think that giraffes, the tallest land animals in the world, would be hard to overlook. Yet for centuries, scientists may have missed a fundamental fact about these long-necked creatures: They aren’t one species, but rather four distinct ones. After testing the DNA of nearly 200 giraffes across Africa, researchers found that genetic mutations were present in certain groups and absent in others. The differences were marked enough to justify classifying the groups as four distinct species. Until this point, giraffes were simply Giraffa camelopardalis. Now they will be classified as reticulated giraffes, southern giraffes, northern giraffes or Masai giraffes. Over the past 30 years, giraffe numbers have dropped to about 90,000 individuals from about 150,000. Scientists search for microbes in a South African mine for clues NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR JULIAN FENNESSY/GIRAFFE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION A reticulated giraffe. NUTRITION Seafood labels are not always accurate, study finds One in five seafood samples tested worldwide turns out to be completely different from what the menu or packaging claims, according to a recent report on seafood fraud by the ocean conservation group Oceana. The biggest impostor was farmed Asian catfish, sold in place of 18 types of more expensive fish, including perch, cod and grouper. But sometimes the substituted fish turned out to be an endangered species. In Brazil largetooth sawfish, which is critically endangered, was sold as ‘‘shark.’’ N.S.F. NAT U R E Scientists find a new species of snake in Madagascar A new species of snake — pale-grey, dappled with white and black spots — has been discovered on a rocky plateau in northern Madagascar. Researchers are calling it Madagoscarophis lolo, after the Malagasy word for ‘‘ghost.’’ The snakes of the Madagoscarophis genus, active at twilight and at night, are called ‘‘cat-eyed snakes’’ for their vertical pupils. The new 20-inch specimen was found during an expedition in 2014, and a DNA analysis published last week confirms that it is a new species. NICHOLAS BAKALAR B R I E F LY Health T R E AT M E N T Acupuncture with a zap might ease constipation Acupuncture to the abdomen, bolstered by an electric current, helped relieve severe constipation, a new study found. Chinese researchers studied 1,075 patients with severe functional constipation, which means they were unable to have a complete bowel movement more than twice a week. The study subjects all reported a number of unpleasant symptoms, including hard stools, a sensation of incomplete evacuation and often needing to strain when going to the bathroom. They were randomly assigned to receive either a form of acupuncture or a sham procedure, according to the report published today in Annals of Internal Medicine. During the eight weeks of treatment, 31.3 percent of people in the treatment group showed improvement (measured by three or more bowel movements per week without the need for laxatives) compared with just 12.1 percent in the control group who improved. NICHOLAS BAKALAR T R E AT M E N T Most parents give wrong dose of liquid medication More than 84 percent of parents in a randomized trial made errors in measuring liquid pediatric medicines, and 21 percent measured out doses that were more than twice as large as instructed. The study, conducted at pediatric clinics in New York, Atlanta and Stanford, Calif., also found that there were fewer errors when parents measured the dose with an oral syringe rather than a measuring cup. Pediatric medicines generally rely on liquid formulations, and parents have to decipher a sometimes bewildering assortment of instructions in different units with varying abbreviations — milliliters, mL, teaspoon, tsp, tablespoon. Some medicines come with a measuring tool, but often the units on the label are different from those on the tool. The Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance document for the industry in 2013 concerning over-thecounter products that recommended, but did not require, standard dosing tools and consistent labeling. N.B. BY KENNETH CHANG A mile down in an unused mine tunnel, scientists guided by helmet lamps trudged through darkness and the muck of a flooded, uneven floor. In the subterranean world of the Beatrix gold mine, they shed their backpacks, taking out tools and meticulously prepared test tubes to collect samples. Leaning a ladder against the hard rock wall, Tullis C. Onstott, a geosciences professor at Princeton, climbed to open an old valve about a dozen feet up. Out flowed water chock-full of microbes, organisms flourishing not from the warmth of the sun, but by heat generated from the interior of the planet below. These tiny life-forms — bacteria and other microbes and even little worms — exist in places nearly impossible to reach, living in eternal darkness, in hard rock. Scientists like Mr. Onstott have been on the hunt for life in the underworld, not just in South Africa but in mines in South Dakota and at the bottom of oceans. What they learn could provide insights into where life could exist elsewhere in the solar system, including Mars. Microbial Martians might well look like what lives in the rocks here at a deep underground mine. The same conditions almost certainly exist on Mars. Drill a hole there, drop these organisms in, and they might happily multiply, fueled by chemical reactions in the rocks and drips of water. ‘‘As long as you can get below the ice, no problems,’’ Mr. Onstott said. ‘‘They just need a little bit of water.’’ Mars has long been a focus of space exploration and science fiction dreams. NASA has sent more robotic probes there than any other planet. But now there is renewed interest in sending people as well. NASA has been enthusiastically promoting its ‘‘Journey to Mars’’ goal to send astronauts there in the 2030s. Elon Musk, the billionaire founder of SpaceX, is promising that he will be able to get there a decade sooner and set up colonies. Astronauts on Mars would be able to greatly accelerate the quest for answers to the most intriguing questions about the red planet. Was there ever life on Mars? Could there be life there today? It was not that long ago that scientists had written off Mars as lifeless. Forty years ago, NASA spent nearly $1 billion on its Viking mission, which revealed a cold, dry world seemingly devoid of organic molecules that are the building blocks of life. But more recent missions have discovered compelling evidence that Mars was not always such an uninviting place. In its youth, more than 3 billion years ago, the planet was warmer and wetter, blanketed with a thick atmosphere — possibly almost Earthlike. A fanciful but plausible notion is that life did originate on Mars, then traveled to Earth via meteorites, and we are all JOAO SILVA/THE NEW YORK TIMES GAETAN BORGONIE/UNIVERSITY GHENT, BELGIUM NASA; COMPOSITE IMAGE BY THE NEW YORK TIMES Top, a team led by Tullis C. Onstott of Princeton Univesity looking in the Beatrix mine in South Africa for life-forms. Above left, a new species of nematod that scientists discovered in the Beatrix mine. Above right, NASA’s Curiosity rover on Mars. descendants of Martians. Eventually, Mars did turn cold and dry. Radiation broke apart the water molecules, and the lighter hydrogen atoms escaped to space. The atmosphere thinned to wisps. But if life did arise on Mars, might it have migrated to the underworld and persisted? For a couple of decades, Mr. Onstott has been talking his way into South African gold mines, regaling the mine managers with the wonder of deep Earth life to overcome their wariness. In many ways, the mines provide easy access to the depths — a ride in a cagelike elevator, jammed against miners starting their shift, descending quickly as lights from the different levels zip past. Think of it as traveling through a 450-story skyscraper, going down. Mr. Onstott and his colleagues had made repeated pilgrimages to this particular tunnel in this particular mine, Beatrix, 160 miles southwest of Johannesburg. When miners carve out new tunnels, they poke holes through the rock to see what surprises might lie ahead. Some- times the borehole taps into a section of fractured rock with water coursing through. Then the fracture is drained and plugged. But this particular tunnel at Beatrix never entered production, so the borehole valve remains, allowing the scientists to return to draw samples from the same place. At this level, almost a mile underground, the elevator gates open to a well-lit, concrete cavern with the unremarkable plainness of a parking garage. A minirailway system transports miners and ore back and forth. The side tunnel, though, is pitch black save for the helmet lamps, and the trek to the valve is a slosh through muck and over tangles of mangled electrical cabling. Scientists led by Mr. Onstott made their most recent trip to South Africa in June last year. Over a couple of hours, they took their fill of the water and set up an apparatus that remains attached to the valve, trapping microbes, which were retrieved later in the summer. Since then, they have been analyzing the samples to understand this assemblage of life. ‘‘The truth is it’s virtually every- Microbial Martians might well look like what lives in the rocks here at a deep underground mine. The same conditions likely exist on Mars. where we look,’’ Penny Boston, the director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, said in July at a panel celebrating the 40th anniversary of Viking’s landing on Mars. Results from an earlier trip to Beatrix befuddled Mr. Onstott. He had expected the mine microbes to be feeding off organic matter dissolved in the water. In this picture, the ecosystem would be largely devoid of primary producers and instead subsist on leftovers, the detritus of long dead organisms washed down from above or deposited with the sediment 2.9 billion years ago. ‘‘The only problem was that we didn’t have any indication they were eating the organic matter in the fracture water,’’ Mr. Onstott said. They figured out that the carbon molecules in the microbes came from meth- ane, a plausible answer. Microbes known as methanogens consume hydrogen and carbon dioxide and produce methane; other microbes known as methanotrophs eat methane. But the Beatrix water contained little of either. ‘‘It didn’t make any sense at all,’’ Mr. Onstott said. ‘‘It made zero sense to us.’’ Maggie Lau, a postdoctoral researcher in Mr. Onstott’s laboratory, started examining the genetic snippets for clues of how the Beatrix community of microbes worked. With the newest data, it turned out there was a wider community of primary producer microbes, eating nitrogen and sulfur compounds. In essence, the waste of one microbe helped feed its neighbor, and only a little bit of methane, an energy-rich molecule, was enough to power the entire community. ‘‘Now, for the first time, we’re getting a true description of the ecosystem,’’ Mr. Onstott said. ‘‘We think it’s a fairly common phenomenon.’’ The odds of Mars life, past or present, are just conjecture. If life is deep underground, robotic spacecraft would not find them easily. NASA’s InSight spacecraft, scheduled to launch in 2018, will carry an instrument that can burrow 16 feet into the ground, but it is essentially just a thermometer to measure the flow of heat to the surface. NASA’s next rover, launching in 2020, is largely a clone of Curiosity with different experiments. It will drill rock samples to be returned to Earth by a later mission, but those samples will be from rocks at the surface. All this new interest in possible life on Mars is a sort of vindication for Gilbert V. Levin, one of the scientists who worked on Viking. Mr. Levin is sure he discovered life on Mars 40 years ago, and everyone else has been drawing the wrong conclusions from the Viking data. If he is right, then perhaps rediscovering life on Mars may require just scratching the surface. The two Vikings carried what was known as the labeled release experiment, developed by Levin and another investigator, Patricia A. Straat. Essentially, radioactive food made with unstable carbon-14 was added to samples of Martian soil. The idea was that if microbes digested the food, the carbon-14 would be released in a stream of radioactive carbon dioxide and other gases rising out of the soil. That is exactly what happened. Then other samples were heated to 320 degrees Fahrenheit to sterilize them. If microbes were generating the radioactive gases, then there should be no gas rising from the sterilized soil. That, too, is what happened. ‘‘The response on Mars is well within the responses from terrestrial soils,’’ Mr. Levin said, ‘‘most closely the Arctic and Alaska.’’ Mr. Levin has proposed, again and again, sending another labeled release experiment to Mars, to no avail. Mr. Levin may finally get his wish with ExoMars, a European rover scheduled to launch in 2020. ONLINE: MORE ON SCIENCE For the latest news and discoveries go to nytimes.com/science In the bonobo world, female camaraderie prevails In the African forest, matriarchal group rules species’ social networks BY NATALIE ANGIER The female bonobo apes of the Wamba forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo had just finished breakfast and were preparing for a brief nap in the treetops, bending and crisscrossing leafy branches into comfortable day beds. But one of the females was in estrus, her rump exceptionally pink and swollen, and four males in the group were too excited to sleep. They took turns wildly swinging and jumping around the fertile female and her bunkmates, shaking the branches, appearing to display their erections and perforating the air with high-pitched screams and hoots. Suddenly, three older, high-ranking female bonobos bolted up from below, a furious blur of black fur and swinging limbs and, together with the female in estrus, flew straight for the offending males. The males scattered. The females pursued them. Tree boughs bounced and cracked. Screams on all sides grew deafening. Three of the males escaped, but the females cornered and grabbed the fourth one — the resident alpha male. He was healthy, muscular and about 18 pounds heavier than any of his captors. But no matter. The females bit into him as he howled and struggled to pull free. Finally, ‘‘he dropped from the tree and ran away, and he didn’t appear again for about three weeks,’’ said Nahoko Tokuyama, of the Primate Research Institute at Kyoto University in Japan, who witnessed the encounter. When the male returned, he kept to himself. Dr. Tokuyama noticed that the tip of one of his toes was gone. ‘‘Being hated by females,’’ she said in an email interview, ‘‘is a big matter for male bonobos.’’ The toe-trimming incident was extreme but not unique. Describing re- TAKESHI FURUICHI Bonobos grooming each other. The females often band together to fend off male aggression. sults from their long-term field work in the September issue of Animal Behaviour, Dr. Tokuyama and her colleague Takeshi Furuichi reported that the female bonobos of Wamba often banded together to fend off male aggression, and in patterns that defied the standard primate rule book. Adult females responded to a broad range of male provocations — unwanted sexual overtures, food disputes, pushing, kicking, vocal threats, persistent pestiness — by forming coalitions of two or more females, who would then jointly take on their male tormentors. Remarkably, the female partners in a bonobo posse cooperated with one another despite lacking any ties of blood or even close friendship. As the so-called dispersing sex, female bonobos must leave their birthplaces before puberty and find another social set to join, which means that none of the adult females in a given bonobo community are kin. Moreover, female bonobos rarely formed coalitions with their preferred girlfriends — the individuals they spent the most time with and groomed the Bonobos are famed for their hypersexuality and the way they use sex as an all-purpose problem solver. most ardently. Instead, the researchers found, coalitions arose when a senior female would step in and take the side of a younger peer caught up in an escalating conflict with a resident male. By delivering the formidable luster of her social standing, as well as an extra pair of hands, the intervening senior pretty much guaranteed that the skirmish would break her way. The new results add depth and complexity to our emerging understanding of Pan paniscus, the enigmatic, lithe great ape with the dark licorice eyes, who lives only in the Democratic Republic of Congo and is seriously endangered. The bonobo is a sister species to the more widespread common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and the two share equal footing as our nearest primate kin. Yet the apes have followed distinctly different behavioral paths. Chimpanzee society is male-dominated and features strong bonds between adult males and feeble ties between females. In the bonobo world, by contrast, female camaraderie prevails, while the bonds between males are weak. ‘‘It’s a matriarchy,’’ said Amy Parish, a primatologist at the University of Southern California. ‘‘Females are running the show.’’ The latest research indicates that the nature of the bonobos’ sororal bonds shifts depending on circumstances, and that the most effective deterrent to male harassment may be a cross-generational pact. Bonobos are famed for their hypersexuality and the way they use sex as an all-purpose problem solver in every possible situation, permutation and combination. When bonobos come upon a great patch of fruit, for example, and tensions rise over feeding priority, the bonobos will decompress with a quick round of genito-genital rubbing and similar acts: males with females, males with males, females with females, juveniles with adults. Bonobos tongue-kiss, practice oral sex, have intercourse face-to-face, and make sex toys. Frances White, a biological anthropologist at the University of Oregon, once watched a female bonobo turn a stick into a kind of knobby ‘‘French tickler,’’ with which she then stimulated herself. ‘‘They’re not always family friendly,’’ Dr. White said. Such erotic antics have earned bonobos a reputation as laid-back ‘‘hippie apes,’’ a label that researchers say belies the primate’s strategic intelligence and capacity for brutality. Dr. Parish, who studies bonobos in captivity, has seen the young offspring of dominant females flaunt their inherited power by marching over to lesser-ranking female adults, prying their jaws open and extracting the food from their mouths. She also recounted the time that two females attacked a male at the Stuttgart Zoo in Germany and bit his penis in half. Fortunately, she said, ‘‘a microsurgeon at the zoo was able to repair the damage, and the male went on to reproduce.’’ Nevertheless, bonobos are far less violent than chimpanzees, and female bonobos clearly benefit from life in a constructed sisterhood. Female chimpanzees cannot pick and choose a partner from among the available males, but must mate with all of them. Female bonobos can reject suitors without fearing for their lives. Infanticide is common among chimpanzees, but unheard-of among bonobos. The outstanding question for researchers is how the female solidarity routine started. Male chimpanzees remain in their natal home, so their male-male bonds are built on the standard evolutionary principle of kin selection. Female chimpanzees end up surrounded by nonrelatives in adulthood, so they mind their own business. Why did female bonobos defy the norm and start cooperating with one another? And why don’t male bonobos forge alliances with other nearby males who are likely their brothers and cousins? Differing ecological conditions may have helped set the stage for the behavioral divergence. By this hypothesis, bonobos evolved in a region with a comparatively abundant and reliable food source, which meant that females could forage in view of one another without coming to blows. The more time they spent foraging, the more affiliative they became, and soon they were applying their displays of mutual respect and tolerance to other tasks, like rebuffing male harassers. Chimpanzees evolved in drier climates, where food was scarce and for aging females had to compete with one another for limited goods. Who has time for friends? As for male bonobos, they may be subordinate themselves to females in cliques, and they may have no interest in hanging out with the guys. But they have a secret social weapon: their mothers. Male bonobos stay with their mothers for life, and as her status grows with age, so does his. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES Business Premium perks, for a considerable price Bargain-hunters see value in the benefits offered by elite rewards credit cards BY STACY COWLEY Seldom does a new credit card go viral. There are the unboxing videos posted on YouTube: People exulting in receiving the precious new metallic rectangle, lovingly unwrapping it, boasting to the world of their ownership of it. (One video features a cat ripping the package open.) There are message boards and blogs dedicated to obsessing over it, with more than 6,000 comments so far on a Reddit discussion. It is so popular that JPMorgan Chase, the bank that issues the card, ran out of the engraved card’s fancy metal stock in only 10 days and had to send a temporary plastic placeholder to disappointed customers. But the Chase Sapphire Reserve card has done more than generate product hysteria at its finest. It has also intensified the arms race among large credit card issuers, which are introducing increasingly lavish rewards programs to capture affluent consumers who spend large sums on travel and recreation but no longer want to be bound to one particular hotel or airline’s affinity program. The price for these premium cards can seem outlandish: $450 a year. But for a growing number of customers, the math makes sense. Cards that were once more about elite service and social status are now emphasizing their bottom-line value proposition — even when it comes with a hefty annual fee. “American Express used to have a stranglehold on the high-end market, but folks like Chase and Citi are coming hard after their crown,” said Matt Schulz, an analyst for CreditCards.com, a comparison site. “It’s the best time in years to shop for a rewards card.” American Express’s Platinum charge card pioneered the premium category and was for a long time its undisputed champion. But in 2014, Citi overhauled its high-end Prestige credit card to take on the Platinum card with similar perks — free hotel stays, access to airport lounges and private golf courses, transferable points redeemable for airfares and upgrades — as well as spending incentives to let customers cash in faster. It quickly became a favorite among costconscious road warriors. Chase started making plans early last year for its own entry into the market. Those who call themselves travel hackers, a community of value-seekers who go to elaborate lengths to maximize their reward points, obsessively analyze the nuances of the latest deals the way sports fans scrutinize their team’s draft picks. In late July, rumors began spreading on FlyerTalk, a popular message board, that Chase had a new card in the works, with a 100,000-point sign-up bonus — twice the standard offer from its rivals. When an online link accidentally went live in mid-August, a week earlier than Chase planned, people pounced: Hundreds of applications poured in for a card Chase had not yet announced. “It significantly exceeded our expectations,” Amy Bonitatibus, a spokes- 15 What do you know about your credit card? BY JENNIFER KINGSON AND STACY COWLEY Travel hackers obsessively analyze the nuances of premium card deals. How well do you know your credit cards? 1. THE FIRST DIGIT ON YOUR CREDIT CARD ACCOUNT NUMBER IS A SIGNAL TO THOSE IN THE KNOW. WHAT DOES IT INDICATE? A. How high your credit limit is. B. What year the card was issued. C. What country your card was issued in. D. What type of company issued the card. 2. HOW DO CREDIT CARD COMPANIES MAKE MOST OF THEIR MONEY? A. Interest paid by people who don’t pay their balances in full every month. B. Fees (annual fees, late fees, overthe-limit fees, etc.) C. Revenue from merchants, who must pay a fraction of each purchase to your credit card’s issuer. D. Selling lists of credit card customers to others. 3. WHAT IS YOUR MAXIMUM LIABILITY FOR UNAUTHORIZED CREDIT CARD USE? A. $0 B. $25 C. $50 D. $100 4. WHAT IS THE ONE CERTAIN NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE OF TAKING OUT MULTIPLE CREDIT CARDS? PHOTOGRAPHS BY TAMIR KALIFA FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES “Rewards cards made travel a reality for me,” said Amber Cooney, who works in Austin, Tex. She plans to use her Chase Sapphire Reserve card on a trip to Japan this year. woman for Chase, said of the “tens of thousands” of cards the bank has issued so far. It has been a particular hit with millennials, who make up the majority of the cardholders — a noteworthy detail, given that many millennials have been turning thumbs-down on credit cards. The card’s rich sign-up bonus caught the eye of Amber Cooney, 29, who works for a nonprofit lender in Austin, Tex., and is saving for a honeymoon next year in Italy and Croatia. She considers herself a casual credit card user, but she started paying attention to points and rewards a few years ago when she realized that her spending patterns could net her free vacations if she planned carefully. “Rewards cards made travel a reality for me,” she said. “I went from seeing Niagara Falls and calling that my international travel to visiting four different countries.” Her points have paid for airfare to Argentina and hotels in Paris; she plans to use her Chase card on a trip to Japan this year. Ben Schlappig, 26, a travel blogger who lives the life of an upscale-travel nomad — he has no fixed address, preferring to live in hotel rooms — plans to shift most of his spending to his Chase Sapphire Reserve. The card offers triple points on dining and travel spending, the two categories that consume nearly all of Mr. Schlappig’s budget. Chase defines “travel” fairly flexibly, and includes services like Airbnb and Uber. Sapphire Reserve customers have spent $1.5 million already with those two companies, earning 4.5 million points, Ms. Bonitatibus said. “It’s an incredible deal,” said Mr. Schlappig, who writes the blog One Mile at a Time. “The card is almost too good to be true. I think a lot of people are scared that some of the perks will be cut.” Ms. Bonitatibus insists that Chase has no current plans to make changes, but the general trend with loyalty and points program is that card issuers are quick to ditch benefits that dig too deeply into their profits. Citi Prestige customers grumbled this year when the card dropped its free access to American Airlines’ Admirals Club lounges, a perk that had disappeared two years earlier from American Express’s Platinum card. With credit card companies adjusting the perk programs so often, the value of each issuers’ reward miles and points changes frequently, prompting some people to card-hop. One travel blogger, The Points Guy, posts monthly calculations, down to the micropenny, of what he considers each card’s benefits to be worth. Perhaps as a sign of the strengthened United States economy, the major issuers say that demand for their premium cards is rising. The number of Citi Prestige cardholders increased sixfold in the last 18 months, according to a company spokeswoman, and American Express says that its Platinum card membership is “large, growing and loyal.” Customers seem increasingly willing to consider shifting from free cards to ones with fees and better perks. Ameri- The Chase Sapphire Reserve card, which has a $450 annual fee, has been a hit. cans received 1.2 billion direct-mail credit card solicitations in the second quarter of this year, according to research by Mintel Comperemedia. A record proportion of them, 19 percent, were for fee-carrying rewards cards, up from 14 percent a year ago. “Around the recession, we saw promotional innovation in the cash-back space,” said Andrew Davidson, a senior vice president of Mintel. “Now, I think we might start seeing more innovation around points and miles in the premium space. What this launch has done is shake things up a bit: American Express and Citi will be forced to re-evaluate their cards’ value proposition.” The premium cards’ gains may come at the expense of the more traditional airline, retail and hotel cards issued by banks. Around 43 percent of adult Americans had at least one affinity credit card last year, a sharp decrease from the 55 percent who carried one in 2009, according to research from Packaged Facts, which regularly surveys the market. “If you look at the behavior of millennials, it’s clear they’re not going to commit to a relationship with one credit card, or brand, the way their parents did,” said David Robertson, the publisher of The Nilson Report, which follows the credit card industry. He is even casting a critical eye on his own go-to card, an American Airlines card from Citi that carries a $450 annual fee. “I look at it now, and it’s just a question of, do I want to spend the time to think about the value proposition on an alternative?” Mr. Robertson said. “There’s much to be said about inertia.” A. You will go into debt. B. You will lower your credit score, at least temporarily. C. You will make yourself more vulnerable to identity theft. D. Your bank will charge you higher fees. 5. WHAT IS THE “5/24” RULE? A. The number of charges you can make in a day before setting off fraud detection systems. B. The proportion of your total available credit that you can use without negatively affecting your credit score. C. The maximum number of credit cards you can open in a 24-month period before some issuers will cut you off. D. The longest expiration date allowed for cards currently in circulation. 6. EVERY MODERN CREDIT CARD INCLUDES A SWIPEABLE MAGNETIC STRIP FOR STORING DATA. WHAT COMPANY INVENTED IT? A. IBM B. Visa C. Sears D. Bank of America 7. HOW MANY CREDIT, DEBIT AND PREPAID CARDS ARE IN CIRCULATION GLOBALLY? A. 1 billion B. 4 billion C. 8 billion D. 10 billion Answers: 1) D. 2) A. 3) C. 4) B. 5) C. 6) A. 7) D. Fed policy maker campaigns for ‘prudence’ in increasing U.S. rates WASHINGTON BY BINYAMIN APPELBAUM Lael Brainard, a Federal Reserve governor and a leading proponent of the Fed’s efforts to stimulate the economy, has said in a speech that she still favored “prudence” in raising interest rates in the United States despite recent signs of economic progress. The remarks on Monday reinforce expectations that the Fed will not raise its benchmark interest rate when its policy-making committee meets on Sept. 20 and 21, and investors celebrated accordingly. Stocks rose and interest rates fell in the United States, reversing much of the market movement on Friday, when investors worried the Fed might move toward a rate increase. But pressure continues to build for a rate increase before the end of the year. A few hours before Ms. Brainard spoke, Dennis P. Lockhart, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, joined a growing list of Fed officials arguing that the economy was strong enough to justify an increase in borrowing costs. He called for a “serious discussion” at the September meeting. The Fed also faced new pressure from Donald J. Trump, the Republican presidential nominee, who said on Monday on CNBC that the Fed’s chairwoman, Janet L. Yellen, was keeping rates low “because she’s obviously political and doing what Obama wants her to do.” Ms. Yellen “should be ashamed of herself,” he added. Mr. Trump’s criticism of Ms. Yellen and the Fed breaks with the general practice of presidents and presidential candidates in recent decades to refrain from criticizing the Fed’s conduct of monetary policy. Hillary Clinton, the Democratic presidential nominee, casti- gated Mr. Trump last week for similar remarks. “Words have consequences,” Mrs. Clinton told reporters. “Words move markets. Words can be misinterpreted. Words can have effects on people’s 401(k)’s, their pension funds, their stock portfolios.” “He should not be adding the Fed onto his long list of institutions and individuals that he is maligning,” she added. Fed officials insist they will not consider the political consequences of increasing rates. They may, however, hesitate to act before the November election out of concern for the economic consequences of political turbulence, the same way they hesitated before Britain’s referendum in June on its membership in the European Union. Ms. Yellen, presiding over an increasingly fractious group of policy makers, has sought to emphasize their common ground. She said in an August speech that the case for raising rates had become stronger in recent months, but she stopped short of saying that it was time to raise rates. Ms. Brainard’s speech on Monday was the last before the Fed’s pre-meeting blackout period, effectively giving her the last word in the public debate among Fed officials ahead of the September meeting. Ms. Brainard agreed reluctantly to support the Fed’s first post-recession rate increase in December, but she has stiffened in her concerns. Since then, she has made a habit of laying down markers before important Fed meetings, making the case for patience in March and again in June. On Monday, she once again seized the spotlight to explain why she is still not ready to raise interest rates. Ms. Brainard said recent economic data raised some questions about the JUSTIN T. GELLERSON FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Lael Brainard, a governor of the Federal Reserve Board who supported a rise in American interest rates last December, has repeatedly recommended standing pat this year. strength of growth, and there was certainly no sign of resurgent inflation in the United States. “In the presence of uncertainty and the absence of accelerating inflationary pressures, it would be unwise for policy to foreclose on the pos- sibility of making further gains in the labor market,” she told the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. She added that the context in which the Fed operates had also changed. A global decline in market interest rates means that the force of the Fed’s stimulus campaign has been reduced even without a rate increase. Moreover, she noted that the weakness of the global economy continued to weigh on the United States, contributing to an environment of persistently low growth and low inflation. Finally, she said that she remained more concerned about moving too quickly than waiting too long. The Fed has few tools to ward off fresh weakness in the economy, while it can easily respond to an inflationary resurgence. “This asymmetry in risk management in today’s new normal counsels prudence in the removal of policy accommodation,” Ms. Brainard said. “I believe that this approach has served us well.” Daniel K. Tarullo, another Fed governor, said in a CNBC interview on Friday that he too favored patience. Mr. Tarullo described himself as a member of the “‘show-me’ camp” that wants to see evidence of stronger inflation before raising rates. So far, he said, there is not enough. “From my personal perspective, I think we have an opportunity to continue to get employment gains,” Mr. Tarullo said. Other officials argue that inflation always follows stronger growth; if the Fed waits for the inevitable increase, they warn, the Fed may need to raise rates more sharply, causing a recession. Mr. Tarullo said in the interview, however, that officials who took this view should still have hesitations about the outlook for growth. He described the recent economic data as a mixed bag. A growing number of Fed officials argue that this caution is misdirected. Eric S. Rosengren, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, said in a speech on Friday that raising rates in the near term could actually help extend Recent economic data raised some questions about the strength of growth, and there was certainly no sign of resurgent inflation. the economic expansion, now in its eighth year. The Fed may now be providing too much stimulus, he said, and overheating could end up forcing sharper rate increases. “If we want to ensure that we remain at full employment, gradual tightening is likely to be appropriate,” Mr. Rosengren said in Quincy, Mass. “A failure to continue on the path of gradual removal of accommodation could shorten, rather than lengthen, the duration of this recovery.” Esther L. George, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Mo. — and, like Mr. Rosengren, one of the 10 Fed officials with a policy vote this year — has expressed concern that low rates are encouraging excessive speculation, birthing future financial crises. Ms. George is the only Fed official to vote to raise rates this year. Fed officials still could coalesce around a late-year rate increase, as they did last year. After September, the Fed has two more meetings on the calendar, in November and December. Asked what it would take to win her vote, Ms. Brainard said she would need to see more inflation. She also noted recent weakness in some economic measures like corporate profits and investment. “It would be important, I think, to see some of those spending indicators starting to really move in a more positive direction going into the third and fourth quarter,” Ms. Brainard said. 16 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 business INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES finance companies Fund seeks investments that achieve social good TPG Growth expanding with creation of Rise Fund of more than $1 billion BY MICHAEL J. DE LA MERCED TPG Growth has established itself as a boldface name in investing, with stakes in companies that include Silicon Valley darlings like Uber and Airbnb and the guitar maker Fender. Now the business, part of the investing titan TPG, is planning to branch out into the world of so-called social impact investing that is meant to be philanthropically and financially successful — and with operations on a big scale. TPG Growth plans to raise money for what it will call its Rise Fund, which it hopes will eventually invest more than $1 billion, according to people with direct knowledge of the matter. The fund will involve a partnership with Elevar Equity, an investor that has backed 24 companies in seven countries. An Elevar co-founder, Maya Chorengel, is expected to spend a significant amount of time working on the Rise Fund. The new fund, which has been in the works for about a year, is the latest entry into social impact investing. Most impact funds have been run by smaller in- MICHAEL STRAVATO FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Saudi Aramco hopes to strengthen its position on the Gulf of Mexico coast by about 50 percent with the purchase of a huge refinery in the Houston Ship Channel that has been put on the market by LyondellBasell. Saudi bid for a Houston oil refinery is big bet HOUSTON BY CLIFFORD KRAUSS The Saudi national oil company is making a bid to significantly expand its operations in the United States at a critical moment in the always uneasy relations between the United States and Saudi Arabia. The company, Saudi Aramco, aims to strengthen its position on the Gulf of Mexico coast by buying a large oil refinery in the Houston Ship Channel that LyondellBasell is putting up for sale. And despite geopolitical tensions between Riyadh and Washington, Saudi Aramco sees the potential acquisition as a way to shore up its exports at a time of erosion in the oil business on which the Saudi economy is still largely reliant. Because of plunging prices, the value of Saudi oil sales has shrunk in recent years. And Saudi Arabia’s archrival, Iran, is becoming a more potent commercial competitor now that it is exporting substantial quantities of crude. Four years ago, Saudi Aramco completed a $10 billion expansion of a giant oil refinery in Port Arthur, Tex., in a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell called Motiva Enterprises. The converted plant is now the biggest producer of gasoline, diesel and other petroleum products in the United States. This time, Saudi Aramco wants to do a deal on its own. But its negotiations with LyondellBasell, a Dutch company, come as Congress is moving to allow families of victims of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for supposed ties between government officials and the terrorists, most of whom were Saudi citizens. The Obama administration has threatened to veto the measure, although an override is possible. Saudi officials have denied any role in the attacks and have threatened to sell $750 billion in United States assets, including Treasury securities, held by the Saudi government if the congressional measure moves forward. But energy experts say the quiet bid by Saudi Aramco is designed to further protect its share of the United States oil market, even as Washington and American oil companies continue efforts to wean the country off foreign oil. Saudi Aramco did not respond to questions about the bidding. A spokeswoman for LyondellBasell said she had no comment. Saudi Aramco is in competition for the Lyondell refinery with Texas-based Valero Energy, as well as two big Canadian companies, Suncor and Cenovus. Energy experts who have been briefed on the negotiations say that Saudi Aramco is a leading contender and that the price for the refinery could be as much as $1.5 billion. The Lyondell plant has a capacity to refine nearly 270,000 barrels a day of crude, which could increase Saudi Aramco’s capacity to refine its oil on the Gulf coast by about 50 percent. The refinery produces not only gasoline and other fuels, but also can also produce feedstocks for petrochemical production. Imports of Saudi crude have been dropping in recent years, to 1.1 million barrels a day this year from 1.8 million in 2003, largely because of the shale drilling boom in Texas and North Dakota. “It looks like they are doubling down on their U.S. relationship,” said David L. Goldwyn, who was the State Department coordinator for international energy affairs in the first Obama administration. “It makes economic sense,” Mr. Goldwyn said, “because they want to be a global petrochemical power. And it makes political sense because they see a long-term relationship with the U.S. as the kind of strategic assurance they will be seeking from the next administration.” The Saudi effort is part of an initiative to expand its refining empire as a way to protect its share of the global market. Saudi Aramco is also negotiating with C.N.P.C., the Chinese state oil company, for the joint construction of a giant refinery in southwestern Yunnan Province. It has investments in other refineries in Japan, China, South Korea and Indonesia. The effort to focus more financial firepower on global refineries is also part of a larger strategy to diversify investments in areas other than drilling for crude oil on the Arabian Peninsula. A public offering of at least some refineries is being considered to bolster Saudi Aramco’s financial position, even as the company is making a concerted effort to expand production of refined products, including gasoline and diesel. The Lyondell refinery, one of the largest in the United States, is designed to process low-quality, high-sulfur crude oil. In recent years it has mostly processed Mexican crude and Canadian heavy oil from oil sands, but it could just as easily process low-grade Saudi crude that refineries in Europe and Asia are not designed to refine. United States refineries get a competitive edge on world markets from the low costs of American natural gas that produces power for the plants. The possible purchase of the Lyondell refinery comes at a time when Saudi Aramco and Shell are going their separate ways, ahead of the planned disbanding of their Motiva venture next year. The two companies are still working out the details, but Saudi Aramco is poised to gain complete control over the Port Arthur refinery as well as a chain of gasoline stations and storage facilities, while Shell will take over two smaller refineries in Louisiana — Convent and Norco — that were jointly owned. Middle East oil experts say the impending loss of a piece of those two refineries would make the acquisition of Lyondell refinery all the more essential to maintain Saudi Aramco’s dominant market position along the Gulf of Mexico coast. “Aramco has a keen interest in maintaining its downstream market share in the U.S.,” said Sadad I. al-Husseini, a former Saudi Aramco executive vice president, referring to the refining and marketing side of the oil industry. “The Lyondell refinery, because of its size and location will go a long way towards sustaining this strategy after the breakup of Motiva and the loss of the Convent and Norco refineries.” Senior officials in the Saudi government have said they would like to sell a small stake in Saudi Aramco to investors over the next few years, and its refineries are among its assets that look most likely to be offered to investors. While investors may view refineries in Saudi Arabia as too risky because of political turbulence in the Persian Gulf, refineries in the United States could be seen as attractive investments. The proceeds from those public offerings could then go into expanding and modernizing petrochemical operations in the kingdom itself, energy experts said. “It could be a move to strengthen their downstream asset base as part of their ongoing restructuring and I.P.O. plans,” said Badr H. Jafar, the president of Crescent Petroleum of the United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, some energy and Middle East experts say the timing of the Saudi bid is somewhat surprising, coming just before a United States presidential election and given the kingdom’s shaky reputation among the American people. But they say it shows that Saudi Arabia still looks to the United States as an ally in economic and political affairs, as well as a good place to invest. “Obviously it’s a real indication that they don’t have concerns about the U.S. as a safe haven for investment,” said Amy Myers Jaffe, an expert on Middle East energy at the University of California, Davis. “It’s an opportunity purchase, not a necessity, so it shows a real confidence in the U.S. market.” TPG Growth expects returns from the new fund to produce, at minimum, market-rate returns. vestment firms, though last year Bain Capital announced that it had hired Deval Patrick, the former Massachusetts governor, to oversee what it called its Double Impact fund. Overseeing the effort by TPG Growth is William E. McGlashan Jr., who in 2013 moved his family to India for a year to help oversee the firm’s investments in developing countries in the region. Among its more prominent investments is in Apollo Towers, which runs cellphone towers in Myanmar and which the firm has promoted as having helped spur mobile phone use in the country. Investments by the Rise Fund will most likely look similar to the one in Apollo Towers, which has generated strong returns. TPG Growth expects returns from the new fund to produce, at minimum, market-rate returns. A study published last year by Cambridge Associates and the Global Impact Investing Network found that on average, impact funds that had raised less than $100 million outperformed their nonimpact counterparts, though those that had raised over $100 million tended to lag in returns. One major element of the Rise Fund is that it aspires to have rigorous metrics that quantify the social impact of its investments, the people with knowledge of the matter said. To that end, TPG Growth and Elevar plan to work with the Bridgespan Group, which has worked with the likes of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Omidyar Network, the philanthropic organization of Pierre Omidyar, the billionaire founder of eBay. TPG Growth has also been in discussions directly with the Omidyar Network, which uses a rating system to evaluate how successful investments have been in their missions. Ford’s driverless car plan: Embrace tech but take a go-slow approach DEARBORN, MICH. BY NEAL E. BOUDETTE Raj Nair, the development chief leading Ford Motor’s effort to build self-driving cars, concedes that he does not know what caused the fatal May accident in which the driver of a Tesla Model S sedan, operating in Autopilot mode, crashed into a tractor-trailer crossing a roadway in Florida. But Mr. Nair has given considerable thought to the circumstances — a truck turning left into traffic and a partially automated vehicle traveling at highway speed, leaving little room for miscalculation. He has pictured the car’s camera looking ahead and struggling to make out a white truck against an overcast sky, its forward-looking radar beam possibly shooting under the truck’s trailer. The conclusion he has drawn: The current state of even semiautonomous driving technology isn’t quite ready to take on such a complex traffic situation. That is why Ford, which on Monday demonstrated its own approach to selfdriving vehicles, said it had been convinced by its decade of research to take a go-slow approach. “We’ve not been able to do that with cameras and radar,” Mr. Nair said of Autopilot. “Not to the safety level we would be comfortable for introducing that into production.” And so the automaker plans to intro- duce self-driving cars in a controlled urban environment within five years, capable of functioning as robotic taxis at slow, stop-and-go speeds in settings with traffic-light predictability. The company provided the first public demonstration of the fleet of self-driving cars it is building at its sprawling engineering campus here, about 10 miles west of Detroit. Ford allowed reporters, analysts and other guests to take a ride in some of the 10 white Fusion sedans it has outfitted so far with tens of thousands of dollars’ worth of radar; lidar, a kind of radar based on laser beams; cameras; computer chips and other gear. The demonstration came a day after Tesla’s chief executive, Elon Musk, outlined upgrades to Autopilot that he said he believed would probably have prevented the fatal crash of the Model S. These included a more precise use of radar to identify obstacles, and a move to make radar the primary means of scanning the road. The cameras in Tesla cars had previously served that role. The upgrade is also meant to force drivers using Autopilot to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, to be ready to intervene if something unexpected occurs. For proponents of fully self-driving cars — which besides Ford includes developers at Google — the handoff between technology and a human driver cannot occur quickly enough to avoid accidents at FORD A self-driving Ford car in Dearborn, Mich., has a kind of radar based on laser beams. highway speeds. Mr. Musk, though, displayed his confidence in the technology by claiming the new version of Autopilot would make Tesla cars using the system three times safer than cars without it. “I think it will make the Model S and Model X by far the safest cars on the road,” he said. Mr. Nair on Monday acknowledged that systems like Autopilot that use radar and cameras “certainly have prevented accidents.” But before cars can take over most of the driving for humans, more is needed, in Mr. Nair’s view. That in particular includes lidar and high-definition digital maps that will help automated cars distinguish between overhead signs and an obstacle such as a tractor-trailer. Neither of those technologies are available with Tesla’s system. “We believe lidar and a high-definition map are required,” Mr. Nair said. Mr. Musk said the improved radar system will be able to bounce signals below cars on the road ahead, and identify obstacles before they are visible to Tesla drivers. But he also noted that a wooden or plastic object might appear as transparent as glass to radar waves, and metal objects can appear larger than they are because they reflect such strong signals. The new radar system takes that into account to reduce the number of times Autopilot might brake or slow down for “unnecessary braking events.” During Monday’s demonstrations, while Ford engineers sat in the driver’s seat with hands off the steering wheel and feet off the pedals, the cars piloted themselves over a 10-minute loop, stopping when necessary for pedestrians, stop lights and intersections. During this reporter’s demonstration ride, the Fusion came to a stop at a crosswalk. After a group of pedestrians had passed, the car began to edge forward but then hit its brakes again. Well off to the left, perhaps 10 feet from the crosswalk, a straggler was hurrying to catch up to the group. The car’s lidar had spotted the man and the car sensed he was likely to dart into the road — and he did. “That’s the benefit of lidar,” said James McBride, a Ford engineer. Since radar looks forward, it might not notice a potential obstacle like a pedestrian entering from the side. But lidar scans across a wide field of vision, and is capa- Ford expects its experimental fleet of self-driving cars to grow to 30 by the end of the year. ble of picking up key details of an object, not just its shape, Mr. McBride said. “Lidar can make out the fingers on a pedestrian’s hand,” he said. Google, too, is incorporating lidar into its self-driving cars. The Ford cars used in the demonstration were outfitted with bulky lidar systems mounted on their roofs. Within about a month, though, the company plans to assemble self-driving Fusions with two lidar units that will be slightly larger than hockey pucks. Ford expects its experimental fleet of self-driving cars to grow to 30 by the end of the year, and it expects to have three times that number by the end of 2017. By 2021, the company has vowed to start production of a driverless car, with no steering wheel, and have it in use by a ride-hailing company in an Uber-like service. Uber is developing its own self-driving cars and is starting a pilot project this week in Pittsburgh in which the vehicles will pick up real passengers, with an engineer in the front seat in case something goes wrong. Those cars are also Fusions — though ones that Ford Motor has played no part in turning into self-driving cars. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 17 finance business An architect who resuscitated New York landmarks BY DAVID W. DUNLAP Grand Central Terminal, the main building on Ellis Island and the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory at the New York Botanical Garden — all among the greatest New York City landmarks — look better today than they have since their earliest years. Many hands were responsible. John Belle was the common denominator. Mr. Belle, the retired founding partner of Beyer Blinder Belle, an architectural and planning firm that has specialized in preservation, restoration and contextual design, died last week at 84. With his death, the city has lost an architect who conveyed a genial joy in resuscitating the masterworks of his predecessors. That made him an appealingly modest figure in a room full of big architectural egos, since he was at his best when his own interventions were least obvious. New York has also lost a link to the intellectual crucible of the 1960s, when Jane Jacobs and others demanded that architects stop obliterating the past and, instead, take time to understand the many ways in which people were well served by older buildings and neighborhoods. ‘‘Preservation is one of the highest forms of good citizenship,’’ Mr. Belle said on his firm’s website. ‘‘As a witness to the aftermath of the urban renewal movement in New York, I was determined to find a different way.’’ For her part, Ms. Jacobs held Beyer Blinder Belle in high regard. ‘‘They were looking at the fabric of the community,’’ she said in an interview in 1998. ‘‘That was very welcome and very exciting, that there were professionals who were, at last, doing that.’’ She added: ‘‘A community can’t just come by waving a wand. It has history. History was, to the modernists, an enemy. So this was a very radical realization. And an important one.’’ John Belle was born on June 30, 1932, in Cardiff, Wales. His father, Arthur, was a clerk at a Lyons tea shop in Cardiff. His mother, Gladys, was a housewife. Mr. Belle received diplomas from the Portsmouth School of Architecture in England and the Architectural Association in London before moving to the United States in 1959. Once in America, Mr. Belle worked for Josep Lluís Sert and Victor Gruen before starting his own firm in 1968 with Richard L. Blinder and John H. Beyer. Mr. Blinder died in 2006. Mr. Beyer is still active. Mr. Belle’s early work included community planning projects in Manhattan. With the addition of James Marston Fitch to the practice in 1979, Beyer Blinder Belle began moving to the forefront of preservation-oriented architecture. The firm attracted wide attention in 1990 with its renovation and restoration of the abandoned Ellis Island immigration station into the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration. The vaulted ceiling in the former Registry Room, made of 28,258 Guastavino tiles, was cleaned until it looked — as Mr. Belle aptly put it — like mother-of-pearl. Where modern interventions were needed, they were made as inconspicuous and respectful as possible. When the Haupt Conservatory at the botanical garden in the Bronx was restored in 1997, Herbert Muschamp, who was then the architecture critic at The New York Times, said it could ‘‘once again hold its sparkling glass head up high amid the great architectural symbols of New York.’’ Though critics have faulted Beyer Blinder Belle’s conservatism, it is worth recalling that the firm was associated in 1998 with the daring architect Santiago Calatrava in what proved to be a losing bid to redesign the James A. Farley Building, also known as the General Post Office, as a Pennsylvania Station annex. Penn Station was not where Mr. Belle was to win his greatest renown. That was at Grand Central. You almost had to have been there in the 1970s and ’80s to believe how far the Beaux-Arts terminal had fallen into decrepitude, even after its status as a land- DAMON WINTER/THE NEW YORK TIMES FRED R. CONRAD/THE NEW YORK TIMES FRED R. CONRAD/THE NEW YORK TIMES Grand Central Terminal, top, had fallen into decrepitude before renovations in the 1990s led by Beyer Blinder Belle, co-founded by John Belle, above left, fourth from the left. The firm also restored the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory at the New York Botanical Garden, above right. Many hands were responsible. Mr. Belle was the common denominator. With his death last week, New York has lost an architect who conveyed a joy in resuscitating the masterworks of his predecessors. mark was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 1978. Travelers shared Grand Central with a large homeless population. ‘‘The building was divided into turf claimed by different drug dealers,’’ Mr. Belle and Maxinne R. Leighton wrote in ‘‘Grand Central: Gateway to a Million Lives.’’ ‘‘Commuters were scared to take trains there at night. Parents warned their children not to use the dangerous bathrooms.’’ In 1990, a design and engineering consortium led by Beyer Blinder Belle began work. Their strategic first strike was to demolish a billboard called the Kodak Colorama, which had blocked daylight into the main concourse for 40 years. ‘‘It was as if life were being breathed back into the building,’’ Mr. Belle and Ms. Leighton wrote. ‘‘Many commuters stopped in their tracks, speechless and amazed at the change that had so instantly brought back the majesty of the space.’’ Their astonishment increased as the concourse ceiling was cleaned by workers on a scaffold that was rolled slowly through the room over a nine-month period. The mud brown sky turned a startling teal, with stars, constellations and zodiac signs popping out in goldleaf contrast. Besides restoring the past, Beyer Blinder Belle made fundamental changes, too, starting with the construction of an entirely new marble staircase to the east balcony. It echoed, but did not replicate, the ornate western staircase. Some preservationists hated the idea. But the firm prevailed before city and state preservation agencies after it uncovered a plan by the original architects, Warren & Wetmore, that showed a staircase to the east balcony. Mr. Muschamp, the architecture critic, approved. ‘‘The new eastern stair- case, which threatened to diminish the room’s amplitude, has the opposite effect of magnifying it,’’ he wrote in 1998, as the $425 million renovation neared completion. He continued, ‘‘Even more impressive is the uncovering of the ramps, located just behind the ticket windows, that lead down to the lower level and its fabled Oyster Bar.’’ ‘‘Beyer Blinder Belle’s greatest accomplishment,’’ Mr. Muschamp said, ‘‘has been to reveal that Grand Central is above all a monument to movement.’’ Mr. Belle’s first wife, Wendy Adams Belle, an artist and teacher, died in 1974. His second wife, Anne Belle, a docu- mentary filmmaker, died in 2003. He died on Thursday in Remsenburg, N.Y., where he had a home. He also lived in Manhattan. The cause was Lewy body disease, said his son David Belle, who survives him, along with another son, Sebastian; three daughters, Amelia, Fenella and Antonia Chapman; and eight grandchildren. Mr. Belle knew his work would never fully be done. ‘‘The act of restoring a building to its original state is only half the battle,’’ he and Ms. Leighton wrote. ‘‘The other half is to guard against its denigration throughout its future existence.’’ Polishing can make financial results look good but can also lead to fraud BY PETER J. HENNING Like a child on a playground who wants everyone to watch a new maneuver, companies clamor for public attention by presenting their numbers in a way that makes them look as successful as possible. But when those measures involve manipulating the figures, then their efforts can end up as a fraud on investors. Public companies are required to follow generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, in reporting their financial results. But those rules do not always put a company in the best light, and so many — one estimate is 448 of the 500 companies on the Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index — use what are known as non-GAAP measures to report on their business. There is nothing wrong with using these to help give investors greater insight into a company’s results by making adjustments that exclude certain amounts that may not be relevant to future operations. But as Jason Voss pointed out on the Enterprising Investor blog, ‘‘The non-GAAP metrics tend to move in only one direction: up.’’ Two recent cases show how manipulating the numbers can end up misleading investors in violation of the securities laws. The Justice Department announced charges last week against Brian Block, the former chief financial officer of the real estate company American Realty Capital Partners, which changed its name to Vereit last year. He is accused of conspiracy, securities fraud and providing false information in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission for inflating the company’s funds from operations, a crucial non-GAAP measure of the performance of real estate investment trusts. His lawyer stated that Mr. Block ‘‘is completely innocent and will be exonerated in court.’’ The company’s former chief accounting officer, Lisa P. McAlister, pleaded guilty in June to similar charges, although the case was sealed until prosecutors unveiled the indictment of Mr. Block. She admitted that American Realty had made an error in the first quarter of 2014 in the calculation of its adjusted funds from operations, or F.F.O., but failed to correct the figure once it came to light, which resulted in reporting higher amounts. The charges against her claim that she and Mr. Block later met in his office to enter false numbers into a spreadsheet used to report results in the next quarter to cover up the inflated figures. According to the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, the leading organization for the industry, funds from operations is a widely used standard for reporting performance that eliminates fluctuations in real estate values that can make it harder to compare how different companies are performing. Although American Realty’s financial statements were correct under GAAP, the more important number that real estate investment trusts want investors and analysts look at was F.F.O., so reporting incorrect results can amount to fraud if it is done intentionally. Nor is it a defense to a fraud charge that correct information was reported in the financial statements. When a company promotes its results by using a non-GAAP measure, then any false figures can result in misleading investors because they are not required to ferret out the truth by overlooking what a company chooses to highlight. The story of American Realty has taken some interesting twists since the initial disclosure of accounting problems in October 2014. The company’s chief executive said at the time that ‘‘we don’t have bad people, we had some bad judgment there’’ — a distinction with- out a difference for violating the law. Ms. McAlister filed a lawsuit in December 2014 against Nicholas Schorsch, American Realty’s former chief executive who built the company, and others claiming that she was fired in retaliation for exposing the fraudulent accounting. She later withdrew the case. The S.E.C. filed a parallel civil action against Mr. Block and Ms. McAl- Two cases show how manipulating numbers can end up misleading investors in violation of the securities laws. ister last week, and under its whistleblower rules, she will not be eligible for an award because she has been convicted of a securities violation. The amounts involved at American Realty were not large, with the discrepancy being roughly 3 cents a share in the first quarter of 2014. But on Wall Street, missing an earnings target by even a penny can result in a stock being pummeled, so financial executives know they have to make their numbers or face the wrath of investors and the chief executive. Fiat Chrysler is facing investigations by the S.E.C. and the Justice Department over something far less important than the financial measure used by the real estate industry: a long winning streak of monthly increases of new-car sales that turned out to be exaggerated. The company extolled how well it was doing since emerging from bankruptcy after the financial crisis, highlighting how it achieved higher vehicle sales for 75 months in a row. It turns out the streak ended three years earlier, at 40 months — which is not bad, but much less impressive than what it told investors about how well it was doing. The New York Times reported in July that the Justice Department visited the company’s headquarters in Michigan and several regional sales offices to gather information and interview witnesses as part of an inquiry into how the company reported sales, and any pressure it might have put on dealers to increase their numbers. Fiat Chrysler changed its methodology for reporting monthly sales after disclosure of the investigations, which a spokeswoman said was ‘‘an opportunity to be more transparent.’’ This information is typical of the nonGAAP reporting that companies embrace to show how well they are doing because it involves an easily grasped figure for the media to report and analysts to highlight. Everyone loves a winning streak, which means there is enormous pressure to keep it alive as long as possible, perhaps by tinkering with the numbers just enough to maintain the facade another month. No charges have been filed against Fiat Chrysler or any of its executives. It may turn out that the monthly sales figures are not important enough to merit an enforcement action, although Mary Jo White, the S.E.C.’s chairwoman, has said that non-GAAP measures are something the agency is focusing on. She pointed out in a speech in June that ‘‘in too many cases, the non-GAAP information, which is meant to supplement the GAAP information, has become the key message to investors, crowding out and effectively supplanting the GAAP presentation.’’ Gretchen Morgenson noted in April in her Fair Game column in The New York Times, ‘‘Creativity abounds in today’s freewheeling accounting world.’’ It is hard to criticize companies for giving out more information than they are required to provide. But sometimes more is not necessarily better when the result is painting a picture that is far rosier than the real numbers can support. 18 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 business INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES technology Apple offers free coding education app for iPad Move part of campaign to provide students with marketable job skills BY NATASHA SINGER Apple was expected to release a free coding education app on Tuesday that it developed with middle-school students in mind, in the latest salvo among technology companies to gain share in the education market and to nurture early product loyalty among children. Apple’s app, called Swift Playgrounds, introduces basic computer programming concepts, like sequencing logic, by asking students to use word commands to move cartoon avatars through a fanciful, animated world. Unlike some children’s apps, which employ drag-and-drop blocks to teach coding, the Apple program uses Swift, a professional programming language that the company introduced in 2014. “When you learn to code with Swift Playgrounds, you are learning the same by professional used language developers,” Brian Croll, Apple’s vice “How much of the motivation is for selling of product, and what does that do for schools that cannot afford this technology?” MATTHEW STAVER/BLOOMBERG NEWS Jeffrey P. Bezos, who founded Amazon and owns The Washington Post, also created Blue Origin, the private space company with a vision he described as leading to “millions of people living and working in space.” A rocket that may take you to space someday BY DANIEL VICTOR Blue Origin, the secretive space company created by Jeffrey P. Bezos, has offered a look at its newest rocket design — and, by extension, its ambitions to make space travel more frequent and inexpensive. Both the rocket and the ambitions appear to be big. The rocket, named New Glenn after John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, are almost as large as the Saturn V rocket that NASA used from 1966 to 1973, before rockets started being built smaller. The two-stage version that could venture to low-Earth orbit will be 270 feet tall, and the three-stage version, which could fly outside Earth’s orbit, will be 313 feet tall. Both will be 23 feet in diameter, packing seven BE-4 engines, which are developed by Blue Origin, and lifting off with 3.85 million pounds of thrust. Blue Origin plans to first launch the rocket from Launch Complex 36 at Cape Canaveral, Fla., before the end of the decade. “Our vision is millions of people living and working in space, and New Glenn is a very important step,” Mr. Bezos, the billionaire founder of Amazon, wrote in an email update. As a private company, Blue Origin could launch wealthy tourists into space, send commercial satellites into orbit and provide the technology to send NASA back to the moon, as well as to Mars and beyond. Perfecting the technology of reusable rockets — which the New Glenn rockets would be — could have profound implications on the cost and frequency of space travel. Imagine how much more expensive a flight from New York to London would be if airlines built a new BLUE ORIGIN/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE — GETTY IMAGES A New Shepard rocket’s engine firing before landing in West Texas after a suborbital test flight for Blue Origin in April. 747 jet for each flight, throwing them away after one use. That is effectively the current model of the space industry; rockets typically crash back into Earth after exhausting their fuel, and the steep costs of travel depress how often it happens. “Reusability is a total game-changer,” said Charles Miller, the president of NexGen Space, a space and public policy consultancy. “It’s on the order of going from the sail to the steam engine, or going from the horse to the automobile.” In November, Blue Origin launched its reusable New Shepard rocket from West Texas, sending a capsule that would eventually carry paying passengers to a height of 329,839 feet, just crossing the 100-kilometer line that is considered the beginning of outer space. Before New Glenn was announced as the rocket’s name on Monday, Mr. Bezos, who owns The Washington Post, had referred to it as “Very Big Brother.” The large size of New Glenn — Mr. Miller, a former senior adviser for NASA, had guessed it would be big but thought it would have five engines, not seven — suggests the company would seek to lower the price of space tourism by offering more seats on the flights, he said. In March, Mr. Bezos said that tourists could make short trips into space, experiencing a few minutes of weightlessness, as soon as 2018 via the reusable New Shepard spacecraft. The experience would doubtlessly be reserved for the rich, at least initially, but Mr. Bezos said it would be necessary to build expertise and develop the technology. Though the company was registered in 2000, Mr. Bezos had not let reporters into its headquarters in Kent, Wash., until March of this year. In September 2015, Blue Origin said it would invest $200 million and create 330 jobs by leasing a launch complex at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Mr. Miller said that if the dream of inexpensive space travel were fulfilled, it would significantly impact life on Earth. In the best case, the ability to more easily launch satellites could lead to worldwide broadband internet, better weather predictions, the monitoring of carbon sources and the farming of solar energy. For the United States, it could have national security implications, he said. The ability to destroy United States satellites that provide surveillance and guide missiles is a current liability, but enemies may be less likely to target them if they could be quickly replaced. And NASA will most likely be a customer, using the New Glenn rockets for future missions. “With this vehicle, going to Mars will become a lot easier,” Mr. Miller said. president of product marketing, said in a telephone interview. “It’s easy to take the next step and learn to write a real app.” The introduction of Apple’s app coincides with a larger Silicon Valley campaign to press public schools to teach coding. Tech executives have argued that such training could help addifferences dress socio-economic among students, by providing them with marketable job skills. In January, President Obama said he was asking Congress to provide $4 billion in the budget for a computer science initiative in public schools. (Congress has not yet passed a budget.) “We believe every student should have the opportunity to code,” Timothy D. Cook, the chief executive of Apple, said during a company event last week to introduce the iPhone 7. Tech companies are in heated competition for the education market. Apple devices and ones based on the Microsoft Windows software have recently lost market share at United States public schools to Chromebooks, inexpensive laptops that run on the Google Chrome operating system. The Apple coding app is free, but it requires an iPad, the company’s tablet computer, which has declining sales and which many schools and families may not be able to afford. “How much of the motivation is for selling of product, and what does that do for schools that cannot afford this technology?” asked Jane Margolis, a senior researcher at the Graduate School of Education & Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, who has studied disparities in computer science education for more than two decades. “The threat is that it is going to replicate current inequities.” Mr. Croll of Apple said the company was making the app free so that the coding lessons are accessible. While it is available for use in schools, individual students, parents and consumers could also use the app to teach themselves to code at home, he said. He added that Apple had created the app for the iPad to ensure a high-quality user experience. Apple said that more than 100 schools and districts worldwide had agreed to try the coding app with their students. The time I was a United States Border Patrol agent in a virtual world TUCSON BY FERNANDA SANTOS I found myself on a desolate desert road, in front of a man who was leaning against the hood of a banged-up sedan and next to a United States Border Patrol agent who was on the radio of her patrol vehicle, running the sedan’s license plate. In this virtual reality role-playing exercise in a Border Patrol simulator, my job was to keep an eye on the man. He seemed nervous. His legs twitched. His eyes darted from side to side, as if he were searching for a chance to escape. Suddenly, he walked to the driver’s side window of the sedan and reached inside. I pulled my pistol from its holster, pointed it at him and yelled: “Sir, get back to the hood of the car! Get back to the hood of the car!” The whole thing felt real, and that was exactly the point. The idea of the simulator is to immerse agents in the type of tense situations that they are likely to face on the job, and put their judgment and reactions to the test. Will the suspect comply with a command? Will the agent pull the trigger? The situations are based on real-life events. The difference is that, on the simulator screen, the interactions unfold based on the agents’ responses. “We want to know, what did you see?” said Jason Daniels, an instructor who trains Border Patrol agents. “Why did you react that way? What else could you have done?” Since the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo., in 2014, and a series of police shootings that followed it, a debate has erupted over the use of force by local police departments. The border with Mexico is also not immune to violent confrontations with law enforcement. According to one tally, more than 30 people have been fatally shot by agents along the southern border since 2010, and several others have been injured in shootings. One of the victims, a Mexico-bound truck driver, was shot last Thursday by Border Patrol agents who said he had swerved his vehicle toward officers working at the Mariposa Port of Entry in Nogales, Ariz. He remained hospitalized on Sunday. There are also numerous complaints of harsh treatment by Border Patrol agents. Some people who live and work near the border say they have been un- DEANNA ALEJANDRA DENT FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES Jason Daniels, a United States Border Patrol agent, with the reporter, Fernanda Santos. justifiably searched and detained at checkpoints. Migrants claim they have been held at Border Patrol stations in crowded, unsanitary cells that are so cold they have come to be known as hieleras, Spanish for iceboxes. Border agents are also attacked. Smugglers often hurl rocks at agents to distract them while drugs are brought into the United States at another spot. On Friday, the Tucson Sector of the United States Border Patrol, which is in charge of guarding 262 miles of the Arizona-Mexico boundary, invited six reporters to try the simulator and some of the less lethal weapons that agents have at their disposal. These were stun guns, collapsible batons and the riflestyle FN-303, which one agent described as “a pepper-ball launcher on steroids.” The sector’s chief patrol agent, Paul A. Beeson, said that on a typical day, about 20,000 agents working along the borders with Canada and Mexico made 980 arrests and seized 9,000 pounds of drugs. “During the course of all of that activity,” Chief Beeson said, “there are times when use of force is necessary.” Under pressure by civil rights groups, the Border Patrol’s parent agency, Customs and Border Protection, refined its use-of-force policies two years ago. One goal was to train agents to think of other weapons, and other tactics, they could use to defuse potentially violent encounters. “Don’t get caught up in the moment and put yourself in a situation where you have to respond with force,” said Mark McComack, the operations officer at the Tucson Sector. The virtual exercise is a big part of that training. There are 135 Border Patrol stations in the country and 27 simulators; two are in the Tucson Sector, which is the largest station on the southern border. The simulator feels like the video games in which each player is part of the action. The screens are tall and wide, arranged side by side in a pentagon. The gun, a Heckler & Koch semiautomatic pistol, was real but had been retrofitted to shoot laser beams when you pull the trigger. Instructors can see where the virtual bullets hit and what should happen next. When the man I had been watching stuck his hand inside his car, I moved my finger to the trigger and yelled one more time: “Step away from the car.” He did, throwing his hands up. The exercise was over. My hands were sweating. I didn’t shoot. But I had missed a critical piece of information: The car the man was driving had been reported stolen. “You were so focused on what was happening in front of you, you tuned out the rest,” said the instructor, Agent Daniels. “That’s very common in the field.” In real life, the events that the exercise was based on turned out much differently. The man did not surrender. Three years ago, in Hogg County, Tex., he pulled out a gun from inside the car he had just stolen and started shooting. The agents shot back. They were uninjured. The man did not survive. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 19 companies markets business 2 Canadian fertilizer powerhouses plan all-stock deal BY LESLIE PICKER AND IAN AUSTEN A combined Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan and Agrium would create the world’s largest crop nutrient company. As chemical and agricultural products producers face pressure to grow, two of the world’s largest crop fertilizer makers have agreed to combine in the latest farming industry deal. The companies, Agrium and the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, announced their all-stock merger on Monday after weeks of speculation. The two Canadian companies produce the materials — nitrogen, potassium compounds known as potash, and phosphate fertilizers — that farmers use to raise healthy crops, and their combination would create the largest crop nutrient company in the world. But fertilizer prices have recently come under pressure because of supply gluts and newer competitors, and demand has also softened. The deal enables the companies to cut $500 million of their combined costs annually over the next few years to help them withstand some of the new market dynamics. “The beauty about this transaction though is the $500 million of annual operating synergies that are in our control,” Charles V. Magro, president and chief executive of Agrium, said in a conference call with analysts on Monday. “We don’t need the market to improve to drive shareholder value.” Shareholders seemed a bit more skeptical. After the deal closes, Potash shareholders will own 52 percent of the new company, while Agrium’s investors will own 48 percent. The stocks of both companies declined on Monday, with Agrium about 3 percent lower, and Potash slipping more than 1.5 percent. One possibility for the declines: The deal does not have a premium. The combination would help Potash, which produces half the potash in North America, reduce its exposure to volatile prices for the potassium product. Agrium has a big presence among farmretail chains, enabling it to produce more stable earnings than wholesale fertilizer, according to a Sept. 1 report by Fitch Ratings after word of preliminary talks between the two companies came out. A combination “will improve market reach and allow the company to optimize its product margins,” Monica Bonar, a senior director at Fitch, said in the report. The deal follows others that involve the farming industry, including the pending merger between Dow Chemical and DuPont to create a company that would eventually break into three parts, one of which would focus on agricultural chemicals. In addition, China National Chemical Corporation, or ChemChina, has agreed to acquire seed and farm chemicals producer Syngenta. And the German industrial giant Bayer has been in back-and-forth negotiations with Monsanto, the American company known for its genetically modified crop seeds. Some farm groups have raised concerns about the effect of a merger of Agrium and Potash on fertilizer prices. Yet there has been little public outcry since the two companies said on Aug. 30 that they were in talks. “I don’t think the rank-and-file farmers are excited” about the deal, said Wade Barnes, president and chief executive of Farmers Edge, an agriculture technology company. “When two manufacturers come together, there’s less optionality of who to buy from, so the price point will probably be higher for them.” World markets Interest rates Tuesday, Sep. 13 United States U.S. Dow Jones indus. U.S. S.&P. 500 U.S. S.&P. 100 U.S. Nasdaq composite U.S. NYSE composite U.S. Russell 2000 Last 18,126.78 2,133.50 945.59 5,165.82 10,583.70 1,218.99 Chg –198.29 –25.54 –10.61 –46.07 –157.54 –16.88 12 mo.% +10.3 +8.8 +9.6 +7.1 +5.4 +5.3 The Americas Mexico IPC Canada S.&P./TSX Brazil Bovespa Argent. Merval Chile Stock Market select 46,309.94 –411.02 14,447.88 –149.26 57,466.59 –1119.53 15,750.39 –307.93 4,055.45 –12.44 +8.2 +7.3 +23.8 +44.7 +8.2 Europe and Middle East Euro zone Euro Stoxx 50 Britain FTSE 100 Germany DAX France CAC 40 Italy FTSE MIB Spain IBEX 35 Switzerland SIX Sweden OMX 30 Russia RTS Czech Rep. Prague Stock Exch. Israel TA-25 2,995.01 6,691.82 10,422.34 4,411.96 16,683.10 8,781.90 8,199.28 1,415.57 972.31 868.29 1,431.14 –17.87 –9.08 –9.43 –27.84 –157.18 –84.70 –6.92 –1.79 –11.47 –1.79 –6.10 –6.1 +9.4 +3.0 –3.0 –23.3 –9.8 –6.5 –4.9 +21.7 –13.3 –10.2 Nikkei 225 16,729.04 Hang Seng 23,215.76 All Ordinaries 5,309.99 Shanghai composite 3,023.79 Kospi 1,999.36 S.&P. CNX Nifty 8,715.60 Taiex 8,940.83 Straits Times 2,818.38 SET 1,448.92 Jakarta composite 5,215.57 +56.12 –74.84 –9.11 +1.82 +7.88 unch. –6.23 –54.95 +37.07 –66.35 –8.4 +8.0 +4.2 –5.5 +3.0 +11.9 +7.6 –2.4 +4.9 +19.6 Asia Japan H.K. Australia China S. Korea India Taiwan Singapore Thailand Indonesia DAVID STOBBE/REUTERS A Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan storage facility. Its merger deal with Agrium, which has been approved by the boards of both companies, is expected to close in mid-2017. The heads of the two companies brushed aside criticism. “It’s going to be a benefit for the farming community” because the new company will be more competitive, Mr. Magro said in the conference call. The deal will require regulatory and competition reviews in Canada as well as by American regulators. In Canada, the Liberal government of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has not raised any concerns about the merger, at least publicly. Philip Proulx, a spokesman for Navdeep Bains, Canada’s minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development, said that the government anticipates that the Competition Bureau will review the merger. But he noted that his 10-year govt. Ask yield Chg 12 mo. ago 3-month gov’t Ask yield Chg 12 mo. ago Britain France Germany Japan United States 0.862% 0.257 0.025 –0.022 1.646 unch. 0.03 0.01 –0.01 –0.02 1.846% 0.977 0.654 0.352 2.181 Britain France Germany Japan United States 0.223% –0.654 –0.742 –0.353 0.365 unch. –0.07 unch. –0.04 0.03 0.495% -0.206 -0.358 -0.022 0.023 Benchmark rates Last Latest chg 0.133% –0.589 –0.645 –0.280 0.555 –0.01 –0.01 unch. –0.01 –0.01 0.517% -0.207 -0.315 -0.006 0.372 Britain (bank) Canada (overnight) Euro zone (refinancing) Japanese (overnight) United States (prime) 0.3 % 0.5 (Aug. 5) 0.5 0.75 (Jul. 16) n.a. 0.05 (Mar. 16) 0.1 0.1 (Jun. 25) 3.5 3.25 (Dec. 17) 1-year gov’t Britain France Germany Japan United States Cross rates Futures Agricultural Corn Cotton Soybeans Wheat Rice Cocoa Coffee Sugar Orange juice –9999401.0 % 0.5 0.1 0.1 3.3 City Chicago N.Y. Chicago Chicago Chicago N.Y. N.Y. N.Y. N.Y. Metals, energy Aluminum London Copper N.Y. Gold N.Y. Palladium N.Y. Platinum N.Y. Silver N.Y. Brent crude London Light sw.crude N.Y. Natural gas N.Y. Units $/bu $/lb. $/bu $/bu $/cwt $/ton $/lb. cts/lb. cts/lb. Delivery Last Sep. 3.25 Oct. 0.67 Sep. 9.76 Sep. 3.81 Sep. 9.51 Sep. 2,813.00 Sep. 1.50 Oct. 20.42 Nov. 194.10 Chg –0.04 unch. –0.08 –0.03 unch. –17.00 unch. +0.18 +2.10 $/m. ton $/lb. $/tr.oz. $/tr.oz. $/tr.oz. $/tr.oz. $/bbl. $/bbl. $/mln.BTUs 3 mo. 156,800 Dec. 2.10 Dec. 1,328.40 Dec. 655.05 Oct. 1,044.40 Dec. 19.06 Nov. 47.30 Oct. 45.02 3 mo. 2.89 –1050 unch. +2.80 –1.65 +1.50 +0.06 –1.02 –1.27 –0.03 £1 Chg. $1 Australia 1.333 Brazil 3.292 Britain 0.758 Canada 1.316 China 6.679 Denmark 6.619 Euro zone 0.889 India 67.059 Japan 102.14 Mexico 19.114 Russia 64.990 Singapore 1.364 S. Africa 14.409 S. Korea 1124.77 Sweden 8.493 Switzerland 0.971 Taiwan 31.772 U.S. - €1 1.500 3.702 0.852 1.479 7.510 7.442 75.246 114.86 21.500 73.075 1.534 16.203 1264.69 9.548 1.092 35.728 1.125 £1 1.761 4.346 1.737 8.816 8.736 1.174 88.328 134.82 25.231 85.810 1.800 19.025 1484.70 11.212 1.282 41.939 1.320 ¥100 One ruble One One Swiss Can. franc doll. 1.306 0.021 1.372 1.013 3.223 0.050 3.388 2.501 0.741 0.012 0.779 0.575 1.288 0.202 1.354 6.538 0.103 6.872 5.075 6.479 0.010 6.808 5.030 0.870 0.014 0.915 0.675 65.494 0.103 68.821 50.945 - 1.570 105.08 77.600 18.700 0.000 19.659 14.527 6362.20 - 66.860 49.377 1.335 0.021 1.403 1.036 14.100 0.022 14.826 10.947 1101.00 17.291 1157.05 854.49 8.313 0.131 8.740 6.452 0.951 0.015 - 0.738 31.100 0.489 32.681 24.143 0.979 0.015 1.030 0.760 Exchange rates Major currencies $1 Euro Dollar Pound Swiss franc Yen Chg. 0.889 –0.002 0.758 0.007 0.971 –0.001 102.14 0.300 €1 1.125 0.852 1.092 114.86 Chg. 0.002 0.010 0.001 0.470 £1 Chg. 1.174 1.320 1.282 134.82 –0.013 –0.013 –0.013 –0.960 Asia Australian dollar 1.333 0.011 1.500 0.016 1.761 –0.001 Chinese renminbi 6.679 unch. 7.510 0.008 8.816 –0.089 Hong Kong dollar 7.759 0.001 8.729 0.017 10.242 –0.100 Indian rupee 67.059 0.331 75.246 0.067 88.328 –0.896 Indonesian rupiah 13165.0 68.000 14810.6 102.69 17377.8 –80.501 Malaysian ringgit 4.105 0.038 4.618 0.051 5.419 –0.003 Philippine peso 47.700 0.322 53.663 0.457 62.964 –0.191 World 100 Company U.S. Asia (cont.) $1 Chg. €1 Chg. Singapore dollar 1.364 0.008 1.534 0.011 1.800 –0.008 South Korean won 1124.77 18.100 1264.69 21.680 1484.70 9.180 Taiwan dollar 31.772 0.122 35.728 0.179 41.939 –0.260 Thai baht 34.930 0.070 39.296 0.148 46.108 –0.361 Europe Czech koruna Danish krone Hungarian forint Norwegian krone Polish zloty Russian ruble Swedish krona Turkish lira 24.024 –0.018 6.619 –0.006 275.81 0.420 8.220 –0.015 3.866 unch. 64.990 0.482 8.493 0.014 2.981 0.015 27.027 7.442 310.29 9.248 4.349 73.075 9.548 3.354 0.028 0.001 1.023 unch. 0.008 0.620 0.025 0.023 31.712 8.736 364.07 10.850 5.103 85.810 11.212 3.935 –0.336 –0.098 –3.026 –0.127 –0.050 –0.198 –0.084 –0.019 €1 Chg. £1 Chg. Argentine peso 14.880 –0.025 Brazilian real 3.292 0.047 Canadian dollar 1.316 0.012 Chilean peso 672.36 4.970 Mexican peso 19.114 0.302 Venezuelan bolivar 9.975 unch. 16.740 3.702 1.479 756.41 21.500 11.222 0.002 0.057 0.014 6.926 0.370 0.020 19.642 4.346 1.737 887.52 25.231 13.167 –0.227 0.019 –0.002 –2.116 0.149 –0.130 Middle East and Africa Egyptian pound 8.880 Israeli shekel 3.781 Saudi riyal 3.750 South African rand 14.409 9.990 4.254 4.219 16.203 0.018 0.026 0.008 0.231 11.722 –0.115 4.991 –0.028 4.950 –0.049 19.025 0.066 The Americas $1 Chg. unch. 0.016 unch. 0.189 department, which describes itself as a law enforcement agency, “conducts merger reviews independently of the government.” If its review leads to concerns which the two companies are unwilling to resolve, the Competition Bureau could challenge the merger through the Competition Tribunal, a specialized court. Six years ago, when demand from China was pushing up the price of potash, the Australian mining giant BHP Billiton tried to acquire the Potash Corporation. The takeover bid immediately prompted a political backlash among critics, including some traditional advocates of open investment policies. After a request by the province of Saskatchewan, which founded Potash in Industrial-gas merger talks end LONDON Linde says it was unable to reach understanding with its U.S. rival, Praxair BY CHAD BRAY Linde of Germany has said that it has ended talks on a potential merger with Praxair that would have brought together two of the world’s largest suppliers of industrial-gas products. Combining the companies would have created a giant in the industry, with more than $30 billion in annual revenue. The merger discussions came after Air Liquide, a French industrial-gas producer, completed its acquisition in May of Airgas for more than $10 billion. Last 3M 176.6 AbbVie 63.44 Accenture 110.8 Allergan 238.3 Alphabet (A sh.) 790.2 Altria Group 63.98 Amazon.com 762.4 Amgen 169.2 Apple 108.3 AT&T 40.04 Bank of America 15.62 Berkshire Hath. 219,519 Boeing 129.5 Bristol-Myers 55.50 Celgene 105.1 Chevron 100.4 Cisco Systems 31.06 Citigroup 46.84 Coca-Cola 42.63 Comcast 65.21 CVS Health 91.19 Eli Lilly 78.40 Exxon Mobil 85.78 Facebook 127.3 General Electric 30.00 Gilead Sciences 78.11 Home Depot 126.7 Honeywell 112.4 IBM 157.1 Intel 35.55 Johnson & J. 117.9 JPMorgan Chase 66.18 Kraft Heinz 87.74 MasterCard 99.50 McDonald’s 114.7 Medtronic 85.64 Merck 62.24 –1.5 –0.64 –2.0 –2.0 –8.7 –0.69 –9.1 –2.8 +2.9 –0.67 –0.28 –4001 –0.7 –0.82 –1.7 –1.8 –0.38 –0.95 –0.56 –0.56 –0.85 –0.68 –1.51 –1.4 –0.49 –0.74 –1.9 –1.1 –1.2 –0.53 –1.3 –0.88 –0.82 –0.61 –1.3 –0.56 –0.95 +25.0 137.0 +6.9 48.27 +13.8 93.3 –19.3 201.7 +20.6 622.6 +21.7 52.38 +44.0 482.1 +10.5 132.2 –5.2 90.3 +22.4 31.90 –2.6 11.16 +10.7 187,001 –3.9 108.4 –6.3 55.66 –15.2 94.9 +32.5 74.9 +19.4 22.51 –8.3 34.98 +11.8 38.10 +15.6 53.55 –10.2 89.65 –4.2 69.06 +18.0 72.00 +38.3 86.7 +20.2 24.00 –28.8 76.89 +9.8 111.9 +12.8 91.6 +6.6 117.9 +20.6 28.22 +26.9 91.0 +5.8 53.07 +19.0 69.20 +8.9 80.65 +17.7 94.9 +22.5 64.52 +19.5 48.42 181.4 67.39 119.7 322.5 808.5 69.87 788.9 174.8 122.6 43.47 17.95 226,050 149.4 76.77 127.2 107.0 31.87 55.87 46.89 67.92 106.10 89.98 95.12 131.1 32.93 111.61 138.8 119.9 163.5 36.57 125.4 68.46 89.97 101.50 131.6 88.92 63.86 Company (Country) U.S. (cont.) Last Microsoft Nike Oracle PepsiCo Pfizer Philip Morris Proctor & G. Qualcomm Schlumberger Starbucks Unilever United Technol. UnitedHealth UPS Verizon Visa Wal-Mart Walgreens Walt Disney Wells Fargo 56.36 55.36 40.15 105.4 34.18 99.37 87.55 61.61 77.41 54.16 3,530 102.5 134.0 107.4 51.35 81.78 71.73 82.52 92.89 47.04 52-wk price range Chg 12 mo.% Low Last ( ‡) High –0.69 –0.65 –0.53 –0.6 –0.47 –1.27 –0.70 –0.64 –1.39 –0.55 +25 –1.6 –1.6 –1.1 –1.22 –1.19 –0.21 –1.05 –0.75 –1.50 +29.6 –1.0 +5.9 +15.0 +3.7 +25.0 +28.0 +12.7 +5.0 –4.2 +38.1 +11.0 +12.9 +10.5 +12.3 +15.6 +11.0 –8.7 –11.1 –10.6 42.61 51.89 33.94 90.8 28.56 77.29 68.06 42.96 61.06 53.69 2,549 84.7 109.2 88.7 42.84 67.20 56.42 72.91 88.85 45.01 58.30 67.17 41.77 110.0 37.31 103.63 88.64 63.47 83.86 63.51 3,661 109.7 143.7 111.5 56.53 83.24 74.30 95.16 120.07 55.97 The Americas AmBev (BR) 19.51 R. Bk. of Can.(CA) 80.02 TD Bank (CA) 57.39 –0.24 –0.68 –0.58 +3.4 +10.5 +10.7 16.24 65.00 49.02 20.35 82.23 58.77 Europe A-B InBev (BE) 110.3 Bayer (DE) 93.51 BP (GB) 422.0 Brit. Am. Tob.(GB) 4,730 Deutsche Telek.(DE)14.47 Glaxo (GB) 1,605 HSBC (GB) 560.0 Inditex (ES) 31.83 L’Orèal(FR) 166.4 LVMH (FR) 151.5 –0.1 –0.04 –6.7 +32 –0.09 +13 –5.6 –0.17 –0.9 –0.5 +16.7 –21.4 +25.8 +38.3 –7.1 +23.9 +11.0 +11.6 +14.5 +2.3 93.6 84.42 311.0 3,384 13.98 1,238 416.2 26.76 143.9 131.4 123.3 126.85 461.7 5,028 17.48 1,706 580.3 34.59 176.2 173.5 Company (Country) Europe (cont.) Last Nestlè(CH) Novartis (CH) Novo Nordisk (DK) R. Dutch Shell(NL) Roche Hold. (CH) SABMiller (GB) Sanofi (FR) SAP (DE) Siemens (DE) Total (FR) Vodafone (GB) 77.30 77.35 302.3 21.58 239.3 4,426 69.82 78.53 103.0 42.41 221.7 52-wk price range Chg 12 mo.% Low Last ( ‡) High –0.45 +0.10 +4.0 –0.50 +0.3 +36 –0.13 +0.15 –0.9 –1.03 –0.7 +7.7 –17.4 –18.9 –2.3 –8.2 +49.2 –20.7 +35.5 +20.5 +6.8 –1.0 69.40 68.50 296.1 16.67 233.2 2,934 67.27 55.89 78.6 35.33 200.2 79.85 94.80 404.2 25.25 279.3 4,440 93.30 80.70 108.6 47.03 239.3 Asia Ag. Bk. of Ch.(CN) 3.15 +0.01 Alibaba Gr. (CN) 100.8 +1.2 Bank of China (CN) 3.38 unch. Ch. Const. Bk.(HK) 5.18 +0.02 China Life (CN) 21.66 –0.14 China Mobile (HK) 95.75 +1.25 Com. Bk. of A.(AU) 69.50 –0.72 ICBC (CN) 4.43 –0.02 Japan Tobac. (JP) 3,993 +43 NTT (JP) 4,575 –16 NTT DoCoMo (JP) 2,553 –24 PetroChina (CN) 7.30 –0.01 Ping An Insur.(CN) 34.72 –0.40 Samsung El. (KR)1,527,000+62000 Sinopec (CN) 4.90 –0.04 Taiwan Semi. (TW) 175.0 unch. Tata Cons. S. (IN) 2,359 unch. Tencent (HK) 208.0 +1.0 Toyota Motor (JP) 6,109 +16 +0.3 2.90 +56.0 57.4 –14.0 3.13 –5.6 4.53 –13.6 19.68 +4.6 79.65 –7.5 70.14 unch. 3.98 –1.7 3,573 +0.4 4,006 +4.5 1,961 –17.1 7.08 +16.2 28.88 +37.0 1,112,000 –2.6 4.27 +37.3 122.5 –7.5 2,172 +63.4 126.5 –13.6 4,975 3.34 103.8 4.34 6.16 30.41 99.00 85.57 4.86 4,835 5,378 2,906 9.26 36.99 1,687,000 5.39 184.0 2,740 215.0 7,827 Data are at 1445 U.T.C. Prices are in local currencies. Source: Reuters Infographics by: CUSTOM FLOW SOLUTIONS On Monday, Linde said that shareholder representatives on its supervisory board, along with its chief executive, had recommended that the company terminate the talks about a potential merger with Praxair, which is based in Danbury, Conn. “While the strategic rationale of a merger has been principally confirmed, discussions about details, specifically about governance aspects, did not result in a mutual understanding,” Linde said in a news release. Praxair separately confirmed on Monday that merger discussions had been terminated. Linde, which is based in Munich, confirmed in August that it was in preliminary talks with Praxair, but it said at the time that the discussions had not “resulted in any concrete results or agreement yet” and that it was not “foresee- able whether there will be any kind of transaction.” Praxair has a market capitalization of about $33 billion, while Linde has a value of about 28 billion euros, or around $31 billion. Praxair’s main products include oxygen, carbon dioxide and helium. It also manufactures equipment to produce industrial gases. The company generated $10.8 billion in sales in 2015 and has about 26,000 employees in more than 50 countries. Linde has three divisions focused on industrial gases, engineering and supply chain services. Its gas division concentrates on industrial and medical gases, including oxygen, nitrogen and argon. The company generated €17.9 billion in revenue in 2015 and has about 64,000 employees in more than 100 countries. International Funds For online listings and past performance visit For information please contact Roxane Spencer e-mail email@example.com www.morningstar.com/Cover/Funds.aspx September 13, 2016 èèá ½»¤¨µ µ³¤§ Ôåç æè áÝææ ççè çãç µ§®µ ®¦µ§µ¦ ³¦· ¨· m ½]Qfp ºZ[nj[MOpMjm º]pNN ½ µJOZ Ý çãèïæè d J]NpO %§J]Me" ¨Mm nîZ ï¤ï »ZF ççèèò ±Op[m ºpE\p[ m ½]Qfp ºZ[nj[MOpMjm º]pNN ½ · , çáæïçÝ m ±]Zop] µ\jOhe[h §pO^jMN ªç%åçîçæîçè" , çæåïçáµ m ±]Zop] ¤QQZOMJ[eME ªç%åçîçæîçè" , çèãïãæµ , ææÝïèÛ ³pFÔ %åãá" ÚãÚ èÚÚå The companies with the largest market capitalization, listed alphabetically by region. Prices shown are for regular trading. A+ ‡ or − ‡ indicates stocks that reached a new 52-week high or low. 52-wk price range Chg 12 mo.% Low Last ( ‡) High 1975 and sold it to the private sector in 1989, the Conservative federal government at the time effectively killed the deal using foreign investment review laws. Sinochem in China also prepared to make a bid but withdrew it, apparently because of Canadian government opposition. Reflecting the decline in fortune of the potash industry, the $36 billion value of the merged companies is well below the $39 billion BHP proposed to pay for Potash alone. Potash said the average price for its commodity during the second quarter of this year was $154 a metric ton. At the height of the battle with BHP, prices reached as high as $900. Potash has mothballed a recently opened mine in the eastern Canadian province of New Brunswick and temporarily closed some operations in Saskatchewan, the center of the industry in Canada. Mosaic, another Potash Corporation producer based in Plymouth, Minn., has also closed a mine in Saskatchewan, citing low prices. The name of the combined Agrium and Potash Corporation, which will have about 20,000 employees, is to be determined before the deal closes. The companies expect to generate cost savings from combining their distribution and retail operations, production and backoffice capabilities. The companies also said they were committed to Canpotex, a cartel for controlling potash prices. It is jointly owned by Agrium and Potash, as well as a Mosaic Company subsidiary. Mr. Magro will become chief executive of the combined company, while Jochen Tilk, the president and chief executive of Potash, will become its executive chairman. The new company’s board will have an equal number of directors from each company. Potash had a $14.3 billion market valuation as of Friday’s close, while Agrium’s was $13.2 billion. Under terms of the deal, Potash shareholders will receive 0.400 common shares of the new company for each of their shares, while Agrium shareholders will receive 2.230 common shares of the new company. After the close of the deal, the company will seek a dividend similar to Agrium’s, adjusted for the new number of shares. The dividend would be subject to market conditions and board approval. Its legally registered head office will be in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, where Potash is based, with corporate offices in Calgary as well. The deal, which has been approved by the boards of both companies, is expected to close in mid-2017, depending on approvals by regulators, the Canadian court and shareholders. Agrium’s financial advisers in the deal included Barclays and CIBC Capital Markets, while Bank of America Merrill Lynch and RBC Capital Markets advised the Potash Corporation. Agrium’s legal advisers were Blake, Cassels & Graydon; Norton Rose Fulbright, Canada; Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison; and Latham & Watkins. Stikeman Elliott and Jones Day provided legal counsel to the Potash Corporation. Morgan Stanley advised both Agrium and the Potash Corporation. 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Over 5,000 rogue employees opened phony accounts to make the bank’s new business look healthier. A sham that no one noticed DEALBOOK “I don’t want anyone ever offering a product to someone when they don’t know what the benefit is, or the customer doesn’t understand it, or doesn’t want it, or doesn’t need it.” That was John Stumpf, the chief executive of Wells Fargo, one of the United States’ largest banks, in an interview about a year ago with The San Francisco Chronicle. We found out on Friday that at least 5,300 of his employees — let me repeat that number because it is so mindbogglingly large: 5,300 — were engaged in rampant sham deals, secretly signing up myriad customers for two million accounts that they did not authorize, did not know they had, did not need, and clearly did not understand. Wells Fargo then charged customers at least $1.5 million in fees for those unwanted sham accounts, which were created simply to goose the income of bank employees whose incentive programs rewarded them for opening as many new accounts as possible. Some of the accounts were closed right away, as soon as the employee got credit for them. The executive who oversaw this group of rogue employees, Carrie Tolstedt, conveniently announced plans to retire over the summer and, according to Fortune, is being paid $124.6 million on the way out. (One analyst has called for a clawback of that exit package.) Clearly there is a disconnect between whatever Mr. Stumpf was telling the public and what was actually going on at Wells Fargo — and that’s putting it politely. Here’s Mr. Stumpf from that same interview in The Chronicle: “We think everyone here is a risk manager,” he said. “Whether it’s your official title or not, everything we do is a part of that.” Wells Fargo has long tried to separate itself from Wall Street. Given its West Coast headquarters, in San Francisco, the bank has sought to portray itself as a bank for Main Street. Its entire ethos, Wells Fargo has long suggested, is one of trust and ethics. But this episode raises all the same Traveler’s forecast T-STORMS High/low temperatures, in degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit, and expected conditions. SHOWERS C ..................... Clouds F .......................... Fog H ........................ Haze I.............................. Ice PC.......... Partly cloudy R ......................... Rain SNOW Abu Dhabi Almaty Athens Bangkok Barcelona Beijing Belgrade Berlin Boston Brussels Buenos Aires Cairo Chicago Frankfurt Geneva Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Johannesburg Karachi Kiev Lagos Lisbon London Los Angeles Madrid Manila Mexico City Miami Moscow Mumbai Nairobi New Delhi New York Sh ................. Showers S .......................... Sun Sn ...................... Snow SS....... Snow showers T ........ Thunderstorms W ...................... Windy Wednesday ˚C ˚F 42/29 108/84 S 25/10 77/50 S 30/21 86/70 S 30/24 86/75 T 26/17 79/63 PC 31/18 88/64 PC 27/16 81/61 PC 28/14 82/57 S 29/14 84/57 PC 32/17 90/63 S 17/5 63/41 S 34/25 93/77 S 22/14 72/57 PC 31/18 88/64 S 28/15 82/59 T 33/27 91/81 H 28/20 82/68 S 32/23 90/73 Sh 23/10 73/50 C 33/26 91/79 S 20/7 68/45 PC 28/24 82/75 T 23/16 73/61 PC 30/17 86/63 S 23/14 73/57 PC 21/11 70/52 PC 31/26 88/79 Sh 25/11 77/52 T 32/26 90/79 T 12/7 54/45 PC 30/25 86/77 Sh 27/13 81/55 PC 34/25 93/77 PC 31/17 88/63 PC Thursday ˚C ˚F 40/30 104/86 S 28/13 82/55 S 31/21 88/70 S 31/25 88/77 T 24/18 75/64 Sh 33/19 91/66 S 29/16 84/61 PC 27/14 81/57 S 20/13 68/55 S 27/15 81/59 PC 18/10 64/50 S 34/23 93/73 S 23/16 73/61 S 29/15 84/59 PC 21/12 70/54 T 32/27 90/81 W 29/20 84/68 PC 32/24 90/75 Sh 26/14 79/57 S 33/26 91/79 S 20/7 68/45 S 29/24 84/75 C 23/16 73/61 PC 29/15 84/59 S 25/15 77/59 PC 22/10 72/50 PC 32/25 90/77 T 25/12 77/54 T 32/25 90/77 PC 12/8 54/46 C 30/26 86/79 Sh 26/13 79/55 PC 35/26 95/79 S 24/14 75/57 S 15-20 FLURRIES SWEDEN 10-15 RAIN NORWAY ESTONIA 20-25 ICE 15-20 BEL. 30-35 FRANCE LITH. GERMANY UKRAINE CZECH. REP. 25-30 10-15 PORTUGAL 15-20 20-25 20-25 20-25 BULGARIA GREECE 25-30 COMMODITIES 0% –20 2015 2016 OIL Nymex light sw. crude $45.02 a barrel –1.27 GOLD New York $1,328.20 a tr. oz. –0.80 CORN Chicago $3.25 a bushel Data as of 1445 U.T.C. –0.05 Source: Reuters Graphs: Custom Flow Solutions 52-week +2.1% +19.9 –16.6 For more independent commentary and analysis, visit www.breakingviews.com SYRIA LEBANON 25-30 ISRAEL ALGERIA SAUDI ARABIA EGYPT LIBYA 27/20 81/68 PC 29/20 84/68 T 29/17 84/63 PC 40/21 104/70 S 27/18 81/64 PC 22/13 72/55 PC 27/15 81/59 PC 28/18 82/64 S 26/25 79/77 R 32/25 90/77 C JORDAN 30-35 >35 Nice Osaka Paris Riyadh Rome San Francisco Sao Paulo Seoul Shanghai Singapore –14.4 expensive, and airlines have a relatively high share of fixed costs. A simple way of lowering the costs per seat and increasing the absolute amount of operating profit, all things being equal, is to add more seats to a flight, either by using bigger planes on a given route, or by putting more seats into existing ones. But when every airline pursues the same strategy, ticket prices fall. The problem is being exacerbated because of high fragmentation among Europe’s airlines. The smaller an airline is, the less managers tend to think about the effect of their capacity decisions on the wider industry. The five biggest carriers control only 40 percent of the market — only half as much as in the United States. European airlines’ shares have already fallen 11 to 31 percent this year, as valuations have tumbled. More expansion will just divert further value toward airlines’ passengers, and away from their owners. OLAF STORBECK 30-35 TUNISIA 30-35 –0.013 Falling fuel prices are going to send a chill through European airlines this winter. The 50 percent drop in the price of oil over the last two years has so far lowered operating costs and improved profitability. But the windfall is luring the industry into running too many flights in too-large planes. From now on it might be better to fly the airlines than to buy their shares. The number of seats available in Europe will grow faster than the number of passengers in 2016, the International Air Transport Association predicts — the first time that has happened since 2011. Yet since attacks in Belgium, France and Germany, many people are avoiding airplanes. Lufthansa on Friday reported a 1.3 percent drop in passenger numbers for August, compared with a year earlier. Yet the airline will still increase its capacity between now and the end of March at the fastest rate in almost three years, according to Deutsche Bank. The expected growth at Ryanair, easyJet and Air France-KLM is even higher. From an individual chief executive’s perspective, this behavior is rational. Owning and maintaining planes is TURKEY 20-25 MOROCCO £1= $1.32 +17.7 20-25 ALB. SPAIN POUND –0.003 30-35 ROMANIA ITALY 30-35 10-15 ¥100= $0.98 Airlines appear to be mismanaging drop in fuel costs Meteorology by AccuWeather. Weather shown as expected at noon on Wednesday. 15-20 POLAND SWITZ. 20-25 YEN –0.6% MOSTLY CLOUDY RUSSIA BELARUS BRITAIN 30-35 NETH. LOW +0.002 LATVIA DENMARK HIGH 52-week €1= $1.13 STATIONARY COMPLEX WARM COLD 5-10 FINLAND 2016 EURO engage in deceptive and abusive practices; and what additional safeguards may be needed to prevent this type of behavior.” All of this raises the question, based on Mr. Stumpf’s assertion that everyone at Wells Fargo is a risk manager: What, exactly, does an actual risk manager at Wells Fargo do? That’s an important issue because Wells Fargo has always had a reputation as one of the best-managed banks, especially when it comes to risk. On Monday, the bank said it had temporarily suspended its cross-selling initiative, to be on the safe side. Indeed, the great irony of this sham is how tiny it is in terms of dollars. That’s why the $185 million fine by the government wasn’t bigger. As scams go, this one was, well, for lack of a better word, lame. It did not produce much profit, nor was it particularly hidden. For example, employees would use fake email addresses with the wellsfargo.com domain. If investors are yawning, it’s because in pure dollar terms this is a minuscule deceit. But they shouldn’t be, because this could portend a larger problem, particularly as Wells seeks to become more aggressive in the risky business of investment banking. Given all the regulations in place and the billions of dollars poured into compliance efforts, how could something so staggeringly widespread and so blatantly corrupt have happened in the first place? Another question is what this scandal says about Wells Fargo’s seemingly down-home culture. Mr. Bove, noting that part of the sham included opening “566,000 phantom credit card accounts,” asked in a note to clients, “What does this indicate about the bank’s underwriting policies? Can anyone have a Wells credit card without any checks being made concerning that person’s ability to make payments for debt created using this card?” And what does this say about the information the company has reported to investors and regulators? Mr. Bove added: “The bank also apparently opened 1.5 million false transaction accounts? Does this mean that accounts can be opened with no balances? What does it say about the willingness of the bank to operate with accounts on which it makes no money? What policies and procedures at this bank allowed this to occur?” So far, these are all just questions without answers. Wells Fargo took out full-page ads last week in many newspapers (including this one) to “take responsibility.” But taking responsibility includes answering those questions — and we are all still waiting. questions that have been asked about virtually every firm on Wall Street. Whatever distance Mr. Stumpf tried to maintain for Wells between it and the big New York banks with bad-boy reputations just evaporated. When politicians talk about Wall Street as a “criminal enterprise,” this is exactly what they are talking about. “This problem is a serious one and indicates that the company is feeling an intense pressure to perform that it cannot meet,” Richard Bove, a longtime research analyst, told me. “I would expect to see some meaningful internal adjustments. There clearly will be some management changes — whether they reach as high as John Stumpf is very hard to say.” Mr. Stumpf has always said, fairly, that it is impossible to do a perfect job policing hundreds of thousands of employees. Warren Buffett, Wells Fargo’s largest shareholder, has sounded a similar note, describing his own company, Berkshire Hathaway. “Somebody is doing something today at Berkshire that you and I would be unhappy about if we knew of it,” Mr. Buffett once said. All of the “That’s inevitaissues raise the ble: We now question: employ more than 250,000 What, exactly, people, and the does an actual chances of that risk manager number getting at Wells Fargo through the day without any bad do? behavior occurring is nil. But we can have a huge effect in minimizing such activities by jumping on anything immediately when there is the slightest odor of impropriety.” Perhaps if a handful of employees at Wells Fargo were responsible for signing up some phony accounts, we could generously say, “Oh, there were some bad apples.” But the scale and brazenness of this phoniness does not permit that. This sham, in its reach, is breathtaking. “The magnitude of this situation warrants thorough and comprehensive review,” Senate Banking Committee members, led by Senator Robert Menendez of New Jersey, wrote in a letter to the committee’s chairman, Senator Richard C. Shelby of Alabama. The letter continued, “Specifically, the committee should thoroughly examine this issue, including: How it is possible that more than 5,000 employees could bilk customers over the course of five years; the timing, extent and disposition of customer complaints; whether Wells Fargo’s sales and compensation structure incentivized employees to notably SoftBank’s $32 billion acquisition of the British chip maker ARM, have lacked such financial benefits. Others have been fuzzy, like Komatsu’s $4 billion takeover of its rival Joy Global, which vaguely promised to “maximize synergies.” In another rarity for corporate Japan, Renesas is also shedding some balance-sheet flab by running down its cash hoard. It finished the last financial year with 153 billion yen, or $1.5 billion, in net cash, which was presumably generating returns of next to nothing. Some caveats. A big chunk of synergies is to come from sales, not cost savings: 13 billion of the total 17 billion yen, according to Macquarie. Cross-selling benefits are usually trickier to realize than straightforward cost cuts and thus harder to believe. In this case, though, they seem relatively credible, given the companies’ highly complementary set of customers. An 8.5 percent return on acquisition, based on Breakingviews calculations, is not earth shattering. Over all, though, Renesas is sending the right signals. QUENTIN WEBB 24/18 75/64 PC 30/20 86/68 C 21/14 70/57 T 40/22 104/72 S 26/19 79/66 T 20/13 68/55 PC 22/14 72/57 PC 28/18 82/64 PC 27/25 81/77 R 31/26 88/79 T Stockholm Sydney Taipei Tel Aviv Tokyo Toronto Tunis Vienna Warsaw Washington >35 20/12 24/13 30/26 30/24 27/23 22/10 31/23 27/14 23/8 34/20 68/54 75/55 86/79 86/75 81/73 72/50 88/73 81/57 73/46 93/68 S R R S R R PC PC S PC 21/9 22/11 32/26 30/25 28/23 21/10 31/23 27/15 23/9 28/19 70/48 72/52 90/79 86/77 82/73 70/50 88/73 81/59 73/48 82/66 PC W T S C S PC PC S S cartier.com Andrew Ross Sorkin 2015 Renesas Electronics, of Japan, has programmed a model takeover. The company, one of the world’s largest chip makers, has reached an agreement to buy Intersil, of the United States, for $3.2 billion, weeks after reports of a potential takeover emerged. Hefty synergies that were promised, if achieved, would easily cover a big premium. The all-cash deal, announced on Tuesday, means Renesas will get bigger in chips that convert inputs like sound and light into digital signals. These analog products account for 89 percent of Intersil’s sales, versus 10 percent at Renesas. That should better position Renesas for the rise of new technologies like the smart car. A price of $22.50 a share equates to a chunky 44 percent premium to Intersil’s - stock price on Aug. 19, or a total sweetener of nearly $1 billion for the California company’s shareholders. But the buyer vows to extract $170 million in annual synergies. That is nearly a third of Intersil’s annual sales. Both the size and the specificity are welcome. Some recent Japanese deals, Diamond Collection ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES S1 ·µ§¤º½º æèçß A perfect storm of international crises EOIN RYAN Rough sailing for liberal values Democratic principles face critical challenges in an unstable world BY SERGE SCHMEMANN This year’s Athens Democracy Forum will be the fourth, and it will not be the last. It cannot be. Democratization is not accomplished or achieved. It is a process, as complex and changing as the world, forever in danger, forever evolving, forever in need of vigilance and repair. Democracy is not irreversible. We see evidence again and again, as unscrupulous leaders take advantage of popular fears and insecurities to subvert democratic institutions, often with the loud support of a majority that feels threatened by a changing world and finds respite in demagoguery. Freedom of expression is often the first victim. No democracy is immune. Even the most established are finding themselves under challenge from xenophobic politicians exploiting fears of migrants or economic crises to advance isolationist, reactionary ideologies. And while most of the world’s governments call themselves democratic, many have redefined the concept almost beyond recognition. Some claim that the Western forms of democracy are unsuitable for their societies, and that to argue otherwise is a form of cultural imperialism. Some claim that authoritarian rule is a more familiar and efficient form of ‘‘democracy’’ in less developed parts of the world. Some argue that democracy includes the right to maintain the purity of a national identity. In the most extreme challenge, an Islamist fringe perceives Western democracy as an evil that justifies the most repugnant violence. But then democracy has always been in peril. It exists to give people control over those who wield power, and those who have power often want more. In recent months alone we have witnessed a deeply troubling American presidential campaign; the dubious impeachment of the president of Brazil; a vote in Britain to leave the European Union; and more. This year, the forum focuses on four challenges to democracy: migration, the rise of the authoritarian leader, and the roles of business and of religion. Largely because of the civil war in Syria, the flood of refugees from there, combined with a continuing flow of Africans fleeing poverty and strife, has become the defining challenge to Western democracy. This challenge casts many of the fundamental tenets of liberal democ- racy — to be the Mother of Exiles, as Emma Lazarus phrased it in her famous poem on the Statue of Liberty — against the fear of the ‘‘other’’ undermining national identity, comfort and security. Chancellor Angela Merkel threw down the gauntlet to Europe when she opened Germany’s doors wide to refugees a year ago. Other nations — particularly those of the former Soviet bloc — tried to shut their gates. In Britain, resentment of foreigners became a rallying cry in the vote against membership in the European Union. In the United States, the fate of undocumented immigrants has become a major issue, with Donald J. Trump demanding a wall with Mexico. The attraction of the ‘‘big man’’ — the tough boss who stands up to perceived slights and threats, civil rights and democratic niceties be damned — is another challenge in urgent need of a response. The loud support for increasingly author- This year, the refugee crisis has become the defining test of Western ideals. itarian rule in places like Russia and Turkey, and the rise of populist politicians in the United States and across Europe, have raised fundamental questions about the ability of democratic institutions to deal with economic or social turmoil. The interaction of an elected government and business is a hardy perennial in the evolution of democratic rule. The degree to which government should be a partner, regulator or defender of commercial interests is one question to which different democracies have devised different answers. Another challenge is the growing ability of large multinationals to pick and choose where to do business. The suit against Apple by the European Union has raised a welter of issues about jurisdiction, taxation and national pride. Then there is the religion question, raised in its most terrible guise in the violence of radical Islamists. The power of religion is also increasingly evident in less vicious but still essential social debates in all corners of the world, including the democracies that purport to separate church and state. Same-sex marriage and abortion are only some of the most prominent issues in which religion plays a central role. The resistance to Muslim refugees in the United States and Europe is partly based on the notion that they are alien to the West’s Judeo-Christian identity. The challenges are daunting. But so long as we can discuss the glitches, we can try to correct them. That’s why this will not be the last forum. S2 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES ·µ§¤º½º æèçß An uneasy truce between church and state LONDON From Bastille to burkini, liberalism and religion have warily coexisted BY STEVEN ERLANGER The fuss over the burkini on French beaches this summer is just the latest and most ridiculous iteration of France’s uncomfortable confrontation with Islam. The French Republic, having overthrown the monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church in 1789, has made laïcité, or secularism, the cornerstone of citizenship, seeming to prioritize it over liberty, fraternity and, let’s not forget, equality. But the contretemps over the burkini, like that over the burqa (actually the niqab) and the hijab, or head scarf, before it, is emblematic of a deeper discomfort with religion throughout the Western world. The relationship of liberal democracy to religious belief has always been fraught. But now, as the conception of liberal values seems to be expanding to issues like same-sex marriage, it is becoming more antagonistic to Roman Catholics, evangelical Protestants and Jews, as well as to Muslims. Most nation-states arose out of ethnic and religious identities, and many conflicts among nations were, at their heart, religious wars. In a real sense, much as parliamentary rule developed to put limits on the power of monarchs, liberalism and liberal democracy were developed as a way to keep religion out of politics, to take God, as much as possible, out of human conflict. The presumption was always that the state should be a neutral space, fair to all citizen believers. Freedom of worship is meant to protect nearly every odd form of belief, but it does not allow believers to impose their faith on others. Yet historically, even those who were agnostic, argues Ivan Krastev, chairman of the Center for Liberal Strategies, came from religious backgrounds and asked religious questions. ‘‘But today, agnostics come from secular house- MATT DUNHAM/ASSOCIATED PRESS holds,’’ he said, with little conception of what religious belief means or entails. Charles Moore, a British author who has written deeply about religion and about his own conversion to Catholicism, thinks there is a confusion in liberal democracy between keeping religion out of politics, preferred by many religious people, and ‘‘pretending that religion doesn’t matter and doesn’t exist.’’ In his view, ‘‘secularists have greatly underestimated what happens to a culture if you take God out of it.’’ Liberal societies require ‘‘a lot of shared values in order to be free,’’ Mr. Moore said, to hold together in the swirl of diversity. Without a belief in God, he said, ‘‘it’s more likely that your ultimate belief will become meaningless.’’ Further, ‘‘you don’t know what religious people are talking about, you don’t understand the springs of their behavior — the importance of scripture or the symbolism of blasphemy.’’ Worse, he said, is a growing ahistoricism. ‘‘If a secular person is taught that these things are merely private matters, they won’t understand how they affect world history.’’ The rise of such secular ahistoricism also makes liberal democracies more vulnerable to, and puzzled by, a religion like Islam, which never had a Reformation and does not separate the political from the religious in any meaningful doctrinal way. For many Muslim women, for example, as for many Orthodox Jewish women (and many nuns), covering their hair is not simply a fashion but a religious tenet. Many see the renewed debate over Islam in the West as a function of decolonization, its second wave. First the colonizers returned home, and now the colonized and their descendants are migrating to the former colonial powers of Europe, which don’t really know yet how to cope with such an influx of migrants and refugees with a very different set of religious beliefs and expectations. European liberal democracy has a kind of apotheosis in the European Un- ‘‘People have tried different ways of dealing with religion, from its prominent role in the United States to French laissez-faire to British ‘let’s pretend it doesn’t exist.’’’ ion, but as borders disappear, and nations share sovereignty, there is a deep sense of loss among many — that their identities, including their national and religious identities, are being dissolved in the global stew. At the heart of the European populist movement (and the American one) is the same feeling of loss — of traditional concepts of what it is to be French, British, German, American, which in most cases meant white, Christian and heterosexual. And the need and effort to retain identity can lead to conflict. Secular and liberal democracy tolerates so much diversity and creates enough confusion that those who need more clarity and certainty flee back to religion, Mr. Krastev suggests. ‘‘Because we’ve made the borders between everything so easy to cross,’’ Mr. Krastev said, ‘‘religious people and fanatics of all kinds are bringing back the barricades in order to create identity.’’ The loss of norms — and of God — have left a significant number of citizens of liberal democracies morally and emotionally at sea. Similarly, the former chief rabbi of Britain, Jonathan Sacks, argues that the return of religion to the secular space is a result of the general crisis of meaning in the Western world. Rabbi Sacks, much like the Vatican, believes that materialism and secularism in liberal democracies have prompted selfishness, promoted human arrogance and undermined family values. He even argues that Europe’s population is in decline ‘‘because nonbelievers lack shared values of family and community that religion has.’’ Never before in human history have people had so much choice, but many lack the means or the capacity to choose, and secular society provides few instructions. Those who search for answers and guidance often find solace, and meaning, in religious extremes, or in embracing religions like Orthodox Judaism or even radical, Salafist Islam, which provide detailed rules about how to live one’s life. The separation of church and state was a revolutionary idea but has proven hard to put into practice, even in the United States. Americans no longer hang Quakers on Boston Common, but abortion and the death penalty remain hot topics, and fundamentally religious ones. And issues of school prayer, samesex marriage and religious displays in courthouses and assemblies — let alone Christmas crèches in public buildings — still preoccupy politicians and the courts. ‘‘Across the Western world, people have tried different ways of dealing with religion, from its prominent role in the United States to French laissez-faire to British ‘let’s pretend it doesn’t exist,’’’ even in a kingdom with a state religion and a queen anointed by God, said Anand Menon, professor of European politics at Kings College London. ‘‘But none of them seem to be working very well at the moment.’’ Europe is ‘‘importing problems, not just refugees but via the internet, because borders are porous to ideas that are infecting people,’’ he said. Given various difficulties with jobs and poverty among newcomers or those left behind, there is an intermingling of ethnicity and religion, which are not identities made by choice. ‘‘Expat identity plus religion reinforce themselves in foreign countries,’’ Mr. Menon said, whether you’re an Iraqi or Pakistani Muslim or an Irish Catholic in Boston. And that can create problems for a secular, post-God liberal democracy. Secularism is poorly equipped to deal with religious passion, Mr. Moore argues, especially with radical Islam, which believes that spreading Islam is a commandment from Allah. At its most extreme, of course, there are the attacks by the Islamic State on Christians, like the murder of the Rev. Jacques Hamel, a Catholic priest conducting a service in a French church this summer. The Islamic State, in the latest issue of its English-language magazine, Dabiq, has a cover story called ‘‘Break the Cross.’’ It appears to target Christians, calling them ‘‘pagans,’’ giving them the choice of conversion or death and urging followers to ‘‘kill the disbelievers.’’ That is a major break from the usual practice and tradition of Islam, which is one of tolerance toward Jews and Christians as ‘‘people of the book,’’ antecedents to the prophet Muhammad. For that kind of extremism, even liberal democracies must have a response — the force of the law. But there must also be a better effort to promote traditional Islam, encourage ordinary Muslims and educate the young in less radical interpretations — even in a country that does not provide religious education in state schools, like France. Treating the problems around radical Islam as simply questions of counterterrorism or social inequality is as misguided as ignoring them. States should create ‘‘safety barriers’’ between religion and politics, Mr. Moore said, ‘‘but you can’t really separate them.’’ God and country Queen Elizabeth II meeting the former archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Rev. Rowan Williams, left, and other religious leaders during the queen’s Diamond Jubilee in 2012. She is the head of state of a secular nation, but also the head of the state religion, the Church of England. ... WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 | INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES S3 ·µ§¤º½º æèçß Limits of tolerance tested in Germany BERLIN For Merkel, tragic lessons of Berlin Wall help forge response to refugee crisis BY ALISON SMALE Fifty-five summers ago, the Communists who ruled East Germany decided to wall in their citizens to stanch the flood of Germans moving west. The Berlin Wall has now been down for almost 27 years, nearly as long as it was up. For some Germans, the experience of a cruelly divided country has shaped their response as European democracies struggle with Islamic terrorism and a flood of refugees from wars and misery in the Middle East and beyond. Germany’s exceptional status in Europe has become more pronounced, both through its continuing economic strength and its acceptance of more than one million asylum seekers, many of them Muslim. The policy has baffled and angered critics at home and abroad who fear democracy is imperiled by precisely the kind of culture clash that welcoming Germans say they hope to avoid. In Germany, history is often invoked as a guide to behavior. The Nazi and Communist pasts are all around. At my subway station, a large sign lists concentration camps, ‘‘names we should not be allowed to forget.’’ Every day, I cross the cobblestone and metal lines on streets that mark where the wall once ran. Many analysts have depicted the embrace of refugees as part of Germany’s dissection of its Nazi past, when millions were murdered and millions of others driven out, usually rejected by countries where they sought shelter. Angela Merkel, the leader of Germany for almost 11 years now, was a citizen of East Germany. When the wall went up on Aug. 13, 1961, a Sunday, 7-year-old Angela Kasner watched her mother and others crying as her father, a Lutheran pastor, led church services 50 miles north of Berlin, in the town of Templin. As chancellor, Ms. Merkel has guided her country through the global financial crisis, the struggle to preserve the euro, a sudden abandonment of nuclear power and, since last year, the refugee crisis. Occasionally, she makes clear that she draws on the long wait for the fall of the wall as a guide to her brand of politics. When challenged at the Munich Security Conference in February 2015 over her pursuit of diplomacy over war in Russia’s conflict with Ukraine, she was unequivocal. ‘‘This conflict cannot be won militarily,’’ she said, and arming Ukraine ‘‘will not solve it.’’ That bitter truth, she added, came from experience. ‘‘I was brought up in East Germany,’’ she said. ‘‘I was 7years-old. I saw the wall being built. But did anyone consider the idea of using force to stop it?’’ she asked. ‘‘No.’’ A few months after that conference, she faced a different crisis. By late August, the government had calculated that 800,000 people would seek asylum in 2015. On Aug. 25, the federal migration office said that Syrians would be allowed in without formalities. On Aug. 26, Ms. Merkel paid her first visit to a refugee center, in Heidenau in the former East Germany. A woman who was protesting yelled a crude message to get lost — said by German media reports to have rattled the chancellor, who sets store by politeness. A day later, looking grim, she was in Vienna, at a European summit meeting on refugees. News arrived that the putrefying corpses of scores of would-be asylum seekers had been found in a truck along the Vienna-Budapest highway. Then the body of Alan Kurdi, 3, a Syrian Kurd fleeing with his family, washed up on a Turkish beach. Hungary stopped westward trains to Austria. Thousands of refugees were trapped in a Budapest station. Hundreds decided to walk west. The Austrians and Germans pledged to let them in. Crowds at Vienna and Munich train sta- 55 years ago DPA, VIA AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE tions greeted them. A Syrian refugee in Berlin took a selfie with Ms. Merkel. By year’s end, she was not only scrambling for an awkward agreement with Turkey to halt the flow, but suffering unusual criticism for placing Germany’s, and Europe’s, way of life at risk. The assaults against hundreds of women on New Year’s Eve in Cologne and other German cities fueled those accusations. Yet Ms. Merkel is sticking to the motto she coined, ‘‘Wir schaffen das’’ (roughly ‘‘We can make it’’), even doubling down on it after Germany suffered two terrorist attacks in July. As she emphasized in September 2015, ‘‘If we now start to have to apologize for showing a friendly face in an emergency situation, then that is not my country.’’ Christian charity is what Ms. Merkel was taught growing up in Templin. Just once in the past year did she explicitly draw on her East German experience to explain her refugee policy. It was mid-October, the height of the crisis. Embattled within her own conservative bloc, Ms. Merkel invited about 150 students from high schools across Germany to meet with her and took 90 minutes to discuss life in East Germany. She might have been a teacher, she said then, but in the East that would have meant indoctrinating pupils. She opted for physics, ‘‘because you cannot twist the facts as much as in other areas.’’ A student asked whether society was more friendly in East Germany. ‘‘Friendships which consisted of swapping paper tissues for borrowing a drill were not friendships,’’ Ms. Merkel replied crisply. They were communities of necessity, ‘‘and that is why those bonds broke’’ after Communism fell. She underlined how important it was for anyone who is persecuted to have someone elsewhere looking out for them — as prisoners in East Germany were not forgotten by West Germany. ‘‘Many, many people are not in the happy situation that we are in Germany,’’ she said, and supporting the oppressed can mean ‘‘that dictatorships don’t allow themselves just anything.’’ In imparting her experiences to students who did not know Communism, she touched on a concern of many older Germans: How to keep alive a memory of the Nazi and Communist pasts without being old-fashioned or maudlin? That question hovered over the 55th anniversary of the building of the wall, in August. Berlin’s mayor, Michael Müller, was visiting the center that documents the wall’s history. Across the street is a stretch of the wall, complete with death strip and watchtower, and poignant memorials to those shot trying to flee. The street is Bernauer Strasse, where houses on the east side once formed the wall, and those who fled jumped down to the street itself, which was West Berlin. Even a 77-year-old woman, Frieda Schulze, made this plunge in 1961. A tour guide, Silke Edler, showed a cluster of sixth to 10th graders how Ms. Schulze was caught by a blanket held by firefighters. She was determined not to be separated from her daughter in West Berlin, Ms. Edler said. Roughly a million people visit this powerful place each year. In today’s hip Berlin, a mecca for the world’s young, those days seem inconceivable. Mayor Müller and the director of the memorial site, Axel Klausmeier, noted that Bernauer Strasse was not just a show of humanity at its worst. It teaches that dictatorship can be vanquished peacefully, that democracy is precious and, the mayor said, that ‘‘it is right and important to take in new arrivals.’’ Roland Jahn, once an East German dissident who now oversees the files of the Communist secret police, laid one of the 25 wreaths to honor the dead. It is always a ‘‘bittersweet’’ day, he said, when the Communists showed they could survive only by building a wall and issuing orders to shoot, but one that also means repression can be overcome. ‘‘It is always important to note that it was not an act of nature,’’ Mr. Jahn said. ‘‘It was done by people.’’ Germans fleeing their homes in Berlin in August 1961, shortly before the construction of the wall. Chancellor Angela Merkel’s policy of welcoming thousands of migrants has baffled and angered many of her critics. Victor Homola contributed research. GUEST SPEAKERS: Patrik Schumacher Paul Krugman Charles Landry Petros Themelis Join internationally acclaimed architects, city mayors and archaeologists at this exclusive event, to discuss the intriguing relationship between architecture and democracy. A memorable weekend at Costa Navarino to immerse yourself in unique experiences in a privileged setting overlooking the Ionian sea. ATHENS DEMOCRACY FORUM S4 ... | WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2016 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES ·µ§¤º½º æèçß After the end of history WASHINGTON As nations turn inward, liberal values are failing to catch fire as predicted BY DAVID E. SANGER These are tough days for enthusiasts of the world’s steady march of democracy. A wave of nationalism — led by calls to raise the drawbridges against outsiders and their influence — has ushered in strongmen in places where, just a few years ago, democratic institutions seemed inevitably on the rise. Across the globe, the effects are clear: When nativism becomes a rallying call, tolerance and a willingness to compromise, the lubricants of liberal democracy, often seep away. The effects are dramatic. For a long while, American officials convinced themselves that Russia was gradually edging toward integrating itself in Western institutions, and the values they represent. But President Vladimir V. Putin has squeezed the life out of independent news media and any meaningful dissent in Russia. Increasingly, to oppose his government is to risk ending up dead. President Xi Jinping, who many in the Obama Administration thought four years ago would bring a modern, technocratic veneer to Chinese rule, and restrain its worst tendencies toward brutality, has veered in directions few in the administration predicted. The digital Great Wall is higher and thicker than ever. Newspapers and other publications have been shuttered, and his government has jailed dissidents on the vague charge of causing ‘‘disorderly’’ debate. In Turkey, a freely elected leader, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, used a coup attempt against his government to execute what was clearly a preplanned purge that has cast thousands into prison, from schoolteachers to journalists. Washington has been reluctant to protest. It needs its bases in Turkey for the conflict in Syria. More than five years after the Obama administration urged President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt to step down in the face of the protests, it is delivering arms and aid to his successor once removed, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, a former general whose iron-fisted rule exceeds anything Mr. Mubarak ever managed to pull off. Yet Egypt’s cooperation is so needed to keep a lid on the Middle East that the State Department is extraordinarily hesitant to condemn a situation in which democracy is a distant memory. Poland, the most effective of the newer members of NATO, has turned to a right-wing government, as has Hungary. In Austria, a presidential election in a few weeks could see the election of Norbert Hofer, who leads an anti-immigrant party. It wasn’t supposed to be this way. The end of Cold War rivalries, China’s growing wealth and integration with the world economy, the benefits of global trade and the internet’s ability to wipe away traditional borders were supposed to make variations on the theme of democratic rule the inevitable choice. That was the meaning of ‘‘The End of History and the Last Man,’’ Francis How did this happen? In a world where the internet was supposed to make everyone aware of the benefits of more direct democracy, how did the forces of order and authoritarianism roar back? How does one explain the rise of My-Country-First candidates like Donald J. Trump and the French farright politician Marine Le Pen, both of whom have said that promoting democracy around the world is not a goal? The answers so far seem unsatisfying. Yes, the economic downturn that swept the world starting in 2007 left untold millions behind, and many have never caught up. A McKinsey Global Institute study concluded that roughly two-thirds of households in the world’s wealthy countries saw their disposable income stagnate in the decade after the downturn, a sharp change from the decade before. The well-documented populist anger at elites, and the income inequality those elites represent, are often blamed for the backlash that has followed. But that is the kind of problem ‘‘Modern media enhances transparency, but that is a two-edged sword for democracy.’’ Fukuyama’s 1992 book, which posited that the fall of the Berlin Wall was ‘‘the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.’’ There are a few bright spots. In 1998, Indonesia looked like it might break apart after the fall of Suharto. Today it is an unruly but real democracy. From Africa to Latin America, there are stirrings of democratic instincts in places where they had rarely taken root. Yet ask around the world, and it is clear that the Western democracies that were supposed to be the model for a new, interconnected world look a lot less attractive than they once did. Mr. Putin and Mr. Xi deride the ‘‘American model’’ as a prescription for disorder and decay. The election drama unfolding in the United States has fueled that argument, prompting many to question whether the style of democracy America preaches, for all its obvious benefits, brings out the worst instincts in an electorate. that working democracies are supposed to self-correct. Without question, Twitter, Facebook and the advent of mobile communications brought down dictators during the Arab Spring. It is hard to imagine the furious, seemingly spontaneous gatherings seen in Tahrir Square in Cairo and on the streets of Aleppo, Syria, without instant communications. Twitter, however, is better at starting a revolution than completing one. It can help organize a protest but not a government. That requires a set of skills that the street revolutionaries in Egypt, somewhat naïvely, told Secretary of State Hillary Clinton they were uninterested in pursuing. It wasn’t their job to create a new government, they told her on a visit to Egypt in the spring of 2011, not long after Mr. Mubarak was packed off to jail. She left dumbstruck, she told a reporter in her office shortly afterward. ‘‘If you don’t organize, if you don’t pick candidates, if you don’t participate in the process, the Islamists are going to win,’’ she recounted telling the protest- BETTMANN, VIA GETTY IMAGES ers. They ignored her. Soon after the Islamists won the election, a countercoup put the generals back in charge, and now both the Muslim Brotherhood, which provided the first successor to Mr. Mubarak, and many of the protesters are locked up. Even in established democracies, the era of instant communications is having effects that few predicted. Mr. Trump has capitalized on those changes better than any politician in modern memory, brilliantly outmaneuvering 16 rivals who did not realize that the rules had changed. ‘‘Modern media enhances transparency, but that is a two-edged sword for democracy,’’ said Joseph S. Nye Jr., the Harvard professor who wrote, most recently, ‘‘Is the American Century Over?’’ (He concluded that it has a lot of gas left.) ‘‘More people have information that allows them to participate, but leaders have less time and space for the deliberation and compromise that Madison believed were essential to effective democratic government.’’ In fact, if there is a lesson of the past decade, it may be that information overload rarely translates into a political impetus to find middle ground. Mr. Trump’s we’ll-build-a-wall speech went viral, and people took sides. Instant video playback, and instant fact-checks, make it increasingly harder for politicians to gradually reverse positions without being called on it. While facts are available more readily than ever, they often seem to be afterthoughts. Witness the surge in Google searches in ADVERTISEMENT Britain about the meaning of leaving the European Union. The big surge happened the day after the ‘‘Brexit’’ vote, not before. What’s clear is that Americans have to rethink the automatic assumption that the world secretly wants to replicate American-style, or even Western-style, democracies. Many do, but as Henry Kissinger noted lately, we fooled ourselves into thinking that our biggest challengers from the last century were now committed to integrating themselves into Western-designed, democraticallybased institutions in this century. ‘‘The problem with the American view of Russia is that we have always thought of Russia as an incipient NATO country,’’ Mr. Kissinger said last month at a forum in Kent, Conn. ‘‘That it would gradually slide into an orbit and accept a so-called rules-based system. But Russia has a different history and a different culture.’’ So do the Chinese and the Egyptians and the Turks. The leaders of those countries feel less pressure than they did a decade ago to open their societies. Democracy is hardly dead; for billions around the world, it remains a cherished dream. But the end of history, it turns out, looks more and more like another beginning. My country first Charles A. Lindbergh, the celebrity aviator, was a spokesman for the America First Committee, which sought to prevent the United States’ entry into World War II. Many politicians now say that promoting democracy should not be a goal. David E. Sanger is a national security correspondent for The New York Times and the author of ‘‘Confront and Conceal: Obama’s Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power.’’ ADVERTISEMENT Technology as a Tool for Democracy One might wonder why a technology company is participating in a conference on the state of democracy and the challenges it faces today. The answer for Google is simple: open access to innovation online has become intrinsically linked with the growth of democracy in today's information-driven society. From promoting free and open debate, to increasing government accountability, the Internet enables citizens to participate in the democratic process in ways like never before. We believe that ensuring the free ﬂow of information online has a direct impact on whether democracy progresses or regresses in the 21 st century. Consider the wide spectrum of media that exist online, from traditional newspapers to crowdsourced, citizen journalism and social media. These diverse information outlets provide individuals with more ways to consume and share their opinions than ever, giving even the smallest-size stakeholders a voice. Protecting and promoting the open Internet in a way that empowers people to continue to have a say in how they are governed is critically important. When governments commit to transparency, the Internet can enable citizens to hold oﬃcials accountable for their activities. For example, unlawful access, abuse of political power and silencing of opinions can and should be detected and documented, as a ﬁrst step toward correction and prevention. Citizens are better able to track the activities of their governments and elected leaders. Google, like other technology and telecommunications companies, regularly receives demands from government agencies to remove content from our services. Of course many of these requests are entirely legitimate, such as requests for the removal of child pornography. We also regularly receive requests from law enforcement agencies to hand over private user data. Again, the vast majority of these requests are valid and the information needed is for legitimate criminal investigations. However, data about these activities historically has not been broadly available. We believe that greater transparency will lead to less censorship. That's why Google publishes the Transparency Report (www.google.com/transparencyreport/) where we show our users how laws and policies aﬀect access to information on our services. We think you deserve to know and we have a track record of telling users what's going on. We were the ﬁrst to publish a Transparency Report in 2010, and we now publish information about all types of legal process we receive, including processes issued under national security authorities. Yet, government censorship of the web is growing rapidly: from the outright blocking and ﬁltering of sites, to court orders limiting access to information and legislation forcing companies to self-censor content. We still need more transparency from governments and a better balance between civil liberties and national security. There are also very real opportunities to use the Internet to make the promise of democracy more alive than ever before in the lives of citizens. For example, the Internet has come to play an important role in elections. From making it easier for voters to ﬁnd information, to enabling exchanges of views, to increasing voters'engagement with decision-makers and vice-versa, the web has in many ways changed how voters approach the polls. Online petitions have become an eﬀective tool in many countries to bring the views of the people closer to decision-makers. We've seen crowdsourcing tools used to draft a new constitution, voting in national elections over the Internet and political leaders emerge by leveraging social media. Governments can improve public services, reduce bureaucracy and paperwork, and become more open and available to citizens - through use of the Internet. These are all exciting developments that will power democracy in the 21 st Century. Transparency is a prerequisite for social and economic prosperity, and we're proud to play a role in advocating for and enabling the free ﬂow of information.
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